ADOBE® AUDITION®
ADOBE® AUDITION®
Help and tutorials
June 2013
Contents
What’s New................................................................................................................................................... 1
What’s new in Audition CC..................................................................................................................................................... 2
What’s new in CS6............................................................................................................................................................... 10
Digital audio fundamentals......................................................................................................................... 14
Digitizing audio..................................................................................................................................................................... 15
Understanding sound............................................................................................................................................................18
Workspace and setup................................................................................................................................. 20
Viewing, zooming, and navigating audio.............................................................................................................................. 21
Connecting to audio hardware.............................................................................................................................................. 24
Customizing and saving application settings........................................................................................................................ 26
Customizing workspaces...................................................................................................................................................... 27
Importing, recording, and playing............................................................................................................... 33
Creating and opening files.................................................................................................................................................... 34
Importing with the Files panel............................................................................................................................................... 37
Supported import formats..................................................................................................................................................... 38
Extracting audio from CDs.................................................................................................................................................... 40
Navigating time and playing audio........................................................................................................................................ 41
Monitoring recording and playback levels.............................................................................................................................44
Recording audio....................................................................................................................................................................46
Editing audio files........................................................................................................................................ 49
Displaying audio in the Waveform Editor.............................................................................................................................. 50
Copying, cutting, pasting, and deleting audio....................................................................................................................... 53
Working with markers........................................................................................................................................................... 55
Automating common tasks (CS5.5)...................................................................................................................................... 58
Automating common tasks (CS6)......................................................................................................................................... 61
Analyzing phase, frequency, and amplitude......................................................................................................................... 64
Converting sample types...................................................................................................................................................... 67
Inverting, reversing, and silencing audio.............................................................................................................................. 70
Selecting audio..................................................................................................................................................................... 71
Undo, redo, and history........................................................................................................................................................ 75
Visually fading and changing amplitude............................................................................................................................... 76
Applying effects.......................................................................................................................................... 78
Effects controls..................................................................................................................................................................... 79
Applying effects in the Multitrack Editor................................................................................................................................ 82
Adding third-party plug-ins.................................................................................................................................................... 84
Applying effects in the Waveform Editor............................................................................................................................... 85
Effects reference......................................................................................................................................... 86
Amplitude and compression effects...................................................................................................................................... 87
Filter and equalizer effects....................................................................................................................................................94
Modulation effects.................................................................................................................................................................97
Special effects.................................................................................................................................................................... 100
Stereo imagery effects........................................................................................................................................................ 102
Time and pitch manipulation effects................................................................................................................................... 104
Generate Tones effect (CS6)..............................................................................................................................................107
Fade and Gain Envelope effects (CS6 Waveform Editor only)...........................................................................................109
Doppler Shifter effect (CS6 Waveform Editor only)............................................................................................................ 110
Graphic Phase Shifter effect (CS6).................................................................................................................................... 111
Notch Filter effect (CS6)..................................................................................................................................................... 112
Manual Pitch Correction effect (CS6 Waveform Editor only).............................................................................................. 113
Automatic Pitch Correction effect (CS6)............................................................................................................................. 114
Amplitude and compression effects.................................................................................................................................... 115
Delay and echo effects....................................................................................................................................................... 121
Diagnostics effects (Waveform Editor only)........................................................................................................................ 123
Noise reduction / restoration effects................................................................................................................................... 125
Reverb effects.....................................................................................................................................................................130
Stereo imagery effects........................................................................................................................................................ 134
Time and pitch manipulation effects................................................................................................................................... 135
Mixing multitrack sessions........................................................................................................................ 137
Arranging and editing multitrack clips................................................................................................................................. 138
Automating mixes with envelopes (CS6)............................................................................................................................ 141
Automating mixes with envelopes (CS5.5)......................................................................................................................... 145
Multitrack clip stretching in CS6..........................................................................................................................................149
Basic multitrack controls..................................................................................................................................................... 150
Clip volume matching, fading, and mixing.......................................................................................................................... 153
Looping clips....................................................................................................................................................................... 156
Multitrack Editor overview................................................................................................................................................... 158
Multitrack routing and EQ controls......................................................................................................................................161
Video and surround sound........................................................................................................................ 165
5.1 surround sound............................................................................................................................................................. 166
5.1 surround sound............................................................................................................................................................. 168
Importing video and working with video clips......................................................................................................................170
Working with video applications..........................................................................................................................................172
Saving and exporting................................................................................................................................ 174
Saving and exporting files (CS6)........................................................................................................................................ 175
Saving and exporting files (CS5.5)..................................................................................................................................... 180
Viewing and editing XMP metadata.................................................................................................................................... 184
Keyboard shortcuts................................................................................................................................... 186
Finding and customizing shortcuts..................................................................................................................................... 187
Default keyboard shortcuts................................................................................................................................................. 188
What's New
Learn Audition CS6 video tutorials
Adobe TV (Jan. 16, 2013)
video-tutorial
Learn Audition CS6 video tutorials
1
What's new in Audition CC
Effects
Editing audio
Spectral editing enhancements
Intuitive multi-track session editing
Favorites
Usability enhancements
Import and Export
Expanded format support
This version of Adobe Audition comes with a boost in performance, lots of little things to make your life easier, and loads of new features. Now,
Audition is a 64-bit application for both Windows and Mac OS, with considerably improved performance.
PLEASE UPGRADE FLASH
To view this content, you need the latest version of the
Flash Player. Adobe TV uses the Open Source Media
Framework (OSMF) to deliver a superior video experience.
Please upgrade your Flash Player to version 10.2 to benefit
from this technology.
Gain unprecedented creative control with new expressive features and
visual performance improvements in Adobe Flash Player 10.2.
Flash Player is a cross-platform browser plug-in that delivers
breakthrough Web experiences to over 99% of Internet users.
To the top
Effects
Sound Remover effect
Use the new Sound Remover effect (Effects > Noise Reduction/Restoration) to remove unwanted audio sources from a recording. This effect
analyzes a selected portion of the recording, and builds a sound model. The generated model can also be modified using parameters that indicate
its complexity. A high complexity sound model requires more refinement passes to process the recording, but provides more accurate results. You
can also save the sound model for later use. Several common presets are also included to best handle sounds, such as sirens and ringing mobile
phones.
For more information, see Sound Remover effect.
2
Sound Remover effect
Click/Pop Eliminator effect
Use the Click/Pop Eliminator effect (Effects > Noise Reduction/Restoration) to remove microphone pops, clicks, light hiss, and crackles. Such
noise is common on recordings such as old vinyl records and on-location recordings. The effect dialog box stays open, and you can adjust the
selection, and fix multiple clicks without reopening the effect several times.
For more information, see Click/Pop Eliminator effect.
Generating noise
Generate noise is now available by selecting Effects > Generate > Noise from the application menu. You can generate random noise in various
colors (white, pink, brown, and gray). Parameters of noise such as Style, Delay time, Intensity, Duration, and DC offset can be modified. Power
spectral density of the noise is shown as a preview. If there is a selection on timeline, the newly added noise can replace or overlap with the
selected audio. Generate noise function is also supported in Multitrack view. And the noise will be inserted to a track automatically after it is
generated.
For more information, see Generate Noise.
Scientific Filter effect
The Scientific Filter effect (Effects > Filter and EQ) is now available in Audition as a real-time effect. Use this effect for advanced manipulation of
audio. You can also access the effect from the Effects Rack for single assets in the waveform editor, or for tracks and clips in the Multitrack editor.
For more information, see Scientific Filter effect.
Stereo Expander effect
Use the new Stereo Expander (Effects > Stereo Imagery > Stereo Expander) to position and expand the stereo image. You can also combine it
with other effects in the Effects Rack. In the Multitrack view, you can also vary the effect over time by using automation lanes.
For more information, see Stereo Expander effect.
ITU Loudness Meter
Adobe Audition now has an integrated, customized version of the TC Electronic Loudness Radar meter plug-in. Available in both the waveform and
multitrack views, it provides you with information about peak, average, and range levels. The Radar sweep view, which provides an excellent view
of loudness changes over time, is also available. Choose Effects > Special > Loudness Radar Meter.
3
For more information, see Loudness Radar Meter.
Pitch Bender effect
Use the Pitch Bender effect (Effects > Time and Pitch > Pitch Bender) to change the tempo over time to vary the pitch. The effect now uses a
keyframe edit envelope laid across the entire waveform, similar to the Fade and Gain Envelope effects.
See Pitch Bender Effect.
Pitch Shifter effect
Use the Pitch Shifter effect (Effects > Time and Pitch > Pitch Shifter) to change the musical pitch. It's a real-time effect which can be combined
with other effects in the mastering rack or the effects rack. In the Multitrack view, you can also vary pitch over time by using automation lanes.
See Pitch Shifter effect.
Other enhancements
Slight layout changes have been made to make the features more intuitive to use.
To close all open Effect dialog boxes, choose View > Hide All Rack Effect Windows. You can also press Shift+Ctrl+H (Windows) or
Shift+Command+H (Mac OS).
To the top
Editing audio
Preview Editor
You can now see in real time, how the waveform looks before you apply changes. Or work on separate regions of a file simultaenously. This
functionality is especially valuable when you're working with effects that alter the duration of a clip. Choose View > Show Preview Editor to display
the preview.
4
Preview Editor. Zoom in for detailed work.
Note: While using Preview Editor with process effects such as Stretch, Doppler Shifter, Pitch, and Pitch Bender, wait for the preview sequence to
get generated before you move the playhead.
Frequency Band Splitter
Use Frequency Band Splitter to take one audio clip (or a selection in a clip) and make up to eight copies, where each copy contains a different
frequency range contained in the original clip. The crossover frequencies determine the split points. Each copy of the waveform is created as a
new file, and placed in the Files panel. You can then edit or apply effects to each band separately.
For example, three bands with crossover values of 800 Hz and 3200 Hz creates three copies of the selected waveform: with the frequencies of the
selected wave from 0 Hz to 800 Hz, 801 Hz to 3200 Hz, and from 3201 Hz to 22050 Hz (or whatever the maximum frequency present is, based on
the sample rate).
For more information, see Frequency Band Splitter.
Phase analysis
Use the Phase Analysis panel (Window > Phase Analysis) to reveal out-of-phase channels for stereo waveforms. The Phase Analysis panel also
shows stereo separation. You can choose from several phase views, including Histogram, Mid/Side, Lissajous, and Phase Wheel. For additional
display options, right-click the graph and choose an option.
The Phase Analysis panel is available in both Waveform and Multitrack views. In the Multitrack view, this panel displays the phase of the Master
track output.
For more information, see Analyzing phase, frequency, and amplitude.
Cancel all running operations
You can cancel all running operations, or all running operations on selected files. In the Files, Batch Process, or Match Volume panel, right-click,
and choose an option to cancel running operations.
In addition, if you quit Audition while some operations are running, you're prompted to cancel running operations.
Mix paste enhancements
Mix paste options now provide additional paste types:
Insert
Overlap (Mix)
Overwrite
Modulate
For more information, see Copying, cutting, pasting, and deleting audio.
Other enhancements
Audition contains several enhancements that boost your productivity by making it easier to do certain tasks.
5
Show frequency, time, and other data in the status bar when you move the cursor over a waveform or a spectral display. Right-click the
status bar and enable Data Under Cursor.
The Free Space and Free Space (Time) display on the status bar is updated real time as you record within the multi-track view.
Additional shortcuts for track items, such as solo, mute, record. Go to Edit > Keyboard Shortcuts and set them as required.
To the top
Spectral editing enhancements
You can now easily add, remove, and invert spectral selections made using the marquee, lasso, or paintbrush selection tools.
Press Shift to add to the current selection
Press Alt (Windows) or Option (Mac OS) to remove from a selection
To invert a selection, choose Edit > Select > Select Inverse.
Selections in the spectral display
To the top
Intuitive multi-track session editing
PLEASE UPGRADE FLASH
To view this content, you need the latest version of the
Flash Player. Adobe TV uses the Open Source Media
Framework (OSMF) to deliver a superior video experience.
Please upgrade your Flash Player to version 10.2 to benefit
Smart track colors
To make it easier to identify tracks, a color bar is added to the tracks. These color bars are added on the left of track header, or at the bottom in
the mixer panel. When you add a clip to a track, the clip color changes to match that of the track.
6
Click the color box in the bar to specify a custom color. A new preference Show Track Color in Multitrack (Edit > Preferences > Appearance)
enables or disables this functionality.
Clip overlays while dragging
You can see clip placement, duration, and cross-fade information when you drag clips and place them into the multi-track audio. This feature is
available when you drag clips from the Media Browser, or Finder (Mac OS) and Explorer (Windows). If the file is already open in Audition, the
waveform is also displayed.
Merge clips
In a multitrack session, you can now merge all selected clips. Right-click on the selected clips, and choose Merge Clips. The original clips are
removed, and the new merged clip is inserted into the track. A new audio file is also created on the disk for the merged clip.
If the original clips had any effects, envelopes, gains, or stretches applied, each individual clip is rendered first, and then the resultant clips are
used to create the merged clip.
Add crossfades while adding clips
Crossfades are added automatically at the time of adding audio clips to a multitrack session. You do not need to move a clip after adding it to
insert a crossfade. While dragging, clip overlays also show the exact clip placement and crossfades.
Paste clips to a multitrack session
New functionality allows you to control paste operations in a multitrack session:
You can choose to paste all clips in the same targeted track, or multiple tracks. Press Alt while dragging to toggle. You can specify the
default behavior in the Multitrack Clip preferences (Edit > Preferences)
When enabled, a new preference, Avoid overlapping clips when inserting or pasting new clips (Edit > Preferences > Multitrack), creates new
tracks.
Other enhancements
Audition contains several enhancements that boost your productivity by making it easier to do certain tasks.
Double-click the track header or empty space in a track lane to select all clips in the track. Additionally, hold Ctrl/Cmd to select clips from
multiple tracks.
Use Edit > Select > Clips to start of session to select all clips between the Start and the Playhead.
Use Edit > Select > Clips to end of session to select all clips between the playhead and the end.
Choose a Default Clip Stretch Mode, either Realtime or Rendered, to be used when you stretch clips with the Clip Stretch handles. Specify
the setting from Preferences dialog box (Edit > Preferences > Multitrack Clips)
Silence time selection
You can mute a selection in a clip by using, Clip > Silence Selected Clips in Time Selection. This command adds keyframes, and adjusts the
7
volume envelope to silence the selected clips for the selected duration.
To the top
Favorites
Use the new Favorites panel to record, view, organize, run, or edit your favorite tasks. To display the Favorites panel, choose Window > Favorites
or Favorites > Edit Favorites.
Toggle the Order button to manually adjust the order in which the favorites are displayed in the panel. By default, favorites are displayed in
alphabetical order.
The Favorites panel also displays the keyboard shortcuts assigned to each favorite. Use the Edit > Keyboard Shortcuts to assign shortcuts.
Edit favorites
You can edit the favorites, from within the Favorites panel. Choose Favorites > Edit Favorites. The actions are displayed in panel itself, and you
can double-click the action to open and edit the parameters.
To the top
Usability enhancements
Several updates and tweaks were made to the Audition user interface and functionality to make it more intuitive and make your tasks easier.
Enter and Escape keys
In dialog boxes, pressing the Enter or Return keys is the same as clicking OK. For example, if you enter a value in a field and then press
Enter/Return, the value is accepted and committed. Similarly, pressing Esc, rejects the change and dismisses the dialog box.
Note: In Effects dialog boxes, this updated behavior does not apply, and pressing Enter/Return only accepts the value in the field, but does not
apply it.
Zoom
It's now easier to zoom in, to see details of what you're working on.
Zoom in to the selected track, to display it in the full vertical height. In the Zoom panel, click Zoom Selected Track or press Shift+/.
By default, zooming in on the timeline using the mouse-wheel centers on the pointer. Press Ctrl/Cmd to center on the playhead. Additionally
choose the default option, using the Edit > General > Mouse Wheel Zoom preference.
Move playhead between markers
You can quickly move the playhead between the markers. The movement ignores clips, edges of selections, and other points.
Use Ctrl+Alt+Left/Right arrow (Windows) and Cmd+Alt+Left/Right arrow (Mac OS).
8
Playback preferences
A new preference has been introduced to stop playback at the end of a selection. The option is enabled by default. To disable it, go to Edit >
Preferences > Playback > When playback starts within a selected region, stop at the end of the selection.
To the top
Import and Export
Upload to SoundCloud.com
You can now export a file directly to your SoundCloud.com account. Choose File > Export > Upload to SoundCloud, and follow the onscreen
instructions.
Extract CD tracks to a single file
You can now extract selected CD tracks to a single file. Insert an audio CD into an optical drive, and choose File > Extract Audio from CD. Select
the tracks and enable Extract to Single File.
For more information, see Extracting Audio from CDs.
To the top
Expanded format support
Windows
You can now work with the latest generation of Windows Audio Session API (WASAPI) hardware drivers.
On Windows 7 and Windows 8, you can import and export to WMA format. The following formats are supported:
Windows Media Audio Professional (CBR & VBR)
Windows Media Audio Standard (CBR & VBR)
Windows Media Audio Lossless
Windows Media Audio Voice
Note: The ability to open WMA files on Mac is no longer available.
Mac OS
You can now import or export to any audio formats supported by Apple Audio Toolbox. You can also import and export AAC files used in iTunes.
Twitter™ and Facebook posts are not covered under the terms of Creative Commons.
Legal Notices | Online Privacy Policy
9
What's new in CS6
Faster, more precise audio editing
Multitrack clip stretching
Automatic speech alignment
Control surface support with parameter automation
Powerful pitch controls
Efficient file management
Expanded audio and video formats
CD burning
More effects, flexible routing, and VST3 support
Integrated radio automation
Improved batch processing
Configurable metronome
Enhanced keyboard shortcuts
To the top
Faster, more precise audio editing
Multitrack clip grouping Select multiple clips, and choose Clip > Groups > Group Clips. You can move and edit grouped clips together, and
even stretch them proportionately when clip stretching is enabled. Group stretch, gain, color and other settings are available in the Properties
panel (Window > Properties).
To temporarily edit all grouped clips independently, select Clip > Groups > Suspend Groups. To quickly reapply groups throughout a session,
deselect the Suspend Groups command.
To independently edit one clip in a group, right-click it, and select Remove Focus Clip from Group.
Trim multitrack clips to time selections The Trim to Time Selection command trims unused portions of clips, helping align them to related video
or musical elements in a session.
1. Select a time range and one or more clips with the Time Selection tool
.
2. Choose Clip > Trim to Time Selection.
Multitrack clip spotting In the Info section of the Properties panel, enter specific clip start and end times for selected clips, placing them
precisely.
Preview edits with Skip Selection In the transport controls at the bottom of the Editor panel, click the Skip Selection button
selected audio during playback, letting you accurately preview edits.
to bypass
Position the playhead prior to the selection to set the default preroll and postroll amount. Audition applies the same setting when you next
preview with Skip Selection.
Multiple clipboards in Waveform Editor Choose Edit > Set Current Clipboard to copy and paste audio from up to five different clipboards. When
you need to paste specific material that you use repeatedly, it’s readily available.
To the top
Multitrack clip stretching
Quickly stretch clips to the necessary length, while previewing the results during playback. In the Editor panel, select multiple clips to stretch them
proportionately. In the Properties panel, choose from a variety of stretch types optimized for different audio content.
For detailed information, see Multitrack clip stretching in CS6.
To the top
Automatic speech alignment
To quickly align overdubbed dialogue with original production audio, use automatic speech alignment. Audition matches the timing of each word,
even if the original audio is noisy or differs in overall length.
In the Multitrack editor, select two clips containing the same dialog, and of similar length. Then choose Clip > Automatic Speech Alignment.
From the Reference Channel menus, choose channels in which dialogue is most clear. To further improve alignment, trim any leading or trailing
silence from the clips.
10
Control surface support with parameter automation
To the top
Mix audio interactively with popular control surfaces using the EUCON, Mackie MCU, or Logic Control protocols (including the Avid Artist series
formerly made by Euphonix). Or use third-party, tablet-based controllers that support these protocols. You can even use multiple devices
simultaneously.
To connect your controller to Audition, choose Edit > Preferences > Control Surface. Choose the controller protocol from the Device Class menu.
Then click Configure to specify MIDI ins and outs (for Mackie and Logic controllers), or Button Assignments (for Mackie and Red Rover
controllers).
Audition CS6 supports the full range of automation modes—read, write, latch, and touch—for all track level, pan, and effect parameters. Choose
the automation mode from the menu at the bottom of the track controls in the Editor panel, or above the fader in the Mixer.
For details about each automation mode, see Track automation options.
To the top
Powerful pitch controls
Precisely correct pitch with automatic and manual pitch control, or creatively manipulate audio for innovative sound design.
For the best results, apply pitch correction to individual vocal or instrument tracks.
Manual Pitch Correction effect (Waveform Editor only)
The Manual Pitch Correction effect lets you visually adjust pitch with the Spectral Pitch Display. The Spectral Pitch Display shows the fundamental
pitch as a bright blue line, and overtones in yellow to red hues. Corrected pitch appears as a bright green line.
Choose Effects > Time and Pitch > Manual Pitch Correction. For detailed instructions, see Manual Pitch Correction effect.
You can visually monitor pitch at any time, without using the Manual Pitch Correction effect. Simply click the Spectral Pitch Display iconin the
options bar.
The Automatic Pitch Correction effect is available in both the Waveform and Multitrack editors. In the latter, its parameters can be automated over
time using keyframes and external control surfaces.
Choose Effects > Time and Pitch > Automatic Pitch Correction. For detailed instructions, see Automatic Pitch Correction effect.
To the top
Efficient file management
Media Browser
Choose Window > Media Browser to preview files on your local and networked drives, with helpful file metadata and specifications. At the bottom
of the panel, click the Play button
to hear audio, and the Loop Playback button
to catch the details. Then drag files directly to the Files or
Match Volume panels, multitrack sessions, or CD layouts.
To bookmark a folder you use often, navigate to it in the Media Browser, and then click the Add Shortcut icon in the upper-right corner of the
panel.
Files panel
In the Files panel, quickly find files by entering data in the search box such as name, channels, or media type. At the bottom of the panel, click the
Play and Loop Playback
buttons.
To save space in the Media Browser and Files panels, click the panel menu button in the upper-right corner, and deselect Show Preview
Transport. A smaller Play button appears at the top, and Auto-Play and Loop Preview commands remain available in the panel menu.
Markers panel
The Markers panel adds a similar search box and these features:
In the upper-right corner of the panel, click the Show Markers Of All Files icon
to view markers across all open files and sessions. Insert
selected marker ranges into multitrack sessions, CD layouts, or playlists using icons at the top of the panel.
Click the Insert Into Multitrack icon
to either add marker ranges to an existing multitrack session or create an entirely new session.
New marker types include:
Subclip for ranges of a file you want Adobe Premiere Pro to display as separate clips in the Project panel.
CD Track. See CD burning.
Cart Timer for radio automation systems. See Integrated radio automation.
11
Session templates, archives, and mixdowns
Choose File > Export > Session As Template to create multitrack templates that speed up recurring projects requiring similar settings, tasks, and
source files. To apply a template to a new session, choose File > New > Multitrack Session, and then choose a Template option.
To archive whole sessions or move them to other systems along with markers, metadata, and source files, choose File > Export > Session. In the
Export Session dialog box, customize exported source files by selecting Save Copies Of Associated Files, and clicking Options. To change file
format, select Convert Files. To export full or trimmed source files, choose Media Options.
Choose File > Export > Mixdown, and review the Mixdown Options section. Click Change to output tracks as separate files, or simultaneously
output mono, stereo, and 5.1 masters.
To the top
Expanded audio and video formats
Import and play HD video in a wide variety of frame rates, including 23.976 and 59.94 drop-frame and 59.94 non-drop-frame. The ruler and other
timecode displays match automatically.
Supported import formats now include FLV, Shockwave, and RED R3D, plus Monkey’s Audio and a range of audio formats provided by the
libsndfile standard.
Export formats also include Monkey's Audio and libsndfile formats, plus FLAC, OGG, and MPEG-1 Audio Layer II (MP2).
Note: To enable some formats, you must select Enable DLMS Format Support in the Media & Disk Cache preferences.
For the complete list of formats and related settings, see Supported import formats and Export format settings.
To the top
CD burning
Choose File > New > CD Layout to assemble files you want to burn to Redbook-standard audio CDs. Or add tracks directly from the Files and
Markers panels: right-click, and choose Insert Into CD Layout. (To make this option available for marker ranges, choose CD Track in the Type
column.)
Press Shift + M during playback to quickly mark CD track start and end points. Then select adjoining points in the Markers panel, and click the
Merge Selected Markers icon to create time ranges for each track.
You can assemble multiple CD layout files simultaneously and select between them in the Files panel. In the Properties panel, specify disc
properties like Media Catalog Number (MCN), Title, and Artist.
When you finish laying out a CD, choose File > Export > Burn Audio to CD. (In the Burn Audio dialog box, choose Write Mode > Test to ensure
that data transfer will be quick enough to avoid errors.)
To quickly burn a single file, including track markers, choose File > Export > Burn Audio to CD in the Waveform Editor. (Any track markers
must be time ranges rather than points.)
To the top
More effects, flexible routing, and VST3 support
Favorite effects
Audition CS6 reintroduces several key effects. From the Effects menu, choose the following:
Generate Tones lets you select a waveform, add harmonics, create a sweep, and adjust phase to create sound design elements and test
tones.
Special > Doppler Shifter (Waveform Editor only) creates the effect of a sound passing by the listener, or even swirling around them.
Stereo Imagery > Graphic Phase Shifter gives you pinpoint control over phase degree for every part of the frequency spectrum.
Filter And EQ > Notch Filter lets you tweak specific frequencies for noise reduction, extreme EQ effects, or intense resonance.
Flexible effects routing and side-chaining
Routing enhancements let you assign effect inputs and outputs to specific channels, a particularly flexible technique for 5.1 surround mixes. (For
example, you can apply mono or stereo effects to 5.1 sources.) In the upper-right corner of effects windows, click the Channel Map Editor icon .
Side-chaining for compatible plug-ins and the built-in Dynamics Processing effect lets you adjust amplitude based on an external signal. The most
popular technique automatically drops music or background level whenever an announcer speaks:
1. Open a multitrack session.
2. On the background track you want to compress, apply the Amplitude And Compression > Dynamics Processing effect.
3. In the Effects Rack, double-click the effect to edit settings.
12
4. In the upper-right corner of the Dynamics Processing window, click the Set Side-Chain Input icon
for source audio: Mono, Stereo, or 5.1.
5. Navigate to the voice-over track. In the Sends section
name].
. Then select the channel configuration
of the Editor panel, choose Side-Chain > Dynamics Processing [destination track
VST3 support and rock-solid stability
Support for VST3 effects opens up a new world of third-party effects. And separate scanning of third-party effects keeps Audition running even if a
plug-in becomes unstable.
To the top
Integrated radio automation
Audition CS6 fully integrates with radio automation systems.
1. To visually set AES CART timers in an audio waveform, position the playhead in the Editor panel, and press the C key. (For quick, general
placement of timers, press the C key during playback.)
2. In the Markers panel, click the pop-up menus in the Name column to choose from default Cart codes. (You can type customized codes for
your system, within a four-character limit.)
Note: Cart systems read only the first eight timers in a file; any later ones are ignored.
Choose Window > Metadata to access these radio-related options:
On the CART tab, quickly edit IDs, out cue phrases, start and end dates, and more. (The same metadata appears in the AES CART section
of the XMP tab.)
On the RIFF tab, choose Show As > Radio Industry to view a streamlined subset of RIFF metadata.
To the top
Improved batch processing
In the Batch Process panel, apply favorites across multiple files at any time, not only at export. To quickly specify common file-naming conventions
when exporting from the Batch Process or Match Volume panels, click Export Settings, and then select Template.
Choose File > Save All Audio as Batch Process to process all open files. For details, see Batch process files.
To the top
Configurable metronome
A configurable metronome provides a variety of beat patterns and sounds. Choose Edit > Metronome > Edit Pattern or Change Sound Type.
To enable the metronome, click the metronome icon
appears at the top of the Editor panel.
in the Properties or Editor panels. Adjust volume and pan in the Metronome track that
To change tempo and time signature for the current session, adjust settings in the Time Display section of the Properties panel.
For the Metronome track, you can apply effects, assign sends and hardware outputs, and automate the mix just like audio tracks.
To the top
Enhanced keyboard shortcuts
Choose Edit > Keyboard Shortcuts, and enter commands in the search box for quick access, or click Copy To Clipboard to print from a text editor.
Twitter™ and Facebook posts are not covered under the terms of Creative Commons.
Legal Notices | Online Privacy Policy
13
Digital audio fundamentals
14
Digitizing audio
Comparing analog and digital audio
Understanding sample rate
Understanding bit depth
Measuring amplitude in dBFS
Audio file contents and size
How Adobe Audition digitizes audio
To the top
Comparing analog and digital audio
In analog and digital audio, sound is transmitted and stored very differently.
Analog audio: positive and negative voltage
A microphone converts the pressure waves of sound into voltage changes in a wire: high pressure becomes positive voltage, and low pressure
becomes negative voltage. When these voltage changes travel down a microphone wire, they can be recorded onto tape as changes in magnetic
strength or onto vinyl records as changes in groove size. A speaker works like a microphone in reverse, taking the voltage signals from an audio
recording and vibrating to re-create the pressure wave.
Digital audio: zeroes and ones
Unlike analog storage media such as magnetic tape or vinyl records, computers store audio information digitally as a series of zeroes and ones. In
digital storage, the original waveform is broken up into individual snapshots called samples. This process is typically known as digitizing or
sampling the audio, but it is sometimes called analog-to-digital conversion.
When you record from a microphone into a computer, for example, analog-to-digital converters transform the analog signal into digital samples
that computers can store and process.
To the top
Understanding sample rate
Sample rate indicates the number of digital snapshots taken of an audio signal each second. This rate determines the frequency range of an audio
file. The higher the sample rate, the closer the shape of the digital waveform is to that of the original analog waveform. Low sample rates limit the
range of frequencies that can be recorded, which can result in a recording that poorly represents the original sound.
Two sample rates
A. Low sample rate that distorts the original sound wave. B. High sample rate that perfectly reproduces the original sound wave.
To reproduce a given frequency, the sample rate must be at least twice that frequency. For example, CDs have a sample rate of 44,100 samples
per second, so they can reproduce frequencies up to 22,050 Hz, which is just beyond the limit of human hearing, 20,000 Hz.
Here are the most common sample rates for digital audio:
Sample rate
Quality level
Frequency range
11,025 Hz
Poor AM radio (low-end multimedia)
0–5,512 Hz
22,050 Hz
Near FM radio (high-end multimedia)
0–11,025 Hz
15
32,000 Hz
Better than FM radio (standard broadcast
rate)
0–16,000 Hz
44,100 Hz
CD
0–22,050 Hz
48,000 Hz
Standard DVD
0–24,000 Hz
96,000 Hz
Blu-ray DVD
0–48,000 Hz
To the top
Understanding bit depth
Bit depth determines dynamic range. When a sound wave is sampled, each sample is assigned the amplitude value closest to the original wave’s
amplitude. Higher bit depth provides more possible amplitude values, producing greater dynamic range, a lower noise floor, and higher fidelity.
For the best audio quality, Audition transforms all audio in 32-bit mode and then converts to a specified bit depth when saving files.
Bit depth
Quality level
Amplitude values
Dynamic range
8-bit
Telephony
256
48 dB
16-bit
Audio CD
65,536
96 dB
24-bit
Audio DVD
16,777,216
144 dB
32-bit
Best
4,294,967,296
192 dB
Higher bit depths provide greater dynamic range.
To the top
Measuring amplitude in dBFS
In digital audio, amplitude is measured in decibels below full scale, or dBFS. The maximum possible amplitude is 0 dBFS; all amplitudes below
that are expressed as negative numbers.
Note: A given dBFS value does not directly correspond to the original sound pressure level measured in acoustic dB.
To the top
Audio file contents and size
An audio file on your hard drive, such as a WAV file, consists of a small header indicating sample rate and bit depth, and then a long series of
numbers, one for each sample. These files can be very large. For example, at 44,100 samples per second and 16 bits per sample, a mono file
requires 86 KB per second—about 5 MB per minute. That figure doubles to 10 MB per minute for a stereo file, which has two channels.
To the top
How Adobe Audition digitizes audio
When you record audio in Adobe Audition, the sound card starts the recording process and specifies what sample rate and bit depth to use.
Through Line In or Microphone In ports, the sound card receives analog audio and digitally samples it at the specified rate. Adobe Audition stores
each sample in sequence until you stop recording.
When you play a file in Adobe Audition, the process happens in reverse. Adobe Audition sends a series of digital samples to the sound card. The
card reconstructs the original waveform and sends it as an analog signal through Line Out ports to your speakers.
To sum up, the process of digitizing audio starts with a pressure wave in the air. A microphone converts this pressure wave into voltage changes.
A sound card converts these voltage changes into digital samples. After analog sound becomes digital audio, Adobe Audition can record, edit,
16
process, and mix it—the possibilities are limited only by your imagination.
|
17
Understanding sound
Sound waves
Waveform measurements
How sound waves interact
To the top
Sound waves
Sound starts with vibrations in the air, like those produced by guitar strings, vocal cords, or speaker cones. These vibrations push nearby air
molecules together, raising the air pressure slightly. The air molecules under pressure then push on the air molecules surrounding them, which
push on the next set of molecules, and so on. As high-pressure areas move through the air, they leave low-pressure areas behind them. When
these waves of pressure changes reach us, they vibrate the receptors in our ears, and we hear the vibrations as sound.
When you see a visual waveform that represents audio, it reflects these waves of air pressure. The zero line in the waveform is the pressure of air
at rest. When the line swings up to a peak, it represents higher pressure; when the line swings down to a trough, it represents lower pressure.
A sound wave represented as a visual waveform
A. Zero line B. Low-pressure area C. High-pressure area
To the top
Waveform measurements
Several measurements describe waveforms:
Amplitude Reflects the change in pressure from the peak of the waveform to the trough. High-amplitude waveforms are loud; low-amplitude
waveforms are quiet.
Cycle Describes a single, repeated sequence of pressure changes, from zero pressure, to high pressure, to low pressure, and back to zero.
Frequency Measured in hertz (Hz), describes the number of cycles per second. (For example, a 1000-Hz waveform has 1000 cycles per second.)
The higher the frequency, the higher the musical pitch.
Phase Measured in 360 degrees, indicates the position of a waveform in a cycle. Zero degrees is the start point, followed by 90º at high pressure,
180º at the halfway point, 270º at low pressure, and 360º at the end point.
Wavelength Measured in units such as inches or centimeters, is the distance between two points with the same degree of phase. As frequency
increases, wavelength decreases.
A single cycle at left; a complete, 20-Hz waveform at right
A. Wavelength B. Degree of phase C. Amplitude D. One second
To the top
How sound waves interact
When two or more sound waves meet, they add to and subtract from each other. If their peaks and troughs are perfectly in phase, they reinforce
each other, resulting in a waveform that has higher amplitude than either individual waveform.
18
In-phase waves reinforce each other.
If the peaks and troughs of two waveforms are perfectly out of phase, they cancel each other out, resulting in no waveform at all.
Out-of-phase waves cancel each other out.
In most cases, however, waves are out of phase in varying amounts, resulting in a combined waveform that is more complex than individual
waveforms. A complex waveform that represents music, voice, noise, and other sounds, for example, combines the waveforms from each sound.
Because of its unique physical structure, a single instrument can create extremely complex waves. That’s why a violin and a trumpet sound
different even when playing the same note.
Two simple waves combine to create a complex wave.
|
19
Workspace and setup
20
Viewing, zooming, and navigating audio
Comparing the Waveform and Multitrack editors
Zoom audio in the Editor panel
Navigate through time
To the top
Comparing the Waveform and Multitrack editors
Adobe Audition provides different views for editing audio files and creating multitrack mixes. To edit individual files, use the Waveform Editor. To
mix multiple files and integrate them with video, use the Multitrack Editor.
The Waveform and Multitrack editors use different editing methods, and each has unique advantages. The Waveform Editor uses a destructive
method, which changes audio data, permanently altering saved files. Such permanent changes are preferable when converting sample rate and bit
depth, mastering, or batch processing. The Multitrack Editor uses a nondestructive method, which is impermanent and instantaneous, requiring
more processing power, but increasing flexibility. This flexibility is preferable when gradually building and reevaluating a multilayered musical
composition or video soundtrack.
You can combine destructive and nondestructive editing to suit the needs of a project. If a multitrack clip requires destructive editing, for example,
simply double-click it to enter the Waveform Editor. Likewise, if an edited waveform contains recent changes that you dislike, use the Undo
command to revert to previous states—destructive edits aren’t applied until you save a file.
For more information about the Waveform Editor, see Editing audio files; for more information about the Multitrack Editor, see Mixing multitrack
sessions.
Basic components of the editors
Though available options differ in the Waveform and Multitrack editors, both views share basic components, such as the tool and status bars, and
the Editor panel.
Basic components of Waveform and Multitrack editors (Waveform shown)
A. View buttons and toolbar B. Editor panel with zoom navigator at top C. Various other panels D. Status bar
Switch editors
Do one of the following:
From the View menu, choose Waveform or Multitrack Editor.
In the toolbar, click the Waveform
or Multitrack Editor
button.
In the Multitrack Editor, double-click an audio clip to open it in the Waveform Editor. Alternatively, double-click a file in the Files panel.
In the Waveform Editor, choose Edit > Edit Original to open the multitrack session that created a mixdown file. (This command requires
embedded metadata in the file. See Embed edit-original data in exported mixdown files.)
To the top
21
Zoom audio in the Editor panel
To zoom into a specific time range, right-click and drag.
A. Zoom navigator B. Timeline ruler
Zoom into a specific time range
In either the zoom navigator or the timeline ruler, right-click and drag. The magnifying glass icon
fill the Editor panel.
creates a selection showing the range that will
Zoom into a specific frequency range
In the vertical ruler for the spectral display, right-click and drag. (See View audio waveforms and spectrums.)
Extend or shorten the displayed range
Place the pointer over the left or right edge of the highlighted area in the zoom navigator, and then drag the magnifying glass icon
.
Gradually zoom in or out
In the lower right of the Editor panel, click the Zoom In
or Zoom Out
button.
You can set the Zoom Factor in the General section of the Preferences dialog box. (See Customize preferences.)
Zoom with the mouse wheel or Mac trackpad
Place the pointer over the zoom navigator or ruler, and either roll the wheel or drag up or down with two fingers. (In the Waveform Editor, this
zoom method also works when the pointer is over the waveform.)
Roll or drag over the spectral display, and press Shift to switch between logarithmic and linear frequency scales. (Logarithmic better reflects
human hearing; linear makes individual frequencies more visually distinct.)
Magnify selected audio
In the lower right of the Editor panel, click the Zoom In At In Point
, Zoom In At Out Point
, or Zoom To Selection buttons.
Display the entire audio file or multitrack session
In the lower right of the Editor panel, click the Zoom Out Full button
.
To display zoom buttons in a separate panel, choose Window > Zoom.
To the top
Navigate through time
At higher zoom levels, you can navigate to different audio content in the Editor panel.
Navigate by scrolling
Scrolling with the zoom navigator
In the zoom navigator, drag left or right.
To scroll through audio frequencies in the spectral display, drag up or down in the vertical ruler. (See View audio waveforms and spectrums.)
Navigate with the Selection/View panel
The Selection/View panel shows the start and end of the current selection and view in the Editor panel. The panel displays this information in the
current time format, such as Decimal or Bars And Beats. (See Change the time display format.)
1. To display the Selection/View panel, choose Window > Selection/View Controls.
22
2. (Optional) Enter new values into the Begin, End, or Duration boxes to change the selection or view.
Dock, group, or float panels
Twitter™ and Facebook posts are not covered under the terms of Creative Commons.
Legal Notices | Online Privacy Policy
23
Connecting to audio hardware
Configure audio inputs and outputs
Apply machine-specific hardware settings for network users (Audition CS6)
Assign file channels to inputs and outputs
You can use a wide range of hardware inputs and outputs with Adobe Audition. Sound card inputs let you bring in audio from sources such as
microphones, tape decks, and digital effects units. Sound card outputs let you monitor audio through sources such as speakers and headphones.
A. Sound card inputs connect to sources such as microphones and tape decks. B. Sound card outputs connect to speakers and headphones.
To the top
Configure audio inputs and outputs
When you configure inputs and outputs for recording and playback, Adobe Audition can use these kinds of sound card drivers:
In Windows, ASIO drivers support professional cards and MME drivers typically support standard cards.
In Mac OS, CoreAudio drivers support both professional and standard cards.
ASIO and CoreAudio drivers are preferable because they provide better performance and lower latency. You can also monitor audio as you record
it and instantly hear volume, pan, and effects changes during playback.
1. Choose Edit > Preferences > Audio Hardware (Windows) or Audition > Preferences > Audio Hardware (Mac OS).
2. From the Device Class menu, choose the driver for the sound card you want to use.
3. Choose a Default Input and Output from the card.
In the Multitrack Editor, you can override the defaults for specific tracks. See Assign audio inputs and outputs to tracks.
4. (MME and CoreAudio) For Master Clock, choose the input or output to which you want other digital audio hardware to synchronize (ensuring
accurate alignment of samples).
5. For I/O Buffer Size (ASIO and CoreAudio) or Latency (MME), specify the lowest setting possible without audio dropouts. The ideal setting
depends on the speed of your system, so some experimentation may be necessary.
6. Choose a Sample Rate for the audio hardware. (For common rates for different output mediums, see Understanding sample rate.)
7. (Optional) To optimize the performance of ASIO and CoreAudio cards, click Settings. For more information, consult the documentation for
the sound card.
Note: By default, Adobe Audition controls ASIO sound cards while playing or monitoring audio. If you want to access the card in another
application, select Release ASIO Driver In Background. (Audition still controls the card while recording to avoid having recordings suddenly stop.)
Apply machine-specific hardware settings for network users (Audition CS6)
To the top
In network environments, Audition preferences are stored with each user account. For editing, interface, and other preferences, this creates a
customized experience for each user. Audio hardware preferences, however, should typically remain consistent on a given machine, ensuring that
inputs and outputs on the installed audio interface are available in Audition.
1. Choose Edit > Preferences > Audio Hardware (Windows) or Audition > Preferences > Audio Hardware (Mac OS).
2. At the bottom of the Audio Hardware settings, select Use Machine-Specific Device Defaults. (Deselect this option only if users move an
assigned audio interface from machine to machine.)
To instead duplicate hardware settings from one machine to others, search for and copy the MachineSpecificSettings.xml file.
24
To the top
Assign file channels to inputs and outputs
1. Choose Edit > Preferences > Audio Channel Mapping (Windows) or Audition > Preferences > Audio Channel Mapping (Mac OS).
2. To the far right of items in the Input and Output lists, click the triangles to choose a hardware port for each file channel.
This procedure also sets default outputs for the Master track in the Multitrack Editor. To override the defaults, see Assign audio inputs and
outputs to tracks.
More Help topics
|
25
Customizing and saving application settings
Customize preferences
Restore preferences to default settings
Export and import customized application settings
To the top
Customize preferences
The Preferences dialog box lets you customize Adobe Audition’s display, editing behavior, use of hard disk space, and other settings.
