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Contents
Vol. XX, No. IV
BES Review
October'14 - December’14
Editorial Board
Chairman
Ashish Bhatnagar
Member
A. Shanmugam-Advisor
M.S. Duhan
Meenakshi Singhvi
O.P. Rajpurohit
Pradeep Mehra
Sunil Bhatia
Published by :
P. K. Singh, Hon. Secretary,
on behalf of
Broadcast Engineering Society (India)
912, Surya Kiran Building,
19, K.G. Marg, New Delhi-110001
Tel. : + 91-11- 23316709
Fax : + 91-11- 23316710
E-mail : [email protected]
Printed at :
Pragati Creations
27/1B, Dilshad Garden Ind. Area,
G.T. Road, Delhi-110095
e-mail : [email protected]
Ph.: 011-22596695, 9312438440
Views expressed by authors are their
own and may not be that of BES(I)
Editorial
2
From the President
3
BES Council 2014-2016
4
Journey of FM Radio in India
- B. P. Srivastava
6
Managing Broadcasts during Disasters- N. Thiyagrajan
11
Cloud Computing
- Kailash S
15
Energy Audit
-Manisha Shete
20
Single Frequency Network by Rohde & Schwarz
- Nirav Bhatia
24
Interactive Broadcasting Technology and its Impact
- V. Rajeshwar
27
Restoration of Doordarshan in Srinagar After Flood
- W. B. Prasad, O. P. Rajpurohit
34
Interview- Mr. Animesh Chakarborty
-By Meenakshi singhvi
38
Planar Transmission Lines- An Overview
- Dr. S. Raghavan
40
Implementation of HDTV DVB T2 Transmitters at Metro Cities in India 44
- M. S. Duhan
Audio Compression - MPEG-4 HE-AAC-v2 - Audio coding.....
- S. K. Biswas
51
Report
- National Public Service Broadcasting Day Celebration at Delhi
61
Report : Ahmedabad Chapter
-Lecture on “Cloud technology and its application in Broadcasting”
63
Report : Pune Chapter
- Workshop on “Various Radio Delivery Platforms– Strengths,
Opportunities and Challenges” & NPSB Day Celebration
64
Report : Hyderabad Chapter
-Seminar on “Advances in Digital Broadcasting”
68
Report : Thanjavur Chapter
-A Seminar on “media Assets Management”
70
Report : Mumbai Chapter
-A Seminar on “Web & TV-New Dimensions & Standards”
72
Corporate Members
74
Obituary
76
Editorial
Dear Friends,
As we move on to 2015, let me just glance back at the wonderful happenings of
2014 in the world of broadcasting in India. BES saw a new dynamic council
taking over the reins, amidst lot's of challenges and expectations, We saw one of
the worst floods at Jammu and Kashmir and the brave bold brilliant efforts of
broadcast engineers to run the transmissions – the lifeline for the stranded
people, then we saw Cyclones throwing away the infrastructures and the swift
efforts of broadcast engineers to rapidly resume operations. We saw India
marching at ABU with quality documentary inputs from AIR and Doordarshan
and Jawhar Sircar CEO of India's Public Service broadcaster - Prasar Bharati
clinching the prestigious post of ABU Vice President, a pride moment for our
country. We also saw some of our beloved senior broadcasters leaving this world
and we saw inflow of some of the best latest technologies in the form of Digital
Radio and TV in our country. We saw excellent activities at the grass roots –
indigenous developments at some Doordarshan stations, Seminars / Workshops
at the local chapters - Ahmedabad, Thanjavur, Hyderabad, Pune and Mumbai.
And above all we saw this year's Noble Peace Prize Winner Shri kailash Satyarthi
speaking about power of broadcasts at the BES Public Service Broadcast day
event at Constitution Club New Delhi on 12 November 2014. A bowl full of
happenings – We have tried to report some…
Thanks to the efforts of Editorial team, there has been a good inflow of technical
articles too. We have brought for you writings on a broad spectrum – from Cloud
computing, Audio compression to Energy Audit, From Interactive broadcasting,
Trends in Terrestrial TV to Journey of FM radio in India and Managing
broadcasts during disaster – case studies. A To-the-Point interview of Animesh
Chakraborty, the Engineer-in-Chief of AIR speaks about the growth potential of
broadcasts in India. So our baskets are full….
And now looking ahead, Many of us are meeting on 15-17 January 2015, at
Pragati Maidan, New Delhi - at the Hot – Spot of Broadcasting Experts in India –
The 21st International Conference and Exhibition on Terrestrial and Satellite
Broadcasting, BES Expo 2015. Many of us will witness some of the latest
broadcast products and listen to technical lectures from the Industry / Media
Experts – but for those, who may not be able to make it, BES Review promises to
capture the glimpses and shall bring you at your doorstep soon.
Good bye till then, Best wishes for the New Year and happy Reading….
Ashish Bhatnagar
[email protected]
2
October'14 - December’14
From the President
Dear Friends,
It's my second chance to interact with you through BES Review and I am
happy to state that in these three months BES Council and Executive have
done considerable progress on various fronts.
Chairpersons and members of various committees have started working
cohesively. Shri II George, Vice President and Chairman BES Conference
committee has developed excellent conference Schedule for BES Expo and
st
the delegates who are attending BES Expo 2015, the 21 International
Conference and Exhibition of Terrestrial and Satellite Broadcast to be held at
th
th
Pragati Maidan, New Delhi, India from 15 to 17 January 2015 will surely
appreciate the sessions. I would request you to visit the website
www.besindia.com or www.besexpo.org for further details. Feel free to talk
to Executive Members or Council Members for any issue, contact details of
whom are given in this publication on later pages.
I am happy to share with you that BES(I) celebrated National Public Service
Broadcasting Day on 12 November 2014 at Constitution club, New Delhi in a
grand way. Shri Kailash Satyarthi, the Noble Peace Prize winner graced the
function as chief guest with many other eminent personalities like Shri
Jawhar Sircar CEO, Prasar Bharati and senior officers from AIR and
Doordarshan. Our dynamic young Hon. Secretary Shri PK Singh and Shri RC
Bhatnagar alongwith the secretariat team deserve sincere appreciation for
their efforts and management.
I am also happy to see that this issue of BES Review has got articles on varied
topics and has come out of the press at right time. I congratulate the whole
Editorial team for their excellent work and hope that the readers will enjoy
reading the journal.
While extending my best wishes to all BES members on X-mas and New
Year, I will look forward to meeting many of them at BES Expo at 0930 hrs.
on 15th January 2014 at Hall No. 12, 12A, Pragati Maidan, New Delhi.
With best wishes
O.K. Sharma
[email protected]
3
October'14 - December’14
BES (I) Council 2014-2016
Name
Designation
Mobile / E-mail
O.K. Sharma
President
Addl. Director General (E)
AIR & DD
8750451819
[email protected]
A.K. Dixit
Immediate Past President
Former Engineer-in-Chief
Doordarshan
9958581560
[email protected]
R.K. Sinha
Past President
Former Engineer-in-Chief
All India Radio
9868631895
[email protected]
I.I.George
Vice President
Addl. Director General (E)
AIR & DD
9868233470
[email protected]
Om Prakash Rajpurohit
Vice President
Asstt. Engineer
Doordarshan
9414251557
[email protected]
Pravin Kumar Singh
Hon. Secretary
Director (Engg.)
All India Radio
9968993838
[email protected]
R.C. Bhatnagar
Hon. Treasurer
Former Addl. Director
General (Engg.), DD
9968296792
[email protected]
A.V Swaminathan
Council Member
Former Chief Engineer
AIR & DD
9811470018
[email protected]
Deepak Joshi
Council Member
Dy. Director General (E)
All India Radio
9435032256
[email protected]
Meenakshi Singhvi
Council Member
Dy. Director (E)
All India Radio
9426302816
[email protected]
N. Thiyagrajan
Council Member
Addl. Director General (E)
AIR & DD
9445562769
[email protected]
Anila Shah
Council Member
Asstt. Engineer
Doordarshan
9825956386
[email protected]
V. Appakutty
Council Member
Former Chief Engineer
AIR & DD
9444015580
[email protected]
S.S Bindra
Council Member
Former Chief Engineer
AIR & DD
9899968022
[email protected]
K. Murugan
Council Member
Director (Engg.)
All India Radio
9971159629
[email protected]
P.S. Shrivastava
Council Member
Director (Engg.)
Doordarshan
9419171731
[email protected]
Dinesh Pratap Singh
Council Member
Director (Engg.)
Doordarshan
9868103141
[email protected]
Neeraj Goel
Council Member
Dy. Director General (E)
All India Radio
9968326123
[email protected]
P.S. Sundram
Permanent Invitee
CMD, Technomedia
9811197746
[email protected]
Animesh Chakraborty
Permanent Invitee
Engineer-in-Chief
All India Radio
9871178429
[email protected]
N.A. Khan
Permanent Invitee
Engineer-in-Chief,
Doordarshan
9871345550
[email protected],
[email protected]
Saurabh Sanyal
Co-opted Member
Executive Director, PHD
Chamber of Commerce
9650225333
[email protected]
Rakesh Aggarwal
Co-opted Member
Director
M/s. Comcon
9810298552
[email protected]
4
October'14 - December’14
Local Chapters
Chapter
Chairperson
Hon. Secretary
Hon. Treasurer
Tel. No. /E-mail.
1) Ahmedabad
Chandira J.K.
A.K. Gupta
Ramesh Tele
9426513961
[email protected]
2) Bangalore
Anil Mangalgi
A. Hanumant
Sanjeev K.P.
9448490241
[email protected]
3) Bhubaneshwar
L.K. Pradhan
A.C. Subudhi
N. Jethi
9437073498
4) Chennai
S.K. Aggarwal
K V Ramachandran
P Bhoopathy
[email protected]
5) Jaipur
R.S. Tyagi
O.P. Rajpurohit
K.C. Jani
9414051284
[email protected]
6) Kolkatta
Animesh Chakraborty Ved Prakash
Soumitra Kumar Deb-
7) Hyderabad
M.B.S. Purushottam
Er. Nuli Namassivaya
R. Janardhan Rao
+91-9869489551
[email protected]
8) Mumbai
S.C. Khasgiwal
P.K. Sharma
P.S. Khurana
[email protected]
9) Thanjavur
Ms A. Chitra
S. Periandavar
G. Muthukrishnan
[email protected]
10)Thiruvananthapuram
-
-
-
-
11) Pune
Ashish Bhatnagar
Ashok Kale
Ravindra Rajnekar
+91-9421053428
[email protected]
12) Guwahati
C.B.S. Maurya
R.C. Boro
-
-
BES Committees
S. No. Name of Commitees
Chairman
Co- Chairman/Members
1.
BES EXPO Event (Conference)
I.I. George
N Thiagarajan, M.S Duhan, J.K. Chandira,
Ms. Meenakshi Singhvi, Devesh Kumar, Rajender Kumar
2.
BES EXPO Event (Exhibition)
D. P. Singh
A.V. Swaminathan
3.
BES Review
Ashish Bhatnagar
M.S. Duhan, Ms. Meenakshi Singhvi, O.P. Rajpurohit,
Pradeep Mehra, Sunil Bhatia
4.
Website Management
K. Murugan
Neeral Goel, V. R. Hari, P. Narayanan, Alpana Pande
5.
BES Awards
N. Thiagarajan
V. Sitaram, V. Srinivasvardan
6.
Constitution Committee
V. Appakutty
R. Vardadrajan, S.Ramesh
7.
New Member Induction
S.C. Khasgiwal
A.V. Swaminathan
8.
Seminar and Lectures
Deepak Joshi
Ms. Meenakshi Singhvi, Devesh, K.Murugan,
Rajesh Chandra, Anila Shah Chaudhry
9.
Innovative Ideas
P.S. Shrivastava
Anil Khandelwal, B.G. Nair
10.
Local Chapters
O.P. Rajpurohit
Ms. A. Chtra T. Rajendiran, Nuli Namassivayam,
Pradip K Sharma
5
October'14 - December’14
Journey of FM Radio in India
From Pangs of Birth to Plenty
B. P. Srivastava
Introduction
reducing static and interference that was associated with
AM reception. He got his invention patented in 1933
and brought up an experimental FM station with 410
feet tower in Alpine (New Jersey) in 1939 at a whooping
personal cost of $ 300,000 after obtaining a permit from
Federal Communication Service (FCC) in 1933 and
getting an FM broadcast spectrum between 42 and 50
MHZ created. Here it may be of interest to the readers to
th
know that on 27 June 1945, FM spectrum was moved
from Amstrong frequencies to 88 to 108 MHZ that are in
use today. While not going into the details of the tragic
end of Amstrong on February 1, 1954, it would suffice to
say that change of frequencies did have a tremendous
adverse effect on him. However, Amstrong’s
contribution to the cause of FM bore fruit and by 1940,
FM transmission became a commercial reality in
Europe and America.
Radio broadcasting, all over the world, started with
Amplitude Modulation (AM), the technique which was
invented and developed during the two decades from
1900 to 1920. For the next thirty years i.e. up to 1950’s- a
period that is called the Golden Age of radio, AM ruled
the roost until Frequency Modulation (FM) started to
displace it from its exalted position in the sphere of
domestic broadcasting in many parts of the world such
as Europe and America. India’s domestic broadcasting
scene, like that of the most other countries of the world,
was also dominated by Amplitude Modulation. The only
perceptible difference between India and some other
countries had been India’s extensive use of tropical
short wave broadcasting to aid and supplement the
efforts of medium wave (MW) in the area of domestic
coverage. In India, however, AM continued to remain
the sole domestic broadcasting mode for a much larger
time than that in other countries of the world, as
introduction of FM was considerably delayed in India. It
may look strange that even when smaller countries in the
neighbourhood like Bangladesh, Singapore, Iran &
Turkey introduced FM in their countries in 1965, 1967,
1967 and 1968 respectively, India took much longer to
introduce it. It was only in the late nineteen eighties,
during the Seventh Five Year Plan period, that it was
decided to introduce it in a regular manner in All India
Radio, which was the only broadcasting organization in
the country at that time. But once it was introduced, one
initiative led to the other with the result that today India
already has nearly 650 FM transmitters and is going to
add nearly thousand more in two years time to make the
availability of FM in plenty. The journey of FM in India
from pangs of birth to plenty is quite interesting and
needs to be told. Since the author has been associated
with the introduction and development of FM in the
country at every stage till now, he feels it as a part of his
duty to do so. This paper is, therefore, an attempt in that
direction.
During the time FM was developing in Europe and
America, India was under British raj and broadcasting in
the country had still not taken wings. An idea about the
state of development of broadcasting in the country can
be had from the fact that at the time of independence
there were only six radio stations in the country located
at Delhi, Bombay, Calcutta, Madras, Lucknow and
Trichi. The Government of India had, therefore, a big
task in hand to expand
its existing medium
wave network with a
back-up short wave
service in each state,
which was undertaken
through various Five
Year Plans. During that
period, the power of
transmitters was not
that high and the
spectrum was also not
congested. As such day
time reception of
medium wave services
was steady and good
with sky wave
providing extended
Invention of FM and Indian Broadcasting Scenario
FM transmission technique was invented in USA in
1930 by Edwin H Amstrong with the purpose of
6
October'14 - December’14
FM not getting favour
coverage during night time. AIR, therefore, went on
expanding its medium wave services so much so that the
third five year plan between 1961 and 1966 had come to
be known as Medium Wave Plan.
It was not that the authorities at AIR were oblivious of
the menace of night time shrinkage that was eating into
the coverage area or the advantages of FM. As a matter
of fact, a decision to start FM service on an experimental
basis in four metros with 3 KW transmitters was taken
and the service was commissioned in Chennai on
23.7.1977, in Calcutta in 7.4.1980, in Mumbai on
21.9.1980 and in Delhi on 7.9.1984. However, every
time the idea of its introduction on a regular manner
came up, the alternative view of of increasing the power
of medium wave transmitters prevailed. Besides the
effect of LF-MF conference, non-availability of
reasonably priced FM radio receivers was also playing
in the minds of planners. Yet another reason which
seemed to be more of a psychological and political
nature was, perhaps, the general perception of FM being
a rich man’s medium providing listening of high quality
music on costly FM sets with roof top aerials, There is,
therefore, a school of thought that feels that amongst
various reasons for delay in introduction of FM, the
same reason as that of delay in introduction of colour TV
in the country played a big part. In the midst of all these
events and considerations, the primary aim of
introduction of FM to take care of the night time
shrinkage of radio coverage of the country had,
somewhere, got lost.
Dawn of Night Time Shrinkage
Radio broadcasting scenario on medium wave started
changing from late sixties and more prominently in
early seventies. Not only the number of transmitters but
also their power went on increasing all over the world
including the countries of region 3 in which India is
situated. With the increase in number and power of
transmitters, the sky wave mode of propagation of
medium wave, which was once a boon for long distance
coverage, became its bane. Co-channel and adjacent
channel night time interference gave rise to night time
shrinkage of AIR’s coverage. There were two options
available before the planners to take care of the
shrinkage. One was to increase the power of the existing
transmitters and the other was to go for an alternative
medium. As it would be, it was the first option that was
continued to be adopted for a longer period than what
could, perhaps have been.
ITU’s LF-MF Conference in 1975
In view of the large increase in requirement of all
countries and the availability of limited medium wave
(MW/MF) spectrum, it became necessary to carry out
the world wide planning of stations in a coordinated
way. With this aim in view, a Regional Administrative
LF-MF conference was convened by International
Telecommunication Union (ITU) at Geneva in 1975. On
Indian side, lot of preparatory work was done by AIR
directorate along with the Research Department under
the overall leadership of Shri S. N. Mitra, Additional
Chief Engineer to present AIR’s case at the conference.
After hard negotiations, particularly with neighbouring
countries, a large number of allocations were obtained
for the country. It was, therefore, considered a great
triumph for AIR team and especially for Shri Mitra
when the Indian delegation came back with large
number of medium wave assignments including six
numbers of 1000KW, more than 170 numbers of 300
KW and huge numbers of 1 KW assignments that could
be utilized for the emerging concept of local radio.
Introduction of FM on a regular basis, therefore, took a
back seat in the din of that triumph for one more Five
Year Plan (Sixth Plan 1980-85).
FM gets the nod
All this brought us to the Seventh Plan period (1985-90)
under the leadership of the young Prime Minister Shri
Rajiv Gandhi, who wanted to introduce new technology
in various fields. This included FM also. Provision of
introduction of FM was, therefore, made in the plan.
Side by side, studies and discussions were undertaken to
take various necessary decisions including the choice of
technical parameters. For this purpose a group was
formed under the chairmanship of the author with
representation from the Research Department by its two
Directors Ms. Ratna Chakravarty and Shri K M Paul
(who later became the Engineer-in-Chief of All India
Radio). So much was the enthusiasm for the new
technology that Shri S P Bhatikar, the then Engineer- in
Chief, used to occasionally drop in the meetings and
participate in discussions. The euphoria and the hopes
were, however, soon belied, when earlier thoughts again
seemed to prevail. This was a setback to everybody in
the department, but it was decided not to give up.
Accordingly a committee, comprising of the author who
7
October'14 - December’14
was in-charge of the planning and development of
transmitter network, Shri O P Khushu, Chief Engineer
looking after frequency assignment wing of the
Directorate (who later became the Engineer-in-Chief,
Doordarshan and later on the Director of Technical
Department of ABU), and Dr. C S R Rao, Chief
Engineer (Research), was formed to present FM’s case
before the Advisor to the Prime Minister. A
comprehensive case was accordingly prepared, the
thrust of the case being that FM was primarily needed
for restoring and enhancing the radio coverage of the
country and was not limited to providing better quality
of sound. Stress was also to be made of the choice of
circular polarization (instead of the horizontal one of
experimental transmitters), with the objective of
providing better reception on portable receivers and
thus to the common man. The team successfully
presented the case before Prof. P S Deodhar, as a result
of which FM got the nod. FM was, thus introduced in the
country in the Seventh Five Year plan and 100 FM
transmitters were planned for AIR in that plan itself.
2,50,59,275,in 1994-95 Rs. 3,46,96,250, in 1995-96 Rs.
4,10,21,034, in 1996-97 Rs Rs.4,18, 85,250, in 1997-98
Rs. 4,21,96,850 and in 1998-99 Rs 11,44,22,241.
Among the first private entities to enter the business was
Times FM which had commenced operations in 1993.
So much was the popularity
gained by Times FM, that
there was clamour for
allotment of airtime slots by
many other entities. This led
to litigation resulting in
cancellation of allotment of
all the time slots as per the
directions given in Delhi
High Court judgment. AIR,
thereafter, started operating
these slots also with effect
from 26.06.1998.
Entry of Private Players
As if the entry of private entities was destined to
continue, there came a landmark Supreme Judgment
during that time itself in the case of West Bengal Cricket
Association v/s Union of India, which held that
airwaves were public property and the government’s
role was restricted to management and regulation. The
implication was that private parties had an equal right to
broadcast in India thus paving the way for entry of
private parties in broadcasting field. The Government of
India vide its notification dated 1st July 1999 opened the
doors of broadcasting to private agencies by announcing
its policy on Phase-1 Private FM Radio Broadcasting. It
offered therein to allot 108 FM channels in 40 cities. The
Growth of FM in AIR
After getting the nod, FM made steady progress in AIR.
Out of the total number of stations included in the
Seventh Plan, eight numbers came up in the plan period
itself. These were, four of the earlier ones viz Chennai,
Kolkata, Mumbai and Delhi with new parameters, fifth
one Kothagudam (Andhra Pradesh) on 24.03.1989,
sixth one Cochin (Kerala) on 01.10.1989, seventh one
Murshidabad (West Bengal) on 21.01.1990 and the
eighth one Warrangal (Andhra Pradesh) on 17.02.1990.
Incidentally Warrangal was the hundredth radio station
th
of AIR. After the 8 Plan, the number of FM transmitters
th
th
rose to 98, after 9 it became 130, after 10 it was 158
th
and after 11 it became 237. As on date AIR has 391 FM
transmitters. By the time, however, this paper is
published, the number would have gone up with AIR
bringing up more transmitters.
FM gains popularity
By the early 90’s, the Ministry of Information &
Broadcasting had started feeling the need to diversify
the content by bringing in private players on AIR’s
platform. Hiring of time slots was thus started, in Delhi
and Mumbai from 15.09.1993, in Chennai from
01.09.1993, in Kolkata from 20.07 1994 and in Panaji
from 13.11.1994. AIR earned quite a bit of revenue from
these time slots. In 1993-94, it got a revenue of Rs.
8
October'14 - December’14
idea behind the decision was to attract private agencies
to supplement and complement the efforts of All India
Radio by operationalizing radio stations that provide
programmes with local content and relevance, improve
the quality of fidelity in reception, encouraging
participation by local talent and generating
employment. Side by side, it also earmarked a channel
in each one of these cities for education. It was during
this time that the author was invited to join BECIL
(Broadcast Engineering Consultants India Ltd), which
played an important role in the introduction of private
FM and also thereafter in all its future phases.
formulated its policy for Phase-II and announced it on
13th July, 2005 offering 337 channels encompassing 91
cities. All the cities having population equal to or more
than 3 lakhs, barring the few which were technically not
viable, were included in the scheme. All the state
capitals, even though not having the desired population
criteria, were also included in the scheme. Major
deviations made in this policy from Phase-I were the
replacement of open bidding mechanism by closed bid
tendering system and introducing the concept of One
Time Entry Fee (OTEF) plus an annual revenue sharing
arrangement in place of Annual Fee. The scheme was a
great success and 225 channels came up in 2 years time
raising the total number of channels to 245 in 87 cities.
The credit for the success story goes to the policy of
mandatory co-location and sharing of Prasar Bharti’s
land & tower infrastructure together with cooperation
between Private operators, Prasar Bharti and BECIL,
the integrator.
In May 2000, these 108 frequencies were put to auction.
Multiple round open auction mechanism was followed
to award these licenses which were to be given for a
period of 10 years and the annual license fee was to get
escalated by 15% every year. The cities were divided
into five categories on the basis of population and thus
for the amount of reserve license fee. The clamour for
frequencies and the atmosphere at open auction led to
heavy bidding. An idea about the heavy bidding can be
had from the fact that 101 frequencies were bid for an
amount of Rs 425 crores as against the reserve price of
about Rs 79 crores. Many of the bidders, however,
defaulted later on and as such the actual collection was
only Rs, 158.80 crores for 37 frequencies. Out of these
37 also, only 22 became operational, with one dropping
off midstream. These 21 channels, however,
revolutionized the scene of radio listening in the country
creating a demand for more channels which led to the
launching of Private FM Phase-II.
Private FM Phase-III
Encouraged by the success of Phase-II and responding
to the demand of more channels, Government has
formulated a policy for Private FM Phase-III that
includes all the cities having population equal to or more
than 1 lakh. Phase-III would bring 223 more cities under
the ambit of Private FM Broadcasting by adding 830
channels to the existing 245 channels operating in 87
cities. With the completion of Phase-III, border areas of
India will also get a taste of FM. Phase-III policy has
already been notified on 25th July 2011 after due
consultation with TRAI and its roll out is awaited.
Meanwhile, TRAI has recommended the release of
frequencies with 400 KHZ separation for transmitters
serving the same service area, instead of the present 800
KHZ. The Government is seized of the matter. While
there is agreement in principle to go for 400 KHZ
separation, there is only a question of time as there are
some logistic problems in introducing it in the present
set-ups of metro and category A cities, where there
seems to be demand for more number of channels. Time
is, however, not far off when 400 KHZ separation will
become a reality for transmitters serving a common
service area and more channels would be available to the
broadcasters.
Private FM Phase-II
Learning from the experiences of Phase-I, the
Government took certain bold initiatives before
finalizing its policy for Phase-II. As a first step, it set up a
Radio Broadcast Policy Committee under the
th
chairmanship of DR. Amit Mitra on 24 July 2003. The
committee made a series of recommendations after
having interaction with wide ranging public opinion.
Thereafter the Government on February 12, 2004,
referred the report of the Radio Broadcast Policy
Committee together with the representations made by
private FM broadcasters to Telecom Regulatory
Authority of India (TRAI), after notifying broadcasting
to be a telecommunication service under Section 2 (i) (k(
of TRAI Act on 9th January, 2004.
FM in Community Radio
FM has also been chosen to be the medium for
community radios, the policy for which was announced
Taking into account various inputs, the Government
9
October'14 - December’14
country. At the time of writing this paper, 173
community radio stations are in operation in the country
while 216 applications are under scrutiny.
