MnDOT Research Services FY2012 Annual Report

MnDOT Research Services FY2012 Annual Report
FY2012 Annual Report
July 2011 through June 2012
Minnesota
Department of
Transportation
RESEARCH
SERVICES
Office of
Policy Analysis,
Research &
Innovation
The purpose of this report is to meet the requirements set forth by the Code of Federal Regulations,
Part 420—Planning and Research Program Administration—420.117 2(e):
“Suitable reports that document the results of activities performed with FHWA planning and research funds
must be prepared by the State DOT or subrecipient and submitted for approval by the FHWA Division Administrator prior to
publication. The FHWA Division Administrator may waive this requirement for prior approval. The FHWA’s approval of reports
constitutes acceptance of such reports as evidence of work performed but does not imply endorsement
of a report’s findings or recommendations. Reports prepared for FHWA-funded work must include
appropriate credit references and disclaimer statements.”
To request this document in an alternative format,
please contact the Affirmative Action Office at
651-366-4723 or 1-800-657-3774 (Greater Minnesota),
711 or 1-800-627-3529 (Minnesota Relay).
You may also send an email to [email protected]
(Please request at least one week in advance.)
For more information, please visit:
Minnesota Department of Transportation: www.dot.state.mn.us
MnDOT Research Services: www.dot.state.mn.us/research
MnDOT Library: www.dot.state.mn.us/library
Minnesota Local Road Research Board: www.lrrb.org
www.facebook.com/MnDOTResearch
www.twitter.com/MnDOTResearch
Minnesota Department of Transportation
RESEARCH SERVICES
FY2012 Annual Report
July 2011 through June 2012
Prepared by CTC & Associates LLC and shu shu design
Cover and many interior photos: David Gonzalez, MnDOT
Direction: Linda Taylor
Project management: Sandy McCully
Additional contributions: Nicole Peterson, Sheila Hatchell, Ann McLellan, Deb Fick, Ryan Anderson (ArchWing Innovations LLC), Farideh Amiri, Nick Busse,
Matt Wallace
Acknowledgments
The Minnesota Department of Transportation’s research and implementation efforts involve many researchers and
transportation practitioners throughout Minnesota and other states. We would like to recognize their ongoing efforts
toward improving Minnesota’s transportation system.
Thank you to the following individuals for contributing their time and knowledge to the research reports completed in
FY2012 and for help on the Technical Summaries and other elements in the Minnesota Department of Transportation
Research Services FY2012 Annual Report.
Minnesota Department of Transportation
Chris Anderson
Metro District
Petronella DeWall
Bridges and Structures
Paul Kivisto
Bridges and Structures
Ryan Otte
Maintenance Operations
Mitch Bartelt
Traffic, Safety and Technology
Bill Gardner
Freight and Commercial
Vehicle Operations
Rick Kjonaas
State Aid Division
Tom Peters
Maintenance Operations
Matthew Lebens
Materials and Road Research
Karla Rains
Marketing and Customer Service
Walter Leu
DSAE – District 1
Gordon Regenscheid
DSAE – District 7
Barbara Loida
Metro District
Malaki Ruranika
State Aid Division
Joe MacPherson
State Aid Division
John Siekmeier
Materials and Road Research
Maria Masten
Materials and Road Research
Lou Tasa
DSAE – District 2
Ronald Mulvaney
Materials and Road Research
John Tompkins
Freight and Commercial
Vehicle Operations
Terry Beaudry
Materials and Road Research
Lynne Bly
Metro Planning
Scott Bradley
Engineering Services
Ken Buckeye
Policy, Analysis, Research & Innovation
Tom Burnham
Materials and Road Research
Tim Clyne
Materials and Road Research
Paul Czech
Metro Planning
Shongtao Dai
Materials and Road Research
Nicole Danielson-Bartlett
Bridges and Structures
Dan Gullickson
Environmental Stewardship
Tim Henkel
Modal Planning and Program
Management
Brian Homan
Bridges and Structures
Charles Howe
Materials and Road Research
Bernard Izevbekhai
Materials and Road Research
Maureen Jensen
Materials and Road Research
Cory Johnson
Traffic, Safety and Technology
Brian Kary
Regional Transportation Management
Center
Mark Nelson
Statewide Multimodal Planning
Tom Nordstrom
Materials and Road Research
Mel Odens
DSAE – District 8
Mark Vizecky
State Aid Division
Tom Wiener
Construction and Innovative
Contracting
City and County
Mark Maloney
City of Shoreview
Larry Matsumoto
City of Minneapolis
Amy Marohn
City of Bloomington
Michael Sheehan
Olmsted County
Mike Wagner
Nicollet County
John Welle
Aitkin County
CONTENTS
Director’s Message . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Research Services Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Research Services Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Research Services Partnerships and Programs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Feature: Scott Bradley Gives MnDOT a Leading Voice on National Research in Context Sensitive
Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Research Management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Feature: MnDOT Research Leads to Smoother Pavement at Lower Cost. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
MnDOT Library. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Finance and Contract Services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Marketing and Communications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Information Sheet: Transportation Research Synthesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Research Funding Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
FHWA State Planning and Research. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Feature: North/West Passage Pooled Fund Improves Road Condition Information for Interstate
Travelers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
MnDOT-Led Multi-State Pooled Fund Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Other Active Multi-State Pooled Fund Projects. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Active NCHRP Projects with MnDOT Panel Membership. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Active ACRP Projects with MnDOT Panel Membership. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Active NCFRP Projects with MnDOT Panel Membership . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Active SHRP 2 Technical Expert Task Groups with MnDOT Membership . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Feature: Bill Gardner Brings National Freight Research to MnDOT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Single-State SP&R Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
MnDOT’s State Research Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Feature: Innovative Stormwater Treatment Device Could Transform the Industry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Local Road Research Board. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Feature: Implementing MnDOT Research through Strong Partnerships and Local Training . . . . . . . . 85
FY2012 Research Projects Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
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MnDOT Research: FY2012 Technical Summaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
Bridges & Structures
2011-19: INV 891: Performance Assessment of Oversized Culverts to Accommodate
Fish Passage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
2012-09: Development of Best Practices for Inspection of PT Bridges in Minnesota. . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
2012-16: Validation of Prestressed Concrete I-Beam Deflection and Camber Estimates. . . . . . . . . . 112
Environmental
2011-08/2012-13: Assessment and Recommendations for the Operation of Standard Sumps as
Best Management Practices for Stormwater Treatment (Vol. 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
2011RIC01: Decision Tree for Stormwater BMPs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
2011TREE01: INV 892: The Road to a Thoughtful Street Tree Master Plan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
2012-03: Research and Assess the Farmer and MnDOT Economic and Environmental Costs and
Benefits of Living Snow Fences, Including Carbon Impacts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
Maintenance Operations & Security
2012-20: Salt Brine Blending to Optimize Deicing and Anti-Icing Performance and CostEffectiveness. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
TPF-5(218): Clear Roads Winter Highway Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
Materials & Construction
2011-18: INV 893: Optimal Contract Mechanism Design for Performance-Based Contracts . . . . . . 126
2011-20: INV 768: Monitoring Geosynthetics in Local Roadways (LRRB 768) 10-Year
Performance Summary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
2011-22: Synthesis of Performance Testing of Asphalt Concrete. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
2011-26: INV 901: Concrete Delivery Time Study. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
2012-01: Best Value Granular Material for Road Foundations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
2012-02: Mechanistic Modeling of Unbonded Concrete Overlay Pavements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
2012-08: TPF-5(148), INV 854: Effects of Implements of Husbandry (Farm Equipment) on
Pavement Performance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
2012-12: INV 878, MPR-6(024): Porous Asphalt Pavement Performance in Cold Regions . . . . . . . . . 140
2012-15: Lump Sum Estimating: Discovery and Simulation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
2012-17: INV 902: Material Control Testing Rates for Low-Volume Roads. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
2012-18: Subgrade Stabilization ME Properties Evaluation and Implementation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
Innovation Update 2005-005: INV 899, INV 825: Performance Monitoring of Olmsted
CR 117/104 and Aggregate Base Material Update . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
Innovation Update 2010-030: Validation of DOT600 Soil Moisture Device. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
TPF-5(215): TERRA Pooled Fund Support—Transportation Engineering and
Road Research Alliance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
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Multimodal
2011RIC05: INV 645: RIC Task 5: Best Practices for Recreation Trails . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
2012-14: Highway Cost Allocation and Determination of Heavy Freight Truck Permit Fees . . . . . . 156
Policy & Planning
2012-05: Using Twin Cities Destinations and Their Accessibility as a Multimodal
Planning Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
TPF-5(198): Urban Mobility Study. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
Traffic & Safety
2011-21: INV 908: Minnesota’s Best Practices and Policies for Safety Strategies on Highway
and Local Roads. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
2011-24: Pavement Marking Compatibility with Chip Seal and Micro Surfacing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
2012-04: Development of Freeway Operational Strategies with IRIS-In-Loop Simulation. . . . . . . . 166
2012-06: INV 890: Vehicle Speed Impacts of Occasional Hazard (Playground) Warning Signs. . . . 168
TPF-5(190): North/West Passage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
List of Figures
Figure 1. Connecting MnDOT’s Strategic Vision to Its Strategic Plan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Figure 2. MnDOT Districts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Figure 3. Research Project Management Process. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Figure 4. 4 A’s of Customer Service. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Figure 5. FY2012 Research Funds by Funding Source. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Figure 6. FY2012 SP&R Part II Funding Distribution. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Figure 7. Transportation Research Innovation Group (TRIG) Division Representatives. . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Figure 8. LRRB Board Members . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Figure 9. Research Implementation Committee (RIC) Members. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Figure 10. FY2012 Research Funds Allocated by Topic Area. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
Figure 11. Research Topic Areas and Sub-Areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
M n D O T R e s e a r c h S e r v i c e s • F Y 2 0 1 2 a n n u a l r e p ort
Director’s Message
Welcome to the Minnesota Department of Transportation Research
Services FY2012 Annual Report. This document has been issued to:
•Fulfill federal requirements to account for our research program’s
finances, progress and results from July 2011 through June 2012.
