PDF format - Karen`s Bridge Library

PDF format - Karen`s Bridge Library
Discover the Fun & Challenge of Duplicate Bridge
by Karen Walker, Champaign IL
Like any game, bridge is more fun if you play it well. Over 160,000 North American bridge
players have found that duplicate bridge is one of the best ways to improve their skills and
enjoy playing their favorite game. These people compete in daily and weekly duplicate
games -- some just for novices and newcomers -- held in virtually every city (and many
small towns) in the U.S., Canada and other countries. Almost all of these club games are
open to anyone who knows how to play beginning bridge.
What's different?
Duplicate bridge is not really a different form of the game than you've already learned. You still play "regular"
bridge, but the final score on each hand is determined by a comparison method (called matchpoints) instead of
just total points.
It's called duplicate because each hand you play will be played at several other tables during the session, under
the same conditions. Unlike rubber bridge, which depends heavily on being dealt good hands to win, your final
score at duplicate depends only on how well you bid and play the cards you actually hold, not on how "good"
those cards are.
You can play in a duplicate game without knowing anything about matchpoint scoring. As you become more
experienced, though, you'll probably want to adopt some strategies that cater to this form of scoring. Later in this
brochure, you'll find some tips on how to make "duplicate-style" bidding and play decisions that will improve
your matchpoint scores.
Are you good enough to play?
If you know the basics of bridge bidding and can play at a reasonable pace, you can play duplicate.
The most common misconception about duplicate is that you have to be an experienced player or even an
"expert" to enter the games. In fact, playing duplicate bridge is one of the best ways to become a better player.
The setup of a duplicate game gives you the opportunity to play against a wide variety of pairs -- from experts to
bare beginners -- and to compare your bidding and play with theirs. Your mistakes (and your triumphs) will be
clearer because you'll see how several other players bid and played the same cards you held. And because you
have the chance to earn a top score on every hand (even if you hold a "Yarborough" with no honor cards), you'll
be paying full attention to every trick!
This brochure will introduce you to duplicate game movements, scoring and strategies, but there's really no need
to study before you play. The best way to enjoy duplicate is to just jump in and play in the games.
How a Duplicate Game Works
How a Duplicate Game Works
When you enter a pairs duplicate game, you and your partner will be assigned a table number
and a direction (North-South or East-West). Each table will have a large card in the center that
designates the table number and which seats North-South (NS) and East-West (EW) should
take. You'll also be given a pair number, which is usually the same as your starting table
In most movements of 7 tables or more, each NS pair stays at their starting table for the whole
session. If you're seated NS, you'll play a round of 2 to 4 hands (also called boards) against the
EW pair who starts there, then a new pair and new boards will come to your table for the next round. If you're
EW, you'll move to a new table after every round to play new pairs and boards.
Games of 6 or fewer tables usually use a scrambled movement where all pairs change tables and directions after
every round. The table cards will give you instructions about where to move for each new round.
The number of hands you play in a duplicate session will vary. You may play as few as 12-15 boards or as many
as 28 (most clubs run sessions of 24-28 boards) and you'll play against from 5 to 13 other pairs. You don't need
any special knowledge of how the game movement works. The director will handle the movement of pairs and
boards, so all you have to do is play the people and the hands that come to your table.
Duplicate boards
Each hand you play will come to your table in a duplicate "board" -- a plastic or
metal tray with a deck of cards already separated into the four hands. The board is
designed to keep each 13-card hand separate so other pairs can play the exact
same deal later in the session.
For the first round, you may receive pre-dealt boards that are ready to play. If not, you'll shuffle and deal the
cards and place each hand into one of the four pockets in the board. This is the only time during the session that
hands are shuffled.
All the boards for the round are stacked in the center of the table to match the directions on the table card.
In duplicate scoring, each hand stands alone. Partscores and vulnerability do not carry over to the next deal.
Instead, each board has imprints that tell you the conditions for that hand only -- who the dealer is and whether
each side is vulnerable. The NSEW directions are also marked on the board so you know which hand to take.
