HYSYS Simulation Basis - University of Alberta

HYSYS Simulation Basis - University of Alberta
®
HYSYS 2004.2
Simulation Basis
Copyright
October 2005
Copyright © 1981-2005 by Aspen Technology, Inc. All rights reserved.
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Table of Contents
Technical Support.................................................... iii
Online Technical Support Center ............................iv
Phone and E-mail ................................................. v
HYSYS Thermodynamics......................................... vii
1
2
3
4
Components ......................................................... 1-1
1.1
Introduction .................................................... 1-2
1.2
Component List Property View ........................... 1-4
Fluid Package ....................................................... 2-1
2.1
Introduction .................................................... 2-2
2.2
Fluid Packages Tab ........................................... 2-3
2.3
Adding a Fluid Package - Example ...................... 2-5
2.4
HYSYS Fluid Package Property View .................... 2-7
2.5
COMThermo Property View ...............................2-84
2.6
References ................................................... 2-109
Hypotheticals ....................................................... 3-1
3.1
Introduction .................................................... 3-3
3.2
Hypo Manager ................................................. 3-4
3.3
Adding a Hypothetical - Example ........................ 3-5
3.4
Creating a Hypo Group ....................................3-13
3.5
Hypothetical Component Property View ..............3-26
3.6
Solid Hypotheticals ..........................................3-36
3.7
Cloning Library Components .............................3-42
3.8
Hypo Controls.................................................3-44
3.9
References .....................................................3-45
HYSYS Oil Manager............................................... 4-1
4.1
Introduction .................................................... 4-3
4.2
Oil Characterization .......................................... 4-4
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4.3
Petroleum Fluids Characterization Procedure ........ 4-9
4.4
Oil Characterization Property View .....................4-14
4.5
Characterizing Assays ......................................4-17
4.6
Hypocomponent Generation..............................4-59
4.7
User Property .................................................4-76
4.8
Correlations & Installation ................................4-81
4.9
TBP Assay - Example .......................................4-88
4.10 Sulfur Curve - Example .................................. 4-107
4.11 References ................................................... 4-115
5
6
7
A
Reactions ............................................................. 5-1
5.1
Introduction .................................................... 5-2
5.2
Reaction Component Selection ........................... 5-3
5.3
Reactions ........................................................ 5-6
5.4
Reaction Sets .................................................5-35
5.5
Generalized Procedure .....................................5-45
5.6
Reactions - Example ........................................5-47
Component Maps .................................................. 6-1
6.1
Introduction .................................................... 6-2
6.2
Component Maps Tab ....................................... 6-2
6.3
Component Map Property View........................... 6-4
User Properties .................................................... 7-1
7.1
Introduction .................................................... 7-2
7.2
User Property Tab ............................................ 7-3
7.3
User Property Property View .............................. 7-5
Property Methods & Calculations ..........................A-1
A.1
Introduction .................................................... A-3
A.2
Selecting Property Methods ............................... A-4
A.3
Property Methods ............................................. A-9
A.4
Enthalpy & Entropy Departure Calculations ........ A-50
A.5
Physical & Transport Properties ........................ A-57
A.6
Volumetric Flow Rate Calculations .................... A-66
A.7
Flash Calculations .......................................... A-72
A.8
References .................................................... A-82
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B
C
D
Oil Methods & Correlations ...................................B-1
B.1
Introduction .................................................... B-2
B.2
Characterization Method.................................... B-2
B.3
References .................................................... B-11
Amines Property Package..................................... C-1
C.1
Amines Property Package .................................. C-2
C.2
Non-Equilibrium Stage Model ............................. C-5
C.3
Stage Efficiency ............................................... C-7
C.4
Equilibrium Solubility ........................................ C-9
C.5
Phase Enthalpy .............................................. C-19
C.6
Simulation of Amine Plant Flowsheets ............... C-20
C.7
Program Limitations ....................................... C-24
C.8
References .................................................... C-25
Glycol Property Package .......................................D-1
D.1
Introduction .................................................... D-2
D.2
Pure Component Vapor Pressure ........................ D-4
D.3
Mixing Rules .................................................... D-4
D.4
Phase Equilibrium Prediction ............................ D-12
D.5
Enthalpy/Entropy Calculations.......................... D-13
D.6
References .................................................... D-13
Index.................................................................... I-1
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HYSYS Thermodynamics
To comprehend why HYSYS is such a powerful engineering
simulation tool, you need look no further than its strong
thermodynamic foundation. The inherent flexibility contributed
through its design, combined with the unparalleled accuracy and
robustness provided by its property package calculations leads
to the representation of a more realistic model.
Not only can you use a wide variety of internal property
packages, you can use tabular capabilities to override specific
property calculations for more accuracy over a narrow range or
use the functionality provided through ActiveX to interact with
externally constructed property packages. Through the use of
Extensibility, you can extend HYSYS so that it uses property
packages that you created within the HYSYS environment.
The built-in property packages provide accurate
thermodynamic, physical, and transport property predictions for
hydrocarbon, non-hydrocarbon, petrochemical, and chemical
fluids.
The Thermodynamics development group at AspenTech has
evaluated experimental data from the world’s most respected
sources. Using this experimental data, a database containing in
excess of 1500 components and over 16,000 fitted binaries has
been created. If a library component cannot be found within the
database, a comprehensive selection of estimation methods is
available for creating fully defined hypothetical components.
HYSYS also contains a powerful regression package that may be
used in conjunction with its tabular capabilities. Experimental
pure component data, which HYSYS provides for over 1,000
components, can be used as input to the regression package.
Alternatively, you can supplement the existing data or supply a
complete set of your own data.
The regression package fits the input data to one of the
numerous mathematical expressions available in HYSYS. This
allows you to obtain simulation results for specific
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thermophysical properties that closely match your experimental
data.
As new technology becomes available to the market place,
AspenTech welcomes the changes. HYSYS was designed with the
foresight that software technology is ever-changing and that a
software product must reflect these changes. HYSYS has
incorporated COMThermo which is an advanced thermodynamic
calculation framework based on Microsofts COM (Component
Object Model) technology. The COMThermo framework is fully
componentized which makes it possible to develop independent,
extensible, customizable, and encapsulated thermodynamic
calculation modules. It acts like a thermodynamic calculation
server which allows users to utilize, supplement, or replace any
of its components.
The framework also encompasses a wide variety of property
calculations, flash methods, databases, etc. The calculation
methods cover all of the thermodynamic calculation packages in
HYSYS. In future releases of HYSYS, the old HYSYS
thermodynamic engine will gradually be replaced by
COMThermo.
Simulation Basis Manager
One of the important concepts upon which HYSYS is based is
that of environments. The Basis Environment allows you to input
or access information within the Simulation Basis Manager while
the other areas of HYSYS are put on hold. This helps to maintain
peak efficiency by avoiding unnecessary flowsheet calculations.
Once you return to the Build Environment, all changes that were
made in the Basis Environment take effect at the same time.
Conversely, all thermodynamic data is fixed and is not changed
as manipulations to the flowsheet take place in the Build
Environment.
Use the Hot Key CTRL B to re-enter the Basis Environment
from any Environment.
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Another advantage of the Simulation Basis Environment is the
assurance that all the basic thermodynamic requirements are
provided before a simulation case is built. The minimum
information required before leaving the Simulation Basis
Manager is as follows:
•
•
•
At least one installed fluid package with an attached
Property Package.
At least one component in the fluid package.
A fluid package specified as the Default fluid package.
This is automatically done by HYSYS after the first fluid
package is installed.
The Simulation Basis Manager can be accessed at any stage
during the development of a simulation case. When a New Case
is created, the first property view that appears is the Simulation
Basis Manager. You can also return to the Basis Environment
from the Main or Sub-Flowsheet Environment at any time to
make changes to the thermodynamic information.
You can create as many fluid packages as you like in the
Simulation Basis Manager. This functionality makes it possible
for each flowsheet in the case to be associated with an individual
fluid package, thus allowing it to have its own particular
property package and set of components. The Default fluid
package is assigned to each new Sub-Flowsheet that is created
while in the Build Environment. If a different fluid package is
desired, you can re-enter the Basis Environment to perform the
required change.
Provided that changes are made in the Basis Environment,
HYSYS displays a message box each time you re-enter the Main
Build Environment.
Figure 1.1
ix
x
If HYSYS is left in HOLDING mode, calculations can be
activated by clicking the Solver Active icon in the Toolbar.
Solver Active icon
This provides a means of leaving HYSYS in HOLDING mode so
that you can perform complimentary changes (for example, new
stream compositions or column specifications) to the flowsheet
prior to the Basis modifications taking effect.
For more information,
refer to Section 5.2 Simulation Basis
Manager from the
HYSYS User Guide.
The Simulation Basis Manager property view allows you to
create and manipulate fluid packages in the simulation.
Whenever you create a New Case, HYSYS opens to the
Components tab of the Simulation Basis Manager.
Figure 1.2
The tabs available on the Simulation Basis Manager property
view are described in the table below:
Tab
Description
Components
Allows access to a component list which is associated
with a fluid package. When adding a new component
list or editing a current list, the Component List
property view opens. This property view is designed to
simplify adding components to the case.
Fluid Pkgs
Allows you to create and manipulate all fluid packages
for the simulation case. Also, you can assign a fluid
package to each flowsheet that exists within the case
and select a Default fluid package, which is
automatically used for all new flowsheets.
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Tab
Description
Hypotheticals
Allows individual Hypotheticals and Hypothetical
Groups to be defined for installation into any fluid
package.
Oil Manager
Allows access to the Oil Environment where you can
input assay data, cut/blend an oil and define pseudo
components for installation in any existing fluid
package.
Reactions
Allows you to install reaction components, create
reactions, create reaction sets, attach reactions to
reaction sets and attach reaction sets to any existing
fluid package.
Component Maps
Allows you to specify composition across fluid package
(sub-flowsheet) boundaries.
User Property
Create and make user properties available to any fluid
package.
The Enter Simulation Environment button can be accessed
from any of the tabs on the Simulation Basis Manager
property view.
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Components
1-1
1 Components
1.1 Introduction................................................................................... 2
1.2 Component List Property View ....................................................... 4
1.2.1
1.2.2
1.2.3
1.2.4
1.2.5
1.2.6
Adding Library Components ....................................................... 5
Selecting Library Components .................................................... 8
Manipulating the Selected Components List................................ 14
Adding Electrolyte Components ................................................ 26
Adding Hypothetical Components ............................................. 28
Adding Components from Existing Component Lists .................... 30
1-1
1-2
Introduction
1.1 Introduction
The Components Manager is accessed by selecting the
Components tab from the Simulation Basis Manager. The
Components Manager provides a location where sets of chemical
components being modeled may be retrieved and manipulated.
These component sets are stored in the form of Component
Lists which may be a collection of library pure components or
Hypothetical components.
The Components Manager always contains a Master Component
List that cannot be deleted. The Master Component List contains
every component available from “all” component lists. If you
add components to any other Component List, they are
automatically added to the Master Component List. Also, if you
delete a component from the master, it is deleted from any
other Component List that is using it.
Figure 1.1
For further details
regarding to the use of
Component Lists with
Fluid Packages, see
Chapter 2 - Fluid
Package.
When working with the Fluid Package Manager, components are
associated with Fluid Packages through Component Lists. A
Component List must be selected for each Fluid Package
created.
1-2
Components
1-3
You cannot associate the Master Component List to a fluid
package. Add a component list and associate it to a fluid
package.
The Components tab of the Simulation Basis Manager property
view contains six buttons which allow you to organize all
component lists for the current case. Each button is described in
the following table:
Button
Description
View
Opens the Component List property view for the selected
Component List. From this property view, you can add,
modify, or remove individual components from the current
list.
Add
Allows you to add a new Component List into the case.
When clicked, the Component List property view appears
and components associated with the case may be added.
New components may be added to the component list by
highlighting the component list name and clicking the View
button.
Delete
Allows you to delete a Component List from the case. No
warning message is provided before deleting a list and a
deleted Component List cannot be recovered.
Copy
Makes a copy of the selected (highlighted) Component List.
The copied version is identical to the original, except for the
name. This command may be useful for modifying
Component Lists while keeping the original list intact.
Import
Allows you to import a pre-defined Component List from a
disk. When the Import button is selected, the location
dialog window for the component list file appears.
Component Lists have a file extension of (*.cml).
Export
Allows you to export the selected Component Lists (*.cml)
to disk. The exported list file can be retrieved in another
case by using the Import function detailed above.
Refresh
Allows you to reload component data from the database.
For example, if you have a case from a previous version,
the data is updated from the older version to the latest
version.
1-3
1-4
Component List Property View
1.2 Component List
Property View
When adding or viewing an existing Component List from the
Components tab of the Simulation Basis Manager property view,
the Component List property view is opened.
Figure 1.2
The Add Component tree browser allows you to
filter through alternative component lists.
The Name cell displays the name of
the component list being viewed.
The Component List property view is designed to simplify adding
components to a Component List. Access is provided to all
Library components within HYSYS, which include the traditional
components, electrolytes, defined Hypotheticals, and other
existing lists. The property view consists of the following tabs:
•
The Selected tab allows you to add components and
view their properties. The Components page varies
according to the tree browser selection in the Add
Component group.
1-4
Components
•
1-5
The Component by Type tab displays all components
selected for the component list by its particular type
(traditional, electrolytes, hypotheticals, etc.) as shown
below.
Figure 1.3
1.2.1 Adding Library
Components
The Component List property view shown previously is
encountered when you are adding Library components to a
Component List. Use the tree browser in the Add Components
group to filter the library components for each group listed.
The Selected tab has three main groups:
•
•
•
Add Component
Selected Components
Components Available in the Component Library
Each group is described separately in the following sections.
1-5
1-6
Component List Property View
Add Component Group
Add Component tree
browser
The Add Component group contains a tree browser that enables
you to filter components by type. Selecting components from
the component tree browser determines the type of components
that are displayed in the Components Available in Component
Library group. A different property view appears depending on
whether you are adding Traditional, Electrolytes, Hypothetical,
or Other components.
Selected Components Group
The Selected Components group shows the list of components
that have been added.
Figure 1.4
The various functions that allow you to manipulate the list of
selected components are listed in the following table:
Object
Description
Selected
Component List
Contains all the currently installed components for a
particular component list.
Add Pure
Adds the highlighted component(s) from the
Components Available group to the Selected
Component List.
Substitute
Swaps the highlighted selected components with the
highlighted available component.
Remove Comp
Deletes the highlighted component from the Selected
Component List.
1-6
Components
1-7
Object
Description
Sort List
Accesses the Move Components property view, where
you can change the order of the selected component
list.
View Comp
Accesses the selected component’s identification
property view.
When substituting components, HYSYS replaces the
component throughout the case (i.e., all specifications for
the old component are transferred to the new component).
However, the substitution function does not automatically
handle components that are part of a Reaction.
Components Available in the
Component Library Group
The Components Available in the Component Library group
displays library components depending on the filtered method
used.
Figure 1.5
1-7
1-8
Component List Property View
The group has several features designed to make the selection
of components as efficient and convenient as possible.
For further details, refer
to Filter Options for
Traditional
Components.
Object
Description
Match
As you type in this cell, HYSYS filters the component
list to locate the component that best matches your
current input. This depends on the radio button
selected.
View Filter
button
This button opens the Filters floating property view
which contains a range of property packages and
component filtering options to assist in your
component selection process.
SimName\
FullName
Synonym\
Formula
These three radio buttons determine the context of
your input in the Match cell.
Show Synonyms
When this checkbox is selected HYSYS includes known
synonyms for each component in the list.
Cluster
This checkbox is available only when the Show
Synonyms checkbox is selected. By selecting the
Cluster checkbox, all synonyms are indented and
listed below the component name. Otherwise, the
synonyms are listed alphabetically throughout the list.
1.2.2 Selecting Library
Components
As mentioned previously, library components are selected from
the Components Available in the Component Library group, and
placed in the Selected Components group. There are many ways
in which you can select components for a component list. Once
you become familiar with the available methods for component
selection, you can select the procedure that you find most
convenient.
Whenever a component(s) is highlighted in the Available
List, click the Add Pure button to move it to the Selected
Component List.
The process of adding components from the component library
to the Selected Components list can be divided into three subprocesses. By visualizing the process of component selection in
this way, you are made aware of all the available possibilities
1-8
Components
1-9
offered by HYSYS. You can then adopt the most logical and
efficient approach to use each time you build a case.
For component addition to the component list, the following
methods are recommended:
1. Filter the library list.
2. Select the desired component(s).
3. Transfer the component(s) to the Selected Components list.
Filtering the Component List for
Traditional Components
A recommended practice for component selection is the use of
the available tools which HYSYS provides for filtering the
component library. This narrows the selection range and allows
you to apply one of the various methods for transferring the
selection(s) to the Selected Components list.
Filtering options for electrolytes and hypotheticals are different
and available in Section 1.2.4 - Adding Electrolyte
Components and Section 1.2.5 - Adding Hypothetical
Components, respectively.
There are four tools available for filtering the list in the
Components Available in the Component Library group. The
filtering tools can be used independently or in combination and
are described in the table below:
Refer to previous Filter
Options for Traditional
Components for further
details.
Filtering Tool
Description
Property Package &
Family Type Filters
Filters the list according to your selection of
property package and/or component families.
Show Synonyms
Component synonyms appear alphabetically
throughout the list when this checkbox is selected.
Cluster
The Cluster checkbox is available only when the
Show Synonyms checkbox is selected and
Match input field is empty. By selecting the
Cluster checkbox, all synonyms are indented and
listed below the component name.
Match
This input cell allows type-matching of the
component simulation name, full name, synonym
or formula.
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1-10
Component List Property View
When trying to Match a component, HYSYS searches the
component column in the list for whichever radio button is
selected:
Radio Button
Description
SimName
This option matches the text entered into the Match input
to the name used within the simulation.
Full Name/
Synonym
This option may match the components full name or a
synonym of the SimName. It is typically a longer name.
Formula
Use this option when you are not sure of the library name,
but know the formula of the component.
By using the Match input cell, you can access any component
within the HYSYS library that is accessible under the currently
selected Property Package. You can make the Match field active
by selecting it or by using the ALT M hot key.
The Match input cell accepts keyboard input, and is used by
HYSYS to locate the component in the current list which best
matches your input. The first character of the filtered
component names must agree with first character of the listed
component name. Subsequent characters in the Match cell must
appear somewhere in each listed component name. Other than
the first character, any number of unmatched characters can
appear within the names of the listed components.
1-10
Components
1-11
If the component you want to add is Water, type H2 in the Match
cell. HYSYS filters the list of available Library Components to
only those that match your current input string. The first
component in the list, H2, is an exact match of your current
input and therefore, is highlighted. Notice that H2O is available
in the list even though you have entered only H2.
Figure 1.6
Since Hydrogen is not the component of choice, you can
continue to reduce the list of available library component
options by typing in the character O after the H2 in the Match
cell.
1-11
1-12
Component List Property View
Filter Options for Traditional
Components
The floating Filter property view is accessed by clicking the
View Filters button from Component List property view. It
allows access to the Property Package filter and Family Type
filter options.
The Property Package Filter group filters components based on
their compatibility with the selected property package. Once a
property package is selected, the Recommended Only checkbox
works as follows:
•
•
If the Recommended Only checkbox is selected, HYSYS
only displays (in the component library list) components
that are recommended with the chosen property
package.
If the Recommended Only checkbox remains unselected, all the components in the HYSYS library are
displayed in the component library list. An ‘x’ is shown
beside each component that HYSYS does not recommend
for the selected property package, however, you may still
select these components if you want.
The Property Package Filter is only a component selection
filtering tool and does not associate a Fluid Package with the
component list (this is accomplished within the Fluid
Package Manager).
The Family Type Filter group allows HYSYS to filter the list of
available components to only those belonging to a specific
family. The Use Filter checkbox, when selected, toggles the
Family Type Filter options On and Off. By default, all checkboxes
in the Family Filter group are cleared. You can identify which
families should be included in the list of available components by
selecting the desired checkbox(es). The All button selects all
checkboxes, and the Invert button toggles the status of each
checkbox individually. For example, if you select all of the
checkboxes, and then want to quickly clear them, simply click
the Invert button. If you only had the Hydrocarbons and the
Solids options activated and you clicked the Invert button,
these two options are deactivated and the remaining options are
activated.
1-12
Components
1-13
Selecting the Component(s)
After the list of Library Components are filtered, you can see the
desired component among the displayed components. Use one
of the following available methods to highlight the component(s)
of choice described in the following table:
Selection Method
Description
Mouse
Place the cursor over the desired component and press
the primary mouse button.
Keyboard
Use the TAB key or SHIFT TAB combination to move
the active location into the list of components.
Whenever the list of components is filtered, the highlight is
placed on the first component in the reduced list. If you use the
keyboard commands to access the list of components, you may
have to move the highlight if the first component is not desired.
To move through the Components Available in the Component
Library group, use one of the following methods:
Method
Description
Arrow Keys
Move the highlight up or down one line in the
component list.
Page Up/Page
Down
Use these keyboard keys to move through the list an
entire page at a time.
Home/End
The HOME key moves to the start of the list and the
END key moves to the end of the list.
Scroll Bar
With the mouse, use the scroll bar to navigate through
the list.
Transferring the Component(s)
After the Library Component list is filtered and the desired
component(s) highlighted, transfer the selection(s) to the
Selected Components list. Use one of the following methods:
•
•
•
Click the Add Pure button
Press the ENTER key
Double-click on the highlighted item. This option only
works for a single component selection.
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1-14
Component List Property View
The methods are the same whether you are adding traditional
components, electrolytes, hypotheticals, or other components.
1.2.3 Manipulating the
Selected Components List
After adding the components to the Selected Components list,
you can substitute, remove, sort, and view components. These
methods apply to traditional library components, electrolytes,
hypotheticals, and other components.
To demonstrate the manipulation functions, the Selected
Components group shown below is used for reference purposes.
Figure 1.7
Removing Selected Components
Refer to Chapter 3 Hypotheticals for
detailed information on
Hypothetical
components.
You can remove any component(s) from the Selected
Components list by the following steps:
1. Highlight the component(s) you want to delete.
2. Click the Remove button, or press the DELETE key.
For Library components, HYSYS removes the component(s) from
the Selected Components list and places back in the
Components Available in the Component Library list. Since
Hypothetical components are shared among Fluid Packages,
1-14
Components
1-15
there is no actual transfer between the lists. (i.e., The Hypo
always appears in the Available group, even when it is listed in
the selected Components list.)
Substituting Components
When substituting components, HYSYS replaces the component
throughout the case (i.e., all specifications for the old
component are transferred to the new component). However,
the substitution function does not automatically handle
components which are part of a Reaction.
You can only substitute one component at a time. Even
though HYSYS allows you to highlight multiple components,
the substitution only involves the first highlighted
component.
You can substitute a component in the selected Component List
with one in the Components Available in the Component Library
list by using the following procedure:
1. From the selected Component List, highlight the component
you want to remove.
2. In the Available Component list, highlight the component to
be substituted.
3. Click the Substitute button.
4. The removed component is returned to the Available
Component list and the substituted component is placed in
the Selected Component List.
1-15
1-16
Component List Property View
Sorting a Component List
When there are components in the Selected Components group
you can use the Sort List button to rearrange the component
order.
Figure 1.8
Using the property view shown in Figure 1.8, the sorting
procedure is illustrated below:
1. Click the Sort List button, and the Move Components
property view appears.
2. From the Component(s) to Move group, select the
component you want to move. In this example, Methane is
selected.
3. From the Insert Before group, highlight the component
before which Methane is to be inserted. In this case,
Propane is highlighted.
4. Click the Move button to complete the move. Methane is
inserted before Propane in the component list, and Ethane is
forced to the top of the list, followed by Methane, Propane,
and n-Butane.
You can select and highlight multiple components for
moving.
5. When you have completed the sorting, click the Close
button to return to the Components tab.
1-16
Components
1-17
Viewing Components
Once a component is added to the Selected Components list, the
View Component button becomes active. The View
Component button accesses the Pure Component property
view allowing you to view and edit properties of the specified
component.
You can also examine the property view for any component
in the Selected Component List by double-clicking on the
component.
For more information on
hypotheticals, refer to
Chapter 3 Hypotheticals.
The property views are different and are specific to the type of
component selected. Pure library components and hypothetical
components share the first type of property view. The difference
between the two is that you cannot “directly” modify the
properties in the pure components Property View, whereas, in
the hypotheticals you can. The Edit Properties feature allows
you to edit pure component and solid properties.
The second property view is shared by pure component solids
and hypothetical solids. Again you cannot “directly” modify the
pure component solid properties, whereas, hypotheticals can be
edited directly.
For more information on
electrolytes, refer to
Section 1.2.4 - Adding
Electrolyte Components.
The electrolytes property view is the same as the edit properties
feature for library components. Although, the electrolyte
properties are set by OLI systems and cannot be modified like
traditional components.
Each property view consists of five tabs. Throughout the tabs
the information is displayed in red, blue and black. Values
displayed in red are estimated by HYSYS. Values displayed in
blue are user supplied. Black values represent calculated values
or information that is provided by HYSYS.
1-17
1-18
Component List Property View
Pure Component Property View
In this example, Methane and Carbon are used by clicking the
View Component button, which opens the following traditional
pure component and Solid pure component property views,
respectively:
Figure 1.9
You can also view a component by right-clicking on the
component and selecting View command from the object
inspect menu.
ID Tab
The ID tab is the first tab in the property view. The black values
in the Component Identification group represent information
that is provided by HYSYS. The User ID Tags are used to identify
your component by a user specified tag number. You can assign
multiple tag numbers to each component.
1-18
Components
1-19
Critical Tab & Props Tab
The Critical Tab displays Base and Critical Properties. The
properties for pure components are supplied by HYSYS and are
read-only. However, you can edit these properties using the Edit
Properties button.
The Component Property view for solid components does not
have critical properties and therefore does not require the
Critical tab. An alternate tab called the Props tab which displays
default values for Solid properties and Coal Analysis is included.
These properties can also be edited using the Edit Properties
button.
Point Tab
Additional Point properties are given by HYSYS for the
Thermodynamic and Physical Props and the Property Package
Molecular Props. The pure component properties differ from the
solid properties.
The solid properties depend only on the Heat of Formation and
Combustion. These properties may be altered by selecting Point
properties in the Edit Properties property view.
TDep Tab
The temperature Dependent Properties for pure components are
shown in this tab. HYSYS provides the minimum temperature,
maximum temperature and coefficients for each of the three
calculation methods.
The difference between pure components and solid pure
components is that solids do not participate in VLE calculations.
Their vapour pressure information is, by default, set to zero.
However, since solid components do affect Heat Balances, the
Specific Heat information is used. The properties may be edited
by selecting the Edit Properties button.
1-19
1-20
Component List Property View
UserProp & PSD Tabs
See Chapter 7 - User
Properties for more
information.
The UserProp tab displays user specified properties. User
properties must be specified on the UserProperty tab in the
Simulation Basis Manager property view. Once a user property is
specified there, you can view and edit UserProp on this
component property view.
The PSD tab displays the particle size distribution for solids. It
allows the user to specify PSDs and calculate various mean and
modal diameters for the entered PSD.
To edit a PSD, click the Edit Properties button to open the
Editing Properties for Component property view, select Type
radio button in the Sort By group, and select Particle Size
Distribution from the tree browser. The options available for edit
the PSD appears on the right side of the Editing Properties for
Component property view.
Figure 1.10
1-20
Components
1-21
A PSD can be specified in three ways:
Input PSD Group
Description
User-Defined
Discrete
Allows the user to enter particle diameter vs
distribution values over the range of the distribution.
To enter the distribution, Select the Edit Discrete PSD
button. The entered distribution can be a Composition
Basis with mass percent or number percent data and
can be InSize, cumulative Undersize or cumulative
Oversize as an Input Basis. Once a discretized PSD is
entered, the user can have other types of PSD fitted to
it. These fits are displayed in the Fit Type group. The
selected fit can be changed by regenerating the fit at
any time.
Log-probability
Is a two-parameter statistical representation which
allows the user to specify the mean and standard
deviation of the PSD.
Rosin-Rammler
Is a two-parameter statistical representation which
allows the user to specify the Rosin-Rammler model
diameter and spread parameter of the PSD.
The input information required for each Input PSD are as
follows:
Input PSD Group
Input Information Required
User-Defined
Discrete
The PSD requires PSD name, basis, particle density
and number of points to use in fitted PSDs. The
distribution requires particle diameters (including
minimum diameter) and either InSize, Undersize or
Oversize distribution points.
Log-probability
The PSD requires PSD name, basis, particle density
and number of points to use in generating the PSD.
The distribution requires mean diameter and standard
deviation.
Rosin-Rammler
The PSD requires PSD name, basis, particle density
and number of points to use in generating the PSD.
The distribution requires modal diameter and spread
parameter.
The user has the choice between using the User-Defined
Discrete or one of the statistical distribution methods. The
statistical methods (Log Probability & Rosin-Rammler) may be
preferred over the discrete method if any of the following
occurs:
•
•
A number of particle size measurement devices give the
distribution as a statistical fit.
Certain physical process tend to give rise to distributions
that are described well by a statistical distribution. For
example, processes involving high shear (e.g. crushing
1-21
1-22
Component List Property View
•
of coal, atomization of liquids in a two-fluid nozzle) tend
to give size distributions that can be readily described by
a Rosin-Rammler distribution.
By using a statistical distribution, it is easier to extend
the distribution to lower and higher size ranges. For
many design processes involving size distributions, it is
the values of the distribution at these 'tails' that have
most influence when trying to optimize the design.
Therefore, the accuracy with which these 'tails' can be
described is important.
The Fit Type group for the User-Defined Discrete Input allows
users to fit a distribution to the entered discrete data. The fitting
improves the accuracy of any calculations made by it.
•
•
It increases the number of discrete steps over which a
size distribution can be described. The more steps, mean
smaller steps which means more accuracy when
interpolating, etc.
It provides more data at the extremes (‘tails’) of the
distribution, again improving accuracy.
The fit type used is based on which provides the closest fit to the
data. The fitting alogorithm displays a dialog with six fits to the
data. The AutoFit selects one fit for the data automatically, and
the NoFit does not fit the data. The Standard and Probability fit
types are lagrangian interpolations on the entered data, but one
works on the raw data while one works on a probability
transformation of the data. That is, the distribution values are
transformed to the linear equivalents used in plotting against a
probability axis.
The other two fits are a log-probability and a Rosin-Rammler
distribution. For these two fits, the value of R2 (the fit
coefficient) is given and the closer this is to 1 the better the fit.
Ultimately, it is up to the user to choose the best fit and is often
based on the visual appearance of the fitted distibutions
compared to the entered one. One limitation to PSD is that the
particle diameters cannot be specified as sieve mesh sizes.
1-22
Components
1-23
Edit Properties
The Edit Properties button allows the user the flexibility of
viewing and modifying properties for traditional and hypothetical
components. Electrolyte component properties are specified by
OLI Systems which may only be viewed. The Edit Properties
property view can be accessed on three different levels and are
shown below:
•
•
•
Component level. Double-click on any component or
right-click and select View in the object inspect menu.
Click the Edit Properties button.
Fluid Package level. Click the Edit Properties button on
the Fluid Package property view.
Stream level. Select a stream which is not a product
stream. Click the Edit Properties button on the
Composition page.
The Component level Edit Properties property view is shown
below for methane.
Figure 1.11
1-23
1-24
Component List Property View
The properties can be sorted using the Sort By group on any
level.
Sort By
Description
Property Name
Sort through properties by Property Name.
Group
Sort through properties by Groups. This includes
Thermo, Prop Pkg, Physical, Cold, Solid, etc.
Type
Sort through Point, Curve, Distribute, PSD, and
Hydrate properties.
Modify Status
Sort through properties which are modified in the
specific Component, Fluid Pkg, or Stream.
The edit Properties feature is flexible in that it allows you to edit
properties on the component, fluid package, or stream levels.
The component level is the highest and allows you to edit
properties throughout your case. Any changes at this level
correspond to a global change to all fluid packages using the
particular component. The initial value stored at this level for
any given component is considered the 'default' property value.
At the component level, the reset options are described below.
Component Level Reset
Description
Reset selected property
to library default
Resets the selected property to the library or
original default value for this component. This
button is active only if a component is
modified on the component level.
Reset all properties to
library default
Resets all properties to library or original
default values for this component. This button
is active only if a component is modified on
the component level.
Reset selected property
for all users of this
component
Clears local changes to the selected property
for all users of this component. Users are
defined by changes in the Fluid pkg and
stream levels.
Reset all properties for
all users of this
component
Clears local changes to all properties for all
users of this component. Users are defined by
changes in the Fluid pkg and stream levels.
The second level is the fluid package level which allows you to
edit properties specific to a fluid package. This allows the
flexibility of having different property values for different fluid
packages throughout the case. Any changes at this level
corresponds to a change for any flowsheet using this fluid
package.
1-24
Components
1-25
The reset options for the fluid pkg level are described below:
Fluid Pkg Level Reset
Description
Reset selected prop
vector to
components default
Clears the selected property vector within this fluid
package and resets it to the component level
value.
Reset all props to
components default
Clears all changed property vectors within this
fluid package and resets them to the component
level values.
Reset selected
property for all users
of this fp
Clears local changes to selected property vector
for all users of this fluid package. The user is
defined as the stream level property selected,
which is overwritten with current fluid package
value.
Reset all properties
for all users of this fp
Clears local changes to all properties for all users
of this fluid package. The users are defined as the
stream level properties, which are overwritten
with current fluid package values.
The stream level allows you to edit properties specific to input
streams of the case. Changes made at this level enable one to
modify a particular component's property for a particular
stream. This allows the flexibility of properties to dynamically
change across the flowsheet.
The reset options are listed below and are active if you modify a
property value at the stream level.
Stream Level Reset
Description
Reset Selected Prop
Vector to FP Default
Clears selected property vector and reset it to the
fluid package level value for this stream.
Reset All Props to FP
Default
Clears all changed property vectors and reset
them to the fluid package values for this stream.
The properties for the stream are accessible from the stream
level editor. However, only the feed stream properties are
modifiable.
Keep in mind that any property vector changes at the Stream
level supercede changes at the fluid package level. For example,
if a stream is trying to access a particular component's 'Point'
property value and the property vector is contained in the
stream's local property slate, the local value is used. If the
property vector does not exist locally, then it calls up to the fluid
package's property state for the particular property vector and
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1-26
Component List Property View
uses this value if it exists. If the property vector does not exist
at the fluid package level, then the initial Component level value
is used.
1.2.4 Adding Electrolyte
Components
Electrolytes can be added to the component list in the
Component List property view. In the Add Component group of
the Selected tab, select the Electrolyte page located as the
subgroup of the Components configuration.
The property view is filled with information on electrolytes as
shown below.
Figure 1.12
1-26
Components
1-27
The methods for adding, substituting, removing, and sorting
components are common for all components on the selected
tab. The filtering options for Electrolytes which are described in
the following table:
Refer to Filtering the
Component List for
Traditional
Components for
additional information on
using the Match field to
filter the component list
for traditional
components.
Refer to the following
sections in the HYSYS
OLI Interface
Reference Guide for
more information on the
OLI databases:
• Section 1.8.1 - Full
Database
• Section 1.8.2 Limited Database
• Section 1.8.3 Special Databases
• Section 1.8.4 Private User
Databases - OLI
Data Service
Filter
Description
Match
This input cell allows type-matching of the component
simulation name, full name / synonym, or formula based on
the ratio button selected.
None
No electrolyte components exist or match your selection in
the property view. You need to acquire an additional license
to view the electrolyte database.
Full
The full database contains thousands of species in water
based on the OLI system database.
Limited
This database contains approximately 1,000 components
which are of most interest to process industries.
You can select or provide additional electrolyte component
databases to simulate special aqueous-based chemical systems.
HYSYS supports three special databases: GEOCHEM, LOWTEMP,
and REDOX.
You can access those special databases by clicking on the
Additional Database button, and select the desired special
databases from the Special Databank group in the
OLI_Electrolyte Additional Database property view. The use of
GEOCHEM, LOWTEMP, and REDOX databases must combine with
the choice of Full Databank. You can also supply your own OLI
private databank to suit the need of your simulation case.
To get a comprehensive list of the Full, and GEOCHEM database
components, refer to:
•
•
Appendix A.1 - List of Full HYSYS OLI Interface
Database, of the HYSYS OLI Interface Reference
Guide.
Appendix B.1 - List of HYSYS OLI Interface
GEOCHEM Database, of the HYSYS OLI Interface
Reference Guide.
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1-28
Component List Property View
1.2.5 Adding Hypothetical
Components
Refer to Section 3.5 Hypothetical
Component Property
View for details on the
various Component
property view tabs.
Hypotheticals can be added to a component list through the
Components List property view. In the Add Components group
of the Selected tab, select the Hypothetical branch from the
tree browser. The Components List property view is filled with
information appropriate to the addition of Hypothetical
components.
Figure 1.13
Refer to Chapter 3 Hypotheticals for more
detailed information to
Add and modify
Hypothetical components.
Some of the features from the Selected tab are common to both
the selection of Hypotheticals and Library components. Items
specific to Hypotheticals are described in the following table:
Object
Description
Add Group
Adds all the Hypothetical components in the Selected
selection in the Hypo Group list current to the current
component list.
Add Hypo
Adds the currently selected Hypothetical in the Hypo
Component list to the Current Component List.
Hypo Group
Displays all the Hypo Groups available to the current
component list.
1-28
Components
1-29
Object
Description
Hypo
Components
Displays all the Hypothetical components contained in
the currently selected Hypo Group.
Hypo Manager
Accesses the Hypotheticals tab of the Simulation Basis
Manager, from which you can create, view, or edit
Hypotheticals.
Quick Create a
Hypo Comp
A short-cut for creating a regular Hypothetical
component and adds it to the currently selected Hypo
Group and opens its property view.
Quick Create a
Solid Hypo
component
A short-cut for creating a solid Hypothetical component
and adds it to the currently selected Hypo Group and
opens its property view.
While you can add Hypos to a Component List from the
Selected tab, this is merely a short-cut. To access all features
during the creation of Hypotheticals and Hypothetical
groups, you should access the Hypotheticals tab of the
Simulation Basis Manager.
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Component List Property View
1.2.6 Adding Components
from Existing Component
Lists
Components can be added from other component lists by using
the Other List option. In the Add Components group, select the
Other list. The Components tab is redrawn with information
appropriate to accessing components from alternate component
lists.
Figure 1.14
The Existing Components group displays a list of all available
component lists loaded into the current case. Highlighting a
component list name displays its associated group of
components in the Components in Selected Component List.
To transfer a component from an existing component list, simply
highlight the component name in the list and click the Add
button. The highlighted component is added to the Selected
Components list.
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Fluid Package
2-1
2 Fluid Package
2.1 Introduction................................................................................... 2
2.2 Fluid Packages Tab ........................................................................ 3
2.3 Adding a Fluid Package - Example.................................................. 5
2.4 HYSYS Fluid Package Property View .............................................. 7
2.4.1
2.4.2
2.4.3
2.4.4
2.4.5
2.4.6
2.4.7
2.4.8
Set Up Tab .............................................................................. 8
Parameters Tab ...................................................................... 28
Binary Coefficients Tab............................................................ 41
Stability Test Tab.................................................................... 50
Phase Order Tab..................................................................... 55
Reactions Tab ........................................................................ 57
Tabular Tab............................................................................ 58
Notes Tab.............................................................................. 83
2.5 COMThermo Property View .......................................................... 84
2.5.1
2.5.2
2.5.3
2.5.4
2.5.5
2.5.6
Set Up Tab ............................................................................ 85
Parameters Tab ...................................................................... 98
Binary Coefficients Tab...........................................................100
Stability Test Tab...................................................................105
Reactions Tab .......................................................................109
Notes Tab.............................................................................109
2.6 References ................................................................................. 109
2-1
2-2
Introduction
2.1 Introduction
In HYSYS, all necessary information pertaining to pure
component flash and physical property calculations is contained
within the Fluid Package. This approach allows you to define all
the required information inside a single entity. The four key
advantages to this approach are:
•
•
•
•
All associated information is defined in a single location,
allowing for easy creation and modification of the
information.
Fluid Packages can be exported and imported as
completely defined packages for use in any simulation.
Fluid Packages can be cloned, which simplifies the task of
making small changes to a complex Fluid Package.
Multiple Fluid Packages can be used in the same
simulation; however, they are all defined inside the
common Simulation Basis Manager.
In this chapter, all information concerning the fluid package is
covered. This includes the basic procedure for creating a fluid
package by using both traditional HYSYS and COMThermo
thermodynamics. Finally, information on the Fluid Package
property view is provided for each of the following tabs:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Refer to Chapter 1 Components for further
details on the
Components Manager.
Set Up
Parameters
Binary Coefficients
Stability Test
Phase Order
Reactions (Rxns)
Tabular
Notes
It should be noted that individual components are not added
within the Fluid Package Manager. Instead, component selection
is handled independently in the Basis Manager through the
Components tab. The Components Manager provides a general
location where sets of chemical components being modeled may
be retrieved and manipulated.
2-2
Fluid Package
2-3
2.2 Fluid Packages Tab
The next tab of the Simulation Basis Manager property view is
the Fluid Packages (Fluid Pkgs) tab. When you create a New
Case, HYSYS displays the Fluid Pkgs tab, as shown below:
Figure 2.1
You must define at least one fluid package prior to entering
the Simulation Environment.
In the Current Fluid Packages group, there are buttons that
allow you to organize all Fluid Packages for the current case.
When a New Case is created, only the Add and Import
buttons are available.
The following table lists and describes each button:
Refer to Section 2.4 HYSYS Fluid Package
Property View for
details on what
information you can edit
by clicking the View
button.
Button
Description
View
This is only active when a fluid package exists in the
case. It allows you access the property view for the
selected fluid package.
Add
Allows you to install a new fluid package into the case.
2-3
2-4
Fluid Packages Tab
For details concerning
the importing and
exporting functionality,
refer to Section 7.23.7
- Exporting/
Importing Workbook
Tabs in the HYSYS
User Guide.
Button
Description
Delete
Allows you to delete a fluid package from the case. When
you delete a fluid package, HYSYS displays a warning,
and asks you to verify that you want to delete the
package. You must have at least one fluid package for
your case at all times.
Copy
Makes a copy of the selected fluid package. Everything is
identical in this copied version, except the name. This is a
useful tool for modifying fluid packages.
Import
Allows you to import a pre-defined fluid package from
disk. Fluid packages have the file extension *.fpk.
Export
Allows you to export the selected fluid package (*.fpk)
to disk. The exported fluid package can be retrieved into
another case, by using its Import function.
The Flowsheet - Fluid Pkg Associations group lists each
Flowsheet in the current simulation along with its associated
Fluid Package. You can change the associations between
Flowsheets and which Fluid Pkg To Use in this location. You can
also specify a default fluid package by selecting a package in the
Default Fluid Pkg drop-down list. HYSYS automatically assigns
the Default Fluid Package to each unit operation, SubFlowsheet
or columns using the default fluid package in the simulation.
Changing the default package only changes those fluid pkgs
that are currently set to use the default fluid package. That
is, any operation or stream which is not set to the default
fluid package is not modified.
Refer to Chapter 5 Logical Operations in the
HYSYS Operations
Guide for detailed
information on the stream
cutter object and fluid
package transitioning.
Selecting a alternative fluid package from the Basis Manager
property view allows you to transition or switch between fluid
pkgs anywhere in the flowsheet with the addition of the stream
cutter object.
The Fluid Pkg for New Sub-FlowSheets group allows you to
select the default fluid package that is associated to a
subflowsheet, when the subflowsheet is created.
•
•
Use Default Fluid Pkg radio button associates the
default fluid package of the entire simulation case to the
subflowsheet.
Use Parent’s Fluid Pkg radio button associates the
default fluid package of the parent flowsheet to the
subflowsheet.
2-4
Fluid Package
2-5
2.3 Adding a Fluid Package
- Example
When you click the Add button from the Simulation Basis
Manager property view, HYSYS opens the Fluid Package
property view to the Set Up tab. The Fluid Package property
view is based on the traditional HYSYS Thermodynamics.
Figure 2.2
You can select the COMThermo checkbox to access the
COMThermo option in HYSYS.
A complete description of
each page of the Fluid
Package property view is
given in Section 2.4 HYSYS Fluid Package
Property View.
The order of the tabs in the Fluid Package property view are tied
to the sequence of defining a Fluid Package using HYSYS
thermodynamics.
•
For further details relating
to Component Lists and
component selection,
refer to Chapter 1 Components.
•
On the Set Up tab, select a Property Package for the case
from the Property Package Selection group. You can filter
the list of Property Packages by selecting a radio button
in the Property Package Filter group. You must also select
a Component List for the case from the Component List
Selection group. Component Lists are built in the
Simulation Basis Manager and may contain library,
hypothetical, and electrolyte components.
Depending on the Property Package selected, you may
need to specify additional information, such as the
Enthalpy and Vapour Model, Poynting Correction factor,
etc.
2-5
2-6
Adding a Fluid Package - Example
•
•
Refer to Chapter 5 Reactions for
information on the
Reaction Manager.
•
•
•
•
Depending on the Property Package selected you may
need to supply additional information based on the
selected components. This is done on the Parameters
tab.
If necessary, specify the binary coefficients on the Binary
Coeffs tab. As an alternative to supplying binaries, you
may want to have estimates made for the selected
components.
If necessary, instruct HYSYS how to perform Phase
Stability tests as part of the flash calculations on the
Stab Test tab.
Define any reactions and reaction sets for the fluid
package or access the Reaction Manager on the Rxns
tab.
On the Tabular tab, you can access the Tabular Package
for the equation based representation of targeted
properties.
The final tab on the Fluid Package property view is the
Notes tab, where you can supply descriptive notes for the
new Fluid Package.
If you click the COMThermo checkbox in the Advanced
Thermodynamics group, HYSYS opens the Fluid package
property view to the Set Up tab. The Fluid Package property
view is based on the COMThermodynamics framework.
Figure 2.3
The order of the tabs in the Fluid Package property view are
similar to the traditional HYSYS Thermodynamics as above
except for the following:
•
On the Set Up tab, select a model case from the Model
Selection group for the vapor and liquid phase.
2-6
Fluid Package
•
•
•
•
2-7
Depending on the model selected, you may specify
additional information. For example, in the Model Options
group select the calculation methods for Enthalpy and
Entropy, Cp, etc., using the drop-down list.
Depending on the Model selected, you may need to
supply additional information based on the selected
components. This is done on the Parameters tab.
If necessary, specify the binary coefficients on the Binary
Coeff tab. As an alternative to supplying binaries, you
may want to have estimates made for the selected
components.
If necessary, instruct HYSYS-COMThermo how to perform
Phase Stability tests as part of the flash calculations on
the Stab Test tab.
2.4 HYSYS Fluid Package
Property View
The Fluid Package property view consists of eight tabs and is
based on the traditional HYSYS thermodynamics. Among these
tabs is all the information pertaining to the particular Fluid
Package.
Figure 2.4
Removes the Fluid
Package from the
case. You must
confirm that you want
to delete the Fluid
Package
You can input a name
for the Fluid Package
in this field.
The selected base
Property Package type is
shown in this status bar.
Select the button to
edit properties at the
fluid package level.
2-7
2-8
HYSYS Fluid Package Property View
2.4.1 Set Up Tab
Refer to Section 2.5 COMThermo Property
View for more
information on Advanced
Thermodynamics group.
The Set Up tab is the first tab of the Fluid Package property
view.
Figure 2.5
Select a property package
for the fluid package using
the property package filter.
Additional information are displayed
in this space depending on the
Property Package selection.
Select a Component List here. It is not recommended
to use the Master Component List.
When you create a new Fluid Package, the Fluid Package
property view appears as shown in the above figure.
The Set Up tab contains the Property Package Selection,
Component List Selection, Property Package Filter and
Thermodynamics groups.
Once a Property Package is selected, additional information and
options may be displayed to the right of the Property Package
Selection group. This is shown in Figure 2.4 with the EOS
Enthalpy Method Specification group for the Peng-Robinson
property package. The information that is displayed is
dependent on the selected Property Package.
The following sections provide an overview of the various
Property Packages, as well as details on the various groups that
appear on the Set Up tab.
2-8
Fluid Package
2-9
Property Package Selection Group
For more detailed
information about the
property packages
available in HYSYS, refer
to Appendix A Property Methods &
Calculations.
In the Property Package Selection group, you have access to the
list of all the Property Package/Property Methods available in
HYSYS and to the Property Package Filter group.
Figure 2.6
The Property Package Filter allows you to filter the list of
available property methods, based on the following criteria:
Filter
Description
All Types
All the Property Packages appear in the list.
EOSs
Only Equations of State appear in the list.
Activity Models
Only Liquid Activity Models appear in the list.
Chao Seader
Models
Only Chao Seader based Semi Empirical methods
are displayed.
Vapour Pressure
Models
Vapour pressure K-value models are shown in the
list.
Miscellaneous
Models that do not fit into any of the above 4
categories (i.e., excluding All) are displayed.
Equations of State (EOS)
For oil, gas and petrochemical applications, the Peng-Robinson
Equation of State is generally the recommended property
package. Enhancements to this equation of state enable its
accuracy for a variety of systems over a wide range of
conditions. It rigorously solves most single-phase, two-phase,
and three-phase systems with a high degree of efficiency and
reliability.
2-9
2-10
HYSYS Fluid Package Property View
All equation of state methods and their specific applications are
described below:
EOS
Description
GCEOS
This model allows you to define and implement your own
generalized cubic equation of state including mixing rules
and volume translation.
Kabadi Danner
This model is a modification of the original SRK equation
of state, enhanced to improve the vapour-liquid-liquid
equilibria calculations for water-hydrocarbon systems,
particularly in dilute regions.
Lee-Kesler
Plocker
This model is the most accurate general method for nonpolar substances and mixtures.
Peng-Robinson
This model is ideal for VLE calculations as well as
calculating liquid densities for hydrocarbon systems.
Several enhancements to the original PR model were
made to extend its range of applicability and to improve
its predictions for some non-ideal systems. However, in
situations where highly non-ideal systems are
encountered, the use of Activity Models is recommended.
PRSV
This is a two-fold modification of the PR equation of state
that extends the application of the original PR method for
moderately non-ideal systems.
SRK
In many cases it provides comparable results to PR, but
its range of application is significantly more limited. This
method is not as reliable for non-ideal systems.
Sour PR
Combines the PR equation of state and Wilson's API-Sour
Model for handling sour water systems.
Sour SRK
Combines the Soave Redlich Kwong and Wilson's APISour Model.
Zudkevitch
Joffee
Modification of the Redlich Kwong equation of state. This
model has been enhanced for better prediction of
vapour-liquid equilibria for hydrocarbon systems, and
systems containing Hydrogen.
BWRS
This model is commonly used for compression
applications and studies. It is specifically used for gas
phase components that handle the complex
thermodynamics that occur duirng compression and is
useful in both upstream and downstream industries.
Activity Models
Although Equation of State models have proven to be very
reliable in predicting the properties of most hydrocarbon based
fluids over a wide range of operating conditions, their
application is limited to primarily non-polar or slightly polar
components. Highly non-ideal systems are best modeled using
Activity Models.
2-10
Fluid Package
2-11
The following Activity Model Property Packages are available:
Activity Model
Description
Chien Null
Provides a consistent framework for applying existing
Activity Models on a binary by binary basis. It allows you
to select the best Activity Model for each pair in your
case.
Extended NRTL
This variation of the NRTL model allows you to input
values for the Aij, Bij, Cij, Alp1ij and Alp2ij parameters
used in defining the component activity coefficients.
Apply this model to systems:
• with a wide boiling point range between
components.
• where you require simultaneous solution of VLE and
LLE, and there exists a wide boiling point range or
concentration range between components.
General NRTL
This variation of the NRTL model allows you to select the
equation format for equation parameters: τ and α .
Apply this model to systems:
• with a wide boiling point range between
components.
• where you require simultaneous solution of VLE and
LLE, and there exists a wide boiling point or
concentration range between components.
Margules
This was the first Gibbs excess energy representation
developed. The equation does not have any theoretical
basis, but is useful for quick estimates and data
interpolation.
NRTL
This is an extension of the Wilson equation. It uses
statistical mechanics and the liquid cell theory to
represent the liquid structure. It is capable of
representing VLE, LLE, and VLLE phase behaviour.
UNIQUAC
Uses statistical mechanics and the quasi-chemical theory
of Guggenheim to represent the liquid structure. The
equation is capable of representing LLE, VLE, and VLLE
with accuracy comparable to the NRTL equation, but
without the need for a non-randomness factor.
van Laar
This equation fits many systems quite well, particularly
for LLE component distributions. It can be used for
systems that exhibit positive or negative deviations from
Raoult's Law, however, it cannot predict maxima or
minima in the activity coefficient. Therefore it generally
performs poorly for systems with halogenated
hydrocarbons and alcohols.
Wilson
First activity coefficient equation to use the local
composition model to derive the Gibbs Excess energy
expression. It offers a thermodynamically consistent
approach to predicting multi-component behaviour from
regressed binary equilibrium data. However the Wilson
model cannot be used for systems with two liquid
phases.
2-11
2-12
HYSYS Fluid Package Property View
Chao Seader & Grayson Streed Models
The Chao Seader and Grayson Streed methods are older, semiempirical methods. The Grayson Streed correlation is an
extension of the Chao Seader method with special emphasis on
hydrogen. Only the equilibrium data produced by these
correlations is used by HYSYS. The Lee-Kesler method is used
for liquid and vapour enthalpies and entropies.
Model
Description
Chao Seader
Use this method for heavy hydrocarbons, where the
pressure is less than 10342 kPa (1500 psia), and
temperatures range between -17.78 and 260°C (0-500°F).
Grayson
Streed
Recommended for simulating heavy hydrocarbon systems
with a high hydrogen content.
Vapour Pressure Models
Vapour Pressure K-value models may be used for ideal mixtures
at low pressures. Ideal mixtures include hydrocarbon systems
and mixtures such as ketones and alcohols, where the liquid
phase behaviour is approximately ideal. The models may also be
used as first approximations for non-ideal systems. The
following vapour pressure models are available:
Models
Description
Antoine
This model is applicable for low pressure systems that
behave ideally.
Braun K10
This model is strictly applicable to heavy hydrocarbon
systems at low pressures. The model employs the Braun
convergence pressure method, where, given the normal
boiling point of a component, the K-value is calculated at
system temperature and 10 psia (68.95 kPa).
Esso Tabular
This model is strictly applicable to hydrocarbon systems at
low pressures. The model employs a modification of the
Maxwell-Bonnel vapour pressure model.
2-12
Fluid Package
2-13
Miscellaneous Types
The Miscellaneous group contains Property Packages that are
unique and do not fit into the groups previously mentioned.
For more information on
the package see
Appendix C - Amines
Property Package.
Property Package
Description
Amine Pkg
Contains thermodynamic models developed by
D.B. Robinson & Associates for their proprietary
amine plant simulator, AMSIM. You can use this
property package for amine plant simulations with
HYSYS.
Amines is an optional Property Package. Contact
your AspenTech representative for further
information.
For more information on
the package see
Appendix D - Glycol
Property Package.
For more information on
the OLI_Electrolyte
property package, refer
to Section 1.6 - HYSYS
OLI_Electrolyte
Property Package in
the HYSYS OLI
Interface Reference
Guide.
ASME Steam
Restricted to a single component, namely H2O.
Uses the ASME 1967 Steam Tables.
Glycol PPkg
Glycol property package contains the TST (TwuSim-Tassone) equation of state to determine the
phase behaviour more accurately and consistently
for the TEG-water mixture.
NBS Steam
Restricted to a single component, namely H2O.
Utilizes the NBS 1984 Steam Tables.
MBWR
This is a modified version of the original Benedict/
Webb/Rubin equation. This 32-term equation of
state model is applicable for only a specific set of
components and operating conditions.
OLI_Electrolyte
Developed by OLI Systems Inc. and used for
predicting the equilibrium properties of a chemical
system including phase and reactions in a water
solution.
Additional Property Package Options
When you select a Property Package, additional information and
options may be displayed on the right side of the Set Up tab.
This information is directly related to the Property Package type
selected.
2-13
2-14
HYSYS Fluid Package Property View
In this section, the additional information displayed with the
property method selection is discussed. The groups that are
encountered are shown below. It should be noted that not all
EOS’s or Activity models include the specifications indicated.
Property Packages
Specifications and Options
Equation of States
EOS Enthalpy Method Specification, Peng
Robinson Options, Indexed Viscosity Mixing
Rule, EOS Density and Smooth Liquid Density
Specifications
Activity Models
Activity Model Specifications
Amine Pkg
Amine Options:
• Thermodynamic Models for Aqueous Amine
Solutions
• Vapour Phase Model
OLI_Electrolyte
OLI_Electrolyte Options:
• Initialize and View Electrolytes
• Phase and Solid options
EOS Enthalpy Method Specification
The Lee-Kesler Plocker (LKP) and Zudkevitch Joffee (ZJ)
property packages both use the Lee-Kesler enthalpy method.
You cannot change the enthalpy method for either of these
Equations of State (in other words, the figure below does not
appear).
Figure 2.7
2-14
Fluid Package
2-15
With any other Equation of State, you have a choice for the
enthalpy method as described below:
Enthalpy Method
Description
Equation of State
With this radio button selection, the enthalpy method
contained within the Equation of State is used.
Lee-Kesler
The Lee-Kesler method is used for the calculation of
enthalpies.
This option results in a combined Property Package,
employing the appropriate equation of state for
vapour-liquid equilibrium calculations and the LeeKesler equation for the calculation of enthalpies and
entropies.
This method yields comparable results to HYSYS'
standard equations of state and has identical ranges of
applicability.
Lee-Kesler enthalpies may be slightly more accurate
for heavy hydrocarbon systems, but require more
computer resources because a separate model must be
solved.
Peng Robinson Options
The Peng Robinson options are only available when the Peng
Robinson property package is selected.
Figure 2.8
The options are explained in the table below:
For more information on
property packages, refer
to Appendix A.3.1 Equations of State.
Option
Description
HYSYS
The HysysPR EOS is similar to the PR EOS with several
enhancements to the original PR equation. It extends its range
of applicability and better represents the VLE of complex
systems.
Standard
This is the standard Peng Robinson (1976) equation of state, a
modification of the RK equation to better represent the VLE of
natural gas systems accurately.
2-15
2-16
HYSYS Fluid Package Property View
EOS Density and Smooth Liquid Density
Specifications
The Use EOS Density and Smooth Liquid Density
checkboxes affect the PR, PRSOUR, SRK, and SRKSOUR
property packages.
Figure 2.9
In previous versions to HYSYS 3.0, these property packages
used the Costald liquid density model. This method was only
applied when the reduced temperature (Tr) was less than unity.
When the reduced temperature exceeded unity, it switched to
the EOS liquid density. Hence, at Tr=1 there is a sharp change
(discontinuity) in the liquid density causing problems especially
in dynamics mode.
For older cases including HYSIM cases, the density smoothing
option is not selected. This means that liquid densities in cases
using the smoothing option may differ from those cases in the
past.
By default, new cases have the density smoothing option
selected and EOS density not selected, which is the
recommended option. By default, or if the smoothing option is
selected, HYSYS interpolates the liquid densities from Tr=0.95
to Tr=1.0, giving a smooth transition. It should be noted that
the densities differ if the option is not selected.
Costald typically gives better liquid densities and smoothing
near Tr=1 is common.
If both the Use EOS Density and Smooth Liquid Density boxes
are not selected, the behaviour and results are the same as
before (previous to HYSYS 3.0) and can cause problems as
discussed earlier.
2-16
Fluid Package
2-17
Modify H2 Tc and Pc Option
The Modify H2 Tc and Pc checkbox is available for the following
property packages: Peng-Robinson, SourPR, SourSRK, and SRK.
Figure 2.10
When the checkbox is selected, the critical temperature and
pressure of Hydrogen is modified as a function of temperature.
This feature is used to produce better results for simulation
systems containing hydrogen.
Indexed Viscosity Mixing Rule
The Indexed Viscosity checkbox option enables you to toggle
between two methods/rules used to calculate the blended liquid
viscosity.
Figure 2.11
There are two methods are:
•
•
default. HYSYS provides an estimate of the apparent
liquid viscosity of an immiscible hydrocarbon liquid aqueous mixture using only the viscosity and the volume
fraction of the hydrocarbon phase. This method is
selected when the Indexed Vicosity checkbox is clear.
viscosity index. Uses a linearized viscosity equation
from Twu and Bulls. This method is selected when the
Indexed Viscosity checkbox is selected.
2-17
2-18
HYSYS Fluid Package Property View
Viscosity Index Parameters Property View
When you select the Indexed Viscosity checkbox, the
Viscosity Index Parameters property view (associated to the
active fluid package) appears.
Figure 2.12
In the Viscosity Index Parameters group, you can specify the
value for the three parameters used in the linearized viscosity
calculation. The equation below the table displays how each
parameter is used in the Twu and Bulls (1981)2 calculation.
Theory
Viscosity cannot be blended linearly, so a methodology is
adopted that substitutes a function of the measured viscosity
that is approximately linear with temperature. A linearized
equation for viscosity is given by Twu and Bulls (1981)2:
ln ln ( v + 0.7 ) = m ln T + b
(2.1)
where:
T = absolute temperature °R
v = kinematic viscosity in cSt
The above equation can be simplified to the following equation:
a ln ln ( v + c ) = b
(2.2)
2-18
Fluid Package
2-19
where:
a = constant at a fixed temperature
v = kinematic viscosity in cSt
c = adjustable parameter
b = constant
Pure Component
HYSYS calculates the viscosity of a pure compound based on the
component class designation as well as the phase in which the
component is present as well as a temperature range:
System
Vapor
Liquid
Light HCs (NBP<155F)
Modified Ely and Hanley
Ely and Hanely
Heavy HCs
Modified Ely and Hanley
Twu
Modified Letsou-Stiel
Modified Ely and Hanely
Modified Letsou-Stiel
Each viscosity model is based on the corresponding states
principle. A complete description of the corresponding stages
NBS model used for viscosity prediction used by Ely and Hanely
is given in the NBS publication3. This model was modified to
eliminate the iterative procedure for calculating the system
shape factors. The generalized Leech-Leland shape factor
models have been replaced by component specific models.
Although the modified NBS models handles most hydrocarbons
well, the Twu method is known to do a better job of predicting
the viscosity of heavy hydrocarbon liquids. The Twu model is
also based on the corresponding states principle and uses a
viscosity correlation for n-alkanes as its reference fluid instead
of methane.
Experimental viscosity curves can be supplied via hypothetical
properties or user data in HYSYS directly by mapping the library
component as a hypothetical.
Estimations for viscosity can be further improved over
internal estimation routines by supplying the experimental
viscosity for a hypothetical component.
2-19
2-20
HYSYS Fluid Package Property View
Activity Model Specifications
The Activity Model Specification group appears for each activity
model. There are three specification items within this group as
shown in the following figure.
Figure 2.13
Activity Models only perform calculations for the liquid phase,
thus, you are required to specify the method to be used for
solving the vapour phase. The first field in the Activity Model
Specifications group allows you to select an appropriate Vapour
Model for your fluid package.
The list of vapour phase models are accessed through the dropdown list and are described below.
Models
Description
Ideal
The HYSYS default. It is applied for cases in which you are
operating at low or moderate pressures.
RK
The generalized Redlich Kwong cubic equation of state is
based on reduced temperature and reduced pressure, and is
generally applicable to all gases.
Virial
Enables you to better model the vapour phase fugacities of
systems that display strong vapour phase interactions.
Typically this occurs in systems containing carboxylic acids,
or other compounds that have the tendency to form stable
hydrogen bonds in the vapour phase.
PR
Uses the Peng Robinson EOS to model the vapour phase.
Use this option for all situations to which PR is applicable.
SRK
Uses the Soave Redlich Kwong EOS to model the vapour
phase. Use this option for all situations to which SRK is
applicable.
The second field in the Activity Model Specifications group is the
UNIFAC Estimation Temp. This temperature is used to estimate
interaction parameters using the UNIFAC method. By default,
the temperature is 25°C, although better results are achieved if
you select a temperature that is closer to your anticipated
operating conditions.
2-20
Fluid Package
2-21
The third field in this group is a checkbox for the Poynting
Correction. This checkbox toggles the Poynting correction factor,
which by default, is selected. The correction factor is only
available for vapour phase models. The correction factor uses
each component's molar volume (liquid phase) in the calculation
of the overall compressibility factor.
Amine Options
The following Amine options are available when the Amine pkg
is selected.
Figure 2.14
Refer to the Appendix
C.4 - Equilibrium
Solubility for detailed
information on each
thermodynamic model.
The Thermodynamic Models for Aqueous Amine Solutions group
contains radio buttons that enable you to select between the
Kent-Eisenberg and Li-Mather models.
The Vapour Phase Model group contains radio buttons that
enable you to select between Ideal and Non-Ideal models.
2-21
2-22
HYSYS Fluid Package Property View
OLI_Electrolyte Options
Refer to the HYSYS
OLI Interface
Reference Guide for
detailed information on
electrolytes.
If the OLI_Electrolyte property package is selected for the fluid
package, the following electrolyte options appear on the right
side of the property view.
Figure 2.15
After selecting electrolyte components for a component list from
the database, a electrolyte system is established.
The Initialize Electrolytes Environment button is used for
the following:
•
•
Generating a group of additional components based on
the selected components and the setting in Phase Option
and Solid Option below.
Generating a corresponding Chemistry model for
thermodynamic calculation.
The View Electrolyte Reaction in Trace Window button is
active when the Electrolytes Environment is initialized. It allows
you to view what reaction(s) are involved in the Thermo flash
calculation in the trace window.
Phase Option Group
The Phase Option includes the following four phases:vapour,
organic, solid, and aqueous. The checkboxes allow you to select
the material phases that are considered during the flash
calculation.
•
The vapour, organic, and solid phases may be included or
excluded from calculations.
2-22
Fluid Package
•
2-23
The aqueous phase must be included in all electrolyte
simulations and is not accessible.
By default, the vapour and solid phases are selected with the
organic phase cleared.
The flexibility of selecting different phase combinations and the
procedure for phase mixing used by the flash calculation is
described in the following table:
Phases Included
Description of the Flash Action
Vapour and Solid
Generates vapour and solid phases when they exist. If
an organic phase appears, it is included in the vapour
phase.
Organic and
Solid
Generates the organic and solid phase when they exist.
If a vapour phase appears, it is included in the organic
phase.
Vapour and
Organic
Generates the vapour and organic phase when they
exist. If a solid phase appears, it is included in the
aqueous phase.
Vapour only
Generates the vapour phase when it exists. If an
organic phase appears, it will be included in the vapour
phase and if a solid phase appears, it is included in the
aqueous phase.
Organic Only
Generates the organic phase when it exists. If a vapour
phase appears, it will be included in the organic phase
and if a solid phase appears, it is included in the
aqueous phase.
Solid Only
An electrolyte case with no organic or vapour phase is
impossible and is not be accepted.
Solid Option Group
Refer to Section 1.6.6 Disabling Solid
Components in the
HYSYS OLI Interface
Reference Guide for
more information on
including and excluding
solids.
The Solid Option group contains two checkboxes and the
Selected Solid button.
•
•
HYSYS allows you to exclude all solids in your case by
selecting the Exclude All Solids checkbox.
You can exclude solid components individually when the
solid phase is included, by disabling solid components
that are not of interest in the simulation.
To do this, you must invoke Initialize Electrolytes
Environment option first, and then click the Selected
Solid button. When you click the button, you can select
any component that you want to be included or excluded
in all of the Electrolyte streams from the case. When the
solid components are excluded, you have to re-initialize
the Electrolytes Environment.
2-23
2-24
HYSYS Fluid Package Property View
Refer to Section 1.6.7 Scaling Tendencies of
the HYSYS OLI
Interface Reference
Guide for more
information.
•
If you select the All Scaling Tendency checkbox, all
solids are excluded from the case. The Scaling Tendency
Index is still calculated in the flash calculation.
Redox Options Group
The Redox Options group contains features that enable you to
access the REDOX database. The REDOX database supports
calculations involving the reduction and oxidation of pure metals
and alloys to simulate the corrosion process in aqueous system.
•
Refer to REDOX section
from Section 1.8.3 Special Databases in
the HYSYS OLI
Interface Reference
Guide for more
information.
•
The Included checkbox enables you to toggle between
including or ignoring the selected REDOX sub-system for
the active property package.
The Redox Subsystem Selection... button enables you
to access the Redox Sub-Systems property view. This
property view enables you to select the REDOX subsystem you want to apply to the property package.
Figure 2.16
By default, OLI REDOX selects the redox subsystems that
contain metals of engineering importance. This default is
motivated by corrosion applications, for which redox
transformations of engineering metals are important.
2-24
Fluid Package
2-25
Component List Selection Group
You must also select a Component List to associate with the
current Fluid Package from the Component List Selection dropdown list.
Figure 2.17
Component Lists are stored outside of the Fluid Package
Manager in the Components Manager and may contain
traditional, hypothetical, and electrolyte components.
It is not recommended for users to attach the Master
Component List to any Fluid Package. If only the master list
exists, by default a cloned version of the Master Component
List is created (called Component List -1). This list is
selected initially when a new Fluid Package is created.
HYSYS provides a warning message when you attempt to
associate a Component List containing incompatible and/or not
recommended components, with your property package.
Also, if you switch between property packages, and any
components are incompatible or not recommended for use with
the current property package, a property view appears
providing further options (see the following Warning Messages
section).
Warning Messages
There are two different warning property views that you may
encounter while modifying a Fluid Package. These situations
arise when a Component List is installed into the Fluid Package
and you want to select a new property package. Some
components from the selected Component List may either not
be recommended or are incompatible with the new property
package selection.
2-25
2-26
HYSYS Fluid Package Property View
The first property view involves the use of Non-Recommended
components. In HYSYS, you can select components that are not
recommended for use with the current property package.
If you try to switch to another property package for which the
components are not recommended, the following property view
appears:
Figure 2.18
The objects from the Components Not Recommended for
Property Package property view are described below:
Object
Description
Not
Recommended
The non-recommended components are listed in this
group.
Desired Prop Pkg
This field initially displays the Property Package for
which the listed components are Not Recommended.
This field is also a drop-down list of all available
Property Packages so you may make an alternate
selection without returning to the Fluid Package
property view.
Action
This group box contains two radio buttons:
• Delete Components. This removes incompatible
components from the Fluid Package.
• Keep Components. This keeps the components
in the Fluid Package.
OK
Accepts the Desired Prop Pkg with the appropriate
Action.
Cancel
Return to the Prop Pkg tab without making changes.
2-26
Fluid Package
2-27
The second dialog involves the use of Incompatible components.
If you try to switch to a property package for which the
components are incompatible, the following property view
appears:
Figure 2.19
The Objects from the Components Incompatible with Property
Package property view are described below:
Object
Description
Incompatible
Components
The incompatible components are listed in this group.
Desired Prop Pkg
This field initially displays the Property Package for
which the listed components are Incompatible.
This field is also a drop-down list of all available
Property Packages so you may make an alternate
selection without returning to the Fluid Package
property view.
OK
This button accepts the Desired Prop Pkg with the
appropriate Action (i.e., delete the incompatible
components).
Cancel
Press this button to keep the current Property Package
2-27
2-28
HYSYS Fluid Package Property View
2.4.2 Parameters Tab
The information and options displayed on the Parameters tab is
dependent on the Property Package selection. Some Property
Packages have nothing on the Parameters tab, while others
display additional information required. Those Property
Packages which have information on the Parameters tab are
mentioned in this section.
If a value is estimated by HYSYS, it is indicated in red and can
be modified.
GCEOS (Generalized Cubic EOS)
The Generalized Cubic Equation of State (GCEOS) is an
alternative to the standard equation of state property packages.
It allows you to define and customize the cubic equation to your
own specifications.
Figure 2.20
2-28
Fluid Package
2-29
Generalized Cubic Equation of State
To gain an understanding of how to specify the GCEOS property
package Parameters tab, you must first consider the general
cubic equation of state form:
a(T)
RT
P = ----------- – ------------------------------------2
2
v – b v + ubv + wb
(2.3)
OR
3
2
Z + C1 Z + C2 Z + C 3 = 0
(2.4)
where:
C 1 = Bu – B – 1
2
2
C 2 = B w – B u – Bu + A
3
(2.5)
2
C 3 = – ( B w + B w + AB )
Pv
Z = ------RT
(2.6)
a mix P
A = ------------2 2
R T
(2.7)
b mix P
B = ------------RT
a mix =
∑∑xi xj
a i ( T )a j ( T ) × MRij
(2.8)
(2.9)
∑xi bi
(2.10)
ai ( T ) = ac α
(2.11)
b mix =
2-29
2-30
HYSYS Fluid Package Property View
2
3 + ( u – w )ξ
a c =  ---------------------------------- + uξ  RT c V c
 3 + ( u – 1 )ξ