Choose Edit > Preferences (Windows) or Audition > Preferences (Mac OS). Then choose the area you want to customize.
For information about a particular option, hover the mouse over it until a tooltip appears.
In the Media & Disk Cache preferences, choose your fastest drive for the Primary Temp folder, and a separate drive for the Secondary Temp
folder. Select Save Peak Files to store information about how to display WAV files. (Without peak files, larger WAV files reopen more slowly.)
To the top
Restore preferences to default settings
Unexpected behavior may indicate damaged preferences files. To re-create preferences files, do the following.
Hold down the Shift key, and start Adobe Audition.
To the top
Export and import customized application settings
Application settings files store all current preferences, effect settings, and workspaces. Export and import these files to store groups of customized
settings for specific workflows, or transfer favorite settings to another machine.
1. Choose File > Export > Application Settings. Then specify a filename and location.
2. To reapply the settings at a later time, choose File > Import > Application Settings.
To import preferences from Audition 2.0 or 3.0, search your system for the audition_settings.xml file. You can import that file into both the Mac
and Windows versions of Audition CS.
More Help topics
Working with markers
Customize the spectral display
Change the time display format
Navigating time and playing audio
|
26
Customizing workspaces
About workspaces
Choose a workspace
Dock, group, or float panels
Resize panel groups
Open, close, and scroll to panels
Working with multiple monitors
Display the toolbar
Display the status bar
Change interface colors, brightness, and performance
Save, reset, or delete workspaces
To the top
About workspaces
Adobe video and audio applications provide a consistent, customizable workspace. Although each application has its own set of panels (such as
Project, Metadata, and Timeline), you move and group panels in the same way across products.
The main window of a program is the application window. Panels are organized in this window in an arrangement called a workspace. The default
workspace contains groups of panels as well as panels that stand alone.
You customize a workspace by arranging panels in the layout that best suits your working style. As you rearrange panels, the other panels resize
automatically to fit the window. You can create and save several custom workspaces for different tasks—for example, one for editing and one for
previewing.
You can use floating windows to create a workspace more like workspaces in previous versions of Adobe applications, or to place panels on
multiple monitors.
In these two tutorials Andrew Devis from Creative Cow shows how to use different workspaces, and how to customize your workspace.
Example workspace
A. Application window B. Grouped panels C. Individual panel
To the top
Choose a workspace
Each Adobe video and audio application includes several predefined workspaces that optimize the layout of panels for specific tasks. When you
choose one of these workspaces, or any custom workspaces you’ve saved, the current workspace is redrawn accordingly.
Open the project you want to work on, choose Window > Workspace, and select the desired workspace.
27
To the top
Dock, group, or float panels
You can dock panels together, move them into or out of groups, and undock them so they float above the application window. As you drag a
panel, drop zones—areas onto which you can move the panel—become highlighted. The drop zone you choose determines where the panel is
inserted, and whether it docks or groups with other panels.
Docking zones
Docking zones exist along the edges of a panel, group, or window. Docking a panel places it adjacent to the existing group, resizing all groups to
accommodate the new panel.
Dragging panel (A) onto docking zone (B) to dock it (C)
Grouping zones
Grouping zones exist in the middle of a panel or group, and along the tab area of panels. Dropping a panel on a grouping zone stacks it with other
panels.
Dragging panel (A) onto grouping zone (B) to group it with existing panels (C)
Dock or group panels
1. If the panel you want to dock or group is not visible, choose it from the Window menu.
2. Do one of the following:
To move an individual panel, drag the gripper area in the upper-left corner of a panel’s tab onto the desired drop zone.
28
Drag panel gripper to move one panel
To move an entire group, drag the group gripper in the upper-right corner onto the desired drop zone.
Drag group gripper to move entire group
The application docks or groups the panel, according to the type of drop zone.
Undock a panel in a floating window
When you undock a panel in a floating window, you can add panels to the window and modify it similarly to the application window. You can use
floating windows to use a secondary monitor, or to create workspaces like the workspaces in earlier versions of Adobe applications.
Select the panel you want to undock (if it’s not visible, choose it from the Window menu), and then do one of the following:
Choose Undock Panel or Undock Frame from the panel menu. Undock Frame undocks the panel group.
Hold down Ctrl (Windows®) or Command (Mac OS®), and drag the panel or group from its current location. When you release the mouse
button, the panel or group appears in a new floating window.
Drag the panel or group outside the application window. (If the application window is maximized, drag the panel to the Windows taskbar.)
To the top
Resize panel groups
When you position the pointer over dividers between panel groups, resize icons appear. When you drag these icons, all groups that share the
divider are resized. For example, suppose your workspace contains three panel groups stacked vertically. If you drag the divider between the
bottom two groups, they are resized, but the topmost group doesn’t change.
To quickly maximize a panel beneath the pointer, press the accent key. (Do not press Shift.) Press the accent key again to return the panel to
its original size.
1. Do either of the following:
To resize either horizontally or vertically, position the pointer between two panel groups. The pointer becomes a double-arrow
.
To resize in both directions at once, position the pointer at the intersection between three or more panel groups. The pointer becomes a
four-way arrow
.
2. Hold down the mouse button, and drag to resize the panel groups.
29
Dragging divider between panel groups to resize them horizontally
A. Original group with resize icon B. Resized groups
To the top
Open, close, and scroll to panels
When you close a panel group in the application window, the other groups resize to use the newly available space. When you close a floating
window, the panels within it close, too.
To open a panel, choose it from the Window menu.
To close a panel or window, press Control-W (Windows) or Command-W (Mac OS), or click its Close button
.
To see all the panel tabs in a narrow panel group, drag the horizontal scroll bar.
To bring a panel to the front of a group of panels, do one of the following:
Click the tab of the panel you want in front.
Hover the cursor above the tab area, and turn the mouse scroll wheel. Scrolling brings each panel to the front, one after another.
Drag tabs horizontally to change their order.
To reveal panels hidden in a narrow panel group, drag the scroll bar above the panel group.
Drag horizontal scroll bar to see all panels in narrow group
To the top
Working with multiple monitors
To increase the available screen space, use multiple monitors. When you work with multiple monitors, the application window appears on one
monitor, and you place floating windows on the second monitor. Monitor configurations are stored in the workspace.
To the top
Display the toolbar
The toolbar provides quick access to tools, the Workspace menu, and buttons that toggle between the Waveform and Multitrack editors. Some
tools are unique to each view. Likewise, some Waveform Editor tools are available only in the spectral display.
By default, the toolbar is docked immediately below the menu bar. However, you can undock the toolbar, converting it to the Tools panel, which
30
you can manipulate like any other panel.
To show or hide the toolbar, choose Window > Tools. A check mark by the Tools command indicates that it is shown.
To undock the toolbar from its default location, drag the handle at the left edge to another location in the work area.
To redock the Tools panel in its default location, drag the Tools panel tab to the drop zone that spans the entire width of the Adobe Audition
window, just under the menu bar.
Available tools differ in each view.
A. Waveform Editor tools for spectral display B. Multitrack Editor tools
To the top
Display the status bar
The status bar runs across the bottom of the Adobe Audition work area. The far left of the status bar indicates the time required to open, save, or
process a file, as well as the current transport status (Playing, Recording, or Stopped). The far right of the bar displays various information that
you can customize.
Status bar
A. Time to open, save, or process file B. Video Frame Rate C. File Status D. Sample Type E. Uncompressed Audio
Size F. Duration G. Free Space H. Detect Dropped Samples
To show or hide the status bar, choose View > Status Bar > Show. A check mark indicates that the status bar is visible.
To change the information displayed at the far right of the bar, choose View > Status Bar, or right-click the bar. Then select from the
following options:
Video Frame Rate Displays the current and target frame rate of open video files in the Multitrack Editor.
File Status Indicates when processing is occurring for effects and amplitude adjustments.
Sample Type Displays sample information about the currently opened waveform (Waveform Editor) or session file (Multitrack Editor). For
example, a 44,100 Hz, 16-bit stereo file is displayed as 44100 Hz • 16-bit • Stereo.
Uncompressed Audio Size Indicates either how large the active audio file would be if saved to an uncompressed format such as WAV and
AIFF, or the total size of a multitrack session.
Duration Shows you the length of the current waveform or session. For example, 0:01:247 means the waveform or session is 1.247 seconds
long.
Free Space Shows how much space is available on your hard drive.
Free Space (Time) Displays the time remaining for recording, based upon the currently selected sample rate. This value is shown as
minutes, seconds, and thousandths of seconds. For example, if Adobe Audition is set to record 8-bit mono audio at 11,025 Hz, the time
remaining might read 4399:15.527 free. Change the recording options to 16-bit stereo at 44,100 Hz, and the time remaining becomes
680:44.736 free.
By default, Free Space (Time) information is hidden. To show it, right-click the status bar, and select Free Space (Time) from the pop-up
menu.
Detect Dropped Samples Indicates that samples were missing during recording or playback. If this indicator appears, consider rerecording
the file to avoid audible dropouts.
Change interface colors, brightness, and performance
1. Choose Edit > Preferences > Appearance (Windows) or Audition > Preferences > Appearance (Mac OS).
2. Adjust any of the following options, and then click OK:
Presets Applies, saves, or deletes a combination of Colors and Brightness settings.
Colors Click a swatch to change the color of waveforms, selections, or the current-time indicator.
Brightness Brightens or darkens panels, windows, and dialog boxes.
Use Gradients When deselected, removes shadows and highlights from panels, buttons, and meters.
31
To the top
To the top
Save, reset, or delete workspaces
Save a custom workspace
As you customize a workspace, the application tracks your changes, storing the most recent layout. To store a specific layout more permanently,
save a custom workspace. Saved custom workspaces appear in the Workspace menu, where you can return to and reset them.
Arrange the frames and panels as desired, and then choose Window > Workspace > New Workspace. Type a name for the workspace, and
click OK.
Note: (After Effects, Premiere Pro, Encore) If a project saved with a custom workspace is opened on another system, the application looks for a
workspace with a matching name. If it can’t find a match (or the monitor configuration doesn’t match), it uses the current local workspace.
Reset a workspace
Reset the current workspace to return to its original, saved layout of panels.
Choose Window > Workspace > Reset workspace name.
Delete a workspace
1. Choose Window > Workspace >Delete Workspace.
2. Choose the workspace you want to delete, and then click OK.
Note: You cannot delete the currently active workspace.
More Help topics
Comparing the Waveform and Multitrack editors
|
32
Importing, recording, and playing
33
Creating and opening files
Create a new, blank audio file
Create a new multitrack session
Open existing audio files and multitrack mixes
Append audio files to another (Audition CS6)
Import a file as raw data
Insert an audio file into a multitrack session
Spot-insert a Broadcast Wave file into a session
To the top
Create a new, blank audio file
New, blank audio files are perfect for recording new audio or combining pasted audio.
1. Choose File > New > Audio File.
To quickly create a file from selected audio in an open file, choose Edit > Copy To New. (See Copy or cut audio data.)
2. Enter a filename, and set the following options:
Sample Rate Determines the frequency range of the file. To reproduce a given frequency, the sample rate must be at least twice that
frequency. (See Understanding sample rate.)
Channels Determines if the waveform is mono, stereo, 5.1 surround.
For voice-only recordings, the mono option is a good choice that results in quicker processing and smaller files.
Bit Depth Determines the amplitude range of the file. The 32-bit level provides maximum processing flexibility in Adobe Audition. For
compatibility with common applications, however, convert to a lower bit depth when editing is complete. (See Understanding bit depth and
Change the bit depth of a file.)
To the top
Create a new multitrack session
Session (*.sesx) files contain no audio data themselves. Instead, they are small XML-based files that point to other audio files on the hard drive. A
session file keeps track of which files are a part of the session, where they are inserted, which envelopes and effects are applied, and so on.
To examine settings in detail, SESX files can be opened in text editors or stored in version control systems (such as Perforce, which is popular
in the gaming industry).
1. Choose File > New > Multitrack Session.
2. Enter a filename and location, and set the following options:
Template (CS6) Specifies either a default template or one you've created. Session templates specify source files and settings such as
Sample Rate and Bit Depth.
Sample Rate Determines the frequency range of the session. To reproduce a given frequency, the sample rate must be at least twice that
frequency. (See Understanding sample rate.)
Note: All files added to a session must share the sample rate. If you attempt to import files with different sample rates, Adobe Audition
prompts you to resample them, which may lower audio quality. To change resampling quality, adjust the Sample Rate Conversion settings in
the Data preferences.
Bit Depth Determines the amplitude range of the session, including recordings and files created with the Multitrack > Mixdown To New File
command. (See Understanding bit depth.)
Note: Choose a bit depth carefully, because it cannot be changed after you create a session. Ideally, you should work at the 32-bit level
with fast systems. If your system performs slowly, try a lower bit depth.
Master Determines whether tracks are mixed down to a mono, stereo, or 5.1 Master track. (See Routing audio to buses, sends, and the
Master track.)
34
To the top
Open existing audio files and multitrack mixes
The following file types open in the Multitrack Editor: Audition Session, Adobe Premiere Pro Sequence XML, Final Cut Pro XML Interchange, and
OMF.
All other supported file types open in the Waveform Editor, including the audio portion of video files.
Note: SES session files from Audition 3.0 and earlier are unsupported. If you have Audition 3.0, save sessions to XML format to open them in CS
versions. Note, however, that older effects are excluded in CS6, effects and time-stretching are excluded in CS5.5.
If you open multiple files, Editor panel menu lets you choose which file to display
1. Choose File > Open.
2. Select an audio or video file. (See Supported import formats.)
If you don’t see the file you want, choose All Supported Media from the menu at the bottom of the dialog box.
To the top
Append audio files to another (Audition CS6)
Append files with CD Track markers to quickly assemble audio and apply consistent processing.
1. In the Waveform Editor, do either of the following:
To add to the active file, choose File > Open Append > To Current.
To add to a new file, choose File > Open Append > To New.
2. In the Open Append dialog box, select one or more files.
Note: If the selected files have a different sample rate, bit depth, or channel type than the open file, Audition converts the selected files to
match the open file. For the best results, append files with the same sample type as the original file.
3. Click Open.
To the top
Import a file as raw data
If you can’t open a particular file, it may lack necessary header information that describes the sample type. To manually specify this information,
import the file as raw data.
1. Choose File > Import > Raw Data.
2. Select the file, and click Open.
3. Set the following options:
Sample Rate Should match the known rate of the file, if possible. For examples of common settings, see Understanding sample rate.
Adobe Audition can import raw data with rates ranging from 1 to 10,000,000 Hz, but playback and recording are supported only between
6000 Hz and 192,000 Hz.
Channels Enter a number from 1 to 32.
Encoding Specifies the data storage scheme for the file. If you are unsure what encoding the file uses, consult the supplier of the file, or
the documentation for the application that created it. In many cases, trial and error might be necessary.
Byte Order Specifies the numerical sequence for bytes of data. The Little-Endian method is common to WAV files, while the Big-Endian
method is common to AIFF files. The Default Byte Order automatically applies the default for your system processor and is typically the best
option.
Start Byte Offset (CS6) Specifies the data point in the file at which the import process should begin.
To the top
Insert an audio file into a multitrack session
35
When you insert an audio file in the Multitrack Editor, the file becomes an audio clip on the selected track. If you insert several files at once, or a
single file that’s longer than the space available on the selected track, Adobe Audition inserts new clips on the nearest empty tracks.
1. In the Multitrack Editor, select a track, and then place the playhead
at the desired time position.
2. Choose Multitrack > Insert File.
3. Select an audio or video file. (See Supported import formats.)
In CS6, drag ranges from the Markers panel to the Multitrack Editor to automatically convert them to clips.
To the top
Spot-insert a Broadcast Wave file into a session
When you insert a Broadcast Wave (BWF) file into a multitrack session, Adobe Audition can use the embedded timestamp to insert the file at a
specific time. This is commonly called spot-inserting.
1. Choose Edit > Preferences > Multitrack (Windows) or Audition > Preferences > Multitrack (Mac OS).
2. Select Use Embedded Timecode When Inserting Clips Into Multitrack.
3. In the Multitrack Editor, select a track.
4. Choose Multitrack > Insert File, and select a BWF file.
Adobe Audition inserts an audio clip at the designated start time.
To view or edit the timestamp for a BWF clip, open the clip in the Waveform Editor, and then choose Window > Metadata. On the BWF tab, the
timestamp value appears as the Time Reference.
About multitrack sessions
Insert a video file into a multitrack session
Twitter™ and Facebook posts are not covered under the terms of Creative Commons.
Legal Notices | Online Privacy Policy
36
Importing with the Files panel
Import files into the Files panel
Insert from the Files panel into a multitrack session
Change displayed metadata in the Files panel
The Files panel displays a list of open audio and video files for easy access.
Double-click an empty area of the file list to quickly access the Open File dialog box.
To the top
Import files into the Files panel
Import files into the Files panel if you want to retain the currently open file in the Editor panel. This technique is particularly helpful when
assembling files for a multitrack session.
1. Do either of the following:
In the Files panel, click the Import File button
.
Choose File > Import > File.
2. Select an audio or video file. (See Supported import formats.)
To the top
Insert from the Files panel into a multitrack session
1. In the Files panel, select the files you want to insert.
To select multiple adjacent files, click the first file in the desired range, and then Shift-click the last. To select nonadjacent files, Ctrl-click
(Windows) or Command-click (Mac OS).
. Then choose either New Multitrack Session (see Create a new
2. At the top of the Files panel, click the Insert Into Multitrack button
multitrack session) or an open session.
The files are inserted on separate tracks at the current time position.
To the top
Change displayed metadata in the Files panel
1. In the upper right of the Files panel, click the menu icon
, and choose Metadata Display.
2. Select the metadata you want to display, and click OK
3. To move metadata columns left or right, drag column headers such as Name or Duration.
To change the sort order of files, click column headers.
Twitter™ and Facebook posts are not covered under the terms of Creative Commons.
Legal Notices | Online Privacy Policy
37
Supported import formats
Audio import formats
Video import formats
Additional video import formats in Audition CS6
To the top
Audio import formats
Adobe Audition can open audio files in the following formats:
AAC (including HE-AAC in Audition CS6)
AIF, AIFF, AIFC (including files with up to 32 channels)
There are many different variations of AIFF format. Audition can open all uncompressed AIFF files and most common compressed versions.
Note: To see Author metadata in AIFF files, view the Dublin Core: Creator field on the XMP tab of the Metadata panel. (See Viewing and editing
XMP metadata.)
APE (Audition CS6)
AU
AVR
BWF
CAF (all uncompressed and most compressed versions)
FLAC
HTK
IFF
M4A
MAT
MPC
MP2
MP3 (including MP3-surround ifles)
OGA, OGG
PAF
PCM
PVF
RAW
RF64
SD2
SDS
SF
SND
VOC
VOX
W64
WAV (including files with up to 32 channels)
There are many different variations of WAV format. Adobe Audiition can open all uncompressed WAV files and most common compressed
versions.
WMA (enabled with DLMS Format Support in Media & Disk Cache preferences)
WVE
XI
To the top
Video import formats
38
The Waveform Editor lets you open the audio portion of video files in the formats below. The Multitrack Editor lets you insert the same file types
and provides a preview in the Video panel.
To access these video formats, QuickTime must be installed. To import additional formats, extend QuickTime support. For more information,
see this article on the Apple website.
AVI
DV
MOV (including files with up to 32 audio channels)
MPEG-1
MPEG-4
3GPP and 3GPP2
Additional video import formats in Audition CS6
MPEG-2 (if CS6 Production Premium or Master Collection is installed)
To enable the following formats, select Enable DLMS Format Support in the Media & Disk Cache preferences. (This option is off by default for
maximum performance.)
AVI (Windows only)
FLV
R3D
SWF
WMV
Insert a video file into a multitrack session
Export a multitrack mix to Premiere Pro CS5.5
Twitter™ and Facebook posts are not covered under the terms of Creative Commons.
Legal Notices | Online Privacy Policy
39
Extracting audio from CDs
Extract CD tracks with the Extract Audio From CD command
Configure track information and CD databases (Audition CS6)
Extract CD tracks with the Open command (Mac OS)
To the top
Extract CD tracks with the Extract Audio From CD command
The Extract Audio From CD command is faster and provides more control, including the ability to optimize drive speed and rename tracks.
1. Place an audio CD in the computer’s CD-ROM drive.
2. Choose File > Extract Audio From CD.
3. For Drive, choose the drive that contains the audio CD.
4. For Speed, choose from all the extraction speeds that the selected drive supports. The Maximum Speed option usually produces satisfactory
results, but if it produces errors, specify a slower speed.
5. Do any of the following:
To preview a track, click its Play button.
To include or exclude tracks, click the checkboxes to the left of track numbers, or click Toggle All.
To rename a track, double-click it.
Configure track information and CD databases (Audition CS6)
In the center of the Extract Audio From CD dialog box, Artist, Album, Genre, and Year information is drawn from the specified CD database by
default. To adjust these entries, do any of the following:
To customize information, overwrite current entries.
To insert original information from the database, click the Retrieve Titles icon
.
If a message indicates multiple matching records, click the arrows to insert different database records.
To specify a different database and file naming convention, click the Title Settings icon
position the mouse over it until a tool tip appears.
. For details about each Title Settings option,
Note: If multiple Artist entries are detected, Audition automatically selects the Compilation option. In the Title Settings dialog box, enter a Separator
For Compilations character to separate Artist and Track Title for each track.
Extract CD tracks with the Open command (Mac OS)
To the top
Note: This extraction method can greatly degrade Audition performance. The Extract Audio From CD command is usually a better choice.
The Open command lets you extract tracks in AIFF format but requires Audition to continue reading audio data from CD, slowing importing and
editing.
1. Place an audio CD in the computer’s CD-ROM drive.
2. Choose File > Open.
3. Choose QuickTime as the file type, and navigate to the CD-ROM drive.
4. Select the tracks you want to extract, and click Open.
Twitter™ and Facebook posts are not covered under the terms of Creative Commons.
Legal Notices | Online Privacy Policy
40
Navigating time and playing audio
Monitoring time
Position the current-time indicator
Preview audio by scrubbing
Play audio linearly or in a loop
Synchronize the current-time indicator across files or views
Change the time display format
Note: Some features in the Windows version of Adobe Audition 3.0 are not available in CS5.5. Examples include CD burning, MIDI, the
metronome, some file formats and effects, clip grouping and time stretching, and control surface support. For a complete list, see Adobe Audition
3.0 features replaced or not implemented in CS5.5.
To the top
Monitoring time
In the Editor panel, the following features help you monitor time:
In the timeline near the top of the panel, the current-time indicator
lets you start playback or recording at a specific point.
In the lower left of the panel, the time display shows the current time in numerical format. The default time format is Decimal, but you can
easily change it. (See Change the time display format.) The same format is used by the timeline.
To show the time display in separate panel, choose Window > Time.
Features that help you monitor time
A. Current-time indicator B. Timeline C. Time display
To the top
Position the current-time indicator
In the Editor panel, do any of the following:
In the timeline, drag the indicator
or click a specific time point.
In the time display at lower left, drag across the numbers, or click to enter a specific time.
At the bottom of the panel, click one of the following buttons:
To display these buttons in a separate panel, choose Window > Transport.
Pause
Temporarily stops the current-time indicator. Click the Pause button again to resume playback or recording.
41
Move CTI to Previous
Places the current-time indicator at the beginning of the next marker. If there are no markers, the currenttime indicator moves to the beginning of the waveform or session.
Rewind
Shuttles the current-time indicator backward in time.
Right-click the Rewind button to set the rate at which the cursor moves.
Fast Forward
Shuttles the current-time indicator forward in time.
Right-click the Fast Forward button to set the rate at which the cursor moves.
Move CTI to Next
Moves the current-time indicator to the next marker. If there are no markers, the current-time indicator moves to
the end of the waveform or session.
To the top
Preview audio by scrubbing
To scrub audio (producing an audible preview as you shuttle across a file), do any of the following:
Drag the current-time indicator
Press the Rewind
.
or Fast Forward
buttons.
Press the J, K, and L keys to shuttle backward, stop, or shuttle forward. Repeatedly pressing the J or L key gradually increases shuttle
speed. (To change the default, set JKL Shuttle Speed in the Playback preferences.)
To the top
Play audio linearly or in a loop
To quickly start and stop playback, press the spacebar.
1. In the Editor panel, position the current-time indicator, or select a range.
, and select one of the following:
2. (Optional) At the bottom of the panel, right-click the Play button
Return CTI to Start Position on Stop Reflects the behavior of Audition 3.0 and earlier. (Press Shift+X to toggle this option on and off.)
Play Spectral Selection Only Plays only frequencies you’ve selected with the Marquee
3. (Optional) Click the Loop Playback button
, Lasso
, or Paintbrush Selection
tool.
if you want to fine-tune a selected range or experiment with different effects processing.
4. To start playback, click the Play button.
Note: By default, the Editor panel scrolls when playback extends beyond the visible section of a waveform. In the Playback area of the
Preferences dialog box, you can disable auto-scrolling.
Synchronize the current-time indicator across files or views
To the top
In the Waveform Editor, you can maintain the position of the current-time indicator when you switch between files—a useful technique when editing
different versions of the same waveform. In the Multitrack Editor, you can maintain the position of the current-time indicator when you switch to the
Waveform Editor—a useful technique when applying edits and effects in both views.
Synchronize the current-time indicator between files in the Waveform Editor
1. Choose Edit > Preferences > General (Windows) or Adobe Audition Preferences > General (Mac OS).
2. Select Synchronize Selection, Zoom Level, and CTI Across Files In The Waveform Editor.
Synchronize the current-time indicator between the Multitrack and Waveform Editors
42
1. Choose Edit > Preferences > Multitrack (Windows) or Adobe Audition Preferences > Multitrack (Mac OS).
2. Select Synchronize Clips With Waveform Editor.
To the top
Change the time display format
By default, all audio files and multitrack sessions use the same time display format. To customize the format for an open file or session, choose
Window > Properties, expand the Advanced settings, and deselect Synchronize With Time Display Preferences.
Choose View > Display Time Format, and choose the desired option:
Decimal (mm:ss.ddd) Displays time in minutes, seconds, and thousandths of a second.
Compact Disc 75 fps Displays time in the same format used by audio compact discs, where each second equals 75 frames.
SMPTE 30 fps Displays time in the SMPTE format, where each second equals 30 frames.
SMPTE Drop (29.97 fps) Displays time in the SMPTE drop-frame format, where each second equals 29.97 frames.
SMPTE 29.97 fps Displays time in the SMPTE non-drop-frame format, where each second equals 29.97 frames.
SMPTE 25 fps (EBU) Displays time using the European PAL television frame rate, where each second equals 25 frames.
SMPTE 24 fps (Film) Displays time in a format where each second equals 24 frames, suitable for film.
Samples Displays time numerically, using as a reference the actual number of samples that have passed since the beginning of the edited
file.
Bars and Beats Displays time in a musical measures format of bars:beats:subdivisions. To customize settings, choose Edit Tempo, and set
the following options in the Properties panel:
Tempo
Specifies beats per minute.
Time Signature
Specifies the number of beats per measure, and the note that represents full beats. For example, with a signature of 3/8, there are three
notes per measure, and eighth-notes represent full beats.
Subdivisions
Specifies the number of sections each beat is divided into, or the value after the decimal point. For example, if you enter 32 subdivisions per
beat, a time setting of 4:2:16 represents an eighth note halfway between beats 2 and 3 in 4/4 time.
Custom (X frames per second) Displays time in a custom format. To modify a custom format, choose Edit Custom Frame Rate, and enter
a number of frames per second. Valid values are whole numbers from 2 to 1000.
Customize start offset and time display for multitracksessions
Twitter™ and Facebook posts are not covered under the terms of Creative Commons.
Legal Notices | Online Privacy Policy
43
Monitoring recording and playback levels
Level meters overview
Customize level meters
Adjust recording levels for standard sound cards
To the top
Level meters overview
To monitor the amplitude of incoming and outgoing signals during recording and playback, you use level meters. The Waveform Editor provides
these meters only in the Levels panel. The Multitrack Editor provides them in both the Levels panel, which shows the amplitude of the Master
output, and track meters, which show the amplitude of individual tracks.
You can dock the Levels panel horizontally or vertically. When the panel is docked horizontally, the upper meter represents the left channel, and
the lower meter represents the right channel.
To show or hide the panel, choose Window > Level Meters.
Levels panel, docked horizontally
A. Left channel B. Right channel C. Peak indicators D. Clip indicators
The meters show signal levels in dBFS (decibels below full scale), where a level of 0 dB is the maximum amplitude possible before clipping
occurs. Yellow peak indicators remain for 1.5 seconds so you can easily determine peak amplitude.
If amplitude is too low, sound quality is reduced; if amplitude is too high, clipping occurs and produces distortion. The red clip-indicator to the right
of the meters lights up when levels exceed the maximum of 0 dB.
To clear clip indicators, either click them individually, or right-click the meters and choose Reset Indicators.
To the top
Customize level meters
Right-click the meters and select any of the following options:
Meter Input Signal In the Waveform Editor, displays the level of the default hardware input. (See Configure audio inputs and outputs.) To quickly
enable or disable this option, double-click the meters.
Range options Change the displayed decibel range.
Show Valleys Shows valley indicators at low-amplitude points.
If valley indicators are close to peak indicators, dynamic range (the difference between the quietest and loudest sounds) is low. If the indicators
are spread far apart, dynamic range is high.
Show Color Gradient Gradually transitions the meters from green, to yellow, to red. Deselect this option to display abrupt color shifts to yellow at 18 dBFS, and red at -6.
Show LED Meters Displays a separate bar for each whole decibel level.
Dynamic or Static Peaks Change the mode of peak indicators. Dynamic Peaks resets the yellow peak level indicators to a new peak level after
1.5 seconds, letting you easily see recent peak amplitude. As the audio gets quieter, the peak indicators recede. Static Peaks retains peak
indicators, letting you determine the maximum amplitude of the signal since monitoring, playback, or recording began. However, you can manually
reset peak indicators by clicking clip indicators.
To find out how loud audio will get before you record it, choose Static Peaks. Then monitor input levels; the peak indicators show the level of
the loudest part.
To the top
Adjust recording levels for standard sound cards
Adjust levels if recordings are too quiet (causing unwanted noise) or too loud (causing distortion). To get the best sounding results, record audio as
loud as possible without clipping. When setting recording levels, watch the meters, and try to keep the loudest peaks in the yellow range below
-3 dB
Adobe Audition doesn’t directly control a sound card’s recording levels. For a professional sound card, you adjust these levels with the mixer
application provided with the card (see the card’s documentation for instructions). For a standard sound card, you use the mixer provided by
Windows or Mac OS.
44
Adjust sound card levels in Windows 7 and Vista
1. Right-click the speaker icon in the taskbar, and choose Recording Devices.
2. Double-click the input source you want to use.
3. Click the Levels tab, and adjust the slider as needed.
Adjust sound card levels in Windows XP
1. Double-click the speaker icon in the taskbar.
2. Choose Options > Properties.
3. Select Recording, and then click OK.
4. Select the input source you want to use, and adjust the Volume slider as needed.
Adjust sound card levels in Mac OS
1. Choose System Preferences from the Apple menu.
2. Click Sound, and then click the Input tab.
3. Select the device you want to use, and adjust the Input Volume slider as needed.
|
45
Recording audio
Record audio in the Waveform Editor
Correct DC offset
Direct-to-file recording in the Multitrack Editor
Record audio clips in the Multitrack Editor
Punch into a selected range in the Multitrack Editor
Punch in during playback in the Multitrack Editor
Choose punch-in takes
Note: Some features in the Windows version of Adobe Audition 3.0 are not available in CS5.5. Examples include timed recording, CD burning,
MIDI, the metronome, some file formats and effects, and control surface support. For a complete list, see Adobe Audition 3.0 features replaced or
not implemented in CS5.5.
To the top
Record audio in the Waveform Editor
You can record audio from a microphone or any device you can plug into the Line In port of a sound card. Before recording, you may need to
adjust the input signal to optimize signal-to-noise levels. (See either Adjust recording levels for standard sound cards or the documentation for a
professional card.)
1. Set audio inputs. (See Configure audio inputs and outputs.)
2. Do one of the following:
Create a new file.
Open an existing file to overwrite or add new audio, and place the current-time indicator
3. At the bottom of the Editor panel, click the Record button
where you want to start recording.
to start and stop recording.
To the top
Correct DC offset
Some sound cards record with a slight DC offset, in which direct current is introduced into the signal, causing the center of the waveform to be
offset from the zero point (the center line in the waveform display). DC offset can cause a click or pop at the beginning and end of a file.
In the Waveform Editor, choose Favorites > Repair DC Offset.
To measure DC offset, see Analyze amplitude.
To the top
Direct-to-file recording in the Multitrack Editor
In the Multitrack Editor, Adobe Audition automatically saves each recorded clip directly to a WAV file. Direct-to-file recording lets you quickly record
and save multiple clips, providing tremendous flexibility.
Inside the session folder, you’ll find each recorded clip in the [session name]_Recorded folder. Clip file names begin with the track name, followed
by the take number (for example, Track 1_003.wav).
After recording, you can edit takes to produce a polished final mix. For example, if you create multiple takes of a guitar solo, you can combine the
best sections of each solo. (See Trimming and extending clips.) Or, you can use one version of the solo for a video soundtrack, and another
version for an audio CD.
To the top
Record audio clips in the Multitrack Editor
In the Multitrack Editor, you can record audio on multiple tracks by overdubbing. When you overdub tracks, you listen to previously recorded tracks
and play along with them to create sophisticated, layered compositions. Each recording becomes a new audio clip on a track.
1. In the Inputs/Outputs area of the Editor panel, choose a source from a track’s Input menu.
Note: To change the available inputs, choose Audio Hardware, and then click Settings.
2. Click the Arm For Record button
for the track.
The track meters display the input, helping you optimize levels. (To disable this default and display levels only while recording, deselect
Enable Input Metering When Arming Tracks in the Multitrack preferences.)
46
3. To hear hardware inputs routed through any track effects and sends, click the Monitor Input button
.
Note: Routing inputs through effects and sends requires significant processing. To reduce latency (an audible delay) that disrupts timing for
performers, see Configure audio inputs and outputs.
4. To simultaneously record on multiple tracks, repeat steps 1-3.
5. In the Editor panel, position the current-time indicator
at the desired starting point, or select a range for the new clip.
to start and stop recording.
6. At the bottom of the panel, click the Record button
To the top
Punch into a selected range in the Multitrack Editor
If you’re dissatisfied with a time range of a recorded clip, you can select that range and punch in a new recording, leaving the original clip intact.
Though you can record into a specific range without punching in, punching in lets you hear audio immediately before and after a range; that audio
provides vital context that helps you create natural transitions.
For particularly important or difficult sections, you can punch in multiple takes, and then select or edit takes to create the best performance.
A take created by punching in
1. In the Editor panel, drag the Time Selection tool
in the appropriate track to select a time range for the clip.
2. Select the correct track input. (See Assign audio inputs and outputs to tracks.)
for the track.
3. Click the Arm For Record button
4. Position the current-time indicator
a few seconds before the selected range.
.
5. At the bottom of the Editor panel, click the Record button
Audition plays the audio preceding the selection, records for the duration of the selected range, and then resumes playback.
To the top
Punch in during playback in the Multitrack Editor
If you don’t need to punch into a specific range, you can quickly punch into a general area during playback.
1. Enable one or more tracks for recording. (See Record audio clips in the Multitrack Editor.)
2. At the bottom of the Editor panel, click the Play button
.
3. When you reach an area where you want to begin recording, click the Record button
. When you finish recording, click the button again.
To the top
Choose punch-in takes
If you punch in multiple takes, Audition layers the takes over each other in the Editor panel. To choose between takes, do the following:
1. With the Time Selection tool
, select a range that snaps to the start and end of the punch-in takes. (See Snap to clip endpoints.)
2. In the track, position the mouse over the clip header. (The header displays the track name, followed by take number.)
3. Drag the topmost take to a different location (typically the end of the session to avoid unwanted playback).
4. Play the session. If you prefer a take you previously moved, drag it back to the selected range.
To mute the original clip for the duration of the punch-in range, adjust the volume envelope. (See Automating clip settings.)
More Help topics
Create a new, blank audio file
Position the current-time indicator
47
|
48
Editing audio files
Waveform editing enhancements
video2brain (May. 7, 2012)
video-tutorial
Improved preview, transport, and marker controls streamline your workflow.
49
Displaying audio in the Waveform Editor
View audio waveforms and spectrums
About the waveform display
About the spectral display
View layered or uniquely colored waveform channels
Customize the spectral display
Change the vertical scale
To the top
View audio waveforms and spectrums
In the Waveform Editor, the Editor panel provides a visual representation of sound waves. Below the panel’s default waveform display, which is
ideal for evaluating audio amplitude, you can view audio in the spectral display, which reveals audio frequency (low bass to high treble).
To view the spectral display, do either of the following:.
In the toolbar, click the Spectral Display
button.
In the Editor panel, drag the divider between the waveform and spectral displays to change the proportion of each. To instantly show or
hide the spectral display, double-click the handle or click the triangle to its right.
Viewing the waveform and spectral displays
A. Drag the divider to change the proportion of each. B. Click the triangle to show or hide the spectral display.
To identify specific channels in stereo and 5.1 surround files, note the indicators in the vertical ruler.
To the top
About the waveform display
The waveform display shows a waveform as a series of positive and negative peaks. The x-axis (horizontal ruler) measures time, and the y-axis
(vertical ruler) measures amplitude—the loudness of the audio signal. Quiet audio has both lower peaks and lower valleys (near the center line)
than loud audio. You can customize the waveform display by changing the vertical scale and colors.
With its clear indication of amplitude changes, the waveform display is perfect for identifying percussive changes in vocals, drums, and more. To
find a particular spoken word, for example, simply look for the peak at the first syllable and the valley after the last.
Stereo file in waveform display
50
To the top
About the spectral display
The spectral display shows a waveform by its frequency components, where the x-axis (horizontal ruler) measures time and the y-axis (vertical
ruler) measures frequency. This view lets you analyze audio data to see which frequencies are most prevalent. Brighter colors represent greater
amplitude components. Colors range from dark blue (low-amplitude frequencies) to bright yellow (high-amplitude frequencies).
The spectral display is perfect for removing unwanted sounds, such as coughs and other artifacts.
Spectral display, with high frequencies selected
View layered or uniquely colored waveform channels
To the top
For stereo and 5.1 surround files, you can view layered or uniquely colored channels. Layered channels better reveal overall volume changes.
Uniquely colored channels help you visually distinguish them.
Choose View > Waveform Channels, and then select Layered or Uniquely Colored.
Channel View options
A. Uniquely Colored B. Layered (with Uniquely Colored still selected)
To the top
Customize the spectral display
The Spectral Display preferences help you enhance different details and better isolate artifacts.
1. Choose Edit > Preferences > Spectral Display (Windows) or Audition > Preferences > Spectral Display (Mac OS).
2. Set the following options
Windowing Function Determines the Fast Fourier transform shape. These functions are listed in order from narrowest to widest. Narrower
functions include fewer surrounding frequencies but less precisely reflect center frequencies. Wider functions include more surrounding
frequencies but more precisely reflect center frequencies. The Hamming and Blackman options provide excellent overall results.
Spectral Resolution Specifies the number of vertical bands used to draw frequencies. As you increase resolution, frequency accuracy
increases, but time accuracy decreases. Experiment to find the right balance for your audio content. Highly percussive audio, for example,
may be better reflected by low resolution.
To adjust resolution directly in the Editor panel, right-click the vertical ruler next to the spectral display, and choose Increase or Decrease
Spectral Resolution.
51
Decibel Range Changes the amplitude range over which frequencies are displayed. Increasing the range intensifies colors, helping you see
more detail in quieter audio. This value simply adjusts the spectral display; it does not change audio amplitude.
Play Only Selected Frequencies When A Spectral Selection Exists Deselect this option to hear all frequencies in the same time range
as a selection.
To the top
Change the vertical scale
In the Waveform Editor, you can change the amplitude or frequency scale of the vertical ruler.
Change the amplitude scale of the waveform display
In the waveform display, right-click the vertical ruler and select one of the following:
Decibels Indicates amplitude on a decibel scale that ranges from –Infinity to zero dBFS.
Percentage Indicates amplitude on a percentage scale that ranges from –100% to 100%.
Sample Values Indicates amplitude on a scale that shows the range of data values supported by the current bit depth. (See Understanding
bit depth.) 32-bit float values reflect the normalized scale below.
Normalized Values Indicates amplitude on a normalized scale that ranges from –1 to 1.
Change the frequency scale of the spectral display
In the spectral display, right-click the vertical ruler and select one of the following:
More Logarithmic or Linear Gradually displays frequencies in a more logarithmic scale (reflecting human hearing) or a more linear scale
(making high frequencies more visually distinct).
Hold down Shift and roll the mouse wheel over the spectral display to show frequencies more logarithmically (up) or linearly (down).
Full Logarithmic or Linear Displays frequencies completely logarithmically or linearly.
Sound waves
Change interface colors, brightness, and performance
Select spectral ranges
Techniques for restoring audio
Twitter™ and Facebook posts are not covered under the terms of Creative Commons.
Legal Notices | Online Privacy Policy
52
Copying, cutting, pasting, and deleting audio
Copy or cut audio data
Paste audio data
Mix audio data when pasting
Delete or crop audio
Note: Some features in the Windows version of Adobe Audition 3.0 are not available in CS5.5. Examples include Audition-specific clipboards, CD
burning, MIDI, the metronome, some file formats and effects, and control surface support. For a complete list, see Adobe Audition 3.0 features
replaced or not implemented in CS5.5.
To the top
Copy or cut audio data
1. In the Waveform Editor, select the audio data you want to copy or cut. Or, to copy or cut the entire waveform, deselect all audio data.
2. Choose one of the following:
Edit > Copy to copy audio data to the clipboard.
Edit > Copy To New to copy and paste the audio data into a newly created file.
Edit > Cut to remove audio data from the current waveform and copy it to the clipboard.
To the top
Paste audio data
Do either of the following:
To paste audio into the current file, place the current-time indicator
want to replace. Then choose Edit > Paste.
where you want to insert the audio or select existing audio you
To paste audio data into a new file, choose Edit > Paste To New. The new file automatically inherits the sample type (rate and bit depth)
from the original clipboard material.
To the top
Mix audio data when pasting
The Mix Paste command mixes audio data from the clipboard with the current waveform.
1. In the Editor panel, place the current-time indicator
want to replace.
where you want to start mixing the audio data. Alternately, select the audio data you
2. Choose Edit > Mix Paste.
3. Set the following options:
Copied and Existing Audio Adjust the percentage of each.
Invert Copied Audio Reverses the phase of copied audio, either exaggerating or reducing phase cancellation if the existing audio contains
similar content. (To understand phase cancellation, see How sound waves interact.)
Modulate Modulates the amount of copied and existing audio, producing more audible variation.
Crossfade Applies a crossfade to the beginning and end of the pasted audio, producing smoother transitions. Specify the fade length in
milliseconds.
To the top
Delete or crop audio
Do one of the following:
Select audio you want to delete, and choose Edit > Delete.
Select audio you want to keep, and choose Edit > Crop. (Unwanted audio at the beginning and end of the file is removed.)