Bidding boxes
Many clubs and most tournaments use bidding boxes, which allow you to make your bids
with printed cards. Each table has four boxes, one for each player. The back section of
the box has a tiered stack of 35 bidding cards -- one for each of the 35 possible bids (1C
through 7NT). The front section contains several Pass cards (green), Double cards (red
X) and Redouble cards (dark-blue XX). The box also has a few special cards to be used
when you make jump bids (the red "Stop" card) or alertable calls (the light-blue "A"
Instead of saying your bid (or pass) out loud, you take the appropriate card (and all the cards behind it) from
your box and place it on the table in front of you. If you want to open 1NT, for example, place your thumb on
the tabbed 1NT card and pull it and all the cards behind it out of the box. You'll have a stack of five cards labeled
1C through 1NT, with the 1NT card on top. As you make subsequent bids, place the new stacks of cards on top
of those you've already used, overlapping them so everyone can see all your previous bids.
When the auction is over and you're ready to begin play, return all the bidding cards to the back of the box
(they'll already be in proper order). If you've used the smaller Pass, Double and Redouble cards, place them in
the front of the box.
Players like bidding boxes because everyone at the table can always see all the bids made in the auction. In
addition to helping hearing-impaired players, this method also saves time, reduces noise and prevents you from
"mis-hearing" a bid. Learning to use the bidding boxes is easy and takes just a minute or two. If your local club
has bidding boxes, the director or another player will show you how to use them.
The play
The bidding starts with the hand marked Dealer and progresses normally. Once play begins, though, all four
players must keep their original hands intact so other pairs can play the exact same deal later.
To keep your cards together and separate, play to each trick by placing your card face up in front of you instead
of in the middle of the table. When the trick is complete, turn your played card face-down (still in front of you).
If your side won the trick, place the card vertically (pointing toward you and partner). If you lost the trick, turn
the card horizontally (pointing toward your opponents), overlapping cards as you finish tricks. This allows you
to see how many tricks each side has won at any point in the play.
Although dummy doesn't make decisions during the play, he is responsible for handling his own cards and
keeping track of the tricks won and lost. When you're declarer, you don't need to reach across the table to play
from dummy. Just tell partner (dummy) which card you want to play to each trick ("small spade" or "play the
ace", for example) and he'll detach the card for you.
All four players' played cards stay face-down in front of them, lined up so everyone can always see how many
tricks each side has won. When the play is complete and both sides agree on the score, count your cards (to be
sure none got mixed in with another hand) and put your original hand back into the proper pocket on the board.
The game director
The director sells entries, makes coffee, sets up the movement, scores the game and handles dozens of other jobs
involved in running a duplicate game. The director will help you score, fill out a convention card and read the
final tallies. Most will even answer your questions about bridge bidding and play.
The director is also there to make sure the game is fair for everyone. If something unusual occurs at your table -a rule violation, a hand with only 12 cards, an incorrect score on a traveler, anything -- you should call the
director to handle it. He uses a rule book to make standardized adjustments for irregularities in the bidding or
play (a revoke or a bid out of turn, for example).
How a Duplicate Game is Scored
Scoring each deal
Since each deal is scored separately, duplicate gives no rubber bonus. Instead, you score an immediate bonus for
each contract made, whether it's a partscore, game or slam. The bonuses are:
For all partscores: Trick score + 50 points
Non-vulnerable games: Trick score + 300 points
Vulnerable games: Trick score + 500 points
Penalties are the same as rubber scoring. Duplicate does not award points for holding honors.
The score for a 3D contract that makes exactly 3 would be +110 -- 60 for the trick score (3 x 20) plus 50 points
for making a partscore. A vulnerable 4H game that makes an overtrick would be +650 -- 150 for the trick score
(30 x 5) plus the 500-point game bonus.
Another difference is that a pass-out deal is not redealt, even if you're the first table to play the hand. The score
is recorded as 0 for NS and EW.
You don't need to memorize the scores or even know how to figure them. Instead, you can refer to a printed
scoring table that will be available at your club, or you can ask your opponents to score for you. If your club uses
bidding boxes, you'll find all the scores for each contract on the back of the corresponding bidding card. A table
of scores for all contracts is here: http://cdn.baronbarclay.com/downloads/Info/AAG.pdf
The player sitting North records the score for each deal. Many tournaments and clubs use
wireless tabletop scorepads (photo at right) that transmit the contract and result to a
computer. Other clubs use paper pickup slips, which are collected after each round.