(2.12)
bi = ξ Vc
(2.13)
3
2
(2.14)
[ u ( w + u ) – w ]ξ + 3 ( w + u )ξ + 3ξ – 1 = 0
MRij = the mixing rule
To calculate the values of bi and ac, the cubic equation,
Equation (2.14), is solved to find a value for ξ .
The value of ai in Equation (2.11) requires you to use the α
term.
0.5
α( T ) = [ 1 + κ ( 1 – T R ) ]
2
(2.15)
α in turn is made up of the κ term.The parameter κ is a
polynomial equation containing five parameters: κ 0 ,κ 1 ,κ 2 ,κ 3 ,κ 4 ,κ 5 .
The parameter κ 0 is also represented by a polynomial equation
consisting of 4 parameters (A, B, C and D).
κ4
0.5
κ = κ 0 + [ κ 1 + ( κ 2 – κ 3 T R ) ( 1 – T R ) ] × ( 1 + T R ) ( 0.7 – T R ) × T
2
3
κ 0 = A + Bω + Cω + Dω
κ5
(2.16)
(2.17)
The Parameters tab for the GCEOS consists of three group
boxes:
•
•
•
GCEOS Pure Component Parameters
GCEOS Parameters
Initialize EOS
2-30
Fluid Package
2-31
GCEOS Pure Component Parameters Group
This group allows you to define α by specifying the values of
κ 0 to κ 5 .
To specify the value of κ 0 , select the kappa0 radio button and a
property view similar to the one shown in Figure 2.21 should
appear. The group consists of a matrix containing 4 parameters
of Equation (2.17): A, B, C, and D for each component
selected in the Fluid Package.
Figure 2.21
To specify the remaining kappa parameters (in other words,
κ 0 to κ 5 ), select the kappa1-5 radio button. A new matrix
appears in the GCEOS Pure Component Parameters group.
Figure 2.22
This matrix allows you to specify the κ values for each
component in the Fluid Package.
2-31
2-32
HYSYS Fluid Package Property View
Volume Translation
The GCEOS allows for volume translation correction to provide a
better calculation of liquid volume by the cubic equations of
state. The correction is simply a translation along the volume
axis, which results in a better calculation of liquid volume
without affecting the VLE calculations. Mathematically this
volume shift is represented as:
n
∑ xi c i
ṽ = v –
(2.18)
i=1
n
∑ xi ci
b̃ = b –
(2.19)
i=1
where:
ṽ = translated volume
b̃ = is the translated cubic equation of state parameter
ci = the pure component translated volume
xi = the mole fraction of component i in the liquid phase.
The resulting equation of state appears as shown in Equations
(2.6), (2.7) and (2.8) with b and v replaced with the
translated values ( ṽ and b̃ ).
2-32
Fluid Package
2-33
To specify the value of the pure component correction volume,
ci, select the Vol. Translation radio button. A property view
similar to the one shown in Figure 2.23 will appear.
Figure 2.23
The GCEOS Pure Components Parameters group now contains a
matrix containing the volume correction constants for each
component currently selected. The matrix should initially be
empty. You may enter your own values into this matrix or you
may click the Estimate button and have HYSYS estimate values
for you. ci is estimated by matching liquid volume at normal
boiling point temperature with that of the liquid volume obtained
from an independent method (COSTALD).
HYSYS only estimates the correction volume constant for those
components whose cells have no value (i.e., they contain
0.000). If you specify one value in the matrix and click the
Estimate button, you are only estimating those empty cells.
To estimate a cell containing a previously entered value,
select the cell, delete the current value and click the
Estimate button.
2-33
2-34
HYSYS Fluid Package Property View
GCEOS Parameters Group
The GCEOS Parameters group allows you to specify the u and w
parameters found in Equations (2.5) to (2.17).
The following table lists the u and w values for some common
equations of state:
EOS
u
w
van der Waals
0
0
Redlich-Kwong
1
0
Peng-Robinson
2
-1
Equation Status Bar
The GCEOS Parameter group also contains the Equation Status
Bar. It tells you the status of the equation definition. There are
two possible messages and are described as follows:
Message
Description
This message appears if poor values are chosen for u
and w.
If the values selected for u and w are suitable this
message appears.
Initialize EOS
The Initialize EOS drop-down list allows you to initialize GCEOS
Parameters tab with the default values associated with the
selected Equation of State.
The four options available are as follows:
•
•
•
•
van der Waals Equation
SRK Equation
PR Equation
PRSV Equation
2-34
Fluid Package
2-35
Kabadi Danner
The Kabadi Danner Property Package uses Group Parameters
that are automatically calculated by HYSYS. The values are
generated from Twu's method.
Figure 2.24
Peng-Robinson Stryjek Vera (PRSV)
PRSV uses an empirical factor, Kappa, for fitting pure component
vapour pressures.
Figure 2.25
2-35
2-36
HYSYS Fluid Package Property View
Zudkevitch Joffee
This Property Package uses a b zero Parameter. HYSYS sets the
b zero parameter of the ZJ equation to be zero.
Figure 2.26
Chien Null
The Chien Null model provides a consistent framework for
applying different activity models on a binary by binary basis.
On the Parameters tab, you can specify the Activity Model to be
used for each component pair, as well as two additional pure
component parameters required by the model.
The two groups on the Parameters tab for the Chien Null
property package are:
•
•
Chien Null Component Parameters
Chien Null Binary Component Parameters
2-36
Fluid Package
2-37
Component Parameters
Values for the Solubility and Molar Volume are displayed for
each library component and estimated for hypotheticals.
Figure 2.27
The Molar Volume parameter is used by the Regular Solution
portion of the Chien Null equation. The Regular Solution is an
Activity Model choice for Binary pair computations (see the
following section).
Binary Component Parameters
All of the components in the case, including hypotheticals, are
listed in the matrix. You can view the details for the liquid and
vapour phase calculations by selecting the appropriate radio
button:
•
•
Liq Activity Models
Virial Coefficients
Figure 2.28
By selecting the Liq Activity Models radio button, you can specify
the Activity Model that HYSYS uses for the calculation of each
2-37
2-38
HYSYS Fluid Package Property View
binary. The matrix displays the default property package
method selected by HYSYS for each binary pair.
The choices are accessed by highlighting the drop-down list in
each cell. If Henry's Law is applicable to a component pair,
HYSYS selects this as the default property method. When
Henry's Law is selected by HYSYS, you cannot modify the model
for the binary pair.
The Property Packages available in the drop-down list are:
•
•
•
•
None Required
Henry
van Laar
Margules
•
•
•
•
NRTL
Scatchard
Reg Soln
General
In the previous property view, NRTL was selected as the default
property package for all binary pairs. You can use the default
selections, or you can set the property package for each binary
pair. Remember that the selected method appears in both cells
representing the binary. HYSYS may filter the list of options
according to the components involved in the binary pair.
By selecting the Virial Coefficients radio button, you can view
and edit the virial coefficients for each binary. Values are only
shown in this table when the Virial Vapour model is selected on
the Set Up tab. You can use the default values suggested by
HYSYS or edit these values. Virial coefficients for the pure
species are shown along the diagonal of the matrix table, while
cross coefficients, which are mixture properties between
components, are those not along the diagonal.
2-38
Fluid Package
2-39
Wilson
The Molar Volume for each library component is displayed, as
well as those values estimated for hypotheticals.
Figure 2.29
Chao Seader & Grayson Streed
The Chao Seader and Grayson Streed models also use a Molar
Volume term. Values for Solubility, Molar Volume, and
Acentricity are displayed for library components. The
parameters are estimated for hypotheticals.
Figure 2.30
2-39
2-40
HYSYS Fluid Package Property View
Antoine
HYSYS uses a six term Antoine expression, with a fixed F term.
For library components, the minimum and maximum
temperature and the coefficients (A through F) are displayed for
each component. The values for Hypothetical components are
estimated.
Figure 2.31
Benedict-Webb-Rubin-Starling
(BWRS)
The Benedict-Webb-Rubin-Starling property package uses 11
pure-component parameters.
The BWRS pure-component parameters are:
•
•
•
•
•
•
B0
A0
C0
gamma
b
a
•
•
•
•
•
alpha
c
D0
d
E0
For 15 compounds, the pure-component parameters are built-in
to the property package and stored in the database. For other
compounds, these parameters are automatically calculated
using Tc, Vc, and acentric factor by HYSYS. The values are
2-40
Fluid Package
2-41
generated from Han-Sterling correlations.
Compounds with Built-in parameters are:
•
•
•
•
•
Methane
Ethane
Propane
I-Butane
n-Butane
•
•
•
•
•
I-Pentane
n-Pentane
n-Hexane
n-Heptane
n-Octane
•
•
•
•
•
Ethylene
Propylenen
N2
CO2
H2S
2.4.3 Binary Coefficients Tab
The Binary Coefficients (Binary Coeffs) tab contains a matrix
table which lists the interaction parameters for each component
pair. Depending on the property method selected, different
estimation methods may be available and a different property
view may be shown. You have the option of overwriting any
library value.
The cells with unknown interaction parameters contain dashes (--). When you exit the Basis Manager, unknown interaction
parameters are set to zero.
For all matrices on the Binary Coeffs tab, the horizontal
components across the top of the matrix table represent the "i"
component and the vertical components represent the "j"
component.
Generalized Cubic Equation of State
Interaction Parameters
When GCEOS is the selected property package on the Set Up
2-41
2-42
HYSYS Fluid Package Property View
tab, the Binary Coeffs tab appears as shown below.
Figure 2.32
The GCEOS property package allows you to select mixing
methods used to calculate the equation of state parameter, aij.
HYSYS assumes the -following general mixing rule:
a ij =
(2.20)
a i a j MRij
where:
MRij = the mixing rule parameter.
There are seven methods to choose for MRij:
Equation
2
MR ij ( T ) = ( 1 – A ij + B ij T + C ij T )
(2.21)
MRij ( T ) = ( 1 – A ij + B ij T + C ij ⁄ T )
(2.22)
2
2
MR ij ( T ) = 1 – x i ( 1 – A ij + B ij T + Cij T ) – x j ( 1 – Aij + Bij T + C ij T )
(2.23)
MR ij ( T ) = 1 – x i ( 1 – Aij + Bij T + C ij ⁄ T ) – x j ( 1 – Aij + Bij T + C ij ⁄ T
(2.24)
2-42
Fluid Package
2-43
Equation
( k ij × k ji )
MR ij ( T ) = 1 – -------------------------x i k ij + x j k ji
(2.25)
where:
k ij = Aij + B ij T + Cij T
2
( k ij × k ji )
MR ij ( T ) = 1 – -------------------------x i k ij + x j k ji
(2.26)
where:
C
k ij = A ij + B ij T + ------ijT
Wong Sandler Mixing Rule - Refer to Wong Sandler Mixing Rule
section for more information.
Each mixing rule allows for the specification of three
parameters: Aij, Bij, and Cij, except for the Wong Sandler mixing
rule which has the Aij and Bij parameter and also requires you to
provide NRTL binary coefficients.
The parameters are available through the three radio buttons in
the upper left corner of the tab: Aij, Bij, and Cij/NRTL. By
selecting a certain parameter’s radio button you may view the
associated parameter matrix table.
When selecting the Cij/NRTL radio button you are specifying
the Cij parameter unless you are using the Wong Sandler
mixing rule. In this case you are specifying NRTL binary
coefficients used to calculate the Helmholtz energy.
Wong Sandler Mixing Rule
The Wong Sandler1 mixing rule is a density independent mixing
rule in which the equation of state parameters amix and bmix of
2-43
2-44
HYSYS Fluid Package Property View
any cubic equation of state are determined by simultaneously
solving:
•
•
the excess Helmholtz energy at infinite pressure.
the exact quadratic composition dependence of the
second virial coefficient.
To demonstrate this model, consider the relationship between
the second viral coefficient B(T) and the equation of state
parameters a and b:
aB ( T ) = b – -----RT
(2.27)
Consider the quadratic composition dependence of the second
virial coefficient as:
Bm ( T ) =
∑∑xi xj Bij ( T )
(2.28)
i j
Substitute B with the relationship in Equation (2.27):
a mix
b mix – --------- =
RT
a
-
∑∑xi x j  b – -----RT ij
(2.29)
i j
To satisfy the requirements of Equation (2.29), the
relationship for amix and bmix are:
a
-
∑∑xi xj  b – -----RT ij
i j
b mix = ----------------------------------------( x -)
1–F
---------RT
(2.30)
with:
a mix = b mix F ( x )
(2.31)
2-44
Fluid Package
2-45
where:
F(x) = is an arbirtrary function
The cross second virial coefficient of Equation (2.10) can be
related to those of pure components by the following
relationship:
a
 b – -----
RT ij
ai  
a
 b – ------ + b – ------j-
 i RT  j RT
= ----------------------------------------------------- ( 1 – A ij – B ij T )
2
(2.32)
The Helmholtz free energy departure function is the difference
between the molar Helmholtz free energy of pure species i and
the ideal gas at constant P and T.
RT
-------
vi


  P
RT 
IG


A i ( T, P ) – A i ( T, P ) = – ∫ P dv –  – ∫ ------- dv

 
v 
 v=∞
  v=∞

(2.33)
The expression for Ae is derived using lattice models and
therefore assumes that there are no free sites on the lattice.
This assumption can be approximated to the assumption that
there is no free volume. Thus for the equation of state:
lim v i = b i
P →∞
lim v mix = b mix
(2.34)
P →∞
bmix can be approximated by the following:
a
-
∑∑xi xj  b – -----RT ij
i j
b mix = ------------------------------------------------------------e
ai
 A∞( x )
1 +  -------------- – ∑x i  ------------