Convert a waveform between surround, stereo, and mono
Channel Mixer effect
53
Twitter™ and Facebook posts are not covered under the terms of Creative Commons.
Legal Notices | Online Privacy Policy
54
Working with markers
Add, select, and rename markers
Adjust, merge, convert, or delete markers
Save audio between markers to new files
Creating playlists
Markers (sometimes called cues) are locations that you define in a waveform. Markers make it easy to navigate within a waveform to make a
selection, perform edits, or play back audio.
In Adobe Audition, a marker can be either a point or a range. A point refers to a specific time position within a waveform (for instance, 1:08.566
from the start of the file). A range has both a start time and an end time (for example, all of the waveform from 1:08.566 to 3:07.379). You can
drag start and end markers for a range to different times.
In the timeline at the top of the Editor panel, markers have white handles you can select, drag, or right-click to access additional commands.
Examples of markers
A. Marker point B. Marker range
Note: To preserve markers when you save a file, select Include Markers and Other Metadata.
To the top
Add, select, and rename markers
Though you can add markers directly in the Editor panel, you use the Markers panel (Windows > Markers) to define and select markers.
To hide or show information such as Duration and Type, choose Markers Display from the panel menu .
Add a marker
1. Do one of the following:
Play audio.
Place the current-time indicator
where you want a marker point to be.
Select the audio data you want to define as a marker range.
2. Either press the M key, or click the Add Marker button
in the Markers panel.
To automatically create markers where silence occurs, see Delete Silence and Mark Audio options.
Select markers
Click a marker in the Editor or Markers panel. Or double-click to move the current-time indicator
range markers.
to that location and select the area for
To select adjacent markers, click the first marker you want to select in the Markers panel, and then Shift-click the last.
To select nonadjacent markers, Ctrl-click (Windows) or Command-click (Mac OS) them in the Markers panel.
To move the current-time indicator to the nearest marker, choose Edit > Marker > Move CTI to Next or Previous.
Rename a marker
1. In the Markers panel, select the marker.
2. Click the marker name, and enter a new name.
55
To the top
Adjust, merge, convert, or delete markers
After creating markers, you can fine-tune them to best address the needs of an audio project.
Reposition markers
In the Editor panel, drag marker handles to a new location.
In the Markers panel, select the marker, and enter new Start values for point markers, or Start, End, and Duration values for range markers.
Merge individual markers
In the Markers panel, select the markers you want to merge, and click the Merge button
.
The new merged marker inherits its name from the first marker. Merged point markers become range markers.
Convert a point marker to a range marker
Right-click the marker handle, and choose Convert to Range.
The marker handle splits into two handles.
Convert a range marker to a point marker
Right-click a marker handle, and choose Convert to Point.
The two parts of the range marker handle merge into a single handle, with the start time of the range becoming the time for the point marker.
Delete markers
Select one or more markers, and click the Delete button
in the Markers panel.
Right-click the marker handle in the Editor panel, and choose Delete Marker.
To the top
Save audio between markers to new files
1. In the Waveform Editor, choose Window > Markers.
2. Select one or more marker ranges. (See Working with markers .)
3. Click the Export Audio button
in the Markers panel.
4. Set the following options:
Use Marker Names In Filename Uses the marker name as the prefix for the filename.
Prefix Specifies a filename prefix for the new files.
Postfix Starting # Specifies the number to begin with when adding numbers to the filename prefix. Adobe Audition automatically adds
numbers after the prefix (for example, prefix02, prefix03) to distinguish saved files.
Location Specifies the destination folder for saved files. Click Browse to specify a different folder.
Format Specifies the file format. The Format Settings area below indicates and data compression and storage modes; to adjust these, click
Change. (See Audio format settings.)
Sample Type Indicates the sample rate and bit depth. To adjust these options, click Change. (See Convert the sample rate of a file.)
Include Markers and Other Metadata Includes audio markers and information from the Metadata panel in processed files. (See Viewing
and editing XMP metadata.)
To the top
Creating playlists
A playlist is an arrangement of marker ranges that you can play back in any order and loop a specified number of times. A playlist lets you try
different versions of an arrangement before you commit to edits. You create playlists in the Playlist panel (Window > Playlist).
Note: To store a playlist with a file, you must save in WAV format. (See Save audio files.)
56
Create a playlist
1. In the Playlist panel, click the Open Markers Panel button
.
2. In the Markers panel, select marker ranges you want to add to the playlist. Then click the Insert Selected Range Markers Into Playlist button
, or drag the range markers to the Playlist panel.
Change the order of items in a playlist
Drag the item up or down.
Play items in a playlist
To play all or part of the list, select the first item you want to play. Then click the Play button
at the top of the panel.
To play a specific item, click the Play button to the left of the item name.
Loop an item in a playlist
Select an item, and enter a number in the Loops column. Each item can loop a different number of times.
Delete items from a playlist
Select the items, and click the Remove button
.
Delete Silence and Mark Audio options
Batch process files
Working with markers
Twitter™ and Facebook posts are not covered under the terms of Creative Commons.
Legal Notices | Online Privacy Policy
57
Automating common tasks (CS5.5)
Favorites
Match volume across multiple files
Batch process files
To the top
Favorites
Favorites are combinations of effects, fades, and amplitude adjustments that you can save and quickly reapply to any file or selection in the
Waveform Editor. The Favorites menu lists some defaults to get you started, plus any additional favorites you create.
To assign favorites to keyboard shortcuts, see Customize shortcuts.
Create a favorite from a combination of adjustments
1. In the Waveform Editor, choose Favorites > Start Recording Favorite.
2. Apply the effects, fades, and amplitude adjustments you want to save.
3. Choose Favorite > Stop Recording Favorite, and name the favorite.
Create a favorite from a specific effect
1. Adjust effect settings as desired.
2. In the upper right of the effect dialog box, click the Favorite icon
. Then name the favorite.
Delete a favorite
1. Choose Favorites > Delete Favorite.
2. Select the favorite name, and click OK.
To the top
Match volume across multiple files
If you plan to present a group of audio files on CD, the web, or elsewhere, use the Match Volume panel to make them sound consistent.
To match multitrack clips without changing source files, see Match clip volume
1. In the Waveform Editor, choose Window > Match Volume.
2. Drag files from the Files panel to the Match Volume panel. Or click the Add Files button
in the panel to browse to files on your system.
Note: By default, Match Volume processes at most three files at a time for optimal performance. To process more files, change the value for
Maximum Number Of Concurrent File Processes in the Data preferences.
3. (Optional) To display amplitude statistics such as perceived and peak volume for each file, click the Compute icon
to specify target values based on these statistics.
. Then click Settings
4. Click Match Volume to apply the necessary amplitude changes. Or click Batch Process to apply those changes and export to the same file
format and sample type. (See Batch process files.)
Understanding Match Volume statistics
Loudness Is the average amplitude value.
Perceived Is the average amplitude value adjusted for the human ear’s greater sensitivity to midrange frequencies.
Total RMS Is the most common root-mean-square amplitude across the entire file. For example, if the majority of two files is -50 dBFS, the total
58
RMS values would reflect that, even if one file contains more loud passages.
RMS amplitude often better reflects perceived amplitude than the absolute Loudness average.
Peak Is the maximum amplitude.
% Clip Is the percentage of the waveform that would be clipped as a result of normalization. Clipping won’t occur if limiting is used. However,
clipping should ideally be avoided prior to limiting. If any matched files show more than 0% clipping, click Undo, and match to a slightly lower
amplitude.
Adjust Match Volume settings
In the Match Volume panel, click Settings to adjust the following options:
Match To Determines how amplitude is mathematically compared:
Total RMS Matches an overall loudness you specify.
File Matches the overall loudness of a selected file. Choose this option if one file reflects the target volume you want to achieve.
Loudness Matches an average loudness you specify.
Perceived Loudness Matches the perceived loudness level, accounting for middle frequencies that the ear is most sensitive to.
This option works well unless frequency emphasis varies greatly in a file (for example, midrange frequencies are pronounced in a
short passage, but bass frequencies are elsewhere).
Peak Volume Matches a maximum amplitude you specify, normalizing the files. Because this option retains dynamic range, it’s a
good choice for files you plan to process further, or for highly dynamic audio like classical music.
Use Limiting Applies hard limiting to keep peaks from being clipped. (When you amplify audio, some samples may extend beyond the
clipping point.)
Lookahead Time Specifies the number of milliseconds to attenuate audio before reaching the loudest peak.
Note: If this value is too small, audible distortion might occur. Make sure that the value is at least 5 milliseconds.
Release Time Specifies the number of milliseconds for attenuation to rebound 12 dB (roughly the amount needed to resume normal
volume after an extremely loud peak is encountered).
Note: A setting of 200 milliseconds works well to preserve low bass frequencies. If the setting is too high, audio may stay below normal
levels for a while.
To the top
Batch process files
Batch process groups of files to quickly apply favorite processing, resample, or save to a new format. Quickly automate common tasks like
exporting to mp3 format or applying identical effects to related files.
1. In the Waveform Editor, choose Window > Batch Process.
2. In the Batch Process panel, click the Add Files button
to browse to files on your system.
Note: By default, batch processing is limited to three files at a time for optimal performance. To process more files, change the value for
Maximum Number Of Concurrent File Processes in the Data preferences.
3. Click Batch Process, and set the following options:
Apply Favorite Applies a combination of effects, fades, and amplitude adjustments. (See Favorites.)
Filename Prefix and Postfix Help you identify batched files.
Location Specifies the destination folder for processed files.
Same As Source File Location Saves modified files in the same folder as the file’s source file.
59
Overwrite Existing Files Automatically replaces existing files with the same name.
Format Specifies the file format. The Format Settings area below indicates data compression and storage modes; to adjust these, click
Change. (See Audio format settings.)
Sample Type Indicates the sample rate and bit depth. To adjust these options, click Change. (See Convert the sample rate of a file.)
Clear Batch Process Panel Upon Completion Removes filenames from the source list after the files are converted successfully.
Include Markers and Other Metadata Includes audio markers and information from the Metadata panel in processed files. (See Working
with markers and Viewing and editing XMP metadata.)
Selecting audio
Normalize effect (Waveform Editor only)
Analyze amplitude
Twitter™ and Facebook posts are not covered under the terms of Creative Commons.
Legal Notices | Online Privacy Policy
60
Automating common tasks (CS6)
Favorites
Match volume across multiple files
Batch process files
To the top
Favorites
Favorites are combinations of effects, fades, and amplitude adjustments that you can save and quickly reapply to any file or selection in the
Waveform Editor. The Favorites menu lists some defaults to get you started, plus any additional favorites you create.
To assign favorites to keyboard shortcuts, see Customize shortcuts.
Create a favorite from a combination of adjustments
1. In the Waveform Editor, choose Favorites > Start Recording Favorite.
2. Apply the effects, fades, and amplitude adjustments you want to save.
3. Choose Favorite > Stop Recording Favorite, and name the favorite.
Create a favorite from a specific effect
1. Adjust effect settings as desired.
2. In the upper right of the effect dialog box, click the Favorite icon
. Then name the favorite.
Create a favorite from the Effects Rack (CS6)
1. In the Effects Rack, adjust effect settings and order.
2. In the upper right of the Effects Rack, click the Favorite icon
. Then name the favorite.
Delete a favorite
1. Choose Favorites > Delete Favorite.
2. Select the favorite name, and click OK.
To the top
Match volume across multiple files
If you plan to present a group of audio files on CD, the web, or elsewhere, use the Match Volume panel to make them sound consistent.
To match multitrack clips without changing source files, see Match multitrack clip volume.
1. In the Waveform Editor, choose Window > Match Volume.
2. Drag files from the Files panel to the Match Volume panel. Or click the Add Files button
in the panel to browse to files on your system.
Note: By default, Match Volume processes only a few files at a time for optimal performance. To process more files, change the value for
Maximum Number Of Concurrent File Processes in the Data preferences.
3. (Optional) To display amplitude statistics such as perceived and peak volume for each file, click the Compute icon
to specify target values based on these statistics.
4. Do one of the following:
To process existing files but save them later, deselect Export at the bottom of the panel.
To process new files, select Export. (To customize Export Settings, see Batch process files.)
5. Click Run.
61
. Then click Settings
Understanding Match Volume statistics
Loudness Is the average amplitude value. (For Audition CS6, this reflects the ITU-R BS.1770-2 standard, ensuring consistent broadcast levels
compatible with EBU R 128.)
Perceived Is the average amplitude value adjusted for the human ear’s greater sensitivity to midrange frequencies.
Total RMS Is the most common root-mean-square amplitude across the entire file. For example, if the majority of two files is -50 dBFS, the total
RMS values would reflect that, even if one file contains more loud passages.
RMS amplitude often better reflects perceived amplitude than the absolute Loudness average.
Peak Is the maximum amplitude.
True Peak Is the maximum amplitude as defined by the ITU-R BS.1770-2 standard.
% Clip Is the percentage of the waveform that would be clipped as a result of normalization. Clipping won’t occur if limiting is used. However,
clipping should ideally be avoided prior to limiting. If any matched files show more than 0% clipping, click Undo, and match to a slightly lower
amplitude.
Adjust Match Volume settings
In the Match Volume panel, click Settings to adjust the following options:
Match To Determines how amplitude is mathematically compared:
Total RMS Matches an overall loudness you specify.
File Matches the overall loudness of a selected file. Choose this option if one file reflects the target volume you want to achieve.
Loudness Matches an average loudness you specify.
Perceived Loudness Matches the perceived loudness level, accounting for middle frequencies that the ear is most sensitive to.
This option works well unless frequency emphasis varies greatly in a file (for example, midrange frequencies are pronounced in a
short passage, but bass frequencies are elsewhere).
Peak Volume Matches a maximum amplitude you specify, normalizing the files. Because this option retains dynamic range, it’s a
good choice for files you plan to process further, or for highly dynamic audio like classical music.
Use Limiting Applies hard limiting to keep peaks from being clipped. (When you amplify audio, some samples may extend beyond the
clipping point.)
Lookahead Time Specifies the number of milliseconds to attenuate audio before reaching the loudest peak.
Note: If this value is too small, audible distortion might occur. Make sure that the value is at least 5 milliseconds.
Release Time Specifies the number of milliseconds for attenuation to rebound 12 dB (roughly the amount needed to resume normal
volume after an extremely loud peak is encountered).
Note: A setting of 200 milliseconds works well to preserve low bass frequencies. If the setting is too high, audio may stay below normal
levels for a while.
To the top
Batch process files
Batch process groups of files to quickly apply favorite processing, resample, or save to a new format. Quickly automate common tasks like
exporting to mp3 format or applying identical effects to related files.
1. In the Waveform Editor, choose Window > Batch Process.
2. In the Batch Process panel, click the Add Files button
Save All Audio as Batch Process.)
to browse to files on your system. (To quickly add all open files, choose File >
Note: By default, batch processing is limited to three files at a time for optimal performance. To process more files, change the value for
Maximum Number Of Concurrent File Processes in the Data preferences.
62
3. Select a processing option from the Favorite menu. Then do one of the following:
To process the existing files, deselect Export at the bottom of the panel, and click Run.
To process new files, select Export, and click Run. (To customize Export Settings, see the following step.)
4. Click Export Settings, and set the following options:
Filename Prefix and Postfix Help you identify batched files.
Template Specifies a naming convention for processed files, such as Artist, Date, Song (%a/%d/%s/).
Location Specifies the destination folder for processed files.
Same As Source File Location Saves modified files in the same folder as the file’s source file.
Overwrite Existing Files Automatically replaces existing files with the same name.
Format Specifies the file format. The Format Settings area below indicates data compression and storage modes; to adjust these, click
Change. (See Audio format settings.)
Sample Type Indicates the sample rate and bit depth. To customize these options, click Change. (See Convert the sample rate of a file.)
New Sample Type Indicates the sample rate and bit depth after export. If source files have varying sample types, click the pop-up menu to
see how each file will be converted. (The menu does not apply conversion options; to adjust those, click Change for Sample Type.)
Remove Files from Panel After Completion Removes filenames from the Batch Process panel after export.
Include Markers and Other Metadata Includes audio markers and information from the Metadata panel in processed files. (See Working
with markers and Viewing and editing XMP metadata.)
Selecting audio
Normalize effect (Waveform Editor only)
Analyze amplitude
Twitter™ and Facebook posts are not covered under the terms of Creative Commons.
Legal Notices | Online Privacy Policy
63
Analyzing phase, frequency, and amplitude
Analyze phase
Analyze frequency range
Analyze amplitude
Adobe Audition provides several ways to analyze audio. To compare phase relationships between any two channels, use the Phase Meter panel.
To analyze tonal and dynamic range, use the Frequency Analysis and Amplitude Statistics panels.
The Waveform Editor also provides Spectral Frequency Display, which you can use together with the analysis methods above. (See Displaying
audio in the Waveform Editor.)
To the top
Analyze phase
The Phase Meter panel reveals out-of-phase channels for stereo and surround waveforms, which you can address with the Effects > Invert
command. (See Invert a waveform.) This panel also helps you identify highly in-phase channels that will sound similar if summed to mono. (See
Convert a waveform between surround, stereo, and mono.)
To understand audio phase, see How sound waves interact.
1. Choose Window > Phase Meter.
2. Right-click the Phase Meter panel, and choose channels from the Channel and Compare To menus.
3. In Editor panel, select a range if desired, and start playback.
In the Phase Meter, audio to the left is more out of phase, while audio to the right is more in phase. -1.0 reflects total phase cancellation, while 1.0
reflects identical audio content in each channel.
To customize meter appearance, right-click them, and select Show Color Gradient or Show LED Meters.
To the top
Analyze frequency range
You can use the Frequency Analysis panel to identify problematic frequency bands, which you can then correct with a filter effect.
1. Choose Window > Frequency Analysis.
2. In the Editor panel, click a time point, select a range, or start playback.
3. In the Frequency Analysis panel, view frequency along the horizontal axis, and amplitude along the vertical axis.
If you selected a range, Adobe Audition analyzes only the center point. To analyze the overall frequency of the range, click Scan
Selection.
Frequency Analysis options
Scale Displays the frequency scale either logarithmically (reflecting human hearing) or linearly (providing more detail for upper frequencies).
Copies a text report of the frequency data to the system clipboard.
Copy All Graph Data
Hold buttons Let you take up to eight frequency snapshots as a waveform is playing. The frequency outline (which is rendered in the same color
as the button clicked) is frozen on the graph and overlaid on other frequency outlines. To clear a frozen frequency outline, click its corresponding
Hold button again.
Display Changes the graph display. Choose one of the following styles:
Lines Displays amplitude at each frequency with simple lines. By default, the left channel is green; the right is blue.
Area Also displays lines for amplitude, but fills the area beneath the lines in a solid color, and smooths out amplitude differences in the
same area.
Bars Shows the effect of analysis resolution by splitting the display into rectangular segments. The higher the FFT size, the greater the
analysis resolution, and the narrower the bars.
Top Channel Determines which channel of a stereo or surround file appears over others in the graph. To combine displayed channels, choose
Average.
Scan or Scan Selection Scans the entire file or selection, and displays average frequency data in the graph. (By default, the graph displays data
from the center point of files and selections.)
Advanced options
FFT Size Specifies the Fast Fourier Transform size. Higher FFT sizes report frequency data more accurately but they require longer processing
times.
Window Determines the Fast Fourier transform shape. These functions are listed in order from narrowest to widest. Narrower functions include
64
fewer surrounding frequencies but less precisely reflect center frequencies. Wider functions include more surrounding frequencies but more
precisely reflect center frequencies. The Hamming and Blackman options provide excellent overall results.
0 dB Reference Determines the amplitude at which full scale, 0 dBFS audio data is displayed. For example, a value of zero displays 0 dBFS
audio at 0 dB. A value of 30 displays 0 dBFS audio at –30 dB. This value simply moves the graph up or down; it does not change the amplitude of
audio data.
Adjust the 0 dB Reference to calibrate this display to another decibel reference, like sound pressure level (SPL).
Value at [x] Hz Reveals precise amplitude for specific frequencies when you position the mouse over the graph.
Overall Frequency For the start point of a selected range, indicates average frequency.
Overall Musical Note For the start point of a selected range, indicates keyboard position and variance from standard tuning (A440). For example,
A2 +7 equals the second-lowest A on a keyboard tuned 7% higher than normal.
Zoom frequency graphs
In the Frequency Analysis panel, you can zoom graphs to analyze frequency in more detail.
Do any of the following:
To zoom in on a graph, right-click and drag the magnifying glass icon in the vertical or horizontal ruler.
To navigate a magnified graph, left-click and drag the hand icon
in the vertical or horizontal ruler.
To zoom out on a magnified graph, right-click in the vertical or horizontal ruler, and choose Zoom Out to return to the previous magnification,
or Zoom Out Full to zoom out completely.
Zooming and navigating a Frequency Analysis graph
To the top
Analyze amplitude
1. In the Waveform Editor, choose Window > Amplitude Statistics.
2. To calculate statistics from an entire file or selection, click Scan or Scan Selection. (By default, statistics are calculated from the center point
of files and selections.)
You can adjust a selection in the Editor panel. Click Scan Selection again to recalculate statistics.
3. Evaluate amplitude on the following tabs:
The General tab displays numerical statistics that indicate dynamic range, identify clipped samples, and note any DC offset.
The RMS Histogram tab displays a graph that shows the relative prevalence of each amplitude. The horizontal ruler measures amplitude
in decibels, and the vertical ruler measures prevalence using the RMS formula. Choose a channel to display from the Show Channel
menu.
Use the Histogram tab to identify prevalent amplitudes, and then compress, limit, or normalize them with an amplitude effect.
General options
65
Click the icons to the right of values to navigate to the corresponding location in the file.
Peak Amplitude Shows the sample with the highest amplitude in decibel form.
Maximum Sample Value Shows the sample with the highest amplitude.
Minimum Sample Value Shows the sample with the lowest amplitude.
to the right of this value to navigate to
Possibly Clipped Samples Shows the number of samples have likely exceeded 0 dBFS. Click the icon
the first clipped sample in the audio file. (If necessary, click the icon again to view subsequent clipped samples.)
Total, Maximum, Minimum, and Average RMS Amplitude Show the root-mean-square values of the selection. RMS values are based on the
prevalence of specific amplitudes, often reflecting perceived loudness better than absolute or average amplitudes.
DC Offset Shows any direct current offset applied to the waveform during recording. Positive values are above the center line, and negative
values are below it. (See Correct DC offset.)
Measured Bit Depth Reports the waveform’s bit depth. (32 indicates that the waveform uses the full 32-bit float range).
Dynamic Range Reflects the difference between the Maximum and Minimum RMS Amplitude.
Dynamic Range Used Shows the dynamic range minus unusually long periods of low RMS amplitude, such as silent passages.
Loudness Shows the average amplitude.
Perceived Loudness Compensates for the human ear’s emphasis on middle frequencies.
Copy Copies all statistics on the General tab to the system clipboard.
RMS Settings options
To adjust how RMS statistics are calculated, set the following options:
0dB = FS Sine Wave Correspond the dB level to a full-scale sine wave, where peak amplitude is about 3.01 dB quieter than a full-scale square
wave.
0dB = FS Square Wave Corresponds the dB level to a full-scale square wave, where peak amplitude is about 3.01 dB louder than a full-scale
sine wave.
Account For DC Ignores any DC offset in the measurements.
Window Width Specifies the number of milliseconds in each RMS window. A selected range contains a series of such windows, which Adobe
Audition averages to calculate the Minimum RMS and Maximum RMS values. To achieve the most accurate RMS values, use wide windows for
audio with a wide dynamic range, and narrow windows for audio with a narrow dynamic range.
|
66
Converting sample types
Hear a file in a different sample rate
Convert the sample rate of a file
Convert a waveform between surround, stereo, and mono
Change the bit depth of a file
Use sample rate conversion presets
To the top
Hear a file in a different sample rate
The Interpret Sample Rate command lets you hear how an audio file sounds at a different sample rate. (See Understanding sample rate.) This
command helps you identify files that specify an incorrect rate in the file header. To then permanently convert the sample rate, choose Edit >
Convert Sample Type.
1. In the Waveform Editor, choose Edit > Interpret Sample Rate.
2. Enter a sample rate in the text box, or choose a common sample rate from the list.
Note: Although you can work with sample rates ranging from 6000 to 192,000 Hz in Adobe Audition, your sound card may not be capable of
playing all rates properly. To determine supported sample rates, consult the documentation for the card.
To the top
Convert the sample rate of a file
The sample rate of a file determines the frequency range of the waveform. When converting the sample rate, keep in mind that most sound cards
support only certain sample rates.
1. In the Waveform Editor, choose Edit > Convert Sample Type.
To quickly access the Convert Sample Type dialog box, double-click the Sample Type section of the status bar. (See Display the status
bar.)
2. Select a rate from the Sample Rate list, or enter a custom rate in the text box.
3. In the Advanced section, drag the Quality slider to adjust the quality of the sampling conversion.
Higher values retain more high frequencies, but the conversion takes longer. Lower values require less processing time but reduce high
frequencies.
Use higher Quality values whenever you downsample a high rate to a low rate. When upsampling, higher values have little effect.
4. For the best results, select Pre/Post Filter to prevent aliasing noise.
Convert a waveform between surround, stereo, and mono
To the top
The Convert Sample Type command is the quickest way to convert a waveform to a different number of channels.
1. In the Waveform Editor, choose Edit > Convert Sample Type.
2. From the Channels menu, select Mono, Stereo, or 5.1.
3. In the Advanced section, Enter percentages for Left Mix and Right Mix:
When you convert from mono to stereo, the Left Mix and Right Mix options specify the relative amplitude with which the original mono
signal is placed into each side of the new stereo signal. For example, you can place the mono source on the left channel only, the right
channel only, or any point in between.
When you convert from stereo to mono, the Left Mix and Right Mix options control the amount of signal from the respective channel that
will be mixed into the final mono waveform. The most common mixing method uses 50% of both channels.
For other channel-conversion techniques, see the following topics:
Extract audio channels to mono files
Mix audio data when pasting
Channel Mixer effect
To the top
Change the bit depth of a file
67
The bit depth of a file determines the dynamic range of the audio. (See Understanding bit depth.) Adobe Audition supports up to 32-bit resolution.
You can raise the bit depth of a file to gain a greater dynamic range, or you can lower the bit depth to reduce the file size.
Note: Some common applications and media players require 16-bit or lower audio.
1. In the Waveform Editor, choose Edit > Convert Sample Type.
2. Select a Bit Depth from the menu, or enter a custom bit depth in the text box.
3. In the Advanced section, set the following options:
Dithering Enables or disables dithering when converting to lower bit depths. If dithering is disabled, bit depth is abruptly truncated,
producing a crackly effect on low-volume passages caused by quantization distortion.
Although dithering introduces a small amount of noise, the result is far preferable to the increased distortion that you would otherwise hear at
low signal levels. Dithering also lets you hear sounds that would be masked by the noise and distortion limits of audio at lower bit depths.
Dither Type Controls how dithering noise is distributed relative to the original amplitude value. Usually, Triangular provides the best tradeoff
among signal-to-noise ratio, distortion, and noise modulation.
Dither type
Reduces signal-to-noise ratio
Noise modulation
Triangular
4.8 dB
No
Gaussian
6.0 dB
Negligible
Note: Triangular (Shaped) and Gaussian (Shaped) move slightly more noise to higher frequencies. For additional control, set Noise Shaping
options.
Noise Shaping Determines which frequencies contain dithering noise. By introducing noise shaping, you may be able to use lower dither
depths without introducing audible artifacts. The best shaping depends on the source audio, final sample rate, and bit depth.
Note: Noise Shaping is disabled for sample rates below 32Khz because all noise would remain in audible frequencies.
High Pass With a crossover set to 7.3 kHz, drops dithering noise to -180dB at 0 Hz and -162dB at100 Hz.
Light Slope With a crossover set to 11 kHz, drops noise to -3dB at 0 Hz and -10dB at 5 kHz.
Neutral Light is flat up to 14 kHz, ramps noise up to a maximum at 17kHz, and is again flat at higher frequencies. Background
noise sounds the same as it does without noise shaping but is about 11dB quieter.
Heavy is flat up to 15.5kHz, placing all dithering noise above 16kHz (or wherever you specify the crossover). Sensitive ears may
hear a high pitched ringing if the crossover is too low. If converting 48 or 96 kHz audio, however, the crossover can be placed well
above 20 kHz.
Choose a Neutral shape to avoid sonically coloring background hiss. Note, however, that hiss will sound louder than with other
shapes.
U-Shaped Shallow is mostly flat from 2 kHz up to 14 kHz but gets louder as audio approaches 0 Hz because low frequencies are
much less audible. Medium places a little more noise in the highs above 9 kHz, allowing for lower noise below that frequency. Deep
increases noise above 9 kHz even more, but also lowers it much more in the 2-6 kHz range.
Weighted Light attempts to match how the ear perceives low-level sounds by reducing noise more in the 2-6 kHz range and raising
it in the 10-14 kHz range. At high volumes, hiss may be more noticeable. Heavy more evenly reduces the most sensitive 2-6KHz
range at the expense of more noise above 8kHz.
Crossover Specifies the frequency above which noise shaping will occur.
Strength Specify the maximum amplitude of noise added to any one frequency.
Adaptive Mode Varies the distribution of noise across frequencies.
To the top
Use sample rate conversion presets
If you need to make the same conversion on multiple files, you can save time by using a sample rate conversion preset.
1. Choose Edit > Convert Sample Type.
2. Adjust the settings as desired.
3. Click the New Preset button
.
After you create a preset, it appears in the Presets list at the top of the dialog box. If you want to delete a preset, choose it from the list, and
click the Delete button
.
68
|
69
Inverting, reversing, and silencing audio
Invert a waveform
Reverse a waveform
Create silence
To the top
Invert a waveform
The Invert effect inverts audio phase by 180 degrees. (To understand phase degrees, see Waveform measurements.)
Inverting doesn’t produce an audible change on an individual waveform, but you can hear a difference when combining waveforms. For example,
you might invert pasted audio to better align it with existing audio. Or, you could invert one channel of a stereo file to correct an out-of-phase
recording.
1. If you want to invert part of a waveform, select the desired range. Or, deselect all audio data to invert the entire waveform.
2. Choose Effects > Invert.
To the top
Reverse a waveform
The Reverse effect reverses a waveform from right to left so it plays backwards. Reversing is useful for creating special effects.
1. If you want to reverse part of the waveform, select the desired range. Or, deselect all audio data to reverse the entire waveform.
2. Choose Effects > Reverse.
To the top
Create silence
Creating silence is useful for inserting pauses and removing nonessential noise from an audio file. Adobe Audition provides two ways to create
silence:
To mute existing audio in the Waveform Editor, select the desired content, and choose Effects > Silence. Unlike deleting or cutting a
selection, which splices the surrounding material together, muting leaves the duration of the selection intact.
To add silence in the Waveform or Multitrack Editor, either position the current-time indicator
or select existing audio. Then choose Edit >
Insert >Silence, and enter the number of seconds. Any audio to the right is pushed out in time, lengthening duration. Multitrack clips are split
if necessary.
More Help topics
|
70
Selecting audio
Select time ranges
Select spectral ranges
Select artifacts and repair them automatically
Select all of a waveform
Specify which channels you want to edit
Adjust a selection to zero-crossing points
Snap to markers, rulers, frames, and zero crossings
To the top
Select time ranges
1. In the toolbar, select the Time Selection tool
.
2. Do any of the following:
To select a range, drag in the Editor panel.
Dragging to select time ranges
To extend or shorten a selection, drag the selection edges. (Shift-click beyond the edges to quickly extend a selection to a specific
location.)
Note: If you prefer, you can right-click to extend or shorten a selection. To enable this feature, select Extend Selection in the General
section of the Preferences dialog box.
To the top
Select spectral ranges
When working in a spectral display, you can use the Marquee, Lasso, or Paintbrush Selection tool to select audio data within specific spectral
ranges. The Marquee Selection tool lets you select a rectangular area. The Lasso Selection and Paintbrush Selection tools let you make free-form
selections. All three tools allow for detailed editing and processing, including incredible flexibility in audio restoration work. For example, if you find
audio artifacts, you can select and edit just the affected frequencies, producing superior results with faster processing.
The Paintbrush Selection tool creates unique selections that determine the intensity of applied effects. To adjust intensity, either layer brush
strokes or change the Opacity setting in the toolbar. The more opaque the white, selected area is, the more intense applied effects will be.
71
Types of spectral selections
A. Marquee B. Lasso C. Paintbrush
1. In the toolbar, select the Marquee
, Lasso
, or Paintbrush Selection
.
2. In the Editor panel, drag in the spectral display to select the desired audio data.
Note: When you make a selection in a stereo waveform, the selection is applied to all channels by default. To select audio data in specific
channels, choose them from the Edit > Enable Channels menu.
3. To adjust the selection, do any of the following:
To move the selection, position the pointer in the selection, and drag it to the desired location.
To resize the selection, position the pointer on the corner or edge of the selection, and drag it to the desired size. (For paintbrush
selections, you can also adjust the brush Size setting in the toolbar.)
To add to a lasso or paintbrush selection, Shift-drag. To subtract from the selection, Alt-drag.
To determine the intensity of effects applied to paintbrush selections, adjust the Opacity setting in the toolbar.
By default, Adobe Audition plays only audio the spectral selection. To hear all audio in the same time range, right-click the Play button , and
deselect Play Spectral Selection Only.
To the top
Select artifacts and repair them automatically
For the quickest repair of small, individual audio artifacts like isolated clicks or pops, use the Spot Healing Brush. When you select audio with this
tool, it automatically applies the Favorites > Auto Heal command.
Note: Auto-healing is optimized for small audio artifacts and thus limited to selections of four seconds or less.
1. In the toolbar, select the Spot Healing Brush
.
2. To change the pixel diameter, adjust the Size setting. Or press the square bracket keys.
3. In the Editor panel, either click and hold or drag across an audio artifact in the spectral display.
Note: If you click without holding down the mouse button, Audition moves the current-time indicator so you can preview audio, but doesn’t
repair it. To repair audio by clicking, select Create A Circular Selection On Mouse Down in the General preferences.
Instantly removing an artifact with the Spot Healing Brush
A. Before B. After
To the top
Select all of a waveform
Do either of the following:
72
To select the visible range of a waveform, double-click in the Editor panel.
To select all of a waveform, triple-click in the Editor panel.
To the top
Specify which channels you want to edit
By default, Adobe Audition applies selections and edits to all channels of a stereo or surround waveform. However, you can easily select and edit
specific channels.
At the right of the Editor panel, click channel buttons in the amplitude ruler. For a stereo file, for example, click the left channel
or right
button.
channel
To select one stereo channel simply by dragging across the very top or bottom of the Editor panel, select Allow Context-Sensitive Channel
Editing in the General section of the Preferences dialog box.
Selecting specific channels of a 5.1 surround file
To the top
Adjust a selection to zero-crossing points
For many editing tasks such as deleting or inserting audio, zero-crossings (points where amplitude is zero) are the best places to make selections.
Selections that begin and end at zero-crossings reduce the chance that edits will create audible pops or clicks.
To adjust a selection to the closest zero-crossing points, choose Edit > Zero Crossings. Then select an option such as Adjust Selection Inward
(which moves both edges inward to the next zero crossing).
To further reduce the chance of pops or clicks, all edits are crossfaded. You can change crossfade durations in the Data section of the
Preferences dialog box.
To the top
Snap to markers, rulers, frames, and zero crossings
Snapping causes selection boundaries, as well as the current-time indicator, to move to items such as markers, ruler ticks, zero-crossing points,
and frames. Enabling snapping helps you make accurate selections; however, if you prefer, you can disable snapping for specific items.
1. To enable snapping for selected items, click the Toggle Snapping icon
at the top of the Editor panel.
2. To specify items to snap to, choose Edit > Snapping, and select any of the following:
Snap To Markers Snaps to a marker point. For information on defining markers, see Working with markers.
Snap To Ruler (Coarse) Snaps only to the major numeric divisions (such as minutes and seconds) in the timeline.
Note: You can enable only one Snap To Ruler command at a time.
Snap To Ruler (Fine) Snaps to subdivisions (such as milliseconds) in the timeline. Zoom in (right-click and drag across the timeline) to
display more accurate subdivisions and place the cursor more precisely.
Snap To Zero Crossings Snaps to the nearest place where audio crosses the center line (the zero amplitude point).
Snap To Frames Snaps to a frame boundary if the time format is measured in frames (such as Compact Disc and SMPTE).
You can access snapping commands by right-clicking the timeline.
More Help topics
73
About the spectral display
Customize the spectral display
Snap to clip endpoints
|
74
Undo, redo, and history
Undo or redo changes
Compare history states
To the top
Undo or redo changes
Each time you start Adobe Audition, it keeps track of the edits you perform. Edits aren’t permanently applied until you save and close a file, giving
you unlimited undo and redo capability.
To undo or redo changes, do any of the following:
To undo a change, choose Edit > Undo [name of change].
To redo a change, choose Edit > Redo [name of change].
To repeat the last command in the Waveform Editor, choose Edit > Repeat Last Command. You can repeat most commands; however, there
are a few exceptions (such as Delete).
To repeat the last command without opening its dialog box, press Ctrl+R (Windows) or Command+R (Mac OS).
To the top
Compare history states
While the Undo and Redo commands restrict you to an incremental sequence of changes, the History panel lets you instantly revert back to any
previous change. Use the panel to quickly compare processed and original audio or discard a series of changes that produced undesired results.
Note: History states disappear when you close a file.
Revert to states
To revert to any history state, click it.
To incrementally move through states, press the up and down arrows on the keyboard.
Delete states
When you work with very large audio files, delete unnecessary history states to clear disk space and improve performance.
To delete all states, choose Clear History from the panel menu
.
To delete a specific state, select it, and then click the trash icon
.
Note: Deleting history states also removes related Undo commands.
|
75
Visually fading and changing amplitude
Visually fade in or out
Visually raise or lower amplitude
Pin or hide the visual amplitude control
Though various effects can change amplitude or produce fades, visual fade and gain controls make the task quick and intuitive. As you drag these
controls in the Editor panel, a preview helps you precisely adjust audio.
Visual controls in the Editor panel
A. Fade controls B. Gain control (heads-up display)
To quickly fade selected audio, choose Favorites > Fade In or Fade Out.
To the top
Visually fade in or out
Adobe Audition offers three types of visual fades:
Linear fades produce an even volume change that works well for much material. If this fade sounds too abrupt, however, try one of the other
options.
Logarithmic fades smoothly change volume slowly and then rapidly, or vice versa.
Cosine fades are shaped like an S-curve, changing volume slowly at first, rapidly through the bulk of the fade, and slowly at the finish.
Note: In the Waveform Editor, fades permanently change audio data. To apply fades you can readjust in the Multitrack Editor, see Fade or
crossfade multitrack clips.
Fade types
A. Linear B. Logarithmic C. Cosine
In the upper left or right of the waveform, drag the Fade In
or Fade Out
handle inward, and do any of the following:
For a linear fade, drag perfectly horizontally.
For a logarithmic fade, drag up or down.
For a cosine (S-curve) fade, hold down Ctrl (Windows) or Command (Mac OS).
To create cosine fades by default and hold the keys above to create linear or logarithmic fades, change the Default Fade setting in the General
preferences.
To the top
Visually raise or lower amplitude
76
1. In the Editor panel, select specific audio, or select nothing to adjust the entire file.
2. In the gain control that floats above the panel, drag the knob or numbers.
The numbers indicate how new amplitude compares with existing amplitude. When you release the mouse button, the numbers return to 0
dB, so you can make further adjustments.
Changing the volume of selected area
To the top
Pin or hide the visual amplitude control
By default, the visual amplitude control appears in a heads-up display (HUD) that floats over all waveforms. If you find the HUD distracting, do any
of the following:
To lock the HUD in one location, click the Pin button
.
To show the HUD only over highlighted selections, select Show HUD for Selection Ranges Only in the General preferences.
To totally hide the HUD, deselect View > Show HUD.
More Help topics
|
77
Applying effects
78
Effects controls
Effects Rack overview
Use effect presets
Control effect settings with graphs
About spline curves for graphs
To the top
Effects Rack overview
The Effects Rack lets you insert, edit, and reorder up to 16 effects, optimize mix levels, and store favorite presets. Most rack controls appear in
both the Waveform and Multitrack editors.
Controls shared by the Waveform and Multitrack editors
A. Rack Preset controls B. Effect slots C. Level controls D. Main Power button
Controls unique to the Waveform Editor
In the Waveform Editor, the Effects Rack provides a Process menu that that lets you modify a selection or the entire file, and an Apply button that
permanently applies effects.
Controls unique to the Waveform Editor
A. Apply button permanently applies effects B. Process menu lets you modify selection or entire file
Controls unique to the Multitrack Editor
The Effects Rack provides Pre-render Track and FX Pre/Post-Fader buttons that you use to optimize and route effects. Each clip and track has its
own Effects Rack, which is saved with the session.
Note: Buses and the Master track lack a Pre-render option because processing effects from all source tracks would reduce performance.
Controls unique to the Multitrack Editor
A. FX Pre/Post-Fader B. Pre-render
Set input, output, and mix levels in racks
To optimize volume, adjust Input and Output levels so their meters peak without clipping.
To change the percentage of processed audio, drag the Mix slider. 100% (Wet) equals fully processed audio; 0% (Dry) equals original,
unprocessed audio.
Insert, bypass, reorder, or remove effects in racks
In the Effects Rack, you manage groups of effects by using individual effect slots.
In the Multitrack Editor, the fx section of the Editor panel or Mixer provides quick access to slots in the Effects Rack.
79
Reordering and inserting effects in racks:
A. Reorder by dragging B. Insert with the slot menu
To insert an effect, choose it from a slot’s pop-up menu. Then adjust effect settings as desired.
To later reaccess effect settings, double-click the effect name in the rack.
To bypass an effect, click its Power button
.
To bypass all effects, click the main Power button in the lower left corner of a rack, or the fx power button in the Editor panel or Mixer.
To bypass a selected group of effects, choose Toggle Power State of Selected Effects from the panel menu
.
Bypass effects to quickly compare processed and unprocessed audio.
To remove a single effect, choose Remove Effect from a slot’s pop-up menu. Or select the slot, and press Delete.
To remove all effects, choose Remove All Effects from the panel menu
.
To reorder effects, drag them to different slots.
Reordering effects produces different sonic results. (For an example, place Reverb prior to Phaser, and vice versa.)
To the top
Use effect presets
Many effects provide presets that let you store and recall favorite settings. In addition to effect-specific presets, the Effects Rack provides rack
presets that store groups of effects and settings.
To apply a preset, choose it from the Presets menu.
.
1. To save current settings as a preset, click the New Preset button
To delete a preset, select it, and click the Delete button
.
To modify an existing preset, apply it, adjust settings as desired, and then save a new preset with the same name.
To the top
Control effect settings with graphs
Many Adobe Audition effects provide graphs where you can adjust parameters. By adding and moving control points on the graph, you can
precisely tailor effect settings.
Graph control points function together with related numerical settings. If you change or disable a numerical setting, the related graph control
follows suit.
80
Moving a control point changes the related settings, and vice versa.
To move a point on a graph, drag it to a new location.