•Demonstrate our accountability and transparency to
Commissioner Thomas K. Sorel, MnDOT’s other leaders and
district offices, the Local Road Research Board (LRRB), state
government, the Legislature and Minnesota taxpayers.
Linda Taylor,
Director, MnDOT Research
Services
•Disseminate research results to encourage implementation and
make the most of Minnesota’s research investments.
This report is divided into four main sections:
•An overview of Research Services that includes research and
library highlights and statistics for FY2012, a summary of our
vision and research management processes, a list of our key
partnerships and a staff directory.
•A description of funding sources that support the research we
manage, including Minnesota State Planning and Research (SP&R)
funds, MnDOT and the LRRB. We have expanded reporting on
the SP&R funded projects that MnDOT manages with project
descriptions, impact statements and statuses of each project active
during FY2012.
•A quick reference table of all active research contracts and
multi-state pooled fund projects, providing summary financial
information, contract dates and contact names. This table, along
with summary financial information and program statistics, is
also available as a separate publication—Research Services FY2012
At-A-Glance—for easy access.
•Two-page Technical Summaries of completed research projects,
organized by research topic area. These comprise the bulk of this
report.
“Minnesota is committed to
being a national leader in
transportation innovation,
and Research Services is a
driving force in that effort.”
New to this year’s report are feature articles embedded within a
number of sections. These articles highlight a specific aspect of research,
illustrating the success of our products and relationships.
—Thomas K. Sorel,
MnDOT Commissioner
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M n D O T R e s e a r c h S e r v i c e s • D I R EC T O R ’ S M ESSA G E
FY2012 in Brief
The Minnesota state government shutdown that occurred at the beginning of FY2012 substantially affected our
program by stopping work on all contracts, terminating contracting capabilities through master agreements and instituting
new auditing requirements. These circumstances led to project delays, additional time required to initiate new contracts
and complications in our financial accounting, and their effects were felt well beyond the actual shutdown duration. An
additional FY2012 challenge was the adoption of a new accounting system, which required a major report writing, quality
assurance and training effort.
More than 400 MnDOT staff retired prior to the shutdown, leaving big holes in technical areas and requiring us
to establish new relationships and procedures. In addition, Research Services faced the ongoing challenge of effectively
communicating with our customers to ensure that the research we undertake reflects the most critical needs of Minnesota
stakeholders.
We were able to successfully meet these challenges with updated systems and workflows that make Research Services
run more smoothly and transparently. The library was awarded the American Library Association’s 2012 John Cotton
Dana Library Public Relations Award for its excellent service. MnDOT research resulted in awards such as the Center for
Transportation Studies (CTS) Research Partnership Award for Report 2011-04, “Advanced LED Warning Signs for Rural
Intersections Powered by Renewable Energy.” We launched an effort to enhance Research Services’ marketing strategy
and capabilities that included conducting stakeholder interviews, surveys and focus groups to optimize our products and
services to customers. We also increased production of Transportation Research Syntheses, which offer a quick-turnaround,
low-paperwork option for fulfilling knowledge needs of MnDOT and local agency staff. This annual report represents the
final step in our transition from calendar year reporting to fiscal year reporting, which brings us into better accord with
Department record-keeping practices.
Please feel free to contact me or any Research Services staff member for more information about any of the topics
described in this report. We are happy to help you identify your research needs, and we can often provide you the
information you need through our library services or a Transportation Research Synthesis. Where more extensive research is
required, we can guide you through the process of requesting a research or implementation project.
Linda Taylor
Director, MnDOT Research Services
[email protected]
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M n D O T R e s e a r c h S e r v i c e s • F Y 2 0 1 2 a n n u a l r e p ort
Research Services Overview
Our Mission
MnDOT Research Services supports Minnesota’s
transportation industry by meeting the innovation
and information needs of transportation
practitioners and the transportation community.
MnDOT Research Services is tasked with ensuring that
optimal use is made of Minnesota taxpayer dollars dedicated
to transportation research. Our vision includes fostering a
professional and productive environment that leads to innovative
research through global and regional collaboration.
Among the highlights of MnDOT’s FY2012 research
activities was its participation in the High Value Research Projects
initiative, sponsored by the American Association of State
Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO). This program
recognizes projects from state transportation departments that
provide transportation excellence through research. MnDOT
submitted six completed research projects to AASHTO’s Research
Advisory Committee (RAC):
•Drainable Pavements at MnROAD Pervious Concrete and
Porous Concrete Overlay Cells 39, 85, and 89: Pervious
Concrete Cells on MnROAD Low-Volume Road
•Concrete Delivery Time Study
•Development of Best Practices for Inspection of PostTensioning Bridges in Minnesota
•Snow Plow Calibration Training & Procedure Manual
Project
•Review of Workplace Wellness Program Options to
Reduce Musculoskeletal Disorders in Laborious Work
•Quality of Life: Assessment and Evaluation to Develop
Transportation Performance Measures
Additional research highlights are described throughout
this report, including federally funded efforts through the
Federal Highway Administration’s (FHWA’s) State Planning and
Research (SP&R) program (page 35), state-funded activities
through Minnesota’s State Research Program (page 77) and
locally funded interests through the Local Road Research Board
(LRRB) (page 81).
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M n D O T R e se a rc h Se rv ic e s • R E se a rc h se rv ic e s ov e rv i e w
FY2012 Challenges and Accomplishments
As described in the “Director’s Message” (page 6), Research Services’
biggest challenge was to get all research projects up and running after the
state government shutdown. In addition:
•We needed to clarify the roles and responsibilities of staff members
and Research Services as a whole. We initiated a video project for
advisory panel members, Project Coordinators and investigators to
better communicate information about these various roles and to
help orient participants in the process. New naming conventions
were established for roles to better express staff responsibilities:
Roadmap Managers are now Project Advisors, and Administrative Liaisons are now
Project Coordinators.