Another method is traveling scoreslips, one for each board, which is folded and put back
into the board with the cards. When the board is played by other pairs, they'll enter their
scores on the same traveling score. In later rounds, you'll be able to see the results from
other tables and compare your scores with theirs.
Here's an example of a completed traveler from a 7-table game. If your club uses wireless scorepads, the
printout of each table's results will be similar to this format.
| Match |
|NS#| Contract| BY|Made|Down| NS + | EW + |EW#| points|
| 1 | 4H
| S | 5 |
| 450 |
| 1 | 6
| 2 | 4H
| S | 4 |
| 420 |
| 3 | 4 1/2 |
| 3 | 4H
| S | 4 |
| 420 |
| 5 | 4 1/2 |
| 4 | 3NT
| N |
| 2 |
| 100 | 7 | 0
| 5 | 3NT
| N | 3 |
| 400 |
| 2 | 3
| 6 | 4S DBL | E |
| 2 | 300 |
| 4 | 2
| 7 | 3H
| S | 4 |
| 170 |
| 6 | 1
Each of the 7 North players filled in the contract, declarer, number of tricks made or down, the score and the
pair number of their EW opponents. The last column shows the N-S matchpoint score, which the director (or the
club computer) figures after the game.
North scores on the line number that matches his pair number. He fills in the East-West pair number in another
column on the right. If North-South earns a plus score, the result is recorded in the NS+ column. If East-West
gets the plus score, it's placed in the EW+ column.
The last column has each NS pair's matchpoint score for this board. This score, which shows the number of
pairs you beat, is figured by the computer (or manually by the director) after all scores are in.
If you'd like to learn more about how matchpoints are figured, see "How to Matchpoint" on the Baron-Barclay
site: http://cdn.baronbarclay.com/downloads/Info/bulletin7.pdf
Tallying the final game scores
At the end of the game, the scores on the travelers are used to determine each pair's matchpoint score. On each
hand, you receive 1 matchpoint for every pair you beat and 1/2 matchpoint for every pair you tie. If a board is
played 7 times, the top score is 6 -- 1 matchpoint for beating each of the other 6 pairs who played the hand -- and
average is 3.
Your result on each hand is compared only with the pairs who held the same cards and sat the same direction
(NS or EW) you did. On the traveler above, if you were NS #1, your +450 (for 4H making 5) would earn you a
top score of 6 because it beat all six of the other NS scores. Your opponents on this hand (EW #1), scored 0
because all other EW pairs did better. EW #7 earned the EW top score of 6.
The matchpoints for each board are added up and pairs are ranked by total score. If you play 28 hands in a 7table game, the average total score is 84 (28 hands x 3, the average matchpoint score on each hand). Players call
this average score a "50-percent game". A 60-percent score will usually win; 55 percent will place in the top
three or four.
The director may do all the scoring by hand, but most clubs use computers. The computer takes results from
each table (sent by wireless scorepads or entered by the director from the paper scoreslips) to figure
matchpoints, total scores and rankings of all pairs. The final scores will be available within minutes (or seconds)
after you play the last hand.
All pairs' scores and rankings will be displayed on a large "recap sheet" the director will post after the game. In
most games, there will be separate sheets for NS and EW. Each sheet will list all the pairs that played that
direction, their matchpoint scores and percentages, their ranking in the section, and the number of masterpoints
they won. Below the pair listing will be grid that shows the result and matchpoint score for every hand at every
table. Ask the director or another player for help if you'd like to learn more about how to read the results.
The computer can give you a computer printout of your pair's results and matchpoint scores on each hand. Many
clubs also post the scores -- sometimes with hand diagrams -- on the Internet.
Winners and runners-up in each game are awarded official masterpoints from the American Contract Bridge
League (ACBL). If your club uses a computer and if you're an ACBL member, your club director will send
your points directly to ACBL. A report of points you've won is printed in every issue of the Bridge Bulletin, the
monthly magazine that's mailed to all members.