b i RT
 RT 
(2.35)
i
2-45
2-46
HYSYS Fluid Package Property View
therefore amix is:
ai
e
ai
e
a mix
---------- =
b mix
∑xi ---b-i – A∞( x )
F( x) =
∑xi ---b-i – A∞( x )
(2.36)
i
and F(x) is:
(2.37)
i
e
The Helmholtz free energy, A ∞( x ), is calculated using the NRTL
model. You are required to supply the binary coefficient values
on the parameters matrix when the Cij/NRTL radio button is
selected.
α
term is equal to 0.3.
2-46
Fluid Package
2-47
Equation of State Interaction
Parameter
The Equation of State Interaction Parameters group is shown
below for a selected EOS property package as displayed on the
Binary Coeffs tab using an EOS, as displayed on the Binary
Coeffs tab when an EOS is the selected property package, is
shown below.
Figure 2.33
These two radio buttons only
appear for the PR and SRK based
Equations of State.
This is equivalent to no Kij
This information applies to the following Property Packages:
•
•
•
•
Kabadi Danner
Lee-Kesler Plocker
PR
PRSV
•
•
•
•
•
Soave Redlich Kwong, SRK
Sour PR
Sour SRK
Zudkevitch Joffee
BWRS
The numbers displayed in the table are initially calculated by
HYSYS, but you can modify them. All known binary interaction
parameters are displayed, with unknowns displayed as dashes
(---). You have the option of overwriting any library value.
For all Equation of State parameters (except PRSV), Kij = Kji, so
when you change the value of one of these, both cells of the pair
automatically update with the same value. In many cases, the
2-47
2-48
HYSYS Fluid Package Property View
library interaction parameters for PRSV do have Kij = Kji, but
HYSYS does not force this if you modify one parameter in a
binary pair.
If you are using PR or SRK (or one of the Sour options), two
radio buttons are displayed at the bottom of the tab.
Radio Button
Description
Estimate HC-HC/
Set Non HC-HC
to 0.0
This radio button is the default selection. HYSYS
provides the estimates for the interaction parameters
in the table, setting all non-hydrocarbon pairs to 0.
Set All to 0.0
When this is selected, HYSYS sets all interaction
parameter values in the table to 0.0.
Activity Model Interaction
Parameters
The Activity Model Interaction Parameters group, as displayed
on the Binary Coeffs tab when an Activity Model is the selected
property package, is shown in the figure below.
Figure 2.34
The numbering and naming of the radio buttons selections
vary according to the selected Activity Model.
2-48
Fluid Package
2-49
This information applies to the following property packages:
•
•
•
•
Chien Null
Extended NRTL
General NRTL
Margules
•
•
•
•
NRTL
UNIQUAC
van Laar
Wilson
The interaction parameters for each binary pair are displayed;
unknown values will show as dashes (---). You can overwrite
any value or use one of the estimation methods. The estimation
methods are described in the following section.
You may reset the binary parameters to their original library
values by clicking the Reset Params button.
To display a different coefficient matrix (i.e., Bij), select the
appropriate radio button.
Estimation Methods
When using Activity Models, HYSYS provides three interaction
parameter estimation methods. Select the estimation method by
selecting one of the following radio buttons and then invoke the
estimation by selecting one of the available buttons:
Button
Description
UNIFAC
VLE
HYSYS calculates parameters using the UNIFAC VLE model.
UNIFAC
LLE
HYSYS calculates all parameters using the UNIFAC LLE
model.
Immiscible
The three buttons used for the UNIFAC estimations are
replaced by the following:
• Row in Clm Pair. Use this button to estimate the
parameters such that the row component (j) is
immiscible in the column component (i).
• Clm in Row Pair. Use this button to estimate
parameters such that the column components (j) are
immiscible in the row components (i).
• All in Row. Use this button to estimate parameters
such that both components are mutually immiscible.
Alphaij = Alphaji, but Aij ≠ Aji.
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HYSYS Fluid Package Property View
Since the Wilson equation does not handle three phase
systems, the Coeff Estimation group does not show the
UNIFAC LLE or Immiscible radio buttons when this property
package is used.
UNIFAC estimations are by default performed at 25°C, unless
you change this value on the Set Up tab.
If you have selected either the UNIFAC VLE or UNIFAC LLE
estimation method, you can apply it in one of the following
ways, by selecting the appropriate button:
Button
Description
Individual
Pair
This button is only visible when UNIFAC VLE is selected. It
calculates the parameters for the selected component pair,
Aij and Aji. The existing values in the matrix are
overwritten.
Unknowns
Only
If you delete the contents of cells or if HYSYS does not
provide defaults values, you can use this option and have
HYSYS calculate the activity parameters for all the unknown
pairs.
You may reset the binary parameters to their original library
values by clicking the Reset Params button.
All Binaries
Recalculates all the binaries in the matrix. If you had
changed some of the original HYSYS values, you can use
this to have HYSYS re-estimate the entire matrix.
2.4.4 Stability Test Tab
The stability test can be thought of as introducing a "droplet" of
nucleus into the fluid. The droplet then either grows into a
distinctive phase or is dissolved in the fluid.
For multi-phase fluids, there exist multiple false calculated
solutions. A false solution exists when convergence occurs for a
lower number of phases than exists in the fluid. For example,
with a three-phase fluid, there is the correct three-phase
solution, at least three false two-phase solutions and multiple
false single-phase solutions. A major problem in converging the
flash calculation is arriving at the right solution without a prior
knowledge of the number of equilibrium phases.
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Fluid Package
2-51
The Stability Test allows you to instruct HYSYS on how to
perform phase stability calculations in the Flowsheet. If you
encounter situations where a flash calculation fails or you are
suspicious about results, you can use this option to approach
the solution using a different route.
The strategy used in HYSYS is as follows: unless there is strong
evidence for three phases, HYSYS first performs a two-phase
flash. The resulting phases are then tested for their stability.
Figure 2.35
Dynamic Mode Flash Options Group
HYSYS enables you to modify the flash calculation methods to
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HYSYS Fluid Package Property View
be used. There are three setting options available:
Flash Option
Description
Try IOFlash
first
This activates an alternative optimized Inside-Out flash
algorithm that may provide a significant speed
improvement in many cases. It is aimed at dynamics
mode, but operates in steady state mode as well. The flash
can handle rigorous three phase calculations using the
Stability Test Parameters settings, although it is not tested
as well as the default flash algorithms and does not work
with all property packages. If you experience problems
that are flash related, try selecting or deselecting the
option. For maximum speed in two phase systems, you can
also set the Maximum Phases Allowed for the fluid package
to two in the Stability Test Parameters group, or set the
Method to none to disable the test.
If the IOFlash fails, HYSYS will immediately go to method
selected in the Secant Flash Options group.
The remaining options are for the dynamic mode secant flash
options.
Flash3
This is the default secant flash algorithm used in dynamics
mode. It is fast, but does not perform rigorous phase
stability tests based on the option set in the Stability Test
Parameters group. Hence, it may not always detect a
second liquid phase when it is present.
Multi Phase
This is a secant flash algorithm that performs phase
stability testing according to the settings in the Stability
Test Parameters group. This option is typically slower than
the flash3 option. It can be used when multiple liquid
phases are important or in rare cases where using the
flash3 option results in instabilities due to the second liquid
phase not being detected consistently.
Use Multi
Phase
Estimates
The checkbox becomes available when you select Multi
Phase as the Secant Flash Option. If the case consist of
three phases, estimates are passed to the flash which
speeds up some flashes.
If the IOFlash option is selected, the Pressure Flow Solver group
on the Dynamics page of the Preferences options allows the
flash to be solved simultaneously with heat transfer equations.
The option can result in a further significant speed increase, but
should only be used if the case is stable using IO.
COMThermo is not optimized for dynamics mode and may
result in performance issues if used in dynamics mode.
If a dynamics case has more than one liquid phase (or if a single
liquid phase is aqueous or a hydrocarbon), it is recommended
that you use the Phase Sorting Method for the fluid package on
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the Section 2.4.5 - Phase Order Tab. By default, phases are
sorted on density and phase types. If the phase type changes,
instabilities may result. The Phase Sorting Methods allow you to
clearly define the order in which phases should be defined so
that they are consistent.
Stability Test Parameters Group
You can specify the maximum number of phases allowed (2 or
3) in the Maximum Phases Allowed input cell. If this value is set
to 2, the stability test quits after 2-phase flashes. Occasionally,
you may still get 3 phases, as the flash may attempt to start
directly with the 3-phase flash.
The Stability scheme used is that proposed by Michelson. In the
Method group, you can select the method for performing the
stability test calculations by selecting one of the following radio
buttons:
Radio Button
Description
None
No stability test is performed.
Low
Uses a default set of Phases/Components to Initiate the
Stability Test. This method includes the Deleted phases (if
they exist), the Wilson's Equation initial guess and the
Water component (if it exists) in the fluid.
Medium
In addition to the options used for the Low method, this
method also includes the Average of Existing phase, the
Ideal Gas phase and the heaviest and lightest components
in the fluid.
All
All available Phases and Components are used to initiate
the test.
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HYSYS Fluid Package Property View
Radio Button
Description
User
Allows you to activate any combination of checkboxes in
the Phase(s) to Initiate Test and Comp(s) to Initiate Test
groups. If you make changes when a default Method radio
button (i.e., Low, Medium) is selected, the method will be
changed to User automatically.
HYSIM Flash
This is the flash method used in HYSIM. If this choice is
selected, HYSYS will use the same flash routines as in
HYSIM and no stability test will be performed. This option
allows comparison of results between HYSIM and HYSYS.
This stability option is not recommended for dynamics
mode. Use the default flash3 option with the stability
parameter set to none.
Phases to Initiate Test
There are four choices listed within the Phase(s) to Initiate Test
group. These checkboxes are selected according to the radio
button selection in the Method group. If you change the status
of any option, the radio button in the Method group is
automatically set to User.
Checkboxes
Description
Deleted
If a phase is removed during the 2-phase flash, a droplet of
the deleted fluid is re-introduced.
Average of
Existing
The existing equilibrium fluids are mixed in equal portions;
a droplet of that fluid is introduced.
Ideal Gas
A small amount of ideal gas is introduced.
Wilson's
Equation
A hypothetical fluid is created using the Wilson's K-value
and is used to initiate the stability test.
If any one of these initiating nuclei (initial guesses) forms a
distinctive phase, the existing fluid is unstable and this nucleus
provides the initial guess for the three-phase flash. If none of
these initial guesses shows additional phases, it can only be said
that the fluid is likely to be stable.
One limitation with the stability test is the fact that it relies on
the property package chosen rather than physical reality. At
best, it is as accurate as the property package. For instance, the
NRTL package is known to be ill-behaved in the sense that it
could actually predict numerous equilibrium phases that do not
exist in reality. Thus, turning on all initial guesses for NRTL may
not be a good idea.
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Temperature Limits
The temperature limits are intended to be used in dynamics
mode and are set to stop the flash when the limits are attained.
If the limits are reached, then dynamics will extrapolate
thereafter. The limits avoid potential problems with some
property packages at low temperatures and during severe
process upsets where you would get numerical errors and heat
exchanger convergence problems.
Components to Initiate Test
When a droplet of nucleus is introduced into the fluid, the
droplet either grows into a distinctive phase or is dissolved in
the fluid. Another obvious choice for the droplet composition is
one of the existing pure components. For example, if the fluid
contains hexane, methanol and water, one could try introducing
a droplet of hexane, a droplet of methanol or a droplet of water.
The choices for the pure component droplets are listed in the
Comp(s) to Initiate Test group.
2.4.5 Phase Order Tab
Refer to Section 12.2 Material Stream
Property View of the
HYSYS Operations
Guide for more
information on stream
properties.
The Phase order feature is intended for dynamics. HYSYS
dynamics always uses three phases for streams and fluids in the
stream property view. For each unit operation, dynamics also
assumes that the same material is in the same phase slot for all
of the connected streams. The order of the first phase is always
vapour and the second phase is liquid. The third phase may be
aqueous or it can be a second liquid phase.
By default, HYSYS sorts these phases based on their Type (liquid
or aqueous) and Phase Density. However, subtle changes to the
stream properties may change the order. Stream properties
displayed as a liquid phase in one instance may be displayed as
an aqueous phase in another. For example, inside a tray section
the composition of a phase may change so that instead of being
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HYSYS Fluid Package Property View
aqueous it is a liquid phase. The phase moves to a different slot
in the fluid. This can cause disturbances in dynamics mode.
The Phase Sorting Method includes two options and is shown
below.
Figure 2.36
Use Phase Type and Density
This option can cause instabilities in dynamics. In practice if
small spikes are identified and an examination of the flowsheet
reveals that some material appears in different phase slots in
different parts of the flowsheet (where the spikes originate)
than the user specified option is recommended.
This option changes the order of phases in steady state as
well. Although in steady state many of the calculations
depend on the phase type and not the order, and hence
should not have any significant impact.
Use User Specified Primary
Components
The Use User Specified Primary Components option displays the
Select Primary Phase Components group that allows you to
specify which components should be in phase slot 1 and which
components should be in phase slot 2. These checks are used to
determine the phase order wherever the fluid package in
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Fluid Package
2-57
question is used.
If there is only one non-vapour phase present and the mole
fractions of the primary component adds up to more than the
specified threshold, it is considered to belong in phase slot 1 and
of type “liquid 1”. Otherwise the ratio of primary component for
the two choices is examined.
This option is recommended when:
•
•
•
a simulation is performed and it has more than one liquid
phase.
the densities of the two liquid phases may be close.
one or more phases is close to being labelled either
aqueous or liquid.
Changing this option does not resolve the case or
immediately update the affected streams. The changes occur
while the integrator is running, which minimizes
disturbances.
2.4.6 Reactions Tab
See Chapter 5 Reactions for more
information.
Within the Basis Environment, all reactions are defined through
the Reaction Manager (Reactions tab of the Simulation Basis
Manager). On the Rxns tab of the Fluid Package property view,
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HYSYS Fluid Package Property View
you are limited to attaching/detaching reaction sets.
Figure 2.37
The objects for the Rxns tab within the Fluid Package property
view are described below.
Object
Description
Current
Reactions Sets
This lists all the currently loaded reactions set in this
Fluid Package.
Associated
Reactions
There are two Associated Reactions list boxes. Both
boxes displays all the reactions associated with the
respective selected Reaction Set.
Add Set
This button attaches the highlighted Available Reaction
Set to the Fluid Package and displays it in the Current
Reactions Sets group.
Remove
This button removes the highlighted Current Reaction
Set from the Fluid Package.
Available
Reactions Sets
This list-box displays all the Available Reactions Sets in
the case.
Simultaneous
Basis Mgr
Click this button to access the Reaction Manager.
2.4.7 Tabular Tab
The Tabular Package can regress the experimental data for
select thermophysical properties such that a fit is obtained for a
chosen mathematical expression. The Tabular Package is utilized
in conjunction with one of the HYSYS property methods. Your
targeted properties are then calculated as replacements for
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2-59
whatever procedure the associated property method would have
used.
Although the Tabular Package can be used for calculating every
property for all components in the case, it is best used for
matching a specific aspect of your process. A typical example
would be in the calculation of viscosities for chemical systems,
where the Tabular Package will often provide better results than
the Activity Models.
Tabular Package calculations are based on mathematical
expressions that represent the pure component property as a
function of temperature. The values of the property for each
component at the process temperature are then combined,
using the stream composition and mixing rule that you specify.
HYSYS contains a default library containing data for over
1,000 components.
The Tabular provides access to a comprehensive regression
package. This allows you to supply experimental data for your
components and have HYSYS regress the data to a selected
expression. Essentially, an unlimited number of expressions are
available to represent your property data. There are 32 basic
equation shapes, 32 Y term shapes, 29 X term shapes, as well
as Y and X power functions. The Tabular provides plotting
capabilities to examine how well the selected expression
predicts the property. You are not restricted to the use of a
single expression for each property. Each component can be
represented using the best expression.
You may not need to supply experimental data to use the
Tabular. If you have access to a mathematical representation for
a component/property pair, you can simply select the correct
equation shape and supply the coefficients directly. Further,
HYSYS provides a data base for nearly 1,000 library
components, so you can use this information directly within the
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HYSYS Fluid Package Property View
Tabular without supplying any data whatsoever.
Whenever experimental data is supplied, it is retained in the
memory by HYSYS and stored in the case.
In addition, HYSYS can directly access the information in the
PPDS database for use in the Tabular. This database is similar to
that provided with HYSYS in that the properties for the
components are represented using a mathematical expression.
The PPDS database is an optional tabular feature. Contact
your Hyprotech representative for further information.
The Heat of Mixing property can be applied in one of two
manners. For Activity Models that do not have Heat of Mixing
calculations built in, this allows you to supply data or have
the coefficients estimated, and have Heats of Mixing applied
throughout the flowsheet. Equations of State do account for
Heat of Mixing in their enthalpy calculations, however, in
certain instances predict the value incorrectly. You can use
this route to apply a correction factor to the Equation of
State.
In the cases where the Equation of State is predicting too
high a value, implementing a negative Heat of Mixing can
correct this.
Requirements for Using the Tabular
There are only two requirements on the usage of the Tabular
package. First, most properties require that all components in
the case have their property value calculated by the Tabular.
Second, enthalpy calculations require that the Tabular be used
for both the liquid and vapour phase calculations. Similarly, you
may use only one enthalpy type property for each phase. For
example, liquid enthalpy and liquid heat capacity cannot both be
selected. An extension to this occurs when the latent heat
property is selected. When this property is activated, only one
enthalpy type property or one heat capacity property may be
selected.
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Fluid Package
2-61
Limits in the Tabular Option
In enthalpy extrapolation, if the upper temperature limit (Tmax)
is less than the critical temperature (Tc) HYSYS Tabular option
continues to extrapolate the data based on the original curve up
to the critical point. At this point, an internal extrapolation
method is used to calculate the liquid enthalpy. Due to the
internal extrapolation method, there may be a huge
discontinuity and poor extrapolation results from Tmax to Tc. The
poor calculated values cause problem with the PH flash
calculation.
There are two methods to avoid this problem:
•
•
Increase the Tmax value of the original enthalpy curve.
However, as mentioned above the curve itself does not
extend above Tmax very well and produces poor results.
You will have to be responsible for changing the curve
shape to extrapolate in a better manner.
User the Enthalpy Model Tr Limit option. This option
allows you to control the starting temperature at which
the extrapolation method is implemented. So instead of
Tc, the extrapolation will start at a certain Tr (the default
value is 0, which tells HYSYS to use the default method)
typically 0.7 to 0.99.
Extrapolating accurate/adequate data is important, especially
for enthalpy values approaching the critical point, as the values
can change in odd manner and may require special
extrapolation.
If you are not using PPDS mixing rules (PPDS extrapolation
methods) HYSYS supplies a very simple extrapolation based on
constant Cp calculated from the original tabular enthalpy curve.
This method keeps everything monotonically increasing through
the critical point and into the dense phase.
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HYSYS Fluid Package Property View
Using the Tabular Package
When using the Tabular package a general sequence of steps is
shown below:
1. Enable the Configuration and Notes pages (under the
Options branch) by selecting the Enable Tabular
Properties checkbox.
Figure 2.38
2. Select the Basis for Tabular Enthalpy by clicking the
appropriate radio button on the Configuration page.
3. Select the checkboxes for the desired target properties from
the All Properties, Physical, and Thermodynamic pages
in the Options branch.
To view all pages under the Options branch, use the Plus icon
to expand the tree browser.
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Fluid Package
2-63
The All Properties page is shown below.
Figure 2.39
As properties are added, the Information branch also
becomes expandible. To expand the branches in the tree
browser, click the Plus icon
that appears in front of a
branch.
Expanding the Information branch displays all of the active
target properties selected on the pages under the Options
branch. If the Heat of Mixing property is activated on the All
Properties or Thermodynamics page, a new expandible
branch for Heat of Mixing appears in the Tabular Package
group.
4. If you have the PPDS database, select the checkbox for the
database.
5. Once a target property is selected on one of the three pages
under the Options branch, you can select the Mixing Basis
by using the drop-down list.
The Parameter value may also be changed on this page.
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HYSYS Fluid Package Property View
6. To view the existing library information, you must first select
the desired page from the expandible Information branch.
Click the desired property from the tree browser.
Figure 2.40
7. To plot the existing library information, click the Cmp Plots
button. Click a component using the drop-down list in the
Curve Selection group to change the components being
plotted. The variables, Enthalpy vs. Temperature are plotted
from the Variables group and shown in the figure below.
Figure 2.41
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Fluid Package
2-65
8. Return to the Information page of the property by closing
the plot property view. To view the PropCurve property view
for a selected component, highlight a value in the column of
the desired component and click the Cmp Prop Detail
button.
Figure 2.42
9. Set the Equation Form and supply data. You can view this
same format of data for library components.
The Tabular tab of the fluid package property view contains a
tree browser which controls the options displayed in the tab. The
options depend on the branches selected in the tree browser,
these branches are:
•
•
•
•
•
Configuration
Options
Information
Heat of Mixing (appears only when Heat of Mixing is
activated in the Options)
Notes
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HYSYS Fluid Package Property View
Configuration Branch
The Configuration page consists of two groups, the Global
Tabular Calculation Options, and the Basis for Tab. Enthalpy
(ideal gas).
Figure 2.43
Global Tabular Calculation Behaviour Group
The Global Tabular Calculation Behaviour Group contains two
checkbox options:
Checkbox
Description
Enable
Calculation
of Active
Properties
If this is activated, all the selected Active Properties are
calculated via the Tabular Package. If this checkbox is
cleared, all properties are calculated by the Property
Package. This provides a master switch to enable/disable
the Tabular Package while retaining the Active Property
selections.
Enable
Tabular
Properties
Toggles the Tabular Properties on or off. If the checkbox is
toggled off, no other pages are available and none of the
previously inputted data is stored.
Selecting the Enable Tabular Properties checkbox
activates the Options, Information, and Notes branch.
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The difference between the Enable Calculation of Active
Properties and the Enable Tabular Properties checkboxes:
The Enable Calculation of Active Properties checkbox toggles
between the properties regressed from the data supplied on
the Tabular tab and the default values calculated by the
Property Package. While clearing the checkbox returns to
the default Property Package values, the tab retains all
inputted data for the active property selections.
The Enable Tabular Properties checkbox makes the other
pages active for specification. Clearing this checkbox purges
the tab of any tabular property data it might have previously
contained.
Basis for Tabular Enthalpies
This group becomes active after the Enable Tabular Properties
checkbox is clicked. It allows you to select between the enthalpy
basis for tabular calculations:
•
•
H = 0 K, ideal vapour (HYSIM basis)
H = Heat of formation at 25 °C, ideal vapour
Options Branch
You can target a property through the three sub-branches
available in the Options branch.
Figure 2.44
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HYSYS Fluid Package Property View
To expand the branch, click the Plus icon
in front of the
Options label in the Tabular Package group. This displays the All
Properties, Physical, and Thermodynamics pages. Each one
of these pages consists of a five column matrix table.
Property Type
The All Properties page consists of seventeen properties which
include both the Physical and Thermodynamic properties. These
properties have then been subdivided into two groups and
displayed again on either the Physical or Thermodynamics
page. These properties are listed in the table below, along with
the subgroup that they belong to:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
K-value (V/L1) [Thermodynamic]
K-value (V/L2) [Thermodynamic]
K-value (L1/L2) [Thermodynamic]
Enthalpy(L) [Thermodynamic]
Enthalpy(V) [Thermodynamic]
Latent Heat [Thermodynamic]
Heat Capacity(L) [Thermodynamic]
Heat Capacity(V) [Thermodynamic]
Heat of Mixing [Thermodynamic]
Viscosity (L) [Physical]
Viscosity (V) [Physical]
Thermal Cond (L) [Physical]
Thermal Cond (V) [Physical]
Surface Tension [Physical]
Density (L) [Physical]
Entropy(L) [Thermodynamic]
Entropy(V) [Thermodynamic]
Use HYSYS/Use PPDS
The checkboxes in the Use HYSYS and Use PPDS columns allow
you to select between the Hyprotech and the PPDS libraries.
Depending on the property type selected, the PPDS library may
not be available. When the PPDS library is available, the
checkbox changes from light grey to white.
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2-69
The PPDS database is an optional tabular feature. Contact
your Hyprotech representative for further information.
Composition Basis
The Composition Basis allows you to select the Basis (mole,
mass, or liq volume) on which the mixing rule is applied. When
you select a property type the Composition Basis becomes
active for that property. The available options can be accessed
from the drop-down list within the cell of each property
selected.
The default mixing rule which is applied when calculating the
overall property is shown in the following form:
Property mix =
f
x i Property i
∑
1
--f
(2.38)
i
Mixing Parameter
The last column in the matrix table is the Mixing Parameter. This
allows you to specify the coefficient (f) to use for the mixing rule
calculations. Notice that the default value is 1.00. The value that
HYSYS uses as the default is dependent on the property
selected. For instance, if you select Liquid Viscosity as the
property type, HYSYS uses 0.33 as the default for the Mixing
Parameter.
If you are using the PPDS database, you can modify the mixing
rule parameters for any property with the exception of the
vapour viscosity and vapour thermal conductivity. The
parameters for these properties are set internally to the
appropriate PPDS mixing rule.
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HYSYS Fluid Package Property View
Information Branch
After properties are activated on one of the three pages in the
Options branch, the property appears in the Information branch.
This branch can be expanded by clicking the Plus icon
in
front of the Information label in the Tabular Package group.
Figure 2.45
The Heat of Mixing property does not create a page in the
Information branch. Instead it will create a unique branch in
the Tabular Package group.
See Supplying Tabular
Data for further
information on the
PropCurve property view.
A component may be targeted by clicking in any cell in the
component’s column. For example, if Propane was the
component of interest, click in any cell in the third column. Once
the component is targeted, select the Cmp Prop Detail button to
access the PropCurve property view. Most of the information
contained in the PropCurve property view is displayed on the
Information pages and can also be changed there.
Cmp Plots Button
The Cmp Plot button accesses the plot of Temperature vs. the
selected Property Type. The Variables group shows the property
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2-71
used for the X and Y axis (Enthalpy in this case).
Figure 2.46
HYSYS can only plot four curves at a time. The Curve Selection
group lists the components which are plotted on the graph. The
default is to plot the first four components in the component list.
You can replace the default components in the Curve Selection
group with other components by using the drop-down list in
each cell.
Refer to Section 10.4 Graph Control of the
HYSYS User Guide for
more information.
Object inspect the plot area to access the Graph Control
property view.
Select the component you want to add to the Curve Selection
group. The new component replaces the previously selected
component in the Curve Selection group, and HYSYS redraws
the graph, displaying the data of the new component.
HYSYS uses the current expressions to plot the graphs, either
from the HYSYS library or your supplied regressed data.
Heat of Mixing Branch
When the Heat of Mixing property is activated on either the All
Properties or the Thermodynamic page in the Options
branch, a new branch gets added to the root of the tree browser
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HYSYS Fluid Package Property View
in the Tabular Properties group. This branch can be expanded by
clicking the Plus icon
in front of the Heat of Mixing label in
the Tabular Package group. The pages in the branch correspond
to the components in the fluid package.
Figure 2.47
Heat of Mixing Page
This page is only visible when Heat of Mixing is selected on the
All Properties or Thermodynamic pages. It consists of the
following objects:
Object
Description
UNIFAC VLE
HYSYS uses the UNIFAC VLE estimation method to calculate
the binary coefficients. This overwrites any existing
coefficients.
UNIFAC LLE
Same as UNIFAC VLE, except the LLE estimation methods
are used.
Temperature
The reference temperature at which the UNIFAC
parameters are calculated.
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2-73
Composition Pages
The Composition pages in the Heat of Mixing branch are very
similar to the pages contained in the Information branch. Click
the View Details button to access a modified PropCurve
property view.
Figure 2.48
See Supplying Tabular
Data for further
information on the
PropCurve property view.
The only difference is that there is no Coeff tab. Most of the
information contained in the PropCurve property view is
displayed on the Information pages, where it can be modified.
Notes Page
Any comments regarding the tabular data or the simulation in
general may be displayed here.
Supplying Tabular Data
When you have specified the flowsheet properties for which you
want to use the Tabular Package, you can change the data
HYSYS uses in calculating the properties. HYSYS contains a data
file with regressed coefficients and the associated equation
shape, for most components.
To illustrate the method of supplying data, use Methane as a
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HYSYS Fluid Package Property View
component and Liquid Enthalpy as the Property. From the
Enthalpy (L) Tabular Package group, select the Methane cell as
the component and click the Cmp. Prop. Detail button.
If Heat of Mixing is used, you can access the Prop Curve by
selecting the component and then click the View Details
button. Although it should be noted that this property view
does not include the Coeffs tab.
The Variables tab of the PropCurve property view is displayed as
shown below:
Figure 2.49
The PropCurve property view contains the following tabs:
Tab
Description
Variables
Specify the equation shapes and power functions for the
property.
Coeff
Displays the current coefficients for the selected equation.
Table
Current tabular data for the property (library or user
supplied).
Plots
Plots of the property using the tabular data and the
regressed equation.
Notes
User supplied descriptive notes for the regression.
Variables Tab
The Variables tab is the first tab of the PropCurve property view.
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Fluid Package
2-75
It contains four groups, X-Variable, Y-Variable, Q-Variable, and
Equation Form. The Variables tab is shown in the previous
figure.
X-Variable Group
This group contains information relating to the X-Variable and is
described below.
Cells
Description
X
Since all properties are measured versus Temperature, this
cell always shows Temperature when using the Tabular
Package.
Unit
Displays the units for the temperature values. You cannot
change the units here. The HYSYS internal units for
Temperature, K, are always used.
Shape
This is the shape of the X variable. The choices for the X
Shape can be accessed using the drop-down list in the cell.
There are 29 available shapes. Use the scroll bar to move
through the list. In this case, the shape selected is Xvar:x.
This means that the X variables in the equation are equal to
X, which represents temperature. If LogX:log10(x) is
selected as the X Shape, then the X variables in the
equation are replaced by log10(x).
Shape Norm
This is a numerical value used in some of the X Shapes. In
the drop-down list for X Shape, notice that the second
choice is Xreduced:x/norm. The x/norm term, where norm
= 190.70, replaces the X variable in the equation. You can
change the numerical value for Norm in the cell.
Exponent
Allows you to apply a power term to the X term, for
example, X0.5.
Eqn
Minimum
Defines the minimum boundary for the X variable. When a
flowsheet calculation for the property is outside the range,
HYSYS uses an internal method for extrapolation of the
curve. This method is dependent on the Property being
used. See the Equation Form section.
Eqn
Maximum
Defines the maximum boundary for the X variable. When a
flowsheet calculation for the property is outside the range,
HYSYS uses an internal method for extrapolation of the
curve. This method is dependent on the Property being
used. See the Equation Form section.
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2-76
HYSYS Fluid Package Property View
Y-Variable Group
This group contains all information relating to the Y-Variable.
Cells
Description
Y
This is the property chosen for Tabular calculations.
Unit
Displays the units for the Y variable. You cannot change the
units here, it must be done through the Basis Manager
(Preferences option).
Shape
This is the shape of the Y variable. The choices for the Y Shape
are available using the drop-down list within the cell. There
are 32 shapes selected. Use the scroll bar to move through the
list. In this case, the shape chosen is Yvar:y. This means that
the Y variables in the equation are equal to Y, which represents
enthalpy. If LogY:log10(y) is chosen as the Y Shape, then the
Y variables in the equation are replaced by log10(y).
Shape
Norm
This is a numerical value used in some of the Y Shapes. In the
drop-down list for Y Shape, notice that the second choice is
Yreduced:y/norm. The Y variable in the equation is replaced
by the y/norm value. This numerical value can be changed
within the cell.
Exponent
Allows you to apply a power term to the Y term, for example,
Y0.5.
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Fluid Package
2-77
Q-Variable Group
This group contains all information relating to the Q Variable.
This Variable is used in some of the X and Y Variable equations.
Cell
Description
Q
Represents the Q variable which is always Pressure.
Unit
Displays the units for the Q Variable, which are always the
default internal units of pressure, kPa.
Default
This is the default numerical value given to the Q Variable
which can be modified within the cell.
Coefficients Group
This group is only visible in the Heat of Mixing page when it is an
active property.
Figure 2.50
The Coefficients group contains the coefficient values either
obtained from the HYSYS database, or regressed from data
supplied in the Table tab.
Equation Form
Depending on which property you have selected, HYSYS selects
a default Equation Shape. You have the option of using this
equation or an alternative one. You can select a different
equation from the drop-down list associated with this cell. The
drop-down list contains 33 available equations to choose from.
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2-78
HYSYS Fluid Package Property View
Figure 2.51
When HYSYS cannot regress the data to produce equation
coefficients for the selected equation shape, the message NonRegressable appears on the right of the drop-down list. You can
still use the equation shape, but you have to manually input the
coefficients.
Figure 2.52
Some equation shapes only allow you to supply coefficients
directly. You are informed if the equation shape cannot have
tabular data regressed to it.
Coeff Tab
This tab displays the current coefficients for the specified
equation. Notice that this property view also contains the
Equation Form group, allowing you to change the equation from
this tab.
The X, Y, and Q variables and their units are displayed for
reference only. They can not be modified.
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Fluid Package
2-79
Figure 2.53
The Coefficients group contains the coefficient values either
obtained from the HYSYS database, or regressed from data
supplied in the Table tab.
The checkboxes supplied next to each coefficient value allow you
to instruct HYSYS not to regress certain coefficients, they will
remain at the fixed value (default or user supplied) during
regression.
Table Tab
You can supply your tabular data before or after selecting the
Equation Shape. To enter data, select the Table tab.
Figure 2.54
2-79
2-80
HYSYS Fluid Package Property View
If the component is from the HYSYS library, 20 points are
generated between the current Min and Max temperatures. If
you need to supply data, click the Clear Data button. You can
also add your data to the HYSYS default data and have it
included in the regression.
Supplying Data
If you are going to supply data, select the unit cell under the X
and Y variable columns and press any key to open the dropdown list. From the list you can change to the appropriate units
for your data.
To delete a particular data point, highlight the data point and
press the DELETE key.
The procedure for supplying data is as follows:
1. Select the appropriate units for your data.
2. Clear the existing data with the Clear Data button, or move
to the location that you want to overwrite.
3. Supply your data.
Coefficients calculated using the deleted data are still
present on the Coeff tab until the Regress button is clicked.
4. Supply Net Weight Factors if desired.
Q-Column
This column contains the Pressure variable. The presence of this
extra variable helps in providing better regression for the data.
As with the X and Y variables, the units for pressure can be
changed to any of the units available in the drop-down list.
Wt Factor
You can apply weighting to individual data points. When the
regression is performed, the points with higher weighting factors
are treated preferentially, ensuring the best fit through that
region.
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Fluid Package
2-81
Regressing the Data
After you have provided the data, you need to update the
equation coefficients. Click the Regress button to have HYSYS
regress your data, generating the coefficients based on the
current shapes. If you then change any of the equation shapes,
the data you supplied is regressed again. You can re-enter the
regression package and select a new shape to have your data
regressed.
Data Retention
Whenever experimental data is supplied, it is retained by HYSYS
in memory and is stored in the case. At a later date, you can
come back into the Tabular Package and modify data for the
Property, and HYSYS regresses the data once again.
Plot Tab
To examine how the current equations and coefficients
represent the property, select the Plots tab to view the plot.
Figure 2.55
Use the Plot button on the Tabular tab to display up to four
component curves on the same graph.
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2-82
HYSYS Fluid Package Property View
Only the selected component (in this case Methane) is
displayed. The plot contains two curves, one plotted with the
regressed equation and the other with the Table values. If the
Tabular values supplied on the Table tab are in different units,
they are still plotted here using the HYSYS internal units. This
provides a means for gauging the accuracy of the regression. In
this example, the two curves overlap each other, such that it
appears to only show one curve.
Besides displaying the component curve, this property view also
displays the number of points used in determining the tabular
equation (in this case 20). As well, the x-Axis group displays the
Min (91.7) and Max (169) x-values on the curve.
You can change the Min and Max x-axis values and have HYSYS
extend the curve appropriately. Place the cursor in the Min cell
and type in a new value. For example, type 70. This replaces
91.7, and HYSYS extends the curve to include this value.
Similarly, you can change the Max value, and have HYSYS
extend the curve to include this new value. Type 180 to replace
the Max value of 169.00.
The new curve is shown below.
Figure 2.56
Notes Page
To review all notes within
the fluid package, refer to
Section 7.19 - Notes
Manager of the HYSYS
User Guide.
The Notes page is used for supplying a description to associate
with the Tabular Data just entered.
When you have finished providing all necessary data, close the
PropCurve property view and return to the Tabular tab of the
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Fluid Package
2-83
Fluid Package property view. You can now continue to supply
data for the other components, if you want. The properties that
you have specified to be calculated with the Tabular package
carry through into the Flowsheet.
2.4.8 Notes Tab
The Notes tab allows you to provide documentation that is
stored with the Fluid Package. When you export a Fluid Package,
any Notes associated with it are also exported. When you want
to import a Fluid Package at a later date, the Notes tab allows
you to view information about the Fluid Package.
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2-84
COMThermo Property View
2.5 COMThermo Property
View
The Fluid Package COMThermo property view can be accessed
by selecting the COMThermo checkbox in the Advanced
Thermodynamics group. COMThermo consists of eight tabs and
is based on the COMThermo thermodynamics framework. These
tabs include information pertaining to the particular fluid
package selected for the case. When you create a new fluid
package and select the COMThermo radio button the Set Up
property view appears as shown below.
Figure 2.57
Removes the Fluid Package
from the case. You must
confirm that you want to
delete the Fluid Package.
The property packages
selected for the vapor and
liquid phases are shown in
this status bar.
You can input a name
for the Fluid Package
in this cell.
Select the button to
edit properties at the
fluid package level.
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Fluid Package
2-85
2.5.1 Set Up Tab
The Set Up tab contains the Model Selection, Model Phase,
Model Options, Extended Setup, Advanced Thermodynamics,
and Component List Selection groups for the Fluid Package
property view in COMThermo.
Figure 2.58
Select a flash calculation
method here. The buttons
below are used to setup the
extended custom property
package and extended flash.
Select the
Vapor or Liquid
Model Phase
using the radio
buttons.
Information on Property and
calculation Methods depending on
the Model selected. Use the dropdown list to select alternative
calculation methods.
Select a property
model for the
vapor and liquid
phase.
Additional
Information on
the Model
selected.
Select a Component List here. It is not recommended
to use the Master Component List.
After a Model is selected, Properties and Method options are
displayed in the Model Options group. The properties and
methods that are displayed are dependent on the selected
Model.
The following sections provide an overview of the various
models, as well as details on the various groups that appear on
the Set Up tab.
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2-86
COMThermo Property View
Model Selection
For detailed information
on COMThermo Models
that are available in
HYSYS, refer to the
Aspen COMThermo
Reference Guide.
In the Model Selection group, you have access to the list of
default property models that are available in HYSYSCOMThermo. The availability of the models depends on the
Vapour or Liquid Model Phase selected for your system. Using
the radio buttons, the models are filtered for vapor and liquid
models. A model for the vapor and liquid phase is required and
displayed in the Property Pkg status bar.
Object
Description
Vapor Phase
The Vapor Phase contains a list of Equations of State*
used to model the vapor phase in the Model Selection
Group.
Liquid Phase
The Liquid Phase contains a list of the various Equations
of State*, Activity Models*, and semi-empirical methods
(Chao Seader & Grayson Streed) to characterize the
liquid phase of a chemical system.
* Described in the following sections.
To create or add property packages and properties, refer to
the COMThermo online help in the development kit.
Equations of State
Refer to the Aspen
COMThermo Reference
Guide for more detailed
information on the
available Equations of
State.
Equations of state are used to model the behaviour of single,
two, and three phase systems. For oil, gas and petrochemical
applications, the Peng Robinson Equation of State is generally
the recommended property model. It rigorously solves most
single phase, two phase and three-phase systems with a high
degree of efficiency and reliability.
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Fluid Package
2-87
Hyprotech's enhancements to this equation of state (HysysPR),
enable it to be accurate for a variety of systems over a wide
range of conditions. The equation of state methods and their
specific applications are described below:
EOS
Description
Available for
Ideal Gas
PV=nRT can be used to model the Vapor Phase but
is only suggested for ideal systems under
moderate conditions.
Vapor Phase only
PR
This model is ideal for VLE calculations as well as
calculating liquid densities for hydrocarbon
systems. However, in situations where highly nonideal systems are encountered, the use of Activity
models is recommended.
Vapor and Liquid
Phase
HysysPR
The HysysPR EOS is similar to the PR EOS with
several enhancements to the original PR equation.
It extends the range of applicability and better
represents the VLE of complex systems.
Vapor and Liquid
Phase
PRSV
This is a two-fold modification of the PR equation
of state that extends the application of the original
PR method for moderately non-ideal systems. It
provides a better pure component vapor pressure
prediction as well as a more flexible mixing rule
than Peng robinson.
Vapor and Liquid
Phase
In many cases it provides comparable results to
PR, but its range of application is significantly
more limited. This method is not as reliable for
non-ideal systems.
Vapor and Liquid
Phase
Braun K10
This model is strictly applicable to heavy
hydrocarbon systems at low pressures. The model
employs the Braun convergence pressure method,
where, given the normal boiling point of a
component, the K-value is calculated at system
temperature and 10 psia (68.95 kPa).
Vapor and Liquid
Phase
KD
Kabadi
Danner
This model is a modification of the original SRK
equation of state, enhanced to improve the vaporliquid-liquid equilibrium calculations for waterhydrocarbon systems, particularly in dilute
regions.
Vapor and Liquid
Phase
Lee-KeslerPlocker
This model is the most accurate general method
for non-polar substances and mixtures.
Vapor and Liquid
Phase
RedlichKwong
The Redlich-Kwong equation generally provides
results similar to Peng-Robinson. Several
enhancements are made to the PR as described
above which make it the preferred equation of
state.
Vapor Phase only
Sour PengRobinson
Combines the PR equation of state and Wilson's
API-Sour Model for handling sour water systems.
Vapor and Liquid
Phase
PengRobinson
PengRobinson
Stryjek-Vera
SRK
SoaveRedlichKwong
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2-88
COMThermo Property View
EOS
Description
Available for
Virial
This model enables you to better model vapor
phase fugacities of systems displaying strong
vapor phase interactions. Typically this occurs in
systems containing carboxylic acids, or
compounds that have the tendency to form stable
hydrogen bonds in the vapor phase. In these
cases, the fugacity coefficient shows large
deviations from ideality, even at low or moderate
pressures.
Vapor only
ZudkevitchJoffee
This is a modification of the Redlich Kwong
equation of state, which reproduces the pure
component vapor pressures as predicted by the
Antoine vapor pressure equation. This model is
enhanced for better prediction of vapor-liquid
equilibrium for hydrocarbon systems, and systems
containing Hydrogen.
Vapor and Liquid
Phase
Activity Models
Although Equation of State models have proven to be reliable in
predicting the properties of most hydrocarbon based fluids over
a wide range of operating conditions, their application is limited
to primarily non-polar or slightly polar components. Non-ideal
systems at low to moderate pressure are best modeled using
Activity Models. Activity models only perform calculations for the
liquid phase. This requires you to specify a calculation method
for the modeling of the vapor phase.
Refer to the Aspen
COMThermo Reference
Guide for more detailed
information on the
available Activity models.
The following Activity Models are available for modelling the
liquid phase of a system:
Model
Description
Ideal Solution
Assumes the volume change due to mixing is zero. This
model is more commonly used for solutions comprised
of molecules not too different in size and of the same
chemical nature.
Regular
Solution
This model eliminates the excess entropy when a
solution is mixed at constant temperature and volume.
The model is recommended for non-polar components in
which the molecules do not differ greatly in size. By the
attraction of intermolecular forces, the excess Gibbs
energy may be determined.
NRTL
This is an extension of the Wilson equation. It uses
statistical mechanics and the liquid cell theory to
represent the liquid structure. It is capable of
representing VLE, LLE, and VLLE phase behaviour.
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Fluid Package
2-89
Model
Description
General NRTL
This variation of the NRTL model uses five parameters
and is more flexible then the NRTL model. The following
equation format is used for the equation parameters
( τ and α ):
B
C
τ ij = A ij + ------ij + ------ij- + Fij T + G ij ln T
T T2
αij = α1 ij + α2 ij T
Apply this model to systems:
• with a wide boiling point range between
components.
• where you require simultaneous solution of VLE
and LLE, and there exists a wide boiling point or
concentration range between components.
UNIQUAC
Uses statistical mechanics and the quasi-chemical
theory of Guggenheim to represent the liquid structure.
The equation is capable of representing LLE, VLE, and
VLLE with accuracy comparable to the NRTL equation,
but without the need for a non-randomness factor.
Wilson
First activity coefficient equation to use the local
composition model to derive the Gibbs Excess energy
expression. It offers a thermodynamically consistent
approach to predicting multi-component behaviour from
regressed binary equilibrium data. However the Wilson
model cannot be used for systems with two liquid
phases.
Chien-Null
Provides consistent framework for applying existing
Activity Models on a binary by binary basis. It allows you
to select the best Activity Model for each pair in your
case.
Margules
This was the first Gibbs excess energy representation
developed. The equation does not have any theoretical
basis, but is useful for quick estimates and data
interpolation.
NRTL
This is an extension of the Wilson equation. It uses
statistical mechanics and the liquid cell theory to
represent the liquid structure. It is capable of
representing VLE, LLE and VLLE phase behaviour.
Van Laar
This equation fits many systems quite well, particularly
for LLE component distributions. It can be used for
systems that exhibit positive or negative deviations from
Raoult’s Law; however, it cannot predict maxima or
minima in the activity coefficient. Therefore it generally
performs poorly for systems with halogenated
hydrocarbons and alcohols.
UNIFAC VLE/
LLE
Both UNIFAC VLE and UNIFAC LLE use the solution of
atomic groups model in which existing phase equilibrium
data for individual atomic groups is used to predict the
phase equilibria of system of groups for which there is
no data. The group data is stored in specially developed
interaction parameter matrices for both VLE and LLE
property packages.
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COMThermo Property View
Vapor Pressure Models
Vapor pressure K-value models may be used for ideal mixtures
at low pressures. Ideal mixtures include hydrocarbon systems
and mixtures such as ketones and alcohols, where the liquid
phase behaviour is approximately ideal. The Vapour Pressure
models may also be used as a first approximation for non-ideal
systems.
Models
Description
Antoine
This model is applicable for low pressure systems that
behave ideally.
Braun K10
This model is strictly applicable to heavy hydrocarbon
systems at low pressures. The model employs the Braun
convergence pressure method, where, given the normal
boiling point of a component, the K-value is calculated at
system temperature and 10 psia (68.95 kPa).
Esso Tabular
This model is strictly applicable to hydrocarbon systems
at low pressures. The model employs a modification of
the Maxwell-Bonnel vapor pressure model.
Chao Seader & Grayson Streed Models
The Chao Seader and Grayson Streed methods are older, semiempirical methods. The Grayson Streed correlation is an
extension of the Chao Seader method with special emphasis on
hydrogen. Only the equilibrium data produced by these
correlations is used by HYSYS. The Lee-Kesler method is used
for liquid and vapor enthalpies and entropies.
Model
Description
Chao Seader
Use this method for heavy hydrocarbons, where the
pressure is less than 10342 kPa (1500 psia), and
temperatures range between -17.78 and 260 °C (0-500
°F).
Grayson Streed
Recommended for simulating heavy hydrocarbon
systems with a high hydrogen content.
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Fluid Package
2-91
Extended Property Package & Extended
Flash
The Extended Property Package model allows the user to
incorporate existing external property packages with minimum
modifications to them. You may setup a number of different
property packages using extended methods, which perform
different thermodynamic calculations, handle different
databases for pure compound properties and/or interaction
parameters.
Refer to Extended
Property Packages and
Flash section in the
Aspen COMThermo
Programmers Guide for
detailed information on
how to add extended flash
and extended property
packages.
Unlike default COMThermo methods, which are stateless,
Extended Property Packages can keep and carry state
information. State information refers to data such as pure
compound and mixture information. In the implementation of an
Extended Property Package, the calls between different property
calculation routines can be made directly without a need to use
COM interfaces. You can mix and match Extended Property
methods with COMThermo default property calculation methods.
This can be set up in the XML model file.
The COMThermo online help is located in the COMThermo DK
(development kit). You need to setup the COMThermo DK
from the installation disk.
To set up an Extended Property Package two XML model files are
required, one for vapor phase and one for liquid phase. Both
XML model files must contain the same package name. When
selecting an extended package for calculations, the same
extended package must be selected for both vapor and liquid
phase.
To set up an Extended Property Package for calculations, you
must select the same extended package for both the vapor
and liquid phases.
The Extended PropPkg Setup button is accessed by selecting the
appropriate extended package for both the vapor and liquid
model phases. The Extended PropPkg property view is shown
2-91
2-92
COMThermo Property View
below for an example package with ExtPkg as the name of the
XML model file.
Figure 2.59
FIF
The Extended Property Package Setup includes a description of
the package and the setup files. The Add button allows you to
browse Setup files for the Extended Property package. The On
View button allows you to see and configure the associated
property views of your selected extended method.
The Extended Flash model provides the user with the capability
to use custom flash calculation methods. COMThermo also
allows the user to mix and match different flash methods. For
example, the user can implement a PV (pressure-vapor fraction)
flash in an Extended Flash package and use the existing
COMThermo PT flash (pressure-temperature). The flash option
can be setup through the Flash Family, which is located in the
Model and Flash XML section of the COMThermo online help.
A Extended Flash also requires a flash XML model file to setup
the flash family name. The Extended Flash Setup button is
accessed by selecting the appropriate XML model filename. The
Extended Flash Setup property view is shown below for an
example flash with ExtendedFlash as the name of the XML
model file.
2-92
Fluid Package
2-93
Figure 2.60
Extended Property Package and Extended Flash can be used
together or separately.
Advanced Thermodynamics
The Advanced Thermodynamics group allows you to model the
fluid package based on the COMThermo framework.
Figure 2.61
The Advanced Thermodynamics group contains the following
buttons:
•
•
Import. Allows you to import an existing COMThermo
property package.
Export. Allows you to export a COMThermo based
property package.
The imported/exported COMThermo Property package can
be used in HYSYS, DISTIL, and COMThermo Workbench.
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2-94
COMThermo Property View
Refer to the
Thermodynamics
Workbench guide of the
Conceptual Engineering
Suite for more
information on
COMThermo Workbench.
•
Regression. Allows you to export the fluid package
directly into COMThermo Workbench where the fluid
package can be manipulated by a broad selection of
estimation methods and data regression. Once the
regression is complete in the COMThermo Workbench,
the regressed fluid package can be imported back to
HYSYS.
You must have the Conceptual Engineering Suite installed
with COMThermo Workbench licensing in order to apply the
Regression feature in HYSYS.
When you click the Regression button the following property
view appears:
Figure 2.62
Regression
Description
Start Regression
This button is similar to exporting a fluid package. It
allows you to select a file to be opened up in
COMThermo Workbench for regression analysis.
Load Regression
This button is similar to importing a fluid package. A
menu of existing packages appear, allowing you to
retrieve information from a previously regressed
package.
Writing Fluid
Package
A status indicator to indicate that a new fluid package
is being generated.
Starting
COMThermo
Workbench
A status indicator to indicate that COMThermo
Workbench is starting after the fluid package is
generated.
The regressed fluid package is saved with *.ctf extension
along with two default tag files, cc.XML, and pm.XML. You
must have all three files saved in the same directory to
access the regressed fluid package.
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Fluid Package
2-95
Component List Selection
You must select a Component List to associate with the current
Fluid Package from the Component List Selection drop-down list.
Component Lists are stored outside of the Fluid Package
Manager in the Components Manager and may contain library,
hypothetical, and electrolyte components. To view the
Component List property view, click on the View button.
It is not recommended for users to attach the Master
Component List to any Fluid Package. If only the master list
exists, by default a cloned version of the Master Component
List is created (called Component List -1). This list is
selected initially when a new Fluid Package is created.
Model Options
When you have selected a Model, additional property and option
methods are displayed on the right side of the Set Up tab in the
Model Options group. This information is directly related to the
Model and phase selected.
The Model options group shows each property and what
calculation method is used for that property.
A model must be selected for both the vapor and liquid
phases.
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2-96
COMThermo Property View
For example, the Peng-Robinson Model Options for the vapor
phase are shown below:
Figure 2.63
The Enthalpy property uses the Peng-Robinson Enthalpy
calculation method. The method options which are displayed in
red have alternative calculation methods. By placing your cursor
on the drop-down list, you have a choice to select the Lee-Kesler
calculation method for Enthalpy.
Figure 2.64
The Entropy and Cp properties may also be altered to use the
Lee-Kesler calculation methods for the Peng-Robinson EOS. If
the property method is altered, it appears in blue. The
information in black are default methods for HYSYSCOMThermo. Methods are added in the XML file and then can be
seen in the method group for the property selected. Refer to the
Wizards & Add-Ins section of the COMThermo online help
located in the COMThermo Development Kit to help in adding
new properties, property packages, and flash.
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Fluid Package
2-97
EOS Enthalpy, Entropy & Cp Method
Specification
With most of the Equations of States, you may have two or
three alternative calculation methods for enthalpy, entropy, and
Cp. The property calculation methods that are available include:
the EOS selected, and the Lee-Kesler method.
Methods
Description
Equation of
State
With this selection, the enthalpy, entropy, and Cp
calculation methods contained within the Equation of
State are used.
Lee-Kesler
The Lee-Kesler method may be used for the calculation of
enthalpies, entropies and Cp values. This option results in
a combined Property Model, employing the appropriate
equation of state for vapor-liquid equilibrium calculations
and the Lee-Kesler equation for the calculation of
enthalpies and entropies. This method yields comparable
results to HYSYS standard equations of state and has
identical ranges of applicability.
Lee-Kesler enthalpies may be slightly more accurate for
heavy hydrocarbon systems, but require more computer
resources because a separate model must be solved.
Once the vapor phase is selected, the liquid phase needs to
defined.
Activity Model Specifications
The Activity Models perform calculations for the liquid phase
only. Once a Liquid phase model is selected, the model options
group is filled with property methods. The UNIQUAC activity
model options are shown below.
Figure 2.65
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2-98
COMThermo Property View
With most of the activity models, you have a choice for the
calculation method for the standard Ln Fugacity Poynting
Correction. By default, the ideal standard Ln Fugacity is set
without the Poynting correction and may be changed using the
drop-down list. The Poynting factor uses each component’s
molar volume (liquid phase) in the calculation of the overall
compressibility factor.
Refer to Wizards & AddIns section of the Aspen
COMThermo Reference
Guide.
To aid you in adding customized properties to the model
options group.
2.5.2 Parameters Tab
The information and options displayed on the Parameters tab is
dependent on the selection of the Property Model. Property
models which require additional parameters are displayed here,
while others are not. For example, the Chein-Null activity model
requires parameters to specify alternative models for binary
interaction parameters. The Chien-Null property package is
mentioned in this section.
Chien Null
The Chien Null model provides a consistent framework for
applying different activity models on a binary by binary basis.
On the Parameters tab, you can specify alternative activity
models to be used for each component pair.
2-98
Fluid Package
2-99
Binary Component Parameters
To view the Chein-Null activity models table, CN must be
selected as the liquid phase model and the IP Model Name on
the binary coefficients tab. All components in the case, including
hypotheticals are listed in the table as shown below:
Figure 2.66
The table displays the default property methods provided by
COMThermo for each binary pair. The methods are accessed by
highlighting a cell and opening the drop-down list. From the list
you can specify an Activity Model that COMThermo uses for the
calculation of each binary. If Henry's Law is applicable to a
component pair, COMThermo selects this as the default property
method. When Henry's Law is selected by HYSYS, you cannot
modify the model for the binary pair.
The Activity Models available in the drop-down list are:
•
•
•
•
None Required
Henry
van Laar
Margules
•
•
•
•
NRTL
Scatchard
Reg Soln
General
By default, the Henry and NRTL activity models are selected for
the binary pairs in the above property view. You may use the
default selections, or set the property package for each binary
pair. Remember that the selected method appears in both cells
representing that binary.
2-99
2-100
COMThermo Property View
COMThermo may filter the list of options according to the
components involved in the binary pair.
2.5.3 Binary Coefficients Tab
The Binary Coefficients (Binary Coeffs) tab contains a table
which lists the interaction parameters for each component pair.
Depending on the property method selected, different
estimation methods are available and therefore a different
property view may be displayed.
All known binary interaction parameters are shown and the
unknown interaction parameters are displayed with dashes (--). When you exit the Basis Manager, unknown interaction
parameters are set to zero. You have the option of overwriting
any library interaction parameter values.
For all tables on the Binary Coeffs tab, the horizontal
components across the top of the table represent the "i"
component and the vertical components represent the "j"
component.
2-100
Fluid Package
2-101
Equation of State Interaction
Parameter (IP)
When you select an EOS model using the IP Model Name dropdown list, the Interaction Parameter model information is
displayed on the Binary Coeffs tab as shown in the figure below.
Figure 2.67
These two radio buttons only appear for the
PR and SRK based Equations of State.
This is equivalent
to no Kij
This information applies to the following Property Models:
•
•
•
•
Kabadi Danner
Lee-Kesler Plocker
PR
PRSV
•
•
•
•
Soave Redlich Kwong, SRK
Sour PR
Virial
Zudkevitch Joffee
The property view contains a table of cells commonly referred to
as the Matrix Pane displaying binary interaction coefficients. The
top of the property view contains the IP Model Name and
Coefficients drop-down lists.
2-101
2-102
COMThermo Property View
The drop-down lists determine which binary iteration
coefficients are shown in the table:
Drop-Down List
Description
IP Model Name
This drop-down list shows all of the binary interaction
coefficient matrices associated with the property
package selected. Ordinarily there is one, two, or three
binary interaction coefficient matrices per property
package. Equations of state typically have one matrix,
and activity coefficient models typically have two IP
matrices, one for ordinary condensable components
and the other for non-condensible components The
selected Model is displayed in the Matrix Pane.
Coefficients
This drop-down list shows the type of binary
interaction coefficients that are displayed in the Matrix
Pane. The naming convention for each binary
interaction coefficient type is A1i,j, A2i,j, and so on.
This resembles the "aij", "bij" form where i and j are
the column and row in the binary interaction coefficient
matrix, respectively.
Reset COM
Parameters
This button resets all binary interaction coefficients in
the matrix pane to the original HYSYS estimated
parameters.
The list of options for both the Model Name and Coefficients are
dependent on the property model (EOS and Activity) selected
for the vapor and liquid phase. For example, if you select the
Virial EOS as the vapor model, it appears in the IP Model Name
drop-down list. You can view and/or edit the virial coefficients
for each binary. The following IP model list represents the vapor
(Virial) and liquid models (Chien-Null) chosen for the example.
Values are only shown in the matrix when the Virial Vapor Phase
model is selected on the Set Up tab. You can use the default
values suggested by HYSYS or edit these values. Virial
coefficients for the pure species are shown along the diagonal of
the matrix, while cross coefficients, which are mixture
properties between components, are those not along the
diagonal.
Matrix Pane contains a list of the binary interaction
coefficients for all binary component pairs in the Fluid
Package. The naming convention is as follows:
• i = column
• j = row
2-102
Fluid Package
2-103
The numbers that appear in the table are initially calculated by
HYSYS and are modifiable. All known binary interaction
parameters are displayed, with unknowns displayed as dashes
(---). You have the option of overwriting any library value.
For all Equation of State parameters (except PRSV), Kij = Kji. If
the value is modified for one of the parameters, both cells of the
pair automatically update with the same value. In many cases,
the library interaction parameters for PRSV do have Kij = Kji, but
HYSYS does not force this if you modify one parameter in a
binary pair.
If you are using PR, SRK or the PR Sour EOS, two radio buttons
appear below the Interaction parameters table.
Radio Button
Description
Estimate HC-HC/
Set Non HC-HC to
0.0
This radio button is the default selection. HYSYS
provides the estimates for the interaction
parameters in the table, setting all non-hydrocarbon
pairs to 0.
Set All to 0.0
When this is selected, HYSYS sets all interaction
parameter values in the table to 0.0.
2-103
2-104
COMThermo Property View
Activity Model Interaction
Parameters
The IP activity model displayed in the IP Model drop-down list is
the corresponding liquid phase model selected on the Set Up
tab. When you select an Activity Model in the IP Model Name
list, the Interaction Parameter model information is displayed on
the Binary Coeffs tab, as shown in the figure below.
Figure 2.68
This information applies to the following liquid property models:
• Chien Null
• General NRTL
Refer to the Aspen
COMThermo Reference
Guide for more
information.
• Margules
• NRTL
• UNIQUAC
• van Laar
• Wilson
The activity models display the appropriate set of Coefficients
for each component pair. For example, Chien-Null allows for 3
sets of coefficients for each component pair, where (A1i,j = ai,j,
A2i,j = bi,j and A3i,j = ci,j).
Figure 2.69
2-104
Fluid Package
2-105
The interaction parameters for each binary pair are displayed;
unknown values show as dashes (---). You can overwrite any
value.
You may reset the binary parameters to their original library
values by clicking the Reset COM Parameters button.
To display a different coefficient matrix pane (i.e., Bij = A2i,j),
select the appropriate coefficient using the drop-down list.
2.5.4 Stability Test Tab
The StabTest tab allows you to control how phase stability and
flash calculations are performed. If you encounter situations
where the flash fails or you are suspicious about the results, you
can use this option to approach the solution using a different
scheme.
COMThermo is not optimized for dynamics mode and may
result in performance issues if used in dynamics mode.
For multi-phase fluids, there exist multiple false calculated
solutions. A false solution exists when convergence occurs for a
lower number of phases than exists in the fluid. For example,
with a three-phase fluid, there is the correct three-phase
solution, at least three false two-phase solutions and multiple
false single-phase solutions. A major problem in converging the
flash calculation is arriving at the right solution without a prior
knowledge of the number of equilibrium phases.
HYSYS initially performs a two-phase flash, unless there is
strong evidence for three phases. The resulting phases are then
tested for their stability.
2-105
2-106
COMThermo Property View
The StabTest property view is shown in the figure below.
Figure 2.70
Flash Settings
The following options are available in the Flash Settings table:
Flash Settings
Description of Setting
MaximumNo.
Iterations
You can set the maximum number of iterations executed
in the flash calculations. The algorithm terminates after it
reaches the maximum number of iterations.
Absolute
Tolerance
This is the convergence tolerance of the governing flash
equilibrium equations. If the equilibrium equation error is
less than the Absolute Tolerance, the flash algorithm is
assumed to have converged.
Relative
Tolerance
In addition to the above condition, if the change in the
error between iterations is less than the Relative
Tolerance, the flash is assumed to have converged.
Ignore
Composition
This is used to detect convergence to the trivial solution
(where the compositions in the two phases are identical).
If the differences in the compositions of the two phases
are all less than the Trivial Composition Tolerance, the
result is assumed to be trivial.
To avoid discarding azeotropic results, the
compressibility (Z) factors for the two phases are
computed and compared in the case where the two
phases involved are modelled using the same Property
Methods (Equation of State Methods).
2-106
Fluid Package
2-107
Stability Test Parameters
The Stability Test Parameters group is described in the following
sections.
Maximum Phases Allowed
You can specify the maximum number of phases allowed. If the
maximum is set to 2, the stability test terminates after a 2phase flash. Occasionally, you may still get three phases, as the
algorithm may attempt to start directly with the 3-phase flash.
Note that if the true solution has two phases and the maximum
phases allowed is set to two, there is still no guarantee that the
correct solution is reached. For instance, for binary mixtures
around the azeotropic point, the correct solution may be liquidliquid equilibrium, but the algorithm may incorrectly converge to
vapor-liquid equilibrium.
The Stability scheme used is proposed by Michelson(1980a). In
the Method group, you can choose the method for performing
the stability test calculations by selecting one of the radio
buttons:
Radio Button
Description
None
No stability test is performed.
Low
Uses a default set of Phases/Components to Initiate the
Stability Test. The following methods are used: Deleted
Phase, Wilson’s Equation and Component Initiation
(Water). Only the water component (if it is part of your
Fluid Package) is "introduced".
Medium
In addition to those methods used for the Low method,
the Average of Existing and Ideal Gas methods are also
included. As well, the heaviest and the lightest
components in the fluid are "introduced" using the
Component Initiation method.
All
All Phase Initiation methods are utilized, and all
components are introduced using the Component
Initiation method.
2-107
2-108
COMThermo Property View
Secant Method Flash Setting
The Secant Method Flash Setting group is shown below.
Figure 2.71
The settings that are available for the Secant Method Flash are
shown in the following table.
Temperature &
Pressure Settings
Description
Default
The default or initial value.
low_bound
The lower or minimum bound for the secant
method search.
up_bound
The upper or maximum bound for the secant
method search.
maxInc
The maximum increment or initial step size for the
secant temperature search. The logarithm of
pressure is used as the primary variable for the
pressure search, thus an initial pressure multiplier
is used as the pressure increment.
tolerance
The tolerance during the secant temperature and
pressure search. It is used mainly by the backup
flashes.
Phase Mole Fraction Tolerance
The phase fraction tolerance is used whenever a vapor fraction
is given along with a temperature or pressure for the secant
method flash. HYSYS guesses a temperature or pressure
depending on which variable is required and predicts a new
vapor fraction. The calculation terminates when the vapor
fraction is within the tolerance range and the flash is converged.
2-108
Fluid Package
2-109
Enthalpy Tolerance
Different combinations may be used to flash. If the enthalpy is
given, HYSYS guesses a temperature or pressure depending on
which one is required and predicts a new enthalpy until the flash
is converged within the tolerance specified.
Entropy Tolerance
Different combinations may be used to flash. If the entropy is
given, HYSYS guesses a temperature or pressure depending on
which one is required and predicts a new entropy until the flash
is converged within the tolerance specified.
2.5.5 Reactions Tab
The COMThermo Rxns tab is the same as the traditional HYSYS
property view. See Section 2.4.6 - Reactions Tab.
2.5.6 Notes Tab
See traditional HYSYS thermodynamics Section 2.4.8 - Notes
Tab.
2.6 References
1
Wong, D. S. H., Sandler, S. I., “A Theoretically Correct Mixing Rule for
Cubic Equations of State”, A.I.Ch.E. Journal, 38, No. 5, p.671
(1992)
2
Twu, H.C. and Bulls, J.W., "Viscosity Blending Tested", Hydrocarbon
Processing, April 1981.
3
Ely, J.F. and Hanley, H.J.M., "A Computer Program for the Prediction
of Viscosity and Thermal Conductivity in Hydrocarbon Mixtures",
NBS Technical Note 1039.
2-109
2-110
References
2-110
Hypotheticals
3-1
3 Hypotheticals
3.1 Introduction................................................................................... 3
3.2 Hypo Manager ................................................................................ 4
3.3 Adding a Hypothetical - Example ................................................... 5
3.3.1 Creating the Ethanol Hypo......................................................... 6
3.3.2 Hypo/Library Component Comparison ....................................... 11
3.4 Creating a Hypo Group ................................................................. 13
3.4.1 Hypo Group Property View....................................................... 13
3.4.2 Supplying Basic Information .................................................... 17
3.4.3 UNIFAC Structure ................................................................... 23
3.5 Hypothetical Component Property View....................................... 26
3.5.1
3.5.2
3.5.3
3.5.4
ID Tab .................................................................................. 28
Critical Tab ............................................................................ 29
Point Tab............................................................................... 30
TDep Tab .............................................................................. 32
3.6 Solid Hypotheticals ...................................................................... 36
3.6.1
3.6.2
3.6.3
3.6.4
3.6.5
ID Tab .................................................................................. 36
Props Tab .............................................................................. 37
Point Tab............................................................................... 39
TDep Tab .............................................................................. 40
PSD Tab ................................................................................ 41
3.7 Cloning Library Components ........................................................ 42
3.7.1 Converting a Library Component to a Hypo ................................ 43
3-1
3-2
Hypotheticals
3.8 Hypo Controls ...............................................................................44
3.8.1 Viewing Groups ......................................................................44
3.8.2 Moving Hypos.........................................................................45
3.9 References....................................................................................45
3-2
Hypotheticals
3-3
3.1 Introduction
HYSYS allows you to create non-library or Hypothetical
components from the Hypo Manager. Hypothetical components
can be pure components, defined mixtures, undefined mixtures,
or solids. You can also convert/clone HYSYS library components
into Hypotheticals, which allow you to modify the library values.
The Hypo Manager is located on the Hypotheticals tab of the
Simulation Basis Manager. It can also be accessed via the Hypo
manager button from the Components tab under hypothetical
components.
A wide selection of estimation methods are provided for the
various Hypo groups (hydrocarbons, alcohols, etc.) to ensure
the best representation of behaviour for the Hypothetical
component in the simulation. In addition, methods are provided
for estimating the interaction binaries between hypotheticals
and library components. You can also use Hypotheticals with the
Tabular Package, as well as in Reactions.
In HYSYS, Hypothetical components exist independent of the
Fluid Package. When a Hypothetical is created, it is placed in a
Hypo Group. From the Hypo Manager, you can create new Hypo
Groups and move Hypothetical components within the Hypo
Groups. Hypo Groups can also be imported and exported, thus
making them available to any simulation case.
Since Hypothetical components are not exclusively associated
with a particular Fluid Package, it is possible for multiple Fluid
Packages to share Hypotheticals. In other words, you only need
to create a Hypothetical once, and it can be used in any Fluid
Package throughout the case.
3-3
3-4
Hypo Manager
3.2 Hypo Manager
By selecting the Hypotheticals tab from the Simulation Basis
Manager, the following property view appears:
Figure 3.1
You can Import and Export Hypothetical groups, allowing
you to use defined hypotheticals in any future simulation
The left side of the property view is the Hypothetical Groups
group.
Hypothetical groups and individual hypothetical components
can be installed in more than one Fluid Package.
The lists all the Hypothetical groups currently installed in the
simulation. The available commands for this group (accessed
using the associated buttons) are as follows:
Button
Description
View
Accesses the Hypo Group property view for the selected
group.
Add
Adds a Hypothetical Group to the present case.
Delete
Deletes the selected Hypothetical Group from the case.
3-4
Hypotheticals
3-5
Button
Description
Translocate
Searches through all of the hypothetical components in the
case and if there are duplicates HYSYS replaces them and
puts all the duplicates in a separate Hypo group which then
can be deleted.
This is intended for use when large cases have had large
numbers of templates/fluid packages imported and there
are lots of repeated hypotheticals in the case.
Import
Imports a Hypothetical Group from disk.
Export
Exports the selected Hypothetical Group and saves it to a
file, so that it can be retrieved at a later time.
The right side of the property view displays the Hypothetical
Quick Reference group. This group includes all Hypotheticals
currently installed in the Basis Environment (Hypo Name
column) along with their associated Hypo Groups (Group Name
column). The available buttons within this group are described
below:
Button
Description
View Hypo
Access the property view for the highlighted Hypothetical.
View Group
Access the Hypo Group property view for the highlighted
Hypothetical.
Move Hypos
Move Hypotheticals from one Hypo Group to another.
Clone Comps
Use a copy of a selected library components as the basis for
defining a Hypothetical.
3.3 Adding a Hypothetical
- Example
In this example, a hypothetical Ethanol component is defined,
and the results to the library Ethanol component using the
Wilson property package are compared. The ethanol
hypothetical component is defined as having a boiling point of
78.25 °C and a specific gravity of 0.789.
3-5
3-6
Adding a Hypothetical - Example
3.3.1 Creating the Ethanol
Hypo
To create a ethanol hypo, follow the steps outlined below:
1. Open a new case in HYSYS.
2. Select Tools | Preferences in the menu bar to open the
Session Preferences property view.
3. In the Session Preferences property view, click the
Variables tab and select the Units page.
4. Select SI as the units for this example case.
5. In the Simulation Basis Manager property view, select the
Hypotheticals tab.
6. From the Hypothetical Groups group, click the Add button to
create a new Hypothetical Group. HYSYS automatically
names this group HypoGroup1. You can change the name
later, if desired.
You must install a Hypothetical Group before you can install
a Hypo component.
When you add a new Hypothetical Group, HYSYS
automatically opens the Hypo Group property view, where
you add and define the Hypothetical component(s) for the
group.
3-6
Hypotheticals
3-7
7. On the Hypo Group property view, enter HypoAlcohol as
the new Group Name.
Figure 3.2
Notice that the HYSYS default in the Component Class list
is Hydrocarbon.
8. In the Component Class drop-down list, select Alcohol.
9. Now, install a Hypothetical component. From the Individual
Hypo Controls group, click the Add Hypo button. This adds
a Hypothetical component and automatically names it
Hypo20000*.
10. Enter a new name for this component by selecting the Name
cell typing HypoEtoh.
11. In the NBP cell, enter the normal boiling point of the
component as 78.25°C.
12. The specific gravity for the hypothetical component is 0.789.
In the Liq Density cell, enter 0.789 and select the
SG_H2O60api units. A liquid density of 787.41 kg/m3 is
calculated by HYSYS.
Figure 3.3
3-7
3-8
Adding a Hypothetical - Example
13. Although HYSYS could estimate the unknown properties for
HypoEtoh with only the NBP and Liquid Density, more
accurate results are obtained if the component structure is
supplied. Click the UNIFAC button to access the UNIFAC
Component Builder.
Figure 3.4
14. The chemical formula of ethanol is C2H5OH, and it is
comprised of the groups CH3, CH2, and OH. Highlight CH3
in the Available UNIFAC Groups list. It is the first
selection in the list.
15. Click the Add Group(s) button.
Notice that a “1” is displayed under Sub Group in the
UNIFAC Structure group. By default, HYSYS assigns the
value “1” to the How Many cell. The number is valid, since
this is the number of CH3 groups required. The number of
Free Bonds has increased to 1 with the addition of the CH3
Sub Group.
16. To add the CH2 group, highlight it in the Available UNIFAC
Groups list (it is the second in the list) and click the Add
Group(s) button. Again, only 1 Sub Group is required, so
the default is acceptable.
3-8
Hypotheticals
3-9
17. Since the OH group is not immediately visible in the list of
Available UNIFAC Groups, a different approach is taken.
In the UNIFAC Structure input field, type OH at the end of
the existing structure (CH3CH2) and press ENTER.
Figure 3.5
Notice that the Incomplete status message is replaced with
Complete when there are 0 Free Bonds.
Once the UNIFAC Structure is complete, HYSYS calculates
the UNIFAC Base and Critical Properties.
18. Click the Close icon
to close the property view and return
to the Hypo Group property view.
Property Estimation
Methods are explained in
Section 3.4.2 Supplying Basic
Information.
HYSYS can now use the existing information (NBP, Liquid
Density and UNIFAC structure) to estimate the remaining
properties for the Hypothetical component.
3-9
3-10
Adding a Hypothetical - Example
19. We will now examine the Estimation Method that HYSYS
uses. Click the Estimation Methods button to access the
Property Estimation property view.
Figure 3.6
If you want, you can change the estimation method for any
property. In this example, all properties use the Default
Method.
20. Click the Close icon
view.
to return to the Hypo Group property
21. Click the Estimate Unknown Props button and HYSYS
uses the currently specified methods to estimate the
unknown properties for the component. The molecular
weight for the hypothetical is the same as the molecular
weight for ethanol, 46.07, since the UNIFAC structure is
used for the Hypo component.
Figure 3.7
Remember that specified values are displayed in blue, and
HYSYS estimated values are displayed in red.
3-10
Hypotheticals
3-11
22. You can examine all properties for the Hypo through its
property view. Double-click on the Hypothetical component
name, HypoEtoh, to access the Component property view.
Figure 3.8
For further information
regarding the Property
View, refer to Section
3.5 - Hypothetical
Component Property
View.
23. Click the Close icon
view.
to return to the Hypo Group property
24. Click the Close icon
and HYSYS returns you to the
Hypotheticals tab of the Simulation Basis Manager. The
Ethanol Hypothetical has is created.
3.3.2 Hypo/Library Component
Comparison
To conclude, compare the ethanol hypothetical to the ethanol
library component. Go to the Simulation Basis Manager:
1. On the Fluid Pkgs tab, click the Add button to install the
new Fluid Package.
2. On the Set Up tab, select Wilson as the Property Package
and close the fluid package property view.
3. Move to the Components tab and add Ethanol to the
Selected Component List by highlighting the Components
page in the Add Component group.
3-11
3-12
Adding a Hypothetical - Example
4. From the Available Hypo Components group, highlight the
HypoEtoh* component and click the Add Hypo button from
the Hypothetical page.
5. Move to the Binary Coeffs tab in the fluid package property
view and click the Unknowns Only button in the Coeff
Estimation group.
6. Close the Fluid Package property view.
7. Click the Enter Simulation Environment button to enter
the Main Environment.
8. In the Workbook, create the stream Pure. Enter a vapour
fraction of 0 and a pressure of 1 atm for the stream on the
Material Streams tab of the workbook. Move to the
Compositions tab an enter 1 for the mole fraction of Ethanol,
and 0 for HypoEtoh*.
9. Now create a second stream, Hypo. Enter a vapour fraction
of 0 and a pressure of 1 atm for the stream. The mole
fraction of HypoEtoh* is 1, and that for Ethanol is 0.
When you have specified these two streams, HYSYS
calculates the bubble point temperature for each stream.
The Conditions tab of the property view for each stream is
shown below.
Figure 3.9
3-12
Hypotheticals
3-13
3.4 Creating a Hypo Group
When defining a hypothetical, there is no set procedure. The
following is a suggested sequence in which you can follow:
For more information,
refer to Section 3.4.1 Hypo Group Property
View.
For more information,
refer to Section 3.4.2 Supplying Basic
Information.
For more information,
refer to Section 3.4.3 UNIFAC Structure.
1. Create the Hypo Group.
2. Select the Component Class for the Hypo Group.
3. Set the Estimation Methods for the Group (optional).
4. Install the Hypotheticals.
5. Supply all information that you have for the Hypo.
6. Supply a UNIFAC structure for the Hypo (optional).
7. Estimate the Properties for the Hypo.
3.4.1 Hypo Group Property
View
As mentioned in the Hypothetical example, you add a Hypo
Group by clicking the Add button from the Hypotheticals tab of
the Simulation Basis Manager. This opens the Hypo Group
property view, which contains two groups (Hypo Group Controls
and Individual Hypo Controls), and a table of estimated or
known property values.
Figure 3.10
3-13
3-14
Creating a Hypo Group
Hypo Group Controls
The Hypo group contains the following options:
For more information,
refer to Section 3.4.2 Supplying Basic
Information.
Option
Description
Group Name
Displays the current name for the Hypothetical Group.
HYSYS provides a default name, but you can change this to
a more descriptive name. Individual Hypothetical
components must reside inside of a Hypothetical group.
Component
Class
Every component in a Hypo Group must be of a common
Component Class. The options are accessed using the dropdown list attached to the input cell. There is a wide
selection of available Classes, which allows for better
estimation of the component properties. HYSYS, by default,
selects the Component Class to be Hydrocarbon. Prior to
installing any components, select the Component Class.
Estimation
Methods
Access the Property Estimation property view, from which
you can select an estimation method for each property. The
selected estimation methods apply to all Hypotheticals in
the Hypo Group.
Estimate
Unknown
Props
This button estimates the unknown properties for all
Hypothetical components within the Hypo Group, using the
methods chosen on the Property Estimation property view.
Clone Library
Comps
HYSYS allows you to convert library components into
hypothetical components. For more information, refer to
Section 3.7 - Cloning Library Components.
Notes
Allows you to supply Notes and Descriptions for the
Hypothetical Group. This is useful when exporting Hypo
groups, because when you import them later, the
description appears along with the Hypo group name.
For the Component Class, there are varying levels of
specificity. For example, under Alcohol, you can specify subclasses of alcohols, such as Aliphatic, Aromatic, Cyclo and
Poly. Using a stricter degree of component type assists
HYSYS in choosing appropriate estimation methods;
however, it forces all components to be calculated using the
same method. If you want to mix component classes (i.e.,
both Aliphatic and Aromatic inside the same Hypo Group),
select the more general Component Class of Alcohol.
3-14
Hypotheticals
3-15
Individual Hypo Controls
The Individual Hypo Controls group at the bottom of the Hypo
Group property view contains buttons for manipulating the
Hypotheticals within the Hypo Group and two radio buttons for
switching between Base Properties and Vapour Pressure data.
Button
Description
View
Displays the Property View for the highlighted hypothetical
component.
The View button will not be available unless a hypothetical
is present in the case.
Add Hypo
Automatically adds a new hypothetical component to the
group. HYSYS places the new Hypo in the table, and names
it according to the default naming convention (set in the
Session Preferences).
Add Solid
Automatically adds a new solid hypothetical component to
the group. HYSYS places the new Hypo in the table, and
names it according to the default naming convention (set in
the Session Preferences).
Delete
Deletes the highlighted hypothetical component from the
case. After deleting a Hypo it cannot be recovered.
The Delete button will not be available unless a
hypothetical is present in the case.
UNIFAC
Opens the UNIFAC Component Builder, from which you can
provide the UNIFAC Structure for the highlighted
hypothetical component.
The UNIFAC button will not be available unless a
hypothetical is present in the case.
The table displayed in the middle section of the Hypo Group
property view, displays either the Base Properties or the Vapour
Pressure properties, depending on which radio button is
selected. You can add a new Hypo component in either the Base
Properties or Vapour Pressure property view.
3-15
3-16
Creating a Hypo Group
Base Properties
The Base Properties for each Hypothetical are shown on the
Hypo Group property view when the Base Properties radio
button is selected.
Figure 3.11
These properties are the same as those shown on the Critical
tab of the Hypo component property view.
The table lists each Hypothetical along with the following Base
Properties:
Base Property
Description
NBP
Normal boiling point
MW
Molecular weight
Liq Density
Liquid density
Tc
Critical temperature
Pc
Critical pressure
Vc
Critical volume
Acentricity
Acentric factor
Individual Base Properties are supplied by selecting the
appropriate cell. Use the drop-down list to select the units
within the cell.
3-16
Hypotheticals
3-17
Vapour Pressure Properties
The Vapour Pressure table displays the temperature range and
Antoine Coefficients for the hypothetical components. Also
shown are the pressure and temperature units on which the
equation is based and the form of the equation.
Figure 3.12
The values shown on this property view are also available on the
TDep tab of the individual Hypo property view.
Use the horizontal scroll bar to view Coeff E and Coeff F.
3.4.2 Supplying Basic
Information
Before HYSYS can estimate the properties for a hypothetical,
some information about the Hypo must be provided. For the
estimation, you must supply a minimum amount of information
and select the estimation methods to be used.
3-17
3-18
Creating a Hypo Group
Minimum Information Required
If the hypothetical component is defined as a hydrocarbon, the
appropriate default correlations can be used to calculate its
critical properties or any other missing information. Its
interaction parameters are also calculated by HYSYS based on
the estimated critical properties. For HYSYS to estimate the
component's critical properties, a minimum amount of
information must be supplied, as shown in the following table.
Normal Boiling Point
Minimum Required Information
< 700 °F (370 °C)
Boiling Point
> 700 °F (370 °C)
Boiling Point and Liquid Density
Unknown
API & Molecular Weight
The more information you can supply, the more accurate the
estimations are.
Estimation Methods
Prior to installing any Hypotheticals into a Hypo group, examine
the Estimation Methods which HYSYS uses to calculate the
unknown properties for a hypothetical component. You can
specify a estimation method for each property. Click the
Estimation Methods button on the Hypo Group property view.
Figure 3.13
3-18
Hypotheticals
3-19
The Estimation Methods that you choose for the Hypo Group
apply to all Hypotheticals in that group.
There are three groups in the Property Estimation property view
and are described below:
Group
Description
Property to Set
Methods For
This group lists all the available
properties. From the list, choose the
property for which you want to set the
Estimation Method. Use the scroll bar to
move through the list. Initially, HYSYS
sets all the properties to the Default
Method.
Estimation
Method For
Selected
Property
This drop-down list displays all the
available estimation methods for the
highlighted property. Depending on the
property, the drop-down list differs. The
list shown here is a partial display of
estimation methods for Critical
Temperature.
Variables
Affected by this
Estimate
This group lists all the variables that are
affected by the selected estimation
method. The list changes depending on
the property selected. For example, when
you select an estimation method for
Critical Temperature, you are not only
affecting the critical temperature, but
also the properties which use critical
temperature in their estimation or
calculation.
View
3-19
3-20
Creating a Hypo Group
The following table individually lists each Property, its Default
Method, its Available Estimation Methods and the Variables
Affected by estimating the Property. It is understood that each
property can have Do Not Estimate selected as its Estimation
Method, so this option does not appear in the Available Methods
list.
Property
Default Method
Available Methods
3
Variables Affected
Critical
Temperature
• if ρ LIQ > 1067 kg/m or
NBP > 800 K, LeeKesler is used
• if NBP < 548.16 K and
ρ LIQ<850 kg/m3,
Bergman is used
• all other cases, Cavett
is used
Aspen, Bergman, Cavett,
Chen Hu, Eaton Porter,
Edmister, Group
Contribution, Lee Kesler,
Mathur, Meissner Redding,
Nokay, Riazi Dauber, Roess,
PennState, Standing, Twu
• Critical
Temperature
• Standard Liquid
Density
• COSTALD
Variables
• Viscosity Thetas
Critical
Pressure
• if ρ LIQ > 1067 kg/m3 or
NBP > 800 K, LeeKesler is used
• if NBP < 548.16 K and
ρ LIQ <850 kg/m3,
Bergman is used
• all other cases, Cavett
is used
Aspen, Bergman, Cavett,
Edmister, Group
Contribution, Lee Kesler,
Lydersen, Mathur,
PennState, Riazi Daubert,
Rowe, Standing, Twu
• Critical Pressure
• Standard Liquid
Density
• COSTALD
Variables
• Viscosity Thetas
Critical
Volume
• Pitzer
Group Contribution, Pitzer,
Twu
• Critical Volume
• Standard Liquid
Density
• COSTALD
Variables
• Viscosity Thetas
Acentricity
• for Hydrocarbon, LeeKesler is used
• all other cases, Pitzer
is used
Bergman, Edmister, Lee
Kesler, Pitzer, Pitzer Curl,
Robinson Peng
• w
• ωGs
• Standard Liquid
Density
• COSTALD
Variables
• Viscosity Thetas
Molecular
Weight
• if NBP < 155 °F,
Bergman is used
• all other cases, LeeKesler is used
API, Aspen, Aspen Leastq,
Bergman, Hariu Sage, Katz
Firoozabadi, Katz Nokay,
Lee Kesler, PennState, Riazi
Daubert, Robinson Peng,
Twu, Whitson
• Molecular Weight
Normal
Boiling Point
• Hyprotech proprietary
method
Twu
• Normal Boiling
Point
• Viscosity Thetas
Vapour
Pressure
• for Hydrocarbon, LeeKesler is used
• all other cases, Riedel
is used
Gomez Thodos, Lee Kesler
• Antoine
Coefficient
• PRSV_kappa
3-20
Hypotheticals
Property
Default Method
Available Methods
3-21
Variables Affected
Liquid
Density
• Yen-Woods
Bergman, BergmanPNA,
Chueh Prausnitz, Gunn
Yamada, Hariu Sage, Katz
Firuzabadi, Lee Kesler, Twu,
Whitson, Yarborough, Yen
Woods
• Standard liquid
Density
• COSTALD
Variables
Ideal Gas
Enthalpy
• Cavett
Cavett, Falon Watson,
Group Contribution, Lee
Kesler, Modified Lee Kesler,
• Ideal H Coefficient
Heat of
Formation
• for chemical structure
defined in UNIFAC
groups, Joback is
used
• all other cases, this
formula is used:
Group Contribution
• Heat of Formation
• Heat of
Combustion
H form ( octane ) ⋅ MW
----------------------------------------------------MW ( octane )
Ideal Gas
Gibbs Energy
• Hyprotech proprietary
method
Group Contribution
• Gibbs Coefficient
Heat of
Vapourizatio
n
• Two Reference Fluid
(using benzene and
carbazole)
Chen, Pitzer, Riedel, Two
Reference1, Vetere
• Cavett Variables
Liquid
Viscosity
• for non-Hydorcarbon
or NBP < 270 K
Letsou Stiel is used
• for Hydorcarbon and
NBP < 335 K, NBS
viscosity is used
• all other cases, Twu is
used
Hyprotech Proprietary,
Letsou Stiel
• Viscosity Thetas
Surface
Tension
• Brock Bird
Brock Bird, Gray, Hankin,
Sprow Prausnitz
• Tabular Variables
Radius of
Gyration
• Hyprotech proprietary
method
Default Only
• Critical
Temperature
• Critical Pressure
• Normal Boiling
Point
• Molecular Weight
• Standard Liquid
Density
3-21
3-22
Creating a Hypo Group
In defining Hypothetical components, there are some properties
for which you cannot select the estimation method. HYSYS
determines the proper method based on information you have
provided. The following table lists these properties and their
respective default methods:
Property
Default Estimation Method
Liquid Enthalpy
• The previously calculated Liquid Heat
Capacity is used.
Vapour Enthalpy
• Liquid Enthalpy + Enthalpy of Vapourization
Chao Seader Molar
Volume
• If Tc > 300 K, Molar Volume from
COSTALD @ 25 °C and 1 atm is used
• all other cases, ρ LIQ @ 60 °F is used
Chao Seader
Acentricity
• component acentric factor is used
Chao Seader
Solubility Parameter
• If Tc > 300K, Watson type Enthalpy of
Vaporization is used
• all other cases, values of 5.0 are used
Cavett Parameter
• Two Reference Fluid1 method (using
benzene and carbazole)
Dipole Moment
• No estimation method available, sets value
equal to zero.
Enthalpy of
Combustion
• No estimation method available, sets value to
<empty>.
COSTALD
Characteristic
Volume
• If NBP < 155 °F, Bergman is used
• all other cases, Katz-Firoozabadi is used
Liquid Viscosity
Coefficients A and B
• For non-Hydrocarbon or NBP < 270 K,
Letsou Stiel is used
• for Hydrocarbon and NBP < 335 K, NBS
viscosity is used
• all other cases, Twu is used.
Vapour Viscosity
• Chung
PRSV Kappa1
• Vapour Pressure from Antoine’s
Equation
Kfactor1
• Vapour Pressure from Antoine’s
Equation
3-22
Hypotheticals
3-23
3.4.3 UNIFAC Structure
Most of the estimation methods require a UNIFAC structure for
some aspect of the estimation. It may be that either the
property itself, or some other property that is affected by the
estimation procedure requires the chemical structure.
The UNIFAC structure is supplied through the UNIFAC
Component Builder. This can either be accessed by clicking the
UNIFAC button in the Hypo Group property view, or by clicking
the Structure Builder button on the ID tab of the Hypothetical
component property view. Whichever route is taken, the
following property view appears:
Figure 3.14
The UNIFAC Component Builder property view is made up of the
following objects:
Objects
Description
UNIFAC Structure
Group
Displays the Type and Number of Sub Groups in
the UNIFAC Structure.
This group makes reference to both the UNIFAC
Structure group (the table of cells) and the
UNIFAC Structure entry field.
Add Group(s)
Adds the currently selected Sub Group from the
Available UNIFAC Groups list box to the UNIFAC
Structure group.
Delete Group
Deletes the currently selected Sub Group in the
UNIFAC Structure group.
3-23
3-24
Creating a Hypo Group
Objects
Description
Free Bonds
Displays the number of free bonds available in the
present UNIFAC Structure. This is 0 when the
structure is complete.
Status Bar
This bar is found in the centre of the property
view. It indicates the present status of the UNIFAC
Structure. You see either Incomplete in red,
Complete in green, or Multi-Molecules in yellow.
Available UNIFAC
Groups
Contains all the available UNIFAC component sub
groups.
UNIFAC Structure
Displays the chemical structure of the molecule
you are building.
field
UNIFAC Calculated
Base Properties
Displays properties such as Molecular Weight, the
UNQUAC R parameter, and the UNIQUAC Q
parameter for a UNIFAC Structure with at least 1
sub group.
UNIFAC Calculated
Critical Properties
Displays the critical properties for a UNIFAC
Structure with at least 1 sub group.
The procedure for supplying the UNIFAC structure is to highlight
the Sub Group(s) in the Available UNIFAC Groups column and
select the Add Group(s) button. Additional sub groups can be
accessed in the list by using the Scroll Bar.
As you add sub groups, HYSYS displays the number of Free
Bonds available. This is zero when the UNIFAC structure is
complete. When you have supplied enough groups to satisfy the
bond structure, the status message changes to Complete (with
a green background).
As you specify groups, the UNIFAC Calculated Base Properties
and UNIFAC Calculated Critical Properties are automatically
updated based on the new structure.
3-24
Hypotheticals
3-25
There are three methods available for adding Sub Groups to the
UNIFAC Structure:
Sub Group
Description
Highlighting
the Sub
Group
The list of Available UNIFAC Groups displays all the sub
groups. Notice that CH3 is the first selection in this list. You
can use the scroll bars to move through the list until you
find the group you need. When you find the correct Sub
Group, highlight it, and click the Add Group(s) button.
The sub group now appears in the UNIFAC Structure group.
You can highlight more than one sub group, and add all at
the same time.
Using the
Sub Group
Number
Each sub group has a number associated with it. If you
know the number for the sub group you want to add to the
UNIFAC Structure, move the active location to the Sub
Group column of the UNIFAC Structure group. Enter the
number of the Sub Group. HYSYS does not automatically fill
in the number of sub groups. Move the active location to
the How Many column and type in the number of sub
groups required.
Notice the difference between the UNIFAC Structure group
(the table of cells) and the UNIFAC Structure entry field.
Typing in the
UNIFAC
Structure
input field
Notice the UNIFAC Structure input field near the bottom of
the property view. Any sub groups already installed are
listed here. Place the cursor after the last group, and type
in the group to install. For example, if we want to add an
OH group, type in OH. When you type the sub group in this
box, HYSYS automatically adds it to the UNIFAC Structure
group.
You can add multiples of a Sub Group in the UNIFAC
Structure box. Type the number of Sub Groups and the Sub
Group name, separated by a space. For example, type 3 CH2
to add three CH2 groups to the UNIFAC structure. NOTE: You
cannot add Sub Groups in this way to an existing UNIFAC
structure.
HYSYS automatically calculates Base Properties and Critical
Properties using the currently supplied structure.
3-25
3-26
Hypothetical Component Property
3.5 Hypothetical
Component Property
View
Hypotheticals, like library components, have their own property
view. Once inside, you can add or modify information, or
examine the results of the estimations.
You can access the property view for the Hypo component from
different property views:
View
Method of Accessing Hypo
Simulation Basis
Manager,
Hypotheticals Tab
All the hypothetical components are displayed in
the Hypothetical Quick Reference group. You can
either double-click on the component name, or
highlight it and click the View Hypo button.
Hypo Group
All the hypothetical components in the Hypo Group
you have chosen to view, are displayed. Either
double-click on the Hypo component you want to
view, or highlight it and click the View button.
Simulation Basis
Manager,
Components Tab
After adding a hypothetical to the Selected
Component List group, highlight it and click the
View Component button or object inspect its
name and select View.
3-26
Hypotheticals
3-27
The Hypothetical property view is made up of five tabs and are
shown below. Some of the tabs have radio buttons for switching
between the various properties. When a different radio button is
selected, HYSYS redraws the property view with the information
appropriate to the item.
Figure 3.15
Refer to Edit Properties
in Section 1.2.3 Manipulating the
Selected Components
List for more information.
After you have entered adequate estimation parameters, you
can click the Estimate Unknown Properties button to
complete the hypothetical estimation. The Edit Properties
button allows you to edit properties within the hypocomponent
at the component level. The Edit Visc Curve button allows you
to recalculate the viscosity coefficients based on the
temperature and dynamic viscosity data provided by the user.
Throughout the tabs of the property view, information is
displayed in red, blue, and black. Values displayed in red are
estimated by HYSYS and values displayed in blue are user
supplied. Black values represent calculated values or
information that you cannot modify (in other words, Family/
Class on the ID tab).
3-27
3-28
Hypothetical Component Property
You can supply values directly for any of the component
properties, or overwrite values estimated by HYSYS. If you
change a specified value, all properties previously estimated
using that specification are forgotten. Click the Estimate
Unknown Props button to have the properties recalculated.
3.5.1 ID Tab
The ID tab is the first tab in the Hypo property view. If it is the
first time you are entering a Property View, HYSYS places you
on this tab.
Figure 3.16
If a Structure is
already entered,
it is displayed
here. You can
also enter the
Structure
directly into this
cell.
Use this button
to access the
UNIFAC
Component
Builder and
supply the
structure of the
Hypo.
3-28
Hypotheticals
3-29
3.5.2 Critical Tab
The Critical tab of the property view displays the base and
critical properties. This is the same information displayed on the
Hypo Group when the Base Properties radio button is selected.
For more information on
the Minimum
Information required for
Property Estimation see
Section 3.4.2 Supplying Basic
Information
You can supply or change the Base Properties on this tab. The
property views, shown in Figure 3.17, display the Critical tab
before and after the Estimate Unknown Props button is clicked.
Notice that since the Normal Boiling Point was less that 370 °C,
only the Molecular Weight value was required for this
estimation.
Figure 3.17
3-29
3-30
Hypothetical Component Property
3.5.3 Point Tab
The Point tab displays Additional Point Properties for the
hypothetical. There are two radio buttons on the property view,
which allow you to toggle between two tables of information are
the:
•
•
Thermodynamic and Physical Properties
Property Package Molecular Properties
Thermodynamic & Physical
Properties
This property view displays the Thermodynamic and Physical
properties for the Hypo. HYSYS estimates these values, based
on the base property data entered and the selected estimation
methods.
Figure 3.18
Notice that the Heat of Comb field is <empty>. This indicates
that HYSYS cannot estimate this value with the given
information. HYSYS allows you to input a value for this property.
3-30
Hypotheticals
3-31
The viscosity coefficients of A and B are first estimated by
HYSYS based on the initial specifications from the Hypo Group
property view. If you want to calculate these coefficients, you
can override the estimation by clicking the Edit Visc Curve
button. This allows you to enter a set of data points of
temperature versus dynamic viscosity.
Figure 3.19
There are three buttons available in the Edit Viscosity Curve
property view:
Buttons
Descriptions
OK
Allows HYSYS to accept the data to perform the
calculations.
Delete
Clears all the data points in the data table and closes the
property view automatically.
Cancel
Cancels the operation and exit the property view. The data
points you entered will not be used in the calculations but
these points will be saved in the data table without being
cleared so you can make modification later.
HYSYS will recalculate the values of the viscosity coefficients
based on the data points you just entered. The values of the
viscosity coefficients A and B will then change from red to black
indicating that they are calculated values.
3-31
3-32
Hypothetical Component Property
Property Package Molecular Props
This property view displays the Molecular properties for the
Hypo. The values estimated are dependent on the selected
estimation method for each property.
Figure 3.20
Some of the fields in this property view are <empty>. This
indicates that HYSYS cannot estimate these values with the
information given. However, you can specify values for these
properties.
3.5.4 TDep Tab
The TDep tab displays Temperature Dependent Properties for
the hypothetical. There are three radio buttons on the property
view, which allow you to toggle between the three different
displays of information. The property views available are:
•
•
•
Vapour Enthalpy
Gibbs Free Energy
Vapour Pressure
3-32
Hypotheticals
3-33
Vapour Enthalpy
The Vapour Enthalpy calculation is performed on a Mass Basis.
The reference point for the equation is an ideal gas at 0 K. The
units for Mass Vapour Enthalpy and Temperature are kJ/kg and
degrees Kelvin, respectively.
Figure 3.21
When required, the Vapour Enthalpy equation is integrated by
HYSYS to calculate entropy. Note that if enthalpy coefficients are
entered, a constant of integration, g, should be supplied along
with the other coefficients. Specify this value in the g coefficient
field.
Notice that HYSYS has estimated the Minimum and Maximum
Temperatures.
Below the temperature range are values for the Vapour Enthalpy
equation coefficients (from a to g). HYSYS estimates the
coefficients, but you may change any of the values.
3-33
3-34
Hypothetical Component Property
Vapour Pressure
The Vapour Pressure is calculated using the Modified Antoine
equation. HYSYS estimates the Minimum and Maximum
Temperature values based on the supplied properties and
estimation methods.
Figure 3.22
The units used for Pressure and Temperature are kPa, and
degrees Kelvin, respectively.
The bottom section of this property view displays the values for
each of the Antoine equation coefficients (from a to f). HYSYS
estimates the coefficients, however you can modify these
values.
3-34
Hypotheticals
3-35
Gibbs Free Energy
The Gibbs Free Energy calculation uses Enthalpy as its property
type and is performed on a Molar Basis. The basis for the
equation is ideal gas at 25 °C. HYSYS estimates the Minimum
and Maximum Temperature values.
Figure 3.23
The units for Molar Enthalpy and Temperature are kJ/kg mole
and degrees Kelvin, respectively.
The bottom section of the property view displays the values for
each of the Gibbs Free Energy equation coefficients (from a to
c).
HYSYS estimates the Gibbs Free Energy coefficients if you
supply the UNIFAC structure and enter the Ideal Gas Gibbs Free
Energy at 25 °C in the a coefficient cell.
3-35
3-36
Solid Hypotheticals
3.6 Solid Hypotheticals
Solid Hypotheticals can be added to any Hypo Group, regardless
of the Group Type. In the Individual Hypo Controls group of the
Hypo Group property view, click the Add Solid button.
Solids do not take part in VLE calculations, but they do have
an effect on heat balance calculations.
When you install a solid hypo, you notice that the Base
Properties cells on the Hypo Group property view are displayed
as <empty>.
3.6.1 ID Tab
To define the Solid Hypo, access its property view by
highlighting the component name on the Hypo Group property
view and clicking the View button.
The ID tab of the Solid Component property view is the same as
that for other Hypo components except that the User Props tab
is replaced by the PSD tab. Note that in this case, the Family/
Class is Alcohol. The Class type has no effect on the values
calculated for the solid component.
3-36
Hypotheticals
3-37
Figure 3.24
3.6.2 Props Tab
The Props tab displays the basic properties of the component in
two groups:
•
•
Solid Properties where bulk properties are entered
Coal Analysis where data can be entered on a possible
Coal Analysis
3-37
3-38
Solid Hypotheticals
Solid Properties
The minimum information that must be supplied includes the
Molecular Weight and the Density. The appropriate units can
also be specified within the cell as shown below.
Figure 3.25
The other Solid Properties are described below:
Solid Property
Description
Diameter
Particle diameter, if not supplied this defaults to 1 mm
when the remaining properties are estimated.
Sphericity
Value between zero and one, with one being perfectly
spherical.
Area/Unit
Volume
Measure of the surface area of the particle as a
function of the particle volume.
Coal Analysis
You can also provide the results of a Coal Analysis on a
percentage basis for the listed components.
3-38
Hypotheticals
3-39
3.6.3 Point Tab
The only information on the Point tab that is relevant to the
Solid is the Heat of Combustion and Heat of Formation.
Figure 3.26
This information is only required if you plan on using a Solid
component as part of a reaction.
3-39
3-40
Solid Hypotheticals
3.6.4 TDep Tab
Since Solid Hypos do not participate in VLE calculations, their
vapour pressure information is, by default, set to zero. However,
since solid components do affect Heat Balances, the Specific
Heat information can either be estimated by HYSYS, or supplied.
Figure 3.27
While other Hypotheticals use the Ideal Gas Enthalpy
coefficients, solids use the Specific Heat Capacity.
3-40
Hypotheticals
3-41
3.6.5 PSD Tab
The PSD tab displays the particle size distribution for solids. It
allows you to specify PSD’s and calculate various mean and
modal diameters for the entered PSD. The PSD tab is shown
below.
Figure 3.28
Refer to Section 1.2.3 - Manipulating the Selected
Components List and see UserProp & PSD Tabs for more
information on Particle Size Distribution.
3-41
3-42
Cloning Library Components
3.7 Cloning Library
Components
You can convert HYSYS library components into Hypotheticals
through the Clone Library Comps button on the Hypo Group
property view. When you click this button, the Convert Library
Comps to Hypothetical Comps property view is displayed. Any of
the library components present in the current Fluid Package can
be converted to a Hypothetical.
Figure 3.29
By using the Add New Hypo Group button, you do not have to
return to the Simulation Basis Manager to create a Hypo
Group.
This property view is made up of two sections, the Source
Components group and the Hypo Groups.
Object
Description
Component Lists
Allows you to select the component list that contains the
library component you want to clone.
Available Library
Comps
Selects the component you want to convert into a
hypothetical.
Replace ALL
Instances
If you want to replace the library component with the Hypo
in every Fluid Package that contains the library component,
select this checkbox. If you only want to replace the library
components in the highlighted Fluid Package, do not select
the checkbox.
3-42
Hypotheticals
3-43
Object
Description
Hypo Group
Selects the Hypothetical Group in which you want the
converted library component placed.
Hypo
Components
Displays all the hypothetical components present in the
selected hypothetical group. When a library component is
converted into a hypothetical, it is listed here.
3.7.1 Converting a Library
Component to a Hypo
When converting a library component to a Hypo, follow the
procedure outlined below. Figure 3.29 is used as a reference.
1. Select the Component List which contains the target library
component. In this case, Component List - 1 is the
selected component list.
2. From the Available Library Comps group, select the
component to clone. In this case, 1-Propanol is selected.
3. Select the Target Hypo Group, where the new Hypo is to
be placed. HypoAlcohol is selected.
4. Decide if you want to replace all instances of the source
component (1-Propanol) with the new Hypo. Select the
Replace All Instances checkbox to do this. In Figure 3.29
the checkbox is selected.
5. To complete the conversion, click the Convert to Hypo(s)
button.
6. The new Hypo appears in the Hypo Components group, and
has an asterisk (1-Propanol*) after its name, signifying
that it is a hypothetical.
7. Close the property view to return to the Hypo Group
property view.
3-43
3-44
Hypo Controls
3.8 Hypo Controls
The manipulation commands for hypotheticals are contained on
the Hypotheticals tab of the Simulation Basis Manager. The Hypo
Controls are the buttons contained within the Hypothetical Quick
Reference group as shown below:
Figure 3.30
3.8.1 Viewing Groups
Notice that the Hypothetical Quick Reference group displays the
names of hypothetical groups and components. The components
are listed in the Hypo Name column and the group to which each
component belongs is listed in the Group Name column.
From the Group Name column, select the Group that you want
to view, and click the View Group button. HYSYS displays the
Hypo Group property view for that Hypo Group. All the Hypo
components that are part of the group appear on this property
view.
3-44
Hypotheticals
3-45
3.8.2 Moving Hypos
When hypothetical components are created in HYSYS, they are
created within a Hypo Group, and become part of the group.
After adding a hypothetical component to a certain group, you
may want to move it to another existing group. You can
accomplish this through the Hypo Controls. From the
Hypothetical Quick Reference group, click the Move Hypo
button. This produces the following property view:
Figure 3.31
By clicking the Add New Hypo Group button, HYSYS allows
you to add a new Hypo Group while this property view has
focus.
Follow this procedure to move a Hypo to a different Hypo Group:
1. From the Hypo Components group, select the Hypo that you
want to move.
2. Select the Target Hypo Group to which the Hypo is being
moved.
3. Click the Switch to Group button, which becomes available
when a selection is made in both the Hypo Components
group and Target Hypo Group.
4. When you are finished moving groups, close the property
view and return to the Hypotheticals tab of the Simulation
Basis Manager.
3.9 References
1
Reid, R.C., Prausnitz, J.M., Poling, B.E., The Properties of Gases &
Liquids, 4th edition, McGraw-Hill, 1987.
3-45
3-46
References
3-46
HYSYS Oil Manager
4-1
4 HYSYS Oil Manager
4.1 Introduction................................................................................... 3
4.2 Oil Characterization ....................................................................... 4
4.2.1
4.2.2
4.2.3
4.2.4
4.2.5
4.2.6
4.2.7
Laboratory Data ....................................................................... 4
Conventional Distillation Data .................................................... 5
Data Reporting Basis ................................................................ 7
Physical Property Assay Data ..................................................... 7
Property Curve Basis ................................................................ 8
Common Laboratory Data Corrections ......................................... 8
Default Correlations.................................................................. 9
4.3 Petroleum Fluids Characterization Procedure ................................ 9
4.3.1
4.3.2
4.3.3
4.3.4
4.3.5
4.3.6
Initialization ............................................................................ 9
Step One - Characterize Assay ................................................. 12
Step Two - Generate Hypocomponents ...................................... 12
Step Three - Install Oil............................................................ 13
User Property ........................................................................ 13
Correlations........................................................................... 13
4.4 Oil Characterization Property View .............................................. 14
4.5 Characterizing Assays .................................................................. 17
4.5.1
4.5.2
4.5.3
4.5.4
4.5.5
4.5.6
4.5.7
Input Data Tab....................................................................... 20
Calculation Defaults Tab .......................................................... 50
Working Curves Tab ................................................................ 53
Plots Tab ............................................................................... 54
Correlations Tab ..................................................................... 55
User Curves Tab ..................................................................... 57
Notes Tab.............................................................................. 58
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4-2
HYSYS Oil Manager
4.6 Hypocomponent Generation .........................................................59
4.6.1
4.6.2
4.6.3
4.6.4
4.6.5
4.6.6
4.6.7
4.6.8
Data Tab................................................................................60
Correlations Tab......................................................................68
Tables Tab..............................................................................70
Property Plot Tab ....................................................................71
Distribution Plot Tab ................................................................73
Composite Plot Tab..................................................................74
Plot Summary Tab...................................................................75
Notes Tab ..............................................................................76
4.7 User Property ...............................................................................76
4.7.1 User Property Tab ...................................................................77
4.7.2 User Property Property View .....................................................78
4.8 Correlations & Installation............................................................81
4.8.1 Correlation Tab .......................................................................81
4.8.2 Correlation Set Property View ...................................................82
4.8.3 Install Oil Tab .........................................................................87
4.9 TBP Assay - Example ....................................................................88
4.9.1
4.9.2
4.9.3
4.9.4
4.9.5
Initialization ...........................................................................90
Step 1 - Input Assay Data ........................................................92
Step 2 - Cut Assay into Hypocomponents .................................101
Step 3 - Transfer Information to Flowsheet ...............................104
Fluid Package Association.......................................................106
4.10 Sulfur Curve - Example .............................................................107
4.10.1
4.10.2
4.10.3
4.10.4
4.10.5
Fluid Package .....................................................................107
Install a User Property .........................................................108
Install the Assay .................................................................109
Create the Blend .................................................................112
Results ..............................................................................113
4.11 References................................................................................115
4-2
HYSYS Oil Manager
4-3
4.1 Introduction
Oil Environment icon
Refer to Chapter 3 Hypotheticals for
more information on
hypo controls.
The Oil Characterization environment can be accessed from the
Oil Manager tab of the Simulation Basis manager or by clicking
the Oil Environment icon on the toolbar. To enter the Oil
Characterization environment, at least one fluid package must
exist in the case. Hypothetical (pseudo) components must be
compatible with the property method being used by the fluid
package.
Also on the Oil Manager tab, you can view all flowsheets that
exist in the current case and the fluid package associated with
each. All hypocomponents that are defined within the Oil
Characterization environment are assigned to a Hypo group and
installed in an associated fluid package. Since Light End
calculations for an oil require information from the property
method being used by the associated fluid package, the
hypocomponent cannot be shared among different fluid
packages as regular hypothetical components can. However, you
can still use the same hypocomponent in the non-associated
fluid packages by adding them as hypotheticals, via the Add
Hypo or Add Group button on the Selected tab of the
Component List property view.
The Oil Characterization environment provides a location where
the characteristics of a petroleum fluid can be represented by
using discrete hypothetical components. Physical, critical,
thermodynamic and transport properties are determined for
each hypothetical component using correlations that you select.
The fully defined hypocomponent can then be installed in a
stream and used in any flowsheet.
HYSYS defines the hypocomponent by using assay data which
you provide. The features available for the input of assay data
minimize the time required for data entry. For instance, defined
assays can be cloned, imported and exported. Exported assays
can be used in other fluid packages or in other cases altogether.
4-3
4-4
Oil Characterization
Some of the features exclusive to the oil environment include:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Providing laboratory assay data
Cutting a single assay
Blending multiple assays
Assigning a user property to hypocomponents
Selecting correlation sets to determine properties
Installing hypocomponent into a stream
Viewing tables and plots for your input and for the
characterized fluid
4.2 Oil Characterization
The petroleum characterization method in HYSYS converts your
laboratory assay analyses of condensates, crude oils, petroleum
cuts, and coal-tar liquids into a series of discrete hypothetical
components. These petroleum hypocomponents provide the
basis for the property package to predict the remaining
thermodynamic and transport properties necessary for fluid
modeling.
HYSYS produces a complete set of physical and critical
properties for the petroleum hypocomponent with a minimal
amount of information. However, the more information you can
supply about the fluid, the more accurate these properties are,
and the better HYSYS predicts the fluid's actual behaviour.
4.2.1 Laboratory Data
Accurate volatility characteristics are vital when representing a
petroleum fluid in your process simulation. HYSYS accepts five
standard laboratory analytical assay procedures:
•
•
•
•
•
True boiling point distillation (TBP)
ASTM D86 and ASTM D1160 distillations (Separately or
Combined)
ASTM D2887 simulated distillation
Equilibrium flash vapourization (EFV)
Chromatographic analysis
4-4
HYSYS Oil Manager
4-5
The characterization procedure performs its calculations based
on an internally calculated TBP curve. If you supply an ASTM or
EFV distillation curve, it is converted to a TBP curve using
standard methods described in the API Data Book. If you do not
supply any distillation data, then an average TBP distillation
curve is generated for you based on the overall molecular
weight, density, and Watson (UOP) K factor of your fluid.
The Watson (UOP) K factor is an approximate index of
paraffinicity, with high values corresponding to high degrees
of saturation:
1
--3
( Mean Avg. BP )
K = -----------------------------------------sp gr 60F / 60F
where the mean average boiling point is in degrees Rankine.
4.2.2 Conventional Distillation
Data
The five primary types of assay data accepted by the Petroleum
Characterization Procedure in HYSYS are listed here and
explained in the following sections.
•
•
•
•
•
True Boiling Point analysis
ASTM D86 and 1186 Distillations
ASTM D2887
Equilibrium Flash Vaporization
Chromatrographic analysis
True Boiling Point (TBP) Analysis
A TBP analysis is performed using a multi-stage batch
fractionation apparatus operated at relatively high reflux ratios
(15 - 100 theoretical stages with reflux ratios of 5 to 1 or
greater). TBP distillations conducted at either atmospheric or
vacuum conditions are accepted by the characterization
procedure.
4-5
4-6
Oil Characterization
The petroleum fluid's bubble point is a multi-component
equilibrium condition such that there is an incipient vapour
phase forming. This would, in effect, be a single-stage of
fractionation as opposed to the highly refluxed operation of a
TBP analysis.
The initial boiling point (IBP) of a TBP curve does not
correspond to the bubble point temperature of the petroleum
fluid at atmospheric pressure.
ASTM D86 and D1160 Distillations
ASTM D86 and ASTM D1160 distillations also employ batch
fractionation apparatus, but they are conducted using nonrefluxed Engler flasks. Two standard ASTM distillations are
supported: ASTM D86, used for light to medium petroleum
fluids, and ASTM D1160, carried out at varying vacuum
conditions and used for heavier petroleum fluids. For ASTM D86
distillation, HYSYS can correct for barometric pressure or
cracking effects.
ASTM D2887
ASTM D2887 is a simulated distillation curve generated from
chromatographic data. The resulting boiling point curve is
reported on a weight percent basis.
Equilibrium Flash Vaporization
An EFV curve is generated by a series of experiments conducted
at constant pressure (1 atm). The results relate the temperature
versus volume percent of liquid distilled, where the total vapour
is in equilibrium with the unvaporized liquid.
Chromatographic Analysis
A Chromatographic analysis is a simulated distillation performed
by passing a small amount of totally vaporized sample through a
4-6
HYSYS Oil Manager
4-7
packed gas chromatograph column. The relative amounts of the
sample that appear in each standard "chromatographic"
hydrocarbon group (paraffinic, aromatic and naphthaline
groups, ranging from C6 to C30) are then detected and
reported.
4.2.3 Data Reporting Basis
All of the distillation analyzes described above are reported
using one of the following fractional bases (assay basis):
•
•
•
Liquid volume percent or liquid volume fractions
Mole percent or mole fractions
Mass percent or mass fractions
HYSYS accepts TBP and Chromatographic analyzes in any one of
the three standard bases. However, due to the form of the API
Data Book conversion curves, EFV, ASTM D86 and ASTM D1160
distillations must be supplied on a liquid volume basis, and
ASTM D2887 are only reported on a weight basis.
4.2.4 Physical Property Assay
Data
Refer to Appendix B Oil Methods &
Correlations for
information on the
correlations used in the
Oil Environment.
As you supply more information to HYSYS, the accuracy of the
Petroleum Characterization increases. Supplying any or all of
bulk molecular weight, bulk density or bulk Watson (UOP) K
factor increases the accuracy of your hypocomponent
properties. Appropriately, if you supply laboratory curves for
molecular weight, density and/or viscosity, the accuracy
increases further.
If you cannot supply property curve data, HYSYS generates
internal curves using the available information. This information
is applied using correlations. You can change the default set of
property correlations as required.
4-7
4-8
Oil Characterization
4.2.5 Property Curve Basis
Physical property analyzes are normally reported by a laboratory
using one of the following two conventions:
•
•
An Independent assay basis where the property assay
volume fractions do not correspond on a one-to-one
basis with the distillation assay fractions.
A Dependent assay basis, where a common set of assay
fractions are utilized for both the distillation curve and
the physical property curves.
Physical properties are average values for the given range, and
hence are midpoint values. Distillation data reports the
temperature when the last drop of liquid boils off for a given
assay range; therefore distillation is an endpoint property. Since
all dependent input property curves are reported on the same
endpoint basis as the distillation curve, they are converted by
HYSYS to a midpoint basis. Independent property curves are not
altered in any manner before being used in the characterization,
since they are already defined on a midpoint basis.
4.2.6 Common Laboratory
Data Corrections
With ASTM D86 data, correction procedures are available to
modify the laboratory results for both barometric pressure and
thermal cracking effects, which result in the degradation of the
sample at high distillation temperatures. These corrections are
sometimes performed by the laboratory. If the corrections have
not already been applied, the Characterization procedure has
options available to apply the necessary corrections before
commencing calculations.
4-8
HYSYS Oil Manager
4-9
4.2.7 Default Correlations
Refer to Section 4.8.2 Correlation Set
Property View for a
listing of available
correlations or Appendix
B - Oil Methods &
Correlations for a
description of each
correlation.
When you begin a petroleum characterization session, HYSYS
already has a set of default correlations for generating physical
and critical properties of the hypocomponent. You may change
any of the correlations at any time.
4.3 Petroleum Fluids
Characterization
Procedure
4.3.1 Initialization
Before entering the Oil Characterization environment, you are
required to create a fluid package with a specified Property
Package at the very minimum. The Associated Property Package
must be able to handle hypothetical components (i.e., a Steam
Package is not allowed).
If you want to use library components to represent the Light
Ends portion of your assay, it is best to select the components
prior to entering the Oil Characterization environment (if you
forget to do this, you can return later to the Components tab
and select the components).
4-9
4-10
Petroleum Fluids Characterization
The Oil Manager tab of the Basis Manager property view is
shown below:
Figure 4.1
The Associated Fluid Package for the Oil serves two primary
functions:
•
•
Provides the light end components.
Identifies to which Fluid Package the Hypo group (oil) is
being installed.
When you install the oil into a stream, HYSYS always places this
stream in the main flowsheet. For this reason, the associated
Fluid Package must be the fluid package used by the main
flowsheet.
The fluid package that is used in the Oil Characterization
environment is displayed in the Associated Fluid Package
drop-down list on the Oil Manager tab of the Simulation
Basis Manager property view.
If you want to install the hypocomponent into a subflowsheet,
this must be done on the Components tab of the Sub-Flowsheet
fluid package (Hypothetical page, Add Group or Add Hypo
button). If the sub-flowsheet uses the same fluid package as the
main flowsheet, then this action is not necessary, as the
hypocomponent is added to the fluid package once an oil stream
is installed.
4-10
HYSYS Oil Manager
4-11
If you are going to transfer an oil stream between flowsheets
with different fluid packages, ensure that the hypocomponent is
installed in each flowsheet fluid package.
If you have not defined the same components in each fluid
package, HYSYS will transfer only the compositions for those
components that are available, and will normalizes the
remaining compositions.
The fluid package that is used in the Oil Characterization
environment can be selected from the Associated Fluid Package
drop-down list. To enter the Oil environment, select the Enter Oil
Environment button as shown in Figure 4.1, or select the Oil
Environment button from the toolbar. The following figure
illustrates the make-up of a typical oil:
Figure 4.2
Assay 1
Bulk
Properties
OIL
(blend)
Assay 2
Boiling Point
Curve
•
•
•
•
Molecular Weight
Mass Density
Watson (UOP) K
Viscosity
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
TBP
ASTM D86
ASTM D1160
ASTM D86-D1160
ASTM D2887
EFV
Chromatograph
• Molecular Weight
• Mass Density
• Viscosity
Assay 3
Property Curves
Dependent/
Independent
An Oil or Blend is comprised of any number of Assays. Each
individual Assay contains specific information with respect to the
Bulk Properties, Boiling Point Curve and Property Curves. For the
Bulk Properties, you may supply Molecular Weight, Mass
Density, Watson (UOP) K factor, and/or Viscosity. You can
provide the Boiling Point curve in any one of the formats
displayed in the Figure 4.2. During calculations, HYSYS
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4-12
Petroleum Fluids Characterization
automatically converts all curves to a TBP basis. You also have
the option of supplying Molecular Weight, Mass Density, and/or
Viscosity curves.
There are three general steps you must follow when creating an
oil:
1. characterize assay
2. generate hypocomponent
3. install oil in flowsheet
It is a good idea to open the Trace Window before you start
the characterization, since it displays important information
during Oil Characterization calculations.
4.3.2 Step One - Characterize
Assay
Refer to Section 4.5 Characterizing Assays
for more details.
Enter the petroleum assay data into HYSYS via the Assay tab of
the Oil Characterization property view. HYSYS uses the supplied
Assay data to generate internal TBP, molecular weight, density
and viscosity curves, referred to as Working Curves.
4.3.3 Step Two - Generate
Hypocomponents
Hypocomponents are generated from the Working Curves via
the Cut/Blend tab of the Oil Characterization property view.
This process is explained in Appendix B - Oil Methods &
Correlations. See Section 4.6 - Hypocomponent
Generation for the procedure.
4-12
HYSYS Oil Manager
4-13
4.3.4 Step Three - Install Oil
Refer to Section 4.8.3 Install Oil Tab for more
details.
Once the Blend is characterized satisfactorily, install
hypocomponent into your HYSYS case via the Install Oil tab of
the Oil Characterization property view. You can install the oil as
a defined stream by providing a Stream name. The
hypocomponent is also added to a distinct Hypo group and to
the associated fluid package.
4.3.5 User Property
Refer to Section 4.7 User Property for more
information.
In addition to the three basic steps required to characterize an
oil in HYSYS, user properties can be added, modified, deleted, or
cloned. User Properties can be created from the Oil Manger or in
the Basis Environment. A user property is any property that can
be calculated on the basis of composition.
4.3.6 Correlations
Refer to Section 4.8.1 Correlation Tab for
more information.
Correlations can be selected via the Correlation tab of the Oil
Characterization property view. HYSYS allows you to select from
a wide variety of correlations used in both the determination of
working curves and in the generation of hypocomponent.
All of the information used in generating your