Note: The following techniques don’t apply to the DeHummer, Mastering, Full Reverb, Parametric Equalizer, and Track EQ graphs.
To add a control point to a graph, click in the grid at the location where you want to place the point.
To enter numeric values for a control point, right-click it, and choose Edit Point
To remove a point from a graph, drag it off the graph.
To return a graph to its default state, click the Reset button
.
To the top
About spline curves for graphs
By default, graphs display straight lines between control points. However, some graphs provide a Spline Curves option that creates a curve
between control points for smoother transitions.
When you use spline curves, lines don’t travel directly through control points. Instead, the points control the shape of the curve. To move the
curve closer to a control point, click near it to create a cluster of control points.
Graph with straight lines compared to graph with spline curves
Apply groups of effects in the Waveform Editor
Favorites
Twitter™ and Facebook posts are not covered under the terms of Creative Commons.
Legal Notices | Online Privacy Policy
81
Applying effects in the Multitrack Editor
Apply effects to clips or tracks
Pre-render track effects to improve performance
Insert effects before or after sends and EQ
To the top
Apply effects to clips or tracks
In the Multitrack Editor, you can apply up to 16 effects to each clip, track, and bus and adjust them while a mix plays. (Apply clip effects if a track
contains multiple clips that you want to process independently.)
You can insert, reorder, and remove effects in the Editor, Mixer, or Effects Rack panel. Only in the Effects Rack, however, can you save favorite
settings as presets, which you can apply to multiple tracks.
In the Multitrack Editor, effects are nondestructive, so you can change them at any time. To readapt a session for different projects, for example,
simply reopen it and change effects to create new sonic textures.
Revealing effect slots in the Editor panel
1. Do any of the following:
Select a clip, and click Clip Effects at the top of the Effects Rack.
Select a track, and click Track Effects at the top of the Effects Rack.
Display the fx section of the Editor or Mixer. (In the Editor panel, click the button
in the upper-left corner.)
2. Choose effects for up to 16 slots in the list. (See Insert, bypass, reorder, or remove effects in racks.)
3. Press the spacebar to play the session, and then edit, reorder, or remove effects as needed.
To change effect settings over time, use envelopes. (See Automating mixes with envelopes.)
To the top
Pre-render track effects to improve performance
In the Multitrack Editor, pre-render track effects to address heavy CPU usage, improving performance for complex mixes or low-latency recording.
(Latency measures the delay between user input and sound output from a computer. If latency is high, it produces an audible echo during
recording, disrupting timing for musicians.)
You can continue to edit track settings normally; pre-rendering processes audio when pauses occur in playback or editing.
In the Editor panel, Effects Rack, or Mixer, click the Pre-Render Track button
.
To the top
Insert effects before or after sends and EQ
On each track, you can insert effects either pre- or post-fader. Pre-fader effects process audio before sends and EQ. Post-fader effects process
audio after sends and EQ. For most mixes, the default, pre-fader setting works well. The post-fader setting offers signal-routing flexibility for
particularly complex mixes.
82
In the fx section of the Editor panel or Mixer, click the Pre-Fader/Post-Fader button to insert effects either before sends and EQ
.
If you’re editing effect settings in the Effects Rack, click the Pre-Fader/Post-Fader button in the lower-left corner.
Pre- and post-fader effect and send routing for each track:
A. Input B. EQ C. Volume D. Mute E. Send F. Effects Rack
Routing audio to buses, sends, and the Master track
Set up a send
Twitter™ and Facebook posts are not covered under the terms of Creative Commons.
Legal Notices | Online Privacy Policy
83
, or after
Adding third-party plug-ins
Third-party plug-ins let you extend the already powerful effects provided with Adobe Audition. The application supports VST plug-ins on both
platforms and Audio Units plug-ins on Mac OS.
Applying plug-in effects is identical to applying built-in effects. For information about plug-in features, consult the documentation provided by the
plug-in manufacturer.
Enable VST and Audio Units plug-ins
To access third-party plug-ins in Adobe Audition, you must first enable them. By default, all third-party plug-ins are disabled. To optimize
performance, enable only the plug-ins you plan to use in Adobe Audition.
Note: If effects are being used in a multitrack session, close the session.
1. Choose Effects > Audio Plug-in Manager.
2. In the VST Plug-in Folders section, click Add to specify custom folders you want to scan for plug-ins. Click Default to specify the standard
VST folder for your operating system.
3. In the Available Plug-ins section, click Scan For Plug-ins.
If you’ve recently updated a plug-in, select Rescan Existing Plug-ins.
4. Select the plug-ins you want to access in Adobe Audition, and then click OK.
Note: If a third-party effect is incompatible, Adobe Audition adds it to an Unsupported submenu in effects menus.
More Help topics
Applying effects in the Multitrack Editor
Automating track settings
|
84
Applying effects in the Waveform Editor
Apply groups of effects in the Waveform Editor
Apply individual effects in the Waveform Editor
About process effects
While previewing effects, you can adjust selections and the current-time indicator in the Editor panel. (The Normalize and Stretch effects are
exceptions.)
To the top
Apply groups of effects in the Waveform Editor
In the Waveform Editor, the Effects Rack lets you apply groups of effects. (It doesn’t provide process effects such as Noise Reduction, which must
be applied individually.)
1. Choose Window > Effects Rack.
2. In the numbered list, choose effects for up to 16 slots. (See Insert, bypass, reorder, or remove effects in racks.)
3. Start playback to preview the changes, and then edit, mix, and reorder effects as needed.
To compare processed audio to original audio, select and deselect the main Power button in the lower left corner of the rack, or the
Power buttons for individual effects.
4. To apply the changes to the audio data, click Apply.
To store settings, save a rack preset. (See Use effect presets.)
To the top
Apply individual effects in the Waveform Editor
1. From any submenu in the Effects menu, choose an effect.
, and then edit settings as needed.
2. Click the Preview button
As you edit settings, watch the Levels panel to optimize amplitude.
3. To compare original audio to processed audio, select and deselect the Power button
.
4. To apply the changes to the audio data, click Apply.
To the top
About process effects
You can identify process effects by the word process in menu commands. These processing-intensive effects are available only offline in the
Waveform Editor. Unlike real-time effects, process effects can be applied only individually, so they aren’t accessible in the Effects Rack.
More Help topics
Effects Rack overview
Use effect presets
Control effect settings with graphs
|
85
Effects reference
86
Amplitude and compression effects
Amplify effect
Channel Mixer effect
DeEsser effect
Dynamics Processing effect
Fade Envelope effect | CS6
Gain Envelope effect | CS6
Hard Limiter effect
Multiband Compressor effect
Normalize effect (Waveform Editor only)
Single-band Compressor effect
Speech Volume Leveler effect
Tube-modeled Compressor effect
Volume Envelope effect | CS5.5
To the top
Amplify effect
The Amplitude And Compression > Amplify effect boosts or attenuates an audio signal. Because the effect operates in real time, you can combine
it with other effects in the Effects Rack.
Gain sliders Boost or attenuate individual audio channels.
Link Sliders Moves the channel sliders together.
To the top
Channel Mixer effect
The Amplitude and Compression > Channel Mixer effect alters the balance of stereo or surround channels, letting you change the apparent
position of sounds, correct mismatched levels, or address phasing issues.
Channel tabs Select the output channel.
Input channel sliders Determine the percentage of the current channels to mix into the output channel. For a stereo file, for example, an L value
of 50 and an R value of 50 results in an output channel that contains equal audio from the current left and right channels.
Invert Inverts a channel’s phase. (To understand this key audio concept, see How sound waves interact.) Inverting all channels causes no
perceived difference in sound. Inverting only one channel, however, can greatly change the sound.
To the top
DeEsser effect
The Amplitude and Compression > DeEsser effect removes sibilance, “ess” sounds heard in speech and singing that can distort high frequencies.
The graph reveals the processed frequencies. Click the Preview button
to see how much audio content exists in the processed range.
Mode Choose Broadband to uniformly compress all frequencies or Multiband to only compress the sibilance range. Multiband is best for most
audio content but slightly increases processing time.
Threshold Sets the amplitude above which compression occurs.
Center Frequency Specifies the frequency at which sibilance is most intense. To verify, adjust this setting while playing audio.
Bandwidth Determines the frequency range that triggers the compressor.
Tip: To visually adjust Center Frequency and Bandwidth, drag the edges of the selection in the graph.
Output Sibilance Only Lets you hear detected sibilance. Start playback, and fine-tune settings above.
87
Gain Reduction Shows the compression level of the processed frequencies.
To the top
Dynamics Processing effect
The Amplitude And Compression > Dynamics Processing effect can be used as a compressor, limiter, or expander. As a compressor and limiter,
this effect reduces dynamic range, producing consistent volume levels. As an expander, it increases dynamic range by reducing the level of
low-level signals. (With extreme expander settings, you can create a noise gate that totally eliminates noise below a specific amplitude threshold.)
The Dynamics Processing effect can produce subtle changes that you notice only after repeated listening. When applying this effect in the
Waveform Editor, use a copy of the original file so you can return to the original audio if necessary.
Use the Broadcast Limiter preset to simulate the processed sound of a contemporary radio station.
Dynamics tab
Graph Depicts input level along the horizontal ruler (x-axis) and the new output level along the vertical ruler (y-axis). The default graph, with a
straight line from the lower left to the upper right, depicts a signal that has been left untouched; every input level has the same output level.
Adjusting the graph changes the relationship between input and output levels, altering dynamic range.
For example, if a desirable sonic element occurs around -20 dB, you can boost the input signal at that level, but leave everything else unchanged.
You can also draw an inverse line (from the upper left to the lower right) that will dramatically boost quiet sounds and suppress loud ones.
Add point
Adds control point in graph using numerical input and output levels you specify. This method is more precise than clicking the graph to add points.
Tip: To numerically adjust an existing control point, right-click it, and choose Edit Point.
Delete point
Removes selected point from the graph.
Invert
Flips the graph, converting compression into expansion, or vice versa.
note: You can invert a graph only if it has points in the two default corners (-100, -100 and 0, 0) and if its output level increases from left to right
(that is, each control point must be higher than the one to its left).
Reset
Resets the graph to its default state.
Spline Curves creates smoother, curved transitions between control points, rather than more abrupt, linear transitions. (See About spline curves
for graphs.)
Make-Up Gain Boosts the processed signal.
Settings tab
General Provides overall settings.
Look-Ahead Time Addresses transient spikes that can occur at the onset of extremely loud signals that extend beyond the compressor’s
Attack Time settings. Extending Look-Ahead Time causes compression to attack before the audio gets loud, ensuring that amplitude never
exceeds a certain level. Conversely, reducing Look-Ahead Time may be desirable to enhance the impact of percussive music like drum
hits.
Noise Gating Completely silences signals that are expanded below a 50-to-1 ratio.
Level Detector Determines the original input amplitude.
Input Gain Applies gain to the signal before it enters the Level Detector.
Attack Time Determines how many milliseconds it takes for the input signal to register a changed amplitude level. For example, if audio
suddenly drops 30 dB, the specified attack time passes before the input registers an amplitude change. This avoids erroneous amplitude
readings due to temporary changes.
Release Time Determines how many milliseconds the current amplitude level is maintained before another amplitude change can register.
Tip: Use fast attack and release settings for audio with fast transients, and slower settings for less percussive audio.
88
Peak mode Determines levels based on amplitude peaks. This mode is a bit more difficult to use than RMS, because peaks aren’t
precisely reflected in the Dynamics graph. However, it can be helpful when audio has loud transient peaks you want to subdue.
RMS mode Determines levels based on the root-mean-square formula, an averaging method that more closely matches the way people
perceive volume. This mode precisely reflects amplitudes in the Dynamics graph. For example, a limiter (flat horizontal line) at -10 dB
reflects an average RMS amplitude of -10 dB.
Gain Processor Amplifies or attenuates the signal depending on the amplitude detected.
Output Gain Applies gain to the output signal after all dynamics processing.
Attack Time Determines how many milliseconds it takes for the output signal to reach the specified level. For example, if audio suddenly
drops 30 dB, the specified attack time passes before the output level changes.
Release Time Determines how many milliseconds the current output level is maintained.
note: If the sum of Attack and Release times is too short (less than about 30 milliseconds), audible artifacts can be heard. To see good
attack and release times for different types of audio content, choose various options from the Presets menu.
Link Channels Processes all channels equally, preserving the stereo or surround balance. For example, a compressed drum beat on the
left channel will reduce the right channel level by an equal amount.
Band Limiting Restricts dynamics processing to a specific frequency range.
Low Cutoff Is the lowest frequency that dynamics processing affects.
High Cutoff Is the highest frequency that dynamics processing affects.
To the top
Fade Envelope effect | CS6
Choose Fade Envelope (Effects > Amplitude and Compression) to reduce amplitude by varying amounts over time.
In the Waveform Editor panel, click the yellow envelope line to add keyframes, and drag them up or down to change amplitude. To quickly select,
reposition, or delete multiple keyframes, see Adjust automation with keyframes.
Select the Spline Curves option to create smoother, curved transitions between keyframes, rather than linear transitions. See About spline
curves for graphs.
To the top
Gain Envelope effect | CS6
Choose Gain Envelope (Effects > Amplitude and Compression) to boost or reduce amplitude over time.
In the Waveform Editor panel, click the yellow envelope line to add keyframes, and drag them up or down to change amplitude. To quickly select,
reposition, or delete multiple keyframes, see Adjust automation with keyframes.
Select the Spline Curves option to create smoother, curved transitions between keyframes, rather than linear transitions. See About spline
curves for graphs.
To the top
Hard Limiter effect
The Amplitude And Compression > Hard Limiter effect greatly attenuates audio that rises above a specified threshold. Typically, limiting is applied
with an input boost, a technique that increases overall volume while avoiding distortion.
Maximum Amplitude Sets the maximum sample amplitude allowed.
Tip: To avoid clipping when working with 16-bit audio, set this value to no more than -0.3 dB. If you set it even lower, to -3 dB, you’ll have a little
more clearance for any future edits.
Input Boost Preamplifies audio before you limit it, making a selection louder without clipping it. As you increase this level, compression increases.
Try extreme settings to achieve the loud, high-impact audio heard in contemporary pop music.
Look-Ahead Time Sets the amount of time (in milliseconds) generally needed to attenuate the audio before the loudest peak is hit.
note: Make sure that the value is at least 5 milliseconds. If this value is too small, audible distortion effects may occur.
89
Release Time Sets the time (in milliseconds) needed for the attenuation to rebound back 12 dB (or roughly the time needed for audio to resume
normal volume if an extremely loud peak is encountered). In general, a setting of around 100 (the default) works well and preserves very low bass
frequencies.
note: If this value is too large, audio may remain very quiet and not resume normal levels for a while.
Link Channels Links the loudness of all channels together, preserving the stereo or surround balance.
To the top
Multiband Compressor effect
The Amplitude And Compression > Multiband Compressor effect lets you independently compress four different frequency bands. Because each
band typically contains unique dynamic content, multiband compression is a particularly powerful tool for audio mastering.
Controls in the Multiband Compressor let you precisely define crossover frequencies and apply band-specific compression settings. Click Solo
buttons to preview bands in isolation, or Bypass buttons to pass bands through without processing. After you fine-tune individual bands, select Link
Band Controls to adjust them globally, and then optimize overall volume with the Output Gain slider and Limiter settings.
To change compression settings over time, use automation lanes in the Multitrack Editor. (See Automating track settings.)
Adjusting a crossover frequency in the Multiband Compressor
A. Frequency bands B. Crossover markers C. Bypassed band (no processing applied) D. Amplitude scale E. Frequency scale
Crossover Sets the crossover frequencies, which determine the width of each band. Either enter specific Low, Midrange, and High frequencies,
or drag the crossover markers above the graph.
Band-specific controls in the Multiband Compressor
A. Solo B. Bypass C. Threshold slider D. Input Level meters E. Gain Reduction meters
Solo buttons Let you hear specific frequency bands. Enable one Solo button at a time to hear bands in isolation, or enable multiple buttons to
hear two or more bands together.
Bypass buttons Bypass individual bands so they pass through without processing.
Tip: Alt-click (Windows) or Option-click (Mac OS) Solo or Bypass buttons to quickly apply a unique setting to one band.
Threshold sliders Set the input level at which compression begins. Possible values range from -60 to 0 dB. The best setting depends on audio
content and musical style. To compress only extreme peaks and retain more dynamic range, try thresholds around 5 dB below the peak input
level; to highly compress audio and greatly reduce dynamic range, try settings around 15 dB below the peak input level.
Input Level meters Measure input amplitude. Double-click the meters to reset peak and clip indicators.
Gain Reduction meters Measure amplitude reduction with red meters that extend from top (minimal reduction) to bottom (maximum reduction).
Gain Boosts or cuts amplitude after compression. Possible values range from -18 to +18 dB, where 0 is unity gain.
Ratio Sets a compression ratio between 1-to-1 and 30-to-1. For example, a setting of 3.0 outputs 1 dB for every 3 dB increase above the
compression threshold. Typical settings range from 2.0 to 5.0; higher settings produce the extremely compressed sound often heard in pop music.
Attack Determines how quickly compression is applied when audio exceeds the threshold. Possible values range from 0 to 500 milliseconds. The
default, 10 milliseconds, works well for a wide range of audio. Faster settings may work better for audio with fast transients, but such settings
90
sound unnatural for less percussive audio.
Release Determines how quickly compression stops after audio drops below the threshold. Possible values range from 0 to 5000 milliseconds.
The default, 100 milliseconds, works well for a wide range of audio. Try faster settings for audio with fast transients, and slower settings for less
percussive audio.
Output Gain Boosts or cuts overall output level after compression. Possible values range from -18 to +18 dB, where 0 is unity gain. Double-click
the meters to reset peak and clip indicators.
Limiter Applies limiting after Output Gain, at the end of the signal path, optimizing overall levels. Specify Threshold, Attack, and Release settings
that are less agressive than similar band-specific settings. Then specify a Margin setting to determine the absolute ceiling relative to 0 dBFS.
Tip: To create extremely compressed audio, enable the Limiter, and then experiment with very high Output Gain settings.
Spectrum On Input Displays the frequency spectrum of the input signal, rather than the output signal, in the multiband graph. To quickly see the
amount of compression applied to each band, toggle this option on and off.
Brickwall Limiter Applies immediate, hard limiting at the current Margin setting. (Deselect this option to apply slower soft limiting, which sounds
less compressed but may exceed the Margin setting.)
note: The maximum Attack time for brickwall limiting is 5 ms.
Link Band Controls Lets you globally adjust the compression settings for all bands, while retaining relative differences between bands.
Tip: To temporarily link band controls, hold down Alt+Shift (Windows) or Option+Shift (Mac OS). To reset a control in all bands, hold down
Ctrl+Alt+Shift (Windows) or Command+Option+Shift (Mac OS), and click the control.
To the top
Normalize effect (Waveform Editor only)
Note: This effect requires offline processing. While it is open, you cannot edit the waveform, adjust selections, or move the current-time indicator.
The Amplitude And Compression > Normalize effect lets you set a peak level for a file or selection. When you normalize audio to 100%, you
achieve the maximum amplitude that digital audio allows—0 dBFS. If you’re sending audio to a mastering engineer, however, normalize audio to
between –3 and –6 dBFS, providing a cushion for further processing.
The Normalize effect amplifies the entire file or selection equally. For example, if the original audio reaches a loud peak of 80% and a quiet low of
20%, normalizing to 100% amplifies the loud peak to 100% and the quiet low to 40%.
To apply RMS normalization, choose Effects > Match Volume. If desired, you can apply that command to only one file. (See Match volume
across multiple files.)
Normalize To Sets the percentage of the highest peak relative to the maximum possible amplitude.
Tip: Select dB to enter the Normalize value in decibels instead of a percentage.
Normalize All Channels Equally Uses all channels of a stereo or surround waveform to calculate the amplification amount. If this option is
deselected, the amount is calculated separately for each channel, potentially amplifying one considerably more than others.
DC Bias Adjust Lets you adjust the position of the waveform in the wave display. Some recording hardware may introduce a DC bias, causing
the recorded waveform to appear to be above or below the normal center line in the wave display. To center the waveform, set the percentage to
zero. To skew the entire selected waveform above or below the center line, specify a positive or negative percentage.
To the top
Single-band Compressor effect
The Amplitude And Compression > Single-band Compressor effect reduces dynamic range, producing consistent volume levels and increasing
perceived loudness. Single-band compression is particularly effective for voice-overs, because it helps the speaker stand out over musical
soundtracks and background audio.
For examples of highly-compressed audio, listen to recordings of modern pop music. By contrast, most jazz recordings are lightly compressed,
while typical classical recordings feature no compression at all.
Threshold Sets the input level at which compression begins. The best setting depends on audio content and style. To compress only extreme
peaks and retain more dynamic range, try thresholds around 5 dB below the peak input level. To highly compress audio and greatly reduce
dynamic range, try settings around 15 dB below the peak input level.
Ratio Sets a compression ratio between 1-to-1 and 30-to-1. For example, a setting of 3 outputs 1 dB for every 3-dB increase above the
threshold. Typical settings range from 2 to 5; higher settings produce the extremely compressed sound often heard in pop music.
91
Attack Determines how quickly compression starts after audio exceeds the Threshold setting. The default, 10 milliseconds, works well for a wide
range of source material. Use faster settings only for audio with quick transients, such as percussion recordings.
Release Determines how quickly compression stops when audio drops below the Threshold setting. The default, 100 milliseconds, works well for
a wide range of audio. Try faster settings for audio with fast transients, and slower settings for less percussive audio.
Output Gain Boosts or cuts amplitude after compression. Possible values range from -30 dB to +30 dB, where 0 is unity gain.
To the top
Speech Volume Leveler effect
The Amplitude and Compression > Speech Volume Leveler is a compression effect that optimizes dialogue, evening out levels and removing
background noise.
For the best results, do the following:
1. Select audio with the lowest level. Set Target Volume Level and Leveling Amount to the left. Start playback, and gradually increase the
Leveling Amount until speech becomes nicely audible without increasing background noise.
2. Select audio with the highest level, and start playback. Adjust the Target Volume Level until the volume matches the loudness of the quiet
passage you adjusted previously.
3. If necessary, readjust the Leveling Amount to avoid an over-compressed sound.
Here are additional details about each option:
Target Volume Level Sets the desired output level relative to zero dBFS. (See Measuring amplitude in dBFS.)
Leveling Amount At low settings, amplifies speech slightly without boosting the noise floor. At high settings, amplifies the entire signal more as
the signal drops closer to the noise floor.
Boost Low Signals Interprets shorter, low-volume passages as speech that should be amplified. For most audio content, deselect this option to
produce smoother sound.
Advanced settings Click the triangle to access the following options:
Compressor Maintains a strong level if the processed signal falls below a threshold relative to zero dBFS.
Noise Gate Eliminates background noise by dramatically reducing output level when the signal drops by an offset you specify.
To the top
Tube-modeled Compressor effect
The Amplitude And Compression > Tube-modeled Compressor effect simulates the warmth of vintage hardware compressors. Use this effect to
add subtle distortion that pleasantly colors audio.
Threshold slider Sets the input level at which compression begins. Possible values range from -60 to 0 dB. The best setting depends on audio
content and musical style. To compress only extreme peaks and retain more dynamic range, try thresholds around 5 dB below the peak input
level; to highly compress audio and greatly reduce dynamic range, try settings around 15 dB below the peak input level.
Input Level meters To the left of the slider, these meters measure input amplitude. Double-click the meters to reset peak and clip indicators.
Gain Reduction meters To the right of the slider, these meters measure amplitude reduction with red bars that extend from top (minimal
reduction) to bottom (maximum reduction).
Gain Boosts or cuts amplitude after compression. Possible values range from -18 to +18 dB, where 0 is unity gain.
Ratio Sets a compression ratio between 1-to-1 and 30-to-1. For example, a setting of 3.0 outputs 1 dB for every 3 dB increase above the
compression threshold. Typical settings range from 2.0 to 5.0; higher settings produce the extremely compressed sound often heard in pop music.
Attack Determines how quickly compression is applied when audio exceeds the threshold. Possible values range from 0 to 500 milliseconds. The
default, 10 milliseconds, works well for a wide range of audio. Faster settings may work better for audio with fast transients, but such settings
sound unnatural for less percussive audio.
Release Determines how quickly compression stops after audio drops below the threshold. Possible values range from 0 to 5000 milliseconds.
The default, 100 milliseconds, works well for a wide range of audio. Try faster settings for audio with fast transients, and slower settings for less
percussive audio.
To the top
Volume Envelope effect | CS5.5
The Amplitude And Compression > Volume Envelope effect lets you change volume over time with boosts and fades. In the Waveform Editor
panel, simply drag the yellow line. The top of the panel represents 100% (normal) amplification; the bottom represents 100% attenuation (silence).
92
Though the Volume Envelope effect isn’t available in the Multitrack Editor, you can use automation lanes to accomplish the same task. (See
Automating track settings.)
Dragging an anchor point in the Editor panel
Yellow envelope line in Editor panel Drag to adjust amplitude percentage, and click to add keyframes for additional boosts and fades. To
quickly select, reposition, or delete multiple keyframes, see Adjust automation with keyframes.
Spline curves Applies smoother, curved transitions between keyframes, rather than linear transitions. See About spline curves for graphs.
Adobe also recommends
Use effect presets
Mix audio data when pasting
Twitter™ and Facebook posts are not covered under the terms of Creative Commons.
Legal Notices | Online Privacy Policy
93
Filter and equalizer effects
FFT Filter effect
Graphic Equalizer effect
Parametric Equalizer effect
To the top
FFT Filter effect
The graphic nature of the Filter And EQ > FFT Filter effect makes it easy to draw curves or notches that reject or boost specific frequencies. FFT
stands for Fast Fourier Transform, an algorithm that quickly analyzes frequency and amplitude.
This effect can produce broad high- or low-pass filters (to maintain high or low frequencies), narrow band-pass filters (to simulate the sound of a
telephone call), or notch filters (to eliminate small, precise frequency bands).
Scale Determines how frequencies are arranged along the horizontal x-axis:
For finer control over low frequencies, select Logarithmic. A logarithmic scale more closely resembles how people hear sound.
For detailed, high-frequency work with evenly spaced intervals in frequency, select Linear.
Spline Curves Creates smoother, curved transitions between control points, rather than more abrupt, linear transitions. (See About spline curves
for graphs.)
Reset
Reverts the graph to the default state, removing filtering.
Advanced options Click the triangle to access these settings:
FFT Size Specifies the Fast Fourier Transform size, determining the tradeoff between frequency and time accuracy. For steep, precise
frequency filters, choose higher values. For reduced transient artifacts in percussive audio, choose lower values. Values between 1024 and
8192 work well for most material.
Window Determines the Fast Fourier transform shape, with each option resulting in a different frequency response curve.
These functions are listed in order from narrowest to widest. Narrower functions include fewer surrounding, or sidelobe, frequencies but
less precisely reflect center frequencies. Wider functions include more surrounding frequencies but more precisely reflect center
frequencies. The Hamming and Blackman options provide excellent overall results.
To the top
Graphic Equalizer effect
The Filter And EQ > Graphic Equalizer effect boosts or cuts specific frequency bands and provides a visual representation of the resulting EQ
curve. Unlike the Parametric Equalizer, the Graphic Equalizer uses preset frequency bands for quick and easy equalization.
You can space frequency bands at the following intervals:
One octave (10 bands)
One-half octave (20 bands)
One-third octave (30 bands)
Graphic equalizers with fewer bands provide quicker adjustment; more bands provide greater precision.
Gain sliders Sets the exact boost or attenuation (measured in decibels) for the chosen band.
Range Defines the range of the slider controls. Enter any value between 1.5 and 120 dB. (By comparison, standard hardware equalizers have a
range of about 12 to 30 dB.)
94
Accuracy Sets the accuracy level for equalization. Higher accuracy levels give better frequency response in the lower ranges, but they require
more processing time. If you equalize only higher frequencies, you can use lower accuracy levels.
If you equalize extremely low frequencies, set Accuracy to between 500 and 5000 points.
Master Gain Compensates for an overall volume level that is too soft or too loud after the EQ settings are adjusted. The default value of 0 dB
represents no master gain adjustment.
Note: The Graphic Equalizer is an FIR (Finite Impulse Response) filter. FIR filters better maintain phase accuracy but have slightly less frequency
accuracy than IIR (Infinite Impulse Response) filters like the Parametric Equalizer.
To the top
Parametric Equalizer effect
The Filter And EQ > Parametric Equalizer effect provides maximum control over tonal equalization. Unlike the Graphic Equalizer, which provides a
fixed number of frequencies and Q bandwidths, the Parametric Equalizer gives you total control over frequency, Q, and gain settings. For example,
you can simultaneously reduce a small range of frequencies centered around 1000 Hz, boost a broad low-frequency shelf centered around 80 Hz,
and insert a 60 Hz notch filter.
The Parametric Equalizer uses second-order IIR (Infinite Impulse Response) filters, which are very fast and provide very accurate frequency
resolution. For example, you can precisely boost a range of 40 to 45 Hz. FIR (Finite Impulse Response) filters like the Graphic Equalizer provide
slightly improved phase accuracy, however.
Master Gain Compensates for an overall volume level that’s too loud or too soft after you adjust the EQ settings.
Graph Shows frequency along the horizontal ruler (x-axis) and amplitude along the vertical ruler (y-axis). Frequencies in the graph range from
lowest to highest in a logarithmic fashion (evenly spaced by octaves).
Identifying band-pass and shelving filters in the Parametric Equalizer:
A. High- and low-pass filters B. High and low shelving filters
Frequency Sets the center frequency for bands 1-5, and the corner frequencies for the band-pass and shelving filters.
Use the low shelving filter to reduce low-end rumble, hum, or other unwanted low-frequency sounds. Use the high shelving filter to reduce hiss,
amplifier noise, and the like.
Gain Sets the boost or attenuation for frequency bands, and the per-octave slope of the band-pass filters.
Q / Width Controls the width of the affected frequency band. Low Q values affect a larger range of frequencies. Very high Q values (close to 100)
affect a very narrow band and are ideal for notch filters removing particular frequencies, like 60 Hz hum.
When a very narrow band is boosted, audio tends to ring or resonate at that frequency. Q values of 1-10 are best for general equalization.
Band Enables up to five intermediate bands, as well as high-pass, low-pass, and shelving filters, giving you very fine control over the equalization
curve. Click the band button to activate the corresponding settings above.
The low and high shelving filters provide slope buttons (
default 6 dB per octave.
,
) that adjust the low and high shelves by 12 dB per octave, rather than the
To visually adjust enabled bands in the graph, drag the related control points.
Constant Q, Constant Width Describes a frequency band’s width as either a Q value (which is a ratio of width to center frequency) or an
95
absolute width value in Hz. Constant Q is the most common setting.
Ultra-Quiet Virtually eliminates noise and artifacts, but requires more processing. This option is audible only on high-end headphones and
monitoring systems.
Range Sets the graph to a 30 dB range for more precise adjustments, or a 96 dB range for more extreme adjustments.
About process effects
Apply individual effects in the Waveform Editor
Applying effects in the Waveform Editor
Twitter™ and Facebook posts are not covered under the terms of Creative Commons.
Legal Notices | Online Privacy Policy
96
Modulation effects
Chorus effect
Chorus/Flanger effect
Flanger effect
Phaser effect
To the top
Chorus effect
The Modulation > Chorus effect simulates several voices or instruments played at once by adding multiple short delays with a small amount of
feedback. The result is lush, rich sound. You can use Chorus to enhance a vocal track or add stereo spaciousness to mono audio.
Adobe Audition uses a direct-simulation method to achieve a chorus effect, making each voice sound distinct from the original by slightly varying
timing, intonation, and vibrato. The Feedback setting lets you add extra detail to the result.
To achieve the best results with mono files, convert them to stereo before applying the Chorus effect.
Characteristics Represent the characteristics of each voice in the chorus.
Voices Determines the number of simulated voices.
Note: As you add more voices, the sound becomes richer and richer —but processing time also increases.
Delay Time Specifies the maximum amount of delay allowed. Chorusing introduces short delays (often in the 15-35 millisecond range)
that vary in duration over time. If the setting is very small, all the voices start merging into the original, and an unnatural flanging effect
might occur. If the setting is too high, a warbled effect might occur, like a tape being eaten by a cassette deck.
Delay Rate Determines how quickly the delay cycles from zero to the maximum delay setting. Because the delay varies over time, the
pitch of the sample increases or decreases over time, giving the effect of separate, slightly out of tune voices. For example, a rate of 2 Hz
would vary the delay from zero to the maximum and back twice per second (simulating a pitch vibrato at twice per second). If this setting is
too low, the individual voices don’t vary much in pitch. If it is set too high, the voices may vary so quickly that a warbled effect might occur.
Feedback Adds a percentage of processed voices back into the effect input. Feedback can give a waveform an extra echo or reverb
effect. A little feedback (less than 10%) can provide extra richness, depending on the delay and vibrato settings. Higher settings produce
more traditional feedback, a loud ringing which can get loud enough to clip the signal.
Spread Gives an added delay to each voice, separating them in time by as much as 200 milliseconds (1/5th of a second). High values
cause the separate voices to start at different times—the higher the value, the farther apart the onset of each voice may be. In contrast,
low values cause all voices to be in unison. Depending on other settings, low values can also produce flanging effects, which may be
undesirable if your goal is a realistic chorus effect.
Modulation Depth Determines the maximum variation in amplitude that occurs. For example, you can alter the amplitude of a chorused
voice so that it is 5 dB louder or quieter than the original. At extremely high settings, the sound may cut in and out, creating an
objectionable warble. At extremely low settings (less than 1 dB), the depth may be unnoticeable unless the Modulation Rate is set
extremely high. Natural vibratos occur around 2 dB to 5 dB.
Note that this setting is a maximum only; the vibrato volume might not always go as low as the setting indicates. This limitation is
intentional, as it creates a more natural sound.
Modulation Rate Determines the maximum rate at which amplitude changes occur. With very low values, the resulting voice slowly gets
louder and quieter, like a singer that cannot keep his or her breath steady. With very high settings, the result can be jittery and unnatural.
Highest Quality Ensures the best quality results. Increasing the quality, however, increases the processing time for previewing and
applying the effect.
Stereo Width Determines where the individual voices are placed in the stereo field and how the original stereo signal is interpreted. These
options are active only when you work with stereo files:
Average Left & Right Channel Input Combines the original left and right channels. If deselected, the channels are kept separate to
97
preserve the stereo image. Leave this option deselected if the stereo source audio was originally monophonic—it won’t have any effect
other than increasing processing time.
Add Binaural Cues Adds separate delays to the left and right outputs of each voice. This delay can make each voice seem to come from
a different direction when you listen through headphones. For greater stereo separation, deselect this option for audio that will be played
through standard speakers .
Stereo Field Specifies where chorused voices are placed across the left and right stereo image. At lower settings, voices are closer to
the center of the stereo image. At a setting of 50%, voices are spaced evenly from left to right. At higher settings, voices move to the outer
edges. If you use an odd number of voices, one is always directly in the center.
Output Level Sets the ratio of original (Dry) signal to chorused (Wet) signal. Extremely high settings may cause clipping.
In the Multitrack Editor, you can vary the Wet level over time with automation lanes. (See Automating track settings.)This technique is handy for
emphasizing vocal or instrumental solos.
To the top
Chorus/Flanger effect
The Modulation > Chorus/Flanger effect combines two popular delay-based effects. The Chorus option simulates several voices or instruments
played at once by adding multiple short delays with a small amount of feedback. The result is lush, rich sound. Use this effect to enhance vocal
tracks or add stereo spaciousness to mono audio.
The Flanger option creates a psychedelic, phase-shifted sound by mixing a varying, short delay with the original signal. This effect was originally
created by sending an identical audio signal to two reel-to-reel tape recorders, and periodically pressing the flange of one reel to slow it down.
Chorus Simulates several voices or instruments playing at once.
Flanger Simulates the delayed, phase-shifted sound originally heard in psychedelic music.
Speed Controls the rate at which the delay time cycles from zero to the maximum setting.
Width Specifies the maximum amount of delay.
Intensity Controls the ratio of original to processed audio.
Transience Emphasizes transients, giving them a sharper, more distinct sound.
To the top
Flanger effect
Flanging is an audio effect caused by mixing a varying, short delay in roughly equal proportion to the original signal. It was originally achieved by
sending an identical audio signal to two reel-to-reel tape recorders, and then pressing the flange of one reel to slow it down. Combining the two
resulting recordings produced a phase-shifted, time-delay effect, characteristic of psychedelic music of the 1960s and 1970s. The Modulation >
Flanger effect lets you create a similar result by slightly delaying and phasing a signal at specific or random intervals.
Initial Delay Time Sets the point in milliseconds at which flanging starts behind the original signal. The flanging effect occurs by cycling over time
from an initial delay setting to a second (or final) delay setting.
98
Final Delay Time Sets the point in milliseconds at which flanging ends behind the original signal.
Stereo Phasing Sets the left and right delays at separate values, measured in degrees. For example, 180° sets the initial delay of the right
channel to occur at the same time as the final delay of the left channel. You can set this option to reverse the initial/final delay settings for the left
and right channels, creating a circular, psychedelic effect.
Feedback Determines the percentage of the flanged signal that is fed back into the flanger. With no feedback, the effect uses only the original
signal. With feedback added, the effect uses a percentage of the affected signal from before the current point of playback.
Modulation Rate Determines how quickly the delay cycles from the initial to final delay times, measured either in cycles per second (Hz) or beats
per minute (beats). Small setting adjustments produce widely varying effects.
Mode Provides three ways of flanging:
Inverted Inverts the delayed signal, cancelling out audio periodically instead of reinforcing the signal. If the Original - Expanded mix
settings are set at 50/50, the waves cancel out to silence whenever the delay is at zero.
Special Effects Mixes the normal and inverted flanging effects. The delayed signal is added to the effect while the leading signal is
subtracted.
Sinusoidal Makes the transition from initial delay to final delay and back follow a sine curve. Otherwise, the transition is linear, and the
delays from the initial setting to the final setting are at a constant rate. If Sinusoidal is selected, the signal is at the initial and final delays
more often than it is between delays.
Mix Adjusts the mix of original (Dry) and flanged (Wet) signal. You need some of both signals to achieve the characteristic cancellation and
reinforcement that occurs during flanging. With Original at 100%, no flanging occurs at all. With Delayed at 100%, the result is a wavering sound,
like a bad tape player.
To the top
Phaser effect
Similar to flanging, phasing shifts the phase of an audio signal and recombines it with the original, creating psychedelic effects first popularized by
musicians of the 1960s. But unlike the Flanger effect, which uses variable delays, the Modulation > Phaser effect sweeps a series of phaseshifting filters to and from an upper frequency. Phasing can dramatically alter the stereo image, creating unearthly sounds.
Stages Specifies the number of phase-shifting filters. A higher setting produces denser phasing effects.
Intensity Determines the amount of phase-shifting applied to the signal.
Depth Determines how far the filters travel below the upper frequency. Larger settings produce a wider tremolo effect; 100% sweeps from the
upper frequency to zero Hz.
Mod Rate Modulation rate controls how fast the filters travel to and from the upper frequency. Specify a value in Hz (cycles per second).
Phase Diff Determines the phase difference between stereo channels. Positive values start phase shifts in the left channel, negative values in the
right. The maximum values of +180 and -180 degrees produce a complete difference and are sonically identical.
Upper Freq Sets the upper-most frequency from which the filters sweep. To produce the most dramatic results, select a frequency near the
middle of the selected audio’s range.
Feedback Feeds a percentage of the phaser output back to the input, intensifying the effect. Negative values invert phase before feeding audio
back.
Mix Controls the ratio of original to processed audio.
Output Gain Adjusts the output level after processing.
Applying effects in the Waveform Editor
Twitter™ and Facebook posts are not covered under the terms of Creative Commons.
Legal Notices | Online Privacy Policy
99
Special effects
Distortion effect
Guitar Suite effect
Mastering effect
Vocal Enhancer effect
Note: Special effects require mono or stereo audio; they do not support 5.1 surround.
To the top
Distortion effect
Use the Special > Distortion effect to simulate blown car speakers, muffled microphones, or overdriven amplifiers.
Link
Creates identical curves in the Positive and Negative graphs.
Positive and Negative graphs Specify separate distortion curves for positive and negative sample values. The horizontal ruler (x-axis) indicates
input level in decibels; the vertical ruler (y-axis) indicates output level. The default diagonal line depicts an undistorted signal, with a one-to-one
relationship between input and output values.
Click and drag to create and adjust points on the graphs. Drag points off a graph to remove them.
To copy one graph to another, click the arrow buttons between them.
Reset
Returns a graph to its default, undistorted state.
Curve Smoothing Creates curved transitions between control points, sometimes producing a more natural distortion than the default linear
transitions.
Time Smoothing Determines how quickly distortion reacts to changes in input levels. Level measurements are based on low-frequency content,
creating softer, more musical distortion.
dB Range Changes the amplitude range of the graphs, limiting distortion to that range.
Linear Scale Changes the amplitude scales of the graphs from logarithmic decibels to normalized values.
Post-filter DC Offset Compensates for any sample offset introduced by distortion processing. To understand this concept, see Correct DC offset.
Such offsets can cause audible pops and clicks when edited.
To the top
Guitar Suite effect
The Special > Guitar Suite effect applies a series of processors that optimize and alter the sound of guitar tracks. The Compressor stage reduces
dynamic range, producing a tighter sound with greater impact. Filter, Distortion, and Box Modeler stages simulate common effects that guitarists
use to create expressive, artistic performances.
Apply the Guitar Suite to vocals, drums, or other audio to create textured effects.
Compressor Reduces dynamic range to maintain consistent amplitude and help guitar tracks stand out in a mix.
Filter Simulates guitar filters ranging from resonators to talk boxes. Choose an option from this menu, and then set options below:
Type Determines which frequencies are filtered. Specify Lowpass to filter high frequencies, Highpass to filter low frequencies, or
Bandpass to filter frequencies above and below a center frequency.
Freq Determines the cutoff frequency for Lowpass and Highpass filtering, or the center frequency for Bandpass filtering.
Resonance Feeds back frequencies near the cutoff frequency, adding crispness with low settings and whistling harmonics with high
settings.
Distortion Adds a sonic edge often heard in guitar solos. To change the distortion character, choose an option from the Type menu.
Amplifier Simulates various amplifier and speaker combinations that guitarists use to create unique tones.
100
Mix Controls the ratio of original to processed audio.
To the top
Mastering effect
Mastering describes the complete process of optimizing audio files for a particular medium, such as radio, video, CD, or the web. In Adobe
Audition, you can quickly master audio with the Special > Mastering effect.
Before mastering audio, consider the requirements of the destination medium. If the destination is the web, for example, the file will likely be
played over computer speakers that poorly reproduce bass sounds. To compensate, you can boost bass frequencies during the equalization stage
of the mastering process.
Equalizer Adjusts the overall tonal balance.
Graph Shows frequency along the horizontal ruler (x-axis) and amplitude along the vertical ruler (y-axis), with the curve representing the
amplitude change at specific frequencies. Frequencies in the graph range from lowest to highest in a logarithmic fashion (evenly spaced by
octaves).
Drag control points in the graph to visually adjust the settings below.
Low Shelf and High Shelf Enable Activate shelving filters at either end of the frequency spectrum.