•A consultant worked with Research Services to document our
workflows and to assess and streamline our processes to make them
more efficient and effective.
•The MnDOT Library received several awards, including the Special
Libraries Association Minnesota Chapter 2011 Innovation in Action
Award for Extreme Makeover: Library Edition project, and the
2012 John Cotton Dana Library Public Relations Award from the
American Library Association Library Leadership and Management
Association Division. The library also completed digitization of
Minnesota Highways, the MnDOT employee newsletter from
1951 to 1976, and presented this project during a session at the
Transportation Research Board (TRB) annual meeting. For more
information, see “MnDOT Library” (page 22).
Research Services also underwent organizational changes in FY2012:
“Our research program is
extremely diverse, touching
nearly every activity of
the Department—from
planning and contracting to
design and construction, to
safeguarding Minnesota’s
drivers, workers and
environment. MnDOT
is dedicated not only to
maintaining Minnesota’s
roads, but to expanding
mobility and promoting
multimodal strategies.”
—Jean Wallace,
Director, MnDOT
Office of Policy Analysis,
Research & Innovation
•Due to increased recognition of the need to market our research
results, the Marketing and Communications group was elevated
in organizational status, and staff now reports to the director of Research Services. Nick Busse has been hired as of
FY2013 to manage this new unit. We have secured a part-time information officer position, shared with the MnDOT
Office of Materials.
•The SP&R program was moved organizationally under Finance and Contract Services to increase efficiency and align
with the organizational structure.
•As a result of the governor’s initiative to better centralize information technology (IT) across MnDOT, our IT staff
member was reclassified and moved into the Research Management area.
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M n D O T R e s e a r c h S e r v i c e s • F Y 2 0 1 2 a n n u a l r e p ort
FY2013 Goals and Plans
Our goals for the coming year include:
•Developing a marketing and communications plan
that better aligns with customer and MnDOT needs.
•Marketing our program, services and research
results to raise awareness, build advocates, increase
our customer base, and expand the use and
application of research results that will facilitate
telling our research story.
•Embracing a customer-centric approach that puts
our customers first and makes them shine.
•Strengthening our partnerships with the University
of Minnesota’s Center for Transportation Studies
and other MnDOT research programs so that we can
work together more seamlessly to share resources,
leverage each other’s accomplishments and products,
and communicate research results.
•Proactively seeking opportunities to engage
customers and increasing our presence in national
research efforts so that MnDOT will be recognized
as a global leader in transportation research.
•Organizing existing network files and documents
in the library so that they are categorized properly,
findable and in good shape for digitizing. We also
plan to develop a digital collection and preservation
plan, and make hidden collections and other
uncataloged materials findable.
We will continue to bring innovation to MnDOT and
to the state of Minnesota with the support and contributions
of MnDOT staff, the LRRB, FHWA, and our partners at
universities and other public and private organizations. We
welcome your comments, questions and suggestions.
Quality of Life: Assessment and Evaluation to Develop
Transportation Performance Measures was a two-year
consumer research study that revealed citizens’ attitudes
toward transportation as a central quality of life factor.
Researchers identified specific transportation products and
services that contribute to quality of life, with satisfaction
scores for each. This information is being used to inform
MnDOT’s service delivery and future investment decisions.
10
“Research Services has
been very successful in
steering Minnesota’s
transportation dollars
toward projects that
reinforce MnDOT’s
strategic vision.”
—Nick Thompson,
Director, MnDOT Division of Policy,
Safety & Strategic Initiatives
Furthering MnDOT’s Strategic Vision through
Research
Managing research funded by different sources (federal,
state and local) allows Research Services to serve a number
of distinct customer groups. This involves adapting efforts
to fulfill each group’s requirements while coordinating an
overall research strategy that avoids duplication and aligns
with MnDOT’s strategic vision (Figure 1).
In 2010, Research Services management developed
an operating plan for FY2011-FY2013 to redefine the key
services provided and state the specific values and goals that
will define Department activities through the coming years.
M n D O T R e se a rc h Se rv ic e s • R E se a rc h se rv ic e s ov e rv i e w
Figure 1. Connecting MnDOT’s Strategic Vision to Its Strategic Plan
MnDOT’s Core Business:
State highway maintenance, operations, design and construction;
multimodal system support and development; and financial aid for local roads
Strategic Vision
Global leader in transportation, committed to upholding public needs and
collaboration with internal and external partners to create a safe, efficient and
sustainable transportation system for the future.
Strategic Plan
Strategic Directions
Safety
Mobility
Innovation
Leadership
Transparency
Modal Integration
DBE and
Workforce
Collaborative
Flagship Initiatives
Context Sensitive
Design
Toward Zero Deaths
Americans with
Disabilities Act
Implementation
Sustainability
Initiatives
Innovative Finance
Major Projects
Management
Tech Connections
Workplace of Choice
Business
Information
Plan
Transportation
Task Force
Recommendations
MnDOT’s strategic vision sets the direction for strategic plans such as the Statewide Transportation Policy Plan and modal plans, which
establish policies and strategies for focusing investments and services in line with MnDOT’s strategic directions. For more information,
see www.dot.state.mn.us/strategicplan.
11
M n D O T R e s e a r c h S e r v i c e s • F Y 2 0 1 2 a n n u a l r e p ort
MnDOT’s Strategic Directions
MnDOT’s leaders have defined the following strategic directions to elaborate on the Department’s core values. (More
information is available at www.dot.state.mn.us/strategicvision/directions.html.)
Safety—Promote and maintain a safe, reliable and modern transportation system.
• Reduce transportation-related fatalities and injuries through the use of new and improved technology and safety
measures.
• Monitor the condition of existing infrastructure in order to maintain a reliable and efficient transportation system.
Mobility—Improve access and enhance the movement of people and freight.
• Ease congestion, reduce commute times and improve the quality of life and economic well-being of all Minnesotans.
• Promote mass transit and use all modes for improving mobility and accessibility in metro and in greater Minnesota.
• Maximize operational efficiency of Interregional Corridors.
Innovation—Promote a culture of innovation in the organization.
• Foster innovation and collaborative partnerships within the transportation community in delivering 21st century
transportation solutions.
• Develop groundbreaking, multimodal transportation practices that will accommodate the diverse needs of all
individuals and communities.
• Encourage research and build capacity to develop, implement and sustain solutions that balance preservation needs
and address congestion issues.
Leadership—Become the transportation leader and employer of choice for Minnesota’s diverse population.
• Mobilize in-house talent, public input and external partnerships to deliver value to the public.
• Value service, excellence and diversity to be an employer of choice.
• Provide development and advancement opportunities for all employees.
• Empower all employees to be leaders and ambassadors for MnDOT.
Transparency—Build public trust in MnDOT.
• Develop a simple, yet comprehensive tool for measuring performance across functions that is efficient, accurate,
cost-effective and will show accountability to the public.
• Build relationships within local communities and encourage public involvement in developing transportation
solutions.
• Effectively tie the strategic vision to MnDOT’s long-range transportation plan, strategic plan and investment
objectives, and serve as an ethical compass for decision-making at all levels.
MnDOT’s methodology in managing its projects, funds and staff is designed to align with the Department’s core values:
• Maintaining safety as a priority
•Enhancing trust with transparency and accountability
•Promoting collaboration, research and innovation
•Valuing diversity and cultural capital through inclusion and opportunity
•Committing to employee well-being, development and success
• Recognizing that employees are integral to MnDOT’s success
12
M n D O T R e se a rc h Se rv ic e s • R E se a rc h se rv ic e s ov e rv i e w
In 2010, Research Services managers participated in a risk assessment process to develop a strategic plan and vision. The
assessment identified critical issues, challenges and barriers that could impede the goals of its research programs. Through
this exercise, managers formulated operations plans to address five strategic goals:
•Promote high-quality, cutting-edge research through strategic partnerships with academic institutions.