hypocomponent is stored with the case. This includes:
Assays and their associated Options, Property Curves and
Bulk Properties, User Properties, the Correlations used for
generating the pseudo-components, the Constituent oils
(with flow rates) for blends, and the flowsheet stream in
which each oil was installed. This information is available the
next time you open the case.
4-13
4-14
Oil Characterization Property View
4.4 Oil Characterization
Property View
When you enter the Oil Characterization environment, the
following property view appears:
Figure 4.3
This property view is the Oil Characterization environment.
There are five tabs which represent the main areas of the
environment and are described below:
Tab
Description
Assay
Add, edit, delete, clone, import or export Assays (see
Section 4.5 - Characterizing Assays).
Cut/Blend
Add, edit, delete or clone Blends (see Section 4.6 Hypocomponent Generation).
User
Property
Add, edit, delete or clone User Properties (see Section 4.7
- User Property).
Correlation
Add, edit, delete or clone Correlation Sets (see Section
Section 4.8.1 - Correlation Tab).
Install Oil
Install hypocomponent into a stream in a HYSYS case (see
Section 4.8.3 - Install Oil Tab).
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HYSYS Oil Manager
4-15
The Clear All, Calculate All, and Oil Output Settings... buttons
are available on any tab of the Oil Characterization property
view.
•
•
If you select the Calculate All button, HYSYS calculates
all Assays and Blends. This option is useful if you have
several Assays and/or Blends and you want to see the
global effect of a change in the correlation.
If you select the Clear All button, HYSYS displays the
following warning:
Figure 4.4
•
If you want to delete all Oil Characterization information
select Yes.
Selecting the Oil Output Settings... button results in
the Oil Output Settings property view.
Oil Output Settings Property View
On this property view, you can set the initial boiling point (IBP)
and final boiling point (FBP) cut points on a liquid volume, mole
or mass percentage basis. These values are used to determine
the initial and final boiling temperatures of the TBP working
curve. The default values are 1% for the IBP and 98% for the
FBP.
Figure 4.5
4-15
4-16
Oil Characterization Property View
If for example, an IBP value of 1% is specified, the initial boiling
point becomes the weighted average boiling temperature of all
components that boil off in the first volume percent. The final
boiling point is determined in a similar manner. If 98% is used
for the FBP, the final boiling temperature becomes the weighted
average boiling temperature of all the components that boil off
in the last 2 volume percent. The ends of the curve are
'stretched' to fill the assay range of 0 to 100%.
On the Oil Output Settings property view, you can select the
default ASTM D86 Interconversion Method TBP conversion type
from the Default D86 Curve Type drop-down list:
•
•
•
•
API 19741
API 19872
API 19943
Edmister-Okamoto 19594
Oil Input settings are accessed through the Session
Preferences property view.
You can also select the ASTM D2887 Interconversion method
from the following:
•
•
•
API 19875
API 1994 Indirect6
API 1994 Direct7
The Oil Output Settings are saved along with your simulation
case. They can be accessed either within the Oil manager or
through the Simulation menu bar option in the Main Simulation
environment.
Changing the IBP and FBP in the Oil Output Settings will affect
the following calculations:
•
•
•
•
•
Blend Properties Table and Plots
Boiling Point Utility
Cold Properties Utility
Column specs (Cut Point, Gap Cut Point, Flash Point, RON
Point)
Column Profiles
When IBP and FBP changes are made, all necessary calculations
are automatically performed.
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HYSYS Oil Manager
4-17
The ASTM D86 and ASTM D2887 interconversion methods do
not affect column specifications, since each related
columnspec has its own independent setting. If you want to
change the column specifications, click the Change
Interconversion Methods for Existing Column Specs button.
HYSYS asks you to confirm that you want to globally impose
these changes.
4.5 Characterizing Assays
Refer to Section 4.9 TBP Assay - Example
for characterizing
assays.
The Assay tab of the Oil Characterization property view is shown
below:
Figure 4.6
C
The Available Assays are listed in the left portion of the property
view. The following Assay manipulation buttons are available:
Button
Description
View
Edit the currently highlighted Assay.
Add
Create a new Assay.
Delete
Erase the currently highlighted Assay.
HYSYS does not prompt for confirmation when deleting an
assay, so be careful when you are using this command.
However, HYSYS does not delete an assay that is being
used by a blend.
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4-18
Characterizing Assays
Button
Description
Clone
Create a new Assay with the same properties as the
currently highlighted Assay. HYSYS immediately opens a
new Assay view.
Import
Bring a saved assay into the current case.
Export
Save an assay to disk so that it can be used in other cases.
Imported and Exported assays have a filename form *.oil.
For a highlighted Assay, you can edit the name in the Name field
and provide a description in the Description textbox found in
Assay Information group.
To create a new assay or edit an existing assay you can click the
Add or View button, respectively. This opens the Assay
property view for the new or existing assay.
When the Oil Input Preferences button under the Assay
Information group is selected, the Session Preferences property
view opens to the Oil Input tab. From here you can set the input
defaults for your case.
Figure 4.7
When a new case is created, the methods specified in the Oil
Input settings initialize the Oil Output settings. However, any
changes made afterwards to either settings group are
independent.
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HYSYS Oil Manager
4-19
Assay Property View
The Assay property view is shown below:
Figure 4.8
The appearance of the Assay property view depends on how
you define the assay in the Assay Definition group and which
radio button is selected in the Input Data group.
The Assay property view consists of seven tabs, which are
described below:
Tab
Description
Input Data
Allows you to define and specify the Assay.
Calculation
Defaults
Allows you to set the calculation methods and
extrapolation methods for the assay and assay
property curves.
Working Curves
Displays a table of Assay Working curves.
Plots
Allows you to view any of the input assay curves in
graphical form.
Correlations
Allows you to edit the individual property conversion
methods used.
User Curves
Allows you to attach available user properties to the
assay.
Notes
Allows you to attach relevant comments to the assay.
4-19
4-20
Characterizing Assays
There are four objects found at the bottom of the property view
and are described below:
Object
Description
Name
You can provide the name of the Assay in the Name cell
(maximum 12 characters).
Assay Status
The status bar is displayed at the bottom of the screen:
• Assay Was Not Calculated. You have not provided
enough Assay information to determine a solution (or
you have enough information and have not clicked the
Calculate button).
• Assay Was Calculated. You have provided Assay
information, clicked the Calculate button, and
obtained a solution.
• An Error Was Found During Calculation. The Trace
Window usually shows a description of the type of
Error.
Calculate
Select this button to calculate the Assay.
Delete
Select this buttons to delete the current Assay.
There is no confirmation when you delete an assay, unless
it is being used by a blend, in which case you cannot delete
it.
The following sections outline each of the tabs contained within
the Assay view (accessed via the View or Add button).
4.5.1 Input Data Tab
The minimum amount of information that HYSYS requires to
characterize a petroleum fluid is either:
•
•
a laboratory distillation curve
two of the following three bulk properties: Molecular
Weight, Density, or Watson (UOP) K factor.
The Watson (UOP) K factor is an approximate index of
paraffinicity, with high values corresponding to high degrees
of saturation:
3 Mean Avg. BP
K = --------------------------------------sp gr 60F / 60F
where the mean average boiling point is in degrees Rankine.
However, any additional information such as distillation curves,
bulk properties and/or property curves, should be entered if
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HYSYS Oil Manager
4-21
possible. With more supplied information, HYSYS produces a
more accurate final characterization of your oil.
When you open the Assay view to the Input Data tab, all that
is displayed is the Assay Data Type and Bulk Properties dropdowns. New input fields are added as you specify the
information for your oil.
The Input Data tab is shown below:
Figure 4.9
The layout of Input Data
group depends largely on
the settings you choose in
this group.
Depending on the specifications made in the
Assay Definition group. These radio buttons
become visible. Each radio button makes a
different entry field visible.
Specify which
individual Input
Data curves are to
be included.
Options related to
the Assay Data
Type are
displayed in this
area.
The entry fields displayed in this table depend on which
radio button is selected.
For each of the three property curves, Molecular Weight,
Density and Viscosity, you have the following options: Not
Used, Dependent, or Independent. If you switch the status
to Not Used after you have entered assay data, all your data
for that property curve is lost when you return your selection
to Dependent or Independent.
The Input Data tab is split into two groups: the Assay Definition
and Input Data groups. The Assay Definition group is where the
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Characterizing Assays
assay type and use of property curve, light ends data and bulk
properties are defined. The Input Data group is where the
distillation, property curve, light ends and property data is
actually inputted.
Light Ends Handling & Bulk Fitting
If you have a light-ends analysis along with light-ends free input
curves and total bulk properties or light-ends free bulk
properties you can use the HYSYS oil manager to combine the
light-ends analysis with the light-ends free input curves to
match the specified bulk properties. This functionality is clearly
seen in the case of chromatographic input, where you may want
to input the light-ends along with the C6+ as the
chromatographic data groups. Because of the nature of the
analysis, the chromatographic data is light-ends free.
Light Ends Analysis Versus Calculated TBP
Curve
Ideally, for the light-ends free distillation input curve, the TBP at
0% should coincide with the highest NBP in the light-ends
components with non-zero compositions, see Case B in Figure
4.10. However, due to imperfect input data or extrapolation, the
calculated TBP at 0% may be lower than the top NBP for light
ends (Case A in Figure 4.10) or higher than the top NBP for
light ends (Case C in Figure 4.10). To avoid overlapping or
discontinuity, these two cases must be properly handled.
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HYSYS Oil Manager
4-23
Figure 4.10
In Case A, the highest temperature of the non-zero component
in light ends is above the TBP at 0%. In this case, we need to
eliminate the points having TBP lower than the top light-ends
temperature. After the elimination, the remaining portion of the
light-ends free TBP curve are re-scaled to 100%, and then a
new set of standard 51 points calculation tables are regenerated
from the remaining portion of the corresponding curves.
In Case C, the top light-ends temperature is below the TBP at
0%. Since the extrapolation may not be accurate, more trust is
put on the light-ends analysis and hence assign the top lightends temperature as the TBP at 0%. To avoid a sudden jump in
the distillation curve, the first 20% of the distillation curve is
also smoothed.
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Characterizing Assays
Curve Partition for Bulk Property Fitting
To allow piece-wise fitting for a bulk property, a property curve
is divided into three sections: head, main, and tail. The ending
% of the head section and beginning % of the tail section can be
specified. Each section can have an independent adjusting
weight factor as shown in the figure below.
Figure 4.11
For piecewise bulk property fitting there are two concerns to be
addressed. First, since each section can have an independent
adjusting weight factor, there may be a discontinuity at the
boundary of the two sections. Second, how to ensure relatively
fast convergence with uneven adjustment of the property
concerned. For the first concern, discontinuity is avoided by
using linear interpolation between two sections. For the second
concern, the weight factor is normalized first and then the
following equation is used to calculate the new point property
value from the old point property value:
New [ i ] = [ 1 + Wt [ i ] × ( Ratio – 1 ) ] × Old [ i ]
(4.1)
where:
New[i] = the new property value at point i
Wt[i] = the normalized weight factor at point i
Ratio = the calculated uniform adjusting ratio
Old[i] = the old property value at point i
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HYSYS Oil Manager
4-25
HYSYS allows you to specify if a given curve contains light-ends
contributions, set if a specified bulk property contains light-ends
and partition a property curve so that some sections can be
adjusted more than others.
The Light Ends Handling & Bulk Fitting Options property view is
accessed by clicking the Light Ends Handling & Bulk Fitting
Options button.
Figure 4.12
The light ends handling and bulk fitting options are described
below:
Column
Description
Input Curve
Displays all the possible input curves, including user
property curves.
Curve Incl L.E.
Specifies if the corresponding input curve includes light
ends. If an input curve is not used, the corresponding
checkboxes are grayed out.
Bulk Value
Specifies the bulk value for the corresponding input
curve.
Bulk Value Incl
L.E.
Specifies if a given bulk value contains the
contributions of light ends. If no light end compositions
are given these checkboxes are grayed out.
The last five columns are used for piece-wise bulk property
fitting. When fitting a given bulk property value the internal
calculation curve, either based on the input curve or calculated
from a correlation, is divided into three sections. Each of the
three sections can be independently adjusted.
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Characterizing Assays
Column
Description
Head%
Specifies the ending percent for the head section on
the input basis.
Head Adj Wt
Specifies the corresponding relative bulk fit adjusting
weight factor from 0 to 10, where 0 means no
adjusting at all.
Main%
Specifies the ending percent for the main section of the
input basis.
Main Adj Wt
Specifies the corresponding relative bulk fit adjusting
weight factor from 0 to 10, where 0 means no
adjusting at all.
Tail Adj Wt
Specifies the corresponding relative bulk fit adjusting
weight factor from 0 to 10, where 0 means no
adjusting at all.
When fitting a given bulk value, at least one section must be
adjustable. Therefore, at least one section must have a non-zero
percentage range and a non-zero adjusting weight factor. Since
the adjusting weight factors are relative, it is the weight factor
ratios among the three sections that matter.
The Apply smart bulk fitting on molecular weight and
mass density checkbox allows you to achieve the best bulk
fitting on mass density and molecular weight input curves. If the
checkbox is selected, the mass density and molecular weight
rows are disabled and the values appear in black.
In situations when either a full light ends analysis is not
available or you do not want to identify part of the analyzed light
ends components (in other words, only partial light ends
analysis data is available), HYSYS can generate overlapping
hypothetical components to compensate the missing portion of
the light ends, making the output stream matching both the
partial light ends input and the other input curves. To activate
this option, select the Allow Partial Light Ends Input
checkbox. Once selected, HYSYS identifies the need and
generate the needed hypothetical components to compensate
the missing portions of the light ends, leading to a much better
fit between the generated curves and the input curves.
If the input for either molecular weight or mass density curves is
less than 95% on a user defined basis, only the extrapolated tail
is adjusted to match the user specified bulk value. If the input is
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HYSYS Oil Manager
4-27
more than or equal to 95% on the user defined basis, the entire
curve will be adjusted to match the bulk value specified.
The user input data is the most reliable data available, and
hence should not be adjusted to match the bulk value as long as
there is enough extrapolated data to adjust.
When only the tail is adjusted, it is ensured that the upper end
point is no lower than the linear extrapolation of the last two
points. This means that in most cases, the extrapolated portion
of the curve is concave, i.e., the curvature is positive. If the bulk
value is given such that the extrapolated values are below the
linear extrapolation values, the whole curve is adjusted and the
following warning message is displayed: “Curve is normalized
due to the inconsistency between the supplied curve and bulk
data.”
If the upper limit value is reached when adjusting the molecular
weight or density curve and the specified bulk value is still not
matched, no adjustment is made and the following message
appears: “No exact match, upper limit reached”. For molecular
weight, the upper limit value is ten times that of the bulk value.
For mass density, the upper limit is three times that of the bulk
value.
If a bulk molecular weight or mass density is given without a
corresponding input curve, the whole calculated curve will be
adjusted.
The 95% input is an artificial dividing line to decide if only the
tail is adjusted or the whole curve is adjusted. If the user input
curve crosses the dividing line, there is a chance to have a
sudden change in the behaviour. If this occurs, you can
overcome the problem by manually setting the bulking fitting
options without using the smart option. To achieve similar
results manually, you can set the Head Adj Wt and Main Adj Wt
to zero, set the Main % to the desired tail starting percent, and
leave the Tail Adj Wt to its default value of 1.0.
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Characterizing Assays
Bulk Properties Definition
These bulk properties are optional except when distillation data
is not available (you have selected None as the Data Type). If
you do not supply any distillation data, you must supply two of
the three initial bulk properties (Molecular Weight, Mass Density
or Watson (UOP) K factor) for HYSYS to create a "typical" TBP
curve. This TBP curve is generated based on a Whitson molar
distribution model.
If you are supplying property curves and you supply a bulk
molecular weight, density, or Watson K factor, HYSYS smoothes
and adjusts the corresponding curves to match the supplied bulk
properties. This procedure is performed whether you supply
property curves or they were internally generated by HYSYS.
Assay Definition Group
The Assay Definition group contains only one object involved in
the specification of Bulk Properties: the Bulk Properties dropdown. The Bulk Properties drop-down list has two options:
Option
Description
Used
If an Assay Data Type is not selected, the Input Data group
displays the Bulk Prop table along with the Molecular
Weight of lightest component field. However, if an Assay
Data Type is selected, a Bulk Props radio button appears in
the Input Data group. When this radio button is active the
Bulk Prop table is displayed.
Not Used
No bulk properties are considered in the oil characterization
calculations.
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4-29
Input Data Group
The Input Data group that appears when Used is selected for
bulk properties is shown in the figure below:
Figure 4.13
It consists of two objects: the Bulk Properties table and
Molecular Weight of lightest component field.
The Molecular Weight of lightest component field is only
visible when the Assay Data Type selected is None.
The Bulk Properties table has several fields:
Bulk Properties
Description
Molecular
Weight
The Molecular Weight must be greater than 16.
Standard Density
The mass density must be between 250 and 2,000 kg/
m3 (units can be mass density, API, or specific gravity,
chosen from the drop-down list).
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Characterizing Assays
Bulk Properties
Description
Watson (UOP) K
factor
This factor must be between 8 (highly aromatic or
naphthenic) and 15 (highly paraffinic). Only field units
are used here.
The Watson (UOP) K factor is an approximate index of
paraffinicity, with high values corresponding to high
degrees of saturation:
3 Mean Avg. BP
K = -------------------------------------sp gr 60F / 60F
where:
Mean Avg. BP = the mean average boiling point
is in degrees Rankine.
Bulk Viscosities
The bulk viscosity type and the temperature at two
reference points.
Defining Assay Types
Assay Definition Group
To define Assay types, select a type in the Assay Definition
group using the drop-down list.
Figure 4.14
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4-31
Assay types that are available are described in the table below:
Assay Type
Description
TBP
True boiling point distillation data at atmospheric pressure.
Once you have selected this option, the TBP Distillation
Conditions group is displayed.
The default distillation conditions are atmospheric,
however, you can enable Vacuum Distillation for subatmospheric conditions by selecting the Vacuum radio
button. The default pressure in this case is 10 mmHg
(ASTM standard). When you supply sub-atmospheric data,
it is automatically corrected from vacuum to atmospheric
conditions using procedure 5A1.13 (without K-correction)
from the API Data Book.
ASTM D86
Standard ASTM D86 distillation data at atmospheric
pressure.
You must provide data on a liquid volume basis.
You can specify the ASTM D86/TBP Interconversion Method
(API 19741, API 19872, API 19943 or Edmister-Okamoto
19594) on the Calculation Defaults tab. With the ASTM D86
Assay type you can also correct for thermal cracking as well
as for elevation.
ASTM D1160
ASTM D1160 distillation data. After you have selected this
option, the ASTM D1160 Distillation Conditions group is
displayed. By default, the Vacuum radio button is selected
and the Vacuum Distillation Pressure is set to 10 mmHg
(ASTM standard). When ASTM D1160 Vacuum data is
supplied, HYSYS will first convert it to TBP vacuum data,
and then convert this to TBP data at 760 mmHg using
procedure 5A1.13 of the API Data Book.
You must provide data on a liquid volume basis.
Refer to
Chromatographic
Assay Input for more
information.
ASTM D86D1160
This is the combination of the ASTM D86-D1160 data types.
The options for ASTM D86 and ASTM D1160 are similar to
the descriptions above. You must provide data on a liquid
volume basis.
ASTM D2887
Simulation distillation analysis from chromatographic data,
reported only on a weight percent basis at atmospheric
pressure. On the Calculation Defaults tab, you have the
choice of conversion method (API 19875, API 1994
Indirect6, API 1994 Direct7).
Chromatogra
ph
A gas chromatograph analysis of a small sample of
completely vaporized oil, analyzed for paraffin, aromatic
and naphthenic hydrocarbon groups from C6 to C30.
Chromatographic analyses may be entered on a mole,
mass, or liquid volume basis. With this option, you enter
Light Ends, Bulk and Chromatographic analysis data.
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Characterizing Assays
Assay Type
Description
EFV
Equilibrium flash vaporization curve; this involves a series
of experiments at constant atmospheric pressure, where
the total vapour is in equilibrium with the unvaporized
liquid.
None
No distillation data is available; HYSYS generates a TBP
curve from bulk property data. With this option, you only
enter bulk data.
Input Data Group
The Input Data group displayed when the Distillation radio
button is selected depends on the Assay type you have selected
in the Assay Definition group.
The conversion procedure from various assay types to a TBP
curve is based on Figure 3-0.3 of the API Data Book.
Distillation Data
For Assay Type options TBP, ASTM D86, ASTM D1160, ASTM
D2887 and EFV, the procedure for entering boiling temperature
information is essentially the same - you are required to enter at
least five pairs of Assay Percents and boiling Temperatures. The
Distillation input table is exactly the same for each of these
options.
You can view and edit the assay boiling Temperature input
table by selecting the Distillation radio button and clicking
the Edit Assay button.
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HYSYS Oil Manager
4-33
Figure 4.15
For the ASTM D86-D1160 characterization procedure, you are
required to enter boiling temperature information for both the
ASTM D86 and ASTM D1160 data types. This procedure
averages the ASTM D86 curve and ASTM D1160 curve in the
area where they overlap.
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Characterizing Assays
For example, in the combined ASTM D86-D1160 input form
shown on the figure below, the last recorded ASTM D86 assay
point is at 30 vol%, and the first reported ASTM D1160 data
point is at 10 vol%.
Figure 4.16
Therefore, the resulting TBP curve will represent the average of
the two curves between 10 vol% and 30 vol%. Each curve must
contain a minimum of 5 data points.
Chromatographic Assay Input
This distillation option allows you to enter a standard laboratory
chromatographic analysis directly. The only required input is the
assay fraction for each chromatographic hydrocarbon group in
the paraffin, aromatic, and naphthenic families. The required
minimum of five points can be any combination of points from
the three PNA groups. The normal boiling point of each
hydrocarbon group is displayed in the PNA tables.
Chromatographic analyses may be entered on either a mole,
mass, or liquid volume basis, with the best results obtained
when the input fractions are on a mole fraction basis.
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4-35
A typical C6+ liquids chromatographic analysis is shown in the
chromatographic input form below.
Figure 4.17
You may also supply bulk
property data (see Bulk
Properties in Section
4.5.1 - Input Data Tab
for details).
Chromatographic analyses are typically performed after the light
ends of the original sample are removed. If you have a Light
Ends analysis in this case, refer to Light Ends Handling &
Bulk Fitting for details.
Assay Input - No Distillation Data Available
When a distillation analysis is not available, HYSYS generates a
typical TBP curve based on supplied bulk properties (molecular
weight, mass density, and Watson (UOP) K factor). You have the
option of specifying the molecular weight of the lightest
component in the mixture, which may help in generating more
accurate TBP curves for heavy petroleum fluids.
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Characterizing Assays
HYSYS uses the Whitson Molar Distribution model that
requires at least two of the three bulk properties (not
including bulk viscosities) to produce an average TBP
distribution.
Figure 4.18
Although accurate enough for heat balance applications, caution
should be exercised when the Whitson option is used to produce
hypocomponent for fractionation calculations. This method
realistically supplies accuracy sufficient only for preliminary
sizing calculations.
For condensate with only bulk data available for the C7+
fraction, experience has shown a considerable increase in
accuracy by representing the fraction with several
hypocomponent as opposed to a single hypothetical component
with the bulk properties.
Refer to Bulk Properties Definition (earlier in this Section) for
details on entering bulk property data, particularly in regards to
Bulk Viscosities.
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4-37
General Guidelines
Some general guidelines are provided below:
•
•
•
•
•
There is no limit to the number of assay data points that
you may enter for TBP, ASTM D86, ASTM D1160, ASTM
D86-D1160 ASTM D2887 or EFV analyses. Data points
may be input in any order, as HYSYS automatically sorts
your input data.
HYSYS requires a minimum of 5 data points for all
assays. Depending on the shape of the input curve,
intermediate values for HYSYS' internal TBP working
curve are interpolated using either a third or fourth order
LaGrange polynomial fit. The points outside your data are
extrapolated using the extrapolation method which you
select on Calculation Defaults tab: Least Squares,
Lagrange or Probability.
Each time you change the Basis or Extrapolation method,
the Assay needs to be recalculated.
TBP, EFV, and Chromatographic laboratory assay values
may be entered on a liquid volume, mole or weight basis.
Liquid volume is the default basis for TBP and EFV input,
and mole is the default basis for Chromatographic input.
Due to the form of the conversion curves in the API Data
Book, you must supply your ASTM D86 and ASTM D1160
distillation data on a liquid volume basis. ASTM D2887 is
only reported on a weight percent basis.
If you are editing an assay, redefining the Basis does not
alter your supplied assay values. For example, consider
an assay curve with 10, 30, 50, 70 and 90 liquid volume
percent points. If you change the Basis to mass percent,
the assay percents and temperature are not changed.
The temperature you supplied for 10% liquid volume is
retained for 10% mass.
HYSYS generates all of its physical and critical properties
from an internally generated TBP curve at atmospheric
conditions. Regardless of what type of assay data you
provide, HYSYS always converts it to an internal TBP curve
for the characterization procedure. The internal TBP curve is
not stored with the assay.
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Characterizing Assays
Light Ends Definition
Light Ends are defined as pure components with low boiling
points. Components in the boiling range of C2 to n-C5 are most
commonly of interest. Generally, it is preferred that the portion
of the oil's distillation assay below the boiling point of n-C5 be
replaced with discrete pure components (library or
hypothetical). This should always yield more accurate results
than using hypocomponent to represent the Light Ends portion.
Assay Definition Group
HYSYS provides three options to account for Light Ends, which
are as follows:
Option
Description
Ignore
HYSYS characterizes the Light Ends portion of your sample
as hypocomponents. This is the least accurate method and
as such, is not recommended.
Auto
Calculate
Select this when you do not have a separate Light Ends
analysis but you want the low boiling portion of your assay
represented by pure components. HYSYS only uses the
pure components you selected in the fluid package.
Input
Composition
Select this when you have a separate Light Ends assay and
your petroleum assay was prepared with the light ends in
the sample. HYSYS provides a form listing the pure
components you selected in the fluid package. Input your
data on a non-cumulative basis.
To correctly employ the Auto Calculate or Input Composition
options, you should either pick library components, or define
hypothetical components to represent the Light Ends before
entering the Oil Characterization environment. If you have
selected the Auto Calculate method without specifying light
ends, HYSYS calculates the oil using only hypocomponent,
just as if you had selected Ignore. If you selected Input
Composition, there are no light end components for which
you can supply compositions. You can go back to the Fluid
Package property view at any time and define your light
components.
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HYSYS Oil Manager
4-39
The following sections provide a detailed explanation of Light
Ends, how the laboratory may account for them, how they are
reported and how HYSYS utilizes this information. It is
recommended that you read this information to ensure that you
are selecting the right options for your assay.
Laboratory Assay Preparation
During TBP and ASTM laboratory distillations, loss of some of
the Light Ends components from the sample frequently occurs.
To provide increased accuracy, a separate Light Ends assay
analyzed using chromatographic techniques may be reported.
Regardless of whether a separate light ends analysis was
provided, your overall assay is either Light Ends Included or
Light Ends Free. The way in which your sample was analyzed
affects both the results and the method you should use to input
the information for your characterization.
Light Ends Portion Included in Assay
In this case, your assay data was obtained with the light ends
components in the sample; i.e., the assay is for the whole
sample. The IBP temperature for your assay is lower than the
boiling point of the heaviest pure light end component. This
corresponds to an IBP approximately equal to the weighted
average boiling point of the first 1% of the overall sample. For
example, if the lightest component is propane and it makes up
more than 1% of the total sample, the IBP of the assay is
approximately -45°F (the normal boiling temperature of
propane).
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4-40
Characterizing Assays
If the Light Ends were included in your overall assay, there are
two possibilities:
Option
Description
Light Ends
Analysis
Supplied
If you know that light ends are included in your assay,
select the Input Composition option from the Light
Ends group, and enter the composition data directly
into the Light Ends composition property view.
No Light Ends
Analysis
Available
If you do not have a laboratory analysis for the light
ends portion of your assay, then you should use the
Auto Calculate option. HYSYS represents the light ends
portion of your assay as discrete pure components,
automatically assigning an appropriate assay
percentage to each. If you do not do this (you select
Ignore), HYSYS represents the Light Ends portion of
the assay as petroleum hypocomponent.
Assay is Light Ends Free
Your assay data was analyzed with the Light Ends components
removed from the sample, or the assay was already adjusted for
the Light Ends components. The IBP temperature for your assay
is higher than the boiling point of the heaviest pure light end
component - typically your assay is for the C6+ fraction only and
the IBP temperature is somewhat above 95°F (36°C).
If your distillation data is light-ends free and you have separate
light-ends analysis data, you can use HYSYS oil characterization
to combine the two. The advantage of doing this is that the bulk
properties, if available, will be fitted and matched accurately. To
do the combining, you need to input the distillation data and
light ends data as usual and then click the Light Ends
Handling & Bulk Fitting Options button accessible from
Input Data or User Curves tab. In the Light-Ends Handling &
Bulk Fitting Options property view, clear the Curve Incl L.E.
checkbox for distillation. If you have bulk properties to fit, you
need to indicate if the bulk values include light ends by selecting
or clearing the Bulk Value Incl L.E. checkboxes.
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HYSYS Oil Manager
4-41
Input Data Group
When you have selected Input Composition as the Light Ends
option and you select the Light Ends radio button in the Input
Data group, the following property view appears.
Figure 4.19
There are three objects associated with the Light Ends Input and
are described below:
Object
Description
Light Ends Basis
Allows you to select the basis for the Light Ends
analysis on a mole, mass, or liquid volume basis. The
way in which you enter the rest of the light ends data
depends on whether you select a percent or flow basis:
• Percent. Enter the percent compositions for the
Light Ends on a non-cumulative basis. HYSYS
calculates the total Light Ends percentage by
summing all of the Light Ends assay data. If the
sum of the light ends assay values is equal to 100
(you have submitted normalized data), you must
enter the Percent of light ends in the Assay. This
value must be on the same basis as the
distillation data.
If the sum of the light ends is equal to 1.0000,
HYSYS assumes that you have entered fractional
data (rather than percent), and you are required
to enter the Percent of light ends in the Assay.
• Flow. Enter the flows for each component, as well
as the percent of light ends in the assay.
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Characterizing Assays
Object
Description
Light Ends
Composition
matrix
The matrix consists of the three fields:
• Light Ends. Displays all pure components or
hypotheticals you selected in the associated fluid
package.
• Composition. The composition value of the
associated component is either entered (when
Light Ends drop-down is set to Input
Composition) or automatically calculated (when
the Light Ends drop-down is set to Automatically
Calculated)
• NBP. The Normal Boiling Point of the associated
component or hypothetical.
Percent of lights
ends in Assay
The total percentage of light ends in the Assay. If the
Light Ends Basis selected is percentage (i.e.,
LiquidVolume%, Mole% or Mass%), then this is
automatically calculated. If the Basis selected is flow
based (i.e., Liquid Flow, Mole Flow or Mass Flow), you
are required to provide this value.
Auto Calculate Light Ends
Refer to Appendix B Oil Methods &
Correlations for a
graphical representation
of the Auto Calculate
Light Ends removal
procedure.
The Auto Calculate extraction procedure internally plots the
boiling points of the defined Light Ends components on the TBP
working curve and determine their compositions by
interpolation. HYSYS adjusts the total Light Ends fraction such
that the boiling point of the heaviest Light End is at the centroid
volume of the last Light Ends component. The results of this
calculation are displayed in Light Ends Composition matrix.
If a fluid package contains a large number of hydrocarbons,
especially heavy ones, HYSYS may allocate a very large portion
of the assay input to light ends, leading to undesired results.
The checkboxes under the Use column allows you to decide
which components are used in the light ends auto allocation.
This option gives you more control on the light ends to be used,
and allows the use of any fluid package to be associated with
the oil manager, even with very heavy hydrocarbons.
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HYSYS Oil Manager
4-43
Unlike when setting the Input Composition, the matrix is not
editable.
Figure 4.20
Physical Property Curves
Specification
Physical property analyzes are normally reported from the
laboratory using one of the following two conventions:
•
•
An Independent assay basis, where a common set of
assay fractions is not used for both the distillation curve
and physical property curve.
A Dependent assay basis, where a common set of assay
fractions is used for both the distillation curve and the
physical property curves.
Physical properties are average values for the given range, and
hence are midpoint values. Distillation data reports the
temperature when the last drop of liquid boils off for a given
assay range, and therefore distillation is an endpoint property.
Since all dependent input property curves are reported on the
same endpoint basis as the distillation curve, they are converted
by HYSYS to a midpoint basis. Independent property curves are
not altered in any manner as they are already defined on a
midpoint basis.
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Characterizing Assays
As with distillation curves, there is no limit to the number of
data points you provide. The order in which you input the points
is not important, as HYSYS sorts the input data. A minimum of
five data points is required to define a property curve in HYSYS.
It is not necessary that each property curve point have a
corresponding distillation value.
Entering the 0 vol% point of a dependent curve contributes
to defining the shape of the initial portion of the curve, but
has no physical meaning since it is a midpoint property
curve.
If a bulk molecular weight or mass density is going to be
supplied, then the corresponding Molecular Weight or Density
working curve generated from your input is smoothed to ensure
a match. If you do not enter bulk properties, then they are
calculated from the unsmoothed working curves.
Assay Definition Group
Each property curve type (i.e., Molecular Wt., Density and
Viscosity) has its own drop-down list in the Assay Definition
group.
Figure 4.21
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HYSYS Oil Manager
4-45
Each drop-down list contains the same three options and are
described below:
Option
Description
Not Used
No property data is considered in the assay calculation.
Dependent
A common set of assay fractions is used for both the
distillation curve and the physical property curves.
Independent
A common set of assay fractions is not used for both the
distillation curve and physical property curve.
Input Data Group
Defining Molecular Weight and Density property curves as either
Independent or Dependent adds the corresponding radio button
to the Input Data group. However, defining a Viscosity property
curve as Independent or Dependent, HYSYS accepts viscosities
for assay values at two specified temperatures, with the default
temperatures being 100 and 210°F. Selecting the Molecular
Wt., Density, Viscosity1, or Viscosity2 radio buttons brings
up the objects associated with the specification of the respective
property curve.
To enter the property curve data, simply select the radio button
for the property curve you want to input and click the Edit Assay
button.
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Characterizing Assays
Molecular Wt. Curve
An example of a Molecular Weight assay is shown below:
Figure 4.22
In Dependent Curves, making a change to an Assay Percent
value automatically changes this value in all other
Dependent curves (including the Boiling Point curve).
The assay data is entered into the Assay Input Table property
view which is opened when the Edit Assay button is selected.
The form of this property view is the same regardless of whether
you have specified Independent or Dependent data. However, if
you specified Dependent data, the Assay Percents that you
defined for the distillation data are automatically entered in the
table.
Depending on the shape of the curve, intermediate values for
HYSYS' internal working curve are interpolated using either a
third or fourth order Lagrange polynomial fit of your input curve,
while points outside your data are extrapolated. You can select
the extrapolation method for the fit of your input curve on the
Calculation Defaults tab: Least Squares, Lagrange or Probability.
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4-47
Density Curve
An example of a Density assay is shown below:
Figure 4.23
The assay data is entered into the Assay Input Table property
view which is opened when the Edit Assay button is selected.
The form of this property view is the same regardless of whether
you have specified Independent or Dependent data. However, if
you specified Dependent data, the Assay Percents that you
defined for the distillation data are automatically entered in the
table.
Depending on the shape of the curve, intermediate values for
HYSYS' internal working curve are interpolated using either a
third or fourth order Lagrange polynomial fit of your input curve,
while points outside your data are extrapolated. You may select
the extrapolation method for the fit of your input curve on the
Calculation Defaults tab: Least Squares, Lagrange (default) or
Probability.
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Characterizing Assays
Viscosity Curves
HYSYS accepts viscosities for assay data at two specified
temperatures and therefore provides two radio buttons,
Viscosity1 and Viscosity2, in the Input Data group.
Figure 4.24
You can input data for one or both of the viscosity curves. Each
radio button brings up identical sets of objects, specific to assay
data at the designated temperature. Temperatures are entered
in the Temperature field with default values being 100 and
210°F. This implies that you have determined the viscosity at
100 or 210°F for each of your assay portions (10%, 20%, etc.).
In the Viscosity Curves group box, you can specify which curve
(or both) you want to use by selecting the appropriate radio
button.
The Assay Input Table property view, which is opened when the
Edit Assay button is selected, is filled in with the assay data. The
form of this property view is the same regardless of whether you
have specified Independent or Dependent data. However, if you
specified Dependent data, the Assay Percents that you defined
for the distillation data are automatically entered in the table.
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4-49
You may also define the viscosity unit type. The Units Type can
be one of the following:
Unit Type
Description
Dynamic
Conventional viscosity units (e.g., - cP)
Kinematic
Ratio of a fluid's viscosity to its density (e.g.,- stoke, m2/s)
Depending on the shape of the curve, intermediate values for
HYSYS' internal working curve are interpolated using either a
third or fourth order Lagrange polynomial fit of your input curve,
while points outside your data are extrapolated. You may select
the extrapolation method for the fit of your input curve on the
Calculation Defaults tab: Least Squares, Lagrange or Probability.
The defaults for a new assay may be modified by clicking the Oil
Input Preferences… button on the Assay tab of the Oil
Characterization property view. The same property view may
also be accessed from the Simulation environment by the
following sequence:
1. Select Tools-Preferences command from the menu bar.
2. On the Session Preferences property view, go to the Oil
Input tab.
3. Select the Assay Options page.
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Characterizing Assays
4.5.2 Calculation Defaults Tab
The Calculation Defaults tab is shown below:
Figure 4.25
The internal TBP curve is not stored with the assay. The
Calculation Defaults tab contains three main groups:
•
•
•
Conversion Methods
Corrections for Raw Lab Data
Extrapolation Methods
Conversion Methods Group
HYSYS generates all of its physical and critical properties from
an internally generated TBP curve at atmospheric conditions.
Regardless of what type of assay data you provide, HYSYS
always converts it to an internal TBP curve for the
characterization procedure. For ASTM D86 and ASTM D2887
assays types, you may specify the inter-conversion or
conversion methods used in the Conversion Methods group.
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The group consists of the following two drop-down lists:
Field
Description
D86-TBP
(Interconversion)
There are four interconversion methods available:
• API 19741
• API 19872
• API 19943
• Edminster Okamoto 19594
D2887-TBP
(Interconversion)
There are three interconversion methods
available:
• API 19875
• API 1994 Indirect6
• API 1994 Direct7
Corrections for Raw Lab Data Group
In this group, two correction methods are available for
previously uncorrected laboratory data:
Correction
Description
Apply Lab
Barometric
Pressure
Correction
ASTM D86 data that is generated above sea level
conditions must be corrected for barometric pressure.
If this is not done by the laboratory, select the Yes
radio button from the subgroup and HYSYS performs
the necessary corrections. Enter the ambient
laboratory barometric pressure in the Lab Barometric
Pressure field and HYSYS corrects your ASTM
distillation data to 1atm before applying the API Data
Book conversions for ASTM D86 to TBP distillation.
Apply ASTM D86
API Cracking
Correction
API no longer recommends using this correction:
The ASTM cracking correction is designed to correct for
the effects of thermal cracking that occur during the
laboratory distillation. If this is not done by the
laboratory, select the Yes radio button, and HYSYS
performs the necessary corrections. This correction is
only applied to ASTM D86 temperatures greater than
485°F (250°C).
The API cracking correction should not be applied to
ASTM D86 distillations that extend beyond 900°F
(500°C), due to the exponential nature of the
correction.
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Characterizing Assays
Extrapolation Methods Group
HYSYS allows you to choose the extrapolation method used for
the different Assays (i.e., Distillation and the Molecular Weight,
Density and Viscosity property curves). There are three
methods available:
Extrapolation
Method
Uses
Lagrange
For assays representing cuts (i.e., naphtha) or assays
for properties other than Boiling Temperature.
Least Squares
The Least Squares method is a lower order Lagrange
method. For this method, the last five input points are
used to fit a second order polynomial. If the curvature
is negative, a straight line is fit.
Probability
Use the Probability extrapolation method in cases when
your Boiling Temperature assay represents a full range
crude and the data is relatively flat. For instance, the
data in the distillation range of your assay (i.e., 10% to
70%) may be relatively constant. Instead of linearly
extending the curve to the IBP and FBP, the Probability
method only considers the steep rise from the FBP.
Temperature
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Known Part
of Curve
Extrapolated
Part
Assay%
This group also allows you to specify which end of the curve to
apply the extrapolation method. There are three choices
available:
•
•
•
Upper end
Lower end
Both ends
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4.5.3 Working Curves Tab
The third tab of the Assay view is the Working Curves tab.
After the Assay is calculated, you can view the Assay Working
Curves:
Figure 4.26
Recall that the working curves are interpolated using either a
third or fourth order Lagrange polynomial fit of your input curve,
while the method used to extrapolate points outside your data
depends on the type of curve (Mass Density, Viscosity, Molecular
Weight). You select the method for the fit of your input curve:
Least Squares, Lagrange or Probability.
HYSYS always uses 50 points in the calculation of the working
curves, but the molar distribution varies depending on the data
you provide. In cases where there is a region with a steep
gradient, HYSYS moves more points to that region, but still uses
50 points.
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Characterizing Assays
4.5.4 Plots Tab
Following the Working Curves tab is the Plots tab, on which you
can view any of the input data curves in a graphical format.
Figure 4.27
The User Property option is
only available if a User
Property is created and a
User Curve is defined in the
Assay.
The Property drop-down list, shown above, displays the options
available for the y-axis of the plot. The Distillation option shows
the boiling temperature input according to the Assay Type
chosen (i.e., TBP, ASTM D86, etc.). The x-axis displays the
Assay% on a basis consistent with the format of your input.
An example of a distillation boiling point curve is shown in the
figure below. All of the entered data point pairs and the
interpolated values are drawn on the plot.
Figure 4.28
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HYSYS Oil Manager
For details on the various
Graph Control options,
refer to Section 10.4 Graph Control of the
HYSYS User Guide.
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To make changes to the appearance of the plot, object inspect
the plot area. From the menu that appears, select Graph
Control.
4.5.5 Correlations Tab
The Correlations tab of the Assay property view is shown below:
Figure 4.29
The correlations tab consists of the following objects:
Object
Description
Selected
Correlation
Set
By default, this is Default Set (if you have changed the
name of the default set, that name is displayed). You can
select another correlation set from the Selected drop-down
list, but first you must define one on the Correlation tab of
the Oil Characterization property view.
You can define new correlations sets via the Correlation
tab, accessible from the main Oil Characterization property
view.
Refer to Section 4.8.1 Correlation Tab for
more information.
Low and
High End
Temperature
This is the range for which the Correlations are applied. If
you split the range, then more than one temperature range
is displayed.
You can edit the temperature of defined splits for custom
Correlation Sets on this tab.
MW
The MW correlation is displayed. You cannot change the
correlation in this property view; this can be done from the
Correlation tab accessible from the main Oil
Characterization property view or by clicking the Edit
button.
You can change only the name of the default set. If you
want to change any correlations, you must create a new
correlation set.
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Characterizing Assays
Object
SG
Tc, Pc, Acc.
Factor, Ideal
H
Description
The specific gravity (density) correlation is displayed. You
cannot change the correlation in this property view; this
can be done from the Correlation tab accessible from the
main Oil Characterization property view or by clicking the
Edit button.
The critical temperature, critical pressure, acentricity and
Ideal Enthalpy correlations are displayed. You cannot
change correlations on this tab; this can be done in the
Correlation property view accessible from the main Oil
Characterization property view. To edit the Selected
Correlation Set from this tab, click the Edit button. This
takes you to the Correlation property view.
Only the molecular weight and specific gravity correlations are
required in the calculation of the working curves. The critical
pressure, critical temperature, acentricity, and ideal enthalpy
correlations are also displayed on the Assay property view, as
these are applicable only in the calculation of the
hypocomponent properties.
Although a Correlation set contains methods for all
properties, the Correlation tab, as seen on the Assay and
Blend property views, displays only the properties
appropriate to that step in the Characterization process.
If you supply molecular weight or density curves, then their
respective correlations are not required. You do not have a
choice of correlations for calculating the viscosity curves.
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4.5.6 User Curves Tab
See Light Ends
Handling & Bulk Fitting
for details on the Light
Ends Handling & Bulk
Fitting Options button.
The User Curves tab of the Assay property view is shown below:
Figure 4.30
The available and selected User Properties are displayed in the
left portion of the property view. User Properties are defined on
the User Property tab of the Oil Characterization property view.
There are two elements to a User Curve:
•
•
The definition of how the property value is calculated for
a stream (mixing rule).
The assay/property value information that is supplied for
a given assay.
The property definition (see Section 4.7 - User Property for
details) is common to all assays.
After a User Property is defined, you can add it to the Assay by
highlighting it and selecting the Add button. To remove a User
Property from the current Assay, highlight it and select the
Remove button. Double-clicking on a User Property name in the
selection list opens the User Property property view as described
in Section 4.7.2 - User Property Property View.
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Characterizing Assays
After adding a User Property, you can edit the User Curve Data:
User Curve Data
Description
Table Type
This is either Dependent or Independent. If you select
Dependent, the Assay Percents are automatically set to
the values you specified for the Boiling Temperature
assay (Input Data tab).
If the table type is Dependent and you change the
assay percents on this tab, this also changes the assay
percents in the Distillation boiling temperature matrix
and for any other dependent curve.
Bulk Value
Specify a Bulk Value. If you do not want to supply a
bulk value for the user property, ensure that this cell
reads <empty> by placing the cursor in that cell and
pressing the DELETE key.
Extrapolation
Method
This field allows you to choose the extrapolation
method used for the selected user property in the
current assay. The available choices are:
• Least Squares
• Lagrange
• Probability
Apply To
This field allows you to choose which end of the curve
to apply the extrapolation method to. There are three
choices available:
• Upper end
• Lower end
• Both ends
User Property
Table
Provide the Assay percents and User Property Values in
this table. At least five pairs of data are required.
4.5.7 Notes Tab
HYSYS provides a tab where you can enter a description of the
Assay for your own future reference. This can also be accessed
through the notes manager.
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4.6 Hypocomponent
Generation
The Cut/Blend tab of the Oil Characterization property view is
shown below:
Figure 4.31
For a highlighted Blend, you can edit the name and provide a
description in the Blend Information group.
The Available Blends are listed in the left portion of the property
view. The following Blend manipulation buttons are available:
Button
Description
View
Edit the currently highlighted Blend.
Add
Create a new Blend.
Delete
Erase the currently highlighted Blend. HYSYS does not
prompt for confirmation when deleting a Blend, so be
careful when you are using this command.
Clone
Create a new Blend with the same properties as the
currently highlighted Blend. HYSYS immediately opens a
new Blend property view.
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Hypocomponent Generation
As described in the Oil Characterization property view section,
the general buttons at the bottom of the property view are:
•
•
•
The Clear All button is used to delete all Oil
Characterization information.
The Calculate All button re-calculates all Assay and
Blend information.
The Oil Output Settings... button allows you to change
IBP, FBP, ASTM D86, and ASTM D2887 interconversion
methods for output related calculations.
In the following sections, each tab of the Blend property view
(accessed through the View or Add buttons) is described.
4.6.1 Data Tab
The Cut/Blend characterization in HYSYS splits internal working
curves for one or more assays into hypocomponents. Once your
assay information is entered through the Assay view, you must
Add a Blend and transfer at least one Assay to the Oil Flow
Information table to split the TBP working curve(s) into discrete
hypocomponent. The first tab of the Blend property view is
shown below:
Figure 4.32
All Boiling Point information supplied in an assay is
converted to TBP format.
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Assay Selection
A list of the available Assays is shown in the left portion of the
property view. You can choose an assay by highlighting it and
clicking the Add button. It is removed from the Available Assays
list and added to the Oil Flow Information table, which displays
the following information:
Oil Flow
Information
Description
Oil
The name of the Assay is displayed in this column. There is
no limitation to the number of assays that can be included
in a single blend or to the number of blends that can
contain a given assay. Each blend is treated as a single oil
and does not share hypocomponent with other blends or
oils.
Flow Units
You can select the Flow Basis (Mole, Mass or Liquid Volume)
here.
If you have several Assays, it is not necessary that they
have the same Flow Basis.
Flow Rate
Enter the flow rate; you can use any units (with the same
basis); they are converted to the default.
You are allowed to define a flowsheet stream for each
constituent assay in a blend.
To view an Assay, double-click on the Assay name, either in
the Available Assays list, or in the Oil column of the Oil Flow
Information table.
You can remove an Assay from the Oil Flow Information table by
highlighting it and selecting the Remove button.
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Hypocomponent Generation
Bulk Data
The Bulk Data button becomes available when more than one
assay is present in the Oil Flow Information table.
Figure 4.33
HYSYS allows you to provide the following bulk data for a blend
on the Bulk Values property view:
•
•
•
•
Molecular Weight
Mass Density
Watson (UOP) K
Viscosities at 2 temperatures
The Bulk Data feature is particularly useful for supplying the
bulk viscosities of the blend, if they are known.
Cut Ranges
You have three choices for the Cut Option Selection:
Cut Options
Description
Auto Cut
HYSYS cuts the assay based on internal values.
User Ranges
You specify the boiling point ranges and number of cuts per
range.
User Points
You specify only how many hypocomponent you require.
HYSYS proportions the cuts according to an internal
weighting scheme.
These methods are described in detail later in this section.
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When you re-cut an oil, HYSYS will automatically update the
associated flowsheet streams with the new hypocomponents
when you leave the Basis Environment.
You can specify as many components as you want, within the
limitations of the available memory. Whether specified or
calculated internally, each cut point is integrated to determine
the average (centroid) boiling point. The centroid is always
determined using HYSYS' internally generated TBP curve on a
weight basis.
Although the external procedure for blending assays is almost
identical with that for cutting a single assay, HYSYS' internal
procedure is somewhat different. After HYSYS has converted
each assay to a TBP vs. weight percent curve, all of the
individual curves are combined to produce a single composite
TBP curve. This composite curve is then used as if it were
associated with a single assay; hypocomponents are generated
based on your instructions.
These hypocomponents are now common to the blended oil and
all the constituent oils. For each of the constituent oils, HYSYS
back calculates the compositions that correspond to these
hypocomponents.
Caution should be exercised when blending some
combinations of analyzes. An inherent advantage, as well as
limitation, of blending is that all constituent oils share a
common set of hypocomponent and therefore physical
property characteristics. Any analyzes that have large
overlapping TBP curves and very different physical property
curves should not be blended (for example, hydrocracker
recycles and feedstocks have similar TBPs but very different
gravity curves). The physical properties of components for
overlapping areas represent an average that may not
represent either of the constituent assays.
This procedure is recommended whenever recombining product
oils or fractions to produce a single inlet stream, for example in
generating a feed for an FCCU main fractionator from analyzes
of the product streams. The major advantage to blending is that
fewer hypocomponents are used to represent a given feed
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Hypocomponent Generation
because duplicate components for overlapping TBP curves are
eliminated.
HYSYS allows you to assign the overall blend composition
and/or individual assay compositions to streams via the
Install Oil tab (Section 4.8.3 - Install Oil Tab).
A second advantage is that the composite TBP curve tends to
smooth the end portions of the individual assay curves where
they may not be as accurate as the middle portions of the
curves.
Recommended Boiling Point Widths
The following table is a guideline for determining the number of
splits for each boiling point range. These are based upon typical
refinery operations and should provide sufficient accuracy for
most applications. You may want to increase the number of
splits for ranges where more detailed fractionation is required.
Cutpoint Range
Boiling Point Width
Cuts/100°F
IBP to 800°F (425°C)
25°F (15°C) per cut
4
800°F to 1200°F (650°C)
50°F (30°C) per cut
2
1200°F to 1650°F (900°C)
100°F (55°C) per cut
1
Regardless of your input data, it is recommended that you limit
your upper boiling range to 1650°F (900°C). All of the critical
property correlations are based on specific gravity and normal
boiling points and thus, NBPs above this limit may produce
erroneous results. The critical pressure correlations control this
limit. There is no loss in accuracy by lumping the heavy ends
because incremental changes in solubility of lighter components
are negligible and this range is generally not be fractionated.
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Auto Cut
If you select the AutoCut option, HYSYS performs the cutting
automatically. HYSYS uses the boiling point width guidelines, as
shown previously:
Range
Cuts
100 - 800°F
28
800 - 1200°F
8
1200 - 1600°F
4
User Points
If you select User Points from the Cut Option Selection dropdown list, HYSYS performs the cutting process depending on the
number of cuts you specify. Enter the total number of cuts you
want to use for the oil in the appropriate field. All splits are
based upon TBP temperature, independent of the source or type
of assay data. HYSYS proportions the cuts according to the
following table:
Cutpoint Range
Internal Weighting
IBP - 800°F (425°C)
4 per 100°F
800°F - 1200°F (650°C)
2 per 100°F
1200°F to FBP
1 per 100°F
The internal weighting produces more hypocomponents per
100°F range at the lower boiling point end of the assay. For
example, given a TBP temperature range of 100°F to 1400°F
and 38 components requested, HYSYS produces 28 components
for the first range, eight components for the second range and
two components for the last range:
(800 - 100) / 100 * 4 = 28
(1200 - 800) / 100 * 2 = 8
(1400 - 1200) / 100 * 1 = 2
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Hypocomponent Generation
User Ranges
If you want to define cutpoint ranges and specify the number of
hypocomponent in each range, select User Ranges and HYSYS
displays the Ranges Selection information as shown in the figure
below.
Figure 4.34
Refer to the Boiling
Ranges Section 4.4 - Oil
Characterization
Property View for
definitions of the IBP and
FBP.
The IBP and FBP are shown above and these values correspond
to the initial boiling point and the final boiling point of HYSYS'
internal TBP working curve. At this point all light ends are
removed (if requested) and the IBP presented is on a light ends
free basis.
The IBP and FBP of the internal TBP curve used for the column
operation's cutpoint specifications and the boiling point tables
are determined in this manner. If the first or last
hypocomponent has a volume fraction larger than that defined
by the endpoints for the IBP or FBP respectively, the TBP curve
is extrapolated using a spline fit.
You may supply the Initial Cut Point; however, if this field is left
blank, HYSYS uses the IBP. HYSYS combines the material boiling
between the IBP and the initial cutpoint temperature with the
material from the first cut to produce the first component. This
component has an NBP centroid approximately half way
between these boundaries.
The next parameters that you must supply are the upper
cutpoint temperature and the number of cuts for the first
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cutpoint range. As shown in Figure 4.34, the upper cutpoint
temperature for the first range also corresponds to the lower
boiling point of the second cutpoint range, so it does not have to
be re-entered. After the first cut range is defined, only the upper
cutpoint temperature and the number of cuts need to be
supplied for the remaining ranges. If the final cutpoint
temperature is not equal to or greater than the FBP, HYSYS
combines the material between the FBP and the last cut
temperature with the material in the last component.
For example, assume that the IBP and FBP are 40 and 1050°F
respectively, the initial cut temperature is 100, the upper limit
for the first cut is 500 degrees, and the number of cuts in the
first range is eight.
Since the boiling width for each component in the first cut range
is 50°F (i.e., [500-100]/8), the first component's NBP is at the
centroid volume of the 40 to 150 cut, in this case approximately
95°F. The remaining components have NBP values of
approximately 175, 225, 275, 325, 375, 425 and 475°F. The
upper temperature for the second range is 1,000 and the
number of cuts is equal to 5. Since the FBP is 1050, the material
in the boiling range from 1,000 to 1,050 is included with the last
component.
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Hypocomponent Generation
4.6.2 Correlations Tab
The Correlations tab of the Blend property view is shown in the
figure below:
Figure 4.35
As in the Assay Oil characterization, you can only change the
name of the default set. If you want to change any
correlations, you must create a new correlation set.
The Correlations tab consists of the following objects:
Object
Description
Selected
Correlation
Set
By default, this is Default Set (if you have changed the
name of the default set, that name is displayed). You can
select another correlation set from the Selected drop-down
list, but first you must define one on the Correlation tab of
the Oil Characterization property view.
You can define new correlations sets via the Correlation
tab, accessible from the main Oil Characterization property
view. See Section 4.8.1 - Correlation Tab.
Low and
High End
Temperature
This is the range for which the Correlations are applied. If
you split the range, then more than one temperature range
is displayed.
You can edit the temperature of defined splits for custom
Correlation Sets on this tab.
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Object
Description
MW
The MW correlation is displayed. You cannot change the
correlation in this property view; this can be done from the
Correlation tab accessible from the main Oil
Characterization property view or by clicking the Edit
button.
You can change only the name of the default set. If you
want to change any correlations, you must create a new
correlation set.
SG
Tc, Pc, Acc.
Factor, Ideal
H
The specific gravity (density) correlation is displayed. You
cannot change the correlation in this property view; this
can be done from the Correlation tab accessible from the
main Oil Characterization property view or by clicking the
Edit button.
The critical temperature, critical pressure, acentricity and
Ideal Enthalpy correlations are displayed. You cannot
change correlations on this tab; this can be done in the
Correlation property view accessible from the main Oil
Characterization property view. To edit the Selected
Correlation Set from this tab, click the Edit button. This
takes you to the Correlation property view.
The critical pressure, critical temperature, acentricity and ideal
enthalpy correlations are required in the Blend calculation (or
more specifically, in the calculation of hypocomponent
properties). In the calculation of hypocomponent properties, the
molecular weight and specific gravity (and viscosity) are
estimated from their respective working curves.
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Hypocomponent Generation
4.6.3 Tables Tab
After calculating a Blend, you can examine various property and
flow summaries for the generated hypocomponent that
represent a calculated oil.
Figure 4.36
From the Table Type drop-down list, you can select any one of
the following:
Table Type
Description
Component
Properties
With this Table Type selection, you can select one of the two radio
buttons in the Table Control group:
• Main Properties. Provides the normal boiling point, molecular
weight, density and viscosity information for each individual
component in the oil.
• Other Properties. Provides the critical temperature, critical
pressure, acentric factor, and Watson K factor for each
individual hypocomponent.
Component
Breakdown
Provides individual liquid volume%, cumulative liquid volume%,
volume flows, mass flows and mole flows, for the input light ends
and each hypocomponent in the oil.
Molar
Compositions
Provides the molar fraction of each light end component and each
hypocomponent in the oil.
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Table Type
Description
Oil Properties
For this selection, you can select the Basis (liquid volume, molar or
mass) in the Table Control group box. There are also three radio
buttons, each producing a different table:
• Distillation. Provides TBP, ASTM D86, D86 Crack Reduced,
ASTM D1160 (Vac), ASTM D1160 (Atm), and ASTM D2887
temperature ranges for the oil.
• Other Properties. Provides critical temperature, critical
pressure, acentric factor, molecular weight, density and
viscosity ranges for the oil.
• User Properties. Provides all user property ranges for the oil.
Oil Distributions
Provides tabular information on how your assay would be roughly
distributed in a fractionation column. Examine the End Temperatures
of the various ranges as well as the Cut Distributions. You can select
the basis for the Cut Distribution Fractions (Liquid Volume, Molar,
Mass) in the Table Control group. The radio buttons provide the
option of standard fractionation cuts or user defined cuts:
• Straight Run. Lists crude column cuts: Off gas, LSR Naphtha,
Naphtha, Kerosene, Light Diesel, Heavy Diesel, Atmos Gas Oil
and Residue.
• Cycle Oil. Lists Cat Cracker cycle oils: Off Gas, LC Naphtha, HC
Naphtha, LCGO, ICGO, HCGO, Residue 1 and Residue 2.
• Vacuum Oil. Lists vacuum column cuts: Off Gas, LVGO, HVGO
and 5 VAC Residue ranges.
• User Custom. Allows for the definition of customized
temperature ranges. If changes are made to the information in
any of the standard fractionation cuts, the radio button will
automatically switch to User Custom.
4.6.4 Property Plot Tab
HYSYS can plot various properties versus liquid volume, mole or
mass percent distilled. The x-axis choice is made from the Basis
drop-down list. Any of the following options may be plotted on
the y-axis by making a selection from the Property drop-down
list:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Distillation. A table appears in which you can select which
boiling point curves to examine. Select the checkbox of
each curve you want displayed. The options include: TBP,
ASTM D86, D86(Crack Reduced), ASTM D1160(Vac),
ASTM D1160(Atm) and ASTM D2887.
Molecular Weight
Density
Viscosities at 100 and 210°F (or the input temperature)
Critical Temperature
Critical Pressure
Acentric Factor
User Property. A table appears to allow you the choice of
which user property to plot.
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Hypocomponent Generation
Refer to the Section
4.6.7 - Plot Summary
Tab section for
information concerning
the Plot Summary tab.
Click the Clone and shelf this plot button to store the current
plot. HYSYS automatically names the plot with the following
format: 'the name of the active blend'-'number of plots created'.
For instance, the first plot created for Blend-1 would be named
Blend-1-0, and any subsequent plots would have the number
after the dash incrementally increased.
To edit plot labels, you must clone the plot using the Clone and
shelf this plot button. The BlendPlot appears and is stored in the
Plot Summary tab.
Plot labels can not be modified within the Property Plot tab
Blend property view.
An example of a TBP curve on a liquid volume basis for an oil is
shown below.
Figure 4.37
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4.6.5 Distribution Plot Tab
HYSYS can also plot a distribution bar chart so you can study
how your assay would be roughly distributed in a fractionation
column. Straight Run, Cycle Oil, Vacuum Oil and User Custom
TBP cutpoints are available distribution options, as shown by the
radio buttons in the Cut Input Information group. You can
choose the Basis for the Cut Distribution Fractions (Liquid
Volume, Molar, Mass) in the Plot Control group.
Figure 4.38
Click the Clone and shelf this plot button to store the current
plot. HYSYS automatically names the plot with the following
format: ‘the name of the active blend'-'number of plots created'.
Refer to the Section
4.6.7 - Plot Summary
Tab for information
concerning the Plot
Summary tab.
For example, the first plot created for Blend-1 is named Blend1-0, and any subsequent plots would have the number after the
dash incrementally increased. All stored plots are listed on the
Plot Summary tab.
To edit plot labels, you must clone the plot using the Clone and
shelf this plot button. The BlendPlot appears and is stored in the
Plot Summary tab.
Plot labels can not be modified within the Distribution tab
Blend property view.
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Hypocomponent Generation
If changes are made to the names or end temperatures in any of
the standard fractionation cuts, the radio button automatically
switches to User Custom.
An example distribution plot is shown in the following figure.
Figure 4.39
4.6.6 Composite Plot Tab
The Composite Plot tab allows you to visually check the match
between the input assay data and the calculated property
curves. The choice for the graphical comparison is made from
the Property drop-down list:
•
•
•
•
•
Distillation
Molecular Weight
Density
Viscosity
User Property
Click the Clone and shelf this plot button to store the current
plot. HYSYS automatically names the plot with the following
format: 'the name of the active blend'-'number of plots created'.
Refer to the Section
4.6.7 - Plot Summary
Tab for information
concerning the Plot
Summary tab.
For example, the first plot created for Blend-1 is named Blend1-0, and any subsequent plots have the number after the dash
incrementally increased. All stored plots are listed on the Plot
Summary tab.
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To edit plot labels, you must clone the plot using the Clone and
shelf this plot button. The BlendPlot appears and is stored in
the Plot Summary tab.
Plot labels can not be modified within the Composite tab
Blend property view.
An example molecular weight curve comparison is shown in the
following figure.
Figure 4.40
The calculated molecular weight lies above the input curve
(instead of over-laying it) because the calculated curve has been
shifted to match an input bulk MW.
4.6.7 Plot Summary Tab
On this tab, you can view the list of stored plots for the current
blend. From the Created Plots group you can access any stored
plots or remove plots from the list. The list of created plots are
generated from the Property, Distribution, and Composite Plots
tabs and shown on the left.
Access a plot by double-clicking on its name or by right-clicking
its name and selecting View from the object inspect menu.
From the BlendPlot property view, you can edit plot labels by
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User Property
right-clicking and selecting the graph control option. This
method of modifying plots is preferable, since you can plot what
you want and that there is a single location for viewing them.
The cloned plots are independent, thus the labels can be
modified and are not overwritten. The plotted data for the
cloned plots is also updated as the blend changes.
Click the Remove button to remove a selected plot from the
list. Only one plot can be removed from the list at a time.
There is no confirmation message when you click the
Remove button.
4.6.8 Notes Tab
HYSYS provides a tab where you can enter a description of the
Blend for your own future reference.
4.7 User Property
A User Property is any property that can be defined and
subsequently calculated on the basis of compositions. Examples
for oils include R.O.N. and Sulfur content. During the
characterization process, all hypocomponents are assigned an
appropriate property value. HYSYS then calculates the value of
the property for any flowsheet stream. This enables User
Properties to be used as Column specifications.
Refer to Section 4.5.6 User Curves Tab for an
explanation of attaching
User Properties to
existing Assays.
After User Properties are installed, you can then supply assay
information as for Viscosity, Density or Molecular Weight Curves.
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4.7.1 User Property Tab
The User Property tab of the Oil Characterization property view
is shown below:
Figure 4.41
The Available User Properties are listed in the left portion of the
property view. The following User Property manipulation buttons
are available:
Button
Description
View
Edit the currently highlighted User Property.
Add
Create a new User Property (see the following section,
User Property Property View).
Delete
Erase the currently highlighted User Property. HYSYS does
not prompt for confirmation when deleting a User Property.
Clone
Create a new User Property with the same properties as the
currently highlighted User Property. HYSYS immediately
opens a new User Property property view.
The general buttons at the bottom of the property view are:
•
•
•
The Clear All button is used to delete all Oil
Characterization Information.
The Calculate All button re-calculates all Assay and
Blend information.
The Oil Output Settings... button allows you to change
IBP, FBP, ASTM D86, and ASTM D2887 interconversion
methods for output related calculations.
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User Property
For a highlighted User Property, you can edit the name and
provide a description.
4.7.2 User Property Property
View
Refer to Chapter 7 User Properties for
detailed information on
User Properties.
When you first open this property view, the Name field has
focus. The name of the User Property must be 12 characters or
less.
Figure 4.42
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4-79
Equation Parameters
The following options are available for the Basic user prop
definition group:
Parameter
Description
Mixing Basis
You have the following options: Mole Fraction, Mass
Fraction, Liquid Volume Fraction, Mole Flow, Mass Flow,
and Liquid Volume Flow.
All calculations are performed using compositions in
HYSYS internal units. If you have specified a flow basis
(molar, mass or liquid volume flow), HYSYS uses the
composition as calculated in internal units for that
basis. For example, a User Property with a Mixing Basis
specified as molar flow is always calculated using
compositions in kg mole/s, regardless of what the
current default units are.
The choice of Mixing Basis applies only to the basis
that is used for calculating the property in a stream.
You supply the property curve information on the same
basis as the Boiling Point Curve for your assay.
Refer to Chapter 7 User Properties for
more detail on the Mixing
Rules.
Mixing Rule
Select from one of three mixing rules:
( Pmix )
f1
N
= f2
∑ ( x ( i )P ( i )
f1
)
i=1
( P mix )
f1
N
= f2
∑ ( x ( i ) ln ( P ( i ) )
f1
)
i=1
f1 • Pmix + 10
f2 • Pmix
=
N
∑ x ( i ) ( f1 • P ( i ) + 10
f2 • P ( i )
)
i=1
where:
Pmix = total user property value
P(i) = input property value for component
x(i) = component fraction or flow, depending on
the chosen Mixing Basis
f1, f2 = specified constants
Mixing
Parameters
The mixing parameters f1 and f2 are 1.00 by default.
You may supply any value for these parameters.
Unit Type
This option allows you to select the variable type for
the user property. For example, if you have a
temperature user property, select temperature in the
unit type using the drop-down list.
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User Property
Component User Property Values
If you want, you may provide a Property value for all of the Light
End components you defined in the Property Package. This is
used when calculating the property value for each
hypocomponent (removing that portion of the property curve
attributable to the Light Ends components).
Once you have calculated a Blend which includes an Assay
with your User Property information, the value of the User
Property for each hypocomponent is displayed in the
Component User Property Values group.
On this property view, you do not provide property curve
information. The purpose of this property view is to instruct
HYSYS how the User Property should be calculated in all
flowsheet streams. Whenever the value of a User Property is
requested for a stream, HYSYS uses the composition in the
specified basis, and calculate the property value using your
mixing rule and parameters.
Notes Tab
HYSYS provides a tab where you can enter a description of the
User Properties for your own future reference.
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4.8 Correlations &
Installation
4.8.1 Correlation Tab
Correlation sets can also
be viewed through the
Assay tab Correlations and Cut/
Blend tab Correlations tab.
HYSYS allows you to choose from a wide variety of correlations
to determine the properties of the generated hypocomponent.
From the Correlation tab of the Oil Characterization property
view, you can create customized Correlation Sets.
Figure 4.43
The Available Correlation Sets are listed on the left side of the
property view. The following Correlation manipulation buttons
are available:
Buttons
Description
View
Edit the currently highlighted Correlation Set.
Add
Create a new Correlation Set (see the following section,
Correlation Set Property View).
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Correlations & Installation
Refer to Section 4.8.2 Correlation Set
Property View, for more
information
Buttons
Description
Delete
Erase the currently highlighted Correlation Set. HYSYS does
not prompt for confirmation when deleting a Correlation
Set.
Clone
Create a new Correlation Set with the same properties as
the currently highlighted Correlation Set. HYSYS
immediately opens a new Correlation Set property view.
For a highlighted Correlation Set, you can edit the name and
provide a description.
The general buttons at the bottom of the property view are:
•
•
•
The Clear All button is used to delete all Oil
Characterization Information.
The Calculate All button re-calculates all Assay and
Blend information.
The Oil Output Settings... button allows you to change
IBP, FBP, ASTM D86, and ASTM D2887 interconversion
methods for output related calculations.
4.8.2 Correlation Set Property
View
When you create or edit a Correlation Set, the following
property view appears:
Figure 4.44
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HYSYS Oil Manager
4-83
When you first open this property view, the Name field has
focus. The name of the Correlation Set must be 12 characters or
less.
Correlations and Range Control
Changes to the Molecular Weight or Specific Gravity correlations
are applied to the curve (Assay), while the critical temperature,
critical pressure, acentric factor and heat capacity correlations
apply to the Blend's hypocomponent properties. Changes to the
Assay correlations have no effect when you have supplied a
property curve (e.g., Molecular Weight); they only apply in the
situation where HYSYS is estimating the properties.
•
•
•
•
•
The Working Curves are calculated from the Assay data,
incorporating the Molecular Weight and Specific Gravity
correlations.
The Hypocomponents are generated based on your cut
option selections.
Finally, the hypocomponent properties are generated:
The NBP, molecular weight, density and viscosity are
determined from the Working curves.
The remaining properties are calculated, incorporating
the critical temperature, critical pressure, acentric factor
and heat capacity correlations.
To change a correlation, position the cursor in the appropriate
column and select a new correlation from the drop-down list.
You cannot change the correlations or range for the Default
Correlation Set. If you want to specify different correlations
or temperature ranges, you must create a new Correlation
Set.
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Correlations & Installation
The table below shows the HYSYS defaults and available options
for these properties.
Detailed discussions
including the range of
applicability for the
correlations is found in
Appendix B - Oil
Methods &
Correlations.
Property
Default
Correlation
MW
Twu
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Lee-Kesler
Aspen
Penn State
Katz-Firoozabadi
Hariu-Sage
API
Robinson-Peng
Whitson
•
•
•
•
Pc
Lee-Kesler
•
•
•
•
•
•
Rowe
Standing
Lyderson
Penn State
Mathur
Twu
•
•
•
•
•
Cavett
Riazi-Daubert
Edmister
Bergman
Aspen
Tc
Lee-Kesler
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Rowe
Standing
Nokay
Penn State
Mathur
Spencer-Daubert
Chen-Hu
Meissner-Redding
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Cavett
Riazi-Daubert
Edmister
Bergman
Aspen
Roess
Eaton-Porter
Twu
SG
Constant Watson
K
• Bergman
• Yarborough
• Lee-Kesler
• Bergman-PNA
• Hariu-Sage
• Katz-Firoozabadi
Ideal
Enthalpy
Lee-Kesler
• Cavett
• Fallon-Watson
• Modified LeeKesler
Acentric
Factor
Lee-Kesler
• Edmister
• Robinson Peng
• Bergman
Optional Correlations
Riazi-Daubert
Bergman
Katz-Nokay
Modified KeslerLee
• Aspen leastsquares
• Twu
The Riazi-Daubert correlation has been modified by Whitson.
The Standing correlation has been modified by MathewsRoland-Katz. The default correlations are typically the best
for normal hydrocarbon systems. An upper limit of 1250°F
(675°C) is suggested for the heaviest component. Although
the equations have been modified to extend beyond this
range, some caution should be exercised when using them
for very heavy systems. Highly aromatic systems may show
better results with the Aspen correlations.
You have the choice of changing a property correlation over the
entire range, or making a certain correlation valid for a
particular boiling point range only. To split correlations over
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HYSYS Oil Manager
4-85
several boiling ranges click the Add New Range button and the
following property view appears.
Figure 4.45
Enter the temperature where you want to make the split into the
New Temp cell (in this case 400°C), and select the Split Range
button. The temperature is placed in the correlation set, and the
Correlation table is split as shown below:
Figure 4.46
You can now specify correlations in these two ranges.
•
•
You can add more splits.
You can also delete a split (merge range) by selecting the
Remove Range button as shown in Figure 4.46.
When you merge a range, you delete the correlations for the
range whose Low End Temperature is equal to the range
temperature you are merging.
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Correlations & Installation
Highlighting the appropriate temperature in the Temperature
Range list and selecting the Merge Temp Range button removes
or merges the temperature range. When you merge a range,
any correlations you chose for that range is forgotten.
Any changes to the correlations for an Input Assay results in
first the assay being recalculated, followed by any blend
which uses that assay. For an existing oil, it will be
automatically recalculated/re-cut using the new
correlations, and the new components are installed in the
flowsheet.
Assay & Blend Association
The different components of the Assay and Blend Association
group are described below:
Object
Description
New Assays/Blends
If you select this checkbox, all new Assays and
Blends that are created use this Correlation Set.
Available Assays/
Available Blends
These radio buttons toggle between Assay or
Blend information.
Assay/Blend Table
This table lists all Assays or Blends with their
associated Correlation Sets, depending on which
radio button is selected. You can select the Use
this Set checkbox to associate the current
Correlation Set with that Assay or Blend.
You can also select the Correlation Set for a
specific Assay on the Correlation tab of that Assay
view.
Notes Tab
HYSYS provides a tab where you can enter a description of the
Correlations for your own future reference.
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4.8.3 Install Oil Tab
The Install Oil tab of the Oil Characterization property view is
shown below:
Figure 4.47
You may install a calculated Blend into your HYSYS case; it
appears in the Oil Name column of the table. Simply provide a
Stream name for that Blend, and ensure that the Install
checkbox is selected. You may use an existing stream name, or
create a new one. If you do not provide a name or you cleared
the Install checkbox(es), the hypocomponent is not attached to
the fluid package. You can install an oil to a specific
subflowsheet in your case by specifying this in the Flow Sheet
column.
If you want to install the hypocomponent into a nonAssociated Fluid Package, Add the Oil Hypo group from the
Components tab of that Fluid Package property view.
Each installed Oil appears in the component list as a series of
hypocomponents named NBP[1] ***, NBP[2] ***, with the 1
representing the first oil installed, 2 the second, etc.; and ***
the average boiling point of the individual Oil components.
HYSYS also assigns the Light Ends composition, if present, in
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TBP Assay - Example
the flowsheet stream.
When a Blend is installed in a stream, the relative flow rate of
each constituent Assay is defined within the Oil Characterization
and cannot be changed. However, if you install each of the
constituent Assays (represented by Blends with a single Assay)
into their own flowsheet stream, various combinations can be
examined using Mixer or Mole Balance operations. The flow and
composition for each constituent oil is transferred to your
designated flowsheet streams. The flow rate of any specified Oil
stream (as opposed to the constituents of a Blend) can be
changed at any time by re-specifying the stream rate in the
flowsheet section.
For Blends that contain more than one Assay - each
individual Assay is automatically displayed in the Oil Install
Information table.
4.9 TBP Assay - Example
In this example, a crude oil with a TBP assay curve extending
from 100°F to 1410°F is characterized. Associated with this TBP
assay are:
•
•
•
•
•
A dependent molecular weight curve
An independent API gravity curve
Two independent viscosity curves, one at 100°F and the
other at 210°F
The bulk molecular weight and bulk API gravity
A liquid volume Light Ends assay for the crude oil
It is desired to split the assay into 38 hypocomponents, with
25°F cuts between 100 and 800°F, 50°F cuts between 800 and
1200°F, and the remaining portion of the crude assay into two
components.
The following assay information is available:
Bulk Crude Properties
MW
300
API Gravity
48.75
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Light Ends Liquid Volume%
Propane
0.0
i-Butane
0.19
n-Butane
0.11
i-Pentane
0.37
n-Pentane
0.46
TBP Distillation Assay
Liquid Volume%
Temperature (F)
Molecular Weight
0.0
80.0
68.0
10.0
255.0
119.0
20.0
349.0
150.0
30.0
430.0
182.0
40.0
527.0
225.0
50.0
635.0
282.0
60.0
751.0
350.0
70.0
915.0
456.0
80.0
1095.0
585.0
90.0
1277.0
713.0
98.0
1410.0
838.0
Dependent property curves have values at the same
distillation percentage as the Boiling Temperature assay, but
does not need to have values at every percentage.
API Gravity Assay
Liq Vol% Distilled
API Gravity
13.0
63.28
33.0
54.86
57.0
45.91
74.0
38.21
91.0
26.01
Viscosity Assay
Liq Vol% Distilled
Visc. (cP) 100°F
10.0
0.20
Visc. (cP) 210°F
0.10
30.0
0.75
0.30
50.0
4.20
0.80
70.0
39.00
7.50
90.0
600.00
122.30
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TBP Assay - Example
4.9.1 Initialization
Before you can start the actual characterization process, you
must:
Refer to Chapter 2 Fluid Package for
details on installing a
fluid package.
Oil Environment icon
1. Begin a new HYSYS case.
2. Select an appropriate property package.
3. Add any non-oil components, including the Light Ends that
are to be used in the characterization process, to the
component list.
In this case, use the Peng-Robinson equation of state, and
select the following components: C3, i-C4, n-C4, i-C5, and n-C5.
After you have selected the Light End components, click the Oil
Environment icon on the toolbar to enter the Oil
Characterization environment.
Refer to the Section
12.3.1 - Units Page of
the HYSYS User Guide
for details on creating a
customized unit set.
Prior to the input of assay data, a customized Unit Set is created
such that the default units used by HYSYS correspond to the
assay data units. Create a customized unit set by cloning the
Field unit set. Select API as the new unit for both Mass Density
and Standard Density and leave all other Field default units as
they are.
For more information
concerning the Trace
Window, refer to Section
1.3 - Object Status &
Trace Windows of the
HYSYS User Guide.
You can view a display of important messages related to the
progress of the characterization in the Trace Window. If you
want, open the Trace Window at the bottom of the Desktop.
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The main property view in the Oil Environment is the Oil
Characterization property view, as shown below:
Figure 4.48
The tabs are organized according to the general procedure
followed in the characterization of an oil. Completing the
characterization requires the following three steps:
1. Access the Assay view by selecting the Add button on the
Assay tab of the Oil Characterization property view. Input all
of the assay data on the Input Data tab of the Assay view
and click the Calculate button.
2. Access the Cut/Blend property view (which also gives you
cutting options) by selecting the Add button on the Cut/
Blend tab of the Oil Characterization property view. Cut the
assay into the required number of hypocomponent using the
cut points outlined previously.
3. Install the calculated oil from the Oil Environment into the
flowsheet by accessing the Install Oil tab of the Oil
Characterization property view.
Although you can access the User Property tab and the
Correlation tab from the Oil Characterization property view,
neither of these tabs are used in this example.
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TBP Assay - Example
4.9.2 Step 1 - Input Assay
Data
On the Assay tab of the Oil Characterization property view,
select the Add button. This opens the Assay view and places the
active location in the Name cell of the Input Data tab. For this
example, change the name of the Assay to Example. The Assay
tab is shown below.
The first time you enter this property view, it is blank, except for
the Bulk Properties field and the Assay Data Type field.
Figure 4.49
The layout of this property view depends on:
1. Which Data Type you have selected. This mainly affects what Data Type
options are available (Distillation, Light Ends, etc.)
2. Which Input Data radio button you have selected. When you specify that
you have Independent or Dependent Molecular Weight, Density or
Viscosity data, a new radio button is added to the property view. In this
property view, the TBP Data Type is selected and the Distillation radio
button is selected.
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Defining the Assay
The Input Data tab is split into two groups: Assay Definition and
Input Data. As its name implies, the Assay Definition group is
where the properties of the assay are defined. Since bulk
property data is provided, select Used from the Bulk Properties
drop-down list. The bulk properties appears in the Input Data
group. Next from the Assay Data Type drop-down list, select
TBP. The Bulk Props and Distillation radio buttons are now
visible.
Light ends can be Auto Calculated by HYSYS, however since you
are provided with the light ends data, select Input Compositions
from the Light Ends drop-down list.
Now, set the Molecular Weight, Density and Viscosity curve
options in each of the respective drop-down lists. The Molecular
Weight curve is Dependent, the Density curve is Independent,
and the Viscosity curves are also Independent. As you specify
these options, radio buttons corresponding to each curve are
added to the Input Data group box. Now that the Assay is
sufficiently defined, you can begin entering assay data.
Specifying Assay Data
Specification of the Assay occurs in the Input Data group. The
field and options visible inside the group are dependent on
which radio button is selected in the Input Data group.
HYSYS calculates internal working curves using the supplied
property curve data. For each property curve, you can select the
method used for the Extrapolation of the working curve. The
Extrapolation method for each working curve is specified in the
Curve Fitting Methods group of the Calculation Defaults tab.
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TBP Assay - Example
Bulk Props
Select the Bulk Props radio button. Input a Bulk Molecular
Weight (300) and Bulk Mass Density (48.75 API_60) as shown
in the figure below.
Figure 4.50
No bulk viscosity information is available, so leave the Viscosity
cells blank. It is not necessary to delete the Viscosity
Temperatures as these are ignored if you do not provide bulk
viscosities.
Light Ends
Next, select the Light Ends radio button. The Input Data group
displays a Light Ends Basis drop-down list and a Light Ends
Composition table. From the drop-down list, select LiquidVolume
as the Light Ends Basis and enter the Light Ends composition as
shown below:
Figure 4.51
4-94
HYSYS Oil Manager
4-95
Distillation
Select the Distillation radio button to view the TBP Distillation
assay. To enter the data, click the Edit Assay button. The Assay
Input Table property view appears and enter the following assay
data:
Figure 4.52
As you enter values into the table, the cursor automatically
moves down after each entry, making it easier to supply all
values in each column.
Molecular Weight
Select the Molecular Weight radio button to view the Molecular
Weight data.
Since the Molecular Weight assay is Dependent, the Assay
Percentage values that you entered for the Boiling Point
Temperature assay are automatically displayed.
4-95
4-96
TBP Assay - Example
You need only enter the Molecular Weights as shown below:
Figure 4.53
Density
Select the Density radio button to view (or edit) the Density
assay. The default density units are displayed, in this case API.
The completed API gravity curve input is shown below:
Figure 4.54
4-96
HYSYS Oil Manager
4-97
Viscosity
Select the Viscosity1 and Viscosity2 radio buttons to view (or
edit) the Viscosity assays. When either of these buttons are
selected, an additional input box is displayed, which allows you
to supply the viscosity temperatures. Make sure the Use Both
radio button is selected in the Viscosity Curves group box. The
required viscosity input is shown below:
Figure 4.55
Ensure that the Viscosity Units Type is Dynamic, and that the
two temperatures entered are 100°F and 210°F.
4-97
4-98
TBP Assay - Example
Calculating the Assay
After entering all of the data, go to the Calculation Defaults tab.
The extrapolation methods displayed in the Curve Fitting
Methods group.
Figure 4.56
The default extrapolation methods for the working curves are
adequate for this assay. To begin the calculation of the assay,
press the Calculate button. The status message at the bottom of
the Assay view shows the message Assay Was Calculated.
4-98
HYSYS Oil Manager
Refer to Section 4.5 Characterizing Assays
for information on the
characterization
procedure, working curves
and extrapolation
methods.
4-99
After the Assay is calculated, the working curves are displayed
on the Working Curves tab.
Figure 4.57
The working curves for the normal boiling point, molecular
weight, mass density and viscosity are regressed from your
input curves. HYSYS uses 50 points in the calculation of the
working curves, but the molar distribution varies depending on
the data you provide. HYSYS moves more points to a region with
a steep gradient. The calculation of the Blend is based on these
working curves.
You can examine graphical representations of your assay data
on the Plots tab. Open the Property drop-down list and select
the curve that you would like to view. The default plot is the
Boiling Point Temperature (Distillation) curve. Because input
data for the boiling temperature, molecular weight, density and
viscosity were provided, all of these options are shown in the
drop-down list.
The options available in the Property drop-down list
correspond to the property curve data specified on the Input
Data tab. If only bulk data is provided, there are no plots
available.
4-99
4-100
TBP Assay - Example
If multiple assays are
blended, repeat the steps
outlined in Section 4.9.2
- Step 1 - Input Assay
Data.
Figure 4.58
4-100
HYSYS Oil Manager
4-101
4.9.3 Step 2 - Cut Assay into
Hypocomponents
You can now cut the Assay into individual hypocomponents. On
the Cut/Blend tab of the Oil Characterization property view,
select the Add button. This takes you to the Blend property view
with the list of available assays.
Figure 4.59
If you have only one Assay, it is not necessary to enter a
Flow Rate in the Oil Flow Information table.
From the Available Assays group, select Example and click the
Add button. This adds the Assay to the Oil Flow Information
table, and a Blend (Cut) is automatically calculated.
The Blend is calculated because the default Cut Option, Auto
Cut, appears as soon as a Blend is added. Since the Cut Option
was not changed prior to the addition of the Available Assay to
the Blend, HYSYS realizes enough information is available to cut
the oil and the calculations occur automatically.
4-101
4-102
TBP Assay - Example
Figure 4.60
Instead of using the default Cut Option, the cut points are
defined. From the Cut Option drop-down list, select User
Ranges. Enter a Starting Cut Point Temperature of 100°F and fill
out the Cut Point table as shown on the left. Click the Submit
button to calculate the Blend.
Figure 4.61
The results of the calculation can be viewed on the Tables tab of
the Blend property view. The default Table Type is the
Component Properties table with the Main Properties radio
button selected in the Table Control group.
4-102
HYSYS Oil Manager
4-103
From the drop-down list, you can also view a Component
Breakdown, Molar Compositions, Oil Properties, and Oil
Distributions.
Figure 4.62
Refer to Section 4.6.3 Tables Tab for details
on the information
available on the Tables
tab.
All of the data that is found on the Tables tab can be viewed
graphically from the following three tabs:
•
•
•
Property Plot
Distribution Plot
Composite Plot
On the Distribution Plot tab, select Liquid Volume fraction from
the Basis drop-down list. The following plot is displayed:
Figure 4.63
4-103
4-104
TBP Assay - Example
Refer to the tab
subsections in Section
4.6 - Hypocomponent
Generation for
information on the
available plots.
The Cut Distribution Plot, as shown above, displays the volume
fraction of the oil that would be recovered in various products.
This graph is particularly useful in providing estimates for
distillation products.
4.9.4 Step 3 - Transfer
Information to Flowsheet
The final step of the characterization is to transfer the
hypocomponent information into the flowsheet.
On the Install Oil tab of the Oil Characterization property view,
enter the Stream Name Example Oil, to which the oil
composition is being transferred.
Figure 4.64
HYSYS assigns the composition of your calculated Oil and Light
Ends into this stream, completing the characterization
procedure. Also, the hypocomponent is placed into a Hypo group
named Blend1 and installed in the fluid package. When you
leave the Oil Characterization environment, you are placed in
the Basis environment. It is here that you can examine
individual hypothetical components that make-up your oil.
4-104
HYSYS Oil Manager
4-105
Enter the Simulation Environment and move to the Workbook to
view the stream you just created. The Compositions page
displaying the stream Example Oil is shown below.
Figure 4.65
If you decide that some of the hypocomponent parameters need
to be recalculated, you can return to the Oil Environment at any
time to make changes. To edit an Assay, highlight it on the
Assay tab of the Oil Characterization property view, and click the
Edit button. If you want to see the effect of using a different
correlations on your oil, you can access this information on the
Correlation tab of the Oil Characterization property view.
4-105
4-106
TBP Assay - Example
4.9.5 Fluid Package
Association
In the example shown in Figure 4.66, there is only one fluid
package for the flowsheet. Specifying the stream name
(Example Oil) not only creates the stream in the flowsheet, but
adds the Hypo group (which contains all of the individual
hypocomponents) to the fluid package.
Figure 4.66
In this case, the Oil is Associated with Fluid Package Basis-1
When there are multiple fluid packages in the simulation, you
can specify the one with which the Oil is to be associated
(accessed through the Oil Manager tab of the Simulation Basis
Manager property view). This serves two functions: first, it
identifies which pure components are available for a light ends
analysis, and second, it identifies the fluid package to which the
Hypo group is being installed.
If you do not want to associate the oil to the fluid package, clear
the appropriate Associate checkbox.
4-106
HYSYS Oil Manager
4-107
4.10 Sulfur Curve Example
The User Property option in the Oil Characterization
environment allows you to supply a property curve and have
HYSYS characterize it with an Assay. Each hypocomponent is
assigned a property value when the Blend is characterized. You
can specify the basis upon which the property should be
calculated (mole, mass or liquid volume, and flows or fractions),
as well as which mixing rule should be used.
In this example, a TBP curve with an associated Sulfur Curve is
installed. There is no Light Ends analysis available, so the Auto
Calculate Light Ends option is used.
4.10.1 Fluid Package
Prior to entering the Oil Characterization environment, create a
Fluid Package with Peng-Robinson as the property method and
C1, C2, C3, i-C4, and n-C4 as the components. The choice of the
Light Ends components is influenced by the Sulfur Curve data
(refer to Section 4.10.3 - Install the Assay section).
4-107
4-108
Sulfur Curve - Example
4.10.2 Install a User Property
Oil Environment icon
Enter the Oil Environment by clicking the Oil Environment icon
on the toolbar. To supply a User Curve for an assay, you must
first add a User Property. On the User Property tab of the Oil
Characterization property view, select Add to access the User
Property property view as shown below.
Figure 4.67
You can also add a User Property via the User Property tab in
the Simulation Basis Manager.
The default options are used for the Equation Parameters except
for the Mixing Basis field. Sulfur is quoted on a w/w basis so,
select Mass Fraction from the drop-down list. HYSYS
automatically names and numbers the User Properties. You can
provide a descriptive Name for the property, such as Sulfur.
HYSYS gives you the option of providing a Component User
Property Value for each Light End component. If, for example,
4-108
HYSYS Oil Manager
4-109
this was a Heating Value Property, you would supply each
component value at this point. These components do not have a
“Sulfur value", so they can be left at 0.
4.10.3 Install the Assay
Create an Assay by clicking the Add button on the Assay tab of
the Oil Characterization property view. Select TBP as the Assay
Data Type, specify a Liquid Volume% as the Assay Basis, and
leave the TBP Distillation Conditions group at the default
settings.
Since no Light Ends analysis is provided, select the Auto
Calculate from the Light Ends drop-down list. The Auto Calculate
procedure replaces the portion of the TBP curve which is
covered by the Boiling Point range of the Light Ends
components. In this way, the initial boiling point of the TBP
working curve is slightly higher than the normal boiling point of
the heaviest Light End component.
The TBP curve starts at -25°C. Taking this information into
account, Light End components with boiling points that lie within
the first two percent of the TBP assay were chosen. In this way,
the benefits of the Auto Calculate procedure are gained without
losing a significant portion of our property curve.
There is no Molecular Weight, Density, or Viscosity data, so you
can leave the curve options as Not Used. On the Calculation
Defaults tab, the extrapolation method for the Distillation curve
can be left at its default, Probability. There are no bulk
properties for the assay. Provide the boiling temperature data,
as tabulated below:
TBP Data
Assay%
Temp (C)
Assay%
Temp (C)
Assay%
Temp (C)
0.02
-25
20.73
180
71.43
500
0.03
-20
24.06
200
73.86
520
0.05
-10
27.55
220
76.22
540
0.31
0
30.93
240
78.46
560
0.52
10
34.32
260
80.57
580
4-109
4-110
Sulfur Curve - Example
TBP Data
Assay%
Assay%
Temp (C)
Assay%
Temp (C)
0.55
Temp (C)
20
37.83
280
82.55
600
1.25
30
41.21
300
84.41
620
2.53
40
44.51
320
86.16
640
2.93
50
48.01
340
87.79
660
3.78
60
51.33
360
89.32
680
4.69
70
54.58
380
90.67
700
5.67
80
57.73
400
93.48
750
7.94
100
60.65
420
95.74
800
10.69
120
63.39
440
98.78
900
13.84
140
66.16
460
17.28
160
68.90
480
The Assay view with the TBP Data is shown below:
Figure 4.68
4-110
HYSYS Oil Manager
4-111
Sulfur Curve
On the User Curves tab of the Assay property view, select the
Available User Property Sulfur and click the Add button. In the
User Curve Data group, select Independent as the Table Type
and ensure that the Bulk Value cell displays <empty>. Click the
Edit button and enter the Sulfur Curve Data shown below in the
Assay Input Table.
Sulfur Curve Data
Assay%
Sulfur Value
Assay%
Sulfur Value
0.90
0.032
54.08
2.733
7.38
0.026
55.85
2.691
11.48
0.020
57.17
2.669
16.42
0.083
60.00
2.670
22.40
0.094
64.47
2.806
26.68
0.212
68.40
3.085
31.78
0.616
72.09
3.481
36.95
1.122
75.66
3.912
42.04
1.693
78.99
4.300
47.14
2.354
82.05
4.656
48.84
2.629
84.85
4.984
50.52
2.786
87.38
5.286
52.22
2.796
90.33
5.646
After this data is entered, click the Calculate button found at the
bottom of the Assay property view.
4-111
4-112
Sulfur Curve - Example
4.10.4 Create the Blend
A Blend is created using the Auto Cut option. On the Cut\Blend
tab of the Oil Characterization property view, select the Add
button. On the Data tab of the Blend property view, highlight
Assay-1 from the list of Available Assays and click the Add
button. The assay is now added to the Oil Flow Information
table. The Blend is immediately calculated, as the default Cut
Option is Auto Cut.
Figure 4.69
4-112
HYSYS Oil Manager
4-113
4.10.5 Results
Finally, the user property is defined and needs to be installed.
On the Install Oil tab of the Oil Characterization property view,
specify the Stream Name as Example Oil to which the oil
composition is transferred.
Figure 4.70
HYSYS assigns the composition of your calculated Oil and Light
Ends into this stream, completing the characterization
procedure for the User Property.
4-113
4-114
Sulfur Curve - Example
You can return to the User Property tab of the Oil
Characterization property view and click the View button to
display the Sulfur User Property property view.
Figure 4.71
In the Component User Property Values group, the Property
Value is calculated for all the hypocomponents for the blend. You
can scroll through the table to view the Property Value for each
hypocomponent.
4-114
HYSYS Oil Manager
4-115
From the Composite Plot tab of the Blend property view, you can
view a plot of the Calculated and Inputted values for the User
Property. Select User Property from the Property drop-down
list and select the Sulfur checkbox to view the following figure.
Figure 4.72
4.11 References
1
Figure 3A1.1, Chapter 3, API Technical Data Book, Fourth Edition
(1980).
2
Procedure 3A1.1, Chapter 3, API Technical Data Book, Fifth Edition
(1987).
3
Procedure 3A1.1, Chapter 3, API Technical Data Book, Sixth Edition
(1994).
4
Edmister, W.C., and Okamoto, K.K., “Applied Hydrocarbon
Thermodynamics, Part 12: Equilibrium Flash Vaporization
Correlations for Petroleum Fractions”, Petroleum Refiner, August,
1959, p. 117.
5
Procedure 3A3.1, Chapter 3, API Technical Data Book, Fifth Edition
(1987).
6
Procedure 3A3.2, Chapter 3, API Technical Data Book, Sixth Edition
(1994).
7
Procedure 3A3.1, Chapter 3, API Technical Data Book, Sixth Edition
(1994).
4-115
4-116
References
4-116
Reactions
5-1
5 Reactions
5.1 Introduction................................................................................... 2
5.2 Reaction Component Selection....................................................... 3
5.2.1 Adding Components from Basis Manager ..................................... 4
5.2.2 Selections Within the Reaction Manager ...................................... 4
5.2.3 Library Reaction Components..................................................... 5
5.3 Reactions ....................................................................................... 6
5.3.1
5.3.2
5.3.3
5.3.4
5.3.5
5.3.6
Manipulating Reactions ............................................................. 7
Conversion Reaction ................................................................. 8
Equilibrium Reaction ............................................................... 12
Kinetic Reaction ..................................................................... 19
Heterogeneous Catalytic Reaction............................................. 25
Simple Rate Reaction .............................................................. 32
5.4 Reaction Sets ............................................................................... 35
5.4.1
5.4.2
5.4.3
5.4.4
5.4.5
Manipulating Reaction Sets ...................................................... 36
Reaction Set Property View...................................................... 37
Exporting/Importing a Reaction Set .......................................... 43
Adding a Reaction Set to a Fluid Package................................... 44
Reactions in the Build Environment........................................... 44
5.5 Generalized Procedure ................................................................. 45
5.6 Reactions - Example..................................................................... 47
5.6.1
5.6.2
5.6.3
5.6.4
Add Components to the Reaction Manager ................................. 47
Create a Reaction................................................................... 47
Add the Reaction to a Reaction Set ........................................... 48
Attach the Reaction Set to a Fluid Package................................. 49
5-1
5-2
Introduction
5.1 Introduction
Reactions within HYSYS are defined inside the Reaction
Manager. The Reaction Manager, which is located on the
Reactions tab of the Simulation Basis Manager, provides a
location from which you can define an unlimited number of
reactions and attach combinations of these reactions in Reaction
Sets. The Reaction Sets are then attached to Unit Operations in
the Flowsheet.
The Reaction Manager is a versatile, time-saving feature that
allows you to do the following:
•
•
•
•
Create a new list of components for the Reactions or
simply use the fluid package components.
Add, Edit, Copy, or Delete Reactions and Reaction Sets.
Attach Reactions to various Reaction Sets or attach
Reaction Sets to multiple Fluid Packages, thus
eliminating repetitive procedures.
Import and Export Reaction Sets.
Figure 5.1
5-2
Reactions
5-3
5.2 Reaction Component
Selection
On the Reactions tab of the Simulation Basis Manager, there are
three main groups which are described below:
Group
Description
Rxn
Components
Displays all components available to the Reaction Manager
and the Add Comps button.
Reactions
Displays a list of the defined reactions and four buttons
available to help define reactions.
Reaction
Sets
Displays the defined reactions sets, the associated fluid
packages and several buttons that help to define reaction
sets and attach them to fluid packages.
Each of the main groups within the Reaction Manager are
examined in more detail. In this section, the Rxn Components
group is described. The features in the Reactions group and
Reaction Sets group are detailed in subsequent sections.
There are three distinct ways in which components can be made
accessible to Reactions in the Reaction Manager:
Refer to Chapter 1 Components for more
information on adding
components.
•
•
Refer to Section 5.4 Reaction Sets for details
on attaching a fluid
package.
•
You can add components on the Component tab of the
Simulation Basis Manager. The components are added to
the component list and are available in the Rxn
Components group to be attached to the Reaction Set.
These components are also included in the fluid package
depending on the component list selected for the
package.
You can install components directly in the Reaction
Manager without adding them to a specific component
list by clicking the Add Comps button. The Component
List property view appears and you can add reaction
components for the reaction. These components appear
automatically in the master component list, but not in
the component list selected for the fluid package.
When a Reaction Set (containing a Reaction which uses
the new components) is attached to a fluid package, the
components which are not present in the fluid package
are automatically transferred.
You can select an Equilibrium Reaction from the Library
tab of the Equilibrium Reactor property view. All
components used in the reaction are automatically
installed in the Reaction Manager. Once the Reaction Set
5-3
5-4
Reaction Component Selection
(containing the Library reaction) is attached to a fluid
package, the components are automatically transferred
to the fluid package.
5.2.1 Adding Components
from Basis Manager
With this method of component selection, components are
selected on the Components tab from the Simulation Basis
Manager. Add a component list by clicking the Add button. From
the Component List property view, select the components which
are required for the reaction. This is similar to adding
components to a component list for a particular fluid package or
case. All components that are selected are displayed and
available in the Rxn Components group of the Reaction Manager.
The components listed in the Selected Reaction Components
group are available to any Reaction that you create.
Refer to Chapter 4 HYSYS Oil Manager for
details on
hypocomponent.
Hypocomponents created using the Oil Manager can be used
in Reactions. They are listed as Associated Components if
they are installed in a fluid package.
5.2.2 Selections Within the
Reaction Manager
Components can be made available prior to the creation of
Reactions by directly selecting them within the Reaction
Manager. By selecting the components within the Reaction
Manager, you are not required to transfer component
information from the fluid package. The components appear in
the Master Component list, but not in the component list. Once
a Reaction Set is attached to a fluid package, HYSYS
automatically transfers all of the components contained within
the Reaction(s) to the fluid package.
At least one fluid package must exist before components can
be transferred from the Reaction Manager.
5-4
Reactions
5-5
The following procedure demonstrates the steps required when
beginning with a new case:
1. Create a new case by clicking the New Case icon on the
toolbar.
New Case icon
2. On the Fluid Pkgs tab of the Simulation Basis Manager, click
the Add button. A new fluid package is created and its
property view opens. Close the Fluid Package property view.
3. Move to the Reactions tab. Click the Add Comps button in
the Rxn Components group and the Component List property
view is displayed.
4. Select either traditional or hypothetical components. The
procedure for selecting components is similar to the
selection of components for the fluid package.
See Section 5.3 Reactions, and Section
5.4 - Reaction Sets for
details.
See Section 5.4.4 Adding a Reaction Set
to a Fluid Package for
details.
5. Return to the Reaction Manager to create the Reaction(s)
and install the Reaction(s) within a Reaction Set.
6. Attach the Reaction Set to the fluid package created in Step
#2.
7. All components used in the Reaction(s) that are contained
within the Reaction Set are now available in the fluid
package.
5.2.3 Library Reaction
Components
When a Library Equilibrium Reaction is selected, all of its
constituent components are automatically added to the Reaction
Manager. You can then use the components in the Rxn
Components group of the Reaction Manager to define other
reactions. Library reactions can be installed prior to the addition
of components to the case. You are not required to add
components using the Component List property view or Reaction
Manager.
To add a Library reaction, do the following:
1. From the Reaction Manager, click the Add Rxn button in the
Reactions group.
2. Highlight Equilibrium from the Reactions property view and
click the Add Reaction button.
5-5
5-6
Reactions
3. Move to the Library tab of the Equilibrium Reaction property
view and select a reaction from the Library Equilibrium Rxns
group.
Figure 5.2
4. Click the Add Library Rxn button. All library information
concerning the reaction is transferred to the various tabs of
the Equilibrium Reaction property view. The components
used by the reaction are now shown in the Rxn Components
group of the Reaction Manager.
5.3 Reactions
Refer to Section 5.4 Reaction Sets for
information on Reaction
Sets.
In HYSYS, a default reaction set, the Global Rxn Set, is present
in every simulation. All compatible reactions that are added to
the case are automatically included in this set. A Reaction can
be attached to a different set, but it also remains in the Global
Rxn Set unless you remove it. To create a Reaction, click the
Add Rxn button from the Reaction Manager.
The following table describes the five types of Reactions that can
be modeled in HYSYS:
Reaction Type
Requirements
Conversion
Requires the stoichiometry of all the reactions and the
conversion of a base component in the reaction.
Equilibrium
Requires the stoichiometry of all the reactions. The
term Ln(K) may be calculated using one of several
different methods, as explained later. The reaction
order for each component is determined from the
stoichiometric coefficients.
5-6
Reactions
5-7
Reaction Type
Requirements
Heterogeneous
Catalytic
Requires the kinetics terms of the Kinetic reaction as
well as the Activation Energy, Frequency Factor, and
Component Exponent terms of the Adsorption kinetics.
Kinetic
Requires the stoichiometry of all the reactions, as well
as the Activation Energy and Frequency Factor in the
Arrhenius equation for forward and reverse (optional)
reactions. The forward and reverse orders of reaction
for each component can be specified.
Simple Rate
Requires the stoichiometry of all the reactions, as well
as the Activation Energy and Frequency Factor in the
Arrhenius equation for the forward reaction. The
Equilibrium Expression constants are required for the
reverse reaction.
Each of the reaction types require that you supply the
stoichiometry. To assist with this task, the Balance Error tracks
the molecular weight and supplied stoichiometry. If the reaction
equation is balanced, this error is equal to zero. If you have
provided all of the stoichiometric coefficients except one, you
may select the Balance button to have HYSYS determine the
missing stoichiometric coefficient.
Reactions can be on a phase specific basis. The Reaction is
applied only to the components present in that phase. This
allows different rate equations for the vapour and liquid phase in
same reactor operation.
5.3.1 Manipulating Reactions
From the Reaction Manager, you can use the four buttons in the
Reactions group to manipulate reactions. The buttons are
described below:
Button
Command
View Rxn
Accesses the property view of the highlighted reaction.
Add Rxn
Accesses the Reactions property view, from which you
select a Reaction type.
Delete Rxn
Removes the highlighted reaction(s) from the Reaction
Manager.
Copy Rxn
When selected, the Copy Reactions property view appears
where you can select an alternate Reaction Type for the
reaction or duplicate the highlighted reaction.
5-7
5-8
Reactions
When you right-click a reaction in the Reactions group, you
can select View or Delete from the object inspect menu.
5.3.2 Conversion Reaction
The Conversion Reaction requires the Stoichiometric Coefficients
for each component and the specified Conversion of a base
reactant. The compositions of unknown streams can be
calculated when the Conversion is known.
Refer to Section 5.4 Reaction Sets for more
information.
By default, conversion reactions are calculated
simultaneously. However you can specify sequential
reactions using the Ranking feature.
Consider the following Conversion reaction:
b
c
d
A + --- B →--- C + --- D
a
a
a
(5.1)
where:
a, b, c, d = the respective stoichiometric coefficients of the
reactants (A and B) and products (C and D)
A = the base reactant
B = the base reactant not in a limiting quantity
In general, the reaction components obey the following reaction
stoichiometry:
N A = NA ( 1 – X A )
o
b
N B = N B – --- N X
o
a Ao A
c
N C = NC + --- ( N A XA )
o
o
a
(5.2)
d
ND = ND + --- ( N A X A )
o
o
a
5-8
Reactions
5-9
where:
N* = the final moles of component * (*= A, B, C and D)
N*o = the initial moles of component *
XA = the conversion of the base component A
The moles of a reactant available for conversion in a given
reaction include any amount produced by other reactions, as
well as the amount of that component in the inlet stream(s). An
exception to this occurs when the reactions are specified as
sequential.
When you have supplied all of the required information for
the Conversion Reaction, the status bar (at the bottom right
corner) will change from Not Ready to Ready.
Stoichiometry Tab
The Stoichiometry tab of a conversion reaction is shown in the
figure below:
Figure 5.3
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5-10
Reactions
For each Conversion reaction, you must supply the following
information:
Input Field
Information Required
Reaction Name
A default name is provided which may be changed. The
previous property view shows the name as Rxn-1.
Components
The components to be reacted. A minimum of two
components are required. You must specify a minimum
of one reactant and one product for each reaction you
include. Use the drop-down list to access the available
components. The Molecular Weight of each component
is automatically displayed.
Stoichiometric
Coefficient
Necessary for every component in the reaction. The
Stoichiometric Coefficient is negative for a reactant
and positive for a product. You may specify the
coefficient for an inert component as 0, which, for the
Conversion reaction, is the same as not including the
component in the table. The Stoichiometric Coefficient
does not have to be an integer; fractional coefficients
are acceptable.
The Reaction Heat value is calculated and displayed
below the Balance Error. A positive value indicates that
the reaction is endothermic.
Basis Tab
The Basis tab of a conversion reaction is shown in the figure
below:
Figure 5.4
5-10
Reactions
5-11
On the Basis tab, you must supply the following information:
Required Input
Description
Base Component
Only a component that is consumed in the reaction (a
reactant) may be specified as the Base Component
(i.e., a reaction product or an inert component is not a
valid choice). You can use the same component as the
Base Component for a number of reactions, and it is
quite acceptable for the Base Component of one
reaction to be a product of another reaction.
You have to add the components to the reaction before
the Base Component can be specified.
Rxn Phase
The phase for which the specified conversions apply.
Different kinetics for different phases can be modeled
in the same reactor. Possible choices for the Reaction
Phase are:
• Overall. Reaction occurs in all Phases.
• Vapour Phase. Reaction occurs only in the
Vapour Phase.
• Liquid Phase. Reaction occurs only in the Light
Liquid Phase.
• Aqueous Phase. Reaction occurs only in the
Heavy Liquid Phase.
• Combined Liquid. Reaction occurs in all Liquid
Phases.
Conversion
Function
Parameters
Conversion percentage can be defined as a function of
reaction temperature according to the following
equation:
Conv = Co + C1 ⋅ T + C2 ⋅ T
2
This is the percentage of the Base Component
consumed in this reaction. The value of Conv.(%)
calculated from the equation is always limited within
the range of 0.0 and 100%.
The actual conversion of any reaction is limited to the
lesser of the specified conversion of the base
component or complete consumption of a limiting
reactant.
Reactions of equal ranking cannot exceed an overall
conversion of 100%.
See Reaction Rank, in
Section 5.4 - Reaction
Sets.
Sequential Reactions may be modelled in one reactor
by specifying the sequential order of solution.
To define a constant value for conversion percentage, enter
a conversion (%) value for Co only. Negative values for C1
and C2 means that the conversion drops with increased
temperature and vice versa.
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Reactions
5.3.3 Equilibrium Reaction
The Equilibrium Reaction computes the conversion for any
number of simultaneous or sequential reactions with the
reaction equilibrium parameters and stoichiometric constants
you provide.
The Equilibrium constant can be expressed as follows:
Nc
K =
∏
( [ BASE ] e )
vj
j
(5.3)
j=1
where:
K = Equilibrium constant
This equation is only valid when BASE (i.e., concentration) is
at equilibrium composition.
[BASE]ej = Basis for component j at equilibrium
vj = Stoichiometric coefficient for the jth component
Nc = Number of components
The equilibrium constant ln(K) may be considered fixed, or
calculated as a function of temperature based on a number of
constants:
Ln ( Keq ) = a + b
(5.4)
where:
a = A+B
--- + C ⋅ ln ( T ) + D ⋅ T
T
2
3
4
= E⋅ T +F⋅ T +G⋅ T +H⋅ T
Alternatively, you may supply tabular data (equilibrium constant
versus temperature), and HYSYS automatically calculates the
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5-13
equilibrium parameters for you. Ln(K) may also be determined
from the Gibbs Free Energy.
When you have supplied all of the required information for
the Equilibrium Reaction, the status bar (at the bottom right
corner) changes from Not Ready to Ready.
Stoichiometry Tab
The Stoichiometry tab for a equilibrium reaction is shown in the
figure below:
Figure 5.5
For each reaction, you must supply the following information:
Input Required
Description
Reaction Name
A default name is provided, which may be changed by
simply selecting the field and entering a new name.
Components
A minimum of two components is necessary. You must
specify a minimum of one reactant and one product for
each reaction you include. The Molecular Weight of
each component is automatically displayed.
Stoichiometric
Coefficient
For every component in this reaction. The
Stoichiometric Coefficient is negative for a reactant
and positive for a product. You may specify the
coefficient for an inert component as 0. The
Stoichiometric Coefficient need not be an integer;
fractional coefficients are acceptable.
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5-14
Reactions
Basis Tab
The Basis tab for an equilibrium reaction contains two groups,
the Basis and the Keq Source, which are shown in the figure
below:
Figure 5.6
The Basis group requires the following information:
Input Required
Description
Basis
From the drop-down list in the cell, select the Basis for
the reaction. For example, select Partial Pressure or
Activity as the basis.
Reaction Phase
The possible choices for the Reaction Phase, accessed
from the drop-down list, are the Vapour and Liquid
Phases.
Minimum
Temperature and
Maximum
Temperature
Enter the minimum and maximum temperatures for
which the reaction expressions are valid. If the
temperature does not stay within the specified bounds,
a warning message alerts you.
Basis Units
Enter the appropriate units for the Basis, or make a
selection from the drop-down list.
The Keq Source group contains four radio buttons and a
checkbox.
•
•
By selecting the appropriate radio button, you can select
one of four options as the Keq Source for the equilibrium
reaction.
If the Auto Detect checkbox is selected, HYSYS
automatically changes the Keq Source, depending on the
Keq information you provide. For example, if you enter a
fixed equilibrium constant, the Fixed Keq radio button is
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Reactions
5-15
automatically selected. If you later add data to the Table
tab, the Keq vs. T Table radio button is automatically
selected.
Keq Tab
Depending on which option was selected in the Keq Source
group (from the Basis tab), the Keq tab will display the
appropriate information.
The following table outlines each of the Keq source options and
the respective information on the Keq tab.
Option
Description
View on Keq Tab
Ln(Keq)
equation
Ln(Keq), assumed to be a function of temperature
only, is determined from the following equation:
Ln ( Keq ) = a + b
where:
B
a = A + --- + C ⋅ ln ( T ) + D ⋅ T
T
2
3
4
b = E⋅ T +F⋅ T +G⋅ T +H⋅ T
5
A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H = the constants defined
on the Keq tab.
Gibbs
Free
Energy
The equilibrium constant is determined from the
default HYSYS pure component Gibbs Free Energy
(G) database and correlation.
The correlation and database values are valid/
accurate for a temperature (T) range of 25°C to
426.85°C.
If a wider range of G-T correlation is required, the
user can clone the library component and input
the components Gibbs Free Energy correlation to
temperatures beyond the default temperature
limit.
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5-16
Reactions
Option
Description
Fixed K
In this case, the equilibrium constant Keq is
considered to be fixed, and is thus independent of
temperature. You may specify either Keq or
Ln(Keq) on the Keq tab. Select the Log Basis
checkbox to specify the equilibrium constant in the
form Ln(Keq).
K vs. T
Table
On the Keq tab, you can provide temperature and
equilibrium constant data. HYSYS estimates the
equilibrium constant from the pairs of data which
you provide and interpolates when necessary. For
each pair of data that you provide HYSYS
calculates a constant in the Ln(K) equation. If you
provide at least 4 pairs of data, all four constants
A, B, C and D are estimated.
View on Keq Tab
The constants may be changed even after they are
estimated from the pairs of data you provide,
simply by entering a new value in the appropriate
cell. If you later want to revert to the estimated
value, simply delete the number in the appropriate
cell, and it is recalculated.
The term R2 gives an indication of the error or
accuracy of the Ln(K) equation. It is equal to the
regression sum of squares divided by the total
sum of squares, and is equal to one when the
equation fits the data perfectly.
You can also provide the maximum (T Hi) and
minimum (T Lo) temperatures applicable to the
Ln(K) relation. The constants are always
calculated based on the temperature range you
provide. If you provide values in the K Table which
are outside the temperature range, the calculation
of the constants is not affected.
Approach Tab
Under certain process conditions, an equilibrium reaction may
not, actually reach equilibrium. The Equilibrium reaction set
uses two types of approach, Fractional and Temperature, to
simulate this type of situation. You may select either one or both
types of approaches for use in the simulation.
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Reactions
5-17
The Approach tab contains two groups, the Fractional Approach
and Temperature Approach.
Figure 5.7
Temperature Approach is not relevant for a fixed Keq source
and thus the group does not appear when Fixed Keq is
selected from the Basis tab.
Both the Fractional Approach and Temperature Approach
methods can be used to simulate an Equilibrium reaction that is
a departure from equilibrium.
For the Temperature Approach method, the HYSYS reaction
solver will take into account the heat of reaction according to
the equations listed. The direction of non-equilibrium departure
depends on whether the reaction is endothermic or exothermic.
The Fractional Approach method is an alternative to the
Temperature Approach method and is defined according to the
following equation:
Feed – Product = Approach% ⋅ ( Feed – Product ) equilibrium
(5.5)
Equation (5.5) could be interpreted as defining the “actual”
reaction extent of the equilibrium as only a percentage of the
equilibrium reaction extent of the reaction. In the solver, the
value of Approach % is limited between 0 and 100%.
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5-18
Reactions
Library Tab
The Library tab allows you to add pre-defined reactions from the
HYSYS Library. The components for the selected Library reaction
are automatically transferred to the Rxn Components group of
the Reaction Manager.
Figure 5.8
When you select a reaction, all data for the reaction, including
the stoichiometry, basis, and Ln(K) parameters, are transferred
into the appropriate location on the Equilibrium Reaction
property view. To access a library reaction, highlight it from the
Library Equilibrium Rxns group and click the Add Library Rxn
button.
When K Table contains data input, the library reaction
selection will be blocked. You must click the Erase Table
button on the Keq tab and before you can add a library
reaction.
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5-19
5.3.4 Kinetic Reaction
To define a Kinetic Reaction, it is necessary to specify the
forward Arrhenius Parameters (the reverse is optional), the
stoichiometric coefficients for each component, and the forward
(and reverse) reaction orders. An iterative calculation occurs,
that requires the Solver to make initial estimates of the outlet
compositions. With these estimates, the rate of reaction is
determined. A mole balance is then performed as a check on the
rate of reaction. If convergence is not attained, new estimates
are made and the next iteration is executed.
r A = k ⋅ f ( BASIS ) – k' ⋅ f ' ( BASIS )
F Ao – F A + ∫
V
dN
r A dV = ---------Adt
(5.6)
(5.7)
Equation (5.6) relates the rate of reaction rA with the reaction
rate constants and the basis (e.g. - concentration). Equation
(5.7) is a mole balance on the unit operation; for steady state
solutions, the right side is equal to zero.
When you have supplied all of the required information for
the Kinetic Reaction, the status bar (at the bottom right
corner) changes from Not Ready to Ready.
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5-20
Reactions
Stoichiometry Tab
When the Kinetic Reaction is selected, the following property
view is displayed:
Figure 5.9
For each reaction, you must supply the following information:
Input Required
Description
Reaction Name
A default name is provided, which may be changed at
any time.
Components
You must specify a minimum of one reactant and one
product for each reaction you include. Access the
available components using the drop-down list. The
Molecular Weight of each Component is automatically
displayed.
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Reactions
5-21
Input Required
Description
Stoichiometric
Coefficient
Necessary for every component in the reaction. The
Stoichiometric Coefficient is negative for a reactant
and positive for a product. The Stoichiometric
Coefficient need not be an integer; fractional
coefficients are acceptable. You may specify the
coefficient for an inert component as 0, which in most
cases is the same as not including the component in
the list. However, you must include components that
have an overall stoichiometric coefficient of zero and a
non-zero order of reaction (i.e., a component that
might play the role of a catalyst). The Kinetic Reaction,
which allows you to specify the Stoichiometric
Coefficient and the order of reaction, makes it possible
to correctly model this situation.
Forward and
Reverse Orders
These are reaction orders. HYSYS initially fixes the
orders of reaction according to the corresponding
stoichiometric coefficient. These may be modified by
directly entering the new value into the appropriate
cell. For instance, in the following reaction:
CO + Cl2 →COCl2
the kinetic rate law is
r CO = k [ CO ] [ Cl 2 ]
3⁄ 2
When the stoichiometric coefficients are entered for
the reaction, HYSYS sets the forward orders of reaction
for CO and Cl2 at 1. Simply enter 1.5 into the Forward
Order cell for Cl2 to correctly model the reaction order.
Thermodynamic Consistency
Crucial to the specification of the reverse reaction equation is
maintaining thermodynamic consistency so that the equilibrium
rate expression retains the form of Equation (5.3). Failure to
do so may produce erroneous results from HYSYS.
Consider the previously mentioned reaction:
CO + Cl 2 ↔ COCl 2
with the forward kinetics following the relationship:
rate forward = k f [ CO ] [ Cl 2 ]
3⁄ 2
(5.8)
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5-22
Reactions
Now suppose you want to add the reverse kinetic reaction. Since
the forward reaction is already known, the order of the reverse
reaction has to be derived in order to maintain thermodynamic
consistency. Suppose a generic kinetic relationship is chosen:
α
β
rate backward = k r [ CO ] [ Cl2 ] [ COCl2 ]
γ
(5.9)
where:
α, β, γ = the unknown values of the order of the three
components
Equilibrium is defined as the moment when:
rate forward – ratebackward = 0
The equilibrium constant K is then equal to:
α
β
γ
[ CO ] [ Cl2 ] [ COCl 2 ]
k
K = ----f = ---------------------------------------------------------3⁄ 2
kr
[ CO ] [ Cl ]
(5.10)
2
To maintain the form of the equilibrium equation seen in
Equation (5.3), K is also equal to:
[ COCl 2 ]
K = -------------------------[ CO ] [ Cl2 ]
(5.11)
Now combining the two relationships for K found in Equation
(5.10) and Equation (5.11):
α
β
γ
[ COCl 2 ]
[ CO ] [ Cl 2 ] [ COCl 2 ]
---------------------------------------------------------= -------------------------3⁄ 2
[ CO ] [ Cl 2 ]
[ CO ] [ Cl2 ]
(5.12)
To maintain thermodynamic consistency: α must be 0, β must
be 0.5 and γ must be equal to 1.
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Reactions
5-23
Basis Tab
The Basis tab for a kinetic reaction is shown below:
Figure 5.10
On the Basis tab, the following parameters may be specified:
Input Required
Description
Basis
View the drop-down list in the cell to select the Basis
for the reaction. If, for instance, the rate equation is a
function of the partial pressures, select Partial Pressure
as the Basis.
Base Component
Only a component that is consumed in the reaction (a
reactant) may be specified as the Base Component
(i.e., a reaction product or an inert component is not a
valid choice). You can use the same component as the
Base Component for a number of reactions, and it is
quite acceptable for the Base Component of one
reaction to be a product of another reaction.
Reaction Phase
The phase for which the kinetic rate equations apply.
Different kinetic rate equations for different phases can
be modeled in the same reactor. Possible choices for
the Reaction Phase, available in the drop-down list,
are: Overall, Vapour Phase, Liquid Phase, Aqueous
Phase, and Combined Liquid.
Minimum
Temperature and
Maximum
Temperature
Enter the minimum and maximum temperatures for
which the forward and reverse reaction Arrhenius
equations are valid. If the temperature does not
remain within these bounds, a warning message alerts
you during the simulation.
Basis Units
Enter the appropriate units for the Basis, or make a
selection from the drop-down list.
Rate Units
Enter the appropriate units for the rate of reaction, or
make a selection from the drop-down list.
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5-24
Reactions
Parameters Tab
On the Parameters tab, you may specify the forward and reverse
parameters for the Arrhenius equations. These parameters are
used in the calculation of the forward and reverse reaction
constants.
Figure 5.11
The reaction rate constants are a function of temperature
according to the following extended form of the Arrhenius
equation:
 E 
β
k = A ⋅ exp  – ----------- ⋅ T
(
RT
)