Peaking Enable Activates a peaking filter in the center of the frequency spectrum.
Hz Indicates the center frequency of each frequency band.
dB Indicates the level of each frequency band.
Q Controls the width of the affected frequency band. Low Q values (up to 3) affect a larger range of frequencies and are best for overall
audio enhancement. High Q values (6–12) affect a very narrow band and are ideal for removing a particular, problematic frequency, like
60-Hz hum.
Reverb Adds ambience. Drag the Amount slider to change the ratio of original to reverberant sound.
Exciter Exaggerates high-frequency harmonics, adding crispness and clarity. Mode options include Retro for light distortion, Tape for bright tone,
and Tube for quick, dynamic response. Drag the Amount slider to adjust the level of processing.
Widener Adjusts the stereo image (disabled for mono audio). Drag the Width slider to the left to narrow the image and increase central focus.
Drag the slider to the right to expand the image and enhance spatial placement of individual sounds.
Loudness Maximizer Applies a limiter that reduces dynamic range, boosting perceived levels. A setting of 0% reflects original levels; 100%
applies maximum limiting.
Output Gain Determines output levels after processing. For example, to compensate for EQ adjustments that reduce overall level, boost the
output gain.
To the top
Vocal Enhancer effect
The Special > Vocal Enhancer effect quickly improves the quality of voice-over recordings. The Male and Female modes automatically reduce
sibilance and plosives, as well as microphone handling noise such as low rumbles. Those modes also apply microphone modeling and
compression to give vocals a characteristic radio sound. The Music mode optimizes soundtracks so they better complement a voice-over.
Male Optimizes audio for a man’s voice.
Female Optimizes audio for a woman’s voice.
Music Applies compression and equalization to music or background audio.
Applying effects in the Waveform Editor
Techniques for restoring audio
Match volume across multiple files
Twitter™ and Facebook posts are not covered under the terms of Creative Commons.
Legal Notices | Online Privacy Policy
101
Stereo imagery effects
Center Channel Extractor effect
Graphic Phase Shifter effect | CS6
Some effects let you change the apparent location, or stereo imagery, of sounds coming from the speakers.
To the top
Center Channel Extractor effect
The Stereo Imagery > Center Channel Extractor effect keeps or removes frequencies that are common to both the left and right channels—in
other words, sounds that are panned center. Often voice, bass, and lead instruments are recorded this way. As a result, you can use this effect to
bring up the volume of vocals, bass, or kick drum, or you can remove any of them to create a karaoke mix.
Extraction tab Limits extraction to audio that meets certain properties.
Extract Either select audio in the Center, Left, Right, or Surround channel, or select Custom and specify the precise phase degree, pan
percentage, and delay time for audio you want to extract or remove. (The Surround option extracts audio that is perfectly out of phase
between the left and right channels.)
Frequency Range Sets the range you want to extract or remove. Predefined ranges include Male Voice, Female Voice, Bass, and Full
Spectrum. Select Custom to define a frequency range.
Discrimination tab Includes settings that help identify the center channel.
Crossover Bleed Move the slider to the left to increase audio bleed through and make the sound less artificial. Move the slider to the
right to further separate center channel material from the mix.
Phase Discrimination In general, higher numbers work better for extracting the center channel, while lower values work better for
removing the center channel. Lower values allow more bleed through and may not effectively separate vocals from a mix, but they may be
more effective at capturing all the center material. In general, a range from 2 to 7 works well.
Amplitude Discrimination and Amplitude Bandwidth Sum the left and right channels, and create a perfectly out-of-phase third channel
that Audition uses to remove similar frequencies. If the amplitude at each frequency is similar, in-phase audio common to both channels is
also considered. Lower values for Amplitude Discrimination and Amplitude Bandwidth cut more material from the mix, but may also cut out
vocals. Higher values make the extraction depend more on the phase of the material and the less on the channel amplitude. Amplitude
Discrimination settings between 0.5 and 10 and Amplitude Bandwidth settings between 1 and 20 work well.
Spectral Decay Rate Keep at 0% for faster processing. Set between 80% and 98% to smooth out background distortions.
Center and Side Channel Levels Specifies how much of the selected signal you want to extract or remove. Move the sliders up to include
additional material.
Advanced options Click the triangle to access these settings:
FFT Size Specifies the Fast Fourier Transform size, with low settings improving processing speed, and high settings improving quality. In
general, settings between 4096 and 8192 work best.
Overlays Defines the number of FFT windows that overlap. Higher values can produce smoother results or a chorus-like effect, but they
take longer to process. Lower values can produce bubbly-sounding background noises. Values of 3 to 9 work well.
Window Width Specifies the percentage of each FFT window. Values of 30% to 100% work well.
To the top
Graphic Phase Shifter effect | CS6
The Stereo Imagery > Graphic Phase Shifter effect lets you adjust the phase of a waveform by adding control points to a graph.
Right-click points to access the Edit Point dialog box for precise, numerical control.
Phase shift graph The horizontal ruler (x-axis) measures frequency, while the vertical ruler (y-axis) displays the degree of phase to shift, where
zero is no phase shift. You can create simulated stereo by creating a zigzag pattern that gets more extreme at the high end on one channel.
Frequency Scale Sets the values of the horizontal ruler (x-axis) on a linear or logarithmic scale. Select Logarithmic to work at finer detail in the
lower frequencies. (The logarithmic scale better reflects the frequency-emphasis of human hearing.) Select Linear to work at finer detail in the
102
higher frequencies.
Range Sets the values of the vertical ruler (y-axis) on a 360° or 180° scale.
Channel Specifies the channel(s) to apply the phase shift to.
Note: Process a single channel for the best results. If you apply identical phase shift to two stereo channels, the resulting file sounds exactly the
same.
FFT Size Specifies the Fast Fourier Transform size. Higher sizes create more precise results, but they take longer to process.
Adobe also recommends
Applying effects in the Multitrack Editor
Use effect presets
Twitter™ and Facebook posts are not covered under the terms of Creative Commons.
Legal Notices | Online Privacy Policy
103
Time and pitch manipulation effects
Automatic Pitch Correction effect | CS6
Manual Pitch Correction effect | CS6
Stretch and Pitch effect (Waveform Editor only)
To the top
Automatic Pitch Correction effect | CS6
The Automatic Pitch Correction effect is available in both the Waveform and Multitrack editors. In the latter, its parameters can be automated over
time using keyframes and external control surfaces.
Choose Effects > Time and Pitch > Automatic Pitch Correction, and set the following options:
Scale Specifies the scale type that best suits the material: Major, Minor, or Chromatic. Major or Minor correct notes to the specific key of the
music. Chromatic corrects to the nearest note regardless of key.
Key Sets the intended key for corrected material. This option is available only if Scale is set to Major or Minor (because the Chromatic scale
includes all 12 tones and isn’t key-specific).
The combination of scale and key determines the key signature.
Attack Controls how quickly Adobe Audition corrects the pitch toward the scale tone. Faster settings are usually best for notes of short duration,
such as a fast, staccato passage. An extremely fast attack can achieve a robotic quality, however. Slower settings result in more natural-sounding
correction on longer sustaining notes, such as a vocal line where the singer holds notes and adds vibrato. Because source material can change
throughout a musical performance, you can get the best results by separately correcting short musical phrases.
Sensitivity Defines the threshold beyond which notes aren’t corrected. Sensitivity is measured in cents, and there are 100 cents per semitone.
For example, a Sensitivity value of 50 cents means a note must be within 50 cents (half a semitone) of the target scale tone before it is corrected
automatically.
Reference Channel Choose a source channel in which pitch changes are most clear. The effect analyzes only the channel you choose, but
applies the pitch correction equally to all channels.
FFT Size Sets the Fast Fourier Transform size of each pieces of data that the effect processes. In general, use smaller values for correcting
higher frequencies. For voices, a setting of 2048 or 4096 sounds most natural. For short, staccato notes or percussive audio try a setting of 1024.
Calibration Specifies the tuning standard for the source audio. In Western music, the standard is A4 at 440 Hz. Source audio, however, may
have been recorded using a different standard, so you can specify A4 values from 410 to 470 Hz.
Correction meter When you preview audio, displays the amount of correction for flat and sharp tones.
To the top
Manual Pitch Correction effect | CS6
The Manual Pitch Correction effect lets you visually adjust pitch with the Spectral Pitch Display. The Spectral Pitch Display shows the fundamental
pitch as a bright blue line, and overtones in yellow to red hues. Corrected pitch appears as a bright green line.
You can visually monitor pitch at any time, without using the Manual Pitch Correction effect. Simply click the Spectral Pitch Display icon
<<ICON>> in the options bar. To customize resolution, decibel range, and gridlines, adjust Pitch Display settings in the Spectral Displays
preferences.
1. Choose Effects > Time and Pitch > Manual Pitch Correction.
2. In the Manual Pitch Correction window, set the following options:
Reference Channel Choose a source channel in which pitch changes are most clear. The effect analyzes only the channel you choose, but
applies the pitch correction equally to all channels.
104
Spline Curves Create smoother transitions when using envelope keyframes to apply different pitch correction over time.
Pitch Curve Resolution Sets the Fast Fourier Transform size of each piece of data that the effect processes. In general, use smaller
values for correcting higher frequencies. For voices, a setting of 2048 or 4096 sounds most natural, and a setting of 1024 creates robotic
effects.
3. In the Editor panel, do either of the following:
To change pitch uniformly, drag the Adjust Pitch knob <<ICON>> in the heads-up display.
To change pitch over time, add keyframes to the yellow envelope line in the center of the waveform display.
To zoom in on specific pitch ranges, right-click and drag in the vertical ruler to the right of the Spectral Pitch Display. To reset the zoom
level or customize the displayed scale, right-click the ruler and select options from the pop-up menu.
To the top
Stretch and Pitch effect (Waveform Editor only)
The Time And Pitch > Stretch And Pitch effect lets you change the pitch of an audio signal, the tempo, or both. For example, you can use the
effect to transpose a song to a higher key without changing the tempo, or you can use it to slow down a spoken passage without changing the
pitch.
Note: This effect requires offline processing. While it is open, you cannot edit the waveform, adjust selections, or move the current-time indicator.
Algorithm Choose IZotope Radius to simultaneously stretch audio and shift pitch, or Audition to change stretch or pitch settings over time. The
iZotope Radius algorithm requires longer processing but introduces fewer artifacts.
Precision Higher settings produce better quality but require more processing time.
New Duration Indicates how long the audio will be after time-stretching. You can either adjust the New Duration value directly, or indirectly by
changing the Stretch percentage.
If you commonly stretch files to a certain duration, click the Favorite icon to save that setting for future use. To apply a favorite to multiple files,
see Batch process files.
Lock Stretch Settings to New Duration Overrides custom or preset Stretch settings, instead calculating them from duration adjustments.
Select the option above to quickly make radio spots 30 or 60 seconds long.
Stretch Shortens or extends processed audio relative to existing audio. For example, to shrink audio to half its current duration, specify a Stretch
value of 50%.
Pitch Shift Tonally shifts audio up or down. Each semitone equals one half-step on a keyboard.
Final Stretch or Pitch Shift (Audition algorithm) Changes the initial Stretch or Pitch Shift setting over time, reaching the final setting at the last
selected audio sample.
Lock Stretch and Pitch Shift (IZotope algorithm) Stretches audio to reflect pitch changes, or vice versa.
Lock Initial Strech and Pitch Shift (Audition algorithm) Stretches audio to reflect pitch changes, or vice versa. Final Stretch or Pitch Shift
settings are unaffected.
Advanced settings (IZotope Radius algorithm) Click the triangle to access these options:
Solo Instrument Or Voice More quickly processes a solo performance.
Preserve Speech Characteristics Maintains realism in speech.
Formant Shift Determines how formants adjust to pitch shifts. The default value of zero adjusts formants together with pitch shifts,
maintaining timbre and realism. Values above zero produce higher timbres (making a male voice sound female, for example). Values
below zero do the reverse.
Pitch Coherence Maintains timbre of solo instruments or vocals. Higher values reduce phasing artifacts but introduce more pitch
modulation.
105
Advanced settings (Audition algorithm) Click the triangle to access these options:
Splicing Frequency Determines how big each chunk of audio data is when you preserve pitch or tempo while stretching a waveform. The
higher the value, the more precise the placement of stretched audio over time. However, artifacts are more noticeable as rates go up;
sound can become tinny or have a tunnel-like quality. With higher Precision settings, lower splicing frequencies may add stutter or echo.
Overlapping Determines how much each chunk of audio data overlaps with the previous and next ones. If stretching produces a chorus
effect, lower the Overlapping percentage, without going so low that you produce a choppy sound. Overlapping can be as high as 400%,
but you should use this value only for very high speed increases (200% or more).
Choose Appropriate Defaults Applies good default values for Splicing Frequency and Overlapping. This option is good for preserving
pitch or tempo.
Constant Vowels Preserves the sound of vowels in stretched vocals. This option requires substantial processing; try it on a small
selection before applying it to a larger one.
Adobe also recommends
Use effect presets
Twitter™ and Facebook posts are not covered under the terms of Creative Commons.
Legal Notices | Online Privacy Policy
106
Generate tones and noise
Generate Noise | CC
Generate Tones | CS6
To the top
Generate Noise | CC
The Noise command lets you generate random noise in a variety of colors. (Traditionally, color is used to describethe spectral composition of
noise. Each color has its own characteristics.) Generating noise is useful for creating soothing sounds like waterfalls (perfect for use with the
Binaural Auto-Panner function of Adobe Audition) and for generating signals that can be used to check out the frequency response of a speaker,
microphone, or other audiosystem component.
1. Place the cursor where you want to insert the noise. Or, if you want to replace part of the existing waveform, select the desired range of
audio data.
2. Choose Effects > Generate > Noise.
3. Set options as desired, and click OK.
Color Specifies a color for the noise:
Brown noise - Has a spectral frequency of 1/f2, which means, in layman’s terms, that the noise has much more low-frequency content. Its
sounds are thunder- and waterfall-like. Brown noise is so called because, when viewed, the wave follows a Brownian motion curve. That is,
the next sample in the waveform is equal to the previous sample, plus a small random amount. When graphed, this waveform looks like a
mountain range.
Pink noise - Has a spectral frequency of 1/f and is found mostly in nature. It is the most natural sounding of the noises. By equalizing the
sounds, you can generate rainfall, waterfalls, wind, rushing river, and other natural sounds. Pink noise is exactly between brown and white
noise (hence, some people used to call it tan noise). It is neither random nor predictable; it is fractal-like when viewed. When zoomed in, the
pattern looks identical to when zoomed
out, except at a lower amplitude.
White noise - Has a spectral frequency of 1, meaning that equal proportions of all frequencies are present. Because the human ear is more
susceptible to high frequencies, white noise sounds very hissy. Adobe Audition generates white noise by choosing random values for each
sample.
Style Specifies a style for the noise:
Spatial Stereo - Generates noise by using three unique noise sources and spatially encoding them to seem as if one comes from the left,
one from the center, and one from the right. When you listen to the result with stereo headphones, your mind perceives sound coming from
all around. To specify the distance from center of the left and right noise sources, enter a delay value in microseconds. About 900 to 1000
microseconds correspond to the maximum delay perceivable. A delay of zero is identical to monaural noise, where left and right channels
are the same.
Independent Channels - Generates noise by using two unique noise sources, one for each channel. The left channel’s noise is completely
independent of the right channel’s noise.
Mono - Generates noise by using a single noise source, with the left and right channels set equally to that source.
Inverse - Generates noise by using a single noise source (similar to the Mono option). However, the left channel’s noise is exactly inverse of
the right channel’s noise. When you listen to the result with stereo headphones, your mind perceives sound coming from within your head
instead of from somewhere externally.
Intensity Specifies the intensity of the noise on a scale of 2 to 40. At higher intensities, the noise becomes more erratic and sounds harsher and
louder.
DC Offset Adds a constant DC (Direct Current) amplitude to the tone, centering the waveform by shifting it up or down by the specified
percentage.
Duration Determines the number of seconds of noise that Adobe Audition generates.
To the top
Generate Tones | CS6
Choose Effects > Generate Tones to create a simple waveform using several amplitude- and frequency-related settings. Generated tones are
great starting points for sound effects.
Sweep Frequencies Transitions tones from settings on Start tab to those on End tab. (Waveform remains constant.)
107
Base frequency Specifies the main frequency to be used for generating tones.
Modulation Depth Modulates pitch of the base frequency over a user-defined range. For example, a 100 Hz setting modulates the original
frequency from 50 Hz below to 50 Hz above.
Modulation Rate Specifies how many times per second the frequency modulates, producing a warbling, vibrato effect.
Waveform Choose one of the following:
Sine and Inverse Sine produce the fundamental frequency. A Type setting of 1.00 produces pure tones; lower settings produce more square
waves; higher settings more triangular.
Triangle/Sawtooth produces a true triangle waveform with only odd harmonics at a Type setting of 50%. Settings above and below that
percentage produce Sawtooth waveforms with both odd and even harmonics.
Square produces only odd harmonics. A true square wave occurs with a Type setting of 50%. Settings above and below adjust the duty cycle
of the waveform between a flat peak at 100% and a flat trough at 0%. (The outer extremes produce only an audible click.)
Frequency Components Adds up to five overtones to the fundamental frequency (Base Frequency). Below the sliders, enter either a specific
frequency for each overtone, or specify a multiplier of the fundamental. Then, use the Amplitude sliders to mix overtones in proportion to one
another.
Volume Specifies the overall output of the effect.
Duration Specifies the length of the generated tone in the format currently specified for the time ruler. Right-click the numbers to choose a
separate time format for Generate Tones.
To access the following options, click Advanced:
Start Phase At Specifies the starting location in the waveform cycle. If set to 0°, waves will start at the zero-crossing point. If set to 90°, the wave
will start at full amplitude (generating a noticeable click).
2nd Channel Phase Difference Adjusts the relative phase of stereo channels. A value of zero places the channels completely in phase and 180
places them completely out of phase.
Change Speed Dynamically changes the relative phase between the two channels of a stereo audio file over time. For example, if you enter 1 Hz,
the phase difference will cycle through 360° each second.
DC Offset Adds a Direct Current offset, shifting the center of the waveform up or down by the specified percentage. Use this adjustment to
calibrate audio hardware or simulate hardware-induced offset.
With Selected Audio Choose from the following:
Replace: Swaps existing audio with generated tones.
Modulate: Ring modulates, or multiplies, existing audio with current tone settings. This option is great for adding special effects.
Demodulate: Ring demodulates existing audio with current tone settings. Use this option to create unique effects or revert audio previously
processed with the Modulate option to its original state.
Overlap: Mixes the generated tones with existing audio.
Twitter™ and Facebook posts are not covered under the terms of Creative Commons.
Legal Notices | Online Privacy Policy
108
Fade and Gain Envelope effects | CC, CS6 (Waveform Editor only)
The Amplitude and Compression > Fade and Gain Envelope effects function similarly but modify audio differently:
Choose Fade Envelope to reduce amplitude by varying amounts over time.
Choose Gain Envelope to boost or reduce amplitude over time.
In the Editor panel, click the yellow envelope line to add keyframes, and drag them up or down to change amplitude. To quickly select, reposition,
or delete multiple keyframes, see Adjust automation with keyframes.
Select the Spline Curves option to create smoother, curved transitions between keyframes, rather than linear transitions. See About spline
curves for graphs.
Twitter™ and Facebook posts are not covered under the terms of Creative Commons.
Legal Notices | Online Privacy Policy
109
Doppler Shifter effect | CC, CS6 (Waveform Editor only)
The Special > Doppler Shifter effect creates the increase and decrease in pitch we notice when an object approaches and then passes us, such
as when a police car passes with its siren on. When the car comes toward you, the sound reaches your ears as a higher frequency because each
sound wave is compressed by the car moving forward. The opposite happens as the car passes by; the waves are stretched out, resulting in a
lower-pitched sound.
Note: Unlike many graphs in Adobe Audition effects, the Doppler Shifter graph is noninteractive: You can’t directly manipulate the graph. Instead,
the graph changes as you adjust the effect’s parameters.
Path Type Defines which path the sound source appears to take. Depending on the path type, a different set of options is available.
Straight Line options:
Starting Distance Away sets the virtual starting point (in meters) of the effect.
Velocity defines the virtual speed (in meters per second) at which the effect moves.
Coming From sets the virtual direction (in degrees) from where the effect appears to come.
Passes In Front By specifies how far (in meters) the effect seems to pass in front of the listener.
Passes On Right By specifies how far (in meters) the effect seems to pass to the right of the listener.
Circular options:
Radius sets the circular dimensions (in meters) of the effect.
Velocity defines the virtual speed (in meters per second) at which the effect moves.
Starting Angle sets the beginning virtual angle (in degrees) of the effect.
Center In Front By specifies how far (in meters) the sound source is from the front of the listener.
Center On Right By specifies how far (in meters) the sound source is from the right of the listener.
Adjust Volume Based on Distance or Direction Automatically adjusts the effect’s volume based on the values specified.
Quality Level Provides six different levels of processing quality. Lower quality levels require less processing time, but higher quality levels
generally produce better sounding results.
Twitter™ and Facebook posts are not covered under the terms of Creative Commons.
Legal Notices | Online Privacy Policy
110
Graphic Phase Shifter effect | CC, CS6
The Stereo Imagery > Graphic Phase Shifter effect lets you adjust the phase of a waveform by adding control points to a graph.
Right-click points to access the Edit Point dialog box for precise, numerical control.
Phase shift graph The horizontal ruler (x-axis) measures frequency, while the vertical ruler (y-axis) displays the degree of phase to shift, where
zero is no phase shift. You can create simulated stereo by creating a zigzag pattern that gets more extreme at the high end on one channel.
Frequency Scale Sets the values of the horizontal ruler (x-axis) on a linear or logarithmic scale. Select Logarithmic to work at finer detail in the
lower frequencies. (The logarithmic scale better reflects the frequency-emphasis of human hearing.) Select Linear to work at finer detail in the
higher frequencies.
Range Sets the values of the vertical ruler (y-axis) on a 360° or 180° scale.
Channel Specifies the channel(s) to apply the phase shift to.
Note: Process a single channel for the best results. If you apply identical phase shift to two stereo channels, the resulting file sounds exactly the
same.
FFT Size Specifies the Fast Fourier Transform size. Higher sizes create more precise results, but they take longer to process.
Twitter™ and Facebook posts are not covered under the terms of Creative Commons.
Legal Notices | Online Privacy Policy
111
Notch Filter effect | CC, CS6
The Filter and EQ > Notch Filter effect removes up to six user-defined frequency bands. Use this effect to remove very narrow frequency bands,
such as a 60 Hz hum, while leaving all surrounding frequencies untouched.
To remove shrill “ess” sounds, use the Sibilance Softener preset. Or use DTMF presets to remove standard tones for analog telephone
systems.
Frequency Specifies the center frequency for each notch.
Gain Specifies the amplitude for each notch.
Notch width Determines frequency range for all notches. The three options range from Narrow for a second order filter, which removes some
adjacent frequencies, to Super Narrow for a sixth order filter, which is very specific.
Generally, use no more than 30 dB of attenuation for a Narrow setting, 60 dB for Very Narrow, and 90 dB for Super Narrow. Greater
attenuation can remove a wide range of neighboring frequencies.
Ultra-Quiet Virtually eliminates noise and artifacts, but requires more processing. This option is audible only on high-end headphones and
monitoring systems.
Fix Attenuations To Determines if notches have equal or individual attenuation levels.
Twitter™ and Facebook posts are not covered under the terms of Creative Commons.
Legal Notices | Online Privacy Policy
112
Manual Pitch Correction effect | CC, CS6 (Waveform Editor only)
The Manual Pitch Correction effect lets you visually adjust pitch with the Spectral Pitch Display. The Spectral Pitch Display shows the fundamental
pitch as a bright blue line, and overtones in yellow to red hues. Corrected pitch appears as a bright green line.
You can visually monitor pitch at any time, without using the Manual Pitch Correction effect. Simply click the Spectral Pitch Display icon in the
options bar. To customize resolution, decibel range, and gridlines, adjust Pitch Display settings in the Spectral Displays preferences.
1. Choose Effects > Time and Pitch > Manual Pitch Correction.
2. In the Manual Pitch Correction window, set the following options:
Reference Channel Choose a source channel in which pitch changes are most clear. The effect analyzes only the channel you choose, but
applies the pitch correction equally to all channels.
Spline Curves Create smoother transitions when using envelope keyframes to apply different pitch correction over time.
Pitch Curve Resolution Sets the Fast Fourier Transform size of each piece of data that the effect processes. In general, use smaller
values for correcting higher frequencies. For voices, a setting of 2048 or 4096 sounds most natural, and a setting of 1024 creates robotic
effects.
3. In the Editor panel, do either of the following:
To change pitch uniformly, drag the Adjust Pitch knob in the heads-up display.
To change pitch over time, add keyframes to the yellow envelope line in the center of the waveform display.
To zoom in on specific pitch ranges, right-click and drag in the vertical ruler to the right of the Spectral Pitch Display. To reset the zoom
level or customize the displayed scale, right-click the ruler and select options from the pop-up menu.
Twitter™ and Facebook posts are not covered under the terms of Creative Commons.
Legal Notices | Online Privacy Policy
113
Automatic Pitch Correction effect | CC, CS6
Automatic Pitch Correction effect
The Automatic Pitch Correction effect is available in both the Waveform and Multitrack editors. In the latter, its parameters can be automated over
time using keyframes and external control surfaces.
Choose Effects > Time and Pitch > Automatic Pitch Correction, and set the following options:
Scale Specifies the scale type that best suits the material: Major, Minor, or Chromatic. Major or Minor correct notes to the specific key of the
music. Chromatic corrects to the nearest note regardless of key.
Key Sets the intended key for corrected material. This option is available only if Scale is set to Major or Minor (because the Chromatic scale
includes all 12 tones and isn’t key-specific).
The combination of scale and key determines the key signature.
Attack Controls how quickly Adobe Audition corrects the pitch toward the scale tone. Faster settings are usually best for notes of short duration,
such as a fast, staccato passage. An extremely fast attack can achieve a robotic quality, however. Slower settings result in more natural-sounding
correction on longer sustaining notes, such as a vocal line where the singer holds notes and adds vibrato. Because source material can change
throughout a musical performance, you can get the best results by separately correcting short musical phrases.
Sensitivity Defines the threshold beyond which notes aren’t corrected. Sensitivity is measured in cents, and there are 100 cents per semitone.
For example, a Sensitivity value of 50 cents means a note must be within 50 cents (half a semitone) of the target scale tone before it is corrected
automatically.
Reference Channel Choose a source channel in which pitch changes are most clear. The effect analyzes only the channel you choose, but
applies the pitch correction equally to all channels.
FFT Size Sets the Fast Fourier Transform size of each pieces of data that the effect processes. In general, use smaller values for correcting
higher frequencies. For voices, a setting of 2048 or 4096 sounds most natural. For short, staccato notes or percussive audio try a setting of 1024.
Calibration Specifies the tuning standard for the source audio. In Western music, the standard is A4 at 440 Hz. Source audio, however, may
have been recorded using a different standard, so you can specify A4 values from 410 to 470 Hz.
Correction meter When you preview audio, displays the amount of correction for flat and sharp tones.
Twitter™ and Facebook posts are not covered under the terms of Creative Commons.
Legal Notices | Online Privacy Policy
114
Amplitude and compression effects
Amplify effect
Channel Mixer effect
DeEsser effect
Dynamics Processing effect
Hard Limiter effect
Multiband Compressor effect
Normalize effect (Waveform Editor only)
Single-band Compressor effect
Speech Volume Leveler effect
Tube-modeled Compressor effect
Volume Envelope effect (CS5.5 Waveform Editor only)
To the top
Amplify effect
The Amplitude And Compression > Amplify effect boosts or attenuates an audio signal. Because the effect operates in real time, you can combine
it with other effects in the Effects Rack.
Gain sliders Boost or attenuate individual audio channels.
Link Sliders Moves the channel sliders together.
To the top
Channel Mixer effect
The Amplitude and Compression > Channel Mixer effect alters the balance of stereo or surround channels, letting you change the apparent
position of sounds, correct mismatched levels, or address phasing issues.
Channel tabs Select the output channel.
Input channel sliders Determine the percentage of the current channels to mix into the output channel. For a stereo file, for example, an L value
of 50 and an R value of 50 results in an output channel that contains equal audio from the current left and right channels.
Invert Inverts a channel’s phase. (To understand this key audio concept, see How sound waves interact.) Inverting all channels causes no
perceived difference in sound. Inverting only one channel, however, can greatly change the sound.
To the top
DeEsser effect
The Amplitude and Compression > DeEsser effect removes sibilance, “ess” sounds heard in speech and singing that can distort high frequencies.
The graph reveals the processed frequencies. Click the Preview button
to see how much audio content exists in the processed range.
Mode Choose Broadband to uniformly compress all frequencies or Multiband to only compress the sibilance range. Multiband is best for most
audio content but slightly increases processing time.
Threshold Sets the amplitude above which compression occurs.
Center Frequency Specifies the frequency at which sibilance is most intense. To verify, adjust this setting while playing audio.
Bandwidth Determines the frequency range that triggers the compressor.
To visually adjust Center Frequency and Bandwidth, drag the edges of the selection in the graph.
Output Sibilance Only Lets you hear detected sibilance. Start playback, and fine-tune settings above.
Gain Reduction Shows the compression level of the processed frequencies.
To the top
Dynamics Processing effect
The Amplitude And Compression > Dynamics Processing effect can be used as a compressor, limiter, or expander. As a compressor and limiter,
this effect reduces dynamic range, producing consistent volume levels. As an expander, it increases dynamic range by reducing the level of
low-level signals. (With extreme expander settings, you can create a noise gate that totally eliminates noise below a specific amplitude threshold.)
The Dynamics Processing effect can produce subtle changes that you notice only after repeated listening. When applying this effect in the
Waveform Editor, use a copy of the original file so you can return to the original audio if necessary.
Use the Broadcast Limiter preset to simulate the processed sound of a contemporary radio station.
115
Dynamics tab
Graph Depicts input level along the horizontal ruler (x-axis) and the new output level along the vertical ruler (y-axis). The default graph, with a
straight line from the lower left to the upper right, depicts a signal that has been left untouched; every input level has the same output level.
Adjusting the graph changes the relationship between input and output levels, altering dynamic range.
For example, if a desirable sonic element occurs around -20 dB, you can boost the input signal at that level, but leave everything else unchanged.
You can also draw an inverse line (from the upper left to the lower right) that will dramatically boost quiet sounds and suppress loud ones.
Add point
Adds control point in graph using numerical input and output levels you specify. This method is more precise than clicking the
graph to add points.
To numerically adjust an existing control point, right-click it, and choose Edit Point.
Delete point
Removes selected point from the graph.
Invert
Flips the graph, converting compression into expansion, or vice versa.
Note: You can invert a graph only if it has points in the two default corners (-100, -100 and 0, 0) and if its output level increases from left to right
(that is, each control point must be higher than the one to its left).
Reset
Resets the graph to its default state.
Spline Curves creates smoother, curved transitions between control points, rather than more abrupt, linear transitions. (See About spline curves
for graphs.)
Make-Up Gain Boosts the processed signal.
Settings tab
General Provides overall settings.
Look-Ahead Time Addresses transient spikes that can occur at the onset of extremely loud signals that extend beyond the compressor’s
Attack Time settings. Extending Look-Ahead Time causes compression to attack before the audio gets loud, ensuring that amplitude never
exceeds a certain level. Conversely, reducing Look-Ahead Time may be desirable to enhance the impact of percussive music like drum
hits.
Noise Gating Completely silences signals that are expanded below a 50-to-1 ratio.
Level Detector Determines the original input amplitude.
Input Gain Applies gain to the signal before it enters the Level Detector.
Attack Time Determines how many milliseconds it takes for the input signal to register a changed amplitude level. For example, if audio
suddenly drops 30 dB, the specified attack time passes before the input registers an amplitude change. This avoids erroneous amplitude
readings due to temporary changes.
Release Time Determines how many milliseconds the current amplitude level is maintained before another amplitude change can
register.
Use fast attack and release settings for audio with fast transients, and slower settings for less percussive audio.
Peak mode Determines levels based on amplitude peaks. This mode is a bit more difficult to use than RMS, because peaks aren’t
precisely reflected in the Dynamics graph. However, it can be helpful when audio has loud transient peaks you want to subdue.
RMS mode Determines levels based on the root-mean-square formula, an averaging method that more closely matches the way people
perceive volume. This mode precisely reflects amplitudes in the Dynamics graph. For example, a limiter (flat horizontal line) at -10 dB
reflects an average RMS amplitude of -10 dB.
Gain Processor Amplifies or attenuates the signal depending on the amplitude detected.
Output Gain Applies gain to the output signal after all dynamics processing.
Attack Time Determines how many milliseconds it takes for the output signal to reach the specified level. For example, if audio suddenly
drops 30 dB, the specified attack time passes before the output level changes.
Release Time Determines how many milliseconds the current output level is maintained.
Note: If the sum of Attack and Release times is too short (less than about 30 milliseconds), audible artifacts can be heard. To see good
attack and release times for different types of audio content, choose various options from the Presets menu.
Link Channels Processes all channels equally, preserving the stereo or surround balance. For example, a compressed drum beat on the
left channel will reduce the right channel level by an equal amount.
Band Limiting Restricts dynamics processing to a specific frequency range.
Low Cutoff Is the lowest frequency that dynamics processing affects.
High Cutoff Is the highest frequency that dynamics processing affects.
To the top
Hard Limiter effect
The Amplitude And Compression > Hard Limiter effect greatly attenuates audio that rises above a specified threshold. Typically, limiting is applied
with an input boost, a technique that increases overall volume while avoiding distortion.
Maximum Amplitude Sets the maximum sample amplitude allowed.
To avoid clipping when working with 16-bit audio, set this value to no more than -0.3 dB. If you set it even lower, to -3 dB, you’ll have a little
116
more clearance for any future edits.
Input Boost Preamplifies audio before you limit it, making a selection louder without clipping it. As you increase this level, compression increases.
Try extreme settings to achieve the loud, high-impact audio heard in contemporary pop music.
Look-Ahead Time Sets the amount of time (in milliseconds) generally needed to attenuate the audio before the loudest peak is hit.
Note: Make sure that the value is at least 5 milliseconds. If this value is too small, audible distortion effects may occur.
Release Time Sets the time (in milliseconds) needed for the attenuation to rebound back 12 dB (or roughly the time needed for audio to resume
normal volume if an extremely loud peak is encountered). In general, a setting of around 100 (the default) works well and preserves very low bass
frequencies.
Note: If this value is too large, audio may remain very quiet and not resume normal levels for a while.
Link Channels Links the loudness of all channels together, preserving the stereo or surround balance.
To the top
Multiband Compressor effect
The Amplitude And Compression > Multiband Compressor effect lets you independently compress four different frequency bands. Because each
band typically contains unique dynamic content, multiband compression is a particularly powerful tool for audio mastering.
Controls in the Multiband Compressor let you precisely define crossover frequencies and apply band-specific compression settings. Click Solo
buttons to preview bands in isolation, or Bypass buttons to pass bands through without processing. After you fine-tune individual bands, select Link
Band Controls to adjust them globally, and then optimize overall volume with the Output Gain slider and Limiter settings.
To change compression settings over time, use automation lanes in the Multitrack Editor. (See Automating track settings.)
Adjusting a crossover frequency in the Multiband Compressor
A. Frequency bands B. Crossover markers C. Bypassed band (no processing applied) D. Amplitude scale E. Frequency scale
Crossover Sets the crossover frequencies, which determine the width of each band. Either enter specific Low, Midrange, and High frequencies, or
drag the crossover markers above the graph.
Band-specific controls in the Multiband Compressor
A. Solo B. Bypass C. Threshold slider D. Input Level meters E. Gain Reduction meters
Solo buttons Let you hear specific frequency bands. Enable one Solo button at a time to hear bands in isolation, or enable multiple buttons to
hear two or more bands together.
Bypass buttons Bypass individual bands so they pass through without processing.
Alt-click (Windows) or Option-click (Mac OS) Solo or Bypass buttons to quickly apply a unique setting to one band.
Threshold sliders Set the input level at which compression begins. Possible values range from -60 to 0 dB. The best setting depends on audio
content and musical style. To compress only extreme peaks and retain more dynamic range, try thresholds around 5 dB below the peak input
117
level; to highly compress audio and greatly reduce dynamic range, try settings around 15 dB below the peak input level.
Input Level meters Measure input amplitude. Double-click the meters to reset peak and clip indicators.
Gain Reduction meters Measure amplitude reduction with red meters that extend from top (minimal reduction) to bottom (maximum reduction).
Gain Boosts or cuts amplitude after compression. Possible values range from -18 to +18 dB, where 0 is unity gain.
Ratio Sets a compression ratio between 1-to-1 and 30-to-1. For example, a setting of 3.0 outputs 1 dB for every 3 dB increase above the
compression threshold. Typical settings range from 2.0 to 5.0; higher settings produce the extremely compressed sound often heard in pop
music.
Attack Determines how quickly compression is applied when audio exceeds the threshold. Possible values range from 0 to 500 milliseconds. The
default, 10 milliseconds, works well for a wide range of audio. Faster settings may work better for audio with fast transients, but such settings
sound unnatural for less percussive audio.
Release Determines how quickly compression stops after audio drops below the threshold. Possible values range from 0 to 5000 milliseconds.
The default, 100 milliseconds, works well for a wide range of audio. Try faster settings for audio with fast transients, and slower settings for less
percussive audio.
Output Gain Boosts or cuts overall output level after compression. Possible values range from -18 to +18 dB, where 0 is unity gain. Double-click
the meters to reset peak and clip indicators.
Limiter Applies limiting after Output Gain, at the end of the signal path, optimizing overall levels. Specify Threshold, Attack, and Release settings
that are less agressive than similar band-specific settings. Then specify a Margin setting to determine the absolute ceiling relative to 0 dBFS.
To create extremely compressed audio, enable the Limiter, and then experiment with very high Output Gain settings.
Spectrum On Input Displays the frequency spectrum of the input signal, rather than the output signal, in the multiband graph. To quickly see the
amount of compression applied to each band, toggle this option on and off.
Brickwall Limiter Applies immediate, hard limiting at the current Margin setting. (Deselect this option to apply slower soft limiting, which sounds
less compressed but may exceed the Margin setting.)
Note: The maximum Attack time for brickwall limiting is 5 ms.
Link Band Controls Lets you globally adjust the compression settings for all bands, while retaining relative differences between bands.
To temporarily link band controls, hold down Alt+Shift (Windows) or Option+Shift (Mac OS). To reset a control in all bands, hold down
Ctrl+Alt+Shift (Windows) or Command+Option+Shift (Mac OS), and click the control.
To the top
Normalize effect (Waveform Editor only)
Note: This effect requires offline processing. While it is open, you cannot edit the waveform, adjust selections, or move the current-time indicator.
The Amplitude And Compression > Normalize effect lets you set a peak level for a file or selection. When you normalize audio to 100%, you
achieve the maximum amplitude that digital audio allows—0 dBFS. If you’re sending audio to a mastering engineer, however, normalize audio to
between –3 and –6 dBFS, providing a cushion for further processing.
The Normalize effect amplifies the entire file or selection equally. For example, if the original audio reaches a loud peak of 80% and a quiet low of
20%, normalizing to 100% amplifies the loud peak to 100% and the quiet low to 40%.
To apply RMS normalization, choose Effects > Match Volume. If desired, you can apply that command to only one file. (See Match volume
across multiple files.)
Normalize To Sets the percentage of the highest peak relative to the maximum possible amplitude.
Select dB to enter the Normalize value in decibels instead of a percentage.
Normalize All Channels Equally Uses all channels of a stereo or surround waveform to calculate the amplification amount. If this option is
deselected, the amount is calculated separately for each channel, potentially amplifying one considerably more than others.
DC Bias Adjust Lets you adjust the position of the waveform in the wave display. Some recording hardware may introduce a DC bias, causing the
recorded waveform to appear to be above or below the normal center line in the wave display. To center the waveform, set the percentage to zero.
To skew the entire selected waveform above or below the center line, specify a positive or negative percentage.
To the top
Single-band Compressor effect
The Amplitude And Compression > Single-band Compressor effect reduces dynamic range, producing consistent volume levels and increasing
perceived loudness. Single-band compression is particularly effective for voice-overs, because it helps the speaker stand out over musical
soundtracks and background audio.
For examples of highly-compressed audio, listen to recordings of modern pop music. By contrast, most jazz recordings are lightly compressed,
while typical classical recordings feature no compression at all.
Threshold Sets the input level at which compression begins. The best setting depends on audio content and style. To compress only extreme
peaks and retain more dynamic range, try thresholds around 5 dB below the peak input level. To highly compress audio and greatly reduce
dynamic range, try settings around 15 dB below the peak input level.
Ratio Sets a compression ratio between 1-to-1 and 30-to-1. For example, a setting of 3 outputs 1 dB for every 3-dB increase above the threshold.
Typical settings range from 2 to 5; higher settings produce the extremely compressed sound often heard in pop music.
Attack Determines how quickly compression starts after audio exceeds the Threshold setting. The default, 10 milliseconds, works well for a wide
range of source material. Use faster settings only for audio with quick transients, such as percussion recordings.
Release Determines how quickly compression stops when audio drops below the Threshold setting. The default, 100 milliseconds, works well for
118
a wide range of audio. Try faster settings for audio with fast transients, and slower settings for less percussive audio.
Output Gain Boosts or cuts amplitude after compression. Possible values range from -30 dB to +30 dB, where 0 is unity gain.
To the top
Speech Volume Leveler effect
The Amplitude and Compression > Speech Volume Leveler is a compression effect that optimizes dialogue, evening out levels and removing
background noise.
For the best results, do the following:
1. Select audio with the lowest level. Set Target Volume Level and Leveling Amount to the left. Start playback, and gradually increase the
Leveling Amount until speech becomes nicely audible without increasing background noise.
2. Select audio with the highest level, and start playback. Adjust the Target Volume Level until the volume matches the loudness of the quiet
passage you adjusted previously.
3. If necessary, readjust the Leveling Amount to avoid an over-compressed sound.
Here are additional details about each option:
Target Volume Level Sets the desired output level relative to zero dBFS. (See Measuring amplitude in dBFS.)
Leveling Amount At low settings, amplifies speech slightly without boosting the noise floor. At high settings, amplifies the entire signal more as
the signal drops closer to the noise floor.
Boost Low Signals Interprets shorter, low-volume passages as speech that should be amplified. For most audio content, deselect this option to
produce smoother sound.
Advanced settings Click the triangle to access the following options:
Compressor Maintains a strong level if the processed signal falls below a threshold relative to zero dBFS.
Noise Gate Eliminates background noise by dramatically reducing output level when the signal drops by an offset you specify.
To the top
Tube-modeled Compressor effect
The Amplitude And Compression > Tube-modeled Compressor effect simulates the warmth of vintage hardware compressors. Use this effect to
add subtle distortion that pleasantly colors audio.
Threshold slider Sets the input level at which compression begins. Possible values range from -60 to 0 dB. The best setting depends on audio
content and musical style. To compress only extreme peaks and retain more dynamic range, try thresholds around 5 dB below the peak input
level; to highly compress audio and greatly reduce dynamic range, try settings around 15 dB below the peak input level.