Concluding
FM has already come of age in India and is poised to
play a dominant role in the sphere of domestic coverage
of the country, may it be by the public broadcaster or
private agencies. Besides providing overall radio
coverage in the country, it will play a big role in boosting
the concept of local radio. It has already been chosen as a
medium for community radios, which by itself is turning
into a movement and is expected to bring up thousands
of stations. Presently FM is in analog mode in the
country, but ultimately it will go digital. However as
long as it is analog, it will require more spectrum in the
87-108 MHZ band for exclusive use. More and more
chunks in this band will, therefore, have to be earmarked
for exclusive use of Broadcasting, as was done before
the second phase of Private FM by carving out the chunk
of 91.5-95.0 MHZ exclusively for Broadcasting.
in December 2002. The policy was initially meant for
educational institutions and later modified in 2006 to
bring into its ambit NGOs and other non-profit
organizations. Community radios are low powered
transmitters intended to serve a community within its
geographical coverage area with a maximum ERP of
100 watts and maximum EHAAT of 30 meters. There is
a huge demand for getting licenses for them across the
About The Author
Shri B P Srivastava has now been associated with radio broadcast engineering for more than 60
years and is still continuing to work actively for development of radio broadcasting in the
country. His association with FM dates back to its inception in the country. It was under his
charge that FM was introduced in All India Radio in a big way in the late nineteen eighties and the
technical policy on FM was formulated along with the planning for 100 FM transmitters across
the country. He was decorated with “Akashvani Annual Award for Technical Excellence” for his
work in this field. Later on, he again came to the centre stage of FM when Private FM
Broadcasting was introduced in the country by playing a pivotal role in the preparation of policy
frame work of its various schemes and in their unfolding from Phase I to III. During this period
itself, he has published more than a dozen papers on FM broadcasting. In recognition of his
overall contribution towards the growth of radio broadcasting in the country, he has been honoured with the “Life
Time Achievement Award” at Radio Congress 2011.
Mr. Srivastava has also worked as Panel Expert with AIBD - an organization working under the aegis of ITU. In this
capacity, he has conducted international courses in Pacific region and for Asian region in Papua New Guinea and
Pakistan respectively. He was also acted as an expert to advise the national broadcaster of Papua New Guinea on the
matters connected with Medium Wave broadcasting. Mr. Srivastava is presently working as Senior Advisor with
Broadcast Engineering Consultants India Ltd (-BECIL) – a Government of India Enterprise.
10
6
October'14 - December’14
Managing Broadcasts during DisastersA report on sustaining and restoration of broadcast services prior to,
during and after Hud Hud Cyclone at Visakhapatnam
N. Thiyagrajan
During the recent cyclone "Hud Hud", that hit coastal
Andhra Pradesh on 12/10/14 the entire city of
Visakhapatnam was devastated and thrown off the gear
completely. The damage caused by the cyclone not only
changed the landscape of the port city but also made it
the first city in the country to be directly hit by a cyclone
since 1891.
Managing broadcasts prior to the disaster:
Since there was adequate warning about the impending
cyclone, a contingency plan was worked out and all
necessary preparatory actions were taken at both AIR
and Doordarshan to effectively manage the broadcast
services during and after cyclone. As during any
disasters, the power supply is the first casualty, the
stations were directed to adequately stock fuel so that
the transmitters and essential broadcast activities could
be sustained on Diesel Generators for several days.
All modes of connectivity both physical and electronic
got snapped. Due to fallen trees, the road transport was
disturbed for a couple of days. Train services were not
through till 15th of October. Air transport was
suspended for about a week. The Airport was severely
damaged. One could see fallen trees, electric poles and
cellular towers everywhere. Wherever fibre sheets were
used as roof, it was completely shattered and blown
away. There was no power supply or water. ATMs and
banking services were not through for more than a week.
Communication was very difficult with only a few
landline and cellular phones functioning intermittently.
It was like a war-torn city.
Since there would be dislocations in transport, staff
were asked to be prepared to stay for longer durations.
Necessary stocking of food and beverages were made.
They were also asked to keep standby programmes to be
aired in case of any exigencies. Such a plan has helped in
handling the transmission for a week to 10 days even
after cyclone without regular power supply.Prior to the
cyclone, the public broadcaster aired programmes
informing the public on the cyclone at regular intervals.
AIR SETUP Visakhapatnam :
Despite all this....the public broadcaster was ON AIR,
broadcasting programmes.
1. 100 KW MW BEL HMB 140 TRANSMITTER ON
TWO MW MASTS ( 140 MT NEC & 140 MT HBB
) DA SYSTEM With Phasing & Branching unit & 6
WIRE 230 OHMS FEEDER LINE
AIR FM services, Terrestrial TV for both DD1 and DD2
at HPT as well as LPT was functional uninterruptedly on
24 x 7 basis during and after cyclone. These services
were run on DG sets.
2. 10 KW NEC TRANSMITTER WITH 'L' AERIAL
& 6 WIRE FEEDER LINE
3. A 10 KW FM transmitter at Studio site.
DD SETUP at Visakhapatnam :
Doordarshan has two high power transmitters and two
low power transmitters at different locations at Vizag,
broadcasting DD National/ Regional and DD News.
The day Hud Hud hit the city of Vizag:
On 12.10.2014, the cyclonic storm HUD-HUD was
centered at and crossed over the land of Visakhapatnam.
This Cyclone was experienced from 0600 hrs – 2000 hrs
with the heavy rains and wind at a speed of 190-210
kms.
11
October'14 - December’14
all electrical poles in staff
quarters have fallen. The
sheets on the DG shed roof at
transmitting center got
damaged and thrown away.
Water pipelines got damaged.
Many trees got uprooted and
fallen, causing lot of
obstruction in studio center,
transmitting center and staff
quarters. Scooter sheds and
internal roads in all the
centers got damaged.
While at HPTV Vizag, the transmission was carried in
an un-interrupted manner on both the
Transmitters
on Diesel Generators. However, here too there were a
few damages. The PDAs got
damaged due to heavy
wind. Big trees had fallen in the campus and over armed
guard dormitory. There were damages to the compound
wall too. At LPTV, both the transmitters were
operational on DG sets. The PDAs got damaged.
Local Electricity department on precautionary measures
had already shut down the HT supply on their feeders
before the storm. Hence, there was no power supply
available to the entire city from 11th evening onwards. As
reported by AIR, Visakhapatnam, first transmission on
12/10/2014 was on air on 100 KW MW setup as usual
(continuous transmission since previous day), but at
around 10.30 am, upon noticing heavy swing on one of
the two masts ( 140 Mt NEC mast), the service was
taken on standby system, i.e., 10 KW NEC with 'L' aerial
as a precautionary measure. However, at 11.00 am, a big
tree near 'L' aerial got fully uprooted and fell over the
feed point & subsequently due to heavy wind the 'L'
aerial also collapsed to ground. Service got shutdown
w.e.f 11.20 am on 12/10/2014.
Details of restoration works carried out :
The Zonal Office had already directed all the coastal
stations in the cyclone prone areas to take all
contingency arrangements including over stay of staff at
technical areas, adequate food arrangements and
stocking diesel, etc to ensure uninterrupted
transmission.
On receiving information from AIR, Visakhapatnam
about the effects/damages of HUD HUD cyclonic
storm, restoration of MW transmission service was
planned by ADG(M), SZ, Chennai and accordingly a
team of engineering officials was deputed to AIR,
Visakhapatnam on 13.10.2014. The team could reach
Visakhapatnam only at 4.30 pm on 14.10.2014 as there
were no train / flight services to Visakhapatnam. They
At around 11.30 Hrs , the top most guy of 140 mt MW
NEC mast got snapped due to heavy wind and the top
portion of tower got bent down and slowly entire tower
collapsed to ground along the space in between NEC hut
and old ATU hut. The top portion of the 100 mt FM
tower at the studio center got bent due to heavy winds at
88 mt height and three out of six branch feeder cables
got damaged. However, because of this, transmission
did not get affected. VSWR was checked to be within
limit. The Microwave studio transmitter link dish got
disoriented to a large extent at the transmitting end and
the VHF yagi antenna got damaged and the elements got
thrown away by the wind.
The compound wall at transmitting center has fallen at
many places. All feeder lights and most of the street
lights in studio center, transmitting center & staff
quarters got damaged. Many glass panes of windows
broke and door shutters got damaged in all the buildings.
Electrical substation at studio center got damaged and
12
10
October'14 - December’14
have to travel up to Vijayawada by train and thereafter
by road to reach Visakhapatnam.
In the mean time, the restoration works commenced. To
quickly restore the transmission, it was decided to put
through the damaged 'L' aerial first, as it was easier and
therefore was serviced fully and hoisted back by AIR,
Visakhapatnam. Necessary Impedance measurements
of 'L' aerial were carried out and the old 10 KW NEC
standby transmitter (more than five decades old) was
connected to the “L” aerial. The service was restored at
6.30 pm on 14.10.2014, on 63 KVA DG supply.
mast (140 mt HBB) was re-designed so as to obtain
proper matching between the base impedance of this
mast and the 230 ohm feeder line. The ATU components
were mobilized from fallen mast ATU and were rend
installed in the 2 mast ATU as per the new design.
On 15.10.2014 the work began on the 100 KW MW
transmitter. Three teams viz., AIR Vizag, HPT Avadi
and Mast Technician from SPT Bangalore under the
supervision of officers from Zonal office, were
deployed at Transmitter, ATU and Feeder Lines,
respectively. At the transmitter, the water logged inside
the Transmitter cubicles was cleaned and dried with
blowers. The cubicle was kept heated up with filaments
'On” condition. Restoration of 6 wire feeder line was
also taken up simultaneously. Tilted feeder poles were
straightened. Outer wires (4 WIRES) of feeder line were
repaired to the entire length.
On 16th October, 2014 center live wires of feeder line
were laid with new 8swg copper wire to the entire length
and the feeder line repairs got completed by 3 pm on the
same day. On completion of feeder line repairs & ATU
modification, the impedance figures of full RF Chain
like Mast----ATU-----Feeder------Transmitter Output
network------ PA valve were confirmed to be of the
specified /required figures.
The other team worked on de-connecting phasing &
nd
branching unit and bypassed the ATU. The ATU for 2
On 400 KVA DG supply, the 100 KW transmitter was
switched 'On” with repaired feeder line / modified ATU
on single mast (140 mt HBB) and transmitter was tested
for full power of 100KW. Service was made operational
th
w.e.f 5 pm on 16 October 2014 onwards.
At Doordarshan, the damages were comparatively less.
One of the uprooted PDAs at HPT, was re-installed
quickly and smaller PDAs and DTH units were
procured and installed at both HPT and LPT for
receiving the Programmes through satellite. The
transmission was maintained even during cyclone and
after, at the HPT and LPTs.
The team of Engineers from HPT Avadi, SPT
Bengaluru, AIR Vizag, HPT, DMC and LPT Vizag
performed with great zeal and enthusiasm along with
the officers from Zonal office in restoring the services. It
involved a lot of coordination and even support from the
State Government was taken for continuous availability
of Diesel. All these restoration works have been
completed even before power supply, banking, ATM &
air transport services could be restored to the city.
Prior to the cyclone, information on precautionary
measures, alerts/ warnings and voice bites of Director,
13
11
October'14 - December’14
Cyclone Warning Center and District Collectors of
Visakhapatnam, Vizianagaram & Srikakulam and other
district officials were aired both on MW and FM
channels at regular intervals, from 10th October
onwards. Messages of AP Chief Minister were also
broadcast. After the MW mast collapsed, AIR FM
Rainbow Saagarika 102 was the only source of
information to the public during/ after the cyclone with
periodical special news bulletins received from AIR,
Hyderabad and updates on cyclone status from Indian
Meteorological Department. All the four Private FM
channels were off the air from the evening of 12th
October till next day morning. After the cyclone also,
information on restoration activities in the city and
telephone nos. of sources of various utility services
arranged by local district administration, namely, water,
power/ DG supply, electrical/ plumbing repairs,
removal of uprooted trees, etc., was informed to the
public through AIR FM channel. Continuous
transmission was given on air on AIR FM, Srikakulam
and FM relay center, Kakinada for the benefit of the
th
th
public in those areas on 11 and 12 October 2014.
The public service broadcaster played a vital role and
thereby received good appreciation from the public for
the services rendered at the time of calamity. This is
confirmed from the numerous calls from the public as
well as the quick feedback telephonic survey conducted
by the Audience Research Unit of AIR, Vizag. The
listenership of FM Rainbow has increased considerably
after the cyclone.
About The Author
Mr. N. Thiyagarajan, A 1986 batch officer of Indian Engineering Services, Mr.Thiyagarajan
has been serving in Doordarshan for the last 26 years and held various positions in major
Doordarshan Kendras and DG, Doordarshan.
He has wide ranging experience in the field of broadcasting encompassing programme
production, post production and transmission.
As the Regional Engineering Head of Prasar Bharati, he presently oversees the operation and
maintenance of All India Radio and Doordarshan installations in South Zone. His mandate
includes Human Resource Development, and provides strategic direction in modernisation
and digitalisation of existing infrastructure.
During his career Mr.N.Thiyagarajan has technically coordinated the common wealth games from Melbourne and
New Delhi in the year 2006 and 2010 respectively and was instrumental in the installation of robotic camera system
in the Indian Parliament.
He has participated in many national & international conferences and represented Asia Pacific Broadcasting Union
in ITU conference held at Hyderabad in the year 2010.
He has been closely associated with Broadcast Engineering Society (I) for several years and is the council member
since 2012.
He is presently Additional Director General (E) of South Zone, Chennai.
14
10
October'14 - December’14
Cloud Computing
Kailash S
Background
In the recent years, almost entire IT industry is migrating
towards cloud computing irrespective of their business
domain. The latest hardware industry products are
cloud enabled. The software industry products are cloud
enabled. The mobile industry products and services are
cloud enabled. Embedded systems are cloud enabled.
As the products are cloud enabled their applicable
domains are on cloud. To state few, Banking, Education,
e-Governance, Media, Communication, Healthcare and
so on are marching towards cloud.
The background inspiration of cloud computing is the
conventional electrical grid. In electrical grid, the power
generation units are interconnected and through proper
distribution mechanism, the power supply delivered to
consumers. From the consumer point of view, the end
user is not concerned of from where the power is
generated, how it is distributed, how transmitted and so
on. All the concern of user is that, whenever he needs
power supply for his needs, he should get it in his
required quantity. For example, whenever he plugs in
the power cable of his devices into the power socket, he
should get power with regard to his required capacity.
From the Power grid point of view, the service provider
is concerned about how to deliver the power generated
to consumers, distribution, maintenance of power units
and management. At every consumer location, a meter
is placed which measures the usage of power units. The
consumption is converted into numerical value with
regard to usage such as whether used for high power
electrical devices or low power electronic devices.
The term Cloud computing was coined in to the industry
during 2007 – 2008. At the infantry stage of cloud, there
was different opinion about the technology that cloud
computing is not a new technology instead it's a wrapper
around existing technology. During the early stages
there was no standard for cloud. From that stage, now
cloud has penetrated into all the domains in
collaboration with all the technology.
In the
forthcoming parts, we shall discuss on what is cloud
computing all about and its architecture.
The phrase cloud computing can be split up into two
parts such as CLOUD + COMPUTING. The word
computing refers to all the operations that we perform
on computers, with computers. The word Cloud refers to
internet. In network diagrams, Internet is represented
with the symbol cloud. So in simple terms, Cloud
computing denotes that computing operations are
performed with internet / on internet / through internet.
The cloud environment operation methodology is
similar to that of power grid. The cloud users are not
concerned of how the services are delivered, from where
and so on. All the concern of the cloud users is that, he
should get the cloud services when he plugs in his
computing devices into the network. The concern of the
cloud service provider is to deliver the services, make
the services available, secure the environment and so
on. Similar to the electrical meter, a meter runs at the
service provider location measuring the cloud services
consumed by the users and billing generated
accordingly.
CLOUD CENTRE
Evolution
The evolution of cloud computing started with the
networks such as local area network to Internet, and
from internet to Virtualization technology.
Virtualization is the backbone of cloud computing.
Virtualization in simple terms means the computing
services are virtually available. After virtualization
technology evolved grid computing. Grid computing is
the computing environment offered through web
15
October'14 - December’14
Pay per use – The cloud service consumer is charged for
his service consumption based on his usage. All the
resources consumed by the user are monitored and the
consumption is converted into numerical value and
charged similar to the electrical meter system.
EVOLUTION OF CLOUD COMPUTING
Ubiquitous network access – The services are accessible
from anywhere within the network whether internet or
local network, at anytime.
Benefits
The benefits that the cloud environment offers are as
follows,
Eliminates capital expenses- Since the cloud service
consumers consumes the cloud services available from
the service provider through a network on thin
computing devices, there is no necessity for the cloud
service consumers to maintain his own data centres,
servers, storage, network, software, application,
security tools, monitoring, power, cooling, physical
location, administrators, support executives and so on,
thereby reducing the capital and operational expenses as
these are maintained by the cloud service providers. The
only expense to be borne by the user is the service
consumption cost which is very less when compared to
the capital and operational expenses.
services, mainly used for real time scientific operations
such as whether prediction and forecasting, protein
synthesis, drug discovery, mechanical simulation,
nuclear analysis, defense mechanism and so on. From
grid computing evolved the cloud computing. In grid
computing the resources distributed across are
consolidated and offered as service to users. For
example, if there are n number of servers in a grid
environment, every user in cloud will enjoy the
computational or storage power of consolidated n
servers whereas in a cloud environment, the
servers/storage/network resources are virtualized and
offered to users as services.
Optimal utilization of resources – Since the cloud
services are offered on virtualization mode, this ensures
optimal utilization of resources such that the
computational and storage capacity of servers is not
underutilized thereby providing more return on
investment.
Characteristics
As the cloud has evolved with Virtualization as the
backbone, the characteristics that a cloud environment
should bear are as follows,
Availability, reliability and scalability – The cloud
environment ensures high availability of services and
the services are scalable without disturbing the existing
services.
Rapid elasticity – This is the capability of the cloud
services to automatically expand the base capacity as the
load to the service increases and automatically shrinks
as the load decreases. The elastic bands expand as the
pressure or load increases and contrast as the pressure or
load decreases. This feature is brought into cloud
services. This ensures optimal utilization of the
resources.
Services
As discussed earlier, cloud offers the services with
various features and functionalities. The basic services
offered by cloud are
On demand dynamic provisioning –The configuration
and capacity of service required by the consumer is
provisioned dynamically on the fly as and when needed.
The services and its capacity are not preconfigured. As
and when a request is received from the consumers, the
cloud environment automatically provisions the request
as service.
1) Infrastructure as a service (IaaS) – the base
infrastructure required for computational and storage
operations is offered as a service. This includes the
computational, storage and network resources. The
service is offered as virtual machine. The virtual
machine configuration is specified in terms of Memory
16
October'14 - December’14
(RAM) capacity, No. of cores & processor, Storage and
network parameters such as IP address – static or
dynamic and so on along with the operating system. The
Mentioned configuration is provisioned as virtual
machine and offered to users. Users with the help of IP
address, username and password access the
infrastructure through remote connectivity.
particular organization. The departments and its
members within an organization can only avail the cloud
services.
3) Hybrid cloud – This cloud is a combination of public
and private cloud. When the private cloud resources are
exhausted, the services are fetched from public cloud by
the cloud administrator and offered service to the users.
2) Platform as a service (PaaS) – Platform as a service is
categorized into two types such as Application
development platform and application deployment
platform.
4) Community cloud – This cloud is established by the
community for the use of certain community. For
example a Banking community cloud is established for
use by the banking sector.
The application development platform delivers the tools
required for developing the application as a service such
as application server, web server, database server,
scripting tools and so on. Instead of procuring all the
software tools required for developing the application,
the hardware required, license for the same and
maintaining it, all the required are offered as service
which can be accessed through remote connectivity and
the charges are calculated based on the usage.
Apart from the mentioned basic cloud types, there are
other types of cloud emerging out due to adoption of
cloud in all domains. Such cloud types include adhoc
cloud, mobile cloud, scientific cloud and so on.
Roles in Cloud
There are three major roles in cloud such as
The application deployment platform delivers the
software tools and hardware environment required for
deploying the application. This includes the web server,
application server, database server, scripting tools over
infrastructure service.
1) Cloud service provider – The cloud service provider
establishes the cloud environment, maintains, manages
and operates the cloud environment. Under cloud
service providers category, there are certain category of
administrators such as cloud security manager, Cloud
network administrators, Support executives and so on.
3) Software as a service (SaaS) – Software as service
delivers highly customizable application as a service.
The user can customize the application available based
on his need and can access the same as cloud service.
This eliminates the need for users to procure or develop
application, maintain and manage the application.
2) Cloud service developers – The service developers
develops the services and deploys it in cloud and offers
to the cloud service consumers. For example the
application is developed by the developers and
deployed in cloud and offered as software service.
3) Cloud service consumers – Consumers are the users
who utilize the cloud services.
Apart from the basic services mentioned, recent
improvements in cloud offers advanced cloud services
such as security as a service, database as a service, data
as a service and so on.
Types of Cloud
Apart from the mentioned cloud roles, there are other
roles such as cloud broker who acts as a broker between
the users and service providers and also with the service
developers.
There are about four basic types of cloud as follows,
Concern of roles
1) Public cloud – Public cloud offers services to general
public. Anyone who is in need of cloud service can
register with the cloud service provider and can avail the
services. The cloud services are monitored, metered and
charged to the users accordingly.
The concern of Cloud service consumer is the
availability of services, quality of service he is availing,
cost of the services.
The concern of Cloud service developer is the
availability of services, quality of service he is availing,
cost of the service, partially the architecture of the cloud.
2) Private Cloud – Private cloud is established for a
17
October'14 - December’14
Whereas the concern of the cloud service provider is
much more in establishing the cloud, scaling up the
resources, availability of services, monitoring, securing
the cloud environment and services, managing the
resources and services, maintenance of cloud
environment and so on.
Architecture of Cloud
The architecture of cloud is classified with 6 layers. At
the lowermost layer lies the hardware including servers
offering the computational power, storage and network.
Above the layer lies the virtualization layer. The
virtualization software called hypervisor or virtual
machine manager virtualizes the underlying resources
and offers them as service. The components virtualized
are
i)
Computational resources virtualization
ii)
Storage resources virtualization
in the cloud functionality of elasticity, automated
functioning, dynamic provisioning and so on to the
environment.
The security layer secures the entire cloud resources
and services from the network , hardware to the
virtualization, middleware, virtual machines,
application, database, data and so on.
iii) Network resources virtualization
iv) Software resources virtualization
The management layer is responsible for management
and maintenance of
entire cloud resources and
services. The activities include monitoring, metering,
billing, service level agreement management, backup,
disaster recovery, ensuring availability, user profile
management, Quality of service maintenance, support
services and so on.
Computational resources virtualization virtualizes
memory, processor. Storage resource virtualization
virtualizes the storage. Network resources virtualization
virtualizes the network resources and software
resources virtualization virtualizes the software and
application. The software application includes a specific
property called “ multi-tenancy”.
Issues
Above the virtualization layer is the middleware layer
which controls the virtualization layer. This layer brings
Although cloud establishments are stable and widely
adopted by all the domains due to its benefits offered to
the users, still there are lot of issues yet to be addressed
in cloud which includes security, legal, policies,
standards and so on.
LAYERED ARCHITECTURE
Even before the cloud services are standardized at all
levels, there are other modified forms of cloud
technology coming up and widely accepted by the
domains. The industry is moving up at such as faster
pace. To withstand in the cyber market, its mandatory
that every industry and every domains should constantly
update with the emerging technology.
The article is authored by Kailash S, Senior Engineer,
Centre for Development of Advanced Computing,
Chennai - A scientific society under Ministry of
18
October'14 - December’14
Communication and Information technology,
Government of India.
country. As a product of NRCFOSS, CDAC has
developed and released a Linux based operating system
called Bharat Operating system solutions (BOSS) –
Indian version of OS customized for Indian
environment which comes in 3 flavors – Desktop,
Server and Educational OS.
Centre for Development of Advanced Computing (CDAC) is the premier R&D organization of the
Department of Electronics and Information Technology
(DeitY), Ministry of Communications & Information
Technology (MCIT) for carrying out R&D in IT,
Electronics and associated areas. With about 10 centres
across the country, Chennai centre is the premier and
coordinating centre for National Resource Centre for
Free and Open Source software.
Being a pioneer in cloud computing, CDAC Chennai
has released a free and open source cloud computing
suite called – Meghdoot, with which the cloud service
providers can establish cloud environment on top of
their hardware. This indigenous suite is one stop
solution to establish cloud environment comprising free
and open source tools across all layers of standard cloud.
NRCFOSS aims to develop, proliferate and promote
usage of free and open source software across the
About The Author
Sh. Kailash is working as Senior Engineer in Centre for Development of Advanced
Computing, Chennai with over 8 years of experience in Grid and Cloud computing, involved
in design and development of open source cloud computing suite named Meghdoot. He is
involved in various cloud consultation and implementation assignments for Government
agencies and offerred corporate trainings to Govt., SMEs, Corporate, workshop in academic
institutions. Graduated with M.S and currently pursuing Ph.D in Cloud computing.
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of the organizer. Please send photographs of conference/ workshop/seminar. The conference held in
past 3 months of the forthcoming issue will be preferred.
7. The editor reserves the right to reject, edit and adjust articles in order to conform to the format of the
Review.
19
October'14 - December’14
Energy Audit
Manisha Shete
Introduction: Electrical energy is the most expensive and the most important form of purchased energy. Hence
must be efficiently used. Efforts to save electricity result in significant savings. In developing countries like
India, where electrical energy resources are scarce and production of electricity is very costly, energy
conservation studies are of great importance. An energy audit is a study of a plant or facility to determine how
and where energy is used and to identify methods for energy savings. If we can reduce the energy usage or
improve the energy efficiency in electrical installations, energy can be conserved and some of the resulting
environmental problems, such as greenhouse effect and ozone depletion, can be alleviated. The objective of
Energy Management is to achieve and maintain optimum energy procurement and utilisation, throughout the
organization and:
• To minimise energy costs / waste without affecting production & quality
• To minimise environmental effects.
In this article practical solutions given during energy audit conducted by MITCON at DDK Pune are shared.
consideration of effects of external factors (e.g.,
changes in weather and other conditions). With the
computer simulation audit, a baseline related to a
facility's actual energy use is established, against which
effects of system improvements are compared. This
audit often is used for assessing energy performance of
new buildings.
Walk-through Audit
This is the least expensive. It involves an examination of
the building or facility, including a visual inspection of
each of the associated systems. The walk-through audit
provides an initial estimate of potential savings and
prepare list of inexpensive savings options, usually
involving incremental improvements in operation and
maintenance. Information from this level of audit also
serves as a basis for determining if a more
comprehensive audit is needed.
Steps in Energy Audit
Energy audit is conducted in following simple steps.
a. The audit firm first collects data from the energy
bills consumed for a duration of roughly one year to
study the consumption pattern.
Standard Audit
This involves a more comprehensive and highly
detailed evaluation of facilities, equipment, operational
systems. Conditions are assessed thoroughly and onsite measurements and testing are conducted to arrive at
a careful assessment of energy use, including losses.