(5.13)
 E′ 
β′
k' = A' ⋅ exp  – -------  ⋅ T
RT


(5.14)
where:
k = forward reaction rate constant
k' = reverse reaction rate constant
A, E, β , are the Arrhenius Parameters for the forward
reaction. A', E', and β′ are the Arrhenius Parameters for the
reverse reaction.
Information for the reverse reaction is not required.
5-24
Reactions
5-25
A = forward reaction Frequency Factor
A' = reverse reaction Frequency Factor
E = forward reaction Activation Energy
E' = reverse reaction Activation Energy
β = forward extended reaction rate constant
β′ = reverse extended reaction rate constant
R = Ideal Gas Constant (value and units dependent on the
units chosen for Molar Enthalpy and Temperature)
T = Absolute Temperature
If the Arrhenius coefficient, A is equal to zero, there is no
reaction. If Arrhenius coefficients E and β are zero, the rate
constant is considered to be fixed at a value of A for all
temperatures.
5.3.5 Heterogeneous Catalytic
Reaction
HYSYS provides a heterogeneous catalytic reaction kinetics
model to describe the rate of catalytic reactions involving solid
catalyst. The rate equation is expressed in the general form
according to Yang and Hougen (1950):
( kinetic term ) ( potential term -)
– r = ----------------------------------------------------------------------( adsorption term )
(5.15)
Since these types of reactions involve surface reaction together
with adsorption (and desorption) of reactants and products, the
resulting rate expression will be strongly mechanism dependent.
Consider the following the simple reaction:
aA + bB →cP
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5-26
Reactions
Depending on the reaction mechanism, its reaction rate
expression (ignoring reverse rate of reaction) could be:
k + K A K B C A CB
r = -----------------------------------------------------------------------2
( 1 + K A C A + K B C B + K P CP )
(5.16)
Eley-Rideal Model
k+ KB CA CB
r = -----------------------------------------------( 1 + K B C B + K P CP )
(5.17)
Mars-van Krevelen
Model
kC A
r = ---------------------------------------------------------------–n
1 + ( a ⁄ b ) ( k ⁄ k∗ )C A C B
(5.18)
LangmuirHinshelwood Model
where:
K* = the adsorption rate constant for component *
k+ = the forward reaction rate constant
k = reaction rate constant for oxidation of hydrocarbon
k* = reaction rate constant for surface re-oxidation
HYSYS has provided a general form, as follows, to allow user to
build in the form of rate expression they want to use.
Reactants
kf
∏
i=1
αi
Ci
Products
– kr
βj
∏Cj
j=1
r = ------------------------------------------------------------------n
M 
M



γ kg 

 1 + ∑  K k ∏ Cg 



k = 1
g=1


(5.19)
where:
kf and kr = the Rate Constants of the forward and reverse
kinetic rate expressions
K = the absorption rate constant
M = number of absorbed reactants and products plus
absorbed inert species
5-26
Reactions
5-27
The rate constants kf, kr and Kk are all in Arrhenius form. You
are required to prove the Arrhenius parameters (preexponential factor A and activation energy E) for each of these
constants.
You may have to group constants, for example in Equation
(5.16), kf = k+ KAKB. You must take care in inputting the
correct values of the Arrhenius equation. Also note that no
default values are given for these constants.
The Heterogeneous Catalytic Reaction option can be used in
both CSTR and PFR reactor unit operations. A typical Reaction
Set may include multiple instances of the Heterogeneous
Catalytic Reaction.
Stoichiometry Tab
When the Heterogeneous Catalytic Reaction is selected, the
following property view appears:
Figure 5.12
5-27
5-28
Reactions
For each catalytic reaction, you must supply the following
information:
Input Required
Description
Reaction Name
A default name is provided, which may be changed.
Components
You must specify a minimum of one reactant and one
product for each reaction you include. Open the dropdown list in the cell to access all of the available
components. The Molecular Weight of each component
is automatically displayed.
Stoichiometric
Coefficient
Necessary for every component in this reaction. The
Stoichiometric Coefficient is negative for a reactant
and positive for a product. The Stoichiometric
Coefficient need not be an integer; fractional
coefficients are acceptable. You may specify the
coefficient for an inert component as 0, which in this
case is the same as not including the component in the
list.
Basis Tab
The Basis tab for a catalytic reaction is shown below:
Figure 5.13
5-28
Reactions
5-29
On the Basis tab, the following parameters may be specified:
Input Required
Description
Basis
Open the drop-down list in the cell to select the Basis
for the reaction. For example, select Partial Pressure or
Molar Concentration as the basis.
Base Component
Only a component that is consumed in the reaction (a
reactant) may be specified as the Base Component
(i.e., a reaction product or an inert component is not a
valid choice). You can use the same component as the
Base Component for a number of reactions, and it is
acceptable for the Base Component of one reaction to
be a product of another reaction.
Reaction Phase
The phase for which the kinetics apply. Different
kinetics for different phases can be modeled in the
same reactor. Possible choices for the Reaction Phase
(available in the drop-down list) are Overall, Vapour
Phase, Liquid Phase, Aqueous Phase, and Combined
Liquid.
Minimum
Temperature and
Maximum
Temperature
Enter the minimum and maximum temperatures for
which the forward and reverse reaction Arrhenius
equations are valid. If the temperature does not
remain in these bounds, a warning message alerts you
during the simulation.
Basis Units
Enter the appropriate units for the Basis, or make a
selection from the drop-down list.
Rate Units
Enter the appropriate units for the rate of reaction, or
make a selection from the drop-down list.
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Reactions
Numerator Tab
For more information on
Kinetic reaction
specifications see Section
5.3.4 - Kinetic
Reaction.
The Numerator tab is specified in much the same way as you
would specify a typical HYSYS Kinetic Reaction. The Numerator
tab is shown below:
Figure 5.14
You must supply the forward and reverse parameters of the
extended Arrhenius equation. The forward and reverse reaction
rate constants are calculated from these values. In addition to
the rate constants, you must also specify the reaction order of
the various components for both the forward and reverse
reactions. This is done by selecting the Components field of the
Reaction Order cell matrix, and selecting the appropriate
component from the drop-down list and entering values for the
Forward and/or Reverse orders.
When specifying Forward and Reverse relationships it is
important to maintain thermodynamic consistency. For more
information on thermodynamic consistency see Section 5.3.4 Kinetic Reaction, Thermodynamic Consistency.
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5-31
Denominator Tab
The Denominator tab for a catalytic reaction is shown in the
following figure:
Figure 5.15
The Denominator tab contains the Component Exponents matrix
in which each row represents a denominator term. The A and E
columns are for the pre-exponential factor and the activation
energy, respectively for the adsorption term (K).
M 
M



γ kg 

1
+
K
C

∑  k ∏ g 

k = 1
g=1


n
(5.20)
The remaining columns are used to specify the exponents (γ kg )
of the absorbed components (Cg). In order to add a term to the
denominator of the kinetic expression, you must activate the
row of the matrix containing the <empty> message and add the
relevant equation parameter values. The Delete Term button is
provided to delete the selected row (or corresponding term) in
the matrix. The overall exponent term n is specified in the
Denominator Exponent field.
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Reactions
5.3.6 Simple Rate Reaction
The Simple Rate Reaction is also similar to the Kinetic Reaction,
except that the reverse reaction rate expression is derived from
equilibrium data.
When you have supplied all of the required information for
the Simple Rate Reaction, the status bar (at the bottom right
corner) will change from Not Ready to Ready.
Stoichiometry Tab
When the Simple Rate Reaction is selected the following
property view appears.
Figure 5.16
For each reaction, supply the following information:
Field
Description
Reaction Name
A default name is provided, which may be changed.
Components
You must specify a minimum of one reactant and one product for
each reaction you include. Open the drop-down list in the cell to
access all of the available components. The Molecular Weight of each
component is automatically displayed.
Stoichiometric
Coefficient
Necessary for every component in this reaction. The Stoichiometric
Coefficient is negative for a reactant and positive for a product. The
Stoichiometric Coefficient need not be an integer; fractional
coefficients are acceptable. You may specify the coefficient for an
inert component as 0, which in this case is the same as not including
the component in the list.
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5-33
Basis Tab
The Basis tab for the simple rate reaction is shown below:
Figure 5.17
On the Basis tab, the following parameters may be specified:
Parameter
Description
Basis
Open the drop-down list in the cell to select the Basis
for the reaction. For example, select Partial Pressure or
Molar Concentration as the basis.
Base Component
Only a component that is consumed in the reaction (a
reactant) may be specified as the Base Component
(i.e., a reaction product or an inert component is not a
valid choice). You can use the same component as the
Base Component for a number of reactions, and it is
acceptable for the Base Component of one reaction to
be a product of another reaction.
Reaction Phase
The phase for which the kinetics apply. Different
kinetics for different phases can be modeled in the
same reactor. Possible choices for the Reaction Phase,
available in the drop-down list, are Overall, Vapour
Phase, Liquid Phase, Aqueous Phase and Combined
Liquid.
Minimum
Temperature and
Maximum
Temperature
Enter the minimum and maximum temperatures for
which the forward and reverse reaction Arrhenius
equations are valid. If the temperature does not
remain in these bounds, a warning message alerts you
during the simulation.
Basis Units
Enter the appropriate units for the Basis, or make a
selection from the drop-down list.
Rate Units
Enter the appropriate units for the rate of reaction, or
make a selection from the drop-down list.
5-33
5-34
Reactions
Parameters Tab
The Parameters tab for the rate reaction is shown below:
Figure 5.18
The forward reaction rate constants are a function of
temperature according to the following extended form of the
Arrhenius equation:
E- ⋅ T β
k = A ⋅ exp – -----RT
(5.21)
where:
k = forward reaction rate constant
A = forward reaction Frequency Factor
E = forward reaction Activation Energy
β = forward extended reaction rate constant
R = Ideal Gas Constant
T = Absolute Temperature
If Arrhenius coefficient A is equal to zero, there is no
reaction. If Arrhenius coefficients E and β are equal to zero,
the rate constant is considered to be fixed at a value of A for
all temperatures.
5-34
Reactions
5-35
The reverse equilibrium constant K' is considered to be a
function of temperature only:
B′
ln K′ = A′ + ------- + C′ ln ( T ) + D′ T
T
(5.22)
where:
A', B', C', D' = the reverse equilibrium constants
You must supply at least one of the four reverse equilibrium
constants.
5.4 Reaction Sets
All Reaction Sets created within the Reaction Manager become
available for attachment to your reactor operations in the
flowsheet. Reaction Sets may contain more than one reaction.
There is limited flexibility for the mixing of reaction types within
a Reaction Set. You can have Equilibrium and Kinetic reactions
within a single Reaction Set, but you must have a distinct
Reaction Set for conversion reactions.
HYSYS provides the Global Rxn Set, which contains all
compatible reactions that you have defined in the case. If you
only add Kinetic and Equilibrium reactions, or exclusively
Conversion reactions to the case, all reactions are active within
the Global Rxn Set. However, if you add an incompatible mix of
reactions (i.e., Conversion and Kinetic), only the type of
reactions that are compatible with the first installed reaction are
active in the Global Rxn Set.
If only one type of reaction is used, all reactions are active in
the Global Rxn Set, thereby eliminating the need to explicitly
define a new Reaction Set.
The same reaction can be active in multiple reaction sets. A new
set can be added from the Reaction Manager by selecting the
Add Set button.
5-35
5-36
Reaction Sets
5.4.1 Manipulating Reaction
Sets
All Reaction Set manipulations are conducted in the Reaction
Sets group of the Reactions tab of the Basis Manager. The
following buttons are available in the Reaction Sets group to
manipulate reaction sets:
Button
Description
View Set
Displays the property view for the highlighted reaction set.
Add Set
Adds a reaction set to the list of reaction sets and opens its
property view.
Delete Set
Removes the highlighted reaction set(s) from the Reaction
Manager. You must confirm your action to delete a reaction
set.
Copy Set
Duplicates the highlighted reaction set(s).
Import Set
Opens a reaction set from disk into the current case.
Export Set
Saves a reaction set to disk for use in another case.
Add to FP
Accesses the Add 'Reaction Set Name' view, from which you
attach the highlighted reaction set(s) to a fluid package.
This button is available only when a Reaction Set is
highlighted in the Reaction Sets group.
When you right-click a Reaction Set in the Reaction Sets
group, you can select View or Delete from the object inspect
menu.
5-36
Reactions
5-37
5.4.2 Reaction Set Property
View
When you add a new set, or view an existing one, the Reaction
Set property view appears as shown below.
Figure 5.19
The following table describes the features contained within this
property view.
Feature
Description
Name
A default Reaction Set name is provided, which can be
changed.
Set Type
HYSYS determines the Set Type from the reaction types in
the Active List. This field cannot be modified. The Reaction
Set types are Conversion, Kinetic, Equilibrium, and Mixed.
A Mixed Set Type corresponds to a Reaction Set containing
both Kinetic and Equilibrium reactions.
5-37
5-38
Reaction Sets
Feature
Description
Solver
Method
The Solver method is available when dealing with Kinetic
reaction sets. Several Solver Methods are available from
the drop-down list and explained below:
• Default. The Reaction Solver attempts to calculate
the solution using Newton's Method. If this is not
successful, it then uses the Rate Iterated and Rate
Integrated Methods. For most cases, it is best to use
the Default Solver Method.
• Newton's Method. This method usually converges
quickly by taking the derivative of the function using
the current estimates, and uses these results to obtain
new estimates.
• Rate Iterated. This method is a partial Newton's
method, and assumes that the off-diagonal elements
of the Jacobian matrix are equal to zero. The Rate
Iterated Method works well when there is very little
interaction between reactions.
• Rate Integrated. This method integrates the
reaction equations until all time derivatives are zero.
The Rate Integrated method is stable, but slow.
• Auto Selected. Same as Default.
Active List
Reactions may be added to the Active List by positioning
the cursor in the Active List column and selecting an
existing Reaction from the drop-down list. You may also
type the name of an existing reaction directly in the cell
that shows <empty>.
You can open the property view for any reaction in the
Active List by highlighting it and clicking the View Active
button. Alternatively, you may double-click on the reaction
to view it.
A reaction in the Active List may be transferred to the
Inactive List simply by selecting the reaction and clicking
the Make Inactive button.
Inactive List
Existing reactions may be added to the Inactive List by
positioning the cursor in the Inactive List column and
selecting a Reaction from the drop-down list.
You can access the property view for any reaction in the
Inactive List by highlighting it and clicking the View
Inactive button. You may also double-click on the reaction
to view it.
A reaction in the Inactive List may be transferred to the
Active List by selecting the reaction and clicking the Make
Active button. If this reaction is not independent of other
reactions in the Active List, an error message is displayed,
and the reaction remains in the Inactive List.
You cannot have two versions of the same reaction with
different rate constants in the Active List.
Operations
Attached
All operations to which the Reaction Set is attached are
listed in this column.
5-38
Reactions
5-39
Advanced Features
By clicking the Advanced button, you can view the Advanced
reaction options.
Figure 5.20
Within the Volume Continuation Parameters group, the following
options are available:
Object
Description
Volume
Continuation
For most cases, it is not necessary to select this option.
In situations where convergence is not easily attained
(e.g., high reaction rates), select the Volume
Continuation checkbox to enable HYSYS to more
easily reach a solution. For Volume Continuation
calculations, HYSYS “ramps” the volume starting from
the initial volume fraction to the final volume fraction
in the specified number of steps. For each successive
step, the previous solution is used as the initial
estimate for the next step.
Initial Volume
Fraction
The default value is 1.0000e-06. This is the Volume
Fraction at the start of the calculations.
Number of Steps
The default value is 10. If the solution does not
converge, increase this value and re-run the
simulation.
Current Parm
Value
This field displays the current parameter value.
Current Step
Number
This field displays the current step number.
5-39
5-40
Reaction Sets
Object
Description
Trace Level
Provides a trace output of the calculations in the Trace
Window. The trace level value corresponds to the level
of detail that you see in the Trace Window. You are
limited to the values 0, 1, 2, or 3.
Prev Solution as
Estimates
It is necessary to make an initial estimate of the outlet
compositions to obtain the proper solution. Select this
checkbox if you want to use the previous solution as
the initial estimate. This does not apply to the
conversion reaction, since the specified conversion
determines the outlet compositions.
Use Iso and Adia
Temp as Adia Est
If you calculate a heat flow given a specific
temperature, and then use this heat flow as a spec
(deleting the temperature specification), HYSYS uses
the previously calculated temperature as an estimate
for the Adiabatic calculation.
The parameters within the Initial Estimate Generation
Parameters group are generally used with Reactions that have a
high degree of interaction. You can also use these parameters to
give some assistance in obtaining the final solution when the
reactor operation fails to converge or when you have a large
number of components and reactions. The parameters are
described in the following table:
Parameter
Description
Damping
Factor
Default is 1.0, indicating that there is no damping. You can
change this value. With a lower the damping factor, HYSYS
uses smaller steps (slower and more stable) in converging
towards the solution.
Tolerance
This is the tolerance set for the Estimate Generation. By
default, this is set to 0.001. You are able to change this
value.
Maximum
Iterations
Maximum number of iterations HYSYS uses. There is no
default value, and so you can set whatever value is desired.
The Reaction Solver Option group allows you to set the number
of iterations and the tolerance level. The option depends on the
boundary condition of the reactor operation which is using the
reaction set. For example, when a reactor operation is used to
determine the outlet temperature, the number of iterations and
tolerance level are used in the reaction solver to search for a
solution.
5-40
Reactions
5-41
Option
Description
Max Numb of
Iteration
Controls the maximum number of iterations specified
before the reaction solver stops searching for a solution. By
default, the value is 200.
Tolerance
The specified tolerance level is the relative error between
the energy balance equation and the calculated value by
the reaction solver in the iteration. By default, the value is
0.00001.
Reaction Rank
The Ranking button is visible only when the Reaction Set type is
Conversion. This option automatically handles most situations
where reactions are sequential:
A →B
Rxn – 1
B →C
Rxn – 2
C →D
Rxn – 3
allowing the three reactions to be modeled in a single reactor.
In this case the Rank would be:
A →B
1
B →C
2
C →D
3
However in situations where there are competing reactions:
A + B →C
Rxn – 4
B + D →E
Rxn – 5
you can use the Ranking factor to specify which conversion
value should be applied first. For example, if Rxn-4 was ranked
first, the specified conversion for Rxn-5 would only be applied to
the amount of component B remaining after Rxn-4 had run to its
specified conversion.
5-41
5-42
Reaction Sets
Figure 5.21
HYSYS assigns default ranks to multiple conversion
reactions by examining the reactants and products. For
example, you may have a reaction set containing the
following:
1. CH4+H2O → CO+3H2
2. CH4+2H2O → CO2+4H2
3. CH4+2O2 → CO2+2H2O
HYSYS notices that a product of Reaction 3, H2O, is used as a
reactant in both Reactions 1 and 2. Since H2O may not be
available until Reaction 3 has occurred, it is assigned a rank
of 0 and the other reactions are each given the default Rank
of 1. The feed composition is not taken into account, as
Reaction Ranks are assigned prior to entering the Build
Environment.
To specify the Ranking, you must do so from the Reaction Ranks
property view, which contains the following fields:
Object
Description
Reaction
This column shows all of the reactions to be ranked.
Rank
Shows the rank for each reaction, which is an integer value.
The minimum value is 0 and the maximum is equal to the
number of Reactions ranked. Thus, when ranking three
sequential reactions, you may rank them 0-1-2 or 1-2-3;
both methods give the same results. You may override the
default values through the input of new values in the
appropriate cells.
You can set two or more reactions to have the same Rank;
for instance, the ranks for Rxn-1 and Rxn-2 may be 1, and
the rank for Rxn-3 may be 2.
User
Specified
If you specify the Rank of the reaction, this checkbox is
selected.
5-42
Reactions
5-43
The buttons along the bottom of the Reaction Ranks property
view have the following functions:
Button
Description
Cancel
Closes the property view without accepting any changes
that were made.
Reset
Resets the Reaction Ranks to the internal default.
Accept
Closes the property view, accepting the changes that were
made.
5.4.3 Exporting/Importing a
Reaction Set
After a Reaction Set is customized with reactions, it can be
exported to a file. The same Reaction Set can then be used in
another simulation case by importing the file and attaching it to
a fluid package. Highlight a Reaction Set in the Reaction Sets
group of the Reaction Manager and click the Export Set button.
Figure 5.22
Select a file path (the default is usually satisfactory) and enter a
filename with the extension *.rst. Click the Save button to
export the reaction set to a file.
The Import Set button allows you to introduce an exported
Reaction Set into a simulation case. Choose the Reaction Set file
(with the extension *.rst) from the list and select the Open
button. If the file is not listed in the File Name field, an alternate
File Path may be needed.
5-43
5-44
Reaction Sets
5.4.4 Adding a Reaction Set to
a Fluid Package
To make a Reaction Set available inside the flowsheet, you must
attach it to the fluid package which is associated with the
flowsheet.
Figure 5.23
Highlight a reaction set in the Reaction Sets group of the
Reaction Manager and click the Add to FP button. The Add
'Reaction Set Name' view appears, where you can highlight a
fluid package and click the Add Set to Fluid Package button.
5.4.5 Reactions in the Build
Environment
Refer to Section 5.3 Reaction Package of the
HYSYS User Guide for
more details.
When you are inside the Main or Column Environment you can
access the Reaction Package property view without having to
return to the fluid package. Under Flowsheet in the Main Menu,
select Reaction Package.
Refer to the HYSYS
Operation Guide for
more information on the
individual unit operations.
When a Reaction Set is attached to a unit operation, you can
access the Reaction Set property view or the property view(s)
for the associated Reaction(s) directly from the property view of
the operation. Some of the unit operations that support
reactions include the Reactor operation (conversion, equilibrium,
or kinetic), the PFR, the Separator, and the Column.
5-44
Reactions
5-45
5.5 Generalized Procedure
The following procedure outlines the basic steps for creating a
reaction, creating a reaction set, adding the reaction to the
reaction set and then making the set available to the flowsheet.
Refer to the Reaction Package property view, shown in Figure
5.1, as you follow the procedure:
1. Select Reaction Package under Flowsheet in the menu
bar.
2. On the Reaction Package property view, click the Add Rxn
button to create a new Reaction.
3. A Reactions property view appears, from which you must
select the type of reaction to create. Select a reaction type
and click the Add Reaction button.
4. The property view for the reaction type you selected is
displayed. Complete the input for the reaction until Ready
appears as the status message. You can close the Reaction
property view, if desired.
Figure 5.24
5-45
5-46
Generalized Procedure
5. On the Reaction Package property view, click the New Set
button to create a Reaction Set. The Reaction Set property
view appears.
Figure 5.25
6. If desired, change the Name of the Reaction Set to better
identify it.
7. To attach the newly created reaction to the Reaction Set,
place the cursor in the <empty> cell of the Active List
column. Open the drop-down list in the cell and select a
reaction. The reaction becomes attached to the Reaction Set,
as indicated by the selected checkbox in the OK column.
8. Click the Close button on the Reaction Set property view.
9. In the Available Reaction Sets group of the Reaction
Package property view, highlight the name of the newly
created Reaction Set. Notice that the attached reaction is
listed in the Associated Reactions group.
10. Click the Add Set button to make the Reaction Set, and thus
the Reaction, available to unit operations in the flowsheet.
The new Reaction Set is displayed in the Current Reaction
Sets group.
5-46
Reactions
5-47
5.6 Reactions - Example
The following procedure demonstrates the minimum steps
required for:
•
•
•
•
The
The
The
The
addition of components to the Reaction Manager.
creation of a reaction.
addition of the reaction to a reaction set.
attachment of the reaction set to a fluid package.
5.6.1 Add Components to the
Reaction Manager
Refer to Section 2.4 HYSYS Fluid Package
Property View for
details on installing a fluid
package.
For this example, it is assumed that a New Case is created and a
fluid package is installed.
1. Within the fluid package, the Peng Robinson property
package is selected.
2. Within the component list, the following set of components
are selected: H2O, CO, CO2, H2, O2, and CH4.
3. Go to the Reactions tab of the Simulation Basis Manager.
The selected components are present in the Rxn
Components group.
5.6.2 Create a Reaction
Refer to Section 5.3 Reactions for
information concerning
reaction types and the
addition of reactions.
1. To install a reaction, click the Add Rxn button.
2. From the Reactions property view, highlight the Conversion
reaction type and click the Add Reaction button. The
Conversion Reaction property view appears.
3. On the Stoichiometry tab, select the first row of the
Component column in the Stoichiometry Info table.
4. Select Methane from the drop-down list. The Mole Weight
column automatically provides the molar weight of methane.
5. In the Stoich Coeff field, enter -3 (i.e., 3 moles of methane
is consumed).
5-47
5-48
Reactions - Example
6. Now define the rest of the Stoichiometry tab as shown in the
figure below and click the Balance button.
Figure 5.26
7. Go to the Basis tab and set Methane as the Base
Component and Conversion to 60%. The status bar at the
bottom of the property view now shows a Ready status.
Close the property view.
5.6.3 Add the Reaction to a
Reaction Set
Refer to Section 5.4 Reaction Sets for details
concerning Reactions
Sets.
By default, the Global Rxn Set is present within the Reaction
Sets group when you first display the Reaction Manager.
However, for this procedure, a new Reaction Set is created:
1. Click the Add Set button. HYSYS provides the name Set-1
and opens the Reaction Set property view.
2. To attach the newly created Reaction to the Reaction Set,
place the cursor in the <empty> cell under Active List.
3. Open the drop-down list and select the name of the Reaction
(Rxn-1). The Set Type corresponds to the type of Reaction
which you have added to the Reaction Set.
5-48
Reactions
5-49
The status is now Ready.
Figure 5.27
4. Close the property view to return to the Reaction Manager.
5.6.4 Attach the Reaction Set
to a Fluid Package
1. To attach the reaction set to the fluid package, highlight Set1 in the Reaction Sets group and click the Add to FP button.
When a Reaction Set is attached to a Fluid Package, it
becomes available to unit operations within the Flowsheet
using that particular Fluid Package.
2. The Add 'Set-1' property view appears, from which you
highlight a fluid package and click the Add Set to Fluid
Package button.
Figure 5.28
5-49
5-50
Reactions - Example
3. Close the property view. Notice that the name of the fluid
package appears in the Assoc. Fluid Pkgs group when the
Reaction Set is highlighted in the Reaction Sets group.
5-50
Component Maps
6-1
6 Component Maps
6.1 Introduction................................................................................... 2
6.2 Component Maps Tab..................................................................... 2
6.2.1 Component Mapping Group ....................................................... 3
6.2.2 Collections Group ..................................................................... 3
6.2.3 Maps for Collection Group.......................................................... 3
6.3 Component Map Property View ...................................................... 4
6-1
6-2
Introduction
6.1 Introduction
On the Component Maps tab of the Simulation Basis Manager,
you can map fluid component composition across fluid package
boundaries. Composition values for individual components from
one fluid package can be mapped to a different component in an
alternate fluid package. This is usually done when dealing with
hypothetical oil components.
Two previously defined fluid packages are required to perform a
component mapping which is defined as a collection. One fluid
package becomes the target component set and the other
becomes the source component set. Mapping is performed using
a matrix of source and target components. The transfer basis
can be performed on a mole, mass, or liquid volume basis.
6.2 Component Maps Tab
The Component Maps tab of the Simulation Basis Manager is
shown below.
Figure 6.1
6-2
Component Maps
6-3
6.2.1 Component Mapping
Group
The Component Mapping group defines the source and target
fluid packages to be mapped. Once two distinct fluid packages
are selected, the Create Collection button creates a collection in
the Collections group.
6.2.2 Collections Group
The Collections group lists all the component mapping
collections currently available. You can change the collection
name by selecting the name you want to edit and typing in the
new name.
6.2.3 Maps for Collection
Group
The Maps for Collection group allows you to manage your
Component Maps for each collection. The Collection drop-down
list lets you select the collection maps that you want to add,
edit, or delete. A default collection map is added to this list and
cannot be deleted. To add a Component Map based on the
currently selected collection, click the Add button. To view a
Component Map, select it from the list and click the View
button. Both the Add and View buttons open the Component
Map Property view. To delete a Component Map, select the map
from the list and click the Delete button.
6-3
6-4
Component Map Property View
6.3 Component Map
Property View
Each time a Component Map is created or viewed via the
Component Maps tab of the Simulation Basis Manager, the
Component Map property view opens as shown below:
Figure 6.2
The Component Map property view allows you to map the
source components to the target components in the component
matrix. Within the matrix, you can map all Specifiable (in red)
component mapping values. The following table describes all of
the options found in this property view.
Object
Description
Name
Displays the name of the component map. The name
can be modified within the cell.
View Options
The View Options group provides you with three
options in which to view the component matrix.
• View All. Displays all of the source and target
components in the matrix.
• View Specifiable. Displays only the components
that require values.
• Transpose. Transposes the component matrix.
6-4
Component Maps
6-5
Object
Description
Component
Transfer Options
The Component Transfer Options group provides two
options.
• Unlock all Components. Unlocks all of the
component values, allowing you to specify your
own values.
• Transfer Like Hypotheticals. Automatically
maps like hypotheticals.
• Transfer Hypos by NBP. Automatically maps
hypos by NBP. This option is available when the
Transfer Like Hypotheticals checkbox is
selected.
Transfer Basis
The Transfer Basis group provides three options that
allow you to define the composition mapping basis:
• Mole
• Mass
• Liq Volume
Multiple Specify
Allows you to specify a value to one or more
components at a time.
Clone from
another Map
Allows you to import values into the mapping matrix
from another map.
Clear All
Removes all of the user defined information from the
matrix.
Normalize
Normalizes the mapping matrix.
6-5
6-6
Component Map Property View
6-6
User Properties
7-1
7 User Properties
7.1 Introduction................................................................................... 2
7.2 User Property Tab .......................................................................... 3
7.2.1 Adding a User Property ............................................................. 4
7.3 User Property Property View.......................................................... 5
7.3.1 Data Tab ................................................................................. 5
7.3.2 Notes Tab................................................................................ 9
7-1
7-2
Introduction
7.1 Introduction
On the User Property tab of the Simulation Basis Manager, you
can create an unlimited number of user properties for use in the
Build Environment. A User Property is any property that can be
defined and subsequently calculated on the basis of
composition.
When User properties are specified, they are used globally
throughout the case. You can supply a User Property value for
each component. User properties can be modified for a specific
component, fluid package, or stream using the property editor.
Refer to Edit Properties
from Section 1.2.3 Manipulating the
Selected Components
List for more
information on the
property editor.
Specifying a User Property is similar to supplying a value at the
component level in that it is globally available throughout the
case, unless it is specified otherwise. It is the initial user
property value for the component in the master component list.
By selecting the mixing basis and mixing equation, the total
User Property can be calculated.
After a User Property is defined, HYSYS is able to calculate the
value of the property for any flowsheet stream through the User
Property utility. User Properties can also be set as Column
specifications.
7-2
User Properties
7-3
7.2 User Property Tab
The User Property tab of the Simulation Basis Manager is shown
below:
Figure 7.1
The available User Properties are listed in the User Properties
group. The following User Property manipulation buttons are
available:
Button
Description
View
Edit the currently highlighted User Property.
A User Property can also be added or viewed through the
Oil Characterization - User Property tab.
Refer to Section 7.3 User Property Property
View for descriptions of
the User Property
Parameters.
Add
Create a new User Property.
Delete
Erase the currently highlighted User Property. HYSYS will
not prompt for confirmation when deleting a User Property,
so be careful when you are using this command.
In the User Property Parameters group, all information
pertaining to the highlighted property in the User Property group
is displayed. You can edit the User Property parameters directly
on the Simulation Basis property view or click on the View
button for the User Property property view.
7-3
7-4
User Property Tab
7.2.1 Adding a User Property
To add a user property, follow the steps below:
1. On the User Property tab of the Simulation Basis Manager,
click the Add button. The User Property property view
appears.
2. Provide a descriptive Name for the user property on
Simulation Basis property view.
3. In the User Property Parameters group, select a Mixing
Basis using the drop-down list within the cell.
4. Select a Mixing Rule.
5. You can modify the two Mixing Parameters (F1 and F2) to
more accurately reflect your property formula.
6. Select a Unit Type from the filtered drop-down list.
7. Input initial property values for each component.
7-4
User Properties
7-5
7.3 User Property Property
View
Each time a User Property is created through the User Property
tab of the Simulation Basis Manager, the User Property property
view is displayed. The User Property property view has two tabs,
the Data tab and the Notes tab. All information regarding the
calculation of the User Property is specified on the Data tab.
7.3.1 Data Tab
On the Data tab, the Basic user prop definition, and the Initial
user property value groups are displayed.
Figure 7.2
7-5
7-6
User Property Property View
Basic User Property Definition Group
The following options are available for Process type properties:
Parameter
Description
Mixing Basis
You have the following options: Mole Fraction, Mass
Fraction, Liquid Volume Fraction, Mole Flow, Mass Flow,
and Liquid Volume Flow.
All calculations are performed using compositions in
HYSYS internal units. If you have specified a flow basis
(molar, mass or liquid volume flow), HYSYS uses the
composition as calculated in internal units for that basis.
For example, a User Property with a Mixing Basis
specified as molar flow is always calculated using
compositions in kg mole/s, regardless of what the current
default units are.
Mixing Rule
Select from one of three mixing rules:
( P mix )
f1
N
= f2
∑ ( x ( i )P ( i )
f1
)
(7.1)
i=1
( Pmix )
f1
N
= f2
∑ ( x ( i ) ln ( P ( i ) )
f1
(7.2)
)
i=1
N
Index =
∑x(i)( f 1 ⋅
P ( i ) + 10
f 2⋅ P(i)
)
(7.3)
i=1
where:
Pmix = total user property value
P(i) = input property value for component
x(i) = component fraction or flow, depending on
the chosen Mixing Basis
Index = blended (total) index value
f1 and f2 are specified constants
Mixing
Parameters
The mixing parameters f1 and f2 are 1.00 by default. You
may supply any value for these parameters.
Unit Type
This option allows you to select the variable type for the
user property.
For example, if you have a temperature user property,
select temperature in the unit type using the drop-down
list.
7-6
User Properties
7-7
Mixing Rules
As listed previously, there are three mixing rules available when
you are defining a user property. Equation (7.1) and Equation
(7.2) are relatively straightforward. The index mixing rule,
Equation (7.3), is slightly more complex.
With the index mixing rule, HYSYS allows you to combine
properties that are not inherently linear. A property is made
linear through the use of the index equation.
Equation (7.3) can be simplified into the following equations:
Indexi = f 1 ⋅ P ( i ) + 10
f 2 ⋅ P(i)
(7.4)
N
Index =
∑ x( i) ⋅
Index i
(7.5)
f 2⋅ P
(7.6)
i=1
Index = f1 ⋅ P + 10
The form of your index equation must resemble the HYSYS
index equation such that you can supply the f1 and f2
parameters. Some common properties which can make use
of the Index equation include R.O.N., Pour Point and
Viscosity.
You supply the individual component properties (Pi) and the
index equation parameters (i.e., f1 and f2). Using Equation
(7.4), HYSYS calculates an individual index value for each
supplied property value. The sum of the index values, which is
the blended index value, is then calculated using the Mixing
Basis you have selected (Equation (7.5)).
The blended index value is used in an iterative calculation to
produce the blended property value (P in Equation (7.6)). The
blended property value is the value which will be displayed in
the user property utility.
7-7
7-8
User Property Property View
Initial User Property Values for All
Components Group
User Property values can
be assigned to
hypocomponent during
the characterization of an
oil. Refer to Section
7.2.1 - Adding a User
Property for more
information.
Refer to Chapter 14 Utilities of the HYSYS
Operations Guide for
more information on the
User Property utility.
Refer to Chapter 2 Column Operations of
the HYSYS Operations
Guide for information on
the User Property
specification.
The purpose of this property view is to instruct HYSYS how the
User Property should be initialized throughout the case.
Whenever the value of a User Property is requested by the User
Property utility or by the column specification, HYSYS uses the
composition in the specified basis, and calculate the User
Property value using your mixing rule and parameters.
The values for pure components are always used for the
property and are not overwritten by the synthesis. The values
for hypocomponents are only used if the synthesis of the
property can not be achieved. For example, if there are
insufficient number of data points. To specify a Property Value,
click on the Edit component user property values button.
Edit Component User Property
Values
This property view allows you to edit initial user property values
for components in the master component list.
Figure 7.3
7-8
User Properties
7-9
Once property values are entered or edited, click the Submit
button which allows all values to be modified at one time. The
changes are reflected on the User Property property view for
each component.
7.3.2 Notes Tab
HYSYS provides a tab where you can enter a description of the
User Properties for your own future reference.
7-9
7-10
User Property Property View
7-10
Property Methods & Calculations
A-1
A Property Methods &
Calculations
A.1 Introduction .................................................................................. 3
A.2 Selecting Property Methods ........................................................... 4
A.3 Property Methods .......................................................................... 9
A.3.1
A.3.2
A.3.3
A.3.4
A.3.5
A.3.6
Equations of State.................................................................... 9
Activity Models ...................................................................... 18
Activity Model Vapour Phase Options......................................... 39
Semi-Empirical Methods.......................................................... 41
Vapour Pressure Property Packages .......................................... 42
Miscellaneous - Special Application Methods............................... 46
A.4 Enthalpy & Entropy Departure Calculations ................................. 50
A.4.1 Equations of State.................................................................. 50
A.4.2 Activity Models ...................................................................... 52
A.4.3 Lee-Kesler Option................................................................... 54
A.5 Physical & Transport Properties................................................... 57
A.5.1
A.5.2
A.5.3
A.5.4
A.5.5
A.5.6
A.5.7
Liquid Density........................................................................ 58
Vapour Density ...................................................................... 59
Viscosity ............................................................................... 59
Liquid Phase Mixing Rules for Viscosity...................................... 61
Thermal Conductivity.............................................................. 62
Surface Tension ..................................................................... 65
Heat Capacity ........................................................................ 65
A.6 Volumetric Flow Rate Calculations ............................................... 66
A.6.1
A.6.2
A.6.3
A.6.4
Available Flow Rates ............................................................... 66
Liquid & Vapour Density Basis.................................................. 67
Formulation of Flow Rate Calculations ....................................... 69
Volumetric Flow Rates as Specifications..................................... 71
A-1
A-2
Property Methods & Calculations
A.7 Flash Calculations.........................................................................72
A.7.1
A.7.2
A.7.3
A.7.4
A.7.5
A.7.6
A.7.7
A.7.8
A.7.9
T-P Flash Calculation ...............................................................73
Vapour Fraction Flash ..............................................................74
Enthalpy Flash........................................................................76
Entropy Flash .........................................................................76
Electrolyte Flash .....................................................................76
Handling of Water ...................................................................77
Supercritical Handling..............................................................79
Solids....................................................................................80
Stream Information.................................................................81
A.8 References ...................................................................................82
A-2
Property Methods & Calculations
A-3
A.1 Introduction
This appendix is organized such that the detailed calculations
that occur within the Simulation Basis Manager and within the
Flowsheet are explained in a logical manner.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
In the first section, an overview of property method
selection is presented. Various process systems and their
recommended property methods are listed.
Detailed information is provided concerning each
individual property method available in HYSYS. This
section is further subdivided into equations of state,
activity models, Chao-Seader based semi-empirical
methods, vapour pressure models, and miscellaneous
methods.
Following the detailed property method discussion is the
section concerning enthalpy and entropy departure
calculations. The enthalpy and entropy options available
within HYSYS are largely dependent upon your choice of
a property method.
The physical and transport properties are covered in
detail. The methods used by HYSYS in calculating liquid
density, vapour density, viscosity, thermal conductivity,
and surface tension are listed.
HYSYS handles volume flow calculations in a unique way.
To highlight the methods involved in calculating volumes,
a separate section is provided.
The next section ties all of the previous information
together. Within HYSYS, the Flash calculation uses the
equations of the selected property method, as well as the
physical and transport property functions to determine
all property values for Flowsheet streams. After a flash
calculation is performed on an object, all of its
thermodynamic, physical and transport properties are
defined. The flash calculation in HYSYS does not require
initial guesses or the specification of flash type to assist
in its convergence.
A list of References is included at the end of the
Appendix.
A-3
A-4
Selecting Property Methods
A.2 Selecting Property
Methods
The property packages available in HYSYS allow you to predict
properties of mixtures ranging from well defined light
hydrocarbon systems to complex oil mixtures and highly nonideal (non-electrolyte) chemical systems. HYSYS provides
enhanced equations of state (PR and PRSV) for rigorous
treatment of hydrocarbon systems; semi-empirical and vapour
pressure models for the heavier hydrocarbon systems; steam
correlations for accurate steam property predictions; and
activity coefficient models for chemical systems. All of these
equations have their own inherent limitations and you are
encouraged to become more familiar with the application of
each equation.
The following table lists some typical systems and
recommended correlations. However, when in doubt of the
accuracy or application of one of the property packages, contact
Hyprotech to receive additional validation material or our best
estimate of its accuracy.
Type of System
Recommended Property Method
TEG Dehydration
PR
Sour Water
Sour PR
Cryogenic Gas Processing
PR, PRSV
Air Separation
PR, PRSV
Atm Crude Towers
PR, PR Options, GS
Vacuum Towers
PR, PR Options, GS (<10 mm Hg),
Braun K10, Esso K
Ethylene Towers
Lee Kesler Plocker
High H2 Systems
PR, ZJ or GS (see T/P limits)
Reservoir Systems
PR, PR Options
Steam Systems
Steam Package, CS or GS
Hydrate Inhibition
PR
Chemical systems
Activity Models, PRSV
HF Alkylation
PRSV, NRTL (Contact Hyprotech)
TEG Dehydration with Aromatics
PR (Contact Hyprotech)
A-4
Property Methods & Calculations
A-5
Type of System
Recommended Property Method
Hydrocarbon systems where H2O
solubility in HC is important
Kabadi Danner
Systems with select gases and light
hydrocarbons
MBWR
For oil, gas and petrochemical applications, the Peng-Robinson
EOS (PR) is generally the recommended property package.
Hyprotech's enhancements to this equation of state enable it to
be accurate for a variety of systems over a wide range of
conditions. It rigorously solves any single, two-phase or threephase system with a high degree of efficiency and reliability, and
is applicable over a wide range of conditions, as shown in the
following table.
Method
Temp (°F)
Temp (°C)
Pressure (psia)
Pressure (kPa)
PR
> -456
> -271
< 15,000
< 100,000
SRK
> -225
> -143
< 5,000
< 35,000
The PR equation of state is enhanced to yield accurate phase
equilibrium calculations for systems ranging from low
temperature cryogenic systems to high temperature, high
pressure reservoir systems. The same equation of state
satisfactorily predicts component distributions for heavy oil,
aqueous glycol, and CH3OH systems.
The range of applicability in many cases is more indicative of
the availability of good data rather than on the actual
limitations.
Our high recommendation for the PR equation of state is largely
due to the preferential attention that is given to it by Hyprotech.
Although the Soave-Redlich-Kwong (SRK) equation also
provides comparable results to the PR in many cases, it is
known that its range of application is significantly limited and it
is not as reliable for non-ideal systems. For example, it should
not be used for systems with CH3OH or glycols.
A-5
A-6
Selecting Property Methods
As an alternate, the PRSV equation of state should also be
considered. It can handle the same systems as the PR equation
with equivalent, or better accuracy, plus it is more suitable for
handling moderately non-ideal systems.
The advantage of the PRSV equation is that not only does it
have the potential to more accurately predict the phase
behaviour of hydrocarbon systems, particularly for systems
composed of dissimilar components, but it can also be extended
to handle non-ideal systems with accuracies that rival traditional
activity coefficient models. The only compromise is increased
computational time and the additional interaction parameter
that is required for the equation.
The PR and PRSV equations of state perform rigorous threephase flash calculations for aqueous systems containing H2O,
CH3OH or glycols, as well as systems containing other
hydrocarbons or non-hydrocarbons in the second liquid phase.
For SRK, H2O is the only component that initiates an aqueous
phase. The Chao-Seader (CS) and Grayson-Streed (GS)
packages can also be used for three-phase flashes, but are
restricted to the use of pure H2O for the second liquid phase.
The PR can also be used for crude systems, which have
traditionally been modeled with dual model thermodynamic
packages (an activity model representing the liquid phase
behaviour, and an equation of state or the ideal gas law for the
vapour phase properties). These earlier models are suspect for
systems with large amounts of light ends or when approaching
critical regions. Also, the dual model system leads to internal
inconsistencies. The proprietary enhancements to the PR and
SRK methods allow these EOSs to correctly represent vacuum
conditions and heavy components (a problem with traditional
EOS methods), as well as handle the light ends and highpressure systems.
Activity Models, which handle highly non-ideal systems, are
much more empirical in nature when compared to the property
predictions in the hydrocarbon industry. Polar or non-ideal
chemical systems are traditionally handled using dual model
approaches. In this type of approach, an equation of state is
used for predicting the vapour fugacity coefficients and an
A-6
Property Methods & Calculations
A-7
activity coefficient model is used for the liquid phase. Since the
experimental data for activity model parameters are fitted for a
specific range, these property methods cannot be used as
reliably for generalized application.
The CS and GS methods, though limited in scope, may be
preferred in some instances. For example, they are
recommended for problems containing mainly liquid or vapour
H2O because they include special correlations that accurately
represent the steam tables. The Chao Seader method can be
used for light hydrocarbon mixtures, if desired. The GraysonStreed correlation is recommended for use with systems having
a high concentration of H2 because of the special treatment
given H2 in the development of the model. This correlation may
also be slightly more accurate in the simulation of vacuum
towers.
The Vapour Pressure K models, Antoine, BraunK10 and EssoK
models, are designed to handle heavier hydrocarbon systems at
lower pressures. These equations are traditionally applied for
heavier hydrocarbon fractionation systems and consequently
provide a good means of comparison against rigorous models.
They should not be considered for VLE predictions for systems
operating at high pressures or systems with significant
quantities of light hydrocarbons.
Please refer to Section
A.4 - Enthalpy &
Entropy Departure
Calculations, for a
description of Enthalpy
and Entropy calculations.
The Property Package methods in HYSYS are divided into basic
categories, as shown in the following table. With each of the
property methods listed are the available methods of VLE and
Enthalpy/Entropy calculation.
VLE Calculation
Enthalpy/Entropy
Calculation
PR
PR
PR
PR LK ENTH
PR
Lee-Kesler
SRK
SRK
SRK
SRK LK ENTH
SRK
Lee-Kesler
Kabadi Danner
Kabadi Danner
SRK
Lee Kesler Plocker
Lee Kesler Plocker
Lee Kesler
PRSV
PRSV
PRSV
PRSV LK
PRSV
Lee-Kesler
Property Method
Equations of State
A-7
A-8
Selecting Property Methods
Property Method
VLE Calculation
Enthalpy/Entropy
Calculation
Sour PR
PR & API-Sour
PR
SOUR SRK
SRK & API-Sour
SRK
Zudkevitch-Joffee
Zudkevitch-Joffee
Lee-Kesler
Activity Models
Liquid
Chien Null
Chien Null
Cavett
Extended and General
NRTL
NRTL
Cavett
Margules
Margules
Cavett
NRTL
NRTL
Cavett
UNIQUAC
UNIQUAC
Cavett
van Laar
van Laar
Cavett
Wilson
Wilson
Cavett
Ideal Gas
Ideal
Ideal Gas
RK
RK
RK
Virial
Virial
Virial
Vapour
Peng Robinson
Peng Robinson
Peng Robinson
SRK
SRK
SRK
Chao-Seader
CS-RK
Lee-Kesler
Grayson-Streed
GS-RK
Lee-Kesler
Semi-Empirical Models
Vapour Pressure Models
Mod Antoine
Mod Antoine-Ideal Gas
Lee-Kesler
Braun K10
Braun K10-Ideal Gas
Lee-Kesler
Esso K
Esso-Ideal Gas
Lee-Kesler
Miscellaneous - Special Application Methods
Amines
Mod Kent Eisenberg
(L), PR (V)
Curve Fit
Steam Packages
ASME Steam
ASME Steam Tables
ASME Steam Tables
NBS Steam
NBS/NRC Steam Tables
NBS/NRC Steam Tables
MBWR
Modified BWR
Modified BWR
A-8
Property Methods & Calculations
A-9
A.3 Property Methods
Details of each individual property method available in HYSYS
are provided in this section, including equations of state, activity
models, Chao-Seader based empirical methods, vapour pressure
models, and miscellaneous methods.
A.3.1 Equations of State
HYSYS currently offers the enhanced Peng-Robinson14 (PR), and
Soave-Redlich-Kwong19 (SRK) equations of state.
The properties predicted by HYSYS' PR and SRK equations of
state do not necessarily agree with those predicted by the PR
and SRK of other commercial simulators.
In addition, HYSYS offers several methods which are
modifications of these property packages, including PRSV,
Zudkevitch Joffee (ZJ) and Kabadi Danner (KD). Lee Kesler
Plocker12 (LKP) is an adaptation of the Lee Kesler equation for
mixtures, which itself was modified from the BWR equation. Of
these, the Peng-Robinson equation of state supports the widest
range of operating conditions and the greatest variety of
systems. The Peng-Robinson and Soave-Redlich-Kwong
equations of state (EOS) generate all required equilibrium and
thermodynamic properties directly. Although the forms of these
EOS methods are common with other commercial simulators,
they have been significantly enhanced by Hyprotech to extend
their range of applicability.
The Peng-Robinson property package options are PR, Sour PR,
and PRSV. Soave-Redlich-Kwong equation of state options are
the SRK, Sour SRK, KD and ZJ.
A-9
A-10
Property Methods
PR & SRK
The PR and SRK packages contain enhanced binary interaction
parameters for all library hydrocarbon-hydrocarbon pairs (a
combination of fitted and generated interaction parameters), as
well as for most hydrocarbon-nonhydrocarbon binaries.
For non-library or hydrocarbon hypocomponent, HC-HC
interaction parameters are generated automatically by HYSYS
for improved VLE property predictions.
The PR or SRK EOS should not be used for non-ideal
chemicals such as alcohols, acids or other components. They
are more accurately handled by the Activity Models (highly
non-ideal) or the PRSV EOS (moderately non-ideal).
The PR equation of state applies a functionality to some specific
component-component interaction parameters. Key components
receiving special treatment include He, H2, N2, CO2, H2S, H2O,
CH3OH, EG, DEG, and TEG. For further information on
application of equations of state for specific components,
contact Hyprotech.
The following page provides a comparison of the formulations
used in HYSYS for the PR and SRK equations of state.
Soave Redlich Kwong
Peng Robinson
RT - – -----------------------------------------------a
P = ----------V – b V( V + b ) + b(V – b )
RT - – --------------------a
P = ----------V – b V(V + b)
3
2
2
Z – Z + ( A – B – B )Z – AB = 0
3
2
2
2
3
Z – ( 1 – B ) Z + ( A – 2B – 3B )Z – ( AB – B – B ) = 0
where:
b=
N
N
∑ xi bi
bi=
a=
∑ xi bi
i=1
i=1
RTci
0.08664 ----------Pci
RT ci
0.077796 ----------P ci
N
N
∑ ∑ xi xj ( ai aj )
i = 1 j =1
0.5
N
( 1 – k ij )
N
∑ ∑ xi xj ( ai aj )
0.5
( 1 – k ij )
i = 1 j =1
A-10
Property Methods & Calculations A-11
ai =
aci=
0.5
αi
mi=
Soave Redlich Kwong
Peng Robinson
a ci αi
a ci αi
2
2
( RT ci )
0.42747 -----------------Pci
=
( RT ci )
0.457235 -----------------P ci
0.5
0.5
1 + m i ( 1 – T ri )
1 + m i ( 1 – T ri )
2
0.48 + 1.574ωi – 0.176ωi
2
0.37464 + 1.54226ωi – 0.26992ωi
When an acentric factor > 0.49 is present HYSYS uses
following corrected form:
0.379642 + ( 1.48503 – ( 0.164423 – 1.016666ωi )ωi )ωi
A=
aP
-------------2
( RT )
aP
-------------2
( RT )
B=
bP-----RT
bP-----RT
Kabadi Danner
This KD10 model is a modification of the original SRK equation of
State, enhanced to improve the vapour-liquid-liquid equilibria
calculations for H2O-hydrocarbon systems, particularly in the
dilute regions.
The model is an improvement over previous attempts which
were limited in the region of validity. The modification is based
on an asymmetric mixing rule, whereby the interaction in the
water phase (with its strong H2 bonding) is calculated based on
both the interaction between the hydrocarbons and the H2O,
and on the perturbation by hydrocarbon on the H2O-H2O
interaction (due to its structure).
Lee Kesler Plöcker Equation
The Lee Kesler Plöcker equation is an accurate general method
for non-polar substances and mixtures.
A-11
A-12
Property Methods
The Lee Kesler Plöcker equation does not use the COSTALD
correlation in computing liquid density. This may result in
differences when comparing results between equation of
states.
Plöcker et al.3 applied the Lee Kesler equation to mixtures,
which itself was modified from the BWR equation.
z = z
(o)
ω (r) (o )
+ -------(z – z )
( r)
ω
(A.1)
The compressibility factors are determined as follows:
pr vr
pv
- = z ( T r, v r, Ak )
z = ------- = --------Tr
RT
C
–γ
γ
C D ---------B- + ---z = 1 + --- + ----- + 342- β + ----- exp -----2
2
5
2
vr
vr v r v r Tr vr
vr
(A.2)
(A.3)
where:
pc v
v r = -------RT c
b
b
b
B = b 1 – ----2- – -----3 – -----4
2
3
T r Tr T r
c
c
C = c 1 – ----2- + -----3
2
Tr Tr
(o)
ω
d
D = d 1 – ----2Tr
(r )
ω
= 0
= 0.3978
Mixing rules for pseudocritical properties are as follows:
 1 
- ∑∑x i x j v c
T cm =  -------ij
 V ηcm
(A.4)
i j
A-12
Property Methods & Calculations A-13
T c = ( Tc T c )
ij
i
vc =
m
1⁄ 2
Tc = Tc
ii
j
∑∑xi x j vc
Tc = Tc
i
jj
1 1⁄
v c = --- ( v c
ij
8 i
ij
i j
3
j
1⁄ 3 3
+ vc
j
)
RT c
v c = z c ----------i
i
i p
c
z c = 0.2905 – 0.085ωi
RT c
p c = z c -----------mm
m v
c
z c = 0.2905 – 0.085ωm
i
i
m
m
ωm =
∑xi ωi
i
Peng-Robinson Stryjek-Vera
The Peng-Robinson Stryjek-Vera (PRSV) equation of state is a
two-fold modification of the PR equation of state that extends
the application of the original PR method for moderately nonideal systems. It is shown to match vapour pressures curves of
pure components and mixtures more accurately than the PR
method, especially at low vapour pressures.
It is successfully extended to handle non-ideal systems giving
results as good as those obtained using excess Gibbs energy
functions like the Wilson, NRTL or UNIQUAC equations.
One of the proposed modifications to the PR equation of state by
Stryjek and Vera was an expanded alpha ( α ) term that became
a function of acentricity and an empirical parameter ( κ i ) used
for fitting pure component vapour pressures.
0.5 2
αi = [ 1 + κ i ( 1 – T r ) ]
0.5
0.5
(A.5)
κ i = κ 0i + κ 1i ( 1 + T r ) ( 0.7 – T r )
i
i
2
3
κ 0i = 0.378893 + 1.4897153ωi – 0.17131848ωi + 0.0196554ωi
A-13
A-14
Property Methods
where:
κ 1i = characteristic pure component parameter
ωi = acentric factor
The adjustable ( κ 1i ) term allows for a much closer fit of the pure
component vapour pressure curves. This term is regressed
against the pure component vapour pressure for all components
in HYSYS' library.
For hypocomponent that are generated to represent oil
fractions, HYSYS automatically regresses the κ 1i term for each
hypocomponent against the Lee-Kesler vapour pressure curves.
For individual user-added hypothetical components, κ 1i terms
can either be entered or they are automatically regressed
against the Lee-Kesler, Gomez-Thodos or Reidel correlations.
The second modification consists of a new set of mixing rules for
mixtures. Conventional mixing rules are used for the volume
and energy parameters in mixtures, but the mixing rule for the
cross term, aij, is modified to adopt a composition dependent
form. Although two different mixing rules were proposed in the
original paper, HYSYS has incorporated only the Margules
expression for the cross term.
a ij = ( a ii a jj )
0.5
( 1.0 – x i k ij – x j k ji )
(A.6)
where:
k ij ≠ k ji
If kij =kji, the mixing rules reduce to the standard PR
equation of state.
Although only a limited number of binary pairs are regressed for
this equation, our limited experience suggests that the PRSV
can be used to model moderately non-ideal systems such as
H2O-alcohol systems, some hydrocarbon-alcohol systems. You
can also model hydrocarbon systems with improved accuracy.
A-14
Property Methods & Calculations A-15
Also, due to PRSV's better vapour pressure predictions,
improved heat of vaporization predictions should be expected.
Different values can be entered for each of the binary
interaction parameters.
Sour Water Options
The Sour option is available for both the PR and SRK equations
of state. The Sour PR option combines the PR equation of state
and Wilson's API-Sour Model for handling sour water systems,
while Sour SRK utilizes the SRK equation of state with the
Wilson model.
The Sour options use the appropriate equation of state for
calculating the fugacities of the vapour and liquid hydrocarbon
phases as well as the enthalpy for all three phases. The K-values
for the aqueous phase are calculated using Wilson's API-Sour
method. This option uses Wilson's model to account for the
ionization of the H2S, CO2 and NH3 in the aqueous water phase.
The aqueous model employs a modification of Van Krevelen's
original model with many of the key limitations removed. More
details of the model are available in the original API publication
955 titled "A New Correlation of NH3, CO2, and H2S Volatility
Data from Aqueous Sour Water Systems".
The original model is applicable for temperatures between 20°C
(68°F) and 140°C (285°F), and pressures up to 50 psi. Use of
either the PR or SRK equation of state to correct vapour phase
non idealities extends this range, but due to lack of
experimental data, exact ranges cannot be specified. The
acceptable pressure ranges for HYSYS' model vary depending
upon the concentration of the acid gases and H2O. The method
performs well when the H2O partial pressure is below 100 psi.
The flash calculation is much slower than the standard EOS,
because the method performs an ion balance for each Kvalue calculation.
A-15
A-16
Property Methods
This option may be applied to sour water strippers, hydrotreater
loops, crude columns or any process containing hydrocarbons,
acid gases and H2O. If the aqueous phase is not present, the
method produces identical results to the EOS, (PR or SRK
depending on which option you have chosen).
Zudkevitch Joffee
The Zudkevitch Joffee model is a modification of the Redlich
Kwong equation of state. This model is enhanced for better
prediction of vapour liquid equilibria for hydrocarbon systems,
and systems containing H2. The major advantage of this model
over the previous version of the RK equation is the improved
capability of predicting pure component equilibria, and the
simplification of the method for determining the required
coefficients for the equation.
Enthalpy calculations for this model are performed using the Lee
Kesler model.
EOS Enthalpy Calculation
With any the Equation of State options except ZJ and LKP, you
can specify whether the Enthalpy is calculated by either the
Equation of State method or the Lee Kesler method. The ZJ and
LKP must use the Lee Kesler method in Enthalpy calculations.
Selection of an enthalpy method is done by selecting radio
buttons in the Enthalpy Method group.
Figure A.1
The Lee-Kesler enthalpies may be slightly more accurate for
heavy hydrocarbon systems, but require more computer
resources because a separate model must be solved.
A-16
Property Methods & Calculations A-17
For information on the
differences between EOS
and LK methods, refer to
the Section A.4 Enthalpy & Entropy
Departure
Calculations.
Selecting the Lee Kesler Enthalpy option results in a combined
property package employing the appropriate equation of state
(either PR or SRK) for vapour-liquid equilibrium calculations and
the Lee-Kesler equation for calculation of enthalpies and
entropies.
The LK method yields comparable results to HYSYS' standard
equations of state and has identical ranges of applicability. As
such, this option with PR has a slightly greater range of
applicability than with SRK.
Zero Kij Option
HYSYS automatically generates hydrocarbon-hydrocarbon
interaction parameters when values are unknown if the Estimate
HC-HC/Set Non HC-HC to 0.0 radio button is selected.
This option is set on the Binary Coeffs tab of the Fluid
Package property view.
The Set All to 0.0 radio button turns off the automatic
calculation of any estimated interaction coefficients between
hydrocarbons. All binary interaction parameters that are
obtained from the pure component library remain.
Figure A.2
The Set All to 0.0 option may prove useful when trying to match
results from other commercial simulators which may not supply
interaction parameters for higher molecular weight
hydrocarbons.
A-17
A-18
Property Methods
A.3.2 Activity Models
Although equation of state models have proven to be reliable in
predicting properties of most hydrocarbon based fluids over a
large range of operating conditions, their application is limited to
primarily non-polar or slightly polar components. Polar or nonideal chemical systems are traditionally handled using dual
model approaches. In this approach, an equation of state is
used for predicting the vapour fugacity coefficients (normally
ideal gas assumption or the Redlich Kwong, Peng-Robinson or
SRK equations of state, although a Virial equation of state is
available for specific applications) and an activity coefficient
model is used for the liquid phase. Although there is
considerable research being conducted to extend equation of
state applications into the chemical arena (e.g., the PRSV
equation), the state of the art of property predictions for
chemical systems is still governed mainly by Activity Models.
Activity Models are much more empirical in nature when
compared to the property predictions (equations of state)
typically used in the hydrocarbon industry. For example, they
cannot be used as reliably as the equations of state for
generalized application or extrapolating into untested operating
conditions. Their tuning parameters should be fitted against a
representative sample of experimental data and their
application should be limited to moderate pressures.
Consequently, more caution should be exercised when selecting
these models for your simulation.
Activity Models produce the best results when they are
applied in the operating region for which the interaction
parameters were regressed.
A-18
Property Methods & Calculations A-19
The phase separation or equilibrium ratio Ki for component i,
defined in terms of the vapour phase fugacity coefficient and the
liquid phase activity coefficient is calculated from the following
expression:
y
K i = ----i
xi
γ i fi °
= -----------Pφi
(A.7)
where:
γ i = liquid phase activity coefficient of component i
fi° = standard state fugacity of component i
P = system pressure
φi = vapour phase fugacity coefficient of component i
Although for ideal solutions the activity coefficient is unity, for
most chemical (non-ideal) systems this approximation is
incorrect. Dissimilar chemicals normally exhibit not only large
deviations from an ideal solution, but the deviation is also found
to be a strong function of the composition. To account for this
non-ideality, activity models were developed to predict the
activity coefficients of the components in the liquid phase. The
derived correlations were based on the excess Gibbs energy
function, which is defined as the observed Gibbs energy of a
mixture in excess of what it would be if the solution behaved
ideally, at the same temperature and pressure.
For a multi-component mixture consisting of ni moles of
component i, the total excess Gibbs free energy is represented
by the following expression:
G
E
= RT ∑( n i ln γ i )
(A.8)
where:
γ i = activity coefficient for component i
A-19
A-20
Property Methods
The individual activity coefficients for any system can be
obtained from a derived expression for excess Gibbs energy
function coupled with the Gibbs-Duhem equation. The early
models (Margules, van Laar) provide an empirical
representation of the excess function that limits their
application. The newer models such as Wilson, NRTL and
UNIQUAC utilize the local composition concept and provide an
improvement in their general application and reliability. All of
these models involve the concept of binary interaction
parameters and require that they be fitted to experimental data.
Since the Margules and van Laar models are less complex than
the Wilson, NRTL and UNIQUAC models, they require less CPU
time for solving flash calculations. However, these are older and
more empirically based models and generally give poor results
for strongly non-ideal mixtures such as alcohol-hydrocarbon
systems, particularly for dilute regions. The Chien-Null model
provides the ability to incorporate the different activity models
within a consistent thermodynamic framework. Each binary can
be represented by the model which best predicts its behaviour.
The following table briefly summarizes recommended models for
different applications (for a more detailed review, refer to the
texts “The Properties of Gases & Liquids”17 and “Molecular
Thermodynamics of Fluid Phase Equilibria” 16).
Application
Margules
van Laar
Wilson
Binary Systems
A
A
A
NRTL
A
UNIQUAC
A
Multicomponent
Systems
LA
LA
A
A
A
Azeotropic Systems
A
A
A
A
A
Liquid-Liquid Equilibria
A
A
N/A
A
A
Dilute Systems
?
?
A
A
A
Self-Associating
Systems
?
?
A
A
A
Polymers
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
A
Extrapolation
?
?
G
G
G
A = Applicable; N/A = Not Applicable;? = Questionable; G = Good; LA = Limited Application
Vapour phase non-ideality can be taken into account for each
activity model by selecting the Redlich-Kwong, Peng-Robinson,
or SRK equations of state as the vapour phase model. When one
A-20
Property Methods & Calculations A-21
of the equations of state is used for the vapour phase, the
standard form of the Poynting correction factor is always used
for liquid phase correction. If dimerization occurs in the vapour
phase, the Virial equation of state should be selected as the
vapour phase model.
The binary parameters required for the activity models are
regressed based on the VLE data collected from DECHEMA,
Chemistry Data Series12. There are over 16,000 fitted binary
pairs in the HYSYS library. The structures of all library
components applicable for the UNIFAC VLE estimation are also
in the library. The Poynting correction for the liquid phase is
ignored if ideal solution behaviour is assumed.
All of the binary parameters in the HYSYS library are
regressed using an ideal gas model for the vapour phase.
If you are using the built-in binary parameters, the ideal gas
model should be used. All activity models, with the exception of
the Wilson equation, can automatically calculate three phases
given the correct set of energy parameters. The vapour
pressures used in the calculation of the standard state fugacity
are based on the pure component coefficients in HYSYS' library
using the modified form of the Antoine equation.
HYSYS internally stored binary parameters are NOT
regressed against three phase equilibrium data.
Refer to Section A.3.3
- Activity Model
Vapour Phase Options
for a detailed description
of the Virial option.
When your selected components exhibit dimerization in the
vapour phase, the Virial option should be selected as the vapour
phase model. HYSYS contains fitted parameters for many
carboxylic acids, and can estimate values from pure component
properties if the necessary parameters are not available.
A-21
A-22
Property Methods
General Remarks
The dual model approach for solving chemical systems with
activity models cannot be used with the same degree of
flexibility and reliability that the equations of state can be used
for hydrocarbon systems. However, some checks can be devised
to ensure a good confidence level in property predictions:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Check the property package selected for applicability for
the system considered and see how well it matches the
pure component vapour pressures. Although the
predicted pure component vapour pressures should
normally be acceptable, the parameters are fitted over a
large temperature range. Improved accuracies can be
attained by regressing the parameters over the desired
temperature range.
The automatic UNIFAC generation of energy parameters
in HYSYS is a very useful tool and is available for all
activity models. However, it must be used with caution.
The standard fitted values in HYSYS likely produce a
better fit for the binary system than the parameters
generated by UNIFAC. As a general rule, use the UNIFAC
generated parameters only as a last resort.
Always use experimental data to regress the energy
parameters when possible. The energy parameters in
HYSYS are regressed from experimental data, however,
improved fits are still possible by fitting the parameters
for the narrow operating ranges anticipated. The
regressed parameters are based on data taken at
atmospheric pressures. Exercise caution when
extrapolating to higher or lower pressure (vacuum)
applications.
Check the accuracy of the model for azeotropic systems.
Additional fitting may be required to match the azeotrope
with acceptable accuracy. Check not only for the
temperature, but for the composition as well.
If three phase behaviour is suspected, additional fitting
of the parameters may be required to reliably reproduce
the VLLE equilibrium conditions.
An improvement in matching equilibrium data can be
attained by including a temperature dependency of the
energy parameters. However, depending on the validity
or range of fit, this can lead to misleading results when
extrapolating beyond the fitted temperature range.
By default, HYSYS regresses ONLY the aij parameters while the
bij parameters are set to zero, i.e., the aij term is assumed to be
temperature independent. A temperature dependency can be
incorporated by supplying a value for the bij term. The matrix
A-22
Property Methods & Calculations A-23
for the bij values are displayed by selecting the Bij radio button
to switch matrices (note the zero or blank entries for all the
binary pairs).
The activities for the unknown binaries are generated at preselected compositions and the supplied UNIFAC reference
temperature.
When using the NRTL, General NRTL or Extended NRTL
equations, more than two matrices are available. In general, the
second matrix is the Bij matrix, and the third matrix is the αij
parameter where αij = αji . Any component pair with an aij value
has an associated α value.
Immiscible
This option is included for modeling the solubility of solutes in
two coexisting liquid phases that are relatively immiscible with
one another, such as a H2O-hydrocarbon system. In this system,
the hydrocarbon components (solutes) are relatively insoluble in
the water phase (solvent) whereas the solubility of the H2O in
the hydrocarbon phase can become more significant. The limited
mutual solubility behaviour can be taken into account when
using any activity model with the exception of Wilson.
The Wilson equation does not support LLE equilibrium.
This feature can be implemented for any single component pair
by using the Immiscible radio button. Component i is insoluble
with component j, based on the highlighted cell location.
Alternatively, you can have all j components treated as insoluble
with component i. HYSYS replaces the standard binary
parameters with those regressed specifically for matching the
solubilities of the solutes in both phases.
Both the aij and bij parameters are regressed with the
immiscible option.
A-23
A-24
Property Methods
These parameters were regressed from the mutual solubility
data of n-C5, n-C6, n-C7, and n-C8 in H2O over a temperature
range of 313 K to 473 K.
The solubility of H2O in the hydrocarbon phase and the solubility
of the hydrocarbons in the water phase are calculated based on
the fitted binary parameters regressed from the solubility data
referenced above.
Chien-Null
The Chien Null model provides a consistent framework for
applying existing activity models on a binary by binary basis. In
this manner, the Chien Null model allows you to select the best
activity model for each pair in the case.
The Chien Null model allows three sets of coefficients for each
component pair, accessible through the A, B and C coefficient
matrices. Please refer to the following sections for an
explanation of the terms for each of the models.
Chien Null Form
The Chien-Null generalized multi-component equation can be
expressed as follows:
2 ln Γ i
L






 ∑A j, k x j   ∑R j, k x j 
 ∑Aj, i x j   ∑Rj, i x j 






j
j
j
j
= ---------------------------------------------------- + ∑x k ---------------------------------------------------------- ⋅






 ∑S j, i x j  ∑Vj, i x j k  ∑S j, k x j  ∑V j, k x j






j
j
j
j
(A.9)
A i, k
R i, k
S i, k
V i, k
-------------------- + -------------------- – -------------------– -------------------A
R
S
V
x
x
x
x
∑ j, k j ∑ j, k j ∑ j, k j ∑ j, k j
j
j
j
j
Each of the parameters in this equation are defined specifically
for each of the applicable activity methods.
A-24
Property Methods & Calculations A-25
Description of Terms
The Regular Solution equation uses the following:
L
Ai,
j
2
v i ( δi – δj )
= -------------------------RT
Ri,
j
A i, j
= --------A j, i
V i,
j
= R i,
j
S i,
j
= R i,
j
(A.10)
δi is the solubility parameter in (cal/cm3)½ and viL is the
saturated liquid volume in cm3/mol calculated from:
L
(A.11)
v i = v ω, i ( 5.7 + 3T r, i )
The van Laar, Margules and Scatchard Hamer use the following:
Model
Ai,j
van Laar
ln γ i,
Margules
Ri,j
Si,j
A i, j
---------A j, i
R i,
∞
A i, j
---------A j, i
1
∞
A i, j
---------A j, i
v
----i∞
vj
∞
j
2 ln γ i, j
-------------------------------∞
 ln γ i, j 
-
1 +  ---------------- ln γ j,∞i 
Scatchard Hamer
2 ln γ i, j
-------------------------------∞
 ln γ i, j 
-
1 +  ---------------- ln γ j,∞i 
Vi,j
j
R i,
j
1
∞
∞
vi
----∞
vj
For the van Laar, Margules and Scatchard Hamer equations:
∞
ln γ i,
j
b i, j
= a i, j + -------- + c ij T
T
(A.12)
where:
T = temperature unit must be in K
A-25
A-26
Property Methods
The Equation (A.12) is of a different form than the original
van Laar and Margules equations in HYSYS, which uses an a
+ bT relationship. However, since HYSYS only contains aij
values, the difference should not cause problems.
If you have regressed parameters using HYPROP for any of
the Activity Models supported under the Chien Null, they are
not read in.
The NRTL form for the Chien Null uses:
i, j
= 2τ i, j V i,
j
R i,
j
= 1
Vi,
j
= exp ( – c i, j τ i, j )
S i,
τ i,
= 1
j
j
b i, j
= a i, j + ----------T(K)
(A.13)
The expression for the τ term under the Chien Null incorporates
the R term of HYSYS' NRTL into the values for aij and bij. As
such, the values initialized for NRTL under Chien Null are not the
same as for the regular NRTL. When you select NRTL for a
binary pair, aij is empty (essentially equivalent to the regular
NRTL bij term), bij is initialized and cij is the α term for the
original NRTL, and is assumed to be symmetric.
The General Chien Null equation is:
Ai,
j
b i, j
= a i, j + ----------T( K)
R i,
j
A i, j
= --------A j, i
V i,
j
= C i,
j
S i,
j
= C i,
j
(A.14)
In all cases:
Ai,
i
= 0
R i,
i
= S i,
i
= V i,
i
= 1
(A.15)
With the exception of the Regular Solution option, all models
can utilize six constants, ai,j, aj,i, bi,j, bj,i, ci,j and cj,i for each
component pair. For all models, if the constants are unknown
they can be estimated internally from the UNIFAC VLE or LLE
methods, the Insoluble option, or using Henry's Law coefficients
for appropriate components. For the general Chien Null model,
the cij's are assumed to be 1.
A-26
Property Methods & Calculations A-27
Extended & General NRTL
The Extended and General NRTL models are variations of the
NRTL model. More binary interaction parameters are used in
defining the component activity coefficients. You may apply
either model to systems:
•
•
with a wide boiling point range between components.
where you require simultaneous solution of VLE and LLE,
and there exists a wide boiling point range or
concentration range between components.
You can specify the format for the Equations of τ ij and αij to be
any of the following:
Options
B
C
τ ij = A ij + ------ij + ------ij- + Fij T + G ij ln ( T )
T T2
αij = Alp1 ij + Alp2 ij T
τ ij
B
Aij + ------ij
T
= -------------------RT
αij = Alp1 ij
B
τ ij = A ij + ------ij + F ij T + G ij ln ( T )
T
αij = Alp1 ij + Alp2 ij T
C
τ ij = Aij + Bij t + ------ijT
αij = Alp1 ij + Alp2 ij T
where:
T = temperature in K
t = temperature in °C
B
τ ij = A ij + ------ij
T
αij = Alp1 ij
A-27
A-28
Property Methods
The equations options can be viewed in the Display Form
drop-down list on the Binary Coeffs tab of the Fluid Package
property view.
Depending on which form of the equations that you have
selected, you are able to specify values for the different
component energy parameters. The General NRTL model
provides radio buttons on the Binary Coeffs tab which access the
matrices for the Aij, Bij, Cij, Fij, Gij, Alp1ij and Alp2ij energy
parameters.
The Extended NRTL model allows you to input values for the Aij,
Bij, Cij, Alp1ij and Alp2ij energy parameters by selecting the
appropriate radio button. You do not have a choice of equation
format for τ ij and αij . The following is used:
C
τ ij =  Aij + B ij t + ------ij-

T
(A.16)
αij = Alp1 ij + Alp2 ij
where:
T = temperature in K
t = temperature in °C
Margules
The Margules equation was the first Gibbs excess energy
representation developed. The equation does not have any
theoretical basis, but is useful for quick estimates and data
interpolation. HYSYS has an extended multicomponent Margules
equation with up to four adjustable parameters per binary.
The equation should not be used for extrapolation beyond
the range over which the energy parameters are fitted.
The four adjustable parameters for the Margules equation in
HYSYS are the aij and aji (temperature independent) and the bij
and bji terms (temperature dependent). The equation uses
A-28
Property Methods & Calculations A-29
parameter values stored in HYSYS or any user supplied value for
further fitting the equation to a given set of data.
The Margules activity coefficient model is represented by the
following equation:
2
ln γ i = [ 1.0 – x i ] [ Ai + 2x i ( Bi – Ai ) ]
(A.17)
where:
γ i = activity coefficient of component i
xi = mole fraction of component i
n
Ai =
( a ij + b ij T )
∑ xj -------------------------( 1.0 – x i )
j=1
n
Bi =
( a ji + b ji T )
∑ xj -------------------------( 1.0 – x i )
j=1
T = temperature (K)
n = total number of components
aij = non-temperature dependent energy parameter between
components i and j
bij = temperature dependent energy parameter between
components i and j [1/K]
aji = non-temperature dependent energy parameter between
components j and i
bji = temperature dependent energy parameter between
components j and i [1/K]
NRTL
The NRTL (Non-Random-Two-Liquid) equation, proposed by
Renon and Prausnitz in 1968, is an extension of the original
Wilson equation. It uses statistical mechanics and the liquid cell
theory to represent the liquid structure. These concepts,
combined with Wilson's local composition model, produce an
A-29
A-30
Property Methods
equation capable of representing VLE, LLE and VLLE phase
behaviour.
Like the Wilson equation, the NRTL is thermodynamically
consistent and can be applied to ternary and higher order
systems using parameters regressed from binary equilibrium
data. It has an accuracy comparable to the Wilson equation for
VLE systems.
The NRTL equation in HYSYS contains five adjustable
parameters (temperature dependent and independent) for
fitting per binary pair. The NRTL combines the advantages of the
Wilson and van Laar equations.
•
•
Like the van Laar equation, NRTL is not extremely CPU
intensive and can represent LLE quite well.
Unlike the van Laar equation, NRTL can be used for dilute
systems and hydrocarbon-alcohol mixtures, although it
may not be as good for alcohol-hydrocarbon systems as
the Wilson equation.
Due to the mathematical structure of the NRTL equation, it
can produce erroneous multiple miscibility gaps.
The NRTL equation in HYSYS has the following form:


n


τ
x
G
∑ mj m mj

n
x j G ij 

j=1
m=1
ln γ i = ----------------------------- + ∑ ------------------------  τ ij – -------------------------------------
n


n
n
j=1
∑ xk Gkj 
∑ xk Gki
∑ xk Gkj 


k=1
k=1
k=1
n
∑ τ ji xj Gji
(A.18)
where:
γ i = activity coefficient of component i
Gij = exp [ – τ ij αij ]
a ij + b ij T
τ ij = ---------------------RT
xi = mole fraction of component i
T = temperature (K)
A-30
Property Methods & Calculations A-31
n = total number of components
aij = non-temperature dependent energy parameter between
components i and j (cal/gmol)
bij = temperature dependent energy parameter between
components i and j (cal/gmol-K)
αij = NRTL non-randomness constant for binary interaction
note that αij = αji for all binaries
The five adjustable parameters for the NRTL equation in HYSYS
are the aij, aji, bij, bji, and αij terms. The equation uses
parameter values stored in HYSYS or any user supplied value for
further fitting the equation to a given set of data.
UNIQUAC
The UNIQUAC (UNIversal QUAsi Chemical) equation proposed
by Abrams and Prausnitz in 1975 uses statistical mechanics and
the quasi-chemical theory of Guggenheim to represent the liquid
structure. The equation is capable of representing LLE, VLE and
VLLE with accuracy comparable to the NRTL equation, but
without the need for a non-randomness factor. The UNIQUAC
equation is significantly more detailed and sophisticated than
any of the other activity models. Its main advantage is that a
good representation of both VLE and LLE can be obtained for a
large range of non-electrolyte mixtures using only two
adjustable parameters per binary. The fitted parameters usually
exhibit a smaller temperature dependence which makes them
more valid for extrapolation purposes.
The UNIQUAC equation utilizes the concept of local composition
as proposed by Wilson. Since the primary concentration variable
is a surface fraction as opposed to a mole fraction, it is
applicable to systems containing molecules of very different
sizes and shape, such as polymer solutions. The UNIQUAC
equation can be applied to a wide range of mixtures containing
H2O, alcohols, nitriles, amines, esters, ketones, aldehydes,
halogenated hydrocarbons and hydrocarbons.
HYSYS contains the following four-parameter extended form of
the UNIQUAC equation. The four adjustable parameters for the
A-31
A-32
Property Methods
UNIQUAC equation in HYSYS are the aij and aji terms
(temperature independent), and the bij and bji terms
(temperature dependent).
The equation uses parameter values stored in HYSYS or any
user supplied value for further fitting the equation to a given set
of data.
θi
Φi
Φi
ln γ i = ln  ----- + 0.5Zq i ln  ----- + L i –  -----
xi
Φi
xi
n