Input Level meters To the left of the slider, these meters measure input amplitude. Double-click the meters to reset peak and clip indicators.
Gain Reduction meters To the right of the slider, these meters measure amplitude reduction with red bars that extend from top (minimal
reduction) to bottom (maximum reduction).
Gain Boosts or cuts amplitude after compression. Possible values range from -18 to +18 dB, where 0 is unity gain.
Ratio Sets a compression ratio between 1-to-1 and 30-to-1. For example, a setting of 3.0 outputs 1 dB for every 3 dB increase above the
compression threshold. Typical settings range from 2.0 to 5.0; higher settings produce the extremely compressed sound often heard in pop
music.
Attack Determines how quickly compression is applied when audio exceeds the threshold. Possible values range from 0 to 500 milliseconds. The
default, 10 milliseconds, works well for a wide range of audio. Faster settings may work better for audio with fast transients, but such settings
sound unnatural for less percussive audio.
Release Determines how quickly compression stops after audio drops below the threshold. Possible values range from 0 to 5000 milliseconds.
The default, 100 milliseconds, works well for a wide range of audio. Try faster settings for audio with fast transients, and slower settings for less
percussive audio.
Volume Envelope effect (CS5.5 Waveform Editor only)
To the top
The Amplitude And Compression > Volume Envelope effect lets you change volume over time with boosts and fades. In the Editor panel, simply
drag the yellow line. The top of the panel represents 100% (normal) amplification; the bottom represents 100% attenuation (silence).
Though the Volume Envelope effect isn’t available in the Multitrack Editor, you can use automation lanes to accomplish the same task. (See
Automating track settings.)
119
Dragging an anchor point in the Editor panel
Yellow envelope line in Editor panel Drag to adjust amplitude percentage, and click to add keyframes for additional boosts and fades. To quickly
select, reposition, or delete multiple keyframes, see Adjust automation with keyframes.
Spline curves Applies smoother, curved transitions between keyframes, rather than linear transitions. See About spline curves for graphs.
More Help topics
Applying effects in the Multitrack Editor
Use effect presets
Mix audio data when pasting
Control effect settings with graphs
Mastering effect
|
120
Delay and echo effects
Analog Delay effect
Delay effect
Echo effect
Delays are separate copies of an original signal that reoccur within milliseconds of each other. Echoes are sounds that are delayed far enough in
time so that you hear each as a distinct copy of the original sound. When reverb or chorus might muddy the mix, both delays and echoes are a
great way to add ambience to a track.
To access familiar options from hardware delays, use the Echo effect in Adobe Audition.
To the top
Analog Delay effect
The Delay And Echo > Analog Delay effect simulates the sonic warmth of vintage hardware delay units. Unique options apply characteristic
distortion and adjust the stereo spread. To create discrete echoes, specify delay times of 35 milliseconds or more; to create more subtle effects,
specify shorter times.
Mode Specifies the type of hardware emulation, determining equalization and distortion characteristics. Tape and Tube reflect the sonic character
of vintage delay units, while Analog reflects later electronic delay lines.
Dry Out Determines the level of original, unprocessed audio.
Wet Out Determines the level of delayed, processed audio.
Delay Specifies the delay length in milliseconds.
Feedback Creates repeating echoes by resending delayed audio through the delay line. For example, a setting of 20% sends delayed audio at
one-fifth of its original volume, creating echoes that gently fade away. A setting of 200% sends delayed audio at double its original volume,
creating echoes that quickly grow in intensity.
Note: When experimenting with extremely high Feedback settings, turn down your system volume.
Trash Increases distortion and boosts low frequencies, adding warmth.
Spread Determines the stereo width of the delayed signal.
To the top
Delay effect
The Delay And Echo > Delay effect can be used to create single echoes, as well as a number of other effects. Delays of 35 milliseconds or more
create discrete echoes, while those between 15-34 milliseconds can create a simple chorus or flanging effect. (These results won’t be as effective
as the Chorus or Flanger effects in Adobe Audition, because the delay settings don’t change over time.)
By further reducing a delay to between 1 and 14 milliseconds, you can spatially locate a mono sound so that the sound seems to be coming from
the left or the right side, even though the actual volume levels for left and right are identical.
Delay Time Adjusts the delay for both the left and right channels from -500 milliseconds to +500 milliseconds. Entering a negative number means
that you can move a channel ahead in time instead of delaying it. For instance, if you enter 200 milliseconds for the left channel, the delayed
portion of the affected waveform is heard before the original part.
Mix Sets the ratio of processed, Wet signal to original, Dry signal to be mixed into the final output. A value of 50 mixes the two evenly.
Invert Inverts the phase of the delayed signal, creating phase-cancellation effects similar to comb filters. (To understand phase cancellation, see
How sound waves interact.)
To the top
Echo effect
The Delay And Echo > Echo effect adds a series of repeated, decaying echoes to a sound. (For a single echo, use the Delay effect instead.) You
can create effects ranging from a Grand Canyon-type “Hello-ello-llo-lo-o” to metallic, clanging drainpipe sounds by varying the delay amount. By
equalizing the delays, you can change a room’s characteristic sound from one with reflective surfaces (creating echoes that sound brighter) to one
that is almost totally absorptive (creating echoes that sound darker).
Note: Make sure the audio file is long enough for the echo to end. If the echo is cut off abruptly before it fully decays, undo the Echo effect, add
several seconds of silence by choosing Generate > Silence, and then reapply the effect.
Delay Time Specifies the number of milliseconds, beats, or samples between each echo. For example, a setting of 100 milliseconds results in a
1/10th-second delay between successive echoes.
Feedback Determines the falloff ratio of an echo. Each successive echo tails off at a certain percentage less than the previous one. A decay
setting of 0% results in no echo at all, while a decay of 100% produces an echo that never gets quieter.
Echo Level Sets the percentage of echoed (wet) signal to mix with the original (dry) signal in the final output.
You can create striking stereo echo effects by setting different left and right values for the Delay Time, Feedback, and Echo Level controls.
121
Lock Left & Right Links the sliders for Decay, Delay, and Initial Echo Volume, maintaining the same settings for each channel.
Echo Bounce Makes the echoes bounce back and forth between the left and right channels. If you want to create one echo that bounces back
and forth, select an initial echo volume of 100% for one channel and 0% for the other. Otherwise, the settings for each channel will bounce to the
other, creating two sets of echoes on each channel.
Successive Echo Equalization Passes each successive echo through an eight-band equalizer, letting you simulate the natural sound absorption
of a room. A setting of 0 leaves the frequency band unchanged, while a maximum setting of -15 decreases that frequency by 15 dB. And, because
-15 dB is the difference of each successive echo, some frequencies will die out much faster than others.
Delay Time Units Specifies milliseconds, beats, or samples for the Delay Time setting.
More Help topics
Applying effects in the Multitrack Editor
Use effect presets
|
122
Diagnostics effects (Waveform Editor only)
Diagnose and repair, delete, or mark audio
DeClicker options
DeClipper options
Delete Silence and Mark Audio options
Diagnostics are available either via the Effects menu or directly from the Diagnostics panel (Window > Diagnostics). These tools let you quickly
remove clicks, distortion, or silence from audio, as well as add markers where silence occurs.
For maximum audio restoration control, use diagnostics together with Spectral Display tools and Noise Reduction effects. See Techniques for
restoring audio.
Adobe recommends
Have a tutorial you would like to share?
Restore clipped audio from DSLR
cameras
Jason Levine
Recover lost dynamic range with the
DeClipper effect.
To the top
Diagnose and repair, delete, or mark audio
Unlike conventional noise reduction effects, which process all selected audio, diagnostics scan for problematic or silent areas, and then let you
choose which to address.
1. In the Diagnostics panel, choose an option from the Effect menu.
2. Click Scan.
3. At the bottom of the panel, do any of the following:
Select one or more detected items in the list, and click Repair, Delete, or Mark. (The available options depend upon the chosen
diagnostic effect.)
To mark detected clicks or clipping, right-click selected items in the list, and choose Create Markers from the pop-up menu. (See
Working with markers.)
Click Repair All, Delete All, or Mark All to address all detected items.
Click the magnifying glass
to zoom in on a selected problem in the Editor panel. Click the icon again to zoom out.
Click Clear Repaired, Deleted, or Marked to remove previously addressed items from the list.
To the top
DeClicker options
The Diagnostics > DeClicker effect detects and removes clicks and pops from wireless microphones, vinyl records, and other sources.
DeClicker options match those for the Automatic Click Remover, which you can combine with other effects in the Effects Rack and apply in the
Multitrack Editor. (See Automatic Click Remover effect.) That effect also applies multiple scan and repair passes automatically; to achieve the
same level of click reduction with the DeClicker, you must manually apply it multiple times. However, the DeClicker lets you evaluate detected
clicks and choose which to address.
In the Diagnostics panel, click Settings to access these options:
Threshold Determines sensitivity to noise. Lower settings detect more clicks and pops but may include audio you wish to retain. Settings range
from 1 to 100; the default is 30.
Complexity Indicates the complexity of noise. Higher settings apply more processing but can degrade audio quality. Settings range from 1 to 100;
the default is 16.
To visually identify clicks, zoom in and use Spectral Frequency Display with a resolution of 256 bands. (You can access this setting in the
Spectral Display tab of the Preferences dialog box.) Most clicks appear as bright vertical bars that extend from the top to the bottom of the
display.
123
To the top
DeClipper options
The Diagnostics > DeClipper effect repairs clipped waveforms by filling in clipped sections with new audio data. Clipping occurs when audio
amplitude exceeds the maximum level for the current bit depth. Commonly, clipping results from recording levels that are too high. You can monitor
clipping during recording or playback by watching the Level Meters; when clipping occurs, the boxes on the far right of the meters turn red.
Visually, clipped audio appears as broad flat areas at the top of a waveform. Sonically, clipped audio is a static-like distortion.
Note: If you need to adjust the DC offset of clipped audio, first use the DeClipper effect. If you instead adjust DC offset first, the DeClipper won’t
identify clipped areas that fall below 0 dBFS.
In the Diagnostics panel, click Settings to access these options:
Gain Specifies the amount of attenuation that occurs before processing. Click Auto to base the gain setting on average input amplitude.
Tolerance Specifies the amplitude variation in clipped regions. A value of 0% detects clipping only in perfectly horizontal lines at maximum
amplitude; 1% detects clipping beginning at 1% below maximum amplitude, and so on. (A value of 1% detects most clipping.)
Min. Clip Size Specifies the length of the shortest run of clipped samples to repair. Lower values repair a higher percentage of clipped samples;
higher values repair clipped samples only if they’re preceded or followed other clipped samples.
Interpolation The Cubic option uses spline curves to re-create the frequency content of clipped audio. This approach is faster for most situations
but can introduce spurious new frequencies. The FFT option uses Fast Fourier transforms to re-create clipped audio. This approach is typically
slower but best for severe clipping. From the FFT Size menu, choose the number of frequency bands to evaluate and replace. (More bands result
in greater accuracy but longer processing.)
To retain amplitude when restoring clipped audio, apply the DeClipper effect with a Gain setting of zero, followed by the Hard Limiting effect
with a Boost value of zero and a Limit value of -0.2 dB.
To the top
Delete Silence and Mark Audio options
The Diagnostics > Delete Silence and Mark Audio effects identify silent passages of audio and either remove or mark them. (See Working with
markers.) Automatically deleting silence helps you tighten up tracks without affecting foreground audio. Automatically marking silence helps you
quickly navigate to audio cues for editing.
In the Diagnostics panel, click Settings to access these options:
Define Silence As Specifies the amplitude and duration identified as silence.
Define Audio As Specifies the amplitude and duration identified as audio content.
Find Levels Automatically calculates the signal levels of silence and audio based on content in the file.
Fix By (Delete Silence only) Choose Shortening Silence to reduce silent passages to the specified number of milliseconds. Choose Deleting
Silence to mute silent passages but retain file length. (Deleting silence helps maintain video synchronization with audio clips in video editing
applications.)
To divide sections of sound or speech separated by silence into different files, apply the Mark Audio effect, and click Mark All. Then see Save
audio between markers to new files.
More Help topics
Use effect presets
|
124
Noise reduction / restoration effects
Techniques for restoring audio
Noise Reduction effect (Waveform Editor only)
Adaptive Noise Reduction effect
Automatic Click Remover effect
Automatic Phase Correction effect
DeHummer effect
Hiss Reduction effect (Waveform Editor only)
Adobe recommends
Have a tutorial you would like to share?
Introduction to Noise Reduction
and Advanced Noise Reduction
Colin Smith
Automatically remove clicks, restore clipped
audio, and heal individual artifacts. Or clean
up complex noise with two powerful effects.
To the top
Techniques for restoring audio
You can fix a wide array of audio problems by combining two powerful features. First, use Spectral Display to visually identify and select ranges of
noise or individual artifacts. (See Select spectral ranges and Select artifacts and repair them automatically.) Then, use either Diagnostic or Noise
Reduction effects to fix problems like the following:
Crackle from wireless microphones or old vinyl records. (See Automatic Click Remover effect.)
Background noise like wind rumble, tape hiss, or power-line hum. (See Adaptive Noise Reduction effect and DeHummer effect.)
Phase cancellation from poorly placed stereo microphones or misaligned tape machines. (See Automatic Phase Correction effect.)
The real-time restoration effects above, which are available in both the Waveform and Multitrack editors, quickly address common audio
problems. For unusually noisy audio, however, consider using offline, process effects unique to the Waveform Editor, such as Hiss Reduction
and Noise Reduction.
Selecting various types of noise in Spectral Display
A. Hiss B. Crackle C. Rumble
To the top
Noise Reduction effect (Waveform Editor only)
The Noise Reduction/Restoration > Noise Reduction effect dramatically reduces background and broadband noise with a minimal reduction in
signal quality. This effect can remove a combination of noise, including tape hiss, microphone background noise, power-line hum, or any noise
that is constant throughout a waveform.
The proper amount of noise reduction depends upon the type of background noise and the acceptable loss in quality for the remaining signal. In
125
general, you can increase the signal-to-noise ratio by 5 to 20 dB and retain high audio quality.
To achieve the best results with the Noise Reduction effect, apply it to audio with no DC offset. With a DC offset, this effect may introduce clicks in
quiet passages. (To remove a DC offset, choose Favorites > Repair DC Offset.)
Evaluating and adjusting noise with the Noise Reduction graph:
A. Drag control points to vary reduction in different frequency ranges B. Low amplitude noise. C. High amplitude noise D. Threshold below
which noise reduction occurs.
Apply the Noise Reduction effect
1. In the Waveform Editor, select a range that contains only noise and is at least half a second long.
To select noise in a specific frequency range, use the Marquee Selection tool. (See Select spectral ranges.)
2. Choose Effects > Noise Reduction/Restoration > Capture Noise Print.
3. In the Editor panel, select the range from which you want to remove noise.
4. Choose Effects > Noise Reduction/Restoration > Noise Reduction.
5. Set the desired options.
When recording in noisy environments, record a few seconds of representative background noise that can be used as a noise print later on.
Noise Reduction options
Capture Noise Print Extracts a noise profile from a selected range, indicating only background noise. Adobe Audition gathers statistical
information about the background noise so it can remove it from the remainder of the waveform.
If the selected range is too short, Capture Noise Print is disabled. Reduce the FFT Size or select a longer range of noise. If you can’t find a
longer range, copy and paste the currently selected range to create one. (You can later remove the pasted noise by using the Edit > Delete
command.)
Save the Current Noise Print
Saves the noise print as an .fft file, which contains information about sample type, FFT (Fast Fourier
Transform) size, and three sets of FFT coefficients: one for the lowest amount of noise found, one for the highest amount, and one for the power
average.
Opens any noise print previously saved from Adobe Audition in FFT format. However, you can apply noise
Load a Noise Print from Disk
prints only to identical sample types. (For example, you can’t apply a 22 kHz mono profile to 44kHz stereo samples.)
Note: Because noise prints are so specific, a print for one type of noise won’t produce good results with other types. If you regularly remove
similar noise, however, a saved profile can greatly increase efficiency.
Graph Depicts frequency along the x-axis (horizontal) and the amount of noise reduction along the y-axis (vertical).
The blue control curve sets the amount of noise reduction in different frequency ranges. For example, if you need noise reduction only in the higher
frequencies, adjust the control curve downward to the right of the graph.
If you click the Reset button
to flatten the control curve, the amount of noise reduction is based entirely on the noise print.
To better focus on the noise floor, click the menu button to the upper right of the graph, and deselect Show Control Curve and Show Tooltip
Over Graph.
Noise Floor High shows the highest amplitude of detected noise at each frequency; Low shows the lowest amplitude. Threshold shows the
amplitude below which noise reduction occurs.
The three elements of the noise floor can overlap in the graph. To better distinguish them, click the menu button , and select options from the
Show Noise Floor menu.
Scale Determines how frequencies are arranged along the horizontal x-axis:
For finer control over low frequencies, select Logarithmic. A logarithmic scale more closely resembles how people hear sound.
For detailed, high-frequency work with evenly spaced intervals in frequency, select Linear.
126
Channel Displays the selected channel in the graph. The amount of noise reduction is always the same for all channels.
Select Entire File Lets you apply a captured noise print to the entire file.
Noise Reduction Controls the percentage of noise reduction in the output signal. Fine-tune this setting while previewing audio to achieve
maximum noise reduction with minimum artifacts. (Excessively high noise reduction levels can sometimes cause audio to sound flanged or out-ofphase.)
Reduce By Determines the amplitude reduction of detected noise. Values between 6 and 30 dB work well. To reduce bubbly artifacts, enter lower
values.
Output Noise Only Previews only noise so you determine if the effect is removing any desirable audio.
Advanced settings Click the triangle to display the following options:
Spectral Decay Rate Specifies the percentage of frequencies processed when audio falls below the noise floor. Fine-tuning this
percentage allows greater noise reduction with fewer artifacts. Values of 40% to 75% work best. Below those values, bubbly-sounding
artifacts are often heard; above those values, excessive noise typically remains.
Smoothing Takes into account the variance of the noise signal in each frequency band. Bands that vary greatly when analyzed (such as
white noise) will be smoothed differently than constant bands (like 60-Hz hum). In general, increasing the smoothing amount (up to 2 or
so) reduces burbly background artifacts at the expense of raising the overall background broadband noise level.
Precision Factor Controls changes in amplitude. Values of 5-10 work best, and odd numbers are ideal for symmetrical processing. With
values of 3 or less, the Fast Fourier transform is performed in giant blocks, and between them drops or spikes in volume can occur.
Values beyond 10 cause no noticeable change in quality, but they increase processing time.
Transition Width Determines the amplitude range between noise and desirable audio. For example, a width of zero applies a sharp,
noise gate to each frequency band. Audio just above the threshold remains; audio just below is truncated to silence. Alternatively, you can
specify a range over which the audio fades to silence based upon the input level. For example, if the transition width is 10 dB, and the
noise level for the band is -60 dB, audio at -60 dB stays the same, audio at -62 dB is reduced slightly, and audio at -70 dB is removed
entirely.
FFT Size Determines how many individual frequency bands are analyzed. This option causes the most drastic changes in quality. The
noise in each frequency band is treated separately, so with more bands, noise is removed with finer frequency detail. Good settings range
from 4096 to 8192.
Fast Fourier Transform size determines the tradeoff between frequency- and time-accuracy. Higher FFT sizes might cause swooshing or
reverberant artifacts, but they very accurately remove noise frequencies. Lower FFT sizes result in better time response (less swooshing
before cymbal hits, for example), but they can produce poorer frequency resolution, creating hollow or flanged sounds.
Noise Print Snapshots Determines how many snapshots of noise to include in the captured profile. A value of 4000 is optimal for
producing accurate data.
Very small values greatly affect the quality of the various noise reduction levels. With more snapshots, a noise reduction level of 100 will
likely cut out more noise, but also cut out more original signal. However, a low noise reduction level with more snapshots will also cut out
more noise, but likely retain the intended signal.
To the top
Adaptive Noise Reduction effect
The Noise Reduction/Restoration > Adaptive Noise Reduction effect quickly removes variable broadband noise such as background sounds,
rumble, and wind. Because this effect operates in real time, you can combine it with other effects in the Effects Rack and apply it in the Multitrack
Editor. By contrast, the standard Noise Reduction effect is available only as an offline process in the Waveform Editor. That effect, however, is
sometimes more effective at removing constant noise, such as hiss or hum.
For best results, apply Adaptive Noise Reduction to selections that begin with noise followed by desirable audio. The effect identifies noise based
on the first few seconds of audio.
Important: This effect requires significant processing. If your system performs slowly, lower FFT Size and turn off High Quality Mode.
Reduce Noise By Determines the level of noise reduction. Values between 6 and 30 dB work well. To reduce bubbly background effects, enter
lower values.
Noisiness Indicates the percentage of original audio that contains noise.
Fine Tune Noise Floor Manually adjusts the noise floor above or below the automatically calculated floor.
Signal Threshold Manually adjusts the threshold of desirable audio above or below the automatically calculated threshold.
Spectral Decay Rate Determines how quickly noise processing drops by 60 decibels. Fine-tuning this setting allows greater noise reduction with
fewer artifacts. Values that are too short create bubbly sounds; values that are too long create a reverb effect.
Broadband Preservation Retains desirable audio in specified frequency bands between found artifacts. A setting of 100 Hz, for example, ensures
that no audio is removed 100 Hz above or below found artifacts. Lower settings remove more noise but may introduce audible processing.
FFT Size Determines how many individual frequency bands are analyzed. Choose a high setting to increase frequency resolution; choose a low
setting to increase time resolution. High settings work well for artifacts of long duration (like squeaks or power-line hum), while low settings better
address transient artifacts (like clicks and pops).
High Quality Mode Performs slower processing but achieves superior results.
To the top
Automatic Click Remover effect
To quickly remove crackle and static from vinyl recordings, use the Noise Reduction/Restoration > Automatic Click Remover effect. You can
127
correct a large area of audio or a single click or pop.
This effect provides the same options as the DeClicker effect, which lets you choose which detected clicks to address (see DeClicker options).
However, because the Automatic Click Remover operates in real time, you can combine it with other effects in the Effects Rack and apply it in the
Multitrack Editor. The Automatic Click Remover effect also applies multiple scan and repair passes automatically; to achieve the same level of click
reduction with the DeClicker, you must manually apply it multiple times.
Threshold Determines sensitivity to noise. Lower settings detect more clicks and pops but may include audio you wish to retain. Settings range
from 1 to 100; the default is 30.
Complexity Indicates the complexity of noise. Higher settings apply more processing but can degrade audio quality. Settings range from 1 to 100;
the default is 16.
To the top
Automatic Phase Correction effect
The Noise Reduction/Restoration > Automatic Phase Correction effect addresses azimuth errors from misaligned tape heads, stereo smearing
from incorrect microphone placement, and many other phase-related problems.
Global Time Shift Activates the Left and Right Channel Shift sliders, which let you apply a uniform phase shift to all selected audio.
Auto Align Channels and Auto Center Panning Align phase and panning for a series of discrete time intervals, which you specify using the
following options:
Time Resolution Specifies the number of milliseconds in each processed interval. Smaller values increase accuracy; larger ones increase
performance.
Responsiveness Determines overall processing speed. Slow settings increase accuracy; fast settings increase performance.
Channel Specifies the channels phase correction will be applied to.
Analysis Size Specifies the number of samples in each analyzed unit of audio.
For the most precise, effective phase correction, use the Auto Align Channels option. Enable the Global Time Shift sliders only if you are
confident that a uniform adjustment is necessary, or if you want to manually animate phase correction in the Multitrack Editor.
To the top
DeHummer effect
The Noise Reduction/Restoration > DeHummer effect removes narrow frequency bands and their harmonics. The most common application
addresses power line hum from lighting and electronics. But the DeHummer can also apply a notch filter that removes an overly resonant
frequency from source audio.
To quickly address typical audio problems, choose an option from the Presets menu.
Frequency Sets the root frequency of the hum. If you’re unsure of the precise frequency, drag this setting back and forth while previewing audio.
To visually adjust root frequency and gain, drag directly in the graph.
Q Sets the width of the root frequency and harmonics above. Higher values affect a narrower range of frequencies, and lower values affect a
wider range.
Gain Determines the amount of hum attenuation.
Number of Harmonics Specifies how many harmonic frequencies to affect.
Harmonic Slope Changes the attenuation ratio for harmonic frequencies.
Output Hum Only Lets you preview removed hum to determine if it contains any desirable audio.
To the top
Hiss Reduction effect (Waveform Editor only)
The Noise Reduction/Restoration > Hiss Reduction effect reduces hiss from sources such as audio cassettes, vinyl records, or microphone
preamps. This effect greatly lowers the amplitude of a frequency range if it falls below an amplitude threshold called the noise floor. Audio in
frequency ranges that are louder than the threshold remain untouched. If audio has a consistent level of background hiss, that hiss can be
removed completely.
To reduce other types of noise that have a wide frequency range, try the Noise Reduction effect. (See Noise Reduction effect (Waveform Editor
only).)
Using the Hiss Reduction graph to adjust the noise floor
Capture Noise Floor Graphs an estimate of the noise floor. The estimate is used by the Hiss Reduction effect to more effectively remove only
128
hiss while leaving regular audio untouched. This option is the most powerful feature of Hiss Reduction.
To create a graph that most accurately reflects the noise floor, click Get Noise Floor with a selection of audio that contains only hiss. Or, select an
area that has the least amount of desirable audio, in addition to the least amount of high frequency information. (In the spectral display, look for an
area without any activity in the top 75% of the display.)
After you capture the noise floor, you might need to lower the control points on the left (representing the lower frequencies) to make the graph as
flat as possible. If music is present at any frequency, the control points around that frequency will be higher than they should be.
Graph Represents the estimated noise floor for each frequency in the source audio, with frequency along the horizontal ruler (x-axis) and the
amplitude of the noise floor along the vertical ruler (y-axis). This information helps you distinguish hiss from desirable audio data.
The actual value used to perform hiss reduction is a combination of the graph and the Noise Floor slider, which shifts the estimated noise floor
reading up or down for fine tuning.
To disable tooltips for frequency and amplitude, click the menu button to the upper right of the graph, and deselect Show Tooltip Over Graph.
Scale Determines how frequencies are arranged along the horizontal x-axis:
For finer control over low frequencies, select Logarithmic. A logarithmic scale more closely resembles how people hear sound.
For detailed, high-frequency work with evenly spaced intervals in frequency, select Linear.
Channel Displays the selected audio channel in the graph.
Reset
Resets the estimated noise floor. To reset the floor higher or lower, click the menu button
to the upper right of the graph, and
choose an option from the Reset Control Curve menu.
For quick, general-purpose hiss reduction, a complete noise floor graph isn’t always necessary. In many cases, you can simply reset the graph
to an even level and manipulate the Noise Floor slider.
Noise Floor Fine-tunes the noise floor until the appropriate level of hiss reduction and quality is achieved.
Reduce By Sets the level of hiss reduction for audio below the noise floor. With higher values (especially above 20 dB) dramatic hiss reduction
can be achieved, but the remaining audio might become distorted. With lower values, not as much noise is removed, and the original audio signal
stays relatively undisturbed.
Output Hiss Only Lets you preview only hiss to determine if the effect is removing any desirable audio.
Advanced settings Click the triangle to display these options:
Spectral Decay Rate When audio is encountered above the estimated noise floor, determines how much audio in surrounding
frequencies is assumed to follow. With low values, less audio is assumed to follow, and hiss reduction will cut more closely to the
frequencies being kept.
Values of 40% to 75% work best. If the value is too high (above 90%), unnaturally long tails and reverbs might be heard. If the value is too
low, background bubbly effects might be heard, and music might sound artificial.
Precision Factor Determines the time-accuracy of hiss reduction. Typical values range from 7 to 14. Lower values might result in a few
milliseconds of hiss before and after louder parts of audio. Larger values generally produce better results and slower processing speeds.
Values over 20 don’t ordinarily improve quality any further.
Transition Width Produces a slow transition in hiss reduction instead of an abrupt change. Values from 5 to 10 usually achieve good
results. If the value is too high, some hiss may remain after processing. If the value is too low, background artifacts might be heard.
FFT Size Specifies a Fast Fourier Transform size, which determines the tradeoff between frequency- and time-accuracy. In general, sizes
from 2048 to 8192 work best.
Lower FFT sizes (2048 and below) result in better time response (less swooshing before cymbal hits, for example), but they can produce
poorer frequency resolution, creating hollow or flanged sounds.
Higher FFT sizes (8192 and above) might cause swooshing, reverb, and drawn out background tones, but they produce very accurate
frequency resolution.
Control Points Specifies the number of points added to the graph when you click Capture Noise Floor.
More Help topics
About the spectral display
Control effect settings with graphs
Applying effects in the Multitrack Editor
Use effect presets
|
129
Reverb effects
Convolution Reverb effect
Full Reverb effect
Reverb effect
Studio Reverb effect
Surround Reverb effect
In a room, sound bounces off the walls, ceiling, and floor on the way to your ears. All these reflected sounds reach your ears so closely together
that you don’t perceive them as separate echoes, but as a sonic ambience that creates an impression of space. This reflected sound is called
reverberation, or reverb for short. With Adobe Audition, you can use reverb effects to simulate a variety of room environments.
For the most flexible, efficient use of reverb in the Multitrack Editor, add reverb effects to buses, and set reverb output levels to 100% Wet.
Then, route tracks to these buses, and use sends to control the ratio of dry to reverberant sound.
To the top
Convolution Reverb effect
The Reverb > Convolution Reverb effect reproduces rooms ranging from coat closets to concert halls. Convolution-based reverbs use impulse files
to simulate acoustic spaces. The results are incredibly realistic and life-like.
Sources of impulse files include audio you’ve recorded of an ambient space, or impulse collections available online. For best results, impulse files
should be uncompressed, 16- or 32-bit files matching the sample rate of the current audio file. Impulse length should be no more than 30 seconds.
For sound design, try a variety of source audio to produce unique, convolution-based effects.
Note: Because Convolution Reverb requires significant processing, you may hear clicks or pops when previewing it on slower systems. These
artifacts disappear after you apply the effect.
Impulse Specifies a file that simulates an acoustic space. Click Load to add a custom impulse file in WAV or AIFF format.
Mix Controls the ratio of original to reverberant sound.
Room Size Specifies a percentage of the full room defined by the impulse file. The larger the percentage, the longer the reverb.
Damping LF Reduces low-frequency, bass-heavy components in reverb, avoiding muddiness and producing a clearer, more articulate sound.
Damping HF Reduces high-frequency, transient components in reverb, avoiding harshness and producing a warmer, lusher sound.
Pre-Delay Determines how many milliseconds the reverb takes to build to maximum amplitude. To produce the most natural sound, specify a
short pre-delay of 0–10 milliseconds. To produce interesting special effects, specify a long pre-delay of 50 milliseconds or more.
Width Controls the stereo spread. A setting of 0 produces a mono reverb signal.
Gain Boosts or attenuates amplitude after processing.
To the top
Full Reverb effect
The Reverb > Full Reverb effect is convolution-based, avoiding ringing, metallic, and other artificial sounding artifacts.
This effect offers some unique options, such as Perception, which simulates room irregularities, Left/Right Location, which places the source
off-center, and Room Size and Dimension, which help you realistically simulate rooms that you can customize. To simulate wall surfaces and
resonance, you can change the reverb’s frequency absorption by using a three-band, parametric EQ in the Coloration section.
When you change reverb settings, this effect creates a temporary impulse file, which simulates the acoustic environment you specify. This file can
be several megabytes in size, requiring a few seconds to process, so you might have to wait before hearing a preview. The results, however, are
incredibly realistic and easy to tailor.
Important: The Full Reverb effect demands significant processing; for real-time multitrack use, either pre-render this effect or replace it with
Studio Reverb. (See Pre-render track effects to improve performance.)
Reverb Settings
Decay Time Specifies how many milliseconds the reverb takes to decay 60 dB. However, depending on the Coloration parameters, certain
frequencies may take longer to decay to 60 dB, while other frequencies may decay much faster. Longer values give longer reverb tails, but they
also require more processing. The effective limit is about 6000 milliseconds (a 6-second tail), but the actual tail generated is much longer to allow
for decaying into the background noise level.
Pre-Delay Time Specifies how many milliseconds reverb takes to build to its maximum amplitude. Generally, reverbs build up quickly, and then
decay at a much slower rate. Interesting effects can be heard with extremely long pre-delay times of 400 milliseconds or more.
Diffusion Controls the rate of echo buildup. High diffusion values (above 900 milliseconds) give very smooth reverbs, without distinct echoes.
Lower values produce more distinct echoes because the initial echo density is lighter, but the density builds over the life of the reverb tail.
Bouncy echo effects can be obtained by using low Diffusion values and high Perception values. With long reverb tails, using low Diffusion
values and somewhat low Perception values gives the effect of a football stadium or similar arena.
130
Perception Simulates irregularities in the environment (objects, walls, connecting rooms, and so on). Low values create a smoothly decaying
reverb without any frills. Larger values give more distinct echoes (coming from different locations).
If a reverb is too smooth, it may not sound natural. Perception values up to about 40 give simulate typical room variations.
Room Size Sets the volume of the virtual room, as measured in cubic meters. The larger the room, the longer the reverb. Use this control to
create virtual rooms of only a few square meters to giant coliseums.
Dimension Specifies the ratio between the room’s width (left to right) and depth (front to back). A sonically appropriate height is calculated and
reported as Actual Room Dimensions at the bottom of the dialog box. Generally, rooms with width-to-depth ratios between 0.25 and 4 provide the
best sounding reverbs.
Left/Right Location (stereo audio only) Lets you place early reflections off-center. Select Include Direct in the Output Level section to place the
original signal in the same location. Very nice effects are possible with singers slightly off center, 5-10% to the left or right.
High Pass Cutoff Prevents the loss of low-frequency (100 Hz or less) sounds, such as bass or drums. These sounds can get phased out when
using small rooms if the early reflections mix with the original signal. Specify a frequency above that of the sound you wish to keep. Good settings
are generally between 80 Hz and 150 Hz. If the cutoff setting is too high, you may not get a realistic image of the room size.
Set Reverb Based On Room Size Sets Decay and Pre-delay times to match the specified room size, producing a more convincing reverb. If
desired, you can then fine-tune the Decay and Pre-Delay times.
Coloration options
To visually adjust Coloration options, drag directly in the graph.
Frequency Specifies the corner frequency for the low and high shelves or the center frequency for the middle band. For example, to increase
reverb warmth, lower the high shelf frequency while also reducing its gain.
Gain Boosts or attenuates reverb in different frequency ranges.
To subtly enhance audio, boost reverb frequencies around the natural frequency of a key sonic element. For a singer’s voice, for example,
boost frequencies from 200 Hz to 800 Hz to enhance resonance in that range.
Q Sets the width of the middle band. Higher values affect a narrower range of frequencies, and lower values affect a wider range.
For distinct resonance, use values of 10 or higher. To boost or cut a wide range of frequencies, use lower values like 2 or 3.
Decay Specifies how many milliseconds the reverb decays before the Coloration curve is applied. Values up to 700 work fine. For more colored
reverbs, use lower settings (such as 100 to 250).
Output Level options
Dry Controls the level of original signal included with reverb. Use a low level to create a distant sound. Use a high level (near 100%) along with
low levels of reverberation and reflections to create a sense of close proximity to the source.
Reverberation Controls the level of the dense layer of reverberant sound. The balance between the dry and reverberant sounds changes
perception of distance.
Early Reflections Controls the level of the first echoes to reach the ear, giving a sense of the overall room size. Too high a value can result in an
artificial sound, while too low a value can remove audible cues for the room’s size. Half the volume of the Dry signal is a good starting point.
Include Direct Slightly phase-shifts the original signal’s left and right channels to match the location of early reflections (set by Left/Right Location
on the Early Reflections tab).
Sum Inputs Combines the channels of a stereo or surround waveform before processing occurs. Select this option for faster processing, but
deselect it for a fuller, richer reverb.
To the top
Reverb effect
The Reverb > Reverb effect simulates acoustic spaces with convolution-based processing. It can reproduce acoustic or ambient environments
such as a coat closet, a tiled bathroom shower, a concert hall, or a grand amphitheater. The echoes can be spaced so closely together that a
signal’s reverberated tail decays smoothly over time, creating a warm and natural sound. Alternatively, Pre-Delay Time can be adjusted to give a
sense of room size.
Relative to the Reverb effect, the Full Reverb effect provides more options and better audio rendering. For quick adjustments, however, you may
prefer the reduced options set of the Reverb effect.
Important: The Reverb effect demands significant processing; for real-time, multitrack use, either pre-render this effect or replace it with Studio
Reverb. (See Pre-render track effects to improve performance.)
Decay Time Sets how many milliseconds it takes for reverb to tail off to infinity (about -96 dB). Use values below 400 for small rooms, values
between 400 and 800 for medium-sized rooms, and values above 800 for very large rooms, such as concert halls. For example, enter 3000
milliseconds to create reverb tails for a giant amphitheater.
To simulate rooms that have both echoes and reverb, first use the Echo effect to establish the size of the room, and then use the Reverb effect
to make the sound more natural. A Decay Time as little as 300 milliseconds can add perceived spaciousness to dry sound.
Pre-Delay Time Specifies how many milliseconds reverb takes to build to its maximum amplitude. For a short Decay Time, the Pre-Delay Time
time should also be smaller. In general, a value about 10% as long as the Decay Time sounds most realistic. However, you can create interesting
effects by using a longer Pre-Delay Time with a shorter Decay Time.
Diffusion Simulates natural absorption, reducing high frequencies as the reverb decays. Faster absorption times simulate rooms full of people,
furniture, and carpeting, such as nightclubs and theaters. Slower times (over 1000 milliseconds) simulate empty rooms such as auditoriums, where
high frequency reflections are more prevalent.
131
Perception Changes the characteristics of reflections within a room. Lower values create smoother reverb without as many distinct echoes. Higher
values simulate larger rooms, cause more variation in reverb amplitude, and add spaciousness by creating distinct reflections over time.
A Perception setting of 100 and a Decay Time of 2000 milliseconds or more creates interesting canyon effects.
Dry Sets the percentage of source audio to output. In most cases, 90% works well. To add subtle spaciousness, set the Dry percentage higher; to
achieve a special effect, set the Dry percentage lower.
Wet Sets the percentage of reverb to output. To add subtle spaciousness to a track, keep the Wet percentage lower than the Dry percentage.
Increase the Wet percentage to simulate greater distance from the audio source.
Sum Inputs Combines the channels of a stereo or surround waveform before processing occurs. Select this option for faster processing, but
deselect it for fuller, richer reverb.
To the top
Studio Reverb effect
Like the other reverb effects, the Reverb > Studio Reverb effect simulates acoustic spaces. It is faster and less processor-intensive than the other
reverb effects, however, because it isn’t convolution-based. As a result, you can make real-time changes quickly and effectively in the Multitrack
Editor, without pre-rendering effects on a track.
Room Size Sets the room size.
Decay Adjusts the amount of reverberation decay in milliseconds.
Early Reflections Controls the percentage of echoes that first reach the ear, giving a sense of the overall room size. Too high a value can result
in an artificial sound, while too low a value can lose the audio cues for the room’s size. Half the volume of the original signal is a good starting
point.
Stereo Width Controls the spread across the stereo channels. 0% produces a mono reverb signal; 100% produces maximum stereo separation.
High Frequency Cut Specifies the highest frequency at which reverb can occur.
Low Frequency Cut Specifies the lowest frequency at which reverb can occur.
Damping Adjusts the amount of attenuation applied to the high frequencies of the reverb signal over time. Higher percentages create more
damping for a warmer reverb tone.
Diffusion Simulates the absorption of the reverberated signal as it is reflected off of surfaces, such as carpeting and drapes. Lower settings create
more echoes, while higher settings produce a smoother reverberation with fewer echoes.
Dry Sets the percentage of source audio to output with the effect.
Wet Sets the percentage of reverb to output.
To the top
Surround Reverb effect
The Reverb > Surround Reverb effect is primarily intended for 5.1 sources, but it can also provide surround ambience to mono or stereo sources.
In the Waveform Editor, you can choose Edit > Convert Sample Type to convert a mono or stereo file to 5.1, and then apply Surround Reverb. In
the Multitrack Editor, you can send mono or stereo tracks to a 5.1 bus or master with Surround Reverb.
Input, Center Determines the percentage of the center channel included in the processed signal.
Input, LFE Determines the percentage of the Low Frequency Enhancement channel used to excite reverb for other channels. (The LFE signal
itself is not reverberated.)
Note: The effect always inputs 100% of the Left, Right, and rear surround channels.
Impulse Specifies a file that simulates an acoustic space. Click Load to add a custom, 6- channel impulse file in WAV or AIFF format.
Room Size Specifies a percentage of the full room defined by the impulse file. The larger the percentage, the longer the reverb.
Damping LF Reduces low-frequency, bass-heavy components in reverb, avoiding muddiness and producing a clearer, more articulate sound.
Damping HF Reduces high-frequency, transient components in reverb, avoiding harshness and producing a warmer, lusher sound.
Pre-Delay Determines how many milliseconds the reverb takes to build to maximum amplitude. To produce the most natural sound, specify a
short pre-delay of 0–10 milliseconds. To produce interesting special effects, specify a long pre-delay of 50 milliseconds or more.
Front Width Controls the stereo spread across the front three channels.
A width setting of 0 produces a mono reverb signal.
Surround Width Controls the stereo spread across the rear surround channels (Ls and Rs).
C Wet Level Controls the amount of reverb added to the Center channel. (Because this channel usually contains dialog, reverb should typically be
lower.)
L/R Bal. Controls left-right balance for front and rear speakers. 100 outputs reverb to only the left, -100 to only the right.
F/B Bal. Controls front-back balance for left and right speakers. 100 outputs reverb to only the front, -100 to only the back.
Wet/Dry Mix Controls the ratio of original to reverberant sound. A setting of 100 outputs only reverb.
Gain Boosts or attenuates amplitude after processing.
More Help topics
Applying effects in the Multitrack Editor
Use effect presets
Control effect settings with graphs
132
|
133
Stereo imagery effects
Center Channel Extractor effect
Some effects let you change the apparent location, or stereo imagery, of sounds coming from the speakers.
To the top
Center Channel Extractor effect
The Stereo Imagery > Center Channel Extractor effect keeps or removes frequencies that are common to both the left and right channels—in
other words, sounds that are panned center. Often voice, bass, and lead instruments are recorded this way. As a result, you can use this effect to
bring up the volume of vocals, bass, or kick drum, or you can remove any of them to create a karaoke mix.
Extraction tab Limits extraction to audio that meets certain properties.
Extract Either select audio in the Center, Left, Right, or Surround channel, or select Custom and specify the precise phase degree, pan
percentage, and delay time for audio you want to extract or remove. (The Surround option extracts audio that is perfectly out of phase
between the left and right channels.)
Frequency Range Sets the range you want to extract or remove. Predefined ranges include Male Voice, Female Voice, Bass, and Full
Spectrum. Select Custom to define a frequency range.
Discrimination tab Includes settings that help identify the center channel.
Crossover Bleed Move the slider to the left to increase audio bleed through and make the sound less artificial. Move the slider to the
right to further separate center channel material from the mix.