Technical changes in the existing setup are provided,
also long term and short term solutions with its payback
time are suggested. In short, the standard audit will
include a complete analysis of energy consumption
pattern, economic analysis and payback time of the
proposed technical improvements.
b. Share of electrical energy by different loads is
studied and represented in pie chart form.
c. Study of power quality is done by tabulating current
and voltage harmonics at mains transformer for
fixed time period.
d. Detailed study of AHU units is carried out and
power consumed by each split ACs is measured.
e. Detail study of lighting load, fan load in each and
every room is carried out. Light level in each room
is measured.
Computer Simulation
The computer simulation approach is the most
expensive and often is recommended for more
complicated systems, structures or facilities. This
involves using computer simulation software for
prediction purposes (i.e., performance of buildings) and
f.
20
October'14 - December’14
Recommendations for energy conservation are
given along with short term and long term solutions
for implementation is given along with payback
time.
g. Implementation assistance by the audit team if
required.
reactive elements. Power factor is ratio of real power in
watts or kilowatts by apparent power in KVA or VA. The
vector sum of the active power and reactive power make
up the total (or apparent) power used. Power factor
measures how efficiently the current is being converted
into real power. A power factor of 1 is the most efficient
Analysis of Energy Audit
Energy audit becomes a futile exercise if proper analysis
of the report and implementation is not done. Energy
audit points losses and inefficiency of the system
existing along with short term and long term solutions.
DDK Pune has two setups, a studio at Kothrud and HPT
at Singhad, so is a HT consumer. First step of energy
saving is proper analysis of electricity bill and thorough
understanding of how billing is done. Following points
are to be monitored to avoid overpaying.
1. Keep contract demand optimum depending on
consumption.
2. Monitor Maximum Demand.
Fig 1 The “Power Triangle”
3. Maintain power factor close to unity.
loading of supply
4. Keep check on voltage and current harmonics in
power supply.
Apparent power is generated by the State Electricity
Boards for the user to perform a given amount of work
measured in kVA (Kilo Volts-Amperes).Power factor
controllers maintain power factor close to 1 by
switching capacitor bank to counter inductive loads,
considerable saving in electricity is done. APFC
(automatic power factor correctors) maintain power
factor close to 1 in all load conditions, by switching
different set of capacitor banks as per load. Incentive is
obtained in electricity bills if power factor is maintained
to 1.
Contract demand should always be kept slightly more
than average consumption throughout the year.HT
consumer is billed not only for the units consumed
throughout the month but also for (MD) or maximum
demand charges. This charge is usually based on the
highest amount of power used during some period (say
30 minutes) during the metering month. The maximum
demand charge often represents a large proportion of the
total bill and may be based on only one isolated 30
minute episode of high power use. Considerable savings
can be achieved by monitoring power use and turning
off or reducing non-essential loads during such periods
of high power use.
Next measurement is quality of power supply which is
determined by measuring Harmonics. They are
measured at secondary of mains transformer. The
presence of harmonics in a network would result in.
Maximum Demand Controller is a device designed to
meet load management. Alarm is sounded when demand
approaches a preset value. If corrective action is not
taken, the controller switches off non-essential loads in
a logical sequence. Using M.D controllers can amount
to large savings in electricity bills.
a. Current overload on the capacitor and increase in
temperature which reduces the life of capacitors. .
c. Increased resistance of conductors thereby
increased losses and thermal failure
d. Additional losses in transformers and in rotating
electrical machines
Next is power factor correction. In all electrical
distribution systems, the major loads are resistive and
inductive. Resistive loads are incandescent lighting and
resistance heating. Inductive loads are transformers and
motors. Practical loads are combination of resistive and
e. Measurement errors in the counters and untimely
triggering of safety relays.
f. Disturbance and faults in electronic equipment and
computers.
21
October'14 - December’14
For HT consumer harmonics (current and voltage)
should be within limits specified by standard IEEE 5191992.
Formula used for calculation of Total Harmonic
Distortion for current.
Same formula is used to calculate Total Harmonic
Distortion in voltage with voltage replacing current in
the above formula.
Fig 3: Power consumption pattern at transmitter.
Tuned harmonic filters consisting of capacitor and
reactance in series are designed to provide low
impedance path to the harmonics and keep harmonics in
the system in check.
As is evident,from the above pie charts. In studio and
transmitter most of the power is consumed by AC plants.
Choosing split conditioner of proper ratings is very
important.
Mains Transformer
Long term solution for savings with split ACs: Replace
old ACs with star rating ACs. The greater the star ratings
of AC more is its efficiency and electricity savings.
Voltage regulation and rating of mains transformer play
important role. Also percentage loading of transformer
is important as it determines its losses. Ideally to have
minimum losses it should be loaded around 50%. Large
voltage variation from transformer causes large
electrical consumption, increases Maximum Demand
and reduces power factor.
Short term solution: Installation of energy saver kits for
individual split ACs which can reduce power
consumption from 50 to 70%. These energy saver kits
are available in price range of 8000-10000 per AC.
Following tips can be used for efficient split AC
working:
After ensuring that incoming electricity is clean,
harmonics are within specified limits and power factor
and MD is maintained the bill amount is optimized.
Next step is to measure consumption pattern of
electricity by different loads present in the system.
1. AC operates most efficiently when intake and
discharge airflows are free from nearby obstacles.
Consider using an interior ceiling fan in conjunction
with AC to spread the cooled air more effectively
within the room. Using fan allows to set the
thermostat temperature higher and thus reduces the
energy consumption.
Load distribution Pattern
2. Clean the air-conditioner filter regularly. A dirty air
filter reduces airflow and may damage the unit.
Clean filters enable the unit to cool.
3. Clean outdoor coils when they become dusty.
Efficiency of AC degrades in dusty conditions, and
especially when layers of dirt and mud are evident.
Lighting load
It is recommended to use LED light fittings wherever
possible and to adopt good practice of switching off
lights in area where it is not necessary. In areas where it
is not possible occupancy sensors can be used which
Fig 2: Power consumption pattern at studio
22
October'14 - December’14
For AC plants
automatically switch off the lights when there are no
human movements. Also using instead of 75 watts fans
50 watt fans can also help in reducing energy
consumption. In HPTs there is a tendency to use heater
coils for heating water and cooking that practice should
be stopped altogether instead induction heaters should
be used.
There is considerable lighting load during day time. It is
proposed by the energy audit team to install solar
photovoltaic system for generation of electricity during
the day. The electricity generated can be fed to the local
grid and utilized for the day loads in the office. It is
proposed to install about 15 kWp solar PV system at our
Kothrud studio with payback time of 6-7 yrs.
6.
Tune up the HVAC (Heating Ventilation and
Airconditioning) control system. Consider
installing a building automation system (BAS) or
energy management system (EMS) or restoring an
out-of-service one.
7.
Balance the system to minimize flows and reduce
blower / fan / pump power. Use of VFDs(Variable
Frequency Drives) for motors increases efficiency
of AC plants.
8.
Check HVAC filters on a schedule (at least
monthly) and clean / change if appropriate.
9.
Check pneumatic controls air
compressors
for proper operation, cycling, and maintenance.
Inspect, clean, lubricate and adjust damper blades
and linkages.
In addition to guide lines discussed in the above
paragraphs
Here are few practical guidelines or tips for energy
conservation in AIR or DDK setup:
For D G sets
For Distribution System
1.
Stagger start-up times for equipment with
starting currents to minimize load peaking.
2.
Set transformer taps to optimum settings.
Disconnect primary power to transformers that do
not serve any active loads.
10. Optimize loading. Clean air filters regularly.
Insulate exhaust pipes to reduce DG set room
temperatures.
large
Conclusion
In short energy audit plays important role in pointing out
power wastages and makes us more aware to reduce
them. Most of the guidelines given in the article are of
practical nature and can be implemented without much
expenditure involved.
Motors and Fans
3.
Use energy-efficient motors for continuous or
near-continuous operation.
4.
Eliminate leaks in duct, minimise bends in
ductwork.
References:
For Blowers
5.
Minimize blower inlet and outlet
and clean filters regularly.
1.
Energy Audit report submitted by MITCON
Consultancy & Engineering Services Ltd.
2.
www. Bureau of Energy Efficiency.
obstructions.
About The Author
Smt. Manisha Shete, is a 1998 batch IB(E)S officer, presently working as Deputy
Director(Engg) at DDK, Pune. She has Bachelor Degree in Electronics and
Telecommunication from Pune University. She entered this service in 2000 at DDK, Mumbai.
She had handled VTR maintenance, transmitter, earth station and installation of server based
playback station at DDK, Mumbai. As sponsored candidate of Doordarshan, completed
M.Tech.(RF and Photonics) from IIT, Kanpur in 2012. Published research paper in IEEE
sensor journal in 2013 and also a research paper in PIERS (Progress in Electromagnetic
Research Symposium) conference in Stockholm 2013. She is interested in Microwave
Integrated Circuits, fiber optics and modern trends in communication.
23
October'14 - December’14
Single Frequency Network by
Rohde & Schwarz
Due to the limitation of available spectrum and
demanding bandwidth world over, Analog and TV
transmission is switching to Digital transmission and
India is no behind. In India for the terrestrial
transmission network, the opted standards are DRM/
DRM Plus and DVB-T2 standards for Digital Radio and
Digital TV Transmission respectively.
•
•
•
Nirav Bhatia
Spectrum efficient
Network gain because of simultaneous reception of
multiple useful signals
No need to retune while travelling
Analog AM and FM radio broadcast networks as well as
digital broadcast networks can operate in this manner.
SFNs are not generally compatible with analog
television transmission; however, since the SFN results
in ghosting due to echoes of the same signal, it is not
preferred.
In India, for terrestrial TV transmission, DVB-T2
transmitters for HDTV and SDTV services have been
put in operation in few major cities including four metro
cities i.e. Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai. Also
few AM transmitters have been upgraded to DRM
standard and also there is planning to upgrade FM
transmitters to DRM+ standard.
A simplified form of SFN can be achieved by a low
power co-channel repeater, booster or broadcast
translator, which is utilized as gap filler transmitter.
The aim of SFNs is efficient utilization of the radio
spectrum, allowing a higher number of radio and TV
programs in comparison to traditional multi-frequency
network (MFN) transmission. An SFN may also
increase the coverage area and decrease the outage
probability in comparison to an MFN, since the total
received signal strength may increase to positions
midway between the transmitters.
Unlike analog transmission, one main transmitter is not
enough to cover the entire area in digital network.
Hence, in order to achieve optimized terrestrial
transmission coverage in a given area, the repeater
transmitters or gap fillers are used for the proper
coverage of signal. With multiple transmitters running
in one area, these should be either operating in Multi
Frequency Network (MFN) or Single Frequency
Network (SFN).
SFN for DVB-T/ DVB-T2 Networks:
In DVB-T network, a SFN allows for re-transmitters,
gap-filler transmitters (essentially a low-power
synchronous transmitter) and use of SFN between main
transmitter towers.
The DVB-T SFN uses the fact that the guard interval of
the COFDM signal allows for various length of path
echoes to occur is not different from that of multiple
transmitters transmitting the same signal onto the same
frequency. The criticality is that it needs to occur about
in the same time and at the same frequency. The
versatility of time-transfer systems such as GPS
receivers (here assumed to provide PPS and 10 MHz
signals) as well as other similar systems allows for phase
and frequency coordination among the transmitters. The
guard interval allows for a timing budget of which
several microseconds may be allocated to time errors of
the time-transfer system used. A GPS receiver worstcase scenario is able to provide +/- 1 µs time, well within
Top: Multi Frequency Network (MFN),
Bottom: Single Frequency Network (SFN)
Why SFN
A single-frequency network or SFN is a broadcast
network where several transmitters simultaneously send
the same signal over the same frequency channel. The
main advantages of SFN over MFN are as follows:
24
October'14 - December’14
the system needs of DVB-T SFN in typical
configuration.
transmits pair of data cells S0, S1 and Tx2 transmits -S1*, S0*, where S1*and SO* are complex conjugates of
S1 and S0 .MISO removes the RF spectrum ripples and
notches that occur in a standard (SISO-single input
single output) SFN channel. This degrades the system's
signal quality (Modulation Error Ratio, MER) and do
not occur in a MISO SFN because the two transmitted
signals are no longer identical, so destructive signal (for
individual carriers) combination between transmitters is
avoided
Naturally, it should be possible to implement SFN also
in DVB-T2, the main reason being the economic use of
frequencies. Frequencies are expensive and are
becoming ever more scaring. Being able to reuse the
same frequency is, therefore, important. SFNs allow this
at several adjacent transmitter sites in isolated, single
frequency networks. DVB-T2 additionally allows
larger interference-free single frequency networks to be
formed.
Size of SFN
SFNs must meet the following conditions:
•
•
•
SFNs require careful planning and if they are made too
large in size the transmitters in the SFN will start to
interfere with each other, this is called SFN selfinterference. It should be pointed out that a guard
interval of 224 µs would allow for SFNs with a diameter
of up to about perhaps 100 - 150 km, depending on
network topology and the terrain. Creation of really
large SFNs with diameters of 150 - 400 km may not be
possible using the DVB-T system, due to SFN selfinterference. If however DVB-T2 is used, additional
guard interval options are available. It will be possible to
make SFNs covering larger areas with smaller loss of
capacity due to the use of the 32k or 16k modes. For
example the DVB-T2 mode 32k 256-QAM R= 3/5 with
guard interval fraction 1/8 with a guard interval of 448
µs, or a guard interval fraction of 19/128 with a guard
interval of 532 µs. Using one of these DVB-T2 SFN
options will reduce the loss of capacity from 20%
(DVB-T) to about 15% (DVB-T2- for GI fraction
19/128) or about 12% (DVB-T2- for GI fraction 1/8).
The drawback of using the 32k mode is the lack of
mobile reception.
Frequency Synchronism
Time Synchronism
Data Synchronism
Guard interval condition, i.e. maximum transmitter
spacing must not be exceeded (table below)
Mode Symbol
g=1/128
Duration t (ms)
(ms)
d (KM)
g=1/32
t (ms)
d (KM)
g=1/16
t (ms)
d (KM)
g=19/256
t (ms)
d (KM)
g=1/8
t (ms)
d (KM)
g=19/128
t (ms)
d (KM)
g=1/4
t (ms)
d (KM)
32K
3.384
0.028
8.4
0.112
33.6
0.224
67.2
0.226
79.7
0.448
134.3
0.532
159.5
16K
10792
0.014
4.2
0.056
16.8
0.112
33.6
0.133
39.9
0.224
67.2
0.226
79.75
0.448
134.3
8K
0.896
0.007
2.1
0.028
8.4
0.061
16.8
0.076
19.8
0.112
33.6
0.133
39.89
0.224
67.2
4K
0.448
0.014
4.2
0.031
8.4
0.056
16.8
0.112
33.6
2K
0.224
0.07
2.1
0.016
0.028
8.4
0.056
16.8
1K
0.112
0.014
4.2
0.028
8.4
Frequency synchronism is achieved by frequency
standards at the transmitter site, generally a professional
GPS receiver providing a 10-MHz reference. Time and
data synchronism is achieved by time stamps in the
baseband feed signal. This is the T2-MI signal in DVBT2. The DVB-T2 modulator synchronizes its frame
structure to these time stamps. The guard interval
condition is met by suitable network planning with
planning software. The new factor in DVB-T2 is
possibility of distributed MISO. There are transmitter
sites which radiate either MISO Mode 1 or 2. The
advantage of this method is that destructive fading no
longer occurs between two adjacent transmitter sites.
However the appropriate choice and simulation of the
MISO modes is also a new challenge for the network
planning.
Typical example of DVB-T/ T2 Network
Optimization
SFN in Italy
In Italy, the public service multiplex with regional
contents (RAI Multiplex 1) is usually deployed by using
two VHF frequencies (channels 5 and 9) in an MFN
configuration and another UHF frequency for each
region in an SFN configuration, taking into account
international coordination. As an example, the region of
Puglia, in southern Italy, is considered. It covers a very
large area, which mainly consists of flat land and
includes some HTHP transmitters: for this reason it
represents a relevant case study as for SFN planning.
In 'MISO' i.e. 'Multiple Input Single Output', two
transmitters Tx1 and Tx2 provide multiple inputs to a
receiver which gives out single output while Tx1
In Puglia, channel 32 (562 MHz) is used to develop a
25
October'14 - December’14
SFN in Southern Bavaria
regional SFN, which includes 27 transmitters
distributed throughout the area. Since Multiplex 1 is the
public service multiplex, at least 99% of population has
to be covered with good quality.
The DVB-T Single frequency networks (SFNs) used as
the example are networks in the South of Germany, in
Germany's largest federal state which has a geography
of high and low mountains and includes the gentle
foothills. This topography was of the greatest
significance in the planning of the networks.
The southern Bavaria DVB-T network consists of the
two transmitters Olympic Tower Munich and Mt.
Wendelstein. The Olympic Power is a typical
telecommunication tower to the north-west of Munich
with a height of 292 m at about 450m above sea level. At
the upper end of the Tower there are transmitting
antennas for FM radio, DAB and now for DVB also.
The Mt. Wendelstein transmitter is located at about
1750m above sea level on the mountain of the same
name which has a total height of 1850m.
These two towers form the SFN Southern Bavaria
which has taken into operation in the night of 30th May
2005. At the same time this was the end of Analog
terrestrial TV transmission in Southern Bavaria. These
transmitters broadcast 6 DVB-T channels completely
synchronize on the same frequency as DVB-T SFN. The
data rates are about 13Mbps each and each carries about
4 TV programs per data stream. Altogether, the viewer is
thus provided with 22 programs over terrestrial digital
antenna TV. These TV programs which are both public
service programs and private programs form a viable
alternative to the satellite and cable media. The
transmitting frequencies are now only located in UHF
band.
The choice of the sites depends on:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Coverage requirements (specified in terms of
location probability)
Service area of transmitters (verified theoretically
and in the field)
Priority use of channels 5 and 9 on other sites
Availability / supply of transmitting antenna in UHF
band
Availability of user receiving antenna in UHF band
International coordination
After site selection, the main technical parameters that
are used to optimize the SFN are the following:
•
•
Static delay of each SFN transmitter
Antenna diagram / power of transmitters
42 TR 029 DVB-T2 SFNs & Spectrum Efficiency
Location
probability
Inhabitants
Percentage on
a regional basis
95%
3,646,682
89.98%
90%
3,742,624
92.35%
70%
3,974,559
98.08%
About The Author
Sh. Nirav Bhatia, is presently working in India for Rohde & Schwarz India Pvt Ltd,
New Delhi.
26
October'14 - December’14
Interactive Broadcasting Technology
and its Impact
A Case Study At Local Radio Station
V. Rajeshwar
Interactive broadcasting technology is being adopted at local radio station by means of landline
telephones, WLL (Wireless loop) phone, mobile phones and Internet. This is in addition to traditional OB
based and interactivity with letters from the audience. Interactive technology is useful to have universal
access of radio broadcasting to all citizens irrespective of their social class, religion, gender and literacy
levels of audiences. Interactive technology also promotes active participation of audiences in creation of
media content along with radio jockeys, artists and subject experts. Interactivity in radio broadcasting
technology is achieved through, live phone – in, SMS (Short Message Service) based requirements from
the audiences. Interactive broadcasting technology is a means to have richest radio experience by
removing the physical, semantic and psychological barriers of communication.
This paper studies the impact of interactive broadcast technology at three levels viz. providing
information, education and entertainment to the audiences at the local radio station.
Introduction:
Public service broadcasting in India is vertically divided
its services into three categories viz. national, regional
and local level depending upon the geographical
coverage areas and media content. Local FM radio
stations are very popular in India as they broadcast in the
local speaking style. The local development matters,
local artists and farmers, local subject experts and radio
jockeys, friends, relatives and known people's voices
are broadcast which the listeners are acquainted with.
Local radio stations have the capacity to reach to the
grass roots audiences in rural and tribal villages.
Therefore, audiences are very quickly identifying
themselves with the local radio station. In traditional
radio broadcasting, the audiences are passive recipients
of FM signals and they have no opportunity to broadcast
their voice. As a public service broadcaster, its main aim
is promote universal access of broadcasting services by
introducing new technology in an efficient and cost
effective way for the benefit of audiences.
Renowned, electronic media scientist Marshall Mc
Luhan predicted that, the interactive type media
technologies make the spatial and temporal distance to
collapse between artist, subject expert and the listeners.
Thus he famously said “Medium is the message”.
Interactive broadcasting technology makes the free flow
of information faster, less hierarchical, more democratic
with the development of attitude of ''sense of
participation” to the listener. The attitudinal
development of “sense of participation” is very
significant in the audiences who are illiterates,
economically poor and other social exclusion groups in
the society such as lower castes and women in public
spheres. The interactive broadcasting technologies
encourage active participation of audience to complete
the broadcast messages to have greater impact.
Objectives of the study:
All India Radio with its vast reach especially with the
local radio stations spread across the country are the
primary source of information and entertainment in
rural and tribal areas. Interactive broadcasting
technologies have greater impact on audience at local
level particularly with radio receivers and mobile
phones with FM reception facility. To study the impact
of interactive broadcasting technologies the following
are the objectives:
1) To examine the role of interactive broadcast
technologies in promotion of public service
27
61
October'14 - December’14
Interactive Broadcasting Technology setup at AIR
(FM) Nizamabad:
broadcaster's urge to have universal access of radio
broadcasting on multiple range of programmes to
all citizens irrespective of their literacy level, social,
economic back grounds and geographical locations
in the country.
Technological advancements brought profound changes
in traditional transmission studios. After computer
based recording system introduced in sound studios the
separate forms of recording, editing, storage,
transmission and reproduction of audio information
have fused into one Audio work stations called hard disk
based recording (HDBR). Today, broadcasting,
computing and telecommunication have converged.
These technological integrations are making the local
radio stations and rural villages to fall within the
definition of information society. The interactive
broadcasting technologies adopted by local radio
station is to provide the richest radio experience by
accessing over the telephone, internet and SMS, letters,
outside broadcast in face to face interviews etc. This
allows delivering full range of services viz. providing
information, education and entertainment with active
participation of listeners.
2) To assess the active participation of radio listeners
due to interactive broadcasting technologies in
creation of media content.
3) To examine the benefits the radio listeners are
getting with the use of interactive broadcasting
technologies.
Materials and Methods:
To find the answers to the above objectives, the study is
divided into two parts, viz. 1) To study the technical
facilities at All India Radio (FM) Nizamabad studios
and Transmitter in general and Interactive broadcasting
technologies in particular, 2) To interview the selected
listeners who are actively participating in interactive
broadcasting.
The transmission studio with interactive broadcasting
technology consists: 1) 1-Audio mixing console, 2) 2mike channels, one each for radio jockey and subject
expert, 3) 2- HDBR Systems for daily broadcast, 4) 2CD players for commercial spots, 5) 1-Computer for
SMS based service and 6) 1- Phone-in console for
telephones. These are connected to audio mixing
console for interactive broadcasting. The schematic of
interactive broadcasting technology transmission studio
is shown below in figure a):
A structured questionnaire was prepared incorporating
independent variables such as name, age of the
respondents, village they belong, occupation, literacy
level etc. The dependent variables are pertaining to the
purpose of active participation in interactive
broadcasting and the benefit they derived from it.
Location of the study:
The location of the study is at All India Radio (FM)
Nizamabad which was commissioned on 9 September
1990 as a local radio station in Telangana state (India) at
operating frequency of 103.2 MHz. It is located at
0
0
latitude of 18 39' 30.63” N and longitude of 78 5'
32.40” E at the mean sea level of 392.27 meters. The
district is spread around 7,956 Sq Kms of geographical
area with 922 villages. Total population of the district as
per 2011 census is 25.52 lakh souls. Out of which 12.52
lakhs are males and 13.0 lakhs are females and the sex
ratio is 1000: 1038. Population density is 321 / Sq. Km.
Literacy rate in the district is 62.25 per cent, out of
which male literacy rate is 72.66 per cent and female
literacy rate is 52.33 per cent. Nizamabad is one of the
agriculturally richest districts in Telangana state.
a) HDBR System and LAN Network:
The HDBR systems convert analog audio input into
digital with uncompressed PCM with sampling rate of
48 KHz and 32 bit resolution for processing and later on
the digital audio is reconverted back into analog audio
for transmission. The input to the HDBR system is
through audio console and output of HDBR system is
fed to audio console as input. The studio software such
as audio science, wave lab, sound forge, creative sound,
cooledit, winamp etc., are provided for automatic ingest
of audio signals for recording, editing, file management
and replaying etc. HBDR systems changed the
transmission studios functioning such as studio
automation and live interactive broadcasting.
The interactive broadcasting studio and transmitter
facilities available at AIR (FM) Nizamabad as follows.
At AIR (FM) Nizamabad the HDBR systems are
networked in Local area network with 8 - port Ethernet
28
October'14 - December’14
M/s Rohde & Schwarz; Company in collaboration with
M/s BEL, Bangalore has been functioning since 1990 at
AIR (FM) Nizamabad. The transmitters are used for
both non interactive and interactive broadcasting.The
output of the interactive broadcasting transmission
studio is fed into the control room switching console
(ER&DC Stereo XS12A) and the output of it is fed to the
limiter cum pre-emphasis unit. The limiter (EMT 266 x)
unit is capable of performing limiting function from -30
dB to 0 dB of incoming audio signal from the interactive
transmission studio. The pre-emphasis function
performed by the unit ranges from 1 KHz to 15 KHz
from 0 dB to 15 dB respectively. The maximum
frequency deviation after pre-emphasis for monophonic
FM transmitter has been made for +/- 75 KHz with the
pre-emphasis time constant of 50 micro seconds. The
FM modulation has high immunity to atmospheric,
manmade and other unwanted noise and the sound
quality is very superior for listening.
a) Interactive Broadcast Technology Transmission Studio
Wireless FM Radio
Head Phone
Radio Jockey
Subject expert
Radio Jockey
Microphone
Audio
monitor
Subject expert
Micro phone
File Transfer
LAN
File Transfer
LAN
Audio
mixing
console
HDBR1
HDBR2
CD player1
(ER & DC
Stero
Transmission
Console)
To Control
Room
CD player2
SMS Based
WLL1
WLL1
Internet
Systems
(TS 12A)
Phone-in
console
Mix- minus feed
switch and window NT 2003 software. The Ethernet
switch is connected with seven ports in the LAN
network. They are: 1) 2- HDBRS in Multi- Purpose
studio, 2) 2- HDBRS in Transmission studio, 3) 1HDBRS in CD library, 4) 1- HDBRS for dubbing and 5)
1- HDBRS in control room for monitoring. All the seven
HDBRS are connected in local area network in group
configuration. Therefore, any HDBRS terminal can be
accessed from any other terminal in the LAN network.
Songs, commercial spots and other variety of audio
segments used in a broadcast can be stored in
transmission studio HDBR system for play back
purpose.
b) Phone – in Console:
The two WLL telephones which are used for live
interactive broadcasting are connected with audio
mixing console through the interface called “phone- in
console”. It converts audio coming from the telephone
into a line level signal that can be fed into the audio
mixing console. Similarly, it also converts the line level
signal coming out from audio mixing console into an
audio signal that can be fed over to the telephone line
back to the caller. The mix minus feed of the program
sent back to telephone caller from the audio mixing
console
which contains complete interactive
programme except the caller's own audio, to avoid
feedback. The phone in console allows the caller to be
heard live on air and the radio Jockey with FM reception
head phone to hear the caller without having to pick-up
the telephone hand set. It also ensures that the caller
voice is of telephone quality and the radio jockey and
subjective expert equality remains of broadcast quality.
There are two exciters (SU 115), out of which one is in
circuit and other is in standby mode. The exciter
converts the base band audio signal into a frequency
modulated radio signal at the station carrier frequency of
103.2 MHz. The output of the exciter is 10 W and which
is to be made into 6 KW with the help of power
amplifiers before feed it into antenna for wide coverage.
The modulated input signal from exciter is amplified in
power amplifiers (VU 315) to the level of 1.5 KW with
the use of BJT/ FET/MOSFET (TP 9383 & TP 9380)
high power transistors. The power amplifiers are
designed in three stages viz. 1x30 W, followed by 2x120
W and 4 x 400 W stages and are finally combined to get
the 1.5 KW. This power is achieved with parallel
combination of power stages. The power couplers are
used to parallel the power amplifiers to combine 2x1.5
KW power outputs to get 3 KW. Similarly the 2x 3 KW
The 2 x 3 KW BEL HVB 164/FM Transmitters at
AIR (FM) Nizamabad:
The 2 x 3 KW FM transmitters were manufactured by
29
October'14 - December’14
transmitters outputs are combined to get 6 KW power.
The figure b) above shows the building blocks of power
development in stages of amplification such as 1.5 KW,
3 KW and 6 KW. The unbalance in phase and amplitude
while combining, if any goes to the bridged unbalance
resistors i.e., absorber or reject load. The power
amplifiers are designed for broadband and the harmonic
filtering is carried out. The high power amplifiers get
very hot during operation and must be cooled for proper
functioning and to reduce failures for which air cooling
through blowers is done. For good reception, the
harmonic distortion measured between 40 Hz to 15 KHz
(with +/- 75 KHz deviation) should not be more than 0.5
per cent for monophonic transmitter.
FM receivers. It is found from the survey that, FM
signals are received with good quality within the range
of 50 to 60 Km radius in Omni directional patterns. The
station covers Nizamabad district fully and it covers
partially the adjoining districts of Karimnagar, Adilabad
and Nanded.
Varieties of Interactive Broadcasting Media used at
AIR (FM) Nizamabad:
The AIR (FM) Nizamabad broadcasts 12.00 hours in a
day. Nearly, 6.00 hours News and Vividh Bharati
programmes are relayed. Remaining 6.00 Hours meant
for local programme production. Out of the 6.00 hours
local broadcast, 3.00 hours in house studio and 3.00
hours interactive broadcasting are carried out daily.
Therefore, 25 per cent of the daily broadcast activities
are of interactive broadcasting. They are as follows:
FM Tower, Antenna System and Coverage Areas:
The FM tower at AIR (FM) Nizamabad is of 100 meters
height for covering wide area. The FM antenna used is
of a Band II in VHF frequency band. The FM antenna
consists of six bay dipole antennas which are stacked
vertically on the tower with 2.6 meter space between
each element. The six element antenna is mounted on
FM tower at 82 meters. The maximum aperture length of
the array is 17.4 meters above the mounting base of the
antenna. The 2 x 3 KW power transmitters output
signals are carried with coaxial feeder cable from
transmitter to antenna. The antenna is fed through power
divider which divides total power into six outlets for
feeding to the each dipole. With this type of array
antenna an Omni directional horizontal radiation pattern
developed with circular polarization. The circular
polarization has advantage of having good reception in
fixed and mobile receivers.
I) Mobile phone and Internet for SMS based
interactive Film Music :
SMS based Telugu film music entertainment broadcast
namely “Indradanasu” interactive broadcast uses
mobile phones and internet technology. On an average
the station receives Ten to Fifteen SMS daily from the
mobile phone users for listening to their liked film
songs. For this, the listeners send their SMS with a
message “NZB (space) song name/ film name/ person
name/ village name)” and send to 56060. The SMS are
then downloaded from the internet site
http://tzsms.co/air by the radio jockey for broadcasting
them in the evening broadcast from 6.25 pm to 6.55 pm
daily. On an average only 5 to 6 songs are broadcast.
II) OB Based interactive developmental programme
production:
Short wave lengths of FM signals propagate in line of
sight. The FM signals are less depends on ground
conductivity for propagation. The FM signals coverage
area mainly depends upon height of the antenna and
effective radiated power from the antenna. The
minimum field strength (measured at 10meters height
above the ground level) required for monophonic FM
transmission in the presence of domestic and industrial
equipment interference for good listening with radio
receiver as follows:
The Mikes and recorders are carried to the fields and
outdoors for important recording with subject experts
and learned citizens for broadcasting. Such broadcast
technology is used for making two type of programmes
1) Weekly twice for recording of Farm and Home
programmes in the fields with progressive farmers,
agricultural and veterinary scientists which are
broadcast weekly twice from 7.15 pm to 7.45 pm, 2)
Other OB recordings are also regularly carried out under
flagship programmes such as radio reports on local
events, local festivals, district officials, school children,
educational institutes etc, for broadcast.
i) For rural areas : 48 dB µv/m or 250 µv/m
ii) For urban areas: 60 dB µv/m or 1 mv/m
And in case of, absence of interference from the
industrial and domestic appliances the minimum field
strength of 34 dBµv/m is sufficient for good reception in
III)
30
April'14 - September’14
October'14
- December’14
Interactive broadcast of Telugu film music
participating. It is one of the most popular broadcasts of
the station. The patients and their relatives seeking
information are participating to know about the diseases
they are suffering and modes of treatment for curing the
disease.
with listeners Letters:
On an average the station receives 20 to 30 letters daily
from the listeners who write for film songs they would
like to listen on radio. The songs are broadcast from
8.30 pm to 9.00 pm daily as listeners' choice in the name
of “abhiruchi” Telugu film songs. On every Sunday 9.00
am to 10.00 am same “abhiruchi” film songs are
broadcast as a Holiday entertainment. In addition, every
Friday from 12.05 pm to 12.30 pm listener's opinion and
feedback letters are readout and the station's assuring
answers are broadcast for the satisfaction of the
interactive listeners.
c) Entertainment Type: “Hello FM” is a Telugu film
songs interactive broadcasting and scheduled twice
daily from 8.30 am to 9.00 am and 12.40 pm to 1.10 pm.
Of these, two days are specially catered for women
listeners only on every Tuesday and Friday to encourage
rural women in interactive broadcasting. On an average
5 Telugu film songs are played for entertaining to the
listeners in each episode. Men, women, youth, tailors,
goldsmiths, barbers, farmers and others are actively
participating in it. It is also one of the most popular
broadcasts of the station.
IV) Live interactive Broadcasting using WLL
phones and phone in console:
As discussed earlier, two WLL phones have been
provided by the public Telephone Company (M/s
BSNL, Nizamabad) free of cost for Interactive
broadcasting in Transmission studio. The following
interactive broadcasts are carried out daily. They are:
Of the above four types of interactive broadcast only
live interactive broadcasting technology with the use of
WLL phones and phone - in console is being studied.
The study is carried out on a single day randomly for one
episode each viz.
Information, education and
entertainment type broadcast. The findings of the study
are as follows.
a) Educational Type: “Farm & Home” broadcast is
called “Kisanvani” which is sponsored by Ministry of
Agriculture, Govt. of India for dissemination of new
farming information for the purpose of learning and
adopting of high yielding technologies. The Kisanvani
broadcast is from 7.15 pm to 7.45 pm and six days in a
week. Out of this: 1) 2 days for outdoor recordings with
progressive farmers and Scientists, 2) 3 days in studio
recording, 3) 1 day for Kishanvani live phone- in
interactive broadcast with agricultural and its allied
sciences expert are carried out. Kisanvani quiz
competitions are also organized on every Thursday. The
first and second winners of the quiz are being given
Radios as prizes.
Findings and analysis:
Significantly large numbers of rural people are using
mobile phones due to liberalization and competition
among private mobile operators, the prices have come
down and usage of mobile phones is rising. Today, the
catalytic role of radio for social change process is
significantly revived many folds with FM local radio
broadcasting and radio reception facility in mobile
phones. The audiences are now have the option to listen
to his liked broadcast on radio after the introduction of
interactive broadcasting technology and it is profoundly
impacting rural and tribal villages never before and
promoting them to participate in local radio station
activity.
Interactive broadcasting is being used
successfully to satisfy a range of listeners needs. Such as
advice for a health problem, farming needs, film music
for entertainment.
b) Informational Type: Sponsored Health Programme
“Hello Doctor” is broadcast from 7.30 am to 8.00 am
daily. This broadcast is sponsored by the local doctors in
Nizamabad town. The specialist doctors participate in it
includes, General Physician, Psychiatrists,
Gastroenterologists, Gynecologists, Pediatricians,
Nephrologists, Urologist, Dermatologists,
Cardiologists, Dentists and others. Nearly, hundreds of
patients try to contact doctor in the studio with phone
calls, but only six to eight calls are being attended in this
half an hour interactive broadcasting. Males, females,
adults, old, retired, villagers and town people, literates
and illiterates, people living in far off villages are
Now, let us analyze estimate the impact of “Kisanvani”,
“Hello Doctor” and “Hello FM” live broadcast.
a) On the day of survey on impact of interactive
broadcast technology on farmers the District
Agricultural Officer is replying to the callers in “
Kisanvani” live educational phone in broadcast and the
35
31
October'14
April'14 --September’14
December’14
following calls replied :
i) The first caller is a male of 45 years age, farmer from
Thimojiwada village. He is suffering with back pain and
asked the general physician in the “Hello Doctor”
broadcast about treatment for his back pain. The doctor
provided the relevant information for his back pain
treatment in an interactive way. The patient became
aware of the back pain treatment and do's and don'ts for
relieving the pain.
Total six callers have been attended in “Kisanvani” interactive broadcast.
Similarly, second, third, fourth, fifth and sixth callers
enquired about Jaundice, diabetes, malaria fever, joint
pains and asthma related treatment respectively to the
general physician. The doctor provided relevant
information for the treatment of above diseases for the
benefit of the callers.
1) The first caller from Chintalur village, owns 11 acres
of land and he wanted information about short duration
crops for adopting. The agricultural officer gave details
about 90 days red and black variety rice and method of
cultivation in the Kisanvani interactive broadcasting.
The knowledge gained through this interactive
broadcasting made him to adopt the 90 days rice
cultivation and improved the rice yield as well as gross
income from the agricultural land.
In this broadcast the listener is very much in receptive
mood as they are saving the money of the patients from
doctor fee and transportation charges to meet the doctor
for obtaining proper information and guidance
regarding the treatment. Interactive broadcasting
technology is improving the awareness of various health
issues; listeners are coming to know about good health
practices and helping the patient to take informed
decisions for a particular disease treatment due to
interactivity.
Similarly, second, third, fourth, fifth and sixth callers
sought information about, vegetable cultivation, drip
irrigation, vermin compost, soya bean cultivation and
inland fisheries respectively. For which the agricultural
officer provided relevant information and guidance for
the benefit of farmers for adopting. These farmers have
adopted the information provided in the interactive
broadcasting and improved their income using modern
cultivation methods.
c) On the day of survey on impact of interactive
broadcast technology on listeners the radio Jockey is
playing to the callers liked Telugu film songs in “Hello
FM” live phone in entertainment broadcast:
The hundreds of farmers' callings on the day of
interactive broadcasting and the response the farmers
reported is an indication of gainful impact. It is needed
for the farmers to progress economically.
b) On the day of survey on impact of interactive
broadcast technology on listeners the general physician
is replying to the callers in “Hello Doctor” live phone in
informational broadcast and the following calls the
doctor replied:
Total five callers have been attended in “Hello FM” interactive Telugu film music.
Total six callers have been attended in “Hello Doctor” interactive broadcast.
32
October'14 - December’14
i) The first caller is a female of age 20 years, a beedi
rolling worker from Vellula village in Karimnagar
district. She asked the radio jockey to play her favorite
Telugu film song for listening. The radio jockey played
the listeners liked film song. The caller informed that,
she and her friends are regular listeners of local radio
station broadcast, while they are rolling the beedis. It is
very entertaining to them to listen to radio broadcast
while working.
Similarly, second, third, fourth and fifth callers are
tailor, grocery shop owner, school teacher and mechanic
respectively, asked the radio jockey to play for their
favorite Telugu film songs. For which the radio Jockey
played them. The participants in the interactive
broadcasting informed that, they listen to radio
broadcast for information and entertainment on regular
basis. Most of the listeners revealed that, they listen to
film songs to remove the fatigue and brighten up their
mood while working their jobs. They listen to film songs
while attending work to make it entertaining to increase
production.
listeners with greater emphasis on instantaneous
impact. The interactive broadcast technology is having
positive impact on spreading the awareness about health
and agricultural related information in addition to
offering entertainment to the rural and tribal people. In
this way, the interactive broadcasting technology at
local radio station is fulfilling the aims of public service
broadcaster.
Acknowledgements
My most sincere gratitude goes to E-in-C, All India
Radio, New Delhi for his guidance. I am also grateful to
ADG (E)(SZ), Chennai for timely encouragement and
support. My sincere thanks to DDG (E)(SZ), Chennai
for offering advices. I would like to thank all the staff of
All India Radio (FM) Nizamabad for their assistance.
Conclusions:
AIR (FM) Nizamabad is regularly broadcasting
education, information and entertainment based
broadcast in proper weightage to fulfill the aspiration of
the public service broadcaster's urge. The universal
access to the broadcasting services irrespective of
religion, caste, gender and literacy level of the audience
is achieved through local radio station and interactive
broadcasting in their local dialect. The listeners are
hugely responding to interactive broadcasts. Live
Interactive broadcasting especially “Hello FM”, “Hello
Doctor” and “Kisanvani” have the largest listeners and
actively interacting with radio station at the scheduled
time. The listeners are feeling part of local radio station
by participating in creation of media content using
interactive broadcasting technology. Interactive
broadcasting technology driving the local radio station
towards audience maximization with the reduction in
production costs.
References:
1) Chatterjee P.C, 1981. Broadcasting in India, Sage
Publication, New Delhi.
2) 2000. “Administrator Manual for Hard disc based
System (HDBS)”, All India Radio & Center for
Development of Advanced Computing(C-DAC),
Noida (UP).
3) 2003.“ Reading material on FM Transmitters –
Volume I & II”, Staff Training Institute (Tech), All
India Radio & Doordarshan, Delhi.
4) 2003. “A Compendium of Articles on FM”, O/o the
Chief Engineer (SZ), All India Radio &
Doordarshan, Chennai.
5) 1998. Solid state VHF FM Transmitter 2x3 KW type
HVB-164/A Technical manual – 1,2 & 3, M/s BEL,
Bangalore (India).
6) Gupta V.S, 1999. Communication technology:
Media policy and National development, Concept
publishing company, New Delhi.
7) Mehra Masani, 1976. Broadcasting and people,
National book trust, India.
8) Singh Ranjit, 1993. Communication Technology for
rural development, B.R. Publishing Corporation,
New Delhi.
The landless laborers, small and large farmers,
businessmen, beedi rolling women, students, employee
and people from all walks of life are now actively
participating and listening to FM broadcasting and
deriving benefits. By interactivity the unknown
audiences are becoming known audience for
information sharing and the industrial impersonal
nature of the radio broadcast transformed into a
mediated interpersonal communication with the
About The Author
Sh. V. Rajeshwar did his BE(ECE) in 1990 from Department of
Electronics and Communication Engineering from Osmania University,
Hyderabad. He also completed one year Electronic fellowship from IAT,
Pune sponsored by DRDO. Before joining IBES services in 1994 as
Assistant Station Engineer , he had worked in DRDO as Scientist "B" for
three years. He has worked at DDK , New Delhi, DDK Nagpur, AIR(FM)
Nanded, AIR Parbhani and looked after the station management.
Presently, I am looking after AIR(FM) Nizamabad and Karimnagar
stations.
33
October'14 - December’14
Restoration of Doordarshan
in Srinagar After Flood
flood water after landing at Srinagar airport. The city
power supply was restored by that time at the HPT site
but it was highly unstable and fluctuating. Drinking and
washing water was not available at the HPT site and had
to be arranged by carrying it approximately 7 km from
the bottom of the hill to the HPT site. Even then, the
team immediately began the restoration activities by
testing the 3 high power transmitters meant for DD
News, DD Kashir & DD National. The problems were
identified which were attended on the 17th morning. On
th
17 September, 2014 all 3 HPTs were put on air at 1500
hours.
Background:th
A devastating flood occurred in Srinagar on 7
September, 2014 affecting the normal lives of the people
and their day to day activities. The flood water entered
the Doordarshan Kendra in the morning and the
recordings from studios and telecast from the earth
station were forced to be suspended. The staff present
inside the hostel premises made successful efforts to
save the expensive broadcasting equipment such as OB
Van, DSNG Van, DG Van, Studio Cameras etc. A partial
telecast was resumed from the High Power TV
Transmitter site i.e. from Shankracharya Hill on the
same day by using OB Van, DSNG Van & DG Van. The
city power supply, communication (telephone as well as
mobile) and internet services were also suspended. The
entire city was submerged in flood water preventing
commutation by road. The staff members (around 37 in
number) staying in the hostel and at the HPT site were
evacuated on the 12th September, 2014 and the
transmission as well as the partial telecast went off the
air. The DD Kashir telecast was resumed from Delhi by
shifting the carrier of Srinagar to DD News and DDK
Delhi on 13th September, 2014.
Sending News Feeds from HPT site:th
Team visited the Kendra on 17 September, 2014 and
met the staff members who were called for the meeting
through an announcement on FM transmitter. All the
technical staff were directed to report at the HPT site. At
1400 hours on the same day, the programme and news
staff including Shri S. A. Buch, DDG (P) and Shri Shafiq
Shah, Dy. Director (News) assembled at the HPT site
and it was decided to start partial transmission and
telecast by sending news and programme feeds to MSR
Delhi by using OB and DSNG Vans. On 17th September,
2014 news feeds were sent to MSR Delhi at 1600 hours.
In the evening all the technical staff members present at
the HPT site were asked to assemble in the transmitter
hall. The gathering was addressed by Shri W. B. Prasad.
All the staff members were thanked for their positive
response during such a crisis prevailing in their personal
lives and for their appreciable contribution towards the
restoration of the transmission and partial telecast. They
were also motivated by an inspirational speech
delivered by him during this opportune moment.
Restoration of Transmission from HPT:On the direction from Shri N. A. Khan, E-in-C,
Doordarshan an engineering team comprising of Shri
Prakash Veer, DDG (E), Shri Neeraj Choudhary, AE &
Shri Rajan Gupta, AE managed to reach the HPT site on
Shankracharya Hill on the 13th September, 2014. They
held meetings with the local staff of Doordarshan who
were called on 14th September, 2014 through an
announcement on FM transmitter. They also met the
programme and news officers and discussed future plan
of actions for restoration of the services.
Sending News Feeds from hotel site:th
The second engineering team comprised of Shri W. B.
Prasad, DDE, Shri O. P. Rajpurohit, AE and Shri S. K.
Shah, AE which reached the HPT site (on
th
Shankracharya Hill) on the night of 16 September,
2014 after travelling for approximately 7 hours through
multiple modes i.e. by road, by boat and on foot in the
On 18 September, 2014 the transmission from all the 3
transmitters were normal. The recording of VIP
interviews etc. and news feeds were sent to MSR Delhi
at 1400 hours. It was informed by DDG (P) that 2 rooms
have been made available at the hotel 'The Lalit' for
starting a make shift arrangement for recording and
34
October'14 - December’14
W. B. Prasad
O. P. Rajpurohit
telecast. After exploring the feasibility of movement of
vehicles by road adjacent to the Dal Lake as well as that
of the location at the hotel, the OB, DSNG and DG Vans
th
were shifted to the hotel 'The Lalit' at 1200 hours on 19
September, 2014. The transmission from all the 3
transmitters continued to be normal. The recording of
VIP interviews and news was fed to MSR Delhi using
the OB and DSNG Vans parked at the hotel 'The Lalit'.
Cleaning of Campus and Equipment:A meeting scheduled by DDG (P)/HOO in the Kendra to
discuss the steps to be taken for the cleaning of the
Kendra premises was attended by Technical,
th
Programme and Administrative officers on 20
September, 2014. Due to urgency of shifting the partial
telecast to the Kendra from the hotel site, it was decided
to engage agencies to undertake the cleaning of the
premises on war footing basis. Thereafter, the team held
a meeting with the technical staff members to discuss
the strategies and teams to be formulated for cleaning
the technical areas and equipment submerged in the
flood water. The old Flyaway DSNG Van which was
parked on the public road near the All India Radio
station, Srinagar was brought back inside the DDK
campus by hiring private crane because the brake/gear
of this van was not functional. With the help of technical
staff, the technical areas/rooms such as Earth Station,
ENG, Studio I & II, PCR I & II, AVR, DG and AC Plant
were opened and checked for damages apart from listing
the equipment which were saved during the flood.
st
Photographs were also clicked for record. On 21
September, 2014 the cleaning of the DDK campus
commenced.
From 21st September, 2014 to 5th October, 2014, three
more teams were deputed by E-in-C under the headship
of Shri D. N. Gupta, DDE, Shri J. M. Kharche, DDG (E)
and Shri K. K. Gupta, DDE respectively. After the
removal of flood water logged inside the premises, the
OB, DSNG and DG Vans were shifted to the DDK
th
campus on 24 September, 2014 under the guidance of
Shri D. N. Gupta and partial telecast was resumed by
nd
setting up a make shift studio on the 2 floor of the RNU
building. Under an able guidance of Shri J. M. Kharche,
strategies for restoration of service, cleaning of
equipment and other important activities were
formulated and initiated. The 400 KVA HT transformer
meant for hostel and 300 KVA HT transformer meant for
studio were handed over to CCW Electrical staff for
repairing. All major power supply cables submerged in
flood water were tested and new cables were laid
wherever found defective.
On 6th October, 2014, Shri W. B. Prasad, DDE along
with Shri O. P. Rajpurohit, AE, Shri Jaswant Singh, AE,
Shri Tarun Saxena, AE and Shri V. Katiyar returned to
DDK Srinagar for expediting the cleaning activities of
35
October'14 - December’14
technical equipment, initiating procurement of essential
items through engineering stores and setting up of an
interim earth station by using old flyaway DSNG
equipment as well as a make shift studio for increasing
the recording hour and telecast hour. Essential items for
facilitating the cleaning of technical equipment were
brought by this team from Jallandhar and Delhi which
were used by the technical staff of the Kendra for
cleaning the equipment. Various items such as gum
boots, spray jets, cleaning agents, torches, gloves,
masks, tools, gamaxine powder etc. were procured from
the local market for expediting the cleaning jobs. The
campus was bubbling with activities involving cleaning
of equipment at several locations viz; ENG, Earth
Station, Kashir playback, Studios, AC Plant, Diesel
generators, AVRs, Sub-station, Stores, Furniture, NLE,
EPABX, Camera and IT sections and ground floor of the
hostel.
tank was emptied. The electronic circuits were replaced,
coils were varnished, meters and contactors were
replaced before refilling the transformer oil. The AVR
was put into service after successful testing. The AC
Plant was thoroughly cleaned and it was decided to
restore the heating plant on priority. Mud/Silts were
removed, heat chamber, AHU, motors, ducts etc. were
cleaned and dried. The 200 KVA diesel generator which
was under AMC was taken up for restoration by the
agency. The entire generator was dismantled for
cleaning and drying. The excitation unit of alternator
was heated for few days at a stretch before testing. Since
the activities started in the Kendra, a make shift mess
was operationalized from a room in the hostel for
providing lodging to the technical teams and staff
involved in cleaning/restoration works. With the
energizing of the 400 KVA transformer, the power
supply to the hostel was stabilized. The mess/dining hall
was cleaned, repaired and painted before sanitizing. It
was made functional in the first week of November,
2014.
The existing diesel generators were out of order after
being submerged in the flood and therefore a 125 KVA
silent DG meant for DTT was shifted from the HPT site.
This generator was put into service after laying new
cables and existing busbars. The 400 KVA transformer
(used for hostel) was repaired and installed by CCW
th
Electrical on 27 October, 2014. The interim earth
station was tested under the guidance of Shri J. M.
Kharche, DDG (E) and the same was put into service
from 18th October, 2014. The cleaning of equipment was
carried out first by water cleaning with the help of jets
and brushes, then drying by dryer and finally contained
for a day in a room converted into an oven using gas
bukharies for evaporation of remaining moisture. The
agency engaged for repairing the 200 KVA AVR (for
essential load) executed the job at the Kendra itself. The
equipment was opened and water filled inside the oil
The Bottlenecks:It is needless to mention here that the city power supply
which was restored at the HPT site was highly erratic.
Due to this unpredictable behavior, heavy fluctuations
in the input supply and non availability of functional
UPS (APLAB make) damaged equipment and
compelled the operation of the transmitters on diesel
generators power supply. Since the city petrol pumps
were still non functional due to damages caused during
the flood, the usage of diesel was managed with extreme
caution. Besides this adverse situation, the other major
constraints faced by this team was no telephone facility,
feeble and unreliable mobile network, no internet
service, no drinking water supply, limited food items, no
cook, no washing facilities, no sweepers etc. Radio
Kashmir was also operating from the HPT site by using
36
October'14 - December’14
their FM transmitter installed there and all kinds of
support were extended to their staff, such as diesel, food
and drinking water, washroom facilities and boarding
facilities despite the limited available resources. Due to
feeble mobile network and no proper internet facility,
regular reports to the senior officers at Zonal Office and
DGDD since 17th September, 2014 were forwarded
using WHATSAPP.
Shri J. M. Kharche, DDG (E) to Shri S. A. Buch, DDG
(P) and Shri Shafiq Shah, Dy. Director (News), the
decision to uplink live on the Srinagar carrier for 4 hours
from DDK Srinagar using the interim earth station was
mutually agreed upon. After an extensive pursuance by
Shri J. M. Kharche, DDG (E) with Shri N. A. Khan, Ein-C, Shri O. K. Sharma, ADG (E) (NZ), Shri S. N.
Singh, DDG (E) DDK Delhi and Shri D. Ramakhrishna,
DDG (E) DD News, the clearance for a 4 hours (3PM to
7PM) uplinking of programme & news on the Srinagar
th
carrier from this Kendra was finally obtained on 15
October, 2014 and the telecast was started from the same
day.
Make-shift Studio, Interim Earth Station and
restoration of Regional Service from DDK campus:Cleaning jobs were at the highest ebb in the Kendra.