The Convention Card
Just like the pairs you play at rubber bridge, duplicate pairs vary in their bidding styles and agreements about the
meanings of certain bids. As their opponent, you have a right to know about their special agreements, so each
player fills out a card that summarizes his pair's bidding system.
Filling out this card before the game is a good way for you and partner to discuss your bidding system. The
card's main purpose, though, is to inform your opponents about your agreements.
During the game, you can consult your opponents' convention card (or ask them directly at your turn to bid) if
you have a question about the meanings of any of their bids. The card will tell you about key areas of their
bidding system -- for example, the point range for their opening notrump bids and if they use Weak or Strong
Two-Bids, Negative Doubles and other conventions.
The card contains space for all the possible agreements a pair might have. Beginners who play a simple
Standard American system need to mark only a few boxes. The first time you play, the director or another
player can help you fill out the card, which takes just a few minutes.
Blank convention cards will be available at
your club or you can copy the card here. It's
already filled out for a basic system with
Weak Two-bids, Jacoby Transfers, Jacoby
2NT, limit raises and 15-17 1NT openings.
If you're filling out a blank card, or if you
want to add to the sample card, the main
sections to mark are:
point range is filled in for 1NT, 2NT
and 3NT opening bids. There are also
checkmarks in the boxes for Stayman
(2C response to 1NT) and Jacoby
transfers (2D and 2H).
MAJOR OPENINGS: The marks in
the "5" boxes indicate that you promise
5+ cards for 1H and 1S openings. The
checks in the "Inv" boxes show that a
double raise of opener's suit (1S-3S) is
invitational. The check in the "2NT:
Forcing" box is for the Jacoby 2NT
forcing raise.
MINOR OPENINGS: The "3+" boxes show the minimum length for 1C and 1D opening bids. Mark "Inv"
(invitational) to show that a double raise (1C-3C) is invitational. Below this are the point ranges for
responses of 1NT, 2NT and 3NT to a minor-suit opener.
2C, 2D, 2H, 2S: The card is filled out for Strong 2C openings and Weak Two-bids with the 2NT asking
response. If you play all your two-bids as strong and forcing, mark the "Strong" boxes and add "2NT weak"
for responses.
OTHER CONVENTIONAL CALLS: If you play New Minor Forcing, check the box here. You can use
this space to note any other bidding agreements that aren't covered by other areas of the card.
SPECIAL DOUBLES: Check the "Negative" box if you play negative doubles and indicate how high they
are "on" (common is through the 3S level).
NOTRUMP OVERCALLS: These are point ranges for a direct 1NT overcall and a balancing 1NT in the
pass-out seat (1C-P-P-1NT). If you play Unusual 2NT overcalls, check the "2 Lowest" box.
SIMPLE OVERCALL: This is the point range you promise for a simple (non-jump) suit overcall (usually
around 8-17 points).
JUMP OVERCALL: The "Weak" box shows that your jump overcall (1S on your right, 3C by you) is a
weak preempt (6+-card suit, 5-9 points).
OVER OPPONENT'S TAKEOUT DOUBLE: If partner opens and your RHO makes a takeout double,
your l-level bid of a new suit forces opener to bid again. A 2-level bid does not (it promises a long suit and
5-9 points). Redouble by you shows 10+ points and implies no fit for partner's suit.
DEFENSE VS. 1NT: This describes the meanings of your overcalls after an opponent opens 1NT.
"Natural" means you play no conventional meanings.
OPENING PREEMPTS: Most players mark the "Light" box. If your opening 3-bids routinely show as
many as 10 points, though, mark the "Sound" box.
DIRECT CUEBID: This explains the meaning when you bid the suit your opponent opened (1H on your
right, 2H by you, or 1C-2C). If you play Michaels two-suited overcalls, mark those boxes.
LEADS: Circle the card you would lead from each of the listed examples. The standard lead from each
holding is printed in boldface, so if that card is the one you would lead, you don't need to mark it. At the
bottom, circle "4th Best" to indicate the card you lead from a long suit.