Phase Discrimination In general, higher numbers work better for extracting the center channel, while lower values work better for
removing the center channel. Lower values allow more bleed through and may not effectively separate vocals from a mix, but they may be
more effective at capturing all the center material. In general, a range from 2 to 7 works well.
Amplitude Discrimination and Amplitude Bandwidth Sum the left and right channels, and create a perfectly out-of-phase third channel
that Audition uses to remove similar frequencies. If the amplitude at each frequency is similar, in-phase audio common to both channels is
also considered. Lower values for Amplitude Discrimination and Amplitude Bandwidth cut more material from the mix, but may also cut out
vocals. Higher values make the extraction depend more on the phase of the material and the less on the channel amplitude. Amplitude
Discrimination settings between 0.5 and 10 and Amplitude Bandwidth settings between 1 and 20 work well.
Spectral Decay Rate Keep at 0% for faster processing. Set between 80% and 98% to smooth out background distortions.
Center and Side Channel Levels Specifies how much of the selected signal you want to extract or remove. Move the sliders up to include
additional material.
Advanced options Click the triangle to access these settings:
FFT Size Specifies the Fast Fourier Transform size, with low settings improving processing speed, and high settings improving quality. In
general, settings between 4096 and 8192 work best.
Overlays Defines the number of FFT windows that overlap. Higher values can produce smoother results or a chorus-like effect, but they
take longer to process. Lower values can produce bubbly-sounding background noises. Values of 3 to 9 work well.
Window Width Specifies the percentage of each FFT window. Values of 30% to 100% work well.
More Help topics
Applying effects in the Multitrack Editor
Use effect presets
|
134
Time and pitch manipulation effects
Stretch and Pitch effect (Waveform Editor only)
To the top
Stretch and Pitch effect (Waveform Editor only)
The Time And Pitch > Stretch And Pitch effect lets you change the pitch of an audio signal, the tempo, or both. For example, you can use the
effect to transpose a song to a higher key without changing the tempo, or you can use it to slow down a spoken passage without changing the
pitch.
Note: This effect requires offline processing. While it is open, you cannot edit the waveform, adjust selections, or move the current-time indicator.
Algorithm Choose IZotope Radius to simultaneously stretch audio and shift pitch, or Audition to change stretch or pitch settings over time. The
iZotope Radius algorithm requires longer processing but introduces fewer artifacts.
Precision Higher settings produce better quality but require more processing time.
New Duration Indicates how long the audio will be after time-stretching. You can either adjust the New Duration value directly, or indirectly by
changing the Stretch percentage.
If you commonly stretch files to a certain duration, click the Favorite icon to save that setting for future use. To apply a favorite to multiple files,
see Batch process files.
Lock Stretch Settings to New Duration Overrides custom or preset Stretch settings, instead calculating them from duration adjustments.
Select the option above to quickly make radio spots 30 or 60 seconds long.
Stretch Shortens or extends processed audio relative to existing audio. For example, to shrink audio to half its current duration, specify a Stretch
value of 50%.
Pitch Shift Tonally shifts audio up or down. Each semitone equals one half-step on a keyboard.
Final Stretch or Pitch Shift (Audition algorithm) Changes the initial Stretch or Pitch Shift setting over time, reaching the final setting at the last
selected audio sample.
Lock Stretch and Pitch Shift (IZotope algorithm) Stretches audio to reflect pitch changes, or vice versa.
Lock Initial Strech and Pitch Shift (Audition algorithm) Stretches audio to reflect pitch changes, or vice versa. Final Stretch or Pitch Shift
settings are unaffected.
Advanced settings (IZotope Radius algorithm) Click the triangle to access these options:
Solo Instrument Or Voice More quickly processes a solo performance.
Preserve Speech Characteristics Maintains realism in speech.
Formant Shift Determines how formants adjust to pitch shifts. The default value of zero adjusts formants together with pitch shifts,
maintaining timbre and realism. Values above zero produce higher timbres (making a male voice sound female, for example). Values
below zero do the reverse.
Pitch Coherence Maintains timbre of solo instruments or vocals. Higher values reduce phasing artifacts but introduce more pitch
modulation.
Advanced settings (Audition algorithm) Click the triangle to access these options:
Splicing Frequency Determines how big each chunk of audio data is when you preserve pitch or tempo while stretching a waveform. The
higher the value, the more precise the placement of stretched audio over time. However, artifacts are more noticeable as rates go up;
sound can become tinny or have a tunnel-like quality. With higher Precision settings, lower splicing frequencies may add stutter or echo.
Overlapping Determines how much each chunk of audio data overlaps with the previous and next ones. If stretching produces a chorus
effect, lower the Overlapping percentage, without going so low that you produce a choppy sound. Overlapping can be as high as 400%,
but you should use this value only for very high speed increases (200% or more).
Choose Appropriate Defaults Applies good default values for Splicing Frequency and Overlapping. This option is good for preserving
pitch or tempo.
Constant Vowels Preserves the sound of vowels in stretched vocals. This option requires substantial processing; try it on a small
selection before applying it to a larger one.
More Help topics
Use effect presets
|
135
136
Mixing multitrack sessions
Session templates tutorial
Durin Gleaves (May. 7, 2012)
video-tutorial
Quickly create common multitrack elements
Hardware controllers and recordable automation
video2brain (May. 7, 2012)
video-tutorial
Mixing made perfect.
Multitrack editing enhancements
video2brain (May. 7, 2012)
video-tutorial
Align speech, side-chain effects, and more.
137
Arranging and editing multitrack clips
Select and move clips
Snap to clip endpoints
Copy a clip
Trimming and extending clips
Split clips
Set audio clip properties
When you insert an audio file in the Multitrack Editor, the file becomes a clip on the selected track. You can easily move clips to different tracks or
timeline positions. You can also edit clips nondestructively, trimming their start and end points, crossfading them with other clips, and more.
To arrange clips in the Editor panel, you use the Move
or Time Selection
tools.
To the top
Select and move clips
Do any of the following:
To select an individual clip, click it in the Editor panel.
To select all clips in selected tracks, choose Edit > Select > All Clips In Selected Track.
To select all clips in a session, choose Edit >Select > Select All.
To move selected clips, select the Move tool
in the toolbar, and then drag the clips. Or choose Clip > Nudge Right or Nudge Left to
move clips one pixel at a time. (If you zoom in to see individual samples, nudging moves clips one sample at a time.)
To move clips with the Time Selection tool , right-click and drag (similar to the Hybrid tool technique in previous versions). You can also
drag the clip header with any tool.
To the top
Snap to clip endpoints
Snapping lets you quickly align clips with other clips. If snapping is enabled, both dragged clips and the current-time indicator snap to selected
items. While you drag a clip, a white line appears in the Editor panel when snapping points meet.
1. To enable snapping for selected items, click the Toggle Snapping icon
at the top of the Editor panel.
2. Choose Edit > Snapping > Snap To Clips.
For more information, see Snap to loop beats and Snap to markers, rulers, frames, and zero crossings.
To the top
Copy a clip
You can create two types of copied audio clips: reference copies that share source files and unique copies that have independent source files.
The type of copy you choose depends upon the amount of available disk space and the nature of destructive editing you plan to perform in the
Waveform Editor.
Reference copies consume no additional disk space, letting you simultaneously edit all instances by editing the original source file. (For example,
you can add the Flanger effect to a source file in the Waveform Editor and automatically apply the effect to all 30 referenced copies in a session.)
Unique copies have a separate audio file on disk, allowing for separate editing of each version in the Waveform Editor. (For example, you can add
destructive effects to the version in an introduction while leaving the version in a verse dry.)
To quickly copy a reference, press Ctrl + C (Windows) or Cmd + C (Mac OS). Alternatively, Alt-drag (Windows) or Option-drag (Mac OS) the
clip header.
1. Click the Move tool
in the toolbar. Then right-click and drag the clip.
To copy with the Time Selection tool , right-click and drag the clip header (similar to the Hybrid tool technique in previous versions).
2. Release the mouse button, and choose one of the following from the pop-up menu:
Copy Here (to copy a reference)
Copy Unique Here
138
To the top
Trimming and extending clips
You can trim or extend audio clips to suit the needs of a mix. Because the Multitrack Editor is nondestructive, clip edits are impermanent; you can
return to the original, unedited clip at any time. If you want to permanently edit an audio clip, however, you can quickly open the source file in the
Waveform Editor. (See Comparing the Waveform and Multitrack editors.)
Remove a selected range from clips
1. In the toolbar, click the Time Selection tool
.
2. Drag across one or more clips to select them and a range.
3. Do one of the following:
To remove the range from clips and leave a gap in the timeline, choose Edit > Delete.
To remove the range and collapse the gap in the timeline, choose Edit > Ripple Delete, and select one of the following options:
Selected Clips
Removes selected clips, shifting remaining clips on the same tracks.
Time Selection in Selected Clips
Removes the range from selected clips, splitting them if necessary.
Time Selection in All Tracks
Removes the range from all clips in the session.
Time Selection in Selected Track
Removes the range only from the currently highlighted track in the Editor panel.
Collapse a gap between clips on a track
Right-click the empty area between the clips, and choose Ripple Delete > Gap.
Trim or extend clips
1. If you want to repeat a clip, right-click it and select Loop. (See Looping clips.)
2. In the Editor panel, position the cursor over the left or right edge of the clip. The edge-dragging icon
appears.
3. Drag clip edges.
Shift the contents of a trimmed or looped clip
You can slip edit a trimmed or looped clip to shift its contents within clip edges.
Shift clip contents within clip edges
1. In the toolbar, click the Slip tool
.
2. Drag across the clip.
Permanently edit a clip’s source file in the Waveform Editor
Double-click the clip header.
To the top
Split clips
Split audio clips to break them into separate clips that you can independently move or edit.
Split clips with the Razor tool
1. In the toolbar, hold down the Razor tool
, and choose one of the following from the pop-up menu:
Razor Selected Clips Splits only clips you click.
139
Razor All Clips Splits all clips at the time point you click.
Tip: To switch between these modes in the Editor panel, press Shift.
2. In the Editor panel, click where you want the split to occur.
Split all clips at the current-time indicator
1. Position the current-time indicator where one or more audio clips exist.
2. Choose Clip > Split.
To the top
Set audio clip properties
In the Properties panel, you can quickly change multiple settings for selected audio clips. Clip settings for gain and mute are independent from
similar track controls.
1. Select an audio clip, and choose Window > Properties.
You can access individual properties from the Clip menu.
2. Set the following options:
To change the clip name, type in the text box at the top of the panel.
Clip Color Click the swatch to customize. A swatch with a red slash indicates that the clip is using the default color for the current
Appearance preset. (See Change interface colors, brightness, and performance.)
Clip Gain Compensates for a low or high volume clip that is difficult to mix.
Lock in Time Allows only up or down moves to other tracks, with a fixed timeline position. A lock icon
Loop Enables clip looping. For more information, see Looping clips.
Mute Silences the clip.
Select ranges in the Multitrack Editor
Twitter™ and Facebook posts are not covered under the terms of Creative Commons.
Legal Notices | Online Privacy Policy
140
appears on the clip.
Automating mixes with envelopes (CS6)
Automating clip settings
Automating track settings
Adjust automation with keyframes
By automating mixes, you can change mix settings over time. For example, you can automatically increase volume during a critical musical
passage and later reduce the volume in a gradual fade out. See this video tutorial to watch mix automation in action.
Automation envelopes visually indicate settings at specific points in time, and you can edit them by dragging keyframes on envelope lines.
Envelopes are nondestructive, so they don’t change audio files in any way. If you open a file in the Waveform Editor, for example, you don’t hear
the effect of any envelopes applied in the Multitrack Editor.
Clip and track envelopes in the Editor panel
A. Clip envelope B. Track envelope
To the top
Automating clip settings
With clip envelopes, you can automate clip volume, pan, and effect settings.
On stereo tracks, clip volume and pan envelopes appear by default; you can identify them by color and initial position. Volume envelopes are
yellow lines initially placed across the upper half of clips. Pan envelopes are blue lines initially placed in the center. (With pan envelopes, the top of
a clip represents full left, while the bottom represents full right.)
Note: On mono and 5.1 surround tracks, clips lack pan envelopes.
Two clip envelopes
A. Pan envelope B. Volume envelope
Show or hide clip envelopes
Clip envelopes are visible by default, but if they interfere with editing or are visually distracting, you can hide them.
From the View menu, choose any of the following:
Show Clip Volume Envelopes
Show Clip Pan Envelopes
Show Clip Effect Envelopes
Show or hide individual automation parameters
141
Showing a parameter for an effect
In the upper-right corner of a clip, click the parameter menu, and select a Rack mixing option or an effect parameter. (In the menu, visible
parameters appear with checkmarks. Select a parameter again to hide it.)
After you edit keyframes for a parameter, it appears with an asterisk (*) in the menu.
The Rack Power option lets you turn a clip's Effects Rack on and off over time.
Disable clip keyframe editing
To avoid inadvertently creating or moving keyframes, disable keyframe editing.
From the Multitrack menu, deselect Enable Clip Keyframe Editing.
To the top
Automating track settings
With track envelopes, you can change volume, pan, and effect settings over time. Adobe Audition displays track envelopes in an automation lane
below each track. Each automated parameter has its own envelope, which you edit just like clip envelopes.
Automating track settings in the Editor panel
A. Automation lane B. Envelope for parameter
Create track envelopes
Track envelopes let you precisely change track settings at specific points in time.
Showing automation lanes in Editor panel
1. In Editor panel, click the triangle to the left of the Track Automation Mode menu for the track you want to automate. (The menu is set to
Read by default.)
142
2. From the Show Envelopes menu, select a parameter to automate.
3. On the envelope line, click and drag to add and adjust keyframes.
Record track automation
While playing a session, you can record adjustments you make to track volume, pan, and effect settings, creating a mix that dynamically evolves
over time. Adobe Audition automatically converts your adjustments into track envelopes, which you can edit with precision.
With an external controller such as the Mackie Control, you can adjust multiple settings simultaneously. See Control surface support.
1. In the Main panel, position the current-time indicator where you want to start recording automation.
2. Choose an option from the Track Automation Mode menu.
3. To start recording automation, start playback. As audio plays, adjust track or effect settings in the Editor, Mixer, or Effects Rack panels.
4. To stop recording automation, stop playback.
If recorded keyframes are too numerous or irregular, see Optimize recorded automation.
Track Automation Mode options
In the Editor panel or Mixer, you can choose one of the following modes for each track:
Off Ignores track envelopes during playback and mixdown, but continues to display envelopes so you can manually add or adjust keyframes.
Read Applies track envelopes during playback and mixdown, but doesn’t record any changes you make to them. (You can preview such changes,
but keyframes return to recorded settings.)
Write When playback starts, overwrites existing keyframes with current settings. Continues to record new settings until playback stops.
Latch Begins recording keyframes when you first adjust a setting, and continues to record new settings until playback stops.
Touch Similar to Latch, but gradually returns settings to previously recorded values when you stop adjusting them. Use Touch to overwrite
specific sections of automation while leaving others intact.
Protect settings when recording automation
When recording automation, you may want to protect certain parameters from inadvertent changes, while adjusting other parameters.
1. At the left of the Editor panel, navigate to the specific track's controls.
2. Click the Show/Hide Automation Lanes icon [ICON].
3. From the Show Envelopes menu, choose the parameter.
4. Click the Protect The Parameter icon [ICON].
Optimize recorded automation keyframes
To prevent recorded automation from creating excessive or irregular keyframes, optimize the following settings in Multitrack section of the
Preferences dialog box.
Automatch Time Determines how fast parameters return to original values in the Touch mode. You can set values from 0.00 to 5.00 seconds; the
default value is 1.00 second.
Linear Edit Point Thinning Removes any keyframes that represent static, unchanging parameter settings.
Minimum Time Interval Thinning Creates keyframes at time intervals larger than the specified value. Enter an interval between 1 and 2000
milliseconds in the Minimum Time field.
To the top
Adjust automation with keyframes
Keyframes on envelope lines change clip and track parameters over time. Adobe Audition automatically calculates, or interpolates, all the
intermediate values between keyframes using one of two transition methods:
Hold
Linear
transitions create an abrupt change in value at each new keyframe.
transitions create a gradual, even change between keyframes.
You can also apply spline curves to an entire envelope, overriding the keyframe-specific setting above to create natural-sounding transitions that
143
change in speed near keyframes. (See About spline curves for graphs.)
Transitions between keyframes
A. Hold B. Linear (the default) C. Spline curves
Add a keyframe
Do either of the following:
Position the pointer over an envelope line. When a plus sign
appears, click.
Position the playhead where you’d like a track parameter to change. Then click the Add Keyframe icon
in the track controls.
Navigate between track keyframes
1. In the Editor panel, choose a parameter from the Select menu near the bottom of the track controls.
2. Click the Previous Keyframe
or Next Keyframe
icon.
Select multiple keyframes for a parameter
Right-click any keyframe, and choose Select All Keyframes.
Hold down Ctrl (Windows) or Command (Mac OS), and click specific keyframes.
Hold down Shift, and click to select a series of keyframes.
Reposition keyframes or the envelope line
To reposition selected keyframes, drag them. (To maintain time position or parameter value, hold down Shift and drag.)
To reposition a segment of an envelope without creating a keyframe, hold down Ctrl (Windows) or Command (Mac OS), and drag.
Change the transition between two keyframes
Right-click the first keyframe, and select Hold Keyframe to abruptly change values, or deselect it to gradually transition from one value to the
next.
Apply spline curves to an entire envelope
Right-click an envelope line, and choose Spline Curves.
Delete keyframes
Right-click an envelope line, and choose Delete Selected Keyframes. Or, drag an individual keyframe off a clip or track.
Disable clip keyframe editing
To avoid inadvertently creating or moving keyframes, disable keyframe editing.
From the Multitrack menu, deselect Enable Clip Keyframe Editing.
Editing multitrack sessions in the Editor panel and Mixer
Twitter™ and Facebook posts are not covered under the terms of Creative Commons.
Legal Notices | Online Privacy Policy
144
Automating mixes with envelopes (CS5.5)
Automating clip settings
Automating track settings
Adjust automation with keyframes
Note: Some features in the Windows version of Adobe Audition 3.0 are not available in CS5.5. Examples include control surface support, CD
burning, MIDI, some file formats and effects, clip grouping and time stretching, and the metronome. For a complete list, see Adobe Audition 3.0
features replaced or not implemented in CS5.5.
By automating mixes, you can change mix settings over time. For example, you can automatically increase volume during a critical musical
passage and later reduce the volume in a gradual fade out. See this video tutorial to watch mix automation in action.
Automation envelopes visually indicate settings at specific points in time, and you can edit them by dragging keyframes on envelope lines.
Envelopes are nondestructive, so they don’t change audio files in any way. If you open a file in the Waveform Editor, for example, you don’t hear
the effect of any envelopes applied in the Multitrack Editor.
Clip and track envelopes in the Editor panel
A. Clip envelope B. Track envelope
To the top
Automating clip settings
With clip envelopes, you can automate clip volume, pan, and effect settings.
On stereo tracks, clip volume and pan envelopes appear by default; you can identify them by color and initial position. Volume envelopes are
yellow lines initially placed across the upper half of clips. Pan envelopes are blue lines initially placed in the center. (With pan envelopes, the top of
a clip represents full left, while the bottom represents full right.)
Note: On mono and 5.1 surround tracks, clips lack pan envelopes.
Two clip envelopes
A. Pan envelope B. Volume envelope
Show or hide clip envelopes
Clip envelopes are visible by default, but if they interfere with editing or are visually distracting, you can hide them.
From the View menu, choose any of the following:
Show Clip Volume Envelopes
Show Clip Pan Envelopes
Show Clip Effect Envelopes
Show or hide individual automation parameters
145
Showing a parameter for an effect
In the upper-right corner of a clip, click the parameter menu, and select a Rack mixing option or an effect parameter.
The Rack Power option lets you turn clip effects on and off over time.
To the top
Automating track settings
With track envelopes, you can change volume, pan, and effect settings over time. Adobe Audition displays track envelopes in an automation lane
below each track. Each automated parameter has its own envelope, which you edit just like clip envelopes.
Automating track settings in the Editor panel
A. Automation lane B. Envelope for parameter
Create track envelopes
Track envelopes let you precisely change track settings at specific points in time.
Showing automation lanes in Editor panel
1. In Editor panel, click the triangle to the left of the Read menu for the track you want to automate.
2. From the Show Envelopes menu, select a parameter to automate.
3. On the envelope line, click and drag to add and adjust keyframes.
Track Automation Mode options
In the Editor panel or Mixer, you can choose one of the following modes for each track:
146
Track Automation Mode menu
Off Ignores track envelopes during playback and mixdown, but continues to display envelopes so you can manually add or adjust edit points.
Read Applies track envelopes during playback and mixdown.
To the top
Adjust automation with keyframes
Keyframes on envelope lines change clip and track parameters over time. Adobe Audition automatically calculates, or interpolates, all the
intermediate values between keyframes using one of two transition methods:
Hold
Linear
transitions create an abrupt change in value at each new keyframe.
transitions create a gradual, even change between keyframes.
You can also apply spline curves to an entire envelope, overriding the keyframe-specific setting above to create natural-sounding transitions that
change in speed near keyframes. (See About spline curves for graphs.)
Transitions between keyframes
A. Hold B. Linear (the default) C. Spline curves
Add a keyframe
Do either of the following:
Position the pointer over an envelope line. When a plus sign
appears, click.
Position the current-time indicator where you’d like a track parameter to change. Then click the Add Keyframe icon
in the track controls.
Navigate between track keyframes
1. In the Editor panel, choose a parameter from the Select menu near the bottom of the track controls.
2. Click the Previous Keyframe
or Next Keyframe
icon.
Select multiple keyframes for a parameter
Right-click any keyframe, and choose Select All Keyframes.
Hold down Ctrl (Windows) or Command (Mac OS), and click specific keyframes.
Hold down Shift, and click to select a series of keyframes.
Reposition keyframes or the envelope line
To reposition selected keyframes, drag them. (To maintain time position or parameter value, hold down Shift and drag.)
To reposition a segment of an envelope without creating a keyframe, hold down Ctrl (Windows) or Command (Mac OS), and drag.
Change the transition between two keyframes
Right-click the first keyframe, and select Hold Keyframe to abruptly change values, or deselect it to gradually transition from one value to the
next.
Apply spline curves to an entire envelope
147
Right-click an envelope line, and choose Spline Curves.
Delete keyframes
Right-click an envelope line, and choose Delete Selected Keyframes. Or, drag an individual keyframe off a clip or track.
Disable keyframe editing
To avoid inadvertently creating or moving keyframes, disable keyframe editing.
From the Multitrack menu, deselect Enable Clip Keyframe Editing.
Editing multitrack sessions in the Editor panel and Mixer
Twitter™ and Facebook posts are not covered under the terms of Creative Commons.
Legal Notices | Online Privacy Policy
148
Multitrack clip stretching in CS6
1. Choose Clip > Stretch > Enable Global Clip Stretching.
2. In the Editor panel, drag the white triangles in the upper right or left corner of clips.
Select multiple clips to stretch them proportionately.
To customize stretch settings for selected clips, adjust the following Stretch options in the Properties panel:
Mode Choose from the following:
Off disables stretching, reverting the clip to its original length.
Realtime lets you hear the results of stretching as you drag clips. This mode is a good choice during the editing process.
Rendered (High Quality) requires longer processing but can avoid audible artifacts. Choose this mode if you encounter slow playback or
performance with Realtime mode.
Type Choose from the following:
Monophonic is best for solo musical instruments or dialogue.
Polyphonic is best for music with multiple instruments or complex ambient sounds.
Varispeed changes pitch in addition to duration, similar to slowing down or speeding up analog tape machines.
To quickly apply the same mode to all clips, choose Clip > Stretch > Realtime All Stretched Clips or Render All Stretched Clips.
Duration, Stretch, and Pitch Provide numeric entries for more precise adjustments than dragging clips in the Editor panel allows.
Advanced settings Set the following:
Transient Sensitivity (available in Polyphonic mode) Sets sensitivity to transients such as drum hits and note beginnings, which are used as
anchor points for stretching. Increase if transients sound unnatural.
Window Size Sets the size, in milliseconds, of each chunk of processed audio. Adjust only if echo or flanging artifacts occur.
Precision settings (available in Rendered mode) determine the tradeoff between quality and processing speed.
Preserve Formants (available when Rendered and Monophonic are selected) adjusts the timbre of instruments and voices, maintaining
realism during pitch shifts.
To make male voices sound female, or vice versa, select Preserve Formants and dramatically shift pitch.
Twitter™ and Facebook posts are not covered under the terms of Creative Commons.
Legal Notices | Online Privacy Policy
149
Basic multitrack controls
Understanding video, audio, bus, and master tracks
Choosing between mono, stereo, and 5.1 tracks
Add or delete tracks
Name or move tracks
Vertically zoom tracks
Mute and solo tracks
Apply an identical setting to all tracks
Set track output volume
Pan tracks in stereo
Duplicate tracks
Understanding video, audio, bus, and master tracks
To the top
Multitrack sessions can include four different types of tracks:
Video tracks
contain an imported video clip. A session can include one video track and clip at a time. You can watch a preview in the
Video panel (Window > Video).
Audio tracks
contain either imported audio or clips recorded in the current session. These tracks offer the widest range of controls, letting
you specify inputs and outputs, apply effects and equalization, route audio to sends and buses, and automate mixes.
Bus tracks
let you combine the outputs of several audio tracks or sends and control them collectively.
The Master track
a single fader.
, which is the last in each session, lets you easily combine the outputs of multiple tracks and buses and control them with
For more information, see Routing audio to buses, sends, and the Master track.
To the top
Choosing between mono, stereo, and 5.1 tracks
Multitrack sessions support an unlimited number of mono, stereo, and 5.1 audio and bus tracks. When adding tracks, choose a channel
configuration based on the configuration of the Master track:
For mono masters, add mono audio and bus tracks.
For stereo masters, add stereo audio and bus tracks. except for audio tracks with mono sources (like a single microphone).
For 5.1 masters, add stereo audio tracks and 5.1 bus tracks (to maintain proper gain staging). If you have any 5.1 audio clips, however, add
5.1 audio tracks to contain them.
To identify track channels, note the meters in the Editor or Mixer panel:
A. Mono B. Stereo C. 5.1
150
To the top
Add or delete tracks
Note: A multitrack session supports only one video track, which Adobe Audition always inserts at the top of the Editor panel.
In the Editor panel or Mixer, do the following:
To add a track, select the track you want to precede it, and then choose Multitrack > Track > Add [type of] Track.
To delete a track, select it, and choose Multitrack > Track > Delete Selected Track.
For more information, see the following:
Insert an audio file into a multitrack session
To the top
Name or move tracks
You can name tracks to better identify them, or move them to display related tracks together.
In the Editor panel or Mixer, type in the name text box.
Name text box in the Editor panel
Position the pointer to the left of the track name, and then drag either up or down in the Editor panel, or right or left in the Mixer.
Moving a track in the Editor panel
To the top
Vertically zoom tracks
When you use the vertical Zoom options in the lower right of the Editor panel, all tracks zoom simultaneously. If a session contains many tracks,
however, you may prefer to zoom them individually.
In the track controls, drag the top or bottom border of the track up or down.
To quickly zoom all tracks, roll the mouse wheel over the track controls. To horizontally resize all track controls, drag the right border.
Vertically zooming an individual track
151
For additional techniques, see Zoom audio in the Editor panel.
To the top
Mute and solo tracks
You can solo tracks to hear them separately from the rest of a mix. Conversely, you can mute tracks to silence them in a mix.
To mute a track, click its Mute button
in the Editor panel or Mixer.
To solo a track, click its Solo button
in the Editor panel or Mixer. To automatically remove other tracks from Solo mode, Ctrl-click
(Windows) or Command-click (Mac OS).
To remove other tracks from Solo mode by default, select Track Solo: Exclusive in the Multitrack section of the Preferences dialog box.
(Regardless of this setting, when you solo a bus, assigned tracks are always placed in Solo mode.)
To the top
Apply an identical setting to all tracks
To increase your efficiency, you can quickly apply several settings to an entire session.
Hold down Ctrl+Shift (Windows) or Command+Shift (Mac OS). Then select an Input, Output, Mute, Solo, Arm For Record, or Monitor Input
setting for any track.
For more information, see the following:
To the top
Set track output volume
Do any of the following:
In the Editor panel, drag the Volume knob
. Hold down Shift to change settings in large increments. Hold down Ctrl (Windows) or
Command (Mac OS) to change settings in extremely small increments.
In the Mixer, drag the track fader, or click above or below to move incrementally to the next tick mark. To move to a specific point, Alt-click
(Windows) or Option-click (Mac OS) above or below the fader.
To return knobs and faders to zero (unity gain), Alt-click (Windows) or Option-click (Mac OS) directly on them.
To the top
Pan tracks in stereo
Drag the Pan knob
in the Editor panel or Mixer.
Hold down Shift to change settings in large increments. Hold down Ctrl (Windows) or Command (Mac OS) to change settings in extremely small
increments.
By default, the Multitrack Editor pans using an equal power method, which maintains consistent perceived loudness by slightly boosting one
channel over the other. To change the boost amount, or switch to logarithmic panning (which simply attenuates one channel), change Panning
Mode in the Multitrack preferences.
To the top
Duplicate tracks
To perfectly copy all clips, effects, equalization, and envelopes in a track, duplicate it. Duplicate tracks provide a great starting point for new
adjustments, helping you compare different processing and automation settings.
1. In the Editor panel or Mixer, select a track.
2. Choose Multitrack > Track > Duplicate Selected Track.
More Help topics
Automating track settings
Applying effects in the Multitrack Editor
|
152
Clip volume matching, fading, and mixing
Match multitrack clip volume
Fade or crossfade multitrack clips
Create a single audio clip from multiple clips
Create an audio clip from a bus or master track
To fade individual audio files, see Visually fading and changing amplitude. (The topics below address multitrack clips.)
To the top
Match multitrack clip volume
If multitrack clips have very different volume, making mixing difficult, you can match their volumes. Because the Multitrack Editor is nondestructive,
this adjustment is completely reversible. To instead permanently change the volume of source files, see Match volume across multiple files.
1. Using the Move
or Time Selection
tool, Ctrl-click (Windows) or Command-click (Mac OS) to select multiple clips.
2. Choose Clip > Match Clip Volume.
3. From the pop-up menu, choose one of the following options:
Loudness Matches an average amplitude you specify.
Perceived Loudness Matches a perceived amplitude you specify, accounting for middle frequencies that the ear is most sensitive to. This
option works well unless frequency emphasis varies greatly (for example, midrange frequencies are pronounced in a short passage, but bass
frequencies are elsewhere).
Peak Volume Matches a maximum amplitude you specify, normalizing the clips. Because this option retains dynamic range, it’s a good
choice for clips you plan to process further, or for highly dynamic audio like classical music.
Total RMS Amplitude Matches an overall root-mean-square amplitude you specify. For example, if the majority of two files is -50 dBFS, the
total RMS values would reflect that, even if one file contains more loud passages.
4. Enter a Target Volume.
To the top
Fade or crossfade multitrack clips
On-clip fade and crossfade controls let you visually adjust fade curves and duration. Controls for fade ins and fade outs always appear in the
upper-left and upper-right corners of clips. Controls for crossfades appear only when you overlap clips.
On-clip controls
A. Drag controls in clip corners to fade in and out B. Overlap clips to crossfade
To
Fade a clip in or out
In the upper-left or upper-right corner of the clip, drag the fade icon
fade curve.
Crossfade overlapping clips
153
inward to determine fade length, and drag up or down to adjust the
When you crossfade clips on the same track, you overlap them to determine the size of the transition region (the larger the overlapping area, the
longer the transition).
1. Place two clips on the same track, and move them so they overlap. (See Select and move clips.)
2. At the top of the overlapping area, drag the left
or right
fade icon up or down to adjust the fade curves.
Fade options
To access the following fade options, select a clip, and then either right-click a fade icon in the Editor panel, or choose Clip > Fade In or Fade
Out.
No Fade Deletes the fade or crossfade.
Fade In, Fade Out, or Crossfade If clips overlap, lets you choose the fade type.
Symmetrical or Asymetrical (crossfades only) Determines how the left and right fade curves interact when you drag them up and down.
Symmetrical adjusts both fades identically, while asymetrical lets you adjust fades independently.
Linear or Cosine Applies either an even, linear fade or an S-shaped fade that starts slowly, then rapidly changes amplitude, and ends slowly.
To switch between Linear and Cosine modes while dragging fade icons, hold down Ctrl (Windows) or Command (Mac OS).
Automatic Crossfades Enabled Crossfades overlapping clips. Deselect this option if automatic crossfades are undesirable or interfere with other
tasks, such as trimming clips.
To the top
Create a single audio clip from multiple clips
You can combine the contents of multiple clips in the same time range, creating a single clip that you can quickly edit in either the Multitrack or
Waveform Editor.
Creating single clip from multiple clips in Multitrack Editor
1. In the Editor panel, do any of the following:
Select a specific time range. (See Select ranges in the Multitrack Editor.)
Select specific clips if bouncing to a new track.
Select nothing to mix down an entire session.
2. To combine the contents of the original clips, do either of the following:
To create a track and clip in the Multitrack Editor, choose Multitrack > Bounce To New Track.
To create a file in the Waveform Editor, choose Multitrack > Mixdown To New File.
To mixdown an entire session, see Export multitrack mixdown files.
To the top
Create an audio clip from a bus or master track
If you want to edit audio from a bus or master track, create a clip from the track.
1. In the Editor panel, select a time range for the new clip. (See Select ranges in the Multitrack Editor.)
2. In the timeline, right-click a bus or master track, choose Bounce [track type] To New Track.
Adobe Audition creates a new track with a clip that reflects the bus or master mix.
More Help topics
154
Export multitrack mixdown files
|
155
Looping clips
Access free loops from Resource Central
Snap to loop beats
Enable a looped clip and change its length
Note: Some features in the Windows version of Adobe Audition 3.0 are not available in CS5.5. Examples include loop tempo and key adjustment,
clip time stretching, MIDI, the metronome, CD burning, and some file formats and effects. For a complete list, see Adobe Audition 3.0 features
replaced or not implemented in CS5.5.
In many musical styles, you’ll find loops used for everything from basic rhythm tracks to entire compositions. With Adobe Audition, you can either
create your own loops or choose from thousands supplied for free via the Resource Central panel.
Loops let you create extremely flexible multitrack sessions. Though loops typically contain only one or two bars of music (four to eight beats), you
can extend and repeat them by simply dragging with the mouse.
Identifying loops in the track display
A. No loop B. Single loop C. Extended (repeated) loop
To the top
Access free loops from Resource Central
Resource Central provides an extensive online library of loops, sound effects, and music beds, which you can access directly in Adobe Audition.
1. Choose Window > Resource Central.
2. At the top of the Resource Central panel, click Loops, Sound Effects, or Music Beds.
3. From the menu below the search box, select a genre.
4. In the list of results, click the play button to hear a preview or the down-arrow to download the file into Audition. (Checkmarks in the list
indicate previously downloaded items.)
To the top
Snap to loop beats
To better synchronize a loop-based session, use the Bars And Beats time format and enable snapping. Then add loops to create a rhythmic
foundation, which you can build upon by recording new audio clips. (You can also add existing audio clips, but only their start or end points will
align with loop beats.)
1. Choose View > Time Display > Bars And Beats. (This ruler format makes it easier to visually align loops with musical beats.)
2. From the Edit > Snapping submenu, choose any of the following:
Snap To Ruler (Coarse) Snaps to beats within bars. Use this option if you work with 1/4 or 1/2 bar loop files.
Snap To Clips Snaps to the start and end of audio clips.
Snap To Loops Snaps to the start and end of loops within clips.
156
To the top
Enable a looped clip and change its length
1. In the Multitrack Editor, right-click an audio clip, and select Loop from the context menu.
2. Position the pointer over the left or right edge of the clip; the loop editing icon
appears.
3. Drag to extend or shorten the loop.
Depending on how far you drag, you can make the loop repeat fully or partially. For example, you might drag a loop that is one bar long so
that it extends 3-1/2 bars, ending on a beat within the loop. As you cross each bar, a white vertical line appears in the clip. This is the
snap-to line, indicating perfect alignment to beats in other tracks.
Extending a loop
More Help topics
Snap to clip endpoints
Change the time display format
|
157
Multitrack Editor overview
About multitrack sessions
Editing multitrack sessions in the Editor panel and Mixer
Select ranges in the Multitrack Editor
Customize start offset and time display for multitrack sessions
To the top
About multitrack sessions
In the Multitrack Editor, you can mix together multiple audio tracks to create layered soundtracks and elaborate musical compositions. You can
record and mix unlimited tracks, and each track can contain as many clips as you need—the only limits are hard disk space and processing
power. When you’re happy with a mix, you can export a mixdown file for use on CD, the web, and more.
The Multitrack Editor is an extremely flexible, real-time editing environment, so you can change settings during playback and immediately hear the
results. While listening to a session, for example, you can adjust track volume to properly blend tracks together. Any changes you make are
impermanent, or nondestructive. If a mix doesn’t sound good next week, or even next year, you can simply remix the original source files, freely
applying and removing effects to create different sonic textures.
Adobe Audition saves information about source files and mix settings in session (.sesx) files. Session files are relatively small because they
contain only pathnames to source files and references to mix parameters (such as volume, pan, and effect settings). To more easily manage
session files, save them in a unique folder with the source files they reference. If you later need to move the session to another computer, you can
simply move the unique session folder.
Editing multitrack sessions in the Editor panel and Mixer
To the top
In the Multitrack Editor, the Editor panel provides several elements that help you mix and edit sessions. In the track controls on the left, you adjust
track-specific settings, such as volume and pan. In the timeline on the right, you edit the clips and automation envelopes in each track.
Editor panel in Multitrack Editor
A. Track controls B. Zoom navigator C. Vertical scroll bar D. Track
The Mixer (Window > Mixer) provides an alternative view of a session, revealing many more tracks and controls simultaneously, without showing
clips. The Mixer is ideal for mixing large sessions with many tracks.
158
Controls in the Mixer:
A. Inputs B. Effects C. Sends D. Equalization E. Volume F. Outputs
To the top
Select ranges in the Multitrack Editor
Simultaneously selecting a range and clips in the Editor panel
1. In the toolbar, select the Time Selection tool
.
2. In the Editor panel, do one of the following:
To select only a range, click an empty area of the track display, and drag left or right.
To select a range and clips, click the center of a clip, and drag a marquee.
Customize start offset and time display for multitrack sessions
1. In the Editor panel, click an empty area of the track display to ensure that no clips are selected.
2. Choose Window > Properties.
159
To the top
3. In the Properties panel, adjust the following options:
Start Time Sets a start-time offset, helping you match audio in Adobe Audition to the time displayed in video applications.
Advanced settings To customize Time Display settings for the active session, set the Time Format and Custom Frame Rate settings. For
details, see Change the time display format.
More Help topics
Comparing the Waveform and Multitrack editors
Create a new multitrack session
Save multitrack sessions
Arranging and editing multitrack clips
Automating mixes with envelopes
|
160
Multitrack routing and EQ controls
Show or hide track routing and EQ controls
Assign audio inputs and outputs to tracks
Routing audio to buses, sends, and the Master track
Set up a send
Equalize tracks
To the top
Show or hide track routing and EQ controls
Although the wide variety of routing and EQ controls may seem intimidating at first, the controls for each track are identical, so once you’ve
learned one, you’ve learned them all.
Showing and hiding sets of audio track controls
A. Editor panel B. Mixer
Do either of the following:
On the left side of the Mixer, click the Show/Hide triangle for one or more sets of controls.
In the upper left corner of the Editor panel, click the button for Inputs/Outputs
, Effects
, Sends
, or EQ
.
In the Editor panel, drag the right or bottom border of the track controls to show more or less detail.
Dragging the right border of the track controls to reveal more or less detail
For more information, see Vertically zoom tracks.
To the top
Assign audio inputs and outputs to tracks
In the Inputs/Outputs area
of the Editor panel or Mixer, do the following:
From the Input menu, choose a hardware input.
From the Output menu, choose a bus, the Master track, or a hardware output.
The list of available hardware ports is determined by settings in the Audio Hardware preferences. (See Configure audio inputs and outputs.)
For more information, see the following:
161
Invert the polarity of an input
If a pair of stereo inputs such as overhead drum microphones are out-of-phase, you’ll hear duller sound and a narrower stereo image. To correct
the problem, invert the polarity of one the inputs.
In the Input Controls area
of the Mixer, click the Polarity Reverse button
To understand audio phase, see How sound waves interact.
.
Routing audio to buses, sends, and the Master track
To the top
Buses, sends, and the Master track let you route multiple track outputs to one set of controls. With these combined controls, you can efficiently
organize and mix a session.
To save the output of an audio, bus, or Master track to a file, see Export multitrack mixdown files.
An example of audio routing for tracks
A. Vocal B. Reverb bus receiving vocal and guitar sends C. Guitar D. Drums bus combining drum outputs E. Bass outputting direct to
hardware F. Master track G. Hardware outputs
Understanding bus tracks
With bus tracks, you can combine the outputs of several audio tracks or sends and control them collectively. For example, to control the volume of
multiple drum tracks with a single fader, output all the tracks to one bus. Or, to optimize system performance, apply a single reverb effect to a bus
track, and then output sends from multiple tracks to that bus. (Individually applying the same reverb to multiple tracks would inefficiently use CPU
resources.)
Although bus tracks lack a hardware input, they have all the other features of audio tracks. You can apply effects and equalization and automate
your changes over time. For most mixes, you’ll output buses to hardware ports or the Master track. If you need to combine buses, however, you
can even output them to other buses.
162
An example of bus routing:
A. Drum kit bus B. Hand drum bus C. Combined drums bus outputting to either the Master track or hardware
Understanding sends
Sends let you route audio from a track to multiple buses, creating tremendous signal-routing flexibility. Each track provides up to 16 sends, which
you configure independently from the track output. For example, you can output an unprocessed track directly to a hardware port, but output Send
1 to a reverb bus and Send 2 to a headphone bus. (A headphone bus lets performers hear a unique mix during recording. Drummers, for example,
may prefer a louder bass track.)
Sending tracks to multiple buses
A. Send 1 outputs to delay bus B. Send 2 outputs to reverb bus C. Master track combines vocal, guitar, delay, and reverb outputs
Understanding the Master track
A session always contains one Master track, so you can easily combine the outputs of multiple tracks and buses and control them with a single
fader. Because the Master track exists at the very end of the signal path, it offers fewer routing options than audio and bus tracks. The Master
track can’t directly connect to audio inputs, or output to sends or buses; it can only output directly to hardware ports.
The Master track always exists at the end of the signal path.
A. Editor panel B. Mixer
To the top
Set up a send
When you set up a send, you determine the volume and stereo pan it outputs to an assigned bus. You also place the send either pre- or
post-fader. Pre-fader sends aren’t affected by track volume; post-fader sends are. (For example, if you output a pre-fader send to a reverb bus, the
reverb continues after you fade out dry audio. If you instead output a post-fader send, the reverb fades out in unison with dry audio.)
163
Pre- and post-fader effect and send routing for each track
A. Input B. EQ C. Track volume D. Track mute E. Send F. Effects Rack
1. In the Sends area
of the Mixer, click the send Power button
.