 1.0 – ln
L
x
+
q
θ
τ
∑ j j i
∑ j ji


j=1
j=1
n




n  θ τ

j ij
– q i ∑  ------------------------
n

j = 1
 ∑ θ k τ kj
 k=1

(A.19)
where:
γ i = activity coefficient of component i
xi = mole fraction of component i
T = temperature (K)
n = total number of components
Lj = 0.5Z(rj-qj)-rj+1
qi xi
θ i = ------------∑q j xj
j
a ij + b ij T
τ ij = exp – ---------------------RT
ri xi
Φi = -----------∑rj xj
j
Z = 10.0 co-ordination number
aij = non-temperature dependent energy parameter between
components i and j (cal/gmol)
bij = temperature dependent energy parameter between
components i and j (cal/gmol-K)
qi = van der Waals area parameter - Awi /(2.5e9)
A-32
Property Methods & Calculations A-33
Aw = van der Waals area
ri = van der Waals volume parameter - Vwi /(15.17)
Vw = van der Waals volume
Van Laar
The van Laar equation was the first Gibbs excess energy
representation with physical significance. The van Laar equation
in HYSYS is a modified form of that described in “Phase
Equilibrium in Process Design” by H.R. Null. This equation fits
many systems quite well, particularly for LLE component
distributions. It can be used for systems that exhibit positive or
negative deviations from Raoult's Law, however, it cannot
predict maxima or minima in the activity coefficient. Therefore,
it generally performs poorly for systems with halogenated
hydrocarbons and alcohols. Due to the empirical nature of the
equation, caution should be exercised in analyzing multicomponent systems. It also has a tendency to predict two liquid
phases when they do not exist.
The van Laar equation also performs poorly for dilute
systems and cannot represent many common systems, such
as alcohol-hydrocarbon mixtures, with acceptable accuracy.
The van Laar equation has some advantages over the other
activity models in that it requires less CPU time and can
represent limited miscibility as well as three phase equilibrium.
HYSYS uses the following extended, multi-component form of
the van Laar equation.
2
ln γ i = Ai [ 1.0 – z i ] ( 1.0 + E i z i )
(A.20)
where:
γ i = activity coefficient of component i
xi = mole fraction of component i
A-33
A-34
Property Methods
Ai =
n
∑
j=1
Bi =
n
∑
j=1
( a ij + b ij T )
x j --------------------------( 1.0 – x i )
( a ji + b ji T )
x j --------------------------( 1.0 – x i )
Ei = -4.0 if Ai and Bi < 0.0, otherwise 0.0
Ai xi
zi = ------------------------------------------------[ Ai x i + B i ( 1.0 – x i ) ]
T = temperature (K)
n = total number of components
aij = non-temperature dependent energy parameter between
components i and j
bij = temperature dependent energy parameter between
components i and j [1/K]
aji = non-temperature dependent energy parameter between
components j and i
bji = temperature dependent energy parameter between
components j and i [1/K]
The four adjustable parameters for the van Laar equation in
HYSYS are the aij, aji, bij, and bji terms. The equation will use
parameter values stored in HYSYS or any user supplied value for
further fitting the equation to a given set of data.
Wilson
The Wilson equation, proposed by Grant M. Wilson in 1964, was
the first activity coefficient equation that used the local
composition model to derive the Gibbs Excess energy
expression. It offers a thermodynamically consistent approach
to predicting multi-component behaviour from regressed binary
equilibrium data. Our experience also shows that the Wilson
equation can be extrapolated with reasonable confidence to
other operating regions with the same set of regressed energy
parameters.
A-34
Property Methods & Calculations A-35
The Wilson equation cannot be used for problems involving
liquid-liquid equilibrium.
Although the Wilson equation is more complex and requires
more CPU time than either the van Laar or Margules equations,
it can represent almost all non-ideal liquid solutions
satisfactorily except electrolytes and solutions exhibiting limited
miscibility (LLE or VLLE). It performs an excellent job of
predicting ternary equilibrium using parameters regressed from
binary data only.
The Wilson equation gives similar results as the Margules and
van Laar equations for weak non-ideal systems, but consistently
outperforms them for increasingly non-ideal systems.
The Wilson equation in HYSYS requires two to four adjustable
parameters per binary. The four adjustable parameters for the
Wilson equation in HYSYS are the aij and aji (temperature
independent) terms, and the bij and bji terms (temperature
dependent). Depending upon the available information, the
temperature dependent parameters may be set to zero.
Setting all four parameters to zero does not reduce the
binary to an ideal solution, but maintains a small effect due
to molecular size differences represented by the ratio of
molar volumes.
Although the Wilson equation contains terms for temperature
dependency, caution should be exercised when extrapolating.
The Wilson activity model in HYSYS has the following form:
ln γ i = 1.0 – ln
n
n
∑ xj Aij –
∑
j=1
k=1
x k A ki
--------------------n
(A.21)
∑ xj Akj
j=1
A-35
A-36
Property Methods
where:
γ i = activity coefficient of component i
Vj
( a ij + b ij T )
Aij = ----- exp – -------------------------Vi
RT
xi = mole fraction of component i
T = temperature (K)
n = total number of components
aij = non-temperature dependent energy parameter between
components i and j (cal/gmol)
bij = temperature dependent energy parameter between
components i and j (cal/gmol-K)
Vi = molar volume of pure liquid component i in m3/kgmol
(litres/gmol)
The equation uses parameter values stored in HYSYS or any
user supplied value for further fitting the equation to a given set
of data.
Henry’s Law
Henry's Law cannot be selected explicitly as a property method
in HYSYS. However, HYSYS uses Henry's Law when an activity
model is selected and "non-condensable" components are
included within the component list.
HYSYS considers the following components "non-condensable":
Component
Simulation Name
CH4
Methane
C2H6
Ethane
C2H4
Ethylene
C2H2
Acetylene
H2
Hydrogen
He
Helium
Ar
Argon
N2
Nitrogen
O2
Oxygen
A-36
Property Methods & Calculations A-37
Component
Simulation Name
NO
NO
H 2S
H 2S
CO2
CO2
CO
CO
The extended Henry's Law equation in HYSYS is used to model
dilute solute/solvent interactions. "Non-condensable"
components are defined as those components that have critical
temperatures below the temperature of the system you are
modeling. The equation has the following form:
ln H ij = A + B
--- + C ln ( T ) + DT
T
(A.22)
where:
i = solute or "non-condensable" component
j = solvent or condensable component
Hij = Henry's coefficient between i and j in kPa
A = A coefficient entered as aij in the parameter matrix
B = B coefficient entered as aji in the parameter matrix
C = C coefficient entered as bij in the parameter matrix
D = D coefficient entered as bji in the parameter matrix
T = temperature in degrees K
An example of the use of Henry's Law coefficients is illustrated
below. The NRTL activity model is selected as the property
method. There are three components in the Fluid Package, one
of which, ethane, is a "non-condensable" component. On the
Binary Coeffs tab of the Fluid Package property view, you can
view the Henry's Law coefficients for the interaction of ethane
and the other components.
By selecting the Aij radio button, you can view/edit the A and B
coefficients. Select the Bij radio button to enter or view the C
and D coefficients in the Henry's Law equation.
A-37
A-38
Property Methods
Figure A.3
C2 is a "non-condensable"
component. Henry's Law
is used for the interaction
between C2 and the other
components in the Fluid
Package.
HYSYS does not
contain a pre-fitted
Henry's Law A
coefficient for the
ethane/ethanol
pair. You can
estimate it or
provide your own
value.
Henry's Law B
coefficient for the
interaction
between C2 and
H2O.
Henry's
Law A
coefficient
for the
interaction
between C2
and H2O.
Normal binary
interaction
coefficient for
the H2O/
Ethanol pair.
Henry's Law D
coefficient for the
interaction between
C2 and H2O.
Henry's Law C
coefficient for
the interaction
between C2 and
H2O.
If HYSYS does not contain pre-fitted Henry's Law coefficients
and Henry's Law data is not available, HYSYS estimates the
missing coefficients. To estimate a coefficient (A or B in this
case), select the Aij radio button, highlight a binary pair and
press the Individual Pair button. The coefficients are regressed
to fugacities calculated using the Chao-Seader/Prausnitz-Shair
correlations for standard state fugacity and Regular Solution. To
supply your own coefficients you must enter them directly into
the Aij and Bij matrices, as shown previously.
No interaction between "non-condensable" component pairs is
taken into account in the VLE calculations.
A-38
Property Methods & Calculations A-39
A.3.3 Activity Model Vapour
Phase Options
There are several models available for calculating the Vapour
Phase in conjunction with the selected liquid activity model. The
selection depends on specific considerations of your system.
However, in cases when you are operating at moderate
pressures (less than 5 atm), selecting Ideal Gas should be
satisfactory. The choices are described in the following sections.
Ideal
The ideal gas law is used to model the vapour phase. This model
is appropriate for low pressures and for a vapour phase with
little intermolecular interaction.
Peng Robinson, SRK, or RK
For more information,
refer to Section A.3.1 Equations of State.
To model non-idealities in the vapour phase, the PR, SRK, or RK
options can be used in conjunction with an activity model. The
PR and SRK vapour phase models handle the same types of
situations as the PR and SRK equations of state.
When selecting one of these options (PR, SRK, or RK) as the
vapour phase model, you must ensure that the binary
interaction parameters used for the activity model remain
applicable with the selected vapour model. You must keep in
mind that all the binary parameters in the HYSYS Library are
regressed using the ideal gas vapour model.
For applications where you have compressors or turbines being
modeled within your Flowsheet, PR or SRK is superior to either
the RK or ideal vapour model. You obtain more accurate
horsepower values by using PR or SRK, as long as the light
components within your Flowsheet can be handled by the
selected vapour phase model (i.e., C2H4 or C3H6 are fine, but
alcohols are not modeled correctly).
A-39
A-40
Property Methods
Virial
The Virial option enables you to better model vapour phase
fugacities of systems displaying strong vapour phase
interactions. Typically this occurs in systems containing
carboxylic acids or compounds that have the tendency to form
stable H2 bonds in the vapour phase. In these cases, the
fugacity coefficient shows large deviations from ideality, even at
low or moderate pressures.
HYSYS recommends you use the Virial option for organic acid
components (like formic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid,
butyric acid, and heptonic acid).
If one of the mentioned acid is present in the stream, the
entire mixture is treated using Chemical Theory of
dimerization. The degrees of dimerization for each
component is dependent on its association parameter as well
as the cross association with other components.
HYSYS contains temperature dependent coefficients for
carboxylic acids. You can overwrite these by changing the
Association (ii) or Solvation (ij) coefficients from the default
values.13
If the virial coefficients need to be calculated, HYSYS contains
correlations using the following pure component properties:
•
•
•
•
•
•
critical temperature
critical pressure
dipole moment
mean radius of gyration
association parameter
association parameter for each binary pair
A-40
Property Methods & Calculations A-41
This option is restricted to systems where the density is
moderate, typically less than one-half the critical density. The
Virial equation used is valid for the following range:
∑ yi Pc
i
T i=1
P ≤--- -------------------2 m
∑ yi Tc
(A.23)
i
i=1
A.3.4 Semi-Empirical Methods
The Chao-Seader3 and Grayson-Streed6 methods are older,
semi-empirical methods. The GS correlation is an extension of
the CS method with special emphasis on H2. Only the
equilibrium results produced by these correlations is used by
HYSYS. The Lee-Kesler method is used for liquid and vapour
enthalpies and entropies as its results are shown to be superior
to those generated from the CS/GS correlations. This method is
also adopted by and recommended for use in the API Technical
Data Book.
The following table gives an approximate range of applicability
for these two methods, and under what conditions they are
applicable.
Method
Temp (°F)
Temp (°C)
Press (psia)
Press (kPa)
CS
0 to 500
-18 to 260
<1,500
<10,000
GS
0 to 800
-18 to 425
<3,000
<20,000
Conditions of Applicability
For all hydrocarbons (except
CH4):
• 0.5<Tri<1.3 and Prmixture <0.8
If CH4 or H2 is present:
• molal average Tr <0.93
• CH4 mole fraction <0.3
• mole fraction dissolved gases <0.2
When predicting K values for:
• Paraffinic or Olefinic
Mixtures
• Aromatic Mixtures
• liquid phase aromatic mole fraction
<0.5
• liquid phase aromatic mole fraction
>0.5
A-41
A-42
Property Methods
The GS correlation is recommended for simulating heavy
hydrocarbon systems with a high H2 content, such as
hydrotreating units. The GS correlation can also be used for
simulating topping units and heavy ends vacuum applications.
The vapour phase fugacity coefficients are calculated with the
Redlich Kwong equation of state. The pure liquid fugacity
coefficients are calculated using the principle of corresponding
states. Modified acentric factors are included in HYSYS' GS
library for most components. Special functions are incorporated
for the calculation of liquid phase fugacities for N2, CO2 and H2S.
These functions are restricted to hydrocarbon mixtures with less
than five percent of each of the above components.
As with the Vapour Pressure models, H2O is treated using a
combination of the steam tables and the kerosene solubility
charts from the API Data Book. This method of handling H2O is
not very accurate for gas systems. Although three phase
calculations are performed for all systems, it is important to
note that the aqueous phase is always treated as pure H2O with
these correlations.
A.3.5 Vapour Pressure
Property Packages
Vapour pressure K value models may be used for ideal mixtures
at low pressures. This includes hydrocarbon systems such as
mixtures of ketones or alcohols where the liquid phase behaves
approximately ideal. The models may also be used for first
approximations for non-ideal systems.
The Lee-Kesler model is used for enthalpy and entropy
calculations for all vapour pressure models and all
components with the exception of H2O, which is treated
separately with the steam property correlation.
All three phase calculations are performed assuming the
aqueous phase is pure H2O and that H2O solubility in the
hydrocarbon phase can be described using the kerosene
solubility equation from the API Data Book (Figure 9A1.4).
A-42
Property Methods & Calculations A-43
Vapour pressures used in the calculation of the standard state
fugacity are based on HYSYS' library coefficients and a modified
form of the Antoine equation. Vapour pressure coefficients for
hypocomponent may be entered or calculated from either the
Lee-Kesler correlation for hydrocarbons, the Gomez-Thodos
correlation for chemical compounds or the Reidel equation.
Because all of the Vapour Pressure options assume an ideal
vapour phase, they are classified as Vapour Pressure Models.
The Vapour Pressure options include the Modified Antoine,
BraunK10, and EssoK packages.
Approximate ranges of application for each vapour pressure
model are given below:
Model
Temperature
Press (psia)
Press (kPa)
Mod. Antoine
<1.6 Tci
<100
<700
BraunK10
0°F (-17.78°C) <1.6 Tci
<100
<700
EssoK
<1.6 Tci
<100
<700
Modified Antoine Vapour Pressure
Model
The modified Antoine equation assumes the form as set out in
the DIPPR data bank.
B + D ln T + ET F
ln Pvap = A + ------------T+C
(A.24)
where:
A, B, C, D, E and F = fitted coefficients
Pvap = the pressure in kPa
T = the temperature in K
These coefficients are available for all HYSYS library
components. Vapour pressure coefficients for hypocomponent
may be entered or calculated from either the Lee-Kesler
A-43
A-44
Property Methods
correlation for hydrocarbons, the Gomez-Thodos correlation for
chemical compounds, or the Reidel equation.
All enthalpy and entropy calculations are performed using
the Lee-Kesler model.
This model is applicable for low pressure systems that behave
ideally. For hydrocarbon components that you have not provided
vapour pressure coefficients for, the model converts the LeeKesler vapour pressure model directly. As such, crude and
vacuum towers can be modeled with this equation.
When using this method for super-critical components, it is
recommended that the vapour pressure coefficients be replaced
with Henry's Law coefficients. Changing Vapour Pressure
coefficients can only be accomplished if your component is being
installed as a Hypothetical.
Braun K10 Model
The Braun K10 model is strictly applicable to heavy hydrocarbon
systems at low pressures. The model employs the Braun
convergence pressure method, where, given the normal boiling
point of a component, the K value is calculated at system
temperature and 10 psia. The K10 value is then corrected for
pressure using pressure correction charts. The K values for any
components that are not covered by the charts are calculated at
10 psia using the modified Antoine equation and corrected to
system conditions using the pressure correction charts.
Accuracy suffers with this model if there are large amounts of
acid gases or light hydrocarbons. All three phase calculations
assume that the aqueous phase is pure H2O and that H2O
solubility in the hydrocarbon phase can be described using the
kerosene solubility equation from the API Data Book (Figure
9A1.4).
The Lee-Kesler model is used for enthalpy and entropy
calculations for all components with the exception of H2O
which is treated with the steam tables.
A-44
Property Methods & Calculations A-45
Esso K Model
The Esso Tabular model is strictly applicable to hydrocarbon
systems at low pressures. The model employs a modification of
the Maxwell-Bonnel vapour pressure model in the following
format:
log P vap =
∑Ai x
i
(A.25)
where:
Ai = fitted constants
i
Tb
i
----- – 0.0002867T b
i
T
x = ------------------------------------------i
748.1 – 0.2145T b
Tbi = normal boiling point corrected to K = 12
T = absolute temperature
K = Watson characterisation factor
For heavy hydrocarbon systems, the results are comparable to
the modified Antoine equation since no pressure correction is
applied. For non-hydrocarbon components, the K value is
calculated using the Antoine equation. Accuracy suffers if there
is a large amount of acid gases or light hydrocarbons. All three
phase calculations are performed assuming the aqueous phase
is pure H2O and that H2O solubility in the hydrocarbon phase
can be described using the kerosene solubility equation from the
API Data Book (Figure 9A1.4).
The Lee-Kesler model is used for enthalpy and entropy
calculations for all components with the exception of H2O
which is treated with the steam tables.
A-45
A-46
Property Methods
A.3.6 Miscellaneous - Special
Application Methods
Amines Property Package
The amines package contains the thermodynamic models
developed by D.B. Robinson & Associates for their proprietary
amine plant simulator, called AMSIM. Their amine property
package is available as an option with HYSYS giving you access
to a proven third party property package for reliable amine plant
simulation, while maintaining the ability to use HYSYS' powerful
flowsheeting capabilities.
For the Amine property method, the vapour phase is
modeled using the PR model.
The chemical and physical property data base is restricted to
amines and the following components:
Component Class
Specific Components
Acid Gases
CO2, H2S, COS, CS2
CH4 C7H16
Hydrocarbons
Olefins
C2=, C3=
Mercaptans
M-Mercaptan, E-Mercaptan
Non Hydrocarbons
H2, N2, O2, CO, H2O
The equilibrium acid gas solubility and kinetic parameters for the
aqueous alkanolamine solutions in contact with H2S and CO2 are
incorporated into their property package. The amines property
package is fitted to extensive experimental data gathered from
a combination of D.B. Robinson's in-house data, several
unpublished sources, and numerous technical references.
This method does not allow any hypotheticals.
A-46
Property Methods & Calculations A-47
The following table gives the equilibrium solubility limitations
that should be observed when using this property package:
Alkanolamine
Alkanolamine
Concentration (wt%)
Acid Gas Partial
Pressure (psia)
Temperature
(°F)
Monoethanolamine, MEA
0 - 30
0.00001 - 300
77 - 260
Diethanolamine, DEA
0 - 50
0.00001 - 300
77 - 260
Triethanolamine, TEA
0 - 50
0.00001 - 300
77 - 260
Methyldiethanolamine, MDEA*
0 - 50
0.00001 - 300
77 - 260
Diglycolamine, DGA
50 - 70
0.00001 - 300
77 - 260
DIsoPropanolAmine, DIsoA
0 - 40
0.00001 - 300
77 - 260
* The amine mixtures, DEA/MDEA and MEA/MDEA are assumed to be primarily MDEA, so
use the MDEA value for these mixtures.
The data is not correlated for H2S and CO2 loadings greater
than 1.0 mole acid gas/mole alkanolamine.
The absorption of H2S and CO2 by aqueous alkanolamine
solutions involves exothermic reactions. The heat effects are an
important factor in amine treating processes and are properly
taken into account in the amines property package. Correlations
for the heats of solution are set up as a function of composition
and amine type. The correlations were generated from existing
published values or derived from solubility data using the GibbsHelmholtz equation.
The amines package incorporates a specialized stage efficiency
model to permit simulation of columns on a real tray basis. The
stage efficiency model calculates H2S and CO2 component stage
efficiencies based on the tray dimensions given and the
calculated internal tower conditions for both absorbers and
strippers. The individual component stage efficiencies are a
function of pressure, temperature, phase compositions, flow
rates, physical properties, mechanical tray design and
dimensions as well as kinetic and mass transfer parameters.
See Chapter 2 - Column
Operations of the
HYSYS Operations
Guide for details on how
to specify or have HYSYS
calculate the stage
Since kinetic and mass transfer effects are primarily responsible
for the H2S selectivity demonstrated by amine solutions, this
must be accounted for by non unity stage efficiencies.
A-47
A-48
Property Methods
Steam Package
HYSYS includes two steam packages:
•
•
ASME Steam
NBS Steam
Both of these property packages are restricted to a single
component, namely H2O.
ASME Steam accesses the ASME 1967 steam tables. The
limitations of this steam package are the same as those of the
original ASME steam tables, i.e., pressures less than 15,000 psia
and temperatures greater than 32°F (0°C) and less than
1,500°F.
The basic reference is the book “Thermodynamic and Transport
Properties of Steam” - The American Society of Mechanical
Engineers - Prepared by C.A. Meyer, R.B. McClintock, G.J.
Silvestri and R.C. Spencer Jr.11
Selecting NBS_Steam uses the NBS 1984 Steam Tables, which
reportedly has better calculations near the Critical Point.
MBWR
In HYSYS, a 32-term modified BWR equation of state is used.
The modified BWR may be written in the following form:
32
P = RTρ +
(A.26)
∑ Ni Xi
i=1
where:
2
X1 = ρ T
3
X9 = ρ ⁄ T2
2 1⁄ 2
X 10 = ρ T
2
X 11 = ρ
X2 = ρ T
X3 = ρ
8
X17 = ρ ⁄ T
8
4
X18 = ρ ⁄ T
4
X19 = ρ ⁄ ( T2 )
9
7
3
9
2
9
4
X 25 = ( ρ F ) ⁄ T
2
X 26 = ( ρ F ) ⁄ T
X 27 = ( ρ F ) ⁄ T
A-48
Property Methods & Calculations A-49
2
4
X4 = ρ ⁄ T
2
X5 = ρ ⁄ T
X12 = ρ ⁄ T
2
5
3
X14 = ρ ⁄ T
6
3
X15 = ρ ⁄ T
X6 = ρ T
X7 = ρ
X 13 = ρ
6
3
X8 = ρ ⁄ T
X20 = ( ρ F ) ⁄ ( T2 )
3
X 28 = ( ρ F ) ⁄ T
X21 = ( ρ F ) ⁄ ( T3 )
3
X 29 = ( ρ F ) ⁄ T
5
2
X 30 = ( ρ F ) ⁄ T
5
4
X 31 = ( ρ F ) ⁄ T
7
2
X 32 = ( ρ F ) ⁄ T
X 22 = ( ρ F ) ⁄ T
2
7
X16 = ρ ⁄ T
X 23 = ( ρ F ) ⁄ T
X 24 = ( ρ F ) ⁄ T
11
2
11
3
13
2
13
3
13
4
F = exp (-0.0056 r2)
The modified BWR is applicable only for the following pure
components:
Component
Temp (K)
Temp (R)
Max Press (MPa)
Max Press (psia)
Ar
84 - 400
151.2 - 720
100
14,504
CH4
91 - 600
163.8 - 1,080
200
29,008
C2H4
104 - 400
187.2 - 720
40
5,802
C2H6
90 - 600
162. - 1,080
70
10,153
C3H8
85 - 600
153. - 1080
100
14,504
i-C4
114 - 600
205.2 - 1,080
35
5,076
n-C4
135 - 500
243. - 900
70
10,153
CO
68 - 1,000
122.4 - 1,800
30
4,351
CO2
217 - 1,000
390.6 - 1,800
100
14,504
D2
29 - 423
52.2 - 761.4
320
46,412
H2
14 - 400
25.2 - 720
120
17,405
o-H2
14 - 400
25.2 - 720
120
17,405
p-H2
14 - 400
25.2 - 720
120
17,405
He
0.8 - 1,500
1.4 - 2,700
200
29,008
N2
63 - 1,900
113.4 - 3,420
1,000
145,038
O2
54 - 400
97.2 - 720
120
17,405
Xe
161 - 1,300
289.8 - 2,340
100
14,504
The mixtures of different forms of H2 are also acceptable.
The range of use for these components is shown in the above
table.
A-49
A-50
Enthalpy & Entropy Departure
A.4 Enthalpy & Entropy
Departure Calculations
The Enthalpy and Entropy calculations are performed rigorously
by HYSYS using the following exact thermodynamic relations:
V
ID
1
H–H
-------------------- = Z – 1 + ------- ∫
RT
RT
∂P
T   – P dV
 ∂ T V
∞
ID
V
S – S°
P
------------------- = ln Z – ln ------- + ∫
RT
P°
∞
1 ∂P
---   – --1- dV
R  ∂T V V
(A.27)
(A.28)
where:
ID
Ideal Gas Enthalpy basis ( H ) used by HYSYS is equal to the
ideal gas Enthalpy of Formation at 25°C
ID
Ideal Gas Entropy basis ( S ° ) used by HYSYS is equal to the
ideal gas Entropy of Formation at 25°C and 1 atm
With semi-empirical and vapour pressure models, a pure liquid
water phase is generated and the solubility of H2O in the
hydrocarbon phase is determined from the kerosene solubility
model.
A.4.1 Equations of State
For the Peng-Robinson Equation of State, the enthalpy and
entropy departure calculations use the following relations:
0.5
ID
da  V
1 + ( 2 + 1 )b-
H–H
----------------------------------a
–
T
-------------------- = Z – 1 – ------------------ln


1.5
dt
RT
 V + ( 2 0.5 – 1 )b
2 bRT
(A.29)
A-50
Property Methods & Calculations A-51
ID
0.5
S – S°
A
T da  V + ( 2 + 1 )b
P- – ------------------- ---
------------------- = ln ( Z – B ) – ln -----ln  ----------------------------------1.5
R
P° 2 bRT a d t
 V + ( 2 0.5 – 1 )b 
(A.30)
where:
Ideal Gas Enthalpy basis (HID) used by HYSYS changes with
temperature according to the coefficients on the TDep
tab for each individual component
N
a =
N
∑ ∑ xi x j ( a i a j )
0.5
(A.31)
( 1 – k ij )
i = 1 j= 1
For the SRK Equation of State:
ID
1da
H
– H - = Z – 1 – --------------------------a – T ------ ln  1 + --b-

bRT
dt
RT
V
(A.32)
ID
S – S°
P A T da
B
------------------- = ln ( Z – b ) – ln ------- + --- --- ------ ln  1 + ---
RT
P° B a dt
Z
(A.33)
A and B term definitions are provided below:
Peng-Robinson
Soave-Redlich-Kwong
bi
RT ci
0.077796 ----------P ci
RT ci
0.08664 ----------P ci
ai
a ci αi
a ci αi
aci
αi
mi
2
( RT ci )
0.42748 -----------------P ci
2
1 + mi ( 1 – T ri )
1 + m i ( 1 – T ri )
( RT ci )
0.457235 -----------------P ci
0.5
0.5
2
0.37646 + 1.54226ωi – 0.26992ωi
2
0.48 + 1.574ωi – 0.176ωi
A-51
A-52
Enthalpy & Entropy Departure
where:
N
a =
N
∑ ∑ xi x j ( ai aj )
0.5
( 1 – k ij )
i =1 j=1
R = Ideal Gas constant
H = Enthalpy
S = Entropy
subscripts:
ID = Ideal Gas
o = reference state
PRSV
The PRSV equation of state is an extension of the Peng-Robinson
equation using an extension of the κ expression as shown
below:
0.5
αi = [ 1 + κ i ( 1 – T r ) ]
2
(A.34)
0.5
κ i = κ 0i ( 1 + T ri ) ( 0.7 – T ri )
2
3
κ 0i = 0.378893 + 1.4897153ωi – 0.17131848ωi + 0.0196554ωi
This results in the replacement of the αi term in the definitions
of the A and B terms shown previously by the αi term shown
above.
A.4.2 Activity Models
The Liquid enthalpy and entropy for Activity Models is based on
the Cavett Correlation as shown below:
A-52
Property Methods & Calculations A-53
for Tri < 1:
L
ID
 ∆H i ° L ( sb ) ∆H i ° L ( sb )
H –H
----------------------- = max  --------------------------, --------------------------
Tc
Tc
Tc


i
i
i
(A.35)
L
ID
 ∆H i ° L ( sb ) ∆H i ° L ( sp )
H –H
----------------------- = max  --------------------------, --------------------------
Tc
Tc
Tc


i
i
i
(A.36)
1 – a3 ( T r – 0.1 )
∆H i ° L ( sb )
i
-------------------------- = a 1 + a 2 ( 1 – T r )
i
Tc
(A.37)
∆H i ° L ( sp )
2
3
4
2
-------------------------= max ( 0, b 1 + b 2 T r + b 3 T r + b 4 T r + b 5 T r )
i
i
i
i
Tc
(A.38)
for Tri ≥ 1:
where:
i
i
a1, a2, a3 = functions of the Cavett parameter, fitted to
match one known heat of vapourization
The Gas enthalpies and entropies are dependent on the model
chosen to represent the vapour phase behaviour:
•
Ideal Gas:
H = H
T2
S =
ID
S°
=
∫
T1
ID
C v dT
V
------------ + R ln -----2T
V1
(A.39)
(A.40)
A-53
A-54
Enthalpy & Entropy Departure
•
Redlich-Kwong:
ID
1.5
H–H
b
-------------------- = Z – 1 – ---------- ln  1 + ---
bRT 
RT
V
(A.41)
ID
S – S°
A 
P- + ------ ln 1 + B
-------------------- = ln ( Z – b ) – ln --------
Z
RT
P° 2B 
•
(A.42)
Virial Equation:
ID
T dB
H – H - = – ------------ ------- + ( Z – 1 )
------------------V – B dt
RT
(A.43)
ID
S – S°
RT dB
V
V
-------------------- = – ------------- ------- – R ln ------------- + R ln ------V – B dT
R
V–B
V°
(A.44)
where:
B = second virial coefficient of the mixture
A.4.3 Lee-Kesler Option
The SRK and PR are
given in Section A.3.1
- Equations of State.
The Lee and Kesler method is an effort to extend the method
originally proposed by Pitzer to temperatures lower than 0.8 Tr.
Lee and Kesler expanded Pitzer's method expressing the
compressibility factor as:
ω
Z = Z ° + -----r ( Z r – Z ° )
ω
(A.45)
where:
Z o = the compressibility factor of a simple fluid
Z r = the compressibility factor of a reference fluid
A-54
Property Methods & Calculations A-55
They chose the reduced form of the BWR equation of state to
represent both Z o and Z r:
D 
B C D
γ 
Z = 1 + ----- + ------ + ------ + ------------3 β – ------ e
3
5
2
2
V r V r V r Tr V r 
Vr 
γ
-----–  2
V r 
(A.46)
where:
VP
Vr = ---------c
RT c
b
b
b
B = b 1 – ----2- – -----3 – -----4
Tr T 2 T 4
r
r
c
c
C = c 1 – ----2- + -----3
3
T r Tr
d
D = d 1 + ----2Tr
The constants in these equations were determined using
experimental compressibility and enthalpy data. Two sets of
constants, one for the simple fluid ( ω° = 0 ) and one for the
r
reference fluid ( ω = 0.3978, n – C8 ) were determined.
The Enthalpy and Entropy departures are computed as follows:
b3
b4
c3


b 2 + 2 ----- + 3 -----2 c 2 – 3 -----2


d2


Tr
Tr
Tr
H–H
-------------------- = T r  Z – 1 – ------------------------------------- – -------------------- – --------------- + 3E 
2
5
RT c


5T r V r
T r Vr
2T r Vr




(A.47)
b4
b
c
b 1 + -----3 + 2 -----3 c 1 – 3 -----3
2
2
S – S°
d1
Tr
Tr
T
P
------------------- = ln Z – ln  ------- – --------------------------------– -------------------r- – -------- + 2E


2
2
P°
R
Vr
5V r
2V r
(A.48)
ID
ID
A-55
A-56
Enthalpy & Entropy Departure
γ

–  ----- 
c4 

  Vr  
γ
- β + 1 –  β + 1 + ------ e
E = -----------
3 
2


2T r γ 
Vr 


(A.49)
For mixtures, the Critical Properties are defined as follows:
N
∑ xi ωi
ω=
i=1
z c = 0.2905 – 0.0851ωi
i
Z c RTc
i
i
V c = ----------------i
Pc
i
1
V c = --8
1
T c = --------8V c
N
∑
N
∑
1 3
1
N
--- 
 --33
∑ xi x j Vci + Vcj 
i=1 j=1
N
1
1 3
--- 
 --30.5
3
∑ xi xj Vci + Vcj  ( Tci Tcj )
i=1 j=1
RT c
Pc = ( 0.2905 – 0.085ω) --------Vc
Fugacity Coefficient
The fugacity coefficient calculations for SRK and Peng Robinson
models is shown below.
Soave-Redlich-Kwong

 b
a 1  0.5 N
Pb- + ( Z – 1 ) b----i – --------- --- 2a i ∑ x j a 0.5
ln φi = – ln  Z – -----( 1 – k ij ) – ----i ln  1 + --b-
j

 b

b bRT a 
RT
V


j=1
(A.50)
A-56
Property Methods & Calculations A-57
Peng Robinson
N

 b
0.5
bi
1
V + ( 2 + 1 )b
a
0.5
Pb
 – ----i ln ----------------------------------- ---  2a 0.5
ln φi = – ln  Z – ------- + ( Z – 1 ) ---- – ------------------x
a
(
1
–
k
)
i
j
j
ij
∑
1.5
0.5


b 2 bRT a
RT
b
V – ( 2 – 1 )b


j=1
(A.51)
A.5 Physical & Transport
Properties
The physical and transport properties that HYSYS calculates for
a given phase are viscosity, density, thermal conductivity, and
surface tension. The models used for the transport property
calculations are all pre-selected to yield the best fit for the
system under consideration. For example, the corresponding
states model proposed by Ely and Hanley is used for viscosity
predictions of light hydrocarbons (NBP<155), the Twu
methodology for heavier hydrocarbons, and a modification of
the Letsou-Stiel method for predicting the liquid viscosities of
non-ideal chemical systems.
A complete description of the models used for the prediction of
the transport properties can be found in the references listed in
each sub-section. All these models are modified by Hyprotech to
improve the accuracy of the correlations.
In the case of multiphase streams, the transport properties for
the mixed phase are meaningless and are reported as
<empty>, although the single phase properties are known.
There is an exception with the pipe and heat exchanger
operations. For three-phase fluids, HYSYS uses empirical mixing
rules to determine the apparent properties for the combined
liquid phases.
A-57
A-58
Physical & Transport Properties
A.5.1 Liquid Density
Saturated liquid volumes are obtained using a corresponding
states equation developed by R. W. Hankinson and G. H.
Thompson7 which explicitly relates the liquid volume of a pure
component to its reduced temperature and a second parameter
termed the characteristic volume. This method is adopted as an
API standard. The pure compound parameters needed in the
corresponding states liquid density (COSTALD) calculations are
taken from the original tables published by Hankinson and
Thompson, and the API Data Book for components contained in
HYSYS' library.
The parameters for hypothetical components are based on the
API gravity and the generalized Lu equation. Although the
COSTALD method was developed for saturated liquid densities,
it can be applied to sub-cooled liquid densities, i.e., at pressures
greater than the vapour pressure, using the Chueh and
Prausnitz correction factor for compressed fluids. It is used to
predict the density for all systems whose pseudo-reduced
temperature is below 1.0. Above this temperature, the equation
of state compressibility factor is used to calculate the liquid
density.
Hypocomponents generated in the Oil Characterization
Environment have their densities either calculated from internal
correlations or generated from input curves. Given a bulk
density, the densities of the hypocomponent are adjusted such
that:
1.0
ρ bulk = -----------xi
∑------ρ i°
(A.52)
The characteristic volume for each hypocomponent is calculated
using the adjusted densities and the physical properties. The
calculated characteristic volumes are then adjusted such that
the bulk density calculated from the COSTALD equation matches
the density calculated using the above equation. This ensures
that a given volume of fluid contains the same mass whether it
A-58
Property Methods & Calculations A-59
is calculated with the sum of the component densities or the
COSTALD equation.
A.5.2 Vapour Density
The density for all vapour systems at a given temperature and
pressure is calculated using the compressibility factor given by
the equation of state or by the appropriate vapour phase model
for Activity Models.
A.5.3 Viscosity
HYSYS automatically selects the model best suited for predicting
the phase viscosities of the system under study. The model
selected is from one of the three available in HYSYS: a
modification of the NBS method (Ely and Hanley), Twu's model,
or a modification of the Letsou-Stiel correlation. HYSYS selects
the appropriate model using the following criteria:
Chemical System
Vapour Phase
Liquid Phase
Lt Hydrocarbons (NBP<155°F)
Mod Ely & Hanley
Mod Ely & Hanley
Hvy Hydrocarbons (NBP>155°F)
Mod Ely & Hanley
Twu
Non-Ideal Chemicals
Mod Ely & Hanley
Mod Letsou-Stiel
All of the models are based on corresponding states principles
and are modified for more reliable application. Internal
validation showed that these models yielded the most reliable
results for the chemical systems shown. Viscosity predictions for
light hydrocarbon liquid phases and vapour phases were found
to be handled more reliably by an in-house modification of the
original Ely and Hanley model, heavier hydrocarbon liquids were
more effectively handled by Twu's model, and chemical systems
were more accurately handled by an in-house modification of
the original Letsou-Stiel model.
A complete description of the original corresponding states
(NBS) model used for viscosity predictions is presented by Ely
and Hanley in their NBS publication. The original model is
modified to eliminate the iterative procedure for calculating the
A-59
A-60
Physical & Transport Properties
system shape factors. The generalized Leech-Leland shape
factor models are replaced by component specific models.
HYSYS constructs a PVT map for each component using the
COSTALD for the liquid region. The shape factors are adjusted
such that the PVT map can be reproduced using the reference
fluid.
The shape factors for all the library components are already
regressed and included in the Pure Component Library.
Hypocomponent shape factors are regressed using estimated
viscosities. These viscosity estimations are functions of the
hypocomponent Base Properties and Critical Properties.
Hypocomponents generated in the Oil Characterization
Environment have the additional ability of having their shape
factors regressed to match kinematic or dynamic viscosity
assays.
The general model employs CH4 as a reference fluid and is
applicable to the entire range of non-polar fluid mixtures in the
hydrocarbon industry. Accuracy for highly aromatic or
naphthenic crudes is increased by supplying viscosity curves
when available, since the pure component property generators
were developed for average crude oils. The model also handles
H2O and acid gases as well as quantum gases.
Although the modified NBS model handles these systems very
well, the Twu method was found to do a better job of predicting
the viscosities of heavier hydrocarbon liquids. The Twu model16
is also based on corresponding states principles, but has
implemented a viscosity correlation for n-alkanes as its
reference fluid instead of CH4. A complete description of this
model is given in the paper entitled “Internally Consistent
Correlation for Predicting Liquid Viscosities of Petroleum
Fractions”21.
For chemical systems the modified NBS model of Ely and Hanley
is used for predicting vapour phase viscosities, whereas a
modified form of the Letsou-Stiel model is used for predicting
the liquid viscosities. This method is also based on
corresponding states principles and was found to perform
satisfactorily for the components tested.
A-60
Property Methods & Calculations A-61
For more information on
the Tabular features, refer
to Chapter 2 - Fluid
Package.
The shape factors contained in the HYSYS Pure Component
Library are fit to match experimental viscosity data over a broad
operating range. Although this yields good viscosity predictions
as an average over the entire range, improved accuracy over a
narrow operating range can be achieved by using the Tabular
features.
A.5.4 Liquid Phase Mixing
Rules for Viscosity
The estimates of the apparent liquid phase viscosity of
immiscible Hydrocarbon Liquid - Aqueous mixtures are
calculated using the following "mixing rules":
•
If the volume fraction of the hydrocarbon phase is
greater than or equal to 0.5, the following equation is
used22:
µeff = µoil e
3.6 ( 1 – ν oil )
(A.53)
where:
µeff = apparent viscosity
µoil = viscosity of Hydrocarbon phase
ν oil = volume fraction Hydrocarbon phase
•
If the volume fraction of the hydrocarbon phase is less
than 0.33, the following equation is used5:
 µoil + 0.4µH 2 O
- µH O
µeff = 1 + 2.5ν oil  ---------------------------------2
 µoil + µH 2 O 
(A.54)
where:
µeff = apparent viscosity
µoil = viscosity of Hydrocarbon phase
µH
2O
= viscosity of Aqueous phase
ν oil = volume fraction Hydrocarbon phase
A-61
A-62
Physical & Transport Properties
•
If the volume of the hydrocarbon phase is between 0.33
and 0.5, the effective viscosity for combined liquid phase
is calculated using a weighted average between
Equation (A.53) and Equation (A.54).
The remaining properties of the pseudo phase are calculated as
follows:
MW eff =
ρ eff
∑xi MWi
1
= --------------xi 
∑ ---ρ
(molecular weight)
(mixture density)
(A.55)
i
Cp
eff
=
∑xi Cp
(mixture specific heat)
i
A.5.5 Thermal Conductivity
As in viscosity predictions, a number of different models and
component specific correlations are implemented for prediction
of liquid and vapour phase thermal conductivities. The text by
Reid, Prausnitz and Poling18 was used as a general guideline in
determining which model was best suited for each class of
components.
For hydrocarbon systems the corresponding states method
proposed by Ely and Hanley4 is generally used. The method
requires molecular weight, acentric factor and ideal heat
capacity for each component. These parameters are tabulated
for all library components and may either be input or calculated
for hypothetical components. It is recommended that all of
these parameters be supplied for non-hydrocarbon hypotheticals
to ensure reliable thermal conductivity coefficients and enthalpy
departures.
The modifications to the method are identical to those for the
viscosity calculations. Shape factors calculated in the viscosity
routines are used directly in the thermal conductivity equations.
The accuracy of the method depends on the consistency of the
original PVT map.
A-62
Property Methods & Calculations A-63
For vapour phase thermal conductivity predictions, the Misic
and Thodos, and Chung et al.16 methods are used (except for
H2O, C1, H2, CO2, NH3 which use a polynomial for pure
components). The effect of higher pressure on thermal
conductivities is taken into account by the Chung et al. method.
For liquid phase thermal conductivity predictions, the following
methods are used:
•
•
•
•
•
For pure water, the Steam Tables is used.
For water, C1, C2, C3, 3M-3Epentane, propene, DEG,
TEG, EG, He, H2, Ethylene, Ammonia, a proprietary
polynomial correlation is used.
If both water and DEG are present in the mixture,
additional corrections are made for these two
compounds.
For Hydrocarbons with MW > 140 and TR < 0.8, a
modified Missenard & Reidel method16 is used.
For Alcohol, Ester, and other Hydrocarbons not included
in the previous categories, the Latini method16 is used.
For all other compounds, the Sato-Reidel method is used.
The liquid phase thermal conductivity is calculated using the
following mixing rule:
3

1 ⁄ 3
λ mix =  ∑x i λ i 


(A.56)
i
where:
λ mix = liquid thermal conductivity of the mixture
λ i = liquid thermal conductivity of component i
x i = mole fraction of component i
A-63
A-64
Physical & Transport Properties
As with viscosity, the thermal conductivity for two liquid phases
is approximated by using empirical mixing rules for generating a
single pseudo liquid phase property. The thermal conductivity
for this pseudo liquid phase is calculated by the following
equation15:
λL
m ix
=
∑∑φL φL λ L
i
j
(A.57)
ij
i j
where:
λL
mix
= liquid thermal conductivity of the combined two liquid
phases
2
λ L = --------------------------------------------------ij
(1 ⁄ λL ) + (1 ⁄ λL )
i
j
λ L = liquid thermal conductivity of liquid phase i at
i
temperature T
λ L = liquid thermal conductivity of liquid phase j at
j
temperature T
xL VL
i
i
φL = ------------------------i
x
V
∑L L
k
k
k=1
x L = molar phase fraction of liquid phase i
i
V L = molar volume of liquid phase i
i
x L = molar phase fraction of liquid phase k
k
V L = molar volume of liquid phase k
k
For a two liquid phase system the equation simplifies to:
λL
2
mix
2
= φL λ L + 2φL φL λ 12 + φL λ L
1
1
1
2
2
(A.58)
2
A-64
Property Methods & Calculations A-65
A.5.6 Surface Tension
Surface tensions for hydrocarbon systems are calculated using a
modified form of the Brock and Bird equation17. The equation
expresses the surface tension ( σ ) as a function of the reduced
and critical properties of the component. The basic form of the
equation was used to regress parameters for each family of
components.
2⁄ 3 1⁄ 3
Tc Q( 1
σ = Pc
a
– TR ) × b
(A.59)
where:
σ = surface tension (dynes/cm2)
T BR × ln Pc
Q = 0.1207  1 + --------------------------- – 0.281

1.0 – T BR 
TBR = reduced boiling point temperature (Tb/Tc)
a = parameter fitted for each chemical class
b = c o + c 1 ω + c 2 ω2 + c 3 ω3 (parameter fitted for each chemical
class, expanded as a polynomial in acentricity)
For aqueous systems, HYSYS employs a polynomial to predict
the surface tension.
HYSYS predicts only liquid-vapour surface tensions.
A.5.7 Heat Capacity
Heat Capacity is calculated using a rigorous Cv value whenever
HYSYS can. The method used is given by the following
equations:
2
C p – C v = – T ⋅ ( dV ⁄ dT ) ⁄ ( dV ⁄ dT )
(A.60)
A-65
A-66
Volumetric Flow Rate Calculations
However, when ever this equation fails to provide an answer,
HYSYS falls back to the semi-ideal Cp/Cv method by computing
Cp/Cv as Cp/(Cp-R), which is only approximate and valid for ideal
gases. Examples of when HYSYS uses the ideal method are:
•
•
•
•
Equation (A.60) fails to return an answer
The stream has a solid phase
abs(dV/dP) < 1e-12
Cp/Cv < 0.1or Cp/Cv > 20 - this is outside the range of
applicability of the equation used so HYSYS falls back to
the ideal method
A.6 Volumetric Flow Rate
Calculations
HYSYS has the ability to interpret and produce a wide
assortment of flow rate data. It can accept several types of flow
rate information for stream specifications as well as report back
many different flow rates for streams, their phases and their
components. One drawback of the large variety available is that
it often leads to some confusion as to what exactly is being
specified or reported, especially when volumetric flow rates are
involved.
In the following sections, the available flow rates are listed, each
corresponding density basis is explained, and the actual
formulation of the flow rate calculations is presented. For
volumetric flow rate data that is not directly accepted as a
stream specification, a final section is provided that outlines
techniques to convert your input to mass flow rates.
A.6.1 Available Flow Rates
Many types of flow rates appear in HYSYS output. However, only
a subset of these are available for stream specifications.
A-66
Property Methods & Calculations A-67
Flow Rates Reported in the Output
The flow rate types available through the numerous reporting
methods - property views, workbook, PFD, specsheets, and so
forth are:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Molar Flow
Mass Flow
Std Ideal Liq Vol Flow
Liq Vol Flow @Std Cond
Actual Volume Flow
Std Gas Flow
Actual Gas Flow
Flow Rates Available for
Specification
The following flow rate types are available for stream
specifications:
•
•
•
Molar Flows
Mass Flows
LiqVol Flows
A.6.2 Liquid & Vapour Density
Basis
The volumetric flow rate
reference state is defined
as 60°F and 1 atm when
using Field units or 15°C
and 1 atm when using SI
units.
Actual Densities are
calculated at the stream
Temperature and
Pressure.
All calculations for volumetric stream flows are based on density.
HYSYS uses the following density basis:
Density Basis
Description
Std Ideal Liq
Mass Density
This is calculated based on ideal mixing of pure
component ideal densities at 60°F.
Liq Mass Density
@Std Cond
This is calculated rigorously at the standard reference
state for volumetric flow rates.
Actual Liquid
Density
This is calculated rigorously at the flowing conditions of
the stream (i.e., at stream T and P).
Standard Vapour
Density
This is determined directly from the Ideal Gas law.
Actual Vapour
Density
This is calculated rigorously at the flowing conditions of
the stream (i.e., at stream T and P).
A-67
A-68
Volumetric Flow Rate Calculations
Calculation of Standard & Actual
Liquid Densities
The Standard and Actual liquid densities are calculated
rigorously at the appropriate T and P using the internal methods
of the chosen property package. Flow rates based upon these
densities automatically take into account any mixing effects
exhibited by non-ideal systems. Thus, these volumetric flow
rates may be considered as "real world".
Calculation of Standard Ideal Liquid
Mass Density
Contrary to the rigorous densities, the Standard Ideal Liquid
Mass density of a stream does not take into account any mixing
effects due to its simplistic assumptions. Thus, flow rates that
are based upon it do not account for mixing effects and are
more empirical in nature. The calculation is as follows:
1
Ideal Density Stream = ------------------xi
∑-------------Ideal
ρi
(A.61)
where:
xi = molar fraction of component i
Ideal
ρi
= pure component Ideal Liquid density
HYSYS contains Ideal Liquid densities for all components in the
Pure Component Library. These values are determined in one of
three ways, based on the characteristics of the component, as
described below:
•
Case 1 - For any component that is a liquid at 60°F and 1
atm, the data base contains the density of the
component at 60°F and 1 atm.
A-68
Property Methods & Calculations A-69
•
•
Case 2 - For any component that can be liquified at 60°F
and pressures greater than 1 atm, the data base
contains the density of the component at 60°F and
Saturation Pressure.
Case 3 - For any component that is non-condensable at
60°F under any pressure, i.e., 60°F is greater than the
critical temperature of the component, the data base
contains GPA tabular values of the equivalent liquid
density. These densities were experimentally determined
by measuring the displacement of hydrocarbon liquids by
dissolved non-condensable components.
For all hypothetical components, the Standard Liquid density
(Liquid Mass Density @Std Conditions) in the Base Properties is
used in the Ideal Liquid density (Std Ideal Liq Mass Density)
calculation. If a density is not supplied, the HYSYS estimated
liquid mass density (at standard conditions) is used. Special
treatment is given by the Oil Characterization feature to its
hypocomponent such that the ideal density calculated for its
streams match the assay, bulk property, and flow rate data
supplied in the Oil Characterization Environment.
A.6.3 Formulation of Flow Rate
Calculations
The various procedures used to calculate each of the available
flow rates are detailed below, based on a known molar flow.
Molar Flow Rate
Total Molar Flow = Molar Flow Stream
(A.62)
Mass Flow
Mass Flow = Total Molar Flow × MW Stream
(A.63)
A-69
A-70
Volumetric Flow Rate Calculations
Std Ideal Liq Vol Flow
Even if a stream is all
vapour, it still has a Liq
Volume flow, based upon
the stream's Standard
Ideal Liquid Mass density,
whose calculation is
detailed in the previous
section.
This volumetric flow rate is calculated using the ideal density of
the stream and thus is somewhat empirical in nature.
Total Molar Flow × MW Stream
LiqVolFlow = --------------------------------------------------------------------------Ideal DensityStream
(A.64)
Liq Vol Flow @Std Cond
This volumetric flow rate is calculated using a rigorous density
calculated at standard conditions, and reflects non-ideal mixing
effects.
Molar Flow × MW
Std Liquid Volume Flow = ---------------------------------------------Std Liq Density
(A.65)
Actual Volume Flow
This volumetric flow rate is calculated using a rigorous liquid
density calculation at the actual stream T and P conditions, and
reflects non-ideal mixing effects.
Molar Flow × MW
Actual Volume Flow = ---------------------------------------------Density
(A.66)
Standard Gas Flow
Standard gas flow is based on the molar volume of an ideal gas
at standard conditions. It is a direct conversion from the
stream's molar flow rate, based on the following:
•
•
Ideal Gas at 60°F and 1 atm occupies 379.46 ft3/lbmole
Ideal Gas at 15°C and 1 atm occupies 23.644 m3/kgmole
A-70
Property Methods & Calculations A-71
Actual Gas Flow
This volumetric flow rate is calculated using a rigorous vapour
density calculation at the actual stream T and P conditions, and
reflects non-ideal mixing and compressibility effects.
Molar Flow × MW
Actual Gas Flow = ---------------------------------------------Density
(A.67)
A.6.4 Volumetric Flow Rates as
Specifications
If you require that the flow rate of your stream be specified
based on actual density or standard density as opposed to
Standard Ideal Mass Liquid density, you must use one of the
following procedures:
Liq Vol Flow @Std Cond
1. Specify the composition of your stream.
2. Use the standard ideal liquid mass density reported for the
stream and calculate the corresponding mass flow rate
either manually, or in the SpreadSheet.
3. Use this calculated mass flow as the specification for the
stream.
Actual Liquid Volume Flow
1. Specify the composition and the flowing conditions (T and P)
of your stream.
2. Use the density reported for the stream and calculate the
corresponding mass flow rate either manually, or in our
spreadsheet.
3. Use this calculated mass flow as the specification for the
stream.
A-71
A-72
Flash Calculations
A.7 Flash Calculations
Specified variables can
only be re-specified by
you or through Recycle
Adjust, or SpreadSheet
operations. They do not
change through any heat
or material balance
calculations.
Rigorous three phase calculations are performed for all
equations of state and activity models with the exception of
Wilson's equation, which only performs two phase vapour-liquid
calculations. As with the Wilson Equation, the Amines and
Steam property packages only support two phase equilibrium
calculations.
HYSYS uses internal intelligence to determine when it can
perform a flash calculation on a stream, and then what type of
flash calculation needs to be performed on the stream. This is
based completely on the degrees of freedom concept. Once the
composition of a stream and two property variables are known,
(vapour fraction, temperature, pressure, enthalpy or entropy)
one of which must be either temperature or pressure, the
thermodynamic state of the stream is defined. When HYSYS
recognizes that a stream is thermodynamically defined, it
performs the correct flash automatically in the background. You
never have to instruct HYSYS to perform a flash calculation.
Property variables can either be specified by you or backcalculated from another unit operation. A specified variable is
treated as an independent variable. All other stream properties
are treated as dependent variables and are calculated by
HYSYS.
If a flash calculation is
performed on a stream,
HYSYS knows all the
property values of that
stream, i.e.,
thermodynamic,
physical and transport
properties.
In this manner, HYSYS also recognizes when a stream is
overspecified. For example, if you specify three stream
properties plus composition, HYSYS prints out a warning
message that an inconsistency exists for that stream. This also
applies to streams where an inconsistency is created through
HYSYS calculations.
For example, if a stream Temperature and Pressure are specified
in a flowsheet, but HYSYS back-calculates a different
temperature for that stream as a result of an enthalpy balance
across a unit operation, HYSYS generates an Inconsistency
message.
A-72
Property Methods & Calculations A-73
HYSYS automatically performs the appropriate flash
calculation when it recognizes that sufficient stream
information is known. This information is either specified by
the user or calculated by an operation.
Depending on the known stream information, HYSYS
performs one of the following flashes: T-P, T-VF, T-H, T-S, PVF, P-H, or P-S.
A.7.1 T-P Flash Calculation
The independent variables for this type of flash calculation are
the temperature and pressure of the system, while the
dependent variables are the vapour fraction, enthalpy, and
entropy.
See Section 2.4.4 Stability Test Tab for
options on how to
instruct HYSYS to
perform phase stability
tests.
With the equations of state and activity models, rigorous
calculations are performed to determine the co-existence of
immiscible liquid phases and the resulting component
distributions by minimization of the Gibbs free energy term. For
vapour pressure models or the semi-empirical methods, the
component distribution is based on the Kerosene solubility data
(Figure 9A1.4 of the API Data Book).
If the mixture is single-phase at the specified conditions, the
property package calculates the isothermal compressibility (dv/
dp) to determine if the fluid behaves as a liquid or vapour. Fluids
in the dense-phase region are assigned the properties of the
phase that best represents their current state.
The material solids appear in the liquid phase of two-phase
mixtures, and in the heavy (aqueous/slurry) phase of threephase systems. Therefore, when a separator is solved using
a T-P flash, the vapour phase is identical regardless of
whether or not solids are present in the feed to the flash
drum.
Use caution in specifying solids with systems that are
otherwise all vapour. Small amounts of non-solids may
appear in the "liquid" phase.
A-73
A-74
Flash Calculations
A.7.2 Vapour Fraction Flash
Vapour fraction and either temperature or pressure are the
independent variables for this type of calculation. This class of
calculation embodies all fixed quality points including bubble
points (vapour pressure) and dew points.
To perform bubble point calculation on a stream of known
composition, simply specify the Vapour Fraction of the stream as
0.0 and define the temperature or pressure at which the
calculation is desired. For a dew point calculation, simply specify
the Vapour Fraction of the stream as 1.0 and define the
temperature or pressure at which the dew point calculation is
desired. Like the other types of flash calculations, no initial
estimates are required.
The vapour fraction is always shown in terms of the total
number of moles. For example, the vapour fraction (VF)
represents the fraction of vapour in the stream, while the
fraction, (1.0 - VF), represents all other phases in the stream
(i.e., a single liquid, 2 liquids, a liquid and a solid).
All of the solids appear in the liquid phase.
Dew Points
Given a vapour fraction specification of 1.0 and either
temperature or pressure, the property package calculates the
other dependent variable (P or T). If temperature is the second
independent variable, HYSYS calculates the dew point pressure.
Likewise, if pressure is the independent variable, then the dew
point temperature is calculated. Retrograde dew points may be
calculated by specifying a vapour fraction of -1.0. It is important
to note that a dew point that is retrograde with respect to
temperature can be normal with respect to pressure and vice
versa.
A-74
Property Methods & Calculations A-75
Bubble Points/Vapour Pressure
A vapour fraction specification of 0.0 defines a bubble point
calculation. Given this specification and either temperature or
pressure, the property package calculates the unknown T or P
variable. As with the dew point calculation, if the temperature is
known, HYSYS calculates the bubble point pressure and
conversely, given the pressure, HYSYS calculates the bubble
point temperature. For example, by fixing the temperature at
100°F, the resulting bubble point pressure is the true vapour
pressure at 100°F.
Vapour pressure and bubble point pressure are synonymous.
Quality Points
Bubble and dew points are special cases of quality point
calculations. Temperatures or pressures can be calculated for
any vapour quality between 0.0 and 1.0 by specifying the
desired vapour fraction and the corresponding independent
variable. If HYSYS displays an error when calculating vapour
fraction, then this means that the specified vapour fraction
doesn't exist under the given conditions, i.e., the specified
pressure is above the cricondenbar, or the given temperature
lies to the right of the cricondentherm on a standard P-T
envelope.
HYSYS calculates the retrograde condition for the specified
vapour quality if the vapour fraction is input as a negative
number.
A-75
A-76
Flash Calculations
A.7.3 Enthalpy Flash
Given the enthalpy and either the temperature or pressure of a
stream, the property package calculates the unknown
dependent variables. Although the enthalpy of a stream cannot
be specified directly, it often occurs as the second property
variable as a result of energy balances around unit operations
such as valves, heat exchangers and mixers.
If a specified amount of energy is to be added to a stream,
this may be accomplished by specifying the energy stream
into either a Cooler/Heater or Balance operation.
If HYSYS responds with an error message, and cannot find the
specified property (temperature or pressure), this probably
means that an internally set temperature or pressure bound was
encountered. Since these bounds are set at quite large values,
there is generally some erroneous input that is directly or
indirectly causing the problem, such as an impossible heat
exchange.
A.7.4 Entropy Flash
Given the entropy and either the temperature or pressure of a
stream, the property package calculates the unknown
dependent variables.
A.7.5 Electrolyte Flash
The electrolyte stream flash differs from the HYSYS material
stream flash to handle the complexities of speciation for
aqueous electrolyte systems.
Refer to the HYSYS OLI
Interface Reference
Guide for detailed
information on
electrolyte flash and
aqueous
thermodynamics.
The HYSYS OLI Interface package is an interface to the OLI
Engine (OLI Systems) that enables simulations within HYSYS
using the full functionality and capabilities of the OLI Engine for
flowsheet simulation.
A-76
Property Methods & Calculations A-77
When the OLI_Electrolyte property package is associated with
material streams, the streams exclusively become electrolyte
material streams in the flowsheet. That is, the stream conducts
a simultaneous phase and reaction equilibrium flash. For the
model used and the reactions involved in the flash calculation,
refer to the HYSYS OLI Interface Reference Guide.
An electrolyte material stream in HYSYS can perform the
following type of flashes:
•
•
•
•
•
TP Flash
PH Flash
TH Flash
PV Flash
TV Flash
Due to the involvement of reactions in the stream flash, the
equilibrium stream flash may result in a different molar flow and
composition from the specified value. Therefore, mass and
energy are conserved for an electrolyte material stream against
the HYSYS stream for mass, molar and energy balances.
Refer to Section 1.7 Range of Applicability
of the HYSYS OLI
Interface Reference
Guide for more
information on the
limitations of the HEO
models.
Limitations exist in the HYSYS OLI Interface package in the
calculation of the stream flash results. The calculation for the
electrolyte flash results must fall within the following physical
ranges to be valid.
•
•
•
•
composition of H2O in aqueous phase must be > 0.65.
Temperature must be between 0 and 300°C.
Pressure must be between 0 and 1500 atm.
Ionic strength must be between 0 and 30 mole/kg-H2O.
A.7.6 Handling of Water
Water is handled differently depending on the correlation being
used. The PR and PRSV equations are enhanced to handle H2O
rigorously whereas the semi-empirical and vapour pressure
models treat H2O as a separate phase using steam table
correlations.
A-77
A-78
Flash Calculations
In these correlations, H2O is assumed to form an ideal, partiallymiscible mixture with the hydrocarbons and its K value is
computed from the relationship:
p° K ω = -----------( xs P )
(A.68)
where:
p° = vapour pressure of H2O from Steam Tables
P = system pressure
xs = solubility of H2O in hydrocarbon liquid at saturation
conditions.
The value for xs is estimated by using the solubility data for
kerosene as shown in Figure 9A1.4 of the API Data Book2. This
approach is generally adequate when working with heavy
hydrocarbon systems. However, it is not recommended for gas
systems.
For three phase systems, only the PR and PRSV property
package and Activity Models allow components other than H2O
in the second liquid phase. Special considerations are given
when dealing with the solubilities of glycols and CH3OH. For acid
gas systems, a temperature dependent interaction parameter
was used to match the solubility of the acid component in the
water phase.
The PR equation considers the solubility of hydrocarbons in H2O,
but this value may be somewhat low. The reason for this is that
a significantly different interaction parameter must be supplied
for cubic equations of state to match the composition of
hydrocarbons in the water phase as opposed to the H2O
composition in the hydrocarbon phase. For the PR equation of
state, the latter case was assumed more critical. The second
binary interaction parameter in the PRSV equation allows for an
improved solubility prediction in the alternate phase.
With the activity coefficient models, the limited mutual solubility
of H2O and hydrocarbons in each phase can be taken into
account by implementing the insolubility option (please refer to
A-78
Property Methods & Calculations A-79
Section A.3.2 - Activity Models). HYSYS generates, upon
request, interaction parameters for each activity model (with the
exception of the Wilson equation) that are fitted to match the
solubility of H2O in the liquid hydrocarbon phase and
hydrocarbons in the aqueous phase based on the solubility data
referred to in that section.
The Peng-Robinson and SRK property packages will always force
the water rich phase into the heavy liquid phase of a three
phase stream. As such, the aqueous phase is always forced out
of the bottom of a three phase separator, even if a light liquid
phase (hydrocarbon rich) does not exist. Solids are always
carried in the second liquid phase.
A.7.7 Supercritical Handling
HYSYS reports a vapor fraction of zero or one, for a stream
under supercritical conditions. Theoretically, this value doesn’t
have any physical meaning for a supercritcial fluid, since there is
no distinction of liquid or vapor phases in a supercritical region.
However, it is important to determine if a supercritical fluid is
liquid-like or a vapor-like fluid. This is because some of the
properties reported in HYSYS are calculated using certain sets of
specific phase models. In other words, phase identification has
to be carried out in order to decide which model to use to
calculate these properties.
In HYSYS, all flash results go through a phase order function to
identify the phase type. Different packages have their own
different order.
For example, the following criteria are used to identify phase
types for the PR, SRK, SourPR, and Sour SRK cubic equations of
state at supercritical region:
1. If the compressibility factor (Z) is greater than 0.3, and the
isothermal compressibility factor (beta) is greater than 0.75,
a vapor fraction of 1.0 is assigned to the stream.
2. If Z is greater than 0.75 and the sum of composition of light
compounds (NBP<230K) is greater than the sum of
composition of heavy compounds, a vapor fraction of 1.0 is
assigned to the stream.
A-79
A-80
Flash Calculations
Otherwise, vapor fraction of 0 is assigned to the stream and
liquid correlations are used.
A.7.8 Solids
For more information on
utilities, refer to Chapter
14 - Utilities of the
HYSYS Operations
Guide.
HYSYS does not check for solid phase formation of pure
components within the flash calculations, however, incipient
solid formation conditions for CO2 and hydrates can be predicted
with the Utility Package.
Solid materials such as catalyst or coke can be handled as userdefined, solid type components. The HYSYS property package
takes this type of component into account in the calculation of
the following stream variables: stream total flow rate and
composition (molar, mass and volume), vapour fraction,
entropy, enthalpy, specific heat, density, molecular weight,
compressibility factor, and the various critical properties.
Transport properties are computed on a solids-free basis. Note
that solids are always carried in the second liquid phase, i.e., the
water rich phase.
Solids do not participate in vapour-liquid equilibrium (VLE)
calculations. Their vapour pressure is taken as zero. However,
since solids do have an enthalpy contribution, they have an
effect on heat balance calculations. Thus, while the results of a
Temperature flash are the same whether or not such
components are present, an Enthalpy flash is affected by the
presence of solids.
Refer to Chapter 3 Hypotheticals for more
information on
Hypotheticals.
A solid material component is entered as a hypothetical
component in HYSYS.
A-80
Property Methods & Calculations A-81
A.7.9 Stream Information
When a flash calculation occurs for a stream, the information
that is returned depends on the phases present within the
stream. The following table shows the stream properties that
are calculated for each phase:
A
Stream phases:
F - Feed
V - Vapour
L - Liquid
S - Solid
Steam Property
Applicable PhasesA
Vapour Phase Mole Fraction
F
V
L
S
Vapour Phase Mass Fraction
F
V
L
S
Vapour Phase Volume Fraction
F
V
L
S
Temperature
F
V
L
S
Pressure
F
V
L
S
Flow
F
V
L
S
Mass Flow
F
V
L
S
Liquid Volume Flow (Std, Ideal)
F
V
L
S
Volume Flow
F
V
L
S
Std. Gas Flow
F
V
L
S
Std. Volume Flow
F
L
S
Energy
F
V
L
S
Molar Enthalpy
F
V
L
S
Mass Enthalpy
F
V
L
S
Molar Entropy
F
V
L
S
Mass Entropy
F
V
L
S
Molar Volume
F
V
L
S
Molar Density
F
V
L
S
Mass Density
F
V
L
S
Std. Liquid Mass Density
FD
L
S
Molar Heat Capacity
F
L
S
V
Mass Heat Capacity
F
V
L
S
CP/CV
F
V
L
S
Thermal Conductivity
FB,D
V
L
Viscosity
FB,D
V
L
B,D
V
L
Kinematic Viscosity
F
Surface Tension
FB
Molecular Weight
F
V
L
S
Z Factor
FB
V
L
S
Air SG
FB
V
Watson (UOP) K Value
F
V
L
S
Component Mole Fraction
F
V
L
S
L
A-81
A-82
References
Steam Property
Applicable PhasesA
Component Mass Fraction
F
V
L
Component Volume Fraction
F
V
L
S
Component Molar Flow
F
V
L
S
S
Component Mass Flow
F
V
L
S
Component Volume Flow
F
V
L
S
K Value (y/x)
Lower Heating Value
Mass Lower Heating Value
B
Molar Liquid Fraction
F
V
L
S
Molar Light Liquid Fraction
F
V
L
S
Molar Heavy Liquid Fraction
F
S
V
L
Molar Heat of Vapourization
C
F
V
L
Mass Heat of Vapourization
FC
V
L
Partial Pressure of CO2
F
V
L
S
Physical property queries are allowed on the feed phase of single phase streams.
C
Physical property queries are allowed on the feed phase only for streams containing vapour
and/or liquid phases.
D
Physical property queries are allowed on the feed phase of liquid streams with more than one
liquid phase.
A.8 References
1
API Publication 955, A New Correlation of NH3, CO2 and H2S
Volatility Data From Aqueous Sour Water Systems, March 1978.
2
API Technical Data Book, Petroleum Refining, Fig. 9A1.4, p. 9-15, 5th
Edition (1978).
3
Chao, K. D. and Seader, J. D., A.I.Ch.E. Journal, pp. 598-605,
December 1961.
4
Ely, J.F. and Hanley, H.J.M., "A Computer Program for the Prediction
of Viscosity and Thermal Conductivity in Hydrocarbon Mixtures",
NBS Technical Note 1039.
5
Gambill, W.R., Chem. Eng., March 9, 1959.
6
Grayson, H. G. and Streed, G. W., "Vapour-Liquid Equilibria for High
Temperature, High Pressure Systems", 6th World Petroleum
Congress, West Germany, June 1963.
7
Hankinson, R.W. and Thompson, G.H., A.I.Ch.E. Journal, 25, No. 4, p.
653 (1979).
A-82
Property Methods & Calculations A-83
8
Hayden, J.G. and O’Connell, J.P., Ind. Eng. Chem., Process Des. Dev.
14, 209 (1975).
9
Jacobsen, R.T and Stewart, R.B., 1973. "Thermodynamic Properties
of Nitrogen Including Liquid and Vapour Phases from 63 K to 2000K
with Pressure to 10 000 Bar." J. Phys. Chem. Reference Data, 2:
757-790.
10Kabadi,
V.N., and Danner, R.P. A Modified Soave-Redlich-Kwong
Equation of State for Water-Hydrocarbon Phase Equilibria, Ind. Eng.
Chem. Process Des. Dev. 1985, Volume 24, No. 3, pp 537-541.
11
Keenan, J. H. and Keyes, F. G., Thermodynamic Properties of Steam,
Wiley and Sons (1959).
12
Knapp, H., et al., "Vapor-Liquid Equilibria for Mixtures of Low Boiling
Substances", Chemistry Data Series Vol. VI, DECHEMA, 1989.
13Passut,
C. A.; Danner, R. P., “Development of a Four-Parameter
Corresponding States Method: Vapour Pressure Prediction”,
Thermodynamics - Data and Correlations, AIChE Symposium
Series; p. 30-36, No. 140, Vol. 70.
14
Peng, D. Y. and Robinson, D. B., "A Two Constant Equation of State",
I.E.C. Fundamentals, 15, pp. 59-64 (1976).
15
Perry, R. H.; Green, D. W.; “Perry’s Chemical Engineers’ Handbook
Sixth Edition”, McGraw-Hill Inc., (1984).
16Prausnitz,
J.M., Lichtenthaler, R.N., Azevedo, E.G., "Molecular
Thermodynamics of Fluid Phase Equilibria", 2nd. Ed., McGraw-Hill,
Inc. 1986.
17
Reid, C.R., Prausnitz, J.M., and Sherwood, T.K., "The Properties of
Gases and Liquids", McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1977.
18
Reid, R.C., Prausnitz, J.M., and Poling, B.E., "The Properties of Gases
& Liquids", McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1987.
19Soave,
G., Chem Engr. Sci., 27, No. 6, p. 1197 (1972).
20
Stryjek, R., Vera, J.H., J. Can. Chem. Eng., 64, p. 334, April 1986.
21
Twu, C.H., I.E.C. Proc Des & Dev, 24, p. 1287 (1985).
22Woelflin,
W., "Viscosity of Crude-Oil Emulsions", presented at the
spring meeting, Pacific Coast District, Division of Production, Los
Angeles, Calif., Mar. 10, 1942.
23
Zudkevitch, D., Joffee, J. "Correlation and Prediction of Vapor-Liquid
Equilibria with the Redlich-Kwong Equation of State", AIChE
Journal, Volume 16, No. 1, January pp. 112-119.
A-83
A-84
References
A-84
Oil Methods & Correlations
B-1
B Oil Methods &
Correlations
B.1 Introduction .................................................................................. 2
B.2 Characterization Method ................................................................ 2
B.2.1
B.2.2
B.2.3
B.2.4
B.2.5
B.2.6
B.2.7
Generate a Full Set of Working Curves ........................................ 3
Light Ends Analysis................................................................... 4
Auto Calculate Light Ends.......................................................... 7
Determine TBP Cutpoint Temperatures ........................................ 8
Graphically Determine Component Properties............................... 9
Calculate Component Critical Properties ...................................... 9
Correlations........................................................................... 10
B.3 References................................................................................... 11
B-1
B-2
Introduction
B.1 Introduction
This appendix is a supplement to Chapter 4 - HYSYS Oil
Manager. Included in this appendix is the general procedure
used by HYSYS to characterize an oil and a list of correlations
used in the Oil Manager.
B.2 Characterization
Method
The procedure HYSYS uses to convert your assay data into a
series of petroleum hypocomponent involves four major internal
characterization steps:
1. Based on your input curves, HYSYS calculates a detailed set
of full range Working Curves that include the true boiling
point (TBP) temperature, molecular weight, density and
viscosity behaviour.
2. Next, by using either a default or user-supplied set of
cutpoint temperatures, the corresponding fraction for each
hypocomponent is determined from the TBP working curve.
3. The normal boiling point (NBP), molecular weight, density
and viscosity of each hypocomponent are graphically
determined from the working curves.
4. For each hypocomponent, HYSYS calculates the remaining
critical and physical properties from designated correlations,
based upon the component's NBP, molecular weight, and
density.
Knowledge of the four phases of the characterization process
provide a better understanding of how your input data
influences the final outcome of your characterization. The
following sections detail each step of the calculation.
B-2
Oil Methods & Correlations
B-3
B.2.1 Generate a Full Set of
Working Curves
To ensure accuracy, a true boiling point (TBP) curve and
associated molecular weight, density, and viscosity property
curves are required for the characterization calculations. HYSYS
takes whatever input curves you have supplied, and interpolates
and extrapolates them as necessary to complete the range from
0 to 100%. These full range curves are referred to as the
working curves.
If you supply an ASTM D86, ASTM D1160, or EFV distillation
curve as input, it is automatically converted to a TBP distillation
curve. On the other hand, if you do not have any distillation
data, supplying two of the three bulk properties (molecular
weight, density, or Watson (UOP) K factor) allows HYSYS to
calculate an average1 TBP distillation curve.
Physical property curves that were not supplied are calculated
from default correlations designed to model a wide variety of
oils, including condensates, crude oils, petroleum fractions, and
coal-tar liquids. If you supply a bulk molecular weight or bulk
density, the corresponding physical property curve (either usersupplied or generated) is smoothed and adjusted such that the
overall property is matched. A typical TBP curve is illustrated
below.
Figure B.1
Temperature
FBP
IBP
0
Percent Distilled
100
B-3
B-4
Characterization Method
Refer to Section 4.4 Oil Characterization
Property View for more
information.
Default values of the IBP and FBP can be changed on the
Boiling Ranges property view.
B.2.2 Light Ends Analysis
HYSYS uses your Light Ends data to either define or replace the
low boiling portion of your TBP, ASTM D86 or ASTM D1160 curve
with discrete pure components. HYSYS does not require that
you match the highest boiling point light-end with the lowest
boiling point temperature on the TBP curve.
Using the sample Light Ends analysis shown here, HYSYS
replaces the first portion of the TBP working curve to the assay
percentage just past the boiling point of n-pentane
(approximately 95°F or 36°C) or 11.3 vol% (the cumulative
light ends total), whichever is greater. The new TBP curve would
include the Light Ends Free portion of the original sample
beginning at 0% distilled with the associated IBP representing
the remaining portion of the original sample.
Three possible Light Ends/Assay situations can exist as depicted
in the next three figures. In the following figures:
•
•
Point A represents the boiling point of the heaviest lightend, n-Pentane in this example.
Point B represents the temperature at which the total
Light Ends percentage intersects the TBP working curve.
B-4
Oil Methods & Correlations
B-5
If points A and B coincide exactly as shown in Figure B.2,
HYSYS assigns the TBP working curve's IBP equal to the boiling
point of the heaviest light end and normalizes the remaining
portion of the TBP curve with the light ends removed. All points
that lie below point B on the curve are eliminated.
Figure B.2
Temperature
FBP
AB
NBP
nC5
IBP
Portion of Original Assay that will
be Renor-malized to be on a Light
Ends Free Basis
0
Percent Distilled
100
Cumulative Light
Ends % Distilled
Figure B.3 depicts the situation that may arise from
inconsistent data or from a poor extrapolation of the IBP.
Figure B.3
Temperature
FBP
A
NBP
nC5
IBP
0
B
Portion of Original Assay that will be
Renor-malized to be on a Light
Ends Free Basis
Percent Distilled
100
Cumulative Light Ends % Distilled
These situations are corrected by assuming that the Light Ends
analysis is correct and that the error exists in the internal TBP
curve. In the figure, Point A (boiling point of the heaviest light
end component) lies below Point B (internal TBP curve
temperature associated with your cumulative light ends
percentage) on the internal TBP working curve. HYSYS replaces
point B (the Light Ends free IBP) by a point that uses the
cumulative light ends percentage and the normal boiling point of
B-5
Characterization Method
the heaviest light ends component. The Light Ends free portion
of the curve is smoothed before normalizing.
Figure B.4 shows the boiling point of the heaviest light-end
occurring at an assay percentage greater than the cumulative
Light Ends total. HYSYS corrects this situation by successively
eliminating TBP working curve points from point B up to the first
temperature point greater than the heaviest light end
temperature (Point A).
Figure B.4
FBP
Temperature
B-6
Portion of Original Assay that
will be Renor-malized to be
on a Light Ends Free Basis
A
NBP
nC5
IBP
B
0
Portion of TBP that is eliminated due to
inconsistencies between the Distillation
and Light-Ends Analyses
Percent Distilled
100
Cumulative Light Ends % Distilled
For example, if in the above figure Point B represents 5% and
Point A represents 7%, the new TBP curve (which is light ends
free) is stretched, i.e., what was 93% of the assay (determined
from point A) is now 95% of the assay. As in the previous case,
Point A's temperature is assigned to the new TBP curve’s IBP,
and the Light Ends free portion is smoothed and normalized.
B-6
Oil Methods & Correlations
B-7
B.2.3 Auto Calculate Light
Ends
HYSYS' Auto Calculate Light Ends procedure internally plots the
boiling points of the defined components on the TBP working
curve and determines their compositions by interpolation.
HYSYS adjusts the total Light Ends fraction such that the boiling
point of the heaviest light end is at the centroid volume of the
last Light Ends component. The figure below illustrates the Auto
Calculate Light Ends removal procedure.
Figure B.5
Temperature
FBP
Portion of Original Assay that will be
Renormalized to be on a Light Ends Free Basis
Cumulative
Light Ends
% Distilled
NBP nC5
iC5
nC4
New IBP point for the TBP curve
Centroid Volume of the Last
Light-End Component
iC4
IBP
nC5
nC4
0
iC4
iC5
Percent Distilled
100
B-7
Characterization Method
B.2.4 Determine TBP Cutpoint
Temperatures
You may specify the hypocomponent breakdown by supplying a
number of cutpoint temperatures and the corresponding number
of cuts for each temperature range, or you may let HYSYS
calculate an optimal set of cutpoints for you based upon the
overall number of hypocomponent you have designated. The
characterization process then uses its TBP working curve and
the specified set of TBP cutpoints to determine the fraction of
each hypocomponent on the input curve basis.
In Figure B.6, four components are generated from the TBP
curve using five TBP cutpoints of equal temperature increment.
Refer to Section 4.6 - Hypocomponent Generation for more
details.
Figure B.6
T4
Temperature
B-8
T3
T2
T1
CUT2
IBP
CUT3
Percent Distilled
0
CUT1
100
CUT4
B-8
Oil Methods & Correlations
B-9
B.2.5 Graphically Determine
Component Properties
After the cutpoints and the fraction of each hypocomponent are
known, the average boiling point may be determined. This is the
normal boiling point (NBP), which is calculated for each
component by equalizing the areas between the TBP curve and a
horizontal line representing the NBP temperature. This is shown
in the figure below, with the grey areas representing the
equalized areas. The average molecular weight, density, and
viscosity of each hypocomponent are subsequently calculated
from the corresponding smoothed working curves for molecular
weight, density and viscosity.
Figure B.7
Temperature
T4
T3
T2
T1
IBP
0
CUT1
CUT2
CUT3
CUT4
Percent Distilled
100
B.2.6 Calculate Component
Critical Properties
Knowing the normal boiling point, molecular weight, and density
enables HYSYS to calculate the remaining physical and
thermodynamic properties necessary to completely define the
petroleum hypocomponent. These properties are estimated for
each hypocomponent using default or user-selected correlations
as outlined in Section B.2.7 - Correlations.
B-9
B-10
Characterization Method
B.2.7 Correlations
The range of applicability for the critical property correlations
are explained below:
Critical Property
Correlation
Range of Applicability
Lee-Kesler
These equations yield nearly identical results to those obtained using the
graphical correlations found in the API Data Book for boiling temperatures
below 1250°F (677°C). The equations are modified to extend beyond this
range, but an upper limit is not given by the authors.
Cavett
The author does not present any reference as to which data were used for
the development of the correlations or their limitations. Experience has
proven these correlations to produce very good results for fractions whose
API gravity is greater than zero or for highly aromatic and naphthenic
fractions such as coal tar liquids.
Riazi-Daubert
In the boiling point range 0 - 602°F (-18 - 317°C), these correlations
perform slightly better than other methods. Their most serious drawback
is the limitation of the boiling point to 855°F (457°C) for the calculation of
critical pressure and molecular weight.
Nokay
Limitations for these correlations are not presented in the original
publications. The critical temperature and molecular weight correlations
are particularly good for highly aromatic or naphthenic systems as shown
in a paper by Newman, "Correlations Evaluated for Coal Tar Liquids".
Roess
The main limitation of these correlations is that they should not be used
for fractions heavier than C20 (650°F, 343°C). They highly underestimate
critical temperatures for heavier fractions and should not be used for
heavy oil applications.
Edmister
These equations are very accurate for pure components, but are restricted
to condensate systems with a limited amount of isomers. Edmister
acentric factors tend to be lower than Lee-Kesler values for fractions
heavier than C20 (650°F, 343°C). It is recommended that application of
the Edmister equation be restricted to the range below C20.
Bergman
These correlations were developed for lean gases and gas condensates
with relatively light fractions, thereby limiting their general applicability to
systems with carbon numbers less than C15.
Spencer-Daubert
This family of correlations is a modification of the original Nokay equations
with a slightly extended range of applicability.
Rowe
These equations were presented for estimating boiling point, critical
pressure and critical temperature of paraffin hydrocarbons. Carbon
number, which is used as the only correlating variable, limits the range of
applicability to lighter paraffinic systems.
Standing
The data of Matthews, Roland and Katz was used to develop these
correlations. Molecular weight and specific gravity are the correlating
variables. Although Standing claims the correlations are for C7+ fractions,
they appear to be valid for narrower boiling point cuts as well. The
correlations should be used with caution for fractions heavier than C25
(841°F, 450°C).
B-10
Oil Methods & Correlations
Critical Property
Correlation
B-11
Range of Applicability
Lyderson
These correlations are based on the PNA (Paraffin/Napthene/Aromatic)
concept similar to Peng-Robinson PNA.
Bergman
This method is limited to components whose gravity does not exceed
0.875 because of the form of the PNA equations. Acentric factors for
fractions heavier than C20 are considerably higher than those estimated
from either the Edmister or Lee-Kesler equation. These correlations are
included primarily for completeness and should not be used for fluids
containing fractions heavier than C20.
Yarborough
This method is only for use in the prediction of specific gravity of
hydrocarbon components. Carbon number and aromaticity are the
correlating variables for this equation. The Yarborough method assumes
that the C7+ molecular weight and specific gravity are measured. It also
assumes that the mole fractions are measured from chromatographic
analysis (paraffin molecular weights are assumed to convert weight to
mole fractions).
Katz-Firoozabadi
These correlations are only available for the prediction of molecular weight
and specific gravity. Normal boiling point is the only correlating variable
and application should be restricted to hydrocarbons less than C45.
Mathur
Limitations for these correlations are not published by the author. These
equations produce excellent results for highly aromatic mixtures such as
coal-tar liquids, but are not rigorously examined for highly paraffinic
systems.
Penn State
These correlations are similar to Riazi-Daubert correlations and should
have approximately the same limitations.
Aspen
These correlations yield results quite close to the Lee-Kesler equations,
but tend to produce better results for aromatic systems. Limitations for
these equations are not available, but the Lee-Kesler limitations should
provide a good guide.
Hariu Sage
These correlations were developed for estimating molecular weight from
boiling point and specific gravity utilizing the Watson Characterization
Factor, Kw. It provides reasonable extrapolation to boiling points greater
than 1500°F (816°C) and is more accurate than the Lee-Kesler molecular
weight correlation.
B.3 References
1
Whitson, C. H., “Characterizing Hydrocarbon Plus Fractions”, Society
of Petroleum Engineers Journal, August 1983.
B-11
B-12
References
B-12
Amines Property Package
C-1
C Amines Property
Package
C.1 Amines Property Package .............................................................. 2
C.2 Non-Equilibrium Stage Model......................................................... 5
C.3 Stage Efficiency ............................................................................. 7
C.3.1 Non-Equilibrium Stage Model ..................................................... 8
C.4 Equilibrium Solubility..................................................................... 9
C.4.1 Kent & Eisenberg Model ............................................................ 9
C.4.2 Li-Mather Electrolyte Model ..................................................... 13
C.5 Phase Enthalpy ............................................................................ 19
C.6 Simulation of Amine Plant Flowsheets ......................................... 20
C.6.1
C.6.2
C.6.3
C.6.4
C.6.5
Solving the Columns............................................................... 20
Converging the Contactor........................................................ 21
Converging the Regenerator .................................................... 22
Recycle Convergence .............................................................. 22
Operating Conditions .............................................................. 23
C.7 Program Limitations .................................................................... 24
C.7.1 Range of Applicability ............................................................. 24
C.8 References................................................................................... 25
C-1
C-2
Amines Property Package
C.1 Amines Property
Package
The Amines Property Package is a special option available
for HYSYS. For more information on this option or get
information on other HYSYS additions please contact your
AspenTech Agent.
The removal of acid gases such as hydrogen sulphide (H2S) and
carbon dioxide (CO2) from process gas streams is often required
in natural gas plants and in oil refineries. There are many
treating processes available. However, no single process is ideal
for all applications. The initial selection of a particular process
may be based on feed parameters such as composition,
pressure, temperature and the nature of the impurities, as well
as product specifications.
Final selection is ultimately based on process economics,
reliability, versatility and environmental constraints. Clearly the
selection procedure is not a trivial matter and any tool that
provides a reliable mechanism for process design is highly
desirable.
Acid gas removal processes using absorption technology and
chemical solvents are popular, particularly those using aqueous
solutions of alkanolamines. The Amines Property Package is a
special property package designed to aid in the modeling of
alkanolamine treating units in which H2S and CO2 are removed
from gas streams. The Property Package contains data to model
the absorption/desorption process where aqueous solutions of
single amines - monoethanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine
(DEA), methyldiethanolamine (MDEA), triethanolamine (TEA),
2,2'-hydroxy-aminoethylether (DGA), or diisopropanolamine
(DIPA) and aqueous solutions of blended amines - MEA/MDEA or
DEA/MDEA are used.
C-2
Amines Property Package
C-3
Figure C.1 shows the conventional process configuration for a
gas treating system that uses aqueous alkanolamine solutions.
The sour gas feed is contacted with amine solution countercurrently in a trayed or packed absorber. Acid gases are
absorbed into the solvent that is then heated and fed to the top
of the regeneration tower. Stripping steam produced by the
reboiler causes the acid gases to desorb from the amine solution
as it passes down the column. A condenser provides reflux and
the acid gases are recovered overhead as a vapour product.
Lean amine solution is cooled and recycled back to the absorber.
A partially stripped, semi-lean amine stream may be withdrawn
from the regenerator and fed to the absorber in the split-flow
modification to the conventional plant flowsheet. A three-phase
separator or flash tank may be installed at the outlet of the
absorber to permit the recovery of dissolved and entrained
hydrocarbons and to reduce the hydrocarbon content of the acid
gas product.
Figure C.1
C-3
C-4
Amines Property Package
The design of amine treating units involves the selection of the
following:
•
•
•
•
•
the
the
the
the
the
process configuration
amine type and concentration
solution circulation rate
reboiler heat requirements
operating pressures and temperatures.
The mechanical tray design and the number of stages in the
contactor are known to affect the process performance and are
particularly important in selective absorption applications.
Amine treating units were designed in the past using hand
calculations and operating experience. Design conditions were
typically chosen within a conservative range to cover the
deficiencies in the data used in the hand calculations. Simulation
is one means of obtaining values for the key design variables in
the process, and is generally used to confirm the initial design
obtained by the above methods.
Rules-of-thumb do not exist for the design of selective
absorption applications since operating experience is limited.
Furthermore, the process is generally controlled by reaction
kinetics and cannot be designed on the basis of chemical
equilibrium alone. The simulation program must be relied upon
as a predictive tool in these cases.
The AMSIM program uses technology developed by DB Robinson
& Associates Ltd. to model the equilibrium solubility of acid
gases in aqueous amine solutions.
Currently HYSYS uses AMSIM version 7.2. AMSIM has also
been integrated with COMThermo.
A new nonequilibrium stage model which is based on the stage
efficiency concept is used to simulate the performance of
contactors and regenerators. A list of reference articles on the
research leading to the development of AMSIM can be found at
the end of this section. The best data known to exist is used to
determine the component properties in the AMSIM databank.
C-4
Amines Property Package
C-5
The AMSIM models is designed for one amine or two amines.
When two amines are selected, the Amines property package
expects both amines to have a composition or both amines
to be zero. You cannot specify one amine composition to be
greater than zero and the other to be equal to zero. It is
suggested that instead of specifying one amine to be zero,
input a very small composition value for said amine.
C.2 Non-Equilibrium Stage
Model
A non-equilibrium stage model developed to simulate the multicomponent multistage mass transfer process encountered in an
amine treating unit is used in the Amines Property Package.
The generalized stage model shown in Figure C.2 gives the flow
geometry and nomenclature for an individual stage in a column.
The fundamental concept used is that the rate of absorption/
desorption of acid gases to/from the amine solution must be
considered as a mass-transfer rate process. This rate process
depends on the equilibrium and kinetic parameters that describe
the acid gas/amine system.
The model incorporates a modified Murphree-type vapour
efficiency to account for the varying mass-transfer rates of
individual acid gas components. The acid gas stage efficiencies
are, in turn, functions of mass-transfer coefficients and the
mechanical design of the tray.
C-5
C-6
Non-Equilibrium Stage Model
When the generalized stage model is extended to the multistage
case, the resulting column flow geometry and nomenclature is
shown in Figure C.2. The resulting set of balance equations
that characterize the multistage unit are given in Section C.4 Equilibrium Solubility. This set of equations must be solved
for each column in the flowsheet. A modified Newton-Raphson
method is used to solve the rigorous non-linear stage equations
simultaneously for temperature, composition and phase rates on
each stage in a column.
Figure C.2
C-6
Amines Property Package
C-7
C.3 Stage Efficiency
The stage efficiency as defined under the Amines property
package option is given by:
( Vj + SV j )Y j – V j + 1 Y ij + 1
η = -----------------------------------------------------------------------( Vj + SV j )K 1j Xij – V j + 1 Y ij + 1
(C.1)
where:
η = Stage efficiency
i = Component number
j = Stage number
K = Equilibrium ratio
V = Molar flow rate of vapour
X = Mole fraction in liquid phase
Y = Mole fraction in vapour phase
The stage efficiency is a function of the kinetic rate constants for
the reactions between each acid gas and the amine, the
physico-chemical properties of the amine solution, the pressure,
temperature and the mechanical tray design variables such as
tray diameter, weir height and weir length.
You may specify the stage efficiencies or have them calculated
in HYSYS.
If the Amines option is selected, HYSYS always uses stagecomponent efficiencies. Note that the efficiencies used are
only for H2S and C02 components. If the efficiencies are not
specified for the column, HYSYS calculates efficiencies based
on the tray dimensions specified in the Amines page of the
Column property view. If no tray dimensions are specified,
HYSYS uses the default tray dimensions to calculate the
stage efficiencies. These are real stages, not ideal stages.
C-7
C-8
Stage Efficiency
C.3.1 Non-Equilibrium Stage
Model
Overall Material Balance
Fj + L j – 1 – ( L j + SL j ) – ( Vj + SV j ) = 0
(C.2)
Component Material Balance
F j z ij + L j – 1 x ij – 1 + Vj + 1 Y ij + 1 – ( L j + SL j )x ij – ( V j + SVj )y ij = 0
(C.3)
Energy Balance
F j H Fj + Q j + L j – 1 h j – 1 + V j + 1 H j + 1 – ( L j + SL j )h j – ( V j + SV j )H i = 0
(C.4)
Equilibrium Relationship
ηij Kij x ij ( V j + SVj ) – ( V j + SV j )y ij + ( 1 – ηij )V j + 1 y ij + 1 = 0
(C.5)
Summation Equation
∑yij – 1.0
= 0
(C.6)
C-8
Amines Property Package
C-9
C.4 Equilibrium Solubility
C.4.1 Kent & Eisenberg Model
A model based on the Kent and Eisenberg approach is used to
correlate the equilibrium solubility of acid gases in the amine
solutions. The reference articles contain experimental data that
were used to validate the solubility model. Additional
unpublished data for DEA, MDEA, MEA/MDEA, and DEA/MDEA
systems have also been incorporated.
Improvements were made to the model to extend the reliable
range to mole loadings between 0.0001 and 1.2. A proprietary
model was developed to predict the solubility of acid gas
mixtures in tertiary amine solutions. Solubilities of inert
components such as hydrocarbons are modelled using a Henry's
constant adjusted for ionic strength effects.
The prediction of equilibrium ratios or K-values involves the
simultaneous solution of a set of non-linear equations that
describe the chemical and phase equilibria and the
electroneutrality and mass balance of the electrolytes in the
aqueous phase. These equations are provided below. The model
is used to interpolate and extrapolate the available experimental
solubility data in the Amines Property Package. For tertiary
amines that do not form carbamate, the equations involving that
ionic species are eliminated from the model.
These equations are shown as follows:
Chemical Reactions
R1 R 2 NH + H 2 O ⇔ R 1 R 2 NH2+ + OH -
(C.7)
R 1 R2 R3 N + H 2 O ⇔ R 1 R2 R3 NH + + OH -
(C.8)
R 1 R 2 NH + CO 2 ⇔ R 1 R2 NCOO - + H +
(C.9)
C-9
C-10
Equilibrium Solubility
Chemical Reactions
H 2 O ⇔ H + + OH -
(C.10)
H 2 S ⇔ H + + HS -
(C.11)
CO 2 + H 2 O ⇔ H + + HCO3-
(C.12)
HS - ⇔ H + + S =
(C.13)
HCO3- ⇔ H + + CO 3=
(C.14)
[ H + ] [ R1 R 2 NH ]
K 1 = -------------------------------------[ R 1 R 2 NH2+ ]
(C.15)
[ H+ ] [ R1R2R3N ]
K2 = ---------------------------------------[ R1 R2 R 3 NH + ]
(C.16)
[ HCO 3- ] [ R1 R 2 NH ]
K 3 = ----------------------------------------------[ R 1 R 2 NCOO - ]
(C.17)
[ H + ] [ OH - ]
K 4 = ---------------------------[ H2 O ]
(C.18)
H + ] [ HS - ]
K 5 = [-------------------------[ H2 S ]
(C.19)
[ H + ] [ HCO 3- ]
K 6 = -------------------------------[ CO 2 ] [ H 2 O ]
(C.20)
[ H+ ] [ S= ]
K 7 = ----------------------[ HS - ]
(C.21)
[ H + ] [ CO 3= ]
K 8 = ---------------------------[ HCO 3- ]
(C.22)
Equilibrium Relations
C-10
Amines Property Package
C-11
Phase Equilibria
V
(C.23)
y H S φH S P = H H S [ H 2 S ]
2
2
2
V
y CO φCO P = HCO [ CO 2 ]
(C.24)
[ H + ] + [ R1 R2 NH2+ ] + [ R 1 R 2 R 3 NH + ] =
[ OH - ] + [ R1 R2 NCOO - ] + [ HCO3- ] + [ HS - ] + 2 [ CO 3= ] + 2 [ S = ]
(C.25)
2
2
2
Charge Balance
Mass Balance
C 1,
2 – amine
= [ R 1 R2 NH ] + [ R 1 R2 NH2+ ] + [ R1 R 2 NCOO - ]
C 3 – amine = [ R 1 R2 R3 N ] + [ R 1 R 2 R 3 NH + ]
C CO = ( C1,
2
2 – amine
+ C 3 –amine )αCO =
2
[ CO 2 ] + [ R 1 R 2 NCOO - ] + [ HCO 3- ] + [ CO 3= ]
CH
2S
= ( C 1,
2 – amine
[ H 2 S ] + [ HS - ] + [ S = ]
+ C3 –amine )αH
2S
=
(C.26)
(C.27)
(C.28)
(C.29)
C-11
C-12
Equilibrium Solubility
The fugacity coefficient of the molecular species is calculated by
the Peng-Robinson equation of state:
RT
a(T)
p = ----------- – ---------------------------------------------v – b v(v + b ) + b(v – b )
(C.30)
a = α( 0.45724 )R 2 T c2 ⁄ Pc
(C.31)
b = ( 0.07780 )RT c ⁄ Pc
(C.32)
where:
The temperature-dependent quantity α has the following form.
α1 ⁄
2
= 1 + α1 ( 1 – T r ) + α2 ( 1 – T r ) ( 0.7 – T r )
(C.33)
The parameters α1 and α2 are substance-dependent and are
determined through rigorous regressions against reliable data.
For mixtures, equation parameters a and b are estimated by the
following mixing rules.
0.5
a =
∑i ∑j xi x j ( a i a j )
( 1 – k ij )
(C.34)
b =
- ( 1 – l ij )
∑i ∑j xi x j  -------------2 
(C.35)
bi + bj
C-12
Amines Property Package
C-13
C.4.2 Li-Mather Electrolyte
Model
The Amines property package is modified to simulate three
phase behaviour. For the three phase simulation, the K values
from the Peng-Robinson property package were combined with
the K values from the Amines LLE and VLE package.
The Li-Mather model shows a strong predictive capability over a
wide range of temperatures, pressures, acid gas loadings, and
amine concentrations. AMSIM is capable of simulating processes
with blended solvents made up of any two of six principle
amines (MEA, DEA, MDEA, TEA, DGA and DIPA).
The framework of the thermodynamic model is based on two
types of equilibria: vapour-liquid phase equilibria and liquidphase chemical equilibria.
Phase Equilibria
The vapour-liquid equilibria of the molecular species is given by:
V
L
y i Φi P = H i x i γ i
(C.36)
where:
Hi = Henry’s constant
P = system pressure
xi, yi = mole fraction of molecular specied i in the liquid and
gas phase
V
Φi = fugacity coefficient on the gas phase
L
γ i = activity coefficient in the liquid phase
C-13
C-14
Equilibrium Solubility
The fugacity coefficient is calculated by the Peng-Robinson
equation of state (Peng and Robinson, 1976):
RT
a(T)
P = ------------ – ------------------------------------------------V – b V(V + b ) + b( V – b)
(C.37)
Where the parameters are obtained from the EQUI-PHASE
EQUI90TM program library. The activity coefficient is calculated
by the Clegg-Pitzer equation that is described later in this
section.
Chemical Equilibria
In case of single amine-H2S-CO2-H2O systems, the important
chemical dissociation reactions are as follows:
Chemical Dissociation Reactions
+
Amine ⇔ Amine + H
-
H 2 S ⇔ HS + H
+
+
(C.39)
-
CO 2 + H 2 O ⇔ HCO 3 + H
-
H 2 O ⇔ OH + H
-
+
=
HCO3 ⇔ CO 3 + H
-
=
HS ⇔ S + H
(C.38)
+
+
+
(C.40)
(C.41)
(C.42)
(C.43)
The chemical equilibrium constants in the acid gas - amine
systems play an important role in the prediction of the
equilibrium solubilities of acid gases in the aqueous amine
solutions. The equilibrium constant K can be expressed by:
K = Πi ( x i y i )
βi
(C.44)
C-14
Amines Property Package
C-15
The equilibrium constant is expressed as a function of
temperature:
(C.45)
ln K = C 1 + C 2 ⁄ T + C 3 ln T + C 4 T
Henry’s constant has the same function of temperature as that
in equation (C.45). In the liquid phase, there are four molecular
species, Amine, H2O, CO2, H2S and seven ionic species, Amine+,
HCO3-, HS-, H+, OH-, CO3=, S= for the amine-H2S-CO2-H2O
system. In the gas phase, there are only four molecular species,
Amine, H2O, CO2 and H2S.
The determination of the compositions of all molecular and ionic
species in both vapour and liquid phases involves the
simultaneous solution of a set of non-linear equations that
describe the phase equilibria and chemical equilibria,
electroneutrality (charge balance) and mass balance of the
electrolytes in the aqueous solution.
The Clegg-Pitzer Equation
The original Pitzer equation (Pitzer, 1973) did not consider the
solvent molecules in the system as interacting particles. Thus it
is not suitable for the thermodynamic description of the mixedsolvent systems. In the Clegg-Pitzer model, all the species in the
system were considered as interacting particles. The long-range
electrostatic term and the short-range hard-sphere-repulsive
term deduced from the McMillan-Mayer's statistical osmoticpressure theory remained unchanged. The excess Gibbs free
energy, gex consists of the long-range Debye-Huckel
electrostatic interaction term, gDH and the short-range Margules
expansions with two- and three-suffix, gs:
g
ex
= g
DH
4A x I x
1⁄
g
--------- = ------------- ln ( 1 + ρ Ix
ρ
RT
DH
2
+g
s
(C.46)
1⁄ 2
) + ∑∑x c x a Bac g ( αI x
)
(C.47)
c a
C-15
C-16
Equilibrium Solubility
s
g- =
-----RT
∑∑aij xi xj + ∑∑∑aijk xi xj x k
c a
i j k
s
g
------- = x I ∑x n ∑∑F c F a W nca + ∑∑x n x n' ( A nn' x n' + A n'n x n )
RT
n
c a
(C.48)
n n ""
where:
A nn' = 2a nn' + 3a n'n
Ann' = 2a nn' + 3a nn'n''
W nca = ( 2w nc + 2w na – w ca + 2u nc + 2u na ) ⁄ 4
w ij = 2a ij + 3 ⁄ 2 ( a iij + a ijj )
u ij = 3 ⁄ 2 ( a iij – a ijj )
The expressions of activity coefficient for solvent N and ion M+
are as follows:
3⁄ 2
2Ax Ix
1⁄
ln γ N = ------------------------– ∑x c x a B ca exp ( – αI x
1⁄ 2 ∑
1 + ρ Ix
c a
2
) + x I ( 1 – x N ) ∑∑F c F a W Nca
c a
– x I ∑′ x n ∑∑F c F a W nca + ∑′ x n [ A Nn x n ( 1 – 2x N ) + 2A nN x N ( 1 – x N ) ]
n
c a
(C.49)
n
– 2 ∑′ ∑′ x n x n' ( Ann' x n' + A n'n x n )
n
n'
C-16
Amines Property Package
ln γ
M
+
2
2
1⁄
= – z M Ax --- ln ( 1 + ρ I x
ρ
2
2
1⁄ 2
1⁄ 2
2
Ix ( 1 – 2I x ⁄ z M )
1⁄
- + ∑x a Bma g ( αI x
) + ----------------------------------------------1⁄ 2
1 + ρ Ix
a
z M g ( αI x )
2
1⁄
– ∑∑x c x a Bca ------------------------------ + ( 1 – z M ⁄ 2I x ) exp ( – αIx
2Ix
c a
2
C-17
2
) + 2 ∑x n ∑F a W nMa
n
a
)
(C.50)
– ∑x n ( 1 + x I ) ∑∑F c F a W nca – 2 ∑F a W 2Ma + ∑∑Fc Fa W 2ca
n
c a
a
c a
– 2 ∑∑x n x n' ( A nn' x n' + A n'n x n )
n n'
Where subscripts c, a, n and n’ represent cation, anion and
molecular species, respectively. The subscript 2 in equation
(C.50) stands for water. the total mole fraction of ions (xI) is
given by:
x I = 1 – ∑x n
(C.51)
The cation and anion fractions Fc and Fa are defined for fully
symmetrical electrolyte systems by
F c = 2x c ⁄ x I
(C.52)
Fa = 2x a ⁄ x I
(C.53)
The mole fraction ionic strength Ix is defined as
2
I x = 1 ⁄ 2 ∑z i x I
(C.54)
C-17
C-18
Equilibrium Solubility
The function of g(x) is expressed by
g ( x ) = 2 [ 1 – ( 1 + x ) exp ( – x ) ] ⁄ x
2
(C.55)
where:
1⁄ 2
x = αIx
= 2I
1⁄ 2
2
I = 1 ⁄ 2 ∑z i C i
Ax is the Debye-Huckel parameter on a mole fraction basis:
Ax = A φ ∑Cn


1⁄ 2
(C.56)
where:
Ci, Cn = molar concentrations of the ion i and solvent n,
respectively
I = ionic strength in molar concentration
Aφ = Debye-Huckel parameter, which is a function of
temperature, density and dielectric constant of the
mixed solvents
ρ = related to the hard-core collision diameter, or distance of
closest approach between ions in solution
An'n and Ann' = interaction parameters between and among
the molecular species, respectively
Bca = hard sphere repulsion parameter between ions
Wnca = the interaction parameter between ions and between
ion and solvent
Parameters An'n, Ann', Bca and Wnca share the same function
of temperature:
Y = a+b⁄ T
(C.57)
C-18
Amines Property Package
C-19
The Clegg-Pitzer equations appear to be uncompromisingly long
and contain many terms and parameters. However, it should be
pointed out that only a few parameters were used and many
terms, such as the quaternary terms in the original Clegg-Pitzer
equations were omitted in this model. It can be seen that only
Ann', An'n, Bca and Wnca appear in the expressions and are
treated as adjustable parameters.
In this model, both water and amine are treated as solvents.
The standard state of each solvent is the pure liquid at the
system temperature and pressure. The adopted reference state
for ionic and molecular species is the ideal and infinitely dilute
aqueous solution.
C.5 Phase Enthalpy
Vapour phase enthalpy is calculated by the Peng-Robinson
equation-of-state which integrates ideal gas heat capacity data
from a reference temperature. Liquid phase enthalpy also
includes the effect of latent heat of vaporization and heat of
reaction.
The absorption or desorption of H2S and CO2 in aqueous
solutions of alkanolamine involves a heat effect due to the
chemical reaction. This heat effect is a function of amine type
and concentration, and the mole loadings of acid gases. The
heat of solution of acid gases is obtained by differentiating the
experimental solubility data using a form of the Gibbs-Helmholtz
equation.
The heat effect which results from evaporation and
condensation of amine and water in both the absorber and
regenerator is accounted for through the latent heat term which
appears in the calculation of liquid enthalpy. Water content of
the sour gas feed can have a dramatic effect on the predicted
temperature profile in the absorber and should be considered,
particularly at low pressures.
C-19
C-20
Simulation of Amine Plant
C.6 Simulation of Amine
Plant Flowsheets
The key to solving an amine treating system lies in the
simulation of the contactor and the regenerator. In both
columns, rigorous non-equilibrium stage efficiency calculations
are used. In addition, the contactor efficiency incorporates
kinetic reaction and mass transfer parameters. Only the Amines
Property Package can effectively simulate this system, and only
components included in this package should be used.
C.6.1 Solving the Columns
Follow these general guidelines:
•
•
•
•
•
Ensure that the gas to the Contactor is saturated with
water.
Use actual, not ideal, stages.
Change stage efficiencies for CO2 and H2S from their
default values of 1.0 to fractions for the regenerator and
the initial absorber run.
Use calculated efficiencies for subsequent absorber runs
as detailed below.
Change the damping factor from a default value of 1.0 to
a fraction as recommended in the following section. This
may be necessary to prevent oscillation during
convergence.
C-20
Amines Property Package
C-21
C.6.2 Converging the
Contactor
Convergence is most readily achieved by first solving with
estimated efficiencies (suggested values are 0.3 for CO2 and 0.6
for H2S), then requesting calculated efficiencies and restarting
the column. To do this, you must first specify three dimensions
for each tray: tray diameter, weir length and weir height.
Specify these parameters in the Amines page of the Parameters
tab in the Column property view.
For an existing column, use the actual dimensions. For a design
situation (or when the tray dimensions are unknown) use the
Tray Sizing utility to estimate these parameters. Input the
calculated tray dimensions and select Run. HYSYS will calculate
the individual component efficiencies (H2S, CO2) based on the
tray dimensions. Only single pass trays can be modeled with the
Amines Property Package. If the trays in your column are
multipass, you must estimate the dimensions based on a single
pass tray.
After the tray dimensions are specified, the column is
recalculated. Note that efficiencies can be calculated only when
using the Amines Property Package. These values apply
specifically to CO2 and H2S. Damping factors in the range 0.4 0.8 usually give the fastest convergence.
Temperatures around the contactor should be as follows:
Contactor Stream
Temperature Range
Feed Gas
65 - 130 °F
Lean MEA, DEA, TEA, MDEA
100 - 120 °F
Lean DGA
140 °F
(lean amine minimum 10 °F > feed gas)
Absorber Bottoms
120 - 160 °F
C-21
C-22
Simulation of Amine Plant
C.6.3 Converging the
Regenerator
As with the Contactor, efficiencies can be either specified by the
user, or calculated by the program. For the condenser and
reboiler, values of 1.0 must be used. For the remaining trays,
efficiencies of 0.15 for CO2 and 0.80 for H2S are suggested
initial estimates.
The easiest specifications to converge are the stage 1
(condenser) temperature and the reboiler duty. Following is a
guideline for typical duties.
Amine
Duty, BTU/US Gallon
TEA, MDEA
800
DEA
1,000
MEA
1,200
DGA
1,300
The reboiler temperature should not exceed 280 F to avoid
physical degradation of the amines into corrosive by-products.
Regenerators usually converge best with reflux ratio estimates
of 0.5 - 3.0 and damping factors of 0.2 - 0.5.
C.6.4 Recycle Convergence
The remaining unit operations in the flowsheet are
straightforward. Note that you need a water makeup stream, as
indicated in Figure C.1. Since the lean amine concentration
may vary due to water carryover in the product from the
vessels, a water makeup is required to maintain a desired
concentration.
Amine losses in the contactor overhead are usually negligible
and the makeup stream replaces any water lost so the amine
concentration in the recycle does not change significantly during
the recycle convergence. Thus, you can quite easily make an
excellent initial estimate for the lean amine recycle. The phase,
of course, is liquid and the temperature, pressure, total flow rate
C-22
Amines Property Package
C-23
and composition are known. Although the composition of CO2
and H2S is unknown, these sour components have only a very
minor impact on the recycle and can initially be specified to be
zero in the recycle stream.
C.6.5 Operating Conditions
The Amines property package contains data for the following
alkanolamines and mixtures of alkanolamines.
Amine
HYSYS Name
Monoethanolamine
MEA
Diethanolamine
DEA
Triethanolamine
TEA
Methyldiethanolamine
MDEA
Diglycolamine
DGA
Diisopropanolamine
DIPA
Monoethanolamine/Methyldiethanolamine Blend
MEA/MDEA
Diethanolamine/Methlydiethanolamine Blend
DEA/MDEA
Many different amine system designs can be modelled. However,
for both good tower convergence and optimum plant operation,
the following guidelines are recommended:
Lean Amine
Strength
Maximum Acid Gas Loading
(Moles Acid Gas/ Mole Amine)
Weight %
CO2
H2S
MEA
15 - 20
0.50
0.35
DEA
25 - 35
0.45
0.30
TEA, MDEA
35 - 50
0.30
0.20
DGA
45 - 65
0.50
0.35
DEA/MDEA*
35 - 50
0.45
0.30
MEA/MDEA*
35 - 50
0.45
0.30
Amine
* Amine mixtures are assumed to be primarily MDEA.
C-23
C-24
Program Limitations
C.7 Program Limitations
The Amines property package contains correlations of data
which restrict its use to certain conditions of pressure,
temperature and composition. These limitations are given
below.
The chemical and physical property data base is restricted to
amines and the following components:
Available Components with Amines Property Package
Acid Gases
CO2, H2S, COS, CS2
Hydrocarbons
CH4 to C12
Olefins
C2=, C3=, C4=, C5=
Mercaptans
M-Mercaptan, E-Mercaptan
Non-Hydrocarbons
H2, N2, O2, CO, H2O
Aromatic
C6H6, Toluene, e-C6h6, m-Xylene
This method does not allow for the use of any hypotheticals.
C.7.1 Range of Applicability
The following table displays the equilibrium solubility limitations
that should be observed when using this property package.
Alkanolamine
Concentration
Acid Gas Partial
Pressure
Temperature
Range (Wt%)
psia
o
MEA
0 - 30
0.00001 - 300
77 - 260
DEA
0 - 50
0.00001 - 300
77 - 260
TEA
0 - 50
0.00001 - 300
77 - 260
MDEA
0 - 50
0.00001 - 300
77 - 260
DGA
50 - 70
0.00001 - 300
77 - 260
DIPA
0 - 40
0.00001 - 300
77 - 260
Amine
F
For amine mixtures, use the values for MDEA (assumed to be
the primary amine).
C-24
Amines Property Package
C-25
C.8 References
1
Atwood, K., M.R. Arnold and R.C. Kindrick, "Equilibria for the System,
Ethanolamines-Hydrogen Sulfide-Water", Ind. Eng. Chem., 49,
1439-1444, 1957.
2
Austgen, D.M., G.T. Rochelle and C.-C. Chen, "Model of Vapour-Liquid
Equilibria for Aqueous Acid Gas Alkanolamine Systems", Ind. Eng.
Chem. Res., 03, 543-555, 1991.
3
Bosch, H., "Gas-Liquid Mass Transfer with Parallel Reversible
Reactions-III. Absorption of CO2 into Solutions of Blends of
Amines", Chem. Eng. Sci., 44, 2745-2750, 1989.
4
Chakravarty, T., "Solubility Calculations for Acid Gases in Amine
Blends", Ph.D. Dissertation, Clarkson College, Potsdam, NY, 1985.
5
Danckwerts, P.V., and M.M. Sharma, "The Absorption of Carbon
Dioxide into Solutions of Alkalis and Amines", The Chemical
Engineer, No.202, CE244-CE279, 1966.
6
Deshmukh, R.D. and A.E. Mather, "A Mathematical Model for
Equilibrium Solubility of Hydrogen Sulfide and Carbon Dioxide in
Aqueous Alkanolamine Solutions",
7
Chem. Eng. Sci., 36, 355-362, 1981.
8
Dingman, J.C., "How Acid Gas Loadings Affect Physical Properties of
MEA Solutions", Pet. Refiner, 42, No.9, 189-191, 1963.
9
Dow Chemical Company, "Alkanolamines Handbook", Dow Chemical
International, 1964.
10
Isaacs, E.E., F.D. Otto and A.E. Mather, "Solubility of Mixtures of H2S
and CO2 in a Monoethanolamine Solution at Low Partial Pressures",
J. Chem. Eng. Data, 25, 118-120, 1980.
11
Jou, F.-Y., A.E. Mather, and F.D. Otto, "Solubility of H2S and CO2 in
Aqueous Methyldiethanolamine Solutions", Ind. Eng. Chem. Process
Des. Dev., 21, 539-544, 1982.
12Jou,
F.-Y., F.D. Otto and A.E. Mather, “Solubility of H2S and CO2 in
Triethanolamine Solutions”, Presented at the AIChE Winter National
Meeting, Atlanta, Georgia, March 11-14, 1984.
13
Jou, F.-Y., F.D. Otto and A.E. Mather, "Solubility of Mixtures of H2S
and CO2 in a Methyldiethanolamine Solution", Paper 140b,
Presented at the AIChE Annual Meeting, Miami Beach, Florida,
Nov.2-7, 1986.
C-25
C-26
References
14
Jou, F.-Y., A.E. Mather and F.D. Otto, "The Solubility of Mixtures of
Hydrogen Sulfide and Carbon Dioxide in Aqueous
Methyldiethanolamine Solutions", Submitted to The Canadian
Journal of Chemical Engineering, 1992.
15
Kahrim, A. and A.E. Mather, "Enthalpy of Solution of Acid Gases in
DEA Solutions", Presented at the 69th AIChE Annual Meeting,
Chicago, Illinois, Nov.28-Dec.2, 1976.
16Katz,
D.L., D. Cornell, R. Kobayashi, F.H. Poettmann, J.A. Vary, J.R.
Elenbaas and C.F. Weinaug, "Handbook of Natural Gas
Engineering", McGraw-Hill, New York, 1959.
17
Kent, R.L., and B. Eisenberg, "Better Data for Amine Treating",
Hydrocarbon Processing, 55, No.2, 87-90, 1976.
18
Kohl, A.L. and F.C. Riesenfeld, "Gas Purification", 4th Ed., Gulf
Publishing Co., Houston, Texas, 1985.
19Lal,
D., E.E. Isaacs, A.E. Mather and F.D. Otto, "Equilibrium Solubility
of Acid Gases in Diethanolamine and Monoethanolamine Solutions
at Low Partial Pressures", Proceedings of the 30th Annual Gas
Conditioning Conference, Norman, Oklahoma, March 3-5, 1980.
20
Lawson, J.D., and A.W. Garst, "Gas Sweetening Data:Equilibrium
Solubility of Hydrogen Sulfide and Carbon Dioxide in Aqueous
Monoethanolamine and Aqueous
Diethanolamine Solutions", J.
Chem. Eng. Data, 21, 20-30, 1976.
21
Lawson, J.D., and A.W. Garst, "Hydrocarbon Gas Solubility in
Sweetening Solutions: Methane and Ethane in Aqueous
Monoethanolamine and Diethanolamine", J. Chem Eng. Data, 21,
30-32, 1976.
22Lee,
J.I., F.D. Otto, and A.E. Mather, "Solubility of Carbon Dioxide in
Aqueous Diethanolamine Solutions at High Pressures", J. Chem.
Eng. Data, 17, 465-468, 1972.
23
Lee, J.I., F.D. Otto, and A.E. Mather, "Solubility of Hydrogen Sulfide in
Aqueous Diethanolamine Solutions at High Pressures", J. Chem.
Eng. Data, 18, 71-73, 1973a.
24
Lee, J.I., F.D. Otto, and A.E. Mather, "Partial Pressures of Hydrogen
Sulfide over Aqueous Diethanolamine Solutions", J. Chem. Eng.
Data, 18, 420, 1973b.
25Lee,
J.I., F.D. Otto, and A.E. Mather, "The Solubility of Mixtures of
Carbon Dioxide and Hydrogen Sulphide in Aqueous Diethanolamine
Solutions", Can. J. Chem. Eng., 52, 125-127, 1974a.
C-26
Amines Property Package
C-27
26
Lee, J.I., F.D. Otto and A.E. Mather, "The Solubility of H2S and CO2 in
Aqueous Monoethanolamine Solutions", Can. J. Chem. Eng., 52,
803-805, 1974b.
27
Lee, J.I., F.D. Otto and A.E. Mather, "Solubility of Mixtures of Carbon
Dioxide and Hydrogen Sulfide in 5.0 N Monoethanolamine
Solution", J. Chem. Eng. Data, 20, 161-163, 1975.
28Lee,
J.I., F.D. Otto and A.E. Mather, "Equilibrium in Hydrogen SulfideMonoethanolamine-Water System", J.Chem. Eng. Data, 21, 207208, 1976a.
29
30
Lee, J.I., F.D. Otto and A.E. Mather, "The Measurement and Prediction
of the Solubility of Mixtures of Carbon Dioxide and Hydrogen
Sulphide in a 2.5 N
Monoethanolamine Solution", Can. J. Chem. Eng., 54, 214-219,
1976b.
31Lee,
J.I., F.D. Otto and A.E. Mather, "Equilibrium Between Carbon
Dioxide and Aqueous Monoethanolamine Solutions", J. Appl. Chem.
Biotechnol., 26,
32
541-549, 1976c.
33
Lee, J.I. and A.E. Mather, "Solubility of Hydrogen Sulfide in Water",
Ber. Bunsenges z. Phys. Chem., 81, 1020-1023, 1977.
34Mason,
D.M. and R.Kao, "Correlation of Vapor-Liquid Equilibria of
Aqueous Condensates from Coal Processing" in Thermodynamics of
Aqueous Systems with Industrial Applications, S.A. Newman, ed.,
ACS Symp. Ser., 133, 107-139, 1980.
35
Murzin, V.I., and I.L. Leites, "Partial Pressure of Carbon Dioxide Over
Its Dilute Solutions in Aqueous Aminoethanol", Russian J. Phys.
Chem., 45, 230-231, 1971.
36
Nasir, P. and A.E. Mather, "The Measurement and Prediction of the
Solubility of Acid Gases in. Monoethanolamine Solutions at Low
Partial Pressures", Can. J. Chem. Eng., 55, 715-717, 1977.
37Otto,
F.D., A.E. Mather, F.-Y. Jou, and D. Lal, "Solubility of Light
Hydrocarbons in Gas Treating Solutions", Presented at the AIChE
Annual Meeting, Paper 21b, San Francisco, California, November
25-30, 1984.
38
Peng, D.-Y., and D.B. Robinson, "A New Two-Constant Equation of
State", Ind. Eng. Chem. Fundam., 15, 59-64, 1976.
39
Rangwala, H.A., B.R. Morrell, A.E. Mather and F.D. Otto, "Absorption
of CO2 into Aqueous Tertiary Amine/MEA Solutions", The Canadian
Journal of Chemical Engineering, 70, 482-490, 1992.
C-27
C-28
References
40
Tomcej, R.A. and F.D. Otto, "Computer Simulation and Design of
Amine Treating Units", Presented at the 32nd Canadian Chemical
Engineering Conference, Vancouver, British Columbia, Oct.3-6,
1982.
41
Tomcej, R.A., F.D. Otto and F.W. Nolte, "Computer Simulation of
Amine Treating Units", Presented at the 33rd Annual Gas
Conditioning Conference, Norman,
42Oklahoma,
March 7-9, 1983.
43
Tomcej, R.A., "Simulation of Amine Treating Units Using Personal
Computers", Presented at the 35th Canadian Chemical Engineering
Conference, Calgary, Alberta, Oct.5-8, 1985.
44
Tomcej, R.A. and F.D. Otto, "Improved Design of Amine Treating
Units by Simulation using Personal Computers", Presented at the
World Congress III of Chemical Engineering, Tokyo, Japan,
September 21-25, 1986.
45Tomcej,
R.A., D. Lal, H.A. Rangwala and F.D. Otto, "Absorption of
Carbon Dioxide into Aqueous Solutions of Methyldiethanolamine",
Presented at the AIChE Annual Meeting, Miami Beach, Florida,
Nov.2-7, 1986.
46
Tomcej, R.A., F.D. Otto, H.A. Rangwala and B.R. Morrell, "Tray Design
for Selective Absorption", Presented at the 37th Annual Laurance
Reid Gas Conditioning Conference, Norman, Oklahoma, March 2-4,
1987.
47
Union Carbide Corporation, "Gas Treating Chemicals", Union Carbide
Petroleum Processing, Chemicals and Additives, 1969.
48Versteeg,
G.F., J.A.M. Kuipers, F.P.H. Van Beckum and W.P.M. Van
Swaaij, "Mass Transfer with Complex Reversible Chemical Reactions
- I. Single Reversible Chemical Reaction", Chem. Eng. Sci., 44,
2295-2310, 1989.
49
Winkelman, J.G.M., S.J. Brodsky and A.A.C.M. Beenackers, "Effects
of Unequal Diffusivities on Enhancement Factors of Reversible
Reactions: Numerical Solutions and Comparison with Decoursey's
Method", Chem. Eng. Sci., 47, 485-489, 1992.
50
Zhang, Dan D., Gordon X. Zhao, H.-J. Ng, Y.-G. Li and X.-C. Zhao, “An
Electrolyte Model for Amine Based Gas Sweetening Process
Simulation”, Preceeding of the 78th GPA Annual Convention, p25,
1999.
51Zhange,
Dan D., H.-J. Ng and Ray Vledman, “Modeling of Acid Gas
Treating Using AGR Physical Solvent”, Proceeding of the 78th GPA
Annual Convention, p62, 1999.
C-28
Glycol Property Package
D-1
D Glycol Property
Package
D.1 Introduction .................................................................................. 2
D.2 Pure Component Vapor Pressure ................................................... 4
D.3 Mixing Rules .................................................................................. 4
D.3.1 TST Mixing Rules ..................................................................... 4
D.3.2 Zero-Pressure CEOS/AE Mixing Rules.......................................... 7
D.3.3 Liquid GE Model ..................................................................... 11
D.4 Phase Equilibrium Prediction ....................................................... 12
D.5 Enthalpy/Entropy Calculations .................................................... 13
D.6 References................................................................................... 13
D-1
D-2
Introduction
D.1 Introduction
In the gas processing industry, it is necessary to dehydrate/
remove water vapour present in the natural gas stream. In
nature, impurities like water vapor are mixed in the natural gas.
Water vapor in the gas stream can cause the following
problems:
•
•
Hydrate formation, at low temperature conditions, that
can plug valves and fittings in gas pipelines.
React with hydrogen sulfide or carbon dioxide to form
weak acids that can corrode gas pipelines.
The standard method to remove water vapor from natural gas
stream is to use triethylene glycol (TEG) to absorb the water.
HYSYS provides the Glycol property package for use in modeling
glycol dehydration process using TEG. This property package is
based on the TST (Twu-Sim-Tassone) equation of state. The
property package contains the necessary pure component and
binary interaction parameters for components commonly
encountered in natural gas dehydration process. The property
package is tuned to represent accurately, the phase behaviour
of these components, especially that for the TEG-water binary
system.
The TST equation of state can accurately predict:
•
•
•
activity coefficients of the TEG-water solutions within the
average absolute deviation of 2%
dew point temperatures within an average error of ±1° C
water content of gas within the average absolute
deviation of 1%
The Glycol property package should be applicable over the range
of temperatures, pressures, and component concentration
encountered in a typical TEG-water dehydration system:
between 15°C to 50°C and between 10 atm to 100 atm for the
gas dehydrator, and between 202°C to 206°C and 1.2
atmospheres for the glycol regenerator.
D-2
Glycol Property Package
D-3
The accuracy of predicted solubility of hydrocarbons in
aqueous phase is expected to be within the experimental
uncertainty.
The table below displays the prediction of equilibrium water
content in lbH2O/MMSCF for a gas stream in contact with 99.5
weight percent TEG, using the Glycol property package.
T dew (K)
Reported by:
Predicted from TST (EOS):
McKetta2
Bukacek1
Water Content
Pressure (Pa)
277.59
390
396
393
838
266.48
170
176
174
370
255.37
70
72
71
151
244.26
28
27
26
56.1
233.15
9.2
9.1
9
18.7
222.04
2.4
2.8
2.6
6
The figure below displays the predicted equilibrium water dew
point vs. contact temperature at various TEG concentrations in
weight %.
Figure D.1
The BIP databank for the Glycol property package will be
updated in future releases of HYSYS. Currently, there may be
D-3
D-4
Pure Component Vapor Pressure
some limitations or missing BIP for certain component pairs. For
example, heavy hydrocarbons or hypothetical components
which may not have any interaction parameters available. For
assitance in using this property package, please contact
Technical Support.
D.2 Pure Component
Vapor Pressure
For the Glycol property package, three alpha function
parameters are used to correlate the vapor pressure of the
component in the HYSYS component database. The alpha
function parameters are:
•
•
•
L in Equation (D.6)
M in Equation (D.6)
N in Equation (D.6)
D.3 Mixing Rules
For Glycol property package, three adjustable parameters are
used to correlate Vapor-Liquid-Equilibrium (VLE) mixture data.
The parameters corresponding to the TST (Twu-Sim-Tassone) AE
mixing rules are: A ij ,,A ji ,αij binary interaction parameters in
Equations (D.30) and (D.31).
D.3.1 TST Mixing Rules
The TST (Twu et al. 20025) cubic equations of state is:
RT
a
P = ----------- – --------------------------------------------v – b ( v + 3b ) ( v – 0.5b )
(D.1)
where:
a, b = parameters values that correspond to the critical
temperature of the component
D-4
Glycol Property Package
D-5
The critical temperature are found by setting the first and
second derivatives of pressure with respect to volume to zero at
the critical point:
2
2 Tc
a c = 0.470507R ----Pc
(D.2)
Tc
b c = 0.0740740R ----Pc
(D.3)
Z c = 0.296296
(D.4)
where:
c = indicates the variable at the critical point
The parameter a is a function of temperature. The value of a(T)
at temperatures other than the critical temperature is calculated
using the following equation:
(D.5)
a ( T ) = α( T )a c
where:
α( T ) = function of the reduced temperature T r = T ⁄ T c
•
For vapor pressure prediction, the Twu α( T ) correlation
(Twu et al., 19913) is used:
NM
N ( M – 1 ) L ( 1 – Tr )
α( T ) = T r
e
(D.6)
where:
L,M,N = parameters that are unique for each component
D-5
D-6
Mixing Rules
•
For non-library components, the generalized alpha
function, α( T ) , is expressed as a function of two
variables: the reduced temperature and the acentric
factor.
(D.7)
α = α( T r ,ω)
•
For non-library and petroleum fractions, the generalized
alpha function, α( T ) , is:
(0)
α = α
(1 )
+ ω( α
(0)
–α
)
where:
(D.8)
(0 )
= corresponds to ω = 0
(1 )
= corresponds to ω = 1
α
α
Each α is a function of the reduced temperature only.
(0)
α
(1)
α
L  1 – T r
NM
( 0)
(M
(0)
=
N
Tr
– 1)
( 1)
(M
(1)
=
N
Tr
– 1)
e
L  1 – T r
NM
e
(0 )


(1 )


(D.9)
(D.10)
where:
L,M,N = databank values corresponding to subcritical and
supercritical conditions
For Tr ≤1 :
(0)
(1)
α
α
L
0.196545
0.704001
M
0.906437
0.790407
N
1.26251
2.13086
D-6
Glycol Property Package
D-7
For Tr > 1 :
(0)
(1)
α
α
L
0.358826
0.0206444
M
4.23478
1.22942
N
-0.200000
-8.00000
D.3.2 Zero-Pressure CEOS/AE
Mixing Rules
The zero-pressure mixing rules for the cubic equation of state
mixture a and b parameters are as given:
E
E
b vdw 
a vdw∗
A0vdw
1 A
a∗ = b∗ ------------- + --------  ------0- – -------------– ln  ----------- 

C
b 
RT
b vdw∗
v 0  RT
(D.11)
b vdw∗ – a vdw∗
b∗ = ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------E
E
b


A
A
a vdw∗
1
vdw
0vdw
1 – -------------- + --------  ------0- – -------------– ln  ----------- 
 b 
RT
b ∗ Cv  RT
(D.12)
vdw
0
where:
a vdw ,b vdw = equation of state a and b parameters which are
evaluated from the van der Waals mixing rule
E
E
A 0 ,A0vdw = excess Helmholtz energies at zero pressure
The mixing rules given by Equations (D.11) and (D.12) are
volume-dependent through C v .
0
C v = function of reduced liquid volume at zero pressure
0
v 0∗ = v 0 ⁄ b
 v 0∗ + w
1
Cv = – ----------------- ln  ------------------
0
( w – u )  v 0∗ + u 
vdw
(D.13)
D-7
D-8
Mixing Rules
v 0∗ vdw = zero pressure liquid volume is calculated from the
cubic equation of state using the van der Waals mixing
rule for its a and b parameters by setting pressure
equal to zero and selecting the smallest root:

∗
∗ 2
1 ∗
v 0∗ = ---   a------ – u – w –  u + w – a------ – 4  uw + a------




2  b∗
b∗ 
b∗ 

1
--2



(D.14)
Equation (D.14) has a root as long as:
a-----∗≥ ( 2 + u + w ) + 2 ( u + 1 )( w + 1 )
b∗
(D.15)
The mixing rule for the parameter b as given by Equation
(D.12) forces the mixing rule to satisfy the quadratic
composition dependence of the second virial coefficient.
Alternatively, the conventional linear mixing rule could be
chosen for the b parameter, in other words, ignoring the second
virial coefficient boundary condition.
b =
∑∑x i xj
i j
1
--- ( b i + b j )
2
(D.16)
To omit the need for the calculation of v 0∗ from the equation of
state, the zero-pressure liquid volume of the van der Waals
fluid, v 0∗ vdw , is made a constant, r.
Thus Equation (D.13) becomes:
r+w
1
C r = – ----------------- ln  ------------
(w – u)  r + u
(D.17)
where:
C r = constant replacing Cv and signifies that C r is no longer
0
a density dependent function
D-8
Glycol Property Package
D-9
Thus Equations (D.11) and (D.12) become:
E
E
b vdw 
a vdw∗ 1  A0 A0vdw
a∗ = b∗ ------------- + ------  ------- – -------------- – ln  ----------- 

b 
RT
b vdw∗ C r  RT
(D.18)
b vdw∗ – a vdw∗
b∗ = -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------E
E
b

a vdw∗ 1  A0 A 0vdw
vdw
1 – -------------- + ------  ------- – -------------- – ln  ----------- 
 b 
RT
b ∗ C r  RT
(D.19)
vdw
E
A 0vdw is derived from the equation of state by assuming a fixed
reduced liquid molar volume r for a van der Waals fluid at zero
pressure:
E
A0vdw
------------- =
RT
bi
a i∗ 
 a vdw∗
- + C r  -------------- – ∑x i -------
∑xi ln  ---------b vdw
b i∗ 
b ∗
vdw
i
(D.20)
i
where:
a vdw ,b vdw = equation of state a and b parameters which are
evaluated from the conventional van der Waals mixing
rules
a vdw =
∑∑x i xj
a i a j ( 1 – k ij )
(D.21)
1
--- ( b i + b j )
2
(D.22)
i j
b vdw =
∑∑x i xj
i j
The excess Helmholtz energy is much less pressure-dependent
than the excess Gibbs energy. Therefore, the excess Helmholtz
energy of the van der Waals fluid at zero pressure can be
approximated by the excess Helmholtz energy of van der Waals
fluid at infinite pressure.
D-9
D-10
Mixing Rules
E
E
a i∗ 
 a vdw∗
A ∞vdw
A0vdw
------------- = ------------- = C 1  ------------- – ∑x i -------
RT
RT
b i∗ 
 b vdw∗
(D.23)
i
where:
1
1+w
C 1 = – ----------------- ln  ------------- = constant
(w – u)  1 + u
For algebraic simplicity, the following development is limited to a
binary mixture, in order to obtain the following expression for
the excess Helmholtz energy of a van der Waals fluid from
Equation (D.23):
E
x 1 x 2 b 1 b 2 δ12
A 0vdw
------------- = -------------------------------RT
( x1 b1 + x2 b2 )
(D.24)
where:
δ12 = characteristic parameter of interaction between
molecules 1 and 2
2
C1  a
a1 a2
a 
δ12 = – -------  ---------1 – ---------2 + 2k 12 --------- --------RT  b 1
b 1 b2
b2 
(D.25)
Extending these relations to a multi-component
mixture,Equations (D.24) and (D.25) become:
E
A 0vdw
1
-------------- = --- ∑∑( bδij )Φi Φj
2
RT
(D.26)
i j
2
C1  a
ai aj
a
δij = – -------  --------i – --------j + 2k ij -------- -------RT  b i
bi b j
bj 
(D.27)
xi bi
Φi = -------b
(D.28)
D-10
Glycol Property Package
D-11
D.3.3 Liquid GE Model
A general multi-component equation for a liquid activity model is
now proposed for incorporation in the zero-pressure mixing
rules as:
n
E
n
G
------- =
RT
∑xj τ ji Gji
j
∑x i ---------------------n
i
∑xk Gki
(D.29)
k
Equation (D.29) is similar to the NRTL equation but not the
same. The NRTL assumes Aij ,Aji ,αij are the parameters of the
model, but the excess Gibbs energy model assumes τ ij ,G ij are
the binary interaction parameters. For example, to obtain the
NRTL model, τ ij ,Gij are calculated from the NRTL parameters
A ij ,A ji ,αij :
A
τ ji = ------ji
T
(D.30)
G ji = exp ( – αji τ ji )
(D.31)
Equation (D.29) can recover the conventional van der Waals
mixing rules when the following expressions are used for τ ij ,Gij :
1
τ ji = --- δij b i
2
(D.32)
b
G ji = ----j
bi
(D.33)
The above two equations are expressed in terms of the cubic
equation of state parameters, a i ,b i and the binary interaction
parameter k ij .
D-11
D-12
Phase Equilibrium Prediction
By substituting Equations (D.32) and (D.33) into Equation
(D.29), Equation (D.26) is obtained.
Subsequently, the mixing rules, Equations (D.18) and (D.16),
are reduced to the classical van der Waals one-fluid mixing
rules.
D.4 Phase Equilibrium
Prediction
The following equations are the TST (Twu-Sim-Tassone) zero
pressure mixing rules used for phase equilibrium prediction in
the Glycol property package:
RT- – -------------------------------------------a
P = ---------v – b ( v + 3b ) ( v – 0.5b )
b =
(D.16)
1--( b + bj )
2 i
∑∑xi xj
i j
(D.1)
E
E
b vdw 
a vdw∗ 1  A0 A0vdw
a∗ = b∗ ------------- + ------  ------- – -------------- – ln  ----------- 

b 
C
∗
RT
RT
b vdw
r
E
E
a i∗ 
 a vdw∗
A0vdw
A ∞vdw
------------- = ------------- = C 1  ------------- – ∑x i -------
RT
RT
b i∗ 
 b vdw∗
(D.18)
(D.23)
i
n
E
G
------- =
RT
n
∑xj τ ji Gji
(D.29)
j
∑x i ---------------------n
i
∑xk Gki
k
D-12
Glycol Property Package
D-13
D.5 Enthalpy/Entropy
Calculations
The Glycol property package uses the Cavett model for enthalpy
and entropy calculations.
D.6 References
1
Bukacek, R.F., “Equilibrium Moisture Content of Natural Gases”,
Research Bulletin 8, Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL, 1955.
2
McKetta, J.J. and Wehe, A.H., cited by GPA Engineering Data Book,
Fig. 15-10, Ninth Edition, Fourth Revision, Gas Processors Suppliers
Associations, Tulsa, OK, 1979.
3
Twu, C.H., Bluck, D., Cunningham, J.R., and Coon, J.E., “A Cubic
Equation of State with a New Alpha Function and a New Mixing
Rule”, Fluid Phase Equilib. 1991, 69, 33-50.
4
Twu, C.H., Tassone, V., Sim, D.W., and Watanasiri, S., “Advanced
Equation of State Method for Modeling TEG-Water for Glycol Gas
Dehydration”, Fluid Phase Equilibria, 2005 (in press).
5
Twu, C.H., Sim, W.D., and Tassone, V., “A Versatile Liquid Activity
Model for SRK, PR, and A New Cubic Equation of State TST”, Fluid
Phase Equilibria, 2002, 194-197, 385-399.
D-13
D-14
References
D-14
Index
A
B
Activity Models 2-10, A-6, A-18
See models - Chien Null, Margules, NRTL,
NRTL Options, UNIQUAC, van
Laar, and Wilson
additional specifications 2-20, 2-97
binary interaction parameters 2-48, 2104
choosing vapour phase model 2-20, A-20,
A-39
departure calculations A-52
estimating interaction parameters 2-49
immiscible liquid phases A-23
Amines Property Package 2-13, A-46
Antoine
modified vapour pressure model A-43
parameters tab 2-40
vapour pressure model 2-12, 2-90
ASME Steam A-48
property package 2-13
Assay and Blend Association 4-86
Assay Data
general guidelines 4-37
no distillation data available 4-32, 4-35
physical properties 4-28
standard input 4-32
Assays
characterizing 4-14, 4-17
correlations 4-55
inputting 4-20
light ends 4-38
analysis B-4
auto calculating 4-42, B-7
included 4-39
inputting 4-41
light ends free 4-40
notes 4-58
plotting 4-54
selecting 4-61
types of 4-53
user curves 4-57
working curves 4-53
ASTM D1160. See Laboratory Assay
Procedures
ASTM D2887. See Laboratory Assay
Procedures
ASTM D86. See Laboratory Assay Procedures
Auto Cut 4-65
Basis Environment 1-viii
Basis Manager
component maps tab 6-2
fluid package tab 2-3
hypotheticals tab 3-4
oil manager tab 4-10
reactions tab 5-3
user properties tab 7-3
Blends
auto cutting 4-65
bulk data 4-62
composite plots 4-74
correlations 4-68
cut ranges 4-62
distribution plots 4-73
information 4-70
notes 4-76
oil distributions 4-71
plots summary 4-75
property plots 4-71
Braun K10 2-12, 2-90, A-44
Bubble Point A-75
Bulk Properties 4-28
BWR Equation A-12
C
Cavett Correlation A-52
Chao Seader A-6–A-7, A-41
models 2-12, 2-90
parameters tab 2-39
semi-empirical method 2-12, 2-90
Chien Null A-20, A-24
activity model 2-11
parameters tab 2-36, 2-98
Chromatographic Analysis. See Laboratory
Assay Procedures
Chromatographic Assay Input 4-34
Coal Analysis 3-38
Collection (Component Maps) 6-2
Component List Selection 2-25, 2-95
Component Selection 1-13
family filter 1-12
family type filter 1-12
filter options 1-12
general procedure 1-9
property package filter 1-12
tips 1-8
I-1
I-2
warning messages 2-25
Components
adding 1-5
cloning. See Hypotheticals, cloning library
components
creating custom. See Hypotheticals,
adding
filtering 1-9
hypotheticals quick access 1-28
incompatible 2-27
manager 1-2
mapping 6-2
master component list 1-2
name format 1-8, 1-10
non recommended 2-26
parameters tab 2-28, 2-98
removing 1-6, 1-14
selected components group 1-6
selection 1-8, 1-13
sorting 1-7, 1-16
substituting 1-6, 1-15
synonyms 1-8
transferring 1-13
viewing 1-7, 1-17
Components Manager 1-2
Conversion Reactions 5-6, 5-8–5-11
rank 5-41
Correlations
assay 4-55
blend 4-68
critical property B-10
oil characterization 4-81
Cubic EOS
mixing rules D-7
Cut 4-62
Cut/Blend. See Blends or Oil Characterzation
Cutpoint B-8
D
D86 Interconversion Methods 4-16
D86. See Laboratory Assay Procedures
Density.See Liquid Density or Vapour Density
Dew Point A-74
E
EFV (Equilibrium Flash Vapourization). See
Laboratory Assay Procedures
Eley-Rideal Model 5-26
Enthalpy Basis A-50
tabular 2-73
Enthalpy Departure Calculations A-50
Enthalpy Flash A-76
Entropy Flash A-76
Equations of State (EOS) 2-9, A-9
additional information 2-14, 2-97
departure calculation A-50
enthalpy calculation A-16
interaction parameters 2-47, 2-101
See models - GCEOS, Kabadi Danner,
Lee-Kesler Plocker, Peng
Robinson, PRSV, Peng Robinson
Options, SRK, SRK Options,
Zudkevitch Joffee.
TST CEOS D-4
Equilibrium Reactions 5-6, 5-12–5-18
fractional approach 5-17
temperature approach 5-17
Esso Tabular A-45
vapour pressure model 2-12, 2-90
Extended NRTL. See NRTL Options
F
Flash Calculations A-72
handling water A-77
temperature-pressure (TP) A-73
vapour fraction A-74
Flow Rate
actual gas A-71
actual volume A-70
as a specification A-71
available A-66
densities, liquid and vapour A-67
liquid volume A-70
mass A-69
molar A-69
standard gas A-70
standard liquid volume A-70
volumetric A-66
Fluid Package
activity models 2-10
adding 2-3
adding - quick start 2-5
adding notes 2-83
advantages 2-2
associated flowsheet 2-4
base property selection 2-9
copy 2-4
delete 2-4
I-2
I-3
equations of state 2-9
export 2-4
import 2-4
property package selection 2-8
property view 2-7, 2-84
reactions 2-57
stability test 2-53, 2-107
tabular 2-58
See also Tabular Package
Fugacity Coefficients A-56
adding 1-28, 3-15
adding a hypothetical - quick start 3-5
adding hypothetical group 1-28
base properties 3-16
cloning library components 3-5, 3-14, 342
critical properties 3-29
deleting 3-15
estimating properties 3-14, 3-30
estimation methods 3-14, 3-18
individual controls 3-15
minimum information required 3-18
moving 3-5
property view 3-26
quick reference 3-5
solid hypotheticals 3-15, 3-36
temperature dependent properties 3-32
UNIFAC structure builder 3-15, 3-23
vapour pressure properties 3-17
viewing 3-5, 3-15
viewing group. See Hypothetical Group,
viewing
G
GCEOS
binary coeffs tab 2-41
Generalized Cubic Equation of State 2-10
Generalized Cubic Equations of State 2-28
interaction parameters 2-41
parameters tab 2-28
General NRTL. See NRTL Options
Glycol Property Package D-2
enthalpy calculation D-13
entropy calculation D-13
liquid activity model D-11
mixing rules D-4
phase equilibrium prediction D-12
pure component vapor pressure D-4
Grayson Streed A-6–A-7, A-41
parameters tab 2-39
semi-empirical method 2-12, 2-90
H
Henry's Law A-36
Heterogeneous Catalytic Reactions 5-7, 5-25–
5-31
Eley-Rideal 5-26
Langmuir-Hinshelwood 5-26
Mars-van Krevelen Model 5-26
Hypothetical Components. See Hypotheticals
Hypothetical Group
controls 3-14
creating 3-4, 3-13
deleting 3-4
exporting 3-5
group name 3-14
importing 3-5
moving 3-45
moving between 3-5
viewing 3-4, 3-44
Hypotheticals
I
Ideal Gas Law A-39
departure calculations A-53
Installing
oils 4-14
reaction set 5-44
Interaction Parameters
activity models 2-48, 2-104, A-21
equations of state 2-47, 2-101
estimating A-17
Henry’s Law A-37
K
K/ln(K) Equilibrium Constant 5-15
Kabadi Danner A-9, A-11
equation of state 2-10
parameters tab 2-35
Kinetic Reactions 5-19–5-25
requirements 5-7
L
Laboratory Assay Procedures
ASTM D1160 4-6, 4-31
ASTM D2887 4-6, 4-31
ASTM D86 4-6, 4-31
ASTM D86 and D1160 4-31
I-3
I-4
chromatographic analysis 4-6, 4-31
assay input 4-34
D2887 interconversion method 4-16
D86 interconversion method 4-16
equilibrium flash vapourization 4-6, 4-32
preparation 4-39
TBP analysis 4-5, 4-31
Langmuir-Hinshelwood Model 5-26
Lee Kesler Plocker 2-10, A-9, A-11
Lee-Kesler Enthalpy A-17, A-41, A-54
Liquid Density A-58
actual A-68
ideal A-68
standard A-68
distribution plots 4-73
FBP 4-15
IBP 4-15
installing oil 4-87
laboratory data corrections 4-8
light ends 4-38–4-39, 4-41, B-4
method B-2
molecular weight curves 4-46
notes 4-86
output settings 4-15
physical property curves 4-8, 4-34
procedure 4-9
property plots 4-71
property view 4-14
purpose 4-3
user properties 4-14, 4-76
viscosity curves 4-48
working curves 4-53
M
Mapping
collection 6-2
components 6-1
target 6-2
transfer options 6-5
Margules A-20, A-28
activity model 2-11
Mars-van Krevelen Model 5-26
MBWR A-48
property package 2-13
N
NBS Steam A-48
property package 2-13
NRTL (Non Random Two Liquid) A-20, A-23,
A-29
activity model 2-11
NRTL Options A-23
Extended NRTL 2-11, A-27
General NRTL 2-11, A-27
O
Oil Characterization
analysis methods. See Laboratory Assay
Procedures
bulk blending data 4-62
component critical properties B-9
composite plots 4-74
correlations 4-9, 4-14, 4-55, 4-81
cutting/blending 4-14, 4-59
deleting 4-15
density curves 4-47
determining TBP cutpoints B-8
P
Peng Robinson A-5–A-6, A-10
departure calculations A-50
equation of state 2-10
fugacity coefficient A-57
modelling vapour phase A-39
Peng Robinson Options A-9
PRSV 2-10
Sour PR 2-10, A-15
Physical Properties A-57
Poynting Correction 2-21, A-21
PPDS 2-68, 2-70
Property Package
selecting a A-4
Property Packages
See Amines Property Package, Braun K10,
Chao Seader, Esso Tabular,
Grayson Streed, Lee Kesler
Plocker, Margules, MBWR, PRSV,
Peng Robinson,
Peng Robinson Options, SRK, SRK
Options, Steam Packages,
UNIQUAC, van Laar and Wilson.
PRSV (Peng Robinson Stryjek Vera) A-6, A-13
equation of state 2-10
parameters tab 2-35
Pseudo Component Generation 4-59
Q
Quality Pressure A-75
I-4
I-5
R
Reaction Package
adding 5-45
Reaction Rank 5-41
Reaction Sets 5-35
adding 5-36
adding to fluid package 5-36, 5-44
advanced features 5-39
attaching to unit operations 5-44
copying 5-36
deleting 5-36
exporting 5-36, 5-43
importing 5-36, 5-43
quick access 2-58
solver method 5-38
viewing 5-36
Reactions
activating 5-38
adding 5-7
components 5-3–5-4
conversion. See Conversion Reactions
copying 5-7
deactivating 5-38
deleting 5-7
equilibrium. See Equilibrium Reactions
heterogeneous catalytic. See
Heterogeneous Catalytic
Reactions
kinetic. See Kinetic Reactions
library reactions 5-5
quick start 5-47
selecting components 5-3–5-4
sets. See Reaction Sets
simple rate. See Simple Rate Reactions
thermodynamic consistency 5-21
viewing 5-7
Redlich Kwong (RK) A-39
departure calculations A-54
S
Simple Rate Reactions 5-32–5-35
requirements 5-7
Solids A-80
Sour PR. See Peng Robinson Options
Sour SRK. See SRK Options
Sour Water Options A-15
See SRK Options and Peng Robinson
Options
SRK (Soave Redlich Kwong) A-5–A-6, A-9–A10
departure calculations A-51
equation of state 2-10
fugacity coefficient A-56
modelling vapour phase A-39
SRK Options A-9
See Kabadi Danner and Zudkevitch Joffee
Sour SRK 2-10, A-15
Stability Test 2-50, 2-105
parameters 2-53, 2-107
Steam Packages A-48
See ASME Steam and NBS Steam
Stream Information A-81
Surface Tension A-65
T
Tabular Package 2-58
active properties selection 2-66
data 2-67
enthalpy basis 2-73
library 2-68, 2-70
plotting 2-70
regression 2-74
requirements 2-60
supplying data 2-73
using 2-62
viewing selection 2-70
Target (Component Maps) 6-2
TEG D-2
Thermal Conductivity A-62
Transport Properties A-57
triethylene glycol D-2
TST
mixing rules D-4
U
UNIFAC LLE
interaction parameter estimation 2-49
UNIFAC Property Estimation A-22
UNIFAC Structure Builder 3-23
UNIFAC VLE
interaction parameter estimation 2-49
UNIQUAC (Universal Quasi Chemical
Parameters) 2-11, A-20, A-31
User Points 4-65
User Properties 4-57, 4-76, 7-2–7-9
adding 7-3
deleting 7-3
I-5
I-6
mixing rules 7-7
notes 7-9
viewing 7-3
User Ranges 4-66
V
van Laar A-20, A-33
activity model 2-11
Vapour Density A-59
Vapour Pressure A-75
Vapour Pressure Models 2-12, A-7, A-42
Antoine 2-12, 2-90
Braun K10 2-12, 2-90
Esso Tabular 2-12, 2-90
Virial Equation A-21
departure calculations A-54
modelling vapour phase A-40
Viscosity A-59
liquid phase mixing rules A-61
W
Water A-77
Wilson 2-11, A-20, A-34
parameters tab 2-39
Working Curves B-3
Z
Zudkevitch Joffee A-9, A-16
equation of state 2-10
parameters tab 2-36
I-6
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