Simultaneously the staff members were also managing
the routine recording and telecast. The interim earth
station was setup on the 1st floor of the office block by
shifting the officers occupying rooms, removing the
partitions, providing new flooring, installation of
equipment dismantled from the old flyaway DSNG,
routing wave guides and cables, fixing distribution
boards etc. Since the existing make shift studio was
inadequate to meet the increasing recordings, a new
make shift studio for recording of programme and news
was setup on the 3rd floor of the RNU building by making
it acoustically worthy using HDPE, quilts and curtains.
On confirmation of technical readiness conveyed by
24 Hours Regional service restored:A team deputed by the Zonal Office, New Delhi set up
the playback facility in the interim earth station as well
as installed the HPAs diverted from another Kendra
thereby establishing a 1+1 uplink chain. A diverted UPS
was also installed and pressed into circuit. With this
arrangement in place, the Kendra was prepared to uplink
th
the 24 hours DD Kashir from here. On 17 November,
2014 the carrier from Delhi was shifted to Srinagar and
the regional service continued to be uplinked from the
Kendra thereafter.
About The Authors
Sh. W. B. Prasad, a 1994 Batch IBES Officer has completed his B.E. from REC, Durgapur and
his PG in Business Management from IIM, Calcutta. He joined Doordarshan in June 1996,
served at Kargil from August, 2002 to October, 2003 as Station Engineer and at Doordarshan
Directorate from November'2003 to June, 2014 as Dy. Director Engineering. He has vast
experience in managing & monitoring the performance of studios & terrestrial transmitters,
human resource management, budget planning and expenditure management, preparation of
Plan Capital proposals, EFC Memorandums, Expenditure sanctions of technical as well as
CCW estimates etc. He has also worked as Dy. Director (Administration) in various sections of
administration as well as finance in Doordarshan Directorate from December, 2011 to June,
2014. At present he is posted at DDK Srinagar.
E-mail id of Mr. W. B. Prasad is [email protected]
Sh. OP Rajpurohit is working with Doordarshan since 1987. He has been very actively
serving the Broadcast Engineering Society (India) as Hon. Secretary of its Rajasthan Chapter
for the past 6 consecutive terms. Currently, he is the Vice President of Broadcast Engineering
Society (India), Chairman of Local chapters Coordination Committee BES (India), General
Secretary of “United Engineers Council, Rajasthan”, General Secretary of Rajpurohit Seva
Sansthan, Rajasthan and JOINT SECRETARY of Confederation of Central Government
employees, Rajasthan.
He has been honoured with SAMAJ RATNA (All India Level) award in December 2001 by I R
Shiksha and Seva Trust and as an OUTSTANDING ENGINEER in Rajasthan by the United
Engineers Council, Rajasthan on the occasion of Engineers Day-2009. He was also honoured
37
October'14 - December’14
We are going to install FM transmitter
in each and every LP TV and HP TV
Interview with Animesh Chakraborty, Engineer-in-Chief, All India Radio
By: Meenakshi singhvi
Mr. Animesh Chakarborty is an IBES officer of 1979
batch, who took over the charge of Engineer-in-Chief
All India Radio (Technical head of India';s Public
Service Radio Network) w.e.f. 01.10.2014. A Kolkata
University Alumni, Mr. Animesh Chakarborty has an
experience of over 33 years of serving at various field
offices and zonal headquarters like zonal office Kolkata,
zonal office Guwahati, zonal office Mumbai, All India
Radio Chhatarpur, All India Radio Naogaon, Super
Power Transmitter AIR Chinsura and All India Radio
Kolkata in various capacities. He is also a recipient of
Akashvani Annual Award for three times for his
contribution/Technical Excellence in projects and
maintenance. Ms. Meenakshi Singhvi, BES Review
Editorial Member interviewed Mr. Animesh on the
challenges for Radio and AIR';s plans, which is placed
below....
Q.-1.
Congratulations sir for taking charge of E-in-C
of All India Radio, the largest broadcasting
organization in the world. Sir, everybody is
eagerly waiting to know the future plans of AIR
especially related to FM Radio Expansion?
Ans.
Thank you, in the 12th plan we are going to
install FM transmitter in each and every LP TV
and HP TV.
Q.-2.
enlighten us about future of MW broadcasting?
Ans. Wait for another six month. When all the 27
DRM transmitters will be commissioned. I am
sure MW will bounce back.
Since all the advanced countries are adopting
digital broadcasting standards in MW as well in
FM, What standard our country is going to
adopt for digital FM terrestrial broadcasting in
future?
Ans.
Properly we shall go for DRM+.
Q.-3.
Nowadays listening of MW Radio is falling
down due to difficulty in tuning and nonavailability of receiver, Will you please
Q.-4. As we all Know that India has adopted digital
radio Mondale i.e. DRM standard for MW
broadcasting in digital domain. What is the
planning of our organization for expansion of
DRM transmitters?
Ans. In the 12th plan we are keeping further DRM
expansion on hold, we shall go for more FM.
38
October'14 - December’14
Q.-5. Sir, it is also being learnt that receivers are not
available in the market for receiving DRM
signals. How long it will take that these receivers
be available in the market at affordable rates?
BES
is doing
very well.
I expect
it will play
a vital role
in the
present
scenario.
Ans. Cost of receivers will surely come down within
one or two years.
Q.-6. Sir, one important fact our readers would like to
know whether these DRM signals will be
available moving Car on not?
Ans. It is available.
Q.-7. In this age of smart phones, what is or strategy to
explore the potion for making DRM signals
available on mobile phone as the youth
population is more keen to listen radio on mobile.
Ans. Yes, we are serious about it.
Q.-8. All India Radio originates programming in 23
languages and 146 dialects. Internet Radio can
play a key role to cater listener worldwide. What
is our future plan to have all AIR radio channels
on internet media?
Ans. Very soon all the DTH Channels of AIR will be
available on internet also.
Q.-9. Sir, social media is playing s vital role for taking
feedback of audience and to popularize our
programmers. Is there and proposal of Akashvani
to increase the interactivity from listeners
through social media platform?
Ans. We are entering social media speedily.
Q.-10. Technology is changing very fast, what is the
approach of our organization to abreast the
technical manpower with these latest
technological changes?
Q.-12. What message would you like to give to all
readers and staff members who are working in
different parts of the country at distant places?
Ans. We are on the same boat brother.
Ans. We are revamping our Staff Training Institutes.
Q.-13. Sir lastly, May I know your opinion about how
Broadcast Engineering society, BES can plans its
activities to play and added role in broadcasting?
Q.-11. What is the planning of our organization for
induction of fresh blood in the system, which we
all are feeling shortage of?
Ans. BES is doing very well. I expect it will play a
vital role in the present scenario.
Ans. Very soon we are going to recruit more than 1000
EAs who are all Engineering Graduates.
39
October'14 - December’14
Planar Transmission LinesAn Overview
Dr. S. Raghavan
From the expression of the skin depth and the field
expressions, it is possible to show that the conducting
wires are of no use at microwave frequencies and
waveguides become transmission media. From the
dominant mode definition, one can see that waveguides
also are of no use beyond certain frequencies and under
certain conditions. Here comes Microwave Integrated
Circuit (MIC) where planar transmission lines
(transmission lines that consist of conducting strips
printed on surfaces of the transmission lines'substrates)
form the backbones of it. The progress of MICs would
not have been possible but for the advances of planar
transmission lines.To completely characterize the
behavior of transmission lines for RF and Microwave
designs, it is enough if few necessary properties of them
are known. To know the properties of each transmission
line, it is sufficient to know which mode is supported by
each transmission line which will then facilitate
expanding the characteristic properties. A planar
configuration implies that the characteristics of the
element can be determined by the dimensions in a single
plane.
all other planar transmission lines it is effective
dielectric constant. This makes design easier. Low cost,
small size and weight, conformability, improved
reliability and reproducibility, multi octave
performance and circuit design flexibility and
multifunction performance on a chip are the major
features of planar transmission lines.
The write up is an attempt to over view various planar
transmission lines and their variants along with the
salient properties.
From the equation for the sending end impedance
Stripline and its variants
Zs = Zo (ZR coshγl + Zo sinhγl) / (Zo coshγl + ZR sinhγl)
First in the planar transmission line family is strip line
which is homogeneous and has TEM mode as the
dominant mode of propagation. Robert M. Barrett in
1949, while trying to devise a new method of feeding a
microwave antenna, occurred to him that “flat strip”
coaxial lines could be employed to carry signals from
point to point, but also be used to make all types of
microwave components. Merger of”flat strip” form of
the coaxial line to the art of “printed circuits” has
resulted in “microwave printed circuit” (MPC) or “Strip
Line”. Homogeneous Strip transmission line basic
structure consists of a flat strip conductor situated
symmetrically between two large ground planes first
proposed by Barret(1951) has TEM mode as the
dominant mode of propagation. The suspended
stripline, the most useful variant of the stripline
it is possible to show the miracles of 'transmission line
LENGTH and LENGTH only' in obtaining various
microwave components, systems, antennas, matching
transformers, transmission line parameters. A shorted
small (less than quarter wave length) transmission line
acts as an inductor, while that of an open acts as a
capacitor. Using stepped Impedance method also
Inductor and Capacitor can be realized. This concept
will felicitate all M.I.C.filter elements, Amplifiers
(input and output matching networks and
Oscillators(matching networks) design.While the
design relations remain constant, the effective dielectric
constant alone varies with various transmission line.
While it is relative dielectric constant for stripline, for
40
October'14 - December’14
(inhomogeneous transmission line), has the effective
dielectric constant close to that of air.Edge coupled
suspended substrate lines has lower loss and less
sensitivity to physical dimensions than an equivalent
microstrip or stripline. Shielded strip line corrects for
the effect of side walls at a finite distance.
of achievable impedances; the air dielectric is
essentially lossless and dominates the dispersion
characteristics. Suspended microstrip line is used for
precision low loss lines; it allows a wider range of
achievable impedances and reduced dispersion.
Suspended Microstrip, which incorporates an air gap
between the substrate and the ground plane permits
larger circuit dimensions, leading to less stringent
mechanical tolerances and increased accuracy of circuit
fabrication as compared with microstrip.
Microstripline and its variants
Microstripline proposed by D,.D.Greig and
H.F.Englemann (1952) is an inhomogeneous structure
and Quasi TEM mode is the dominant mode of
propagation. The birth of Microstrip technology can be
accredited to the following three classic papers.
December 1952 Proceedings of the IRE, “Microstrip-A
New Transmission Technique for the Kilomegacycle
Range” written by D.D.Greig and H.Engelmann.
Assadourian and Rimai paper, “Simplified Theory of
Microstrip Transmission System.” J.A.Kostriza's paper
on Microwave Components. The 1960's were a period
of rapid growth for MIC activity. Inverted Microstrip,
suspended microstrip, microstrip with overlay are few
of the variants of microstripline. Coupled asymmetric
microstrip lines on a ferrite substrate structures are of
interest in the design of several gyromagnetic device
applications. Broadside coupled microstrip line is
useful for tight coupling directional couplers and
differential transmission of signals. Three coupled
microstrip lines have the potential to reduce space over
two-line couplers where the signal is to be split into
three paths. This structure has five mode
impedances.Microstrip line to stripline aperture coupler
allows one to couple between layers of a multilayer
structure. This is useful when a small amount of signal
coupled to another layer is needed Embedded
microstrip, microstrip with overlay. Microstrip with
hole, inverted microstrip, suspended microstrip and
shielded microstrip are other variants of mictostrip line.
Embedded or buried microstrip line buries surface
imperfections remaining after processing.
Slotline and its variants
Third in the family of planar transmission lines is Slot
Line .Slot line proposed by Seymour B. Cohn in 1968
consists of a narrow gap in a conductive coating on one
side of a dielectric substrate, the other side of the
substrate being bare. Slot line proposed by S.B.Cohn
(1969) is complementary to the microstrip
structurally.Non TEM mode is the mode of
proagtion.While the characteristic Impedance decreases
with the increase in microstrip width, the characteristic
Impedance width increases with increase in Slot width.
Compared with microstrip and stripline, the Q factor of
Slot line less around 100. Shunt mounting is easier in
Slotline whereas series connection is easier in
Microstripline. The characteristic Impedance varies
considerably with frequency in Slot line, where as in
microstrip, it exhibits only a very small variation with
frequency. The effective dielectric constant of the
Slotline is lower than that for the microstrip line for the
same substrate. Coupled slot lines are strongly related to
the coplanar waveguide structure and the slot line
structure. For very wider center conductor or loose
coupling between the slots, the structure becomes two
uncoupled slotlines or CPW.
Coplanar waveguide and its variants
The coplanar waveguide, proposed by C.P.Wen in 1969
is essentially a coupled slotline,having hybrid mode of
propagation , the magnetic field in the slots at the airdielectric interface is elliptically polarized. Whose
property is useful in the design of non receiprocal ferrite
devices. Both shunt and series connections of active and
passive devices. It eliminates the need for wraparound
and via holes. The characteristic impedance is
determined by the ratio of a/b, so size reduction is
possible without limit. The characteristic Impedance is
relatively independent of the thickness of the dielectric
substrate. Micro- coplanar strip line or Non symmetrical
CPW have unequal gaps Grounded CPW with ground:
Non homogenous dielectric embedded microstrip line
results when a microstrip line is covered with solder
mask. Shielded microstrip line lowers εeff and z0 and
creates resonances.
Edge compensated microstrip line (ECM line) corrects
the effects of a shielded microstrip line near a dielectric
truncation. Impedance of a microstrip line of a given set
of dimensions is lowered by the presence of a cover at a
finite distance. Inverted microstrip line structures are
used for precision low loss lines; it allows a wider range
41
October'14 - December’14
Propagates in 3 modes namely microstrip, CPW and
coupled slotlines.Asymmetric CPW reduces the line
impedance of symmetric CPW. Broadside coupled
CPW which is of multiple dielectric configuration is
useful in integrated circuits. Edge coupled CPW has all
of the advantages of the planarity of the coplanar
structure together with an increased possible isolation
over microstrip line structures.
introduced in 1972 by Paul Meier is low loss
performance, less stringent tolerance requirements,
compatibility with waveguides , and ease of E plane
integration with other forms of transmission lines has
been recognized as an important transmission medium
for millimeter wave integrated circuits. Fin line is a
suitable transmission medium for frequencies in the
range of 30 to 100 GHz.The guide wavelength is longer
than in a microstrip.It has low loss propagation. Useful
for passive and active integrated circuits. Unilateral,
Bilateral, Insulated, Antipodal. Edge coupled unilateral,
edge coupled bilateral, double dielectric bilateral (fins
facing side walls) and double dielectric bilateral (fins
facing each other) are few of the fin line variants.
Coplanar Stripline and its variants
Coplanar strips, the complementary CPW is suitable for
microwave monolithic integrated circuits. Like CPW ,
in CPS also series and shunt mounting of devices is
possible. The CPS is a balanced transmission line which
facilitates balanced mixers and feed network for printed
dipole antennas. It offers much higher impedance
ranges than that of microstrip line. Applications of
coplanar waveguides include MEMS based switches
and Phase shifters, high-T c superconducting
transmission lines, tunable devices using ferroelectric
materials, photonic bandgap structures and printed
circuit antennas. The lower ground plane of conductor
backed coplanar waveguide provides mechanical
strength and acts as a heat sink. Rectangular shaped
Microshielded line, V-shaped Microshielded line,
Circular shaped Microshielded line, Edge coupled
coplanar waveguide without a lower ground plane,
Broadside coupled coplanar waveguide are the other
variants of CPW. Coupled transmission lines have
applications like filters, directional couplers,
interdigital capacitors and planar spiral inductors.
Dielectric Guide
Dielectric guides have low transmission loss at
millimeter wave frequencies. Dielectric guides backed
by metallic ground planes are more practical for
integrated circuit applications Dielectric integrated
guides are useful in high mm wave frequencies where
fin lines pose fabricational difficulties because of
increasingly stringent dimensional tolerances. Image
guide, Insular image guide, Trapped image guide ,
Trapped insular image guide are the basic dielectric
integrated guides, Non-radiative dielectric guide, Non
–radiative insular dielectric guide are the insular
counterparts of image guide, /inverted strip dielectric
guide, Cladded dielectric image guide, Hollow image
guide, Ridge dielectric guide are the variants of image
guide and Integrated waveguide technology
FIN LINE and its variants
Rectangular Waveguide (Non PLANAR Structure)
Paul Meir's Finline, was specifically useful for
integrated circuits using planar techniques in an E-plane
construction at millimeter wave techniques. FIN line
A rectangular waveguide which behaves somewhat (not
exactly) like a high pass filter is differing from most of
the planar transmission lines in the sense it does not pass
DC.They are bulky, heavy, critical in dimensions and
more expensive to manufacture . Coaxial components
can be made smaller for a given wavelength than the
waveguide equivalent, but usually require critical, and
expensive to manufacture.
Conclusion
Static or Quasi approach and dynamic or full wave
approach are the two methods of planar transmission
line analysis. The first approach produces transmission
line parameters for the TEM mode are valid only at DC
and are frequency independent. The second approach
can produce transmission line parameters not only for
the TEM mode but also for hybrid modes whose
42
October'14 - December’14
parameters are functions of frequency. To equalize the
odd mode and even mode phase velocities in coupled
lines anisotropic substrates may be used in transmission
lines. Sapphire and pyrolytic boron nitride are two
popular anisotropic materials.
To know the properties of a transmission line, it is
enough if one knows the mode supported by each
transmission line. As seen, the Stripline supports TEM
mode, Microstrip line supports Quasi Tem mode. For
Non TEM mode, Slot line is the best example. FIN line
supports Hybrid mode.
India's global achievements in space science are proven
one. In space satellite communications where size and
weight are the constraints, the Planar Transmission lines
play a very big role.
References
•
•
•
Cheng. P. Wen, “Coplanar waveguide, a surface
strip transmission line suitable for nonreciprocal
gyromagnetic device applications,” G-MTT
International Microwave Symposium, Dallas TX,
USA, IEEE, pp. 110-115, May 1969.
D. D. Grieg, and H. F. Engelmann, “Microstrip- A
new transmission technique for the Kilomegacycle
range,” Proceedings of the IRE., vol. 40, no. 12, pp.
1644-1650, 1952.
•
Robert M. Barrett, “Microwave printed circuits- a
historical survey,” IRE Trans. Microw. Theory
Tech., vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 1-9, 1955.
•
Harlan Howe, “Microwave integrated circuits- an
historical perspective,” IEEE Trans. Microw.
Theory Tech., vol. MTT-32, no. 9, pp. 991-996,
1984.
•
Seymour B. Cohn, “Problems in strip transmission
lines,” IRE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 3, no.
2, pp. 119-126, 1955.
•
Howe, H., Stripline Circuit Design, Artech House
(Dedham, Mass.), 1974
•
Rainee N.Simons, Coplanar Waveguide Circuits,
Components, And Systems, 2001
•
Ingo Wolff, Coplanar Microwave Integrated
Circuits, Verlagsbuchhandlung Dr.Wolff Gmbh,
2005
•
Brian C. Wadell, Transmission Line Design
Handbook, Artech House, Boston, 1991
•
Terry Edwards, Foundations for Microstrip Circuit
Design, John Wiley & sons, 1995
•
Bharathi Bhat, Shiban K. Koul, Analysis, Design
And Applications of Fin lines, Artech house, 1987
Robert M. Barrett, “Microwave printed circuits- the
early years,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.,
vol. 32, no. 9, pp. 983-990, 1984.
About The Author
Dr. S. Raghavan is a Professor in Electronics and Communication Engineering
department, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli and has an experience of
more than thirty two years of teaching and research. He has won 'Best Teacher Award'
twice. He has to his credit 69 papers in International journals, 57 papers in IEEE xplore.
He is a Fellow in BES, IETE, IE , Senior Member in IEEE , CSI and in 18 more
professional societies.
44
43
October'14 - December’14
Implementation of HDTV DVB T2
Transmitters at Metro Cities in India
M. S. Duhan
Abstract : A scheme for installation of 4 Nos. of HDTV DVB T2 Transmitters was approved for Metro
Cities in India at Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai and Kolkata in 2010. India has experimented with DVB-T
Transmitters in these cities and this experiment promoted to adopt DVB T2 Technology due to its higher
capacity and robustness. These Cities have high population density and people will have alternative
platform for viewing HD Services. This paper explains the various challenges and observations during
the installations and testing of these services. The signal analysis for DVB T, DVB T2, DVB H and DVB
T2 lite is also included in this chapter to give the insight of various technologies and their accrued
benefits to the people. The need of SFN using gap fillers was also felt and challenges in new area of
planning and implementation are to be addressed. Training to staff is the essence for success of new
technology and as such provision was made for it. It is to be seen how best these signals become the
favorite among the billions of people in their coverage area albeit technological migration from DVB T to
DVB T2 has been established.
Introduction:
such constitutes a tremendous leap forward in image
quality by providing up to five times higher resolution
than standard analogue TV. However the bigger issue is
the optimum utilisation of the capacity of these
Transmitters with attractive business model.
After finalization of DVB-T standard for digital
terrestrial broadcasting in the Country on
recommendation of an expert committee, a Pilot Project
on DTT was initiated by Doordarshan in 2001. DVB-T
transmitters of 5 kW Average Power each were installed
at Metro cities namely, Delhi, Chennai, Kolkata and
Mumbai in the beginning of the year 2002. This project
was primarily to gain experience in the field of digital
terrestrial transmission technology. Delhi transmitter
was later enabled to receive 16 channels on mobiles
using DVB-H technology at Delhi. It was a successful
nd
technology demonstrator. As the 2 generation DVB
T2 Standard has about 50% more capacity than its first
generation DVB T , so India decided to establish DVB
T2 Transmitters at these Metro Cities to provide HDTV
Programme services. Further upgradation of DVB
Standard ETSI EN 302 755 V1.3.1 (T2-Lite) has
provided more flexibility for Mobile TV and T2 Radio
alongwith transmission of HDTV programmes and
these transmitters are being upgraded with T2 Lite
software and T2MI Gateway. New TV technology will
make pictures look more like real-life by offering us
more light levels. The High Dynamic Range (HDR)
feature is one of the ways in which UHDTV can
drastically increase picture quality. But as on now
HDTV is the best feature in TV as it offers the
experience comparable to that of a cinema screen and as
Challenges and Experiences in procurement and
Installations:This was the first time for the procurement of DVB T2
Transmitters, so all care and essential checks were
taken in procurement, installation and testing of the
Transmitter system. Some of observations and
experiences are as below:
i). Demonstration of Transmitter System:
The demonstration of DVB T2 Transmitters and
compression chain was one of the steps in evaluation of
t h e Te n d e r f o r
procurements of the
equipments. To check the
performance of the
Tr a n s m i t t e r s u s i n g
various RF Profiles
Tr a n s m i t t e r s w e r e
subjected to
rigorous
testing after 24 Hours of
Fig. 1
burning Test on full
power. The various
44
October'14 - December’14
reference streams used for the verification and the
validation of the DVB-T2 specification were used to
ensure that the specification is unambiguous. The
methods were developed by the verification and
validation (V&V) group of DVB TM-T2. The
performance tests were checked using measuring
equipments like Demodulator, Signal Analyzer,
Spectrum analyzer, Network Analyzer, STB, iDTV,
Stream Analyzer, Dummy Load etc. Fig. 1 Shows the
result of constellation, MER etc. Further processing for
procurement was carried out on the successful
equipments. Factory acceptance testing was carried at
Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEM's) premises
also. The test set up is shown in Fig. 2.
Fig. 3
iii). Case Study for Delhi Tower:
The TV tower consists of a RCC
tapered conical structure having
base diameter of 15.514 m and
tapering to 6.5 m at 144 m, and from
144.0 to 167.06 m height, the
diameter is constant at 6.5 m with a
spherical dome. From 167.06 m to
235.0 m, it is steel lattice, square
cross section. The various antennas
mounted on this tower are below:-
Fig. 2
•
UHF, band IV-V TV at top of
tower i.e.235.0 m (New)
•
Band III, TV antenna from 217.5 m to 235 m
(Existing)
•
Band II, FM antenna from 198.5 m to 213.7 m
(Existing)
•
Band I, Vacant
•
Grid parabolic dish antennas and other are at RCC
platform at 167.06 m (Existing)
ii). Tower Strengthening:
All Transmitters are in UHF Band IV. New Antennas
have been procured and these were to be mounted on top
of the tower. This required strengthening of Towers after
their load analysis and modeling and considering the
updated wind Zone of city concerned. Towers were
modeled using SAP14 software. The modified designs
of towers for their strengthening were approved by
Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee. Extra tower
members were added in the tower and thickness of some
members was increased. New interface (adopt
structure) between tower top and base of DTT Antenna
was installed. Vertical Gap of atleast10000 mm was kept
between Band III and Band IV Antenna Panels. Panels
of existing Band III Antenna on one face had to be
removed for mounting of derricks on the tower.
Derricks, pulleys and manpower were used to haul up
the antenna at all these locations. 20kW Antenna
alongwith 5” Dia RF feeder cable were installed
alongwith support structure on top of towers. Fig. 3&4
show antenna mounting process.
Fig. 4
The other accessories on this tower includes:
•
Lift inside the RCC Tower
•
Platform at 197.4 m and 213.7 m
•
Ladder at inside face from 167.06 to 213.7 m
•
Cable rack inside the RCC tower and at inside face
from 167.06 m to 235 m
45
October'14 - December’14
Design Considerations:
•
BASIC WIND SPEED = 47 m/s
•
FACTOR K1 = 1.07
•
FACTOR K2 = varies with height
and terrain
•
FACTOR K3 = 1.0 in this case
At Delhi the 235 m high RCC-Steel
composite TV Tower was modeled
using 3D finite element technique. It
was subjected to static wind – Case 1 parallel to two faces; and Case 2 - along
the diagonal of the 4 legs of the tower.
It also shows the load carrying capacities in tension and
compression for each member based on IS: 800-2007
working stress method. Next comparison of the
computed member forces was carried out with the
member capacities. The ratio of computed member
force and the corresponding member capacity is called
as “Stress Ratio”. If this ratio is less than 1.0, then the
member is safe and no strengthening is required. If the
stress ratio is more than 1.0, it means that member
capacity is less than the force it is required to carry.
Hence, it needs strengthening.
In the present case, the maximum stress ratio is less than
0.34 in static diagonal case in the legs of panel 3. In
panel 2, the stress ratio is still lesser. Hence, there is no
need to carry out any strengthening.
Fig. 5A&B
It was again analyzed for dynamic wind parallel to two
faces; and - along the diagonal of the 4 legs of the tower.
Thus there are a total of 4 load cases: 2 static wind and 2
dynamic wind.
iv). Repair of damaged RF Feeder Cable:
Due to falling of some object on 5” RF Cable at Delhi, a
dent was created on it, which resulted in high reflection
in the Transmitter at one location. During night time the
DTF in RF cable and antenna was checked and found
Earthquake forces are not important for such TV tower
structures as they are very flexible. The earthquake
force was computed and found to be very small as
compared to the wind forces. Height Vs Displacement
and Height Vs Wind Pressure are shown in Graph I and
II respectively.
Table 1 shows the member forces obtained from the 3D
computer model in various members under static wind.
Fig. 6
46
October'14 - December’14
that a VSWR of 1.31 was observed at a distance of 134
M distance. It was then physically checked and found
dent in the cable. There were two options to repair the
defect. First was to add flange connectors by cutting the
cable at this location and second was to remove the dent.
The second option was tried using a Bench Voice
mounted on flattened position and round clamps were
inserted between cable and the jaws of Bench Voice.
Network analyzer was connected at the start of cable and
slowly the handle of the Voice was tightened with
gradual steps. The reading of VSWR was continuously
checked. It was observed that VSWR was improving
with every movement of handle and compression of
cable. The flattened part was approaching towards its
original shape and the dent in cable was also reducing.
Finally it came nearly to its original position with the
following results
and operating personnel. The A/C Current per phase is
about 50 A for the 6 kW DVB T2 Transmitter and
compression chain and associated equipments .
vi). Transmitter Power, Frequency & Tower heights:
The details in this regard is as below:
vii). Training & Seminars:
Training to staff is the essence for success of new
technology. Therefore two weeks training on DVB T2
Transmitter and Compression equipments was provided
at Delhi and one day training was provided for
operational staff at each of 4 Metro sites which was
interactive and proved to be useful in understanding the
technology and various configurations of the system.
Three Seminars have been organized during past 3
years to educate and popularize the Engineers and
Programme Staff about DVB T2 technology. These are
tabulated as below:
v). Installation Issues:
The new Transmitters have to be installed in the existing
Transmitter Hall, where analog transmitters were
operating and un-interrupted transmission of these
services was to be ensured. Some civil modification
works had to be carried out in the Transmitter Hall and
augmentation of Power Supply was carried out and
installation of Equipments was smoothly carried out.
Some shifting and relocation of existing equipments
was also carried out. Only lower bay Panels of Band III
TV Transmitters were used as interim measure as one
panels of Upper Bay on one face were dismantled.
The prominent speakers in above includes Dr. Peter
Siebert, Executive Director, DVB, Mr. Gerard Faria,
CTO, Teamcast, Mr. M.S. Duhan, Deputy Director
General(E) , Doordarshan, Mr. Philip Laven, Chairman,
DVB Project, Mr. Ahmed Nadeem, Director, Technical
ABU ,Mr. Adrian Potter, Director, Communications
Networks , Australian Broadcasting Corporation, Mr.
Sharad Sadhu, Director Technology, ABU, Mr. L. M.
Aliberti, RAI WAY, Sh. Jawhar Sircar, CEO, Prasar
Bharati, DG & Engineer -in- Chief , Doordarshan and
Senior Officers from Doordarshan and Prasar Bharati.
These TV Towers are being shared by various
Broadcasters like FM transmitters of All India Radio,
Indira Gandhi National Open University and Private
FM Broadcasters besides Doordarshan's Analogue
Transmitters. So the working time was restricted to
night time from 0000 Hrs to 0600 Hrs for about 30 days
and these services were switched off during above
period to prevent against RF Hazards.
The Transmitters are liquid cooled and about 2 kW heat
is generated in Transmitter. So two additional Airconditioners (3 Ton Tower Type) were installed to meet
the cooling requirement of the additional equipments
The participation from broadcast industry includes
Media Broadcast , Enensys , ST Microelectronics, Sony,
47
October'14 - December’14
Ø
The summary of results is as below:
a) With QPSK modulation
-
Very good reception was observed up to 6Km.
-
The reception quality of was observed good
with intermittent freezing of signal from 6Km to
12Km.
b) With 16QAM modulation
-
Very good reception quality was observed up to
3Km.
-
The reception quality was good with
intermittent freezing of signal from 3Km to
6Km.
-
Beyond 6Km, the reception quality was highly
inconsistent.
Fig. 7
Samsang, Ericsson, Funke, Harris, Rohde & Schwarz,
Samsung, Tektronix, Dolby, Arrycom , HBE, STB ,
Indeon Technology and iDTV manufacturers. The
display of DVB T2 modulators and receiving devices
was carried out to give insight of the technology.
c) A threshold value of C/N was about 20dB and
24dB for QPSK and 16QAM
Modulation
respectively. The probability of good reception
above 20dB C/N is almost 100% with QPSK
modulation. While the probability of reception
above 24dB C/N is almost100% with 16QAM
modulation
Spectrum Planning:
Doordarshan has planned for digitalization of its
Network in UHF band using Multiple Frequency
Network (MFN) National Level but Single Frequency
Network(SFN) is planned in regional and Local Level.
Doordarshan has planned two multiplex at 4 Metro
Cities. There are some uncovered areas in each of these
metro cities, where low power gap fillers in SFN are
required. At Delhi 6 kW DVB T2 Transmitter is installed
at Pitampura and 5 kW DVB-H Transmitter installed in
2003 on 100 M Tower in AIR Campus at a distance of
17 kms from Pitampura. This transmitter can be
upgraded in DVB T2/T2 lite and used in SFN to give
larger coverage. Experiment has been carried out for T2
Lite services from above 5 kW NEC Make Transmitter
model using Teamcast Modulator model Twister and its
results have been very encouraging. Interference from
LTE and White space Signals is big threat to DVB T2
Signals.
d). Reception remained unimpaired at a speed of
90Km/h.
e) Vehicle penetration loss was measured to be 6 to
7 dB.
f)
Building penetration loss was recorded about
19 dB.
RF Profiles and Signal analysis:
Ø
DVB-H Transmitter:
Transmission Parameters are: 5 kW DVB-H
Transmitter with Antenna at 100 M Tower, Channel
26(514 MHz), Video format: QCIF (352x144), F r a m e
rate: 15fps, Video data rate: 384 kbps, Audio data rate:
64 kbps, Modulation: QPSK, 16QAM , Mode:
8K,
FEC: ½ Guard Interval (GI) : 1/8,
MPE-FEC:
25%.
Fig. 8
g) Height loss from 3rd floor to Ground floor was
measured about 20dB.
48
October'14 - December’14
Ø
DVB T at Delhi:
¾ from Pitampura for outdoor Antenna is Fig. 9.
The brief results with 5 kW power with antenna at 100 M
Tower are as below:
Fig. 9
Ø
DVB –T2 at Delhi : 6 kW DVB T2 Transmitter was
tested using various RF Profiles were tested using
outdoor antenna and some observations are as below:
RF Profile for DVB T2
The possible best RF Profile options in Transmitter are
as below:A. DVB-T2 base for outdoor reception :
Constellation: 64 QAM rotated, FEC: ¾, FFT: 32k,
G.I: 1/128, Pilot pattern: PP7(Data capacity @ 33
Mbps)
B. DVB-T2 lite for mobile reception:
Ø
DVB T2 at Chennai:
Constellation: QPSK rotated, FEC: 1/3, FFT: 8k,
G.I: 1/32, Pilot pattern: PP2(Data capacity @3.8
Mbps). The coverage with above profile with 6 kW
Transmitter from Pitampura was found highly
satisfactory upto 50 KMs.
Signal Survey with field strength meter of R&S Make,
EFL-340 Model with portable TV Receiver and external
receiving antenna of 10' height with 6 kW DVB-T2
Transmitter.
Upgradation of DVB T2 System:
It is observed that with external antenna and fixed
reception, signal reception at different locations even
upto 60 Kms radius was satisfactory with 1HD & 4SD
channels with VV003 mode (256 QAM)
Procurement of (1+1 ) DVB-T2 gateway is underway
by Doordarshan and it will be implemented within next
few months. DVB-T2 Gateway encapsulates Transport
Streams in T2-MI frames to interface with DVB-T2
modulators. The T2-MI interface includes the original
input TS, L1-signalling for the configuration of the
modulators and timing information for synchronization.
The upgradation of DVB T2 transmitter compliant with
ETSI EN 302 755 V1.3.1 (with addition of T2 Lite
Features) is under process. After above additions, these
Transmitters will be capable to transmit SDTV, HDTV,
Radio and Mobile TV.
Ø
DVB T2 Lite at Delhi:
The 5 kW DVB – H Transmitter at Delhi was converted
into T2 Lite for experimental purpose by replacing NEC
Modulator with Teamcast Modulator model Twister. It
provided T2(base) and T2 lite RF signals. The T2 lite
signals in QPSK, 1/3, 8k, PP2 were tested. The signal
was checked using Sony make Dongle with mobile
phone and it was found satisfactorily upto 25 Kms from
Transmitter site. The signal was very good along with
overhead Metro Track and high rise buildings on the
way.
Business opportunities:
DVB T2 has redefined alternative access for
information, education and entertainment for the
masses in a Fixed, Portable and mobile environment.
The expected coverage map with 6 kW 64QAM FEC
49
October'14 - December’14
With upgradation of the DVB T2 Transmitters with T2
Lite and introduction of T2-MI Gateway , it will be
capable to transmit SDTV, HDTV, Radio and Mobile
TV and will provide service specific robustness. It is an
excellent all weather reliable platform for distribution of
Video, Audio and data. It is an evolving platform like the
banyan tree. It plays a vital role in ensuring healthy
competition between Competing variants of broadcast
television systems used around the world and in the
process it drives innovation in service delivery by other
competing platforms.Billboard, Text etc. find other
options. The existing VHF Transmitters may also be
upgraded as DVB T2/T2 lite using new modulator in 1.7
MHz Band width. The DTT is most popular for local
programme services. There can be several combinations
of bouquets of channels; various possible options for
one DTT transmitter are as below :
SDTV/HDTV Reception – Specification” and IS:9793 :
“Antennas for the reception of Sound and TV
Broadcasting in the frequency range 30 MHz to 1 GHzSpecifications-1992”. The iDTV Standard has been
approved and is under printing. Doordarshan is the
convener of Panel for above Standard. Integrated
Digital TV(iDTV) are available from Sony, Panasonic,
Toshiba, Samsang etc. Dongles/Mobile for DVB T2/T2
Lite signals for mobiles and tablets are available .
Some Smartphone and Tablets have inbuilt embedded
tuner & decoder for DVB T2/T2 lite. Numerous chips
are available for receiving devices.
(Any of the
following)
Conclusions:
Before Analogue Switch off in India, there are lot of
expectations and miles to cover. The experience,
experiments and expectations with DVB T2 and T2-Lite
are of great interest in India, which is an attractive
investment site for digitalization of terrestrial network
of content distribution. The viewing experience with
HDTV will be great and if attractive content is
transmitted, terrestrial TV will become boon to the
nation to have multiple Channels for Fixed TV and
mobile reception in Smartphones, PC, moving vehicles
and Radio and that too in plenty with a single
Transmitter. So India awaits exciting technological
advancement with DVB T2 and T2 Lite Transmitters of
Doordarshan.
Doordarshan may transmit its 4 channels (say DD
National, DD News, DD Sports, & DD Regional) &
remaining capacity may be leased out preferably local
channel. Expected population served with 4 HDTV
transmitters is tabulated as above:
The Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) has finalized
standard for HDTV DVB T2 STB, Antenna and
integrated digital television (iDTV). The BIS No. is :
“IS-16129 for Set Top Box for Digital Terrestrial
About The Author
Sh. M.S. Duhan is an officer of 1988 batch of IB(E)S and has a rich experience of Studios and
Transmitters of AIR and Doordarshan. He possesses degree in Electrical Engineering, MBA and
Master of Mass Communication. He has received the DD Awards four times, for the best
maintained High Power Transmitters & DMCs.
He has inspected India's first HDTV Antenna system at works of M/s SIRA Milan and Digital
Terrestrial Television at the works of M/s Harris, Quincy, IL, USA. He has contributed
significantly in the implementation of DVB T2 Transmitters in India.
44 posted at DG:DD New Delhi and is responsible for planning and implementation
He is currently
of TV Transmitters and spectrum planning for Doordarshan.
Email: [email protected] Phone: +9123383840 Mobile: +919013462293
50
October'14 - December’14
Audio Compression - MPEG-4 HE-AAC-v2
- Audio coding for today's media world
S. K. Biswas
A) ABSTRACT
Broadcasting the quality content is a challenging job in
digital broadcasting era because of scarcity of RF(Radio
Frequency) spectrum as we all know that, in digital
form, the electronic media contents are required to be
necessarily compressed (i) in order to make them
occupy smaller spectrum and (ii) for further processing such as storing them and the retrieving and then using it,
in an easy way. This scarcity demands very efficient use
of the spectrum, necessitating careful choice of
compression schemes for technical and the economical
feasibility/viability of the system. In the case of audio
content, the MPEG-4 High Efficiency AAC-v2 profile
(HE-AAC-v2) has proven, in several independent tests,
to be the most efficient audio compression scheme
available worldwide. HE-AAC-v2 comprises a fullyfeatured tool set for the coding of audio signals in mono,
stereo and multichannel modes (up to 48
channels/tracks) – at high quality levels using a wide
range of bitrates.
HE-AAC-v2(High Efficiency Advance Audio Coding
version-2) is a very efficient digital audio compression
coding. This article gives an overview of its technical
components and compression efficiency. Obviously, the
future potential of ongoing development work is related
to this compression efficiency.
HE-AAC-v2 consists of three technologies - Advanced
Audio Coding (AAC) and the two numbers of
'Enhancement Tools' viz. Spectral Band Replication
(SBR) and Parametric Stereo (PS).
AAC is considered as the state-of-the-art for transparent
audio quality at a typical bit rate of 128 kbps. Below this
rate, the audio quality of AAC would start to degrade,
which can be compensated to a maximum degree with
the enhancement techniques SBR and PS.
SBR is a bandwidth extension technique that enables
audio codec to deliver the same listening experience at
approximately half the bit rate that the AAC codec
would require.
PS increases the coding efficiency further by exploiting
a parametric representation of the stereo image of input
signal. Thus, HE-AAC-v2 extends the reach of highquality MPEG-4 audio to much lower bitrates.
The combination of AAC and SBR is called HEAAC(i.e. HE-AAC-v1) which is also known as aacPlus
(i.e. aacPlus-v1) & combination of HE-AAC-v1& PS is
HE-AAC-v2 ie. aacPlus-v2 i.e. enhanced aacPlus.
Nowadays, for streaming(transporting) the digital
medias by IP/COFDM, across (A) DRM (B) audio link
between Spots (C) several such other cases - this HEAAC-v2 is extensively used as the reasonably high
quality audio transported at a bitrate merely around 36
kbps. {Spots are – (i) Studios (ii) Studios and Live OB
points (iii) and such others, through (a) ISDN (b) Leased
Lines (c) Computer LAN/MAN/WAN (d) WiFi/WiMAX/Wireless LAN/MAN (e) Cellular Phone
network (f) INMARSAT (g) Micro and Milli Wave
channels (h) Geo-Stationary Satellite channels (i) other
such lines/channels/network }. {Acronyms of
abbreviations are – (a) DRM = Digital Radio Mondiale
(b) COFDM = Coded( i.e. FEC i.e. Forward Error
Correction) Orthogonal(quadrature carriers) Frequency
Division Multiplexing (c) ISDN = Integrated Services
D i g i t a l N e t w o r k ( d ) L A N / M A N / WA N =
Local/Metropolitan/Wide Area Network (e) WiFi =
Wi r e l e s s F i d e l i t y, Wi M A X = Wo r l d w i d e
Interoperability for Microwave ACcess (g) IP = Internet
Protocol (h) OB = Outdoor Broadcasting (i)
INMARSAT = INternational MARitime SATtellite
Organisation.
B) PRESENTATION
B1) INTRODUCTION
MPEG-4 HE-AAC-v2 (in short, only HE-AAC-v2)
acronymed as Moving Picture Expert Group version-4
High Efficiency Advance Audio Coding version-2.
HE-AAC-v2 consists of three technologies - Advanced
Audio Coding ( AAC ) and two numbers of
'Enhancement Tools' viz. Spectral Band Replication
51
October'14 - December’14
HE-AAC(i.e. HE-AAC-v1) encoded audio data can
exist in a variety of file formats with different
extensions, depending on the implementation and the
usage scenario. Most commonly used file formats are
the MPEG-4 file formats MP4 and M4A, carrying the
respective extensions .mp4 and .m4a. The “.m4a”
extension is used to emphasize the fact that a file
contains audio only.
(SBR) and Parametric Stereo (PS).
AAC is considered as the state-of-the-art for transparent
audio quality at a typical bit rate of 128 kbps. Below this
rate, the audio quality of AAC would start to degrade,
which can be compensated to a maximum degree with
the enhancement techniques SBR and PS.
SBR is a bandwidth extension technique that enables
audio codec to deliver the same listening experience at
approximately half the bit rate that the AAC codec
would require, if operated.
B2) Why AAC came, in spite of the fact that the
format MP3(extension is .mp3) i.e. MPEG-1 or
MPEG-2 Layer-III audio compression coding have
been also a very popular format-
PS increases the coding efficiency further by exploiting
a parametric representation of the stereo image of input
signal. Thus, HE-AAC-v2 extends the reach of highquality MPEG-4 audio to much lower bitrates.
Research on perceptual audio coders started about 32
years ago. Research on the human auditory system
revealed that hearing is mainly based on a short-term
spectral analysis of the audio signal. The so-called
masking effect was observed: the human auditory
system is not able to perceive distortions that are masked
by a stronger signal in the spectral neighborhood. Thus,
when looking at the short-term spectrum, the so-called
masking threshold can be calculated. Distortions below
this threshold are – in the ideal case -
The combination of AAC and SBR is called HEAAC(i.e. HE-AAC-v1) which is also known as aacPlus
(i.e. aacPlus-v1)& combination of HE-AAC-v1& PS is
HE-AAC-v2 ie. aacPlus-v2 i.e. enhanced aacPlus.
Mathematically and graphically represented below
AAC + SBR = HE-AAC-v1 = aacPlus-v1
inaudible. The distortion generated by the PCM format
used on CD's is for all frequencies way below this
threshold. However, since the PCM signal, representing
the time domain, does not allow frequency dependent
shaping of the quantization noise, a high SNR needs to
be applied in order to achieve high quality sound across
a large dynamic range. This also reveals the basic idea of
perceptual audio coding: if
HE-AAC-v1 + PS = HE-AAC-v2 = aacPlus-v2 =
enhanced aacPlus
i.e. AAC + SBR + PS = HE-AAC-v2 = aacPlus-v2 =
enhanced aacPlus
it would be possible to shape the quantization noise in
the frequency domain, compression of audio signals
beyond the CD format must be achievable. Research
started on how to calculate the masking threshold
(“psychoacoustic model”) and how to process the audio
signal in a way that only audible information resides in
the signal. The ideal audio codec introduces
quantization distortions that are exactly below the
masking threshold.
The basic structure of MPEG-1 audio coders follows
that of perception-based coders. In the first step, the
PCM(actually Adaptive Differential PCM is to
reduce/compress the bit rate from the very beginning
itself) signals are converted into spectral components
via an analysis filterbank; Layers I and II use a subband
filterbank while Layer III employs a hybrid filterbank.
Each spectral component is then quantized and coded
with the goal of keeping the quantization noise below
Another important feature of the HE-AAC(i.e. HEAAC-v1) and HE-AAC-v2 architecture is the extremely
flexible transport of metadata. Metadata can be
embedded as auxiliary data in a way that only
compatible decoders take notice of their existence. Noncompatible decoders simply ignore the metadata.
52
October'14 - December’14
the masking threshold. The number of bits for each
subband and a scale-factor are determined on a blockby-block basis: each block has 12 (Layer I) or 36
(Layers II and III) subband samples. The number of
quantizer bits is obtained from a dynamic bit-allocation
algorithm that is controlled by a “psychoacoustic
model". The subband codewords, the scalefactor and the
bit allocation information are multiplexed into one
bitstream to send to the channel, together with a header
and optional ancillary data.
achieves better sound quality than MPEG-1/2 Audio
Layer-III coding i.e. MP3 format at similar bit rates. The
improvements of AAC over MPEG-1/2 Audio LayerIII coding(i.e. MP3 format) include-
The Layer III MPEG architecture achieves performance
improvements by adding several important mechanism
on top of the Layer I/II foundation. A hybrid filterbank is
introduced to increase frequency resolution and thereby
better approximate critical band behavior. The hybrid
filterbank contains adaptive segmentation to improve
pre-echo control. Sophisticated bit allocation and
quantization strategies which rely on nonuniform
quantization, analysis-by-synthesis, and entropy coding
are introduced to allow reduced bit rates and improved
quality.
• Arbitrary bit-rates and variable frame length.
Standardized constant bit rate with bit reservoir.
• More sample frequencies (from 8 KHz to 96 KHz)
than MP3 (16 KHz to 48 KHz)
• Up to 48 channels (MP3 supports up to two channels
in MPEG-1 mode and up to 5.1 channels in MPEG-2
mode)
• Higher efficiency and simpler filter bank (rather than
MP3's hybrid coding, AAC uses a pure MDCT)
• Higher coding efficiency for stationary signals (AAC
uses a blocksize of 1024 or 960 samples, allowing
more efficient coding than MP3's 576 sample blocks)
• Higher coding accuracy for transient signals (AAC
uses a blocksize of 128 or 120 samples, allowing
more accurate coding than MP3's 192 sample blocks)
However, having reached up to MPEG-1/2 Audio
Layer-III coding(i.e. MP3 format)efficiency, urge were
there to further improve the coding efficiency. Hence,
AAC is designed to be the successor of the MPEG-1/2
Audio Layer-III coding i.e. MP3 format, with many
improvements over this MPEG-1/2 Audio Layer-III
coding with a main aim of more efficient coding than
MP3. Although, both of the MPEG-1/2 Audio Layer-III
codec and AAC follow the same principle, they still
differ significantly in compression efficiency. The
performance of these codecs depends mainly on two
aspects - how precisely the masking threshold can be
approached and how efficiently the quantized spectrum
can be coded. AAC, for example, is, according to several
tests, twice as efficient as Layer-II. Obviously AAC
• Much better handling of audio frequencies above 16
KHz
So, AAC have the compression coding/decoding
line/block diagram same as that of a MPEG-1 or MPEG2 Layer-III audio compression codind/decoding as in
Fig-2a and Fig-2b.
B3) Why HE-AAC-v1 came
Nevertheless, traditional waveform coding has its
limits. Having reached a performance like AAC, it gets
very hard to further increase compression as urge were
still there to further improve the coding efficiency. If the
bitrate is lowered significantly from the codecs
reasonable operating point, the quantization noise
53
October'14 - December’14
significantly exceeds the masking threshold, thus
generating audible artefacts. Hence, SBR is added to
AAC to improves audio coding efficiency - AAC + SBR
= HE-AAC or HE-AAC-v1.
sufficient for their intended use, but unsuitable for high
quality SBR -like High-Frequency-Reconstruction
(HFR) methods as introduced by 'Coding Technologies'
for audio coding. Therefore the development of new
(patented) and more suitable algorithms was a
prerequisite for the successful deployment of SBR.
Strict demand was set on basic algorithm performance
due to the unusual need to transpose signal components
from the available (coded) baseband, by at least a factor
three, without creating annoying artifacts. Particular
emphasis was put on recreating psychoacoustically
accurate representations of the original high-band signal
components without violating the well-known
consonance-dissonance criteria. However compared to
the original signal, the recreated high-band is not
necessarily signal-coherent in a technical sense, but
coherent in a mere psychoacoustic sense, a most
important characteristic.]
B3/1) SBR concept
Two main methods have been used so far to overcome
this problem of increasing the compression in
perceptual waveform codecs. The most important one is
to limit the audio bandwidth of the signal in or prior to
the coding process, resulting no high frequency energy
to be coded(obviously, limiting bandwidth means
keeping lower frequencies only), and thus, more
information is available for the remainder of the
spectrum, resulting in a clean, but hollow/dull/flat
sound in contrary to the rich sound.
[Background of the SBR Development - The use of
means to recreate missing or reduced high-frequencies
in audio is nothing new, and has been used more or less
frequent over the years in the recording industry. One of
the most famous products was the “Aphex Aural
Exciter” invented by Kurt Knoppel in the early 70's.
Although Knoppel was not the first (or last) in this field,
similar technologies can be found in some audio editing
software tools today as well as in some audio processing
hardware units. The main aim with such technologies is
to add some “sparkle”, “warmth” or high-end
“enrichment” of the recorded vocals, speech,
instruments, CD-master or broadcast feed, using
typically nonlinearities or “controlled” forms of highfrequency distortion. However, such technologies are
performance limited by the way the high-frequencies
are recreated. This limits their scope of use to just
“touching-up” existing programme material, and
making them unable to replicate major frequency ranges
of a high quality programme material. A related
technology, “Harmonizing”, was first successfully
pioneered by the Eventide Clockworks as
“Harmonizer” in the early 70's, where programme
material can be transposed in a “musically correct”
manner. This is quite opposite to the “Bode Frequency
Shifter” developed for electronic music applications by
Harald Bode where harmonic relations are “nonmusically” shifted (scrambled). Finally, the RingModulator, one of the oldest “weird” sound effects
units, is sometimes used in electronic music. Spin-off's
from Harmonizer-like algorithms are the popular pitchshift and timestretch algorithms used in many audio
workstation sound-editing software tools today. The
above-mentioned technologies or methods are
The other method, called intensity stereo, can only be
used for stereo signals. In intensity stereo, only one
channel and a panning information is transmitted
instead of a left and a right channel. However, this is
only of rather limited use for increasing compression
efficiency, as in many cases the stereo image of the
audio signal gets destroyed. A third method used is
insertion of artificial noise. This method, however,
works only with a rather limited class of audio signals.
At this point, the SBR technology comes into the
picture. SBR deviates from the waveform coding
principle towards a hybrid waveform/parametric
method. It is based on the fact that in most cases, there
are large dependencies between the lower and higher
frequency parts of an audio signal. Therefore, the high
frequency part of an audio signal can be efficiently
reconstructed from the low frequency part.
Transmission of the high frequency part is therefore not
necessary - only a small amount of SBR control data
needs to be carried in the bitstream to guarantee an
optimal reconstruction of the high frequencies. The low
frequency part is still coded by an codec such as AAC(or
.mp3 ). The high frequency part, however, is generated
by a high quality transposition algorithm. The mere
generation of high frequency content is not at all
sufficient for accurate high frequency reconstruction,
since the reconstructed part does not reflect the spectral
envelope of the original. Therefore careful adjustment
of the spectrum is essential for the performance of the
system. The adjustment is controlled by the SBR
information carried in the bitstream and results in a
correctly shaped high freq part.
54
October'14 - December’14
extracted in the encoder in order to ensure the most
accurate high frequency reconstruction in the decoder.
The encoder process is depicted in Fig-3a. The encoder
estimates the spectral envelope of the SBR range for a
time and frequency range/resolution suitable for the
current input signal segments characteristics. The
spectral envelope is estimated by a complex
QMF(Quadrature Mirror Filter)bank analysis and
subsequent energy calculation. The time and frequency
resolutions of the spectral envelopes can be chosen with
a high level of freedom, in order to ensure the best suited
time frequency resolution for the given input segment.
The envelope estimation needs to consider that a
transient in the original, mainly situated in the high
frequency region (for instance a high-hat), will be
present to a minor extent in the SBR generated highband
prior to envelope adjustment, since the highband in the
decoder is based on the low band where the transient is
much less pronounced compared to the highband. This
aspect imposes different requirements for the time
frequency resolution of the spectral envelope data,
compared to ordinary spectral envelope estimation as
used in other audio coding algorithms.
SBR Crossover Frequencies
Bitrate
(kbps)
20
AAC Frequency range
(KHz)
SBR Frequency range
(KHz)
0 – 4.5
4.5 – 15.4
32
0 – 6.8
6.8 – 16.9
48
0 – 8.3
8.3 – 16.9
To summarize, SBR enhanced codecs perform
significantly better mainly because - (i) SBR allows the
recreation of the high frequencies using only a very
small amount of transmitted side information. (ii) The
high
frequencies, which normally consume a
significant amount of bits, do not need to be waveformcoded anymore, resulting in (a) significant coding gain
(b) the underlying waveform coder can run with a
comparatively high SNR, as it is only responsible for the
lower frequencies. It can even operate at the optimum
sampling rate, which is usually different from the
desired output sampling rate. SBR converts the
waveform codec sampling rate into the desired output
sampling rate. Obviously there are signals where the
reconstruction method does not deliver the desired
results, e.g. when there is little relationship between the
low and high frequency part. Care has been taken to
equip SBR with additional tools so that such situations
can be handled very well without losing compression
efficiency.
Apart from the spectral envelope, several additional
parameters are extracted representing spectral
characteristics of the input signal for different time and
frequency regions. Since the encoder naturally has
access to the original signal as well as information on
how the SBR unit in the decoder will create the
highband, given the specific set of control parameters, it
is possible for the system to handle situations where the
lowband constitutes a strong harmonic series and the
high band, to be recreated, mainly constitutes random
signal components, as well as situations where strong
tonal components are present in the original highband
without counterparts in the lowband, upon which the
highband region is based. Furthermore, the SBR
B3/2) How SBR works
The SBR system is preferably used as a dual-rate
system, with the underlying codec operating at half the
original sampling-rate, while SBR operates at the
original sampling rate. The following description will
briefly explain the different parts in the encoder and
decoder of the SBR system. The SBR encoder works in
parallel with the underlying core codec, albeit at a
higher sampling-rate. Although SBR is mainly a post
process in the decoder, important parameters are
55
October'14 - December’14
encoder works in close relation to the core codec to
assess which frequency range should be covered by
SBR at a given time. The SBR data is efficiently coded
prior to transmission by exploiting entropy coding as
well as channel dependencies of the control data, in the
case of stereo signals.
carried in the ancillary data field.
SBR enhanced audio codecs are already in use in several
applications, some of which are listed hereafter.
2) Digital Radio Mondiale (DRM) - The DRM
consortium has been founded in 1998 with the goal to
standardize a new digital system for medium, long and
shortwave transmissions. The system should deliver
significantly better audio and reception quality than
ordinary analog AM. At the same time the existing AM
channel spacing should be used. In addition, reuse of
existing transmitter equipment should be possible to
guarantee a cost efficient introduction of the new
system. Depending on the wavelength and the region,
the channel spacing in the AM bands is either 9 KHz or
10 KHz. The propagation conditions, which depend
very much on the wavelength, determine the spectral
efficiency achievable. Extensive tests have resulted in
an efficiency in the range of 1.5 to 3 bit/Hz. As a result,
the bitrate available in one transmission channel is in the
range of 13 to 30 kbps. Normal operation will use
bitrates between 20 and 25 kbps. Delivering high quality
audio at such a low bitrate asks for the most powerful
source coding scheme available. Consequently,
AAC+SBR, the combination of MPEG-AAC and SBR
has been chosen as audio coding method. Tests done
within the DRM consortium clearly show the
superiority of this coding system compared to previous
state of the art. More details about DRM and the
listening test can be found in and at the DRM web site
www.drm.org. DRM finalized the specification of the
system in January 2001. It is recommended by the ITU
and standardized by ETSI. First regular transmissions
and receiver products are came in 2004.
[1) .mp3PRO - In January 2001, “Coding Technologies”
and its licensing partner “Thomson Multimedia”
presented .mp3PRO, the combination of .mp3 and SBR,
for the first time. In June 2001, a free demo software has
been made available. Since then several software
applications integrating .mp3PRO have been released
(e.g. from Ahead, Steinberg, Magix, etc.). First
hardware products are appeared in 2003. .mp3PRO
offers significantly improved performance compared to
.mp3 and outperforms competitive codecs according to
independent tests. .mp3PRO is backward and forward
compatible with .mp3. Not only will any .mp3PRO
decoder decode .mp3 content, all .mp3 players will be
able to decode .mp3PRO bitstreams, although without
the quality improvement achieved through SBR.
Basically, SBR can be seen as pre/post processing
around the existing .mp3 modules. Even the bitstream
format remains unchanged, as the SBR data can be
3) MPEG - Because of its outstanding compression
performance, the combination of AAC and SBR is of
high interest not only for broadcasting, but also for
audio and audio/video applications like streaming over
the internet, streaming and delivery over mobile
networks and storage in portable devices. For a lot of
these applications, open standards like MPEG play an
important role. They usually provide state-of-the-art
algorithms and guarantee interoperability and
accessibility of the technology. As a consequence,
MPEG issued a call for proposals in January 2001,
asking for technologies that could further enhance the
compression efficiency of the MPEG-4 audio coding
algorithms (in particular AAC). SBR was submitted as a
proposal; a competitive test was performed by MPEG.
AAC + SBR did not only show an excellent
performance, but already met the acceptance criteria set
up for final acceptance of the technology in the standard.
The control parameter extraction algorithms need to be
carefully tuned to the codec at a given bitrate and a given
sampling rate. This is due to the fact that a lower bitrate,
usually implies a larger SBR range compared to a high
bitrate, and different sampling rates correspond to
different time resolutions of the SBR frames. Different
core codecs may also display different characteristics
during bit constraints, i.e. more or less severe spectral
band shutdowns etc.
The decoder is constituted of several different parts, as
in Fig-3b. It comprises a bitstream decoding module, a
High Frequency Reconstruction (HFR) module, and an
envelope adjuster module. The system is based around a
complex valued QMF bank.
In the bitstream extraction module, the control data is
read from the bitstream and decoded. The time
frequency grid is obtained for the current frame, prior to
reading the envelope data from the bitstream, and
decoding of the same. For stereo signal, suitable stereo
decoding is performed according to control data.
B3/3) SBR Applications
56
October'14 - December’14
So, Spectral Band Replication is a novel technology that
combines traditional audio coding with the capabilities
of high quality high frequency reconstruction methods.
Through the use of SBR in .mp3PRO, the compression
efficiency of .mp3 could be significantly improved
while remaining compatible with the widespread .mp3
format. But .mp3PRO will succeed .mp3 in all
application areas. The combination of AAC and SBR
offers the most powerful audio compression available
today. As such it is most suited for digital broadcasting
and streaming/delivery over networks with limited
resources. AAC+SBR is already used in the market
place and is the 'Reference Model' in the MPEG-4
standardization. Both .mp3PRO and AAC+SBR are
available today in software and hardware; several
applications have already been launched. It is expected
that the number of applications using SBR will increase
significantly in the near future.
B4) Why HE-AAC-v2 came
Having reached up to a performance like HE-AAC(i.e.
HE-AAC-v1), it gets even further harder to increase
compression, as the usual urge were still there to further
improve the coding efficiency. Now PS is added to HEAAC-v1 to improves audio coding efficiency further HE-AAC-v1 + PS = HE-AAC-v2 i.e. aacPlus-v2 i.e.
enhanced aacPlus.
As a result, SBR became Reference Model for version 3
of the MPEG-4 standard. Fig-4a shows the result of the
test at 24 kbps mono. The test was done with
experienced listeners and the well proven
MUSHRA(MUltiple Stimulus test with Hidden
Reference and Anchors test method. As test items, the
“usual” MPEG test items were used (e.g. harpsichord,
glockenspiel, pitchpipe, male german speech,
castagnettes, a.s.o). Till today those items are known to
be very critical for audio coding. AAC+SBR shows a
vast improvement compared to AAC, even when
compared to the higher bitrate AAC (30 kbps).
Moreover AAC+SBR shows a very good absolute
performance at this very low bitrate. The stereo test
results are shown in Fig-4b. Again, AAC+SBR shows a
significant gain over AAC and a very good absolute
grading of more than 85 at a bitrate of 48 kbps. For both
tests, it should be noted that the comparison was done
against MPEG-4 AAC. A comparison to the yet much
more popular MPEG-2 AAC, which is the AAC version
available on the market today, would show an even
higher improvement through SBR (which operates
based on MPEG-2 AAC). Since AAC was so far deemed
to be state-of-the-art audio compression, it can be
concluded from the this test that, AAC+SBR is the new
performance leader in audio coding. ]
B4/1) PS concept
PS(Parametric Stereo) coding is a technique to
efficiently code a stereo audio signal as a monaural
signal plus a small amount of stereo parameters. The
monaural signal can be encoded using any audio coder
like HE-AAC-v1. The stereo parameters can be
embedded in the ancillary part of the mono bit stream
creating backwards mono compatibility. In the decoder,
first the monaural signal is decoded after which the
stereo signal is reconstructed from the stereo
parameters. In this paper, a (LC)Low Complexity
decoder solution is described based on complexmodulated filter banks.
B4/2) How PS works
Parametric Stereo coding aims at describing a stereo
signal as a mono signal plus a set of parameters
characterizing the stereo image. A block diagram of a PS
encoder is shown in Fig-5a. From the stereo input signal
(l[n], r[n]), the time-variant stereo parameters are
estimated on a non-uniform frequency grid, closely
resembling the Equivalent Rectangular Bandwidth
57
October'14 - December’14
(ERB) grid. These parameters describe the perceptually
relevant spatial cues. Furthermore, a mono downmix
m[n] is generated. This mono downmix can then be
encoded by any audio encoder. The stereo parameters
are quantized and coded into the ancillary part of the
mono bit stream yielding a backwards (mono)
compatible system.
segments of both signals m[n] and d[n] are processed by
a time-to-frequency (t/f) transform, performed by
windowing followed by an FFT, resulting in the
complex-valued frequency domain representations
M[k] and D[k] respectively. The two frequency domain
representations of the left and right channels, L[k] and
R[k] respectively, are obtained as linear combinations of
the signals M[k] and D[k]. The mixing parameters are
time and frequency dependent; for each frequency
component k the mixing process can be described by -
PS employs mainly three types of parameters to
describe the stereo image - (1) Inter-channel Intensity
Differences (IID); describing the intensity differences
between the channels, (2) Inter-channel Phase
Differences (IPD); describing the phase differences
between the channels and, (3) Inter-channel Coherence
(IC); describing the coherence between the channels.
The coherence is measured as the maximum of the
cross-correlation as a function of time or phase. In
principle, these three parameters allow for a high quality
reconstruction of the stereo image. However, the IPD
parameters only specify the relative phase differences
between the channels of the stereo input signal. They do
not prescribe the distribution of these phase differences
over the left and right channels. Hence, a fourth type of
parameter is introduced, describing an overall phase
offset or Overall Phase Difference (OPD). In order to
reconstruct the stereo image, in the PS decoder a number
of operations are performed, consisting of scaling (IID),
phase rotations (IPD/OPD) and decorrelation. A block
diagram of the PS decoder is shown in Fig-5b.
L[k] = h11[k].M[k] + h12[k].D[k] & R[k] =
h21[k].M[k] + h22[k].D[k] where h11[k], h12[k],
h21[k] and h22[k] are defined by the stereo parameters.
The signals L[k] and R[k] are finally transformed back
to the time domain by means of a frequency-to-time (f/t)
transform. In the FFT-based PS decoder, the f/t
transform consists of an inverse FFT followed by
windowed overlap-add.
B4/3) Success and Justification of HE-AAC-v2
When the low complexity PS tool presented in this paper
is combined with aacPlus(HE-AAC-v1), this results in a
codec that achieves a significantly increased coding
efficiency for stereo signals at very low bit rates when
compared to aacPlus(HE-AAC-v1) operating in normal
stereo mode. Block diagram of the the decoder in Fig-5b
is also referred to as “enhanced aacPlu(HE-AAC-v2).”
Since the SBR tool of aacPlus(HE-AAC-v1) already
operates in the QMF domain, the PS tool can be included
in such a decoder in a computationally very efficient
manner directly prior to the final QMF synthesis filter
bank. Comparing Fig-4b & Fig-5b, it is evident that only
the “Parametric Stereo Decoding and Synthesis”,
including its hybrid filter bank, have to be added to a
In the FFT-based PS decoder, first a decorrelated signal
d[n] is calculated by means of convolving the monaural
signal m[n] with a pre-defined sequence. In the stereo
reconstruction process, consecutive windowed
58
October'14 - December’14
mono aacPlus(HE-AAC-v1) decoder, plus of course a
second QMF synthesis filter bank. The computational
complexity of such a decoder is approximately the same
as that of a aacPlus(HE-AAC-v1) decoder operating in
normal stereo mode, where AAC decoding, QMF
analysis filtering and SBR processing have to be carried
out for both channels of a stereo signal. ( These
complexity figures are based on the instrumentation of
an optimized floatingpoint decoder implementation of
the baseline version of the PS tool as defined in.)
achieves more than twice the coding efficiency of AAC
for stereo signals. Further MUSHRA(see above for
acronym) tests have shown that the enhanced
aacPlus(HE-AAC-v1) with parametric stereo achieves a
significantly better subjective quality that normal
aacPlus(HE-AAC-v1) stereo also for 18 and 32 kbps.
Fig-6 shows subjective results from a listening test
comparing aacPlus(HE-AAC-v1) using normal stereo
coding at 24 and 32 kbps with enhanced aacPlus(HEAAC-v2) utilizing the Parametric Stereo tool at 24 kbps.
The MPEG-4 Stereo verification test were used as test
material and playback was done using headphones. The
test employed MUSHRA(see above for acronym)
methodology and included a hidden reference and lowpass filtered anchors with 3.5 and 7 kHz bandwidth.
It was found that enhanced aacPlus(HE-AAC-v2) i.e.
(HE-AAC-v1+PS) at 24 kbps achieves an average
subjective quality that is equal to aacPlus(HE-AAC-v1)
stereo at 32 kbps and that is significantly better than
aacPlus(HE-AAC-v1) stereo at 24 kbps. It is of interest
Also, comprehensive test was conducted, evaluating a
variety of open standard and proprietary audio codecs
including HE-AAC-v1(AAC+SBR), AAC, Windows
Media Audio, and others, at a bitrate of 48 kbps for
comparison. The tests were conducted according to the
MUSHRA(see above for acronym) test method. The
to relate these results to the MPEG-4 verification test.
There, it was found that aacPlus(HE-AAC-v1) stereo at
32 kbps achieved a subjective quality that was
significantly better than AAC stereo at 48 kbps and was
similar to or slightly worse than AAC stereo at 64 kbps.
This shows that enhanced aacPlus(HE-AAC-v1)
59
October'14 - December’14
results clearly show the superior compression efficiency
of HE-AAC-v1. Remarkably, the second best codec in
the tests was mp3PRO – the combination of MPEG
Layer-III(.mp3) & SBR. Fig-7 shows subjective
listening test @48kbps stereo.
range down to 32 kbps. Even at bitrates as low as 24
kbps, HEAAC-v2 still produces a quality far higher than
that of any other audio codec available. For
multichannel 5.1 signals, HE-AAC provides a coding
efficiency that is a factor of two higher than Dolby AC3. The diagram shows comparison of audio quality
degradation of HE-AAC-v1, HE-AAC-v2 and AAC.
Prior to standardization of HE-AAC-v2, MPEG carried
out listening tests to verify the efficiency improvement
of HE-AAC-v2 (incorporating PS) over HE-AAC-v1.
The MUSHRA(see above for acronym) test method was
also used for this evaluation. According to the scope of
the listening tests, the bitrates used included 24 kbps for
HE-AAC-v1, and 32 and 24 kbps for HE-AAC-v2. The
results of these tests showed a clear performance gain
introduced by PS. HE-AAC-v2 at 24 kbps was seen to
perform significantly better than HE-AAC-v1 at 24kbps
and equal to or better than HE-AAC-v1 at 32 kbps. Fig-8
beside shows MUSHRA scores relative to 7KHz
anchor(stereo).
References:
1) ITU - https://www.itu.int/md/T05-FG.IPTV-DOC0195/en
2) Wikipedia = http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HighEfficiency_Advanced_Audio_Coding
3) Fraunhofer =
http://www.iis.fraunhofer.de/en/bf/amm/produkte/audi
ocodec/audiocodecs/heaac.html
4) Orban =
ftp://ftp.orban.com/1010/Documentation/Entertainme
nt%20Grade%20Streaming%20Audio.pdf
5) Chriscoxcommunications =
http://www.chriscoxcommunications.co.uk/26series/Enhanced-aacPlus.php
6) Joebert S. Jacaba = http://www.mp3tech.org/programmer/docs/jacaba_main.pdf
7) EBU = https://tech.ebu.ch/docs/tech/tech3296.pdf
8) J.Breebaart+S.van de Par+A. Kohlrausch+E.
Schuijers =
http://www.eeng.dcu.ie/~ee502/ParStereo.pdf
9) Lab Man2 =
http://www.cs.man.ac.uk/~barry/mydocs/MyCOMP28
512/MS14_Lab_material/MS14_Lab
10) P.Sripada, Deco = http://seamist.se/fou/cuppsats.nsf/all?OpenView&Start=451&R
estrictToCategory=S
Fig-9 below shows only a smooth degradation in audio
quality of HE-AAC-v2 towards low bitrates over a wide
About The Author
Sh. Sujit Kumar Biswas is an Electrical Engineering Graduate from Indian Institute of
Technology Kharagpur, passed out in the year 1989. After that he joined Steel Authority of
India Limited at Bokaro Steel City Plant in July of the same year. There, he was placed in jobs
involving Electronic and Electrical maintenance. However in the year 1992, he joined Indian
Broadcasting Engineering Service in Office of Chief Engineer(North Zone), New Delhi as
Assistant Director(Engineering). After that, he was transferred at various places like - Office of
Chief Engineer(East Zone), AIR & TV, Kolkata; All India Radio Sasaram; Jamshedpur,
Agartala. Now he is posted in O/o ADGE(EZ) i.e. O/o Additional Director General
Engineering(East Zone), AIR & TV, Kolkata as DDG(E) i.e. Deputy Director General(Engineering). His main jobs
have been the installation works and the Stations maintenance jobs. The concerned project was part of the installation
experiences where this development job was necessary.
60
October'14 - December’14
REPORT
National Public Service Broadcasting Day Celebration
at Constitution Club, New Delhi
Broadcast Engineering Society (India), celebrated
National Public Service Broadcasting Day at
Constitution Club, New Delhi on 12 November 2014.
Shri Kailash Satyarthi, the Indian Noble Peace Prize
Laureate 2014 was the Chief Guest of the function.
Dignitaries present at the event included Shri Jawhar
Sircar, CEO, Prasar Bharati, Shri F Sheheryar, DG, All
India Radio, Sh N A Khan, Engineer-in-Chief
Doordarshan.
Devesh Kumar
Broadcasting in a large democratic country like India.
Talking about the future developments in Public Service
Broadcasting in India, Shri Sircar said that keeping up
with the technological developments, we need to
strengthen FM Radio now and upgrade to DRM III and
Internet streaming Radio within the next few years.
Also, in television, Prasar Bharati is exploring
expanding its FreeDish DTH service to 112 channels
and bring up its subscriber base adding some popular
private channels.
BES(I) celebrates the day every year on 12 November
because Mahatma Gandhi made his first speech to the
Nation on All India Radio on 12 November 1947 at
Nilokheri Refugee Camp, Kurukshetra, Haryana.
Celebrations started with Mahatma Gandhi's favourite
bhajan, “Vaishnav Jan”, followed by welcome address
by Sh. O.K. Sharma, President BES (I).
Shri Satyarthi who has been honoured with the Noble
Peace Prize this year for saving thousands of children
from slavery all over the world, spoke about giving
emotional support to our children and not to pressurize
them with overload of guidance. He appreciated All
India Radio saying that it helped him to great extent in
his 'Bachpan Bachao Aandolan' to reach out to parents
who had lost their children.
Delivering the keynote address, Shri Jawhar Sircar
spoke about the importance of Public Service
61
October'14 - December’14
Shri F Sheheryar, DG, All India Radio insisted upon the
importance of Public Service Broadcaster and
remembered the remarkable contribution of Radio
services during disasters like Tsunami, Fallen etc.
Sh N A Khan, Engineer-in-Chief Doordarshan told
about the expansion plans of DTH services of
Doordarshan and the introduction of new terrestrial
platforms like DVB T2, and DVB-T2 lite by
Doordarshan in near future.
Three veteran broadcasters of India namely, Shri M C
Aggarwal, former Engineer-in-Chief All India Radio,
Shri G S S Sarma former Chief Engineer All India Radio
& Doordarshan and Shri A R Krishnamurthy former Dy.
Director General ( Programme), All India Radio were
given lifetime achievement awards for their outstanding
and remarkable contribution towards public service
broadcasting.
Sh P K Singh, Hon Secretary of BES proposed vote of
thanks to all the guests and dignitaries, who were
participating in the event.
62
October'14 - December’14
REPORT
Ahmedabad Chapter
A. K. Gupta
BES Ahmadabad chapter has organized a series of
lecture for the benefit of members and broadcast
Professionals. The brief description of the activities as
follows.
Lecture on “Cloud technology and its application in
Broadcasting”:
th
A lecture on cloud technology was planned on 25
September 2014. The lecture was delivered by Shri.
Rahul Sharma, SE, ISRO Ahmadabad.
Recently you can't read anything about technology these
days (broadcast or otherwise) without coming across
some mention of “the cloud.” Cloud technology and
services are essential to the way content professionals
manage and deliver their video and audio assets. Its lowcost digital acquisition technology. For media and
entertainment cloud deployments include streaming,
archiving, editing, transcoding, and content
distribution. Cloud is bringing innovative solutions for
Broadcasters, Production and post production houses
with anywhere access, time saving and reduced resource
cost. Cloud brings platform and services to realize live
broadcasting for non linear networks and takes content
to the viewers irrespective of their location. The fact that
multi-platform content delivery (MPCD) is the industry
trend that is most important commercially to their
business jumps off the page, and it is possible through
Cloud. All professional who has attend this lecture,
understand these various aspects of Cloud. Shri J K
Chandira, Dy.Director General(Engg.),Doordarshan
Kendra Ahmedabad & Chapter Chairman BES
Ahmedabad emphasized the importance of Cloud
Technology and also focused on contribution of such
lectures for the up gradation of knowledge level among
engineers. Shri A.K.Gupta Dy.Director (Engg.),and
Secretary of BES Ahmedabad chapter briefed the
achievements of Shri. Rahul Sharma and welcomed all
the gathering and Shri R. T, Tale, Hon. Treasurer BES
Ahmadabad Chapter presented vote of thanks.
Lecture cum Demonstration: Role of HAM Radio
during Disaster
Recently Gujrat, came across the disaster warning of
'Nilofer”. During disaster Ham Radio is useful
63
39
October'14 - December’14
communication tool. A lecture cum demonstration on
HAM Radio in Disaster management was planned on
th
20 November 2014. The lecture was delivered by Shri.
Pravin Valera, Jt. Secretary, Gujarat institute of amateur
radio.
an identifying call sign. Prospective amateur operators
are tested for their understanding of key concepts in
electronics and the host government's radio regulations.
Shri. Pravin Valera, demonstrate, the features of Ham
radio. He also shared his experiences during various
disasters with the members. Shri J K Chandira,
Chairman, BES, Ahmedabad Chapter welcomed the
gathering and briefed about the achievements of Shri.
Pravin Valera. Shri A.K. Gupta, Hon. Secretary, BES
Ahmadabad Chapter highlighted the importance of
HAM Radio during disaster and Shri R. T, Tale, Hon.
Treasurer BES Ahmadabad Chapter presented the vote
of thanks. The session received an overwhelming
response from the members, who actively participated.
The above lecture was well attended by BES members,
Prasar Bharti engineers, and guests from other
engineering organizations, program officers and staff of
Doordarshan.
Amateur Radio (Ham Radio) is a popular hobby and
service in which licensed Amateur Radio operators
(hams) operate communications equipment. Radio
amateurs use a variety of voice, text, image, and data
communications modes and have access to frequency
allocations throughout the RF spectrum to enable
communication across a city, region, country, continent,
the world, or even into space. Amateur radio is officially
represented and coordinated by the International
Amateur Radio Union (IARU). National governments
regulate technical and operational characteristics of
transmissions and issue individual stations licenses with
64
38
January'13 - March'13
October'14
December’14
REPORT
Pune Chapter
Yogesh Hoshing
Workshop on “Various Radio Delivery Platforms
– Strengths, Opportunities and Challenges”
Speech. Shri. S. S. Raman
Assistant Engineer All
India Radio Pune &
Joint Secretary BES Pune
Chapter introduced Chief
Guest Dr. P. B. Mane,
Principal AISSMS
Institute of Information
Technology Pune. Dr. P. B. Mane delivered Inaugural
Speech. Smt. S. D. Upadhye ADE,AIR Pune introduced
distinguished speakers Shri.Sudhir Sodhia and Shri
Ramesh Gharde to the audience.
Shri. Sudhir Sodhia delivered Talk and showed Demo
on Internet Radio. Shri Ramesh Gharde explained
necessity of DRM Transmitter and introduced DRM
transmitters and Receivers. Shri. S. N. Patange
introduced key note speaker Shri I.I. George, who
divulged his views on “Various Radio Delivery
Platforms – Strengths, Opportunities and Challenges.”
The session saw great involvement of audience with a
lively Q & A session at the end.
Broadcast Engineering Society (BES), Pune Chapter
organized Workshop on “Various Radio Delivery
Platforms – Strengths, Opportunities and Challenges”
on 19th Sept. 2014. Venue was All India Radio Pune’s
Auditorium. Delegates from various All India Radio and
Doordarshan stations in Maharashtra were present. Shri
I.I. George Additional Director General (Training), AIR
& Doordarshan Delhi and Vice President BES(I) was
the Key note speaker.
Shri.Ravindra Ranjekar Honorary Treasurer BES
PUNE Chapter offered Vote of Thanks. Anchoring of
the prog. was done by Shri. Yogesh Hoshing AIR Pune.
Shri.Ashish Bhatnagar DDG(E) All India Radio Pune
and the Chairman of Pune Chapter presented Welcome
65
October'14 - December’14
National Public Service Broadcasting Day
Celebration at Pune
Ashok Kale
The 'National Public Service Broadcasting Day' was
celebrated on 12th November 2014, by BES Pune
Chapter with great vigour & enthusiasm. Two important
events with active involvement of various mass
communication/ journalism, political science, social
studies, art, science, commerce college /institutions in
and around Pune region were organised as the part of
celebration.
A short essay competition on the theme “How to Sustain
& Strengthen Public Service Broadcasting in this era of
Commercial Broadcasting” was organised for college
students from various streams – the winners were
felicitated on National Public Service Broadcasting
Day during a panel discussion on “Public Service
through Radio & TV: Strength & Challenges”, which
was organised on 12th November 2014 at All India
Radio Auditorium, Shivajinagar, Pune with eminent
speakers like:
Naik, Modern College & Second prize winner:
Subhekshna Murudkar, Fergusson College)
The Juries of the essay competition, Shri R.N. Katkar,
Director(E) AIR, Pune & Smt. Manisha Shete, Dy
Director(E), DDK Pune, both Vice Chairperson, BES
Pune Chapter, after going through the entries received
for essay competition, shortlisted the first level entries,
judged first & second prize winners, distributed
certificates to winners & first level shortlisted
candidates. The first & second prize winners (Siddharth
Naik & Subhekshna Murudkar) were also presented
with trophies & were given the opportunity to share the
dais with invited experts & to speak on the theme for 5-7
minutes.
Padmashri Shri Niranjan Pandya, Managing Director
H V Desai Hospital,
Shri Nagraj Manjule, National Award winning Marathi
Film Director
Smt. Manisha Gupte, Renowned Social Activist,
Shri Ashok Jadhav, Representative of Industry
Employees, on panel &
Voices from the youth (First prize winner: Siddharth
At the outset, eminent speakers were welcomed &
felicitated by BES office bearers.
Shri Ashish Bhatnagar, Chairman, BES Pune Chapter
welcomed the panel of expert. Shri Bhatnagar, while
setting the ball rolling, stressed the importance of public
service broadcasting, and requested the panellists to
express their views /experiences/ expectations freely.
Ms Subhekshna Murudkar from Furgusson college,
Pune, the Second prize winner of essay competition,
expressed her views on Public Service broadcasting.
Thereafter Mr Siddharth Naik from Modern College,
Pune, the First prize winner of essay competition,
shared his views on AIR & Doordarshan programming
66
October'14 - December’14
Scientist/ activist, discussed how AIR is playing an
important role in addressing
the issues of most
deprived sections of the society viz. women, children,
elderly persons, rural population, farmers, tribal's etc.
Padmashri Shri Niranjan Pandya– Managing Director
H V Desai Hospital, Pune, while expressing the 'Radio'
as very disciplined media, also said that the radio is the
best friend of persons blindness problems & other
physical disabilities. He said that, “some of the AIR
programmes are so popular that the people understand
the timings of the day, by simply listening the radio
programmes”. He also said that in order to prevent
loneliness of blind /physically challenged persons, radio
listening is suggested as the therapy.
& attributed the 'cultural discipline' as an important
strength of India's Public Service Broadcaster. He also
compared the PSB's in other countries & favoured to
carryout SWOT analysis of India's PSB Prasar Bharati.
The panel discussion & Q/A session in which large no
students & faculties interacted with experts on the dais
was vividly moderated by Shri Ashish Bhatnagar,
Chairman BES(I) Pune Chapter. He also clarified
certain aspects of the present Govt. policies on
broadcasting
The programme ended with vote of
thanks.
Shri Nagraj Munjale, a noted Marathi feature film
Director (Fandry – A national Award winner), shared
his experience of Radio listening on how he & his family
members used to eagerly wait for programmes like Bina
ki Geet Mala etc, felt connected with the songs & how
he used to watch feature films on TV at his native place
with lot of jugglery with antenna/speakers . He further
elaborated that even today in presence of large number
of private TV / radio channels, if people wants reliable &
authentic news, AIR & Doordarshan channels are the
first choice. He also explained his association with radio
during early days of his carrier as Marathi Poet. Shri
Ashok Jadhav, Representative of Industry Employees,
shared his love for radio like- listening cricket
commentary & how he developed friendship with
renown Pakistani wrestler because of radio, how he
selected his job as the 'hoist operator' to pursue his
hobby of radio listening. He also expected that the AIR
Pune primary channel programmes should be available
on local FM channel. Smt Manisha Gupte, Social
At the beginning of the programme, the presentation on
BES activities, audio clip on historical landmarks of
AIR Pune programmes, video clip on Doordarshan Pune
Programme activities were presented to the audience.
The programme was attended by about 120
participants(students/faculties) from various colleges/
Institutes viz. Fergusson College, Ranade Institute,
Gokhale Institute, Modern College, AISSM's COE,
Pune University, MKSSS's SMART Institute etc., AIR
& DD Prog/Engg. Staff members, BES Members.
The meticulous & excellent planning of the programme
by hard working team led by Mrs. Sangeeta Upadhye,
Event Coordinator, EC member BES & AD(E) AIR Pune
under the overall guidance of Shri Ashish Bhatnagar,
Chairman BES Pune Chapter & DDG(E), AIR Pune
made the programme, a big success!
67
October'14 - December’14
REPORT
Hyderabad Chapter
Er. Nuli Namassivaya
Seminar on “Advances in Digital Broadcasting”
changeover to digital of all Broadcast services in the
country, except terrestrial broadcasting. Easy
availability of digital receiving sets at affordable cost is
the key to the success of digital broadcasting and thus it
has become an “egg and chicken' problem, he said.
The technical sessions that followed were chaired by Sri
SLK Prasada Rao, Chief Engineer, ETV, Sri Y.
Venkateswarlu, former CEO, SAPNET and Dr. Neeraj
Upadhay, Principal, JBIET, Hyderabad.
In his paper on “Social Media in Broadcasting”, Sri
Devesh Kumar, Dy. Engineer, National Academy of
Broadcasting & Multimedia, Delhi gave a lucid account
on the historical evolution of Media, the latest being the
social media which, he said, brought about the biggest
shift since the Industrial revolution. Emphasising that
the social media are not a threat to broadcast media, he
said that there is a symbiotic relationship between the
two despite their opposite characteristics. Social media
are enabling the broadcast media to connect with their
audiences – particularly the youth – in a more effective
manner.
The BES, Hyderabad chapter conducted their annual
one-day seminar on 14th Dec 2014 at Hotel Tourism
Plaza on the theme “Advances in Digital Broadcasting”.
Sri K. jayachandra, IPS, former DGP, Govt of AP was
the Chief Guest, while Sri O.K. Sharma, President, BES
delivered the keynote address. Sri Nori Venkateswarlu,
retired Chief Engineer of AIR&DD, was the Guest of
honour and was felicitated on the occasion. Around 100
delegates from different stations of AIR, DD and private
channels participated.
Ms. Meenakshi Sanghvi, Dy Director (E) at AIR,
Vadodara, in her paper “FM combiners” gave a
systematic account of the technical features of different
Sri K. Jayachandra, in his inaugural speech, quoted a
recent World Bank study which came out with the
finding that the development of a nation is largely
influenced by advances in the telecommunications
field. Digitisation of telecommunications –
Broadcasting included – has been progressing at a rapid
pace in the world over, with an all round impact on the
services.
In his keynote address Shri O.K. Sharma explained at
length the rationale behind digitisation of Broadcasting,
including the road map of All India Radio and
Doordarshan. He stated that DRM technology is being
adopted for digitisation of radio broadcasting, while all
satellite transmissions are already fully digitized. March
2017 has been decided as the deadline for full
68
October'14 - December’14
FM combiners and their indispensable need while
installing multiple FM transmitters at a single location
through a common tower, feeder line and antenna
system.
for the human body exposure. He, however, enumerated
some precautions to be observed while handling the
mobile phone sets. He also opined that curtailing the
member of service providers for a given cell zone and
limiting the maximum radiated power will further
improve the radiation environment and wil make it still
safer, while at the same time improving spectral
efficiency.
Sri NV Ramana, Director (E), DDK, Hyderabad spoke
on “High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC)”, also
known as H.265. Increasing video resolution and
supporting parallel processing are the twin concerns of
the new compression format and he explained how both
these concerns are addressed by this format which will
come into use by year 2015.
In a refreshingly different talk on 'Who am I – How to
get Bliss in old age', Swamy Purnabodhananda of
Ramakrishna Mutt, Hyderabad dealt with higher goals
of life and how they can be realized. Meditation, a sense
of detachment and Karma yoga will go a longway in
obviating daily stress and in ensuring lasting bliss, he
said.
'Big data and Broadcasting', is the paper presented by Dr
Neeraj Upadhay, Principal, JBIET, Hyderabad. Stating
that Broadcasting in a 'social business', he explained
how software giants like IBM, Microsoft, Kognito,
Oracle, Cloudena and some others are serving the
Broadcast industry through 'Big data' : provision of
return channel, instant audience feed back as well as
audience – directed programming.
Dr. V. Rama Rao, CTO, SV Bhakti Channel summed up
the proceedings of the seminar at the end. Sri MBS
Purushotham, Chairman, BES, Hyderabad chapter gave
the welcome address, while Sri Nuli Namassivaya,
Secretary and Sri RJ Rao, Treasurer, proposed a vote of
thanks.
Sri Ravi Sankar, AGM, BSNL, spoke on 'Spectrum
Issues and Management'. Saying that the radiation
hazards of cellular signals and broadcast signals are an
unfounded myth, he clarified that both these services are
'instances of non-ionising radiation and therefore safe
A souvenir containing the papers presented at the
seminar was also released on the occasion.
69
October'14 - December’14
REPORT
Thanjavur Chapter
A. Chitra
A Seminar on “media Assets Management”
Broadcast Engineering Society (India) Thanjavur
Chapter in Co-Ordination with Periyar Maniyammai
University conducted a seminar on “MEDIA ASSETS
MANAGEMENT” at the University campus Vallam,
Tanjore on16/10/2014. The seminar was inaugurated
by Mrs.A.Chitra, Chairperson, BES(I)Thanjavur
Chapter. Smt. G.Gandhimathi, HOD/ECE Department
welcomed the gathering. Many Engineering officials
from All India Radio and Doordarshan ,Faculty of
Periyar Maniammai University and students attended
the seminar. Dr.M.Thavamani, Pro Vice-Chancellor of
Periayar Maniammai University presided over the
function. She spoke about the importance of
Community Radio in uplifting the life's of the villages
especially the women, also informed that the first
community Radio was started by two women in a
remote village of Andhra Pradesh after struggling to get
the licence over a decade.
Management. The arrangements for the seminar was coordinated by BES(I)., Thanjavur Chapter Secretary
Mr.S.Periandavar., and Treasurer Mr.G.Muthukrishnan.
Mrs.L.Jayanthi Kesavan Asst.Professor/ ECE
Department delivered the vote of thanks. The seminar
was ended with the National Anthem and then with High
Tea.
The lecture was delivered by Sri.S.Muthusamy, Deputy
Director General, ADG Office of All India Radio and
Doordarshan, Chennai. He elaborated about the various
methodologies and techniques to archive the vast
treasure of recordings available with both All India
Radio and Doordarshan. He cleared the doubts raised
by the students about various video formats and the
latest developments in the field of Media Asset
Public Service Broadcasting Day Celebration
Broadcast Engineering Society, Thanjavur Chapter and
All India Radio Thiruchirappalli observed “Public
Broad casting Day” on 12th November 2014 at All India
Radio premises.
Smt. A. Chitra, Chairperson, Broadcast Engineering
Society, Thanjavur Chapter inaugurated the function
70
October'14 - December’14
and lighting the lamp also spoke the importance of
public broad casting day, at the time of independence
1947 our father of the Nation Mahatma Gandhiji
addressed over radio to the people who were in the
refugee camp at Kurukeshtra on November 12th, also
highlighted the service rendered by both AIR and
Doordarshan.
Former Station Director(Retd), Shri.T.Ganesan and
Dr.M.Vijaya Sundari Assistant Professor, UDC, Trichy
who were the chief guests elaborated about the
entertainment and benefits in all the fields for the
people. The function was attended well by staff of All
India Radio, Doordarshan and BES (I) Thanjavur
c h a p t e r . Vo t e o f T h a n k s g i v e n b y
Shri.G.MuthuKrishnan, Treasurer BES(I) Thanjavur.
The function ended with National Anthem and High tea.
Smt.M.Vasuki,DDG(E),AIR,Thiruchirappalli,
Smt.Jothimani Ellangovan spoke on the occasion.
Jawhar Sircar CEO PB elected ABU Vice President
Shri Jawhar Sircar, CEO, Prasar Bharati, India has been
elected as Vice President of Asia Pacific Broadcasting Union,
unopposed at it's General Assembly held at Macau in October
2014. It's a great honour for our India, it's public service
broadcaster and Sh. Jawhar Sircar. Doordarshan has also
been re-elected as technical bureau member and AIR to ABU
Administrative Council unanimously
Broadcast Engineering Society (India) congratulates Sh.
Jawhar Sircar for this rare achievement and applauds the
efforts of the Prasar Bharati team who has worked hard to
make this a reality.
71
October'14 - December’14
REPORT
Mumbai Chapter
S. C. Khasgiwal
• Pilot Deployment of entire Multilingual DVB
Subtitle Solution in four metro Kendra's of
Doordarshan aided by DeitY
• This will allow the viewers to select the subtitle
language of their choice with the click of remote.
• Facilitate Local Alerts, Emergency Messages etc.
• Multilingual Subtitles and Captions helps address
the viewers with diverse linguistic backgrounds and
also those with hearing impairments.
Next Generation Viewing Experience: Key Points
• Second Screen or Companion Screen (consumers
moving away from time-boxed viewing, they are
moving away from the box itself)
• Full Web and Social Networking experience on TV
• Stop and start programs on one TV or device and pick
up where they left off on another.
• Connect your tablet to a hotel TV
• More relevant and engaging advertising.
(Advertising becomes useful, rather than annoying.)
• HTTP Adaptive Streaming
• Media Sharing Using DLNA : Share and Play
content across home network
Broadcast Engineering Society (India) Mumbai
Chapter organised a seminar on “Web & TV-New
Dimensions & Standards”on 14th Nov., 2014 in the
Conference hall of Doordarshan Kendra, Mumbai.
The main speaker was Shri M.D.Kulkarni, Associate
Director & HoD, C-DAC, Pune supported by Shri
Sudesh Mudaliar Jt. Director, C-DAC, Pune.
The Chairman of Mumbai Chapter & National
Chairman of New Member Induction Committee at
BES (I), New Delhi Shri S.C.Khasgiwal Rtd. ADG(Ewz) welcomed the invited guests and the BES members
attending the seminar. He expressed that while the
Digital Wave has started shaking the traditional
structures of broadcasting industry, the future will bring
in more revolutionary changes with many new services
on the horizon, including the multiplatform delivery to
multiple devices. The guest of honours were Shri
S.K.Arora ADG(E-wz) AIR Maintenance and Shri
B.Yadav ADG(E-wz) TV Maintenance. The occasion
was graced by Shri S.R.Aggarwal Formerly E in C, AIR
& Secretary General of IETE; Shri Sudhir Sodhia
DDG(E) AIR; Shri
Satyajit
Das DDG(E)
Doordarshan, Mumbai; Corporate Members from the
Industries, large number of BES Members and many
AIR & DD officials. The gist of the presentation by Shri
M.D.Kulkarni Associate Director of C-DAC was as
under:
Over The Top Technology (OTT)
• As content becomes more digitized and use of
connected devices becomes the norm, the rise in
demand for TV everywhere is becoming more
dominant and relevant than ever.
• OTT technology will dominate in coming years
Pilot Deployment of Multilingual Subtitling System
on DTT at Metro Kendras
• Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata, Chennai
72
October'14 - December’14
interactivity on Gyandarshan Educational Broadcasts
and provides the learner viewer with enriched and
immersive learning experience. The initial
requirements of this application are taken from EM2RC,
Pune. It enables the learner viewer to take the lecture
notes, participate in quiz and access to supplementary
information about the programme. With further
enhancements it can also facilitate text chat based
Learner-Mentor interaction during the live sessions of
the programme with the help of return channels.
The application currently supports 10 Indian Languages
namely Hindi, English, Bengali, Gujarati, Kannada,
Malayalam, Marathi, Punjabi, Tamil and Telugu. It is
tested on Videocon set-top-boxes under lab simulation
environment. These set-top-boxes are capable of
receiving DD Direct+ DTH FTA service on which
Gyandarshan channels are available.
World Wide Web (W3C) Consortium
The W3C has its presence in all countries and is hosted
by four nationals globally
4 host locations and 19 offices
• MIT (USA), Keio (Japan). ERCIM (France),
Beihang (China)
Interaction over Return Channel
Enrich viewer's experience through interactivity and
participation using return channel.
400 Members from 45 countries; Many Industries and
Governments including BRIC countries.
T-Governance: Multilingual Interactive TV service
for Farmers
W3C Web and TV Interest Group
Established in February 2011, the aim is to provide a
forum for Web and TV technical discussions, Web and
TV Interest Group, to review existing work, as well as
the relationship between services on the Web and TV
services, and to identify requirements and potential
solutions to ensure that the Web will function well with
TV.
This service can help enable interactivity on Krishi
Darshan programmes and disseminate latest market
prices and Govt. schemes in local languages thus
creating an alternate information channel for viewers.
Synergizing Doordarshan & C-DAC activities
• Participation in W3C Standardization activities
(W3C, HbbTV and Other SDO's)
• Indian language compliant - Set-top-box..
Middleware, Language Stacks, EPG & other
component development.
• Advance Digital TV Services -Concept to
transmission.
• Set-top-Box Certification
• T-learning, T-Governance and allied areas.
• Localisation guidelines and standards
• Joint project on assisted living.
Open IPTV Forum (OIPF)
• The Open IPTV Forum (OIPF) is a non-profit
consortium and standards organization. (Japan)
• It is focused on generating free of charge
specifications for end-to-end IPTV services.
• The HbbTV standard, which has been adopted by
many broadcasters across Europe, is based on the
specifications created by the Open IPTV Forum.
Hbb TV
• Hybrid Broadcast Broadband TV or “HbbTV”, is a
major new pan-European initiative aimed at
harmonising the broadcast and broadband delivery
of entertainment to the end consumer through
connected TVs and set-top boxes.
Live demonstration was done by Shri Subhanshu
G u p t a , Te c h n i c a l O f f i c e r, C - D A C , P u n e
on interactivity on T-learing & T-Governance. The
Lectures & Demo were followed by Q & A session. The
Anchoring was conducted by Shri Pradeep Sharma
Hon. Secretary of BES(I) Mumbai Chapter and also
presented the Vote of Thanks.
T-Learning: The sample interactive application
The application demonstrated here intends to enable
73
October'14 - December’14
Corporate Members
Mem. No. Name
Address
1.
LCM-01
M/s AKG Acoustics (India) Ltd.
Kamal Cinema Building, Safdarjung Enclave, New Delhi-110029
2.
LCM-02
M/s Telematics Systems Ltd.
Mount Poonamallee Road, Nandambakkam, Chennai- 600 089
3.
LCM-03
M/s Electronics Corpn.of Tamilnadu Ltd. LLA Buildings, 735, Anna Salai, Chennai- 600 002
4.
LCM-04
M/s Hinditron Tektronix Inst.Ltd.
No.5, Crescent Road, High Grounds, Bangalore - 560 001
5.
LCM-05
M/s Rohde & Schwarz
Liaison Office India, 244, Okhla Industrial Estate, Phase-III,
New Delhi - 110 020
6.
LCM-06
M/s Maharashtra Elects.Corpn.Ltd.
D-26, South Extension, Part-I, New Delhi-110049
7.
LCM-07
M/s Asea Brown Boveri Ltd.
Gurunanak Foundation Building, 15-16, Qutab Institutional
Area, New Delhi - 110 067
8.
CM-09
M/s Acoustics Engineers
'VASANT' 1286 A, Shivajinagar, Opp.Balgandharava
Rangmandir, Pune - 411 005
9.
LCM-10
M/s Gujarat Commns. & Elect.Ltd.
G.I.D.C Industrial Estate, Makarpura, Vadodara - 390 010
10. LCM-15
M/s Comcon Industries
S-54, Functional Industrial, Estate for Electronics, Okhla PhaseII, New Delhi - 110 020
11. LCM-19
M/s Satcom Electronics (P) Ltd.
33, B.R.B. Bose Road, 2nd Floor, Calcutta-700001
12. LCM-21
M/s Army Headquarter Signal Regiment, 1, Army Headquarter, Signal Regiment, Signals Enclave, New
Delhi-110010
13. LCM-35
M/s Benchmark Microsystems Pvt. Ltd.
No.140,Greater Kailash-I, New Delhi-110048
14. CM-36
M/s Bharat Electronics Ltd
Jalahalli, Bangalore-560013
15. CM-25
M/s Visual Tech. India PVT.LTD.
A-1, First floor, lajpat Nagar-II, New Delhi-110024.
16. LCM-08
M/s Webel Mediatronics Ltd.
P-1, Taratala Road, Calcutta - 700 088
17. LCM-11
M/s Hindustan Photo Films Co.Ltd.
Indu Nagar, Ooty, Tamilnadu-643006.
18. LCM-14
M/s Broadcast Equipments(I) P.Ltd.
370-371/2, First Floor, Hospital Road, Jangpura, New Delhi-14
19. LCM-16
M/s R & S Electronics
A-1-24, Ghanshyam Ind. Estate, Veera Desai Road, Andheri
(West), Mumbai-400053
20. LCM-17
M/s Swati Industries
Z-40, Okhala Industrial Area, Phase-II, New Delhi-110020
21. LCM-20
M/s Elect. Corpn. of India Ltd.
ECIL Post, Hyderabad-500062
22. LCM-23
M/s BECIL
B-1, Sector 31, Noida-201301
23. LCM-24
M/s AVF Distributors (I) PVT. LTD.
208 and 12 jagani Ind. Comp., Near ATI, Chunabhatti, Mumbai400022.
24. LCM-26
M/s Cinecita Comoptronics Ind. Pvt. Ltd Parijat House 3rd floor, 1076, off. pr. E. moses Road, Worli,
Mumbai-400018
25. LCM-27
M/s Studio Systems
Sangeeta Aptts. Bldg. 6-C,Flat No. 5. Ground Floor, Behind Lido
Cinema, Juhu Road, Mumbai-400049
26. LCM-28
M/s Canara Lighting Industries Ltd.
Bata Compound Khopet, Pokhran Road No. 1, Thane-400601
27. LCM-29
M/s AGIV (India) Pvt. Ltd.
SION Chunabhatti Road, Mumbai-400022
74
October'14 - December’14
Corporate Members
Mem. No. Name
Address
28. LCM-30
M/s Doordarshan
Doordarshan Bhavan, Copernicus Marg, New Delhi-110001
29. LCM-31
M/s Silicon Graphics Systems (I)(P)Ltd.
228 Udog Vihar Phase-1, Gurgaon
30. LCM-32
M/s Essel Shyam Communication Ltd
FC-20, Sector 16 A, Noida-201301
31. LCM-33
M/s All India Radio
Directorate General, Akashvani Bhavan, Sansad Marg, New
Delhi-1
32. LCM-34
M/s The IEI Delhi State Centre
Engineers Bhavan, Bahadur Shar Zafar Marg, New Delhi-2
33. LCM-37
M/s Trans World Radio- South Asia
L-15, Green Park, New Delhi-110016
34. LCM-38
M/s Kathrein India Pvt. Ltd.
4-B-4. Industry Manor, 3rd Floor, A.S.M. Marg, Prabha Devi,
Mumbai-25.
35. LCM-39
M/s Arraycom (India) Limited
B-13, 13/1 & 14, GIDC, Electronics Estate, Sector 25,
Gandhinagar, Gujarat
36. LCM-40
M/s Sun Broadcast Equipments Pvt. Ltd. 3/31, 3rd Floor, West Patel Nagar, New Delhi-110008
37. LCM-41
M/s Diksaat Transworld Ltd.
No. 12, Balia Avenue, Luz Mylapore, Chennai-600004
38. LCM-42
M/s Qualcomm India Pvt. Ltd.
3rd Floor, DLF Centre, Sansad Marg, New Delhi-110001
39. LCM-43
M/s. Monarch Computers Pvt. Ltd.
Monarch House, Royal Palms, Aarey Milk Colony, Goregaon (E)
Mumbai-400065
40. LCM-44
M/s. Setron India Private Limited
E-2 Greater Kailash Enclave-1 New Delhi-110048
41. LCM-45
M/s. Global Institute of Technology
Sitapur Jaipur-302022
42. LCM-46
M/s. Institute of Management Studies
A-8B IMS Campus Sector-62 Noida Uttar Pradesh-201303
43. LCM-47
M/s. A. V. Institute of Technology
Vinayaka Mission University OMR, Vinayaka Nagar, Paiyanoor
Tamilnadu-603104
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BES REVIEW, being the only journal in India totally dedicated to Broadcasting, invites
advertisement for publication from the industries serving the broadcast media. The charges are as
given below :
1. Back Cover
Colour
Rs. 15000/-
per issue
2. Inside Back/Front Covers
Colour
Rs. 12,000/-
per issue
3. Inside full page
Colour
Rs. 11,000/-
per issue
The charges are for only one issue and the advertiser(s) must send positive of the advertisements along
with requisit fee by Cheque/D.D. drawn in favour of Broadcast Engineering Society (India), payable at
New Delhi to Hon. Secretary, Broadcast Engineering Society (India) 912, Surya Kiran
Building, 19, K.G. Marg, New Delhi-110001
75
October'14 - December’14
Obituary
Sad demise of BES Life Fellow former eminent AIR Engineer,
Prof. Dr. P J Joglekar
Prof. Dr. P. J . Joglekar of Thane, Mumbai expired on 26th Nov. ,2014 , morning ; after
prolonged illness of about last eight months.
Prof. Joglekar was born on 15th Jan. ,1935 , studied Telecom Engg . in CoEP ,Pune and
did his Ph. D at IISC , Banglore. Shri Joglekar had served as UPSC recruit Technical
Assistant at mall Road Transmitters of AIR in 1957 and in Research Department of
AIR from 1957 to 1960. Later he moved to IIT, Delhi and then to College of Engg. ,
Tiruchirapalli and later did freelance work -- teaching, consultancy & writings in English
and Marathi in the field of Telecom . He was actively associated with IETE Hqs [ exCouncil Member ] and its Mumbai / Pune Centres , Institution of Engrs. ,Pune and the
Broadcast Engg. Society etc. He was widely known in the Telecom / Broadcasting
fraternity , which has suffered a significant loss due to his death.
In his reminiscences published in BES Review ( December 2013), Dr. Joglekar candidly
admits that his days in Akashvani gave very valuable practical experience, which helped
him immensely in his future career. Above all they gave him great friends from all states
and helped in developing a National Outlook.
Broadcast Engineering Society(India) deeply mourns the sad demise of Prof.
Dr. P. J . Joglekar and prays for the peace of the departed soul.
76
April'14 - September’14
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