2. Click the Pre-Fader/Post-Fader button to place the send either before track volume
3. Set send Volume
and Pan
or after
.
.
4. From the Send pop-up menu, select a bus.
For more information, see Insert effects before or after sends and EQ.
To the top
Equalize tracks
For each track, the Multitrack Editor provides a parametric equalizer.
In the EQ area
of the Editor or Mixer panel, do any of the following:
Double-click the graph to access detailed controls in the Track EQ window. (See Parametric Equalizer effect.)
Click the EQ Power button
to compare audio with and without equalization.
More Help topics
Use effect presets
|
164
Video and surround sound
165
5.1 surround sound
Monitoring 5.1 surround sound
Edit 5.1 surround files
Pan tracks in a 5.1 surround mix
Pan sends to a 5.1 bus track
To the top
Monitoring 5.1 surround sound
Adobe Audition supports 5.1 surround sound, which requires five speakers, plus one low frequency subwoofer (LFE). To properly monitor 5.1
surround sound , your computer must have a sound card with at least six outputs, and those outputs must be mapped to the correct channels in
Audition.
1. Choose Edit > Preferences > Audio Channel Mapping (Windows) or Audition > Preferences > Audio Channel Mapping (Mac OS).
2. Map each 5.1 channel to a sound card output:
L: Front left speaker.
R: Front right speaker.
C: Front center speaker.
LFE: Subwoofer
Ls: Left surround speaker.
Rs: Right surround speaker.
For more information, see Configure audio inputs and outputs.
To the top
Edit 5.1 surround files
In the Waveform Editor, you can edit 5.1 surround files with the same tools used for mono and stereo files.
To restrict editing to a subset of 5.1 channels, see Specify which channels you want to edit.
To the top
Pan tracks in a 5.1 surround mix
1. Open or create a 5.1 multitrack session. (See Create a new multitrack session.)
2. To open the Track Panner, do either of the following:
Choose Window > Track Panner. Then select a mono or stereo track in the Editor panel.
In the Editor or Mixer panel, double-click a surround plot for a mono or stereo track.
Note: You can pan only mono and stereo tracks, not 5.1 tracks. To adjust the relative volume of channels in a 5.1 file, open it in the
Waveform Editor.
Double-click a surround plot to open the Track Panner
3. In the Track Panner, do any of the following:
166
To enable or disable channels, click the L, C, R, Ls, and Rs buttons. Or click LFE Only to send audio only to the subwoofer.
In the large surround plot, drag to change the position of the signal.
As you drag, white lines change in length from the speakers, reflecting the power of the signal in each. In the background, green and
purple areas reflect the placement of left and right stereo image; blue areas indicate where the image overlaps.
Below the surround plot, set the following options:
Angle
Shows where in the surround field the sound appears to originate from. For example, -90° is directly to the left, while 90° is directly to
the right.
Stereo Spread
Determines the separation between stereo audio tracks, with zero and -180° producing minimum separation, and -90° producing
maximum separation.
Radius
Determines how far around the surround field the sound extends. For example, 100% produces a focused sound originating from very
few speakers, while 0% produces an unfocused sound originating from all speakers.
Center
For tracks panned to the front of the surround field, determines the percentage of Center channel level relative to Left and Right level.
LFE
Controls the level of signal sent to the subwoofer.
4. To pan additional tracks, simply select them in the Editor panel. The Track Panner automatically displays each track’s unique settings.
To dynamically pan surround tracks over time, see Automating track settings.
To the top
Pan sends to a 5.1 bus track
1. In the Multitrack Editor, create a 5.1 bus track. (See Add or delete tracks.)
2. From the send output menu for an audio track, select the 5.1 bus track. (See Set up a send.)
In the Sends area
of the Editor and Mixer panels, a surround plot appears. Double-click it to access the Track Panner for the send.
Adobe also recommends
Twitter™ and Facebook posts are not covered under the terms of Creative Commons.
Legal Notices | Online Privacy Policy
167
5.1 surround sound
Monitoring 5.1 surround sound
Edit 5.1 surround files
Pan tracks in a 5.1 surround mix
Pan sends to a 5.1 bus track
To the top
Monitoring 5.1 surround sound
Adobe Audition supports 5.1 surround sound, which requires five speakers, plus one low frequency subwoofer (LFE). To properly monitor 5.1
surround sound , your computer must have a sound card with at least six outputs, and those outputs must be mapped to the correct channels in
Audition.
1. Choose Edit > Preferences > Audio Channel Mapping (Windows) or Audition > Preferences > Audio Channel Mapping (Mac OS).
2. Map each 5.1 channel to a sound card output:
L: Front left speaker.
R: Front right speaker.
C: Front center speaker.
LFE: Subwoofer
Ls: Left surround speaker.
Rs: Right surround speaker.
For more information, see Configure audio inputs and outputs.
To the top
Edit 5.1 surround files
In the Waveform Editor, you can edit 5.1 surround files with the same tools used for mono and stereo files. See Editing audio files.
To restrict editing to a subset of 5.1 channels, see Specify which channels you want to edit.
To the top
Pan tracks in a 5.1 surround mix
1. Open or create a 5.1 multitrack session. (See Create a new multitrack session.)
2. To open the Track Panner, do either of the following:
Choose Window > Track Panner. Then select a mono or stereo track in the Editor panel.
In the Editor or Mixer panel, double-click a surround plot for a mono or stereo track.
Note: You can pan only mono and stereo tracks, not 5.1 tracks. To adjust the relative volume of channels in a 5.1 file, open it in the
Waveform Editor.
Double-click a surround plot to open the Track Panner
3. In the Track Panner, do any of the following:
To enable or disable channels, click the L, C, R, Ls, and Rs buttons. Or click LFE Only to send audio only to the subwoofer.
In the large surround plot, drag to change the position of the signal.
168
As you drag, white lines change in length from the speakers, reflecting the power of the signal in each. In the background, green and
purple areas reflect the placement of left and right stereo image; blue areas indicate where the image overlaps.
Below the surround plot, set the following options:
Angle Shows where in the surround field the sound appears to originate from. For example, -90° is directly to the left, while 90° is
directly to the right.
Stereo Spread Determines the separation between stereo audio tracks, with zero and -180° producing minimum separation, and -90°
producing maximum separation.
Radius Determines how far around the surround field the sound extends. For example, 100% produces a focused sound originating from
very few speakers, while 0% produces an unfocused sound originating from all speakers.
Center For tracks panned to the front of the surround field, determines the percentage of Center channel level relative to Left and Right
level.
LFE Controls the level of signal sent to the subwoofer.
4. To pan additional tracks, simply select them in the Editor panel. The Track Panner automatically displays each track’s unique settings.
To dynamically pan surround tracks over time, see Automating track settings.
To the top
Pan sends to a 5.1 bus track
1. In the Multitrack Editor, create a 5.1 bus track. (See Add or delete tracks.)
2. From the send output menu for an audio track, select the 5.1 bus track. (See Set up a send.)
In the Sends area
of the Editor and Mixer panels, a surround plot appears. Double-click it to access the Track Panner for the send.
More Help topics
|
169
Importing video and working with video clips
Insert a video file into a multitrack session
Snap to frames in a video clip
Customize the Video panel
To the top
Insert a video file into a multitrack session
In the Multitrack Editor, you can insert video files to precisely synchronize a session with a video preview. When you insert a video file, its video
clip appears at the top of the track display, and its audio clip appears on the track below.
You can move a video clip independently from the audio clip containing the original soundtrack. To instead keep such clips synchronized, before
moving them, select both: Ctrl-click (Windows) or Command+click (Mac OS).
Note: A session can contain only one video clip at a time.
Related video and audio clips (select both to keep them synchronized)
1. In the Multitrack Editor, position the current-time indicator at the desired insertion point.
2. Choose Multitrack > Insert File, and select a video file in a supported format. (See Video file formats.)
3. When you finish mixing audio for the video, export a mixdown, and import it into your video application. (See Export multitrack mixdown
files.)
To quickly edit audio from a video file, choose File > Open. This technique is great for soundtrack editing that doesn’t require a video preview,
or for readapting soundtracks for audio-only mediums, such as radio or CD.
To the top
Snap to frames in a video clip
To synchronize a multitrack session with video, snap audio clips and the current-time indicator to frames.
1. Choose View > Time Display, and select the SMPTE time format that corresponds to the frame rate of the clip.
2. Choose Edit > Snapping > Snap To Frames.
To the top
Customize the Video panel
In the Video panel, you can preview video clips as a multitrack session plays to precisely synchronize a soundtrack with specific video events such
as scene changes, title sequences, or special effects.
To hide or show the Video panel, choose Window > Video.
170
Video panel and related clip in Editor panel
To customize the Video panel, right-click it, and select either of the following options:
A zoom percentage Zooms in or out.
Best Fit Fits previews to the panel.
More Help topics
Video file formats
Select and move clips
Snap to clip endpoints
Zoom audio in the Editor panel
|
171
Working with video applications
Edit audio clips from Adobe Premiere Pro CS5.5 or After Effects
Export a multitrack mix to Premiere Pro CS5.5
Link sessions to exported mixdown files
Adobe recommends
Have a tutorial you would like to share?
Integrate Premiere Pro and Audition
The After Effects to Audition workflow
Jason Levine
Share complete mixes between the two
applications for maximum flexibility.
Chris Meyer
Quickly enhance video animations with powerful audio
tools.
Edit audio clips from Adobe Premiere Pro CS5.5 or After Effects
To the top
From Adobe Premiere Pro® CS5.5 or After Effects®, you can quickly open selected clips in the Waveform Editor to restore or enhance them.
When you save your changes, the updated audio automatically appears in your video projects.
In Adobe Premiere Pro, choose Edit > Edit in Adobe Audition > Clip.
In After Effects, choose Edit > Edit in Adobe Audition.
For more information, search for “Adobe Audition” in Help for Premiere Pro or After Effects.
To the top
Export a multitrack mix to Premiere Pro CS5.5
Adobe Premiere Pro and Audition CS5.5 directly exchange audio between sequences and multitrack sessions. Any sequence markers appear in
Audition, and separate tracks can be retained for maximum editing flexibility.
The applications exchange sequences and sessions using a shared XML format, exported to a folder that contains any referenced audio files.
If you want to send a single mixdown file to Premiere and don’t need the option of exporting individual tracks, see Link sessions to exported
mixdown files.
Multiple clips from Audition combined as stems in Premiere
1. Choose Multitrack > Export to Adobe Premiere Pro.
2. Specify a name and location for the exported session folder, and set the following options:
Sample Rate By default, reflects the sample rate of the original sequence. Select another rate to resample the file for different output
mediums. (See Understanding sample rate.)
Export each track or bus as a stem Converts the full timeline duration of each track into a single clip, combining multiple clips if necessary.
Select this option to extend and align clips with sequence start and end points.
Mixdown Session To Exports the session to a single mono, stereo, or 5.1 file.
Open in Adobe Premiere Pro Automatically opens the sequence in Premiere Pro. Deselect this option if you plan to edit the sequence later
or transfer it to a different machine.
3. Click Export.
172
4. When Premiere Pro opens the exported XML file (either automatically or via the File > Import command), the Copy Adobe Audition Tracks
dialog box appears.
From the Copy to Active Sequence menu, choose where the exported Audition tracks begin. Any new tracks are added below existing ones.
To send sequence audio from Premiere Pro to Audition, see Export sequence tracks to Adobe Audition in Premiere Pro Help.
To the top
Link sessions to exported mixdown files
To create layered video soundtracks that you can easily update, link multitrack sessions to exported mixdown files. When you select the exported
files in an application such as Adobe Premiere Pro, you can either remix or edit them in Adobe Audition. As a video project evolves, simply repeat
this process to create a polished final soundtrack.
If you use Premiere Pro CS5.5 and want to share entire multitrack mixes, rather than mixdown files, see Export a multitrack mix to Premiere Pro
CS5.5.
Embed edit-original data in exported mixdown files
1. Open a multitrack session.
2. Choose Edit > Preferences > Markers & Metadata (Windows) or Audition > Preferences > Markers & Metadata (Mac OS).
3. Select Embed Edit Original Link Data in Multitrack Sessions.
4. When you export mixdowns, select Include Markers and Other Metadata.
Edit a mixdown file via a video application
1. In the video application, select a mixdown file you exported from Adobe Audition.
2. Choose Edit > Edit Original.
3. Select one of the following options, and then click OK:
Open The Audition Multitrack Session That Created The File
Open The File In The Audition Waveform Editor
4. Remix the linked session in the Multitrack Editor, or edit the mixdown file in the Waveform Editor.
5. To overwrite the original file in the video application, do one of the following:
In the Multitrack Editor, choose File > Export > Multitrack Mixdown, and specify the same name and location as the original file.
In the Waveform Editor, choose File > Save.
More Help topics
Mastering effect
Comparing the Waveform and Multitrack editors
Export sessions to OMF or Final Cut Pro Interchange format
|
173
Saving and exporting
174
Saving and exporting files (CS6)
Save audio files
Extract audio channels to mono files
Save multitrack sessions
Export sessions to OMF or Final Cut Pro Interchange format
Export session templates
Export session archives
Export multitrack mixdown files
Audio format settings
Close files
To the top
Save audio files
In the Waveform Editor, you can save audio files in a variety of common formats. The format you choose depends on how you plan to use the file.
(See Audio format settings.) Keep in mind that each format stores unique information that might be discarded if you save a file in a different format.
1. In the Waveform Editor, do one of the following:
To save changes in the current file, choose File > Save.
To save changes under a different filename, choose File > Save As. Or choose File > Export > File to keep the current file open.
To save currently selected audio as a new file, choose File > Save Selection As.
To save all open files in their current formats, choose File > Save All.
Choose File > Save All Audio as Batch Process to process all open files. For details, see Batch process files.
2. Specify a filename and location, and choose a file format.
3. Set the following options:
Sample Type Indicates the sample rate and bit depth. To adjust these options, click Change. (See Convert the sample rate of a file.)
Format Settings Indicates data compression and storage modes; to adjust these, click Change. (See Audio format settings.)
Include Markers and Other Metadata Includes audio markers and information from the Metadata panel in saved files. (See Working with
markers and Viewing and editing XMP metadata.)
Note: Some CD-burning applications misinterpret non-audio information such as markers and metadata, producing an unpleasant burst of
noise at the beginning of each track.
To the top
Extract audio channels to mono files
If you want to edit or output individual channels of a stereo or surround-sound file, extract them to mono files. Adobe Audition appends the channel
name to each extracted filename. For example, a stereo source file named Jazz.aif produces mono files named Jazz_L and Jazz_R.
In the Waveform Editor, choose Edit > Extract Channels To Mono Files.
Audition automatically opens each extracted file in the Editor panel.
To the top
Save multitrack sessions
A multitrack session file is a small, non-audio file. It merely stores information about locations of related audio files on your hard drive, the duration
of each audio file within the session, the envelopes and effects applied to various tracks, and so forth. You can reopen a saved session file later to
make further changes to the mix.
If you create multitrack mixes entirely in Adobe Audition, save session files in the native SESX format. If you plan to share multitrack compositions
with other applications, however, see Export sessions to OMF or Final Cut Pro Interchange format.
You can save sessions with a record of all open files, and automatically reopen them with sessions. In the Multitrack preferences, select
Reference All Open Audio And Video Files.
175
1. In the Multitrack Editor, do one of the following:
To save changes to the current session file, choose File > Save
To save changes under a different filename, choose File > Save As. Or choose File > Export > Session to keep the current session
open.
To save the session file and all the audio files it contains, choose File > Save All .
2. Specify a filename and location.
3. To include audio markers and information from the Metadata panel, select Include Markers And Other Metadata.
Export sessions to OMF or Final Cut Pro Interchange format
To the top
To transfer complete mixes to other applications in your workflow, export to OMF or Final Cut Pro Interchange format. OMF was originally created
for Avid Pro Tools, but now is a common multitrack exchange format for many audio mixing applications. Final Cut Pro Interchange format is
based on human-readable XML files, which you can edit offline to revise text references, mix settings, and so on.
Export to OMF
1. In the Multitrack Editor, choose File > Export > OMF.
2. Specify a filename and location.
3. Set the following options:
Sample Type Click Change to access the Convert Sample Type dialog box. (See Converting sample types.)
OMF Settings Click Change to access the following:
Media Encapsulated stores audio clips in the OMF file itself for easier organization. Referenced stores audio clips in the same
folder as the OMF file, letting you edit them offline if necessary.
Note: Encapsulated OMF files are limited to 2 GB in size.
Media Options Determines whether clip source files are trimmed to clip length in the Editor panel or reflect the entire original file.
Handle Duration For trimmed clips, specifies the time duration to include beyond clip edges. Including additional audio provides
more flexibility for fades and editing.
The Warnings section indicates elements of the session that will be excluded or changed. To copy this information to the clipboard, click the Copy
Warnings button
.
Export to Final Cut Pro Interchange format
1. In the Multitrack Editor, choose File > Export > FCP XML Interchange Format.
2. Specify a filename and location.
3. To include audio markers and information from the Metadata panel, select Include Markers And Other Metadata.
4. To combine session and source files for easy transfer to other systems, select Save Copies Of Associated Files. To change format and
sample type for exported source files, click Options.
The following session elements are excluded from the exported file:
The second channel of stereo clips. (All clips and tracks become mono.)
Overlapping clips
Effects and track EQ.
Automation envelopes other than clip volume and mono-to-stereo track panning.
Output routing, sends, buses, and the Master track.
To the top
Export session templates
Session templates include all multitrack properties and clips, helping you quickly start projects requiring similar settings and tasks. Examples
176
include an intro theme or background ambience common to several related shows.
1. Choose File > Export > Session As Template. Then specify a name and location.
2. To apply a template to a new session, choose File > New > Multitrack Session. Then choose an option from the Template menu.
To the top
Export session archives
To combine session and source files for easy transfer to other computers or storage devices, export session archives.
Use this process to change the sample rate and bit depth of a session.
1. Choose File > Export > Session.
2. Select Save Copies Of Associated Files, and then click Options.
3. To save source files in a different format, select Convert Files, and set options as desired.
4. To export full or trimmed source files, choose from the Media Options menu.
Handle Duration specifies how much additional audio to include at the start and end of trimmed clips. For greater flexibility with future trimming
and fading adjustments, add handles of up to 10 seconds.
To the top
Export multitrack mixdown files
After you finish mixing a session, you can export all or part of it in a variety of common formats. (See Audio file formats.) When you export, the
resulting file reflects current volume, pan, and effects settings routed to the Master track.
To quickly mix specific audio clips down to a single track, use the Multitrack > Bounce To New Track command. (See Create a single audio
clip from multiple clips.)
1. If you want to export part of a session, use the Time Selection tool
to select the desired range.
2. Choose File > Export > Multitrack Mixdown.
(Alternatively, choose Multitrack > Mixdown To New File to open the mixdown in the Waveform Editor and skip the steps below.)
3. Specify a filename and location, and choose a file format.
4. Set the following options:
Sample Type Indicates the sample rate and bit depth. To adjust these options, click Change. (See Convert the sample rate of a file.)
Format Settings Indicates data compression and storage modes; to adjust these, click Change. (See Audio format settings.)
Include Markers and Other Metadata Includes audio markers and information from the Metadata panel in saved files. (See Working with
markers and Viewing and editing XMP metadata.)
Mixdown Options Let you mixdown tracks as separate files, or simultaneously output mono, stereo, and 5.1 mixdowns. To adjust these
and other settings, click Change.
In the Waveform Editor, choose Edit > Edit Original to open the multitrack session that created a mixdown file. This command requires
embedded metadata in the file. (See Embed edit-original data in exported mixdown files.)
To the top
Audio format settings
In most cases, you should save uncompressed audio to the AIFF or WAV formats. Save to the compressed mp3 format only when creating files for
the web or portable media players.
In a Save As or Export dialog box, click Change to the right of Format Settings to access the options below.
To see the effect of settings changes, note the Estimated File Size at the bottom of the dialog box.
AIFF format settings (*aif, *.aiff, *.aifc)
AIFF is the standard uncompressed audio file format on Mac OS.
Sample Type (available only for 32-bit files) Sets the audio bit depth. Higher bit depths provide more dynamic range and reduce distortion,
though they increase file size and processing time. To determine the proper setting for common output types, see Understanding bit depth.
Integer settings clip audio that extends beyond the amplitude range for a given bit depth. Floating Point settings require slightly more storage
space, but retain much greater dynamic range.
Choose 32-bit Floating Point if you want to repeatedly process the file and discard minimal amplitude data.
177
Note: To add Author metadata to an AIFF file, use the Dublin Core: Creator field on the XMP tab of the Metadata panel. (See Viewing and editing
XMP metadata.)
Byte Order (available only for 16-bit files) Specifies the numerical sequence for bytes of data. Choose the Little-Endian method for systems
with Intel processors and the Big-Endian method for systems with PowerPC processors.
Monkey's Audio format settings (.ape)
Monkey's Audio compresses files to roughly half their original size, using a lossless algorithm that retains sonic fidelity.
Compression Determines the tradeoff between processing speed and file size. (Fast processing produces larger file sizes, and vice versa.)
MP2 Audio format settings
MP2 (MPEG-1 Audio Layer II) is a lossy compression format particularly popular in radio broadcasting.
Channel Mode Choose one of the following:
Automatic selects an option below based on the current channel configuation of the file.
Mono produces a one-channel file.
Dual Mono produces a two-channel file with identical audio in both channels.
Stereo produces a two-channel file, processing channels independently, and retaining stereo imagery.
Joint Stereo processes both channels together, reducing file size, but often affecting stereo imagery.
Bitrate Adjusts the tradeoff between file size and audio quality. Higher settings increase size and quality; lower settings reduce size and quality.
For information about Advanced options, position the mouse over them until a tool tip appears.
MP3 format settings
MP3 is the standard compressed audio format for online distribution.
Type Choose Constant to apply a consistent bitrate or Variable to change the bitrate based on audio content.
Bitrate (for constant bitrates) or Quality (for variable) Adjusts the tradeoff between file size and audio quality. Higher settings increase size
and quality; lower settings reduce size and quality.
Avoid compressing the same audio to mp3 more than once. Opening and resaving an mp3 file causes it to be recompressed, so any artifacts
from the compressing process become more pronounced.
QuickTime format settings (audio-only *.mov)
You cannot adjust format settings for audio-only QuickTime files, which are always saved as uncompressed PCM (Pulse Code Modulation) data.
Wave PCM format settings (.wav, .bwf)
Wave PCM is the standard uncompressed audio format on Windows.
You can include Broadcast Wave metadata in Windows PCM files. (See Viewing and editing XMP metadata.)
Sample Type (available only for 32-bit files) Sets the audio bit depth. Higher bit depths provide more dynamic range and reduce distortion,
though they increase file size and processing time. To determine the proper setting for common output types, see Understanding bit depth.
Integer settings clip audio that extends beyond the amplitude range for a given bit depth. Floating Point settings require slightly more storage
space, but retain much greater dynamic range.
Note: The nonstandard 16.8 and 24.0 Floating Point options are provided for compatibility with previous versions of Adobe Audition. (16.8 was the
internal format used by Audition 1.0. 24.0 was an optional setting from the same version.)
4GB Plus Support Stores files larger than 4GB using either RF64 format, which reflects the current European Broadcasting Union standard, or
the Multiple Data Chunks format supported by older versions of Audition.
Note: To ensure compatibility with a wide range of applications, choose the RF64 format for files greater than 4GB.
libsndfile, FLAC, and OGG format settings
The following options are shared by a wide range of formats.
178
FLAC format uniquely is both compressed (reducing file size) and lossless (retaining full audio fidelity).
Format Specifies the file format and extension.
Encoding Specifies the data storage scheme for the file.
Byte Order Specifies the numerical sequence for bytes of data. The Default Byte Order automatically applies the default for your system
processor and is typically the best option.
VBR Quality (OGG files only) Determines the tradeoff between file size and audio quality. (Higher settings produce larger files, but better
quality.)
To the top
Close files
Do any of the following:
To close the current file in the Editor panel, choose File > Close.
To close all open audio, video, and session files, choose File > Close All.
To close files that aren’t referenced by an open multitrack session, choose File > Close Unused Media.
To close the current session and related audio clips in the Multitrack Editor, choose File > Close Session and Its Media.
Export a multitrack mix to Premiere Pro
Create an audio clip from a bus or master track
Twitter™ and Facebook posts are not covered under the terms of Creative Commons.
Legal Notices | Online Privacy Policy
179
Saving and exporting files (CS5.5)
Save audio files
Extract audio channels to mono files
Save multitrack sessions
Export sessions to OMF or Final Cut Pro Interchange format
Export multitrack mixdown files
Audio format settings
Close files
Note: Some features in the Windows version of Adobe Audition 3.0 are not available in CS5.5. Examples include some file formats and effects,
CD burning, MIDI, the metronome, clip grouping and time stretching, and control surface support. For a complete list, see Adobe Audition 3.0
features replaced or not implemented in CS5.5.
To the top
Save audio files
In the Waveform Editor, you can save audio files in a variety of common formats. The format you choose depends on how you plan to use the file.
(See Audio format settings.) Keep in mind that each format stores unique information that might be discarded if you save a file in a different format.
1. In the Waveform Editor, do one of the following:
To save changes in the current file, choose File > Save.
To save changes under a different filename, choose File > Save As. Or choose File > Export > File to keep the current file open.
To save currently selected audio as a new file, choose File > Save Selection As.
To save all open files in their current formats, choose File > Save All.
Use the Save Selection As command to break up a long recording into smaller, more manageable files.
2. Specify a filename and location, and choose a file format.
3. Set the following options:
Sample Type Indicates the sample rate and bit depth. To adjust these options, click Change. (See Convert the sample rate of a file.)
Format Settings Indicates data compression and storage modes; to adjust these, click Change. (See Audio format settings.)
Include Markers and Other Metadata Includes audio markers and information from the Metadata panel in saved files. (See Working with
markers and Viewing and editing XMP metadata.)
Note: Some CD-burning applications misinterpret non-audio information such as markers and metadata, producing an unpleasant burst of
noise at the beginning of each track.
To the top
Extract audio channels to mono files
If you want to edit or output individual channels of a stereo or surround-sound file, extract them to mono files. Adobe Audition appends the channel
name to each extracted filename. For example, a stereo source file named Jazz.aif produces mono files named Jazz_L and Jazz_R.
In the Waveform Editor, choose Edit > Extract Channels To Mono Files.
Audition automatically opens each extracted file in the Editor panel.
To the top
Save multitrack sessions
A multitrack session file is a small, non-audio file. It merely stores information about locations of related audio files on your hard drive, the duration
of each audio file within the session, the envelopes and effects applied to various tracks, and so forth. You can reopen a saved session file later to
make further changes to the mix.
If you create multitrack mixes entirely in Adobe Audition, save session files in the native SESX format. If you plan to share multitrack compositions
with other applications, however, see Export sessions to OMF or Final Cut Pro Interchange format.
1. In the Multitrack Editor, do one of the following:
180
To save changes to the current session file, choose File > Save
To save changes under a different filename, choose File > Save As. Or choose File > Export > Session to keep the current session
open.
To save the session file and all the audio files it contains, choose File > Save All .
2. Specify a filename and location.
3. To include audio markers and information from the Metadata panel, select Include Markers And Other Metadata.
Export sessions to OMF or Final Cut Pro Interchange format
To the top
To transfer complete mixes to other applications in your workflow, export to OMF or Final Cut Pro Interchange format. OMF was originally created
for Avid Pro Tools, but now is a common multitrack exchange format for many audio mixing applications. Final Cut Pro Interchange format is
based on human-readable XML files, which you can edit offline to revise text references, effect settings, and so on.
Export to OMF
1. In the Multitrack Editor, choose File > Export > OMF.
2. Specify a filename and location.
3. Set the following options:
Sample Type Click Change to access the Convert Sample Type dialog box. (See Converting sample types.)
OMF Settings Click Change to access the following:
Media Encapsulated stores audio clips in the OMF file itself for easier organization. Referenced stores audio clips in the same
folder as the OMF file, letting you edit them offline if necessary.
Note: Encapsulated OMF files are limited to 2 GB in size.
Media Options Determines whether clip source files are trimmed to clip length in the Editor panel or reflect the entire original file.
Handle Duration For trimmed clips, specifies the time duration to include beyond clip edges. Including additional audio provides
more flexibility for fades and editing.
The Warnings section indicates elements of the session that will be excluded or changed. To copy this information to clipboard, click the Copy
Warnings button
.
Export to Final Cut Pro Interchange format
1. In the Multitrack Editor, choose File > Export > FCP XML Interchange Format.
2. Specify a filename and location.
3. To include audio markers and information from the Metadata panel, select Include Markers And Other Metadata.
The following session elements are excluded from the exported file:
The second channel of stereo clips. (All clips and tracks become mono.)
Overlapping clips
Effects and track EQ.
Automation envelopes other than clip volume and mono-to-stereo track panning.
Output routing, sends, buses, and the Master track.
To the top
Export multitrack mixdown files
After you finish mixing a session, you can export all or part of it in a variety of common formats. (See Audio file formats.) When you export, the
resulting file reflects current volume, pan, and effects settings routed to the Master track.
To quickly mix specific audio clips down to a single track, use the Multitrack > Bounce To New Track command. (See Create a single audio
clip from multiple clips.)
181
1. If you want to export part of a session, use the Time Selection tool
to select the desired range.
2. Choose File > Export > Multitrack Mixdown.
(Alternatively, choose Multitrack > Mixdown To New File to open the mixdown in the Waveform Editor and skip the steps below.)
3. Specify a filename and location, and choose a file format.
4. Set the following options:
Sample Type Indicates the sample rate and bit depth. To adjust these options, click Change. (See Convert the sample rate of a file.)
Format Settings Indicates data compression and storage modes; to adjust these, click Change. (See Audio format settings.)
Include Markers and Other Metadata Includes audio markers and information from the Metadata panel in saved files. (See Working with
markers and Viewing and editing XMP metadata.)
In the Waveform Editor, choose Edit > Edit Original to open the multitrack session that created a mixdown file. This command requires
embedded metadata in the file. (See Embed edit-original data in exported mixdown files.)
To the top
Audio format settings
In most cases, you should save uncompressed audio to the AIFF or WAV formats. Save to the compressed mp3 format only when creating files for
the web or portable media players.
In a Save As or Export dialog box, click Change to the right of Format Settings to access the options below.
To see the effect of settings changes, note the Estimated File Size at the bottom of the dialog box.
AIFF format settings (*aif, *.aiff, *.aifc)
AIFF is the standard uncompressed audio file format on Mac OS.
Sample Type (available only for 32-bit files) Sets the audio bit depth. Higher bit depths provide more dynamic range and reduce distortion,
though they increase file size and processing time. To determine the proper setting for common output types, see Understanding bit depth.
Integer settings clip audio that extends beyond the amplitude range for a given bit depth. Floating Point settings require slightly more storage
space, but retain much greater dynamic range.
Choose 32-bit Floating Point if you want to repeatedly process the file and discard minimal amplitude data.
Note: To add Author metadata to an AIFF file, use the Dublin Core: Creator field on the XMP tab of the Metadata panel. (See Viewing and editing
XMP metadata.)
Byte Order (available only for 16-bit files) Specifies the numerical sequence for bytes of data. Choose the Little-Endian method for systems
with Intel processors and the Big-Endian method for systems with PowerPC processors.
mp3 format settings
mp3 is the standard compressed audio format across platforms.
Type Choose Constant to apply a consistent bitrate or Variable to change the bitrate based on audio content.
Bitrate (for constant bitrates) or Quality (for variable) Adjusts the tradeoff between file size and audio quality. Higher settings increase size
and quality; lower settings reduce size and quality.
Avoid compressing the same audio to mp3 more than once. Opening and resaving an mp3 file causes it to be recompressed, so any artifacts
from the compressing process become more pronounced.
QuickTime format settings (audio-only *.mov)
You cannot adjust format settings for audio-only QuickTime files, which are always saved as uncompressed PCM (Pulse Code Modulation) data.
Wave PCM format settings (.wav, .bwf)
Wave PCM is the standard uncompressed audio format on Windows.
You can include Broadcast Wave metadata in Windows PCM files. (See Viewing and editing XMP metadata.)
Sample Type (available only for 32-bit files) Sets the audio bit depth. Higher bit depths provide more dynamic range and reduce distortion,
though they increase file size and processing time. To determine the proper setting for common output types, see Understanding bit depth.
Integer settings clip audio that extends beyond the amplitude range for a given bit depth. Floating Point settings require slightly more storage
space, but retain much greater dynamic range.
182
Note: The nonstandard 16.8 and 24.0 Floating Point options are provided for compatibility with previous versions of Adobe Audition. (16.8 was the
internal format used by Audition 1.0. 24.0 was an optional setting from the same version.)
4GB Plus Support Stores files larger than 4GB using either RF64 format, which reflects the current European Broadcasting Union standard, or
the Multiple Data Chunks format supported by previous versions of Audition.
note: To ensure compatibility with a wide range of applications, choose the RF64 format for files greater than 4GB.
To the top
Close files
Do any of the following:
To close the current file in the Editor panel, choose File > Close.
To close all open audio, video, and session files, choose File > Close All.
To close files that aren’t referenced by an open multitrack session, choose File > Close Unused Media.
To close the current session and related audio clips in the Multitrack Editor, choose File > Close Session and Its Media.
Export a multitrack mix to Premiere Pro CS5.5
Create an audio clip from a bus or master track
Twitter™ and Facebook posts are not covered under the terms of Creative Commons.
Legal Notices | Online Privacy Policy
183
Viewing and editing XMP metadata
About the Metadata panel and XMP
Show or hide XMP metadata
Edit XMP metadata
Search XMP metadata
In Adobe Audition, the Metadata panel provides BWF, ID3, and RIFF tabs that let you quickly access this common audio metadata. The XMP tab
provides the same information, combined with a longer list of metadata common to Adobe video applications. (For example, the Display Title field
on the RIFF tab corresponds to the Title field in the Dublin Core section of the XMP tab.)
Note: To preserve metadata when you save files, select Include Markers and Other Metadata in the Save or Export dialog box.
The BWF tab applies to Broadcast Wave files, which let you specify a time offset for playback, as well as standard descriptive metadata. To
include Broadcast Wave metadata in a file, you must save in WAV format; see Save audio files. To insert a Broadcast Wave file in the Multitrack
Editor, see Spot-insert a Broadcast Wave file into a session.
The ID3 and RIFF tabs apply to mp3 and radio industry metadata, respectively.
To the top
About the Metadata panel and XMP
To streamline your workflow and organize your files, use XMP metadata. Metadata is a set of descriptive information about a file. Video and audio
files automatically include basic metadata properties, such as date, duration, and file type. You can add details with properties such as location,
director, copyright, and much more.
With the Metadata panel, you can share this information about assets throughout Adobe video and audio applications. Unlike conventional clip
properties, which are limited to only one application’s Project or Files panel, metadata properties are embedded in source files, so the data
automatically appears in other applications. This sharing of metadata lets you quickly track and manage video assets as they move through your
production workflow.
Note: Properties in the Metadata panel also appear in Adobe Bridge, providing additional details that help you quickly browse assets.
For a video about the Metadata panel, see the Adobe website.
Maxim Jago explains XMP metadata in a video from, “Premiere Pro CS5 for Avid Editors.”
About schemas and properties
A metadata schema is a collection of properties specific to a given workflow. The Dynamic Media schema, for example, includes properties like
Scene and Shot Location that are ideal for digital video projects. Exif schemas, by contrast, include properties tailored to digital photography, like
Exposure Time and Aperture Value. More general properties, like Date and Title, appear in the Dublin Core schema. To display different
properties, see Show or hide metadata.
For information about a specific schema and property, hover the pointer over it in the Metadata panel. For most items, a tool tip appears with
details.
About the XMP standard
Adobe applications store metadata using the Extensible Metadata Platform (XMP). XMP is built on XML, which facilitates the exchange of
metadata across a variety of applications and publishing workflows. Metadata in most other formats (such as Exif, GPS, and TIFF) automatically
transfers to XMP so you can more easily view and manage it.
In most cases, XMP metadata is stored directly in source files. If a particular file format doesn’t support XMP, however, metadata is stored in a
separate sidecar file.
Project assets without corresponding files don’t support XMP. Examples from Adobe Premiere Pro include Bars and Tone, Universal Counting
Leader, Color Matte, Titles, Black Video, and Transparent Video.
To customize the creation and exchange of metadata, use the XMP Software Development Kit. For more information about XMP, see
Extensible Metadata Platform.
To the top
Show or hide XMP metadata
To optimize the Metadata panel for your workflow, show or hide entire schemas or individual properties, displaying only those that you need.
184
1. From the options menu
for the Metadata panel, select Metadata Display.
2. To show or hide schemas or properties, select or deselect them from the list.
Save, switch, or delete metadata sets
If you use multiple workflows, each requiring different sets of displayed metadata, you can save sets and switch between them.
1. From the options menu
for the Metadata panel, select Metadata Display.
2. Do any of the following:
To save a customized set of displayed metadata, click Save Settings. Then enter a name, and click OK.
To display a previously saved set of metadata, select it from the menu.
To delete a previously saved set of metadata, select it from the menu, and click Delete Settings.
Create schemas and properties
If you have a unique, customized workflow that the default metadata options don’t address, create your own schemas and properties.
1. From the options menu
for the Metadata panel, select Metadata Display.
2. Click New Schema, and enter a name.
3. In the list, click Add Property to the right of the schema name.
4. Enter a property name, and select one of the following for Type:
Integer Displays whole numbers that you drag or click to change.
Real Displays fractional numbers that you drag or click to change.
Text Displays a text box (for properties similar to Location).
Boolean Displays a check box (for On or Off properties).
To the top
Edit XMP metadata
Similarly named properties are linked in the Metadata and Files panels. However, the Metadata panel provides more extensive properties.
1. In the Editor panel, open the desired file or session.
2. In the Metadata panel, edit text or adjust values as needed.
To the top
Search XMP metadata
1. In the Editor panel, open the file or session you want to search.
2. In the Metadata panel, click the XMP tab.
3. In the search box, enter the text you want to find.
The list of metadata collapses to reveal only properties that contain your search string.
4. To navigate through the search results, click the Previous and Next buttons
to the right of the search box, or press Tab.
5. To exit the search mode and return to the full list of metadata, click the close button
Twitter™ and Facebook posts are not covered under the terms of Creative Commons.
Legal Notices | Online Privacy Policy
185
to the right of the search box.
Keyboard shortcuts
186
Finding and customizing shortcuts
Find shortcuts
Customize shortcuts
Save or delete custom sets of shortcuts
Restore the default shortcuts
Adobe Audition provides a default set of keyboard shortcuts to help you speed up the editing process. In menus and tool tips, available keyboard
shortcuts appear to the right of command and button names. You can customize nearly all default shortcuts and add shortcuts for other functions.
To the top
Find shortcuts
Do any of the following:
For menu commands, look for shortcuts to the right of command names.
For tools or buttons, look for shortcuts to the right of tool tips. (To display tool tips, hold the pointer over a tool or button.)
For a complete list of all shortcuts, choose Edit > Keyboard Shortcuts.
To the top
Customize shortcuts
You can customize nearly all default keyboard shortcuts and add shortcuts for other commands.
1. Choose Edit > Keyboard Shortcuts.
2. In the Command column, select the command you want to customize.
3. If you want to replace or remove an existing shortcut, choose it from the Shortcuts For Command menu.
4. Do any of the following:
To create a shortcut, click inside the Press Shortcut box, and press the desired key combination. Then click Assign.
To remove a shortcut, click Remove.
If you enter a key combination that’s already in use, Audition displays an alert. Click Yes to transfer the shortcut to a different command, or
No to retain the existing assignment.
Assign shortcuts to the Workspace commands to quickly switch between custom panel layouts.
To the top
Save or delete custom sets of shortcuts
1. Choose Edit > Keyboard Shortcuts.
2. Do either of the following:
To save a custom set, click Save As, enter a name, and click OK.
To delete a custom set, choose it from the Set menu, and then click Delete.
To the top
Restore the default shortcuts
1. Choose Edit > Keyboard Shortcuts.
2. From the Set menu, choose Default Set.
Twitter™ and Facebook posts are not covered under the terms of Creative Commons.
Legal Notices | Online Privacy Policy
187
Default keyboard shortcuts
Keys for playing and zooming audio
Keys for editing audio files
Keys for mixing multitrack sessions
These partial lists include the shortcuts that Adobe Audition experts find most useful. For a complete list of shortcuts, choose Edit > Keyboard
Shortcuts.
To the top
Keys for playing and zooming audio
Result
Windows shortcut
Mac OS shortcut
Toggle between Waveform and Multitrack
Editor
8
8
Start and stop playback
Spacebar
Spacebar
Move current-time indicator to beginning
of timeline
Home
Home
Move current-time indicator to end of
timeline
End
End
Move current-time indicator to previous
marker, clip, or selection edge
Ctrl+left arrow
Command+left arrow
Move current-time indicator to next
marker, clip, or selection edge
Ctrl+right arrow
Command+right arrow
Toggle preference for Return CTI To Start
Position On Stop
Shift+X
Shift+X
Zoom in horizontally
=
=
Zoom in vertically
Alt+=
Option+=
Zoom out horizontally
-
-
Zoom out vertically
Alt+minus sign
Option+minus sign
Add marker
M or * (asterisk)
M or * (asterisk)
To the top
Keys for editing audio files
The following keyboard shortcuts apply only in the Waveform Editor.
Result
Windows shortcut
Mac OS shortcut
Repeat previous command (opening its
dialog box and clicking OK)
Shift+R
Shift+R
Repeat previous command (opening its
dialog box but not clicking OK)
Ctrl+R
Command+R
Open Convert Sample Type dialog box
Shift+T
Shift+T
Capture a noise reduction profile for the
Noise Reduction effect
Shift+P
Shift+P
188
Activate left channel of a stereo file for
editing
Up arrow
Up arrow
Activate right channel of a stereo file for
editing
Down arrow
Down arrow
Make spectral display more logarithmic or
linear
Ctrl+Alt+up or down arrow
Option+Command+up or down arrow
Make spectral display fully logarithmic or
linear
Ctrl+Alt+Page Up or Down
Option+Command+Page Up or Down
Increase or decrease spectral resolution
Shift+Ctrl+up or down arrow
Shift+Command-up or down arrow
To the top
Keys for mixing multitrack sessions
The following keyboard shortcuts apply only in the Multitrack Editor.
Result
Windows shortcut
Mac OS shortcut
Select the same input or output for all
audio tracks
Ctrl+Shift-select
Command+Shift-select
Activate or deactivate Mute, Solo, Arm For
Record, or Monitor Input in all tracks
Ctrl+Shift-click
Command+Shift-click
Adjust knobs in large increments
Shift-drag
Shift-drag
Adjust knobs in small increments
Ctrl-drag
Command-drag
Nudge selected clip to the left
Alt+comma
Option+comma
Nudge selected clip to the right
Alt+period
Alt+period
Maintain keyframe time position or
parameter value
Shift-drag
Shift-drag
Reposition envelope segment without
creating keyframe
Ctrl-drag
Command-drag
Twitter™ and Facebook posts are not covered under the terms of Creative Commons.
Legal Notices | Online Privacy Policy
189
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement