LINUX: Rute User`s Tutorial and Exposition

LINUX: Rute User`s Tutorial and Exposition

LINUX: Rute User’s Tutorial and Exposition

Paul Sheer

August 14, 2001

Pages up to and including this page are not included by Prentice Hall.

2

“The reason we don’t sell billions and billions of

Guides

,” continued Harl, after wiping his mouth, “is the expense. What we do is we sell one

Guide

billions and billions of times. We exploit the multidimensional nature of the Universe to cut down on manufacturing costs. And we don’t sell to penniless hitchhikers.

What a stupid notion that was! Find the one section of the market that, more or less by definition, doesn’t have any money, and try to sell to it. No. We sell to the affluent business traveler and his vacationing wife in a billion, billion different futures. This is the most radical, dynamic and thrusting business venture in the entire multidimensional infinity of space-time-probability ever.”

. . .

Ford was completely at a loss for what to do next.

“Look,” he said in a stern voice. But he wasn’t certain how far saying things like “Look” in a stern voice was necessarily going to get him, and time was not on his side. What the hell, he thought, you’re only young once, and threw himself out of the window. That would at least keep the element of surprise on his side.

. . .

In a spirit of scientific inquiry he hurled himself out of the window again.

Douglas Adams

Mostly Harmless

Strangely, the thing that least intrigued me was how they’d managed to get it all done. I suppose I sort of knew. If I’d learned one thing from traveling, it was that the way to get things done was to go ahead and do them. Don’t talk about going to Borneo. Book a ticket, get a visa, pack a bag, and it just happens.

Alex Garland

The Beach

vi

Chapter Summary

16

17

18

19

20

11

12

13

14

15

8

9

6

7

10

3

4

1

2

5

21

22

23

24

25

26

Introduction

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Computing Sub-basics

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

PC Hardware

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Basic Commands

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Regular Expressions

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Editing Text Files

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Shell Scripting

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Streams and sed — The Stream Editor

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Processes, Environment Variables

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Mail

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

User Accounts and Ownerships

Using Internet Services

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

L

INUX

Resources

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Permission and Modification Times

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Symbolic and Hard Links

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Pre-installed Documentation

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Overview of the U

NIX

Directory Layout

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

U

NIX

Devices

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Partitions, File Systems, Formatting, Mounting

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Advanced Shell Scripting

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

System Services and lpd

Trivial Introduction to

C

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Shared Libraries

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Source and Binary Packages

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Introduction to IP

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

TCP and UDP

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

131

135

141

153

171

101

111

117

123

127

53

61

73

81

97

15

25

1

5

49

193

207

233

237

247

263 vii

Chapter Summary

39

40

41

42

36

37

38

43

44

A

B

C

D

E

31

32

33

34

35

27

28

29

30

Index

DNS and Name Resolution

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Network File System, NFS

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Services Running Under inetd

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

exim and sendmail

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

lilo , initrd , and Booting init ,

?

getty , and U

NIX

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Run Levels

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Sending Faxes

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

uucp and uux

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

The L

INUX

File System Standard

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

httpd — Apache Web Server crond and atd

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

postgres SQL Server

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

smbd — Samba NT Server

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

named — Domain Name Server

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Point-to-Point Protocol — Dialup Networking

The L

INUX

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Kernel Source, Modules, and Hardware Support

. . . . . .

The X Window System

U

NIX

Security

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Lecture Schedule

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

LPI Certification Cross-Reference

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

RHCE Certification Cross-Reference

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

L

INUX

Advocacy FAQ

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

The GNU General Public License Version 2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

389

409

413

425

437

453

463

485

511

525

531

543

551

573

317

325

333

337

347

273

285

291

299

581

viii

Contents

Acknowledgments

1 Introduction

1.1

What This Book Covers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.2

1.3

1.4

Read This Next. . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

What Do I Need to Get Started? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

More About This Book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.5

1.6

1.7

1.8

I Get Frustrated with U

NIX

Documentation That I Don’t Understand . .

LPI and RHCE Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Not RedHat: RedHat-

like

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Updates and Errata . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

xxxi

3

3

2

2

1

1

1

1

2

2 Computing Sub-basics

2.1

Binary, Octal, Decimal, and Hexadecimal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.2

2.3

2.4

2.5

2.6

Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Login and Password Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Listing Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Command-Line Editing Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.7

2.8

Console Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Creating Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.9

Allowable Characters for File Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.10 Directories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

9

10

7

8

10

5

5

11

12

12

12

3 PC Hardware

3.1

Motherboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.2

Master/Slave IDE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

15

15

19 ix

Contents

3.3

3.4

3.5

CMOS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Serial Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Modems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

20

20

23

4 Basic Commands

4.1

The ls Command, Hidden Files, Command-Line Options . . . . . . . .

4.2

4.3

Error Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Wildcards, Names, Extensions, and

glob

Expressions . . . . . . . . . . .

4.4

4.5

4.6

4.7

4.3.1

4.3.2

File naming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Glob expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Usage Summaries and the Copy Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Directory Manipulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Relative

vs.

Absolute

Pathnames . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

System Manual Pages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4.8

4.9

System info Pages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Some Basic Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4.10 The mc File Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4.11 Multimedia Commands for Fun . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4.12 Terminating Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4.13 Compressed Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4.14 Searching for Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4.15 Searching

Within

Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4.16 Copying to MS-DOS and Windows Formatted Floppy Disks . . . . . . .

4.17 Archives and Backups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4.18 The PATH Where Commands Are Searched For . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4.19 The -Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

41

41

42

43

36

36

40

40

44

45

46

47

33

34

34

35

25

25

26

29

29

32

5 Regular Expressions

5.1

5.2

Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

The fgrep Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5.3

5.4

5.5

Regular Expression \{ \} Notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

+ ? \< \> ( ) | Notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Regular Expression Subexpressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

51

52

52

49

49

51 x

Contents

6 Editing Text Files

6.1

vi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6.2

6.3

Syntax Highlighting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Editors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6.3.1

Cooledit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6.3.2

6.3.3

6.3.4

vi and vim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Emacs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Other editors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

58

59

59

53

53

57

57

58

7 Shell Scripting

7.1

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7.2

7.3

Looping: the

Looping: the while for and until Statements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7.4

7.5

break ing Out of Loops and continue ing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Looping Over Glob Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7.6

7.7

The case Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Using Functions: the function Keyword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Properly Processing Command-Line Args: shift . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7.8

7.9

More on Command-Line Arguments: [email protected] and $0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7.10 Single Forward Quote Notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7.11 Double-Quote Notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7.12 Backward-Quote Substitution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

68

70

70

65

66

66

67

61

61

62

63

70

71

8 Streams and sed — The Stream Editor

8.1

8.2

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Tutorial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

8.3

8.4

Piping Using | Notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

A Complex Piping Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

8.5

8.6

8.7

8.8

Redirecting Streams with >& . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Using sed to Edit Streams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Regular Expression Subexpressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Inserting and Deleting Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

75

77

77

79

73

73

74

74

75

9 Processes, Environment Variables

9.1

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

9.2

ps — List Running Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

9.3

Controlling Jobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

81

81

82

82 xi

Contents

9.7

9.8

9.9

9.4

9.5

9.6

Creating Background Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

kill

ing

a Process, Sending Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

List of Common Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Niceness of Processes, Scheduling Priority . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Process CPU/Memory Consumption, top . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Environments of Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

87

88

90

83

84

86

10 Mail

10.1 Sending and Reading Mail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10.2 The SMTP Protocol — Sending Mail Raw to Port 25 . . . . . . . . . . . .

97

99

99

11 User Accounts and Ownerships

11.1 File Ownerships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11.2 The Password File /etc/passwd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11.3 Shadow Password File:

11.4 The

/etc/shadow groups Command and

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

/etc/group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11.5 Manually Creating a User Account . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11.6 Automatically: useradd and groupadd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11.7 User Logins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11.7.1 The login command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11.7.2 The

set user

, su command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11.7.3 The who , w , and users commands to see who is logged in . . . .

11.7.4 The id command and

effective

UID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11.7.5 User limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

107

108

109

109

105

106

106

106

101

101

102

103

104

12 Using Internet Services

12.1

12.2

ssh rcp

, not and telnet scp or rlogin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12.3

rsh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12.4 FTP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12.5

finger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12.6 Sending Files by Email . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12.6.1

uuencode and uudecode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12.6.2 MIME encapsulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

113

114

114

114

111

111

112

112

115 xii

Contents

13 L

INUX

Resources

13.1 FTP Sites and the sunsite Mirror . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

13.2 HTTP — Web Sites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

13.3 SourceForge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

13.4 Mailing Lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

13.4.1 Majordomo and Listserv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

13.4.2

* -request . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

13.5 Newsgroups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

13.6 RFCs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

117

117

118

119

119

119

120

120

121

14 Permission and Modification Times

14.1 The chmod Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

14.2 The umask Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

14.3 Modification Times: stat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

123

123

125

126

15 Symbolic and Hard Links

15.1 Soft Links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

15.2 Hard Links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

127

127

129

16 Pre-installed Documentation 131

17 Overview of the U

NIX

Directory Layout

17.1 Packages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

17.2 U

NIX

Directory Superstructure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

17.3 L

INUX on a Single Floppy Disk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

135

135

136

138

18 U

NIX

Devices

18.1 Device Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

18.2 Block and Character Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

18.3

Major

and

Minor

Device Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

18.4 Common Device Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

18.5

dd , tar , and Tricks with Block Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

18.5.1 Creating boot disks from boot images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

18.5.2 Erasing disks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

18.5.3 Identifying data on raw disks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

18.5.4 Duplicating a disk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

18.5.5 Backing up to floppies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

147

147

147

148

141

141

142

143

143

148

149 xiii

Contents

18.5.6 Tape backups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

18.5.7 Hiding program output, creating blocks of zeros . . . . . . . . .

18.6 Creating Devices with mknod and /dev/MAKEDEV . . . . . . . . . . . .

149

149

150

19 Partitions, File Systems, Formatting, Mounting

19.1 The Physical Disk Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19.1.1 Cylinders, heads, and sectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19.1.2 Large Block Addressing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19.1.3 Extended partitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19.2 Partitioning a New Disk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19.3 Formatting Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19.3.1 File systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19.3.2

mke2fs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19.3.3 Formatting floppies and removable drives . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19.3.4 Creating MS-DOS floppies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19.3.5

mkswap , swapon , and swapoff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19.4 Device Mounting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19.4.1 Mounting CD-ROMs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19.4.2 Mounting floppy disks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19.4.3 Mounting Windows and NT partitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19.5 File System Repair: fsck . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19.6 File System Errors on Boot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19.7 Automatic Mounts: fstab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19.8 Manually Mounting /proc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19.9 RAM and Loopback Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19.9.1 Formatting a floppy inside a file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19.9.2 CD-ROM files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19.10 Remounting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19.11 Disk sync . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

160

160

161

162

162

163

163

164

153

153

153

154

154

155

160

167

167

168

168

169

164

165

165

166

167

20 Advanced Shell Scripting

20.1 Lists of Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

20.2 Special Parameters: $?

, $* ,. . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

20.3 Expansion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

20.4 Built-in Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

20.5 Trapping Signals — the trap Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

171

171

172

173

175

176 xiv

Contents

20.6 Internal Settings — the set Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

20.7 Useful Scripts and Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

20.7.1

20.7.2

20.7.3

chroot if

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

conditionals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

patch ing and diff ing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

20.7.4 Internet connectivity test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

20.7.5 Recursive grep (search) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

20.7.6 Recursive search and replace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

20.7.7

cut and awk — manipulating text file fields . . . . . . . . . . . .

20.7.8 Calculations with bc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

20.7.9 Conversion of graphics formats of many files . . . . . . . . . . .

20.7.10 Securely erasing files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

20.7.11 Persistent background processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

20.7.12 Processing the process list . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

20.8 Shell Initialization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

20.8.1 Customizing the PATH and LD LIBRARY PATH . . . . . . . . . .

20.9 File Locking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

20.9.1 Locking a mailbox file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

20.9.2 Locking over NFS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

20.9.3 Directory versus file locking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

20.9.4 Locking inside C programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

181

182

183

183

184

184

185

186

177

178

178

179

179

180

180

187

187

188

190

190

191

21 System Services and lpd

21.1 Using lpr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

21.2 Downloading and Installing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

21.3

LPRng vs. Legacy lpr-0.

nn

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

21.4 Package Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

21.4.1 Documentation files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

21.4.2 Web pages, mailing lists, and download points . . . . . . . . . .

21.4.3 User programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

21.4.4 Daemon and administrator programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

21.4.5 Configuration files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

21.4.6 Service initialization files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

21.4.7 Spool files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

21.4.8 Log files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

21.4.9 Log file rotation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

195

195

196

196

196

196

193

193

194

195

195

197

198

198 xv

Contents

21.4.10 Environment variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

21.5 The printcap File in Detail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

21.6 PostScript and the Print Filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

21.7 Access Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

21.8 Printing Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

21.9 Useful Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

21.9.1

printtool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

21.9.2

21.9.3

apsfilter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

mpage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

21.9.4

psutils . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

21.10 Printing to Things Besides Printers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

199

199

200

202

203

204

204

204

204

204

205

22 Trivial Introduction to

C

22.1

C Fundamentals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

22.1.1 The simplest C program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

22.1.2 Variables and types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

22.1.3 Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

22.1.4

for , while , if , and switch statements . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

22.1.5 Strings, arrays, and memory allocation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

22.1.6 String operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

22.1.7 File operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

22.1.8 Reading command-line arguments inside C programs . . . . . .

22.1.9 A more complicated example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

22.1.10

#include statements and prototypes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

22.1.11

C comments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

22.1.12

#define and #if — C macros . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

22.2 Debugging with gdb and strace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

22.3

22.4

22.2.1

gdb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

22.2.2 Examining core files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

22.2.3

strace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

C Libraries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

C Projects — Makefile s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

22.4.1 Completing our example Makefile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

22.4.2 Putting it all together . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

220

221

222

223

215

217

218

218

207

208

208

209

210

211

213

223

227

227

227

230

231

231 xvi

Contents

23 Shared Libraries

23.1 Creating DLL .so

Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

23.2 DLL Versioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

23.3 Installing DLL .so

Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

233

233

234

235

24 Source and Binary Packages

24.1 Building GNU Source Packages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

24.2 RedHat and Debian Binary Packages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

24.2.1 Package versioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

24.2.2 Installing, upgrading, and deleting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

24.2.3 Dependencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

24.2.4 Package queries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

24.2.5 File lists and file queries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

24.2.6 Package verification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

24.2.7 Special queries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

24.2.8

dpkg / apt versus rpm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

24.3 Source Packages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

240

241

241

242

237

237

240

240

243

244

245

246

25 Introduction to IP

25.1 Internet Communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

25.2 Special IP Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

25.3 Network Masks and Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

25.4 Computers on a LAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

25.5 Configuring Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

25.6 Configuring Routing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

25.7 Configuring Startup Scripts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

25.7.1 RedHat networking scripts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

25.7.2 Debian networking scripts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

25.8 Complex Routing — a Many-Hop Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

25.9 Interface Aliasing — Many IPs on One Physical Card . . . . . . . . . . .

25.10 Diagnostic Utilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

25.10.1

ping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

25.10.2

traceroute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

25.10.3

tcpdump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

260

260

261

261

254

255

256

259

250

251

252

254

247

247

249

250 xvii

Contents

26 TCP and UDP

26.1 The TCP Header . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

26.2 A Sample TCP Session . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

26.3 User Datagram Protocol (UDP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

26.4

/etc/services File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

26.5 Encrypting and Forwarding TCP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

263

264

265

268

269

270

27 DNS and Name Resolution

27.1 Top-Level Domains (TLDs) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

27.2 Resolving DNS Names to IP Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

27.2.1 The Internet DNS infrastructure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

27.2.2 The name resolution process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

27.3 Configuring Your Local Machine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

27.4 Reverse Lookups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

27.5

Authoritative

for a Domain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

27.6 The host , ping , and whois Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

27.7 The nslookup Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

27.7.1

NS , MX , PTR , A and CNAME records . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

27.8 The dig Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

281

281

281

282

283

284

273

273

274

275

276

277

28 Network File System, NFS

28.1 Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

28.2 Configuration Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

28.3 Access Permissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

28.4 Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

28.5 Kernel NFS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

285

285

286

288

289

289

29 Services Running Under inetd

29.1 The inetd Package . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

29.2 Invoking Services with /etc/inetd.conf

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

29.2.1 Invoking a standalone service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

29.2.2 Invoking an inetd service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

29.2.3 Invoking an inetd “TCP wrapper” service . . . . . . . . . . . .

29.2.4 Distribution conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

29.3 Various Service Explanations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

29.4 The xinetd Alternative . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

29.5 Configuration Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

291

291

291

292

292

293

294

294

295

295 xviii

Contents

29.5.1 Limiting access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

29.6 Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

296

297

30 exim and sendmail

30.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

30.1.1 How mail works . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

30.1.2 Configuring a POP/IMAP server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

30.2

30.3

30.1.3 Why exim ? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

exim Package Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

exim Configuration File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

30.3.1 Global settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

30.3.2 Transports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

30.3.3 Directors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

30.3.4 Routers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

30.4 Full-blown Mail server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

30.5 Shell Commands for exim Administration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

30.6 The Queue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

30.7

/etc/aliases for Equivalent Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

30.8 Real-Time Blocking List — Combating Spam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

30.8.1 What is

spam

? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

30.8.2 Basic spam prevention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

30.8.3 Real-time blocking list . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

30.8.4 Mail administrator and user responsibilities . . . . . . . . . . . .

30.9 Sendmail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

312

313

313

314

306

306

308

309

310

311

311

301

301

302

303

304

305

299

299

299

301

31 lilo , initrd , and Booting

31.1 Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

31.2 Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

31.2.1 Kernel boot sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

31.2.2 Master boot record . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

31.2.3 Booting partitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

31.2.4 Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

31.3

lilo.conf

and the lilo Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

31.4 Creating Boot Floppy Disks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

31.5 SCSI Installation Complications and initrd

31.7 Modifying lilo.conf

for initrd

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

31.6 Creating an initrd Image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

31.8 Using mkinitrd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

319

319

321

322

322

324

324

317

317

318

318

318

318 xix

Contents

32 init ,

?

getty , and U

NIX

Run Levels

32.1

32.2

init — the First Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

/etc/inittab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

32.2.1 Minimal configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

32.2.2 Rereading inittab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

32.2.3 The respawning too fast error . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

32.3 Useful Run Levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

32.4

getty Invocation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

32.5 Bootup Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

32.6 Incoming Faxes and Modem Logins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

32.6.1

mgetty with character terminals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

32.6.2

32.6.3

32.6.4

mgetty log files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

mgetty with modems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

mgetty receiving faxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

328

328

329

329

330

330

325

325

326

326

328

330

330

331

33 Sending Faxes

33.1 Fax Through Printing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

33.2 Setgid Wrapper Binary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

333

333

335

34 uucp and uux

34.1 Command-Line Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

34.2 Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

34.3 Modem Dial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

34.4

tty /UUCP Lock Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

34.5 Debugging uucp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

34.6 Using uux with exim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

34.7 Scheduling Dialouts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

337

338

338

341

342

343

343

346

35 The L

INUX

File System Standard

35.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

35.1.1 Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

35.1.2 Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

35.2 The Filesystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

35.3 The Root Filesystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

35.3.1 Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

35.3.2 Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

35.3.3 Specific Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

347

349

349

349

349

351

351

352

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Contents

35.3.4 /bin : Essential user command binaries (for use by all users) . .

35.3.5 /boot : Static files of the boot loader . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

35.3.6 /dev : Device files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

35.3.7 /etc : Host-specific system configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

35.3.8 /home : User home directories (optional) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

35.3.9 /lib : Essential shared libraries and kernel modules . . . . . . . .

358

358

35.3.10 /lib

<

qual

>

: Alternate format essential shared libraries (optional) 359

35.3.11 /mnt : Mount point for a temporarily mounted filesystem . . . .

35.3.12 /opt : Add-on application software packages . . . . . . . . . . .

35.3.13 /root : Home directory for the root user (optional) . . . . . . . .

359

360

361

353

354

355

355

35.3.14 /sbin : System binaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

35.3.15 /tmp : Temporary files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

35.4 The /usr Hierarchy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

35.4.1 Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

35.4.2 Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

35.4.3 Specific Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

35.4.4 /usr/X11R6 : X Window System, Version 11 Release 6 (optional)

35.4.5 /usr/bin : Most user commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

35.4.6 /usr/include : Directory for standard include files. . . . . . . . .

35.4.7 /usr/lib : Libraries for programming and packages . . . . . . . .

35.4.8 /usr/lib

<

qual

>

: Alternate format libraries (optional) . . . . . .

35.4.9 /usr/local : Local hierarchy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

35.4.10 /usr/sbin : Non-essential standard system binaries . . . . . . . .

364

365

365

366

366

367

361

362

362

362

363

363

363

35.4.11 /usr/share : Architecture-independent data . . . . . . . . . . . .

35.4.12 /usr/src : Source code (optional) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

35.5 The /var Hierarchy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

35.5.1 Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

35.5.2 Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

35.5.3 Specific Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

35.5.4 /var/account : Process accounting logs (optional) . . . . . . . . .

35.5.5 /var/cache : Application cache data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

35.5.6 /var/crash : System crash dumps (optional) . . . . . . . . . . . .

35.5.7 /var/games : Variable game data (optional) . . . . . . . . . . . .

35.5.8 /var/lib : Variable state information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

35.5.9 /var/lock : Lock files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

35.5.10 /var/log : Log files and directories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

374

374

376

376

377

379

367

373

373

373

373

374

379 xxi

Contents

35.5.11 /var/mail : User mailbox files (optional) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

35.5.12 /var/opt : Variable data for /opt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

35.5.13 /var/run : Run-time variable data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

35.5.14 /var/spool : Application spool data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

35.5.15 /var/tmp : Temporary files preserved between system reboots .

35.5.16 /var/yp : Network Information Service (NIS) database files (optional) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

35.6 Operating System Specific Annex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

35.6.1 Linux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

35.7 Appendix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

35.7.1 The FHS mailing list . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

35.7.2 Background of the FHS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

35.7.3 General Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

35.7.4 Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

35.7.5 Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

35.7.6 Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

379

380

380

381

382

382

382

382

386

386

386

386

386

387

387

36 httpd — Apache Web Server

36.1 Web Server Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

36.2 Installing and Configuring Apache . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

36.2.1 Sample httpd.conf

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

36.2.2 Common directives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

36.2.3 User HTML directories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

36.2.4 Aliasing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

36.2.5 Fancy indexes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

36.2.6 Encoding and language negotiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

36.2.7 Server-side includes — SSI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

36.2.8 CGI — Common Gateway Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

36.2.9 Forms and CGI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

36.2.10 Setuid CGIs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

36.2.11 Apache modules and PHP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

36.2.12 Virtual hosts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

399

400

401

403

405

406

407

394

398

398

399

389

389

393

393

37 crond and atd

37.1

/etc/crontab Configuration File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

37.2 The at Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

37.3 Other cron Packages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

409

409

411

412 xxii

Contents

38 postgres SQL Server

38.1 Structured Query Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

38.2

postgres . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

38.3

postgres Package Content . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

38.4 Installing and Initializing postgres . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

38.5 Database Queries with psql . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

38.6 Introduction to SQL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

38.6.1 Creating tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

38.6.2 Listing a table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

38.6.3 Adding a column . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

38.6.4 Deleting (dropping) a column . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

38.6.5 Deleting (dropping) a table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

38.6.6 Inserting rows, “object relational” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

38.6.7 Locating rows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

38.6.8 Listing selected columns, and the oid column . . . . . . . . . . .

38.6.9 Creating tables from other tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

38.6.10 Deleting rows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

38.6.11 Searches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

38.6.12 Migrating from another database; dumping and restoring tables as plain text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

38.6.13 Dumping an entire database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

38.6.14 More advanced searches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

38.7 Real Database Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

422

423

423

423

415

417

418

418

413

413

414

414

419

420

420

420

420

421

421

421

421

422

39 smbd — Samba NT Server

39.1 Samba: An Introduction by Christopher R. Hertel . . . . . . . . . . . . .

39.2 Configuring Samba . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

39.3 Configuring Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

39.4 Configuring a Windows Printer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

39.5 Configuring swat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

39.6 Windows NT Caveats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

425

425

431

433

434

434

435

40 named — Domain Name Server

40.1 Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

40.2 Configuring bind . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

40.2.1 Example configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

40.2.2 Starting the name server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

437

438

438

438

443 xxiii

Contents

40.2.3 Configuration in detail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

40.3 Round-Robin Load-Sharing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

40.4 Configuring named for Dialup Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

40.4.1 Example caching name server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

40.4.2 Dynamic IP addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

40.5 Secondary or Slave DNS Servers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

444

448

449

449

450

450

41 Point-to-Point Protocol — Dialup Networking

41.1 Basic Dialup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

41.1.1 Determining your chat script . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

41.1.2 CHAP and PAP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

41.1.3 Running pppd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

41.2 Demand-Dial, Masquerading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

41.3 Dialup DNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

41.4 Dial-in Servers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

41.5 Using tcpdump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

41.6 ISDN Instead of Modems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

453

453

455

456

456

458

460

460

462

462

42 The L

INUX

Kernel Source, Modules, and Hardware Support

42.1 Kernel Constitution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

42.2 Kernel Version Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

42.3 Modules, insmod Command, and Siblings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

42.4 Interrupts, I/O Ports, and DMA Channels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

42.5 Module Options and Device Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

42.5.1 Five ways to pass options to a module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

42.5.2 Module documentation sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

42.6 Configuring Various Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

42.6.1 Sound and pnpdump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

42.6.2 Parallel port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

42.6.3 NIC — Ethernet, PCI, and old ISA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

42.6.4 PCI vendor ID and device ID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

42.6.5 PCI and sound . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

42.6.6 Commercial sound drivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

42.6.7 The ALSA sound project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

42.6.8 Multiple Ethernet cards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

42.6.9 SCSI disks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

474

474

474

475

469

470

470

472

472

475

475

463

463

464

464

466

467

467 xxiv

Contents

42.6.10 SCSI termination and cooling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

42.6.11 CD writers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

42.6.12 Serial devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

42.7 Modem Cards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

42.8 More on LILO: Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

42.9 Building the Kernel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

42.9.1 Unpacking and patching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

42.9.2 Configuring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

42.10 Using Packaged Kernel Source . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

42.11 Building, Installing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

477

477

479

480

481

481

481

482

483

483

43 The X Window System

43.1 The X Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

43.2 Widget Libraries and Desktops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

43.2.1 Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

43.2.2 Qt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

43.2.3 Gtk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

43.2.4 GNUStep . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

43.3 XFree86 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

43.3.1 Running X and key conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

43.3.2 Running X utilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

43.3.3 Running two X sessions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

43.3.4 Running a window manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

43.3.5 X access control and remote display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

43.3.6 X selections, cutting, and pasting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

43.4 The X Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

43.5 X Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

43.5.1 Programming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

43.5.2 Configuration documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

43.5.3 XFree86 web site . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

43.6 X Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

43.6.1 Simple 16-color X server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

43.6.2 Plug-and-Play operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

43.6.3 Proper X configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

43.7 Visuals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

43.8 The startx and xinit Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

498

498

498

499

499

500

501

504

505

493

494

495

495

496

497

497

497

485

485

491

491

492

492

493

493 xxv

Contents

43.9 Login Screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

43.10 X Font Naming Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

43.11 Font Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

43.12 The Font Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

506

506

508

509

44 U

NIX

Security

44.1 Common Attacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

44.1.1 Buffer overflow attacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

44.1.2 Setuid programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

44.1.3 Network client programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

44.1.4

/tmp file vulnerability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

44.1.5 Permission problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

44.1.6 Environment variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

44.1.7 Password sniffing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

44.1.8 Password cracking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

44.1.9 Denial of service attacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

44.2 Other Types of Attack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

44.3 Counter Measures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

44.3.1 Removing known risks: outdated packages . . . . . . . . . . . .

44.3.2 Removing known risks: compromised packages . . . . . . . . . .

44.3.3 Removing known risks: permissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

44.3.4 Password management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

44.3.5 Disabling inherently insecure services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

44.3.6 Removing potential risks: network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

44.3.7 Removing potential risks: setuid programs . . . . . . . . . . . . .

44.3.8 Making life difficult . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

44.3.9 Custom security paradigms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

44.3.10 Proactive cunning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

44.4 Important Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

44.5 Security Quick-Quiz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

44.6 Security Auditing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

514

515

515

515

515

516

516

516

511

511

512

513

514

514

519

520

521

522

523

517

517

517

517

518

523

524

A Lecture Schedule

A.1 Hardware Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

A.2 Student Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

A.3 Lecture Style . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

525

525

525

526 xxvi

Contents

B LPI Certification Cross-Reference

B.1

Exam Details for 101 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

B.2

Exam Details for 102 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

531

531

536

C RHCE Certification Cross-Reference

C.1 RH020, RH030, RH033, RH120, RH130, and RH133 . . . . . . . . . . . .

C.2 RH300 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

C.3 RH220 (RH253 Part 1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

C.4 RH250 (RH253 Part 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

543

543

544

547

549

D L

INUX

Advocacy FAQ

D.1 L

INUX

Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

D.2 L

INUX

, GNU, and Licensing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

D.3 L

INUX

Distributions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

D.4 L

INUX

Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

D.5 L

INUX

Compared to Other Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

D.6 Migrating to L

INUX

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

D.7 Technical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

551

551

556

560

563

563

567

569

E The GNU General Public License Version 2 573

Index 581

xxvii

xxviii

Contents

Preface

When I began working with GNU/L

INUX world. Though U

NIX in 1994, it was straight from the DOS was unfamiliar territory, L

INUX books assumed that anyone using L

INUX was migrating from System V or BSD—systems that I had never heard of. It is a sensible adage to create, for others to share, the recipe that you would most like to have had. Indeed, I am not convinced that a single unifying text exists, even now, without this book. Even so, I give it to you desperately incomplete; but there is only so much one can explain in a single volume.

I hope that readers will now have a single text to guide them through all facets of GNU/L

INUX

.

xxix

xxx

Contents

Acknowledgments

A special thanks goes to my technical reviewer, Abraham van der Merwe, and my production editor, Jane Bonnell. Thanks to Jonathan Maltz, Jarrod Cinman, and Alan

Tredgold for introducing me to GNU

/

Linux back in 1994 or so. Credits are owed to all

A

TEX, TEX, GhostScript, GhostView, Au-

A

TEX extension styles, DVIPS,

DVIPDFM, ImageMagick, XDVI, XPDF, and LaTeX2HTML without which this document would scarcely be possible. To name a few: John Bradley, David Carlisle, Eric

Cooper, John Cristy, Peter Deutsch, Nikos Drakos, Mark Eichin, Brian Fox, Carsten

Heinz, Spencer Kimball, Paul King, Donald Knuth, Peter Mattis, Frank Mittelbach,

Ross Moore, Derek B. Noonburg, Johannes Plass, Sebastian Rahtz, Chet Ramey, Tomas

Rokicki, Bob Scheifler, Rainer Schoepf, Brian Smith, Supoj Sutanthavibul, Herb Swan,

Tim Theisen, Paul Vojta, Martin Weber, Mark Wicks, Masatake Yamato, Ken Yap, Herman Zapf.

Thanks to Christopher R. Hertel for contributing his introduction to Samba.

An enormous thanks to the GNU project of the Free Software Foundation, to the countless developers of Free software, and to the many readers that gave valuable feedback on the web site.

xxxi

xxxii

Acknowledgments

Chapter 1

Introduction

Whereas books shelved beside this one will get your feet wet, this one lets you actually paddle for a bit, then thrusts your head underwater while feeding you oxygen.

1.1 What This Book Covers

This book covers GNU

/

L

INUX system administration, for popular distributions like RedHat and Debian , as a tutorial for new users and a reference for advanced administrators. It aims to give concise, thorough explanations and practical examples of each aspect of a U

NIX system. Anyone who wants a comprehensive text on (what is commercially called) “L

INUX

” need look no further—there is little that is not covered here.

1.2 Read This Next. . .

The ordering of the chapters is carefully designed to allow you to read in sequence without missing anything. You should hence read from beginning to end, in order that later chapters do not reference unseen material. I have also packed in useful examples which you must practice as you read.

1.3 What Do I Need to Get Started?

You will need to install a basic L

INUX system. A number of vendors now ship pointand-click-install CDs: you should try get a Debian or “RedHat-like” distribution.

1

1.4. More About This Book 1. Introduction

One hint: try and install as much as possible so that when I mention a software package in this text, you are likely to have it installed already and can use it immediately.

Most cities with a sizable IT infrastructure will have a L

INUX user group to help you source a cheap CD. These are getting really easy to install, and there is no longer much need to read lengthy installation instructions.

1.4 More About This Book

Chapter 16 contains a fairly comprehensive list of all reference documentation available on your system. This book supplements that material with a tutorial that is both comprehensive and independent of any previous U

NIX knowledge.

GNU

The book also aims to satisfy the requirements for course notes for a

/

L

INUX training course. Here in South Africa, I use the initial chapters as part of a 36-hour GNU

/

L

INUX training course given in 12 lessons. The details of the layout for this course are given in Appendix A.

Note that all “L

INUX

” systems are really composed mostly of GNU ware, but from now on I will refer to the GNU almost everyone (incorrectly) does.

system as “L

INUX soft-

” in the way

1.5 I Get Frustrated with U

NIX

That I Don’t Understand

Documentation

Any system reference will require you to read it at least three times before you get a reasonable picture of what to do.

If you need to read it more than three times, then there is probably some other information that you really should be reading first. If you are reading a document only once, then you are being too impatient with yourself.

It is important to identify the exact terms that you fail to understand in a document. Always try to backtrack to the precise word before you continue.

U

NIX

Its also probably not a good idea to learn new things according to deadlines. Your knowledge should evolve by grace and fascination, rather than pressure.

1.6 Linux Professionals Institute (LPI) and

RedHat Certified Engineer (RHCE) Requirements

The difference between being able to pass an exam and being able to do something useful, of course, is huge.

2

1. Introduction 1.7. Not RedHat: RedHatlike

The LPI and RHCE are two certifications that introduce you to L

INUX

. This book covers

far

more than both these two certifications in most places, but occasionally leaves out minor items as an exercise. It certainly covers in excess of what you need to know to pass both these certifications.

The LPI and RHCE requirements are given in Appendix B and C.

These two certifications are merely introductions to U

NIX

. To earn them, users are not expected to write nifty shell scripts to do tricky things, or understand the subtle or advanced features of many standard services, let alone be knowledgeable of the enormous numbers of non-standard and useful applications out there. To be blunt: you can pass these courses and still be considered quite incapable by the standards of companies that do

system integration

.

&

System integration is my own term. It refers to the act of getting L

INUX to do nonbasic functions, like writing complex shell scripts; setting up wide-area dialup networks; creating custom distributions; or interfacing database, web, and email services together.

In fact, these certifications make no reference to computer programming whatsoever.

1.7 Not RedHat: RedHat-

like

Throughout this book I refer to examples specific to “RedHat” and “Debian ”. What

I actually mean by this are systems that use .rpm

( r edHat p ackage m anager) packages as opposed to systems that use .deb

( deb ian) packages—there are lots of both. This just means that there is no reason to avoid using a distribution like Mandrake, which is .rpm

based and viewed by many as being better than RedHat.

In short, brand names no longer have any meaning in the Free software community.

(Note that the same applies to the word U

NIX mon denominator between all the U

NIX which we take to mean the comvariants, including RISC, mainframe, and PC variants of both System V and BSD.)

1.8 Updates and Errata

Corrections to this book will be posted on http://www.icon.co.za/˜psheer/rute-errata.html

Please check this web page before notifying me of errors.

.

3

1.8. Updates and Errata 1. Introduction

4

Chapter 2

Computing Sub-basics

This chapter explains some basics that most computer users will already be familiar with. If you are new to U

NIX

, however, you may want to gloss over the commonly used key bindings for reference.

The best way of thinking about how a computer stores and manages information is to ask yourself how

you

would. Most often the way a computer works is exactly the way you would expect it to if you were inventing it for the first time. The only limitations on this are those imposed by logical feasibility and imagination, but almost anything else is allowed.

2.1 Binary, Octal, Decimal, and Hexadecimal

When you first learned to count, you did so with 10 digits. Ordinary numbers (like telephone numbers) are called “base ten” numbers. Postal codes that include letters

and

digits are called “base 36” numbers because of the addition of 26 letters onto the usual 10 digits. The simplest base possible is “base two” which uses only two digits: 0 and 1. Now, a 7-digit telephone number has 10

×

10

×

10

×

10

×

10

×

10

×

10 =

7

digits

10

7

36

4

2

8

= 10

= 1

,

= 256

,

000

679

,

,

000

616 possible combinations. A postal code with four characters has possible combinations. However, an 8-digit binary number only has possible combinations.

Since the internal representation of numbers within a computer is binary and since it is rather tedious to convert between decimal and binary, computer scientists have come up with new bases to represent numbers: these are “base sixteen” and

“base eight,” known as

hexadecimal

and

octal

, respectively. Hexadecimal numbers use

5

2.1. Binary, Octal, Decimal, and Hexadecimal 2. Computing Sub-basics the digits 0 through 9 and the letters A through F, whereas octal numbers use only the digits 0 through 7. Hexadecimal is often abbreviated as

hex

.

Consider a 4-digit binary number. It has 2

4

= 16 possible combinations and can therefore be easily represented by one of the 16 hex digits. A 3-digit binary number has 2

3

= 8 possible combinations and can thus be represented by a single octal digit.

Hence, a binary number can be represented with hex or octal digits without much calculation, as shown in Table 2.1.

Table 2.1 Binary hexadecimal, and octal representation

Binary Hexadecimal Binary Octal

0000

0001

0010

0011

0

1

2

3

000

001

010

011

0

1

2

3

0100

0101

0110

0111

4

5

6

7

100

101

110

111

4

5

6

7

1000

1001

1010

1011

1100

1101

1110

1111

8

9

A

B

C

D

E

F

A binary number 01001011 can be represented in hex as 4B and in octal as 113 by simply separating the binary digits into groups of four or three, respectively.

In U

NIX administration, and also in many programming languages, there is often the ambiguity of whether a number is in fact a hex, decimal, or octal number. For instance, a hex number 56 is 01010110, but an octal number 56 is 101110, whereas a decimal number 56 is 111000 (computed through a more tedious calculation). To distinguish between them, hex numbers are often prefixed with the characters “0x”, while octal numbers are prefixed with a “0”. If the first digit is 1 through 9, then it is a decimal number that is probably being referred to. We would then write 0x56 for hex, and

056 for octal. Another representation is to append the letter H, D, O, or B (or h, d, o, b) to the number to indicate its base.

U

NIX makes heavy use of 8-, 16-, and 32-digit binary numbers, often representing them as 2-, 4-, and 8-digit hex numbers. You should get used to seeing numbers like

0xffff (or FFFFh), which in decimal is 65535 and in binary is 1111111111111111.

6

2. Computing Sub-basics 2.2. Files

2.2 Files

Common to every computer system invented is the

file

. A file holds a single contiguous block of data. Any kind of data can be stored in a file, and there is no data that cannot be stored in a file. Furthermore, there is no kind of data that is stored anywhere else except in files. A file holds data of the same type, for instance, a single picture will be stored in one file. During production, this book had each chapter stored in a file. It is uncommon for different types of data (say, text and pictures) to be stored together in the same file because it is inconvenient. A computer will typically contain about 10,000 files that have a great many purposes. Each file will have its own name. The file name on a L

INUX or U

NIX machine can be up to 256 characters long.

The file name is usually explanatory—you might call a letter you wrote to your friend something like Mary Jones.letter

(from now on, whenever you see the typewriter font

&

A style of print: here is typewriter font .

, it means that those are words that might be read off the screen of the computer). The name you choose has no meaning to the computer and could just as well be any other combination of letters or digits; however, you will refer to that data with that file name whenever you give an instruction to the computer regarding that data, so

you

would like it to be descriptive.

&

It is important to internalize the fact that computers do not have an interpretation for anything. A computer operates with a set of interdependent logical rules.

Interdependent

means that the rules have no apex, in the sense that computers have no fixed or single way of working. For example, the reason a computer has files at all is because computer

programmers

have decided that this is the most universal and convenient way of storing data, and if you think about it, it really is.

-

The data in each file is merely a long list of numbers. The just the length of the list of numbers. Each number is called a

byte size

of the file is

. Each byte contains 8

bits

. Each bit is either a one or a zero and therefore, once again, there are

×

2

×

2

×

2

×

2

×

2

×

2

×

2 possible combinations. Hence a byte can only

8

bits

1

byte

hold a number as large as 255. There is no type of data that cannot be represented as a list of bytes. Bytes are sometimes also called

octets

. Your letter to Mary will be

encoded

into bytes for storage on the computer. We all know that a television picture is just a sequence of dots on the screen that scan from left to right. In that way, a picture might be represented in a file: that is, as a sequence of bytes where each byte is interpreted as a level of brightness—0 for black and 255 for white. For your letter, the convention is to store an A as 65, a B as 66, and so on. Each punctuation character also has a numerical equivalent.

A mapping between numbers and characters is called a

character mapping character set

. The most common character set in use in the world today is the or a

ASCII

character set which stands for the American Standard Code for Information Interchange. Table 2.2 shows the complete ASCII mappings between characters and their hex, decimal, and octal equivalents.

7

2.3. Commands 2. Computing Sub-basics

Oct

030

031

032

033

034

035

036

037

020

021

022

023

024

025

026

027

010

011

012

013

014

015

016

017

000

001

002

003

004

005

006

007

Char

FS

GS

RS

US

CAN

EM

SUB

ESC

DLE

DC1

DC2

DC3

DC4

NAK

SYN

ETB

BS

HT

LF

VT

FF

CR

SO

SI

NUL

SOH

STX

ETX

EOT

ENQ

ACK

BEL

Hex

1C

1D

1E

1F

18

19

1A

1B

14

15

16

17

10

11

12

13

0C

0D

0E

0F

08

09

0A

0B

04

05

06

07

00

01

02

03

Dec

28

29

30

31

24

25

26

27

20

21

22

23

16

17

18

19

12

13

14

15

8

9

10

11

6

7

4

5

2

3

0

1

Oct

070

071

072

073

074

075

076

077

060

061

062

063

064

065

066

067

050

051

052

053

054

055

056

057

040

041

042

043

044

045

046

047

Char

>

?

<

=

:

;

8

9

6

7

4

5

2

3

0

1

.

/

,

-

(

)

*

+

&

$

%

"

#

SPACE

!

Hex

3C

3D

3E

3F

38

39

3A

3B

34

35

36

37

30

31

32

33

2C

2D

2E

2F

28

29

2A

2B

24

25

26

27

20

21

22

23

Table 2.2 ASCII character set

Dec

60

61

62

63

56

57

58

59

52

53

54

55

48

49

50

51

44

45

46

47

40

41

42

43

36

37

38

39

32

33

34

35

Oct Dec Hex Char

130

131

132

133

134

135

136

137

120

121

122

123

124

125

126

127

110

111

112

113

114

115

116

117

100

101

102

103

104

105

106

107

92

93

94

95

88

89

90

91

84

85

86

87

80

81

82

83

76

77

78

79

72

73

74

75

68

69

70

71

64

65

66

67

5C

5D

5E

5F

58

59

5A

5B

54

55

56

57

50

51

52

53

4C

4D

4E

4F

48

49

4A

4B

44

45

46

47

40

41

42

43

ˆ

_

\

]

Z

[

X

Y

V

W

T

U

R

S

P

Q

N

O

L

M

H

I

J

K

F

G

D

E

B

C

@

A

Hex

7C

7D

7E

7F

78

79

7A

7B

74

75

76

77

70

71

72

73

6C

6D

6E

6F

68

69

6A

6B

64

65

66

67

60

61

62

63

Dec

120

121

122

123

124

125

126

127

112

113

114

115

116

117

118

119

104

105

106

107

108

109

110

111

96

97

98

99

100

101

102

103

Char

z

{ x y

|

}

˜

DEL

v w t u r s p q n o l m h i j k f g d e b c

‘ a

Oct

170

171

172

173

174

175

176

177

160

161

162

163

164

165

166

167

150

151

152

153

154

155

156

157

140

141

142

143

144

145

146

147

2.3 Commands

The second thing common to every computer system invented is the

command

. You tell the computer what to do with single words typed into the computer one at a time.

Modern computers appear to have done away with the typing of commands by having beautiful graphical displays that work with a mouse, but, fundamentally, all that is happening is that commands are being secretly typed in for you. Using commands is still the only way to have complete power over the computer. You don’t really know anything about a computer until you come to grips with the commands it uses. Using a computer will very much involve typing in a word, pressing , and then waiting for the computer screen to spit something back at you. Most commands are typed in to do something useful to a file.

8

2. Computing Sub-basics 2.4. Login and Password Change

2.4 Login and Password Change

Turn on your L

INUX

gin prompt

. A

prompt

box. After a few minutes of initialization, you will see the

lo-

is one or more characters displayed on the screen that you are expected to follow with some typing of your own. Here the prompt may state the name of the computer (each computer has a name—typically consisting of about eight lowercase letters) and then the word login: . L

INUX machines now come with a graphical desktop by default (most of the time), so you might get a pretty graphical login with the same effect. Now you should type your

login name

—a sequence of about eight lower case letters that would have been assigned to you by your computer administrator—and then press the Enter (or Return ) key (that is, ).

A

password prompt

will appear after which you should type your password. Your password

may

be the same as your

login name

. Note that your password will not be shown on the screen as you type it but will be invisible. After typing your password, press the Enter or Return key again. The screen might show some message and prompt you for a log in again—in this case, you have probably typed something incorrectly and should give it another try. From now on, you will be expected to know that the

Enter or Return key should be pressed at the end of every line you type in, analogous to the mechanical typewriter. You will also be expected to know that human error is very common; when you type something incorrectly, the computer will give an error message, and you should try again until you get it right. It is uncommon for a person to understand computer concepts after a first reading or to get commands to work on the first try.

Now that you have logged in you will see a

shell prompt

—a

shell

is the place where you can type commands. The shell is where you will spend most of your time as a system administrator

&

Computer manager.

, but it needn’t look as bland as you see now. Your first exercise is to change your password. Type the command passwd .

You will be asked for a new password and then asked to confirm that password. The password you choose should consist of letters, numbers, and punctuation—you will see later on why this security measure is a good idea. Take good note of your password for the next time you log in. Then the shell will return. The password you have chosen will take effect immediately, replacing the previous password that you used to log in.

The password command might also have given some message indicating what effect it actually had. You may not understand the message, but you should try to get an idea of whether the connotation was positive or negative.

When you are using a computer, it is useful to imagine yourself as ferent places

within being

in difthe computer, rather than just typing commands into it. After you entered the password passwd

place

command, you were no longer

in

the shell, but moved

. You could not use the shell until you had moved

out

of the

into

the passwd command.

9

2.5. Listing Files 2. Computing Sub-basics

2.5 Listing Files

Type in the command

U

NIX commands.

ls ls .

ls is short for

list

, abbreviated to two letters like most other lists all your current files. You may find that ls does nothing, but just returns you back to the shell. This would be because you have no files as yet.

Most U

NIX commands do

not

give any kind of message unless something went wrong

(the passwd command above was an exception). If there were files, you would see their names listed rather blandly in columns with no indication of what they are for.

2.6 Command-Line Editing Keys

The following keys are useful for editing the

command-line

. Note that U

NIX has had a long and twisted evolution from the mainframe, and the , and other keys may not work properly. The following keys bindings are however common throughout many L

INUX applications:

Ctrl-a Move to the beginning of the line (

Ctrl-e Move to the end of the line ( ).

Ctrl-h Erase backward (

Ctrl-d Erase forward ( ).

).

Ctrl-f Move forward one character (

Ctrl-b Move backward one character (

Alt-f Move forward one word.

Alt-b Move backward one word.

Alt-Ctrl-f Erase forward one word.

Alt-Ctrl-b Erase backward one word.

Ctrl-p Previous command (up arrow).

Ctrl-n Next command (down arrow).

).

).

).

Note that the prefixes Alt for , Ctrl for , and Shift for , mean to hold the key down through the pressing and releasing of the letter key. These are known as

key modifiers

. Note also, that the Ctrl key is always case insensitive; hence Ctrl-D (i.e.

– ) and Ctrl-d (i.e.

– ) are identical. The Alt modifier (i.e., –

?

) is

10

2. Computing Sub-basics 2.7. Console Keys in fact a short way of pressing and releasing hence Esc then f is the same as Alt-f —U

NIX before entering the key combination; is different from other operating systems in this use of Esc . The Alt modifier is not case insensitive although some applications will make a special effort to respond insensitively. The Alt key is also sometimes referred to as the Meta example, key. All of these keys are sometimes referred to by their abbreviations: for

C-a for Ctrl-a , or M-f for Meta-f and Alt-f . The Ctrl modifier is sometimes also designated with a caret: for example, ˆC for Ctrl-C .

p and

Your command-line keeps a history of all the commands you have typed in.

Ctrl-n will cycle through previous commands entered. New users seem to gain tremendous satisfaction from typing in lengthy commands over and over.

Never

Ctrltype in anything more than once—use your command history instead.

Ctrl-s sponding.

is used to

Ctrl-q

s

uspend the current session, causing the keyboard to stop rereverses this condition.

Ctrl-r activates a search on your command history. Pressing Ctrl-r in the middle of a search finds the next match whereas Ctrl-s reverts to the previous match (although some distributions have this confused with suspend).

The Tab command is tremendously useful for saving key strokes. Typing a partial directory name, file name, or command, and then pressing Tab once or twice in sequence completes the word for you without your having to type it all in full.

by editing the file

¨

You can make Tab and other keys stop beeping in the irritating way that they do

/etc/inputrc and adding the line set bell-style none

§

¥

¦ and then logging out and logging in again. (More about this later.)

2.7 Console Keys

There are several special keys interpreted directly by the L

INUX interface. The Ctrl-Alt-Del

console

or text mode combination initiates a complete shutdown and hardware reboot, which is the preferred method of restarting L

INUX

.

The Ctrl-PgUp and Ctrl-PgDn keys scroll the console, which is very useful for seeing text that has disappeared off the top of the terminal.

You can use Alt-F2 to switch to a new, independent login session. Here you can log in again and run a separate session. There are six of these

virtual consoles

— Alt-

F1 through Alt-F6 —to choose from; they are also called in graphical mode, you will have to instead press

virtual terminals

Ctrl-Alt-F

?

because the

. If you are

Alt-F

?

keys are often used by applications. The convention is that the seventh virtual console is graphical, so Alt-F7 will always take you back to graphical mode.

11

2.8. Creating Files 2. Computing Sub-basics

2.8 Creating Files

There are many ways of creating a file. Type cat > Mary Jones.letter

type out a few lines of text. You will use this file in later examples. The cat and then command is used here to write from the keyboard into a file Mary Jones.letter

. At the end of the last line, press ls one more time and then press again, you will see the file Mary Jones.letter

– . Now, if you type listed with any other files. Type cat Mary Jones.letter

without

the > . You will see that the command cat writes the contents of a file to the screen, allowing you to view your letter. It should match exactly what you typed in.

2.9 Allowable Characters for File Names

Although U

NIX file names can contain almost any character, standards dictate that only the following characters are preferred in file names:

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 .

- ˜

Hence, never use other punctuation characters, brackets, or control characters to name files. Also, never use the space or tab character in a file name, and never begin a file name with a character.

2.10 Directories

I mentioned that a system may typically contain 10,000 files. Since it would be cumbersome if you were to see all 10,000 of them whenever you typed ls , files are placed in different “cabinets” so that files of the same type are placed together and can be easily isolated from other files. For instance, your letter above might go in a separate “cabinet” with other letters. A “cabinet” in computer terms is actually called a directory. This is the third commonality between all computer systems: all files go in one or another directory. To get an idea of how directories work, type the command mkdir letters , where mkdir stands for

make directory

. Now type ls . This will show the file Mary Jones.letter

as well as a new file, letters . The file letters is not really a file at all, but the name of a directory in which a number of other files can be placed. To go stands for

into

the directory

change directory

letters , you can type cd letters where cd

. Since the directory is newly created, you would not expect it to contain any files, and typing now create a file by using the ls cat will verify such by not listing anything. You can command as you did before (try this). To go back

12

2. Computing Sub-basics 2.10. Directories to the original directory that you were in, you can use the command

..

cd ..

has the special meaning of taking you out of the current directory. Type where the ls again to verify that you have actually gone

up

a directory.

It is, however, bothersome that we cannot tell the difference between files and directories. The way to differentiate is with the ls -l command.

-l stands for

long

format. If you enter this command, you will see a lot of details about the files that may not yet be comprehensible to you. The three things you can watch for are the file name on the far right, the file size (i.e., the number of bytes that the file contains) in the fifth column from the left, and the file type on the far left. The file type is a string of letters of which you will only be interested in one: the character on the far left is either a or a d . A signifies a regular file, and a d signifies a directory. The command ls -l Mary Jones.letter

will list only the single file is useful for finding out the size of a single file.

Mary Jones.letter

and

In fact, there is no limitation on how many directories you can create within each other. In what follows, you will glimpse the layout of all the directories on the computer.

Type the command cd / , where the most directory on the computer called the

/ has the special meaning to go to the top-

root

directory. Now type ls -l . The listing may be quite long and may go off the top of the screen; in that case, try ls -l | less

(then use PgUp and PgDn, and press q when done). You will see that most, if not all, are directories. You can now practice moving around the system with the cd command, not forgetting that cd ..

takes you up and cd / takes you to the root directory.

At any time you can type are currently in.

pwd (

p resent w orking d irectory

) to show the directory you

When you have finished, log out of the computer by using the logout command.

13

2.10. Directories 2. Computing Sub-basics

14

Chapter 3

PC Hardware

This chapter explains a little about PC hardware. Readers who have built their own PC or who have configuring myriad devices on Windows can probably skip this section.

It is added purely for completeness. This chapter actually comes under the subject of

Microcomputer Organization

, that is, how your machine is electronically structured.

3.1 Motherboard

Inside your machine you will find a single, large circuit board called the

motherboard

(see Figure 3.1). It is powered by a humming power supply and has connector leads to the keyboard and other

peripheral devices

.

&

Anything that is not the motherboard, not the power supply and not purely mechanical.

-

The motherboard contains several large microchips and many small ones. The important ones are listed below.

RAM

Random Access Memory

or just

memory

. The memory is a single linear sequence of bytes that are erased when there is no power. It contains sequences of simple coded

instructions

of one to several bytes in length. Examples are: add this number to that; move this number to this device; go to another part of RAM to get other instructions; copy this part of RAM to this other part. When your machine has “64 megs” (64 megabytes), it has 64 1024 1024 bytes of RAM. Locations within that space are called

memory addresses

, so that saying “memory address

1000” means the 1000th byte in memory.

ROM

A small part of RAM does not reset when the computer switches off. It is called

ROM

,

Read Only Memory

. It is factory fixed and usually never changes through the life of a PC, hence the name. It overlaps the area of RAM close to the end of

15

3.1. Motherboard 3. PC Hardware

Figure 3.1 Partially assembled motherboard

16

3. PC Hardware 3.1. Motherboard the first megabyte of memory, so that area of RAM is not physically usable. ROM contains instructions to start up the PC and access certain peripherals.

CPU

Central Processing Unit

. It is the thing that is called 80486, 80586, Pentium, or whatever. On startup, it

jumps

to memory address 1040475 (0xFE05B) and starts reading instructions. The first instructions it gets are actually to fetch more instructions from disk and give a Boot failure message to the screen if it finds nothing useful. The CPU requires a timer to drive it. The timer operates at a high speed of hundreds of millions of ticks per second (hertz). That’s why the machine is named, for example, a “400 MHz” (400 megahertz) machine. The MHz of the machine is roughly proportional to the number of instructions it can process per second from RAM.

I/O ports

Stands for

Input/Output

ports. The ports are a block of RAM that sits in parallel to the normal RAM. There are 65,536 I/O ports, hence I/O is small compared to RAM. I/O ports are used to write to peripherals. When the CPU writes a byte to I/O port 632 (0x278), it is actually sending out a byte through your parallel port. Most I/O ports are not used. There is no specific I/O port chip, though.

There is more stuff on the motherboard:

ISA slots

ISA (

eye-sah

) is a shape of socket for plugging in peripheral devices like modem cards and sound cards. Each card expects to be talked to via an I/O port (or several consecutive I/O ports). What I/O port the card uses is sometimes configured by the manufacturer, and other times is selectable on the card through jumpers

&

Little pin bridges that you can pull off with your fingers.

or switches on the card. Other times still, it can be set by the CPU using a system called

Plug and

Pray

&

This means that you plug the device in, then beckon your favorite deity for spiritual assistance. Actually, some people complained that this might be taken seriously—no, it’s a joke: the real term is Plug ’n

Play

or

PnP

. A card also sometimes needs to signal the CPU to indicate that it is ready to send or receive more bytes through an I/O port. They do this through 1 of 16 connectors inside the ISA slot. These are called

Interrupt

Request lines

or IRQ lines (or sometimes just

Interrupts

), so numbered 0 through

15. Like I/O ports, the IRQ your card uses is sometimes also jumper selectable, sometimes not. If you unplug an old ISA card, you can often see the actual copper thread that goes from the IRQ jumper to the edge connector. Finally, ISA cards can also access memory directly through one of eight

Direct Memory Access

Channels

or

DMA Channels

, which are also possibly selectable by jumpers. Not all cards use DMA, however.

In summary, the peripheral and the CPU need to cooperate on three things: the

I/O port, the IRQ, and the DMA.

If any two cards clash by using either the same I/O port, IRQ number, or DMA channel then they won’t work (at worst your machine will

crash

).

&

Come to a halt and stop responding.

-

17

3.1. Motherboard 3. PC Hardware

“8-bit” ISA slots

Old motherboards have shorter ISA slots. You will notice yours is a double slot (called “16-bit” ISA) with a gap between them. The larger slot can still take an older 8-bit ISA card: like many modem cards.

PCI slots

PCI (

pee-see-eye

) slots are like ISA but are a new standard aimed at highperformance peripherals like networking cards and graphics cards. They also use an IRQ, I/O port and possibly a DMA channel. These, however, are automatically configured by the CPU as a part of the PCI standard, hence there will rarely be jumpers on the card.

AGP slots

AGP slots are even higher performance slots for

Accelerated Graphics Processors

, in other words, cards that do 3D graphics for games. They are also autoconfigured.

Serial ports

A serial port connection may come straight from your motherboard to a socket on your case. There are usually two of these. They may drive an external modem and some kinds of mice and printers. Serial is a simple and cheap way to connect a machine where relatively slow (less that 10 kilobytes per second) data transfer speeds are needed. Serial ports have their own “ISA card” built into the motherboard which uses I/O port 0x3F8–0x3FF and IRQ 4 for the first serial port

(also called COM1 under DOS/Windows) and I/O port 0x2F8–0x2FF and IRQ 3 for COM2. A discussion on serial port technology proceeds in Section 3.4 below.

Parallel port

Normally, only your printer would plug in here. Parallel ports are, however, extremely fast (being able to transfer 50 kilobytes per second), and hence many types of parallel port devices (like CD-ROM drives that plug into a parallel port) are available. Parallel port cables, however, can only be a few meters in length before you start getting transmission errors. The parallel port uses I/O port 0x378–0x37A and IRQ 7. If you have two parallel ports, then the second one uses I/O port 0x278–0x27A, but does not use an IRQ at all.

USB port

The

Universal Serial Bus

aims to allow any type of hardware to plug into one plug. The idea is that one day all serial and parallel ports will be scrapped in favor of a single USB socket from which all external peripherals will daisy chain.

I will not go into USB here.

IDE ribbon

The IDE ribbon plugs into your hard disk drive or C: drive on Windows/DOS and also into your CD-ROM drive (sometimes called an IDE CD-

ROM). The IDE cable actually attaches to its own PCI card internal to the motherboard. There are two IDE connectors that use I/O ports 0xF000–0xF007 and

0xF008–0xF00F, and IRQ 14 and 15, respectively. Most IDE CD-ROMs are also

ATAPI CD-ROMs. ATAPI is a standard (similar to SCSI, below) that enables many other kinds of devices to plug into an IDE ribbon cable. You get special floppy drives, tape drives, and other devices that plug into the same ribbon. They will be all called ATAPI-(this or that).

18

3. PC Hardware 3.2. Master/Slave IDE

SCSI ribbon

Another ribbon might be present, coming out of a card (called the SCSI host adaptor or SCSI card) or your motherboard. Home PCs will rarely have

SCSI, such being expensive and used mostly for high-end servers. SCSI cables are more densely wired than are IDE cables. They also end in a disk drive, tape drive, CD-ROM, or some other device. SCSI cables are not allowed to just-beplugged-in: they must be connected end on end with the last device connected in a special way called

SCSI termination

. There are, however, a few SCSI devices that are automatically terminated. More on this on page 477.

3.2 Master/Slave IDE

Two IDE hard drives can be connected to a single IDE ribbon. The ribbon alone has nothing to distinguish which connector is which, so the drive itself has jumper pins on it (see Figure 3.2) that can be set to one of several options. These are one of

(MA),

Slave

(SL),

Cable Select

(CS), or

Master-only

/

Single-Drive

Master

/and-like. The MA option means that your drive is the “first” drive of two on this IDE ribbon. The SL option means that your drive is the “second” drive of two on this IDE ribbon. The CS option means that your machine is to make its own decision (some boxes only work with this setting), and the Master-only option means that there is no second drive on this ribbon.

Figure 3.2 Connection end of a typical IDE drive

There might also be a second IDE ribbon, giving you a total of four possible drives. The first ribbon is known as

IDE1

(labeled on your motherboard) or the

primary

ribbon, and the second is known as

IDE2

or the

secondary

ribbon. Your four drives are

19

3.3. CMOS 3. PC Hardware then called

primary master

, labeling under L

INUX

primary slave

,

secondary master

is discussed in Section 18.4.

, and

secondary slave

. Their

3.3 CMOS

The “CMOS”

&

Stands for

Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor

ogy used to store setup information through power-downs.

-

, which has to do with the technolis a small application built into ROM.

It is also known as the ROM

BIOS

configuration. You can start it instead of your operating system (OS) by pressing or (or something else) just after you switch your machine on. There will usually be a message Press <key> to enter setup to explain this. Doing so will take you inside the CMOS program where you can change your machine’s configuration. CMOS programs are different between motherboard manufacturers.

Inside the CMOS, you can enable or disable built-in devices (like your mouses and serial ports); set your machine’s “hardware clock” (so that your machine has the correct time and date); and select the boot sequence (whether to load the operating system off the hard drive or CD-ROM—which you will need for installing L

INUX a bootable CD-ROM).

Boot

means to start up the computer.

from

&

The term comes from the lack of resources with which to begin: the operating system is on disk, but you might need the operating system to load from the disk—like trying to lift yourself up from your “bootstraps.”

your hard drive. You should always select

You can also configure

Hardrive autodetection

&

Autodetection

refers to a system that, though having incomplete information, configures itself. In this case the CMOS program probes the drive to determine its capacity. Very old CMOS programs required you to enter the drive’s details manually.

whenever installing a new machine or adding/removing disks. Different CMOSs will have different procedures, so browse through all the menus to see what your CMOS can do.

The CMOS is important when it comes to configuring certain devices built into the motherboard. Modern CMOSs allow you to set the I/O ports and IRQ numbers that you would like particular devices to use. For instance, you can make your CMOS switch COM1 with COM2 or use a non-standard I/O port for your parallel port. When it comes to getting such devices to work under L

INUX

, you will often have to power down your machine to see what the CMOS has to say about that device. More on this in Chapter 42.

3.4 Serial Devices

Serial ports facilitate low speed communications over a short distance using simple

8 core (or less) cable. The standards are old and communication is not particularly fault tolerant. There are so many variations on serial communication that it has become somewhat of a black art to get serial devices to work properly. Here I give a

20

3. PC Hardware 3.4. Serial Devices short explanation of the protocols, electronics, and hardware. The Serial-HOWTO and

Modem-HOWTO documents contain an exhaustive treatment (see Chapter 16).

Some devices that communicate using serial lines are:

Ordinary domestic dial-up modems.

Some permanent modem-like Internet connections.

Mice and other pointing devices.

Character text terminals.

Printers.

Cash registers.

Magnetic card readers.

Uninterruptible power supply (UPS) units.

Embedded microprocessor devices.

A device is connected to your computer by a cable with a 9-pin or 25-pin, male

1 2 3 4 5 or female connector at each end. These are known as

DB-9

( ) or

DB-25

6 7 8 9

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

(

14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 ever. See Table 3.1.

22

10

23

11

24

12

25

13

) connectors. Only eight of the pins are ever used, how-

Table 3.1 Pin assignments for DB-9 and DB-25 sockets

DB-9 pin number

1

9

6

4

5

7

8

3

2

DB-25 pin number

6

20

8

22

4

5

2

3

7

Acronym

TD

RD

RTS

CTS

DSR

DTR

CD

RI

Full-Name

Transmit Data

Receive Data

Request To Send

Clear To Send

Data Set Ready

Data Terminal Ready

Data Carrier Detect

Ring Indicator

Signal Ground

Direction

PC device

The way serial devices communicate is very straightforward: A stream of bytes is sent between the computer and the peripheral by dividing each byte into eight bits.

The voltage is toggled on a pin called the

TD pin

or

transmit pin

according to whether a bit is 1 or 0. A bit of 1 is indicated by a negative voltage (-15 to -5 volts) and a bit of

0 is indicated by a positive voltage (+5 to +15 volts). The

RD pin

or

receive pin

receives

21

3.4. Serial Devices 3. PC Hardware bytes in a similar way. The computer and the serial device need to agree on a

(also called the

serial port speed data rate

) so that the toggling and reading of voltage levels is properly synchronized. The speed is usually quoted in shows a list of possible serial port speeds.

bps

(bits per second). Table 3.2

50

75

110

134

150

Table 3.2 Serial port speeds in bps

200

300

600

1,200

1,800

2,400

4,800

9,600

19,200

38,400

57,600

115,200

576,000 2,000,000

921,600 2,500,000

230,400 1,000,000 3,000,000

460,800 1,152,000 3,500,000

500,000 1,500,000 4,000,000

A typical mouse communicates between 1,200 and 9,600 bps. Modems communicate at 19,200, 38,400, 57,600, or 115,200 bps. It is rare to find serial ports or peripherals that support the speeds not blocked in Table 3.2.

To further synchronize the peripheral with the computer, an additional proceeds each byte and up to two

stop bits start bit

follow each byte. There may also be a

parity bit

which tells whether there is an even or odd number of 1s in the byte (for error checking). In theory, there may be as many as 12 bits sent for each data byte. These additional bits are optional and device specific. Ordinary modems communicate with an

8N1

protocol—

8

data bits,

N

o parity bit, and

1

stop bit. A mouse communicates with 8 bits and no start, stop, or parity bits. Some devices only use 7 data bits and hence are limited to send only ASCII data (since ASCII characters range only up to

127).

Some types of devices use two more pins called the

request to send

(RTS) and

clear to send

(CTS) pins. Either the computer or the peripheral pull the respective pin to +12 volts to indicate that it is ready to receive data. A further two pins call the DTR (data terminal ready) pin and the DSR (data set ready) pin are sometimes used instead— these work the same way, but just use different pin numbers. In particular, domestic modems make full use of the RTS/CTS pins. This mechanism is called

RTS/CTS flow control

or

hardware flow control

. Some simpler devices make no use of flow control at all.

Devices that do not use flow control will loose data which is sent without the receiver’s readiness.

Some other devices also need to communicate whether they are ready to receive data, but do not have RTS/CTS pins (or DSR/DTR pins) available to them. These emit special control characters, sent amid the data stream, to indicate that flow should halt or restart. This is known as

software flow control

. Devices that optionally support either type of flow control should always be configured to use hardware flow control. In particular, a modem used with L

INUX

must

have hardware flow control enabled.

22

3. PC Hardware 3.5. Modems

Two other pins are the

ring indicator

(RI) pin and the

carrier detect

(CD) pin. These are only used by modems to indicate an incoming call and the detection of a peer modem, respectively.

The above pin assignments and protocol (including some hard-core electrical specifications which I have omitted) are known as

RS-232

. It is implemented using a standard chip called a 16550

UART

(Universal Asynchronous Receiver-Transmitter) chip. RS-232 is easily effected by electrical noise, which limits the length and speed at which you can communicate: A half meter cable can carry 115,200 bps without errors, but a 15 meter cable is reliable at no more than 19,200 bps. Other protocols (like RS-423 or RS-422) can go much greater distances and there are converter appliances that give a more advantageous speed/distance tradeoff.

3.5 Modems

Telephone lines, having been designed to carry voice, have peculiar limitations when it comes to transmitting data. It turns out that the best way to send a binary digit over a telephone line is to beep it at the listener using two different pitches: a low pitch for

0 and a high pitch for 1. Figure 3.3 shows this operation schematically.

Figure 3.3 Communication between two remote computers by modem

23

3.5. Modems 3. PC Hardware

Converting voltages to pitches and back again is known as

demodulation

and is where the word

modem

comes from. The word

baud modulation-

means the number of possible pitch switches per second, which is sometimes used interchangeably with bps. There are many newer modulation techniques used to get the most out of a telephone line, so that 57,600 bps modems are now the standard (as of this writing). Modems also do other things to the data besides modulating it: They may pack the data to reduce redundancies (

bit compression

) and perform error detection and compensation (

error correction

). Such

modem protocols

are given names like

V.90

(57,600 bps),

V.34

(33,600 bps or 28,800 bps),

V.42

(14,400 bps) or

V.32

(14,400 bps and lower). When two modems connect, they need to negotiate a “V” protocol to use. This negotiation is based on their respective capabilities and the current line quality.

A modem can be in one of two states: connected if it can hear a peer modem’s

command mode carrier signal

or

connect mode

. A modem is over a live telephone call (and is probably transmitting and receiving data in the way explained), otherwise it is in command mode. In command mode the modem does not modulate or transmit data but interprets special text sequences sent to it through the serial line. These text sequences begin with the letters AT and are called AT

tention commands

.

AT commands are sent by your computer to configure your modem for the current telephone line conditions, intended function, and serial port capability—for example, there are commands to: enable automatic answering on ring; set the flow control method; dial a number; and hang up. The sequence of commands used to configure the modem is called the

modem initialization string

. How to manually issue these commands is discussed in Section

32.6.3, 34.3, and 41.1 and will become relevant when you want to dial your Internet service provider (ISP).

Because each modem brand supports a slightly different set of modem commands, it is worthwhile familiarizing yourself with your modem manual. Most modern modems now support the

Hayes command set

—a generic set of the most useful modem commands. However, Hayes has a way of enabling hardware flow control that many popular modems do not adhere to. Whenever in this book I give examples of modem initialization, I include a footnote referring to this section. It is usually sufficient to configure your modem to “factory default settings”, but often a second command is required to enable hardware flow control. There are no initialization strings that work on all modems. The web sites and http://www.teleport.com/˜curt/modems.html

http://www.spy.net/˜dustin/modem/ are useful resources for finding out modem specifications.

24

Chapter 4

Basic Commands

All of

U

NIX

is

case sensitive

. A command with even a single letter’s capitalization altered is considered to be a completely different command. The same goes for files, directories, configuration file formats, and the syntax of all native programming languages.

4.1 The ls Command, Hidden Files,

Command-Line Options

In addition to directories and ordinary text files, there are other types of files, although all files contain the same kind of data (i.e., a list of bytes). The

hidden

file is a file that will not ordinarily appear when you type the command ls directory. To see a hidden file you must use the command to

list

ls -a the contents of a

. The -a option means to list

all

the contents in files as well as hidden files. Another variant is

long

format. The ls -l , which lists is used in this way to indicate variations on a command. These are called

U

NIX

command-line options

or

command-line arguments

, and most commands can take a number of them. They can be strung together in any way that is convenient

&

Commands under the GNU free software license are superior in this way: they have a greater number of options than traditional U

NIX commands and are therefore more flexible.

, for example, format.

ls -a -l , ls -l -a , or ls -al —any of these will list

all

files in

long

All GNU commands take the additional arguments -h type a command with just this on the command-line and get a and --help . You can

usage summary

. This is some brief help that will summarize options that you may have forgotten if you are

25

4.2. Error Messages 4. Basic Commands

already

familiar with the command—it will never be an exhaustive description of the usage. See the later explanation about man pages.

The difference between a name of a

hidden hidden

file and an ordinary file is merely that the file file starts with a period. Hiding files in this way is not for security, but for convenience.

The option sion is ls -l is somewhat cryptic for the novice. Its more explanatory verls --format=long . Similarly, the

all

option can be given as ls --all , and means the same thing as ls -a .

4.2 Error Messages

Although commands usually do not display a message when they puter accepted and processed the command.

-

execute

successfully, commands do report

&

The com-

errors

in a consistent format. The format varies from one command to another but often appears as follows:

command-name

:

what was attempted

:

error message

. For example, the command ls -l qwerty gives an error ls: qwerty: No such file or directory . What actually happened was that the command ls attempted to read the file qwerty . Since this file does not exist, an error code 2 arose. This error code corresponds to a situation where a file or directory is not being found. The error code is automatically translated into the sentence No such file or directory . It is important to understand the distinction between an explanatory message that a command gives (such as the messages reported by the passwd command in the previous chapter) and an error code that was just translated into a sentence. The reason is that a lot of different kinds of problems can result in an identical error code (there are only about a hundred different error codes). Experience will teach you that error messages do

not

tell you what to do, only what went wrong, and should not be taken as gospel.

The file /usr/include/asm/errno.h

contains a complete list of basic error codes. In addition to these, several other header files

&

Files ending in .h

might define their own error codes. Under U

NIX

, however, these are 99% of all the errors you are ever likely to get. Most of them will be meaningless to you at the moment but are included in Table 4.1 as a reference.

Number

2

3

4

0

1

7

8

5

6

9

C define

EPERM

ENOENT

ESRCH

EINTR

EIO

ENXIO

E2BIG

ENOEXEC

EBADF

Table 4.1 L

INUX error codes

Message

Success

Operation not permitted

No such file or directory

No such process

Interrupted system call

Input/output error

Device not configured

Argument list too long

Exec format error

Bad file descriptor continues...

26

4. Basic Commands 4.2. Error Messages

64

65

66

67

68

69

59

60

61

62

63

Number

35

36

37

38

39

40

32

33

34

35

28

29

30

31

24

25

26

27

20

21

22

23

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

10

11

11

12

54

55

56

57

50

51

52

53

46

47

48

49

42

43

44

45

C define

ENOMSG

EIDRM

ECHRNG

EL2NSYNC

EL3HLT

EL3RST

ELNRNG

EUNATCH

ENOCSI

EL2HLT

EBADE

EBADR

EXFULL

ENOANO

EBADRQC

EBADSLT

EDEADLOCK

EBFONT

ENOSTR

ENODATA

ETIME

ENOSR

ENONET

ENOPKG

EREMOTE

ENOLINK

EADV

ESRMNT

ECHILD

EAGAIN

EWOULDBLOCK

ENOMEM

EACCES

EFAULT

ENOTBLK

EBUSY

EEXIST

EXDEV

ENODEV

ENOTDIR

EISDIR

EINVAL

ENFILE

EMFILE

ENOTTY

ETXTBSY

EFBIG

ENOSPC

ESPIPE

EROFS

EMLINK

EPIPE

EDOM

ERANGE

EDEADLK

EDEADLOCK

ENAMETOOLONG

ENOLCK

ENOSYS

ENOTEMPTY

ELOOP

EWOULDBLOCK

Table 4.1 (continued)

Message

No child processes

Resource temporarily unavailable

Resource temporarily unavailable

Cannot allocate memory

Permission denied

Bad address

Block device required

Device or resource busy

File exists

Invalid cross-device link

No such device

Not a directory

Is a directory

Invalid argument

Too many open files in system

Too many open files

Inappropriate ioctl for device

Text file busy

File too large

No space left on device

Illegal seek

Read-only file system

Too many links

Broken pipe

Numerical argument out of domain

Numerical result out of range

Resource deadlock avoided

Resource deadlock avoided

File name too long

No locks available

Function not implemented

Directory not empty

Too many levels of symbolic links

(

same as

EAGAIN )

No message of desired type

Identifier removed

Channel number out of range

Level 2 not synchronized

Level 3 halted

Level 3 reset

Link number out of range

Protocol driver not attached

No CSI structure available

Level 2 halted

Invalid exchange

Invalid request descriptor

Exchange full

No anode

Invalid request code

Invalid slot

(

same as

EDEADLK )

Bad font file format

Device not a stream

No data available

Timer expired

Out of streams resources

Machine is not on the network

Package not installed

Object is remote

Link has been severed

Advertise error

Srmount error continues...

27

4.2. Error Messages 4. Basic Commands

Number

97

98

99

100

101

102

103

93

94

95

96

89

90

91

92

85

86

87

88

81

82

83

84

74

75

76

77

78

79

80

70

71

72

73

112

113

114

115

116

117

118

119

120

121

122

123

124

104

105

106

107

108

109

110

111

C define

ECONNRESET

ENOBUFS

EISCONN

ENOTCONN

ESHUTDOWN

ETOOMANYREFS

ETIMEDOUT

ECONNREFUSED

EHOSTDOWN

EHOSTUNREACH

EALREADY

EINPROGRESS

ESTALE

EUCLEAN

ENOTNAM

ENAVAIL

EISNAM

EREMOTEIO

EDQUOT

ENOMEDIUM

EMEDIUMTYPE

ECOMM

EPROTO

EMULTIHOP

EDOTDOT

EBADMSG

EOVERFLOW

ENOTUNIQ

EBADFD

EREMCHG

ELIBACC

ELIBBAD

ELIBSCN

ELIBMAX

ELIBEXEC

EILSEQ

ERESTART

ESTRPIPE

EUSERS

ENOTSOCK

EDESTADDRREQ

EMSGSIZE

EPROTOTYPE

ENOPROTOOPT

EPROTONOSUPPORT

ESOCKTNOSUPPORT

EOPNOTSUPP

EPFNOSUPPORT

EAFNOSUPPORT

EADDRINUSE

EADDRNOTAVAIL

ENETDOWN

ENETUNREACH

ENETRESET

ECONNABORTED

Table 4.1 (continued)

Message

Communication error on send

Protocol error

Multihop attempted

RFS specific error

Bad message

Value too large for defined data type

Name not unique on network

File descriptor in bad state

Remote address changed

Can not access a needed shared library

Accessing a corrupted shared library

.lib section in a.out corrupted

Attempting to link in too many shared libraries

Cannot exec a shared library directly

Invalid or incomplete multibyte or wide character

Interrupted system call should be restarted

Streams pipe error

Too many users

Socket operation on non-socket

Destination address required

Message too long

Protocol wrong type for socket

Protocol not available

Protocol not supported

Socket type not supported

Operation not supported

Protocol family not supported

Address family not supported by protocol

Address already in use

Cannot assign requested address

Network is down

Network is unreachable

Network dropped connection on reset

Software caused connection abort

Connection reset by peer

No buffer space available

Transport endpoint is already connected

Transport endpoint is not connected

Cannot send after transport endpoint shutdown

Too many references: cannot splice

Connection timed out

Connection refused

Host is down

No route to host

Operation already in progress

Operation now in progress

Stale NFS file handle

Structure needs cleaning

Not a XENIX named type file

No XENIX semaphores available

Is a named type file

Remote I/O error

Disk quota exceeded

No medium found

Wrong medium type

28

4. Basic Commands 4.3. Wildcards, Names, Extensions, and glob Expressions

4.3 Wildcards, Names, Extensions, and

glob

Expressions

ls can produce a lot of output if there are a large number of files in a directory. Now say that we are only interested in files that ended with the letters tter . To list only these files, you can use ls *tter . The

So, for example, the files

*

Tina.letter

, matches any number of any other characters.

Mary Jones.letter

and the file splatter , would all be listed if they were present, whereas a file listed. While the * matches any length of characters, the ?

Harlette would not be matches only one character.

For example, the command

Harlette .

ls ?ar* would list the files Mary Jones.letter

and

4.3.1 File naming

When naming files, it is a good idea to choose names that group files of the same type together. You do this by adding an

extension

to the file name that describes the type of file it is. We have already demonstrated this by calling a file

Mary Jones.letter

instead of just Mary Jones . If you keep this convention, you will be able to easily list all the files that are letters by entering file name Mary Jones.letter

ls *.letter

is then said to be composed of two parts: the

. The

name

,

Mary Jones , and the

extension

, letter .

Some common U

NIX extensions you may see are:

.a

Archive.

lib*.a

is a static library.

.alias

X Window System font alias catalog.

.avi

Video format.

.au

Audio format (original Sun Microsystems generic sound file).

.awk

awk program source file.

.bib

bibtex A TEX bibliography source file.

.bmp

Microsoft Bitmap file image format.

.bz2

File compressed with the bzip2 compression program.

.cc

, .cxx

, .C

, .cpp

C++ program source code.

.cf

, .cfg

Configuration file or script.

.cgi

Executable script that produces web page output.

.conf

, .config

Configuration file.

29

4.3. Wildcards, Names, Extensions, and glob Expressions 4. Basic Commands

.csh

csh shell script.

.c

C

program source code.

.db

Database file.

.dir

X Window System font/other database directory.

.deb

Debian package for the Debian distribution.

.diff

Output of the trees.

diff program indicating the difference between files or source

.dvi

Device-independent file. Formatted output of .tex

L TEX file.

.el

Lisp program source.

.g3

G3 fax format image file.

.gif

, .giff

GIF image file.

.gz

File compressed with the gzip compression program.

.htm

, .html

, .shtm

, .html

Hypertext Markup Language. A web page of some sort.

.h

C

/C++ program header file.

.i

SWIG source, or

C

preprocessor output.

.in

configure input file.

.info

Info pages read with the info command.

.jpg

, .jpeg

JPEG image file.

.lj

LaserJet file. Suitable input to a HP LaserJet printer.

.log

Log file of a system service. This file grows with status messages of some system program.

.lsm

L

INUX

Software Map entry.

.lyx

LyX word processor document.

.man

Man page.

.mf

Meta-Font font program source file.

.pbm

PBM image file format.

.pcf

PCF image file—intermediate representation for fonts. X Window System font.

.pcx

PCX image file.

30

4. Basic Commands 4.3. Wildcards, Names, Extensions, and glob Expressions

.pfb

X Window System font file.

.pdf

Formatted document similar to PostScript or dvi.

.php

PHP program source code (used for web page design).

.pl

Perl program source code.

.ps

PostScript file, for printing or viewing.

.py

Python program source code.

.rpm

RedHat Package Manager rpm file.

.sgml

Standard Generalized Markup Language. Used to create documents to be converted to many different formats.

.sh

sh shell script.

.so

Shared object file.

lib*.so

is a

Dynamically Linked Library

.

code shared by more than one program to save disk space and memory.

-

&

Executable program

.spd

Speedo X Window System font file.

.tar

tar red directory tree.

.tcl

Tcl/Tk source code (programming language).

.texi

, .texinfo

Texinfo source. Info pages are compiled from these.

.tex

TEX or L TEX document. L

A

TEX is for document processing and typesetting.

.tga

TARGA image file.

.tgz

Directory tree that has been archived with tar , and then compressed with gzip .

Also a package for the Slackware distribution.

.tiff

TIFF image file.

.tfm

A

TEX font metric file.

.ttf

Truetype font.

.txt

Plain English text file.

.voc

Audio format (Soundblaster’s own format).

.wav

Audio format (sound files common to Microsoft Windows).

.xpm

XPM image file.

.y

yacc source file.

31

4.3. Wildcards, Names, Extensions, and glob Expressions 4. Basic Commands

.Z

File compressed with the compress compression program.

.zip

File compressed with the gram.

pkzip (or PKZIP.EXE

for DOS) compression pro-

.1

, .2

. . .

Man page.

In addition, files that have no extension and a capitalized descriptive name are usually plain English text and meant for your reading. They come bundled with packages and are for documentation purposes. You will see them hanging around all over the place.

Some full file names you may see are:

AUTHORS

List of people who contributed to or wrote a package.

ChangeLog

List of developer changes made to a package.

COPYING

Copyright (usually GPL) for a package.

INSTALL

Installation instructions.

README

in.

Help information to be read first, pertaining to the directory the README is

TODO

List of future desired work to be done to package.

BUGS

List of errata.

NEWS

Info about new features and changes for the layman about this package.

THANKS

List of contributors to a package.

VERSION

Version information of the package.

4.3.2 Glob expressions

There is a way to restrict file listings to within the ranges of certain characters. If you only want to list the files that begin with A through M, you can run ls [A-M]* . Here the brackets have a special meaning—they match a single character like a ?

, but only those given by the range. You can use this feature in a variety of ways, for example,

[a-dJW-Y]* matches all files beginning with matches all files ending with aid , bid , cid or a , b did

, c , d

; and

, J , W , X or Y ; and *[a-d]id

*.{cpp,c,cxx} matches all files ending in expression.

.cpp

Glob

, .c

or .cxx

. This way of specifying a file name is called a

glob

expressions are used in many different contexts, as you will see later.

32

4. Basic Commands 4.4. Usage Summaries and the Copy Command

4.4 Usage Summaries and the Copy Command

The command cp stands for

copy

. It duplicates one or more files. The format is cp <file> <newfile> cp <file> [<file> ...] <dir> or cp cp

file newfile file

[

file ...

]

dir

The above lines are called a

usage summary

. The actually type out these characters but replace

< and

<file>

> signs mean that you don’t with a file name of your own.

These are also sometimes written in italics like, written in capitals like, cp FILE NEWFILE .

cp

<file>

file newfile

and

. In rare cases they are

<dir> are called

parameters

.

Sometimes they are obviously numeric, like a command that takes <ioport> .

&

Anyone emailing me to ask why typing in literal, < , i , o , p , o , r , t and > reply.

characters did not work will get a rude

These are common conventions used to specify the usage of a command. The

[ and ] brackets are also not actually typed but mean that the contents between them are optional. The ellipses ...

mean that <file> can be given repeatedly, and these also are never actually typed. From now on you will be expected to substitute your own parameters by interpreting the usage summary. You can see that the second of the above lines is actually just saying that one or more file names can be listed with a directory name last.

From the above usage summary it is obvious that there are two ways to use the cp command. If the last name is not a directory, then cp copies that file and renames it to the file name given. If the last name is a directory, then

into

that directory.

cp copies all the files listed

The usage summary of the ls command is as follows:

¨ ls [-l, --format=long] [-a, --all] <file> <file> ...

ls -al

§

¥

¦ where the comma indicates that either option is valid. Similarly, with the command:

¨ passwd [<username>]

§ passwd

¥

¦

You should practice using the place to place.

cp command now by moving some of your files from

33

4.5. Directory Manipulation 4. Basic Commands

4.5 Directory Manipulation

The new cd command is used to take you to different directories. Create a directory with mkdir new . You

could

create a directory one by doing cd new and then mkdir one , but there is a more direct way of doing this with can then change directly to the one directory with mkdir new/one cd new/one

. You

. And similarly you can get back to where you were with cd ../..

. In this way, the / directories within directories. The directory one is called a is used to represent

subdirectory

of new .

The command pwd stands for

present working directory

(also called the

rent directory

) and tells what directory you are currently in. Entering pwd

cur-

gives some output like rectory (with

/home/<username> cd /

. Experiment by changing to the root di-

) and then back into the directory /home/<username> (with cd /home/<username> ). The directory /home/<username> is called your

home directory

, and is where all your personal files are kept. It can be used at any time with the abbreviation tering cd ˜

˜ . In other words, entering

. The process whereby a ˜ cd /home/<username> is the same as enis substituted for your home directory is called

tilde expansion

.

To remove (i.e., erase or delete) a file, use the command remove a directory, use the command rmdir <dir> rm <filename> . To

. Practice using these two commands. Note that you cannot remove a directory unless it is empty. To remove a directory as well as any contents it might contain, use the command rm -R <dir> .

The -R option specifies to dive into any subdirectories of <dir> and delete their contents. The process whereby a command dives into subdirectories of subdirectories of

. . . is called recursion.

-R stands for

recursively

. This is a very dangerous command.

Although you may be used to “undeleting” files on other systems, on U

NIX a deleted file is, at best, extremely difficult to recover.

The cp tories. The command also takes the mv

-R option, allowing it to copy whole direccommand is used to move files and directories. It really just renames a file to a different directory. Note that with

-p and -d with -R cp you should use the option to preserve all attributes of a file and properly reproduce symlinks

(discussed later). Hence, always use

R <dir> <newdir> .

cp -dpR <dir> <newdir> instead of cp -

4.6

Relative

vs.

Absolute

Pathnames

Commands can be given file name arguments in two ways. If you are in the same directory as the file (i.e., the file is in the current directory), then you can just enter the file name on its own (e.g.,

path name

, like cp my file new file ). Otherwise, you can enter the cp /home/jack/my file /home/jack/new file

full

. Very often administrators use the notation ./my file to be clear about the distinction, for instance,

34

4. Basic Commands 4.7. System Manual Pages cp ./my file ./new file . The leading ./ makes it clear that both files are relative to the current directory. File names not starting with a / are called

relative

path names, and otherwise,

absolute

path names.

4.7 System Manual Pages

(See Chapter 16 for a complete overview of all documentation on the system, and also how to print manual pages in a properly typeset format.)

The command man [<section>|-a] <command> displays help on a particular topic and stands for

manual

. Every command on the entire system is documented in so-named

man pages

. In the past few years a new format of documentation, called

info

, has evolved. This is considered the modern way to document commands, but most system documentation is still available only through documented in man however.

man . Very few packages are not

Man pages are the authoritative reference on how a command works because they are usually written by the very programmer who created the command. Under

U

NIX

, any printed documentation should be considered as being second-hand information. Man pages, however, will often not contain the underlying concepts needed for understanding the context in which a command is used. Hence, it is not possible for a person to learn about U

NIX purely from man pages. However, once you have the necessary background for a command, then its man page becomes an indispensable source of information and you can discard other introductory material.

Now, man pages are divided into sections, numbered 1 through 9. Section 1 contains all man pages for system commands like the ones you have been using. Sections

2-7 contain information for programmers and the like, which you will probably not have to refer to just yet. Section 8 contains pages specifically for system administration commands. There are some additional sections labeled with letters; other than these, there are no manual pages besides the sections 1 through 9. The sections are

. . .

/man1

. . .

/man2

. . .

/man3

. . .

/man4

. . .

/man5

. . .

/man6

. . .

/man7

. . .

/man8

. . .

/man9

User programs

System calls

Library calls

Special files

File formats

Games

Miscellaneous

System administration

Kernel documentation

You should now use the man command to look up the manual pages for all the commands that you have learned. Type man cp , man mv , man rm , man mkdir , man rmdir , man passwd , man cd , man pwd , and of course man man . Much of the

35

4.8. System

info

Pages 4. Basic Commands information might be incomprehensible to you at this stage. Skim through the pages to get an idea of how they are structured and what headings they usually contain. Man pages are referenced with notation like cp (1), for the can be read with man 1 cp cp command in Section 1, which

. This notation will be used from here on.

4.8 System info Pages

info pages contain some excellent reference and tutorial information in hypertext linked format. Type info on its own to go to the top-level menu of the entire info hierarchy. You can also type info <command> for help on many basic commands.

Some packages will, however, not have info pages, and other U

NIX systems do not support info at all.

info is an interactive program with keys to navigate and search documentation. Inside info, typing mands.

will invoke the help screen from where you can learn more com-

4.9 Some Basic Commands

You should practice using each of these commands.

bc

A calculator program that handles arbitrary precision (very large) numbers. It is useful for doing any kind of calculation on the command-line. Its use is left as an exercise.

cal [[0-12] 1-9999]

Prints out a nicely formatted calender of the current month, a specified month, or a specified whole year.

Try cal 1 for fun, and cal 9 1752 , when the pope had a few days scrapped to compensate for roundoff error.

cat <filename> [<filename> ...]

the screen.

cat

Writes the contents of all the files listed to can join a lot of files together with cat <filename> <filename> ... > <newfile> . The file <newfile> will be an end-on-end

concatenation

of all the files specified.

clear

Erases all the text in the current terminal.

date

Prints out the current date and time. (The command thing entirely different.) time , though, does some-

df

Stands for

disk free

and tells you how much free space is left on your system. The available space usually has the units of kilobytes (1024 bytes) (although on some other U

NIX systems this will be 512 bytes or 2048 bytes). The right-most column

36

4. Basic Commands 4.9. Some Basic Commands tells the directory (in combination with any directories below that) under which that much space is available.

dircmp

Directory compare. This command compares directories to see if changes have been made between them. You will often want to see where two trees differ

(e.g., check for missing files), possibly on different computers. Run man dircmp

(that is, dircmp (1)). (This is a System 5 command and is not present on L

INUX

You can, however, compare directories with the Midnight Commander, mc ).

.

du <directory>

Stands for

disk usage

and prints out the amount of space occupied by a directory. It recurses into any subdirectories and can print only a summary with x / du -s <directory> on a system with /usr

. Also try and /home du --max-depth=1 /var on separate

partitions

.

and du -

&

See page 143.

-

dmesg

Prints a complete log of all messages printed to the screen during the bootup process. This is useful if you blinked when your machine was initializing. These messages might not yet be meaningful, however.

echo

Prints a message to the terminal.

$[10*3+2] , echo ‘$[10*3+2]’

Try echo ’hello there’

. The command echo -e

, echo allows interpretation of certain a

bell backslash

sequences, for example

, or in other words, beeps the terminal.

echo -e "\a" echo -n

, which prints does the same without printing the trailing newline. In other words, it does not cause a wrap to the next line after the text is printed.

echo -e -n "\b" , prints a back-space character only, which will erase the last character printed.

exit

Logs you out.

expr <expression>

5 + 10 ’*’ 2

Calculates the numerical expression expression arithmetic operations that you are accustomed to will work.

.

Try

. Observe how mathematical precedence is obeyed (i.e., the is worked out before the + ).

Most expr

*

file <filename>

Prints file portrait.jpg

out the type will tell you that of data contained portrait.jpg

is a in a file.

JPEG image data, JFIF standard .

The command amount of file types, across every platform.

file file detects an enormous works by checking whether the first few bytes of a file match certain tell-tale byte sequences. The byte sequences are called

magic numbers

. Their complete list is stored in /usr/share/magic .

&

The word “magic” under U

NIX normally refers to byte sequences or numbers that have a specific meaning or implication. So-called systems.

-

magic numbers

are invented for source code, file formats, and file

free

Prints out available free memory. You will notice two listings: swap space and physical memory. These are contiguous as far as the user is concerned. The swap space is a continuation of your installed memory that exists on disk. It is obviously slow to access but provides the illusion of much more available RAM

37

4.9. Some Basic Commands 4. Basic Commands and avoids the possibility of ever running out of memory (which can be quite fatal).

head [-n <lines>] <filename>

lines if the -n

Prints the first option is not given. (See also tail

<lines> below).

lines of a file or 10

hostname [<new-name>]

With no options, hostname prints the name of your machine, otherwise it sets the name to <new-name> .

kbdrate -r <chars-per-second> -d <repeat-delay>

rate of your keys. Most users will like this rate set to

Changes the repeat kbdrate -r 32 -d 250 which unfortunately is the fastest the PC can go.

more

Displays a long file by stopping at the end of each page. Run the following: ls -l /bin > bin-ls , and then try more bin-ls . The first command creates a file with the contents of the output of the directory /bin ls . This will be a long file because has a great many entries. The second command views the file.

Use the space bar to page through the file. When you get bored, just press

You can also try ls -l /bin | more which will do the same thing in one go.

.

less

The GNU version of more , but with extra features. On your system, the two commands may be the same. With less , you can use the arrow keys to page up and down through the file. You can do searches by pressing , and then typing in a word to search for and then pressing . Found words will be highlighted, and the text will be scrolled to the first found word. The important commands are:

Go to the end of a file.

ssss

Search backward through a file for the text

ssss

.

ssss

Search forward through a file for the text

expression

. See Chapter 5 for more info.

-

ssss

.

&

Actually

ssss

is a

regular

Scroll forward and keep trying to read more of the file in case some other program is appending to it—useful for log files.

nnn

Go to line

nnn

of the file.

Quit. Used by many U

NIX text-based applications (sometimes – ).

(You can make less file /etc/profile stop beeping in the irritating way that it does by editing the and adding the lines

¨

LESS=-Q export LESS

§

¥

¦ and then logging out and logging in again. But this is an aside that will make more sense later.)

38

4. Basic Commands 4.9. Some Basic Commands

lynx <url>

Opens a URL console. Try

&

URL stands for

Uniform Resource Locator

—a web address.

lynx http://lwn.net/ .

at the

links <url>

Another text-based web browser.

nohup <command> &

Runs a command in the background, appending any output the command may produce to the file nohup.out

in your home directory.

nohup has the useful feature that the command will continue to run even after you have logged out. Uses for nohup will become obvious later.

sleep <seconds>

Pauses for <seconds> seconds. See also usleep .

sort <filename>

called

Prints a file with lines sorted in alphabetical order. Create a file telephone with each line containing a short telephone book entry. Then type sort sort telephone , or sort telephone | less takes many interesting options to sort in reverse ( and see what happens.

sort -r ), to eliminate duplicate entries ( sort -u ), to ignore leading whitespace ( sort -b ), and so on.

See the sort (1) for details.

strings [-n <len>] <filename>

Writes out a binary file, but strips any unreadable characters. Readable groups of characters are placed on separate lines. If you have a binary file that you think may contain something interesting but looks completely garbled when viewed normally, use strings to sift out the interesting stuff: try strings less /bin/cp and then try strings /bin/cp does not print sequences smaller than 4. The -n

. By default option can alter this limit.

split ...

Splits a file into many separate files. This might have been used when a file was too big to be copied onto a floppy disk and needed to be split into, say, 360-KB pieces. Its sister, csplit , can split files along specified lines of text within the file. The commands are seldom used on their own but are very useful within programs that manipulate text.

tac <filename> [<filename> ...]

Writes the contents of all the files listed to the screen, reversing the order of the lines—that is, printing the last line of the file first.

tac is cat backwards and behaves similarly.

tail [-f] [-n <lines>] <filename>

10 lines if the -n

Prints the last option is not given. The -f

<lines> lines of a file or option means to watch the file for lines being appended to the end of it. (See also head above.)

uname

Prints the name of the U

NIX case, L

INUX

.

operating system

you are currently using. In this

uniq <filename>

sorted.

Prints a file with duplicate lines deleted. The file must first be

39

4.10. The

mc

File Manager 4. Basic Commands

usleep <microseconds>

Pauses

(1/1,000,000 of a second).

for <microseconds> microseconds

wc [-c] [-w] [-l] <filename>

c haracter), or words (with -w

Counts the number of bytes (with

), or lines (with -l ) in a file.

-c for

whatis <command>

Gives the first line of the man page corresponding to mand> , unless no such page exists, in which case it prints

<comnothing appropriate .

whoami

Prints your login name.

4.10 The mc File Manager

Those who come from the DOS world may remember the famous

Norton Commander

file manager. The GNU project has a Free clone called the

Midnight Commander

, mc .

It is essential to at least try out this package—it allows you to move around files and directories extremely rapidly, giving a wide-angle picture of the file system. This will drastically reduce the number of tedious commands you will have to type by hand.

4.11 Multimedia Commands for Fun

You should practice using each of these commands if you have your sound card configured.

&

I don’t want to give the impression that L

INUX does not have graphical applications to do all the functions in this section, but you should be aware that for every graphical application, there is a textmode one that works better and consumes fewer resources.

You may also find that some of these packages are not installed, in which case you can come back to this later.

play [-v <volume>] <filename>

sound card. These formats are

Plays linear audio formats out through your

.8svx

, .aiff

, .au

, .cdr

, .cvs

, .dat

, .gsm

,

.hcom

,

.uw

,

.maud

.sw

, or

, .sf

.ul

, .smp

, .txw

, .vms

, .voc

, .wav

, .wve

, .raw

, .ub

, .sb

files. In other words, it plays almost every type of “basic”

, sound file there is: most often this will be a simple Windows

<volume> in percent.

.wav

file. Specify

rec <filename>

Records from your microphone into a file. ( play and the same package.) rec are from

mpg123 <filename>

Plays audio from MPEG files level 1, 2, or 3. Useful options are

-b 1024 (for increasing the buffer size to prevent jumping) and --2to1 (downsamples by a factor of 2 for reducing CPU load). MPEG files contain sound and/or video, stored very compactly using digital signal processing techniques that the commercial software industry seems to think are very sophisticated.

40

4. Basic Commands 4.12. Terminating Commands

cdplay

Plays a regular music CD .

cdp is the interactive version.

aumix

Sets your sound card’s volume, gain, recording volume, etc. You can use it interactively or just enter aumix -v <volume> to immediately set the volume in percent. Note that this is a dedicated

mixer

program and is considered to be an application separate from any that play music. Preferably do not set the volume from within a sound-playing application, even if it claims this feature—you have much better control with aumix .

mikmod --interpolate -hq --renice Y <filename>

Plays

Mod

files. Mod files are a special type of audio format that stores only the duration and pitch of the notes that constitute a song, along with samples of each musical instrument needed to play the song. This makes for high-quality audio with phenomenally small file size.

mikmod supports 669, AMF, DSM, FAR, GDM, IMF, IT, MED,

MOD, MTM, S3M, STM, STX, ULT, UNI, and XM audio formats—that is, probably every type in existence. Actually, a lot of excellent listening music is available on the Internet in Mod file format. The most common formats are .it

, .mod

,

.s3m

, and .xm

.

&

Original .mod

files are the product of Commodore-Amiga computers and had only four tracks. Today’s 16 (and more) track Mod files are comparable to any recorded music.

-

4.12 Terminating Commands

You usually use – to stop an application or command that runs continuously.

You must type this at the same prompt where you entered the command. If this doesn’t work, the section on plication to quit.

processes

(Section 9.5) will explain about

signalling

a running ap-

4.13 Compressed Files

Files typically contain a lot of data that one can imagine might be represented with a smaller number of bytes. Take for example the letter you typed out. The word “the” was probably repeated many times. You were probably also using lowercase letters most of the time. The file was by far not a completely random set of bytes, and it repeatedly used spaces as well as using some letters more than others.

&

English text in fact contains, on average, only about 1.3 useful bits (there are eight bits in a byte) of data per byte.

-

Because of this the file can be

compressed

to take up less space. Compression involves representing the same data by using a smaller number of bytes, in such a way that the original data can be reconstructed exactly. Such usually involves finding patterns in the data. The command to compress a file is gzip <filename> , which stands for

GNU zip

. Run gzip happened. Now, use on a file in your home directory and then run more ls to see what to view the compressed file. To uncompress the file use

41

4.14. Searching for Files 4. Basic Commands gzip -d <filename> . Now, use more to view the file again. Many files on the system are stored in compressed format. For example, man pages are often stored compressed and are uncompressed automatically when you read them.

mand

You previously used the command zcat cat to view a file. You can use the comto do the same thing with a compressed file. Gzip a file and then type zcat <filename> . You will see that the contents of the file are written to the screen.

Generally, when commands and files have a z in them they have something to do with compression—the letter z stands for

zip

. You can use zcat <filename> | less view a compressed file proper. You can also use the command to zless <filename> , which does the same as zcat <filename> | less tually have the functionality of zless combined.)

. (Note that your less may ac-

A new addition to the arsenal is much like gzip bzip2 . This is a compression program very

, except that it is slower and compresses 20%–30% better. It is useful for compressing files that will be downloaded from the Internet (to reduce the transfer volume). Files that are compressed with bzip2 have an extension .bz2

. Note that the improvement in compression depends very much on the type of data being compressed. Sometimes there will be negligible size reduction at the expense of a huge speed penalty, while occasionally it is well worth it. Files that are frequently compressed and uncompressed should never use bzip2 .

4.14 Searching for Files

You can use the command find to search for files. Change to the root directory, and enter find . It will spew out all the files it can see by

recursively descending

each subdirectory and all its subdirectories, and repeats the command find .

-

&

Goes into into all subdirectories.

In other words, find , when executed from the root directory, prints all the files on the system.

stop it.

find will work for a long time if you enter it as you have—press – to

Now change back to your home directory and type find your personal files. You can specify a number of options to again. You will see find

all

to look for specific files.

find -type d

Shows only directories and not the files they contain.

find -type f

Shows only files and not the directories that contain them, even though it will still descend into all directories.

find -name <filename>

instance,

Finds only files that have the name find -name ’*.c’

<filename> will find all files that end in a .c

. For extension

( find -name *.c

why later).

without the quote characters will not work. You will see find -name Mary Jones.letter

will find the file with the name

Mary Jones.letter

.

42

4. Basic Commands 4.15. Searching Within Files

find -size [[+|-]]<size>

smaller (for ) than

Finds only files that have a size larger (for

<size> kilobytes, or the same as <size>

+ ) or kilobytes if the sign is not specified.

find <directory> [<directory> ...]

rectories.

Starts find in each of the specified di-

There are many more options for doing just about any type of search for a file. See find (1) for more details (that is, run man 1 find ). Look also at the -exec option which causes find

¨ to execute a command for each file it finds, for example:

¥

¦ find has the deficiency of actively reading directories to find files. This process is slow, especially when you start from the root directory. An alternative command is locate <filename> . This searches through a previously created database of all the files on the system and hence finds files instantaneously. Its counterpart updatedb updates the database of files used by automatically every day at 04h00.

locate . On some systems, updatedb runs

5

Try these ( updatedb will take several minutes):

¨ updatedb locate rpm locate deb locate passwd locate HOWTO locate README

§

¥

¦

4.15 Searching

Within

Files

Very often you will want to search through a number of files to find a particular word or phrase, for example, when a number of files contain lists of telephone numbers with people’s names and addresses. The command grep does a line-by-line search through a file and prints only those lines that contain a word that you have specified.

the command summary:

¨ grep has

¥

&

The words

word

,

string

, or

pattern

are used synonymously in this context, basically meaning a short length of letters and-or numbers that you are trying to find matches for. A

pattern

can also be a string with kinds of wildcards in it that match different characters, as we shall see later.

-

¦

43

4.16. Copying to MS-DOS and Windows Formatted Floppy Disks 4. Basic Commands

Run grep for the word “the” to display all lines containing it:

’the’ Mary Jones.letter

. Now try grep ’the’ *.letter

.

grep

grep -n <pattern> <filename>

word was found.

shows the line number in the file where the

grep -<num> <pattern> <filename>

prints out <num> of the lines that came before and after each of the lines in which the word was found.

grep -A <num> <pattern> <filename>

prints out <num> of the lines that came

A fter each of the lines in which the word was found.

grep -B <num> <pattern> <filename>

prints out <num> of the lines that came

B efore each of the lines in which the word was found.

grep -v <pattern> <filename>

the word you are searching for.

prints out only those lines that do

&

You may think that the

not

contain

-v option is no longer doing the same kind of thing that grep is advertised to do: i.e.,

searching

for strings. In fact, U

NIX commands often suffer from this—they have such versatility that their functionality often overlaps with that of other commands. One actually never stops learning new and nifty ways of doing things hidden in the dark corners of man pages.

-

grep -i <pattern> <filename>

insensitive.

does the same as an ordinary grep but is case

4.16 Copying to MS-DOS and Windows Formatted

Floppy Disks

A package, called the mtools package, enables reading and writing to MS-

DOS/Windows floppy disks. These are not standard U

NIX commands but are packaged with most L

INUX name” floppy disks. Put an MS-DOS disk in your

¨ distributions. The commands support Windows “long file

A: drive. Try mdir A: touch myfile mcopy myfile A: mdir A:

§

¥

¦

Note that there is age understands

no

such thing as an A: disk under L

INUX

. Only the mtools pack-

A: in order to retain familiarity for MS-DOS users. The complete list

¥ floppyd mattrib mcopy mdel mformat minfo mmount mmove mshowfat mtoolstest

44

4. Basic Commands 4.17. Archives and Backups

5 mbadblocks mcat mcd

§ mdeltree mdir mdu mkmanifest mlabel mmd mpartition mrd mren mtype mzip xcopy

Entering info mtools put into lower case with an mand.

will give detailed help. In general, any MS-DOS command, m prefixed to it, gives the corresponding L

INUX com-

¦

4.17 Archives and Backups

Never begin any work before you have a fail-safe method of backing it up.

One of the primary activities of a system administrator is to make backups. It is essential never to underestimate the volatility information in a computer.

Backups

&

Ability to evaporate or become chaotic.

of of data are therefore continually made. A backup is a duplicate of your files that can be used as a replacement should any or all of the computer be destroyed. The idea is that all of the data in a directory a directory and all its subdirectories and all the files in those subdirectories, etc.

-

&

As usual, meaning are stored in a separate place—often compressed—and can be retrieved in case of an emergency. When we want to store a number of files in this way, it is useful to be able to pack many files into one file so that we can perform operations on that single file only. When many files are packed together into one, this packed file is called an

archive

. Usually archives have the extension .tar

, which stands for

tape archive

.

To

create

an archive of a directory, use the tar

¨ tar -c -f <filename> <directory>

§ command:

¥

¦

Create a directory with a few files in it, and run the tar command to back it up.

A file of <filename> will be created. Take careful note of any error messages that tar reports. List the file and check that its size is appropriate for the size of the directory you are archiving. You can also use the

verify

option (see the man page) of the tar command to check the integrity of restore it with the

¨

extract

<filename> option of the tar

. Now remove the directory, and then command: tar -x -f <filename>

§

¥

¦

You should see your directory recreated with all its files intact. A nice option to give to tar is -v . This option lists all the files that are being added to or extracted from the archive as they are processed, and is useful for monitoring the progress of archiving.

45

4.18. The

PATH

Where Commands Are Searched For 4. Basic Commands

It is obvious that you can call your archive anything you like, however; the common practice is to call it <directory>.tar

, which makes it clear to all exactly what it is.

Another important option is -p which preserves detailed attribute information of files.

Once you have your gzip . This will create a file

.tar

file, you would probably want to compress it with

<directory>.tar.gz

, which is sometimes called <directory>.tgz

for brevity.

A second kind of archiving utility is cpio .

cpio is actually more powerful than tar, but is considered to be more cryptic to use. The principles of cpio are quite similar and its use is left as an exercise.

4.18 The PATH Where Commands Are Searched For

When you type a command at the shell prompt, it has to be read off disk out of one or other directory. On U

NIX

, all such

executable commands

are located in one of about four directories. A file is located in the directory tree according to its type, rather than according to what software package it belongs to. For example, a word processor may have its actual executable stored in a directory with all other executables, while its font files are stored in a directory with other fonts from all other packages.

The shell has a procedure for searching for executables when you type them in.

If you type in a command with slashes, like /bin/cp , then the shell tries to run the named program, tries to find the cp cp

, out of the /bin directory. If you just type cp command in each of the subdirectories of your on its own, then it

PATH . To see what your

¨

PATH is, just type echo $PATH

§

¥

¦

You will see a colon separated list of four or more directories. Note that the current directory .

is not listed. It is important that the current directory

not

be listed for reasons of security. Hence, to execute a command in the current directory, we hence always ./<command> .

To append, for example, a new directory

¨

PATH="$PATH:/opt/gnome/bin" export PATH

§

/opt/gnome/bin to your PATH , do

L

INUX

¨ supports the convenience of doing this in one line: export PATH="$PATH:/opt/gnome/bin"

§

¥

¦

¥

¦

46

4. Basic Commands 4.19. The

--

Option

There is a further command, from the PATH which , to check whether a command is locatable

. Sometimes there are two commands of the same name in different directories of the which ls

PATH .

&

This is more often true of Solaris systems than L

INUX

<command> locates the one that your shell would execute. Try:

¨

.

Typing which which cp mv rm which which which cranzgots

§

¥

¦ which is also useful in shell scripts to tell if there is a command at all, and hence check whether a particular package is installed, for example, which netscape .

4.19 The -Option

If a file name happens to begin with a then it would be impossible to use that file name as an argument to a command. To overcome this circumstance, most commands take an option -. This option specifies that no more options follow on the commandline—everything else must be treated as a literal file name. For instance

¨ touch -- -stupid_file_name rm -- -stupid_file_name

§

¥

¦

47

4.19. The

--

Option 4. Basic Commands

48

Chapter 5

Regular Expressions

A regular expression is a sequence of characters that forms a template used to search for

strings

&

Words, phrases, or just about any sequence of characters.

within text. In other words, it is a search pattern. To get an idea of when you would need to do this, consider the example of having a list of names and telephone numbers. If you want to find a telephone number that contains a 3 in the second place and ends with an 8, regular expressions provide a way of doing that kind of search. Or consider the case where you would like to send an email to fifty people, replacing the word after the “Dear” with their own name to make the letter more personal. Regular expressions allow for this type of searching and replacing.

5.1 Overview

Many utilities use the regular expression to give them greater power when manipulating text. The grep command is an example. Previously you used the grep command to locate only simple letter sequences in text. Now we will use it to search for regular expressions.

In the previous chapter you learned that the ?

character can be used to signify that any character can take its place. This is said to be a

wildcard

and works with file names. With regular expressions, the wildcard to use is the can use the command grep .3....8 <filename>

.

character. So, you to find the seven-character telephone number that you are looking for in the above example.

Regular expressions are used for line-by-line searches. For instance, if the seven characters were spread over two lines (i.e., they had a line break in the middle), then grep wouldn’t find them. In general, a program that uses regular expressions will consider searches one line at a time.

49

5.1. Overview 5. Regular Expressions

Here are some regular expression examples that will teach you the regular expression basics. We use the grep command to show the use of regular expressions

(remember that the is enclosed in ’

-w option matches whole words only). Here the expression itself quotes for reasons that are explained later.

grep -w ’t[a-i]e’

Matches the words tee , the , and tie . The brackets have a special significance. They mean to match one character that can be anything from a to i .

grep -w ’t[i-z]e’

Matches the words tie and toe .

grep -w ’cr[a-m]*t’

Matches the words craft , credit , and cricket . The * means to match any number of the previous character, which in this case is any character from a through m .

grep -w ’kr.*n’

Matches the words matches any character and the * kremlin and krypton , because the means to match the dot any number of times.

.

egrep -w ’(th|sh).*rt’

|

Matches the words means to match either the th or the sh .

shirt egrep

, short is just like

, and grep thwart . The but supports

extended regular expressions

that allow for the | feature.

&

The | character often denotes a logical OR , meaning that either the thing on the left or the right of the | is applicable. This is true of many programming languages.

Note how the square brackets mean one-of-severalcharacters and the round brackets with | ’s mean one-of-several-words.

grep -w ’thr[aeiou]*t’

Matches the words threat and throat . As you can see, a list of possible characters can be placed inside the square brackets.

grep -w ’thr[ˆa-f]*t’

Matches the words ter the first bracket means to match

any

throughput character

except

and thrust . The ˆ afthe characters listed. For example, the word thrift is not matched because it contains an f .

If the

The above regular expressions all match whole words (because of the

-w greater number of matches. Also note that although the *

-w option).

option was not present, they might match parts of words, resulting in a far means to match any number of characters, it also will match

no

characters as well; for example: actually match the letter sequence te , that is, a t and an e t[a-i]*e could with zero characters between them.

Usually, you will use regular expressions to search for

whole lines

that match, and sometimes you would like to match a line that begins or ends with a certain string. The

ˆ character specifies the beginning of a line, and the $ character the end of the line. For example, ˆThe matches all lines that start with a The , and hack$ matches all lines that end with end with hack hack

, and ’ˆ *The.*hack *$’ matches all lines that begin with

, even if there is whitespace at the beginning or end of the line.

The and

50

5. Regular Expressions 5.2. The

fgrep

Command

Because regular expressions use certain characters in a special way (these are . \

[ ] * + ?

), these characters cannot be used to match characters. This restriction severely limits you from trying to match, say, file names, which often use the match a .

you can use the sequence \.

.

character. To which forces interpretation as an actual .

and not as a wildcard. Hence, the regular expression ter sequence myfileqtxt or myfile.txt

myfile.txt

might match the let-

, but the regular expression myfile\.txt

will match only myfile.txt

.

You can specify most special characters by adding a example, use \[ for an actual [ , a \$ for an actual $ , a \\

\ character before them, for for and actual \ , \+ for an actual + , and \?

for an actual ?

. ( ?

and + are explained below.)

5.2 The fgrep Command

fgrep is an alternative to grep . The difference is that while grep (the more commonly used command) matches regular expressions, fgrep matches literal strings. In other words you can use fgrep when you would like to search for an ordinary string that is not a regular expression, instead of preceding special characters with \ .

5.3 Regular Expression \{ \} Notation

x* matches zero to infinite instances of a character x . You can specify other ranges of numbers of characters to be matched with, for example, x\{3,5\} , which will match at least three but not more than five x ’s, that is xxx , xxxx , or xxxxx .

x\{4\} can then be used to match 4 will match seven or more x x ’s exactly: no more and no less.

x\{7,\}

’s—the upper limit is omitted to mean that there is no maximum number of x ’s.

As in all the examples above, the as well as a single charcter.

x can be a range of characters (like [a-k] ) just

grep -w ’th[a-t]\{2,3\}t’

thrift , and throat .

Matches the words theft , thirst , threat ,

grep -w ’th[a-t]\{4,5\}t’

thinnest .

Matches the words theorist , thicket , and

51

5.4.

+ ? \< \> ( ) |

Notation 5. Regular Expressions

5.4 Extended Regular Expression

Notation with egrep

+ ? \< \> ( ) |

An enhanced version of regular expressions allows for a few more useful features.

Where these conflict with existing notation, they are only available through the egrep command.

+

is analogous to instead of

\{1,\}

zero

. It does the same as or more characters.

* but matches

one

or more characters

?

is analogous to “–1“˝. It matches

zero

or

one

character.

\< \>

can surround a string to match only whole words.

( )

can surround several strings, separated by | . This notation will match any of these strings. ( egrep only.)

\( \)

can surround several strings, separated by these strings. ( grep only.)

\| . This notation will match any of

The following examples should make the last two notations clearer.

grep ’trot’

Matches the words electrotherapist , betroth , and so on, but

grep ’\<trot\>’

matches only the word trot .

egrep -w ’(this|that|c[aeiou]*t)’

coat , cat , and cut .

Matches the words this , that , cot ,

5.5 Regular Expression Subexpressions

Subexpressions are covered in Chapter 8.

52

Chapter 6

Editing Text Files

To edit a text file means to interactively modify its content. The creation and modification of an ordinary text file is known as

text editing

. A word processor is a kind of editor, but more basic than that is the U

NIX or DOS text editor.

6.1

vi

The important editor to learn how to use is vi . After that you can read why, and a little more about other, more user-friendly editors.

Type simply,

¨ vi <filename>

§ to edit any file, or the compatible, but more advanced

¨ vim <filename>

§

¥

¦

¥

¦

To exit vi , press , then the key sequence :q!

and then press .

vi has a short tutorial which should get you going in 20 minutes. If you get bored in the middle, you can skip it and learn vi as you need to edit things. To read the tutorial, enter:

¨ vimtutor

§

¥

¦ which edits the file

53

6.1.

vi

6. Editing Text Files

5

10

/usr/doc/vim-common-5.7/tutor ,

/usr/share/vim/vim56/tutor/tutor , or

/usr/share/doc/vim-common-5.7/tutor/tutor , depending on your distribution.

there are between different L

INUX

&

By this you should be getting an idea of the kinds of differences distributions.

-

You will then see the following at the top of your screen:

¨

===============================================================================

= W e l c o m e t o t h e V I M T u t o r Version 1.4

=

===============================================================================

¥

§

Vim is a very powerful editor that has many commands, too many to explain in a tutor such as this.

This tutor is designed to describe enough of the commands that you will be able to easily use Vim as an all-purpose editor.

The approximate time required to complete the tutor is 25-30 minutes,

¦

You are supposed to edit the tutor file itself as practice, following through 6 lessons. Copy it first to your home directory.

Table 6.1 is a quick reference for vi . It contains only a few of the many hundreds of available commands but is enough to do all basic editing operations. Take note of the following:

vi has several

modes

of operation. If you press , you enter then enter text as you would in a normal DOS text editor,

insert

-mode. You

but you cannot arbitrarily move the cursor and delete characters while in insert mode

. Pressing will get you out of insert mode, where you are not able to insert characters, but can now do things like arbitrary deletions and moves.

Pressing – (i.e., : ) gets you into

command-line

mode, where you can do operations like importing files, saving of the current file, searches, and text processing. Typically, you type : then some text, and then hit .

The word

register

is used below. A register is a hidden clipboard.

A useful tip is to enter :set ruler before doing anything. This shows, in the bottom right corner of the screen, what line and column you are on.

54

6. Editing Text Files 6.1.

vi

:wq

:q

:q!

x

X dd

:j!

Ctrl-J u

Ctrl-R de i o

O a

R

Key combination

l h k j

ˆ

$ gg

G

{

}

b w

or or or or

Table 6.1 Common vi commands

Function

Cursor left

Cursor right.

Cursor up.

Cursor down.

Cursor left one word.

Cursor right one word.

Cursor up one paragraph.

Cursor down one paragraph.

Cursor to line start.

Cursor to line end.

Cursor to first line.

Cursor to last line.

Get out of current mode.

Start insert mode.

Insert a blank line below the current line and then start insert mode.

Insert a blank line above the current line and then start insert mode.

Append (start insert mode after the current character).

Replace (start insert mode with overwrite).

Save (write) and quit.

Quit.

Quit forced (without whether a save is required).

checking

Delete (delete under cursor and copy to register).

Backspace (delete left of cursor and copy to register).

Delete line (and copy to register).

Join line (remove newline at end of current line).

Same.

Undo.

Redo.

Delete to word end (and copy to register).

continues...

55

6.1.

vi

6. Editing Text Files

Key combination

db d$ d p

G

?

ˆ

dd

2dd

5dd

Ctrl-G

5G

16G

/

search-string search-string

:-1,$s/

:,$s/

:%s/

:w

:r

search-string search-string

:,$s/\<

:8,22s/

search-string search-string search-string filename

:5,20w

:5,$w!

v y d p

Press v

filename filename filename

/

/

/

replace-string

\>/

/ down a few lines, then,

Table 6.1 (continued)

replace-string

, then move cursor

/gc

/gc

replace-string replace-string replace-string

/g

/g

/gc

Function

Delete to word start (and copy to register).

Delete to line end (and copy to register).

Delete to line beginning (and copy to register).

Delete current line (and copy to register).

Delete two lines (and copy to register).

Delete five lines (and copy to register).

Paste clipboard (insert register).

Show cursor position.

Cursor to line five.

Cursor to line sixteen.

Cursor to last line.

Search forwards for

search-string

.

Search backwards for

search-string

.

Search and replace with confirmation starting at current line.

Search and replace with confirmation starting at line below cursor.

Search and replace whole words.

Search and replace in lines 8 through

22 without confirmation.

Search and replace whole file without confirmation.

Save to file

filename

.

Save lines 5 through 20 to file

name file-

(use Ctrl-G to get line numbers if needed).

Force save lines 5 through to last line to file

filename

.

Insert file

filename

.

Visual mode (start highlighting).

Copy highlighted text to register.

Delete highlighted text (and copy to register).

Paste clipboard (insert register).

Search and replace within highlighted text.

continues...

56

6. Editing Text Files 6.2. Syntax Highlighting

Key combination

:s/

search-string

/

replace-string

/g

:help

Table 6.1 (continued)

Function

:new

:split

:q

:qa

Ctrl-W j

Ctrl-W k

Ctrl-W -

Ctrl-W +

filename

Reference manual (open new window with help screen inside—probably the most important command here!).

Open new blank window.

Open new window with

filename

.

Close current window.

Close all windows.

Move cursor to window below.

Move cursor to window above.

Make window smaller.

Make window larger.

6.2 Syntax Highlighting

Something all U

NIX users are used to (and have come to expect) is

This basically means that a bash

syntax highlighting

(explained later) script will look like:

.

instead of

Syntax highlighting is meant to preempt programming errors by colorizing correct keywords. You can set syntax highlighting in vim by using :syntax on (but not in it.

vi ). Enable syntax highlighting whenever possible—all good text editors support

6.3 Editors

Although U

NIX has had full graphics capability for a long time now, most administration of low-level services still takes place inside text configuration files. Word processing is also best accomplished with typesetting systems that require creation of ordinary text files.

&

This is in spite of all the hype regarding the WYSIWYG (what you see is what you get) word

A TEX and the Cooledit text editor.

-

Historically, the standard text editor used to be ed .

ed allows the user to see only one line of text of a file at a time (primitive by today’s standards). Today, ed is mostly used in its streaming version, sed .

ed has long since been superseded by vi .

57

6.3. Editors 6. Editing Text Files

The editor is the place you will probably spend most of your time. Whether you are doing word processing, creating web pages, programming, or administrating. It is your primary interactive application.

6.3.1 Cooledit

(Read this if you “just-want-to-open-a-file-and-start-typing-like-under-Windows.”) cooledit The best editor for day-to-day work is Cooledit, author, I am probably biased in this view.

available from

&

As Cooledit’s

the Cooledit web page

http://cooledit.sourceforge.net/

. Cooledit is a graphical (runs under X) editor. It is also a full-featured Integrated Development Environment (IDE) for whatever you may be doing. Those considering buying an IDE for development need look no further than installing Cooledit for free.

People coming from a Windows background will find Cooledit the easiest and most powerful editor to use. It requires no tutelage; just enter cooledit under X and start typing. Its counterpart in text mode is

Midnight Commander package mc mcedit , which comes with the GNU

. The text-mode version is inferior to other text mode editors like text mode.

emacs and jed but is adequate if you don’t spend a lot of time in

Cooledit has pull-down menus and intuitive keys. It is not necessary to read any documentation before using Cooledit.

6.3.2

vi and vim

Today vi fault on is considered the standard. It is the only editor that

any

U

NIX system.

vim

will

be installed by deis a “Charityware” version that (as usual) improves upon the original vi with a host of features. It is important to learn the basics of even if your day-to-day editor is not going to be vi vi

. The reason is that every administrator is bound to one day have to edit a text file over some really slow network link and vi is the best for this.

On the other hand, new users will probably find vi unintuitive and tedious and will spend a lot of time learning and remembering how to do all the things they need to. I myself cringe at the thought of vi pundits recommending it to new U

NIX users.

In defense of vi , it should be said that many people use it exclusively, and it is probably the only editor that really can do absolutely

everything

. It is also one of the few editors that has working versions and consistent behavior across all U

NIX non-U

NIX systems.

vim and works on AmigaOS, AtariMiNT, BeOS, DOS, MacOS, OS/2,

RiscOS, VMS, and Windows (95/98/NT4/NT5/2000) as well as all U

NIX variants.

58

6. Editing Text Files 6.3. Editors

6.3.3 Emacs

Emacs stands for Editor MACroS. It is the monster of all editors and can do almost everything one could imagine that a single software package might. It has become a de facto standard alongside vi .

Emacs is more than just a text editor. It is a complete system of using a computer for development, communications, file management, and things you wouldn’t even imagine there are programs for. There is even an which can browse the web.

Window System version available

6.3.4 Other editors

Other editors to watch out for are joe , jed , nedit , pico , nano , and many others that try to emulate the look and feel of well-known DOS, Windows, or Apple Mac development environments, or to bring better interfaces by using Gtk/Gnome or Qt/KDE.

The list gets longer each time I look. In short, don’t think that the text editors that your vendor has chosen to put on your CD are the best or only free ones out there. The same goes for other applications.

59

6.3. Editors 6. Editing Text Files

60

Chapter 7

Shell Scripting

This chapter introduces you to the concept of

computer programming

. So far, you have entered commands one at a time. Computer programming is merely the idea of getting a number of commands to be executed, that in combination do some unique powerful function.

7.1 Introduction

To execute a number of commands in sequence, create a file with a which you will enter your commands. The .sh

.sh

extension, into extension is not strictly necessary but serves as a reminder that the file contains special text called a on, the word

script shell script

. From now will be used to describe any sequence of commands placed in a text

¥ chmod 0755 myfile.sh

§ which allows the file to be run in the explained way.

¦

Edit the file using your favorite text editor. The first line should be as follows with no whitespace.

characters.

-

¨

#!/bin/sh

§

&

Whitespace are tabs and spaces, and in some contexts, newline (end of line)

¥

¦

The line dictates that the following program is a

shell

script, meaning that it accepts the same sort of commands that you have normally been typing at the prompt. Now enter a number of commands that you would like to be executed. You can start with

¨ echo "Hi there"

¥

61

7.2. Looping: the

while

and

until

Statements 7. Shell Scripting echo "what is your name? (Type your name here and press Enter)" read NM echo "Hello $NM"

§ ¦

Now, exit from your editor and type ./myfile.sh

computer to read and act on your list of commands, also called

. This will

running

the program.

execute

-

&

Cause the the file. Note that typing ./myfile.sh

is no different from typing any other command at the shell prompt. Your file myfile.sh

has in fact become a new U

NIX command all of its own.

Note what the read command is doing. It creates a pigeonhole called NM , and then inserts text read from the keyboard into that pigeonhole. Thereafter, whenever the shell encounters NM , its contents are written out instead of the letters NM (provided you write a $ in front of it). We say that NM is a

variable

because its contents can vary.

5

You can use shell scripts like a calculator. Try

¨ echo "I will work out X*Y" echo "Enter X" read X echo "Enter Y" read Y echo "X*Y = $X*$Y = $[X*Y]"

§

¥

¦

The [ and ] mean that everything between must be

evaluated

&

Substituted, worked out, or reduced to some simplified form.

between them.

as a

numerical expression

&

Sequence of numbers with + , , * , etc.

. You can, in fact, do a calculation at any time by typing at the prompt

¨ ¥

&

Note that the shell that you are using allows such [ ] notation. On some U

NIX systems you will have to use the expr command to get the same effect.

-

¦

7.2 Looping to Repeat Commands: the

Statements while and until

The shell reads each line in succession from top to bottom: this is called

program flow

.

Now suppose you would like a command to be executed more than once—you would like to alter the program flow so that the shell reads particular commands repeatedly.

The while command executes a sequence of commands many times. Here is an example ( -le stands for

¨

less than or equal

):

N=1 while test "$N" -le "10" do

¥

62

7. Shell Scripting 7.3. Looping: the

for

Statement

5 echo "Number $N"

N=$[N+1] done

§

The N=1 creates a variable called N and places the number mand executes all the commands between the do and the

1 into it. The done while comrepetitively until the test condition is no longer true (i.e., until

less than or equal to

. See test

N

(1) (that is, run is greater than 10 ). The -le stands for man 1 test ) to learn about the other types of tests you can do on variables. Also be aware of how value that becomes 1 greater with each repetition of the

N while is replaced with a new loop.

¦

You should note here that each line is a distinct command—the commands are

newline-separated

. You can also have more than one command on a line by separating

¥

N=1 ; while test "$N" -le "10"; do echo "Number $N"; N=$[N+1] ; done

§

(Try counting down from 10 with -ge (

greater than or equal

).) It is easy to see that shell scripts are extremely powerful, because any kind of command can be executed with conditions and loops.

¦

The until statement is identical to while plied. The same functionality can be achieved with

¨ except that the reverse logic is ap-

-gt (

greater than

):

¥

¦

7.3 Looping to Repeat Commands: the for Statement

The for command also allows execution of commands multiple times. It works like

¥

5 for i in cows sheep chickens pigs do echo "$i is a farm animal" done echo -e "but\nGNUs are not farm animals"

§ ¦ do

The and for done command takes each string after the with i in , and executes the lines between substituted for that string. The strings can be anything (even numbers) but are often file names.

The if command executes a number of commands if a condition is met ( -gt stands for

greater than

, -lt stands for

less than

). The if command executes all the lines between the if and the fi (“if” spelled backwards).

63

7.3. Looping: the

for

Statement 7. Shell Scripting

5

¨

X=10

Y=5 if test "$X" -gt "$Y" ; then echo "$X is greater than $Y" fi

§

¥

¦

5

¨

X=10

The if command in its full form can contain as much as:

Y=5 if test "$X" -gt "$Y" ; then echo "$X is greater than $Y" elif test "$X" -lt "$Y" ; then echo "$X is less than $Y" else echo "$X is equal to $Y" fi

§

¥

¦

Now let us create a script that interprets its arguments. Create a new script called backup-lots.sh

, containing:

¨

#!/bin/sh for i in 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ; do cp $1 $1.BAK-$i done

§

¥

¦

5

10

Now create a file important data with anything in it and then run ./backuplots.sh important data , which will copy the file 10 times with 10 different extensions. As you can see, the variable $1 has a special meaning—it is the first argument on the command-line. Now let’s get a little bit more sophisticated ( -e test whether the file

exists

):

¨

#!/bin/sh if test "$1" = "" ; then echo "Usage: backup-lots.sh <filename>" exit fi for i in 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ; do

NEW_FILE=$1.BAK-$i if test -e $NEW_FILE ; then echo "backup-lots.sh: **warning** $NEW_FILE" echo " already exists - skipping" else cp $1 $NEW_FILE

¥

64

7. Shell Scripting done

§ fi

7.4.

break

ing Out of Loops and

continue

ing

¦

7.4

break ing Out of Loops and continue ing

5

10

A loop that requires premature termination can include the break statement within it:

¨

#!/bin/sh for i in 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ; do

NEW_FILE=$1.BAK-$i if test -e $NEW_FILE ; then echo "backup-lots.sh: **error** $NEW_FILE" echo " already exists - exitting" break else cp $1 $NEW_FILE fi done

§

¥

¦ which causes program execution to continue on the line after the are nested within each other, then the command break 2 done . If two loops causes program execution to break out of

both

loops; and so on for values above 2 .

5

10

The continue statement is also useful for terminating the current iteration of the loop. This means that if a continue statement is encountered, execution will immediately continue from the top of the loop, thus ignoring the remainder of the body of the loop:

¨

#!/bin/sh for i in 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ; do

NEW_FILE=$1.BAK-$i if test -e $NEW_FILE ; then echo "backup-lots.sh: **warning** $NEW_FILE" echo " already exists - skipping" continue fi cp $1 $NEW_FILE done

§

¥

¦

Note that both break and continue work inside for , while , and until loops.

65

7.5. Looping Over Glob Expressions 7. Shell Scripting

7.5 Looping Over Glob Expressions

We know that the shell can expand file names when given can type ls *.txt

to list all files ending with .txt

wildcards

. For instance, we

. This applies equally well in any situation, for instance:

¨

#!/bin/sh for i in *.txt ; do echo "found a file:" $i done

§

¥

¦

The *.txt

is expanded to all matching files.

These files are searched for in the current directory

. If you include an absolute path then the shell will search in that directory:

¨

#!/bin/sh for i in /usr/doc/*/*.txt ; do echo "found a file:" $i done

§

¥

¦

This example demonstrates the shell’s ability to search for matching files and expand an absolute path.

7.6 The case Statement

5

10

15

The case statement can make a potentially complicated program very short. It is best explained with an example.

¨

#!/bin/sh case $1 in

--test|-t) echo "you used the --test option" exit 0

;;

--help|-h) echo "Usage:" echo " exit 0 myprog.sh [--test|--help|--version]"

;;

--version|-v) echo "myprog.sh version 0.0.1" exit 0

;;

-*) echo "No such option $1" echo "Usage:"

¥

66

7. Shell Scripting 7.7. Using Functions: the

function

Keyword

20 esac

;; echo " exit 1 myprog.sh [--test|--help|--version]"

Above you can see that we are trying to process the first argument to a program.

It can be one of several options, so using if statements will result in a long program.

The case statement allows us to specify several possible statement blocks depending on the value of a variable. Note how each statement block is separated by ;; . The strings before the ) are glob expression matches. The first successful match causes that block to be executed. The | symbol enables us to enter several possible glob expressions.

¦

7.7 Using Functions: the function Keyword

So far, our programs execute mostly from top to bottom. Often, code needs to be repeated, but it is considered bad programming practice to repeat groups of statements that have the same functionality. Function definitions provide a way to group statement blocks into one. A function groups a list of commands and assigns it a name. For example:

¨

#!/bin/sh

¥

5 function usage ()

{ echo "Usage:" echo "

} myprog.sh [--test|--help|--version]"

10

15

20 case $1 in

--test|-t) echo "you used the --test option" exit 0

;;

--help|-h) usage

;;

--version|-v) echo "myprog.sh version 0.0.2" exit 0

;;

-*)

67

7.8. Properly Processing Command-Line Args:

shift

7. Shell Scripting echo "Error: no such option $1" usage exit 1

25 esac

;; echo "You typed \"$1\" on the command-line"

§

Wherever the lines inside the { usage and } keyword appears, it is effectively substituted for the two

. There are obvious advantages to this approach: if you would like to change the program

usage

description, you only need to change it in one place in the code. Good programs use functions so liberally that they never have more than

50 lines of program code in a row.

¦

7.8 Properly Processing Command-Line Arguments: the shift Keyword

Most programs we have seen can take many command-line arguments, sometimes in any order. Here is how we can make our own shell scripts with this functionality. The command-line arguments can be reached with

¨

#!/bin/sh

$1 , $2 , etc. The script,

¥ and prints

¨

¦

¥

¦

¥

¦

Now we need to loop through each argument and decide what to do with it. A script like

¨ for i in $1 $2 $3 $4 ; do

<statments>

¥

¦ doesn’t give us much flexibilty. The shift keyword is meant to make things easier.

It shifts up all the arguments by one place so that $1 gets the value of $2 , $2 gets the value of $3 , and so on. ( != tests that the "$1" empty and is hence past the last argument.) Try is not equal to "" , that is, whether it is

68

7. Shell Scripting 7.8. Properly Processing Command-Line Args:

shift

¨ while test "$1" != "" ; do echo $1 shift

¥

¦ and run the program with lots of arguments.

Now we can put any sort of condition statements within the loop to process the arguments in turn:

¨

#!/bin/sh

¥

5 function usage ()

{ echo "Usage:" echo "

} myprog.sh [--test|--help|--version] [--echo <text>]"

10

15

20

25

30 while test "$1" != "" ; do case $1 in

--echo|-e) echo "$2" shift

;;

--test|-t) echo "you used the --test option"

;;

--help|-h) usage exit 0

;;

--version|-v) echo "myprog.sh version 0.0.3" exit 0

;;

-*) echo "Error: no such option $1" usage exit 1

;; esac shift

¦ myprog.sh

can now run with multiple arguments on the command-line.

69

7.9. More on Command-Line Arguments:

[email protected]

and

$0

7. Shell Scripting

7.9 More on Command-Line Arguments: [email protected] and $0

Whereas $1 , $2 , $3 , etc. expand to the individual arguments passed to the program, [email protected] expands to

all

arguments. This behavior is useful for passing all remaining arguments onto a second command. For instance,

¨ if test "$1" = "--special" ; then shift myprog2.sh "[email protected]" fi

§

¥

¦

$0 means the name of the program itself and not any command-line argument. It is the command used to invoke the current program. In the above cases, it is ./myprog.sh

.

Note that $0 is immune to shift operations.

7.10 Single Forward Quote Notation

Single forward quotes ’

protect

the enclosed text from the shell. In other words, you can place any odd characters inside forward quotes, and the shell will treat them literally and reproduce your text exactly. For instance, you may want to echo an actual

$ to the screen to produce an output like costs $1000 . You can use echo ’costs

$1000’ instead of echo "costs $1000" .

7.11 Double-Quote Notation

Double quotes " have the opposite sense of single quotes. They allow

all

shell interpretations to take place inside them. The reason they are used at all is only to group text containing whitespace into a single word, because the shell will usually break up text along whitespace boundaries. Try,

¨ for i in "henry john mary sue" ; do echo "$i is a person"

¥

¦ compared to

¨ for i in henry john mary sue ; do echo $i is a person

¥

¦

70

7. Shell Scripting 7.12. Backward-Quote Substitution

7.12 Backward-Quote Substitution

Backward quotes ‘ have a special meaning to the shell. When a command is inside backward quotes it means that the command should be run and its

output

substituted in place of the backquotes. Take, for example, the to be catted

¨

, with only the text daisy cat command. Create a small file, inside it. Create a shell script

X=‘cat to_be_catted‘ echo $X

§

¥

¦

The value of X is set to the output of the cat word

¨

X=‘expr 100 + 50 ’*’ 3‘ command, which in this case is the daisy . This is a powerful tool. Consider the expr command: echo $X

§

¥

¦

5

10

Hence we can use expr and backquotes to do mathematics inside our shell script.

Here is a function to calculate factorials. Note how we enclose the * in forward quotes.

They prevent the shell from expanding the

¨ function factorial ()

* into matching file names:

{

N=$1

A=1 while test $N -gt 0 ; do

A=‘expr $A ’*’ $N‘ done

N=‘expr $N - 1‘ echo $A

}

§

¥

¦

We can see that the square braces used further above can actually suffice for most of the times where we would like to use expr . (However, $[] notation is an extension of the GNU shells and is not a standard feature on all varients of U

NIX

.) We can now run factorial 20 and see the output. If we want to assign the output to a variable, we can do this with X=‘factorial 20‘ .

Note that another notation which gives the effect of a backward quote is which is identical to ‘

command

$(

command

)

. Here, I will always use the older backward quote

, style.

71

7.12. Backward-Quote Substitution 7. Shell Scripting

72

Chapter 8

Streams and

Editor sed — The Stream

The ability to use pipes is one of the powers of U

NIX

. This is one of the principle deficiencies of some non-U

NIX systems. Pipes used on the command-line as explained in this chapter are a neat trick, but pipes used inside

C

programs enormously simplify program interaction. Without pipes, huge amounts of complex and buggy code usually needs to be written to perform simple tasks. It is hoped that this chapter will give the reader an idea of why U

NIX is such a ubiquitous and enduring standard.

8.1 Introduction

The commands grep , echo , df and so on print some output to the screen. In fact, what is happening on a lower level is that they are printing characters one by one into a theoretical data

stream

(also called a

pipe

) called the

stdout

pipe. The shell itself performs the action of reading those characters one by one and displaying them on the screen. The word

pipe

itself means exactly that: A program places data in the one end of a funnel while another program reads that data from the other end. Pipes allow two separate programs to perform simple communications with each other. In this case, the program is merely communicating with the shell in order to display some output.

The same is true with the cat command explained previously. This command, when run with no arguments, reads from the

stdin

pipe. By default, this pipe is the keyboard. One further pipe is the

stderr

pipe to which a program writes error messages.

It is not possible to see whether a program message is caused by the program writing to its stderr or stdout pipe because usually both are directed to the screen. Good programs, however, always write to the appropriate pipes to allow output to be specially separated for diagnostic purposes if need be.

73

8.2. Tutorial 8. Streams and

sed

— The Stream Editor

8.2 Tutorial

Create a text file with lots of lines that contain the word contains the word GNU as well as the word Linux .

GNU and one line that

Then run grep GNU myfile.txt

.

The result is printed to stdout as usual.

Now try grep GNU myfile.txt > gnu lines.txt

. What is happening here is that the output of the grep command is being ate a new file

redirected

into a file. The gnu lines.txt

> gnu lines.txt

tells the shell to creand to fill it with any output from stdout instead of displaying the output as it usually does. If the file already exists, it will be

&

Shortened to zero length.

-

truncated

.

of

¨

>

Now suppose you want to append further output to this file. Using does

not

truncate the file, but appends output to it. Try echo "morestuff" >> gnu_lines.txt

§

>> instead then view the contents of gnu lines.txt

.

¥

¦

8.3 Piping Using | Notation

5

The real power of pipes is realized when one program can read from the output of another program. Consider the grep command, which reads from stdin when given no arguments; run

¨ grep with one argument on the command-line:

[[email protected]]#

grep GNU

A line without that word in it

Another line without that word in it

A line with the word GNU in it

A line with the word GNU in it

I have the idea now

ˆC

#

§

¥

¦ grep ’s default behavior is to read from stdin when no files are given. As you can see, it is doing its usual work of printing lines that have the word GNU in them. Hence, lines containing GNU will be printed twice—as you type them in and again when reads them and decides that they contain GNU .

grep

Now try grep GNU myfile.txt | grep Linux . The first lines with the word GNU in them to stdout. The | grep outputs all specifies that all stdout is to be typed as stdin (as we just did above) into the next command, which is also a grep command.

The second grep grep command scans that data for lines with the word is often used this way as a

filter

&

Something that screens data.

-

Linux in them.

and can be used multiple times, for example,

74

8. Streams and

sed

— The Stream Editor 8.4. A Complex Piping Example

¨ grep L myfile.txt | grep i | grep n | grep u | grep x

§

The < character redirects the contents of a file in place of stdin. In other words, the contents of a file replace what would normally come from a keyboard. Try

¨ ¥

¦

¥

¦

8.4 A Complex Piping Example

In Chapter 5 we used grep on a dictionary to demonstrate regular expressions.

This is how a dictionary of words can be created (your dictionary might be under

/var/share/ or under

¨

/usr/lib/aspell instead): cat /usr/lib/ispell/english.hash | strings | tr ’A-Z’ ’a-z’ \

| grep ’ˆ[a-z]’ | sort -u > mydict

§

&

A backslash \ as the last character on a line indicates that the line is to be continued. You can leave out the \ but then you must leave out the newline as well — this is known as

line continuation

.

-

¥

¦

The file english.hash

contains the U

NIX dictionary normally used for spell checking. With a bit of filtering, you can create a dictionary that will make solving crossword puzzles a breeze. First, we use the command strings , explained previously, to extract readable bits of text. Here we are using its alternate mode of operation where it reads from stdin when no files are specified on its command-line. The command

The tr grep

(abbreviated from

translate

—see tr (1)) then converts upper to lower case.

command then filters out lines that do not start with a letter. Finally, the sort command sorts the words in alphabetical order. The -u option stands for u

nique

, and specifies that duplicate lines of text should be stripped. Now try less mydict .

8.5 Redirecting Streams with >&

Try the command ls nofile.txt > A . We expect that ls will give an error message if the file doesn’t exist. The error message is, however, displayed and not written into the file A . The reason is that ls has written its error message to stderr while > has only redirected stdout. The way to get both stdout and stderr to both go to the same file is to use a is called

redirection operator

. As far as the shell is concerned, stdout is called 1 and stderr

2 , and commands can be appended with a

redirection

like 2>&1 to dictate that stderr is to be mixed into the output of stdout. The actual words stderr and stdout are only used in

C

programming, where the number

1

,

2

are known as

file numbers

or

file descriptors

. Try the following:

75

8.5. Redirecting Streams with

>&

8. Streams and

sed

— The Stream Editor

¨ touch existing_file rm -f non-existing_file ls existing_file non-existing_file

§

¥

¦ ls will output two lines: a line containing a listing for the file and a line containing an error message to explain that the file existing file non-existing file does not exist. The error message would have been written to stderr or file descriptor number number

2

1 .

, and the remaining line would have been written to stdout or file descriptor

Next we try

¨ ls existing_file non-existing_file 2>A cat A

§

¥

¦

Now A contains the error message, while the remaining output came to the screen. Now try

¨ ls existing_file non-existing_file 1>A cat A

§

¥

¦

The notation 1>A is the same as file descriptor 1

>A because the shell assumes that you are referring to when you don’t specify a file descriptor. Now A contains the stdout output, while the error message has been redirected to the screen.

Now try

¨ ls existing_file non-existing_file 1>A 2>&1 cat A

§

Now A contains both the error message and the normal output. The

redirection operator

.

x

>&

y

tells the shell to write pipe

x

into pipe

y

.

>& is called a

Redirection is specified from right to left on the command-line

. Hence, the above command means to mix stderr into stdout and

then

to redirect stdout to the file A .

¥

¦

Finally,

¨ ls existing_file non-existing_file 2>A 1>&2 cat A

§

We notice that this has the same effect, except that here we are doing the reverse: redirecting stdout into stderr and then redirecting stderr into a file A .

¥

¦

To see what happens if we redirect in reverse order, we can try,

76

8. Streams and

sed

— The Stream Editor 8.6. Using

sed

to Edit Streams

¨ ls existing_file non-existing_file 2>&1 1>A cat A

§ which means to redirect stdout into a file A , and

then

to redirect stderr into stdout. This command will therefore not mix stderr and stdout because the redirection to A came first.

¥

¦

8.6 Using sed to Edit Streams

ed used to be the standard text programmable.

sed stands for

ed

itor for U

NIX

. It is cryptic to use but is compact and

stream editor

and is the only incarnation of ed that is commonly used today.

grep sed allows editing of files non-interactively. In the way that can search for words and filter lines of text, sed can do search-replace operations and insert and delete lines into text files.

man page to speak of. Do info sed to see sed is one of those programs with no sed ’s comprehensive info pages with examples.

The most common usage of tive words.

sed sed is to replace words in a stream with alternareads from stdin and writes to stdout. Like grep , it is line buffered, which means that it reads one line in at a time and then writes that line out again after performing whatever editing operations. Replacements are typically done with

¨ cat <file> | sed -e ’s/<search-regexp>/<replace-text>/<option>’ \

> <resultfile>

§

¥

¦ where <search-regexp> is a regular expression, would like to replace each occurrence with, and

<replace-text>

<option> is the text you is nothing or g , which means to replace every occurrence in the same line (usually sed just replaces the first occurrence of the regular expression in each line). (There are other <option> ; see the sed info page.) For demonstration, type

¨ sed -e ’s/e/E/g’

§

¥

¦ and type out a few lines of English text.

8.7 Regular Expression Subexpressions

The section explains how to do the apparently complex task of moving text around within lines. Consider, for example, the output of ls : say you want to automatically strip out only the size column— sed can do this sort of editing if you use the special

\( \) notation to group parts of the regular expression together. Consider the following example:

77

8.7. Regular Expression Subexpressions 8. Streams and

sed

— The Stream Editor

¨ sed -e ’s/\(\<[ˆ ]*\>\)\([ ]*\)\(\<[ˆ ]*\>\)/\3\2\1/g’

§

Here sed is searching for the expression \<.*\>[ ]*\<.*\> . From the chapter on regular expressions, we can see that it matches a whole word, an arbitrary amount of whitespace, and then another whole word. The they can be referred to in <replace-text>

\( \) groups these three so that

. Each part of the regular expression inside \( \) is called a

subexpression

sion is numbered—namely, \1 , \2 of the regular expression. Each subexpres-

, etc. Hence, \1 in <replace-text> is the first

\<[ˆ ]*\> , \2 is [ ]* , and \3 is the second \<[ˆ ]*\> .

¥

¦

Now test to see what happens when you run this:

¨ sed -e ’s/\(\<[ˆ ]*\>\)\([ ]*\)\(\<[ˆ ]*\>\)/\3\2\1/g’

GNU Linux is cool

¥

¦

To return to our ls example (note that this is just an example, to count file sizes you should instead use the du command), think about how we could sum the bytes sizes of all the files in a directory:

¨ expr 0 ‘ls -l | grep ’ˆ-’ | \ sed ’s/ˆ\([ˆ ]*[ ]*\)\{4,4\}\([0-9]*\).*$/ + \2/’‘

§

¥

¦

We know that ls -l output lines start with for ordinary files. So we use grep to strip lines not starting with . If we do an ls -l , we see that the output is divided into four columns of stuff we are not interested in, and then a number indicating the size of the file. A column (or

field

) can be described by the regular expression [ˆ ]*[ ]* , that is, a length of text with no whitespace, followed by a length of whitespace. There are four of these, so we bracket it with \( \) and then use the \{ \} notation to specify that we want exactly 4 . After that come our number characters, which we are not interested in, .*$

[0-9]* , and then any trailing

. Notice here that we have neglected to use \< \> notation to indicate whole words. The reason is that sed tries to match the maximum number of characters legally allowed and, in the situation we have here, has exactly the same effect.

If you haven’t yet figured it out, we are trying to get that column of byte sizes

¥

+ 438

+ 1525

+ 76

+ 92146

§ so that expr can understand it. Hence, we replace each line with subexpression \2 and a leading + sign. Backquotes give the output of this to expr , which studiously sums

¦

78

8. Streams and

sed

— The Stream Editor 8.8. Inserting and Deleting Lines them, ignoring any newline characters as though the summation were typed in on a single line. There is one minor problem here: the first line contains a + with nothing before it, which will cause expr to complain. To get around this, we can just add a to the expression, so that it becomes 0 + . . . .

0

8.8 Inserting and Deleting Lines

sed can perform a few operations that make it easy to write scripts that edit configuration files for you. For instance,

¨ sed -e ’7a\ an extra line.\ another one.\ one more.’

§

¥

¦ a ppends three lines

¨ sed -e ’7i\ an extra line.\ another one.\ one more.’

§

after

line 7, whereas i nserts three lines

¨ sed -e ’3,5D’

§

before

line 7. Then

D eletes lines 3 through 5.

¥

¦

¥

¦

In sed terminology, the numbers here are called regular expressions matches. To demonstrate:

¨

addresses

, which can also be

¥

¦ deletes all the lines starting from a line matching the regular expression up to a line matching Love Jane

Dear Henry

(or the end of the file if one does not exist).

This behavior applies just as well to to insertions:

¨ sed -e ’/Love Jane/i\

Love Carol\

Love Beth’

§

Note that the $

¨ sed -e ’$i\ symbol indicates the last line:

The new second last line\

¥

¦

¥

79

8.8. Inserting and Deleting Lines 8. Streams and

sed

— The Stream Editor

The new last line.’

§ ¦ and finally, the negation symbol, !

, is used to match all lines

¨ sed -e ’7,11!D’

§

not

specified; for instance,

¥

¦ deletes all lines

except

lines 7 through 11.

80

Chapter 9

Processes and Environment

Variables

From this chapter you will get an idea about what is happening under the hood of your

U

NIX system, but go have some coffee first.

9.1 Introduction

On U

NIX

, when you run a program (like any of the shell commands you have been using), the actual computer instructions are read from a file on disk from one of the bin/ directories and placed in RAM. The program is then executed in memory and becomes a

process

. A

process

is some command/program/shell-script that is being run

(or

executed

) in memory. When the process has finished running, it is removed from memory. There are usually about 50 processes running simultaneously at any one time on a system with one person logged in. The CPU hops between each of them to give a share of its

execution time

.

&

Time given to carry out the instructions of a particular program. Note this is in contrast to Windows or DOS where the program itself has to allow the others a share of the CPU: under

U

NIX

, the process has no say in the matter.

Each process is given a process number called the

PID

(process ID). Besides the memory actually occupied by the executable, the process itself seizes additional memory for its operations.

In the same way that a file is owned by a particular user and group, a process also has an owner—usually the person who ran the program. Whenever a process tries to access a file, its ownership is compared to that of the file to decide if the access is permissible. Because all devices are files, the only way a process can do

anything

is through a file, and hence file permission restrictions are the only kind of restrictions ever needed on U

NIX

.

&

There are some exceptions to this.

-

This is how U

NIX access control and security works.

81

9.2.

ps

— List Running Processes 9. Processes, Environment Variables

The center of this operation is called the U

NIX

kernel

. The kernel is what actually does the hardware access, execution, allocation of process IDs, sharing of CPU time, and ownership management.

9.2

ps — List Running Processes

Log in on a terminal and type the command ps . You should get some output like:

¨

PID TTY STAT TIME COMMAND

5995

5999

6030

§

2 S

2 S

2 R

0:00 /bin/login -- myname

0:00 -bash

0:00 ps ps with no options shows three processes to be running. These are the only three processes visible to you as a user, although there are other system processes not belonging to you. The first process was the program that logged you in by displaying the login prompt and requesting a password. It then ran a second process call bash , the Bourne Again shell

&

The Bourne shell was the original U

NIX shell

typing commands. Finally, you ran ps where you have been

, which must have found itself when it checked which processes were running, but then exited immediately afterward.

¥

¦

9.3 Controlling Jobs

The shell has many facilities for controlling and executing processes—this is called job control. Create a small script called proc.sh

:

¨

#!/bin/sh echo "proc.sh: is running" sleep 1000

§

¥

¦

Run the script with chmod 0755 proc.sh

and then ./proc.sh

. The shell

blocks

, waiting for the process to exit. Now press ˆZ. This will cause the process to

stop

(that is, pause but not terminate). Now do a ps again. You will see your script listed. However, it is not presently running because it is in the condition of being stopped. Type bg (for

background

). The script will now be “unstopped” and run in the background. You can now try to run other processes in the meantime. Type fg , and the script returns to the

foreground

. You can then type ˆC to interrupt the process.

82

9. Processes, Environment Variables 9.4. Creating Background Processes

9.4 Creating Background Processes

5

Create a program that does something a little more interesting:

¨

#!/bin/sh echo "proc.sh: is running" while true ; do echo -e ’\a’ sleep 2 done

§

¥

¦

Now perform the ˆZ, bg , fg , and ˆC operations from before. To put a process immediately into the background, you can use:

¨

./proc.sh &

§

¥

¦

The

JOB CONTROL

footnotes are mine) section of the bash man page ( bash (1)) looks like this

1

: (the

JOB CONTROL

Job control

refers to the ability to selectively stop (

suspend

) the execution of processes and continue (

resume

) their execution at a later point. A user typically employs this facility via an interactive interface supplied jointly by the system’s terminal driver and

bash

.

The shell associates a listed with the

jobs

job

with each pipeline.

command. When

background

), it prints a line that looks like:

bash

&

What does this mean? It means that each time you execute something in the background, it gets its own unique number, called the job number.

-

It keeps a table of currently executing jobs, which may be starts a job asynchronously (in the

[1] 25647

indicating that this job is job number 1 and that the process ID of the last process in the pipeline associated with this job is 25647. All of the processes in a single pipeline are members of the same job.

job control.

Bash

uses the

job

abstraction as the basis for

To facilitate the implementation of the user interface to job control, the system maintains the notion of a

current terminal process group ID

. Members of this process group (processes whose process group ID is equal to the current terminal process group ID) receive keyboard-generated signals such as

SIGINT

. These processes are said to be in the

foreground

.

Background

processes are those whose process group

ID differs from the terminal’s; such processes are immune to keyboard-generated

1

Thanks to Brian Fox and Chet Ramey for this material.

83

9.5.

kill

ing a Process, Sending Signals 9. Processes, Environment Variables signals. Only foreground processes are allowed to read from or write to the terminal. Background processes which attempt to read from (write to) the terminal are sent a

SIGTTIN (SIGTTOU)

signal by the terminal driver, which, unless caught, suspends the process.

If the operating system on which

bash

is running supports job control,

bash

allows you to use it. Typing the

suspend

character (typically

ˆZ

, Control-Z) while a process is running causes that process to be stopped and returns you to

bash

.

Typing the

delayed suspend

character (typically

ˆY

, Control-Y) causes the process to be stopped when it attempts to read input from the terminal, and control to be returned to

bash

. You may then manipulate the state of this job, using the command to continue it in the background, the

fg bg

command to continue it in the foreground, or the

kill

command to kill it. A

ˆZ

takes effect immediately, and has the additional side effect of causing pending output and typeahead to be discarded.

There are a number of ways to refer to a job in the shell. The character troduces a job name. Job number

n

may be referred to as

%n

%

in-

. A job may also be referred to using a prefix of the name used to start it, or using a substring that appears in its command line. For example,

%ce

refers to a stopped

ce

job. If a prefix matches more than one job,

bash

reports an error. Using hand, refers to any job containing the string

ce

%?ce

, on the other in its command line. If the substring matches more than one job,

bash

reports an error. The symbols

%%

and

%+

refer to the shell’s notion of the the foreground. The

current job previous job

, which is the last job stopped while it was in may be referenced using

%-

. In output pertaining to jobs (e.g., the output of the with a

+ jobs

, and the previous job with a command), the current job is always flagged

-

.

Simply naming a job can be used to bring it into the foreground: onym for

“fg %1”

%1

is a syn-

, bringing job 1 from the background into the foreground.

Similarly,

“%1 &”

resumes job 1 in the background, equivalent to

“bg %1”

.

The shell learns immediately whenever a job changes state.

Normally,

bash

waits until it is about to print a prompt before reporting changes in a job’s status so as to not interrupt any other output. If the is set,

bash

-b

option to the

set

builtin command reports such changes immediately. (See also the description of

notify

variable under

Shell Variables

above.)

If you attempt to exit

bash

while jobs are stopped, the shell prints a message warning you. You may then use the

jobs

command to inspect their status. If you do this, or try to exit again immediately, you are not warned again, and the stopped jobs are terminated.

9.5

kill

ing

a Process, Sending Signals

To terminate a process, use the kill command:

84

9. Processes, Environment Variables 9.5.

kill

ing a Process, Sending Signals

¨ kill <PID>

§

The kill command actually sends a termination

signal

to the process. The sending of a signal simply means that the process is asked to execute one of 30 predefined functions.

In some cases, developers would not have bothered to define a function for a particular signal number (called

catching

the signal); in which case the kernel will substitute the default behavior for that signal. The default behavior for a signal is usually to ignore the signal, to stop the process, or to terminate the process. The default behavior for the

termination

signal is to terminate the process.

¥

¦

To send a specific signal to a process, you can name the signal on the commandline or use its numerical equivalent:

¨ ¥

¦ or

¨ kill -15 12345

§ which is the signal that line.

kill normally sends when none is specified on the command-

¥

¦

To unconditionally terminate a process:

¨ kill -SIGKILL 12345

§ or

¨ kill -9 12345

§ which should only be used as a last resort.

SIGKILL

signal

.

Processes are prohibited from ever catching the

¥

¦

¥

¦

It is cumbersome to have to constantly look up the PID of a process. Hence the

GNU utilities have a command, killall , that sends a signal to all processes of the same name:

¨ killall -<signal> <process_name>

§

¥

¦

This command is useful when you are sure that there is only one of a process running, either because no one else is logged in on the system or because you are not logged in as superuser.

Note that on other

U

NIX

systems, the killall command kills

all

the processes that you are allowed to kill. If you are root, this action would crash the machine.

85

9.6. List of Common Signals 9. Processes, Environment Variables

9.6 List of Common Signals

The full list of signals can be gotten from

/usr/include/asm/signal.h

.

signal (7), and in the file

SIGHUP

(1)

Hang up

. If the terminal becomes disconnected from a process, this signal is sent automatically to the process. Sending a process this signal often causes it to reread its configuration files, so it is useful instead of restarting the process.

Always check the man page to see if a process has this behavior.

SIGINT

(2)

Interrupt

from keyboard. Issued if you press ˆC.

SIGQUIT

(3)

Quit

from keyboard. Issued if you press ˆD.

SIGFPE

(8)

Floating point exception

. Issued automatically to a program performing some kind of illegal mathematical operation.

SIGKILL

(9)

Kill

signal. This is one of the signals that can never be

caught

by a process.

If a process gets this signal it

must

quit immediately and will not perform any clean-up operations (like closing files or removing temporary files). You can send a process a SIGKILL signal if there is no other means of destroying it.

SIGUSR1

(10),

SIGUSR2

(12)

User signal

. These signals are available to developers when they need extra functionality. For example, some processes begin logging debug messages when you send them SIGUSR1 .

SIGSEGV

(11)

Segmentation violation

. Issued automatically when a process tries to access memory outside of its allowable address space, equivalent to a

Fatal Exception

or

General Protection Fault

under Windows. Note that programs with bugs or programs in the process of being developed often get these signals. A program receiving a SIGSEGV , however, can never cause the rest of the system to be compromised. If the kernel itself were to receive such an error, it would cause the system to come down, but such is extremely rare.

SIGPIPE

(13)

Pipe

died. A program was writing to a pipe, the other end of which is no longer available.

SIGTERM

(15)

Terminate

. Cause the program to quit gracefully

SIGCHLD

(17)

Child terminate

. Sent to a parent process every time one of its spawned processes dies.

86

9. Processes, Environment Variables 9.7. Niceness of Processes, Scheduling Priority

9.7 Niceness of Processes, Scheduling Priority

All processes are allocated execution time by the kernel. If all processes were allocated the same amount of time, performance would obviously get worse as the number of processes increased. The kernel uses heuristics

&

Sets of rules.

to guess how much time each process should be allocated. The kernel tries to be fair—two users competing for

CPU usage should both get the same amount.

Most processes spend their time waiting for either a key press, some network input, some device to send data, or some time to elapse. They hence do not consume

CPU.

On the other hand, when more than one process runs flat out, it can be difficult for the kernel to decide if it should be given greater

priority

than another process. What if a process is doing some operation more important than another process? How does the kernel tell? The answer is the U

NIX feature of

scheduling priority

or

niceness

. Scheduling priority ranges from +20 to -20 . You can set a process’s niceness with the renice

¥ renice <priority> <pid> renice <priority> -u <user> renice <priority> -g <group>

§ ¦

A typical example is the

SETI

program.

&

SETI stands for Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence. SETI is an initiative funded by various obscure sources to scan the skies for radio signals from other civilizations. The data that SETI gathers has to be intensively processed. SETI distributes part of that data to anyone who wants to run a seti program in the background. This puts the idle time of millions of machines to “good” use. There is even a SETI screen-saver that has become quite popular. Unfortunately for the colleague in my office, he runs seti at -19 instead of +19 scheduling priority, so nothing on his machine works right. On the other hand, I have inside information that the millions of other civilizations in this galaxy and others are probably not using radio signals to communicate at all :-)

with:

Set its priority to

¥ renice +19 <pid>

§ ¦ to make it disrupt your machine as little as possible.

Note that nice values have the reverse meaning that you would expect: process that eats

little

CPU, while -19 is a process that eats

lots

+19 means a

. Only superuser can set processes to negative nice values.

Mostly, multimedia applications and some device utilities are the only processes that need negative renicing, and most of these will have their own command-line options to set the nice value. See, for example, cdrecord (1) and mikmod (1) — a negative nice value will prevent skips in your playback.

&

L

INUX will soon have so called

real time

process scheduling. This is a kernel feature that reduces scheduling

latency

(the gaps between CPU execution

87

9.8. Process CPU/Memory Consumption,

top

9. Processes, Environment Variables time of a process, as well as the time it takes for a process to wake). There are already some kernel patches that accomplish this goal.

-

Also useful are the -u that a user or group owns.

and -g options, which set the priority of all the processes

Further, we have the nice command, which starts a program under a defined niceness relative to the current nice value of the present user. For example,

¨ nice +<priority> <pid> nice -<priority> <pid>

§

¥

¦

Finally, the snice command can both display and set the current niceness. This command doesn’t seem to work on my machine.

¨ snice -v <pid>

§

¥

¦

9.8 Process CPU/Memory Consumption, top

The top command sorts all processes by their CPU and memory consumption and displays the

top

twenty or so in a table. Use top whenever you want to see what’s hogging your system.

top -q -d 2 is useful for scheduling the top to a high priority, so that it is sure to refresh its listing without lag.

command itself top -n 1 -b > top.txt

process.

lists all processes, and top -n 1 -b -p <pid> prints information on one top has some useful interactive responses to key presses:

f

Shows a list of displayed fields that you can alter interactively. By default the only fields shown are USER PRI NI SIZE RSS SHARE STAT %CPU %MEM TIME

COMMAND which is usually what you are most interested in. (The field meanings are given below.)

r

Renices a process.

k

Kills a process.

The top man page describes the field meanings. Some of these are confusing and assume knowledge of the internals of

C

programs. The main question people ask is:

How much memory is a process using?

for

Resident Set Size

.

RSS

The answer is given by the RSS field, which stands means the amount of RAM that a process consumes alone.

The following examples show totals for

all

processes running on my system (which had 65536 kilobytes of RAM at the time). They represent the total of the SIZE , RSS , and SHARE fields, respectively.

88

9. Processes, Environment Variables 9.8. Process CPU/Memory Consumption,

top

¨ echo ‘echo ’0 ’ ; top -q -n 1 -b | sed -e ’1,/PID *USER *PRI/D’ | \ awk ’{print "+" $5}’ | sed -e ’s/M/\\*1024/’‘ | bc

68016

5 echo ‘echo ’0 ’ ; top -q -n 1 -b | sed -e ’1,/PID *USER *PRI/D’ | \ awk ’{print "+" $6}’ | sed -e ’s/M/\\*1024/’‘ | bc

58908

¥

10 echo ‘echo ’0 ’ ; top -q -n 1 -b | sed -e ’1,/PID *USER *PRI/D’ | \ awk ’{print "+" $7}’ | sed -e ’s/M/\\*1024/’‘ | bc

The SIZE represents the total memory usage of a process.

RSS is the same, but excludes memory not needing actual RAM (this would be memory swapped to the swap partition).

SHARE is the amount shared between processes.

Other fields are described by the top man page (quoted verbatim) as follows:

¦

uptime

This line displays the time the system has been up, and the three load averages for the system. The load averages are the average number of processes ready to run during the last 1, 5 and 15 minutes. This line is just like the output of uptime(1). The uptime display may be toggled by the interactive l command.

processes

The total number of processes running at the time of the last update.

This is also broken down into the number of tasks which are running, sleeping, stopped, or undead. The processes and states display may be toggled by the t interactive command.

CPU states

Shows the percentage of CPU time in user mode, system mode, niced tasks, and idle. (Niced tasks are only those whose nice value is negative.) Time spent in niced tasks will also be counted in system and user time, so the total will be more than 100%. The processes and states display may be toggled by the t interactive command.

Mem

Statistics on memory usage, including total available memory, free memory, used memory, shared memory, and memory used for buffers. The display of memory information may be toggled by the m interactive command.

Swap

Statistics on swap space, including total swap space, available swap space, and used swap space. This and Mem are just like the output of free(1).

PID

The process ID of each task.

PPID

The parent process ID of each task.

UID

The user ID of the task’s owner.

USER

The user name of the task’s owner.

PRI

The priority of the task.

NI

The nice value of the task. Negative nice values are higher priority.

SIZE

The size of the task’s code plus data plus stack space, in kilobytes, is shown here.

89

9.9. Environments of Processes 9. Processes, Environment Variables

TSIZE

The code size of the task. This gives strange values for kernel processes and is broken for ELF processes.

DSIZE

TRS

Data + Stack size. This is broken for ELF processes.

Text resident size.

SWAP

D

Size of the swapped out part of the task.

Size of pages marked dirty.

LIB

RSS

Size of use library pages. This does not work for ELF processes.

The total amount of physical memory used by the task, in kilobytes, is shown here. For ELF processes used library pages are counted here, for a.out processes not.

SHARE

The amount of shared memory used by the task is shown in this column.

STAT

The state of the task is shown here. The state is either S for sleeping, D for uninterruptible sleep, R for running, Z for zombies, or T for stopped or traced.

These states are modified by a trailing ¡ for a process with negative nice value,

N for a process with positive nice value, W for a swapped out process (this does not work correctly for kernel processes).

WCHAN

depending on the availability of either /boot/psdatabase or the kernel link map /boot/System.map this shows the address or the name of the kernel function the task currently is sleeping in.

TIME

Total CPU time the task has used since it started. If cumulative mode is on, this also includes the CPU time used by the process’s children which have died. You can set cumulative mode with the S command line option or toggle it with the interactive command S. The header line will then be changed to

CTIME.

%CPU

The task’s share of the CPU time since the last screen update, expressed as a percentage of total CPU time per processor.

%MEM

The task’s share of the physical memory.

COMMAND

The task’s command name, which will be truncated if it is too long to be displayed on one line. Tasks in memory will have a full command line, but swapped-out tasks will only have the name of the program in parentheses (for example, ”(getty)”).

9.9 Environments of Processes

Each process that runs does so with the knowledge of several

var

=

value

text pairs. All this means is that a process can look up the value of some variable that it may have inherited from its parent process. The complete list of these text pairs is called the

environment

of the process, and each

var

is called an

environment variable

. Each process has its own environment, which is copied from the parent process’s environment.

After you have logged in and have a shell prompt, the process you are using

(the shell itself) is just like any other process with an environment with environment variables. To get a complete list of these variables, just type:

90

9. Processes, Environment Variables 9.9. Environments of Processes

¨ set

§

¥

¦

This command is useful for finding the value of an environment variable whose name you are unsure of:

¨ set | grep <regexp>

§

¥

¦

Try set | grep PATH to see the PATH environment variable discussed previously.

The purpose of an environment is just to have an alternative way of passing parameters to a program (in addition to command-line arguments). The difference is that an environment is inherited from one process to the next: for example, a shell might have a certain variable set and may run a file manager, which may run a word processor. The word processor inherited its environment from file manager which inherited its environment from the shell. If you had set an environment variable PRINTER within the shell, it would have been inherited all the way to the word processor, thus eliminating the need to separately configure which printer the word processor should use.

Try

¨

X="Hi there" echo $X

§

You have set a variable. But now run

¨ bash

§

¥

¦

¥

¦

You have now run a new process which is a

¨ echo $X

§

child

of the process you were just in. Type

¥

¦

You will see that X is not set. The reason is that the variable was not environment variable and hence was not inherited. Now type

¨ export

ed

as an

¥

¦ which breaks to the

¨ export X bash echo $X

§

parent

process. Then

You will see that the new bash now knows about X .

Above we are setting an arbitrary variable for our own use.

bash (and many other programs) automatically set many of their own environment variables. The bash

¥

¦

91

9.9. Environments of Processes 9. Processes, Environment Variables man page lists these (when it talks about mand unset <variable> unset

ting

a variable, it means using the com-

). You may not understand some of these at the moment, but they are included here as a complete reference for later.

The following is quoted verbatim from the bash man page. You will see that some variables are of the type that provide special information and are read but never never set, whereas other variables configure behavioral features of the shell (or other programs) and can be set at any time

2

.

Shell Variables

The following variables are set by the shell:

PPID

The process ID of the shell’s parent.

PWD

The current working directory as set by the

OLDPWD cd

command.

The previous working directory as set by the

cd

command.

REPLY

Set to the line of input read by the ments are supplied.

read

builtin command when no argu-

UID

Expands to the user ID of the current user, initialized at shell startup.

EUID

Expands to the effective user ID of the current user, initialized at shell startup.

BASH

Expands to the full pathname used to invoke this instance of

bash

.

BASH VERSION

Expands to the version number of this instance of

bash

.

SHLVL

Incremented by one each time an instance of

bash

is started.

RANDOM

Each time this parameter is referenced, a random integer is generated.

The sequence of random numbers may be initialized by assigning a value to

RANDOM

. If

RANDOM

is unset, it loses its special properties, even if it is subsequently reset.

SECONDS

Each time this parameter is referenced, the number of seconds since shell invocation is returned. If a value is assigned to

SECONDS

. the value returned upon subsequent references is the number of seconds since the assignment plus the value assigned. If

SECONDS

properties, even if it is subsequently reset.

is unset, it loses its special

LINENO

Each time this parameter is referenced, the shell substitutes a decimal number representing the current sequential line number (starting with 1) within a script or function. When not in a script or function, the value substituted is not guaranteed to be meaningful. When in a function, the value is not the number of the source line that the command appears on (that information has been lost by the time the function is executed), but is an approximation of the number of

simple commands

executed in the current function. If is unset, it loses its special properties, even if it is subsequently reset.

LINENO

HISTCMD

The history number, or index in the history list, of the current command. If

HISTCMD

is unset, it loses its special properties, even if it is subsequently reset.

2

Thanks to Brian Fox and Chet Ramey for this material.

92

9. Processes, Environment Variables 9.9. Environments of Processes

OPTARG

The value of the last option argument processed by the command (see

SHELL BUILTIN COMMANDS

below).

getopts

builtin

OPTIND

The index of the next argument to be processed by the command (see

SHELL BUILTIN COMMANDS

below).

getopts

builtin

HOSTTYPE

Automatically set to a string that uniquely describes the type of machine on which

bash

is executing. The default is system-dependent.

OSTYPE

Automatically set to a string that describes the operating system on which

bash

is executing. The default is system-dependent.

The following variables are used by the shell. In some cases, value to a variable; these cases are noted below.

bash

assigns a default

IFS

The

Internal Field Separator

that is used for word splitting after expansion and to split lines into words with the

read

builtin command. The default value is

<

space

><

tab

><

newline

>

”.

PATH

The search path for commands.

It is a colon-separated list of directories in which the shell looks for commands (see

ECUTION

below).

COMMAND EX-

The default path is system-dependent, and is set by the administrator who installs

bash

.

A common value is

“/usr/gnu/bin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/ucb:/bin:/usr/bin:.”.

HOME

The home directory of the current user; the default argument for the builtin command.

cd

CDPATH

The search path for the

cd

command. This is a colon-separated list of directories in which the shell looks for destination directories specified by the

cd

command. A sample value is ‘‘.:˜:/usr’’.

ENV

If this parameter is set when

bash

is executing a shell script, its value is interpreted as a filename containing commands to initialize the shell, as in

.bashrc

.

The value of

ENV

is subjected to parameter expansion, command substitution, and arithmetic expansion before being interpreted as a pathname.

PATH

is not used to search for the resultant pathname.

MAIL

If this parameter is set to a filename and the

MAILPATH

variable is not set,

bash

informs the user of the arrival of mail in the specified file.

MAILCHECK

Specifies how often (in seconds)

bash

checks for mail. The default is

60 seconds. When it is time to check for mail, the shell does so before prompting. If this variable is unset, the shell disables mail checking.

MAILPATH

A colon-separated list of pathnames to be checked for mail. The message to be printed may be specified by separating the pathname from the message with a ‘?’. $ stands for the name of the current mailfile. Example:

MAILPATH=’/usr/spool/mail/bfox?"You have mail":˜/shell-mail?"$_ has mail!"’

Bash

supplies a default value for this variable, but the location of the user mail files that it uses is system dependent (e.g., /usr/spool/mail/

$USER

).

MAIL WARNING

If set, and a file that

bash

is checking for mail has been accessed since the last time it was checked, the message “The mail in

mailfile

has been read” is printed.

93

9.9. Environments of Processes 9. Processes, Environment Variables

PS1

The value of this parameter is expanded (see

PROMPTING

as the primary prompt string. The default value is “

bash“$

”.

below) and used

PS2

The value of this parameter is expanded and used as the secondary prompt string. The default is “

>

”.

PS3

The value of this parameter is used as the prompt for the

select

SHELL GRAMMAR

above).

command (see

PS4

The value of this parameter is expanded and the value is printed before each command

bash

displays during an execution trace. The first character of

PS4

is replicated multiple times, as necessary, to indicate multiple levels of indirection. The default is “

+

”.

HISTSIZE

The number of commands to remember in the command history (see

HISTORY

below). The default value is 500.

HISTFILE

The name of the file in which command history is saved. (See

HISTORY

below.) The default value is

˜/.bash history

. If unset, the command history is not saved when an interactive shell exits.

HISTFILESIZE

The maximum number of lines contained in the history file. When this variable is assigned a value, the history file is truncated, if necessary, to contain no more than that number of lines. The default value is 500.

OPTERR

the

If set to the value 1,

getopts bash

builtin command (see displays error messages generated by

SHELL BUILTIN COMMANDS

below).

OPTERR

executed.

is initialized to 1 each time the shell is invoked or a shell script is

PROMPT COMMAND

If set, the value is executed as a command prior to issuing each primary prompt.

IGNOREEOF

Controls the action of the shell on receipt of an

EOF

character as the sole input. If set, the value is the number of consecutive as the first characters on an input line before

bash

EOF

characters typed exits. If the variable exists but does not have a numeric value, or has no value, the default value is 10.

If it does not exist,

EOF

signifies the end of input to the shell. This is only in effect for interactive shells.

TMOUT

If set to a value greater than zero, the value is interpreted as the number of seconds to wait for input after issuing the primary prompt.

Bash

terminates after waiting for that number of seconds if input does not arrive.

FCEDIT

The default editor for the

fc

builtin command.

FIGNORE

A colon-separated list of suffixes to ignore when performing filename completion (see the entries in

READLINE

FIGNORE

below). A filename whose suffix matches one of is excluded from the list of matched filenames. A sample value is “.o:˜”.

INPUTRC

The filename for the readline startup file, overriding the default of

˜/.inputrc

(see

READLINE

below).

notify

If set,

bash

reports terminated background jobs immediately, rather than waiting until before printing the next primary prompt (see also the

-b

option to the

set

builtin command).

94

9. Processes, Environment Variables 9.9. Environments of Processes

history control

HISTCONTROL

If set to a value of

ignorespace

, lines which begin with a

space

character are not entered on the history list. If set to a value of

ignoredups

, lines matching the last history line are not entered. A value of

ignoreboth

combines the two options. If unset, or if set to any other value than those above, all lines read by the parser are saved on the history list.

command oriented history

If set,

bash

attempts to save all lines of a multiple-line command in the same history entry. This allows easy re-editing of multi-line commands.

glob dot filenames

If set,

bash

includes filenames beginning with a ‘.’ in the results of pathname expansion.

allow null glob expansion

files (see

If set,

bash

Pathname Expansion

allows pathname patterns which match no below) to expand to a null string, rather than themselves.

histchars

The two or three characters which control history expansion and tokenization (see

HISTORY EXPANSION

below). The first character is the

history expansion character

, that is, the character which signals the start of a history expansion, normally ‘

!

’. The second character is the

quick substitution

character, which is used as shorthand for re-running the previous command entered, substituting one string for another in the command. The default is ‘

ˆ

’. The optional third character is the character which signifies that the remainder of the line is a comment, when found as the first character of a word, normally ‘

#

’.

The history comment character causes history substitution to be skipped for the remaining words on the line. It does not necessarily cause the shell parser to treat the rest of the line as a comment.

nolinks

If set, the shell does not follow symbolic links when executing commands that change the current working directory. It uses the physical directory structure instead. By default,

bash

follows the logical chain of directories when performing commands which change the current directory, such as

cd

. See also the description of the

-P

option to the

set

builtin (

SHELL BUILTIN COM-

MANDS

below).

hostname completion file

HOSTFILE

Contains the name of a file in the same format as

/etc/hosts

that should be read when the shell needs to complete a hostname. The file may be changed interactively; the next time hostname completion is attempted

bash

adds the contents of the new file to the already existing database.

noclobber

If set,

bash

does not overwrite an existing file with the

>

,

>

&

, and

<>

redirection operators. This variable may be overridden when creating output files by using the redirection operator

>

instead of

>

(see also the

-C

option to the

set

builtin command).

auto resume

This variable controls how the shell interacts with the user and job control. If this variable is set, single word simple commands without redirections are treated as candidates for resumption of an existing stopped job.

There is no ambiguity allowed; if there is more than one job beginning with the string typed, the job most recently accessed is selected. The

name

of a

95

9.9. Environments of Processes 9. Processes, Environment Variables stopped job, in this context, is the command line used to start it. If set to the value

exact

, the string supplied must match the name of a stopped job exactly; if set to

substring

, the string supplied needs to match a substring of the name of a stopped job. The

%?

job id (see

substring

JOB CONTROL

value provides functionality analogous to the below). If set to any other value, the supplied string must be a prefix of a stopped job’s name; this provides functionality analogous to the

%

job id.

no exit on failed exec

If this variable exists, a non-interactive shell will not exit if it cannot execute the file specified in the

exec

builtin command. An interactive shell does not exit if

exec

fails.

cdable vars

If this is set, an argument to the

cd

builtin command that is not a directory is assumed to be the name of a variable whose value is the directory to change to.

96

Chapter 10

Mail

Electronic Mail

, or

e

mail, is the way most people first come into contact with the Internet. Although you may have used email in a graphical environment, here we show you how mail was first intended to be used on a multiuser system. To a large extent what applies here is really what is going on in the background of any system that supports mail.

A mail message is a block of text sent from one user to another, using some mail command or mailer program. A mail message will usually also be accompanied by a

subject

explaining what the mail is about. The idea of mail is that a message can be sent to someone even though he may not be logged in at the time and the mail will be stored for him until he is around to read it. An email address is probably familiar to you, for example: [email protected]

. This means that bruce has a user account on a computer called kangeroo.co.au

, which often means that he can log in as bruce on that machine. The text after the @ is always the name of the machine.

Today’s Internet does not obey this exactly, but there is always a machine that bruce

does

have an account on where mail is eventually sent.

machine.

-

&

That machine is also usually a U

NIX like

Sometimes email addresses are written in a more user-friendly form

Bruce Wallaby <[email protected]> or [email protected]

(Bruce Wallaby) . In this case, the surrounding characters are purely cosmetic; only [email protected]

is ever used.

When mail is received for you (from another user on the system or from a user from another system) it is appended to the file /var/spool/mail/<username> called the

mail file

or

mailbox file

; <username> is your login name. You then run some program that interprets your mail file, allowing you to browse the file as a sequence of mail messages and read and reply to them.

An actual addition to your mail file might look like this:

97

10. Mail

5

10

15

20

25

¨

From [email protected]

Mon Jun

Return-Path: <[email protected]>

1 21:20:21 1998

Received: from pizza.cranzgot.co.za ([email protected] [192.168.2.254]) by onion.cranzgot.co.za (8.8.7/8.8.7) with ESMTP id VAA11942 for <[email protected]>; Mon, 1 Jun 1998 21:20:20 +0200

Received: from mail450.icon.co.za (mail450.icon.co.za [196.26.208.3]) by pizza.cranzgot.co.za (8.8.5/8.8.5) with ESMTP id VAA19357 for <[email protected]>; Mon, 1 Jun 1998 21:17:06 +0200

Received: from smtp02.inetafrica.com (smtp02.inetafrica.com [196.7.0.140]) by mail450.icon.co.za (8.8.8/8.8.8) with SMTP id VAA02315 for <[email protected]>; Mon, 1 Jun 1998 21:24:21 +0200 (GMT)

Received: from default [196.31.19.216] (fullmoon) by smtp02.inetafrica.com with smtp (Exim 1.73 #1) id 0ygTDL-00041u-00; Mon, 1 Jun 1998 13:57:20 +0200

Message-ID: <[email protected]>

Date: Mon, 01 Jun 1998 13:56:15 +0200

From: a person <[email protected]>

Reply-To: [email protected]

Organization: private

X-Mailer: Mozilla 3.01 (Win95; I)

MIME-Version: 1.0

To: paul sheer <[email protected]>

Subject: hello

Content-Type: text/plain; charset=us-ascii

Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit

Status: RO

X-Status: A

30

35 hey paul its me how r u doing i am well what u been upot hows life hope your well

¥

Each mail message begins with a a space. Then comes the

mail header

From at the beginning of a line, followed by

, explaining where the message was routed from to get to your mailbox, who sent the message, where replies should go, the subject of the mail, and various other

mail header fields

. Above, the header is longer than the mail messages. Examine the header carefully.

The header ends with the first blank line. The message itself (or after. The next header in the file will once again start with a From

body

.

) starts right

From s on the beginning of a line be corrupt.

never

exist within the body. If they do, the mailbox is considered to

Some mail readers store their messages in a different format. However the above format (called the

mbox

format) is the most common for U

NIX

. Of interest is a format called

Maildir

, which is one format that does contiguous file. Instead,

Maildir not

store mail messages in a single stores each message as a separate file within a directory. The name of the directory is then considered to be the mailbox “file”; by default

Maildir uses a directory Maildir within the user’s home directory.

98

¦

10. Mail 10.1. Sending and Reading Mail

10.1 Sending and Reading Mail

The simplest way to send mail is to use the s "hello there" <username> . The mail mail command.

Type mail program will then wait for you to type out your message. When you are finished, enter a .

on its own on a single line. The user name will be another user on your system. If no one else is on your system, then send mail to root with mail -s "Hello there" root or mail -s "Hello there" [email protected] (if the @ is not present, then the local machine, localhost , is implied). Sending files over email is discussed in Section 12.6.

You can use mail to view your mailbox. This is a primitive utility in comparison with modern graphical mail readers but is probably the only mail reader that can handle arbitrarily sized mailboxes. Sometimes you may get a mailbox that is over a gigabyte in size, and mail is the only way to delete messages from it. To view your mailbox, type mail , and then z to read your next window of messages, and zto view the previous window. Most commands work like

command message number

, for example, delete 14 to it (for a N or reply 7 ew message).

. The message number is the left column with an N next mutt

For the state of the art in terminal-based mail readers (also called mail and pine .

& pine ’s license is not Free.

-

clients

), try

There are also some graphical mail readers in various stages of development. At the time I am writing this, I have been using balsa for a few months, which was the best mail reader I could find.

10.2 The SMTP Protocol — Sending Mail Raw to Port 25

To send mail, you need not use a mail client at all. The mail client just follows

(Simple Mail Transfer Protocol), which you can type in from the keyboard.

SMTP

MTA

word

For example, you can send mail by telnet

ing

to

port 25

of a machine that has an

(Mail Transfer Agent—also called the

daemon mailer daemon

or

mail server

) running. The denotes programs that run silently without user intervention.

This is, in fact, how so-called

anonymous mail

or

spam mail

&

Spam

is a term used to indicate unsolicited email—that is, junk mail that is posted in bulk to large numbers of arbitrary email addresses. Sending spam is considered unethical Internet practice.

is sent on the Internet. A mailer daemon runs in most small institutions in the world and has the simple task of receiving mail requests and relaying them on to other mail servers. Try this, for example

(obviously substituting mail.cranzgot.co.za

for the name of a mail server that you normally use):

¨

[[email protected]]#

telnet mail.cranzgot.co.za 25

Trying 192.168.2.1...

¥

99

10.2. The SMTP Protocol — Sending Mail Raw to Port

25

10. Mail

5

10

15

20

Connected to 192.168.2.1.

Escape character is ’ˆ]’.

220 onion.cranzgot.co.za ESMTP Sendmail 8.9.3/8.9.3; Wed, 2 Feb 2000 14:54:47 +0200

HELO cericon.cranzgot.co.za

250 onion.cranzgot.co.za Hello cericon.ctn.cranzgot.co.za [192.168.3.9], pleased to meet yo

MAIL FROM:[email protected]

250 [email protected] Sender ok

RCPT TO:[email protected]

250 [email protected] Recipient ok

DATA

354 Enter mail, end with "." on a line by itself

Subject: just to say hi hi there heres a short message

.

250 OAA04620 Message accepted for delivery

QUIT

221 onion.cranzgot.co.za closing connection

Connection closed by foreign host.

¦

The above causes the message “ hi there heres a short message ” to be delivered to [email protected]

(the R

e

C

i

P

ien

T ). Of course, I can enter any address that I like as the sender, and it can be difficult to determine who sent the message.

In this example, the Subject: is the only header field, although I needn’t have supplied a header at all.

Now, you may have tried this and gotten a rude error message. This might be because the MTA is configured

not

to relay mail except from specific trusted machines— say, only those machines within that organization. In this way anonymous email is prevented.

On the other hand, if you are connecting to the user’s very own mail server, it has to necessarily receive the mail, regardless of who sent it. Hence, the above is a useful way to supply a bogus FROM address and thereby send mail almost anonymously. By

“almost” I mean that the mail server would still have logged the machine from which you connected and the time of connection—there is no perfect anonymity for properly configured mail servers.

The above technique is often the only way to properly test a mail server, and should be practiced for later.

100

Chapter 11

User Accounts and User

Ownerships

U

NIX intrinsically supports multiple users. Each user has a personal

/home/<username>

home

directory in which the user’s files are stored, hidden from other users.

So far you may have been using the machine as the root user, who is the system administrator and has complete access to every file on the system. The root is also called the

superuser

. The home directory of the

an ambiguity here: the

root root user is /root .

directory is the topmost directory, known as the

Note that there is

/ directory. The root user’s home directory is /root and is called the

home directory of root

.

Other than the superuser, every other user has

limited

access to files and directories. Always use your machine as a normal user. Log in as root only to do system administration. This practice will save you from the destructive power that the root user has. In this chapter we show how to manually and automatically create new users.

Users are also divided into sets, called

groups

. A user can belong to several groups and there can be as many groups on the system as you like. Each group is defined by a list of users that are part of that set. In addition, each user may have a group of the same name (as the user’s login name), to which only that user belongs.

11.1 File Ownerships

Each file on a system is

When you run

owned

ls -al by a particular user and also

owned

by a particular group.

, you can see the user that owns the file in the third column and the group that owns the file in the fourth column (these will often be identical, indicating that the file’s group is a group to which only the user belongs). To change the ownership of the file, simply use the chown ,

change ownerships

, command as follows.

101

11.2. The Password File

/etc/passwd

11. User Accounts and Ownerships

¨ chown <user>[:<group>] <filename>

§

11.2 The Password File /etc/passwd

5

10

15

The only place in the whole system where a user name is registered is in this file.

&

Exceptions to this rule are several distributed authentication schemes and the Samba package, but you needn’t worry about these for now.

Once a user is added to this file, that user is said to

exist

on the system. If you thought that user accounts were stored in some unreachable dark corner, then this should dispel that idea. This is also known as the administrators. View this file with less :

password

file to

¥ root:x:0:0:Paul Sheer:/root:/bin/bash bin:x:1:1:bin:/bin: daemon:x:2:2:daemon:/sbin: adm:x:3:4:adm:/var/adm: lp:x:4:7:lp:/var/spool/lpd: sync:x:5:0:sync:/sbin:/bin/sync shutdown:x:6:0:shutdown:/sbin:/sbin/shutdown halt:x:7:0:halt:/sbin:/sbin/halt mail:x:8:12:mail:/var/spool/mail: news:x:9:13:news:/var/spool/news: uucp:x:10:14:uucp:/var/spool/uucp: gopher:x:13:30:gopher:/usr/lib/gopher-data: ftp:x:14:50:FTP User:/home/ftp: nobody:x:99:99:Nobody:/: alias:x:501:501::/var/qmail/alias:/bin/bash paul:x:509:510:Paul Sheer:/home/paul:/bin/bash jack:x:511:512:Jack Robbins:/home/jack:/bin/bash silvia:x:511:512:Silvia Smith:/home/silvia:/bin/bash

§ ¦

Above is an extract of my own password file. Each user is stored on a separate line. Many of these are not human login accounts but are used by other programs.

Each line contains seven like this:

fields

separated by colons. The account for jack looks

jack

The user’s login name. It should be composed of lowercase letters and numbers.

Other characters are allowed, but are not preferable. In particular, there should

never

be two user names that differ only by their capitalization.

x

The user’s encrypted password. An arate file, /etc/shadow . This x in this field indicates that it is stored in a sep-

shadow

password file is a later addition to U

NIX systems. It contains additional information about the user.

102

¥

¦

11. User Accounts and Ownerships 11.3. Shadow Password File:

/etc/shadow

511

The user’s user identification number,

UID

.

&

This is used by programs as a short alternative to the user’s login name. In fact, internally, the login name is never used, only the UID.

-

512

The user’s group identification number, be discussed later.

-

GID

.

&

Similarly applies to the GID. Groups will

Jack Robbins

The user’s full name.

&

Few programs ever make use of this field.

-

/home/jack

The user’s home directory. The to this when the user logs in.

HOME environment variable will be set

/bin/bash

The shell to start when the user logs in.

11.3 Shadow Password File: /etc/shadow

The problem with traditional passwd eryone on the system can read the file.

files is that they had to be

world readable

&

Evin order for programs to extract information, such as the user’s full name, about the user. This means that everyone can see the encrypted password in the second field. Anyone can copy any other user’s password field and then try billions of different passwords to see if they match. If you have a hundred users on the system, there are bound to be several that chose passwords that matched some word in the dictionary. The so-called

dictionary

attack will simply try all 80,000 common English words until a match is found. If you think you are clever to add a number in front of an easy-to-guess dictionary word, password cracking algorithms know about these as well.

lem the shadow

&

And about every other trick you can think of.

To solve this probpassword file was invented. The shadow password file is used only for

authentication

&

Verifying that the user is the genuine owner of the account.

and is not world readable—there is no information in the shadow password file that a common program will ever need—no regular user has permission to see the encrypted password field. The fields are colon separated just like the passwd file.

Here is an example line from a /etc/shadow file:

¨ jack:Q,Jpl.or6u2e7:10795:0:99999:7:-1:-1:134537220

§

¥

¦

jack

The user’s login name.

Q,Jpl.or6u2e7

The user’s encrypted password known as the word. This is the user’s 8-character password with a

hash

of the pass-

one-way hash function

applied to it. It is simply a mathematical algorithm applied to the password that is known to produce a unique result for each password. To demonstrate: the

(rather poor) password Loghimin hashes to file. An almost identical password

:lZ1F.0VSRRucs: loghimin in the shadow gives a completely different hash

103

11.4. The

groups

Command and

/etc/group

11. User Accounts and Ownerships

:CavHIpD1W.cmg: . Hence, trying to guess the password from the hash can only be done by trying every possible password. Such a

brute force attack

is therefore considered computationally expensive

but not impossible

. To check if an entered password matches, just apply the identical mathematical algorithm to it: if it matches, then the password is correct. This is how the login command works.

Sometimes you will see a * in place of a hashed password. This means that the account has been disabled.

10795

Days since January 1, 1970, that the password was last changed.

0

Days before which password may not be changed. Usually zero. This field is not often used.

99999

Days after which password must be changed. This is also rarely used, and will be set to 99999 by default.

7

Days before password is to expire that user is warned of pending password expiration.

-1

Days after password expires that account is considered inactive and disabled.

1

is used to indicate infinity—that is, to mean we are effectively not using this feature.

-1

Days since January 1, 1970, when account will be disabled.

134537220

Flag reserved for future use.

11.4 The groups Command and /etc/group

On a U

NIX system you may want to give a number of users the same access rights. For instance, you may have five users that should be allowed to access some privileged file and another ten users that are allowed to run a certain program. You can users into, for example, two groups previl and wproc

group

these and then make the relevant file and directories owned by that group with, say,

¨ chown root:previl /home/somefile chown root:wproc /usr/lib/wproc

§

¥

¦

Permissions

&

Explained later.

file/directory must at least be dictate the kind of access, but for the meantime, the

owned

by that group.

The /etc/group file is also colon separated. A line might look like this:

¨ wproc:x:524:jack,mary,henry,arthur,sue,lester,fred,sally

§

¥

¦

104

11. User Accounts and Ownerships 11.5. Manually Creating a User Account

wproc

The name of the group. There should really also be a user of this name as well.

x

The group’s password. This field is usually set with an x and is not used.

524

The GID

group ID

. This must be unique in the group’s file.

jack,mary,henry,arthur,sue,lester,fred,sally

The list of users that belong to the group.

This must be comma separated with no spaces.

You can obviously study the group file to find out which groups a user belongs to,

&

That is,

not

“which users does a group consist of?” which is easy to see at a glance.

but when there are a lot of groups, it can be tedious to scan through the entire file. The groups command prints out this information.

11.5 Manually Creating a User Account

The following steps are required to create a user account:

/etc/passwd entry

line.

To create an entry in this file, simply edit it and copy an existing

&

When editing configuration files, never write out a line from scratch if it has some kind of special format. Always copy an existing entry that has proved itself to be correct, and then edit in the appropriate changes. This will prevent you from making errors.

Always add users from the bottom and try to preserve the “pattern” of the file—that is, if you see numbers increasing, make yours fit in; if you are adding a normal user, add it after the existing lines of normal users. Each user must have a unique UID and should usually have a unique GID. So if you are adding a line to the end of the file, make your new UID and GID the same as the last line but incremented by 1.

/etc/shadow entry

Create a new shadow password entry. At this stage you do not know what the hash is, so just make it a * . You can set the password with the passwd command later.

/etc/group entry

Create a new group entry for the user’s group. Make sure the number in the group entry matches that in the passwd file.

/etc/skel

This directory contains a template home directory for the user. Copy the entire directory and all its contents into /home directory, renaming it to the name of the user. In the case of our

/home/jack .

jack example, you should have a directory

Home directory ownerships

You need to now change the ownerships of the home directory to match the user. The command chown -R jack:jack /home/jack will accomplish this change.

Setting the password

Use passwd <username> to set the user’s password.

105

11.6. Automatically:

useradd

and

groupadd

11. User Accounts and Ownerships

11.6 Automatically Creating a User Account: and groupadd useradd

The above process is tedious. The commands that perform all these updates automatically are useradd , userdel , and usermod . The man pages explain the use of these commands in detail. Note that different flavors of U

NIX have different commands to do this. Some may even have graphical programs or web interfaces to assist in creating users.

In addition, the commands with respect to groups.

groupadd , groupdel , and groupmod do the same

11.7 User Logins

It is possible to switch from one user to another, as well as view your login status and the status of other users. Logging in also follows a silent procedure which is important to understand.

11.7.1 The login command

A user most often gains access to the system through the gram looks up the UID and GID from the passwd and login group program. This profile and authenticates the user.

The following is quoted from the in detail: login man page, and explains this procedure

login

is used when signing onto a system. It can also be used to switch from one user to another at any time (most modern shells have support for this feature built into them, however).

If an argument is not given,

login

prompts for the username.

If the user is

not

root, and if

/etc/nologin

exists, the contents of this file are printed to the screen, and the login is terminated. This is typically used to prevent logins when the system is being taken down.

If special access restrictions are specified for the user in

/etc/usertty

, these must be met, or the login attempt will be denied and a syslog writes all system messages to the file

syslog

&

System error log program—

/var/log/messages .

message will be generated. See the section on ”Special Access Restrictions.”

If the user is root , then the login must be occuring on a tty listed in

/etc/securetty

.

&

If this file is not present, then root logins will be allowed from anywhere. It is worth deleting this file if your machine is protected by a firewall and you would like to easily login from

106

11. User Accounts and Ownerships 11.7. User Logins another machine on your LAN. If /etc/securetty from the terminals it lists.

is present, then logins are only allowed

Failures will be logged with the

syslog

facility.

After these conditions have been checked, the password will be requested and checked (if a password is required for this username). Ten attempts are allowed before

login

dies, but after the first three, the response starts to get very slow. Login failures are reported via the successful root logins.

syslog

facility. This facility is also used to report any

If the file

.hushlogin

exists, then a ”quiet” login is performed (this disables the checking of mail and the printing of the last login time and message of the day). Otherwise, if

/var/log/lastlog

exists, the last login time is printed (and the current login is recorded).

Random administrative things, such as setting the UID and GID of the tty are performed. The TERM environment variable is preserved, if it exists (other environment variables are preserved if the

-p

option is used). Then the HOME, PATH,

SHELL, TERM, MAIL, and LOGNAME environment variables are set. PATH defaults to

/usr/local/bin:/bin:/usr/bin:

listed in the PATH

/sbin:/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin

.

&

Note that the

. This is only the default PATH

.

however.

-

—the current directory—is for normal users, and to for root. Last, if this is not a ”quiet” login, the message of the day is printed and the file with the user’s name in

/usr/spool/mail

and a message printed if it has non-zero length.

will be checked,

The user’s shell is then started. If no shell is specified for the user in then

/bin/sh

is used. If there is no directory specified in

/etc/passwd

/etc/passwd

, then

/

is used

,

(the home directory is checked for the

.hushlogin

file described above).

11.7.2 The

set user

, su command

To temporarily become another user, you can use the su

¨ su jack

§ program:

This command prompts you for a password (unless you are the root user to begin with). It does nothing more than change the current user to have the access rights of jack . Most environment variables will remain the same. The

USER environment variables will be set to jack

HOME , LOGNAME , and

, but all other environment variables will be inherited.

su is, therefore, not the same as a normal login.

¥

¦

To get the equivalent of a login with

¨ su - jack

§ su , run

This will cause all initialization scripts (that are normally run when the user logs in) to be executed.

&

What actually happens is that the subsequent shell is started with a in front of the zero’th argument. This makes the shell read the user’s personal profile. The this.

-

Hence, after running su with the login command also does option, you logged in as if with the login command.

¥

¦

107

11.7. User Logins 11. User Accounts and Ownerships

11.7.3 The who , w , and users commands to see who is logged in

who and w tion and other statistics.

¨ print a list of users logged in to the system, as well as their CPU consumpwho --help gives:

Usage: who [OPTION]... [ FILE | ARG1 ARG2 ]

¥

5

10

-H, --heading

-i, -u, --idle

-m

-q, --count

-s

-T, -w, --mesg

--message

--writable

--help

--version print line of column headings add user idle time as HOURS:MINUTES, . or old only hostname and user associated with stdin all login names and number of users logged on

(ignored) add user’s message status as +, - or ?

same as -T same as -T display this help and exit output version information and exit

If FILE is not specified, use /var/run/utmp.

/var/log/wtmp as FILE is common.

15

¦

A little more information can be gathered from the info pages for this command.

The idle time indicates how long since the user has last pressed a key. Most often, one just types who -Hiw .

w is similar. An extract of the w man page says: w displays information about the users currently on the machine, and their processes. The header shows, in this order, the current time, how long the system has been running, how many users are currently logged on, and the system load averages for the past 1, 5, and 15 minutes.

The following entries are displayed for each user: login name, the tty name, the remote host, login time, idle time, JCPU, PCPU, and the command line of their current process.

The JCPU time is the time used by all processes attached to the tty. It does not include past background jobs, but does include currently running background jobs.

The PCPU time is the time used by the current process, named in the ”what” field.

Finally, from a shell script the users command is useful for just seeing who is logged in. You can use in a shell script, for example:

¨ for user in ‘users‘ ; do

<etc> done

§

¥

¦

108

11. User Accounts and Ownerships 11.7. User Logins

11.7.4 The id command and

effective

UID

id prints your

real

and

effective

UID and GID. A user normally has a UID and a GID but may also have an effective UID and GID as well. The real UID and GID are what a process will generally think you are logged in as. The effective UID and GID are the actual access permissions that you have when trying to read, write, and execute files.

11.7.5 User limits

There is a file /etc/security/limits.conf

that stipulates the limitations on CPU usage, process consumption, and other resources on a per-user basis. The documentation for this config file is contained in

/usr/[share/]doc/pam-<version>/txts/README.pam limits .

109

11.7. User Logins 11. User Accounts and Ownerships

110

Chapter 12

Using Internet Services

This chapter summarizes remote access and the various methods of transferring files and data over the Internet.

12.1

ssh , not telnet or rlogin

telnet is a program for talking to a U

NIX a remote login. Try

¨ telnet <remote_machine> telnet localhost

§ network service. It is most often used to do

¥

¦ to log in to your remote machine. It needn’t matter if there is no physical network; network services always work regardless because the machine always has an internal link to itself.

rlogin can type

¨ is like a minimal version of telnet rlogin -l <username> <remote_machine> rlogin -l jack localhost

§ that allows login access only. You

¥

¦ if the system is configured to support remote logins.

These two services are the domain of old world U

NIX

; for security reasons, is now the preferable service for logging in remotely:

¨ ssh [-l <username>] <remote_machine>

§ ssh

¥

¦

111

12.2.

rcp

and

scp

12. Using Internet Services

Though rlogin and telnet are very convenient, they should

never

be used across a public network because your password can easily be read off the wire as you type it in.

12.2

rcp and scp

rcp stands for

remote copy

and scp is the secure version from the two commands copy files from one machine to another using a similar notation to

¨ ssh package. These cp .

rcp [-r] [<remote_machine>:]<file> [<remote_machine>:]<file>

¥

¦

5

10

Here is an example:

¨

[[email protected]]#

rcp /var/spool/mail/psheer \ divinian.cranzgot.co.za:/home/psheer/mail/cericon

[[email protected]]#

scp /var/spool/mail/psheer \ divinian.cranzgot.co.za:/home/psheer/mail/cericon

The authenticity of host ’divinian.cranzgot.co.za’ can’t be established.

RSA key fingerprint is 43:14:36:5d:bf:4f:f3:ac:19:08:5d:4b:70:4a:7e:6a.

Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)?

yes

Warning: Permanently added ’divinian.cranzgot.co.za’ (RSA) to the list of known hosts.

[email protected]’s password:

100% |***************************************| 4266 KB 01:18

¥

¦

The -r option copies recursively and copies can take place in either direction or even between two nonlocal machines.

scp should always be used instead of

ing given by scp

rcp for security reasons.

for this first-time connection. See the ssh

Notice also the warndocumentation for how to make your first connection securely. All commands in the behavior.

ssh package have this same

12.3

rsh

5 rsh (

remote shell

) is a useful utility for executing a command on a remote machine.

Here are some examples:

¨

[[email protected]]#

rsh divinian.cranzgot.co.za hostname

divinian.cranzgot.co.za

[[email protected]]#

rsh divinian.cranzgot.co.za \ tar -czf - /home/psheer | dd of=/dev/fd0 bs=1024

tar: Removing leading ‘/’ from member names

20+0 records in

20+0 records out

¥

112

12. Using Internet Services 12.4. FTP

[[email protected]]#

cat /var/spool/mail/psheer | rsh divinian.cranzgot.co.za \

§

sh -c ’cat >> /home/psheer/mail/cericon’

The first command prints the host name of the remote machine. The second command backs up my

remote

home directory to my

local

floppy disk. (More about dd and

/dev/fd0 come later.) The last command appends my local mailbox file to a remote mailbox file. Notice how stdin, stdout, and stderr are properly redirected to the local terminal. After reading Chapter 29 see rsh (8) or in.rshd

(8) to configure this service.

¦

Once again, for security reasons rsh should never be available across a public network.

12.4 FTP

FTP stands for

File Transfer Protocol

. If FTP is set up on your local machine, then other machines can download files. Type

¨ ftp metalab.unc.edu

§ or

¨ ncftp metalab.unc.edu

§

¥

¦

¥

¦ ftp is the traditional command-line U user program accessing some remote service.

while

NIX

FTP

ncftp client

,

&

client

” always indicates the is a more powerful client that will not always be installed.

You will now be inside an FTP a password. The site

session

metalab.unc.edu

. You will be asked for a login name and is one that allows

anonymous

logins. This means that you can type anonymous as your user name, and then anything you like as a password. You will notice that the session will ask you for an email address as your password. Any sequence of letters with an put your actual email address out of politeness.

@ symbol will suffice, but you should

The FTP session is like a reduced shell. You can type cd , ls , and file lists.

help brings up a list of commands, and you can also type ls -al to view help <command> to get help on a specific command. You can download a file by using the get <filename> command, but before you do this, you must set the

transfer type

to

binary

. The

transfer type

indicates whether or not newline characters will be translated to DOS format. Typing ascii turns on this feature, while binary turns it off. You may also want to enter hash which will print a # for every 1024 bytes of download. This is useful for watching the progress of a download. Go to a directory that has a README file in it and get README

§

¥

¦

113

12.5.

finger

12. Using Internet Services

The file will be downloaded into your current directory.

You can also

¨ put README

§ cd to the /incoming directory and upload files. Try to upload the file that you have just downloaded. Most FTP sites have an /incoming directory that is flushed periodically.

¥

¦

FTP allows far more than just uploading of files, although the administrator has the option to restrict access to any further features. You can create directories, change ownerships, and do almost anything you can on a local file system.

If you have several machines on a trusted

LAN

(

Local Area Network

—that is, your private office or home network), all should have FTP enabled to allow users to easily copy files between machines. How to install and configure one of the many available

FTP servers will become obvious later in this book.

12.5

finger

finger is a service for remotely listing who is logged in on a remote system. Try finger @<hostname> to see who is logged in on <hostname> . The

finger

service will often be disabled on machines for security reasons.

12.6 Sending Files by Email

Mail is being used more and more for transferring files between machines. It is bad practice to send mail messages over 64 kilobytes over the Internet because it tends to excessively load mail servers. Any file larger than 64 kilobytes should be uploaded by FTP onto some common FTP server. Most small images are smaller than this size, hence sending a small JPEG

&

A common Internet image file format. These are especially compressed and are usually under 100 kilobytes for a typical screen-sized photograph.

image is considered acceptable.

12.6.1

uuencode and uudecode

If you must send files by mail then you can do it by using uuencode . This utility packs binary files into a format that mail servers can handle. If you send a mail message containing arbitrary binary data, it will more than likely be corrupted on the way because mail agents are only designed to handle a limited range of characters.

uuencode space.

represents a binary file with allowable characters, albeit taking up slightly more

114

12. Using Internet Services 12.6. Sending Files by Email

Here is a neat trick to pack up a directory and send it to someone by mail.

¨ tar -czf - <mydir> | uuencode <mydir>.tar.gz \

| mail -s "Here are some files" <user>@<machine>

§

To unpack a uuencode d file, use the uudecode

¨ uudecode <myfile>.uu

§ command:

¥

¦

¥

¦

12.6.2 MIME encapsulation

Most graphical mail readers have the ability to

attach

these attachments. The way they do this is not with files to mail messages and read uuencode but in a special format known as

MIME encapsulation

. MIME (

Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions

) is a way of representing multiple files inside a single mail message. The way binary data is handled is similar to uuencode , but in a format known as

base64

.

Each MIME attachment to a mail message has a particular type, known as the

MIME type

. MIME types merely classify the attached file as an image, an audio clip, a formatted document, or some other type of data. The MIME type is a text tag with the format <major>/<minor> . The major part is called the

major MIME type

and the minor part is called the

minor MIME type

. Available major types match all the kinds of files that you would expect to exist. They are usually one of application , audio , image , message , text , or video . The application type means a file format specific to a particular utility. The minor MIME types run into the hundreds. A long list of

MIME types can be found in /etc/mime.types

.

If needed, some useful command-line utilities in the same vein as create and extract MIME messages. These are mpack , munpack , and mimencode ).

uuencode can mmencode (or

115

12.6. Sending Files by Email 12. Using Internet Services

116

Chapter 13

L

INUX

Resources

Very often it is not even necessary to connect to the Internet to find the information you need. Chapter 16 contains a description of most of the documentation on a L

INUX distribution.

It is, however, essential to get the most up-to-date information where security and hardware driver support are concerned. It is also fun and worthwhile to interact with L

INUX users from around the globe. The rapid development of Free software could mean that you may miss out on important new features that could streamline IT services. Hence, reviewing web magazines, reading newsgroups, and subscribing to mailing lists are essential parts of a system administrator’s role.

13.1 FTP Sites and the sunsite Mirror

The metalab.unc.edu

FTP site (previously called sunsite.unc.edu

) is one of the traditional sites for free software. It is mirrored in almost every country that has a significant IT infrastructure. If you point your web browser there, you will find a list of mirrors. For faster access, do pick a mirror in your own country.

It is advisable to browse around this FTP site. In particular you should try to find the locations of:

The directory where all sources for official GNU packages are stored. This would be a mirror of the Free Software Foundation’s FTP archives. These are packages that were commissioned by the FSF and not merely released under the

GPL (GNU General Public License). The FSF will distribute them in source form ( .tar.gz

) for inclusion into various distributions. They will, of course, compile and work under any U

NIX

.

117

13.2. HTTP — Web Sites 13.

L

INUX

Resources

The generic Linux download directory. It contains innumerable U

NIX packages in source and binary form, categorized in a directory tree. For instance, mail clients have their own directory with many mail packages inside.

metalab is the place where new developers can host any new software that they have produced.

There are instructions on the FTP site to upload software and to request it to be placed into a directory.

The kernel sources. This is a mirror of the kernel archives where Linus and other maintainers upload new bugs.

and

beta stable

&

Meaning that the software is well tested and free of serious

&

Meaning that the software is in its development stages.

kernel versions and kernel patches.

The various distributions. RedHat, Debian , and possibly other popular distributions may be present.

This list is by no means exhaustive. Depending on the willingness of the site maintainer, there may be mirrors to far more sites from around the world.

The FTP site is how you will download free software. Often, maintainers will host their software on a web site, but every popular package will almost always have an FTP site where versions are persistently stored. An example is in the directory /pub/Linux/apps/editors/X/cooledit/ own

Cooledit

package is distributed.

metalab.unc.edu

where the author’s

13.2 HTTP — Web Sites

Most users should already be familiar with using a web browser.

like http://www.google.com/

, http://www.google.com/linux

, http://infoseek.go.com/

,

You should also become familiar with the concept of a

web search

.

&

Do I need to explain this?

-

You search the web when you point your web browser to a popular search engine http://www.altavista.com/

, or http://www.yahoo.com/ and search for particular key words. Searching is a bit of a black art with the billions of web pages out there. Always consult the search engine’s advanced search options to see how you can do more complex searches than just plain word searches.

The web sites in the FAQ (

Frequently Asked Questions

) (see Appendix D) should all be consulted to get an overview on some of the primary sites of interest to L

INUX users.

Especially important is that you keep up with the latest L

INUX

Linux Weekly News

http://lwn.net/ news. I find the an excellent source. Also, the famous (and infamous)

SlashDot

http://slashdot.org/ web site gives daily updates about “stuff that matters” (and therefore contains a lot about free software).

Fresh Meat

http://freshmeat.net/ is a web site devoted to new software releases. You will find new or updated packages announced every few hours or so.

118

13.

L

INUX

Resources 13.3. SourceForge

Linux Planet

http://www.linuxplanet.com/ seems to be a new (?) web site that I just found while writing this. It looks like it contains lots of tutorial information on

L

INUX

.

News Forge

ware issues.

http://www.newsforge.net/ also contains daily information about soft-

Lycos

http://download.lycos.com/static/advanced search.asp

is an efficient FTP search engine for locating packages. It is one of the few search engines that understand regular expressions.

Realistically, though, a new L

INUX web site is created every week; almost anything prepended or appended to “ linux ” is probably a web site already.

13.3 SourceForge

A new phenomenon in the free software community is the SourceForge web site, http://www.sourceforge.net/

. Developers can use this service at no charge to host their project’s web site, FTP archives, and mailing lists. SourceForge has mushroomed so rapidly that it has come to host the better half of all free software projects.

13.4 Mailing Lists

A mailing list is a special address that, when posted to, automatically sends email to a long list of other addresses. You usually subscribe to a mailing list by sending some specially formatted email or by requesting a subscription from the mailing list manager.

Once you have subscribed to a list, any email you post to the list will be sent to every other subscriber, and every other subscriber’s posts to the list will be sent to you.

There are mostly three types of mailing lists: the

majordomo

and the

* -request

type.

type, the

listserv

type,

13.4.1 Majordomo and Listserv

To subscribe to the

majordomo

variety, send a mail message to [email protected]<machine> with no subject and a one-line message:

¨ subscribe <mailing-list-name>

§

¥

¦

119

13.5. Newsgroups 13.

L

INUX

Resources

This command adds your name to the mailing list name>@<machine> , to which messages are posted.

<mailing-list-

Do the same for [email protected]<machine> .

listserv

-type lists, by sending the same message to list-

Internet, you should get on

¨

For instance, if you are an administrator for any machine that is exposed to the bugtraq . Send email to

¥

¦ to [email protected]

, and become one of the tens of thousands of users that read and report security problems about L

INUX

.

To

unsubscribe

to a list is just as simple. Send an email message:

¨ unsubscribe <mailing-list-name>

§

¥

¦

Never send subscribe or subscribe unsubscribe or unsubscribe messages to the mailing list itself. Send messages only to to the address [email protected]<machine> or [email protected]<machine>

.

13.4.2

* -request

You subscribe to these mailing lists by sending an empty email message to <mailinglist-name>[email protected]<machine> with the word subscribe as the subject. The same email with the word unsubscribe removes you from the list.

itself.

Once again, never send subscribe or unsubscribe messages to the mailing list

13.5 Newsgroups

A newsgroup is a notice board that everyone in the world can see. There are tens of thousands of newsgroups and each group is unique in the world.

The client software you use to read a newsgroup is called a

client

).

rtin is a popular text mode reader, while netscape

news reader

is graphical.

(or pan excellent graphical news reader that I use.

news

is an

Newsgroups are named like Internet hosts. One you might be interested in is comp.os.linux.announce

. The comp is the broadest subject description for

computers

; os stands for

operating systems

; and so on. Many other linux newsgroups are devoted to various L

INUX issues.

120

13.

L

INUX

Resources 13.6. RFCs

Newsgroups servers are big hungry beasts. They form a tree-like structure on the

Internet. When you send mail to a newsgroup it takes about a day or so for the mail you sent to propagate to every other server in the world. Likewise, you can see a list of all the messages posted to each newsgroup by anyone anywhere.

What’s the difference between a newsgroup and a mailing list? The advantage of a newsgroup is that you don’t have to download the messages you are not interested in. If you are on a mailing list, you get all the mail sent to the list. With a newsgroup you can look at the message list and retrieve only the messages you are interested in.

Why not just put the mailing list on a web page? If you did, then everyone in the world would have to go over international links to get to the web page. It would load the server in proportion to the number of subscribers. This is exactly what SlashDot is.

However, your newsgroup server is local, so you retrieve mail over a faster link and save Internet traffic.

13.6 RFCs

An indispensable source of information for serious administrators or developers is the

RFCs. RFC stands for

Request For Comments

. RFCs are Internet standards written by authorities to define everything about Internet communication. Very often, documentation will refer to RFCs.

&

There are also a few nonsense RFCs out there. For example there is an

RFC to communicate using pigeons, and one to facilitate an infinite number of monkeys trying to write the complete works of Shakespeare. Keep a close eye on

Slashdot

http://slashdot.org/ to catch these.

ftp://metalab.unc.edu/pub/docs/rfc/

(and mirrors) has the complete RFCs archived for download. There are about 2,500 of them. The index file rfc-index.txt

is probably where you should start. It has entries like:

¨

2045 Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) Part One: Format of

Internet Message Bodies. N. Freed & N. Borenstein. November 1996.

(Format: TXT=72932 bytes) (Obsoletes RFC1521, RFC1522, RFC1590)

(Updated by RFC2184, RFC2231) (Status: DRAFT STANDARD)

¥

5

2046 Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) Part Two: Media

Types. N. Freed & N. Borenstein. November 1996. (Format: TXT=105854

§ bytes) (Obsoletes RFC1521, RFC1522, RFC1590) (Status: DRAFT STANDARD)

¦

¥

2068 Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1. R. Fielding, J. Gettys,

J. Mogul, H. Frystyk, T. Berners-Lee. January 1997. (Format:

§

TXT=378114 bytes) (Status: PROPOSED STANDARD)

Well, you get the idea.

¦

121

13.6. RFCs 13.

L

INUX

Resources

122

Chapter 14

Permission and Modification

Times

Every file and directory on a U

NIX system, besides being owned by a user and a group, has access

flags

&

A switch that can either be on or off.

(also called kind of access that user and group have to the file.

access bits

) dictating what

Running

¨

-rwxr-xr-x

-rw-r--r-drwxrwxrwt

§ ls -ald /bin/cp /etc/passwd /tmp gives you a listing like this:

1 root

1 root

5 root root root root

28628 Mar 24 1999 /bin/cp

1151 Jul 23 22:42 /etc/passwd

4096 Sep 25 15:23 /tmp

¥

¦

In the leftmost column are flags which completely describe the access rights to the file.

So far I have explained that the furthest flag to the left is either an ordinary file or directory. The remaining nine have a -

or d , indicating to indicate an unset value or one of several possible characters. Table 14.1 gives a complete description of file system permissions.

14.1 The chmod Command

You use the chmod command to change the permissions of a file. It’s usually used as chmod [-R] [u|g|o|a][+|-][r|w|x|s|t] <file> [<file>] ...

§

¥

¦

123

14.1. The

chmod

Command 14. Permission and Modification Times

User, u

Group, g

Other, o

Possible chars, for unset r

Table 14.1 File and directory permissions

Effect for directories Effect for files

User can read the file.

w x s S r

User can read the contents of the directory.

With x or s , user can create and remove files in the directory.

User can access the contents of the files in a directory for

S has no effect.

x or s .

User can write to the file.

User can execute the file for x or s .

s , known as the

setuid

bit, means to set the user owner of the subsequent process to that of the file.

S has no effect.

Group can read the file.

w x s S r w x t T

Group can read the contents of the directory.

With x or s , group can create and remove files in the directory.

Group can access the contents of the files in a directory for x . For s , force all files in this directory to the same group as the directory.

S has no effect.

Everyone can read the contents of the directory.

With x or t , everyone can create and remove files in the directory.

Everyone can access the contents of the files in a directory for x and t .

t , known as the

sticky

bit, prevents users from removing files that they do not own, hence users are free to append to the directory but not to remove other users’ files.

T has no effect.

Group can write to the file.

Group can execute the file for x or s .

s , known as the

setgid

bit, means to set the group owner of the subsequent process to that of the file.

S has no effect.

Everyone can read the file.

Everyone can write to the file.

Group can execute the file for x or t . For t , save the process text image to the swap device so that future loads will be faster (I don’t know if this has an effect on L

INUX

).

T has no effect.

For example,

¨ chmod u+x myfile

§ adds execute permissions for the user of

¨ chmod a-rx myfile

§ myfile . And,

124

¥

¦

¥

¦

14. Permission and Modification Times 14.2. The

umask

Command removes r

ead

and

e

x

ecute

permissions for a

ll

—that is, user, group, and other.

The -R option, once again means

recursive

, diving into subdirectories as usual.

Permission bits are often represented in their binary form, especially in programs.

It is convenient to show the rwxrwxrwx set in octal,

&

See Section 2.1.

where each digit fits conveniently into three bits. Files on the system are usually created with

mode

0644 , meaning rw-r--r-. You can set permissions explicitly with an octal number, for example,

¨ chmod 0755 myfile

§

¥

¦ gives myfile the permissions rwxr-xr-x . For a full list of octal values for all kinds of permissions and file types, see /usr/include/linux/stat.h

.

In Table 14.1 you can see s , the

setuid

or

setgid

bit. If it is used without execute permissions then it has no meaning and is written as a capitalized S . This bit effectively colorizes an x into an s , so you should read an s as e

x

ecute

with

the setuid or setgid bit set.

t is known as the

sticky

bit. It also has no meaning if there are no execute permissions and is written as a capital T .

The leading 0 can in be ignored, but is preferred for explicitness. It value representing the three bits,

setuid

( 4 ),

setgid

( 2 ), and

sticky

( 1

can

take on a

). Hence a value of

5764 is 101 111 110 100 in binary and gives -rwsrw-r-T .

14.2 The umask Command

5 umask sets the default permissions for newly created files; it is usually 022 . This default value means that the permissions of any new file you create (say, with the touch command) will be g roup and of o

masked

ther. A with this number.

umask of 006

022 hence

excludes

write permissions of would exclude read and write permissions of o

¨ ther, but would allow read and write of g roup. Try umask touch <file1> ls -al <file1> umask 026 touch <file2> ls -al <file2>

§

¥

¦

026 is probably closer to the kind of mask we like as an ordinary user. Check your

/etc/profile file to see what umask your login defaults to, when, and also why.

125

14.3. Modification Times:

stat

14. Permission and Modification Times

14.3 Modification Times: stat

In addition to permissions, each file has three integers associated with it that represent, in seconds, the last time the file was accessed (read), when it was last modified (written to), and when its permissions were last changed. These are known as the

atime

,

mtime

, and

ctime

of a file respectively.

5 is the result of

¨

To get a complete listing of the file’s permissions, use the stat /etc :

File: "/etc"

Size: 4096 Filetype: Directory

Mode: (0755/drwxr-xr-x)

Device: 3,1 Inode: 14057

Uid: (

Links: 41

0/

Access: Sat Sep 25 04:09:08 1999(00000.15:02:23)

Modify: Fri Sep 24 20:55:14 1999(00000.22:16:17) root) stat

Gid: ( command. Here

0/ root)

¥

¦

The Size: quoted here is the actual amount of disk space used to store the directory

listing

, and is the same as reported by ls . In this case it is probably four disk blocks of 1024 bytes each. The size of a directory as quoted here does files contained under it. For a file, however, the Size:

not

mean the sum of all would be the exact file length in bytes (again, as reported by ls ).

126

Chapter 15

Symbolic and Hard Links

Very often, a file is required to be in two different directories at the same time. Think for example of a configuration file that is required by two different software packages that are looking for the file in different directories. The file could simply be copied, but to have to replicate changes in more than one place would create an administrative nightmare. Also consider a document that must be present in many directories, but which would be easier to update at one point.

The way two (or more) files can have the same data is with links.

15.1 Soft Links

5

10

To demonstrate a soft link, try the following:

¨ touch myfile ln -s myfile myfile2 ls -al cat > myfile a few lines of text

ˆD cat myfile cat myfile2

§

127

¥

¦

15.1. Soft Links 15. Symbolic and Hard Links

Notice that the and the usual ls -al next to listing has the letter myfile l on the far left next to

. This indicates that the file is a

soft

myfile2 link (also known as

, a

symbolic

link or

symlink

) to some other file.

A

symbolic link

contains no data of its own, only a reference to another file. It can even contain a reference to a directory. In either case, programs operating on the link will actually see the file or directory it points to.

5

Try

¨ mkdir mydir ln -s mydir mydir2 ls -al .

touch ./mydir/file1 touch ./mydir2/file2 ls -al ./mydir ls -al ./mydir2

§

The directory mydir2 is a symbolic link to mydir2 and appears as though it is a replica of the original. Once again the directory mydir2 does not consume additional disk space—a program that reads from the link is unaware that it is seeing into a different directory.

¥

¦

Symbolic links can also be copied and retain their value:

¨ cp mydir2 / ls -al / cd /mydir2

§

You have now copied the link to the root directory. However, the link points to a relative path mydir in the same directory as the link. Since there is no mydir here, an error is raised.

¥

¦

Try

¨ rm -f mydir2 /mydir2 ln -s ‘pwd‘/mydir mydir2 ls -al

§

Now you will see

¨ cp mydir2 / ls -al / cd /mydir2

§ mydir2 has an absolute path. You can try and notice that it now works.

One of the common uses of symbolic links is to make

mount

ed (see Section 19.4) file systems accessible from a different directory. For instance, you may have a large

¥

¦

¥

¦

128

15. Symbolic and Hard Links 15.2. Hard Links directory that has to be split over several physical disks. For clarity, you can mount the disks as /disk1 , /disk2 , etc., and then link the various subdirectories in a way that makes efficient use of the space you have.

Another example is the linking of grams accessing the device file

/dev/cdrom

/dev/cdrom to, say, /dev/hdc so that pro-

(see Chapter 18) actually access the correct IDE drive.

15.2 Hard Links

U

NIX allows the data of a file to have more than one name in separate places in the same file system. Such a file with more than one name for the same data is called a

hard-linked

¨ file and is similar to a symbolic link. Try touch mydata ln mydata mydataB ls -al

§

¥

¦

The files mydata and mydataB are indistinguishable. They share the same data, and have a 2 in second column of the

twice

ls -al listing. This means that they are hard-linked

(that there are two names for this file).

The reason why hard links are sometimes used in preference to symbolic links is that some programs are not fooled by a symbolic link: If you have, say, a script that uses cp to copy a file, it will copy the symbolic link instead of the file it points to.

actually has an option to override this behavior.

-

& cp

A hard link, however, will always be seen as a real file.

On the other hand, hard links cannot be made between files on different file systems nor can they be made between directories.

129

15.2. Hard Links 15. Symbolic and Hard Links

130

Chapter 16

Pre-installed Documentation

This chapter tells you where to find documentation on a common L

INUX distribution. The paths are derived from a RedHat distribution, but are no less applicable to other distributions, although the exact locations might be different. One difference between distributions is the migration of documentation source from /usr/

????

to

/usr/share/

????

—the proper place for them—on account of their being share able between different machines. See Chapter 35 for the

reason

documentation goes where it does. In many cases, documentation may not be installed or may be in completely different locations. Unfortunately, I cannot keep track of what the 20 major vendors are doing, so it is likely that this chapter will quickly become out of date.

For many proprietary operating systems, the definitive reference for their operating system is printed texts. For L

INUX

, much of documentation is written by the authors themselves and is included with the source code. A typical L

INUX distribution will package documentation along with the compiled binaries. Common distributions come with

hundreds of megabytes

of printable, hyperlinked, and plain text documentation. There is often no need to go the the World Wide Web unless something is outdated.

If you have not already tried this, run

¨ ls -ld /usr/*/doc /usr/*/*/doc /usr/share/*/*/doc \

/opt/*/doc /opt/*/*/doc

§

¥

¦

This is a somewhat unreliable way to search for potential documentation directories, but it gives at least the following list of directories for an official RedHat 7.0 with a complete set of installed packages:

¨

/usr/X11R6/doc

/usr/lib/X11/doc

/usr/local/doc

/usr/share/vim/vim57/doc

/usr/share/doc

/usr/share/gphoto/doc

¥

131

16. Pre-installed Documentation

/usr/share/lout/doc

Kernel documentation:

/usr/src/linux/Documentation/

This directory contains information on all hardware drivers except graphic cards. The kernel has built-in drivers for networking cards, SCSI controllers, sound cards, and so on. If you need to find out if one of these is supported, this is the first place to look.

X Window System graphics hardware support:

/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/doc/

(This is the same as /usr/X11R6/doc/ .) In this directory you will find documentation on all of the graphics hardware supported by , how to configure , tweak video modes, cope with incompatible graphics cards, and so on. See Section 43.5 for details.

TEX and Meta-Font reference:

/usr/share/texmf/doc/

This directory has an enormous and comprehensive reference to the TEX typesetting language and the Meta-Font font generation package. It is not, however, an exhaustive reference.

L TEX HTML documentation:

/usr/share/texmf/doc/latex/latex2e-html/

This directory contains a large reference to the L TEX typesetting language. (This book itself was typeset using L TEX.)

HOWTOs:

/usr/doc/HOWTO or /usr/share/doc/HOWTO

HOWTOs are an excellent source of layman tutorials for setting up almost any kind of service you can imagine. RedHat seems to no longer ship this documentation with their base set of packages. It is worth listing the contents here to emphasize diversity of topics covered. These are mirrored all over the Internet, so you should have no problem finding them from a search engine (in particular, from http://www.linuxdoc.org/

):

3Dfx-HOWTO

AX25-HOWTO

Access-HOWTO

Alpha-HOWTO

Assembly-HOWTO

Bash-Prompt-HOWTO

Benchmarking-HOWTO

Beowulf-HOWTO

BootPrompt-HOWTO

Bootdisk-HOWTO

Busmouse-HOWTO

Finnish-HOWTO

Firewall-HOWTO

French-HOWTO

Ftape-HOWTO

GCC-HOWTO

German-HOWTO

Glibc2-HOWTO

HAM-HOWTO

Hardware-HOWTO

Hebrew-HOWTO

INDEX.html

Modem-HOWTO

Multi-Disk-HOWTO

Multicast-HOWTO

NET-3-HOWTO

NFS-HOWTO

NIS-HOWTO

Networking-Overview-HOWTO

Optical-Disk-HOWTO

Oracle-HOWTO

PCI-HOWTO

PCMCIA-HOWTO

Security-HOWTO

Serial-HOWTO

Serial-Programming-HOWTO

Shadow-Password-HOWTO

Slovenian-HOWTO

Software-Release-Practice-HOWTO

Sound-HOWTO

Sound-Playing-HOWTO

Spanish-HOWTO

TeTeX-HOWTO

Text-Terminal-HOWTO

132

¦

16. Pre-installed Documentation

CD-Writing-HOWTO

CDROM-HOWTO

COPYRIGHT

Chinese-HOWTO

Commercial-HOWTO

Config-HOWTO

Consultants-HOWTO

Cyrillic-HOWTO

DNS-HOWTO

DOS-Win-to-Linux-HOWTO

DOS-to-Linux-HOWTO

DOSEMU-HOWTO

Danish-HOWTO

Distribution-HOWTO

ELF-HOWTO

Emacspeak-HOWTO

Esperanto-HOWTO

Ethernet-HOWTO

INFO-SHEET

IPCHAINS-HOWTO

IPX-HOWTO

IR-HOWTO

ISP-Hookup-HOWTO

Installation-HOWTO

Intranet-Server-HOWTO

Italian-HOWTO

Java-CGI-HOWTO

Kernel-HOWTO

Keyboard-and-Console-HOWTO

KickStart-HOWTO

LinuxDoc+Emacs+Ispell-HOWTO

META-FAQ

MGR-HOWTO

MILO-HOWTO

MIPS-HOWTO

Mail-HOWTO

PPP-HOWTO

PalmOS-HOWTO

Parallel-Processing-HOWTO

Pilot-HOWTO

Plug-and-Play-HOWTO

Polish-HOWTO

Portuguese-HOWTO

PostgreSQL-HOWTO

Printing-HOWTO

Printing-Usage-HOWTO

Quake-HOWTO

README

RPM-HOWTO

Reading-List-HOWTO

Root-RAID-HOWTO

SCSI-Programming-HOWTO

SMB-HOWTO

SRM-HOWTO

Thai-HOWTO

Tips-HOWTO

UMSDOS-HOWTO

UPS-HOWTO

UUCP-HOWTO

Unix-Internet-Fundamentals-HOWTO

User-Group-HOWTO

VAR-HOWTO

VME-HOWTO

VMS-to-Linux-HOWTO

Virtual-Services-HOWTO

WWW-HOWTO

WWW-mSQL-HOWTO

XFree86-HOWTO

XFree86-Video-Timings-HOWTO

XWindow-User-HOWTO

Mini HOWTOs:

/usr/doc/HOWTO/mini or /usr/share/doc/HOWTO/mini

These are smaller quick-start tutorials in the same vein (also available from http://www.linuxdoc.org/

):

3-Button-Mouse

ADSL

ADSM-Backup

AI-Alife

Advocacy

Alsa-sound

Apache+SSL+PHP+fp

Automount

Backup-With-MSDOS

Battery-Powered

Boca

BogoMips

Bridge

Bridge+Firewall

Bzip2

Cable-Modem

Cipe+Masq

Clock

Coffee

Colour-ls

Cyrus-IMAP

DHCP

DHCPcd

DPT-Hardware-RAID

Diald

Diskless

Ext2fs-Undeletion

Fax-Server

Firewall-Piercing

GIS-GRASS

GTEK-BBS-550

Hard-Disk-Upgrade

INDEX

INDEX.html

IO-Port-Programming

IP-Alias

IP-Masquerade

IP-Subnetworking

ISP-Connectivity

Install-From-ZIP

Kerneld

LBX

LILO

Large-Disk

Leased-Line

Linux+DOS+Win95+OS2

Linux+FreeBSD

Linux+FreeBSD-mini-HOWTO

Linux+NT-Loader

Linux+Win95

Loadlin+Win95

Loopback-Root-FS

Mac-Terminal

Mail-Queue

Mail2News

Man-Page

Modules

Multiboot-with-LILO

NCD-X-Terminal

NFS-Root

NFS-Root-Client

Netrom-Node

Netscape+Proxy

Netstation

News-Leafsite

Offline-Mailing

PLIP

Partition

Partition-Rescue

Path

Pre-Installation-Checklist

Process-Accounting

Proxy-ARP-Subnet

Public-Web-Browser

Qmail+MH

Quota

RCS

README

RPM+Slackware

RedHat-CD

Remote-Boot

Remote-X-Apps

SLIP-PPP-Emulator

Secure-POP+SSH

Sendmail+UUCP

Sendmail-Address-Rewrite

Small-Memory

Software-Building

Software-RAID

Soundblaster-AWE

StarOffice

Term-Firewall

TkRat

Token-Ring

Ultra-DMA

Update

Upgrade

VAIO+Linux

VPN

Vesafb

Visual-Bell

Windows-Modem-Sharing

WordPerfect

X-Big-Cursor

XFree86-XInside

Xterm-Title

ZIP-Drive

ZIP-Install

L

INUX

documentation project:

/usr/doc/LDP or /usr/share/doc/ldp

The LDP project’s home page is http://www.linuxdoc.org/

. The LDP is a consolidation of

HOWTOs, FAQs, several books, man pages, and more. The web site will have anything that is not already installed on your system.

Web documentation:

/home/httpd/html or /var/www/html

Some packages may install documentation here so that it goes online automatically if your web server is running.

(In older distributions, this directory was

/home/httpd/html .)

133

16. Pre-installed Documentation

Apache reference:

/home/httpd/html/manual or /var/www/html/manual

Apache keeps this reference material online, so that it is the default web page shown when you install Apache for the first time. Apache is the most popular web server.

Manual pages:

/usr/man/ or /usr/share/man/

Manual pages were discussed in Section 4.7. Other directory superstructures (see page

137) may contain man pages—on some other U

NIX systems man pages are littered everywhere.

(for the

¨

To convert a cp man command), page to PostScript (for printing or viewing), use, for example groff -Tps -mandoc /usr/man/man1/cp.1 > cp.ps ; gv cp.ps

groff -Tps -mandoc /usr/share/man/man1/cp.1 > cp.ps ; gv cp.ps

§

¥

¦

info pages:

/usr/info/ or /usr/share/info/

Info pages were discussed in Section 4.8.

Individual package documentation

: /usr/doc/* or /usr/share/doc/*

Finally, all packages installed on the system have their own individual documentation directory. A package foo will most probably have a documentation directory

/usr/doc/foo (or /usr/share/doc/foo ). This directory most often contains documentation released with the sources of the package, such as release information, feature news, example code, or FAQs. If you have a particular interest in a package, you should always scan its directory in /usr/doc (or /usr/share/doc ) or, better still, download its source distribution.

Below are the /usr/doc (or /usr/share/doc ) directories that contained more than a trivial amount of documentation for that package. In some cases, the package had complete references. (For example, the complete Python references were contained nowhere else.)

ImageMagick-5.2.2

LPRng-3.6.24

XFree86-doc-4.0.1

bash-2.04

bind-8.2.2 P5 cdrecord-1.9

cvs-1.10.8

fetchmail-5.5.0

freetype-1.3.1

gawk-3.0.6

gcc-2.96

gcc-c++-2.96

ghostscript-5.50

gimp-1.1.25

glibc-2.1.92

gtk+-1.2.8

gtk+-devel-1.2.8

ipchains-1.3.9

iproute-2.2.4

isdn4k-utils-3.1

krb5-devel-1.2.1

libtiff-devel-3.5.5

libtool-1.3.5

libxml-1.8.9

lilo-21.4.4

lsof-4.47

lynx-2.8.4

ncurses-devel-5.1

nfs-utils-0.1.9.1

openjade-1.3

openssl-0.9.5a

pam-0.72

pine-4.21

pmake-2.1.34

pygtk-0.6.6

python-docs-1.5.2

rxvt-2.6.3

sane-1.0.3

sgml-tools-1.0.9

slang-devel-1.4.1

stylesheets-1.54.13rh

tin-1.4.4

uucp-1.06.1

vim-common-5.7

134

Chapter 17

Overview of the U

NIX

Layout

Directory

Here is an overview of how U

NIX directories are structured. This is a simplistic and theoretical overview and not a specification of the L

INUX file system. Chapter 35 contains proper details of permitted directories and the kinds of files allowed within them.

17.1 Packages

L

INUX systems are divided into hundreds of small

packages

, each performing some logical group of operations. On L

INUX

, many small, self-contained packages interoperate to give greater functionality than would large, aggregated pieces of software.

There is also no clear distinction between what is part of the operating system and what is an application—every function is just a package.

A software package on a RedHat type system is distributed in a single

Package Manager

(

RPM

) file that has a .rpm

extension. On a

Debian

RedHat

distribution, the equivalent is a

.tgz

files.

.deb

package file, and on the

Slackware

distribution there are Slackware

Each package will unpack as many files, which are placed all over the system.

Packages generally do not create major directories but unpack files into existing, wellknown, major directories.

Note that on a newly installed system there are no files anywhere that do not belong to some package.

135

17.2.

U

NIX

Directory Superstructure 17. Overview of the U

NIX

Directory Layout

17.2 U

NIX

Directory Superstructure

5

10

The root directory on a U

NIX

¨ drwxr-xr-x drwxr-xr-x drwxr-xr-x drwxr-xr-x drwxr-xr-x drwxr-xr-x drwxr-xr-x drwxr-xr-x dr-xr-xr-x drwxr-xr-x drwxrwxrwt

2 root

2 root

7 root

41 root

24 root

4 root

2 root

7 root

80 root

3 root

5 root

25 root system typically looks like this: root root root root root root root root root root root root

2048 Aug 25 14:04 bin

1024 Sep 16 10:36 boot

35840 Aug 26 17:08 dev

4096 Sep 24 20:55 etc

1024 Sep 27 11:01 home

3072 May 19 10:05 lib

12288 Dec 15 1998 lost+found

1024 Jun 7 11:47 mnt

0 Sep 16 10:36 proc

3072 Sep 23 23:41 sbin

4096 Sep 28 18:12 tmp

1024 May 29 10:23 usr

5

10

15

The /usr directory typically looks like this:

¨ drwxr-xr-x drwxr-xr-x

9 root

6 root drwxr-xr-x 2 root drwxr-xr-x 261 root drwxr-xr-x 7 root drwxr-xr-x drwxr-xr-x drwxr-xr-x drwxr-xr-x drwxr-xr-x

2 root

4 root

36 root

2 root

79 root drwxr-xr-x drwxr-xr-x drwxr-xr-x drwxr-xr-x drwxr-xr-x

3 root

15 root

2 root

39 root

3 root

3 root root root root root root root root root root root root root root root root root

1024 May 15 11:49 X11R6

27648 Sep 28 17:18 bin

1024 May 13 16:46 dict

7168 Sep 26 10:55 doc

1024 Sep 3 08:07 etc

2048 May 15 10:02 games

1024 Mar 21 1999 i386-redhat-linux

7168 Sep 12 17:06 include

9216 Sep 7 09:05 info

12288 Sep 28 17:17 lib

1024 May 13 16:21 libexec

1024 May 13 16:35 man

4096 May 15 10:02 sbin

1024 Sep 12 17:07 share

1024 Sep 4 14:38 src

1024 Dec 16 1998 var

5

10

The /usr/local

¨ drwxr-xr-x drwxr-xr-x drwxr-xr-x drwxr-xr-x drwxr-xr-x drwxr-xr-x drwxr-xr-x drwxr-xr-x drwxr-xr-x

3 root

2 root

4 root

2 root

5 root

2 root

9 root

12 root

2 root

15 root directory typically looks like this: root root root root root root root root root root

4096 Sep 27 13:16 bin

1024 Feb 6 1996 doc

1024 Sep

1024 Feb

3 08:07 etc

6 1996 games

1024 Aug 21 19:36 include

1024 Sep 7 09:08 info

2048 Aug 21 19:44 lib

1024 Aug 2 1998 man

1024 Feb 6 1996 sbin

1024 Sep 7 09:08 share

136

¥

¦

¥

¦

¥

¦

17. Overview of the U

NIX

Directory Layout 17.2.

U

NIX

Directory Superstructure and the /usr/X11R6 directory also looks similar. What is apparent here is that all these directories contain a similar set of subdirectories. This set of subdirectories is called a

directory superstructure

or previously used by U

NIX administrators.

-

superstructure

.

&

To my knowledge this is a new term not

The superstructure always contains a others are optional.

bin and lib subdirectory, but almost all

Each package will install under one of these superstructures, meaning that it will unpack many files into various subdirectories of the superstructure. A RedHat package would always install under the /usr or / superstructure, unless it is a graphical

Window System application, which installs under the /usr/X11R6/ superstructure. Some very large applications may install under a /opt/<package-name> superstructure, and homemade packages usually install under the perstructure ( local means

specific to this very machine

/usr/local/ su-

). The directory superstructure under which a package installs is often called the

never install files across different superstructures.

installation prefix

.

Packages almost

&

Exceptions to this are configuration files which are mostly stored in /etc/ .

-

Typically, most of the system is under /usr . This directory can be read-only, since packages should never need to write to this directory—any writing is done under /var or /tmp ( /usr/var and /usr/tmp

/tmp , respectively). The small amount under / are often just symlinked to /var or that is not part of another superstructure (usually about 40 megabytes) performs essential system administration functions.

These are commands needed to bring up or repair the system in the absence of /usr .

The list of superstructure subdirectories and their descriptions is as follows:

bin

Binary executables

. Usually all bin directories are in the PATH environment variable so that the shell will search all these directories for binaries.

sbin

Superuser binary executables

. These are programs for system administration only.

Only the root will have these executables in their PATH .

lib

Libraries

. All other data needed by programs goes in here. Most packages have their own subdirectory under lib to store data files into.

Dynamically Linked

Libraries

(

DLL

s or .so

files.)

&

Executable program code shared by more than one program in the bin directory to save disk space and memory.

are stored directly in lib .

etc

Et cetera

. Configuration files.

var

Variable data

. Data files that are continually being re-created or updated.

doc

Documentation

. This directory is discussed in Chapter 16.

man

Manual pages

. This directory is discussed in Chapter 16.

info

Info pages

. This directory is discussed in Chapter 16.

137

17.3.

L

INUX on a Single Floppy Disk 17. Overview of the U

NIX

Directory Layout

share

Shared data

. Architecture-independent files. Files that are independent of the hardware platform go here. This allows them to be shared across different machines, even though those machines may have a different kind of processor altogether.

include

C

header files

. These are for development.

src

C

source files

. These are sources to the kernel or locally built packages.

tmp

Temporary files

. A convenient place for a running program to create a file for temporary use.

17.3 L

INUX on a Single 1.44 Megabyte Floppy Disk

You can get L

INUX to run on a 1.44 megabyte floppy disk if you trim all unneeded files off an old Slackware distribution with a 2.0.3x kernel. You can compile a small

2.0.3x kernel to about 400 kilobytes (compressed) (see Chapter 42). A file system can be reduced to 2–3 megabytes of absolute essentials and when compressed will fit into

1 megabyte. If the total is under 1.44 megabytes, then you have your L

INUX floppy. The file list might be as follows (includes all links): on one

/bin

/bin/sh

/bin/cat

/bin/chmod

/bin/chown

/bin/cp

/bin/pwd

/bin/dd

/bin/df

/bin/du

/bin/free

/bin/gunzip

/bin/gzip

/bin/hostname

/bin/login

/bin/ls

/bin/mkdir

/bin/mv

/bin/ps

/bin/rm

/bin/stty

/bin/su

/bin/sync

/bin/zcat

/bin/dircolors

/bin/mount

/bin/umount

/bin/bash

/bin/domainname

/bin/head

/bin/kill

/bin/tar

/bin/cut

/bin/uname

/bin/ping

/bin/ln

/bin/ash

/etc

/etc/default

/etc/fstab

/etc/group

/etc/host.conf

/etc/hosts

/etc/inittab

/etc/issue

/etc/utmp

/etc/networks

/etc/passwd

/etc/profile

/etc/protocols

/etc/rc.d

/etc/rc.d/rc.0

/etc/rc.d/rc.K

/etc/rc.d/rc.M

/etc/rc.d/rc.S

/etc/rc.d/rc.inet1

/etc/rc.d/rc.6

/etc/rc.d/rc.4

/etc/rc.d/rc.inet2

/etc/resolv.conf

/etc/services

/etc/termcap

/etc/motd

/etc/magic

/etc/DIR COLORS

/etc/HOSTNAME

/etc/mtools

/etc/ld.so.cache

/etc/psdevtab

/etc/mtab

/etc/fastboot

/lib

/lib/ld.so

/lib/libc.so.5

/lib/ld-linux.so.1

/lib/libcurses.so.1

/lib/libc.so.5.3.12

/lib/libtermcap.so.2.0.8

/lib/libtermcap.so.2

/lib/libext2fs.so.2.3

/lib/libcom err.so.2

/lib/libcom err.so.2.0

/lib/libext2fs.so.2

/lib/libm.so.5.0.5

/lib/libm.so.5

/lib/cpp

/usr

/usr/adm

/usr/bin

/usr/bin/less

/usr/bin/more

/usr/bin/sleep

/usr/bin/reset

/usr/bin/zless

/usr/bin/file

/usr/bin/fdformat

/usr/bin/strings

/usr/bin/zgrep

/usr/bin/nc

/usr/bin/which

/usr/bin/grep

/usr/sbin

/usr/sbin/showmount

/usr/sbin/chroot

/usr/spool

/usr/tmp

/sbin

/sbin/e2fsck

/sbin/fdisk

/sbin/fsck

/sbin/ifconfig

/sbin/iflink

/sbin/ifsetup

/sbin/init

/sbin/mke2fs

/sbin/mkfs

/sbin/mkfs.minix

/sbin/mklost+found

/sbin/mkswap

/sbin/mount

/sbin/route

/sbin/shutdown

/sbin/swapoff

/sbin/swapon

/sbin/telinit

/sbin/umount

/sbin/agetty

/sbin/update

/sbin/reboot

/sbin/netcfg

/sbin/killall5

/sbin/fsck.minix

/sbin/halt

/sbin/badblocks

/sbin/kerneld

/sbin/fsck.ext2

/var

/var/adm

/var/adm/utmp

/var/adm/cron

/var/spool

/var/spool/uucp

/var/spool/uucp/SYSLOG

/var/spool/uucp/ERRLOG

/var/spool/locks

/var/tmp

/var/run

/var/run/utmp

/home/user

/mnt

/proc

/tmp

/dev/<various-devices>

Note that the tem startup files etc directory differs from that of a RedHat distribution. The sys-

/etc/rc.d

are greatly simplified under Slackware.

138

17. Overview of the U

NIX

Directory Layout 17.3.

L

INUX on a Single Floppy Disk

The /lib/modules

/lib/modules/2.0.36

directory has been stripped for the creation of this floppy.

would contain dynamically loadable kernel drivers (modules). Instead, all needed drivers are compiled into the kernel for simplicity (explained in Chapter 42).

At some point, try creating a single floppy distribution as an exercise. This task should be most instructive to a serious system administrator. At the very least, you should look through all of the commands in the bin directories and the sbin directories above and browse through the man pages of any that are unfamiliar.

The preceding file system comes from the morecram-1.3

package available from http://rute.sourceforge.net/morecram-1.3.tar.gz

. It can be downloaded to provide a useful rescue and setup disk. Note that there are

many

such rescue disks available which are more current than morecram .

139

17.3.

L

INUX on a Single Floppy Disk 17. Overview of the U

NIX

Directory Layout

140

Chapter 18

U

NIX

Devices

U

NIX was designed to allow transparent access to hardware devices across all CPU architectures. U

NIX also supports the philosophy that all devices be accessible using the same set of command-line utilities.

18.1 Device Files

U

NIX has a beautifully consistent method of allowing programs to access hardware.

Under U

NIX

, every piece of hardware is a file. To demonstrate this novelty, try viewing the file

¨

/dev/hda (you will have to be root to run this command): less -f /dev/hda

§

¥

¦

/dev/hda is not really a file at all. When you read from it, you are actually reading directly from the first physical hard disk of your machine.

/dev/hda is known as a device file, and all of them are stored under the /dev directory.

Device files allow access to hardware. If you have a sound card installed and configured, you can try:

¨ cat /dev/dsp > my_recording

§

¥

¦

Say something into your microphone and then type:

¨ cat my_recording > /dev/dsp

§

¥

¦

The system will play out the sound through your speakers. (Note that this does not always work, since the recording volume or the recording speed may not be set correctly.)

141

18.2. Block and Character Devices 18.

U

NIX

Devices

If no programs are currently using your mouse, you can also try:

¨ cat /dev/mouse

§

¥

¦

If you now move the mouse, the mouse protocol commands will be written directly to your screen (it will look like garbage). This is an easy way to see if your mouse is working, and is especially useful for testing a serial port. Occasionally this test doesn’t work because some command has previously configured the serial port in some odd way. In that case, also try:

¨ cu -s 1200 -l /dev/mouse

§

¥

¦

At a lower level, programs that access device files do so in two basic ways:

They read and write to the device to send and retrieve bulk data (much like less and cat above).

They use the

C

ioctl (

IO Control

) function to configure the device. (In the case of the sound card, this might set mono versus stereo, recording speed, or other parameters.)

Because every kind of device that one can think of (except for network cards) can be twisted to fit these two modes of operation, U

NIX

’s scheme has endured since its inception and is the universal method of accessing hardware.

18.2 Block and Character Devices

Hardware devices can generally be categorized into random access devices like disk and tape drives, and serial devices like mouse devices, sound cards, and terminals.

Random access devices are usually accessed in large contiguous blocks of data that are stored persistently. They are read from in discrete units (for most disks, 1024 bytes at a time). These are known as shows a b

block

devices. Running an ls -l /dev/hda on the far left of the listing, which means that your hard disk is a block brw-r-----

§

1 root disk 3, 64 Apr 27 1995 /dev/hdb

¥

¦

Serial devices, on the other hand, are accessed one byte at a time. Data can be read or written only once. For example, after a byte has been read from your mouse, the same byte cannot be read by some other program. Serial devices are called

character

devices and are indicated by a c on the far left of the listing. Your /dev/dsp (

Digital

Signal Processor

—that is, your sound card) device looks like:

142

18.

U

NIX

Devices

¨ crw-r--r--

§

1 root sys

18.3.

Major and Minor Device Numbers

14, 3 Jul 18 1994 /dev/dsp

¥

¦

18.3

Major

and

Minor

Device Numbers

Devices are divided into sets called

major device numbers

. For instance, all SCSI disks are

major number 8

. Further, each individual device has a

/dev/sda , which is

minor device 0 minor device number

like

. Major and minor device numbers identify the device to the kernel. The file name of the device is arbitrary and is chosen for convenience and consistency. You can see the major and minor device number ( 8, 0 ) in the ls

¨ listing for brw-rw----

§

/dev/sda

1 root

: disk 8, 0 May 5 1998 /dev/sda

¥

¦

18.4 Common Device Names

A list of common devices and their descriptions follows.

bers are shown in parentheses.

The major num-

The complete reference for devices is the file

/usr/src/linux/Documentation/devices.txt

.

/dev/hd??

hd stands for

hard disk

, but refers here only to mon hard disks. The first letter after the hd

IDE

devices—that is, comdictates the physical disk drive:

/dev/hda (3)

First drive, or primary master.

/dev/hdb (3)

Second drive, or primary slave.

/dev/hdc (22)

Third drive, or secondary master.

/dev/hdd (22)

Fourth drive, or secondary slave.

When accessing any of these devices (with, say, less /dev/hda ), you would be reading raw from the actual physical disk starting at the first sector of the first track, sequentially, until the last sector of the last track.

Partitions

&

With all operating systems, disk drives are divided into sections called

partitions

. A typical disk might have 2 to 10 partitions. Each partition acts as a whole disk on its own, giving the effect of having more than one disk. For instance, you might have Windows installed on one partition and L

INUX installed on another. More details come in Chapter 19.

are named /dev/hda1 ,

/dev/hda2 , etc., indicating the first, second, etc., partition on physical drive a .

143

18.4. Common Device Names 18.

U

NIX

Devices

/dev/sd

??

sda

(8)

sd stands for

SCSI disk

, the high-end drives mostly used by servers.

is the first physical disk probed, and so on. Probing goes by SCSI ID and has a system completely different from that of IDE devices.

partition on the first drive, etc.

/dev/sda1 is the first

/dev/ttyS

?

(4)

These are serial devices numbered from 0 up.

/dev/ttyS0 is your first serial port (COM1 under MS-DOS or Windows). If you have a multiport card, these can go to 32 , 64 , and up.

/dev/psaux (10)

PS/2 mouse.

/dev/mouse

A symlink to also supported.

/dev/ttyS0 or /dev/psaux . Other mouse devices are

/dev/modem

A symlink to /dev/ttyS1 or whatever port your modem is on.

/dev/cua

?

(4)

Identical to ttyS

?

but now fallen out of use.

/dev/fd

?

The

(2)

fd0

Floppy disk

.

and fd1 fd0 is equivalent to your A: drive and fd1 your B: drive.

devices autodetect the format of the floppy disk, but you can explicitly specify a higher density by using a device name like /dev/fd0H1920 , which gives you access to 1.88 MB, formatted, 3.5-inch floppies. Other floppy devices are shown in Table 18.1.

See Section 19.3.4 on how to format these devices.

/dev/par

?

(6)

Parallel port

.

/dev/par0 is your first parallel port or LPT1 under DOS.

/dev/lp

?

(6)

Line printer

. Identical to /dev/par

?

.

/dev/urandom

Random

random numbers.

number generator. Reading from this device gives pseudo-

/dev/st

?

(9)

SCSI tape

. SCSI backup tape drive.

/dev/zero (1)

Produces zero bytes, and as many of them as you need. This is useful if you need to generate a block of zeros for some reason. Use dd (see Section

18.5.2) to read a specific number of zeros.

/dev/null (1)

Null device

. Reads nothing. Anything you write to the device is discarded. This is very useful for discarding output.

/dev/pd

?

Parallel port IDE disk

.

/dev/pcd

?

Parallel port ATAPI CD-ROM

.

/dev/pf

?

Parallel port ATAPI disk

.

/dev/sr

?

SCSI CD-ROM

.

/dev/scd

?

SCSI CD-ROM

(Identical, alternate name).

144

18.

U

NIX

Devices 18.4. Common Device Names

l

Table 18.1 Floppy device names

Floppy devices are named /dev/fd

lmnnnn m nnnn

H

E q

D u d h

0

1

360 410 420 720

800 820 830 880

1040 1120 1200

1440 1476 1494

1600 1680 1722

1743 1760 1840

1920 2880 3200

3520 3840

A:

B: drive drive

“double density” 360 KB or 5.25 inch

“high density” 1.2 MB or 5.25 inch

“quad density” 5.25 inch

“double density” 720 KB or 3.5 inch

“high density” 1.44 MB or 3.5 inch

Extra density 3.5 inch.

Any 3.5-inch floppy. Note that

D , H , and E u now replaces

, thus leaving it up to the user to decide if the floppy has enough density for the format.

The size of the format. With D , H , and E , 3.5inch floppies have devices only for the sizes that are likely to work. For instance, there is no

/dev/fd0D1440 because double density disks won’t manage 1440 KB.

/dev/fd0H1920

/dev/fd0H1440 and are probably the ones you are most interested in.

/dev/sg

?

SCSI generic

. This is a general-purpose SCSI command interface for devices like scanners.

/dev/fb

?

(29)

Frame buffer

. This represents the kernel’s attempt at a graphics driver.

/dev/cdrom

A symlink to /dev/hda , /dev/hdb , or /dev/hdc . It can also be linked to your SCSI CD-ROM.

/dev/ttyI

?

ISDN modems

.

/dev/tty

?

(4)

Virtual console

. This is the terminal device for the virtual console itself and is numbered /dev/tty1 through /dev/tty63 .

/dev/tty

??

(3) and /dev/pty

??

nal. These are called

(2)

Other

pseudo-TTY

TTY

devices used for emulating a termis and are identified by two lowercase letters and numbers, such as interest.

ttyq3 . To nondevelopers, these are mostly of theoretical

The file /usr/src/linux/Documentation/devices.txt

(quoted verbatim): also has this to say

145

18.4. Common Device Names 18.

U

NIX

Devices

Recommended links

It is recommended that these links exist on all systems:

/dev/core

/dev/ramdisk

/dev/ftape

/dev/bttv0

/dev/radio

/dev/i2o

*

/dev/scd

?

/proc/kcore ram0 qft0 video0 radio0

/dev/i2o/

*

sr

?

symbolic symbolic symbolic symbolic symbolic symbolic hard

Backward compatibility

Backward compatibility

Backward compatibility

Backward compatibility

Backward compatibility

Backward compatibility

Alternate SCSI CD-ROM name

Locally defined links

The following links may be established locally to conform to the configuration of the system. This is merely a tabulation of existing practice, and does not constitute a recommendation. However, if they exist, they should have the following uses:

/dev/mouse

/dev/tape

/dev/cdrom

/dev/cdwriter

/dev/scanner

/dev/modem

/dev/root

/dev/swap mouse port tape device

CD-ROM device

CD-writer scanner modem port root device swap device symbolic symbolic symbolic symbolic symbolic symbolic symbolic symbolic

Current mouse device

Current tape device

Current CD-ROM device

Current CD-writer device

Current scanner device

Current dialout device

Current root file system

Current swap device

/dev/modem should not be used for a modem which supports dial-in as well as dialout, as it tends to cause lock file problems. If it exists, /dev/modem should point to the appropriate primary TTY device (the use of the alternate callout devices is deprecated).

For SCSI devices, devices ( /dev/st

*

/dev/tape and and

/dev/sr

*

/dev/cdrom should point to the “cooked”

, respectively), whereas /dev/cdwriter and

/dev/scanner should point to the appropriate generic SCSI devices ( /dev/sg

*

).

/dev/mouse may point to a primary serial TTY device, a hardware mouse device, or a socket for a mouse driver program (e.g.

/dev/gpmdata ).

Sockets and pipes

Non-transient sockets and named pipes may exist in /dev . Common entries are:

/dev/printer

/dev/log

/dev/gpmdata socket socket socket lpd local socket syslog local socket mouse multiplexer

146

18.

U

NIX

Devices 18.5.

dd

,

tar

, and Tricks with Block Devices

18.5

dd , tar , and Tricks with Block Devices

dd probably originally stood for

disk dump

. It is actually just like cat except it can read and write in discrete blocks. It essentially reads and writes between devices while converting the data in some way. It is generally used in one of these ways:

¨ dd if=<in-file> of=<out-file> [bs=<block-size>] \

[count=<number-of-blocks>] [seek=<output-offset>] \

[skip=<input-offset>]

¥

5 dd if=<in-file> [bs=<block-size>] [count=<number-of-blocks>] \

[skip=<input-offset>] > <outfile> dd of=<out-file> [bs=<block-size>] [count=<number-of-blocks>] \

§

[seek=<output-offset>] < <infile>

¦ of=

To use dd , you must specify an input file and an output file with the options. If the is omitted, then dd of= option is omitted, then reads from stdin.

dd writes to stdout. If the if=

&

If you are confused, remember that dd thinks of if= and option

in

and

out

with respect to itself.

-

Note that caution.

dd is an unforgiving and destructive command that should be used with

18.5.1 Creating boot disks from boot images

To create a new RedHat boot floppy, find the and with a new floppy, run:

¨ dd if=boot.img of=/dev/fd0

§ boot.img

file on ftp.redhat.com

,

¥

¦

This command writes the raw disk image directly to the floppy disk. All distributions will have similar disk images for creating installation floppies (and sometimes rescue floppies).

18.5.2 Erasing disks

If you have ever tried to repartition a L

INUX you will know that DOS/Windows FDISK disk back into a DOS/Windows disk, has bugs in it that prevent it from recreating the partition table. A quick

¨ dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/hda bs=1024 count=10240

§

¥

¦

147

18.5.

dd

,

tar

, and Tricks with Block Devices 18.

U

NIX

Devices will write zeros to the first 10 megabytes of your first IDE drive. This will wipe out the partition table as well as any file system information and give you a “brand new” disk.

To zero a floppy disk is just as easy:

¨ dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/fd0 bs=1024 count=1440

§

¥

¦

Even writing zeros to a floppy may not be sufficient. Specialized equipment can probably still read magnetic media after it has been erased several times. If, however, you write random bits to the floppy, it becomes completely impossible to determine

¥ mknod /dev/urandom c 1 9 for i in 1 2 3 4 ; do dd if=/dev/urandom of=/dev/fd0 bs=1024 count=1440

¦

18.5.3 Identifying data on raw disks

Here is a nice trick to find out something about a hard drive:

¨ dd if=/dev/hda1 count=1 bs=512 | file -

§ gives x86 boot sector .

¥

¦

To discover what a floppy disk is, try

¨ dd if=/dev/fd0 count=1 bs=512 | file -

§ which gives floppies.

x86 boot sector, system )k?/bIHC, FAT (12 bit) for DOS

¥

¦

18.5.4 Duplicating a disk

If you have two IDE drives that are of identical size, and provided that you are sure they contain no bad sectors and

¨

provided neither are mounted

, you can run

¥ to copy the entire disk and avoid having to install an operating system from scratch.

It doesn’t matter what is on the original (Windows, L

INUX

, or whatever) since each sector is identically duplicated; the new system will work perfectly.

(If they are not the same size, you will have to use file system exactly.) tar or mirrordir to replicate the

¦

148

18.

U

NIX

Devices 18.5.

dd

,

tar

, and Tricks with Block Devices

18.5.5 Backing up to floppies

You can use tar to back up to

any

device. Consider periodic backups to an ordinary

IDE drive instead of a tape. Here we back up to the secondary slave:

¨ tar -cvzf /dev/hdd /bin /boot /dev /etc /home /lib /sbin /usr /var

§

¥

¦ tar can also back up across multiple floppy disks:

¨ tar -cvMf /dev/fd0 /home/simon

§

¥

¦

18.5.6 Tape backups

tar

¨ traditionally backs up onto tape drives. The commands mt -f /dev/st0 rewind tar -cvf /dev/st0 /home

§ rewind s csi t ape 0 and archive the /home directory onto it. You should not try to use compression with tape drives because they are error prone, and a single error could make the entire archive unrecoverable. The mt command stands for and controls generic SCSI tape devices. See also mt (1).

m agnetic t ape

¥

¦

18.5.7 Hiding program output, creating blocks of zeros

If you don’t want to see any program output, just append > /dev/null mand. For example, we aren’t often interested in the output of make .

to the com-

& make is discussed later.

-

¨

Here we absorb everything save for error messages.

make > /dev/null

§

¥

¦

Then, of course, we can absorb all output

including

¨ make >& /dev/null

§ error messages with either

¥

¦

¥ make > /dev/null 2>&1

§

The device /dev/null finds innumerable uses in shell scripting to suppress the output of a command or to feed a command dummy (empty) input.

/dev/null is a

safe

¦

149

18.6. Creating Devices with

mknod

and

/dev/MAKEDEV

18.

U

NIX

Devices file from a security point of view. It is often used when a file is required for some feature in a configuration script, and you would like the particular feature disabled. For instance, specifying the users shell to /dev/null inside the password file will

certainly

prevent insecure use of a shell, and is an explicit way of saying that that account does

not

allow shell logins.

You can also use /dev/null to create a file containing nothing:

¨ cat /dev/null > myfile

§ or alternatively, to create a file containing only zeros. Try

¨ dd if=/dev/zero bs=1024 count=<number-of-kilobytes> > myfile

§

¥

¦

¥

¦

18.6 Creating Devices with mknod and /dev/MAKEDEV

Although all devices are listed in the /dev in the file system by using the

¨ directory, you can create a device anywhere mknod command: mknod [-m <mode>] <file-name> [b|c] <major-number> <minor-number>

§

¥

¦

The letters b and c are for creating a block or character device, respectively.

To demonstrate, try

¨ mknod -m 0600 ˜/my-floppy b 2 0 ls -al /dev/fd0 ˜/my-floppy

§ my-floppy can be used just like /dev/fd0

Note carefully the

mode

(i.e., the permissions) of be readable and writable only to root

/dev/fd0 .

/dev/fd0 and to users belonging to the floppy should group, since we obviously don’t want an arbitrary user to be able to log in (remotely) and overwrite a floppy disk.

¥

¦

U

NIX

In fact, this is the reason for having devices represented as files in the first place.

files naturally support group access control, and therefore so do devices.

To create devices that are missing from your /dev directory (some esoteric devices will not be present by default), simply look up the device’s major and minor number in /usr/src/linux/Documentation/devices.txt

and use the mand. This procedure is, however, somewhat tedious, and the script mknod com-

/dev/MAKEDEV is usually available for convenience.

script.

You must be in the /dev directory before you run this

150

18.

U

NIX

Devices 18.6. Creating Devices with

mknod

and

/dev/MAKEDEV

Typical usage of

¨ cd /dev

./MAKEDEV -v fd0

./MAKEDEV -v fd1

§

MAKEDEV is to create a complete set of floppy disk devices.

The man page for MAKEDEV contains more details. In particular, it states:

Note that programs giving the error “ENOENT: No such file or directory” normally means that the device file is missing, whereas “ENODEV: No such device” normally means the kernel does not have the driver configured or loaded.

¥

¦

151

18.6. Creating Devices with

mknod

and

/dev/MAKEDEV

18.

U

NIX

Devices

152

Chapter 19

Partitions, File Systems,

Formatting, Mounting

19.1 The Physical Disk Structure

Physical disks are divided into partitions.

&

See

/dev/hd??

tion as to how the disk is partitioned up is stored in a under Section 18.4.

-

partition table

Informa-

, which is a small area of the disk separate from the partitions themselves.

19.1.1 Cylinders, heads, and sectors

The physical drive itself usually comprises several actual disks of which both sides are used. The sides are labelled 0, 1, 2, 3, and so on, and are also called

heads

because one magnetic head per side does the actual reading and writing. Each side/head has tracks, and each track is divided into segments called

sectors

. Each sector typically holds 512 bytes. The total amount of space on the drive in bytes is therefore:

512 (sectors-per-track) (tracks-per-side) (number-of-sides)

A single track and all the tracks of the same diameter (on all the sides) are called a

cylinder

. Disks are normally talked about in terms of “cylinders and sectors” instead of

“sides, tracks, and sectors.” Partitions are (usually) divided along cylinder boundaries.

Hence, disks do not have arbitrarily sized partitions; rather, the size of the partition is usually a multiple of the amount of data held in a single cylinder. Partitions therefore have a definite inner and outer diameter. Figure 19.1 illustrates the layout of a hard disk.

153

19.1. The Physical Disk Structure 19. Partitions, File Systems, Formatting, Mounting

Partition Sector

Cylinder

Side 0

Side 1

Side 2

Side 3

Side 4

Side 5

Figure 19.1 Hard drive platters and sector layout

19.1.2 Large Block Addressing

The system above is quite straightforward except for the curious limitation that partition tables have only 10 bits in which to store the partition’s cylinder offset. This means that no disk can have more than 1024 cylinders. This limitation was overcome by multiplying up the number of heads in software to reduce the number of cylinders,

&

Called

LBA

(Large Block Addressing) mode.

hence portraying a disk of impossible proportions. The user, however, need never be concerned that the physical disk is completely otherwise.

19.1.3 Extended partitions

The partition table has room for only four partitions. For more partitions, one of these four partitions can be divided into many smaller partitions, called

logical

partitions.

The original four are then called

primary

partitions. If a primary partition is subdivided in this way, it is known as an

extended primary

or

extended

partition. Typically, the first primary partition will be small ( /dev/hda1 , say). The second primary partition will fill the rest of the disk as an extended partition ( /dev/hda2 , say). In this case, the entries in the partition table of /dev/hda3 and /dev/hda4 will be blank. The

154

19. Partitions, File Systems, Formatting, Mounting 19.2. Partitioning a New Disk extended partition can be subdivided repeatedly to give /dev/hda5 , /dev/hda6 , and so on.

19.2 Partitioning a New Disk

A new disk has no partition information. Typing tioning utility. The command

¨ fdisk /dev/hda

§ fdisk will start an interactive parti-

¥

¦ fdisk s your primary master.

What follows is an example of the partitioning of a new hard drive. Most distributions these days have a simpler graphical system for creating partitions, so using fdisk will not be necessary at installation time. However, adding a new drive or transferring/copying a L

INUX system to new hardware will require partitioning.

On U

NIX

, each partition has its own

directory

.

Files under one directory might be stored on a different disk or a different partition to files in another directory

. Typically, the

/var directory (and all subdirectories beneath it) is stored on a different partition from the /usr directory (and all subdirectories beneath it).

Table 19.2 offers a general guideline as to how a server machine should be set up (with home computers, you can be far more liberal—most home PCs can do with merely a swap and / partition.). When you install a new server, your distribution should allow you to customize your partitions to match this table.

p

¨

If another operating system is already installed in the first partition, you can type and might see:

Command (m for help):

p

¥

Disk /dev/hda: 255 heads, 63 sectors, 788 cylinders

Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 bytes

5

Device Boot Start

1

End

312

Blocks

2506108+

Id c

System

Win95 FAT32 (LBA)

¦

In such a case, you can just start adding further partitions.

The exact same procedure applies in the case of SCSI drives. The only difference is that /dev/hd

?

changes to /dev/sd

?

. (See Chapter 42 for SCSI device driver information.)

Here is a partitioning session with fdisk :

¨

[[email protected] /root]#

fdisk /dev/hda

Device contains neither a valid DOS partition table, nor Sun or SGI disklabel

¥

155

19.2. Partitioning a New Disk 19. Partitions, File Systems, Formatting, Mounting

Table 19.1 Which directories should have their own partitions, and their partitions’ sizes

Directory Size

(Megabytes)

Why?

swap

Twice the size of your

RAM

This is where memory is drawn from when you run out. The swap partition gives programs the impression that you have more RAM than you actually do, by swapping data in and out of this partition.

/boot

/var

/tmp

/usr

/home

/

5–10

100–1000

50

500–1500

Remainder of disk

50–100

Swap partitions cannot be over 128 MB, but you can have many of them. This limitation has been removed in newer kernels.

Disk access is obviously slow compared to direct RAM, but when a lot of idle programs are running, swapping to disk allows more real RAM for needy programs.

This directory need not be on a different partition to your you choose, there must be no chance that a file under

/

/boot partition (below). Whatever could span sectors that are over the 1024 cylinder boundary (i.e., outside of the first 500 megabytes of your hard drive). This is why /boot (or / ) is often made the first primary partition of the hard drive. If this requirment is not met, you get the famous system. See Section 31.2.4.

LI prompt on a nonbooting

Here is variable data, like log files, mail spool files, database files, and your web proxy cache (web cache and databases may need to be

much

bigger though). For newer distributions, this directory also contains any local data that this site serves (like FTP files or web pages). If you are going to be using a web cache, either store the stuff in a separate partition/disk or make your /var partition huge. Also, log files can grow to enormous sizes when there are problems. You don’t want a full or corrupted the rest of your disk. This is why it goes in its own partition.

/var partition to effect

Here is temporary data. Programs access this frequently and need it to be fast. It goes in a separate partition because programs

really

need to create a temporary file sometimes, and this should not be affected by other partitions becoming full. This partition is also more likely to be corrupted.

Here is your distribution (Debian , RedHat, Mandrake, etc.). It can be mounted readonly. If you have a disk whose write access can physically be disabled (like some SCSI drives), then you can put /usr secure system. Since /usr on a separate drive. Doing so will make for a much more is stock standard, this is the partition you can most afford to lose. Note however that elsewhere.

/usr/local/ may be important to you—possibly link this

Here are your users’ home directories. For older distributions, this directory also contains any local data that this site serves (like FTP files or web pages).

Anything not in any of the other directories is directly under your are the /bin (5MB), (possibly) /boot (3MB), /dev (0.1MB), /etc

/ directory. These

(4MB), /lib (20MB),

/mnt (0MB), /proc (0MB), and /sbin (4MB) directories. They are essential for the system to start up and contain minimal utilities for recovering the other partitions in an emergency. As stated above, if the /boot directory is in a separate partition, then / must be below the 1024 cylinder boundary (i.e., within the first 500 megabytes of your hard drive).

5

Building a new DOS disklabel. Changes will remain in memory only, until you decide to write them. After that, of course, the previous

¦

First, we use the

¨

Command (m for help): p option to print current partitions—

p

5

Disk /dev/hda: 255 heads, 63 sectors, 788 cylinders

Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 bytes

§

Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System

156

¥

¦

19. Partitions, File Systems, Formatting, Mounting 19.2. Partitioning a New Disk

5

—of which there are clearly none. Now n

¨

Command (m for help):

Command action e p extended

n

primary partition (1-4) lets us add a new partition:

¥

¦

We want to define the first physical partition starting at the first cylinder:

¨

Partition number (1-4):

1

1

We would like an 80-megabyte partition.

tomatically with:

¨ fdisk calculates the last cylinder au-

+80M

¥

¦

5

Our next partition:

¨ n ew partition will span the rest of the disk and will be an

Command (m for help):

Command action e extended

n

p primary partition (1-4)

e

Partition number (1-4):

2

First cylinder (12-788, default 12):

12

788

e xtended

¥

¦

5

Our remaining l ogical partitions fit within the extended partition:

¨

Command (m for help):

n

Command action l logical (5 or over) p primary partition (1-4)

l

First cylinder (12-788, default 12):

12

Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (12-788, default 788):

+64M

10

15

Command (m for help):

Command action l p

n

logical (5 or over) primary partition (1-4)

l

First cylinder (21-788, default 21):

21

Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (21-788, default 788):

+100M

157

¥

¦

¥

19.2. Partitioning a New Disk 19. Partitions, File Systems, Formatting, Mounting

20

Command (m for help):

Command action l p

n

logical (5 or over) primary partition (1-4)

l

First cylinder (34-788, default 34):

34

Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (34-788, default 788):

+200M

25

30

Command (m for help):

Command action

n

l p logical (5 or over) primary partition (1-4)

l

First cylinder (60-788, default 60):

60

Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (60-788, default 788):

+1500M

35

Command (m for help):

Command action l p

n

logical (5 or over) primary partition (1-4)

l

First cylinder (252-788, default 252):

252

788

¦

The default determine what kind of file system is stored there. Entering

¨

partition type

is a single byte that the operating system will look at to l lists all known types:

Command (m for help):

l

¥

5

0 Empty

[...]

8 AIX

16

4d

9 AIX bootable

[...]

12

4e

Compaq diagnost 56

Hidden FAT16 <3 5c

Hidden FAT16

Golden Bow

Priam Edisk

61

QNX4.x

82

QNX4.x 2nd part 83 a5

SpeedStor

Linux swap

Linux

BSD/386 a6 OpenBSD db e1

CP/M / CTOS / .

DOS access ff BBT

¦ fdisk will set the type to type of the swap partition:

¨

Linux

Command (m for help):

t

Partition number (1-9):

5

Hex code (type L to list codes):

82

by default. We only need to explicitly set the

¥

¦

Now we need to set the boot a ble flag on the first partition, since BIOS’s will not boot a disk without at least one bootable partition:

¨

Command (m for help):

a

¥

158

19. Partitions, File Systems, Formatting, Mounting 19.2. Partitioning a New Disk

1

¦

Displaying our results gives:

¨

Command (m for help):

p

5

10

Disk /dev/hda: 255 heads, 63 sectors, 788 cylinders

Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 bytes

Device Boot

/dev/hda1 *

/dev/hda2

/dev/hda5

/dev/hda6

/dev/hda7

/dev/hda8

Start

1

12

12

21

34

60

252

End

11

788

20

33

59

251

788

Blocks

88326

6241252+

72261

104391

208813+

1542208+

4313421

Id

83

5

82

83

83

83

83

System

Linux

Extended

Linux swap

Linux

Linux

Linux

Linux

¥

¦

At this point, nothing has been committed to disk. We this step is irreversible): w rite it as follows (

Note:

¨

Command (m for help):

w

The partition table has been altered!

¥

5

Calling ioctl() to re-read partition table.

Syncing disks.

WARNING: If you have created or modified any DOS 6.x

partitions, please see the fdisk manual page for additional

¦

Even having w ritten the partition, fdisk may give a warning that the kernel does not know about the new partitions. This happens if the disk is already in use. In this case, you will need to reboot. For the above partition, the kernel will give the following information at boot time:

¨

Partition check: hda: hda1 hda2 < hda5 hda6 hda7 hda8 hda9 >

§

¥

¦

The < . . .

> partitions.

shows that partition hda2 is extended and is subdivided into five smaller

159

19.3. Formatting Devices 19. Partitions, File Systems, Formatting, Mounting

19.3 Formatting Devices

19.3.1 File systems

Disk drives are usually read in blocks of 1024 bytes (two sectors). From the point of view of anyone accessing the device, blocks are stored consecutively—there is no need to think about cylinders or heads—so that any program can read the disk as though it were a linear tape. Try

¨ less /dev/hda1 less -f /dev/hda1

§

¥

¦

Now a complex directory structure with many files of arbitrary size needs to be stored in this contiguous partition. This poses the problem of what to do with a file that gets deleted and leaves a data “hole” in the partition, or a file that has to be split into parts because there is no single contiguous space big enough to hold it. Files also have to be indexed in such a way that they can be found quickly (consider that there can easily be 10,000 files on a system). U

NIX

’s symbolic/hard links and devices files also have to be stored.

To cope with this complexity, operating systems have a format for storing files called the

file system

( fs ). Like MS-DOS with its FAT file system or Windows with its

FAT32 file system, L

INUX has a file system called the

2nd extended file system

, or ext2 .

Whereas ext2 is the traditional native L

INUX file system, three other native file systems have recently become available: SGI’s XFS file system, the ext3fs file system, and the reiserfs file system. These three support fast and reliable recovery in the event of a power failure, using a feature called

journaling

. A journaling file system prewrites disk alterations to a separate log to facilitate recovery if the file system reaches an incoherent state. (See Section 19.5.)

19.3.2

mke2fs

To create a file system on a blank partition, use the command mkfs (or one of its variants). To create a L

INUX ext2 file system on the first partition of the primary master

¥ mkfs -t ext2 -c /dev/hda1

§ or, alternatively

¨

¦

The -c option means to check for bad blocks by reading through the entire disk first.

¥

¦

160

19. Partitions, File Systems, Formatting, Mounting 19.3. Formatting Devices

This is a

read-only

check and causes unreadable blocks to be flagged as such and not be used. To do a full

read-write

check, use the badblocks command. This command writes to and verifies every bit in that partition. Although the -c option should always be used on a new disk, doing a full read-write test is probably pedantic. For the above partition, this test would be:

¨ badblocks -o blocks-list.txt -s -w /dev/hda1 88326 mke2fs -l blocks-list.txt /dev/hda1

§

¥

¦

After running mke2fs , we will find that

¨ dd if=/dev/hda1 count=8 bs=1024 | file -

§ gives Linux/i386 ext2 filesystem .

¥

¦

19.3.3 Formatting floppies and removable drives

New kinds of removable devices are being released all the time. Whatever the device, the same formatting procedure is used. Most are IDE compatible, which means you can access them through /dev/hd

?

.

The following examples are a parallel port IDE disk drive, a parallel port ATAPI

CD-ROM drive, a parallel port ATAPI disk drive, and your “A:” floppy drive, respectively:

¨ mke2fs -c /dev/pda1 mke2fs -c /dev/pcd0 mke2fs -c /dev/pf0 mke2fs -c /dev/fd0

§

¥

¦

Actually, using an ext2 file system on a floppy drive wastes a lot of space.

Rather, use an MS-DOS file system, which has less overhead and can be read by anyone

(see Section 19.3.4).

You often will not want to be bothered with partitioning a device that is only going to have one partition anyway. In this case, you can use the whole disk as one partition. An example is a removable IDE drive as a primary slave drives as well as removable IDE brackets are commercial examples.

:

¨ mke2fs -c /dev/hdb

§

&

LS120

disks and

Jazz

¥

¦

161

19.3. Formatting Devices 19. Partitions, File Systems, Formatting, Mounting

19.3.4 Creating MS-DOS floppies

5

Accessing files on MS-DOS/Windows floppies is explained in Section 4.16. The command mformat A: will format a floppy, but this command merely initializes the file system; it does not check for bad blocks or do the low-level formatting necessary to reformat floppies to odd storage sizes.

A command, called superformat , from the fdutils package

&

You may have to find this package on the Internet. See Chapter 24 for how to compile and install source packages.

formats a floppy in any way that you like. A more common (but less thorough) command is fdformat from the util-linux package. It verifies that each track is working properly and compensates for variations between the mechanics of different floppy drives. To format a 3.5-inch 1440-KB, 1680-KB, or 1920-KB floppy, respectively, run:

¨ cd /dev

./MAKEDEV -v fd0 superformat /dev/fd0H1440 superformat /dev/fd0H1690

¥

¦

Note that these are “long file name” floppies (VFAT), not old 13-characterfilename MS-DOS floppies.

Most users would have only ever used a 3.5-inch floppy as a “1.44 MB” floppy.

In fact, the disk media and magnetic head can write much more densely than this specification, allowing 24 sectors per track to be stored instead of the usual 18. This is why there is more than one device file for the same drive. Some inferior disks will, however, give errors when trying to format that densely— errors when this happens.

superformat will show

See Table 18.1 on page 145 for the naming conventions of floppy devices, and their many respective formats.

19.3.5

mkswap , swapon , and swapoff

The

¨ mkswap command formats a partition to be used as a swap device. For our disk, mkswap -c /dev/hda5

§

-c has the same meaning as previously—to check for bad blocks.

¥

¦

Once the partition is formatted, the kernel can be signalled to use that partition as a swap partition with

¨ swapon /dev/hda5

§

¥

¦

162

19. Partitions, File Systems, Formatting, Mounting 19.4. Device Mounting and to stop usage,

¨ swapoff /dev/hda5

§

Swap partitions cannot be larger than 128 MB, although you can have as many of them as you like. You can swapon many different partitions simultaneously.

¥

¦

19.4 Device Mounting

The question of how to access files on an arbitrary disk (without of course) is answered here.

C: , D: , etc., notation,

In U

NIX

, there is only one root file system that spans many disks. Different directories may actually exist on a different physical disk.

To bind a directory to a physical device (like a partition or a

CD-ROM) so that the device’s file system can be read is called

mounting

the device.

¨

The mount command is used as follows: mount [-t <fstype>] [-o <option>] <device> <directory> umount [-f] [<device>|<directory>]

§

The -t option specifies the kind of file system, and can often be omitted since L

INUX can autodetect most file systems.

<fstype> can be one of adfs , affs , autofs , coda , coherent , ntfs , proc , devpts , qnx4 , efs , romfs , ext2 , smbfs hfs

,

, hpfs sysv ,

, ufs iso9660

, umsdos

,

, most common file systems are discussed below. The -o mount (8) for all possible options.

minix vfat ,

, msdos xenix

,

, or ncpfs , xiafs nfs

. The option is not usually used. See

,

¥

¦

19.4.1 Mounting CD-ROMs

Put your distribution CD-ROM disk into your CD-ROM drive and mount it with

¨ ls /mnt/cdrom mount -t iso9660 -o ro /dev/hdb /mnt/cdrom

§

(Your CD-ROM might be make a soft link

/dev/hdc

/dev/cdrom or /dev/hdd , however—in this case you should pointing to the correct device. Your distribution may also prefer /cdrom over /mnt/cdrom .) Now cd to your /mnt/cdrom directory. You

¥

¦

163

19.4. Device Mounting 19. Partitions, File Systems, Formatting, Mounting will notice that it is no longer empty, but “contains” the CD-ROM’s files. What is happening is that the kernel is redirecting all lookups from the directory /mnt/cdrom to read from the CD-ROM disk. You can browse around these files as though they were already copied onto your hard drive. This is one of the things that makes U

NIX cool.

When you are finished with the CD-ROM

¨ umount /dev/hdb eject /dev/hdb

§

unmount

it with

¥

¦

19.4.2 Mounting floppy disks

Instead of using

¨ mtools mkdir /mnt/floppy

, you could mount the floppy disk with mount -t vfat /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy

§ or, for older MS-DOS floppies, use

¨ mkdir /mnt/floppy mount -t msdos /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy

§

Before you eject the floppy, it is essential to run

¨ umount /dev/fd0

§ in order that cached data is committed to the disk. Failing to ejecting will probably corrupt its file system.

umount a floppy before

¥

¦

¥

¦

¥

¦

19.4.3 Mounting Windows and NT partitions

Mounting a Windows partition can also be done with the partitions (read-only) with the ntfs vfat file system, and NT file system. VAT32 is also supported (and autodetected). For example,

¨ mkdir /windows mount -t vfat /dev/hda1 /windows mkdir /nt mount -t ntfs /dev/hda2 /nt

§

¥

¦

164

19. Partitions, File Systems, Formatting, Mounting 19.5. File System Repair:

fsck

19.5 File System Repair: fsck

fsck stands for

file system check

.

fsck scans the file system, reporting and fixing errors. Errors would normally occur only if the kernel halted before the file system was umount ed. In this case, it may have been in the middle of a write operation which left the file system in an

incoherent

state. This usually happens because of a power failure.

The file system is then said to be

unclean

.

fsck is used as follows:

¨ fsck [-V] [-a] [-t <fstype>] <device>

§

-V means to produce verbose output.

-a means to check the file system noninteractively—meaning to not ask the user before trying to make any repairs.

¥

¦

Here is what you would normally do with L

INUX lot about the ext2 file system:

¨ if you don’t know a whole

¥

¦ although you can omit the -t

Note that you should not run option because L fsck

INUX autodetects the file system.

on a mounted file system. In exceptional circumstances it is permissible to run fsck on a file system that has been mounted read-only.

fsck actually just runs a program specific to that file system. In the case of ext2 , the command e2fsck (also known as fsck.ext2

) is run. See e2fsck (8) for exhaustive details.

During an interactive check (without the -a option, or with the -r option— the default), various questions may be asked of you, as regards fixing and saving things.

lost+found

It’s best to save stuff if you aren’t sure; it will be placed in the directory below the root directory of the particular device. In the example system further below, there would exist the directories

/home/lost+found , /var/lost+found , /usr/lost+found

/lost+found

, etc. After doing a

, check on, say, /dev/hda9 , list the /home/lost+found directory and delete what you think you don’t need. These will usually be temporary files and log files (files that change often). It’s rare to lose important files because of an unclean shutdown.

19.6 File System Errors on Boot

Just read Section 19.5 again and run fsck on the file system that reported the error.

165

19.7. Automatic Mounts:

fstab

19. Partitions, File Systems, Formatting, Mounting

19.7 Automatic Mounts: fstab

Manual mounts are explained above for new and removable disks. It is, of course necessary for file systems to be automatically mounted at boot time. What gets mounted and how is specified in the configuration file /etc/fstab .

/etc/fstab will usually look something like this for the disk we partitioned

¥

5

/dev/hda1

/dev/hda6

/dev/hda7

/dev/hda8

/dev/hda9

/dev/hda5

/dev/fd0

/dev/cdrom none

10

/

/tmp

/var

/usr

/home swap

/mnt/floppy

/mnt/cdrom

/proc

/dev/pts ext2 ext2 ext2 defaults defaults defaults ext2 ext2 swap auto defaults defaults defaults noauto,user iso9660 noauto,ro,user proc devpts defaults mode=0622

1 1

1 2

1 2

1 2

1 2

0 0

0 0

0 0

0 0

0 0

¦

For the moment we are interested in the first six lines only. The first three fields

(columns) dictate the partition, the directory where it is to be mounted, and the file system type, respectively. The fourth field gives options (the -o option to mount ).

The fifth field tells whether the file system contains real files. The field is used by the dump command to decide if it should be backed up. This is not commonly used.

The last field tells the order in which an fsck should be done on the partitions.

The / partition should come first with a 1 , and all other partitions should come directly after. Placing 2 ’s everywhere else ensures that partitions on different disks can be checked in parallel, which speeds things up slightly at boot time.

The floppy mount command.

and cdrom entries enable you to use an abbreviated form of the mount will just look up the corresponding directory and file system type from

¨

/etc/fstab . Try mount /dev/cdrom

§

¥

¦

These entries also have the devices. The ro user option, which allows ordinary users to mount these option once again tells to mount the CD-ROM read only, and the noauto command tells comes further below.) mount

not

to mount these file systems at boot time. (More proc is a kernel information database that looks like a file system. For example

/proc/cpuinfo is not any kind of file that actually exists on a disk somewhere. Try cat /proc/cpuinfo .

Many programs use /proc to get dynamic information on the status and configuration of your machine. More on this is discussed in Section 42.4.

166

19. Partitions, File Systems, Formatting, Mounting 19.8. Manually Mounting

/proc

The devpts file system is another pseudo file system that generates terminal master/slave pairs for programs. This is mostly of concern to developers.

19.8 Manually Mounting /proc

You can mount the

¨ proc file system with the command mount -t proc /proc /proc

§

This is an exception to the normal mount usage. Note that all common L

INUX installations require /proc to be mounted at boot time. The only times you will need this command are for manual startup or when doing a chroot . (See page 178.)

¥

¦

19.9 RAM and Loopback Devices

A

RAM device

area of RAM.

is a block device that can be used as a disk but really points to a physical

A

loopback device

is a block device that can be used as a disk but really points to an ordinary file somewhere.

If your imagination isn’t already running wild, consider creating a floppy disk with file system, files and all,

without actually having a floppy disk

, and being able to dump this creation to floppy at any time with dd . You can also have a whole other

L

INUX system inside a 500 MB file on a Windows partition

and

obviating having to repartition a Windows machine just to run L be done with loopback and RAM devices.

boot into it—thus

INUX

. All this can

19.9.1 Formatting a floppy inside a file

5

The operations are quite trivial. To create an ext2

¨ floppy inside a 1440 KB dd if=/dev/zero of=˜/file-floppy count=1440 bs=1024 losetup /dev/loop0 ˜/file-floppy mke2fs /dev/loop0 mkdir ˜/mnt mount /dev/loop0 ˜/mnt ls -al ˜/mnt

§

file

, run:

¥

¦

When you are finished copying the files that you want into ˜/mnt , merely run

167

19.10. Remounting 19. Partitions, File Systems, Formatting, Mounting

¨ umount ˜/mnt losetup -d /dev/loop0

§

5

To dump the file system to a floppy, run

¨ dd if=˜/file-floppy of=/dev/fd0 count=1440 bs=1024

§

A similar procedure for RAM devices is

¨ dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/ram0 count=1440 bs=1024 mke2fs /dev/ram0 mkdir ˜/mnt mount /dev/ram0 ˜/mnt ls -al ˜/mnt

§ ¦

When you are finished copying the files that you want into

¨ umount ˜/mnt

§

˜/mnt , merely run

To dump the file system to a floppy or file, respectively, run:

¨ dd if=/dev/ram0 of=/dev/fd0 count=1440 bs=1024

¥

¥

¦

¦

¥

¦

¥

¥

¦

19.9.2 CD-ROM files

Another trick is to move your CD-ROM to a file for high-speed access. Here, we use a shortcut instead of the

¨ losetup command: dd if=/dev/cdrom of=some_name.iso

mount -t iso9660 -o ro,loop=/dev/loop0 some_name.iso /cdrom

§

¥

¦

19.10 Remounting from Read-Only to Read-Write

A file system that is already mounted as for example, with r eado nly can be remounted as r eadw rite,

168

19. Partitions, File Systems, Formatting, Mounting 19.11. Disk

sync

¨ mount -o rw,remount /dev/hda1 /

§

This command is useful when you log in in single-user mode with no write access to your root partition.

¥

¦

19.11 Disk sync

The kernel caches write operations in memory for performance reasons. These

flush

(physically commit to the magnetic media) every so often, but you sometimes want to force a flush. This is done simply with

¨ sync

§

¥

¦

169

19.11. Disk

sync

19. Partitions, File Systems, Formatting, Mounting

170

Chapter 20

Advanced Shell Scripting

This chapter completes our discussion of sh shell scripting begun in Chapter 7 and expanded on in Chapter 9. These three chapters represent almost everything you can do with the bash shell.

20.1 Lists of Commands

The special operator && and || can be used to execute functions in sequence. For

¥ grep ’ˆharry:’ /etc/passwd || useradd harry

§

The || means to only execute the second command if the first command returns an error. In the above case, grep will return an exit code of 1 if harry is not in the

/etc/passwd file, causing useradd to be executed.

¦

An alternate representation is

¨ grep -v ’ˆharry:’ /etc/passwd && useradd harry

§ where the ing to ||

-v option inverts the sense of matching of grep .

&& has the opposite mean-

, that is, to execute the second command only if the first succeeds.

¥

¦

Adept script writers often string together many commands to create the most succinct representation of an operation:

¨ grep -v ’ˆharry:’ /etc/passwd && useradd harry || \ echo "‘date‘: useradd failed" >> /var/log/my_special_log

§

¥

¦

171

20.2. Special Parameters:

$?

,

$*

,. . .

20. Advanced Shell Scripting

20.2 Special Parameters: $?

, $* ,. . .

An ordinary variable can be expanded with like PATH and special variables like PWD and

$

VARNAME

RANDOM

. Commonly used variables were covered in Chapter 9. Further special expansions are documented in the following section, quoted verbatim from the bash man page (the footnotes are mine).

1

Special Parameters

The shell treats several parameters specially.

referenced; assignment to them is not allowed.

These parameters may only be

$*

Expands to the positional parameters (i.e., the command-line arguments passed to the shell script, with

$1

being the first argument,

$2

the second etc.), starting from one. When the expansion occurs within double quotes, it expands to a single word with the value of each parameter separated by the first character of the

IFS

special variable. That is, ”

$*

” is equivalent to ”

$1

c

$2

c

...

”, where

c

is the first character of the value of the parameters are separated by spaces. If

IFS

IFS

variable. If

IFS

is unset, the is null, the parameters are joined without intervening separators.

[email protected]

Expands to the positional parameters, starting from one. When the expansion occurs within double quotes, each parameter expands to a separate word.

That is, ”

[email protected]

” is equivalent to ”

$1

” ”

$2

” ... When there are no positional parameters, ”

[email protected]

” and

[email protected]

expand to nothing (i.e., they are removed).

&

Hint: this is very useful for writing wrapper shell scripts that just add one argument.

-

$#

Expands to the number of positional parameters in decimal (i.e. the number of command-line arguments).

$?

Expands to the status of the most recently executed foreground pipeline.

the exit code of the last command.

-

&

I.e.,

$-

Expands to the current option flags as specified upon invocation, by the builtin command, or those set by the shell itself (such as the

-i

option).

set

$$

Expands to the process ID of the shell. In a () subshell, it expands to the process

ID of the current shell, not the subshell.

$!

Expands to the process ID of the most recently executed background (asynchronous) command.

mand

&

, the variable

$!

&

I.e., after executing a background command with will give its process ID.

-

com-

$0

Expands to the name of the shell or shell script. This is set at shell initialization.

If

bash

is invoked with a file of commands,

$0

is set to the name of that file.

If

bash

is started with the

-c

option, then

$0

is set to the first argument after the string to be executed, if one is present. Otherwise, it is set to the file name used to invoke

bash

, as given by argument zero.

&

Note that

basename $0

useful way to get the name of the current command without the leading path.

is a

1

Thanks to Brian Fox and Chet Ramey for this material.

172

20. Advanced Shell Scripting 20.3. Expansion

$-

At shell startup, set to the absolute file name of the shell or shell script being executed as passed in the argument list. Subsequently, expands to the last argument to the previous command, after expansion. Also set to the full file name of each command executed and placed in the environment exported to that command. When checking mail, this parameter holds the name of the mail file currently being checked.

20.3 Expansion

Expansion

refers to the way bash modifies the command-line before executing it.

bash performs several textual modifications to the command-line, proceeding in the following order:

Brace expansion

We have already shown how you can use, for example, the shorthand touch file {one,two,three}.txt

to create multiple files file one.txt

, file two.txt

, and file three.txt

. This is known as brace expansion and occurs before any other kind of modification to the command-line.

Tilde expansion

HOME null).

The special character ˜ is replaced with the full path contained in the environment variable or the home directory of the users login (if

˜+ is replaced with the current working directory and ˜-

$HOME is is replaced with the most recent previous working directory. The last two are rarely used.

Parameter expansion

that $

VAR

and

This refers to expanding anything that begins with a

${

VAR

}

$ . Note do exactly the same thing, except in the latter case,

VAR

can contain non-“whole word” characters that would normally confuse bash .

There are several parameter expansion tricks that you can use to do string manipulation. Most shell programmers never bother with these, probably because they are not well supported by other U

NIX systems.

${

VAR

:-

default

}

This will result in $

VAR

case it will result in

default

.

unless

VAR

is unset or null, in which

${

VAR

:=

default

}

it is empty.

Same as previous except that

default

is also assigned to VAR if

${

VAR

:-

default

}

This will result in an empty string if otherwise it will result in

default

VAR

is unset or null;

. This is the opposite behavior of ${

VAR

:-

default

} .

${

VAR

:?

message

}

This will result in $

VAR

unless

VAR

is unset or null, in which case an error message containing

message

is displayed.

${

VAR

:

offset

} or ${

VAR

:

n

:

l

}

then the following

l

This produces the characters. If

l n

th character of $

VAR

and is not present, then all characters to the right of the

n

th character are produced. This is useful for splitting up strings.

Try:

173

20.3. Expansion 20. Advanced Shell Scripting

¨

TEXT=scripting_for_phun echo ${TEXT:10:3} echo ${TEXT:10}

§

${#

VAR

}

Gives the length of $

VAR

.

${!

PRE

*}

Gives a list of all variables whose names begin with

PRE

.

${

VAR

#

pattern

}

$

VAR

is returned with the glob expression from the leading part of the string. For instance,

pattern

${TEXT#scr} removed in the above example will return ripting for phun .

${

VAR

##

pattern

}

tern

This is the same as the previous expansion except that if

pat-

contains wild cards, then it will try to match the maximum length of characters.

${

VAR

%

pattern

}

The same as ${

VAR

#

pattern

} moved from the trailing part of the string.

except that characters are re-

${

VAR

%%

pattern

}

The same as ${

VAR

##

pattern

} moved from the trailing part of the string.

except that characters are re-

${

VAR

/

search

/

replace

}

search

replaced with

$

VAR replace

.

is returned with the first occurrence of the string

${

VAR

/#

search

/

replace

}

Same as ${

VAR

/

search

/

replace

} except that the match is attempted from the leading part of $

VAR

.

${

VAR

/%

search

/

replace

}

Same as ${

VAR

/

search

/

replace

} except that the match is attempted at the trailing part of $

VAR

.

${

VAR

//

search

/

replace

}

stances of

search

Same as are replaced.

${

VAR

/

search

/

replace

} except that all in-

¥

¦

Backquote expansion

We have already shown backquote expansion in 7.12. Note that the additional notation $(

command

) is equivalent to ‘

command

‘ except that escapes (i.e., \ ) are not required for special characters.

Arithmetic expansion

We have already shown arithmetic expansion on page 62. Note that the additional notation $((

expression

)) is equivalent to $[

expression

].

Finally

The last modifications to the command-line are the splitting of the commandline into words according to the white space between them. The IFS (

Internal Field Separator

) environment variable determines what characters delimit command-line words (usually whitespace). With the command-line divided into words, path names are expanded according to glob wild cards. Consult bash (1) for a comprehensive description of the pattern matching options that most people don’t know about.

174

20. Advanced Shell Scripting 20.4. Built-in Commands

20.4 Built-in Commands

Many commands operate some built-in functionality of bash or are especially interpreted. These do not invoke an executable off the file system. Some of these were described in Chapter 7, and a few more are discussed here. For an exhaustive description, consult bash (1).

5

:

¨

A single colon by itself does nothing. It is useful for a “no operation” line such as: if <command> ; then

: else echo "<command> was unsuccessful" fi

§

¥

¦

.

filename args ...

A single dot is the same as the source command. See below.

alias

¨

command

=

value

alias necho="echo -n" necho "hello"

§

Creates a pseudonym for a command. Try:

Some distributions alias the mv , cp , and rm commands to the same pseudonym with the -i ( i nteractive) option set. This prevents files from being deleted without prompting, but can be irritating for the administrator. See your file for these settings. See also unalias .

˜/.bashrc

¥

¦

unalias

command

Removes an alias created with alias .

alias -p

Prints list of aliases.

eval

arg ...

Executes

arg

s as a line of shell script.

exec

command arg ...

Begins executing

command

under the same process ID as the current script. This is most often used for shell scripts that are mere “wrapper” scripts for real programs. The wrapper script sets any environment variables and then exec s the real program binary as its last line.

exec should never return.

local

var

=

value

Assigns a value to a variable. The resulting variable is visible only within the current function.

pushd

directory

rectories.

and popd

pushd

These two commands are useful for jumping around dican be used instead of cd , but unlike cd , the directory is saved onto a list of directories. At any time, entering popd returns you to the previous directory. This is nice for navigation since it keeps a history of wherever you have been.

175

20.5. Trapping Signals — the

trap

Command 20. Advanced Shell Scripting

printf

like

format args ...

echo

This is like the

C

printf function. It outputs to the terminal but is useful for more complex formatting of output. See printf (3) for details and try printf "%10.3e\n" 12 as an example.

pwd

Prints the present working directory.

set

Prints the value of all environment variables. See also Section 20.6 on the command.

set

source

filename args ...

Reads

filename

into the current current shell environment.

This is useful for executing a shell script when environment variables set by that script must be preserved.

times

Prints the accumulated user and system times for the shell and for processes run from the shell.

type

command

Tells whether

command

is an alias, a built-in or a system executable.

ulimit

Prints and sets various user resource limits like memory usage limits and

CPU limits. See bash (1) for details.

umask

See Section 14.2.

unset

VAR

Deletes a variable or environment variable.

unset -f

func

Deletes a function.

wait

Pauses until all background jobs have completed.

wait

PID

Pauses until background process with process ID of returns the exit code of the background process.

PID

has exited, then

wait %

job

Same with respect to a job spec.

20.5 Trapping Signals — the trap Command

You will often want to make your script perform certain actions in response to a signal.

A list of signals can be found on page 86. To trap a signal, create a function and then use the

¨ trap

#!/bin/sh command to bind the function to the signal.

¥

5 function on_hangup ()

{ echo ’Hangup (SIGHUP) signal recieved’

}

176

20. Advanced Shell Scripting 20.6. Internal Settings — the

set

Command trap on_hangup SIGHUP

10 while true ; do done sleep 1 exit 0

§

Run the above script and then send the process ID the

Section 9.5.)

-HUP signal to test it. (See

¦ signal

¨

An important function of a program is to clean up after itself on exit. The special

EXIT (not really a signal) executes code on exit of the script:

#!/bin/sh

¥

5 function on_exit ()

{ echo ’I should remove temp files now’

} trap on_exit EXIT

10 while true ; do sleep 1 done exit 0

§

Breaking the above program will cause it to print its own epitaph.

If is given instead of a function name, then the signal is unbound (i.e., set to its default value).

¦

20.6 Internal Settings — the set Command

The set command can modify certain behavioral settings of the shell. Your current options can be displayed with echo $. Various set commands are usually entered at the top of a script or given as command-line options to instead of set -

option

bash . Using disables the option. Here are a few examples: set +

option

set -e

Exit immediately if any simple command gives an error.

set -h

Cache the location of commands in your PATH . The shell will become confused if binaries are suddenly inserted into the directories of your PATH , perhaps causing a No such file or directory error. In this case, disable this option or restart your shell. This option is enabled by default.

177

20.7. Useful Scripts and Commands 20. Advanced Shell Scripting

set -n

Read commands without executing them. This command is useful for syntax checking.

set -o posix

Comply exactly with the POSIX 1003.2 standard.

set -u

Report an error when trying to reference a variable that is unset. Usually bash just fills in an empty string.

set -v

Print each line of script as it is executed.

set -x

Display each command expansion as it is executed.

set -C

Do not overwrite existing files when using writing.

> . You can use >| to force over-

20.7 Useful Scripts and Commands

Here is a collection of useful utility scripts that people are always asking for on the mailing lists. See page 517 for several security check scripts.

20.7.1

chroot

The chroot command makes a process think that its root file system is not actually

For example, on one system I have a complete Debian

/ installation residing under a

.

directory, say,

¨

/mnt/debian . I can issue the command chroot /mnt/debian bash -i

§

¥

¦ to run the bash shell interactively, under the root file system command will hence run the command

/mnt/debian

/mnt/debian/bin/bash -i

. This

. All further commands processed under this shell will have no knowledge of the real root directory, so I can use my Debian installation without having to reboot. All further commands will effectively behave as though they are inside a separate U

NIX you may have to remount your /proc file system inside your machine. One caveat: chroot ’d file system— see page 167.

This useful for improving security. Insecure network services can change to a different root directory—any corruption will not affect the real system.

Most rescue disks have a chroot command. After booting the disk, you can manually mount the file systems on your hard drive, and then issue a chroot to begin using your machine as usual. Note that the command arguments invokes a shell by default.

chroot <new-root> without

178

20. Advanced Shell Scripting 20.7. Useful Scripts and Commands

20.7.2

if conditionals

The if test

...

was used to control program flow in Chapter 7. Bash, however, has a built-in alias for the test function: the left square brace, [ .

Using [ instead of test adds only elegance:

¨ if [ 5 -le 3 ] ; then echo ’5 < 3’ fi

§

¥

¦

It is important at this point to realize that the of arithmetic. It merely executes a command test if command understands nothing

(or in this case [ ) and tests the exit code. If the exit code is zero, then the command is considered to be successful and proceeds with the body of the if statement block. The onus is on the test if command to properly evaluate the expression given to it.

if can equally well be used with any command:

¨ if echo "$PATH" | grep -qwv /usr/local/bin ; then export PATH="$PATH:/usr/local/bin" fi

§ conditionally adds /usr/local/bin if grep does not find it in your PATH .

¥

¦

20.7.3

patch ing and diff ing

You may often want to find the differences between two files, for example to see what changes have been made to a file between versions. Or, when a large batch of source code may have been updated, it is silly to download the entire directory tree if there have been only a few small changes. You would want a list of alterations instead.

The diff utility dumps the lines that differ between two files. It can be used as

¥

¦

You can also use diff to see difference netween two directory trees.

compares all corresponding files:

¨ diff recursively diff -u --recursive --new-file <old-dir> <new-dir> > <patch-file>.diff

§

The output is known as a changes, and to bring

patch file

<old-dir> against a directory tree, that can be used both to see up to date with <new-dir> .

¥

¦

Patch files may also end in applied to <old-dir> with

.patch

and are often gzip ped. The patch file can be

179

20.7. Useful Scripts and Commands 20. Advanced Shell Scripting

¨ cd <old-dir> patch -p1 -s < <patch-file>.diff

§ which makes <old-dir> identical to <new-dir> . The -p1 option strips the leading directory name from the patch file. The presence of a leading directory name in the patch file often confuses the patch command.

¥

¦

20.7.4 Internet connectivity test

You may want to leave this example until you have covered more networking theory.

The acid test for an Internet connection is a successful DNS query. You can use ping to test whether a server is up, but some networks filter ICMP messages and ping does not check that your DNS is working.

dig sends a single UDP packet similar to ping . Unfortunately, it takes rather long to time out, so we fudge in a kill after 2 seconds.

This script blocks until it successfully queries a remote name server. Typically, the next few lines of following script would run fetchmail and a mail server queue flush, or possibly uucico . Do set the name server IP to something appropriate like that of your local ISP; and increase the 2 second time out if your name server typically takes longer to respond.

¨

MY_DNS_SERVER=197.22.201.154

¥

5

10 while true ; do

( dig @$MY_DNS_SERVER netscape.com IN A &

DIG_PID=$!

{ sleep 2 ; kill $DIG_PID ; } & sleep 1 wait $DIG_PID done

§

) 2>/dev/null | grep -q ’ˆ[ˆ;]*netscape.com’ && break

¦

20.7.5 Recursive grep (search)

Recursively searching through a directory tree can be done easily with the find and xargs commands. You should consult both these man pages. The following command pipe searches through the kernel source for anything about the “pcnet” Ethernet card, printing also the line number:

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20. Advanced Shell Scripting 20.7. Useful Scripts and Commands

¨ find /usr/src/linux -follow -type f | xargs grep -iHn pcnet

§

(You will notice how this command returns rather a lot of data. However, going through it carefully can be quite instructive.)

¥

¦

Limiting a search to a certain file extension is just another common use of this pipe sequence.

¨ ¥

¦

Note that new versions of through directories.

grep also have a -r option to recursively search

20.7.6 Recursive search and replace

Often you will want to perform a search-and-replace throughout all the files in an entire source tree. A typical example is the changing of a function call name throughout lots of

C

source. The following script is a must for any way it recursively calls itself.

¨

#!/bin/sh

/usr/local/bin/ . Notice the

¥

N=‘basename $0‘

5 if [ "$1" = "-v" ] ; then

VERBOSE="-v" shift fi

10

15 if [ "$3" = "" -o "$1" = "-h" -o "$1" = "--help" ] ; then echo "$N: Usage" echo " $N [-h|--help] [-v] <regexp-search> \

<regexp-replace> <glob-file>" echo exit 0 fi

S="$1" ; shift ; R="$1" ; shift

T=$$replc

20

25 if echo "$1" | grep -q / ; then for i in "[email protected]" ; do

SEARCH=‘echo "$S" | sed ’s,/,\\\\/,g’‘

REPLACE=‘echo "$R" | sed ’s,/,\\\\/,g’‘ cat $i | sed "s/$SEARCH/$REPLACE/g" > $T

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20.7. Useful Scripts and Commands 20. Advanced Shell Scripting

30

35

40

D="$?" if [ "$D" = "0" ] ; then if diff -q $T $i >/dev/null ; then else

: if [ "$VERBOSE" = "-v" ] ; then echo $i fi cat $T > $i fi rm -f $T done fi else find . -type f -name "$1" | xargs $0 $VERBOSE "$S" "$R" fi

§ ¦

20.7.7

cut and awk — manipulating text file fields

The

¨ cut command is useful for slicing files into fields; try cut -d: -f1 /etc/passwd cat /etc/passwd | cut -d: -f1

§

The common use for

¨ awk program is an interpreter for a complete programming language call AWK. A awk is in field stripping. It is slightly more flexible than cut — cat /etc/passwd | awk -F : ’{print $1}’

§

¥

¦

—especially where whitespace gets in the way,

¨ ls -al | awk ’{print $6 " " $7 " " $8}’ ls -al | awk ’{print $5 " bytes"}’

§

¥

¦

¥

¦ which isolates the time and size of the file respectively.

Get your nonlocal IP addresses with:

¨ ifconfig | grep ’inet addr:’ | fgrep -v ’127.0.0.’ | \

§ cut -d: -f2 | cut -d’ ’ -f1

¥

¦

¨

Reverse an IP address with: echo 192.168.3.2 | awk -F . ’{print $4 "." $3 "." $2 "." $1 }’

§

182

¥

¦

20. Advanced Shell Scripting 20.7. Useful Scripts and Commands

Print all common user names (i.e., users with UID values greater than 499 on

RedHat and greater than 999 on Debian ):

¨ awk -F: ’$3 >= 500 {print $1}’ /etc/passwd

( awk -F: ’$3 >= 1000 {print $1}’ /etc/passwd )

§

¥

¦

20.7.8 Calculations with bc

Scripts can easily use vert to decimal with

¨ bc to do calculations that echo -e ’ibase=16;FFFF’ | bc

§ expr can’t handle. For example, con-

¥

¦ to binary with

¨ ¥

¦ or work out the SIN of 45 degrees with

¨ pi=‘echo "scale=10; 4*a(1)" | bc -l‘ echo "scale=10; s(45*$pi/180)" | bc -l

§

¥

¦

20.7.9 Conversion of graphics formats of many files

5

The convert program of the

ImageMagick

package is a command many Windows users would love. It can easily be used to convert multiple files from one format to another. Changing a file’s extension can be done with e ’s/\.

¨

old

$/.

new

/’‘ . The echo convert command does the rest:

filename

| sed for i in *.pcx ; do

CMD="convert -quality 625 $i ‘echo $i | sed -e ’s/\.pcx$/.png/’‘"

# Show the command-line to the user: echo $CMD

# Execute the command-line: eval $CMD

¥

¦

Note that the search-and-replace expansion mechanism could also be used to replace the extensions: ${i/%.pcx/.png} produces the desired result.

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20.7. Useful Scripts and Commands 20. Advanced Shell Scripting

Incidentally, the above nicely compresses high-resolution pcx files—possibly the

A

TEX compilation into PostScript rendered with

GhostScript (i.e.

gs -sDEVICE=pcx256 -sOutputFile=’page%d.pcx’

file

.ps).

20.7.10 Securely erasing files

5

Removing a file with rm only unlinks the file name from the data. The file blocks may still be on disk, and will only be reclaimed when the file system reuses that data. To erase a file proper, requires writing random bytes into the disk blocks occupied by the file. The following overwrites all the files in the current directory:

¨ for i in * ; do dd if=/dev/urandom of="$i" bs=1024

\

\

\ count=‘expr 1 + \

\‘stat "$i" | grep ’Size:’ | awk ’{print $2}’\‘

/ 1024‘ done

§

\

¥

¦

You can then remove the files normally with rm .

20.7.11 Persistent background processes

Consider trying to run a process, say, the be done simply with:

¨ rxvt terminal, in the background. This can

¥

¦

However, rxvt still has its output connected to the shell and is a child process of the shell. When a login shell exits, it may take its child processes with it.

rxvt may also die of its own accord from trying to read or write to a terminal that does not exist without the parent shell. Now try:

¨

{ rxvt >/dev/null 2>&1 </dev/null & } &

§

¥

¦

This technique is known as

forking twice

, and

redirecting the terminal to dev null

. The shell can know about its child processes but not about the its “grand child” processes.

We have hence create a daemon process proper with the above command.

Now, it is easy to create a daemon process that restarts itself if it happens to die.

Although such functionality is best accomplished within

C

(which you will get a taste of in Chapter 22), you can make do with:

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20. Advanced Shell Scripting 20.7. Useful Scripts and Commands

¨

{ { while true ; do rxvt ; done ; } >/dev/null 2>&1 </dev/null & } &

§ ps awwwxf

§

¥

¦

¥

¦

20.7.12 Processing the process list

10

5

The following command uses the custom format option of able attribute of a process:

¨ ps to print every conceivps -awwwxo %cpu,%mem,alarm,args,blocked,bsdstart,bsdtime,c,caught,cmd,comm,\ command,cputime,drs,dsiz,egid,egroup,eip,esp,etime,euid,euser,f,fgid,fgroup,\ flag,flags,fname,fsgid,fsgroup,fsuid,fsuser,fuid,fuser,gid,group,ignored,\ intpri,lim,longtname,lstart,m_drs,m_trs,maj_flt,majflt,min_flt,minflt,ni,\ nice,nwchan,opri,pagein,pcpu,pending,pgid,pgrp,pid,pmem,ppid,pri,rgid,rgroup,\ rss,rssize,rsz,ruid,ruser,s,sess,session,sgi_p,sgi_rss,sgid,sgroup,sid,sig,\ sig_block,sig_catch,sig_ignore,sig_pend,sigcatch,sigignore,sigmask,stackp,\ start,start_stack,start_time,stat,state,stime,suid,suser,svgid,svgroup,svuid,\ svuser,sz,time,timeout,tmout,tname,tpgid,trs,trss,tsiz,tt,tty,tty4,tty8,ucomm,\

¥

¦

The output is best piped to a file and viewed with a nonwrapping text editor. More interestingly, the

¨ awk command can print the process ID of a process with ps awwx | grep -w ’htt[p]d’ | awk ’{print $1}’

§

¥

¦ which prints all the processes having

This filter is useful for killing

¨ httpd in the command name or command-line.

netscape as follows: kill -9 ‘ps awx | grep ’netsc[a]pe’ | awk ’{print $1}’‘

§

¥

¦

(Note that the process list.)

[a] in the regular expression prevents grep from finding itself in the

5

Other useful

¨ ps awwxf ps awwxl ps awwxv ps awwxu ps awwxs

§ ps variations are:

The f option is most useful for showing parent-child relationships. It stands for f orest, and shows the full process tree. For example, here I am running an desktop with two windows:

¥

¦

185

20.8. Shell Initialization 20. Advanced Shell Scripting

5

10

15

20

25

¨

PID TTY

1 ?

2 ?

3 ?

4 ?

5 ?

6 ?

262 ?

272 ?

341 ?

447 ?

480 ?

506 tty1

507 tty2

508 tty3

509 ?

514 ?

515 ?

524 ?

748 ?

749 pts/0

5643 pts/0

5645 pts/6

25292 pts/6

11780 ?

11814 ?

15534 pts/6

¥

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

SW<

S

S

STAT

S

SW

SW

SW

SW

R

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

TIME COMMAND

0:05 init [5]

0:02 [kflushd]

0:02 [kupdate]

0:00 [kpiod]

0:01 [kswapd]

0:00 [mdrecoveryd]

0:02 syslogd -m 0

0:00 klogd

0:00 xinetd -reuse -pidfile /var/run/xinetd.pid

0:00 crond

0:02 xfs -droppriv -daemon

0:00 /sbin/mingetty tty1

0:00 /sbin/mingetty tty2

0:00 /sbin/mingetty tty3

0:00 /usr/bin/gdm -nodaemon

7:04

0:00

0:18

0:08

0:00

0:09

0:02

0:00

0:16

0:00

\_ /etc/X11/X -auth /var/gdm/:0.Xauth :0

\_ /usr/bin/gdm -nodaemon

\_ /opt/icewm/bin/icewm

\_ rxvt -bg black -cr green -fg whi

|

|

|

|

\_ bash

\_ mc

\_ bash -rcfile .bashrc

\_ ps awwxf

\_ /usr/lib/netscape/netscape-commu

\_ (dns helper)

3:12 cooledit -I /root/.cedit/projects/Rute

6:03 \_ aspell -a -a

The u option shows the useful u ser format, and the others show and l ong format.

v irtual memory, s ignal

¦

20.8 Shell Initialization

Here I will briefly discuss what initialization takes place after logging in and how to modify it.

The interactive shell invoked after field of the user’s entry in the login

/etc/passwd will be the shell specified in the last file. The login program will invoke the shell after authenticating the user, placing a which indicates to the shell that it is a

-

login shell

in front of the the command name,

, meaning that it reads and execute several scripts to initialize the environment. In the case of are: /etc/profile , ˜/.bash profile , ˜/.bash login bash and

, the files it reads

˜/.profile

, in that order. In addition, an interactive shell that is not a login shell also reads

Note that traditional sh shells only read /etc/profile and

˜/.bashrc

˜/.profile

.

.

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20. Advanced Shell Scripting 20.9. File Locking

20.8.1 Customizing the PATH and LD LIBRARY PATH

5

Administrators can customise things like the environment variables by modifying these startup scripts. Consider the classic case of an installation tree under /opt/ .

Often, a package like and

/opt/staroffice/

LD LIBRARY PATH or /opt/oracle/ will require the PATH variables to be adjusted accordingly. In the case of RedHat, a script,

¨ for i in /opt/*/bin /usr/local/bin ; do test -d $i || continue echo $PATH | grep -wq "$i" && continue done

PATH=$PATH:$i export PATH

¥

10

15 if test ‘id -u‘ -eq 0 ; then for i in /opt/*/sbin /usr/local/sbin ; do test -d $i || continue echo $PATH | grep -wq "$i" && continue

PATH=$PATH:$i done export PATH fi

20 for i in /opt/*/lib /usr/local/lib ; do test -d $i || continue echo $LD_LIBRARY_PATH | grep -wq "$i" && continue done

§

LD_LIBRARY_PATH=$LD_LIBRARY_PATH:$i export LD_LIBRARY_PATH can be placed as /etc/profile.d/my local.sh

will take care of anything installed under /opt/ or with execute permissions. This

/usr/local/ . For Debian , the script can be inserted directly into /etc/profile .

¦

Page 235 of Section 23.3 contains details of exactly what LD LIBRARY PATH is.

(Unrelated, but you should also edit your /etc/man.config

paths that appear under all installation trees under /opt/ .) to add man page

20.9 File Locking

Often, one would like a process to have

exclusive access

to a file. By this we mean that only one process can access the file at any one time. Consider a mail folder: if two processes were to write to the folder simultaneously, it could become corrupted. We

187

20.9. File Locking 20. Advanced Shell Scripting also sometimes want to ensure that a program can never be run twice at the same time; this insurance is another use for “locking.”

In the case of a mail folder, if the file is being written to, then should try read it or write to it: and we would like to create a

no

other process

write lock

on the file.

However if the file is being read from, we would like to create a

read lock no

other process should try to write to it: and on the file. Write locks are sometimes called

exclusive locks

; read locks are sometimes called for simplicity.

shared locks

. Often,

exclusive locks

are preferred

Locking can be implemented by simply creating a temporary file to indicate to other processes to wait before trying some kind of access. U

NIX also has some more sophisticated builtin functions.

20.9.1 Locking a mailbox file

There are currently four methods of file locking.

research in this area, so this is what I am going on.

-

&

The exim sources seem to indicate thorough

1.

“dot lock” file locking. Here, a temporary file is created with the same name as the mail folder and the extension .lock

added. So long as this file exists, no program should try to access the folder. This is an exclusive lock only. It is easy to write a shell script to do this kind of file locking.

2.

“MBX” file locking. Similar to 1, but a temporary file is created in also an exclusive lock.

/tmp . This is

3.

fcntl locking. Databases require areas of a file to be locked.

call to be used inside

C

programs.

fcntl is a system

4.

flock file locking. Same as fcntl , but locks whole files.

5

10

The following shell function does proper mailbox file locking.

¨ function my_lockfile ()

{

TEMPFILE="$1.$$"

LOCKFILE="$1.lock" echo $$ > $TEMPFILE 2>/dev/null || { echo "You don’t have permission to access ‘dirname $TEMPFILE‘" return 1

} ln $TEMPFILE $LOCKFILE 2>/dev/null && { rm -f $TEMPFILE return 0

}

STALE_PID=‘< $LOCKFILE‘

¥

188

20. Advanced Shell Scripting 20.9. File Locking

15

20

25 test "$STALE_PID" -gt "0" >/dev/null || { return 1

} kill -0 $STALE_PID 2>/dev/null && { rm -f $TEMPFILE return 1

} rm $LOCKFILE 2>/dev/null && { echo "Removed stale lock file of process $STALE_PID"

} ln $TEMPFILE $LOCKFILE 2>/dev/null && {

} rm -f $TEMPFILE return 1 rm -f $TEMPFILE return 0

30

¦

(Note how instead of ‘cat $LOCKFILE‘ , we use ‘< $LOCKFILE‘ , which is faster.)

You can include the above function in scripts that need to lock any kind file. Use the function as follows:

¨

# wait for a lock until my_lockfile /etc/passwd ; do sleep 1 done

¥

5

# The body of the program might go here

# [...]

10

# Then to remove the lock, rm -f /etc/passwd.lock

§ ¦

5

This script is of academic interest only but has a couple of interesting features. Note how the ln function is used to ensure “exclusivity.” ln is one of the few U

NIX functions that is

atomic

, meaning that only one link of the same name can exist, and its creation excludes the possibility that another program would think that it had successfully created the same link. One might naively expect that the program

¨ function my_lockfile ()

{

LOCKFILE="$1.lock" test -e $LOCKFILE && return 1 touch $LOCKFILE return 0

}

§

¥

¦ is sufficient for file locking. However, consider if two programs, running simultane-

189

20.9. File Locking 20. Advanced Shell Scripting ously, executed line 4 at the same time.

Both

would think that the lock did not exist and proceed to line 5. Then both would successfully create the lock file—not what you wanted.

The kill

Sending the 0 command is then useful for checking whether a process is running.

signal does nothing to the process, but the signal fails if the process does not exist. This technique can be used to remove a lock of a process that died before removing the lock itself: that is, a

stale

lock.

20.9.2 Locking over NFS

The preceding script does

not

work if your file system is mounted over NFS (

network file system

—see Chapter 28). This is obvious because the script relies on the PID of the process, which is not visible across different machines. Not so obvious is that the function does not work exactly right over NFS—you need to stat ln the file and actually check that the link count has increased to 2.

The commands lockfile (from the procmail package) and mutt dotlock

(from the mutt email reader but perhaps not distributed) do similar file locking. These commands, however, but do not store the PID in the lock file. Hence it is not possible to detect a stale lock file. For example, to search your mailbox, you can run:

¨ lockfile /var/spool/mail/mary.lock

grep freddy /var/spool/mail/mary rm -f /var/spool/mail/mary.lock

§

¥

¦

This sequence ensures that you are searching a clean mailbox even if

NFS share.

/var is a remote

20.9.3 Directory versus file locking

File locking is a headache for the developer. The problem with U

NIX we are intuitively thinking about locking a

file

is that whereas

, what we really mean is locking a

file name

within a directory.

File

locking

per se

should only be used on perpetual files, such as database files. For mailbox and passwd files we need

directory locking

&

My own term.

, meaning the exclusive access of one process to a particular directory entry. In my opinion, lack of such a feature is a serious deficiency in U

NIX

, but because it will require kernel, NFS, and (possibly)

C

library extensions, will probably not come into being any time soon.

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20. Advanced Shell Scripting 20.9. File Locking

20.9.4 Locking inside

C

programs

This topic is certainly outside of the scope of this text, except to say that you should consult the source code of reputable packages rather than invent your own locking scheme.

191

20.9. File Locking 20. Advanced Shell Scripting

192

Chapter 21

System Services and

Printer Service lpd — the

This chapter covers a wide range of concepts about the way U

NIX services function.

Every function of U

NIX is provided by one or another package. For instance, mail is often handled by the sendmail or other package, web by the apache package.

Here we examine how to obtain, install, and configure a package, using lpd as an example. You can then apply this knowledge to any other package, and later chapters assume that you know these concepts. This discussion will also suffice as an explanation of how to set up and manage printing.

21.1 Using lpr

Printing under U

NIX

-Plp <filename> on a properly configured machine is as simple as typing

(or cat <filename> | lpr -Plp ). The “ lp ” in -Plp lpr is the name of the printer

queue

on the local machine you would like to print to. You can omit it if you are printing to the default (i.e., the first listed) queue. A

queue

belongs to a physical printer, so users can predict where paper will come spewing out, by what queue they print to. Queues are conventionally named lp , lp0 , lp1 , and so on, and any number of them may have been redirected to any other queue on any other machine on the network.

The command in progress.

lprm removes pending jobs from a print queue; lpq reports jobs

The service that facilitates all this is called network connection to the lpd lpd . The lpr user program makes a background process, sending it the print job.

lpd then queues, filters, and feeds the job until it appears in the print tray.

193

21.2. Downloading and Installing 21. System Services and

lpd

Printing typifies the process is the

server client/server

nature of U and is initiated by the root

NIX services. The lpd background user. The remaining commands are

client

programs, and are run mostly by users.

21.2 Downloading and Installing

The following discussion should relieve the questions of “Where do I get

xxx

service/package?” and “How do I install it?”. Full coverage of package management comes in Section 24.2, but here you briefly see how to use package managers with respect to a real system service.

Let us say we know nothing of the service except that it has something to do with a file /usr/sbin/lpd . First, we use our package managers to find where the file comes from (Debian

¨ commands are shown in parentheses): rpm -qf /usr/sbin/lpd

( dpkg -S /usr/sbin/lpd )

§

¥

¦

Returns lpr-0.

nn

-

n

(for RedHat 6.2, or LPRng-

n

.

n

.

nn

-

n

on RedHat 7.0, or lpr

Debian ). On RedHat you may have to try this on a different machine because on rpm does not know about packages that are not installed. Alternatively, if we would like to see whether a package whose name contains the letters

¨ lpr is installed: rpm -qa | grep -i lpr

( dpkg -l ’*lpr*’ )

§

¥

¦ easily installable with (RedHat 7.0 and Debian

¨

If the package is not present, the package file will be on your CD-ROM and is in braces): rpm -i lpr-0.50-4.i386.rpm

( rpm -i LPRng-3.6.24-2 )

( dpkg -i lpr_0.48-1.deb )

§

¥

¦

(Much more about package management is covered in Chapter 24.)

5 ql lpr

¨

The list of files which the lpr package is comprises (easily obtained with rpm or dpkg -L lpr ) is approximately as follows:

/etc/init.d/lpd

/etc/cron.weekly/lpr

/usr/sbin/lpf

/usr/sbin/lpc

/usr/sbin/lpd

/usr/sbin/pac

/usr/bin/lpq

/usr/share/man/man1/lprm.1.gz

/usr/share/man/man5/printcap.5.gz

/usr/share/man/man8/lpc.8.gz

/usr/share/man/man8/lpd.8.gz

/usr/share/man/man8/pac.8.gz

/usr/share/man/man8/lpf.8.gz

/usr/share/doc/lpr/README.Debian

¥

194

21. System Services and

lpd

21.3.

LPRng

vs. Legacy

lpr-0.

nn

10

/usr/bin/lpr

/usr/bin/lprm

/usr/bin/lptest

/usr/share/man/man1/lpr.1.gz

/usr/share/man/man1/lptest.1.gz

/usr/share/doc/lpr/copyright

/usr/share/doc/lpr/examples/printcap

/usr/share/doc/lpr/changelog.gz

/usr/share/doc/lpr/changelog.Debian.gz

/var/spool/lpd/lp

/var/spool/lpd/remote

¦

21.3

LPRng vs. Legacy lpr-0.

nn

(The word

legacy

with regard to software means outdated, superseded, obsolete, or just old.)

RedHat 7.0 has now switched to using

Debian and other distributions use.

LPRng

LPRng rather than the legacy lpr that is a more modern and comprehensive package. It supports the same legacy lpr

/etc/printcap file and identical binaries as did the on RedHat 6.2. The only differences are in the control files created in your spool directories, and a different access control mechanism (discussed below). Note that LPRng has strict permissions requirements on spool directories and is not trivial to install from source.

21.4 Package Elements

A package’s many files can be loosely grouped into functional elements. In this sectiom, each element will be explained, drawing on the lpr package as an example.

Refer to the list of files in Section 21.2.

21.4.1 Documentation files

Documentation should be your first and foremost interest.

not always be the only documentation provided.

Man pages will

Above we see that lpr does not install very much into the ever, other packages, like

/usr/share/doc rpm -ql apache directory.

How-

, reveal a huge user manual (in

/home/httpd/html/manual/ ftpd shows lots inside or /var/www/html/manual/

/usr/doc/wu-ftpd-

?

.

?

.

?

.

), and rpm -ql wu-

21.4.2 Web pages, mailing lists, and download points

Every package will probably have a team that maintains it as well as a web page.

In the case of lpd , however, the code is very old, and the various CD vendors do

195

21.4. Package Elements 21. System Services and

lpd

maintenance on it themselves. A better example is the

LPRng Web Page

http://www.astart.com/lprng/LPRng.html

lprNG package. Go to

The

with your web browser. There you can see the authors, mailing lists, and points of download. If a particular package is of much interest to you, then you should become familiar with these resources. Good web pages will also have additional documentation like troubleshooting guides and

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions). Some may even have archives of their mailing lists. Note that some web pages are geared more toward CD vendors who are trying to create their own distribution and so will not have packages for download that beginner users can easily install.

21.4.3 User programs

User programs are found in one or another lpr , lprm , and lptest bin directory. In this case, we can see

, as well as their associated man pages.

lpq ,

21.4.4 Daemon and administrator programs

Daemon and administrator command will an sbin lpc , lpd , lpf , and pac , as well as their associated directory. In this case we can see man pages. The only

daemon

(background) program is really the age.

lpd program itself, which is the core of the whole pack-

21.4.5 Configuration files

The file /etc/printcap printcap controls is a plain text file that lpd lpd

. Most system services will have a file in /etc reads on startup. Configuring any service pri-

.

marily involves editing its configuration file. Several graphical configuration tools are available that avoid this inconvenience ( printtool , which is especially for lpd , and linuxconf ), but these actually just silently produce the same configuration file.

by the

Because printing is so integral to the system, lpr package. Trying printcap rpm -qf /etc/printcap gives is not actually provided setup-2.3.4-1 , and dpkg -S /etc/printcap tem).

shows it to not be owned (i.e., it is part of the base sys-

21.4.6 Service initialization files

The files in /etc/rc.d/init.d/ scripts to run lpd

(or /etc/init.d/ on boot and shutdown. You can start

) are the startup and shutdown lpd yourself on the commandline with

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21. System Services and

lpd

21.4. Package Elements

¨

/usr/sbin/lpd

§ but it is preferably to use the given script:

¨

/etc/rc.d/init.d/lpd start

/etc/rc.d/init.d/lpd stop

§

(or

¨

/etc/init.d/lpd ). The script has other uses as well:

/etc/rc.d/init.d/lpd status

/etc/rc.d/init.d/lpd restart

§

(or /etc/init.d/lpd ).

¥

¦

¥

¦

¥

¦

5

10

To make sure that lpd runs on startup, you can check that it has a symlink under the appropriate run level. The symlinks can be explained by running

¨ ls -al ‘find /etc -name ’*lpd*’‘ find /etc -name ’*lpd*’ -ls

§

¥

¦ showing,

¨

-rw-r--r--

-rw-r--r--

-rwxr-xr-x lrwxrwxrwx lrwxrwxrwx lrwxrwxrwx lrwxrwxrwx lrwxrwxrwx lrwxrwxrwx

1 root

1 root

1 root

1 root

1 root

1 root

1 root

1 root

1 root

1 root root root root root root root root root root root

17335 Sep 25

10620 Sep 25

2000 /etc/lpd.conf

2000 /etc/lpd.perms

2277 Sep 25 2000 /etc/rc.d/init.d/lpd

13 Mar 21 14:03 /etc/rc.d/rc0.d/K60lpd -> ../init.d/lpd

13 Mar 21 14:03 /etc/rc.d/rc1.d/K60lpd -> ../init.d/lpd

13 Mar 21 14:03 /etc/rc.d/rc2.d/S60lpd -> ../init.d/lpd

13 Mar 24 01:13 /etc/rc.d/rc3.d/S60lpd -> ../init.d/lpd

13 Mar 21 14:03 /etc/rc.d/rc4.d/S60lpd -> ../init.d/lpd

13 Mar 28 23:13 /etc/rc.d/rc5.d/S60lpd -> ../init.d/lpd

13 Mar 21 14:03 /etc/rc.d/rc6.d/K60lpd -> ../init.d/lpd

¥

¦

The “ 3 ” in rc3.d

under rc3.d

is the what are interested in. Having means that lpd

S60lpd will be started when the system enters symlinked to

run level

lpd

3, which is the system’s state of usual operation.

Note that under RedHat the command vices . The Services setup has a menu option System Serlist will allow you to manage what services come alive on boot, thus creating the symlinks automatically. For Debian , check the man page for the update-rc.d

command.

More details on bootup are in Chapter 32.

21.4.7 Spool files

Systems services like lpd , innd , sendmail , and uucp course of processing each request. These are called create intermediate files in the

spool

files and are stored somewhere under the sequence.

/var/spool/ directory, usually to be processed and then deleted in

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21.4. Package Elements 21. System Services and

lpd

lpd has a spool directory /var/spool/lpd , which may have been created on installation. You can create spool directories for the two printers in the example below, mkdir -p /var/spool/lpd/lp /var/spool/lpd/lp0

§

¥

¦

21.4.8 Log files

U

NIX has a strict policy of not reporting error messages to the user interface whenever there might be no user around to read those messages. Whereas error messages of interactive commands are sent to the terminal screen, error or information messages produced by non-interactive commands are “logged” to files in the directory /var/log/ .

A log file is a plain text file that continually has one-liner status messages appended to it by a daemon process. The usual directory for log files is /var/log . The main log files are /var/log/messages and possibly /var/log/syslog . It contains kernel messages and messages from a few primary services. When a service would produce large log files (think web access with thousands of hits per hour), the service would use its own log file.

sendmail , for example, uses /var/log/maillog . Actually, lpd does not have a log file of its own—one of its failings.

View the system log file with the

¨ tail -f /var/log/messages tail -f /var/log/syslog

§ f

ollow

option to tail :

Restarting the

¨ lpd service gives messages like:

&

Not all distributions log this information.

-

Jun 27 16:06:43 cericon lpd: lpd shutdown succeeded

Jun 27 16:06:45 cericon lpd: lpd startup succeeded

§

¥

¦

¥

¦

21.4.9 Log file rotation

Log files are rotated daily or weekly by the file is /etc/logrotate.conf

logrotate package. Its configuration

. For each package that happens to produce a log file, there is an additional configuration file under /etc/logrotate.d/ . It is also easy to write your own—begin by using one of the existing files as an example.

Rotation

means that the log file is renamed with a .1

extension and then truncated to zero length. The service is notified by the logrotate program, sometimes with a SIGHUP .

Your /var/log/ may contain a number of old log files named .2

of log file rotation is to prevent log files from growing indefinitely.

, .3

, etc. The point

198

21. System Services and

lpd

21.5. The

printcap

File in Detail

21.4.10 Environment variables

Most user commands of services make use of some environment variables. These can be defined in your shell startup scripts as usual. For lpr , if no printer is specified on the command-line, the PRINTER queue. For example, environment variable determines the default print export PRINTER=lp1 will force use of the lp1 print queue.

21.5 The printcap File in Detail

5

10

The printcap (

printer capabilities

) file is similar to (and based on) the termcap (

terminal capabilities

) file. Configuring a printer means adding or removing text in this file.

printcap by a

¨ contains a list of one-line entries, one for each printer. Lines can be broken

\ before the newline. Here is an example of a printcap file for two printers.

lp:\

:sd=/var/spool/lpd/lp:\

:mx#0:\

:sh:\

:lp=/dev/lp0:\

:if=/var/spool/lpd/lp/filter: lp0:\

:sd=/var/spool/lpd/lp0:\

:mx#0:\

:sh:\

:rm=edison:\

:rp=lp3:\

:if=/bin/cat:

§

¥

¦

Printers are named by the first field: in this case lp is the first printer and lp0 the second printer. Each printer usually refers to a different physical device with its own queue. The lp printer should always be listed first and is the default print queue used when no other is specified. Here, lp refers to a local printer on the device /dev/lp0

(first parallel port).

lp0 refers to a remote print queue lp3 on the machine edison .

The printcap has a comprehensive are most of what you will ever need: man page. However, the following fields

sd

Spool directory. This directory contains status and spool files.

mx

Maximum file size. In the preceding example, unlimited.

sh

Suppress headers. The header is a few informational lines printed before or after the print job. This option should always be set to off.

lp

Line printer device.

199

21.6. PostScript and the Print Filter 21. System Services and

lpd

if

Input filter. This is an executable script into which printer data is piped. The output of this script is fed directly to the printing device or remote machine. This filter will translate from the application’s output into the printer’s native code.

rm

Remote machine. If the printer queue is not local, this is the machine name.

rp

Remote printer queue name. The remote machine will have its own printcap file with possibly several printers defined. This specifies which printer to use.

21.6 PostScript and the Print Filter

On U

NIX the standard format for all printing is the PostScript file. PostScript .ps

files are graphics files representing arbitrary scalable text, lines, and images. PostScript is actually a programming language specifically designed to draw things on a page; hence, .ps

files are really PostScript programs. The last line in any PostScript program is always showpage , meaning that all drawing operations are complete and that the page can be displayed. Hence, it is easy to see the number of pages inside a PostScript file by grep ping for the string showpage .

The procedure for printing on U

NIX is to convert whatever you would like to print into PostScript. PostScript files can be viewed with a PostScript “emulator,” like the gv (GhostView) program. A program called gs (GhostScript) is the standard utility for converting the PostScript into a format suitable for your printer. The idea behind

PostScript is that it is a language that can easily be built into any printer. The so-called

“PostScript printer” is one that directly interprets a PostScript file. However, these printers are relatively expensive, and most printers only understand the lesser PCL

(printer control language) dialect or some other format.

In short, any of the hundreds of different formats of graphics and text have a utility that will convert a file into PostScript, whereafter gs will convert it for any of the hundreds of different kinds of printers.

&

There are actually many printers not supported by gs at the time of this writing. This is mainly because manufacturers refuse to release specifications to their proprietary printer communication protocols

. The print filter is the workhorse of this whole operation.

ple,

Most applications conveniently output PostScript whenever printing. For examnetscape ’s menu selection shows

200

21. System Services and

lpd

21.6. PostScript and the Print Filter which sends PostScript through the stdin of lpr . All applications without their own printer drivers will do the same. This means that we can generally rely on the fact that the print filter will always receive PostScript.

gs , on the other hand, can convert

PostScript for any printer, so all that remains is to determine its command-line options.

the

If you have chosen “Print To: File,” then you can view the resulting output with gv program. Try gv netscape.ps

desktop applications do

not

, which shows a

print preview

. On U

NIX

, most have their own preview facility because the PostScript printer itself is emulated by gv .

Note that filter programs should not be used with remote filters; remote printer queues can send their PostScript files “as is” with :if=/bin/cat: (as in the example printcap file above). This way, the machine connected to the device need be the only one especially configured for it.

script

¨

The filter program we are going to use for the local print queue will be a shell

/var/spool/lpd/lp/filter . Create the filter with touch /var/spool/lpd/lp/filter chmod a+x /var/spool/lpd/lp/filter

§

¥

¦

¥

#!/bin/bash cat | gs -sDEVICE=ljet4 -sOutputFile=- -sPAPERSIZE=a4 -r600x600 -q exit 0

§ ¦

The -sDEVICE option describes the printer, in this example a Hewlett Packard

LaserJet 1100. Many printers have similar or compatible formats; hence, there are far fewer DEVICE ’s than different makes of printers. To get a full list of supported devices, use gs -h and also consult one of the following files (depending on your distribution):

/usr/doc/ghostscript-

?

.

??

/devices.txt

/usr/share/doc/ghostscript-

?

.

??

/Devices.htm

/usr/share/doc/gs/devices.txt.gz

The -sOutputFile=sPAPERSIZE sets to write to stdout (as required for a filter). The can be set to one of 11x17 , a3 , a4 , a5 , b3 , b4 , b5 ,

halfletter , ledger , legal , letter ,

-g<width>x<height> note , and others listed in the man to set the exact page size in pixels.

page. You can also use

-r600x600 sets the resolution, in this case, 600 dpi (dots per inch).

-q means to set quiet mode, suppressing any informational messages that would otherwise corrupt the PostScript output, and

means to read from stdin and not from a file.

Our printer configuration is now complete. What remains is to start print. You can do that on the command-line with the enscript package.

lpd and test enscript is a program to convert plain text files into nicely formatted PostScript pages. The man page for enscript shows an enormous number of options, but we can simply try:

201

21.7. Access Control

¨ echo hello | enscript -p - | lpr

§

21. System Services and

lpd

¥

¦

21.7 Access Control

You should be very careful about running

Internet.

lpd lpd on any machine that is exposed to the has had numerous security alerts

&

See Chapter 44.

and should really only be used within a trusted LAN.

To prevent any remote machine from using your printer, lpd first looks in the file /etc/hosts.equiv

. This is a simple list of all machines allowed to print to your printers. My own file looks like this:

¨

192.168.3.8

192.168.3.9

192.168.3.10

192.168.3.11

§

¥

¦

The file /etc/hosts.lpd

does the same but doesn’t give administrative control by those machines to the print queues. Note that other services, like sshd and rshd (or in.rshd

), also check the hosts.equiv

file and consider any machine listed to be equiv

alent

. This means that they are completed trusted and so rshd will not request user logins between machines to be authenticated. This behavior is hence a grave security concern.

5

LPRng on RedHat 7.0 has a different access control facility. It can arbitrarily limit access in a variety of ways, depending on the remote user and the action (such as who is allowed to manipulate queues). The file /etc/lpd.perms

contains the configuration.

The file format is simple, although LPRng ’s capabilities are rather involved—to make a long story short, the equivalent hosts.equiv

¨ becomes in lpd.perms

ACCEPT SERVICE=* REMOTEIP=192.168.3.8

ACCEPT SERVICE=* REMOTEIP=192.168.3.9

ACCEPT SERVICE=* REMOTEIP=192.168.3.10

ACCEPT SERVICE=* REMOTEIP=192.168.3.11

DEFAULT REJECT

§

¥

¦

Large organizations with many untrusted users should look more closely at the

LPRng-HOWTO in /usr/share/doc/LPRng-

n

.

n

.

nn

. It explains how to limit access in more complicated ways.

202

21. System Services and

lpd

21.8. Printing Troubleshooting

21.8 Printing Troubleshooting

Here is a convenient order for checking what is not working.

1.

Check that your printer is plugged in and working. All printers have a way of printing a test page. Read your printer manual to find out how.

2.

Check your printer cable.

3.

Check your CMOS settings for your parallel port.

4.

Check your printer cable.

5.

Try echo hello > /dev/lp0 to check that the port is operating. The printer should do something to signify that data has at least been received. Chapter 42 explains how to install your parallel port kernel module.

6.

Use the lpc and so on.

program to query the lpd daemon. Try help , then status lp ,

7.

Check that there is enough space in your /var and /tmp devices for any intermediate files needed by the print filter. A large print job may require hundreds of megabytes.

lpd may not give any kind of error for a print filter failure: the print job may just disappear into nowhere. If you are using legacy lpr , then complain to your distribution vendor about your print filter not properly logging to a file.

8.

For legacy lpr , stop lpd and remove all of program being in a running state.

files from lpd ’s runtime

/var/spool/lpd

&

At or pertaining to the and from any of its subdirectories. (New are .seq

, lock ,

LPRng status , should never require this step.) The unwanted files lpd.lock

, and any left over spool files that failed to disappear with lprm (these files are recognizable by long file names with a host name and random key embedded in the file name). Then, restart lpd .

9.

For remote queues, check that you can do forward

and

reverse lookups on both machines of both machine’s host names and IP address. If not, you may get Host name for your address (

ipaddr

) unknown error messages when trying an lpq . Test with the command host <ip-address> and also host <machinename> on both machines. If any of these do not work, add entries for both machines in /etc/hosts from the example on page 278. Note that the host command may be ignorant of the file /etc/hosts and may still fail. Chapter 40 will explain name lookup configuration.

10.

Run your print filter manually to check that it does, in fact, produce the correct output. For example, echo hello | enscript -p - |

/var/spool/lpd/lp/filter > /dev/lp0 .

11.

Legacy lpd is a bit of a quirky package—meditate.

203

21.9. Useful Programs 21. System Services and

lpd

21.9 Useful Programs

21.9.1

printtool

printtool is a graphical printer setup program that helps you very quickly set up lpd . It immediately generates a printcap file and magic filter, and you need not know anything about lpd configuration.

21.9.2

apsfilter

apsfilter stands for

any to PostScript filter

. The setup described above requires everything be converted to PostScript before printing, but a filter could foreseeably use the file command to determine the type of data coming in and then invoke a program to convert it to PostScript before piping it through plain text, DVI files, or even gzip gs . This would enable JPEG, GIF, ped HTML to be printed directly, since PostScript converters have been written for each of these.

which are generally called

magic filters

.

apsfilter is one of a few such filters,

&

This is because the file command uses magic numbers.

See page 37.

-

I personally find this feature a gimmick rather than a genuine utility, since most of the time you want to lay out the graphical object on a page before printing, which requires you to preview it, and hence convert it to PostScript manually. For most situations, the straight PostScript filter above will work adequately, provided users know to use enscript instead of lpr when printing plain text.

21.9.3

mpage

mpage is a useful utility for saving the trees. It resizes PostScript input so that two, four or eight pages fit on one. Change your print filter to:

¨

#!/bin/bash cat | mpage -4 | gs -sDEVICE=ljet4 -sOutputFile=- -sPAPERSIZE=a4 -r600x600 -q -

¥

¦

21.9.4

psutils

The package psutils contains a variety of command-line PostScript manipulation programs—a must for anyone doing fancy things with filters.

204

21. System Services and

lpd

21.10. Printing to Things Besides Printers

21.10 Printing to Things Besides Printers

The printcap allows anything to be specified as the printer device. If we set it to

/dev/null and let our filter force the output to an alternative device, then we can use lpd to redirect “print” jobs to any kind of service imaginable.

5

Here, my filter.sh

is a script that might send the print job through an SMB

(Windows NT) print share (using smbclient —see Chapter 39), to a printer previewer, or to a script that emails the job somewhere.

¨ lp1:\

:sd=/var/spool/lpd/lp1:\

:mx#0:\

:sh:\

:lp=/dev/null:\

:if=/usr/local/bin/my_filter.sh:

§

¥

¦

We see a specific example of redirecting print jobs to a fax machine in Chapter 33.

205

21.10. Printing to Things Besides Printers 21. System Services and

lpd

206

Chapter 22

Trivial Introduction to

C was invented for the purpose of writing an operating system that could be recompiled (ported) to different hardware platforms (different CPUs). Because the operating system is written in

C

, this language is the first choice for writing any kind of application that has to communicate efficiently with the operating system.

Many people who don’t program very well in guage out of many. This point should be made at once:

C

think of

C

C

as an arbitrary lanis the fundamental basis of all computing in the world today. U

NIX

, Microsoft Windows, office suites, web browsers and device drivers are all written in

C

. Ninety-nine percent of your time spent at a computer is probably spent using an application written in

C

. About 70% of all “open source” software is written in

C

, and the remaining 30% written in languages whose compilers or interpreters are written in

C

.

&

C++ is also quite popular. It is, however, not as fundamental to computing, although it is more suitable in many situations.

-

Further, there is no replacement for

C

. Since it fulfills its purpose almost flawlessly, there will never be a need to replace it.

Other languages may fulfill other purposes, but

C

fulfills its purpose most adequately.

probably be written in

C

For instance, all future operating systems will for a long time to come.

It is for these reasons that your knowledge of U

NIX you can program in

C

will never be complete until

. On the other hand, just because you can program in

C

does not mean that you

should

. Good

C

programming is a fine art which many veteran programmers never manage to master, even after many years.

C

It is essential to join a Free software project to properly master an effective style of

C

development.

207

22.1.

C Fundamentals 22. Trivial Introduction to C

22.1

C

Fundamentals

We start with a simple

C

program and then add fundamental elements to it. Before going too far, you may wish to review bash functions in Section 7.7.

22.1.1 The simplest

C

program

A simple

C

program is:

¨

#include <stdlib.h>

#include <stdio.h>

5 int main (int argc, char *argv[])

{ printf ("Hello World!\n"); return 3;

¥

¦

Save this program in a file is the process of turning C hello.c

code into

. We will now compile the program.

&

Compiling assembler instructions

. Assembler instructions are the program code that your 80

?

86/SPARC/RS6000 CPU understands directly. The resulting binary executable is fast because it is executed natively by your processor—it is the very chip that you see on your motherboard that does fetch Hello byte for byte from memory and executes each instruction. This is what is meant by

instructions per second

(MIPS). The

megahertz

of the machine quoted by hardware vendors is

very million

roughly the number of MIPS. Interpreted languages (like shell scripts) are much slower because the code itself is written in something not understandable to the CPU. The /bin/bash program has to

interpret

the shell program.

/bin/bash itself is written in

C

, but the overhead of interpretation makes scripting languages many orders of magnitude slower than compiled languages. Shell scripts do not need to be compiled.

-

¥

¦

The -o hello the binary file option tells hello historical reasons.

The -Wall gcc

&

GNU

C

Compiler.

cc option means to report on other U

NIX systems.

instead of the default binary file named a.out

.

to produce

&

Called a.out

for all W arnings during the compilation. This is not strictly necessary but is most helpful for correcting possible errors in your programs. More compiler options are discussed on page 239.

Then, run the program with

¨ ¥

¦

Previously you should have familiarized yourself with bash functions. In

C

all

code is inside a function. The first function to be called (by the operating system) is the main function.

208

22. Trivial Introduction to C 22.1.

C Fundamentals

Type echo $?

return value of the to see the return code of the program. You will see it is main function.

3 , the

Other things to note are the " on either side of the string to be printed. Quotes are required around string literals. Inside a string literal, the \n

escape sequence

indicates a newline character.

proliferation of ; ascii (7) shows some other escape sequences. You can also see a everywhere in a

C

program. Every statement in

C

is terminated by a

; unlike statements in shell scripts where a ; is optional.

Now try:

¨

#include <stdlib.h>

#include <stdio.h>

¥

5 int main (int argc, char *argv[])

{ printf ("number %d, number %d\n", 1 + 2, 10); exit (3); printf can be thought of as the command to send output to the terminal. It is also what is known as a

standard

C

library function

. In other words, it is specified that a

C

implementation should always have the a certain way.

printf function and that it should behave in

¦

The %d specifies that a d

ecimal

ber to be substituted will be the first should go in at that point in the text. The num-

argument

to the printf function after the string literal—that is, the 1 + 2 . The next is, the 10 . The %d is known as a

%d is substituted with the second argument—that

format specifier

. It essentially

converts

an integer number into a decimal representation. See printf (3) for more details.

22.1.2 Variables and types

With bash , you could use a variable anywhere, anytime, and the variable would just be blank if it had never been assigned a value. In

C

, however, you have to explicitly tell the compiler what variables you are going to need before each block of code. You

¥

#include <stdlib.h>

#include <stdio.h>

5

10 int main (int argc, char *argv[])

{ int x; int y; x = 10; y = 2: printf ("number %d, number %d\n", 1 + y, x); exit (3);

209

22.1.

C Fundamentals 22. Trivial Introduction to C

¦

The int x int

eger

is a variable declaration. It tells the program to reserve space for one variable that it will later refer to as x .

int is the

type

of the variable.

x =

10 assigned a value of 10 to the variable. There are types for each kind of number you would like to work with, and format specifiers to convert them for printing:

¨

#include <stdlib.h>

#include <stdio.h>

¥

5

10

15

20 int main (int argc, char *argv[])

{ char a; short b; int c; long d; float e; double f; long double g; a = ’A’; b = 10; c = 10000000; d = 10000000; e = 3.14159; f = 10e300; g = 10e300; printf ("%c, %hd, %d, %ld, %f, %f, %Lf\n", a, b, c, d, e, f, g); exit (3);

¦

You will notice that %f is used for both float

s and

double

s

. The reason is that a float replacing %f is always converted to a with %e double before an operation like this. Also try to print in exponential notation—that is, less significant digits.

22.1.3 Functions

Functions are implemented as follows:

¨

#include <stdlib.h>

#include <stdio.h>

5 void mutiply_and_print (int x, int y)

{ printf ("%d * %d = %d\n", x, y, x * y);

}

10 int main (int argc, char *argv[])

{ mutiply_and_print (30, 5);

210

¥

22. Trivial Introduction to C 22.1.

C Fundamentals mutiply_and_print (12, 3); exit (3);

¦

Here we have a non-main function

declared

with

called

by the main function. The function is

¥

¦

This declaration states the return value of the function ( void for no return value), the function name ( mutiply and print ), and then the

arguments

that are going to be passed to the function. The numbers passed to the function are given their own names, x and y , and are converted to the type of x and y before being passed to the function— in this case, int curly braces { and and } .

int . The actual

C

code that comprises the function goes between

5

In other words, the above function is equivalent to:

¨ void mutiply_and_print ()

{ int x; int y; x = <first-number-passed> y = <second-number-passed> printf ("%d * %d = %d\n", x, y, x * y);

¥

¦

22.1.4

for , while , if , and switch statements

10

15

As with shell scripting, we have the

¨

#include <stdlib.h>

#include <stdio.h> for , while , and if statements:

5 int main (int argc, char *argv[])

{ int x; x = 10; if (x == 10) { printf ("x is exactly 10\n"); x++;

} else if (x == 20) { printf ("x is equal to 20\n");

} else {

211

¥

22.1.

C Fundamentals 22. Trivial Introduction to C

20

25

30

35

40

45 printf ("No, x is not equal to 10 or 20\n");

} if (x > 10) { printf ("Yes, x is more than 10\n");

} while (x > 0) { printf ("x is %d\n", x); x = x - 1;

} for (x = 0; x < 10; x++) { printf ("x is %d\n", x);

} switch (x) { case 9: printf ("x is nine\n"); break; case 10: printf ("x is ten\n"); break; case 11: printf ("x is eleven\n"); break; default: printf ("x is huh?\n"); break;

} return 0;

It is easy to see the format that these statements take, although they are vastly different from shell scripts.

C

code works in

statement blocks

between curly braces, in the same way that shell scripts have do ’s and done ’s.

¦

Note that with most programming languages when we want to add able we have to write, say, x = x + 1 . In

C

, the abbreviation x++

1 to a variis used, meaning to

increment

a variable by 1 .

The for loop takes three statements between ( . . .

) : a statement to start things off, a comparison, and a statement to be executed on each completion of the statement block. The statement block after the is untrue.

for is repeatedly executed until the comparison

The switch ment inside its ( statement is like

. . .

) case and decides which in shell scripts.

case switch considers the arguline to jump to. In this example it will obviously be printf ("x is ten\n"); loop exited. The break because x was 10 when the previous tokens mean that we are through with the switch for statement and that execution should continue from Line 46.

212

22. Trivial Introduction to C 22.1.

C Fundamentals

Note that in

C

the comparison assign a value to a variable, whereas

==

== is used instead of = . The symbol is an

equality operator

.

= means to

22.1.5 Strings, arrays, and memory allocation

This list is called an

¨

#include <stdlib.h>

#include <stdio.h>

array

:

5

10 int main (int argc, char *argv[])

{ int x; int y[10]; for (x = 0; x < 10; x++) { y[x] = x * 2;

} for (x = 0; x < 10; x++) { printf ("item %d is %d\n", x, y[x]);

} return 0;

15

¦

If an array is of type

¨

#include <stdlib.h>

#include <stdio.h> char

acter

, then it is called a

string

:

¥

5

10

15 int main (int argc, char *argv[])

{ int x; char y[11]; for (x = 0; x < 10; x++) { y[x] = 65 + x * 2;

} for (x = 0; x < 10; x++) { printf ("item %d is %d\n", x, y[x]);

} y[10] = 0; printf ("string is %s\n", y); return 0;

Note that a string has to be a zero. The code

null-terminated

y[10] = 0

. This means that the last character must be sets the 11th item in the array to zero. This also means that strings need to be one char longer than you would think.

¦

213

¥

¦

¥

22.1.

C Fundamentals 22. Trivial Introduction to C

(Note that the first item in the array is gramming languages.) y[0] , not y[1] , as with some other pro-

In the preceding example, the line char y[11]

But what if you want a string of 100,000 bytes?

C

reserved 11 bytes for the string.

allows you to request memory from the kernel. This is called

allocate memory

. Any non-trivial program will allocate memory for itself and there is no other way of getting large blocks of memory for your program to use. Try:

¨

#include <stdlib.h>

#include <stdio.h>

¥

5

10

15 int main (int argc, char *argv[])

{ int x; char *y; y = malloc (11); printf ("%ld\n", y); for (x = 0; x < 10; x++) { y[x] = 65 + x * 2;

} y[10] = 0; printf ("string is %s\n", y); free (y); return 0;

¦

points

The declaration char *y to a memory location. The means to declare a variable (a number) called

* (

asterisk

) in this context means

pointer

y that

. For example, if you have a machine with perhaps 256 megabytes of RAM + swap, then tially has a range of this much. The numerical value of y is also printed with y potenprintf

("%ld\n", y); , but is of no interest to the programmer.

When you have finished using memory you must give it back to the operating system by using free . Programs that don’t free all the memory they allocate are said to

leak

memory.

Allocating memory often requires you to perform a calculation to determine the amount of memory required. In the above case we are allocating the space of 11 char s.

Since each char allocating 11 int is really a single byte, this presents no problem. But what if we were s? An int on a PC is 32 bits—four bytes. To determine the size of a type, we use the

¨ sizeof

#include <stdlib.h>

#include <stdio.h> keyword:

¥

5 int main (int argc, char *argv[])

{ int a; int b;

214

22. Trivial Introduction to C 22.1.

C Fundamentals

10

15

20 int c; int d; int e; int f; int g; a = sizeof (char); b = sizeof (short); c = sizeof (int); d = sizeof (long); e = sizeof (float); f = sizeof (double); g = sizeof (long double); printf ("%d, %d, %d, %d, %d, %d, %d\n", a, b, c, d, e, f, g); return 0;

¦

Here you can see the number of bytes required by all of these types. Now we can easily allocate arrays of things other than

¨ char .

#include <stdlib.h>

#include <stdio.h>

¥

5

10

15 int main (int argc, char *argv[])

{ int x; int *y; y = malloc (10 * sizeof (int)); printf ("%ld\n", y); for (x = 0; x < 10; x++) { y[x] = 65 + x * 2;

} for (x = 0; x < 10; x++) { printf ("%d\n", y[x]);

} free (y); return 0;

On many machines an

Always use the sizeof

int is four bytes (32 bits), but you should never assume this.

keyword to allocate memory.

¦

22.1.6 String operations

C

programs probably do more string manipulation than anything else. Here is a program that divides a sentence into words:

¨

#include <stdlib.h>

#include <stdio.h>

#include <string.h>

¥

5 int main (int argc, char *argv[])

215

22.1.

C Fundamentals 22. Trivial Introduction to C

{

10

15 int length_of_word; int i; int length_of_sentence; char p[256]; char *q; strcpy (p, "hello there, my name is fred."); length_of_sentence = strlen (p);

20

25

30

35 length_of_word = 0; for (i = 0; i <= length_of_sentence; i++) { if (p[i] == ’ ’ || i == length_of_sentence) { q = malloc (length_of_word + 1); if (q == 0) { perror ("malloc failed"); abort ();

} strncpy (q, p + i - length_of_word, length_of_word); q[length_of_word] = 0; printf ("word: %s\n", q); free (q); length_of_word = 0;

} else { length_of_word = length_of_word + 1;

}

} return 0;

Here we introduce three more

standard

C

library functions

.

strcpy stands for str

ing

c

o

py . It copies bytes from one place to another sequentially, until it reaches a zero byte (i.e., the end of string). Line 13 of this program copies text array p , which is called the

target

of the copy.

into

the char acter strlen stands for str

ing

len

gth

. It determines the length of a string, which is just a count of the number of char acters up to the null character.

We need to loop over the length of the sentence. The variable current position in the sentence.

i indicates the

Line 20 says that if we find a character 32 (denoted by ’ ’ ), we know we have reached a word boundary. We also know that the end of the sentence is a word boundary even though there may not be a space there. The token || means

OR

. At this point we can allocate memory for the current word and copy the word into that memory.

The strncpy function is useful for this. It copies a string, but only up to a limit of length of word characters (the last argument). Like strcpy , the first argument is the target, and the second argument is the place to copy from.

To calculate the position of the start of the last word, we use length of word . This means that we are adding i p + i to the memory location p and

¦

216

22. Trivial Introduction to C 22.1.

C Fundamentals then going back sition.

length of word counts thereby pointing strncpy to the exact po-

Finally, we null-terminate the string on Line 27. We can then print used memory, and begin with the next word.

q , free the

For a complete list of string operations, see string (3).

22.1.7 File operations

Under most programming languages, file operations involve three steps:

reading

or

writing

to the file, and then

closing opening

the file. You use the command a file, fopen to tell the operating system that you are ready to begin working with a file:

The following program opens a file and spits it out on the terminal:

¨

#include <stdlib.h>

#include <stdio.h>

#include <string.h>

¥

5 int main (int argc, char *argv[])

{ int c;

FILE *f;

10

15

20 f = fopen ("mytest.c", "r"); if (f == 0) { perror ("fopen"); return 1;

} for (;;) { c = fgetc (f); if (c == -1) break; printf ("%c", c);

} fclose (f); return 0;

¦

A new type is presented here:

initialized

with fopen

FILE * . It is a file operations variable that must be before it can be used. The fopen function takes two arguments: the first is the name of the file, and the second is a string explaining open the file—in this case "r" means r

eading how

we want to from the start of the file. Other options are "w" for w

riting

and several more described in fopen (3).

If the return value of fopen is zero, it means that fopen function then prints a textual error message (for example, has failed. The perror

No such file or directory ). It is essential to check the return value of all library calls in this way. These checks will constitute about one third of your

C

program.

217

22.1.

C Fundamentals 22. Trivial Introduction to C

The command fgetc

gets

a character from the file. It retrieves consecutive bytes from the file until it reaches the end of the file, when it returns a -1 . The break statement says to immediately terminate the for from line 21.

break loop, whereupon execution will continue statements can appear inside while loops as well.

You will notice that the means to loop forever.

for statement is empty. This is allowable

C

code and

Some other file functions are fwrite (3), fputc (3), fprintf fread

(3), and

, fwrite fseek (3).

, fputc , fprintf , and fseek . See

22.1.8 Reading command-line arguments inside

C

programs

Up until now, you are probably wondering what the (int argc, char *argv[]) are for. These are the command-line arguments passed to the program by the shell.

argc is the total number of command-line arguments, and argv is an array of strings of each argument. Printing them out is easy:

¨

#include <stdlib.h>

#include <stdio.h>

#include <string.h>

¥

5

10 int main (int argc, char *argv[])

{ int i; for (i = 0; i < argc; i++) { printf ("argument %d is %s\n", i, argv[i]);

} return 0;

¦

22.1.9 A more complicated example

5

Here we put this altogether in a program that reads in lots of files and dumps them as words. Here are some new notations you will encounter: != is the inverse of == and tests if

not-equal-to

; realloc

reallocates

memory—it resizes an old block of memory so that any bytes of the old block are preserved; \n , \t mean the newline character, 10, or the tab character, 9, respectively (see ascii (7)).

¨

#include <stdlib.h>

#include <stdio.h>

#include <string.h>

¥ void word_dump (char *filename)

{ int length_of_word; int amount_allocated;

218

22. Trivial Introduction to C

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

55

60

65

70 char *q;

FILE *f; int c; c = 0; f = fopen (filename, "r"); if (f == 0) { perror ("fopen failed"); exit (1);

} length_of_word = 0; amount_allocated = 256; q = malloc (amount_allocated); if (q == 0) { perror ("malloc failed"); abort ();

} while (c != -1) { if (length_of_word >= amount_allocated) { amount_allocated = amount_allocated * 2; q = realloc (q, amount_allocated); if (q == 0) { perror ("realloc failed"); abort ();

}

} c = fgetc (f); q[length_of_word] = c; if (c == -1 || c == ’ ’ || c == ’\n’ || c == ’\t’) { if (length_of_word > 0) { q[length_of_word] = 0; printf ("%s\n", q);

} amount_allocated = 256; q = realloc (q, amount_allocated); if (q == 0) { perror ("realloc failed"); abort ();

} length_of_word = 0;

} else { length_of_word = length_of_word + 1;

}

} fclose (f);

} int main (int argc, char *argv[])

{ int i; if (argc < 2) { printf ("Usage:\n\twordsplit <filename> ...\n"); exit (1);

} for (i = 1; i < argc; i++) { word_dump (argv[i]);

219

22.1.

C Fundamentals

22.1.

C Fundamentals 22. Trivial Introduction to C

75

} return 0;

This program is more complicated than you might immediately expect. Reading in a file where we are

sure

that a word will never exceed 30 characters is simple.

But what if we have a file that contains some words that are 100,000 characters long?

GNU programs are expected to behave correctly under these circumstances.

To cope with normal as well as extreme circumstances, we start off assuming that a word will never be more than 256 characters. If it appears that the word is growing over 256 characters, we realloc

ate

the memory space to double its size (lines 32 amd

33). When we start with a new word, we can free up memory again, so we realloc back to 256 again (lines 48 and 49). In this way we are using the minimum amount of memory at each point in time.

We have hence created a program that can work efficiently with a 100-gigabyte file just as easily as with a 100-byte file.

This is part of the art of

C

programming.

Experienced

C

programmers may actually scoff at the above listing because it really isn’t as “minimalistic” as is absolutely possible. In fact, it is a truly excellent listing for the following reasons:

The program is easy to understand.

The program uses an efficient algorithm (albeit not optimal).

The program contains no arbitrary limits that would cause unexpected behavior in extreme circumstances.

The program uses no nonstandard

C

functions or notations that would prohibit it compiling successfully on other systems. It is therefore

portable

.

Readability in

C

reading the code.

is your first priority—it is imperative that what you do is

obvious

to anyone

¦

22.1.10

#include statements and prototypes

At the start of each program will be one or more #include statements. These tell the compiler to read in another

C

program. Now, “raw”

C

does not have a whole lot in the way of protecting against errors: for example, the strcpy be used with one, three, or four arguments, and the

C

function could just as well program would still compile.

It would, however, wreak havoc with the internal memory and cause the program to crash. These other .h

C

programs are called

header

files. They contain templates for

220

22. Trivial Introduction to C 22.1.

C Fundamentals how functions are meant to be called. Every function you might like to use is contained in one or another template file. The templates are called

function prototypes

.

&

C++ has something called “templates.” This is a special C++ term having nothing to do with the discussion here.

code. A function prototype for

¨

A function prototype is written the same as the function itself, but without the word dump would simply be:

¥

¦

The trailing ; is essential and distinguishes a function prototype from a function.

After a function prototype is defined, any attempt to use the function in a way other than intended—say, passing it to few arguments or arguments of the wrong type—will be met with fierce opposition from gcc .

using

You will notice that the str ing operations.

#include <string.h> appeared when we started

Recompiling these programs without the #include

<string.h> line gives the warning message

¨ ¥

¦ which is quite to the point.

The function prototypes give a clear definition of how every function is to be used. Man pages will always first state the function prototype so that you are clear on what arguments are to be passed and what types they should have.

22.1.11

C

comments

A

C

comment is denoted with lines. Anything between the /*

/* <comment lines> */ and */ and can span multiple is ignored. Every function should be commented, and all nonobvious code should be commented. It is a good maxim that a program that

needs

lots of comments to explain it is

badly written

. Also, never comment the obvious, and explain advisable

¨

why

you do things rather that

what

you are doing. It is

not

to make pretty graphics between each function, so rather:

/* returns -1 on error, takes a positive integer */ int sqr (int x)

{

§

<...>

¥

¦

¥

5

/***************************----SQR----******************************

* x = argument to make the square of *

* return value = *

*

*

-1 (on error) square of x (on success)

*

*

********************************************************************/

221

22.1.

C Fundamentals 22. Trivial Introduction to C

5 int sqr (int x)

{

§

<...>

¦ which is liable to cause nausea. In C++, the additional comment whereby everything between the //

// is allowed, and the end of the line is ignored. It is accepted under gcc , but should not be used unless you really are programming in C++. In addition, programmers often “comment out” lines by placing a #if 0 . . .

#endif around them, which really does exactly the same thing as a comment (see Section 22.1.12) but allows you to have comments within comments. For example

¨

§ int x; x = 10;

#if 0 printf ("debug: x is %d\n", x);

#endif y = x + 10;

<...>

/* print debug information */

¥

¦ comments out Line 4.

22.1.12

#define and #if —

C

macros

Anything starting with a # is not actually

C

, but a is first run through a

preprocessor

C

preprocessor directive

. A

C

program that removes all spurious junk, like comments, #include much more readable by defining

¨ statements, and anything else beginning with a

macros

# . You can make

C

programs instead of literal values. For instance,

¥

¦ in our example program, #define

s

Thereafter, wherever in the

C

the text START BUFFER SIZE program we have a to be the text

START BUFFER SIZE , the text

256 .

256 will be seen by the compiler, and we can use START BUFFER SIZE instead. This is a much

cleaner

way of programming because, if, say, we would like to change the 256 to some other value, we only need to change it in one place.

START BUFFER SIZE more meaningful than a number, making the program more readable.

is also

Whenever you have a

literal constant

like defined near the top of your program.

256 , you should replace it with a macro

5 directive.

¨

You can also check for the existence of macros with the

#

#ifdef and directives are really a programming language all on their own:

/* Set START_BUFFER_SIZE to fine-tune performance before compiling: */

#define START_BUFFER_SIZE 256

/* #define START_BUFFER_SIZE 128 */

/* #define START_BUFFER_SIZE 1024 */

/* #define START_BUFFER_SIZE 16384 */

#ifndef

¥

222

22. Trivial Introduction to C 22.2. Debugging with

gdb

and

strace

10

#ifndef START_BUFFER_SIZE

#error This code did not define START_BUFFER_SIZE. Please edit

#endif

#if START_BUFFER_SIZE <= 0

#error Wooow! START_BUFFER_SIZE must be greater than zero

#endif

15

20

#if START_BUFFER_SIZE < 16

#warning START_BUFFER_SIZE to small, program may be inefficient

#elif START_BUFFER_SIZE > 65536

#warning START_BUFFER_SIZE to large, program may be inefficient

#else

/* START_BUFFER_SIZE is ok, do not report */

#endif

25 void word_dump (char *filename)

{

<...> amount_allocated = START_BUFFER_SIZE;

§ q = malloc (amount_allocated);

<...>

¦

22.2 Debugging with gdb and strace

Programming errors, or

bugs

, can be found by inspecting program execution. Some developers claim that the need for such inspection implies a sloppy development process.

Nonetheless it is instructive to learn

C

by actually watching a program work.

22.2.1

gdb

The GNU debugger, gdb , is a replacement for the standard U

NIX debugger, db . To debug a program means to step through its execution line-by-line, in order to find programming errors as they happen. Use the command gcc -Wall -g -O0 -o wordsplit wordsplit.c

to recompile your program above. The -g option enables debugging support in the resulting executable and the -O0 option disables compiler optimization (which sometimes causes confusing behavior). For the following example, create a test file readme.txt

-q wordsplit . The standard with some plain text inside it. You can then run gdb gdb prompt will appear, which indicates the start of a

debugging session

:

¨ ¥

¦

At the prompt, many one letter commands are available to control program execution.

223

22.2. Debugging with

gdb

and

strace

22. Trivial Introduction to C

5

The first of these is r

un

which executes the program as though it had been started from a regular shell:

¨

(gdb)

r

Starting program: /homes/src/wordsplit/wordsplit

Usage: wordsplit <filename> ...

¥

¦

Obviously, we will want to set some trial command-line arguments. This is done with the special command, set args :

¨

set args readme.txt readme2.txt

¥

¦ sets a

¨

The b

reak

command is used like b [[<file>:]<line>|<function>] , and

break point

at a function or line number:

(gdb)

b main

¥

¦

A break point will interrupt execution of the program. In this case the program will stop when it enters the main function (i.e., right at the start). Now we can r un the program again:

¨

(gdb)

r

Starting program: /home/src/wordsplit/wordsplit readme.txt readme2.txt

¥

5

5

Breakpoint 1, main (argc=3, argv=0xbffff804) at wordsplit.c:67

67 if (argc < 2) {

As specified, the program stops at the beginning of the main function at line 67.

If you are interested in viewing the contents of a variable, you can use the p rint

¦

¥

(gdb)

$1 = 3

p argc

(gdb)

p argv[1]

which tells us the value of argc and argv[1] . The l

ist

command displays the lines

¦

¥

(gdb)

63

64

65

66

l

int main (int argc, char *argv[])

{ int i;

224

22. Trivial Introduction to C 22.2. Debugging with

gdb

and

strace

5

67

68

69 if (argc < 2) { printf ("Usage:\n\twordsplit <filename> ...\n"); exit (1);

}

¦

The l

ist

name):

¨

(gdb)

3

4

1

2

5

6

7 command can also take an optional file and line number (or even a function

l wordsplit.c:1

#include <stdlib.h>

#include <stdio.h>

#include <string.h> void word_dump (char *filename)

{ int length_of_word; int amount_allocated;

¥

¦

5

Next, we can try setting a break point at an arbitrary line and then using the c

ontinue

command to proceed with program execution:

¨

(gdb)

b wordsplit.c:48

Breakpoint 2 at 0x804873e: file wordsplit.c, line 48.

(gdb)

c

Continuing.

Zaphod

¥

5

Breakpoint 2, word_dump (filename=0xbffff988 "readme.txt") at wordsplit.c:48 amount_allocated = 256;

¦

Execution obediently stops at line 48. At this point it is useful to run a prints out the current

stack

b

ack

t

race

. This which shows the functions that were called to get to the current line. This output allows you to

trace

¨ the history of execution.

(gdb)

#0

bt

word_dump (filename=0xbffff988 "readme.txt") at wordsplit.c:48

#1 0x80487e0 in main (argc=3, argv=0xbffff814) at wordsplit.c:73

#2 0x4003db65 in __libc_start_main (main=0x8048790 <main>, argc=3, ubp_av=0xbf fff814, init=0x8048420 <_init>, fini=0x804883c <_fini>, rtld_fini=0x4000df24 <_dl_fini>, stack_end=0xbffff8

¥

¦

¨

(gdb)

The clear

clear

command then deletes the break point at the current line:

¥

¦

The

The most important commands for debugging are the n command simply executes one line of

C

code: n

ext

and s

tep

commands.

225

22.2. Debugging with

gdb

and

strace

22. Trivial Introduction to C

5

5

¨

(gdb)

49

(gdb)

50

(gdb)

n n n

q = realloc (q, amount_allocated); if (q == 0) {

¥ length_of_word = 0;

¦

This activity is called n

stepping

through your program. The s command is identical to except that it dives into functions instead of running them as single line. To see the difference, step over line 73 first with

¨ n , and then with s , as follows:

(gdb)

set args readme.txt readme2.txt

(gdb)

b main

Breakpoint 1 at 0x8048796: file wordsplit.c, line 67.

(gdb)

r

Starting program: /home/src/wordsplit/wordsplit readme.txt readme2.txt

¥

10

15

20

25

Breakpoint 1, main (argc=3, argv=0xbffff814) at wordsplit.c:67

67 if (argc < 2) {

(gdb)

72

n

for (i = 1; i < argc; i++) {

(gdb)

n

word_dump (argv[i]); 73

(gdb)

Zaphod

n

has two heads

72

(gdb)

73

(gdb)

s s

for (i = 1; i < argc; i++) { word_dump (argv[i]); word_dump (filename=0xbffff993 "readme2.txt") at wordsplit.c:13

13 c = 0;

(gdb)

15

s

f = fopen (filename, "r");

¦

10

5

An interesting feature of gdb is its ability to attach onto running programs. Try the following sequence of commands:

¨

[[email protected]]#

[[email protected]]#

28157 ?

28160 pts/6

[[email protected]]#

S

S

lpd ps awx | grep lpd

0:00 lpd Waiting

0:00 grep lpd

gdb -q /usr/sbin/lpd

(no debugging symbols found)...

(gdb)

attach 28157

Attaching to program: /usr/sbin/lpd, Pid 28157

0x40178bfe in __select () from /lib/libc.so.6

¥

¦

226

22. Trivial Introduction to C 22.3.

C Libraries

The lpd daemon was not compiled with debugging support, but the point is still made: you can halt and debug

any

running process on the system. Try running a bt

¨ for fun. Now release the process with

(gdb)

detach

¥

¦

The debugger provides copious amounts of online help. The help be run to explain further. The gdb info command can pages also elaborate on an enormous number of display features and tracing features not covered here.

22.2.2 Examining core files

If your program has a segmentation violation (“segfault”) then a core file will be written to the current directory. This is known as a

core dump

. A core dump is caused by a bug in the program—its response to a SIGSEGV signal sent to the program because it tried to access an area of memory outside of its allowed range. These files can be examined using gdb to (usually) reveal where the problem occurred. Simply run

<executable> ./core and then type bt (or any gdb command) at the gdb gdb prompt.

Typing

¨ file ./core will reveal something like

¥

¦

22.2.3

strace

The strace command prints every

system call

performed by a program. A system call is a function call made

¨ strace ls

by

a

C

library function to the L

INUX kernel. Try

¥

¦

If a program has not been compiled with debugging support, the only way to inspect its execution may be with the strace command. In any case, the command can provide valuable information about where a program is failing and is useful for diagnosing errors.

22.3

C

Libraries

We made reference to the Standard

C

library. The

C

language on its own does almost nothing; everything useful is an external function. External functions are grouped into

227

22.3.

C Libraries 22. Trivial Introduction to C libraries. The Standard functions, run:

¨ nm /lib/libc.so.6

C

library is the file /lib/libc.so.6

. To list all the

C

library

¥

¦ many of these have man pages, but some will have no documentation and require you to read the comments inside the header files (which are often most explanatory). It is better not to use functions unless you are sure that they are

standard

functions in the sense that they are common to other systems.

To create your own library is simple. Let’s say we have two files that contain several functions that we would like to compile into a library. The files are simple math sqrt.c

¨

#include <stdlib.h>

#include <stdio.h>

¥

5 static int abs_error (int a, int b)

{ if (a > b) return a - b; return b - a;

}

10

15

20 int simple_math_isqrt (int x)

{ int result; if (x < 0) { fprintf (stderr,

"simple_math_sqrt: taking the sqrt of a negative number\n"); abort ();

} result = 2; while (abs_error (result * result, x) > 1) { result = (x / result + result) / 2;

} return result;

¦ and

¨ simple math pow.c

#include <stdlib.h>

#include <stdio.h>

¥

5

10 int simple_math_ipow (int x, int y)

{ int result; if (x == 1 || y == 0) return 1; if (x == 0 && y < 0) { fprintf (stderr,

"simple_math_pow: raising zero to a negative power\n");

228

22. Trivial Introduction to C 22.3.

C Libraries

15

20 abort ();

} if (y < 0) return 0; result = 1; while (y > 0) { result = result * x; y = y - 1;

} return result;

¦

We would like to call the library functions in the library simple math simple math . It is good practice to name all the

??????

. The function abs error is not going to be used outside of the file simple math sqrt.c

in front of it, meaning that it is a

local

function.

and so we put the keyword static

We can compile the code with:

¨ gcc -Wall -c simple_math_sqrt.c

¥

¦

The -c option means

compile only

. The code is not turned into an executable. The generated files are simple math sqrt.o

and simple math pow.o

. These are called o

bject

files.

We now need to

archive

(a predecessor of tar ):

¨ these files into a library. We do this with the ar libsimple_math.a simple_math_sqrt.o simple_math_pow.o

ar command

¥

¦

The ranlib command indexes the archive.

The library can now be used. Create a file

¨

#include <stdlib.h>

#include <stdio.h> mytest.c

:

¥

5 int main (int argc, char *argv[])

{ printf ("%d\n", simple_math_ipow (4, 3)); printf ("%d\n", simple_math_isqrt (50)); return 0;

¦ and run

¨ gcc -Wall -c mytest.c

¥

¦

229

22.4.

C Projects —

Makefile

s 22. Trivial Introduction to C

The first command compiles the file tion is called

linking

mytest.c

into the program, which assimilates mytest.o

mytest.o

, and the second funcand the libraries into a single executable. The option L.

means to look in the current directory for any libraries

(usually only /lib and /usr/lib are searched). The option -lsimple math means to assimilate the library

This operation is called libsimple math.a

static

( lib and .a

are added automatically).

&

Nothing to do with the “ static ” keyword.

linking because it happens before the program is run and includes all object files into the executable.

As an aside, note that it is often the case that many static libraries are linked into the same program. Here order is important: the library with the least dependencies should come last, or you will get so-called

symbol referencing errors

.

We can also create a header file simple math.h

for using the library.

¨

/* calculates the integer square root, aborts on error */ int simple_math_isqrt (int x);

¥

5

/* calculates the integer power, aborts on error */

¦

Add the line #include "simple math.h"

¨

#include <stdlib.h>

#include <stdio.h> to the top of mytest.c

:

¥

This addition gets rid of the sages. Usually implicit declaration of function

#include <simple math.h> warning meswould be used, but here, this is a header file in the current directory—our

"simple math.h" instead of

own

header file—and this is where we use

<simple math.h> .

¦

22.4

C

Projects — Makefile s

What if you make a small change to one of the files (as you are likely to do very often when developing)? You could script the process of compiling and linking, but the script would build everything, and not just the changed file. What we really need is a utility that only recompiles object files whose sources have changed: make is such a utility.

make is a program that looks inside a does a lot of compiling and linking.

Makefile

Makefile in the current directory then s contain lists of rules and

dependencies

describing how to build a program.

that goal.

Inside a make

Makefile you need to state a list of

what-depends-on-what

dependencies can work through, as well as the shell commands needed to achieve each

230

22. Trivial Introduction to C 22.4.

C Projects —

Makefile

s

22.4.1 Completing our example Makefile

Our first (last?)

dependency depends on

in the process of completing the compilation is that both the library, libsimple math.a

, and the object file, mytest mytest.o

. In make

¨ terms we create a Makefile line that looks like: libsimple_math.a mytest.o

¥

¦ meaning simply that the files dated before mytest .

libsimple math.a mytest.o

mytest: is called a make

target

must exist and be up-

. Beneath this line, we also need to state how to build

¨

§ mytest : gcc -Wall -o [email protected] mytest.o -L. -lsimple_math

¥

¦

The [email protected] means the name of the target itself, which is just substituted with

that the space before the gcc is a tab character and not 8 space characters.

mytest .

Note

The next dependency is that libsimple math.a

depends on simple math sqrt.o

simple math pow.o

. Once again we have a dependency, along with a shell script to build the target. The full

¨

Makefile

rule

is: libsimple_math.a: simple_math_sqrt.o simple_math_pow.o

rm -f [email protected] ar rc [email protected] simple_math_sqrt.o simple_math_pow.o

§ ranlib [email protected]

¥

¦

Note again that the left margin consists of a single tab character and not spaces.

The final dependency is that the files ple math pow.o

ple math pow.c

depend on the

. This requires two stating such a rule in the case of many

¨ files make simple math sqrt.o

simple math sqrt.c

target rules, but

C

source files, make and and simsimhas a short way of

.c.o:

§ gcc -Wall -c -o $*.o $<

¥

¦ which means that any .o

means of the command files needed can be built from a gcc -Wall -c -o $*.o $<

.c

file of a similar name by

, where $*.o

means the name of the object file and $< means the name of the file that $*.o

depends on, one at a time.

22.4.2 Putting it all together

Makefile s can, in fact, have their rules put in any order, so it’s best to state the most obvious rules first for readability.

There is also a rule you should always state at the outset:

231

22.4.

C Projects —

Makefile

s 22. Trivial Introduction to C

¨ libsimple_math.a mytest

The all: target is the rule that make tries to satisfy when command-line arguments. This just means that make libsimple math.a

is run with no and mytest are the last two files to be built, that is, they are the top-level dependencies.

Makefile s also have their own form of environment variables, like shell scripts.

You can see that we have used the text simple math in three of our rules. It makes sense to define a

macro

for this so that we can easily change to a different library name.

¨

Our final Makefile is:

# Comments start with a # (hash) character like shell scripts.

# Makefile to build libsimple_math.a and mytest program.

# Paul Sheer <[email protected]> Sun Mar 19 15:56:08 2000

¥

¥

¦

5

OBJS = simple_math_sqrt.o simple_math_pow.o

LIBNAME = simple_math

CFLAGS = -Wall

10 all: lib$(LIBNAME).a mytest mytest: lib$(LIBNAME).a mytest.o

gcc $(CFLAGS) -o [email protected] mytest.o -L. -l${LIBNAME}

15 lib$(LIBNAME).a: $(OBJS) rm -f [email protected] ar rc [email protected] $(OBJS) ranlib [email protected]

20

.c.o: gcc $(CFLAGS) -c -o $*.o $< clean:

§ rm -f *.o *.a mytest

¦

¨

We can now easily type in the current directory to cause everything to be built.

You can see we have added an additional disconnected target can be run explictly on the command-line like this:

¨ clean: . Targets

¥

¦ which removes all built files.

Makefile s have far more uses than just building needs to be built from sources can employ a Makefile

C

programs. Anything that to make things easier.

¥

¦

232

Chapter 23

Shared Libraries

This chapter follows directly from our construction of

22. It discusses creation and installation of

static

.a

libraries in Chapter

Dynamically Linked Libraries

(DLLs). Here I show you both so that you have a good technical overview of how DLLs work on U

NIX

.

You can then promptly forget everything except ldconfig and LD LIBRARY PATH discussed below.

The .a

library file is good for creating functions that many programs can include. This practice is called

code reuse

. But note how the .a

file is

linked into

(included) in the executable mytest in Chapter 22.

mytest is enlarged by the size of ple math.a

. When hundreds of programs use the same .a

libsimfile, that code is effectively duplicated all over the file system. Such inefficiency was deemed unacceptable long before L

INUX

, so library files were invented that only link with the program when it runs—a process known as

dynamic

linking. Instead of .a

files, similar .so

( s

hared

o

bject

) files live in when it runs.

/lib/ and /usr/lib/ and are automatically linked to a program

23.1 Creating DLL .so

Files

5

Creating a DLL requires several changes to the

¨

Makefile

OBJS

LIBNAME

= simple_math_sqrt.o simple_math_pow.o

= simple_math

SONAME = libsimple_math.so.1.0.0

SOVERSION = libsimple_math.so.1.0

CFLAGS = -Wall on page 232: all: lib$(LIBNAME).so mytest

233

¥

23.2. DLL Versioning 23. Shared Libraries

10 mytest: lib$(LIBNAME).so mytest.o

gcc $(CFLAGS) -o [email protected] mytest.o -L. -l${LIBNAME}

15 lib$(LIBNAME).so: $(OBJS) gcc -shared $(CFLAGS) $(OBJS) -lc -Wl,-soname -Wl,$(SOVERSION) \

-o $(SONAME) && \ ln -sf $(SONAME) $(SOVERSION) && \ ln -sf $(SONAME) lib$(LIBNAME).so

.c.o: gcc -fPIC -DPIC $(CFLAGS) -c -o $*.o $<

20 clean:

§ rm -f *.o *.a *.so mytest

¦

The -shared option to gcc builds our shared library. The -W options are linker options that set the version number of the library that linking programs will load at runtime. The -fPIC -DPIC suitable for dynamic linking.

means to generate

position-independent code

, that is, code

After running

¨ lrwxrwxrwx lrwxrwxrwx

-rwxr-xr-x

1 root

1 root

1 root

1 root root root root root make we have

23 Sep 17 22:02 libsimple_math.so -> libsimple_math.so.1.0.0

23 Sep 17 22:02 libsimple_math.so.1.0 -> libsimple_math.so.1.0.0

6046 Sep 17 22:02 libsimple_math.so.1.0.0

13677 Sep 17 22:02 mytest

¥

¦

23.2 DLL Versioning

You may observe that our three .so

files are similar to the many files in /lib/ and

/usr/lib/ . This complicated system of linking and symlinking is part of the process of

library versioning

. Although generating a DLL is out of the scope of most system admin tasks, library versioning is important to understand.

DLLs have a problem. Consider a DLL that is outdated or buggy: simply overwriting the DLL file with an updated file will affect all the applications that use it. If these applications rely on certain behavior of the DLL code, then they will probably crash with the fresh DLL. U

NIX has elegantly solved this problem by allowing multiple versions of DLLs to be present simultaneously. The programs themselves have their required version number built into them. Try

¨ ldd mytest

§

¥

¦ which will show the DLL files that

¨ mytest is scheduled to link with: libsimple_math.so.1.0 => ./libsimple_math.so.1.0 (0x40018000)

¥

234

23. Shared Libraries 23.3. Installing DLL

.so

Files libc.so.6 => /lib/libc.so.6 (0x40022000)

/lib/ld-linux.so.2 => /lib/ld-linux.so.2 (0x40000000)

§

At the moment, we are interested in libsimple math.so.1.0

. Note how it matches the SOVERSION variable in the Makefile . Note also how we have chosen our symlinks. We are effectively allowing ple math.so.1.0.

?

(were our mytest simple math to link with any future libsimlibrary to be upgraded to a new version) purely because of the way we have chosen our symlinks. However, it will not link with any library libsimple math.so.1.1.

?

, for example. As developers of libsimple math , we are deciding that libraries of a different we are considering libraries to be named lib

name

.so.

major

.

minor

.

patch

-

minor

&

For this example version number will be incompatible, whereas libraries of a different

patch

level will not be incompatible.

¦

We could also change SOVERSION to libsimple math.so.1

. This would effectively be saying that future libraries of different minor version numbers are compatible; only a change in the major version number would dictate incompatibility.

23.3 Installing DLL .so

Files

If you run ./mytest , you will be greeted with an error while loading shared libraries message. The reason is that the dynamic linker does not search the current directory for

¨

.so

files. To run your program, you will have to install your library: mkdir -p /usr/local/lib install -m 0755 libsimple_math.so libsimple_math.so.1.0 \ libsimple_math.so.1.0.0 /usr/local/lib

§

¥

¦

Then, edit the

¨

/etc/ld.so.conf

/usr/local/lib

§ file and add a line

Then, reconfigure your libraries with

¨ ldconfig

§

Finally, run your program with

¨ export LD_LIBRARY_PATH="$LD_LIBRARY_PATH:/usr/local/lib"

./mytest

§

¥

¦

¥

¦

¥

¦ ldconfig configures all libraries on the system. It recreates appropriate symlinks (as we did) and rebuilds a lookup cache. The library directories it considers are

/lib , /usr/lib , and those listed in /etc/ld.so.config

. The ldconfig command should be run automatically when the system boots and manually whenever libraries are installed or upgraded.

235

23.3. Installing DLL

.so

Files 23. Shared Libraries

The LD LIBRARY PATH environment variable is relevant to every executable on the system and similar to the PATH environment variable.

LD LIBRARY PATH dictates what directories should be searched for library files. Here, we appended

/usr/local/lib to the search path in case it was missing. Note that even with

LD LIBRARY PATH unset, /lib and /usr/lib will always be searched.

236

Chapter 24

Source and Binary Packages

In this chapter you will, first and foremost, learn to build packages from source, building on your knowledge of Makefile s in Chapter 22. Most packages, however, also come as .rpm

(RedHat) or .deb

(Debian ) files, which are discussed further below.

24.1 Building GNU Source Packages

Almost all packages originally come as the many public FTP sites, like

C

sources, tar metalab.unc.edu

ed and available from one of

. Thoughtful developers would have made their packages

GNU standards compliant

. This means that un tar ring the package will reveal the following files inside the top-level directory:

INSTALL

This is a standard document beginning with the line “ These are generic installation instructions.

” Since all GNU installed in the same way, this file should always be the same.

packages are

NEWS

News of interest to users.

README

Any essential information. This is usually an explanation of what the package does, promotional material, and anything special that need be done to install the package.

COPYING

The GNU General Public License.

AUTHORS

A list of major contributors.

ChangeLog

A specially formatted list containing a history of all changes ever done to the package, by whom, and on what date. Used to track work on the package.

237

24.1. Building GNU Source Packages 24. Source and Binary Packages

Being GNU standards compliant should also mean that the package can be installed with only the three following commands:

¨

./configure make make install

§

¥

¦

It also

usually

means that packages will compile on any U

NIX section should be a good guide to getting L machines.

INUX system. Hence, this software to work on non-L

INUX

An example will illustrate these steps. Begin by downloading metalab.unc.edu

in the directory cooledit from

/pub/Linux/apps/editors/X/cooledit , using ftp . Make a directory /opt/src in which to build such custom packages. Now

¥ cd /opt/src tar -xvzf cooledit-3.17.2.tar.gz

cd cooledit-3.17.2

§

You will notice that most sources have the name

The

major package

-

major

.

minor

.

patch

.tar.gz

version of the package is changed when the developers make a substantial

.

feature update or when they introduce incompatibilities to previous versions. The minor version is usually updated when small features are added. The patch number

(also known as the patch signifies bug fixes.

level

) is updated whenever a new release is made and usually

¦

At this point you can apply any patches you may have. See Section 20.7.3.

by

You can now autoconf

./configure the package. The ./configure script is generated

—a package used by developers to create on any type of U

NIX system. The autoconf

C

source that will compile package also contains the

GNU Coding

Standards

to which all software should comply.

& autoconf is the remarkable work of David

MacKenzie. I often hear the myth that U

NIX systems have so diverged that they are no longer compatible.

The fact that sophisticated software like cooledit (and countless others) compiles on almost any U

NIX machine should dispel this nonsense. There is also hype surrounding developers “porting” commercial software from other U

NIX systems to L

INUX

. If they had written their software in the least bit properly to begin with, there would be no porting to be done. In short,

all

L

INUX software runs on

all

exceptions are a few packages that use some custom features of the L

INUX kernel.

-

¨

./configure --prefix=/opt/cooledit

§

U

NIX s. The only

¥

¦

Here, --prefix indicates the top-level directory under which the package will be installed. (See Section 17.2.). Always also try

¨

./configure --help

§

¥

¦ to see package-specific options.

238

24. Source and Binary Packages 24.1. Building GNU Source Packages

¨

Another trick sets compile options:

-O2

Sets compiler optimizations to be “as fast as possible without making the binary larger.” ( -O3 almost never provides an advantage.)

-fomit-frame-pointer

Permits the compiler to use one extra register that would normally be used for debugging. Use this option only when you are absolutely sure you have no interest in analyzing any running problems with the package.

-s

Strips the object code. This reduces the size of the object code by eliminating any debugging data.

-pipe

Instructs not to use temporary files. Rather, use pipes to feed the code through the different stages of compilation. This usually speeds compilation.

amount of code and your CPU power.

entry-level machine at the time of writing.

-

¨ make

§

Compile the package. This can take up to several hours depending on the

& cooledit will compile in under 10 minutes on any

¥

¦ if you decide that you would rather compile with debug support after all.

Install the package with

¨ make install

§

A nice trick to install into a different subdirectory is

¨ mkdir /tmp/cooledit make install prefix=/tmp/cooledit

§

&

Not always supported.

:

You can use these commands to pack up the completed build for un tar ing onto a different system. You should, however, never try to run a package from a directory different from the one it was --prefix ed to install into, since most packages

compile in

this location and then access installed data from beneath it.

¥

¦

¥

¦

Using a source package is often the best way to install when you want the package to work the way the developers intended. You will also tend to find more documentation, when vendors have neglected to include certain files.

¥

¦

239

¥

¦

24.2. RedHat and Debian Binary Packages 24. Source and Binary Packages

24.2 RedHat and Debian Binary Packages

In this section, we place Debian examples inside parentheses, examples from actual systems, they do not always correspond.

( . . .

) . Since these are

24.2.1 Package versioning

The package numbering for RedHat and Debian though this is far from a rule):

¨ packages is often as follows (al-

<package-name>-<source-version>-<package-version>.<hardware-platform>.rpm

¥

¦

For example,

¨ bash-1.14.7-22.i386.rpm

¥ is the Bourne Again Shell you are using, major version 1, minor version 14, patch 7, package version 22, compiled for an Intel 386 processor. Sometimes, the Debian package will have the architecture appended to the version number, in the above case, perhaps bash 2.03-6 i386.deb

.

The <source-version> is the version on the original

<package-version> , also called the

release

, refers to the

.tar

.rpm

file (as above). The file itself; in this case, bash-1.14.7-22.i386.rpm

has been packed together for the 8 th time, possibly with minor improvements to the way it installs with each new number. The i386 is called the

architecture

and could also be

Sun Microsystems workstations

machine, ppc sparc for a for a

SPARC

&

Type of processor used in

PowerPC

&

Another non-Intel workstation

, alpha for a

DEC Alpha

&

High-end 64 bit server/workstation

machine, or several others.

¦

24.2.2 Installing, upgrading, and deleting

To install a package, run the following command on the .rpm

¨ rpm -i mirrordir-0.10.48-1.i386.rpm

( dpkg -i mirrordir_0.10.48-2.deb )

§ or .deb

file:

¥

¦

Upgrading (Debian automatically chooses an upgrade if the package is already present) can be done with the following command,

¨ rpm -U mirrordir-0.10.49-1.i386.rpm

( dpkg -i mirrordir_0.10.49-1.deb )

§

¥

¦ and then completely uninstalling with

240

24. Source and Binary Packages 24.2. RedHat and Debian Binary Packages

¨ rpm -e mirrordir

( dpkg --purge mirrordir )

§

¥

¦

With Debian , a package r emoval does not remove configuration files, thus allowing you to revert to its current setup if you later decide to reinstall:

¨ dpkg -r mirrordir

§

¥

¦

If you need to reinstall a package (perhaps because of a file being corrupted), use

¨ rpm -i --force python-1.6-2.i386.rpm

§

¥

¦

Debian reinstalls automatically if the package is present.

24.2.3 Dependencies

Packages often require other packages to already be installed in order to work. The package database keeps track of these

dependencies

. Often you will get an error: failed dependencies: (or dependency problems for Debian ) message when you try to install. This means that other packages must be installed first. The same might happen when you try to remove packages. If two packages mutually require each other, you must place them both on the command-line at once when installing.

Sometimes a package requires something that is not essential or is already provided by an equivalent package. For example, a program may require sendmail to be installed even though exim is an adequate substitute. In such cases, the option --nodeps skips dependency checking.

¨ rpm -i --nodeps <rpm-file>

( dpkg -i --ignore-depends=<required-package> <deb-file> )

§

¥

¦

Note that Debian is far more fastidious about its dependencies; override them only when you are sure what is going on underneath.

24.2.4 Package queries

.rpm

and .deb

packages are more than a way of archiving files; otherwise, we could just use .tar

files. Each package has its file list stored in a database that can be queried.

The following are some of the more useful queries that can be done. Note that these are queries on

already

installed packages only:

To get a list of all packages ( q uery

¨ rpm -qa a ll, l list),

¥

241

24.2. RedHat and Debian Binary Packages 24. Source and Binary Packages

( dpkg -l ’*’ )

§ ¦

To search for a package name,

¨ rpm -qa | grep <regular-expression>

( dpkg -l <glob-expression> )

§

Try,

¨ rpm -qa | grep util

( dpkg -l ’*util*’ )

§

¥

¦

To query for the existence of a package, say,

¨ rpm -q textutils

( dpkg -l textutils )

§ textutils ( q uery, l ist), gives the name and version

¨ textutils-2.0e-7 textutils 2.0-2 The GNU text file processing utilities. )

¥

¦

¥

¦

To get info on a package ( q uery

¨ rpm -qi <package>

( dpkg -s <package> )

§ i nfo, s tatus),

To list libraries and other packages required by a package,

¨ rpm -qR <package>

( dpkg -s <package> | grep Depends )

§

To list what other packages require this one (with Debian a removal with the

¨

--no-act option to merely test), rpm -q --whatrequires <package>

( dpkg --purge --no-act <package> )

§ we can check by attempting

¥

¦

¥

¦

¥

¦

¦

¥

24.2.5 File lists and file queries

To get a file list contained by a package installed.

-

,

&

Once again,

not

for files but packages already

242

24. Source and Binary Packages 24.2. RedHat and Debian Binary Packages

¨ rpm -ql <package>

( dpkg -L <package> )

§

Package file lists are especially useful for finding what commands and documentation a package provides. Users are often frustrated by a package that they “don’t know what to do with.” Listing files owned by the package is where to start.

¥

¦

To find out what package a file belongs to,

¨ rpm -qf <filename>

( dpkg -S <filename> )

§

¥

¦

For example, rpm -qf /etc/rc.d/init.d/httpd

/etc/init.d/httpd ) gives

(or apache-mod ssl-1.3.12.2.6.6-1 rpm -qf on my system, and from

¨ rpm -ql fileutils-4.0w-3 | grep bin gives a list of all other commands fileutils . A trick to find all the sibling files of a command in your PATH is: rpm -ql ‘rpm -qf \‘which --skip-alias <command> \‘‘

( dpkg -L ‘dpkg -S \‘which <command> \‘ | cut -f1 -d:‘ )

§

¥

¦

24.2.6 Package verification

You sometimes might want to query whether a package’s files have been modified since installation (possibly by a hacker or an incompetent system administrator). To verify all packages is time consuming but provides some very instructive output:

¨ rpm -V ‘rpm -qa‘

( debsums -a )

§

¥

¦

However, there is not yet a way of saying that the package installed is the real package (see Section 44.3.2). To check this, you need to get your actual .deb

or .rpm

file and verify it with:

¨ rpm -Vp openssh-2.1.1p4-1.i386.rpm

( debsums openssh_2.1.1p4-1_i386.deb )

§

¥

¦ it is

Finally, even if you have the package file, how can you be absolutely sure that

the

package that the original packager created, and not some Trojan substitution?

Use the md5sum command to check:

¥ md5sum openssh-2.1.1p4-1.i386.rpm

243

24.2. RedHat and Debian Binary Packages 24. Source and Binary Packages

( md5sum openssh_2.1.1p4-1_i386.deb )

§ md5sum uses the

MD5

mathematical algorithm to calculate a numeric

hash

on the file contents, in this case, value based

8e8d8e95db7fde99c09e1398e4dd3468 . This is identical to password hashing described on page 103. There is no feasible computational method of forging a package to give the same MD5 hash; hence, packagers will often publish their md5sum results on their web page, and you can check these against your own as a security measure.

¦

24.2.7 Special queries

To query a package file that has not been installed, use, for example:

¨ rpm -qp --qf ’[%{VERSION}\n]’ <rpm-file>

( dpkg -f <deb-file> Version )

§

Here, VERSION can be queried: is a query

tag

applicable to .rpm

files. Here is a list of other tags that

¥

¦

BUILDHOST

BUILDTIME

CHANGELOG

CHANGELOGTEXT

CHANGELOGTIME

COPYRIGHT

DESCRIPTION

DISTRIBUTION

GROUP

LICENSE

NAME

OBSOLETES

OS

PACKAGER

PROVIDES

RELEASE

REQUIREFLAGS

REQUIRENAME

REQUIREVERSION

RPMTAG POSTIN

RPMTAG POSTUN

RPMTAG PREIN

RPMTAG PREUN

RPMVERSION

SERIAL

SIZE

SOURCERPM

SUMMARY

VENDOR

VERIFYSCRIPT

VERSION

For Debian , Version is a

control field

. Others are

Conffiles

Conflicts

Depends

Description

Essential

Installed-Size

Maintainer

Package

Pre-Depends

Priority

Provides

Recommends

Replaces

Section

Source

Status

Suggests

Version

It is further possible to extract all scripts, config, and control files from a file with:

.deb

244

24. Source and Binary Packages 24.2. RedHat and Debian Binary Packages

¨ dpkg -e <deb-file> <out-directory>

§

¥

¦

This command creates a directory can also dump the package as a

¨

<out-directory> tar file with: and places the files in it. You

¥

¦ or for an .rpm

¨ file,

¥

¦

Finally, package file lists can be queried with

¨ rpm -qip <rpm-file>

( dpkg -I <deb-file> ) rpm -qlp <rpm-file>

( dpkg -c <deb-file> )

§ which is analogous to similar queries on already installed packages.

¥

¦

24.2.8

dpkg / apt versus rpm

Only a taste of Debian package management was provided above. Debian has two higher-level tools: APT (

Advanced Package Tool

—which comprises the commands aptcache , apt-cdrom , apt-config , and apt-get ); and dselect , which is an interactive text-based package selector. When you first install Debian , I suppose the first thing you are supposed to do is run dselect (there are other graphical front-ends— search on

Fresh Meat

http://freshmeat.net/

), and then install and configure all the things you skipped over during installation. Between these you can do some sophisticated time-saving things like recursively resolving package dependencies through automatic downloads—that is, just mention the package and APT will find it and what it depends on, then download and install everything for you. See apt.conf

(5) for more information.

apt (8), sources.list

(5), and

There are also numerous interactive graphical applications for managing RPM packages. Most are purely cosmetic.

Experience will clearly demonstrate the superiority of Debian packages over most others. You will also notice that where RedHat-like distributions have chosen a selection of packages that they thought

you

would find useful, Debian has hundreds of volunteer maintainers selecting what

they

find useful. Almost every free U

NIX package on the Internet has been included in Debian .

245

24.3. Source Packages 24. Source and Binary Packages

24.3 Source Packages — Building RedHat and Debian

Packages

Both RedHat and Debian binary packages begin life as source files from which their binary versions are compiled. Source RedHat packages will end in .src.rpm

, and

Debian packages will always appear under the source tree in the distribution. The

RPM-HOWTO details the building of RedHat source packages, and Debian ’s dpkgdev and packaging-manual packages contain a complete reference to the Debian package standard and packaging methods (try dpkg -L dpkg-dev and dpkg -

L packaging-manual ).

The actual building of RedHat and Debian edition.

source packages is not covered in this

246

Chapter 25

Introduction to IP

IP

stands for

Internet.

Internet Protocol

. It is the method by which data is transmitted over the

25.1 Internet Communication

At a hardware level, network cards are capable of transmitting

packets

(also called

datagrams

) of data between one another. A packet contains a small block of, say, 1 kilobyte of data (in contrast to serial lines, which transmit continuously). All Internet communication occurs through transmission of packets, which travel intact, even between machines on opposite sides of the world.

Each packet contains a header of 24 bytes or more which precedes the data.

Hence, slightly more than the said 1 kilobyte of data would be found on the wire.

When a packet is transmitted, the header would obviously contain the destination machine. Each machine is hence given a unique

IP address

—a 32-bit number. There are no machines on the Internet that do not have an IP address.

The header bytes are shown in Table 25.1.

Bytes

0

1

2–3

4–5

Table 25.1 IP header bytes

Description

bits 0–3: Version, bits 4–7: Internet Header Length (IHL)

Type of service (TOS)

Length

Identification continues...

247

25.1. Internet Communication 25. Introduction to IP

Table 25.1 (continued)

6–7

8

9

10–11

12–15

16–19

20–IHL*4-1 bits 0-3: Flags, bits 4-15: Offset

Time to live (TTL)

Type

Checksum

Source IP address

Destination IP address

Options + padding to round up to four bytes

Data begins at IHL*4 and ends at Length-1

Version

for the mean time is 4, although

(slow) process of deployment.

IHL

IP Next Generation

(version 6) is in the is the length of the header divided by 4.

TOS

(

Type of Service

) is a somewhat esoteric field for tuning performance and is not explained here. The

Length

field is the length in bytes of the entire packet including the header.

The

Source

ing/going.

and

Destination

are the IP addresses

from

and

to

which the packet is com-

The above description constitutes the view of the Internet that a machine has.

However, physically, the Internet consists of many small high-speed networks (like those of a company or a university) called

Local Area Networks

, or

LAN

s. These are all connected to each other by lower-speed long distance links. On a LAN, the

raw

medium of transmission is not a packet but an Ethernet

frame

. Frames are analogous to packets (having both a header and a data portion) but are sized to be efficient with particular hardware. IP packets are encapsulated within frames, where the IP packet fits within the

Data

part of the frame. A frame may, however, be too small to hold an entire IP packet, in which case the IP packet is split into several smaller packets.

This group of smaller IP packets is then given an identifying number, and each smaller packet will then have the

Identification

field set with that number and the

Offset

field set to indicate its position within the actual packet. On the other side of the connection, the destination machine will reconstruct a packet from all the smaller subpackets that have the same

Identification

field.

imal

The convention for writing an IP address in human readable form is notation like 152.2.254.81

dotted dec-

, where each number is a byte and is hence in the range of 0 to 255. Hence the entire address

space

is in the range of 0.0.0.0

to

255.255.255.255

. To further organize the assignment of addresses, each 32-bit address is divided into two parts, a

network

and a

host

part of the address, as shown in

Figure 25.1.

248

25. Introduction to IP 25.2. Special IP Addresses

0

Class A: 0

1 2 3 4 5 6

network part

7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

host part

Class B: 1 0

network part host part

Class C: 1 1 0

network part host part

Figure 25.1 IP address classes

The network part of the address designates the LAN, and the host part the particular machine on the LAN. Now, because it was unknown at the time of specification whether there would one day be more LANs or more machines per LAN, three different classes of address were created.

Class A

addresses begin with the first bit of the network part set to 0 (hence, a

Class A address always has the first dotted decimal number less than 128 ). The next 7 bits give the identity of the LAN, and the remaining 24 bits give the identity of an actual machine on that LAN. A Class B address begins with a 1 and then a 0 (first decimal number is 128 through 191 ). The next 14 bits give the LAN, and the remaining 16 bits give the machine. Most universities, like the address above, are Class B addresses.

Lastly, Class C addresses start with a 1 1 0 (first decimal number is 192 through 223 ), and the next 21 bits and then the next 8 bits are the LAN and machine, respectively.

Small companies tend use Class C addresses.

In practice, few organizations require Class A addresses. A university or large company might use a Class B address but then would have its own further subdivisions, like using the third dotted decimal as a department (bits 16 through 23) and the last dotted decimal (bits 24 through 31) as the machine within that department. In this way the LAN becomes a micro-Internet in itself. Here, the LAN is called a the various departments are each called a

subnet

.

network

and

25.2 Special IP Addresses

Some special-purposes IP addresses are never used on the open Internet.

192.168.0.0

through 192.168.255.255

are private addresses perhaps used inside a local LAN that does not communicate directly with the Internet.

through 127.255.255.255

are used for communication with the

127.0.0.0

localhost

—that is, the machine itself. Usually, 127.0.0.1

is an IP address pointing to the machine itself.

Further, 172.16.0.0

through 172.31.255.255

are additional private addresses for very large internal networks, and larger ones.

10.0.0.0

through 10.255.255.255

are for even

249

25.3. Network Masks and Addresses 25. Introduction to IP

25.3 Network Masks and Addresses

Consider again the example of a university with a Class B address.

It might have an IP address range of 137.158.0.0

through 137.158.255.255

. Assume it was decided that the astronomy department should get 512 of its own IP addresses, 137.158.26.0

network address

of through

137.158.26.0

137.158.27.255

. We say that astronomy has a

. The machines there all have a

network mask

of

255.255.254.0

. A particular machine in astronomy may have an

IP address

of

137.158.27.158

. This terminology is used later. Figure 25.2 illustrates this example.

Netmask

Network address

IP address

Host part

255 .

Dotted IP

255 .

254 .

0

137

137 .

.

158

158 .

.

26

27 .

.

0

158

0 .

0 .

1 .

158

Binary

1111 1111 1111 1111 1111 111 0 0000 0000 z }| {

1000 1001 1001 1110 0001 1010 0000 0000 z }| {

0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 000 1 1001 1110

Figure 25.2 Dividing an address into network and host portions

25.4 Computers on a LAN

In this section we will use the term LAN to indicate a network of computers that are all more or less connected directly together by Ethernet cables (this is common for small businesses with up to about 50 machines). Each machine has an Ethernet card which is referred to as eth0 throughout all command-line operations. If there is more than one card on a single machine, then these are named called a

network interface

(or just

interface

eth0

, or sometimes

, eth1 , eth2 , etc., and are each

Ethernet port

) of the machine.

LANs work as follows. Network cards transmit a frame to the LAN, and other network cards read that frame from the LAN. If any one network card transmits a frame, then

all

other network cards can see that frame. If a card starts to transmit a frame while another card is in the process of transmitting a frame, then a

clash

is said to have occurred, and the card waits a random amount of time and then tries again.

Each network card has a physical address of 48 bits called the

hardware address

(which is inserted at the time of its manufacture and has nothing to do with IP addresses).

Each frame has a destination address in its header that tells what network card it is destined for, so that network cards ignore frames that are not addressed to them.

Since frame transmission is governed by the network cards, the destination hardware address must be determined from the destination IP address before a packet is sent to a particular machine. This is done is through the

Address Resolution Protocol

250

25. Introduction to IP 25.5. Configuring Interfaces

(ARP). A machine will transmit a special packet that asks “What hardware address is this IP address?” The guilty machine then responds, and the transmitting machine stores the result for future reference. Of course, if you suddenly switch network cards, then other machines on the LAN will have the wrong information, so ARP has timeouts and re-requests built into the protocol. Try typing the command of hardware address to IP mappings.

arp to get a list

25.5 Configuring Interfaces

Most distributions have a generic way to configure your interfaces. Here, however, we first look at a complete network configuration using only raw networking commands.

We first create a lo interface. This is called the

loopback

device (and has nothing to do with loopback block devices: /dev/loop

?

files). The loopback device is an imaginary network card that is used to communicate with the machine itself; for instance, if you are telnet ing to the local machine, you are actually connecting via the loopback config

ure

) command is used to do anything with device. The ifconfig interfaces. First, run

¨

( i

nter

/sbin/ifconfig lo down f

ace

/sbin/ifconfig eth0 down

§

¥

¦ to delete any existing interfaces, then run

¨

/sbin/ifconfig lo 127.0.0.1

§ which creates the loopback interface.

¥

¦

¨

Create the Ethernet interface with:

The broadcast address is a special address that all machines respond to. It is usually the first or last address of the particular network.

5

¨

Now run

/sbin/ifconfig

§ to view the interfaces. The output will be

¨ eth0 Link encap:Ethernet inet addr:192.168.3.9

HWaddr 00:00:E8:3B:2D:A2

Bcast:192.168.3.255

Mask:255.255.255.0

UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1

RX packets:1359 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0

TX packets:1356 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0 collisions:0 txqueuelen:100

¥

¦

¥

¥

¦

251

25.6. Configuring Routing 25. Introduction to IP

Interrupt:11 Base address:0xe400

10 lo Link encap:Local Loopback inet addr:127.0.0.1

Mask:255.0.0.0

UP LOOPBACK RUNNING MTU:3924 Metric:1

RX packets:53175 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0

TX packets:53175 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0 collisions:0 txqueuelen:0

§ which shows various interesting bits, like the 48-bit hardware address of the network card (hex bytes 00:00:E8:3B:2D:A2 ).

¦

25.6 Configuring Routing

The interfaces are now active. However, nothing tells the kernel what packets should go to what interface, even though we might expect such behavior to happen on its own.

With U

NIX

, you must explicitly tell the kernel to send particular packets to particular interfaces.

Any packet arriving through any interface is pooled by the kernel. The kernel then looks at each packet’s destination address and decides, based on the destination, where it should be sent. It doesn’t matter where the packet came from; once the kernel

has

the packet, it’s what its destination address says that matters. It is up to the rest of the network to ensure that packets do not arrive at the wrong interfaces in the first place.

We know that any packet having the network address 127.

???

.

???

.

???

go to the loopback device (this is more or less a convention). The command,

¨

/sbin/route add -net 127.0.0.0 netmask 255.0.0.0 lo

§ adds a

route

to the network 127.0.0.0

, albeit an imaginary one.

must

¥

¦ eth0 device can be routed as follows:

¥

¦

The command to display the current routes is

¨

/sbin/route -n

§

( -n

¨ causes route to not print IP addresses as host names) with the following output:

Kernel IP routing table

Destination Gateway

127.0.0.0

0.0.0.0

0.0.0.0

Genmask

255.0.0.0

255.255.255.0

Flags Metric Ref

U 0 0

U 0 0

Use Iface

0 lo

0 eth0

¥

¦

¥

¦

252

25. Introduction to IP 25.6. Configuring Routing

This address output has the meaning,

192.168.3.0/255.255.255.0

“packets must be sent to hence, is not set (see the following commands).

with destination address

127.0.0.0/255.0.0.0

address.

-

&

The notation must be sent to the lo

network/mask

is often used to denote ranges of IP opback device,” and “packets with destination eth0 .” Gateway is zero,

The routing table now routes 127.

and 192.168.3.

a route for the remaining possible IP addresses. U

NIX packets. Now we need can have a route that says to send packets with particular destination IP addresses to another machine on the LAN, from whence they might be forwarded elsewhere. This is sometimes called the

gateway

machine. The command is:

¨

/sbin/route add -net <network-address> netmask <netmask> gw \

§

<gateway-ip-address> <interface>

¥

¦

This is the most general form of the command, but it’s often easier to just type:

¨ ¥

¦ when we want to add a route that applies to all remaining packets. This route is called the

¨

default gateway

.

default signifies all packets; it is the same as

/sbin/route add -net 0.0.0.0 netmask 0.0.0.0 gw <gateway-ip-address> \

§

<interface>

¥

¦ but since routes are ordered according to

erence to less specific ones

.

netmask ,

more specific routes are used in pref-

Finally, you can set your host name with:

¨ hostname cericon.cranzgot.co.za

§

¥

¦

5

A summary of the example commands so far is

¨

/sbin/ifconfig lo down

/sbin/ifconfig eth0 down

/sbin/ifconfig lo 127.0.0.1

/sbin/ifconfig eth0 192.168.3.9 broadcast 192.168.3.255 netmask 255.255.255.0

/sbin/route add -net 127.0.0.0 netmask 255.0.0.0 lo

/sbin/route add -net 192.168.3.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 eth0

/sbin/route add default gw 192.168.3.254 eth0

¥

¦

Although these 7 commands will get your network working, you should not do such a manual configuration. The next section explains how to configure your startup scripts.

253

25.7. Configuring Startup Scripts 25. Introduction to IP

25.7 Configuring Startup Scripts

Most distributions will have a modular and extensible system of startup scripts that initiate networking.

25.7.1 RedHat networking scripts

5

RedHat systems contain the directory /etc/sysconfig/ , which contains configuration files to automatically bring up networking.

The file

¨

DEVICE=eth0

/etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0

IPADDR=192.168.3.9

NETMASK=255.255.255.0

NETWORK=192.168.3.0

BROADCAST=192.168.3.255

contains:

¥

¦

The file /etc/sysconfig/network

¨

NETWORKING=yes

HOSTNAME=cericon.cranzgot.co.za

GATEWAY=192.168.3.254

§ contains:

¥

¦

You can see that these two files are equivalent to the example configuration done above. These two files can take an enormous number of options for the various protocols besides IP, but this is the most common configuration.

The file /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-lo for the loopback device will be configured automatically at installation; you should never need to edit it.

To stop and start networking (i.e., to bring up and down the interfaces and routing), type (alternative commands in parentheses):

¨

/etc/init.d/network stop

( /etc/rc.d/init.d/network stop )

/etc/init.d/network start

( /etc/rc.d/init.d/network start )

§

¥

¦ which will indirectly read your /etc/sysconfig/ files.

You can add further files, say, ifcfg-eth1

/etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ ) for a secondary Ethernet device.

(under

For example, ifcfg-eth1 could contain

254

25. Introduction to IP 25.7. Configuring Startup Scripts

5

¨

DEVICE=eth1

IPADDR=192.168.4.1

NETMASK=255.255.255.0

NETWORK=192.168.4.0

BROADCAST=192.168.4.255

ONBOOT=yes

§ and then run echo "1" > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip forward forwarding between your two interfaces.

to enable packet

¥

¦

25.7.2 Debian networking scripts

5

Debian , on the other hand, has a directory /etc/network/ containing a file

/etc/network/interfaces .

&

As usual, Debian has a neat and clean approach.

(See also interfaces (5).) For the same configuration as above, this file would contain:

¨ iface lo inet loopback iface eth0 inet static address 192.168.3.9

netmask 255.255.255.0

gateway 192.168.3.254

§

¥

¦

The file other) options:

¨

/etc/network/options ip_forward=no spoofprotect=yes syncookies=no

§ contains the same forwarding (and some

¥

¦

To stop and start networking (i.e., bring up and down the interfaces and routing), type

¨

/etc/init.d/networking stop

/etc/init.d/networking start

§

¥

¦ which will indirectly read your /etc/network/interfaces file.

down

Actually, the /etc/init.d/networking commands. See ifup script merely runs the ifup and if-

(8). You can alternatively run these commands directly for finer control.

We add further interfaces similar to the RedHat example above by appending to the /etc/network/interfaces file. The Debian equivalent is,

255

25.8. Complex Routing — a Many-Hop Example 25. Introduction to IP

5

¨ iface lo inet loopback iface eth0 inet static address 192.168.3.9

netmask 255.255.255.0

gateway 192.168.3.254

iface eth1 inet static address 192.168.4.1

netmask 255.255.255.0

§ and then set ip forward=yes in your /etc/network/options file.

¥

¦ in

Finally, whereas RedHat sets its host name from the line

/etc/sysconfig/network , Debian

HOSTNAME= . . .

sets it from the contents of the file

/etc/hostname , which, in the present case, would contain just

¨ cericon.cranzgot.co.za

§

¥

¦

25.8 Complex Routing — a Many-Hop Example

Consider two distant LANs that need to communicate. Two dedicated machines, one on each LAN, are linked by some alternative method (in this case, a permanent serial line), as shown in Figure 25.3.

This arrangement can be summarized by five machines

A

, and

B

form LAN

1

on subnet 192.168.1.0/26

X

,

A

,

B

,

. Machines

C

C

, and and

D

D

. Machines form LAN

X

2

, on subnet 192.168.1.128/26 . Note how we use the “ /26 ” to indicate that only the first 26 bits are network address bits, while the remaining 6 bits are host address bits.

This means that we can have at most 2

6

= 64 IP addresses on each of LAN

1

and

2

.

Our dedicated serial link comes between machines

B

and

C

.

Machine

X

has IP address 192.168.1.1

. This machine is the gateway to the

Internet. The Ethernet port of machine

B

is simply configured with an IP address of 192.168.1.2

with a default gateway of address is 192.168.1.63

192.168.1.1

(the last 6 bits set to 1).

. Note that the broadcast

The Ethernet port of machine

C

is configured with an IP address of

192.168.1.129

. No default gateway should be set until serial line is configured.

We will make the network between

B

and

C

subnet 192.168.1.192/26 . It is effectively a LAN on its own, even though only two machines can ever be connected.

Machines

B

and

C

will have IP addresses respectively, on their facing interfaces.

192.168.1.252

and 192.168.1.253

,

256

25. Introduction to IP 25.8. Complex Routing — a Many-Hop Example

Figure 25.3 Two remotely connected networks

5

This is a real-life example with an unreliable serial link. To keep the link up requires pppd and a shell script to restart the link if it dies. The pppd program is covered in Chapter 41. The script for Machine

B

is:

¨

#!/bin/sh while true ; do pppd lock local mru 296 mtu 296 nodetach nocrtscts nocdtrcts \

192.168.1.252:192.168.1.253 /dev/ttyS0 115200 noauth \ lcp-echo-interval 1 lcp-echo-failure 2 lcp-max-terminate 1 lcp-restart 1

¥

¦

Note that if the link were an Ethernet link instead (on a second Ethernet card), and/or a genuine LAN between machines

B

and

C

(with subnet 192.168.1.252/26 ), then the same script would be just

¨

/sbin/ifconfig eth1 192.168.1.252 broadcast 192.168.1.255 netmask \

§

255.255.255.192

¥

¦ in which case all “ ppp0 ” would change to “ eth1 ” in the scripts that follow.

257

25.8. Complex Routing — a Many-Hop Example 25. Introduction to IP

5

Routing on machine

B

is achieved with the following script, provided the link is up. This script must be executed whenever pppd has negotiated the connection and can therefore be placed in the file ically as soon as the

¨

/etc/pppd/ip-up ppp0 interface is available:

, which pppd executes automat-

/sbin/route del default

/sbin/route add -net 192.168.1.192 netmask 255.255.255.192 dev ppp0

/sbin/route add -net 192.168.1.128 netmask 255.255.255.192 gw 192.168.1.253

/sbin/route add default gw 192.168.1.1

¥

¦

10

5

Our full routing table and interface list for machine

B

then looks like this

&

RedHat

6 likes to add (redundant) explicit routes to each device. These may not be necessary on your system

:

¨

Kernel IP routing table

Destination

192.168.1.2

192.168.1.253

192.168.1.0

192.168.1.192

192.168.1.128

127.0.0.0

0.0.0.0

Gateway

0.0.0.0

0.0.0.0

0.0.0.0

0.0.0.0

192.168.1.253

0.0.0.0

192.168.1.1

Genmask Flags Metric Ref

255.255.255.255 UH 0 0

255.255.255.255 UH

255.255.255.192 U

0

0

0

0

255.255.255.192 U

255.255.255.192 UG

0

0

0

0

255.0.0.0

0.0.0.0

U

UG

0

0

0

0

Use Iface

0 eth0

0 ppp0

0 eth0

0 ppp0

0 ppp0

0 lo

0 eth0

¥

15 eth0 lo ppp0

§

Link encap:Ethernet inet addr:192.168.1.2

HWaddr 00:A0:24:75:3B:69

Bcast:192.168.1.63

Mask:255.255.255.192

Link encap:Local Loopback inet addr:127.0.0.1

Mask:255.0.0.0

Link encap:Point-to-Point Protocol inet addr:192.168.1.252

P-t-P:192.168.1.253

Mask:255.255.255.255

¦

5

5

On machine

C

we can similarly run the script,

¨

#!/bin/sh while true ; do pppd lock local mru 296 mtu 296 nodetach nocrtscts nocdtrcts \

192.168.1.253:192.168.1.252 /dev/ttyS0 115200 noauth \ lcp-echo-interval 1 lcp-echo-failure 2 lcp-max-terminate 1 lcp-restart 1

¥ and then create routes with

¨

/sbin/route del default

/sbin/route add -net 192.168.1.192 netmask 255.255.255.192 dev ppp0

/sbin/route add default gw 192.168.1.252

¦

¥

¦

258

25. Introduction to IP 25.9. Interface Aliasing — Many IPs on One Physical Card

5

10 eth0

15

¨ lo ppp0

§

Our full routing table for machine

Kernel IP routing table

Destination Gateway

192.168.1.129

192.168.1.252

192.168.1.192

192.168.1.128

127.0.0.0

0.0.0.0

0.0.0.0

0.0.0.0

0.0.0.0

0.0.0.0

0.0.0.0

192.168.1.252

C

Genmask Flags Metric Ref

255.255.255.255 UH

255.255.255.255 UH

255.255.255.192 U

255.255.255.192 U

255.0.0.0

U

0.0.0.0

then looks like:

UG

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Use Iface

0 eth0

0 ppp0

0 ppp0

0 eth0

0 lo

0 ppp0

Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:A0:CC:D5:D8:A7 inet addr:192.168.1.129

Bcast:192.168.1.191

Link encap:Local Loopback inet addr:127.0.0.1

Mask:255.0.0.0

Link encap:Point-to-Point Protocol inet addr:192.168.1.253

P-t-P:192.168.1.252

Mask:255.255.255.192

Mask:255.255.255.255

¥

¦

Machine

D

can be configured like any ordinary machine on a LAN. It just sets its default gateway to 192.168.1.129

. Machine

A

, however, has to know to send packets destined for subnet an extra entry for the

192.168.1.128/26

192.168.1.128/26

through

machine

B

. Its routing table has

LAN. The full routing table for machine

A

¥

5

Kernel IP routing table

Destination

192.168.1.0

192.168.1.128

127.0.0.0

Gateway

0.0.0.0

192.168.1.2

0.0.0.0

192.168.1.1

Genmask Flags Metric Ref

255.255.255.192 U 0 0

255.255.255.192 UG

255.0.0.0

U

0.0.0.0

UG

0

0

0

0

0

0

Use Iface

0 eth0

0 eth0

0 lo

0 eth0

¦

To avoid having to add this extra route on machine same route on machine

X

A

, you can instead add the

. This may seem odd, but all that this means is that packets originating from

A

destined for LAN 2 first route), and are then redirected

by

X

try

to go through to go through

B

.

X

(since

A

has only one

The preceding configuration allowed machines to properly send packets between machines

A

and

D

and out through the Internet. One caveat: ping sometimes did not work even though were using, telnet

**shrug**

.

did. This may be a peculiarity of the kernel version we

25.9 Interface Aliasing — Many IPs on One Physical

Card

(The file /usr/src/linux/Documentation/networking/alias.txt

the kernel documentation on this.) contains

259

25.10. Diagnostic Utilities 25. Introduction to IP

If you have one network card which you would like to double as several different

IP addresses, you can. Simply name the interface eth0:

n

where

n

is from 0 to some large integer. You can use ifconfig as before as many times as you like on the same

/sbin/ifconfig eth0:0 192.168.4.1 broadcast 192.168.4.255 netmask 255.255.255.0

/sbin/ifconfig eth0:1 192.168.5.1 broadcast 192.168.5.255 netmask 255.255.255.0

¥

¦

—in

addition

to your regular eth0 to three LANs having networks device. Here, the same interface can communicate

192.168.4.0

, 192.168.5.0

, and 192.168.6.0

.

Don’t forget to add routes to these networks as above.

25.10 Diagnostic Utilities

It is essential to know how to inspect and test your network to resolve problems. The standard U

NIX utilities are explained here.

25.10.1

ping

The ping command is the most common network utility. IP packets come in three types on the Internet, represented in the

Type

field of the IP header:

UDP

,

TCP

, and

ICMP

. (The first two, discussed later, represent the two basic methods of communication between two programs running on different machines.)

ICMP

stands for

Internet

Control Message Protocol

and is a diagnostic packet that is responded to in a special way.

Try:

¨ ¥

¦

5 or specify some other well-known host. You will get output like:

¨

PING metalab.unc.edu (152.19.254.81) from 192.168.3.9 : 56(84) bytes of data.

64 bytes from 152.19.254.81: icmp_seq=0 ttl=238 time=1059.1 ms

64 bytes from 152.19.254.81: icmp_seq=1 ttl=238 time=764.9 ms

64 bytes from 152.19.254.81: icmp_seq=2 ttl=238 time=858.8 ms

64 bytes from 152.19.254.81: icmp_seq=3 ttl=238 time=1179.9 ms

64 bytes from 152.19.254.81: icmp_seq=4 ttl=238 time=986.6 ms

64 bytes from 152.19.254.81: icmp_seq=5 ttl=238 time=1274.3 ms

¥

¦

What is happening is that ping is sending ICMP packets to metalab.unc.edu

, which is automatically responding with a return ICMP packet. Being able to ping a machine is often the acid test of whether you have a correctly configured and working network interface. Note that some sites explicitly filter out ICMP packets, so, for example, ping cnn.com

won’t work.

260

25. Introduction to IP 25.10. Diagnostic Utilities ping sends a packet every second and measures the time it takes to receive the return packet—like a submarine sonar “ping.” Over the Internet, you can get times in excess of 2 seconds if the place is remote enough. On a local LAN this delay will drop to under a millisecond.

ping

If ping does not even get to the line PING metalab.unc.edu

. . . , it means that cannot resolve the host name. You should then check that your DNS is set up correctly—see Chapter 27. If ping gets to that line but no further, it means that the packets are not getting there or are not getting back. In all other cases, ping gives an error message reporting the absence of either routes or interfaces.

25.10.2

traceroute

traceroute is a rather fascinating utility to identify where a packet has been. It uses

UDP packets or, with the -I option, ICMP packets to detect the routing path. On my machine,

¨ ¥

¦

5

10

15

20 gives

¨

18

19

20

21

12

13

14

15

16

17

10

11

8

9

6

7

4

5 traceroute to metalab.unc.edu (152.19.254.81), 30 hops max, 38 byte packets

1 192.168.3.254 (192.168.3.254) 1.197 ms 1.085 ms 1.050 ms

2

3

192.168.254.5 (192.168.254.5) cranzgate (192.168.2.254)

45.165 ms

48.205 ms

45.314 ms

48.170 ms

45.164 ms

48.074 ms cranzposix (160.124.182.254) 46.117 ms cismpjhb.posix.co.za (160.124.255.193) cisap1.posix.co.za (160.124.112.1) saix.posix.co.za (160.124.255.6) ndf-core1.gt.saix.net (196.25.253.1)

46.064 ms

451.886 ms

274.834 ms

187.402 ms

252.558 ms

45.999 ms

71.549 ms

147.251 ms

325.030 ms

173.321 ms

400.654 ms

628.576 ms

186.256 ms 255.805 ms ny-core.saix.net (196.25.0.238) 497.273 ms corerouter1.WestOrange.cw.net (204.70.9.138)

454.531 ms bordercore6-serial5-0-0-26.WestOrange.cw.net (166.48.144.105)

490.845 ms

639.795 ms core6.Washington.cw.net (204.70.4.113)

204.70.10.182 (204.70.10.182)

580.971 ms

644.070 ms

893.481 ms

726.363 ms

730.608 ms

639.942 ms mae-brdr-01.inet.qwest.net (205.171.4.201)

* * *

767.783 ms * *

595.755 ms

698.483 ms

595.174 ms *

1029.369 ms

* wdc-core-03.inet.qwest.net (205.171.24.69) atl-core-02.inet.qwest.net (205.171.5.243) atl-edge-05.inet.qwest.net (205.171.21.54)

* * *

779.546 ms

894.553 ms

735.810 ms

898.371 ms

689.472 ms *

784.461 ms 789.592 ms

* * unc-gw.ncren.net (128.109.190.2) unc-gw.ncren.net (128.109.190.2)

* helios.oit.unc.edu (152.2.22.3)

889.257 ms

646.569 ms

600.558 ms

780.000 ms *

839.135 ms

¥

¦

You can see that there were twenty machines

&

This is actually a good argument for why

“enterprise”-level web servers have no use in non-U.S. markets: there isn’t even the network speed to load such servers, thus making any kind of server speed comparisons superfluous.

(or

hops

) between mine and metalab.unc.edu

.

25.10.3

tcpdump

tcpdump watches a particular interface for

all

the traffic that passes it—that is, all the traffic of all the machines connected to the same hub (also called the

segment

or

network segment

). A network card usually grabs only the frames destined for it, but tcpdump

261

25.10. Diagnostic Utilities 25. Introduction to IP puts the card into

promiscuous

mode, meaning that the card is to retrieve all frames regardless of their destination hardware address. Try

¨ ¥

¦ tcpdump is also discussed in Section 41.5. Deciphering the output of for now as an exercise for the reader. More on the

tcp

part of tcpdump tcpdump is left in Chapter 26.

262

Chapter 26

Transmission Control Protocol

(TCP) and User Datagram

Protocol (UDP)

In the previous chapter we talked about communication between machines in a generic sense. However, when you have two applications on opposite sides of the Atlantic

Ocean, being able to send a packet that may or may not reach the other side is not sufficient. What you need is

reliable

communication.

Ideally, a programmer wants to be able to establish a link to a remote machine and then feed bytes in one at a time and be sure that the bytes are being read on the other end, and vice-versa. Such communication is called

reliable stream

communication.

If your only tools are discrete, unreliable packets, implementing a reliable, continuous stream is tricky. You can send single packets and then wait for the remote machine to confirm receipt, but this approach is inefficient (packets can take a long time to get to and from their destination)—you really want to be able to send as many packets as possible at once and then have some means of negotiating with the remote machine when to resend packets that were not received. What

TCP

(

Transmission Control Protocol

) does is to send data packets one way and then

acknowledgment packets

other way, saying how much of the stream has been properly received.

the

We therefore say that

TCP is implemented on top of IP

. This is why Internet communication is sometimes called TCP/IP.

TCP communication has three stages:

negotiation

,

transfer

, and is all my own terminology. This is also somewhat of a schematic representation.

-

detachment

.

&

This

Negotiation

The by using a

client

C

application (say, a web browser) first initiates the connection connect() (see connect (2)) function. This causes the kernel to

263

26.1. The TCP Header 26. TCP and UDP send a

SYN

(

SYN

chronization) packet to the remote TCP server (in this case, a web server). The web server responds with a

SYN-ACK

packet (

ACK

nowledge), and finally the client responds with a final SYN packet. This packet negotiation is unbeknown to the programmer.

Transfer:

The programmer will use the send() ( send (2)) and recv() ( recv (2))

C

function calls to send and receive an actual stream of bytes. The stream of bytes will be broken into packets, and the packets sent individually to the remote application. In the case of the web server, the first bytes sent would be the line

GET /index.html HTTP/1.0<CR><NL><CR><NL> . On the remote side, reply packets (also called ACK packets) are sent back as the data arrives, indicating whether parts of the stream went missing and require retransmission. Communication is

full-duplex

—meaning that there are streams in both directions—both data and acknowledge packets are going both ways simultaneously.

Detachment:

The programmer will use the close() (see

C

function call shutdown() and close(2)) shutdown() and to terminate the connection. A

FIN

packet will be sent and TCP communication will cease.

26.1 The TCP Header

TCP packets are obviously

Data begins at. . .

encapsulated

within IP packets. The TCP packet is inside the part of the IP packet. A TCP packet has a header part and a data part. The data part may sometimes be empty (such as in the negotiation stage).

Table 26.1 shows the full TCP/IP header.

Bytes (IP)

0

1

2–3

4–5

6–7

8

9

10–11

12–15

16–19

20–IHL*4-1

Bytes (TCP)

Table 26.1 Combined TCP and IP header

Description

Bits 0–3: Version, Bits 4–7: Internet Header Length (IHL)

Type of service (TOS)

Length

Identification

Bits 0-3: Flags, bits 4-15: Offset

Time to live (TTL)

Type

Checksum

Source IP address

Destination IP address

Options + padding to round up to four bytes

Description

continues...

264

26. TCP and UDP 26.2. A Sample TCP Session

Table 26.1 (continued)

0–1

2–3

4–7

8–11

12

13

14–15

16–17

18–19

20–(20 + options * 4)

Source port

Destination port

Sequence number

Acknowledgment number

Bits 0–3: number of bytes of additional TCP options / 4

Control

Window

Checksum

Urgent pointer

Options + padding to round up to four bytes

TCP data begins at IHL * 4 + 20 + options * 4 and ends at Length - 1

The minimum combined TCP/IP header is thus 40 bytes.

The

With Internet machines, several applications often communicate simultaneously.

Source port

and

Destination port

fields identify and distinguish individual streams. In the case of web communication, the destination port (from the clients point of view) is port 80, and hence all outgoing traffic will have the number 80 filled in this field. The source port (from the client’s point of view) is chosen randomly to any unused port number above 1024 before the connection is negotiated; these, too, are filled into outgoing packets. No two streams have the same combinations of source and destination port numbers. The kernel uses the port numbers on incoming packets to determine which application requires those packets, and similarly for the remote machine.

Sequence number

is the offset within the stream that this particular packet of data belongs to. The

Acknowledge number

data has been received.

Control

is the point in the stream up to which all is various other flag bits.

Window

is the maximum amount that the receiver is prepared to accept.

tegrity, and

Urgent pointer

Checksum

is used to verify data inis for interrupting the stream. Data needed by extensions to the protocol are appended after the header as options.

26.2 A Sample TCP Session

It is easy to see TCP working by using telnet telnet to log in to remote systems, but

. You are probably familiar with using telnet is actually a generic program to connect to

any

web page.

TCP socket as we did in Chapter 10. Here we will try connect to cnn.com

’s

We first need to get an IP address of cnn.com

:

265

26.2. A Sample TCP Session 26. TCP and UDP

¨

[[email protected]]# host

cnn.com

¥

¦

10

15

20

25

30

5

Now, in one window we run

¨

[[email protected]]#

tcpdump \

’( src 192.168.3.9 and dst 207.25.71.20 ) or ( src 207.25.71.20 and dst 192.168.3.9 )’

Kernel filter, protocol ALL, datagram packet socket

¥ which says to list all packets having source ( src ) or destination ( dst ) addresses of either us or CNN.

¦

Then we use the HTTP protocol to grab the page. Type in the HTTP command

GET / HTTP/1.0

and then press

twice

(as required by the HTTP protocol). The

¥

[[email protected] root]#

telnet 207.25.71.20 80

Trying 207.25.71.20...

Connected to 207.25.71.20.

Escape character is ’ˆ]’.

GET / HTTP/1.0

HTTP/1.0 200 OK

Server: Netscape-Enterprise/2.01

Date: Tue, 18 Apr 2000 10:55:14 GMT

Set-cookie: CNNid=cf19472c-23286-956055314-2; expires=Wednesday, 30-Dec-2037 16:00:00 GMT; path=/; domain=.cnn.com

Last-modified: Tue, 18 Apr 2000 10:55:14 GMT

Content-type: text/html

<HTML>

<HEAD>

<TITLE>CNN.com</TITLE>

<META http-equiv="REFRESH" content="1800">

<!--CSSDATA:956055234-->

<SCRIPT src="/virtual/2000/code/main.js" language="javascript"></SCRIPT>

<LINK rel="stylesheet" href="/virtual/2000/style/main.css" type="text/css">

<SCRIPT language="javascript" type="text/javascript">

<!--// if ((navigator.platform==’MacPPC’)&&(navigator.ap

..............

..............

</BODY>

</HTML>

¦

The above commands produce the front page of CNN’s web site in raw HTML.

This is easy to paste into a file and view off-line.

In the other window, tcpdump tcpdump is showing us what packets are being exchanged.

nicely shows us host names instead of IP addresses and the letters www instead of the port number 80. The local “random” port in this case was 4064 .

266

26. TCP and UDP 26.2. A Sample TCP Session

5

10

15

20

25

30

¨

[[email protected]]#

tcpdump \

’( src 192.168.3.9 and dst 207.25.71.20 ) or ( src 207.25.71.20 and dst 192.168.3.9 )’

Kernel filter, protocol ALL, datagram packet socket tcpdump: listening on all devices

12:52:35.467121 eth0 > cericon.cranzgot.co.za.4064 > www1.cnn.com.www:

S 2463192134:2463192134(0) win 32120 <mss 1460,sackOK,timestamp 154031689 0,nop,wscale 0

12:52:35.964703 eth0 < www1.cnn.com.www > cericon.cranzgot.co.za.4064:

S 4182178234:4182178234(0) ack 2463192135 win 10136 <nop,nop,timestamp 1075172823 154031

12:52:35.964791 eth0 > cericon.cranzgot.co.za.4064 > www1.cnn.com.www:

. 1:1(0) ack 1 win 32120 <nop,nop,timestamp 154031739 1075172823> (DF)

12:52:46.413043 eth0 > cericon.cranzgot.co.za.4064 > www1.cnn.com.www:

P 1:17(16) ack 1 win 32120 <nop,nop,timestamp 154032784 1075172823> (DF)

12:52:46.908156 eth0 < www1.cnn.com.www > cericon.cranzgot.co.za.4064:

. 1:1(0) ack 17 win 10136 <nop,nop,timestamp 1075173916 154032784>

12:52:49.259870 eth0 > cericon.cranzgot.co.za.4064 > www1.cnn.com.www:

P 17:19(2) ack 1 win 32120 <nop,nop,timestamp 154033068 1075173916> (DF)

12:52:49.886846 eth0 < www1.cnn.com.www > cericon.cranzgot.co.za.4064:

P 1:278(277) ack 19 win 10136 <nop,nop,timestamp 1075174200 154033068>

12:52:49.887039 eth0 > cericon.cranzgot.co.za.4064 > www1.cnn.com.www:

. 19:19(0) ack 278 win 31856 <nop,nop,timestamp 154033131 1075174200> (DF)

12:52:50.053628 eth0 < www1.cnn.com.www > cericon.cranzgot.co.za.4064:

. 278:1176(898) ack 19 win 10136 <nop,nop,timestamp 1075174202 154033068>

12:52:50.160740 eth0 < www1.cnn.com.www > cericon.cranzgot.co.za.4064:

P 1176:1972(796) ack 19 win 10136 <nop,nop,timestamp 1075174202 154033068>

12:52:50.220067 eth0 > cericon.cranzgot.co.za.4064 > www1.cnn.com.www:

. 19:19(0) ack 1972 win 31856 <nop,nop,timestamp 154033165 1075174202> (DF)

12:52:50.824143 eth0 < www1.cnn.com.www > cericon.cranzgot.co.za.4064:

. 1972:3420(1448) ack 19 win 10136 <nop,nop,timestamp 1075174262 154033131>

12:52:51.021465 eth0 < www1.cnn.com.www > cericon.cranzgot.co.za.4064:

. 3420:4868(1448) ack 19 win 10136 <nop,nop,timestamp 1075174295 154033165>

¥

35

40

45

50

55

60

65

..............

..............

12:53:13.856919 eth0 > cericon.cranzgot.co.za.4064 > www1.cnn.com.www:

. 19:19(0) ack 53204 win 30408 <nop,nop,timestamp 154035528 1075176560> (DF)

12:53:14.722584 eth0 < www1.cnn.com.www > cericon.cranzgot.co.za.4064:

. 53204:54652(1448) ack 19 win 10136 <nop,nop,timestamp 1075176659 154035528>

12:53:14.722738 eth0 > cericon.cranzgot.co.za.4064 > www1.cnn.com.www:

. 19:19(0) ack 54652 win 30408 <nop,nop,timestamp 154035615 1075176659> (DF)

12:53:14.912561 eth0 < www1.cnn.com.www > cericon.cranzgot.co.za.4064:

. 54652:56100(1448) ack 19 win 10136 <nop,nop,timestamp 1075176659 154035528>

12:53:14.912706 eth0 > cericon.cranzgot.co.za.4064 > www1.cnn.com.www:

. 19:19(0) ack 58500 win 30408 <nop,nop,timestamp 154035634 1075176659> (DF)

12:53:15.706463 eth0 < www1.cnn.com.www > cericon.cranzgot.co.za.4064:

. 58500:59948(1448) ack 19 win 10136 <nop,nop,timestamp 1075176765 154035634>

12:53:15.896639 eth0 < www1.cnn.com.www > cericon.cranzgot.co.za.4064:

. 59948:61396(1448) ack 19 win 10136 <nop,nop,timestamp 1075176765 154035634>

12:53:15.896791 eth0 > cericon.cranzgot.co.za.4064 > www1.cnn.com.www:

. 19:19(0) ack 61396 win 31856 <nop,nop,timestamp 154035732 1075176765> (DF)

12:53:16.678439 eth0 < www1.cnn.com.www > cericon.cranzgot.co.za.4064:

. 61396:62844(1448) ack 19 win 10136 <nop,nop,timestamp 1075176864 154035732>

12:53:16.867963 eth0 < www1.cnn.com.www > cericon.cranzgot.co.za.4064:

. 62844:64292(1448) ack 19 win 10136 <nop,nop,timestamp 1075176864 154035732>

12:53:16.868095 eth0 > cericon.cranzgot.co.za.4064 > www1.cnn.com.www:

. 19:19(0) ack 64292 win 31856 <nop,nop,timestamp 154035829 1075176864> (DF)

12:53:17.521019 eth0 < www1.cnn.com.www > cericon.cranzgot.co.za.4064:

FP 64292:65200(908) ack 19 win 10136 <nop,nop,timestamp 1075176960 154035829>

12:53:17.521154 eth0 > cericon.cranzgot.co.za.4064 > www1.cnn.com.www:

. 19:19(0) ack 65201 win 31856 <nop,nop,timestamp 154035895 1075176960> (DF)

12:53:17.523243 eth0 > cericon.cranzgot.co.za.4064 > www1.cnn.com.www:

F 19:19(0) ack 65201 win 31856 <nop,nop,timestamp 154035895 1075176960> (DF)

12:53:20.410092 eth0 > cericon.cranzgot.co.za.4064 > www1.cnn.com.www:

F 19:19(0) ack 65201 win 31856 <nop,nop,timestamp 154036184 1075176960> (DF)

12:53:20.940833 eth0 < www1.cnn.com.www > cericon.cranzgot.co.za.4064:

267

26.3. User Datagram Protocol (UDP) 26. TCP and UDP

. 65201:65201(0) ack 20 win 10136 <nop,nop,timestamp 1075177315 154035895>

The preceding output requires some explanation: Line 5, 7, and 9 are the negotiation stage.

tcpdump uses the format <Sequence number>:<Sequence number

+ data length>(<data length>) on each line to show the context of the packet within the stream.

tcpdump

Sequence number

, however, is chosen randomly at the outset, so prints the relative sequence number after the first two packets to make it clearer what the actual position is within the stream. Line 11 is where I pressed the first time, and Line 15 was Enter with an empty line. The “ ack 19

Enter

”s indicates the point to which CNN’s web server has received incoming data; in this case we only ever typed in 19 bytes, hence the web server sets this value in every one of its outgoing packets, while our own outgoing packets are mostly empty of data.

Lines 61 and 63 are the detachment stage.

More information about the tcpdump output can be had from tcpdump (8) under the section

TCP Packets

.

¦

26.3 User Datagram Protocol (UDP)

You don’t

always

need reliable communication.

Sometimes you want to directly control packets for efficiency, or because you don’t really mind if packets get lost. Two examples are name server communications, for which single packet transmissions are desired, or voice transmissions for which reducing lag time is more important than data integrity. Another is NFS (Network File

System), which uses UDP to implement exclusively high bandwidth data transfer.

With UDP the programmer sends and receives individual packets, again encapsulated within IP. Ports are used in the same way as with TCP, but these are merely identifiers and there is no concept of a stream. The full UDP/IP header is listed in

Table 26.2.

Table 26.2 Combined UDP and IP header

Bytes (IP)

0

1

2–3

4–5

6–7

Description

bits 0–3: Version, bits 4–7: Internet Header Length (IHL)

Type of service (TOS)

Length

Identification bits 0-3: Flags, bits 4-15: Offset continues...

268

26. TCP and UDP 26.4.

/etc/services

File

Table 26.2 (continued)

8

9

10–11

12–15

16–19

20–(IHL * 4 - 1)

Time to live (TTL)

Type

Checksum

Source IP address

Destination IP address

Options + padding to round up to four bytes

Bytes (UDP)

0–1

2–3

4–5

6–7

Description

Source port

Destination port

Length

Checksum

UDP data begins at IHL * 4 + 8 and ends at Length - 1

26.4

/etc/services File

Various standard port numbers are used exclusively for particular types of services.

Port 80 is for web as shown earlier. Port numbers 1 through 1023 are reserved for such standard services and each is given a convenient textual name.

All services are defined for both TCP as well as UDP, even though there is, for example, no such thing as UDP FTP access.

Port numbers below 1024 are used exclusively for root uid programs such as mail, DNS, and web services. Programs of ordinary users are not allowed to

bind

to ports below 1024.

&

Port binding is where a program reserves a port for listening for an incoming connection, as do all network services. Web servers, for example,

bind

to port 80.

The place where these ports are defined is in the /etc/services file. These mappings are mostly for descriptive purposes—programs can look up port names from numbers and visa versa.

The /etc/services file has nothing to do with the availability of a service.

5

10

Here is an extract of the

¨ tcpmux echo echo discard discard systat daytime daytime netstat qotd msp msp

1/tcp

7/tcp

7/udp

9/tcp

9/udp

11/tcp

13/tcp

13/udp

15/tcp

17/tcp

18/tcp

18/udp

/etc/services .

sink null sink null users quote

# TCP port service multiplexer

# message send protocol

# message send protocol

¥

269

26.5. Encrypting and Forwarding TCP 26. TCP and UDP

15

20

25

30

35 ftp-data ftp fsp ssh ssh telnet smtp time time rlp nameserver whois domain domain mtp bootps bootps bootpc bootpc tftp gopher gopher rje finger www

20/tcp

21/tcp

21/udp

22/tcp

22/udp

23/tcp

25/tcp

37/tcp

37/udp

39/udp

42/tcp

43/tcp

53/tcp

53/udp

57/tcp

67/tcp

67/udp

68/tcp

68/udp

69/udp

70/tcp

70/udp

77/tcp

79/tcp

80/tcp

80/udp fspd

# SSH Remote Login Protocol

# SSH Remote Login Protocol mail timserver timserver resource name nicname nameserver nameserver

# resource location

# IEN 116

# name-domain server

# deprecated

# BOOTP server

# BOOTP client

# Internet Gopher netrjs http # WorldWideWeb HTTP

# HyperText Transfer Protocol

¦

26.5 Encrypting and Forwarding TCP

The TCP stream can easily be reconstructed by anyone listening on a wire who happens to see your network traffic, so TCP is known as an inherently insecure service. We would like to encrypt our data so that anything captured between the client and server will appear garbled. Such an encrypted stream should have several properties:

1.

It should ensure that the connecting client

really

is connecting to the server in question. In other words it should authenticate the server to ensure that the server is not a Trojan.

2.

It should prevent any information being gained by a snooper. This means that any traffic read should appear cryptographically garbled.

3.

It should be impossible for a listener to modify the traffic without detection.

The above is relatively easily accomplished with at least two packages. Take the example where we would like to use POP3 to retrieve mail from a remote machine.

First, we can verify that POP3 is working by logging in on the POP3 server. Run a telnet to port 110 (i.e., the POP3 service) as follows:

270

26. TCP and UDP 26.5. Encrypting and Forwarding TCP

5

¨ telnet localhost 110

Connected to localhost.localdomain.

Escape character is ’ˆ]’.

+OK POP3 localhost.localdomain v7.64 server ready

QUIT

+OK Sayonara

Connection closed by foreign host.

§

¥

¦

For our first example, we use the OpenSSH package. We can initialize and run the sshd Secure Shell daemon if it has not been initialized before. The following com-

¥ ssh-keygen -b 1024 -f /etc/ssh/ssh_host_key -q -N ’’ ssh-keygen -d -f /etc/ssh/ssh_host_dsa_key -q -N ’’ sshd

§ ¦

5

To create an encrypted channel shown in Figure 26.1, we use the ssh client login program in a special way. We would like it to listen on a particular TCP port and then encrypt and forward all traffic to the remote TCP port on the server. This is known as

(encrypted) port forwarding

. On the client machine we choose an arbitrary unused port to listen on, in this case

¨

12345 : ssh -C -c arcfour -N -n -2 -L 12345:<pop3-server.doma.in>:110 \

§

<pop3-server.doma.in> -l <user> -v

¥

¦ where <user> is the name of a shell account on the POP3 server. Finally, also on the client machine, we run:

¨ telnet localhost 12345

Connected to localhost.localdomain.

Escape character is ’ˆ]’.

+OK POP3 localhost.localdomain v7.64 server ready

QUIT

+OK Sayonara

Connection closed by foreign host.

§

¥

¦

Here we get results identical to those above, because, as far as the server is concerned, the POP3 connection comes from a client on the server machine itself, unknowing of the fact that it has originated from sshd , which in turn is forwarding from a remote ssh client. In addition, the -C option compresses all data (useful for low-speed connections). Also note that you should generally never use any encryption besides arcfour and SSH Protocol 2 (option -2 ).

The second method is the forward program of the mirrordir package. It has a unique encryption protocol that does much of what OpenSSH can, although the pro-

271

26.5. Encrypting and Forwarding TCP

Client

( telnet locahost 12345 )

26. TCP and UDP

( ssh . . . 12345:pop:110 pop)

12345

POP3 Server

( sshd )

22

( ipop3d )

110

Figure 26.1 Forwarding between two machines tocol has not been validated by the community at large (and therefore should be used with caution). On the server machine you can just type secure-mcserv . On the client

¥ forward <user>@<pop3-server.doma.in> <pop3-server.doma.in>:110 \

§

12345 --secure -z -K 1024

¦ and then run telnet 12345 to test as before.

With forwarding enabled you can use any POP3 client as you normally would.

Be sure, though, to set your host and port addresses to localhost and 12345 within your POP3 client.

This example can, of course, be applied to

almost

any service. Some services will not work if they do special things like create reverse TCP connections back to the client

(for example, FTP). Your luck may vary.

272

Chapter 27

DNS and Name Resolution

We know that each computer on the Internet has its own IP address. Although this address is sufficient to identify a computer for purposes of transmitting packets, it is not particularly accommodating to people. Also, if a computer were to be relocated, we would like to still identify it by the same name.

Hence, each computer is given a descriptive textual name. The basic textual name of a machine is called the

unqualified host name

&

This is my own terminology.

and is usually less than eight characters and contains only lowercase letters and numbers (and especially no dots). Groups of computers have a

domain name

. The full name of machine is

unqualified host name

.

domain name

and is called the

fully qualified host name

&

Standard terminology.

or the

qualified host name

.

&

My terminology.

For example, my computer is cericon . The domain name of my company is cranzgot.co.za

, and hence the qualified host name of my computer is address might be 160.123.76.9

.

cericon.cranzgot.co.za

, although the IP

Often the word

domain

is synonymous with

domain name

, and the

host name

on its own can mean either the qualified or unqualified host name.

This system of naming computers is called the

Domain Name System (DNS)

27.1 Top-Level Domains (TLDs)

Domains always end in a standard set of things. Here is a complete list of things that the last bit of a domain can be.

.com

A U.S. or international

.com

domain.

com pany proper. In fact, any organization might have a

273

27.2. Resolving DNS Names to IP Addresses 27. DNS and Name Resolution

.gov

A U.S.

gov ernment organization.

.edu

A U.S. university.

.mil

A U.S.

mil itary department.

.int

An organization established by int ernational treaties.

.org

A U.S. or nonprofit org anization. In fact, anyone can have a .org

domain.

.net

An Internet service provider (ISP). In fact, any bandwidth reseller, IT company, or any company at all might have a .net

domain.

Besides the above, the domain could end in a two-letter country code.

The complete list of country codes is given in Table 27.1. The rarely used, since in the United States .com

, .edu

, .org

, .mil

, .gov

,

.us

domain is

.int

, or .net

are mostly used.

Within each country, a domain may have things before it for better description.

Each country may implement a different structure. Some examples are:

.co.za

A South African co mpany. ( za = Zuid Afrika, from Dutch.)

.org.za

A South African nonprofit org anization.

.ac.za

A South African ac ademic university.

.edu.au

An au stralian tertiary edu cational institution.

.gov.za

A South African gov ernment organization.

a

Note that a South African company might choose a

.co.za

.com

domain instead of domain. The Internet has become more commercialized than organized, meaning that anyone can pretty much register any domain that is not already taken.

27.2 Resolving DNS Names to IP Addresses

In practice, a user will type a host name (say, www.cranzgot.co.za

) into some application like a web browser. The application has to then try find the IP address associated with that name, in order to send packets to it. This section describes the query structure used on the Internet so that everyone can find out anyone else’s IP address.

An obvious lookup infrastructure might involve distributing a long table of host name vs. IP numbers to every machine on the Internet. But as soon as you have more than a few thousand machines, this approach becomes impossible.

274

27. DNS and Name Resolution 27.2. Resolving DNS Names to IP Addresses

.af

Afghanistan

.al

Albania

.dz

Algeria

.as

American samoa

.ad

Andorra

.ao

Angola

.ai

Anguilla

.aq

Antarctica

.ag

Antigua and barbuda

.ar

Argentina

.am

Armenia

.aw

Aruba

.au

Australia

.at

Austria

.az

Bzerbaijan

.bs

Bahamas

.bh

Bahrain

.bd

Bangladesh

.bb

Barbados

.be

Belgium

.bz

Belize

.bj

Benin

.bm

Bermuda

.bt

Bhutan

.bo

Bolivia

.ba

Bosnia Hercegovina

.bw

Botswana

.bv

Bouvet Island

.br

Brazil

.io

British Indian Ocean Territory

.bn

Brunei Darussalam

.bg

Bulgaria

.bf

Burkina Faso

.bi

Burundi

.by

Celarus

.kh

Cambodia

.cm

Cameroon

.ca

Canada

.cv

Cape Verde

.ky

Cayman Islands

.cf

Central African Rep.

.td

Chad

.cl

Chile

.cn

China

.cx

Christmas Island

.cc

Cocos (Keeling) Islands

.co

Colombia

.km

Comoros

.cg

Congo

.ck

Cook Islands

.cr

Costa Rica

.ci

Cote D’ivoire

.hr

Croatia

.cu

Cuba

.cy

Cyprus

.cz

Czech Rep.

.cs

Dzechoslovakia

.dk

Denmark

.dj

Djibouti

.dm

Dominica

Table 27.1 ISO country codes

.do

Eominican Rep.

.tp

East Timor

.ec

Ecuador

.eg

Egypt

.sv

El Salvador

.gq

Equatorial Guinea

.ee

Estonia

.et

Fthiopia

.fk

Falkland Islands (Malvinas)

.fo

Faroe Islands

.fj

Fiji

.fi

Finland

.fr

France

.gf

French Guiana

.pf

French Polynesia

.tf

Grench Southern Territories

.ga

Gabon

.gm

Gambia

.ge

Georgia

.de

Germany

.gh

Ghana

.gi

Gibraltar

.gr

Greece

.gl

Greenland

.gd

Grenada

.gp

Guadeloupe

.gu

Guam

.gt

Guatemala

.gn

Guinea

.gw

Guinea-Bissau

.gy

Huyana

.ht

Haiti

.hm

Heard and Mc Donald Islands

.hn

Honduras

.hk

Hong Kong

.hu

Iungary

.is

Iceland

.in

India

.id

Indonesia

.ir

Iran (Islamic Rep. of)

.iq

Iraq

.ie

Ireland

.il

Israel

.it

Jtaly

.jm

Jamaica

.jp

Japan

.jo

Kordan

.kz

Kazakhstan

.ke

Kenya

.ki

Kiribati

.kp

Korea, Demo. People’s Rep.of

.kr

Korea, Rep. of

.kw

Kuwait

.kg

Lyrgyzstan

.la

Lao People’s Demo. Rep.

.lv

Latvia

.lb

Lebanon

.ls

Lesotho

.lr

Liberia

.ly

Libyan Arab Jamahiriya

.li

Liechtenstein

.lt

Lithuania

.lu

Muxembourg

.mo

Macau

.mg

Madagascar

.mw

Malawi

.my

Malaysia

.mv

Maldives

.ml

Mali

.mt

Malta

.mh

Marshall Islands

.mq

Martinique

.mr

Mauritania

.mu

Mauritius

.mx

Mexico

.fm

Micronesia

.md

Moldova, Rep. of

.mc

Monaco

.mn

Mongolia

.ms

Montserrat

.ma

Morocco

.mz

Mozambique

.mm

Nyanmar

.na

Namibia

.nr

Nauru

.np

Nepal

.nl

Netherlands

.an

Netherlands Antilles

.nt

Neutral Zone

.nc

New Caledonia

.nz

New Zealand

.ni

Nicaragua

.ne

Niger

.ng

Nigeria

.nu

Niue

.nf

Norfolk Island

.mp

Northern Mariana Islands

.no

Oorway

.om

Pman

.pk

Pakistan

.pw

Palau

.pa

Panama

.pg

Papua New Guinea

.py

Paraguay

.pe

Peru

.ph

Philippines

.pn

Pitcairn

.pl

Poland

.pt

Portugal

.pr

Querto Rico

.qa

Ratar

.re

Reunion

.ro

Romania

.ru

Russian Federation

.rw

Swanda

.sh

St. Helena

.kn

Saint Kitts and Nevis

.lc

Saint Lucia

.pm

St. Pierre and Miquelon

.vc

St. Vincent and the Grenadines

Samoa

San Marino

Sao Tome and Principe

Saudi Arabia

Senegal

Seychelles

Sierra Leone

Singapore

Slovakia

Slovenia

Solomon Islands

Somalia

South Africa

Spain

Sri Lanka

Sudan

Suriname

Svalbard and Jan Mayen Is.

Swaziland

Sweden

Switzerland

Tyrian Arab Rep.

Taiwan, Province of China

Tajikistan

Tanzania, United Rep. of

Thailand

Togo

Tokelau

Tonga

Trinidad and Tobago

Tunisia

Turkey

Turkmenistan

Turks and Caicos Islands

Uuvalu

Uganda

Ukraine

United Arab Emirates

United Kingdom

United States

US Minor Outlying Islands

Uruguay

USSR

Vzbekistan

Vanuatu

Vatican City State (Holy See)

Venezuela

Viet Nam

Virgin Islands (British)

Wirgin Islands (U.S.)

Wallis and Futuna Islands

Yestern Sahara

Yemen, Rep. of

Zugoslavia

Zaire

Zambia

Zimbabwe

.su

.uz

.vu

.va

.ve

.vn

.vg

.vi

.tm

.tc

.tv

.ug

.ua

.ae

.gb

.us

.um

.uy

.wf

.eh

.ye

.yu

.zr

.zm

.zw

.tz

.th

.tg

.tk

.to

.tt

.tn

.tr

.sr

.sj

.sz

.se

.ch

.sy

.tw

.tj

.sk

.si

.sb

.so

.za

.es

.lk

.sd

.ws

.sm

.st

.sa

.sn

.sc

.sl

.sg

Another imaginary infrastructure might have one huge computer on the Internet somewhere whose IP address is known by everyone. This computer would be responsible for servicing requests for IP numbers, and the said application running on your local machine would just query this big machine. Of course, with billions of machines out there, this approach will obviously create far too much network traffic.

some Microsoft LANs kind of work this way—that is, not very well.

-

&

Actually,

27.2.1 The Internet DNS infrastructure

The DNS structure on the Internet actually works like this.

275

27.2. Resolving DNS Names to IP Addresses 27. DNS and Name Resolution

There

are

They are called computers that service requests for IP numbers—millions of them.

name servers

(or

DNS servers

), and a request is called a

DNS lookup

(or just a

lookup

). However, each name server only has information about a specific part of the Internet, and they constantly query each other.

5

10

There are 13

root

name servers on the Internet.

ftp://ftp.rs.internic.net/domain/named.root

.

-

¨ a.root-servers.net

b.root-servers.net

198.41.0.4

128.9.0.107

c.root-servers.net

d.root-servers.net

e.root-servers.net

f.root-servers.net

g.root-servers.net

h.root-servers.net

i.root-servers.net

j.root-servers.net

k.root-servers.net

l.root-servers.net

m.root-servers.net

§

192.33.4.12

128.8.10.90

192.203.230.10

192.5.5.241

192.112.36.4

128.63.2.53

192.36.148.17

198.41.0.10

193.0.14.129

198.32.64.12

202.12.27.33

&

This list can be gotten from

¥

¦

Each country also has a name server, and in turn each organization has a name server. Each name server only has information about machines in its own domain, as well as information about other name servers. The root name servers only have information on the IP addresses of the name servers of .com

, .edu

, .za

, etc. The

.za

name server only has information on the IP addresses of the name servers of

.org.za

, .ac.za

, .co.za

, etc. The .co.za

name server only has information on the name servers of all South African companies, like .cranzgot.co.za

, .icon.co.za

,

.mweb.co.za

, etc. The .cranzgot.co.za

, name server only has info on the machines at Cranzgot Systems, like www.cranzgot.co.za

.

Your own machine will defined in its configuration files a name server that is geographically close to it. The responsibilities of this name server will be to directly answer any queries about its own domain that it has information about and to answer any other queries by querying as many other name servers on the Internet as is necessary.

27.2.2 The name resolution process

Now our application is presented with www.cranzgot.co.za

. The following sequence of lookups takes place to resolve this name into an IP address. This procedure is called

host name resolution

the

resolver

.

and the algorithm that performs this operation is called

276

27. DNS and Name Resolution 27.3. Configuring Your Local Machine

1.

The application checks certain special databases on the local machine. If it can get an answer directly from them, it proceeds no further.

2.

The application looks up a geographically close name server from the local machine’s configuration file. Let’s say this machine is called ns .

3.

The application queries ns with “ www.cranzgot.co.za

?”.

4.

ns determines whether that IP has been recently looked up. If it has, there is no need to ask further, since the result would be stored in a local cache.

5.

ns checks whether the domain is local. That is, whether it is a computer about which it has direct information. In this case, this would only be true if the ns were cranzgot.co.za

’s very own name server.

6.

ns strips out the TLD (top level domain) .za

. It queries a root name server, asking what name server is responsible for .za

.

The answer will be ucthpx.uct.ac.za

of IP address 137.158.128.1

.

7.

ns strips out the next highest domain co.za

asking what name server is responsible for

It queries

.co.za

.

137.158.128.1

The answer will be

, secdns1.posix.co.za

of IP address 160.124.112.10

.

8.

ns strips out the next highest domain cranzgot.co.za

.

It queries

160.124.112.10

, asking what name server is responsible for got.co.za

.

The answer will be pizza.cranzgot.co.za

cranzof IP address

196.28.123.1

.

9.

ns queries 196.28.123.1

asking for the IP address of www.cranzgot.co.za

.

The answer will be 160.123.176.1

.

10.

ns returns the result to the application.

11.

ns stores each of these results in a local cache with an expiration date, to avoid having to look them up a second time.

27.3 Configuring Your Local Machine

We referred to “configuration files” above.

/etc/host.conf

, /etc/hosts , and

These are actually the files:

/etc/resolv.conf

. These are the three and only files that specify how all applications are going to look up IP numbers; and have nothing to do with the configuration files of the name server daemon itself, even though a name server daemon might be running on the local machine.

When an application needs to look up a host name, it goes through the following procedure.

&

What is actually happening is that the application is making a

C

library call to the function

277

27.3. Configuring Your Local Machine 27. DNS and Name Resolution gethostbyname() , hence all these configuration files really belong to the C library packages glibc or libc . However, this is a detail you need not be concerned about.

The following are equivalent to steps 1, 2, and 3 above, with the details of the configuration files filled in. The configuration files that follow are taken from an actual installation.

1.

The application checks the file line order hosts,bind

/etc/host.conf

. This file will usually have a in it, specifying that it should first ( hosts ) check the local database file fied in

/etc/hosts

/etc/resolv.conf

, and then (

. The file bind ) query the name server speci-

/etc/hosts contains a plain text list of

IP addresses and names. An example is given below. If the application can get an answer directly from /etc/hosts , it proceeds no further.

2.

The application checks in the file /etc/resolv.conf

for a line nameserver

<nameserver> . There can actually be three of these lines so that if one name server fails, the application can try the next in turn.

3.

The application sends to the name server a query with the host name. If the host name is unqualified, then the application, before trying the query, appends to the host name a local domain name. A line

...

<domainN> search <domain1> <domain2> may appear in the configuration file to facilitate this. A query is made with each of <domain1> , <domain2> etc. appended in turn until the query successfully returns an IP. This just saves you having to type in the full host name for computers within your own organization.

4.

The name server proceeds with the hierarchical queries described from step 4 onward.

The /etc/hosts

¨

127.0.0.1

192.168.3.9

192.168.3.10

192.168.2.1

§ file should look something like this: localhost.localdomain

cericon.cranzgot.co.za

pepper.cranzgot.co.za

onion.cranzgot.co.za

localhost cericon pepper onion

¥

¦

The hosts pepper , cericon , and onion are the hosts that this machine has the most communication with, and hence are listed here.

cericon is the local machine and must be listed. You can list any hosts to which you want fast lookups, or hosts that might need to be known in spite of name servers being down.

¨ order

The /etc/host.conf

might look like this. All of the lines are optional: hosts, bind, nis trim some.domain

spoofalert nospoof

¥

278

27. DNS and Name Resolution 27.3. Configuring Your Local Machine

5 multi reorder

§ on

¦

order

The order in which lookups are done. Don’t try fiddling with this value. It never seems to have any effect. You should leave it as order hosts,bind

(or order hosts,bind,nis

HOWTO on the web.)

/etc/resolv.conf

if you are using NIS—search for the

Once again, bind

NISmeans to then go and check the which holds the name server query options.

trim

Strip the domain some.domain

from the end of a host name before trying a lookup. You will probably never require this feature.

spoofalert

Try reverse lookups on a host name after looking up the IP (i.e., do a query to find the name from the IP). If this query does not return the correct result, it could mean that some machine is trying to make it look like it is someone it really isn’t. This is a hacker’s trick called

spoofing

.

spoofalert warns you of such attempts in your log file /var/log/messages .

nospoof

Disallow results that fail the spoof test.

multi on

Return more than one result if there are aliases. Actually, a host can have several IP numbers, and an IP number can have several host names. Consider a computer that might want more than one name ( ftp.cranzgot.co.za

www.cranzgot.co.za

and are the same machine.) Or a machine that has several networking cards and an IP address for each. This option should always be turned on.

multi off is the alternative. Most applications use only the first value returned.

reorder

If more than one IP is returned by a lookup, then sort that list according to the IP that has the most convenient network route.

order

Despite this array of options, an ply like

¨ hosts, bind multi

§ on

/etc/host.conf

file almost always looks sim-

¥

¦

5

The /etc/resolv.conf

¨ nameserver 192.168.2.1

nameserver 160.123.76.1

file could look something like this: nameserver 196.41.0.131

search cranzgot.co.za ct.cranzgot.co.za uct.ac.za

sortlist 192.168.3.0/255.255.255.0 192.168.2.0/255.255.255.0

279

¥

27.3. Configuring Your Local Machine 27. DNS and Name Resolution options ndots:1 timeout:30 attempts:2 rotate no-check-names inet6

§ ¦

nameserver

Specifies a name server to query. No more than three may be listed. The point of having more than one is to safeguard against a name server being down; the next in the list will then be queried.

search

If given a host name with less than ndots dots (i.e., 1 in this case), add each of the domains in turn to the host name, trying a lookup with each. This option allows you to type in an unqualified host name and the application work out what organization it is belongs to from the search list. You can have up to six domains, but then queries would be time consuming.

domain

The line “ domain ct.cranzgot.co.za

” is the same as “ search ct.cranzgot.co.za cranzgot.co.za co.za

”. Always use search explicitly instead of domain to reduce the number of queries to a minimum.

sortlist

If more than one host is returned, sort them according to the following

network

/

mask

s.

options

Various additional parameters can be specified in this one line:

ndots

Explained under search above. The default is 1 .

timeout

How long to wait before considering a query to have failed. The default is 30 seconds.

attempts

Number of attempts to make before failing. The default is 2. This means that a down name server will cause your application to wait 1 full minute before deciding that it can’t resolve the IP.

rotate

Try the name servers in round robin fashion. This distributes load across name servers.

no-check-names inet6

Don’t check for invalid characters in host names.

The man page for resolv.conf

( resolver (5)) says: inet6 sets RES_USE_INET6 in _res.options .

This has the effect of trying a AAAA query before an A query inside the gethostbyname function, and of mapping IPv4 responses in IPv6 ‘‘tunnelled form’’ if no AAAA records are found but an A record set exists.

An AAAA query is a 128-bit “next generation,” or “IPV6” Internet address.

Despite this array of options, an simply like:

¨ nameserver 192.168.2.254

search cranzgot.co.za

§

/etc/resolv.conf

file almost always looks

¥

¦

280

27. DNS and Name Resolution 27.4. Reverse Lookups

27.4 Reverse Lookups

A

reverse lookup

, mentioned under nospoof , is the determining of the host name from the IP address. The course of queries is similar to forward lookups using part of the IP address to find out what machines are responsible for what ranges of IP address.

A

forward lookup

is an ordinary lookup of the IP address from the host name.

27.5

Authoritative

for a Domain

I have emphasized that name servers only hold information for their own domains.

Any other information they may have about another domain is cached, temporary data that has an expiration date attached to it.

The domain that a name server has information about is said to be the domain that a name server is

authoritative

for. Alternatively we say: “a name server is

authoritative

for the domain.” For instance, the server thoritative for the domain cranzgot.co.za

ns2.cranzgot.co.za

is au-

. Hence, lookups from anywhere on the Internet having the domain of ns2.cranzgot.co.za

cranzgot.co.za

ultimately are the responsibility

, and originate (albeit through a long series of caches) from the host ns2.cranzgot.co.za

.

27.6 The host , ping , and whois Command

The command query. Try

¨ host host www.cnn.com

§ looks up a host name or an IP address, by doing a name server

¥

¦ for an example of a host with lots of IP address. Keep typing host over and over.

Notice that the order of the hosts keeps changing randomly. This reordering distributes load among the many cnn.com

servers.

Now, pick one of the IP addresses and type

¨ host <ip-address>

§

This command will return the host name cnn.com

.

¥

¦

Note that the host command is not available on all U

NIX systems.

The ping command has nothing directly to do with DNS but is a quick way of getting an IP address and at the same time checking whether a host is responding. It is often used as the acid test for network and DNS connectivity. See Section 25.10.1.

281

27.7. The

nslookup

Command 27. DNS and Name Resolution

¨

Now enter:

¥

¦

(Note that original BSD get a response like this:

¨

[rs.internic.net] whois worked like whois -h <host> <user> .) You will

¥

5

Whois Server Version 1.1

Domain names in the .com, .net, and .org domains can now be registered with many different competing registrars. Go to http://www.internic.net

for detailed information.

10

15

Domain Name: CNN.COM

Registrar: NETWORK SOLUTIONS, INC.

Whois Server: whois.networksolutions.com

Referral URL: www.networksolutions.com

Name Server: NS-01A.ANS.NET

Name Server: NS-01B.ANS.NET

Name Server: NS-02A.ANS.NET

Name Server: NS-02B.ANS.NET

Updated Date: 22-sep-1999

20

>>> Last update of whois database: Thu, 20 Jan 00 01:39:07 EST <<<

The Registry database contains ONLY .COM, .NET, .ORG, .EDU domains and

¦

(Internic happens to have this database of .com

, .net

, .org

, and .edu

domains.)

27.7 The nslookup Command

nslookup is a program to interactively query a name server. If you run

¨ nslookup

§

¥

¦ you will get a > prompt at which you can type commands. If you type in a host name, nslookup will return its IP address(s), and visa versa. Also, typing

¨ help

§

¥

¦ any time will return a complete list of commands. By default, nslookup name server listed in

¨

/etc/resolv.conf

uses the first for all its queries. However, the command server <nameserver>

§

¥

¦

282

27. DNS and Name Resolution 27.7. The

nslookup

Command will force nslookup to connect to a name server of your choice.

27.7.1

NS , MX , PTR , A and CNAME records

The word

record

is a piece of DNS information.

5

¨

Now enter the command: set type=NS

§

¥

¦

This tells nslookup to return the second type of information that a DNS can deliver:

the authoritative name server for a domain

or the NS record of the domain. You can enter any domain here. For instance, if you enter

¨ set type=NS cnn.com

§

¥

¦ nslookup returns

¨

Non-authoritative answer: cnn.com nameserver = NS-02B.ANS.NET

cnn.com nameserver = NS-02A.ANS.NET

cnn.com nameserver = NS-01B.ANS.NET

cnn.com nameserver = NS-01A.ANS.NET

¥

10

Authoritative answers can be found from:

NS-02B.ANS.NET

internet address = 207.24.245.178

NS-02A.ANS.NET

internet address = 207.24.245.179

NS-01B.ANS.NET

NS-01A.ANS.NET

§ internet address = 199.221.47.8

internet address = 199.221.47.7

This output tells us that four name servers are authoritative for the domain cnn.com

(one plus three backups). It also tells us that it did not get this answer from an authoritative source, but through a cached source. It also tells us what name servers are authoritative for this very information.

¦

Now, switch to a name server that

¨ server NS-02B.ANS.NET

§

is

authoritative for cnn.com

: and run the same query:

¨ cnn.com

§

The new result is somewhat more emphatic, but no different.

There are only a few other kinds of records that you can get from a name server.

Try

¥

¦

¥

¦

283

27.8. The

dig

Command 27. DNS and Name Resolution

5

¨ set type=MX cnn.com

§ to get the so-called

MX record

for that domain. The for handling mail destined to that domain.

MX

MX record is the server responsible records also have a priority (usually 10 or 20). This tells any mail server to try the 20 one should the 10 one fail, and so on.

There are usually only one or two MX records. Mail is actually the only Internet service handled by DNS. (For instance, there is no such thing as a NEWSX record for news, or a WX record for web pages, whatever kind of information we may like such records to hold.)

¥

¦

Also try

¨ set type=PTR

<ip-address> set type=A

<hostname> set type=CNAME

<hostname>

§

So-called

A

PTR records are reverse lookups, or P

oin

T

e

R

s

to host names. So-called records are forward lookups (the default type of lookup when you first invoke nslookup with), or A and the type of lookup the first half of this chapter was most concerned

ddress

lookups. So-called CNAME records are lookups of C

anonical

NAME

s

.

DNS allows you to alias a computer to many different names, even though each has one

real

name (called the

canonical

name).

CNAME lookups returns the machine name proper.

¥

¦

27.8 The dig Command

dig stands for

domain information groper

. It sends single requests to a DNS server for testing or scripting purposes (it is similar to nslookup , but non-interactive).

It is usually used like,

¨ ¥

¦ where <server> is the machine running the DNS daemon to query, the domain of interest and <query-type> is one of A , ANY , MX , NS ,

<domain>

SOA , HINFO is

, or

AXFR —of these, you can read about the non-obvious ones in used to test an Internet connection. See Section 20.7.4.

dig (1).

dig can also be

¨

Useful is the AXFR record. For instance dig @dns.dial-up.net icon.co.za AXFR

§ lists the entire domain of one of our local ISPs.

¥

¦

284

Chapter 28

Network File System, NFS

This chapter covers NFS, the file-sharing capabilities of U

NIX

, and describes how to set up directories shareable to other U

NIX machines.

As soon as one thinks of high-speed Ethernet, the logical possibility of

sharing

a file system across a network comes to mind. MS-DOS, OS/2, Apple Macintosh, and

Windows have their own file-sharing schemes (IPX, SMB etc.), and NFS is the U

NIX equivalent.

Consider your hard drive with its 10,000 or so files. Ethernet is fast enough that you should be able to entirely use the hard drive of another machine, transferring needed data as network packets as required; or you should be able to make a directory tree visible to several computers. Doing this efficiently is a complex task. NFS is a standard, a protocol, and (on L

INUX

) a software suite that accomplishes this task in an efficient manner. It is really easy to configure as well. Unlike some other sharing protocols, NFS merely shares files and does not facilitate printing or messaging.

28.1 Software

Depending on your distribution, the following programs may be located in any of the bin or sbin directories. These are all daemon processes. To get NFS working, they should be started in the order given here.

portmap

(also sometimes called rpc.portmap

) This maps service names to ports.

Client and server processes may request a TCP port number based on a service name, and your portmap handles these requests. It is basically a network version of

/etc/services file.

285

28.2. Configuration Example 28. Network File System, NFS

rpc.mountd

(also sometimes called mountd ) This handles the initial incoming request from a client to mount a file system and check that the request is allowable.

rpc.nfsd

self.

(also sometimes called nfsd ) This is the core—the file-server program it-

rpc.lockd

(also sometimes called lockd ) This handles shared locks between different machines on the same file over the network.

The acronym RPC stands for

Remote Procedure Call

. RPC was developed along with NFS by Sun Microsystems. It is an efficient way for a program to call a function on another machine and can be used by any service that needs to have efficient distributed processing. These days, its not really used for much except NFS, having been superseded by technologies like CORBA.

&

The “Object-Oriented” version of RPC

You can however, still write distributed applications with L

INUX

’s RPC implementation.

28.2 Configuration Example

Sharing a directory with a remote machine requires that forward and reverse DNS lookups be working for the server machine as well as all client machines. DNS is covered in Chapter 27 and Chapter 40. If you are just testing NFS and you are sharing directories to your local machine (which we do now), you

may

find NFS to still work without a proper DNS setup. You should at least have proper entries in your

/etc/hosts file for your local machine (see page 278).

The first step is deciding on the directory you would like to share. A useful trick is to share your CD-ROM to your whole LAN. This is perfectly safe considering that

CDs are read-only. Create an /etc/exports

¨

/mnt/cdrom

§

192.168.1.0/24(ro) file with the following in it: localhost(ro)

¥

¦

You can immediately see that the format of the /etc/exports file is simply a line for each shareable directory. Next to each directory name goes a list of hosts that are allowed to connect. In this case, those allowed access are all IP addresses having the upper 24 bits matching 192.168.1

, as well as the localhost .

Next, mount your CD-ROM as usual with

¨ mkdir -p /mnt/cdrom mount -t iso9660 -o ro /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom

§

¥

¦

Now start each of the NFS processes in sequence:

286

28. Network File System, NFS 28.2. Configuration Example

¨ portmap rpc.mountd

rpc.nfsd

rpc.lockd

§

¥

¦

Whenever you make changes to your running

¨ exportfs -r

§

/etc/exports file you should also follow by

¥

¦ which causes a rereading of the /etc/exports mand with no options should then show

¨

/mnt/cdrom 192.168.1.0/24

/mnt/cdrom

§ localhost.localdomain

file. Entering the which lists directories and hosts allowed to access them.

exportfs com-

¥

¦

It is useful to test mounts from your local machine before testing from a remote machine. Here we perform the NFS mounting operation proper:

¨ mkdir /mnt/nfs mount -t nfs localhost:/mnt/cdrom /mnt/nfs

§

¥

¦

You can see that the mount command sees the remote machine’s directory as a “device” of sorts, although the t ype is nfs instead of ext2 , vfat , or iso9660 . The remote host name is followed by a colon followed by the directory on that remote machine

relative to the root directory

. This syntax is unlike that for other kinds of services that name all files relative to some “top level” directory (eg., FTP and web servers). The acid test now is to run ls on the /mnt/nfs directory to verify that its contents are indeed the same as /mnt/cdrom . Supposing our server is called cdromserver , we can run the

¥ mkdir /mnt/nfs mount -t nfs cdromserver:/mnt/cdrom /mnt/nfs

§ ¦

If anything went wrong, you might like to search your process list for all processes with an rpc , mount , nfs , or portmap in them. Completely stopping NFS means clearing all of these processes (if you really want to start from scratch). It is useful to also keep

¨ tail -f /var/log/messages tail -f /var/log/syslog

§

¥

¦ running in a separate console to watch for any error (or success) messages (actually true of any configuration you are doing). Note that it is not always obvious that NFS

287

28.3. Access Permissions 28. Network File System, NFS is failing because of a forward or reverse DNS lookup, so double-check beforehand that these are working— mount will not usually be more eloquent than the classic NFS error message: “ mount: <xyz> failed, reason given by server: Permission denied .” A faulty DNS is also indicated by whole-minute pauses in operation.

Most distributions will not require you to manually start and stop the daemon processes above. Like most services, RedHat’s NFS implementation can be invoked simply with:

¨

/etc/init.d/nfs start

/etc/init.d/nfslock start

§

¥

¦

(or

¨

/etc/rc.d/init.d/ ). On Debian , similarly,

/etc/init.d/nfs-common start

/etc/init.d/nfs-kernel-server start

§

¥

¦

28.3 Access Permissions

Above, we used 192.168.1.0/24(ro) to specify that we want to give r eado nly access to a range of IP addresses. You can actually put host names with wildcards also; for example:

¨

/mnt/cdrom

§

*.mynet.mydomain.co.za(ro)

¥

¦

¨

/home

§

Then also allow r eadw rite access with, say:

*.mynet.mydomain.co.za(rw)

One further option, no root squash , disables NFS’s special treatment of root owned files. This option is useful if you are finding certain files strangely inaccessible.

no root squash root

¨ is really only for systems (like diskless workstations) that need full access to a file system. An example is:

*.very.trusted.net(rw,no_root_squash)

¥

¦

¥

¦

The man page for options.

/etc/exports , exports (5), contains an exhaustive list of

288

28. Network File System, NFS 28.4. Security

28.4 Security

NFS requires that a number of services be running that have no use anywhere else.

Many naive administrators create directory exports with impunity, thus exposing those machines to opportunistic hackers. An NFS server should be well hidden behind a firewall, and any Internet server exposed to the Internet should

never

run the portmap or RPC services. Preferably uninstall all of these services if you are not actually running an NFS server.

28.5 Kernel NFS

There are actually two versions of the NFS implementation for L

INUX

. Although this is a technical caveat, it is worth understanding that the NFS server was originally implemented by an ordinary daemon process before the L

INUX ported NFS. Debian kernel itself supsupports both implementations in two packages, nfs-server and nfs-kernel-server , although the configuration should be identical. Depending on the versions of these implementations and the performance you require, one or the other may be better. You are advised to at least check the status of the kernel NFS implementation on the kernel web pages. Of course, NFS as a

client

must necessarily be supported by the kernel as a regular file system type in order to be able to mount anything.

289

28.5. Kernel NFS 28. Network File System, NFS

290

Chapter 29

Services Running Under inetd

There are some hundred odd services that a common L

INUX distribution supports.

For all of these to be running simultaneously would be a strain. Hence, a special daemon process watches for incoming TCP connections and then starts the relevant executable, saving that executable from having to run all the time. This is used only for sparsely used services—that is, not web, mail, or DNS.

The daemon that performs this function is traditionally called inetd : the subject of this chapter.

(Section 36.1 contains an example of writing your own network service in shell script to run under inetd .)

29.1 The inetd Package

Which package contains inetd depends on the taste of your distribution. Indeed, under RedHat, version 7.0 switched to xinetd , a move that departs radically from the traditional U

NIX inetd .

are the configuration file xinetd is discussed below. The important

/etc/inetd.conf

, the executable inetd

/usr/sbin/inetd files

, the inetd and inetd.conf

man pages, and the startup script

/etc/rc.d/init.d/inetd or /etc/init.d/inetd

/etc/init.d/inet (or

). Another important file is

/etc/services , discussed in Section 26.4.

29.2 Invoking Services with /etc/inetd.conf

Most services can be started in one of three ways: first as a standalone (resource hungry, as discussed) daemon; second, under inetd ; or third as an inetd service which is

291

29.2. Invoking Services with

/etc/inetd.conf

29. Services Running Under

inetd

“TCP wrapper”-moderated. However, some services will run using

only

one method.

Here, we will give an example showing all three methods. You will need to have an ftp package installed for this example (either

Debian ).

wuftpd on RedHat or ftpd on

29.2.1 Invoking a standalone service

Try the following (alternative commands in parentheses):

¨

/usr/sbin/in.ftpd -D

( /usr/sbin/in.wuftpd -s )

§

The -D option instructs the service to start in D aemon mode (or

This represents the first way of running an Internet service.

s tandalone mode).

¥

¦

29.2.2 Invoking an inetd service

With this method we can let

/etc/inetd.conf

¨ inetd run the service for us.

Edit your file and add or edit the line (alternatives in parentheses): ftp stream tcp nowait root /usr/sbin/in.ftpd in.ftpd

( ftp

§ stream tcp nowait root /usr/sbin/in.wuftpd in.wuftpd )

¥

¦

Then, restart the

¨ inetd service with

/etc/init.d/inet restart

( killall -1 inetd )

( /etc/rc.d/init.d/inet restart )

§

¥

¦

¥ ps awx | grep ftp ftp localhost

§ ¦

The fields in the /etc/inetd.conf

file have the following meanings:

ftp

The name of the service. Looking in the this is TCP port 21 .

/etc/services file, we can see that

stream tcp

Socket type and protocol. In this case, a TCP stream socket, and hardly ever anything else.

nowait

Do not wait for the process to exit before listening for a further incoming connection. Compare to wait and respawn in Chapter 32.

292

29. Services Running Under

inetd

29.2. Invoking Services with

/etc/inetd.conf

root

The initial user ID under which the service must run.

/usr/sbin/in.ftpd

(

/usr/sbin/in.wuftpd

)

The actual executable.

in.ftpd

The command-line. In this case, just the program name and no options.

29.2.3 Invoking an inetd “TCP wrapper” service

With this last method we let inetd run the service for us under the tcpd wrapper command. This is almost the same as before, but with a slight change in the

/etc/inetd.conf

¨ ftp entry: stream tcp stream tcp nowait root nowait root

/usr/sbin/tcpd /usr/sbin/in.ftpd

/usr/sbin/tcpd /usr/sbin/in.wuftpd )

¥

¦

Then, restart the voke in.ftpd

(or inetd service as before. These alternative lines allow in.wuftpd

) on inetd ’s behalf. The tcpd tcpd to incommand does various tests on the incoming connection to decide whether it should be trusted.

tcpd checks what host the connection originates from and compares that host against entries in the file /etc/hosts.allow

and /etc/hosts.deny

. It can refuse connections from selected hosts, thus giving you finer access control to services.

your

¨

Consider the preceding

/etc/hosts.allow

/etc/inetd.conf

file: in.ftpd: LOCAL, .my.domain

( in.wuftpd: LOCAL, .my.domain )

§ entry against the following line in

¥

¦ as well as the following line in the file

¨ in.ftpd: ALL

( in.wuftpd: ALL )

§

/etc/hosts.deny

:

¥

¦

This example will deny connections from all machines with host names not ending in .my.domain

but allow connections from the local

&

The same machine on which inetd is running

machine. It is useful at this point to try make an ftp connection from different machines to test access control. A complete explanation of the and /etc/hosts.deny

file format can be obtained from

/etc/hosts.allow

hosts access (5). Another example is ( /etc/hosts.deny

):

¨

ALL: .snake.oil.com, 146.168.160.0/255.255.240.0

§

¥

¦ which would deny access for ALL services to all machines inside the 146.168.160.0

(first 20 bits) network, as well as all machines under the snake.oil.com

domain.

293

29.3. Various Service Explanations 29. Services Running Under

inetd

29.2.4 Distribution conventions

Note that the above methods cannot be used simultaneously. If a service is already running one way, trying to start it another way will fail, possibly with a “port in use” error message.

whether to make the service an

Your distribution would have already decided inetd entry or a standalone daemon. In the former case, a line in /etc/inetd.conf

/etc/init.d/<service> (or will be present; in the latter case, a script

/etc/rc.d/init.d/<service> ) will be present to start or stop but there will be the daemon. Typically, there will be no

/etc/init.d/httpd and

/etc/init.d/ftpd

/etc/init.d/named script, scripts. Note that there will

always

be a /etc/init.d/inet script.

29.3 Various Service Explanations

All these services are potential security holes. Don’t take chances: disable them all by commenting out all lines in

/etc/inetd.conf

.

5

10

A typical

¨ ftp telnet shell login talk ntalk pop-3 imap uucp tftp bootps finger

/etc/inetd.conf

stream stream stream stream dgram dgram stream stream stream dgram dgram stream stream tcp tcp udp udp tcp tcp tcp tcp tcp tcp udp udp tcp nowait nowait nowait nowait wait wait nowait nowait nowait wait wait nowait wait file (without the comment lines) looks something like: root root root root nobody.tty

nobody.tty

root root uucp root root nobody root

/usr/sbin/tcpd

/usr/sbin/tcpd

/usr/sbin/tcpd

/usr/sbin/tcpd

/usr/sbin/tcpd

/usr/sbin/tcpd

/usr/sbin/tcpd

/usr/sbin/tcpd

/usr/sbin/tcpd

/usr/sbin/tcpd

/usr/sbin/tcpd

/usr/sbin/tcpd

/usr/sbin/in.identd

in.ftpd -l -a in.telnetd

in.rshd

in.rlogind

in.talkd

in.ntalkd

ipop3d imapd

/usr/sbin/uucico -l in.tftpd

bootpd in.fingerd

in.identd -e -o

¥

¦

The above services have the following purposes (port numbers in parentheses):

ftp (21)

File Transfer Protocol, as shown above.

telnet (23)

Telnet login access.

shell (514)

rsh Remote shell script execution service.

login (513)

rlogin Remote Login login service.

294

29. Services Running Under

inetd

29.4. The

xinetd

Alternative

talk (517), ntalk

User communication gimmick.

pop-3 (110)

Post Office Protocol mail retrieval service—how most people get their mail through their ISP.

imap (143)

Internet Mail Access Protocol—a more sophisticated and dangerously insecure version of POP.

uucp (540)

Unix-to-Unix copy operating over TCP.

tftp (69)

Trivial FTP service used, for example, by diskless workstations to retrieve a kernel image.

bootpd (67)

BOOTP IP configuration service for LANs that require automatic IP assignment.

finger (79)

User lookup service.

auth (113)

A service that determines the owner of a particular TCP connection. If you run a machine with lots of users, administrators of other machines can see which users are connecting to them from your machine. For tracking purposes, some

IRC and FTP servers require that a connecting client run this service. Disable this service if your box does not support shell logins for many users.

29.4 The xinetd Alternative

Instead of the usual inetd + package as of version 7.0. The tcpd combination, RedHat switched to the xinetd package combines the features of xinetd tcpd and inetd into one neat package. The xinetd

/etc/xinetd.conf

; an executable package consists of a top-level config file,

/usr/sbin/xinetd ; and then a config file for each service under the directory

like ftpd

/etc/xinetd.d/ .

This arrangement allows a package control over its own configuration through its own separate file

.

29.5 Configuration Files

5

The default top-level config file, /etc/xinetd.conf

, looks simply like this:

¨ defaults

{ instances log_type log_on_success log_on_failure

= 60

= SYSLOG authpriv

= HOST PID

= HOST RECORD

}

295

¥

29.5. Configuration Files 29. Services Running Under

inetd

includedir /etc/xinetd.d

§

The file dictates, respectively, that xinetd multaneous connections of each service to log ’s authpriv tion; and logs the channel; logs the

HOST (and also

HOST

RECORD and for each failed connection. In other words, interesting at all.

does the following: limits the number of si-

60 ; logs to the syslog facility, using sys-

P rocess ID for each successful connecinformation about the connection attempt)

/etc/xinetd.conf

really says nothing

¦

5

10

The last line says to look in /etc/xinetd.d/

Our FTP service would have the file

¨ for more (service-specific) files.

/etc/xinetd.d/wu-ftpd containing: service ftp

{ socket_type server server_args wait user log_on_success log_on_failure nice

= stream

= /usr/sbin/in.ftpd

= -l -a

= no

= root

+= DURATION USERID

+= USERID

= 10

}

§

¥

¦

This file is similar to our /etc/inetd.conf

line above, albeit more verbose. Respectively, this file dictates these actions: listen with a stream TCP socket; run the executable guments

/usr/sbin/in.ftpd

-l -a on a successful incoming connection; pass the aron the command-line to in.ftpd

(see ftpd (8)); never wait for in.ftpd

to exit before accepting the next incoming connection; run in.ftpd

root ; additionally log the DURATION and USERID as user of successful connections; additionally log the USERID of failed connections; and be in.ftpd

at a priority of 10.

nice to the CPU by running

29.5.1 Limiting access

5

The security options of only from xinetd allow much flexibility.

Most important is the option to limit the remote hosts allowed to use a service. The most extreme use is to add

¨ defaults only from 127.0.0.1

to the top-level config file:

{ only_from = 127.0.0.1 mymachine.local.domain

§

.

.

.

¥

¦

296

29. Services Running Under

inetd

29.6. Security which allows no remote machines to use any can add an only from xinetd line to any of the files in service at all. Alternatively, you

/etc/xinetd.d/ to restrict access on a per-service basis.

§ only from as well as domain names. For example,

¨ only_from = can also take IP address ranges of the form

127.0.0.1

192.168.128.0/17

nnn

.

nnn

.

nnn

.

.somewhere.friendly.com

nnn

/

bits

,

¥

¦ which in the last case allows access from all machines with host names ending in

.somewhere.friendly.com

.

Finally there is the no access option that works identically to only from , dictating hosts and IP ranges from which connections are

¨

not

allowed: no_access = .snake.oil.net

§

¥

¦

29.6 Security

It may be thought that using to

all

/etc/hosts.deny

( or only from = ) to deny access remote machines should be enough to secure a system. This is

not

true: even a local user being able to access a local service is a potential security hole, since the service usually has higher privileges than the user. It is best to remove all services that are not absolutely necessary. For Internet machines, do not hesitate to hash out every last service or even uninstall inetd ( or xinetd ) entirely.

See also Chapter 44.

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29.6. Security 29. Services Running Under

inetd

298

Chapter 30 exim and sendmail

This chapter effectively explains how to get L

INUX up and running as a mail server. I have also included discussion on the process of mail delivery right through to retrieval of mail using POP and IMAP.

30.1 Introduction

exim and sendmail are

MTA

s (

mail transfer agents

). An MTA is just a daemon process that listens on port 25 for incoming mail connections, spools

&

See page 197 about spooling in general.

that mail in a

queue

(for exim , the /var/spool/exim/input/ directory, for sendmail , the /var/spool/mqueue/ directory), then resends that mail to some other MTA or delivers it locally to some user’s mailbox. In other words, the MTA is the very package that handles all mail spooling, routing, and delivery. We saw in Section

10.2 how to manually connect to an MTA with telnet . In that example, sendmail version 8.9.3 was the MTA running on machine mail.cranzgot.co.za

.

sendmail is the original and popular U

NIX

MTA. It is probably necessary to learn how to configure it because so many organizations standardize on it. However, because exim is so easy to configure, it is worthwhile replacing you see it—there are at least three MTAs that are preferable to sendmail wherever sendmail . I explain the minimum of what you need to know about in detail.

sendmail later on and explain exim

30.1.1 How mail works

Before we get into MTA configuration, a background in mail delivery and indexii MX recordDNSMX record handling is necessary. The sequence of events whereby a mail

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30.1. Introduction 30.

exim

and

sendmail

message (sent by a typical interactive mail client) ends up on a distant user’s personal workstation is as follows:

1.

A user configures his mail client (Outlook Express, Netscape, etc.) to use a particular

SMTP host

(for

outgoing mail

, also called the

SMTP gateway

) and

POP host

(or

IMAP host

) for

incoming mail

.

2.

The user composes a message to, say, on “Send.” [email protected]

and then clicks

3.

The mail client initiates an outgoing TCP connection to port 25 of the SMTP host.

An MTA running on the SMTP host and listening on port 25 services the request. The mail client uses the SMTP protocol exactly as in Section 10.2. It fills in [email protected]

as the recipient address and transfers a properly composed header (hopefully) and message body to the MTA. The mail client then terminates the connection and reports any errors.

4.

The MTA queues the message as a spool file, periodically considering whether to process the message further according to a retry schedule.

5.

Should the retry schedule permit, the MTA considers the recipient address [email protected]

. It strips out the

domain part

of the email address— that is, everything after the

lookup

indexii MX

@ . It then performs a DNS recordDNS) for the domain

MX query

toonland.net

(or

MX

. DNS resolution for toonland.net

follows the procedure listed in Section 27.2.2. In short, this means (approximately) that it looks for the name server that is authoritative for the domain record of the domain toonland.net

toonland.net

mail.toonland.net

. It queries that name server for the MX

. The name server returns a host name, say, with corresponding IP address, say, 197.21.135.82

.

&

Section 27.7.1 shows you how you can manually lookup the MX record. Chapter 40 shows you how to set up your name server to return such an MX record.

-

6.

The MTA makes an SMTP connection to port 25 of

MTA running on mail.toonland.net

197.21.135.82

. Another services the request. A recipient address, message header, and message body are transferred using the SMTP protocol. The MTA then terminates the connection.

7.

The MTA running on mail.toonland.net

considers the recipient address [email protected]

. It recognizes toonland.net

as a domain for which it hosts mail (that is, a its own

local domain

/etc/passwd file.

). It recognizes rrabbit as a user name within

8.

The MTA running on mail.toonland.net

the user’s personal mailbox file, say, appends the message to

/var/spool/mail/rrabbit or

/home/rrabbit/Maildir/ .

the mailbox on

The delivery is now complete. How the email gets from mail.toonland.net

to Mr Rabbit’s personal workstation is

not

the responsibility of the MTA and does

not

happen through SMTP.

300

30.

exim

and

sendmail

30.2.

exim

Package Contents

9.

Mr Rabbit would have configured his mail client (running on his personal workstation) to use a POP/IMAP host mail.toonland.net

for incoming mail.

mail.toonland.net

tively.

runs a POP or IMAP service on port 110 or 143, respec-

10.

Mr Rabbit’s mail client makes a TCP connection to port 110 (or 143) and communicates using the POP or IMAP protocol. The POP or IMAP service is responsible for feeding the message to the mail client and deleting it from the mailbox file.

11.

Mr Rabbit’s mail client stores the message on his workstation using its own methods and displays the message as a “new” message.

30.1.2 Configuring a POP/IMAP server

POP and IMAP are invoked by inetd or xinetd —see Chapter 29. Except for limiting the range of clients that are allowed to connect (for security reasons), no configuration is required. Client connections authenticate themselves using the normal U

NIX login name and password. There are specialized POP and IMAP packages for supporting different mailbox types (like Maildir).

30.1.3 Why exim ?

The that exim exim

home page

http://www.exim.org/ gives you a full rundown. Here I will just say is the simplest MTA to configure. Moreover, its configuration file works the same way you imagine mail to work. It’s really easy to customize the exim configuration to do some really weird things. The whole package fits together cleanly, logically, and intuitively. This is in contrast to sendmail ’s sendmail.cf

is widely considered to be extremely cryptic and impractical.

exim file, which also seems to have been written with proper security considerations, although many people argue that postfix and qmail are the last word in secure mail.

30.2

exim Package Contents

You can get exim as a .rpm

or .deb

file.

After installation, the file

/usr/share/doc/eximplete exim

?

.

??

/doc/spec.txt

& or /usr/doc/

documentation; there is also an HTML version on the contains the comexim web page, whereas the man page contains only command-line information.

placement for sendmail , meaning that for every critical exim sendmail is a drop-in recommand, there is an exim command of the same name that takes the same options, so that needy scripts won’t know the difference. These are:

301

30.3.

exim

Configuration File 30.

exim

and

sendmail

5

¨

/etc/aliases

/usr/bin/mailq

/usr/bin/newaliases

/usr/bin/rmail

/usr/lib/sendmail

/usr/sbin/sendmail

§

Finally, there is the file exim

/etc/exim/config , binary itself,

/etc/exim.conf

/usr/sbin/exim

, or

, and configuration

/etc/exim/exim.conf

, depending on your L

INUX

/etc/init.d/exim .

distribution.

& or

Then there are the usual start/stop scripts,

/etc/rc.d/init.d/exim

-

¥

¦

30.3

exim Configuration File

As a preliminary example, here we create a simple spooling mail server for a personal workstation, cericon.cranzgot.co.za

.

Client applications (especially non-U

NIX ones) are usually configured to connect to an MTA running on a remote machine, however, using a remote SMTP host can be irritating if the host or network go down. Running enables all applications to use localhost exim on the local workstation as their SMTP gateway: that is, exim takes care of queuing and periodic retries.

5

10

Here is the configuration. The difference between this and a full-blown mail server is actually very slight.

¨

#################### MAIN CONFIGURATION SETTINGS ##################### log_subject errors_address = postmaster freeze_tell_mailmaster = yes queue_list_requires_admin = false prod_requires_admin = false trusted_users = psheer local_domains = localhost : ${primary_hostname} never_users = root

# relay_domains = my.equivalent.domains : more.equivalent.domains

host_accept_relay = localhost : *.cranzgot.co.za : 192.168.0.0/16 exim_user = mail exim_group = mail end

¥

15

20

###################### TRANSPORTS CONFIGURATION ###################### remote_smtp: driver = smtp hosts = 192.168.2.1

hosts_override local_delivery: driver = appendfile

302

30.

exim

and

sendmail

30.3.

exim

Configuration File

25

30 end file = /var/spool/mail/${local_part} delivery_date_add envelope_to_add return_path_add group = mail mode_fail_narrower = mode = 0660

35

###################### DIRECTORS CONFIGURATION ####################### localuser: driver = localuser transport = local_delivery end

40

45

###################### ROUTERS CONFIGURATION ######################### lookuphost: driver = lookuphost transport = remote_smtp literal: driver = ipliteral transport = remote_smtp end

50

###################### RETRY CONFIGURATION ###########################

* * F,2h,15m; G,16h,1h,1.5; F,4d,8h end

###################### REWRITE CONFIGURATION ######################### [email protected]

30.3.1 Global settings

The exim config file is divided into six logical sections separated by the end keyword.

The top or MAIN section contains global settings. The global settings have the following meanings:

log subject

Tells

LOVE YOU" exim to log the subject in the mail log file. For example, will be added to the log file.

T="I

errors address

The mail address where errors are to be sent. It doesn’t matter what you put here, because all mail will get rewritten to [email protected]

, as we see later.

freeze tell mailmaster

Tells errors address about

frozen

messages.

frozen

messages are messages that could not be delivered for some reason (like a permissions problem, or a failed message whose return address is invalid) and are flagged to sit idly in the mail queue, and not be processed any further. Note that

303

¦

30.3.

exim

Configuration File 30.

exim

and

sendmail

frozen messages sometimes mean that something is wrong with your system or mail configuration.

local domains

Each mail message received is processed in one of two ways: by either a local or remote delivery. A local delivery is one to a user on the local machine, and a remote delivery is one to somewhere else on the Internet.

local domains distinguishes between these two. For example, according to the config line above, a message destined to or [email protected]

[email protected] is local, whereas a message to [email protected]

is remote. Note that the list is colon delimited.

never users

Never become this user. Just for security.

exim user

Specifies the user that exim should run as.

exim group

Specifies the group that exim should run as.

It is important to understand the host accept relay relay domains options for security.

and

host accept relay

This option specifies machines that are allowed to use con.cranzgot.co.za

as a

relay

ceri-

. A relay is a host that sends mail on another machine’s behalf: that is, we are acting as a relay when we process a mail message that neither originated from our machine nor is destined for a user on our machine.

We

never

want to relay from an untrusted host. Why? Because it may, for example, allow someone to send 100,000 messages to 100,000 different addresses, each with

us

in the message header.

host accept relay specifies a list of trusted hosts that are allowed to send such arbitrary messages through us. Note again that the list is colon delimited.

In this example, we don’t even need to put in addresses of other machines on our

LAN, except if we are feeling friendly.

relay domains

relay domains gives an additional condition for which an arbitrary host is allowed to use us as a relay. Consider that we are a backup mail server for a particular domain; mail to the domain does not originate from us nor is destined for us yet must be allowed

only if the destination address matches the domains for which we are a backup

. We put such domains under relay domains .

30.3.2 Transports

The transport section comes immediately after the main configuration options. It defines various

methods

of delivering mail. We are going to refer to these methods later in

304

30.

exim

and

sendmail

30.3.

exim

Configuration File the configuration file. Our manual telnet ing to port 25 was

transport

ing a mail message by SMTP. Appending a mail message to the end of a mail folder is also a transport method. These are represented by the respectively.

remote smtp: and local delivery: labels,

remote smtp:

This transport has the following suboptions:

driver

The actual method of delivery.

transport, director, or router.

driver = always specifies the kind of

hosts override and hosts

Using these two options together overrides any list of hosts that may have been looked up by DNS MX queries. By “list of hosts” we mean machines established from the recipients email address to which we might like to make an SMTP delivery, but which we are not going to use. Instead we send all mail to internal mail server.

192.168.2.1

, which is this company’s

local delivery:

This transport has the following suboptions:

driver

The actual method of delivery.

transport, director, or router.

driver = always specifies the kind of

file

The file to append the mail message to.

everything before the @

${local part} character of the recipient’s address.

is replaced with

delivery date add , envelope to add , and

things to add to the header.

return path add

Various

group , mode fail narrower and mode

Various permission settings.

(It should be obvious at this stage what these two transports are going to be used for. As far as MTAs are concerned, the only two things that ever happen to an email message are that it either (a) gets sent through SMTP to another host or (b) gets appended to a file.)

30.3.3 Directors

If a message arrives and it is listed in delivery. This means exim local domains works through the list of

, exim

directors

will attempt a local until it finds one that does not fail. The only director listed here is the one labeled cal delivery localuser: with loas its transport. So quite simply, email messages having recipient addresses that are listed under not very complicated.

local domains are appended to a user’s mailbox file—

A director

directs

mail to a mailbox.

305

30.4. Full-blown Mail server 30.

exim

and

sendmail

30.3.4 Routers

If a message arrives and it is not listed in delivery. Similarly, this means exim local domains , works through the list of exim attempts a remote

routers

until it finds one that does not fail.

Two routers are listed here. The first is for common email addresses. It uses the lookuphost driver, which does a DNS MX query on the domain part of the email address (i.e., everything after the remote smtp

@ ). The MX records found are then passed to the transport (and in our case, then ignored). The lookuphost driver will fail if the domain part of the email address is a bracketed literal IP address.

The second router uses the ipliteral driver.

It sends mail directly to an IP address in the case of bracketed, literal email addresses.

For example, [email protected][111.1.1.1] .

A router

routes

mail to another host.

30.4 Full-blown Mail server

5

10

15

20

25

An actual mail server config file contains very little extra. This one is the example config file that comes by default with

¨ exim-3.16

:

#################### MAIN CONFIGURATION SETTINGS #####################

# primary_hostname =

# qualify_domain =

# qualify_recipient =

# local_domains = never_users = root

# host_accept_relay = localhost

# host_accept_relay = my.friends.host : 131.111.0.0/16

# relay_domains = my.equivalent.domains : more.equivalent.domains

host_lookup = 0.0.0.0/0

# receiver_unqualified_hosts =

# sender_unqualified_hosts = rbl_domains = rbl.maps.vix.com

no_rbl_reject_recipients sender_reject = "*@*.sex*.net:*@sex*.net" host_reject = "open-relay.spamming-site.com" rbl_warn_header

# rbl_domains = rbl.maps.vix.com:dul.maps.vix.com:relays.orbs.org

# percent_hack_domains = * end

###################### TRANSPORTS CONFIGURATION ###################### remote_smtp: driver = smtp

# procmail transport goes here <--local_delivery: driver = appendfile

¥

306

30.

exim

and

sendmail

30.4. Full-blown Mail server

30

35

40

45

50

55

60

65

70

75

80 file = /var/spool/mail/${local_part} delivery_date_add envelope_to_add return_path_add group = mail mode = 0660 address_pipe: driver = pipe return_output address_file: driver = appendfile delivery_date_add envelope_to_add return_path_add address_reply: driver = autoreply end

###################### DIRECTORS CONFIGURATION #######################

# routers because of a "self=local" setting (not used in this configuration).

system_aliases: driver = aliasfile file = /etc/aliases search_type = lsearch user = mail group = mail file_transport = address_file pipe_transport = address_pipe userforward: driver = forwardfile file = .forward

no_verify no_expn check_ancestor

# filter file_transport = address_file pipe_transport = address_pipe reply_transport = address_reply

# procmail director goes here <--localuser: driver = localuser transport = local_delivery end

###################### ROUTERS CONFIGURATION #########################

# widen_domains = "sales.mycompany.com:mycompany.com" lookuphost: driver = lookuphost transport = remote_smtp

# widen_domains = literal: driver = ipliteral transport = remote_smtp end

###################### RETRY CONFIGURATION ###########################

* * F,2h,15m; G,16h,1h,1.5; F,4d,8h end

307

30.5. Shell Commands for

exim

Administration 30.

exim

and

sendmail

¦

For procmail mailex (5)), simply add

¨ support (see procmail (1), procmailrc procmail: driver = pipe

§ command = "/usr/bin/procmail -Y -d ${local_part}"

(6), and after your remote smtp

¨ transport, and then also, procmail: driver = localuser transport = procmail

§ require_files = /usr/bin/procmail after your user forward director.

proc-

¥

¦

¥

¦

30.5 Shell Commands for exim Administration

As with other daemons, you can stop configuration file with:

¨

/etc/init.d/exim stop

/etc/init.d/exim start

/etc/init.d/exim reload

§ exim , start exim , and cause exim to reread its

¥

¦

You should always do a start reload up script actually just runs standalone daemon, listening for connections on port 25, and then execute a plained below) every 30 minutes.

to cause config file changes to take effect. The exim -bd -q30m , which tells exim to start as a runq (ex-

To cause exim

& and many other MTAs for that matter

pending messages and consider each one for deliver, run

¨ to loop through the queue of runq

§

¥

¦ which is the same as exim -q .

¨ mailq

§

To list mail that is queued for delivery, use which is the same as exim -bp .

To forcibly attempt delivery on any mail in the queue, use

¥

¦

308

30.

exim

and

sendmail

30.6. The Queue

¨ exim -qf

§ and then to forcibly retry even frozen messages in the queue, use

¨ exim -qff

§

To delete a message from the queue, use

¨ exim -Mrm <message-id>

§

The man page exim (8) contains exhaustive treatment of command-line options.

Those above are most of what you will use, however.

¥

¦

¥

¦

¥

¦

30.6 The Queue

5

It is often useful to check the queue directory /var/spool/exim/input/ messages, just to get an inside look at what’s going on. The simple session—

¨

[[email protected]]#

0m

mailq

320 14Epss-0008DY-00 <[email protected]> [email protected]

for mail

¥

0m 304 14Ept8-0008Dg-00 <[email protected]> [email protected]

10

[[email protected]]# total 16

-rw-------

ls -l /var/spool/exim/input/

1 root root 25 Jan

-rw-------

-rw-------

1 root

1 root

1 root root root root

550 Jan

25 Jan

530 Jan

6 11:43 14Epss-0008DY-00-D

6 11:43 14Epss-0008DY-00-H

6 11:43 14Ept8-0008Dg-00-D

6 11:43 14Ept8-0008Dg-00-H

—clearly shows that two messages are queued for delivery. The files ending in

envelope headers

, and those ending in -D are message bodies. The spec.txt

-H are document will show you how to interpret the contents of the header files.

¦

Don’t be afraid to manually rm files from this directory, but always delete them in pairs (i.e., remove the both the header

and

the body file), and make sure exim is not running at the time. In the above example, the commands,

¨

[[email protected]]#

exim -Mrm 14Epss-0008DY-00 14Ept8-0008Dg-00

Message 14Epss-0008DY-00 has been removed

Message 14Ept8-0008Dg-00 has been removed

[[email protected]]#

mailq

¥

309

30.7.

/etc/aliases

for Equivalent Addresses 30.

exim

and

sendmail

5 work even better.

¦

30.7

/etc/aliases for Equivalent Addresses

Often, we would like certain local addresses to

actually

instance, we would like all mail destined to user deliver to other addresses. For

MAILER-DAEMON to actually go to user postmaster ; or perhaps some user has two accounts but would like to read mail from only one of them.

The /etc/aliases file performs this mapping. This file has become somewhat of an institution; however you can see that in the case of exim , aliasing is completely arbitrary: you can specify a lookup on provided that file is colon delimited.

any

file under the system aliases: director

A default /etc/aliases should check that the file could contain as much as the following; you postmaster account does exist on your system, and test whether you can read, send, and receive mail as user

¨ postmaster

# This is a combination of what I found in the Debian

# and RedHat distributions.

.

¥

5

10

15

20

25

30

MAILER-DAEMON: abuse: anonymous: backup: backup-reports: bin: daemon: decode: dns: dns-admin: dumper: fetchmail-daemon: games: gnats: ingres: info: irc: list: listmaster: lp: mail: mailer-daemon: majordom: man: manager: msql: news: postmaster postmaster postmaster postmaster postmaster postmaster postmaster postmaster postmaster postmaster postmaster postmaster postmaster postmaster postmaster postmaster postmaster postmaster postmaster postmaster postmaster postmaster postmaster postmaster postmaster postmaster postmaster

310

30.

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and

sendmail

30.8. Real-Time Blocking List — Combating Spam

35

40

45 nobody: operator: postgres: proxy: root: sync: support: sys: system: toor: uucp: warnings: web-master: www-data: postmaster postmaster postmaster postmaster postmaster postmaster postmaster postmaster postmaster postmaster postmaster postmaster postmaster postmaster

# some users who want their mail redirected arny: [email protected]

[email protected]

You can remove a lot of these aliases, since they assume services to be running that might not be installed— games , ingres , for example. Aliases can do two things: firstly, anticipate what mail people are likely to use if they need to contact the administrator; and secondly, catch any mail sent by system daemons: for example the, email address of the DNS administrator is dictated by the DNS config files, as explained on page 445.

Note that an alias in the on the system— larry and

/etc/aliases arny file does not have to have an account need not have entries in the /etc/passwd file.

¦

30.8 Real-Time Blocking List — Combating Spam

30.8.1 What is

spam

?

Spam

refers to unsolicited

&

Not looked for or requested; unsought

bulk mail sent to users usually for promotional purposes. That is, mail is sent automatically to many people with whom the sender has no relationship, and where the recipient did nothing to prompt the mail: all on the

chance

that the recipient might be interested in the subject matter.

Alternatively, spam can be thought of as any mail sent to email addresses, where those addresses were obtained without their owners consent. More practically, anyone who has had an email account for very long will have gotten messages like Subject:

Fast way to earn big $$$!

, which clutters my mailbox. The longer you have an email address, the more of these messages you will get, and the more irritated you will get.

311

30.8. Real-Time Blocking List — Combating Spam 30.

exim

and

sendmail

To send spam is easy. Work your way around the Internet till you find a mail server that allows relaying. Then send it 10,000 email addresses and a message about where to get pictures of naked underage girls. Now you are a genuine worthy-ofbeing-arrested spammer. Unfortunately for the unsuspecting administrator of that machine and provided you have even a little clue what you’re doing, he will probably never be able to track you down. Several other tricks are employed to get the most out of your $100-for-1,000,000-genuine-email-addresses.

Note that spam is not merely email you are not interested in. People often confuse mail with other types of communication. . . like telephone calls: if you get a telephone call, you

have

to pick up the phone then and there—the call is an an invasion of your privacy. The beauty of email is that you never need to have your privacy invaded.

You can simply delete the mail. If you never want to get email from a particular person again, you can simply add a filter that blocks mail from that person’s address (see procmailex (5)).

&

If you are irritated by the presumption of the sender, then that’s

your

problem.

Replying to that person with “Please don’t email me...” not only shows that you are insecure, but also that you are clueless, don’t get much mail, and are therefore also unpopular.

-

The point at which email becomes intrusive is purely a question of volume, much like airwave advertisements.

Because it comes from a different place each time, you cannot protect yourself against it with a simple mail filter.

Typical spam mail will begin with a spammer subject like

From Home Now!!

Create Wealth and then the spammer will audaciously append the footer:

This is not a SPAM. You are receiving this because you are on a list of email addresses that I have bought. And you have opted to receive information about business opportunities. If you did not opt in to receive information on business opportunities then please accept our apology. To be REMOVED from this list simply reply with REMOVE as the subject. And you will NEVER receive another email from me.

Need I say that you should be wary of replying with the sender that your email is a valid address.

REMOVE , since it clearly tells

30.8.2 Basic spam prevention

You can start by at least adding the following lines to your MAIN configuration section:

¨ headers_check_syntax headers_sender_verify sender_verify receiver_verify

§

¥

¦

The option headers check syntax causes exim to check all headers of incoming mail messages for correct syntax, failing them otherwise. The next three options check

312

30.

exim

and

sendmail

30.8. Real-Time Blocking List — Combating Spam that one of the Sender: , Reply-To: in the SMTP MAIL and RCPT or From: headers, as well as both the addresses commands, are genuine email addresses.

The reasoning here is that spammers will often use malformed headers to trick the

MTA into sending things it ordinarily wouldn’t, I am not sure exactly how this applies in exim ’s case, but these are for the good measure of rejecting email messages at the point where the SMTP exchange is being initiated.

30.8.3 Real-time blocking list

5

10

To find out a lot more about spamming, banning hosts, reporting spam and email usage in general, see

MAPS (Mail Abuse Prevention System LLC)

http://www.mail-abuse.org/

, as well as

Open Relay Behavior-modification System

working, there is also http://www.orbl.org/ and http://www.orbs.org/ http://www.ordb.org/

.

-

.

&

If this site is not

Real-time Blocking Lists

or

RBL’s are a not-so-new idea that has been incorporated into exim as a feature. It works as follows. The spammer has to use a host that allows relays. The IP of that relay host will be clear to the MTA at the time of connection. The MTA can then check that against a database of publicly available

banned IP addresses

of relay hosts. For exim , this means the list under rbl domains . If the rbl domains friendly has this IP blacklisted, then exim denies it also. You can enable this capability with front web page.

-

¨

&

This example comes from exim ’s

# reject messages whose sending host is in MAPS/RBL

# add warning to messages whose sending host is in ORBS rbl_domains = blackholes.mail-abuse.org/reject : \ dialups.mail-abuse.org/reject : \ relays.mail-abuse.org/reject : \ relays.orbs.org/warn

# check all hosts other than those on internal network rbl_hosts = !192.168.0.0/16:0.0.0.0/0

# but allow mail to [email protected] even from rejected host recipients_reject_except = [email protected]

# change some logging actions (collect more data) rbl_log_headers rbl_log_rcpt_count

§

# log headers of accepted RBLed messages

# log recipient info of accepted RBLed messages

¥

¦ in your MAIN configuration section.

no rbl reject recipients ; otherwise, not actually refuse email.

Also remember to remove the line exim will only log a warning message and

30.8.4 Mail administrator and user responsibilities

Mail administrator and email users are expected to be aware of the following:

313

30.9. Sendmail 30.

exim

and

sendmail

Spam is evil.

Spam is caused by poorly configured mail servers.

It is the responsibility of the mail administrator to ensure that proper measures have been taken to prevent spam.

Even as a user, you should follow up spam by checking where it came from and complaining to those administrators.

Many mail administrators are not aware there is an issue. Remind them.

30.9 Sendmail

sendmail ’s configuration file is ited from the first U

NIX

/etc/sendmail.cf

. This file format was inherservers and references simpler files under the directory

/etc/mail/ . You can do most ordinary things by editing one or another file under

/etc/mail/ without having to deal with the complexities of /etc/sendmail.cf

.

5

Like most stock MTAs shipped with L

INUX distributions, the sendmail package will work by default as a mailer without any configuration. However, as always, you will have to add a list of relay hosts. This is done in the file for sendmail-8.10

/etc/mail/access and above. To relay from yourself and, say, the hosts on network

192.168.0.0/16 , as well as, say, the domain

hosts

.trusted.com

, you must have at least:

¨ localhost.localdomain

RELAY localhost

127.0.0.1

192.168

trusted.com

§

RELAY

RELAY

RELAY

RELAY

¥

¦ which is exactly what the host accept relay option does in the case of exim .

The domains for which you are acting as a backup mail server must be listed in the file /etc/mail/relay-domains , each on a single line. This is analogous to the relay domains option of exim .

Then, of course, the domains for which also be specified. This is analogous to the sendmail is going to receive mail must local domains option of exim . These are listed in the file /etc/mail/local-host-names , each on a single line.

The same /etc/aliases file is used by exim and sendmail .

Having configured anything under /etc/mail/ , you should now run make in this directory to rebuild lookup tables for these files. You also have to run the command

314

30.

exim

and

sendmail

30.9. Sendmail newaliases restart whenever you modify the sendmail .

/etc/aliases file. In both cases, you must sendmail has received a large number of security alerts in its time. It is imperative that you install the latest version. Note that older versions of sendmail have configurations that allowed relaying by default—another reason to upgrade.

FAQ

A useful resource to for finding out more tricks with http://www.sendmail.org/faq/

.

sendmail is

The Sendmail

315

30.9. Sendmail 30.

exim

and

sendmail

316

Chapter 31 lilo , initrd , and Booting

lilo stands for li

nux

lo

ader

.

LILO: is the prompt you first see after boot up, from which you can usually choose the OS you would like to boot and give certain boot options to the kernel. This chapter explains how to configure options, and to get otherwise non-booting systems to boot.

lilo and kernel boot

The lilo

¨

/boot/boot.b

package itself contains the files

/boot/message

/boot/chain.b

/boot/os2_d.b

/usr/share/doc/lilo-<version>

§

/sbin/lilo

/usr/bin/keytab-lilo which is not that interesting, except to know that the technical and user documentation is there if hard-core details are needed.

¥

¦

31.1 Usage

When you first start your L

INUX system, the boot options, is displayed. Pressing

LILO: prompt, at which you can enter displays a list of things to type. The purpose is to allow the booting of different L

INUX installations on the same machine, or different operating systems stored in different partitions on the same disk. Later, you can actually view the file boot options) were used.

/proc/cmdline to see what boot options (including default

317

31.2. Theory 31.

lilo

,

initrd

, and Booting

31.2 Theory

31.2.1 Kernel boot sequence

A U

NIX kernel, to be booted, must be loaded into memory from disk and be executed.

The execution of the kernel causes it to uncompress itself and then run.

&

The word

boot

itself comes from the concept that a computer cannot begin executing without program code, and program code cannot get into memory without other program code—like trying to lift yourself up by your bootstraps, and hence the name.

The first thing the kernel does after it runs is initialize various hardware devices. It then mounts the root file system on a specified partition. Once the root file system is mounted, the kernel executes /sbin/init to begin the U

NIX operating system. This is how all U

NIX systems begin life.

31.2.2 Master boot record

PCs begin life with a small program in the ROM BIOS that loads the very first sector of the disk into memory, called the

boot sector

of the

master boot record

or

MBR

. This piece of code is up to 512 bytes long and is expected to start the operating system. In the case of L

INUX

, the boot sector loads the file /boot/map , which contains a list of the precise location of the disk sectors that the L

INUX

kernel image

(usually the file

/boot/vmlinuz ) spans. It loads each of these sectors, thus reconstructing the kernel image in memory. Then it jumps to the kernel to execute it.

You may ask how it is possible to load a file from a file system when the file system is not mounted. Further, the boot partition is a small and simple program and certainly does not support the many types of file systems and devices that the kernel image may reside in. Actually, lilo doesn’t have to support a file system to access a file, as long as it has a list of the sectors that the file spans and is prepared to use the BIOS

interrupts

&

Nothing to do with “interrupting” or hardware interrupts, but refers to BIOS functions that are available for use by the operating system. Hardware devices may insert custom BIOS functions to provided rudimentary support needed for themselves at startup. This support is distinct from that provided by the hardware device drivers of the booted kernel.

to read those sectors. If the file is never modified, that sector list will never change; this is how the

/boot/vmlinuz files are loaded.

/boot/map and

31.2.3 Booting partitions

In addition to the MBR, each primary partition has a boot sector that can boot the operating system in that partition. MS-DOS (Windows) partitions have this, and hence lilo can optionally load and execute these installation in another partition.

partition boot sectors

to start a Windows

318

31.

lilo

,

initrd

, and Booting 31.3.

lilo.conf

and the

lilo

Command

31.2.4 Limitations

BIOSs have inherited several limitations because of lack of foresight of their designers.

First, some BIOSs do not support more than one IDE.

documentation.

-

&

At least according to the lilo

I myself have not come across this as a problem.

The second limitation is most important to note. As explained, functions to access the IDE drive, lilo uses BIOS

but the BIOS of a PC is often limited to accessing the first 1024 cylinders of the disk

. Hence, whatever LILO reads

must

reside within the first

1024 cylinders (the first 500 megabytes of disk space). Here is the list of things whose sectors are required to be within this space:

1.

/boot/vmlinuz

2.

Various lilo files /boot/*.b

3.

Any non-L

INUX partition boot sector you would like to boot

However a L

INUX root partition can reside anywhere because the boot sector program never reads this partition except for the abovementioned files. A scenario where the /boot/ directory is a small partition below the 500 megabyte boundary and the partition is above the 500 megabyte boundary, is quite common. See page 155.

/

Note that newer “LBA” BIOS’s support more than the first 512 megabytes—even up to 8 Gigabytes. I personally do not count on this.

31.3

lilo.conf

and the lilo Command

5

10

To “do a lilo ” means running the

/etc/lilo.conf

file. The lilo.conf

lilo command as root , with a correct file will doubtless have been set up by your distribution (check yours). A typical lilo.conf

file that allows booting of a Windows partition and two L

INUX

¨ partitions is as follows: boot=/dev/hda prompt timeout = 50 compact vga = extended lock password = jAN]")Wo restricted append = "ether=9,0x300,0xd0000,0xd4000,eth0 hisax=1,3,5,0xd8000,0xd80,HiSax" image = /boot/vmlinuz-2.2.17

label = linux root = /dev/hda5 read-only

¥

319

31.3.

lilo.conf

and the

lilo

Command 31.

lilo

,

initrd

, and Booting

15

20 image = /boot/vmlinuz-2.0.38

label = linux-old root = /dev/hda6 read-only other = /dev/hda2 label = win

§ table = /dev/hda

¦

Running lilo will install into the MBR a boot loader that understands where to get the /boot/map file, which in turn understands where to get the /boot/vmlinuz-

2.2.12-20 file. It gives output like:

¨

[[email protected]]#

lilo

Added linux *

Added linux-old

Added win

§

¥

¦

It also backs up your existing MBR, if this has not previously been done, into a file

/boot/boot.0300

(where 0300 refers to the device’s major and minor number).

Let’s go through the options:

boot

Device to boot. It will most always be /dev/hda or /dev/sda .

prompt

Display a prompt where the user can enter the OS to boot.

timeout

How many tenths of a seconds to display the prompt (after which the first image is booted).

compact

String together adjacent sector reads. This makes the kernel load

much

faster.

vga

We would like 80 search /etc/rc.d

50 text mode. Your startup scripts may reset this to 80 recursively for any file containing “ textmode ”.

25—

lock

Always default to boot the last OS booted used.

-

.

&

A very useful feature which is seldom

password

Require a password to boot.

restricted

the

Require a password only if someone attempts to enter special options at

LILO: prompt.

append

A

kernel boot option

. Kernel boot options are central to lilo and kernel modules and are discussed in Chapter 42.5. They are mostly not needed in simple installations.

image

A L

INUX kernel to boot.

label

The text to type at the boot prompt to cause this kernel/partition to boot.

320

31.

lilo

,

initrd

, and Booting 31.4. Creating Boot Floppy Disks

root

The root file system that the kernel must mount.

read-only

only.

Flag to specify that the root file system must initially be mounted read-

other

Some other operating system to boot: in this case, a Windows partition.

table

Partition table info to be passed to the partition boot sector.

Further allowed.

other = partitions can follow, and many image = kernel images are

The preceding lilo.conf

file assumed a partition scheme as follows:

/dev/hda1

10-megabyte ext2 partition to be mounted on /boot .

/dev/hda2

Windows 98 partition over 500 megabytes in size.

/dev/hda3

Extended partition.

/dev/hda4

Unused primary partition.

/dev/hda5

ext2 root file system.

/dev/hda6

Second ext2 root file system containing an older distribution.

/dev/hda

?

L

INUX swap, /home , and other partitions.

31.4 Creating Boot Floppy Disks

If LILO is broken or absent, we require an alternative boot method. A floppy disk capable of booting our system must contain a kernel image, the means to load the image into memory, and the means to mount /dev/hda5 as the root file system. To system, and create such a floppy, insert a

new

floppy disk into a running L

INUX overwrite it with the following commands:

¨ dd if=/boot/vmlinuz-2.2.17 of=/dev/fd0 rdev /dev/fd0 /dev/hda5

§

¥

¦

Then simply boot the floppy. This procedure requires a second L

INUX installation at least. If you only have an MS-DOS or Windows system at your disposal then you will have to download the RAWRITE.EXE

utility as well as a raw boot disk image.

Many of these are available and will enable you to create a boot floppy from a DOS prompt. I will not go into detail about this here.

321

31.5. SCSI Installation Complications and

initrd

31.

lilo

,

initrd

, and Booting

31.5 SCSI Installation Complications and initrd

Some of the following descriptions may be difficult to understand without knowledge of kernel modules explained in Chapter 42. You may want to come back to it later.

Consider a system with zero IDE disks and one SCSI disk containing a L

INUX installation. There are BIOS interrupts to read the SCSI disk, just as there were for the

IDE, so LILO can happily access a kernel image somewhere inside the SCSI partition.

However, the kernel is going to be lost without a

kernel module

&

See Chapter 42. The kernel doesn’t support every possible kind of hardware out there all by itself. It is actually divided into a main part (the kernel image discussed in this chapter) and hundreds of modules (loadable parts that reside in

/lib/modules/ ) that support the many type of SCSI, network, sound etc., peripheral devices.

that understands the particular SCSI driver. So although the kernel can load and execute, it won’t be able to mount its root file system without loading a SCSI module first.

But the module itself resides in the root file system in /lib/modules/ . This is a tricky situation to solve and is done in one of two ways: either (a) using a kernel with preenabled SCSI support or (b) using what is known as an

system image

.

initrd preliminary root file

The first method is what I recommend. It’s a straightforward (though timeconsuming) procedure to create a kernel with SCSI support for your SCSI card built-in

(and not in a separate module). Built-in SCSI and network drivers will also autodetect cards most of the time, allowing immediate access to the dev ice—they will work without being given any options

&

Discussed in Chapter 42.

and, most importantly, without your having to read up on how to configure them. This setup is known as

compiled-in

support for a hardware driver (as opposed to

module

support for the driver). The resulting kernel image will be larger by an amount equal to the size of module. Chapter

42 discusses such kernel compiles.

The second method is faster but trickier. L

INUX kernel mounts this file system as a RAM disk, executes the file only mounts the real file system.

supports what is known as an initrd image ( init ial r AM d isk image). This is a small, 1.5 megabyte file system that is loaded by LILO and mounted by the kernel instead of the real file system. The

/linuxrc , and then

31.6 Creating an initrd Image

Start by creating a small file system. Make a directory ing files into it.

¨ drwxr-xr-x drwxr-xr-x

-rwxr-xr-x

-rwxr-xr-x

7 root

2 root

1 root

1 root root root root root

˜/initrd and copy the follow-

1024 Sep 14 20:12 initrd/

1024 Sep 14 20:12 initrd/bin/

436328 Sep 14 20:12 initrd/bin/insmod

424680 Sep 14 20:12 initrd/bin/sash

¥

322

31.

lilo

,

initrd

, and Booting 31.6. Creating an

initrd

Image

5

10

15 drwxr-xr-x crw-r--r-crw-r--r-brw-r--r-crw-r--r-crw-r--r-crw-r--r-crw-r--r-crw-r--r-drwxr-xr-x drwxr-xr-x

-rwxr-xr-x

2 root

1 root

1 root

1 root

1 root

1 root

1 root

1 root

1 root

2 root

2 root

1 root

2 root root root root root root root root root root root root root root

5,

1,

1,

4,

4,

1024 Sep 14 20:12 initrd/dev/

1 Sep 14 20:12 initrd/dev/console

3 Sep 14 20:12 initrd/dev/null

1 Sep 14 20:12 initrd/dev/ram

0 Sep 14 20:12 initrd/dev/systty

1 Sep 14 20:12 initrd/dev/tty1

4,

4,

4,

1 Sep 14 20:12 initrd/dev/tty2

1 Sep 14 20:12 initrd/dev/tty3

1 Sep 14 20:12 initrd/dev/tty4

1024 Sep 14 20:12 initrd/etc/

1024 Sep 14 20:12 initrd/lib/

76 Sep 14 20:12 initrd/linuxrc

1024 Sep 14 20:12 initrd/loopfs/

¦

On my system, the file does not require shared libraries.

initrd/bin/insmod version copied from is the

statically linked

& meaning it

/sbin/insmod.static

—a member of the modutils-2.3.13

package.

initrd/bin/sash is a statically linked shell from the sash-3.4

package. You can recompile insmod from source if you don’t have a statically linked version. Alternatively, copy the needed DLLs from trd/lib/ . (You can get the list of required DLLs by running

/lib/ to inildd /sbin/insmod .

Don’t forget to also copy symlinks and run

DLLs.) strip -s <lib> to reduce the size of the

Now copy into the initrd/lib/ directory the SCSI modules you require.

For example, if we have an Adaptec AIC-7850 SCSI adapter, we would require the aic7xxx.o

place it in the

¨ module from /lib/modules/<version>/scsi/aic7xxx.o

. Then, initrd/lib/ directory.

1 root root 129448 Sep 27 1999 initrd/lib/aic7xxx.o

¥

¦

The file initrd/linuxrc should contain a script to load all the modules needed for the kernel to access the SCSI partition. In this case, just the aic7xxx module

& insmod can take options such as the IRQ and IO-port for the device. See Chapter 42.

:

¨

#!/bin/sash

¥ aliasall

5 echo "Loading aic7xxx module" insmod /lib/aic7xxx.o

§ ¦

Now double-check all your permissions and then testing.

¨ chroot ˜/initrd /bin/sash chroot to the file system for

¥

323

31.7. Modifying

lilo.conf

for

initrd

31.

lilo

,

initrd

, and Booting

5

/linuxrc

§

Now, create a file system image similar to that in Section 19.9:

¨ dd if=/dev/zero of=˜/file-inird count=2500 bs=1024 losetup /dev/loop0 ˜/file-inird mke2fs /dev/loop0 mkdir ˜/mnt mount /dev/loop0 ˜/mnt cp -a initrd/* ˜/mnt/ umount ˜/mnt

Finally,

¨ gzip the file system to an appropriately named file: gzip -c ˜/file-inird > initrd-<kernel-version>

§

31.7 Modifying lilo.conf

for initrd

5

10

Your

Simply add the

¨ lilo.conf

file can be changed slightly to force use of an initrd option. For example: boot=/dev/sda prompt timeout = 50 compact vga = extended linear image = /boot/vmlinuz-2.2.17

initrd = /boot/initrd-2.2.17

label = linux root = /dev/sda1 read-only

§ initrd file system.

Notice the use of the in lilo linear option. This is a BIOS trick that you can read about

(5). It is often necessary but can make SCSI disks nonportable to different

BIOSs (meaning that you will have to rerun computer).

lilo if you move the disk to a different

¥

¦

31.8 Using mkinitrd

Now that you have learned the manual method of creating an can read the mkinitrd initrd image, you man page. It creates an image in a single command. This is command is peculiar to RedHat.

324

¦

¥

¦

¦

¥

Chapter 32 init ,

Levels

?

getty , and U

NIX

Run

This chapter explains how L

INUX

(and a U

NIX system in general) initializes itself.

It follows on from the kernel boot explained in Section 31.2. We also go into some advanced uses for mgetty , like receiving of faxes.

32.1

init — the First Process

After the kernel has been unpacked into memory, it begins to execute, initializing hardware. The last thing it does is mount the root file system, which necessarily contains a program /sbin/init , which the kernel executes.

init the kernel ever executes explicitly; the onus is then on is one of the only programs init to bring the U

NIX system up.

init always has the process ID 1 .

For the purposes of init , the (rather arbitrary) concept of a U

NIX

run level

was invented. The run level is the current operation of the machine, numbered run level 0 through run level 9 . When the U

NIX system is

at

a particular run level, it means that a certain selection of services is running. In this way, the machine could be a mail server or an Window workstation depending on what run level it is in.

The traditionally defined run levels are:

2

3

0

1

4

Halt.

Single-user mode.

Multiuser, without network file system (NFS).

Full multiuser mode.

Unused.

325

32.2.

/etc/inittab

32.

init

, ?

getty

, and U

NIX

Run Levels

7

8

5

6

9

Window System Workstation (usually identical to run level

Reboot.

Undefined.

Undefined.

Undefined.

3 ).

The idea here is that init begins at a particular run level that can then be manually changed to any other by the superuser.

init uses a list of scripts for each run level to start or stop each of the many services pertaining to that run level. These scripts are /etc/rc

?

/etc/rc.d/rc

?

.d/ . . . .

-

.d/K

NNservice

, where

NN

, K or

, or

/etc/rc

S

?

.d/S

NNservice

&

On some systems is a prefix to force the order of execution

(since the files are executed in alphabetical order).

These scripts all take the options start and stop on the command-line, to begin or terminate the service.

For example, when the particular scripts from init enters, say, run level

/etc/rc3.d/ and

5 from run level

/etc/rc5.d/

3 , it executes to bring up or down the appropriate services. This may involve, say, executing

¨

/etc/rc3.d/S20exim stop

§

¥

¦ and similar commands.

32.2

/etc/inittab

init has one config file: /etc/inittab which is scanned once on bootup.

32.2.1 Minimal configuration

A minimal

¨ inittab id:3:initdefault: file might consist of the following.

si::sysinit:/etc/rc.d/rc.sysinit

5

10 l0:0:wait:/etc/rc.d/rc 0 l1:1:wait:/etc/rc.d/rc 1 l2:2:wait:/etc/rc.d/rc 2 l3:3:wait:/etc/rc.d/rc 3 l4:4:wait:/etc/rc.d/rc 4 l5:5:wait:/etc/rc.d/rc 5 l6:6:wait:/etc/rc.d/rc 6

326

¥

32.

init

, ?

getty

, and U

NIX

Run Levels 32.2.

/etc/inittab

ud::once:/sbin/update

15

1:2345:respawn:/sbin/getty 38400 tty1

2:2345:respawn:/sbin/getty 38400 tty2

3:2345:respawn:/sbin/getty 38400 tty3

4:2345:respawn:/sbin/getty 38400 tty4

20

S0:2345:respawn:/sbin/mgetty -n 3 -s 115200 ttyS0 57600

S4:2345:respawn:/sbin/mgetty -r -s 19200 ttyS4 DT19200 x:5:respawn:/usr/bin/X11/xdm -nodaemon

§

The lines are colon-separated fields and have the following meaning (lots more can be gotten from inittab (5)):

id:3:initdefault:

This dictates that the default run level is that the system will boot up into. This field usually has a 3

3 . It is the run level or a 5 , which are most often the only two run levels that the system ever sits in.

si::sysinit:/etc/rc.d/rc.sysinit

tialize the system. If you view the file

This says to run a script on bootup to ini-

/etc/rc.d/rc.sysinit

, you will see a fairly long script that does the following: mounts the proc file system; initializes the keyboard maps, console font, NIS domain, host name, and swap partition; runs isapnp and depmod -a ; cleans the

script is only run once on bootup

. On Debian utmp file; as well as other things.

This

this is a script, /etc/init.d/rcS , that runs everything under /etc/rcS.d/ .

clean, elegant and extensible solution.

-

&

As usual, Debian gravitated to the most

l3:3:wait:/etc/rc.d/rc 3

The first field is a descriptive tag and could be anything. The second is a list of run levels under which the particular script (last field) is to be invoked: in this case, run level 3 . The wait

/etc/rc.d/rc 3 means to pause until is to be run when entering

/etc/rc.d/rc has finished execution. If you view the file under /etc/rc

?

.d/

/etc/rc.d/rc , you will see it merely executes scripts as appropriate for a run level change.

ud::once:/sbin/update

This flushes the disk cache on each run level change.

1:2345:respawn:/sbin/getty 38400 tty1

/sbin/getty 38400 tty1

This says to run the command when in run level 2 through 5 .

respawn means to restart the process if it dies.

x:5:respawn:/usr/bin/X11/xdm -nodaemon

/usr/bin/X11/xdm -nodaemon

This says to run the command when in run level 5 . This is the Window

System graphical login program.

327

¦

32.3. Useful Run Levels 32.

init

, ?

getty

, and U

NIX

Run Levels

32.2.2 Rereading inittab

If you modify the inittab file, init

SIGHUP . This is the same as typing

¨ telinit q

§ will probably not notice until you issue it a

¥

¦ which causes init to reread /etc/inittab .

32.2.3 The respawning too fast error

You get a respawning too fast error when an inittab line makes no sense

&

These errors are common and very irritating when you are doing console work, hence an explicit section on it.

: like a getty running on a non-functioning serial port. Simply comment out or delete the appropriate line and then run

¨ telinit q

§

¥

¦

32.3 Useful Run Levels

Switching run levels manually is something that is rarely done. The most common way of shutting down the machine is to use:

¨ shutdown -h now

§

¥

¦ which effectively goes to run level 0 , and

¨ shutdown -r now

§ which effectively goes to run level 6 .

¥

¦

You can also specify the run level at the

¨ linux 1

§ or

¨ linux single

§

LILO: prompt. Type to enter single-user mode when booting your machine. You change to single-user mode on a running system with:

¥

¦

¥

¦

328

32.

init

, ?

getty

, and U

NIX

Run Levels

¨ telinit S

§

You can forcefully enter any run level with

¨ telinit <N>

§

32.4.

getty

Invocation

32.4

getty Invocation

The getty man page begins with:

getty

opens a tty port, prompts for a login name and invokes the /bin/login command. It is normally invoked by

init(8)

.

Note that of getty .

getty , agetty , fgetty and mingetty are just different implementations

The most noticeable effect of init running at all is that it spawns a login to each of the L

INUX virtual consoles. It is the as specified in the inittab getty (or sometimes mingetty ) command line above that displays this login. Once the login name is entered, getty password.

invokes the /bin/login program, which then prompts the user for a

The login program (discussed in Section 11.7) then executes a shell. When the shell dies (as a result of the user exit ing the session) getty is just respawn ed.

32.5 Bootup Summary

Together with Chapter 31 you should now have a complete picture of the entire bootup process:

7.

8.

5.

6.

3.

4.

1.

2.

First sector loaded into RAM and executed— LILO: prompt appears.

Kernel loaded from sector list.

Kernel executed; unpacks.

Kernel initializes hardware.

Kernel mounts root file system, say /dev/hda1 .

Kernel executes /sbin/init as PID 1 .

init executes all scripts for default run level.

init spawns getty programs on each terminal.

329

¥

¦

¥

¦

32.6. Incoming Faxes and Modem Logins 32.

init

, ?

getty

, and U

NIX

Run Levels

9.

10.

11.

getty prompts for login.

getty login executes /bin/login to authentic user.

starts shell.

32.6 Incoming Faxes and Modem Logins

32.6.1

mgetty with character terminals

The original purpose of getty was to manage character terminals on mainframe computers.

mgetty is a more comprehensive getty that deals with proper serial devices.

A typical

¨ inittab entry is

S4:2345:respawn:/sbin/mgetty -r -s 19200 ttyS4 DT19200

§

¥

¦ which would open a login on a terminal connected to a serial line on

See page 479 for information on configuring multiport serial cards.

/dev/ttyS4 .

(The L

INUX devices /dev/tty1 through ulate classic terminals in this way.)

/dev/tty12 as used by getty em-

32.6.2

mgetty log files

mgetty will log to /var/log/mgetty.log.ttyS

?

. This log file contains everything you need for troubleshooting. It is worthwhile running tail -f on these files while watching a login take place.

32.6.3

mgetty with modems

Running

L

INUX

¨ mgetty (see mgetty machine. Your

(8)) is a common and trivial way to get a dial login to a inittab entry is just

S0:2345:respawn:/sbin/mgetty -n 3 -s 115200 ttyS0 57600

§

¥

¦ where -n 3 says to answer the phone after the 3 rd ring. Nothing more is needed than to plug your modem into a telephone. You can then use dip -t , as done in Section

41.1.1, to dial this machine from another L

INUX machine. Here is an example session:

&

This example assumes that an initialization string of AT&F1 is sufficient. See Section 3.5.

-

¨

[[email protected]]#

dip -t

DIP: Dialup IP Protocol Driver version 3.3.7o-uri (8 Feb 96)

Written by Fred N. van Kempen, MicroWalt Corporation.

¥

330

32.

init

, ?

getty

, and U

NIX

Run Levels 32.6. Incoming Faxes and Modem Logins

5

10

DIP>

port ttyS0

DIP>

DIP>

[ Entering TERMINAL mode.

AT&F1

OK

speed 57600 term

Use CTRL-] to get back ]

ATDT5952521

CONNECT 19200/ARQ/V34/LAPM/V42BIS

15

Red Hat Linux release 6.1 (Cartman)

Kernel 2.2.12-20 on an i686

¦

Note that this is purely a login session having nothing to do with PPP dialup.

32.6.4

mgetty receiving faxes

mgetty receives faxes by default, provided your modem supports faxing

&

If your modem says it supports faxing, and this still does not work, you will have to spend a lot of time reading through your modem’s AT command set manual, as well as the mgetty info documentation.

and provided it has not been explicitly disabled with the -D

¨ option. An appropriate inittab line is,

¥

¦

The options mean, respectively, to set the debug level to port speed to 57600 , and set the fax ID number to

4 , answer after

27 21 7654321

3 rings, set the

. Alternatively, you can use the line

¨

S0:2345:respawn:/sbin/mgetty ttyS0 57600

§

¥

¦ and instead put your configuration options in the file

/etc/mgetty+sendfax/ :

¨ debug 4 rings 3 speed 57600 fax-id 27 21 7654321

§ mgetty.config

under

¥

¦

Faxes end up in /var/spool/fax/incoming/ note how the command

¨ strings /sbin/mgetty | grep new_fax

§ as useless .g3

format files, but

¥

¦ gives

331

32.6. Incoming Faxes and Modem Logins 32.

init

, ?

getty

, and U

NIX

Run Levels

¨

/etc/mgetty+sendfax/new_fax

§

¥

¦ which is a script that mgetty secretly runs when new faxes arrive.

It can be used to convert faxes into something (like

.gif

.gif

graphics files

&

I recommend .png

over any day, however.

) readable by typical office programs. The following example

/etc/mgetty+sendfax/new fax script puts incoming faxes into /home/fax/ as

.gif

files that all users can access.

the CPU-intensive

¨ convert

&

Modified from the mgetty contribs.

program from the ImageMagic

Note how it uses package.

#!/bin/sh

¥

5

# you must have pbm tools and they must be in your PATH

PATH=/usr/bin:/bin:/usr/X11R6/bin:/usr/local/bin

HUP="$1"

SENDER="$2"

PAGES="$3"

10 shift 3

P=1

15

20

25

30 while [ $P -le $PAGES ] ; do

FAX=$1

BASENAME=‘basename $FAX‘

RES=‘echo $BASENAME | sed ’s/.\(.\).*/\1/’‘ if [ "$RES" = "n" ] ; then else

STRETCH="-s"

STRETCH="" fi nice g32pbm $STRETCH $FAX > /tmp/$BASENAME.pbm \

&& rm -f $FAX \

&& nice convert -colorspace gray -colors 16 -geom \ done

’50%x50%’ /tmp/$BASENAME.pbm /home/fax/$BASENAME.gif \

&& rm -f /tmp/$BASENAME.pbm \

&& chmod 0666 /home/fax/$BASENAME.gif

shift

P=‘expr $P + 1‘

¦

332

Chapter 33

Sending Faxes

This chapter discusses the sendfax program, with reference to the specific example of setting up an artificial printer that will automatically use a modem to send its print jobs to remote fax machines.

33.1 Fax Through Printing

Continuing from Section 21.10. . .

5

The

You should go now and read the sendfax command is just one program that sends faxes through the modem.

Like mgetty , it reads a config file in sendfax section of the info

/etc/mgetty+sendfax/ page for mgetty

. This config file is just

.

sendfax.config

and can contain as little as

¨ verbose y debug 5 fax-devices ttyS0 fax-id 27 21 7654321 max-tries 3 max-tries-continue y

§

¥

¦

Below, fax filter.sh

is a script that sends the print job through the fax machine after requesting the telephone number through gdialog .

& gdialog is part of the gnome-utils package.

-

¨

An appropriate /etc/printcap entry is: fax:\

:sd=/var/spool/lpd/fax:\

:mx#0:\

¥

333

33.1. Fax Through Printing 33. Sending Faxes

5

§

:sh:\

:lp=/dev/null:\

:if=/var/spool/lpd/fax/fax_filter.sh:

¦

The file fax filter.sh

the /var/log/fax log file, see page 198.

-

¨ itself could contain a script like this for a modem on /dev/ttyS0 :

#!/bin/sh

&

Remember to rotate

¥

5 exec 1>>/var/log/fax exec 2>>/var/log/fax echo echo echo [email protected]

10 echo "Starting fax ‘date‘: I am ‘id‘"

15

20

25 export DISPLAY=localhost:0.0

export HOME=/home/lp function error()

{ gdialog --title "Send Fax" --msgbox "$1" 10 75 || \ cd / echo ’Huh? no gdialog on this machine’ rm -Rf /tmp/$$fax || \ gdialog \

--title "Send Fax" \

--msgbox "rm -Rf /tmp/$$fax failed" \

10 75 exit 1

}

30 mkdir /tmp/$$fax || error "mkdir /tmp/$$fax failed" cd /tmp/$$fax || error "cd /tmp/$$fax failed" cat > fax.ps

35

40 if /usr/bin/gdialog \

--title "Send Fax" \

--inputbox "Enter the phone number to fax:" \

10 75 "" 2>TEL ; then else

: echo "gdialog failed ‘< TEL‘" rm -Rf /tmp/$$fax exit 0 fi

45

TEL=‘< TEL‘ test -z "$TEL" && error ’no telephone number given’

334

33. Sending Faxes 33.2. Setgid Wrapper Binary cat fax.ps | gs -r204x98 -sOutputFile=- -sDEVICE=faxg3 -dBATCH -q - \

1>fax.ps.g3 || error ’gs failed’

50 ls -al /var/lock/

/usr/sbin/sendfax -x 5 -n -l ttyS0 $TEL fax.ps.g3 || \ error "sendfax failed" rm -Rf /tmp/$$fax

55

¦

33.2 Setgid Wrapper Binary

10

5

The above script is not enough however. Above,

/dev/ttyS0 device as well as the /var/lock/ sendfax requires access to the directory (to create a modem lock file—see Section 34.4). It cannot do that as the runs). On RedHat, the command lp user (under which the above filter ls -ald /var/lock /dev/ttyS0 reveals that only uucp is allowed to access modems. We can get around this restriction by creating a setgid (see Chapter 14) binary that runs as the uucp user. Do this by compiling the

C

program,

¨

#include <stdlib.h>

#include <string.h>

#include <stdio.h>

#include <unistd.h>

¥ int main (int argc, char **argv)

{ char **a; int i;

15

/* set the real group ID to that of the effective group ID */ if (setgid (getegid ())) { perror ("sendfax_wrapper: setgid failed"); exit (1);

}

20

25

/* copy all arguments */ a = (char **) malloc ((argc + 1) * sizeof (char *)); for (i = 1; i < argc; i++) a[i] = (char *) strdup (argv[i]); a[argc] = NULL;

/* execute sendfax */ a[0] = "/usr/sbin/sendfax"; execvp (a[0], a);

/* exit on failure */ perror ("sendfax_wrapper: failed to exececute /usr/sbin/sendfax"); exit (1);

30

¦ using the commands,

335

33.2. Setgid Wrapper Binary 33. Sending Faxes

¨ gcc sendfax_wrapper.c -o /usr/sbin/sendfax_wrapper -Wall chown lp:uucp /usr/sbin/sendfax_wrapper chmod g+s,o-rwx /usr/sbin/sendfax_wrapper

§

Then, replace sendfax sendfax wrapper with sendfax wrapper just executes sendfax in the filter script. You can see that after changing the group ID to the

effective group ID

(GID) as obtained from the getegid function on line 12. The effective group

ID is uucp because of the setgid group bit (i.e., g+s ) in the chmod command, and hence sendfax runs under the uucp group with full access to the modem device.

¥

¦

On your own system it may be cleaner to try implement this without a wrapper.

Debian , for example, has a dialout group for the purposes of accessing modems.

Also be aware that some distributions may not use the uucp user in the way RedHat does and you may have to create an alternative user especially for this task.

336

Chapter 34 uucp and uux

uucp is a command to copy a file from one U

NIX command on another U

NIX system to another.

uux executes a system, even if that command is receiving data through stdin on the local system.

uux is extremely useful for automating many kinds of distributed functions, like mail and news.

The package.

uucp and uux commands both come as part of the uucp uucp (

Unix-to-Unix Copy

) may sound ridiculous considering the availability of modern commands like uucp rcp , rsh , or even FTP transfers (which accomplish the same thing), but has features that these do not, making it an essential, albeit antiquated, utility.

For instance, uucp never executes jobs immediately. It will, for example, queue a file copy for later processing and then dial the remote machine during the night to complete the operation.

uucp predates the Internet: It was originally used to implement a mail system, using only modems and telephone lines. It hence has sophisticated protocols for ensuring that your file/command

really does get there

, with the maximum possible fault tolerance and the minimum of retransmission. This is why it should always be used for automated tasks wherever there are unreliable (i.e., modem) connections. The uucp version that comes with most L thor.

INUX distributions is called Taylor UUCP after its au-

Especially important is that when a uucp operation is interrupted by a line break, the connection time is not wasted: uucp will not have discarded any partially transmitted data. This means that no matter how slow or error prone the connection, progress is always made. Compare this to an SMTP or POP3/IMAP connection: Any line break halfway through a large mail message will necessitate that the entire operation to be restarted from scratch.

337

34.1. Command-Line Operation 34.

uucp

and

uux

34.1 Command-Line Operation

To copy a file from one machine to another, simply enter

¨

You can also run commands on the remote system, like

¨ echo -n ’Hi, this is a short message\n\n-paul’ | \

§ uux - ’cericon!rmail’ ’john’

¥

¦ which runs rmail on the remote system cericon , feeding some text to the program. Note how you should quote the !

rmail character to prevent it from being interpreted by the shell. (These commands will almost always fail with permission denied by remote . The error will come in a mail message to the user that ran the command.)

¥

¦

34.2 Configuration

uucp comes with comprehensive documentation in HTML format ( /usr/doc/uucp-

version

/uucp.html

or /usr/share/ . . . ) on RedHat, and info format on Debian and RedHat. Here, I sketch a basic and typical configuration.

The uucp package has a long history of revisions, beginning with the first modem-based mail networks. The latest GNU editions that come with L

INUX distributions have a configuration file format that will probably differ from that which old uucp hands are used to.

Dialup networks today typically use alup, probably not using uucp uucp in combination with normal PPP di-

’s dial-in facilities at all. For example, if you are deploying a number of remote hosts that are using modems, these hosts should always use uucp to upload and retrieve mail, rather than POP3/IMAP or straight SMTP, because of the retransmission problem discussed above. In other words, uucp is really working as an ordinary TCP service, albeit with far more fault tolerance.

To make uucp into a TCP server, place it into /etc/inetd.conf

as follows

¨ stream tcp nowait uucp /usr/sbin/tcpd /usr/lib/uucp/uucico -l being also

very

careful to limit the hosts that can connect by using the techniques discussed in Chapter 29. Similarly for xinetd , create a file /etc/xinetd.d/uucp containing,

¥

¦

338

34.

uucp

and

uux

34.2. Configuration

5

10

¨ service uucp

{ only_from socket_type wait user server server_args disable

}

§

= 127.0.0.1 192.168.0.0/16

= stream

= no

= uucp

= /usr/lib/uucp/uucico

= -l

= no

¥

¦ uucp configuration files are stored under figure a client machine,

/etc/uucp/ machine1.cranzgot.co.za

.

Now we con-

, to send mail through server1.cranzgot.co.za

uucico service above.

, where server1.cranzgot.co.za

is running the uucp has an antiquated authentication mechanism that uses its own list of users and passwords completely distinct from those of ordinary U

NIX accounts. We must first add a common “user” and password to both machines for authentication purposes. For machine1.cranzgot.co.za

, we can add to the file /etc/uucp/call the line

¨ server1

§ machine1login pAsSwOrD123

¥

¦ which tells speak to uucp server1 .

to use the login

On machine1login server1.cranzgot.co.za

whenever trying to we can add to the file

/etc/uucp/passwd

¨ machine1login

§ the line, pAsSwOrD123

¥

¦

Note that the uucp name server1.cranzgot.co.za

server1 for convenience.

ing to do with domain names.

was uucp chosen for the machine names, however, have noth-

5

Next, we need to tell uucp about the intentions of machine1 . Any machine that you might connect to or from must be listed in the /etc/uucp/sys file. Our entry looks like

¨ system machine1 call-login * call-password * commands rmail protocol t

§

¥

¦ and can have as many entries as we like. The only things server1 has to know about machine1 are the user and password and the preferred protocol. The * ’s mean to look

339

34.2. Configuration 34.

uucp

and

uux

up the user and password in the /etc/uucp/passwd file, and protocol t means to use a simple non-error, correcting protocol (as appropriate for use over TCP). The commands option takes a space-separated list of permitted commands—for security reasons, commands not in this list cannot be executed. (This is why I stated above that commands will almost always fail with permission denied by remote —they are usually not listed under commands .)

5

The /etc/uucp/sys file on

¨ system server1 call-login * call-password * time any port TCP address 192.168.3.2

protocol t

§ machine1 will contain:

¥

¦

Here time any specifies which times of the day uucp may make calls to server1 .

The default is

The option time Never port TCP

.

&

See the uucp documentation under means that we are using a

modem

Time Strings

for more info.

named TCP to execute the dialout. All modems are defined in the file /etc/uucp/port . We can add our modem entry to

¨

/etc/uucp/port as follows, port TCP type tcp

§

¥

¦ which clearly is not really a modem at all.

Finally, we can queue a mail transfer job with

¨ echo -e ’Hi Jack\n\nHow are you?\n\n-jill" | \

§ uux - --nouucico ’server1!rmail’ ’[email protected]

¥

¦ and copy a file with

¨ ¥

¦

Note that /var/spool/uucppublic/ is the only directory you are allowed access to by default. You should probably keep it this way for security.

uucico

Although we have queued a job for processing, nothing will transfer until the program uucico (which stands for

Unix-to-Unix copy in copy out

) is run. The idea is that both server1 and machine1 may have queued a number of jobs; then when uucico is running on both machines and talking to each other, all jobs on both machines are processed in turn, regardless of which machine initiated the connection.

340

34.

uucp

and

uux

34.3. Modem Dial

Usually uucico is run from a crond script every hour. (Even having run uucico , nothing will transfer if the time of day does not come within the ranges specified under uucico

¨ time ...

.) Here we can run tail -f /var/log/uucp/Log manually as follows: while running uucico --debug 3 --force --system server1

§

¥

¦

The higher the debug level, the more verbose output you will see in the will --force ably dial the --system server1

Log file. This regardless of when it last dialed (usually there are constraints on calling soon after a failed call: --force overrides this).

If your mail server on server1 queued the message on the remote side.

is configured correctly, it should now have

34.3 Modem Dial

If you are really going to use answer

¨ uucp calls on server1 uucp the old-fashioned way, you can use by adding the following to your mgetty

/etc/inittab to file:

¥

¦

¥ uucp machine1login /usr/sbin/uucico -l -u machine1login to the file /etc/mgetty+sendfax/login.config

( /etc/mgetty/login.config

for Debian ). You will then also have to add a U

NIX account machine1login with password pAsSwOrD123 . This approach works is because mgetty and uucico have the same login prompt and password prompt, but mgetty uses /etc/passwd instead of /etc/uucp/passwd to authenticate. Also, for a modem connection, is error prone: change it to protocol g protocol t

, which has small packet sizes and error correction.

¦

Note that the above configuration also supports faxes, logins, voice, and PPP (see

Section 41.4) on the same modem, because mgetty only starts uucico if the user name is machine1login .

5 to your

¨

To dial out from machine1 , you first need to add a modem device (besides TCP )

/etc/uucp/port file: port ACU type modem device /dev/ttyS0 dialer mymodem speed 57600

§

¥

¦

341

34.4.

tty

/UUCP Lock Files 34.

uucp

and

uux

5

10

ACU is antiquated terminology and stands for

Automatic Calling Unit

(i.e., a modem). We have to specify the usual types of things for serial ports, like the device ( /dev/ttyS0 for a modem on COM1) and speed of the serial line. We also must specify a means to initialize the modem: the dialer mymodem option. A file

/etc/uucp/dial should then contain an entry for our type of modem matching

“ mymodem ” as follows:

See Section 3.5.

-

¨

&

This example assumes that an initialization string of AT&F1 is sufficient.

dialer mymodem chat "" AT&F1\r\d\c OK\r ATDT\D CONNECT chat-fail RING chat-fail NO\sCARRIER chat-fail ERROR chat-fail NO\sDIALTONE chat-fail BUSY chat-fail NO\sANSWER chat-fail VOICE complete \d\d+++\d\dATH\r\c abort \d\d+++\d\dATH\r\c

§

¥

¦

More about modems and dialing is covered with pppd in Chapter 41.

5

With the modem properly specified, we can change our entry in the

¨ system server1 call-login * call-password * time any port ACU phone 555-6789 protocol g

§ sys file to

The same uux commands should now work over dialup.

¥

¦

34.4

tty /UUCP Lock Files

I hinted about lock files in Section 33.2. A more detailed explanation follows.

You will have noticed by now that several services use serial devices, and many of them can use the same device at different times. This creates a possible conflict should two services wish to use the same device at the same time. For instance, what if someone wants to send a fax, while another person is dialing in?

The solution is the

/var/lock/ of the form

UUCP lock file

LCK..

device

that indicates the serial port is being used by that process. For instance, when running

.

This is a file created by a process in sendfax through a modem connected on

342

34.

uucp

and

uux

34.5. Debugging

uucp

/dev/ttyS0 , a file /var/lock/LCK..ttyS0

sendfax , along with all other mgetty suddenly appears. This is because programs, obeys the UUCP lock file convention. The contents of this file actually contain the process ID of the program using the serial device, so it is easy to check whether the lock file is bogus. A lock file of such a dead process is called a

stale lock file

and can be removed manually.

34.5 Debugging uucp

uucp implementations rarely run smoothly the first time. Fortunately, you have available a variety of verbose debugging options.

uucico takes the --debug option to specify the level of debug output.

/var/log/uucp/Log , /var/log/uucp/Debug

You should examine the files

, and /var/log/uucp/Stats to get an idea about what is going on in the background.

spool directory /var/spool/uucp/

Also important is the

. You can specify the debugging level with -

-debug

level

debug chat options follows where

level

is in the range of 0 through 11 . You can also use -to only see modem communication details. A full description of other

&

Credits to the uucp documentation.

:

--debug abnormal

Output debugging messages for abnormal situations, such as recoverable errors.

--debug chat

Output debugging messages for chat scripts.

--debug handshake

Output debugging messages for the initial handshake.

--debug uucp

--debug proto

protocol Output debugging messages for the UUCP session protocol.

Output debugging messages for the individual link protocols.

--debug port

Output debugging messages for actions on the communication port.

--debug config

Output debugging messages while reading the configuration files.

--debug spooldir

--debug execute

cuted.

Output debugging messages for actions in the spool directory.

Output debugging messages whenever another program is exe-

--debug incoming

List all incoming data in the debugging file.

--debug outgoing

--debug all

List all outgoing data in the debugging file.

All of the above.

34.6 Using uux with exim

On machine1 we would like quires a pipe transport ( exim exim to spool all mail through uucp . Using transports are discussed in Section 30.3.2).

uucp exim remerely sends mail through stdin of the uux responsible for executing rmail on command and then forgets about it.

server1 . The complete exim.conf

uux is then file is simply as follows.

343

34.6. Using

uux

with

exim

34.

uucp

and

uux

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

¨

#################### MAIN CONFIGURATION SETTINGS ##################### log_subject errors_address = admin local_domains = localhost : ${primary_hostname} : machine1 : \ machine1.cranzgot.co.za

host_accept_relay = 127.0.0.1 : localhost : ${primary_hostname} : \ machine1 : machine1.cranzgot.co.za

never_users = root exim_user = mail exim_group = mail end

###################### TRANSPORTS CONFIGURATION ###################### uucp: driver = pipe user = nobody command = "/usr/bin/uux - --nouucico ${host}!rmail \

${local_part}@${domain}" return_fail_output = true local_delivery: driver = appendfile file = /var/spool/mail/${local_part} delivery_date_add envelope_to_add return_path_add group = mail mode_fail_narrower = mode = 0660 end

###################### DIRECTORS CONFIGURATION ####################### localuser: driver = localuser transport = local_delivery end

###################### ROUTERS CONFIGURATION ######################### touucp: driver = domainlist route_list = "* server1" transport = uucp end

###################### RETRY CONFIGURATION ###########################

* * F,2m,1m

¥

On machine server1 , exim must however be running as a full-blown mail server to properly route the mail elsewhere. Of course, on sender; hence, it appears to exim server1 , rmail is the that the mail is coming from the local machine. This means that no extra configuration is required to support mail coming mand.

from

a uux com-

Note that you can add further domains to your route list so that your dialouts occur directly to the recipient’s machine. For instance:

344

¦

34.

uucp

and

uux

34.6. Using

uux

with

exim

¨

5

§ route_list = "machine2.cranzgot.co.za machine2 ; \ machine2 machine2 ; \ machine3.cranzgot.co.za machine3 ; \ machine3 machine3 ; \

* server1"

¥

¦

5

You can then add further entries to your /etc/uucp/sys

¨ system machine2 call-login * call-password * time any port ACU phone 555-6789 protocol g file as follows:

10

15 system machine3 call-login * call-password * time any port ACU phone 554-3210 protocol g

§

¥

¦

5

10

The exim.conf

file on server1 machine1 . The router will look like this:

¨ must also have a router to get mail back to

###################### ROUTERS CONFIGURATION ######################### touucp: driver = domainlist route_list = "machine2.cranzgot.co.za machine2 ; \ machine2 machine2 ; \ machine3.cranzgot.co.za machine3 ; \ machine3 machine3" transport = uucp lookuphost: driver = lookuphost transport = remote_smtp end

§

¥

¦

This router sends all mail matching our dial-in hosts through the uucp transport while all other mail (destined for the Internet) falls through to the lookuphost router.

345

34.7. Scheduling Dialouts 34.

uucp

and

uux

34.7 Scheduling Dialouts

Above, we used uucico only manually.

cess on its own and must be invoked by uucico crond does not operate as a daemon pro-

. All systems that use uucp have a

/etc/crontab entry or a script under /etc/cron.hourly

.

A typical /etc/crontab for machine1 might contain:

¨

45 * * * * uucp /usr/lib/uucp/uucico --master

40 8,13,18 * * * root /usr/bin/uux -r server1!

§

The option --master tells uucico to loop through all pending jobs and call any machines for which jobs are queued. It does this every hour. The second line queues a null command three times daily for the machine out to server1 server1 . This will force uucico to dial at least three times a day on the appearance of real work to be done.

The point of this to pick up any jobs coming the other way. This process is known as creating a

poll file

.

¥

¦

Clearly, you can use uucp running in demand mode, a over a TCP link initiated by uucp pppd . If a dial link is call will trigger a dialout and make a straight TCP connection through to the remote host. A common situation occurs when a number of satellite systems are dialing an ISP that has no uucp facility. To service the satellite machines, a separate uucp server is deployed that has no modems of its own. The server will have a permanent Internet connection and listen on TCP for uucp transfers.

346

Chapter 35

The L

INUX

File System Standard

This chapter reproduces the

Filesystem Hierarchy Standard

, translated into L TEX with some minor formatting changes and the addition of this book’s chapter number to all the section headers. An original can be obtained from http://www.pathname.com/fhs/

.

the FHS home page

If you have ever asked the questions “Where in my file system does file or “What is directory

yyy xxx

go?” for?”, then consult this document. It can be considered to provide the final word on such matters. Although this is mostly a reference for people creating new L

INUX distributions, all administrators can benefit from an understanding of the rulings and explanations provided here.

Filesystem Hierarchy Standard — Version 2.2 final

Filesystem Hierarchy Standard Group

edited by Rusty Russell and Daniel Quinlan

ABSTRACT

This standard consists of a set of requirements and guidelines for file and directory placement under U

NIX

-like operating systems. The guidelines are intended to support interoperability of applications, system administration tools, development tools, and scripts as well as greater uniformity of documentation for these systems.

May 23, 2001

347

35. The L

INUX

File System Standard

All trademarks and copyrights are owned by their owners, unless specifically noted otherwise.

Use of a term in this document should not be regarded as affecting the validity of any trademark or service mark.

Copyright c 1994-2000 Daniel Quinlan

Copyright c 2001 Paul ‘Rusty’ Russell

Permission is granted to make and distribute verbatim copies of this standard provided the copyright and this permission notice are preserved on all copies.

Permission is granted to copy and distribute modified versions of this standard under the conditions for verbatim copying, provided also that the title page is labeled as modified including a reference to the original standard, provided that information on retrieving the original standard is included, and provided that the entire resulting derived work is distributed under the terms of a permission notice identical to this one.

Permission is granted to copy and distribute translations of this standard into another language, under the above conditions for modified versions, except that this permission notice may be stated in a translation approved by the copyright holder.

348

35. The L

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File System Standard 35.1. Introduction

35.1 Introduction

35.1.1 Purpose

This standard enables

Software to predict the location of installed files and directories, and

Users to predict the location of installed files and directories.

We do this by

Specifying guiding principles for each area of the filesystem,

Specifying the minimum files and directories required,

Enumerating exceptions to the principles, and

Enumerating specific cases where there has been historical conflict.

The FHS document is used by

Independent software suppliers to create applications which are FHS compliant, and work with distributions which are FHS complaint,

OS creators to provide systems which are FHS compliant, and

Users to understand and maintain the FHS compliance of a system.

35.1.2 Conventions

A constant-width font is used for displaying the names of files and directories.

Components of filenames that vary are represented by a description of the contents enclosed in

<

” and ”

>

” characters,

<

thus

>

. Electronic mail addresses are also enclosed in ”

<

” and ”

>

” but are shown in the usual typeface.

Optional components of filenames are enclosed in ” [ ” and ” ] ” characters and may be combined with the ”

<

” and ”

>

” convention. For example, if a filename is allowed to occur either with or without an extension, it might be represented by

<

filename

>

[.

<

extension

>

] .

Variable substrings of directory names and filenames are indicated by ” * ”.

35.2 The Filesystem

This standard assumes that the operating system underlying an FHS-compliant file system supports the same basic security features found in most U

NIX filesystems.

It is possible to define two independent categories of files: shareable vs. unshareable and variable vs. static. There should be a simple and easily understandable mapping from directories to the type of data they contain: directories may be mount points for other filesystems with different characteristics from the filesystem on which they are mounted.

Shareable data is that which can be shared between several different hosts; unshareable is that which must be specific to a particular host. For example, user home directories are shareable data, but device lock files are not.

349

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Static data includes binaries, libraries, documentation, and anything that does not change without system administrator intervention; variable data is anything else that does change without system administrator intervention.

BEGIN RATIONALE

The distinction between shareable and unshareable data is needed for several reasons:

In a networked environment (i.e., more than one host at a site), there is a good deal of data that can be shared between different hosts to save space and ease the task of maintenance.

In a networked environment, certain files contain information specific to a single host.

Therefore these filesystems cannot be shared (without taking special measures).

Historical implementations of U

NIX

-like filesystems interspersed shareable and unshareable data in the same hierarchy, making it difficult to share large portions of the filesystem.

The ”shareable” distinction can be used to support, for example:

A /usr partition (or components of /usr ) mounted (read-only) through the network

(using NFS).

A /usr partition (or components of /usr ) mounted from read-only media. A CD-

ROM is one copy of many identical ones distributed to other users by the postal mail system and other methods. It can thus be regarded as a read-only filesystem shared with other FHS-compliant systems by some kind of ”network”.

The ”static” versus ”variable” distinction affects the filesystem in two major ways:

Since / contains both variable and static data, it needs to be mounted read-write.

Since the traditional /usr contains both variable and static data, and since we may want to mount it read-only (see above), it is necessary to provide a method to have

/usr mounted read-only. This is done through the creation of a /var hierarchy that is mounted read-write (or is a part of another read-write partition, such as /) , taking over much of the /usr partition’s traditional functionality.

Here is a summarizing chart. This chart is only an example for a common FHS-compliant system, other chart layouts are possible within FHS-compliance.

static variable shareable

/usr

/opt

/var/mail

/var/spool/news unshareable

/etc

/boot

/var/run

/var/lock

END RATIONALE

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File System Standard 35.3. The Root Filesystem

35.3 The Root Filesystem

35.3.1 Purpose

The contents of the root filesystem must be adequate to boot, restore, recover, and/or repair the system.

To boot a system, enough must be present on the root partition to mount other filesystems.

This includes utilities, configuration, boot loader information, and other essential startup data.

/usr , /opt , and partitions or filesystems.

/var are designed such that they may be located on other

To enable recovery and/or repair of a system, those utilities needed by an experienced maintainer to diagnose and reconstruct a damaged system must be present on the root filesystem.

To restore a system, those utilities needed to restore from system backups (on floppy, tape, etc.) must be present on the root filesystem.

BEGIN RATIONALE

The primary concern used to balance these considerations, which favor placing many things on the root filesystem, is the goal of keeping root as small as reasonably possible.

For several reasons, it is desirable to keep the root filesystem small:

It is occasionally mounted from very small media.

The root filesystem contains many system-specific configuration files. Possible examples include a kernel that is specific to the system, a specific hostname, etc. This means that the root filesystem isn’t always shareable between networked systems. Keeping it small on servers in networked systems minimizes the amount of lost space for areas of unshareable files. It also allows workstations with smaller local hard drives.

While you may have the root filesystem on a large partition, and may be able to fill it to your heart’s content, there will be people with smaller partitions. If you have more files installed, you may find incompatibilities with other systems using root filesystems on smaller partitions. If you are a developer then you may be turning your assumption into a problem for a large number of users.

Disk errors that corrupt data on the root filesystem are a greater problem than errors on any other partition. A small root filesystem is less prone to corruption as the result of a system crash.

Software must never create or require special files or subdirectories in the root directory.

Other locations in the FHS hierarchy provide more than enough flexibility for any package.

There are several reasons why introducing a new subdirectory of the root filesystem is prohibited:

It demands space on a root partition which the system administrator may want kept small and simple for either performance or security reasons.

It evades whatever discipline the system administrator may have set up for distributing standard file hierarchies across mountable volumes.

END RATIONALE

351

35.3. The Root Filesystem 35. The L

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35.3.2 Requirements

The following directories, or symbolic links to directories, are required in / .

/ ——— the root directory bin Essential command binaries boot dev

Static files of the boot loader

Device files etc lib mnt opt sbin tmp usr var

Host-specific system configuration

Essential shared libraries and kernel modules

Mount point for mounting a filesystem temporarily

Add-on application software packages

Essential system binaries

Temporary files

Secondary hierarchy

Variable data

Each directory listed above is specified in detail in separate subsections below.

/usr and each have a complete section in this document due to the complexity of those directories.

/var

35.3.3 Specific Options

The following directories, or symbolic links to directories, must be in subsystem is installed:

/ , if the corresponding

/ ——— the root directory home User home directories (optional) lib

<

qual

>

root

Alternate format essential shared libraries (optional)

Home directory for the root user (optional)

Each directory listed above is specified in detail in separate subsections below.

352

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File System Standard 35.3. The Root Filesystem

35.3.4 /bin : Essential user command binaries (for use by all users)

35.3.4.1 Purpose

/bin contains commands that may be used by both the system administrator and by users, but which are required when no other filesystems are mounted (e.g. in single user mode). It may also contain commands which are used indirectly by scripts.

1

35.3.4.2 Requirements

There must be no subdirectories in /bin .

The following commands, or symbolic links to commands, are required in /bin .

login ls mkdir mknod more mount mv ps pwd rm rmdir sed sh stty su sync cat chgrp chmod chown cp date dd df dmesg echo false hostname kill ln

Utility to concatenate files to standard output

Utility to change file group ownership

Utility to change file access permissions

Utility to change file owner and group

Utility to copy files and directories

Utility to print or set the system data and time

Utility to convert and copy a file

Utility to report filesystem disk space usage

Utility to print or control the kernel message buffer

Utility to display a line of text

Utility to do nothing, unsuccessfully

Utility to show or set the system’s host name

Utility to send signals to processes

Utility to make links between files

Utility to begin a session on the system

Utility to list directory contents

Utility to make directories

Utility to make block or character special files

Utility to page through text

Utility to mount a filesystem

Utility to move/rename files

Utility to report process status

Utility to print name of current working directory

Utility to remove files or directories

Utility to remove empty directories

The ‘sed’ stream editor

The Bourne command shell

Utility to change and print terminal line settings

Utility to change user ID

Utility to flush filesystem buffers

1

Command binaries that are not essential enough to place into /bin must be placed in /usr/bin , instead. Items that are required only by non-root users (the X Window System, chsh , etc.) are generally not essential enough to be placed into the root partition.

353

35.3. The Root Filesystem 35. The L

INUX

File System Standard true umount uname

Utility to do nothing, successfully

Utility to unmount file systems

Utility to print system information

If /bin/sh mand.

is not a true Bourne shell, it must be a hard or symbolic link to the real shell com-

The [ and test commands must be placed together in either /bin or /usr/bin .

BEGIN RATIONALE

For example bash behaves differently when called as link also allows users to easily see that /bin/sh sh or bash . The use of a symbolic is not a true Bourne shell.

The requirement for the [ and test commands to be included as binaries (even if implemented internally by the shell) is shared with the POSIX.2 standard.

END RATIONALE

35.3.4.3 Specific Options

The following programs, or symbolic links to programs, must be in subsystem is installed:

/bin if the corresponding csh ed tar cpio gzip gunzip zcat netstat ping

The C shell (optional)

The ‘ed’ editor (optional)

The tar archiving utility (optional)

The cpio archiving utility (optional)

The GNU compression utility (optional)

The GNU uncompression utility (optional)

The GNU uncompression utility (optional)

The network statistics utility (optional)

The ICMP network test utility (optional)

If the gunzip and zcat programs exist, they must be symbolic or hard links to gzip.

may be a symbolic link to /bin/tcsh or /usr/bin/tcsh .

/bin/csh

BEGIN RATIONALE

The tar, gzip and cpio commands have been added to make restoration of a system possible

(provided that / is intact).

Conversely, if no restoration from the root partition is ever expected, then these binaries might be omitted (e.g., a ROM chip root, mounting /usr through NFS). If restoration of a system is planned through the network, then ftp or tftp (along with everything necessary to get an ftp connection) must be available on the root partition.

END RATIONALE

35.3.5 /boot : Static files of the boot loader

35.3.5.1 Purpose

This directory contains everything required for the boot process except configuration files and the map installer. Thus /boot stores data that is used before the kernel begins executing user-

354

35. The L

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File System Standard 35.3. The Root Filesystem mode programs. This may include saved master boot sectors, sector map files, and other data that is not directly edited by hand.

2

35.3.5.2 Specific Options

The operating system kernel must be located in either / or /boot .

3

35.3.6 /dev : Device files

35.3.6.1 Purpose

The /dev directory is the location of special or device files.

35.3.6.2 Specific Options

If it is possible that devices in /dev will need to be manually created, /dev must contain a command named MAKEDEV , which can create devices as needed. It may also contain a

MAKEDEV.local

for any local devices.

If required, MAKEDEV must have provisions for creating any device that may be found on the system, not just those that a particular implementation installs.

35.3.7 /etc : Host-specific system configuration

35.3.7.1 Purpose

/etc contains configuration files and directories that are specific to the current system.

4

35.3.7.2 Requirements

No binaries may be located under /etc .

The following directories, or symbolic links to directories are required in /etc :

/etc ——— Host-specific system configuration opt Configuration for /opt

2

Programs necessary to arrange for the boot loader to be able to boot a file must be placed in /sbin .

Configuration files for boot loaders must be placed in /etc .

3

On some i386 machines, it may be necessary for /boot to be located on a separate partition located completely below cylinder 1024 of the boot device due to hardware constraints.

Certain MIPS systems require a /boot partition that is a mounted MS-DOS filesystem or whatever other filesystem type is accessible for the firmware. This may result in restrictions with respect to usable filenames within /boot (only for affected systems).

4

The setup of command scripts invoked at boot time may resemble System V, BSD or other models.

Further specification in this area may be added to a future version of this standard.

355

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File System Standard

35.3.7.3 Specific Options

The following directories, or symbolic links to directories must be in subsystem is installed:

/etc , if the corresponding

/etc ——— Host-specific system configuration

X11 Configuration for the X Window System (optional) sgml Configuration for SGML and XML (optional)

The following files, or symbolic links to files, must be in installed:

5

/etc if the corresponding subsystem is csh.login

exports fstab ftpusers gateways gettydefs group host.conf

hosts hosts.allow

hosts.deny

hosts.equiv

hosts.lpd

inetd.conf

inittab issue ld.so.conf

motd mtab mtools.conf

networks passwd printcap profile protocols resolv.conf

rpc securetty services shells syslog.conf

Systemwide initialization file for C shell logins (optional)

NFS filesystem access control list (optional)

Static information about filesystems (optional)

FTP daemon user access control list (optional)

File which lists gateways for routed (optional)

Speed and terminal settings used by getty (optional)

User group file (optional)

Resolver configuration file (optional)

Static information about host names (optional)

Host access file for TCP wrappers (optional)

Host access file for TCP wrappers (optional)

List of trusted hosts for rlogin, rsh, rcp (optional)

List of trusted hosts for lpd (optional)

Configuration file for inetd (optional)

Configuration file for init (optional)

Pre-login message and identification file (optional)

List of extra directories to search for shared libraries (optional)

Post-login message of the day file (optional)

Dynamic information about filesystems (optional)

Configuration file for mtools (optional)

Static information about network names (optional)

The password file (optional)

The lpd printer capability database (optional)

Systemwide initialization file for sh shell logins (optional)

IP protocol listing (optional)

Resolver configuration file (optional)

RPC protocol listing (optional)

TTY access control for root login (optional)

Port names for network services (optional)

Pathnames of valid login shells (optional)

Configuration file for syslogd (optional)

5

Systems that use the shadow password suite will have additional configuration files in

( /etc/shadow and others) and programs in /usr/sbin ( useradd , usermod , and others).

/etc

356

35. The L

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File System Standard 35.3. The Root Filesystem mtab does not fit the static nature of /etc : it is excepted for historical reasons.

6

35.3.7.4 /etc/opt : Configuration files for /opt

35.3.7.4.1 Purpose

Host-specific configuration files for add-on application software packages must be installed within the directory in /opt

/etc/opt/

<

package

>

, where

<

package where the static data from that package is stored.

>

is the name of the subtree

35.3.7.4.2 Requirements

No structure is imposed on the internal arrangement of /etc/opt/

<

package

>

.

If a configuration file must reside in a different location in order for the package or system to function properly, it may be placed in a location other than /etc/opt/

<

package

>

.

BEGIN RATIONALE

Refer to the rationale for /opt .

END RATIONALE

35.3.7.5 /etc/X11 : Configuration for the X Window System (optional)

35.3.7.5.1 Purpose

/etc/X11 is the location for all X11 host-specific configuration. This directory is necessary to allow local control if /usr is mounted read only.

35.3.7.5.2 Specific Options

The following files, or symbolic links to files, must be in /etc/X11 if the corresponding subsystem is installed:

Xconfig

XF86Config

Xmodmap

The configuration file for early versions of XFree86 (optional)

The configuration file for XFree86 versions 3 and 4 (optional)

Global X11 keyboard modification file (optional)

Subdirectories of /etc/X11 may include those for dow managers, for example) that need them.

7 xdm and for any other programs (some win-

We recommend that window managers with only one configuration file which is a default .*wmrc file must name it system.*wmrc (unless there is a widely-accepted alternative name) and not use a subdirectory. Any window manager subdirectories must be identically named to the actual window manager binary.

6

On some Linux systems, this may be a symbolic link to /proc/mounts , in which case this exception is not required.

7

/etc/X11/xdm holds the configuration files for xdm . These are most of the files previously found in

/usr/lib/X11/xdm . Some local variable data for xdm is stored in /var/lib/xdm .

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35.3.7.6 /etc/sgml : Configuration files for SGML and XML (optional)

35.3.7.6.1 Purpose

Generic configuration files defining high-level parameters of the SGML or XML systems are installed here. Files with names

*.cat

*.conf

indicate generic configuration files. File with names are the DTD-specific centralized catalogs, containing references to all other catalogs needed to use the given DTD. The super catalog file catalogs.

catalog references all the centralized

35.3.8 /home : User home directories (optional)

35.3.8.1 Purpose

/home is a fairly standard concept, but it is clearly a site-specific filesystem.

differ from host to host. Therefore, no program should rely on this location.

9

8

The setup will

35.3.9 /lib : Essential shared libraries and kernel modules

35.3.9.1 Purpose

The /lib directory contains those shared library images needed to boot the system and run the commands in the root filesystem, ie. by binaries in /bin and /sbin .

10

35.3.9.2 Requirements

At least one of each of the following filename patterns are required (they may be files, or symbolic links): libc.so.* ld*

The dynamically-linked C library (optional)

The execution time linker/loader (optional)

8

Different people prefer to place user accounts in a variety of places. This section describes only a suggested placement for user home directories; nevertheless we recommend that all FHS-compliant distributions use this as the default location for home directories.

On small systems, each user’s directory is typically one of the many subdirectories of /home such as /home/smith ,

/home

/home/torvalds , /home/operator , etc. On large systems (especially when the directories are shared amongst many hosts using NFS) it is useful to subdivide user home directories. Subdivision may be accomplished by using subdirectories such as /home/staff , /home/guests ,

/home/students , etc.

9

If you want to find out a user’s home directory, you should use the getpwent(3) library function rather than relying on /etc/passwd because user information may be stored remotely using systems such as NIS.

10

Shared libraries that are only necessary for binaries in /usr (such as any X Window binaries) must not be in /lib . Only the shared libraries required to run binaries in /bin and /sbin may be here. In particular, the library libm.so.* may also be placed in /usr/lib if it is not required by anything in /bin or /sbin .

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If a C preprocessor is installed, /lib/cpp must be a reference to it, for historical reasons.

11

35.3.9.3 Specific Options

The following directories, or symbolic links to directories, must be in subsystem is installed:

/lib , if the corresponding

/lib ——— essential shared libraries and kernel modules modules Loadable kernel modules (optional)

35.3.10 /lib

<

qual

>

tional)

: Alternate format essential shared libraries (op-

35.3.10.1 Purpose

There may be one or more variants of the /lib one binary format requiring separate libraries.

12 directory on systems which support more than

35.3.10.2 Requirements

If one or more of these directories exist, the requirements for their contents are the same as the normal /lib directory, except that /lib

<

qual

>

/cpp is not required.

13

35.3.11 /mnt : Mount point for a temporarily mounted filesystem

35.3.11.1 Purpose

This directory is provided so that the system administrator may temporarily mount a filesystem as needed. The content of this directory is a local issue and should not affect the manner in which any program is run.

This directory must not be used by installation programs: a suitable temporary directory not in use by the system must be used instead.

11

The usual placement of this binary is

/lib/cpp

/usr/lib/gcc-lib/

<

target

>

/

<

version

>

/cpp .

can either point at this binary, or at any other reference to this binary which exists in the filesystem. (For example, /usr/bin/cpp is also often used.)

12

This is commonly used for 64-bit or 32-bit support on systems which support multiple binary formats, but require libraries of the same name. In this case, /lib32 and /lib64 might be the library directories, and /lib a symlink to one of them.

13

/lib

<

qual

>

/cpp is still permitted: this allows the case where /lib and /lib

<

qual

>

are the same

(one is a symbolic link to the other).

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File System Standard

35.3.12 /opt : Add-on application software packages

35.3.12.1 Purpose

/opt is reserved for the installation of add-on application software packages.

A package to be installed in /opt must locate its static files in a separate /opt/

<

package

>

directory tree, where

<

package

>

is a name that describes the software package.

35.3.12.2 Requirements

/opt ——— Add-on application software packages

<

package

>

Static package objects

The directories /opt/bin , /opt/doc , /opt/include , /opt/info , /opt/lib , and

/opt/man are reserved for local system administrator use. Packages may provide ”front-end” files intended to be placed in (by linking or copying) these reserved directories by the local system administrator, but must function normally in the absence of these reserved directories.

Programs to be invoked by users must be located in the directory the package includes U

NIX manual pages, they must be located in

/opt/

<

package

>

/bin . If

/opt/

<

package

>

/man and the same substructure as /usr/share/man must be used.

Package files that are variable (change in normal operation) must be installed in /var/opt . See the section on /var/opt for more information.

Host-specific configuration files must be installed in more information.

/etc/opt . See the section on /etc for

No other package files may exist outside the /opt , /var/opt , and /etc/opt hierarchies except for those package files that must reside in specific locations within the filesystem tree in order to function properly. For example, device lock files must be placed in /var/lock and devices must be located in /dev .

Distributions may install software in /opt , but must not modify or delete software installed by the local system administrator without the assent of the local system administrator.

BEGIN RATIONALE

The use of /opt for add-on software is a well-established practice in the U

NIX community.

The System V Application Binary Interface [AT&T 1990], based on the System V Interface

Definition (Third Edition), provides for an /opt structure very similar to the one defined here.

The Intel Binary Compatibility Standard v. 2 (iBCS2) also provides a similar structure for

/opt .

Generally, all data required to support a package on a system must be present within

/opt/

<

package

>

, including files intended to be copied into /etc/opt/

<

package

>

and /var/opt/

<

package

>

as well as reserved directories in /opt .

The minor restrictions on distributions using /opt are necessary because conflicts are possible between distribution-installed and locally-installed software, especially in the case of fixed pathnames found in some binary software.

END RATIONALE

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File System Standard 35.3. The Root Filesystem

35.3.13 /root : Home directory for the root user (optional)

35.3.13.1 Purpose

The root account’s home directory may be determined by developer or local preference, but this is the recommended default location.

14

35.3.14 /sbin : System binaries

35.3.14.1 Purpose

Utilities used for system administration (and other root-only commands) are stored in /sbin ,

/usr/sbin , and /usr/local/sbin .

/sbin contains binaries essential for booting, restoring, recovering, and/or repairing the system in addition to the binaries in /bin .

15

Programs executed after /usr is known to be mounted (when there are no problems) are generally placed into into

/usr/sbin . Locally-installed system administration programs should be placed

/usr/local/sbin .

16

35.3.14.2 Requirements

The following commands, or symbolic links to commands, are required in /sbin .

shutdown Command to bring the system down.

35.3.14.3 Specific Options

The following files, or symbolic links to files, must be in /sbin is installed: if the corresponding subsystem

14

If the home directory of the root account is not stored on the root partition it will be necessary to make certain it will default to / if it can not be located.

We recommend against using the root account for tasks that can be performed as an unprivileged user, and that it be used solely for system administration. For this reason, we recommend that subdirectories for mail and other applications not appear in the root account’s home directory, and that mail for administration roles such as root, postmaster, and webmaster be forwarded to an appropriate user.

15

Originally, /sbin binaries were kept in /etc .

16

Deciding what things go into "sbin" directories is simple: if a normal (not a system administrator) user will ever run it directly, then it must be placed in one of the have to place any of the sbin directories in their path.

"bin" directories. Ordinary users should not

For example, files such as chfn which users only occasionally use must still be placed in /usr/bin .

ping , although it is absolutely necessary for root (network recovery and diagnosis) is often used by users and must live in /bin for that reason.

We recommend that users have read and execute permission for everything in certain setuid and setgid programs. The division between /bin and /sbin

/sbin except, perhaps, was not created for security reasons or to prevent users from seeing the operating system, but to provide a good partition between binaries that everyone uses and ones that are primarily used for administration tasks. There is no inherent security advantage in making /sbin off-limits for users.

361

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File System Standard fastboot fasthalt fdisk fsck fsck.* getty halt ifconfig init mkfs mkfs.* mkswap reboot route swapon swapoff update

Reboot the system without checking the disks (optional)

Stop the system without checking the disks (optional)

Partition table manipulator (optional)

File system check and repair utility (optional)

File system check and repair utility for a specific filesystem (optional)

The getty program (optional)

Command to stop the system (optional)

Configure a network interface (optional)

Initial process (optional)

Command to build a filesystem (optional)

Command to build a specific filesystem (optional)

Command to set up a swap area (optional)

Command to reboot the system (optional)

IP routing table utility (optional)

Enable paging and swapping (optional)

Disable paging and swapping (optional)

Daemon to periodically flush filesystem buffers (optional)

35.3.15 /tmp : Temporary files

35.3.15.1 Purpose

The /tmp directory must be made available for programs that require temporary files.

Programs must not assume that any files or directories in tions of the program.

/tmp are preserved between invoca-

BEGIN RATIONALE

IEEE standard P1003.2 (POSIX, part 2) makes requirements that are similar to the above section.

Although data stored in /tmp may be deleted in a site-specific manner, it is recommended that files and directories located in /tmp be deleted whenever the system is booted.

FHS added this recommendation on the basis of historical precedent and common practice, but did not make it a requirement because system administration is not within the scope of this standard.

END RATIONALE

35.4 The /usr Hierarchy

35.4.1 Purpose

/usr is the second major section of the filesystem.

means that /usr

/usr is shareable, read-only data. That should be shareable between various FHS-compliant hosts and must not be written to. Any information that is host-specific or varies with time is stored elsewhere.

Large software packages must not use a direct subdirectory under the /usr hierarchy.

362

35. The L

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File System Standard 35.4. The /usr Hierarchy

35.4.2 Requirements

The following directories, or symbolic links to directories, are required in /usr .

/usr ——— Secondary Hierarchy bin Most user commands include lib

Header files included by C programs

Libraries local sbin share

Local hierarchy (empty after main installation)

Non-vital system binaries

Architecture-independent data

35.4.3 Specific Options

/usr ——— Secondary Hierarchy

X11R6 X Window System, version 11 release 6 (optional) games lib

<

qual

>

src

Games and educational binaries (optional)

Alternate Format Libraries (optional)

Source code (optional)

An exception is made for the X Window System because of considerable precedent and widelyaccepted practice.

The following symbolic links to directories may be present. This possibility is based on the need to preserve compatibility with older systems until all implementations can be assumed to use the /var hierarchy.

/usr/spool -> /var/spool

/usr/tmp -> /var/tmp

/usr/spool/locks -> /var/lock

Once a system no longer requires any one of the above symbolic links, the link may be removed, if desired.

35.4.4 /usr/X11R6 : X Window System, Version 11 Release 6 (optional)

35.4.4.1 Purpose

This hierarchy is reserved for the X Window System, version 11 release 6, and related files.

To simplify matters and make XFree86 more compatible with the X Window System on other systems, the following symbolic links must be present if /usr/X11R6 exists:

363

35.4. The /usr Hierarchy 35. The L

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File System Standard

/usr/bin/X11 -> /usr/X11R6/bin

/usr/lib/X11 -> /usr/X11R6/lib/X11

/usr/include/X11 -> /usr/X11R6/include/X11

In general, software must not be installed or managed via the above symbolic links. They are intended for utilization by users only. The difficulty is related to the release version of the X

Window System — in transitional periods, it is impossible to know what release of X11 is in use.

35.4.4.2 Specific Options

Host-specific data in /usr/X11R6/lib/X11 should be interpreted as a demonstration file. Applications requiring information about the current host must reference a configuration file in

/etc/X11 , which may be linked to a file in /usr/X11R6/lib .

17

35.4.5 /usr/bin : Most user commands

35.4.5.1 Purpose

This is the primary directory of executable commands on the system.

35.4.5.2 Specific Options

The following directories, or symbolic links to directories, must be in sponding subsystem is installed:

/usr/bin , if the corre-

/usr/bin ——— Binaries that are not needed in single-user mode mh Commands for the MH mail handling system (optional)

/usr/bin/X11 must be a symlink to /usr/X11R6/bin if the latter exists.

The following files, or symbolic links to files, must be in system is installed:

/usr/bin , if the corresponding subperl python tclsh wish expect

The Practical Extraction and Report Language (optional)

The Python interpreted language (optional)

Simple shell containing Tcl interpreter (optional)

Simple Tcl/Tk windowing shell (optional)

Program for interactive dialog (optional)

BEGIN RATIONALE

Because shell script interpreters (invoked with #!

<

path

>

on the first line of a shell script) cannot rely on a path, it is advantageous to standardize their locations. The Bourne shell and C-shell interpreters are already fixed in /bin , but Perl, Python, and Tcl are often found

17

Examples of such configuration files include Xconfig , XF86Config , or system.twmrc

)

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File System Standard 35.4. The /usr Hierarchy in many different places. They may be symlinks to the physical location of the shell interpreters.

END RATIONALE

35.4.6 /usr/include : Directory for standard include files.

35.4.6.1 Purpose

This is where all of the system’s general-use include files for the C programming language should be placed.

35.4.6.2 Specific Options

The following directories, or symbolic links to directories, must be in corresponding subsystem is installed:

/usr/include , if the

/usr/include ——— Include files bsd BSD compatibility include files (optional)

The symbolic link exists.

/usr/include/X11 must link to /usr/X11R6/include/X11 if the latter

35.4.7 /usr/lib : Libraries for programming and packages

35.4.7.1 Purpose

/usr/lib includes object files, libraries, and internal binaries that are not intended to be executed directly by users or shell scripts.

18

Applications may use a single subdirectory under /usr/lib . If an application uses a subdirectory, all architecture-dependent data exclusively used by the application must be placed within that subdirectory.

19

35.4.7.2 Specific Options

For historical reasons,

/usr/sbin/sendmail

/usr/lib/sendmail if the latter exists.

20 must be a symbolic link to

18

Miscellaneous architecture-independent application-specific static files and subdirectories must be placed in /usr/share .

19

For example, the perl5 subdirectory for Perl 5 modules and libraries.

20

Some executable commands such as makewhatis and sendmail have also been traditionally placed in

/usr/lib .

makewhatis is an internal binary and must be placed in a binary directory; users access only catman . Newer sendmail binaries are now placed by default in /usr/sbin . Additionally, systems using a sendmail -compatible mail transfer agent must provide /usr/sbin/sendmail as a symbolic link to the appropriate executable.

365

35.4. The /usr Hierarchy 35. The L

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File System Standard

If /lib/X11 exists, /usr/lib/X11

/lib/X11 is a symbolic link to.

21 must be a symbolic link to /lib/X11 , or to whatever

35.4.8 /usr/lib

<

qual

>

: Alternate format libraries (optional)

35.4.8.1 Purpose

/usr/lib

<

qual

>

performs the same role as /usr/lib for an alternate binary format, except that the symbolic links required.

22

/usr/lib

<

qual

>

/sendmail and /usr/lib

<

qual

>

/X11 are not

35.4.9 /usr/local : Local hierarchy

35.4.9.1 Purpose

The /usr/local hierarchy is for use by the system administrator when installing software locally. It needs to be safe from being overwritten when the system software is updated. It may be used for programs and data that are shareable amongst a group of hosts, but not found in

/usr .

Locally installed software must be placed within being installed to replace or upgrade software in

/usr/local

/usr .

23 rather than /usr unless it is

35.4.9.2 Requirements

The following directories, or symbolic links to directories, must be in /usr/local

/usr/local ——— Local hierarchy bin Local binaries games include lib

Local game binaries

Local C header files

Local libraries man sbin share

Local online manuals

Local system binaries

Local architecture-independent hierarchy

21

Host-specific data for the X Window System must not be stored in /usr/lib/X11 . Host-specific configuration files such as Xconfig or XF86Config must be stored in /etc/X11 . This includes configuration data such as system.twmrc

even if it is only made a symbolic link to a more global configuration file

(probably in /usr/X11R6/lib/X11 ).

22

The case where /usr/lib and /usr/lib

<

qual

>

are the same (one is a symbolic link to the other) these files and the per-application subdirectories will exist.

23

Software placed in / or /usr may be overwritten by system upgrades (though we recommend that distributions do not overwrite data in /etc under these circumstances). For this reason, local software must not be placed outside of /usr/local without good reason.

366

35. The L

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File System Standard 35.4. The /usr Hierarchy src Local source code

No other directories, except those listed below, may be in

FHS-compliant system.

/usr/local after first installing a

35.4.9.3 Specific Options

If directories exist in

/lib

<

/usr/local qual

.

>

or /usr/lib

<

qual

>

exist, the equivalent directories must also

35.4.10 /usr/sbin : Non-essential standard system binaries

35.4.10.1 Purpose

This directory contains any non-essential binaries used exclusively by the system administrator.

System administration programs that are required for system repair, system recovery, mounting

/usr , or other essential functions must be placed in /sbin instead.

24

35.4.11 /usr/share : Architecture-independent data

35.4.11.1 Purpose

The /usr/share hierarchy is for all read-only architecture independent data files.

25

This hierarchy is intended to be shareable among all architecture platforms of a given OS; thus, for example, a site with i386, Alpha, and PPC platforms might maintain a single /usr/share directory that is centrally-mounted. Note, however, that /usr/share is generally not intended to be shared by different OSes or by different releases of the same OS.

Any program or package which contains or requires data that doesn’t need to be modified should store that data in /usr/share (or /usr/local/share , if installed locally). It is recommended that a subdirectory be used in /usr/share for this purpose.

Game data stored in /usr/share/games must be purely static data. Any modifiable files, such as score files, game play logs, and so forth, should be placed in /var/games .

35.4.11.2 Requirements

The following directories, or symbolic links to directories, must be in /usr/share

/usr/share ——— Architecture-independent data man Online manuals misc Miscellaneous architecture-independent data

24

Locally installed system administration programs should be placed in /usr/local/sbin .

25

Much of this data originally lived in /usr ( man , doc ) or /usr/lib ( dict , terminfo , zoneinfo ).

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35.4. The /usr Hierarchy 35. The L

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File System Standard

35.4.11.3 Specific Options

The following directories, or symbolic links to directories, must be in /usr/share , if the corresponding subsystem is installed:

/usr/share ——— Architecture-independent data dict Word lists (optional) doc games

Miscellaneous documentation (optional)

Static data files for /usr/games (optional) info locale nls

GNU Info system’s primary directory (optional)

Locale information (optional)

Message catalogs for Native language support (optional) sgml terminfo tmac zoneinfo

SGML and XML data (optional)

Directories for terminfo database (optional) troff macros not distributed with groff (optional)

Timezone information and configuration (optional)

It is recommended that application-specific, architecture-independent directories be placed here.

Such directories include groff , perl , ghostscript ,

(BSD). They may, however, be placed in /usr/lib texmf , and kbd (Linux) or syscons for backwards compatibility, at the distributor’s discretion. Similarly, a /usr/lib/games hierarchy may be used in addition to the

/usr/share/games hierarchy if the distributor wishes to place some game data there.

35.4.11.4 /usr/share/dict : Word lists (optional)

35.4.11.4.1 Purpose

This directory is the home for word lists on the system; Traditionally this directory contains only the English words file, which is used by use either American or British spelling.

look(1) and various spelling programs.

words may

BEGIN RATIONALE

The reason that only word lists are located here is that they are the only files common to all spell checkers.

END RATIONALE

35.4.11.4.2 Specific Options

The following files, or symbolic links to files, must be in ing subsystem is installed:

/usr/share/dict , if the correspondwords List of English words (optional)

368

35. The L

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File System Standard 35.4. The /usr Hierarchy

Sites that require both American

/usr/share/dict/american-english and or

British spelling may link words

/usr/share/dict/british-english .

to

Word lists for other languages may be added using the English name for that language, e.g.,

/usr/share/dict/french , /usr/share/dict/danish , etc. These should, if possible, use an ISO 8859 character set which is appropriate for the language in question; if possible the Latin1

(ISO 8859-1) character set should be used (this is often not possible).

Other word lists must be included here, if present.

35.4.11.5 /usr/share/man : Manual pages

35.4.11.5.1 Purpose

This section details the organization for manual pages throughout the system, including

/usr/share/man . Also refer to the section on /var/cache/man .

The primary

<

mandir

>

of the system is /usr/share/man ual information for commands and data under the / and

.

/usr/share/man contains man-

/usr filesystems.

26

Manual pages are stored in tion of

<

mandir

>

,

<

<

locale mandir

>

,

<

>

/

<

locale section

>

, and

>

<

/man arch

<

>

section

>

/

<

arch is given below.

>

. An explana-

A description of each section follows:

man1 : User programs

Manual pages that describe publicly accessible commands are contained in this chapter.

Most program documentation that a user will need to use is located here.

man2 : System calls

This section describes all of the system calls (requests for the kernel to perform operations).

man3 : Library functions and subroutines

Section 3 describes program library routines that are not direct calls to kernel services.

This and chapter 2 are only really of interest to programmers.

man4 : Special files

Section 4 describes the special files, related driver functions, and networking support available in the system. Typically, this includes the device files found in kernel interface to networking protocol support.

/dev and the

man5 : File formats

The formats for many data files are documented in the section 5. This includes various include files, program output files, and system files.

man6 : Games

This chapter documents games, demos, and generally trivial programs. Different people have various notions about how essential this is.

man7 : Miscellaneous

Manual pages that are difficult to classify are designated as being section 7. The troff and other text processing macro packages are found here.

26

Obviously, there are no manual pages in required in emergencies.

27

27

Really.

/ because they are not required at boot time nor are they

369

35.4. The /usr Hierarchy 35. The L

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man8 : System administration

Programs used by system administrators for system operation and maintenance are documented here. Some of these programs are also occasionally useful for normal users.

35.4.11.5.2 Specific Options

The following directories, or symbolic links to

/usr/share/

<

mandir

>

/

<

locale

>

, unless they are empty:

28 directories,

<

mandir

>

/

<

locale

>

——— A manual page hierarchy man1 User programs (optional) man2 man3 man4

System calls (optional)

Library calls (optional)

Special files (optional) man5 man6 man7 man8

File formats (optional)

Games (optional)

Miscellaneous (optional)

System administration (optional) must be in

The component

<

section

>

describes the manual section.

Provisions must be made in the structure of /usr/share/man to support manual pages which are written in different (or multiple) languages. These provisions must take into account the storage and reference of these manual pages. Relevant factors include language (including geographical-based differences), and character code set.

This naming of language subdirectories of /usr/share/man is based on Appendix E of the

POSIX 1003.1 standard which describes the locale identification string — the most well-accepted method to describe a cultural environment. The

<

locale

>

string is:

<

language

>

[

<

territory

>

][.

<

character-set

>

][,

<

version

>

]

The

<

language

>

field must be taken from ISO 639 (a code for the representation of names of languages). It must be two characters wide and specified with lowercase letters only.

The

<

territory

>

field must be the two-letter code of ISO 3166 (a specification of representations of countries), if possible. (Most people are familiar with the two-letter codes used for the country codes in email addresses.

29

) It must be two characters wide and specified with uppercase letters only.

The

<

character-set

>

field must represent the standard describing the character set. If the

<

character-set

>

field is just a numeric specification, the number represents the number of

28

For example, if /usr/local/man has no manual pages in section 4 (Devices), then

/usr/local/man/man4 may be omitted.

29

A major exception to this rule is the United Kingdom, which is ‘GB’ in the ISO 3166, but ‘UK’ for most email addresses.

370

35. The L

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File System Standard 35.4. The /usr Hierarchy the international standard describing the character set. It is recommended that this be a numeric representation if possible (ISO standards, especially), not include additional punctuation symbols, and that any letters be in lowercase.

A parameter specifying a

<

character-set

>

<

version

>

of the profile may be placed after the field, delimited by a comma. This may be used to discriminate between different cultural needs; for instance, dictionary order versus a more systems-oriented collating order.

This standard recommends not using the

<

version

>

field, unless it is necessary.

Systems which use a unique language and code set for all manual pages may omit the

<

locale

>

substring and store all manual pages in

<

mandir

>

.

For example, systems which only have English manual pages coded with ASCII, may store manual pages (the man

<

section

>

directories) directly in /usr/share/man . (That is the traditional circumstance and arrangement, in fact.)

Countries for which there is a well-accepted standard character code set may omit the

<

character-set

>

field, but it is strongly recommended that it be included, especially for countries with several competing standards.

Various examples:

Language

English

English

English

French

French

German

German

German

German

Japanese

Japanese

Japanese

Territory

United Kingdom

United States

Canada

France

Germany

Germany

Germany

Switzerland

Japan

Japan

Japan

Character Set

ASCII

ASCII

ASCII

ISO 8859-1

ISO 8859-1

ISO 646

ISO 6937

ISO 8859-1

ISO 646

JIS

SJIS

UJIS (or EUC-J)

Directory

/usr/share/man/en

/usr/share/man/en GB

/usr/share/man/en US

/usr/share/man/fr CA

/usr/share/man/fr FR

/usr/share/man/de DE.646

/usr/share/man/de DE.6937

/usr/share/man/de DE.88591

/usr/share/man/de CH.646

/usr/share/man/ja JP.jis

/usr/share/man/ja JP.sjis

/usr/share/man/ja JP.ujis

Similarly, provision must be made for manual pages which are architecture-dependent, such as documentation on device-drivers or low-level system administration commands.

These must be placed under an

<

arch

>

directory in the appropriate man

<

section

>

directory; for example, a man page for the i386 ctrlaltdel(8) command might be placed in

/usr/share/man/

<

locale

>

/man8/i386/ctrlaltdel.8

.

Manual pages for commands and data under

Manual pages for X11R6 are stored in

/usr/local

/usr/X11R6/man are stored in /usr/local/man

. It follows that all manual page hier-

.

archies in the system must have the same structure as /usr/share/man .

The cat page sections ( cat

<

section

>

) containing formatted manual page entries are also found within subdirectories of

<

mandir

>

/

<

locale

>

, but are not required nor may they be distributed in lieu of nroff source manual pages.

The numbered sections ”1” through ”8” are traditionally defined. In general, the file name for manual pages located within a particular section end with .

<

section

>

.

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35.4. The /usr Hierarchy 35. The L

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In addition, some large sets of application-specific manual pages have an additional suffix appended to the manual page filename. For example, the MH mail handling system manual pages must have mh appended to all MH manuals. All X Window System manual pages must have an x appended to the filename.

The practice of placing various language manual pages in appropriate subdirectories of

/usr/share/man also applies to the other manual page hierarchies, such as /usr/local/man and /usr/X11R6/man . (This portion of the standard also applies later in the section on the optional /var/cache/man structure.)

35.4.11.6 /usr/share/misc : Miscellaneous architecture-independent data

This directory contains miscellaneous architecture-independent files which don’t require a separate subdirectory under /usr/share .

35.4.11.6.1 Specific Options

The following files, or symbolic links to files, must be in ing subsystem is installed:

/usr/share/misc , if the correspondascii magic termcap termcap.db

ASCII character set table (optional)

Default list of magic numbers for the file command (optional)

Terminal capability database (optional)

Terminal capability database (optional)

Other (application-specific) files may appear here,

30

/usr/lib at their discretion.

but a distributor may place them in

35.4.11.7 /usr/share/sgml : SGML and XML data (optional)

35.4.11.7.1 Purpose

/usr/share/sgml tions, such as ordinary catalogs (not the centralized ones, see style sheets.

contains architecture-independent files used by SGML or XML applica-

/etc/sgml ), DTDs, entities, or

35.4.11.7.2 Specific Options

The following directories, or symbolic links to directories, must be in /usr/share/sgml , if the corresponding subsystem is installed:

30

Some such files include:

{ airport , birthtoken , ipfw.samp.filters

, eqnchar , getopt ipfw.samp.scripts

,

, man.template

, map3270 , mdoc.template

, gprof.callg

keycap.pcvt

more.help

,

,

, gprof.flat

mail.help

, na.phone

,

, inter.phone

mail.tildehelp

nslookup.help

, oper-

,

, ator , scsi modes , sendmail.hf

, style , units.lib

,

} vgrindefs , vgrindefs.db

, zipcodes

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File System Standard 35.5. The /var Hierarchy

/usr/share/sgml ——— SGML and XML data docbook docbook DTD (optional) tei html mathml tei DTD (optional) html DTD (optional) mathml DTD (optional)

Other files that are not specific to a given DTD may reside in their own subdirectory.

35.4.12 /usr/src : Source code (optional)

35.4.12.1 Purpose

Any non-local source code should be placed in this subdirectory.

35.5 The /var Hierarchy

35.5.1 Purpose

/var contains variable data files. This includes spool directories and files, administrative and logging data, and transient and temporary files.

Some portions of

/var/log ,

/var

/var/lock are not shareable between different systems.

, and /var/run . Other portions may be shared, notably

For instance,

/var/mail ,

/var/cache/man , /var/cache/fonts , and /var/spool/news .

/var is specified here in order to make it possible to mount /usr read-only. Everything that once went into /usr that is written to during system operation (as opposed to installation and software maintenance) must be in /var .

If /var cannot be made a separate partition, it is often preferable to move /var out of the root partition and into the /usr partition. (This is sometimes done to reduce the size of the root partition or when space runs low in the root partition.) However, /var must not be linked to

/usr because this makes separation of /usr and /var more difficult and is likely to create a naming conflict. Instead, link /var to /usr/var .

Applications must generally not add directories to the top level of /var . Such directories should only be added if they have some system-wide implication, and in consultation with the FHS mailing list.

35.5.2 Requirements

The following directories, or symbolic links to directories, are required in /var .

/var ——— Variable data cache Application cache data lib Variable state information

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Variable data for /usr/local

Lock files

Log files and directories

Variable data for /opt

Data relevant to running processes

Application spool data

Temporary files preserved between system reboots

Several directories are ‘reserved’ in the sense that they must not be used arbitrarily by some new application, since they would conflict with historical and/or local practice. They are:

/var/backups

/var/cron

/var/msgs

/var/preserve

35.5.3 Specific Options

The following directories, or symbolic links to directories, must be in subsystem is installed:

/var , if the corresponding

/var ——— Variable data account Process accounting logs (optional) crash games

System crash dumps (optional)

Variable game data (optional) mail yp

User mailbox files (optional)

Network Information Service (NIS) database files (optional)

35.5.4 /var/account : Process accounting logs (optional)

35.5.4.1 Purpose

This directory holds the current active process accounting log and the composite process usage data (as used in some U

NIX

-like systems by lastcomm and sa ).

35.5.5 /var/cache : Application cache data

35.5.5.1 Purpose

/var/cache is intended for cached data from applications. Such data is locally generated as a result of time-consuming I/O or calculation. The application must be able to regenerate or

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File System Standard 35.5. The /var Hierarchy restore the data. Unlike /var/spool , the cached files can be deleted without data loss. The data must remain valid between invocations of the application and rebooting the system.

Files located under /var/cache may be expired in an application specific manner, by the system administrator, or both. The application must always be able to recover from manual deletion of these files (generally because of a disk space shortage). No other requirements are made on the data format of the cache directories.

BEGIN RATIONALE

The existence of a separate directory for cached data allows system administrators to set different disk and backup policies from other directories in /var .

END RATIONALE

35.5.5.2 Specific Options

/var/cache ——— Cache directories fonts man

Locally-generated fonts (optional)

Locally-formatted manual pages (optional) www

<

package

>

WWW proxy or cache data (optional)

Package specific cache data (optional)

35.5.5.3 /var/cache/fonts : Locally-generated fonts (optional)

35.5.5.3.1 Purpose

The directory /var/cache/fonts should be used to store any dynamically-created fonts. In particular, all of the fonts which are automatically generated by appropriately-named subdirectories of /var/cache/fonts .

31 mktexpk must be located in

35.5.5.3.2 Specific Options

Other dynamically created fonts may also be placed in this tree, under appropriately-named subdirectories of /var/cache/fonts .

35.5.5.4 /var/cache/man : Locally-formatted manual pages (optional)

35.5.5.4.1 Purpose

This directory provides a standard location for sites that provide a read-only /usr partition, but wish to allow caching of locally-formatted man pages. Sites that mount single-user installations) may choose not to use /var/cache/man

/usr as writable (e.g., and may write formatted man pages into the cat

<

section

>

directories in /usr/share/man directly. We recommend that most sites use one of the following options instead:

Preformat all manual pages alongside the unformatted versions.

31

This standard does not currently incorporate the TEX Directory Structure (a document that describes the layout TEX files and directories), but it may be useful reading. It is located at ftp://ctan.tug.org/tex/ .

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35.5. The /var Hierarchy 35. The L

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Allow no caching of formatted man pages, and require formatting to be done each time a man page is brought up.

Allow local caching of formatted man pages in /var/cache/man .

The structure of /var/cache/man needs to reflect both the fact of multiple man page hierarchies and the possibility of multiple language support.

Given an unformatted manual page that normally appears in

<

path

>

/man/

<

locale

>

/man

<

section

>

, the directory to place formatted man pages in is /var/cache/man/

<

catpath

>

/

<

locale

>

/cat

<

section

>

, where is derived from components.

32

<

path

>

by removing any leading

(Note that the

<

locale

>

usr and/or trailing component may be missing.)

<

catpath

>

share pathname

Man pages written to /var/cache/man may eventually be transferred to the appropriate preformatted directories in the source man hierarchy or expired; likewise formatted man pages in the source man hierarchy may be expired if they are not accessed for a period of time.

If preformatted manual pages come with a system on read-only media (a CD-ROM, for instance), they must be installed in the source man hierarchy (e.g.

/usr/share/man/cat

<

section

>

).

/var/cache/man is reserved as a writable cache for formatted manual pages.

BEGIN RATIONALE

Release 1.2 of the standard specified /var/catman for this hierarchy. The path has been moved under /var/cache to better reflect the dynamic nature of the formatted man pages.

The directory name has been changed to man to allow for enhancing the hierarchy to include post-processed formats other than ”cat”, such as PostScript, HTML, or DVI.

END RATIONALE

35.5.6 /var/crash : System crash dumps (optional)

35.5.6.1 Purpose

This directory holds system crash dumps. As of the date of this release of the standard, system crash dumps were not supported under Linux.

35.5.7 /var/games : Variable game data (optional)

35.5.7.1 Purpose

Any variable data relating to games in /usr should be placed here.

/var/games should hold the variable data previously found in /usr ; static data, such as help text, level descriptions, and so on, must remain elsewhere, such as /usr/share/games .

BEGIN RATIONALE

32 and

For example, /usr/share/man/man1/ls.1

is formatted into

/usr/X11R6/man/

<

locale

>

/man3/XtClass.3x

into

/var/cache/man/cat1/ls.1

/var/cache/man/X11R6/

<

locale

>

/-

, cat3/XtClass.3x

.

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File System Standard 35.5. The /var Hierarchy

/var/games has been given a hierarchy of its own, rather than leaving it merged in with the old /var/lib as in release 1.2. The separation allows local control of backup strategies, permissions, and disk usage, as well as allowing inter-host sharing and reducing clutter in

/var/lib . Additionally, /var/games is the path traditionally used by BSD.

END RATIONALE

35.5.8 /var/lib : Variable state information

35.5.8.1 Purpose

This hierarchy holds state information pertaining to an application or the system. State information is data that programs modify while they run, and that pertains to one specific host. Users must never need to modify files in /var/lib to configure a package’s operation.

State information is generally used to preserve the condition of an application (or a group of inter-related applications) between invocations and between different instances of the same application. State information should generally remain valid after a reboot, should not be logging output, and should not be spooled data.

An application (or a group of inter-related applications) must use a subdirectory of for its data.

33

There is one required subdirectory, /var/lib/misc

/var/lib

, which is intended for state files that don’t need a subdirectory; the other subdirectories should only be present if the application in question is included in the distribution.

/var/lib/

<

name

>

is the location that must be used for all distribution packaging support.

Different distributions may use different names, of course.

35.5.8.2 Requirements

The following directories, or symbolic links to directories, are required in /var/lib :

/var/lib ——— Variable state information misc Miscellaneous state data

35.5.8.3 Specific Options

The following directories, or symbolic links to directories, must be in sponding subsystem is installed:

/var/lib , if the corre-

/var/lib ——— Variable state information

<

editor

>

Editor backup files and state (optional)

<

pkgtool

>

<

package

>

Packaging support files (optional)

State data for packages and subsystems (optional)

33

An important difference between this version of this standard and previous ones is that applications are now required to use a subdirectory of /var/lib .

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35.5. The /var Hierarchy 35. The L

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File System Standard hwclock xdm

State directory for hwclock (optional)

X display manager variable data (optional)

35.5.8.4 /var/lib/

<

editor

>

: Editor backup files and state (optional)

35.5.8.4.1 Purpose

These directories contain saved files generated by any unexpected termination of an editor (e.g., elvis, jove, nvi).

Other editors may not require a directory for crash-recovery files, but may require a welldefined place to store other information while the editor is running. This information should be stored in a subdirectory under in /var/lib/emacs/lock ).

/var/lib (for example, GNU Emacs would place lock files

Future editors may require additional state information beyond crash-recovery files and lock files — this information should also be placed under /var/lib/

<

editor

>

.

BEGIN RATIONALE

Previous Linux releases, as well as all commercial vendors, use /var/preserve for vi or its clones. However, each editor uses its own format for these crash-recovery files, so a separate directory is needed for each editor.

Editor-specific lock files are usually quite different from the device or resource lock files that are stored in /var/lock and, hence, are stored under /var/lib .

END RATIONALE

35.5.8.5 /var/lib/hwclock : State directory for hwclock (optional)

35.5.8.5.1 Purpose

This directory contains the file /var/lib/hwclock/adjtime .

BEGIN RATIONALE

In FHS 2.1, this file was incorrect.

/etc/adjtime , but as hwclock updates it, that was obviously

END RATIONALE

35.5.8.6 /var/lib/misc : Miscellaneous variable data

35.5.8.6.1 Purpose

This directory contains variable data not placed in a subdirectory in /var/lib . An attempt should be made to use relatively unique names in this directory to avoid namespace conflicts.

34

34

This hierarchy should contain files stored in /var/db in current BSD releases. These include cate.database

and mountdtab , and the kernel symbol database(s).

lo-

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35.5.9 /var/lock : Lock files

35.5.9.1 Purpose

Lock files should be stored within the /var/lock directory structure.

Lock files for devices and other resources shared by multiple applications, such as the serial device lock files that were originally found in either /usr/spool/locks must now be stored in /var/lock or /usr/spool/uucp

. The naming convention which must be used is LCK..

, followed by the base name of the device file. For example, to lock

LCK..ttyS0

would be created.

/dev/ttyS0 the file

35

The format used for the contents of such lock files must be the HDB UUCP lock file format. The

HDB format is to store the process identifier (PID) as a ten byte ASCII decimal number, with a trailing newline. For example, if process 1230 holds a lock file, it would contain the eleven characters: space, space, space, space, space, space, one, two, three, zero, and newline.

35.5.10 /var/log : Log files and directories

35.5.10.1 Purpose

This directory contains miscellaneous log files. Most logs must be written to this directory or an appropriate subdirectory.

35.5.10.2 Specific Options

The following files, or symbolic links to files, must be in system is installed:

/var/log , if the corresponding sublastlog messages wtmp record of last login of each user system messages from syslogd record of all logins and logouts

35.5.11 /var/mail : User mailbox files (optional)

35.5.11.1 Purpose

The mail spool must be accessible through form

<

username

>

.

36

/var/mail and the mail spool files must take the

User mailbox files in this location must be stored in the standard U

NIX mailbox format.

BEGIN RATIONALE

35

Then, anything wishing to use /dev/ttyS0 can read the lock file and act accordingly (all locks in

/var/lock should be world-readable).

36

Note that /var/mail may be a symbolic link to another directory.

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35.5. The /var Hierarchy 35. The L

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File System Standard

The logical location for this directory was changed from /var/spool/mail in order to bring FHS in-line with nearly every U

NIX implementation. This change is important for inter-operability since a single /var/mail is often shared between multiple hosts and multiple U

NIX implementations (despite NFS locking issues).

It is important to note that there is no requirement to physically move the mail spool to this location. However, programs and header files must be changed to use /var/mail .

END RATIONALE

35.5.12 /var/opt : Variable data for /opt

35.5.12.1 Purpose

Variable data of the packages in

<

package

>

/opt must be installed in is the name of the subtree in /opt

/var/opt/

<

package

>

, where where the static data from an add-on software package is stored, except where superseded by another file in /etc . No structure is imposed on the internal arrangement of /var/opt/

<

package

>

.

BEGIN RATIONALE

Refer to the rationale for /opt .

END RATIONALE

35.5.13 /var/run : Run-time variable data

35.5.13.1 Purpose

This directory contains system information data describing the system since it was booted. Files under this directory must be cleared (removed or truncated as appropriate) at the beginning of the boot process. Programs may have a subdirectory of programs that use more than one run-time file.

37

/var/run ; this is encouraged for

Process identifier (PID) files, which were originally placed in /etc , must be placed in /var/run . The naming convention for PID files is

<

program-name

>

.pid

. For example, the crond PID file is named /var/run/crond.pid

.

35.5.13.2 Requirements

The internal format of PID files remains unchanged. The file must consist of the process identifier in ASCII-encoded decimal, followed by a newline character. For example, if crond number 25, /var/run/crond.pid

was process would contain three characters: two, five, and newline.

Programs that read PID files should be somewhat flexible in what they accept; i.e., they should ignore extra whitespace, leading zeroes, absence of the trailing newline, or additional lines in the

PID file. Programs that create PID files should use the simple specification located in the above paragraph.

The utmp file, which stores information about who is currently using the system, is located in this directory.

Programs that maintain transient U

NIX

-domain sockets must place them in this directory.

37

/var/run should be unwritable for unprivileged users (root or users running daemons); it is a major security problem if any user can write in this directory.

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35.5.14 /var/spool : Application spool data

35.5.14.1 Purpose

/var/spool contains data which is awaiting some kind of later processing.

Data in

/var/spool represents work to be done in the future (by a program, user, or administrator); often data is deleted after it has been processed.

38

35.5.14.2 Specific Options

The following directories, or symbolic links to directories, must be in /var/spool , if the corresponding subsystem is installed:

/var/spool ——— Spool directories lpd Printer spool directory (optional) mqueue news

Outgoing mail queue (optional)

News spool directory (optional) rwho uucp

Rwhod files (optional)

Spool directory for UUCP (optional)

35.5.14.3 /var/spool/lpd : Line-printer daemon print queues (optional)

35.5.14.3.1 Purpose

The lock file for lpd , lpd.lock

, must be placed in /var/spool/lpd . It is suggested that the lock file for each printer be placed in the spool directory for that specific printer and named lock .

35.5.14.3.2 Specific Options

/var/spool/lpd ——— Printer spool directory

<

printer

>

Spools for a specific printer (optional)

35.5.14.4 /var/spool/rwho : Rwhod files (optional)

35.5.14.4.1 Purpose

This directory holds the rwhod information for other systems on the local net.

BEGIN RATIONALE

38

UUCP lock files must be placed in /var/lock . See the above section on /var/lock .

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35.6. Operating System Specific Annex 35. The L

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File System Standard

Some BSD releases use /var/rwho for this data; given its historical location in

/var/spool on other systems and its approximate fit to the definition of ‘spooled’ data, this location was deemed more appropriate.

END RATIONALE

35.5.15 /var/tmp : Temporary files preserved between system reboots

35.5.15.1 Purpose

The /var/tmp directory is made available for programs that require temporary files or directories that are preserved between system reboots. Therefore, data stored in /var/tmp is more persistent than data in /tmp .

Files and directories located in /var/tmp must not be deleted when the system is booted. Although data stored in /var/tmp is typically deleted in a site-specific manner, it is recommended that deletions occur at a less frequent interval than /tmp .

35.5.16 /var/yp : Network Information Service (NIS) database files

(optional)

35.5.16.1 Purpose

Variable data for the Network Information Service (NIS), formerly known as the Sun Yellow

Pages (YP), must be placed in this directory.

BEGIN RATIONALE

/var/yp is the standard directory for NIS (YP) data and is almost exclusively used in NIS documentation and systems.

39

END RATIONALE

35.6 Operating System Specific Annex

This section is for additional requirements and recommendations that only apply to a specific operating system. The material in this section should never conflict with the base standard.

35.6.1 Linux

This is the annex for the Linux operating system.

35.6.1.1 / : Root directory

On Linux systems, if the kernel is located in / , we recommend using the names vmlinuz , which have been used in recent Linux kernel source packages.

vmlinux or

39

NIS should not be confused with Sun NIS+, which uses a different directory, /var/nis .

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File System Standard 35.6. Operating System Specific Annex

35.6.1.2 /bin : Essential user command binaries (for use by all users)

Linux systems which require them place these additional files into /bin .

{ setserial }

35.6.1.3 /dev : Devices and special files

All devices and special files in /dev should adhere to the

Linux Allocated Devices

document, which is available with the Linux kernel source. It is maintained by H. Peter Anvin

<

[email protected]

>

.

Symbolic links in /dev should not be distributed with Linux systems except as provided in the

Linux Allocated Devices

document.

BEGIN RATIONALE

The requirement not to make symlinks promiscuously is made because local setups will often differ from that on the distributor’s development machine. Also, if a distribution install script configures the symbolic links at install time, these symlinks will often not get updated if local changes are made in hardware. When used responsibly at a local level, however, they can be put to good use.

END RATIONALE

35.6.1.4 /etc : Host-specific system configuration

Linux systems which require them place these additional files into /etc .

{ lilo.conf }

35.6.1.5 /proc : Kernel and process information virtual filesystem

The proc filesystem is the de-facto standard Linux method for handling process and system information, rather than /dev/kmem and other similar methods. We strongly encourage this for the storage and retrieval of process information as well as other kernel and memory information.

35.6.1.6 /sbin : Essential system binaries

Linux systems place these additional files into /sbin .

Second extended filesystem commands (optional):

{ badblocks , dumpe2fs , e2fsck , mke2fs , mklost+found , tune2fs }

Boot-loader map installer (optional):

{ lilo }

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35.6. Operating System Specific Annex 35. The L

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File System Standard

Optional files for /sbin:

Static binaries:

{ ldconfig , sln , ssync }

Static of sln ln ( sln ) and static sync ( ssync

(to repair incorrect symlinks in

) are useful when things go wrong. The primary use

/lib after a poorly orchestrated upgrade) is no longer a major concern now that the ldconfig program (usually located in /usr/sbin ) exists and can act as a guiding hand in upgrading the dynamic libraries. Static sync is useful in some emergency situations. Note that these need not be statically linked versions of the standard ln and sync , but may be.

The ldconfig binary is optional for /sbin since a site may choose to run ldconfig at boot time, rather than only when upgrading the shared libraries. (It’s not clear whether or not it is advantageous to run ldconfig on each boot.) Even so, some people like ldconfig around for the following (all too common) situation:

1.

2.

I’ve just removed /lib/

<

file

>

.

I can’t find out the name of the library because that doesn’t have ls ls is dynamically linked, I’m using a shell built-in, and I don’t know about using ” echo * ” as a replacement.

3.

I have a static sln , but I don’t know what to call the link.

Miscellaneous:

{ ctrlaltdel , kbdrate }

So as to cope with the fact that some keyboards come up with such a high repeat rate as to be unusable, kbdrate may be installed in /sbin on some systems.

Since the default action in the kernel for the Ctrl-Alt-Del key combination is an instant hard reboot, it is generally advisable to disable the behavior before mounting the root filesystem in read-write mode. Some init suites are able to disable Ctrl-Alt-Del, but others may require the ctrlaltdel program, which may be installed in /sbin on those systems.

35.6.1.7 /usr/include : Header files included by C programs

These symbolic links are required if a C or C++ compiler is installed and only for systems not based on glibc.

/usr/include/asm -> /usr/src/linux/include/asm-<arch>

/usr/include/linux -> /usr/src/linux/include/linux

35.6.1.8 /usr/src : Source code

For systems based on glibc, there are no specific guidelines for this directory. For systems based on Linux libc revisions prior to glibc, the following guidelines and rationale apply:

The only source code that should be placed in a specific location is the Linux kernel source code.

It is located in /usr/src/linux .

If a C or C++ compiler is installed, but the complete Linux kernel source code is not installed, then the include files from the kernel source code must be located in these directories:

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/usr/src/linux/include/asm-<arch>

/usr/src/linux/include/linux

<

arch

>

is the name of the system architecture.

Note:

/usr/src/linux

may be a symbolic link to a kernel source code tree.

BEGIN RATIONALE

It is important that the kernel include files be located in /usr/src/linux and not in

/usr/include so there are no problems when system administrators upgrade their kernel version for the first time.

END RATIONALE

35.6.1.9 /var/spool/cron : cron and at jobs

This directory contains the variable data for the cron and at programs.

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35.7. Appendix 35. The L

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35.7 Appendix

35.7.1 The FHS mailing list

The FHS mailing list is located at

<

[email protected]

>

. To subscribe to the list send mail to

<

[email protected]

>

with body ” ADD fhs-discuss ”.

Thanks to Network Operations at the University of California at San Diego who allowed us to use their excellent mailing list server.

As noted in the introduction, please do not send mail to the mailing list without first contacting the FHS editor or a listed contributor.

35.7.2 Background of the FHS

The process of developing a standard filesystem hierarchy began in August 1993 with an effort to restructure the file and directory structure of Linux. The FSSTND, a filesystem hierarchy standard specific to the Linux operating system, was released on February 14, 1994. Subsequent revisions were released on October 9, 1994 and March 28, 1995.

In early 1995, the goal of developing a more comprehensive version of FSSTND to address not only Linux, but other U

NIX

-like systems was adopted with the help of members of the BSD development community. As a result, a concerted effort was made to focus on issues that were general to U

NIX

-like systems. In recognition of this widening of scope, the name of the standard was changed to Filesystem Hierarchy Standard or FHS for short.

Volunteers who have contributed extensively to this standard are listed at the end of this document. This standard represents a consensus view of those and other contributors.

35.7.3 General Guidelines

Here are some of the guidelines that have been used in the development of this standard:

Solve technical problems while limiting transitional difficulties.

Make the specification reasonably stable.

Gain the approval of distributors, developers, and other decision-makers in relevant development groups and encourage their participation.

Provide a standard that is attractive to the implementors of different U

NIX

-like systems.

35.7.4 Scope

This document specifies a standard filesystem hierarchy for FHS filesystems by specifying the location of files and directories, and the contents of some system files.

This standard has been designed to be used by system integrators, package developers, and system administrators in the construction and maintenance of FHS compliant filesystems. It is primarily intended to be a reference and is not a tutorial on how to manage a conforming filesystem hierarchy.

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35. The L

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File System Standard 35.7. Appendix

The FHS grew out of earlier work on FSSTND, a filesystem organization standard for the Linux operating system. It builds on FSSTND to address interoperability issues not just in the Linux community but in a wider arena including 4.4BSD-based operating systems. It incorporates lessons learned in the BSD world and elsewhere about multi-architecture support and the demands of heterogeneous networking.

Although this standard is more comprehensive than previous attempts at filesystem hierarchy standardization, periodic updates may become necessary as requirements change in relation to emerging technology. It is also possible that better solutions to the problems addressed here will be discovered so that our solutions will no longer be the best possible solutions. Supplementary drafts may be released in addition to periodic updates to this document. However, a specific goal is backwards compatibility from one release of this document to the next.

Comments related to this standard are welcome. Any comments or suggestions for changes may be directed to the FHS editor (Daniel Quinlan

<

[email protected]

>

) or the FHS mailing list. Typographical or grammatical comments should be directed to the FHS editor.

Before sending mail to the mailing list it is requested that you first contact the FHS editor in order to avoid excessive re-discussion of old topics.

Questions about how to interpret items in this document may occasionally arise. If you have need for a clarification, please contact the FHS editor. Since this standard represents a consensus of many participants, it is important to make certain that any interpretation also represents their collective opinion. For this reason it may not be possible to provide an immediate response unless the inquiry has been the subject of previous discussion.

35.7.5 Acknowledgments

The developers of the FHS wish to thank the developers, system administrators, and users whose input was essential to this standard. We wish to thank each of the contributors who helped to write, compile, and compose this standard.

The FHS Group also wishes to thank those Linux developers who supported the FSSTND, the predecessor to this standard. If they hadn’t demonstrated that the FSSTND was beneficial, the

FHS could never have evolved.

35.7.6 Contributors

Brandon S. Allbery

Keith Bostic

Drew Eckhardt

Rik Faith

Stephen Harris

Ian Jackson

John A. Martin

Ian McCloghrie

Chris Metcalf

Ian Murdock

David C. Niemi

Daniel Quinlan

<

[email protected]

>

<

[email protected]

>

<

[email protected]

>

<

[email protected]

>

<

[email protected]

>

<

[email protected]

>

<

[email protected]

>

<

[email protected]

>

<

[email protected]

>

<

[email protected]

>

<

[email protected]

>

<

[email protected]

>

387

35.7. Appendix 35. The L

INUX

File System Standard

Eric S. Raymond

Rusty Russell

Mike Sangrey

David H. Silber

Thomas Sippel-Dau

Theodore Ts’o

Stephen Tweedie

Fred N. van Kempen

Bernd Warken

<

[email protected]

>

<

[email protected]

>

<

[email protected]

>

<

[email protected]

>

<

[email protected]

>

<

[email protected]

>

<

[email protected]

>

<

[email protected]

>

<

[email protected]

>

388

Chapter 36 httpd — Apache Web Server

In this chapter, we will show how to set up a web server running virtual domains and dynamic CGI web pages. HTML is not covered, and you are expected to have some understanding of what HTML is, or at least where to find documentation about it.

36.1 Web Server Basics

In Section 26.2 we showed a simple HTTP session with the

web server

telnet command. A is really nothing more than a program that reads a file from the hard disk whenever a GET /<filename>.html HTTP/1.0

request comes in on port 80. Here, we will show a simple web server written in shell script.

&

Not by me. The author did not put his name in the source, so if you are out there, please drop me an email.

You will need to add

5

¥ www stream

§ tcp nowait nobody /usr/local/sbin/sh-httpd

¦ to your /etc/inetd.conf

file. If you are running xinetd , then you will need to add a file containing

¨ service www

{ socket_type wait user server

= stream

= no

= nobody

= /usr/local/sbin/sh-httpd

}

§

¥

¦ to your /etc/xinetd.d/ servers and restart inetd directory. Then, you must stop any already running web

(or xinetd ).

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36.1. Web Server Basics 36.

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— Apache Web Server

5

10

You will also have to create a log file ( /usr/local/var/log/sh-httpd.log

) and at least one web page ( /usr/local/var/sh-www/index.html

) for your server to serve. It can contain, say:

¨

<HTML>

<HEAD>

<TITLE>My First Document</TITLE>

</HEAD>

<BODY bgcolor=#CCCCCC text="#000000">

This is my first document<P>

Please visit

<A HREF="http://rute.sourceforge.net/">

The Rute Home Page

</A> for more info.</P>

</BODY>

</HTML>

§

¥

¦

5 body

Note that the server runs as user, and the index.html

nobody , so the log file must be writable by the file must be readable. Also note the use of the nogetpeername command, which can be changed to pipes package installed.

PEER="" if you do not have the net-

&

I am not completely sure if other commands used here are unavailable on other U

NIX

¨ systems.

.

#!/bin/sh

VERSION=0.1

NAME="ShellHTTPD"

DEFCONTENT="text/html"

DOCROOT=/usr/local/var/sh-www

DEFINDEX=index.html

LOGFILE=/usr/local/var/log/sh-httpd.log

¥

10 log() { local REMOTE_HOST=$1 local REFERRER=$2 local CODE=$3 local SIZE=$4

15 echo "$REMOTE_HOST $REFERRER - [$REQ_DATE] \

\"${REQUEST}\" ${CODE} ${SIZE}" >> ${LOGFILE}

}

20 print_header() { echo -e "HTTP/1.0 200 OK\r" echo -e "Server: ${NAME}/${VERSION}\r" echo -e "Date: ‘date‘\r"

}

25 print_error() { echo -e "HTTP/1.0 $1 $2\r"

390

36.

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— Apache Web Server

30 echo -e "Content-type: $DEFCONTENT\r" echo -e "Connection: close\r" echo -e "Date: ‘date‘\r" echo -e "\r" echo -e "$2\r" exit 1

35

} guess_content_type() { local FILE=$1 local CONTENT

40

45 case ${FILE##*.} in html) CONTENT=$DEFCONTENT ;; gz) CONTENT=application/x-gzip ;;

*) CONTENT=application/octet-stream ;; esac echo -e "Content-type: $CONTENT"

55

}

50 do_get() { local DIR local NURL local LEN if [ ! -d $DOCROOT ]; then log ${PEER} - 404 0 print_error 404 "No such file or directory" fi

60

65

70

75

80 if [ -z "${URL##*/}" ]; then

URL=${URL}${DEFINDEX} fi

DIR="‘dirname $URL‘" if [ ! -d ${DOCROOT}/${DIR} ]; then log ${PEER} - 404 0 else print_error 404 "Directory not found" cd ${DOCROOT}/${DIR}

NURL="‘pwd‘/‘basename ${URL}‘"

URL=${NURL} fi if [ ! -f ${URL} ]; then log ${PEER} - 404 0 print_error 404 "Document not found" fi print_header guess_content_type ${URL}

LEN="‘ls -l ${URL} | tr -s ’ ’ | cut -d ’ ’ -f 5‘" echo -e "Content-length: $LEN\r\n\r" log ${PEER} - 200 ${LEN}

391

36.1. Web Server Basics

36.1. Web Server Basics 36.

httpd

— Apache Web Server

85

90 cat ${URL} sleep 3

} read_request() { local DIRT local COMMAND read REQUEST read DIRT

95

REQ_DATE="‘date +"%d/%b/%Y:%H:%M:%S %z"‘"

REQUEST="‘echo ${REQUEST} | tr -s [:blank:]‘"

COMMAND="‘echo ${REQUEST} | cut -d ’ ’ -f 1‘"

URL="‘echo ${REQUEST} | cut -d ’ ’ -f 2‘"

PROTOCOL="‘echo ${REQUEST} | cut -d ’ ’ -f 3‘"

100

105 case $COMMAND in

HEAD) print_error 501 "Not implemented (yet)"

;;

GET) do_get

;;

*) print_error 501 "Not Implemented"

;; esac

110

}

115

#

# It was supposed to be clean - without any non-standard utilities

# but I want some logging where the connections come from, so

# I use just this one utility to get the peer address

#

# This is from the netpipes package

PEER="‘getpeername | cut -d ’ ’ -f 1‘"

120 read_request

Now run telnet localhost 80 , as in Section 26.2. If that works and your log files are being properly appended (use tail -f . . . ), you can try to connect to http://localhost/ with a web browser like Netscape.

Notice also that the command getsockname (which tells you which of your own

IP addresses the remote client connected to) could allow the script to serve pages from a different directory for each IP address. This is baby, I’m in a giant nutshell.... how do I get out?

-

virtual domains

in a nutshell.

&

Groovy,

392

¦

36.

httpd

— Apache Web Server 36.2. Installing and Configuring Apache

36.2 Installing and Configuring Apache

Because all distributions package Apache in a different way, here I assume Apache to have been installed from its source tree, rather than from a .deb

or .rpm

package. You can refer to Section 24.1 on how to install Apache from its source

.tar.gz

file like any other GNU package. (You can even install it under Windows, Windows NT, or OS/2.) The source tree is, of course, available from

The

Apache Home Page

http://www.apache.org

. Here I assume you have installed it in -prefix=/opt/apache/ . In the process, Apache will have dumped a huge reference manual into /opt/apache/htdocs/manual/ .

36.2.1 Sample httpd.conf

5

10

15

20

25

30

Apache has several legacy configuration files: access.conf

and srm.conf

are two of them. These files are now deprecated and should be left empty. A single configuration file

¨

/opt/apache/conf/httpd.conf

may contain at minimum:

ServerType standalone

ServerRoot "/opt/apache"

PidFile /opt/apache/logs/httpd.pid

ScoreBoardFile /opt/apache/logs/httpd.scoreboard

Port 80

User nobody

Group nobody

HostnameLookups Off

ServerAdmin [email protected]

UseCanonicalName On

ServerSignature On

DefaultType text/plain

ErrorLog /opt/apache/logs/error_log

LogLevel warn

LogFormat "%h %l %u %t \"%r\" %>s %b" common

CustomLog /opt/apache/logs/access_log common

DocumentRoot "/opt/apache/htdocs"

DirectoryIndex index.html

AccessFileName .htaccess

<Directory />

Options FollowSymLinks

AllowOverride None

Order Deny,Allow

Deny from All

</Directory>

<Files ˜ "ˆ\.ht">

Order allow,deny

Deny from all

</Files>

<Directory "/opt/apache/htdocs">

Options Indexes FollowSymLinks MultiViews

AllowOverride All

¥

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— Apache Web Server

35

40

Order allow,deny

Allow from all

</Directory>

<Directory "/opt/apache/htdocs/home/*/www">

Options Indexes MultiViews

AllowOverride None

Order allow,deny

Allow from all

</Directory>

¦

With the config file ready, you can move the index.html

file above to

/opt/apache/htdocs/ . You will notice the complete Apache manual and a demo page already installed there; you can move them to another directory for the time being. Now run

¨

/opt/apache/bin/httpd -X

§

¥

¦ and then point your web browser to http://localhost/ as before.

36.2.2 Common directives

Here is a description of the options.

Each option is called a

directive

in Apache terminology.

A complete list of basic directives is in the file

/opt/apache/htdocs/manual/mod/core.html

.

ServerType

inetd

As discussed in Section 29.2, some services can run standalone or from

(or xinetd ). This directive can be exactly standalone or inetd . If you choose inetd , you will need to add an appropriate line into your inetd configuration, although a web server should almost certainly choose standalone mode.

ServerRoot

This is the directory superstructure

&

See page 137.

under which Apache is installed. It will always be the same as the value passed to --prefix= .

PidFile

Many system services store the process ID in a file for shutdown and monitoring purposes. On most distributions, the file is /var/run/httpd.pid

.

ScoreBoardFile

This option is used for communication between Apache parent and child processes on some non-U

NIX systems.

Port

This is the TCP port for standalone servers to listen on.

User , Group

This option is important for security. It forces httpd to user nobody privileges. If the web server is ever hacked, the attack will not be able to gain more than the privileges of the nobody user.

394

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— Apache Web Server 36.2. Installing and Configuring Apache

HostnameLookups

directive to on

To force a reverse DNS lookup on every connecting host, set this

. To force a forward lookup on every reverse lookup, set this to double . This option is for logging purposes since access control does a reverse and forward reverse lookup anyway if required. It should certainly be off if you want to reduce latency.

ServerAdmin

Error messages include this email address.

UseCanonicalName

If Apache has to return a URL for any reason, it will normally return the full name of the server. Setting to off uses the very host name sent by the client.

ServerSignature

Add the server name to HTML error messages.

DefaultType

All files returned to the client have a type field specifying how the file should be displayed. If Apache cannot deduce the type, it assumes the MIME

Type to be text/plain . See Section 12.6.2 for a discussion of MIME types.

ErrorLog

Where errors get logged, usually /var/log/httpd/error log

LogLevel

How much info to log.

LogFormat

Define a new log format. Here we defined a log format and call it common . Multiple lines are allowed. Lots of interesting information can actually be logged: See /opt/apache/htdocs/manual/mod/mod log config.html

for a full description.

CustomLog

The log file name and its (previously defined) format.

DocumentRoot

This directive specifies the top-level directory that client connections will see. The string /opt/apache/htdocs/ is prepended to any file lookup, and hence a URL http://localhost/manual/index.html.en

/opt/apache/htdocs/manual/index.html.en

.

will return the file

DirectoryIndex

This directive gives the default file to try serve for URLs that contain only a directory name. If a file index.html

does not exist under that directory, an index of the directory is sent to the client. Other common configurations use index.htm

or default.html

.

AccessFileName

from a file

Before serving a file to a client, Apache reads additional directives

.htaccess

in the same directory as the requested file. If a parent directory contains a cess

.htaccess

instead, this one will take priority. The .htacfile contains directives that limit access to the directory, as discussed below.

The above is merely the general configuration of Apache. To actually serve pages, you need to define directories, each with a particular purpose, containing particular

HTML or graphic files. The Apache configuration file is very much like an HTML document. Sections are started with <

section parameter

> and ended with </

section

> .

395

36.2. Installing and Configuring Apache 36.

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— Apache Web Server

5

The most common directive of this sort is <Directory /

directory

> which does such directory definition. Before defining any directories, we need to limit access to the root directory. This control is critical for security.

¨

<Directory />

Options FollowSymLinks

Deny from All

Order Deny,Allow

AllowOverride None

</Directory>

§

¥

¦

This configuration tells Apache about the root directory, giving clients very restrictive access to it. The directives are

&

Some of these are extracted from the Apache manual.

:

Options

The Options directive controls which server features are available in a particular directory. There is also the syntax of the parent directory, for example,

+

option

or -

option

to include the options

Options +FollowSymLinks -Indexes .

FollowSymLinks

The server will follow any symbolic links beneath the directory. Be careful about what symbolic links you have beneath directories with

FollowSymLinks . You can, for example, give everyone access to the root directory by having a link ../../../ under htdocs —not what you want.

ExecCGI

Execution of CGI scripts is permitted.

Includes

Server-side includes are permitted (more on this later).

IncludesNOEXEC

and #include

Server-side includes are permitted, but the #exec of CGI scripts are disabled.

command

Indexes

If a client asks for a directory by name and no whatever DirectoryIndex index.html

file (or file you specified) is present, then a pretty listing of the contents of that directory is created and returned. For security you may want to turn this option off.

MultiViews

Content-negotiated MultiViews are allowed (more on this later).

SymLinksIfOwnerMatch

The server will only follow symbolic links for which the target file or directory is owned by the same user ID as the link (more on this later).

All

All options except for MultiViews . This is the default setting.

Deny

Hosts that are not allowed to connect. You can specify a host name or IP address, for example, as:

¨

Deny from 10.1.2.3

Deny from 192.168.5.0/24

Deny from cranzgot.co.za

§

¥

¦

396

36.

httpd

— Apache Web Server 36.2. Installing and Configuring Apache which will deny access to 10.1.2.3

, all hosts beginning with 192.168.5.

, and all hosts ending in .cranzgot.co.za

, including the host cranzgot.co.za

.

Allow

Hosts that are allowed to connect. This directive uses the same syntax as Deny .

Order

If order is Deny,Allow , then the client that does not match a Deny

Deny directives are checked first and any directive or does match an Allow directive will be

allowed

access to the server.

If order is Allow,Deny , then the client that does not match an

Allow

Allow directives are checked first and any directive or does match a Deny directive will be

denied

access to the server.

AllowOverride

In addition to the directives specified here, additional directives will be read from the file specified by AccessFileName , usually called .htaccess . This file would usually exist alongside your in a parent directory.

.html

files or otherwise

If the file exists, its contents are read into the current <Directory

.htaccess

. . .

> directive.

AllowOverride file is allowed to squash.

says what directives the

The complete list can be found in

/opt/apache/htdocs/manual/mod/core.html

.

You can see that we give very restrictive Options to the root directory, as well as very restrictive access. The only server feature we allow is FollowSymLinks , then we Deny any access, and then we remove the possibility that a override our restrictions.

.htaccess

file could

The <Files

. . .

> directive sets restrictions on all files matching a particular regular expression. As a security measure, we use it to prevent access to all .htaccess

files as follows:

¨

<Files ˜ "ˆ\.ht">

Order allow,deny

Deny from all

</Files>

§

¥

¦

5

We are now finally ready to add actual web page directories. These take a less restrictive set of access controls:

¨

<Directory "/opt/apache/htdocs">

Options Indexes FollowSymLinks MultiViews

AllowOverride All

Order allow,deny

Allow from all

</Directory>

§

¥

¦

397

36.2. Installing and Configuring Apache 36.

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— Apache Web Server

36.2.3 User HTML directories

5

Our users may require that Apache know about their private web page directories

˜/www/

¨

. This is easy to support with the special UserDir directive:

<Directory "/opt/apache/htdocs/home/*/www">

Options Indexes MultiViews

AllowOverride None

Order allow,deny

Allow from all

</Directory>

UserDir /opt/apache/htdocs/home/*/www

§

¥

¦

For this feature to work, you must symlink to /home , and create a directory www/

/opt/apache/htdocs/home under each user’s home directory.

Hitting the URL http://localhost/˜jack/index.html

will then retrieve the file

/opt/apache/htdocs/home/jack/www/index.html

. You will find that Apache gives a Forbidden error message when you try to do this. This is probably because jack ’s home directory’s permissions are too restrictive. Your choices vary between now making jack ’s home directory less restricted or increasing the privileges of

Apache. Running Apache under the www group by using Group www , and then running

¨ groupadd -g 65 www chown jack:www /home/jack /home/jack/www chmod 0750 /home/jack /home/jack/www

§

¥

¦ is a reasonable compromise.

36.2.4 Aliasing

Sometimes, HTML documents will want to refer to a file or graphic by using a simple prefix, rather than a long directory name. Other times, you want two different references to source the same file. The Alias directive creates virtual links between directories. For example, adding the following line, means that a URL /icons/bomb.gif

will serve the file

¨

/opt/apache/icons/bomb.gif

:

Alias /icons/ "/opt/apache/icons/"

§

¥

¦

We do, of course, need to tell Apache about this directory:

¨

<Directory "/opt/apache/icons">

Options None

AllowOverride None

Order allow,deny

¥

398

36.

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— Apache Web Server 36.2. Installing and Configuring Apache

5

Allow from all

</Directory>

§ ¦

36.2.5 Fancy indexes

You will find the directory lists generated by the preceding configuration rather bland.

¥

5

¦ causes nice descriptive icons to be printed to the left of the file name. What icons match what file types is a trick issue. You can start with:

¨

AddIconByEncoding (CMP,/icons/compressed.gif) x-compress x-gzip

AddIconByType (TXT,/icons/text.gif) text/*

AddIconByType (IMG,/icons/image2.gif) image/*

AddIconByType (SND,/icons/sound2.gif) audio/*

AddIconByType (VID,/icons/movie.gif) video/*

AddIcon /icons/compressed.gif .Z .z .tgz .gz .zip

AddIcon /icons/a.gif .ps .eps

AddIcon /icons/layout.gif .html .shtml .htm

§

¥

¦

This requires the Alias directive above to be present. The default Apache configuration contains a far more extensive map of file types.

36.2.6 Encoding and language negotiation

You can get Apache to serve

¨

AddEncoding x-compress Z gzip ped files with this:

AddEncoding x-gzip gz

§

Now if a client requests a file index.html

, but only a file index.html.gz

exists,

Apache decompresses it on-the-fly. Note that you must have the MultiViews options enabled.

¥

¦

The next options cause Apache to serve index.html.

language-code

when index.html

is requested, filling in the preferred language code sent by the web browser.

Adding these directives causes your Apache manual to display correctly and will properly show documents that have non-English translations. Here also, the MultiViews must be present.

¨

AddLanguage en .en

¥

399

36.2. Installing and Configuring Apache 36.

httpd

— Apache Web Server

5

10

AddLanguage da .dk

AddLanguage nl .nl

AddLanguage et .ee

AddLanguage fr .fr

AddLanguage de .de

AddLanguage el .el

AddLanguage ja .ja

AddLanguage ru .ru

LanguagePriority en da nl et fr de el ja ru

§

The LanguagePriority not specify any.

directive indicates the preferred language if the browser did

¦

Some files might contain a .koi8-r extension, indicating a Russian character set encoding for this file. Many languages have such custom character sets. Russian files are named

webpage

.html.ru.koi8-r . Apache must tell the web browser about the encoding type, based on the extension. Here are directives for Japanese, Russian, and

UTF-8

&

UTF-8 is a Unicode character set encoding useful for any language.

-

, as follows:

¨

AddCharset ISO-2022-JP .jis

AddCharset KOI8-R

AddCharset UTF-8

§

.koi8-r

.utf8

¥

¦

Once again, the default Apache configuration contains a far more extensive map of languages and character sets.

36.2.7 Server-side includes — SSI

5

Apache actually has a built-in programming language that interprets .shtml

files as scripts. The output of such a script is returned to the client. Most of a typical .shtml

file will be ordinary HTML, which will be served unmodified. However, lines like

¨

<!--#echo var="DATE_LOCAL" -->

§

¥

¦ will be interpreted, and their output

included

into the HTML—hence the name

serverside includes

. Server-side includes are ideal for HTML pages that contain mostly static

HTML with small bits of dynamic content. To demonstrate, add the following to your httpd.conf

:

¨

AddType text/html .shtml

AddHandler server-parsed .shtml

<Directory "/opt/apache/htdocs/ssi">

Options Includes

AllowOverride None

Order allow,deny

¥

400

36.

httpd

— Apache Web Server 36.2. Installing and Configuring Apache

5

5

Allow from all

</Directory>

§

Create a directory

¨

</HTML>

§

/opt/apache/htdocs/ssi with the index file

<HTML>

The date today is <!--#echo var="DATE_LOCAL" -->.<P>

Here is a directory listing:<br>

<PRE>

<!--#exec cmd="ls -al" -->

</PRE>

<!--#include virtual="footer.html" --> index.shtml

:

¦

¥

¦ and then a file footer.html

containing anything you like. It is obvious how useful this procedure is for creating many documents with the same banner by means of a

#include statement. If you are wondering what other variables you can print besides

DATE LOCAL , try the following:

¨

<HTML>

<PRE>

<!--#printenv -->

</PRE>

</HTML>

§

¥

¦

You can also goto http://localhost/manual/howto/ssi.html

to see some other examples.

36.2.8 CGI — Common Gateway Interface

(I have actually never managed to figure out why CGI is called CGI.) CGI is where a URL points to a script. What comes up in your browser is the output of the script

(were it to be executed) instead of the contents of the script itself. To try this, create a file /opt/apache/htdocs/test.cgi

:

¨

#!/bin/sh

¥

5

10 echo ’Content-type: text/html’ echo echo ’<HTML>’ echo ’ <HEAD>’ echo ’ <TITLE>My First CGI</TITLE>’ echo ’ </HEAD>’ echo ’ <BODY bgcolor=#CCCCCC text="#000000">’ echo ’This is my first CGI<P>’ echo ’Please visit’

401

36.2. Installing and Configuring Apache 36.

httpd

— Apache Web Server

15 echo ’ echo ’ echo ’

<A HREF="http://rute.sourceforge.net/">’

The Rute Home Page’

</A>’ echo ’for more info.</P>’ echo ’ </BODY>’ echo ’</HTML>’

§ ¦

5

Make this script executable with chmod a+x test.cgi

running it on the command-line. Add the line

¨

AddHandler cgi-script .cgi

§ and test the output by

¥

¦ to your httpd.conf

/opt/apache/htdocs

¨ file.

Next, modify your to include ExecCGI , like this:

Options

<Directory "/opt/apache/htdocs">

Options Indexes FollowSymLinks MultiViews ExecCGI

AllowOverride All

Order allow,deny

Allow from all

</Directory>

§ for the directory

¥

¦

After restarting Apache you should be able to visit the URL

If you run into problems, don’t forget to run http://localhost/test.cgi

tail /opt/apache/logs/error log

.

to get a full report.

To get a full list of environment variables available to your CGI program, try the following script:

¨

#!/bin/sh

¥

5 echo ’Content-type: text/html’ echo echo ’<HTML>’ echo ’<PRE>’ set echo ’</PRE>’ echo ’</HTML>’

§ ¦

The script will show ordinary bash environment variables as well as more interesting variables like QUERY STRING : Change your script to

¨

#!/bin/sh

¥ echo ’Content-type: text/html’ echo

402

36.

httpd

— Apache Web Server 36.2. Installing and Configuring Apache

5

5 echo ’<HTML>’ echo ’<PRE>’ echo $QUERY_STRING echo ’</PRE>’ echo ’</HTML>’

§ and then go to the URL http://localhost/test/test.cgi?xxx=2&yyy=3 variables can be passed to the shell script.

. It is easy to see how

¦

The preceding example is not very interesting. However, it gets useful when scripts have complex logic or can access information that Apache can’t access on its own. In Chapter 38 we see how to deploy an SQL database. When you have covered

SQL, you can come back here and replace your CGI script with,

¨

#!/bin/sh

¥ echo ’Content-type: text/html’ echo

This script will dump the table list of the template1 database if it exists. Apache will have to run as a user that can access this database, which means changing User nobody to User postgres .

&

Note that for security you should postgres database. See Section 38.4.

-

really

limit who can connect to the

¦

36.2.9 Forms and CGI

5

10

15

To create a functional form, use the HTTP

/opt/apache/htdocs/test/form.html

¨

<FORM> could contain: tag as follows.

<HTML>

<FORM name="myform" action="test.cgi" method="get">

<TABLE>

<TR>

<TD colspan="2" align="center">

Please enter your personal details:

</TD>

</TR>

<TR>

<TD>Name:</TD><TD><INPUT type="text" name="name"></TD>

</TR>

<TR>

<TD>Email:</TD><TD><INPUT type="text" name="email"></TD>

</TR>

<TR>

A file

¥

403

36.2. Installing and Configuring Apache 36.

httpd

— Apache Web Server

20

25

<TD>Tel:</TD><TD><INPUT type="text" name="tel"></TD>

</TR>

<TR>

<TD colspan="2" align="center">

<INPUT type="submit" value="Submit">

</TD>

</TR>

</TABLE>

</FORM>

</HTML>

§ which looks like:

¦ the entered data to a

¨

Note how this form calls our existing postgres SQL table:

#!/bin/sh test.cgi

script. Here is a script that adds

¥ echo ’Content-type: text/html’ echo

5 opts=‘echo "$QUERY_STRING" | \ sed -e ’s/[ˆA-Za-z0-9 %&+,.\/:[email protected]_˜-]//g’ -e ’s/&/ /g’ -e q‘

10

15

20 for opt in $opts ; do case $opt in name=*) name=${opt/name=/}

;; email=*) email=${opt/email=/}

;; tel=*) tel=${opt/tel=/}

;; esac

404

36.

httpd

— Apache Web Server 36.2. Installing and Configuring Apache done

25

30 if psql -d template1 -H -c "\

INSERT INTO people (name, email, tel) \

VALUES (’$name’, ’$email’, ’$tel’)" 2>&1 | grep -q ’ˆINSERT ’ ; then echo "<HTML>Your details \"$name\", \"$email\" and \"$tel\"<BR>" else echo "have been succesfully recorded.</HTML>" echo "<HTML>Database error, please contact our webmaster.</HTML>" fi exit 0

§ ¦

Note how the first lines of script remove all unwanted characters from

QUERY STRING . Such processing is imperative for security because shell scripts can easily execute commands should characters like $ and ‘ be present in a string.

To use the alternative “POST” method, change your FORM tag to

¨ ¥

<FORM name="myform" action="test.cgi" method="post">

§ ¦

The POST method sends the query text through stdin of the CGI script. Hence, you need to also change your

¨ opts= line to opts=‘cat | \ sed -e ’s/[ˆA-Za-z0-9 %&+,.\/:[email protected]_˜-]//g’ -e ’s/&/ /g’ -e q‘

§

¥

¦

36.2.10 Setuid CGIs

Running Apache as a privileged user has security implications. Another way to get this script to execute as user postgres is to create a setuid binary. To do this, create a file test.cgi

¨ by compiling the following

C

program similar to that in Section 33.2.

#include <unistd.h>

¥

5 int main (int argc, char *argv[])

{ setreuid (geteuid (), geteuid ()); execl ("/opt/apache/htdocs/test/test.sh", "test.sh", 0); return 0;

}

§ ¦

405

36.2. Installing and Configuring Apache 36.

httpd

— Apache Web Server

Then run test.cgi

(or chown postgres:www test.cgi

chmod 4550 test.cgi

and chmod a-w,o-rx,u+s

). Recreate your shell script as test.sh

and go to the URL again. Apache runs then executes the script as the test.cgi

postgres

, which becomes user user. Even with Apache as postgres , and

User nobody your script will still work. Note how your setuid program is insecure: it takes no arguments and performs only a single function, but it takes environment variables (or input from stdin) that could influence its functionality. If a login user could execute the script, that user could send data via these variables that could cause the script to behave in an unforeseen way. An alternative is:

¨

#include <unistd.h>

¥

5 int main (int argc, char *argv[])

{ char *envir[] = {0}; setreuid (geteuid (), geteuid ()); execle ("/opt/apache/htdocs/test/test.sh", "test.sh", 0, envir); return 0;

}

§

This script nullifies the environment before starting the CGI, thus forcing you to use the POST method only. Because the only information that can be passed to the script is a single line of text (through the -e q option to sed ) and because that line of text is carefully stripped of unwanted characters, we can be much more certain of security.

¦

36.2.11 Apache modules and PHP

CGI execution is extremely slow if Apache has to invoke a shell script for each hit.

Apache has a number of facilities for built-in interpreters that will parse script files with high efficiency. A well-known programming language developed specifically for the Web is PHP. PHP can be downloaded as source from

The PHP Home Page

http://www.php.net

and contains the usual GNU installation instructions.

Apache has the facility for adding functionality at runtime using what it calls

DSO (

Dynamic Shared Object

) files. This feature is for distribution vendors who want to ship split installs of Apache that enable users to install only the parts of Apache they like. This is conceptually the same as what we saw in Section 23.1: To give your program some extra feature provided by some library, you can the library to your program

or

compile the library as a shared

either

.so

statically link file to be linked at run time. The difference here is that the library files are (usually) called and are stored in /opt/apache/libexec/ mod

. They are also only loaded if a

name

Load-

Module

name

module appears in reinstall Apache starting with:

¨ httpd.conf

. To enable DSO support, rebuild and

./configure --prefix=/opt/apache --enable-module=so

§

¥

¦

406

36.

httpd

— Apache Web Server 36.2. Installing and Configuring Apache

Any source package that creates an Apache module can now use the Apache utility /opt/apache/bin/apxs to tell it about the current Apache installation, so you should make sure this executable is in your PATH .

You can now follow the instructions for installing PHP, possibly beginning with

./configure --prefix=/opt/php --with-apxs=/opt/apache/bin/apxs

--with-pgsql=/usr .

postgres

(This assumes that you want to enable support for the

SQL database and have postgres previously installed as a package under /usr .) Finally, check that a file

/opt/apache/libexec/ .

libphp4.so

eventually ends up in

Your httpd.conf

then needs to know about PHP scripts. Add the following

¥

5

LoadModule php4_module /opt/apache/libexec/libphp4.so

AddModule mod_php4.c

AddType application/x-httpd-php .php

§ and then create a file /opt/apache/htdocs/hello.php

¨

<html>

<head>

<title>Example</title>

</head>

<body>

<?php echo "Hi, I’m a PHP script!"; ?>

</body>

</html>

§ containing and test by visiting the URL http://localhost/hello.php

.

Programming in the PHP language is beyond the scope of this book.

¦

¥

¦

36.2.12 Virtual hosts

Virtual hosting is the use of a single web server to serve the web pages of multiple domains. Although the web browser seems to be connecting to a web site that is an isolated entity, that web site may in fact be hosted alongside many others on the same machine.

Virtual hosting is rather trivial to configure. Let us say that we have three domains: www.domain1.com

, www.domain2.com

, and www.domain3.com

. We want domains www.domain1.com

and

196.123.45.1

, while www.domain3.com

www.domain2.com

to share IP address has its own IP address of 196.123.45.2

.

The sharing of a single IP address is called

name-based virtual hosting

, and the use of a different IP address for each domain is called

IP-based virtual hosting

.

407

36.2. Installing and Configuring Apache 36.

httpd

— Apache Web Server

If our machine has one IP address, 196.123.45.1

, we may need to configure a separate IP address on the same network card as follows (see Section 25.9):

¨ ifconfig eth0:1 196.123.45.2 netmask 255.255.255.0 up

§

¥

¦

For each domain /opt/apache/htdocs/www.domain

?

.com/ , we now create a top-level directory. We need to tell Apache that we intend to use the IP address

196.123.45.1

for several hosts. We do that with the

Then for each host, we must specify a top-level directory as follows:

¨

NameVirtualHost 196.123.45.1

NameVirtualHost directive.

¥

5

<VirtualHost 196.123.45.1>

ServerName www.domain1.com

DocumentRoot /opt/apache/htdocs/www.domain1.com/

</VirtualHost>

10

<VirtualHost 196.123.45.1>

ServerName www.domain2.com

DocumentRoot /opt/apache/htdocs/www.domain2.com/

</VirtualHost>

15

<VirtualHost 196.123.45.2>

ServerName www.domain3.com

DocumentRoot /opt/apache/htdocs/www.domain3.com/

</VirtualHost>

§

All that remains is to configure a correct DNS zone for each domain so that lookups of www.domain1.com

and www.domain2.com

return 196.123.45.1

while lookups of www.domain3.com

return 196.123.45.2

.

¦

You can then add index.html

files to each directory.

408

Chapter 37 crond and atd

crond and atd familiar with.

are two very simple and important services that everyone should be crond does the job of running commands periodically (daily, weekly), and atd ’s main feature is to run a command once at some future time.

These two services are so basic that we are not going to detail their package contents and invocation.

37.1

/etc/crontab Configuration File

The /etc/crontab l