The private score
On the back (inside) of the convention card is space for you to record your score on each hand. This part of
the card is "unofficial" -- it's for your use only, so you can write in anything from the contract and score to a
description of your opponents.
The private score is a handy reminder if you want to discuss the hands with your partner or other players
after the game. Since this part of the card has information on hands your opponents may not have played yet,
be sure to keep your card folded so this part isn't visible to anyone else during the game.
The SAYC convention card (right)
A handy bidding system for new
partnerships is the "Standard American
Yellow Card" (SAYC). This is a 5card major system that includes several
simple, widely played conventions.
They include Jacoby transfers, limit
raises, Jacoby 2NT forcing raise, weak
2-bids, Michaels and negative doubles.
SAYC is one of the most popular
systems used by players in Internet
bridge clubs. If you play online, you
may find it helpful to familiarize
yourself with the SAYC conventions.
The card at right is already filled in
with all the SAYC agreements and
conventions. If your club doesn't have
copies of this card, you can print this
one and use it to discuss a simple
system with your partner.
Matchpoint Tips & Strategies
Matchpoint Tips & Strategies
First and foremost, remember that duplicate is bridge. It
doesn't require you to learn a new bidding system. The only
real change is in how your final result is scored. Your
matchpoint score is based not on how much you beat the
other pairs by, but on how many pairs you beat.
This one difference from rubber bridge can affect a number of
your decisions during the bidding and play. Here are some
tips that will help you adapt your style to matchpoint scoring:
Choose the highest-scoring game.
For game contracts, you should be most anxious to play in a major, willing to play notrump and reluctant to
play in a minor. If you have an 8-card trump fit, it will usually score one trick more than a notrump contract
and therefore more matchpoint, especially if it's a major. Your score for 4H making 4 (+420) will beat the
pairs who play in 3NT making 3 (+400).
In minor suits, though, this one-trick advantage doesn't produce a higher score. 5C making 5 (+400) will
score fewer matchpoints than 3NT making 4 (+430). For this reason, 5C and 5D contracts are somewhat
rare at duplicate. Players will stand on their heads to bid 3NT, even if a minor-suit game might be safer.
Choose the safest partscore.
If you're stopping in a partscore, your first choice should still be the major suit, but your choice between a
minor and notrump isn't as critical. You should almost always play in the major if you have an 8-card fit -2S making 2 (+110) beats 1NT making 1 (+90) or 2C making 2 (+90).
If your partscore decision is between notrump and a minor, though, it may be better to play in the suit
contract if you have a fit, especially if you have bare-minimum points. Getting a plus score is important, so
when you have limited high-card strength, you'll usually want the safety of a trump suit.
Go for the big reward.
Don't settle for a sure contract if you think the odds are good of making a higher-scoring one. Duplicate
players tend to bid more "close" games and slams than you might at rubber bridge, so you may want to be a
little more liberal in your game and slam bidding, too.
At rubber bridge, if you bid a vulnerable 4H and win all 13 tricks, you may be satisfied with bidding your
game and winning the rubber, even if you and your partner had 35 high-card points. At duplicate, though,
this will be a poor matchpoint score. With this much combined strength, most of the other pairs will be
bidding and making 6H or 7H with your cards, and you may earn 0 matchpoints for your 4H contract.
Make more overcalls.
Duplicate players often stretch to compete after an opponent opens, so you may want to liberalize your
rubber-bridge overcall requirements somewhat. If you're not vulnerable and have a decent 5-card suit, feel
free to make a one-level overcall with as few as 8 or 9 points (depending on suit quality).
You'll want to be a little stronger at higher levels, especially if you're vulnerable. Be sure your 2-level
overcalls are very sound (usually a good 6-card suit, or a very strong 5-carder and good high-card strength).
Be more aggressive on partscore deals.
In a duplicate game, even low-level bidding can be quite lively because the players compete more actively
for partscores. If your opponents stop at a low level, you should be more willing to balance and try to bid
your own partscore (especially if you're short in the opponents' suit and you're not vulnerable). If the
opponents can make 2H, your 2S contract may be a winner even if you go set -- your -50 or -100 will beat
the pairs who lost -110 defending 2H with your cards.
If you're vulnerable, though, be more careful about competing with minimum values. Going down 2 (or
down 1 doubled) may be a disaster. Losing 200 points is sure to be worse than the score for letting the
opponents make their partscore.
Sacrifice more often.
Duplicate players are quite willing, even happy, to make sacrifice bids when their opponents are vulnerable
and they are not. At rubber bridge, if you make a non-vulnerable sacrifice over the opponents' vulnerable
game and go down 3 doubled, you lose 500 points. That's better than letting them have their 700-point
rubber bonus, but you've still suffered a sizable loss.
At duplicate, however, this minus score could earn you a top matchpoint score. If all the other pairs who
held your cards allowed their opponents to bid and make their vulnerable game, your score of -500 will beat
their -620's.
Look for overtricks.
A simple overtrick can also make a big difference in your matchpoint score. If other pairs holding your
cards bid 3NT and make exactly 9 tricks, they score +400. If you can make 10 tricks, you'll score +430,
beating all the other pairs and earning a "top".
Unlike in rubber bridge, you may even make a somewhat risky play to try for an extra trick. The search for
the "elusive" overtrick is often the explanation if you see a declarer go set in a game that appeared to have a
sure 9 or 10 tricks.
However, if you think you're already in a high matchpoint-scoring contract, you can play it safe. Suppose
you're declarer in 4S. When dummy comes down, you see you're going to make 10 tricks, but that partner
made a very aggressive bid and you have only 21 high-card points between you. Just making your contract
will probably be a good matchpoint score, since most other pairs won't bid the game with your cards. In this
situation, you'd want to take your 10 sure tricks and not risk your contract trying for 11.
Play with the "field".
If you're confronted with a key decision during the bidding or play, you should rely on your own bridge
judgment, but you may also want to think about the other players holding your cards. Based on what you
know about them, do you think they'll be trying for the overtrick, accepting a game invitation, bidding the
slam? If so, it may be wise to go for a similar result.
Use 15-17 points as the range for your 1NT opening bid.
1NT is one of the most desirable opening bids because it gives such a good description of your hand and
because all the responding bids are so well defined. To increase the number of hands that can be opened
with 1NT, modern players have given up the old 16-18 point range and now use 15-17 for 1NT and 20-22
for a 2NT opener. Some use 15-18 for 1NT, and other pairs use lower ranges.
Using the 15-17 range will put you on more even footing with the rest of the players in your duplicate game.
If you've played 16-18 in the past, you don't need to learn a new bidding system. Just add 1 point to the old
range requirements for responder's bids.
Add other modern bids to your system.
When you're comfortable with the basics, consider adding other bidding tools played by duplicate pairs.
Some of the most popular -- and easiest to learn -- are Weak Two-bids, Jacoby Transfers and two-suited
overcalls (Michaels cuebids and the Unusual 2NT). Among the most valuable are New Minor Forcing and
Negative Doubles. Take care, though, not to overload your brain with too many new toys. Add just one new
bid at a time and practice with it until you feel ready for another challenge.
Duplicate Customs
Local duplicate clubs offer a social, friendly atmosphere, but
the bridge played there is a competition, so the players follow
rules designed to ensure an even playing field. The
"coffeehousing" that is sometimes accepted in a home game is
understandably off-limits at duplicate. Some other customs and
matters of "etiquette" you'll want to follow include:
Keep the play moving.
You're expected to play the boards in a reasonable amount
of time -- about 7-8 minutes per hand (sometimes longer
in novice games). To give yourself maximum time for the
play, try to score quickly and move promptly when a new
round is called.
Limit the "post-mortem" discussions.
Duplicate players enjoy discussing the results after a hand
or (better) after the round is over. During the round, they
try to keep these conversations short (to save time for
playing the remaining boards) and soft. The hand you just finished will be played later at other tables, so it's
important that others in the room not overhear anything that might affect their bidding or play of the hand.
Lead first, write later.
When you're the opening leader, three people at the table are waiting on you to start the play. If you want to
write down the contract in your private scorecard, do so after you've made your lead, while dummy is
putting his cards down and declarer is planning the play.
Make your opening lead face-down.
This gives partner a chance to ask questions if he needs information about the opponents' bidding. It also
keeps you from leading when it isn't your turn. If it wasn't your lead, someone will tell you and you can put
the unseen card back in your hand.
Stay in your seat if you're dummy.
You're actually a participant, so stay at the table to turn the cards for partner. Don't look in his hand until
after the play. If you remain neutral in this way, you're allowed to warn partner if he's revoking or leading
from the wrong hand.
Play your cards in tempo.
Try to play in an even tempo, without hesitations that can give away information about your hand. When
you play to a trick, place your card on the table in front of you. Don't show your satisfaction (or lack of it)
by "snapping" or tossing the card.
Claim early, claim often.
If you're declarer, don't be afraid to "claim" before all the tricks are played out. Just face your hand and state
your line of play -- "I'll pull trumps and run the clubs" or "You get a heart at the end", for example.
Claiming saves time and is a courtesy to your opponents, who will appreciate it if you quickly end a routine
hand where they have no decisions to make.
Make your bids in an even tempo.
Try not to use mannerisms or voice inflections that might convey unauthorized information. Sighs,
grimaces, slow passes and loud doubles aren't appropriate. Neither are extra words in your bids -- "I guess I
have to pass" or "I'll double you" aren't proper bids.
If you have a tough decision to make during the bidding or play, you're entitled to take extra time to think.
Your partner, however, cannot take advantage of the knowledge that you had a problem. He must bid his
hand normally, ignoring any information that might be suggested by your pause for thought. In most cases,
if your partner thinks for a while and then passes, you should pass, too, unless that would be a totally
illogical action with your hand.
For example, suppose you open 3S and your left-hand-opponent bids 4H. Your partner thinks for several
seconds, then passes. No matter what action he was considering, you must make your normal bid of Pass.
Bidding again after making a preempt would be highly unusual, especially since your partner's hesitation
gave you "unauthorized" information that he was considering a bid.
Don't be offended if your opponents call the director after a hesitation, especially if you think a long time
and then pass. The director was not called because you violated a rule -- it's a standard practice that protects
everyone's rights, yours and theirs. The director will affirm that you were entitled to think and he'll remind
your partner that he can't use any inferences suggested by your hesitation. If your partner bids normally,
that's the end of it. If the opponents question his action, they may ask the director to adjust the score.
Make the best use of bidding boxes.
Bidding boxes remove the possibility of voice inflections, but they still require you to be careful about
communicating extra information.
Place bidding cards on the table in the same way you place played cards. Be sure you don't show any
emotion by tossing or slamming the cards.
Decide on your bid before you reach into the box. If you're still thinking when you start touching the bidding
cards, you may inadvertently communicate unauthorized information to partner. If, for example, you start to
pull the 2S card and then change your mind and pull out the Pass card, that may suggest that you have
"almost enough" to bid 2S. This amounts to thinking out loud, and it puts a lot of pressure on partner to
ignore it and bid his hand normally.
As you pull cards from the box, look at the top card of the stack to be sure it's the bid you want to make.
Occasionally, your thumb may slip and you'll pull out a wrong card. If this happens, you're allowed to take
it back -- just say "oops" or the equivalent as soon as you see the wrong card and replace it with the correct
one. Note that this applies only to mechanical errors, not to mental ones. If you intentionally pull out a
bidding card and then change your mind, no matter how quickly, you are not allowed to change your call.
Place your bidding cards on the table in the same way you place your played cards -- overlapping, so
everyone can see all the bids you have made in order. Be sure that you don't communicate any extra
information by tossing or slapping the cards.
Be familiar with the Skip-Bid (Stop) warning.
The bidding box has a red Stop card that's used when you preempt or make any jump bid. It warns the next
player that a higher-than-expected bid is coming and requires him to pause before making his call.
If your opponent makes a jump, wait around 5-10 seconds (no longer) before bidding, whether he used the
Stop card or not.
When you make a jump, place the Stop card on the table first, then your bid card. Leave the Stop card there
for a few seconds, then remove it and place it back in the bidding box. If you aren't using bidding boxes, just
say "Skip bid".
You aren't required to use the Stop card or make the skip-bid announcement when you jump, but it's a good
idea. By using the warning, you can reduce the chances that your opponent will make a fast pass or slow
double that might convey information to his partner.
Use the "Alert" procedure if you play special
If you and your partner use conventions that are not part
of basic Standard American, you must "alert" your
opponents to this fact when one of these bids comes up
during an auction. To do this, the partner of the person
who made the conventional bid says "Alert" and taps the
blue flag on the bidding box as soon as the bid is made.
This tells the opponents that your partner's bid is artificial
or conventional and has a different meaning than they
might expect. The next player to bid can then ask you
about the meaning of your partner's bid.
You probably won't hear many Alerts in a novice game,
and you may not use any bids that require them. Stayman
2C, Weak Two-bids, Unusual Notrumps, Michaels
Cuebids and Negative Doubles are so common that they
are not Alerts. Popular bids that require alerts or
announcements are:
Jacoby 2NT (forcing major-suit raise). All of opener's
rebids after 2NT are also alertable.
Jacoby Transfers (after partner opens 1NT). When
this bid is made, the partner of the bidder announces its meaning by saying "Transfer" (instead of
1NT opening bids. Since different pairs play different point ranges for 1NT, the partner of the 1NT
opener announces the point range ("15 to 17" or "12 to 14", for example).
Forcing 1NT response (used in the 2-over-1 system after partner opens 1H or 1S). This is another
"announceable" bid. To let you know he is forced to bid again, opener will simply say "Forcing" when
his partner responds 1NT.
The list of alertable bids changes from time to time, and beginners aren't expected to be experts on them. If
you're in doubt about whether or how you should alert a bid, just ask the club director or the other players
for help.
Ask questions when it's your turn.
If you want an explanation of an alert or any other call made by your opponents, you're entitled to look at
their convention card and ask for more details. To save time and be courteous, do this only at your turn to
call. If the explanation doesn't affect your bidding decision, wait until the auction is over to ask questions.
Rely on the director's help.
Don't be shy about calling the director. The players should never make their own adjustments for revokes,
leads out of turn, insufficient bids or any other irregularities. The director is there to do it for you, so call if
anything unusual happens.
Have fun and enjoy the social atmosphere.
Duplicate clubs are social groups, too, so greet your opponents when you start the round and, time
permitting, enjoy a conversation with them. You'll find that duplicate players are intelligent (and often
fascinating) people who welcome newcomers. Just by trying duplicate, you have something in common
with every person there, so take advantage of the chance to get to know the players and learn from them.
Most are happy to answer questions and will be flattered if you ask their advice after a hand.
You're ready!
Club and tournament players will tell you that once you
experience the excitement and challenge of duplicate, party
bridge will pale by comparison. The only way to find out
is to try it for yourself.
Duplicate bridge is love at first deal for many rubberbridge players. For others, it's an acquired interest that
takes some time to develop. To find out how much
enjoyment the game can offer, you need to give it a chance
and play several times.
You can play in both the novice and open games at your local club. If you don't have a partner, call the director
and ask to be matched up. If there's a tournament in your area, don't be afraid to give it a try, too. Tournaments
are not just for experts. In fact, almost all tournaments cater to newcomers by offering special novice sections
and point awards.
You probably won't win the first few times you play. And if you're like most new players (remember that
everyone at the game was a once a first-timer), you'll come in last. But as you get to know the people and
become more comfortable with the scoring and play -- and experience the excitement of winning your first
masterpoints -- you'll be glad you kept trying. And you'll probably find your rubber-bridge game improves
dramatically, too!
And finally . . . a quotation to give you inspiration:
"Of all competitive activities, bridge is unique because it offers you the
opportunity to improve by competing against better players. The
amateur golfer can't play a foursome with Nicklaus; the average tennis
player could never hope for a match against Navratilova. But even
novice bridge players can sit down at a tournament and play against experts and world
-- Mike Lawrence, bridge author & world champion
Copyright © Karen Walker
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