•Enhance customer service through research into customer needs and development of an enhanced service delivery
process.
•Provide transparency and accountability in the stewardship of funds by more clearly defining funding criteria
reflecting MnDOT and LRRB goals.
•Advance Research Services as a high-performing organization through further definition of staff roles,
responsibilities and projects to increase accountability, boost performance and foster cohesiveness.
•Promote trust in Department work by communicating efforts and engaging stakeholders.
13
M n D O T R e s e a r c h S e r v i c e s • F Y 2 0 1 2 a n n u a l r e p ort
Research Services Organization
Research Services has 24 employees, including two part-time positions, in four units. Funding for staff comes from the
MnDOT operating budget, the LRRB program and the FHWA SP&R program.
Linda Taylor, P.E.
Director
[email protected]
(651) 366-3765
Research Management
MnDOT Library
Finance & Contract Services
Marketing & Communications
Sheila Hatchell
Library Director
Ann McLellan
Nick Busse
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
651-366-3757
[email protected]
651-366-3769
651-366-3738
Nicole Peterson, P.E.
651-366-3763
Farideh Amiri, P.E.
651-366-3772
Jim Byerly
651-366-3739
Carole Wiese
651-366-3788
Sandy McCully
651-366-3768
[email protected]
• Project Advisor, Project
Coordinator, LRRB, RIC
[email protected]
• Literature searches, website
manager, collection development
[email protected]
• Workplans, travel requests,
expense reports, food requests
[email protected]
• Tech transfer, publishing,
outreach, Web, T5
Nelson Cruz
651-366-3744
Qin Tang
651-366-3784
Debbie Sinclair
651-366-3746
Matt Wallace
651-366-3738
[email protected]
• Project Coordinator
[email protected]
• Catalogs, reports, new material
processing, reference questions
[email protected]
• Funding numbers, budget
reports
[email protected]
• Web maintenance, articles,
social media
Bruce Holdhusen, P.E.
651-366-3760
Karen Neinstadt
651-366-3796
Becky Lein
651-366-3766
[email protected]
• Project Advisor, Project
Coordinator
[email protected]
• Literature searches, library
marketing, reference outreach
[email protected]
• Workplans, purchase orders,
library purchasing
Alan Rindels, P.E.
651-366-3779
Pam Gonzalez
651-366-3749
Deb Fick
651-366-3759
[email protected]
• Project Advisor, Project
Coordinator
[email protected]
• Periodical collection,
acquisitions, circulation
[email protected]
• SP&R Program Coordinator,
FHWA Liaison
Shirlee Sherkow
651-366-3783
Christie Schultz
651-366-3777
Todd Marty
651-366-3780
[email protected]
• Project Coordinator, TRS
[email protected]
• Interlibrary loans, special
projects, reference work
[email protected]
• Administrative Assistant
Dan Warzala
651-366-3786
Marilee Tuite
651-366-3797
[email protected]
• Project Coordinator, NCHRP
[email protected]
• Reference work, special projects,
literature searches
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M n D O T R e se a rc h Se rv ic e s • R E se a rc h se rv ic e s ov e rv i e w
Research Services Partnerships and Programs
Research Services maintains partnerships with MnDOT offices and staff as well as with academia, industry, federal
and local government agencies, other state transportation agencies, AASHTO and TRB. Regular communication with these
partners keeps MnDOT staff abreast of both the critical issues facing transportation practitioners and the solutions already
under development across the country. This awareness helps the Department to develop research priorities and deliver highquality research results and implementation products that complement federal, state and local programs.
Partnerships with Our Districts
Research Services receives research direction and support from the MnDOT districts (Figure 2).
2
1
3
4
M
8
7
Figure 2. MnDOT Districts
District 1: Duluth
District 6: Rochester
District 2: Bemidji
District 7: Mankato
District 3: Brainerd
District 8: Willmar
District 4: Detroit Lakes
Metro District
6
Partnerships with MnDOT Offices
Many MnDOT offices request and facilitate our research. MnDOT’s organizational chart, which lists current offices and
their managers, is available at www.dot.state.mn.us/information/orgchart/mndotorgchart.pdf.
Research Services works with a few MnDOT offices that have research programs of their own:
•
Materials and Road Research
Helps to advance the state of the practice of pavement
design, construction and maintenance by conducting
pavement and materials research projects and
implementation of research results.
www.dot.state.mn.us/materials/research.html
•
MnROAD Cold Weather Research
Uses MnDOT materials and pavements in on-site
research to enhance road performance and resource
allocation. This MnDOT-owned pavement test track
is the most sophisticated, independently operated
pavement test facility of its type in the world.
www.dot.state.mn.us/mnroad
•
Minnesota Guidestar—Office of Traffic, Safety and Technology
Performs a broad range of intelligent transportation
systems (ITS) activities to assist in advancing ITS
technology and programs.
www.dot.state.mn.us/guidestar
•
Maintenance Operations Research—Office of Maintenance
Performs primarily “on-the-road” research covering
maintenance of all kinds: general, winter, road and
bridge, building, roadside, operations management and
work zone safety.
www.dot.state.mn.us/maintenance/research/
index.html
15
M n D O T R e s e a r c h S e r v i c e s • F Y 2 0 1 2 a n n u a l r e p ort
MnDOT’s Academic Contractors
MnDOT’s new FY2012 master contracts include the
following out-of-state universities that help to support the
research program:
•Humphrey School of Public Affairs
A public policy school that works with MnDOT
and the LRRB on a variety of policy projects to
improve Minnesota’s Multimodal infrastructure and
transportation planning practices.
www.hhh.umn.edu
• The University of Iowa
• Montana State University
• Texas A&M
•Center for Excellence in Rural Safety (CERS)
A joint program between CTS and the Humphrey
School that works with the LRRB to provide citizencentered research, training and outreach to enhance
rural safety.
www.ruralsafety.umn.edu
University of Minnesota
• Twin Cities campus
One of the largest research universities in the
country.
www1.umn.edu/twincities/index.php
• D uluth campus
A top-ranking regional university.
www.d.umn.edu
• C enter for Transportation Studies (CTS)
An independent university center that brings
MnDOT and the University together to advance
transportation knowledge and foster innovations
that improve Minnesota’s transportation systems and
services.
www.cts.umn.edu
•Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) Institute
A federally funded University Transportation
Center that advances U.S. technology and expertise
in transportation through education, research and
technology transfer. The ITS Institute conducts
research through several programs and dedicated
facilities:
• HumanFIRST Program
• Intelligent Vehicles Laboratory
• Minnesota Traffic Observatory
• N orthland Advanced Transportation Systems Research
Laboratories
• T echPlan: Transportation Planning and Policy Applications
of ITS-Related Technologies
www.its.umn.edu
Minnesota State University
•Minnesota State University, Mankato
Home of the Minnesota Center for Transportation
Research and Implementation, which bridges the gap
between research and practice in the critical areas of
transportation construction and materials.
www.mnsu.edu
“With the help of our university and
consultant partners, Research Services
pursues practical innovations supported by
collaborative groups and flagship initiatives
that will be useful to transportation
practitioners throughout Minnesota.”
•Minnesota State Colleges & Universities
Additional partners located at 37 public institutions
within this system.
www.mnscu.edu
—Bernie Arseneau
MnDOT Deputy Commissioner
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M n D O T R e se a rc h Se rv ic e s • R E se a rc h se rv ic e s ov e rv i e w
MnDOT External Partnerships
Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
In addition to receiving financial support from the
FHWA’s SP&R program (page 35), MnDOT collaborates
with other FHWA offices in its research activities.
•Turner-Fairbank Highway Research Center (TFHRC)
A federally owned and operated research facility in
McLean, Va., that is the home of FHWA’s Office of
Research, Development and Technology.
www.tfhrc.gov
•FHWA Minnesota Division Research/Technology Transfer
Responsible for overseeing FHWA’s SP&R program
and the Minnesota Local Technical Assistance
Program (LTAP).
www.fhwa.dot.gov/mndiv/programs/research.htm
•FHWA Transportation Pooled Fund (TPF) Program
A collaborative effort that allows federal, state
and local agencies and other organizations to
combine resources in support of transportation
research studies. Co-sponsored by FHWA, TRB and
AASHTO, the TPF Program has been in operation
for more than 20 years. Currently almost 200
projects are active, valued at more than $130 million
of pooled investment.
www.pooledfund.org
Transportation Engineering and Road Research Alliance (TERRA)
Funded through SP&R project TPF-5(215), TERRA
advances innovations in road engineering and construction.
For more information, see the Technical Summary on page
152.
Minnesota Local Technical Assistance Program (LTAP)
Administered by CTS, LTAP conducts workshops and
seminars, conferences, customized training, demonstrations
and distance learning. For more information, see
“Implementing MnDOT Research through Strong
Partnerships and Local Training” on page 85.
www.mnltap.umn.edu
Operational Research Assistance Program (OPERA)
OPERA promotes innovations in operations and
maintenance methods, materials and equipment to provide
a safer, more efficient and environmentally sound statewide
transportation system for cities and counties. Funding for
OPERA is provided in part by LRRB funds.
www.cts.umn.edu/Research/
ProjectDetail.html?id=2008034
Transportation Research Board (TRB)
TRB provides leadership in transportation innovation
and progress through research and information exchange.
Involvement with TRB provides opportunities for MnDOT
staff to assume leadership roles in national research, such as
Scott Bradley, director of Context Sensitive Solutions, and
his involvement in context sensitive solutions (page 18). For
more information about MnDOT’s involvement in TRBsponsored programs, see pages 48-50.
www.trb.org
American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials
Research Advisory Committee (AASHTO RAC)
Created by AASHTO in 1987, the RAC provides advice
about transportation research matters, rates each year’s
problem statements for the NCHRP and shares statesponsored research.
research.transportation.org
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M n D O T R e s e a r c h S e r v i c e s • F Y 2 0 1 2 a n n u a l r e p ort
Feature
Scott Bradley Gives MnDOT a Leading
Voice on National Research in Context
Sensitive Solutions
Since 2001, Scott Bradley, director of Context Sensitive
Solutions in the Office of Environmental Stewardship,
has been one of MnDOT’s leading representatives when
it comes to national research on transportation project
planning and design. Context sensitive solutions (CSS)
is an approach that involves all stakeholders early in the
planning for a highway project, thoroughly analyzes
the community and environment where the project
is to be built, and follows clearly defined decisionmaking and communication procedures throughout
the project. The result is smoother, more cost-effective
project implementations that are in sync with their
surroundings.
Bradley is the former chair of the TRB’s Context Sensitive
Design & Solutions Task Force and currently chairs its
oldest standing committee, Transportation Landscape
and Environmental Design. He co-authored proposals
for nine funded NCHRP projects, one of which resulted
in NCHRP Report 642: Quantifying the Benefits of
Context Sensitive Solutions. Issued in 2009, this report
“has had a tangible, singular influence on our operations,
becoming a standard part of our advocacy and training,”
Bradley says. “CSS guides our design procedures and is
integral to our emerging Complete Streets approach,
which aims for an efficient and sustainable statewide
transportation system for all users. CSS philosophy,
strategies and principles also offer a powerful business
case and business model applicable to delivery of all of
our programs and services.”
The objective of that research effort was to quantify
the benefits of CSS, establish performance measures
for employing a CSS approach, and generate training
materials and other helpful information to enable CSS
implementation. The lead investigative team, from
the University of Kentucky Transportation Center, has
proposed deploying a pilot NCHRP Report 642 training
workshop for MnDOT this fall with an emphasis on the
performance measurement components.
18
“MnDOT’s leaders have
been very intrigued by
the benefits of CSS,”
Bradley says. “This
NCHRP study was the
first that got us beyond
anecdotal evidence
that CSS was an effective approach, producing a list
of 22 demonstrated benefits such as improved
mobility, safety, innovation, stakeholder trust,
environmental stewardship and opportunities for
economic development. This is exactly in line with
some of MnDOT’s strategic directions and the reason for
elevation of CSS to flagship initiative status.”
Bradley’s involvement with and leadership in TRB was
helpful when Minnesota was selected as one of four
national recipients of $250,000 grants from TRB Strategic
Highway Research Program 2 (SHRP 2). This grant is being
used for a CSS/Complete Streets pilot network planning
project in Grand Rapids, Minn. The pilot will evaluate a
newly developed SHRP 2 collaborative decision-making
tool (Transportation for Communities: Advancing
Projects through Partnerships) and recommend
enhancements. “We think this pilot effort and tool
will provide a model for how we can collaborate more
effectively in a multijurisdictional manner to develop
cost-effective, practical and sustainable approaches to
Complete Streets statewide,” Bradley says.
All of this points to the benefits of MnDOT’s vigorous
leadership in national research programs. “In this case,
we were allowed to try something that we wouldn’t
have been in a position to try this rigorously,” he says.
“The credibility that we have established in TRB national
research efforts puts us in a position to take advantage
of opportunities like this.”
Bradley was profiled as a leader in the May-June 2011
TR News based on recommendations from the National
Academies and TRB staff.
M n D O T R e se a rc h Se rv ic e s • R E se a rc h se rv ic e s ov e rv i e w
Research Management
Research Services is responsible
for shepherding research through all
stages of a project, from the initial
idea through final implementation,
technology transfer and project
evaluation. The Department’s research
management process, described in the
diagram and table, is the product of
many years of effort from a number
of stakeholders. The table describes
the roles of key personnel assigned
to each project. These individuals
may include state, local or industry
representatives, depending on
the topic. The diagram shows the
steps involved in the development
and completion of a successful
research or implementation effort,
indicating which roles are involved
in each step. The progress of each
contract is documented in MnDOT’s
computerized Automated Research
Tracking System (ARTS), which is
also used by Research Services for
research project management, finance
and contracting.
Figure 3. Research Project Management Process
Research Need
PA
TL
Proposal
(MnDOT or Local Champion)
PI
Funding Board (Dollars)
(Proposal Made/Funding Approved)
Finalize Workplan
(TAP Established/Contract Review)
PC
TAP
Contract Development
(MnDOT Contract/Signatures)
Contracted Work
(TAP Reviewed)
Final Deliverables
(Products/Closeout Evaluation)
Next Steps
(Further Research/Implementation/Technology Transfer)
Involvement Key
PA Project Advisor
TL Technical Liaison
PI Principal Investigator
PC Project Coordinator
TAP Technical Advisory Panel
Research SERVICES ROLES
Project Advisor (PA)
The Project Advisor is a MnDOT Research Services representative who facilitates project startup and provides a link between the Technical Advisory
Panel (TAP) and other related efforts occurring within the LRRB, MnDOT and national programs. PAs may or may not be TAP members.
Technical Liaison (TL) The Technical Liaison is the MnDOT or local agency champion who represents the sponsoring organization’s interest, guiding the overall direction
and scope of the contract and providing technical guidance. The TL assists in developing the initial need into a contract; helps the PI create
deliverables; and approves the deliverables, work plan and amendment requests.
Project Coordinator
(PC)
The Project Coordinator (formerly the Administrative Liaison) is assigned to each contract to ensure that contract provisions are followed and that
deliverables are submitted and approved on schedule and within budget. The PC works with the TL to help manage projects throughout their
life cycles. The PC also coordinates the activities of project TAPs. Each PC reports to a particular PA, and as of FY2012, PCs are typically assigned to
particular topic areas to help ensure continuity over potentially related projects.
Principal
Investigator (PI)
The Principal Investigator is the contractor/researcher responsible for project development and for the completion of the contract obligations. With
TAP guidance and input, the PI designs, develops and performs tasks to carry out contract deliverables.
Technical Advisory
Panel (TAP)
The Technical Advisory Panel guides the research, reviewing and approving the deliverables that are developed by the PI. Typically four to six people
serve on each TAP. Additionally, other stakeholders may attend TAP meetings to stay informed of project progress, though these “friends of the TAP”
don’t influence project scope or task approvals.
19
M n D O T R e s e a r c h S e r v i c e s • F Y 2 0 1 2 a n n u a l r e p ort
Research Management statistics
Total active contracts for research and
implementation managed by MnDOT
206
Completed reports
32
Technical Summaries
31
Transportation Research Syntheses
Research Services website hits
6
172,994
Identifying and Tracking Needs
MnDOT Research Services identifies research and innovation needs throughout the Department and the LRRB using
completed research findings and communication with customers. MnDOT Project Advisors use this information to help
guide MnDOT’s overall research investment throughout the year, ensuring that MnDOT and LRRB priorities are adhered to
and that parallel efforts within a given area are not duplicative or in conflict. Staff members also coordinate efforts with state
and national cooperative research programs, including the Transportation Pooled Fund Program, which is the chief target of
FHWA SP&R funds (described on page 35). Research staff members also identify research ideas and trends by participating
in state and local research groups and councils and in national organizations.
Customers can also request research support through MnDOT’s IdeaScale website (www.mndot-lrrb.ideascale.com).
This site allows users to submit ideas, review other idea submissions, and vote and comment on their priorities. These
methods help promote communication between stakeholders and ensure that the views of MnDOT managers, engineers and
others will be considered when choosing a course of research in any particular area.
The Department solicits proposals for research projects in the fall and for implementation projects in the spring of
each year. Research proposals are not pursued without a state or local champion, to increase the likelihood that project
findings will be incorporated into practice once the research is completed. Participation in national research efforts such as
AASHTO’s National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) and other programs using multiple funding sources
allows MnDOT to pool its research efforts with others around the country that have similar research needs. Needs statement
and proposal forms, along with more information about MnDOT’s research process, are available at www.dot.state.mn.us/
research/process-and-docs.html.
Developing Projects
MnDOT’S Transportation Research
Innovation Group (TRIG) (see page 77)
and the Local Road Research Board (LRRB)
(see page 81) select proposals for funding
in December. Research Services then helps
to organize the project TAP, and drafts and
executes the contracts needed to carry out
approved proposals. Projects are developed
with an implementation plan in mind as
well as an identified end user product and
performance measures to help Research
Services evaluate the success of a project.
20
M n D O T R e se a rc h Se rv ic e s • R E se a rc h se rv ic e s ov e rv i e w
Project Execution
Project Coordinators organize TAP meetings at regular
intervals to check on the progress of a project. A contract
amendment can be requested to allow for an evolving
scope in light of TAP deliberations or roadblocks in project
execution. Research Services provides report publishing
guidelines and other assistance to help the Principal
Investigator successfully fulfill the terms of the contract.
Implementation
Implementation is a key component of Research
Services’ contribution to managing a project. Though
implementation measures are written into all new research
projects, MnDOT also considers funding for specific
implementation projects each spring (new research is
initiated in the fall) to gain the full benefits of past research
investments, not only by MnDOT and LRRB but by other
states and national programs.
After a project is complete, Research Services oversees
a project evaluation process to help TRIG or LRRB decide
whether to keep funding a line of research, whether a
particular contractor should be used again, what technology
transfer or other actions are needed to fully implement the
results, and how the research management process can be
improved.
The following feature article highlights a successfully
implemented research project.
Feature
MnDOT Research Leads to Smoother Pavement at
Lower Cost
In 2010 MnDOT completed a research project to
develop a new pavement smoothness specification for
contractors. “This was an important innovation on two
counts,” says Linda Taylor, director of Research Services.
“First, it made use of the International Roughness
Index, a cutting-edge method for measuring pavement
smoothness. Second, it combined the previously
separate specifications for asphalt and concrete
pavements.”
According to James Wilde, professor at Minnesota
State University, Mankato, the result of this research is a
pavement profiling process that is “more consistent and
efficient for contractors, leading to smoother pavements
at a reduced cost.”
The new specification has now been fully implemented,
with all paving projects initiated in 2011 employing
the new smoothness procedure. According to MnDOT
Pavement Management Analyst Tom Nordstrom, “This
has been a major change, requiring adjustment from not
only contractors, but also MnDOT inspectors and project
engineers.”
In 2011 MnDOT provided training on the new procedures
to project engineers and inspectors. An online training
option is now available as well. Nordstrom says that
MnDOT is “leading the way for a certification program
The new combined pavement specification is based on data
from inertial profilers like this one, which use laser sensors to
take precise measurements of smoothness.
for this kind of training. We often get calls from outside
agencies looking for advice and recommendations.”
The Office of Materials Smoothness Program
website provides more information about this training
for MnDOT and local staff, the new specification and
the 2012 Inertial Profiler Certification Program for
construction vendors. Research Services Technical
Summary 2010-15 includes more information about
the MnDOT-funded research projects that made this
transition possible.
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M n D O T R e s e a r c h S e r v i c e s • F Y 2 0 1 2 a n n u a l r e p ort
MnDOT Library
Marketing materials for National Library Week 2012 featured an old-fashioned, sepia-toned photo of MnDOT Library staff in vintageinspired clothing posing with a Ford Model A. The photo commemorates the digitization of Minnesota Highways, the department’s
employee newsletter from 1951 to 1976. From left are Christie Schultz, Jim Byerly, Sheila Hatchell, Karen Neinstadt, Qin Tang and Pam
Gonzalez.
This year the MnDOT Library continued to make use of its recently remodeled space to better serve customers and
won several awards for its efforts. Major accomplishments include completing the digitization of the Minnesota Highways
newsletter, an open house for National Library Week, numerous events and presentations, and various projects to enhance
the library’s resources and support MnDOT initiatives. These efforts—and the library’s continuing tradition of excellent
service—are helping the library reach more MnDOT staff than ever to assist them in improving Minnesota’s transportation
system.
Awards
The MnDOT Library completed a trifecta of honors related to its remodeling
and marketing and communications work during 2010-2011.
One of these honors was the 2012 John Cotton Dana Library Public
Relations Award, one of the most prestigious awards given by the American
Library Association. The library received the award for its “moving knowledge”
campaign, which informed the public of major improvements to its facilities.
The eye-catching marketing campaign succeeded in bringing in new MnDOT
users from throughout the state, and a grand reopening event drew 65 percent
more attendees than the last open house. Daily visits to the library increased 1000
percent.
“This award typically goes to public and academic libraries,” says Sheila
Hatchell, MnDOT Library director, “so we are thrilled to be a special library
recipient and even more pleased to be a transportation library winner.”
22
The 2012 John Cotton Dana Library Public
Relations Award.
M n D O T R e se a rc h Se rv ic e s • R E se a rc h se rv ic e s ov e rv i e w
The library also recently received:
•Special Libraries Association Minnesota Chapter
2011 Innovation in Action Award for its efforts to
revitalize the library’s space, services and brand
•Minnesota Association of Government
Communicators’ 2012 Northern Lights Award of
Merit for posters and banners created through the
library’s marketing and communications project
during 2010
Minnesota Highways Digitization Project
Among its achievements this year, the library was
pleased to announce the release of a new digital collection.
Minnesota Highways, the monthly newsletter published by
the Minnesota Department of Highways, is now available
online. In nearly 300 issues from 1951 to 1976, Minnesota
Highways documents the activities of the Minnesota
Department of Highways, the predecessor of MnDOT that
was established in 1917 to build and manage state roads and
bridges.
Minnesota Highways provides an in-depth perspective
on the development of Minnesota’s transportation
infrastructure during a period when postwar funding
authorizations provided for major transportation expansion
at the national and state levels. It covers major highway
projects that superseded the state’s freight rail system,
improvements to secondary urban and rural roads,
transportation safety campaigns, traffic fatality statistics,
changes in transportation finance and policy, bridge
and highway construction procedures, and technology
developments.
The newsletter also includes the activities and writings
of relevant state officials of the time and features many
photographs of notable structures, such as the St. Croix,
Taylors Falls and Hastings bridges; the Lowry Hill Tunnel;
critical and innovatively designed interchanges; scenic
photographs of rural Minnesota; and aerial views of urban
transportation projects.
This digitization was conducted in partnership with the
Minnesota Digital Library’s Minnesota Reflections project.
Current funding for Minnesota Reflections comes from the
Arts and Cultural Heritage Fund of the Clean Water, Land
and Legacy Amendment to the state’s constitution.
LIBRARY STATISTICS
Library materials circulated
New materials acquired
14,389
552
Questions answered
1,510
Literature searches
542
Interlibrary loans
691
Library website hits
130,154
National Library Week Open House
For National Library Week 2012, the library invited
guests to step back in time with the theme “Back to Our
Routes,” which featured the newly digitized Minnesota
Highways collection. The open house included refreshments,
door prizes and activities such as a caption guessing contest
for newsletter photos. In another game, “Transportation
Tunes Tournament,” participants were asked to brainstorm
song titles that contained words such as road, street, highway,
boulevard or interstate. KSTP Channel 5 News was present
and conducted interviews with library staff and users.
Marketing and Outreach
The library continues to engage in a variety of efforts to
make MnDOT staff aware of library services:
•New employee orientation. Library staff presented on
library services at 11 new employee orientation
events.
• L etters. Letters were sent to 143 new employees
introducing them to the library and its services,
including its periodical routing service and New
Library Materials notification service.
•Local media coverage. Because of publicity around the
library’s 2011 Innovation in Action Award, KSTP
News reporter Nick Winkler spent four hours
interviewing guests and customers during the
library’s National Library Week open house event.
The segment was featured on multiple newscasts
and can be seen at http://kstp.com/news/stories/
S2606014.shtml.
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M n D O T R e s e a r c h S e r v i c e s • F Y 2 0 1 2 a n n u a l r e p ort
Events
Commissioner’s Reading Corner
This year the library hosted nine Commissioner’s
Reading Corner events. In an April teleconference, Stephen
M.R. Covey facilitated a live discussion of his book Smart
Trust. To accommodate the large amount of interest in this
event, it was moved to a conference room with available
overflow space, and participants were offered the option to
attend by teleconference.
Osher Lifelong Learning Institute
Following a well-received visit in 2011, the library again
welcomed students from the University of Minnesota’s
Osher Lifelong Learning Institute (OLLI), a “health club for
the mind.” Students learned the difference between special,
public and academic libraries and became familiar with
the MnDOT Library’s focus on civil and transportation
engineering. This enables the library to support the work
of MnDOT as well as cities and counties throughout the
state by supplying materials that no other Minnesota library
collects.
Special Libraries Association Minnesota Chapter: Extreme Makeover
The library was asked to host an event during which
Twin Cities librarians could see its remodeled space
firsthand as well as learn about marketing and
communications efforts. The program featured background
information about the project’s conception and funding,
the look of the library’s space before the makeover, and
marketing and communications deliverables. Consultants as
well as library staff spoke at the event.
Presentations
This year the library gave a number of presentations:
• L RRB. A presentation to the Minnesota LRRB featured
highlights of library services provided to Minnesota’s
city and county engineers and practitioners through
the Minnesota Transportation Libraries Program.
Projects featured from the previous year included
a literature search on “smog-eating concrete”
(photocatalytic cement) and the popular roundabout
video and snowplow kits that were sent to AARP
trainers around the state.
•TRB poster session. A poster was developed to help tell
the story of the importance of the library’s project
to digitize the department’s newsletter, Minnesota
Highways, from 1951 to 1976.
•Bridge Office. A presentation about library services
given at the Bridge Office’s annual meeting included
handouts, a question-and-answer period and a trivia
contest about Minnesota bridges.
This poster was created to publicize the digitization of the Minnesota Highways newsletter.
24
M n D O T R e se a rc h Se rv ic e s • R E se a rc h se rv ic e s ov e rv i e w
Osher Lifelong Learning Institute (OLLI) members learn about the MnDOT Library. Photo by Jim Byerly
Projects through Pooled Fund TPF-5(237):
Library Connectivity and Development
Through its participation in the Library Connectivity
and Development TPF-5(237) Pooled Fund Study, the
library has been able to implement several projects:
•Knovel trial. Through email announcements and
webinars, MnDOT engineers were introduced to
Knovel, a Web-based application for integrating
technical information with analytical and search
tools. The trial revealed that there was not enough
demand from MnDOT engineers to warrant
purchasing a subscription to the tool.
•American Society of Civil Engineers conference proceedings
trial. The library subscribed to a trial of conference
proceedings from the American Society of Civil
Engineers (ASCE) that was not included in its
current subscription to a suite of ASCE publications.
This additional access was enthusiastically received
by library customers.
•Return on Investment/Library Valuation study. The library
is participating in a study to evaluate the return
on investment from transportation libraries. The
study will include both a full literature review and
informal survey. Final results are expected to be
published in the fall.
Other Projects
E-books for the iPad
MnDOT managers are actively using iPads in their
daily work, and the library is exploring the availability of
e-books for use with iPads. Challenges are presented in
continuously changing technology, difficulty in deciphering
licensing and user agreements, and availability of technical
materials in e-format.
Weeding and Collection Shifting
Completing a project that began last year, librarians
deleted 986 obsolete records from the library catalog and
discarded 1,300 unused items. Weeding through these
records and adding 20 shelving units during its 2010
remodeling should allow the library to accommodate
new materials for the next five to 10 years. Because of the
historical significance of many library materials, few are
discarded and most are retained forever.
Leisure Book Exchange
The MnDOT Library is now offering a free book
exchange program that allows employees to donate books
they no longer want and take books that they would like to
read. The library welcomes donations of fiction or nonfiction
books that are in good condition. Current, popular and
Minnesota-related books are preferred.
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M n D O T R e s e a r c h S e r v i c e s • F Y 2 0 1 2 a n n u a l r e p ort
Cataloging Hidden Collections
In its 55-year history, the library has collected a number
of materials that have not been cataloged. An effort is
under way to identify and catalog these collections, making
them findable by both library staff and customers. The first
documents cataloged under this project are an important
part of the department’s history, consisting of program
pamphlets from the MnDOT-sponsored Transportation
Conference held annually from 1969 to 2002.
New Periodical Titles
The library has added several new periodical titles:
Supporting MnDOT Initiatives
Library staff assisted MnDOT’s Diversity Council by
performing literature searches and locating photographs
and other supportive information for the production of
monthly poster sessions on minorities in transportation and
civil engineering. This research encompassed countries and
cultures throughout the world.
Library Staff Professional Activities
•Three hold office at the national level in the Special
Libraries Association.
• The American Surveyor
•One is a member of the TRB Library and
Information Science for Transportation (LIST)
Committee.
• Bench & Bar of Minnesota
• Data Digest
•One facilitates the local consortium of state
government librarians.
• Point of Beginning
• Professional Surveyor Magazine
•One published two journal articles this year.
• Public Performance & Management Review
Library Services
New Library Materials
The library’s monthly publication, New Library
Materials, alerts customers to recently received books,
reports, periodicals and reference materials. Each issue
includes an “Information Extra,” which recently covered the
following topics as part of the library’s initiative to advance
the use of technology:
Now in its 55th year, the MnDOT Library is a vital
resource for staff members, saving them time by assisting
with finding materials and by performing literature searches
critical to their work. Services include:
•Research assistance, providing customers with
requested facts, data or other information
•Literature searches, supplying customers with up-todate lists of the latest published books, reports,
articles and other materials for a specified topic or
area of best practices in a given field
• Word tag clouds
•What’s a QR Code?
•Web technology you can use
(www.dot.state.mn.us/library/
technologies.html)
•Document delivery and interlibrary loan services, accessing
resources for customers from libraries worldwide
•Transportation Knowledge Networks
•Periodicals routing, maintaining a list of every magazine
or journal received by the library and loaning these
periodicals upon request
New Library Materials can be accessed at
www.dot.state.mn.us/library/recacq-archive.html.
•Online catalog access, providing access via a searchable
online database of all titles held by the library
•New Library Materials, informing customers of new titles
added to the library collection
•Ask a Librarian, allowing customers to request research
assistance or materials using a simple online form
The library’s QR Code.
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M n D O T R e se a rc h Se rv ic e s • R E se a rc h se rv ic e s ov e rv i e w
Satisfied Customers
“The library brought resources to my attention that I
otherwise wouldn’t have even known were available,
like the Kindles that are available for checkout.
The Kindle led me to leadership books by authors
like John Maxwell that have changed the way I deal
with co-workers and how I see myself within this
organization.”
—Jamal Love, Engineering Specialist
“Without the help of the MnDOT Library, I would not
have had the education or the consistent historical
background to research the progress of bikeways
in Minnesota. With the documents you provided,
I now have a better idea of what has been done,
what money was spent on what project, and what
is available in the area of biking and walking in
Minnesota.”
—Volunteer bike/walk advocate
Sierra Club/Active Living Ramsey County
“The information you provided saved MnDOT
money by saving our consultant time. The research
you provided informs our campaigns to increase
carpooling.”
—Jessica Wiens, Communications
“I was able to use the information you provided in
discussions with legislators who were proposing
memorial signing. I continue to use it in discussions
with the management staff, District traffic engineers,
other department staff who work on signing
and others when this issue comes up. Your quick
response saved others who may not be as versed in
researching a topic a lot of time and allowed me to
have this information when I needed it.”
—Peter Buchen, Aeronautics
“Until I found the page on the Internet, I didn’t know
MnDOT had a library. This is gold!”
—Jeff Gretsfeld
St. Louis County Public Works Department
Twin Cities librarians from the Special Libraries Association Minnesota Chapter visited the MnDOT Library’s remodeled space and
learned about its marketing and communications efforts.
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M n D O T R e s e a r c h S e r v i c e s • F Y 2 0 1 2 a n n u a l r e p ort
Finance and Contract Services
Research Services’ Finance Services staff members provide contractual and financial management, planning,
implementation and oversight to the federal, state and local road research programs. The unit is responsible for developing,
planning and managing the contractual and financial activities of the statewide research program and library. The staff
coordinates research contracts and agreements; workflow and funding processes, including contract creation; budget
management; and local, state and national research funding coordination.
Finance and Contract Services staff oversees and facilitates travel, lodging, food and meeting arrangements. The unit
prepares, processes and monitors the University Master Contracts and the Transportation Research Assistance Program
(TRAP). It also develops and facilitates 22 partnership, interagency and intra-agency, and joint powers agreements with other
departments, public agencies, and other offices or districts to support the research program.
In addition, members of the Finance and Contract Services staff serve as experts on available funding sources for
research, and help MnDOT and local practitioners and managers to determine the most appropriate contracting method and
funding source.
The unit is also charged with administering the LRRB and Research Implementation Committee (RIC) budget
and programs. Finance Services tracks partnership contributions; prepares, monitors and tracks contract documents,
amendments and invoices; facilitates out-of-state travel requested for LRRB-sponsored trips and processes expense reports;
and develops purchase orders for equipment, food, lodging, outreach materials and other commodities needed to support
LRRB and RIC programs.
FINANCe AND CONTRACT SERVICES
statistics
Contract closeouts
73
New contracts
66
Contract amendments
72
Interoffice agreements
14
Interagency or partnership agreements
11
Purchase orders
38
SP&R funded projects:
• Active MnDOT-led pooled funds
12
• Other pooled funds with MnDOT
contributions
30
• Active single-state SP&R projects
51
• SP&R projects with FY2012 MnDOT
contributions
47
The Research Services financial team at work: (from left) Becky Lein, financial
services specialist; Ann McLellan, financial services manager; Deb Fick, SP&R
Program Coordinator; Carole Wiese, financial services specialist; and Debbie
Sinclair, accounting officer principal.
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M n D O T R e se a rc h Se rv ic e s • R E se a rc h se rv ic e s ov e rv i e w
FY2012 Finance and Contract Services Challenges and Accomplishments
The June 2012 shutdown and other changes prompted exceptional effort this year:
•State auditing requirements necessitated that any work done prior to the shutdown be funded with FY2011 dollars,
and any after with FY2012 dollars, subject to new fiscal year financial rules.
•The master agreements with the universities that do the bulk of MnDOT’s research expired. New contracts were
established with the University of Minnesota, the University of Iowa, Montana State University and Texas A&M.
•Also, the Transportation Research Assistance Program (TRAP), which preapproves consultants, expired. The TRAP
process streamlines the contracts needed to support Research Services in areas such as research marketing, technical
writing, information analysis and event coordination. The new TRAP covers 22 consultants.
•MAPS, the old cost accounting system, was replaced with the new SWIFT system. The migration to SWIFT was
coincident with the shutdown and required a major report writing, quality assurance and training effort.
•Research Services instituted new budget monitoring procedures to ensure that SWIFT was properly integrated with
the research database (ARTS).
•Research Services completed documentation of its workflow processes for budgets, contract management,
partnerships and federal closeout processes with the MnDOT Office of Financial Services and FHWA.
•The SP&R program was moved organizationally under Finance and Contract Services to increase efficiency and align
with the organizational structure.
•Federal oversight of the SP&R program was modified because of the program’s low-risk status, providing MnDOT
with more delegated authority. The use of SP&R funds was consequently expanded to include research along with
implementation and administrative activities.
•MnDOT’s SP&R coordinator participated on a panel that compiled a financial process guidebook for the
Transportation Pooled Fund program. She helped identify problems and direct enhancements, and now serves as a
technical support person for the national audience.
An upcoming Research Services video will feature TAP members discussing the MnDOT research process and their roles on the panel.
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M n D O T R e s e a r c h S e r v i c e s • F Y 2 0 1 2 a n n u a l r e p ort
Marketing and Communications
MnDOT recognizes the need to ensure that research results achieve their maximum effect through technology transfer.
To increase focus on this mission, the Marketing and Communications group was elevated within the MnDOT hierarchy in
FY2012 to become a formal unit of Research Services.
Marketing and Communications Products
The Marketing and Communications unit uses a variety of tools to promote the program’s services and research results,
including coordinated communications and publishing through numerous channels. Some of the key products are:
•Technical Summaries (TSs). Research Services produced 33 summaries of FY2012 research projects. Developing a TS to
explain and promote the final report is a standard part of most projects; summaries are also produced periodically
of ongoing pooled fund studies that MnDOT supports. In FY2012 two ongoing projects were summarized via
Innovation Updates, which can be created at the request of a project Technical Liaison in cases where reporting on
interim results would be valuable. All of the FY2012 TSs are included in this annual report, organized by research
topic area, beginning on page 107.
•Annual Report, Research Services At-A-Glance and LRRB At-A-Glance. Our fiscal year-end reporting includes this annual report
as well as two At-A-Glance publications that extract and reorganize some of the annual report’s information for
different audiences and distribution modes. All three of these documents serve as key communication tools,
providing a centralized and readable account of Research Services activities and processes. In addition to helping
Research Services connect with Minnesota stakeholders, these documents are used at peer exchanges, during visits
from other DOT research representatives and at the TRB annual meeting.
•Articles. Research Services has stepped up its effort to generate articles for MnDOT Newsline and other publications.
All of the feature stories in this annual report were produced as part of this project.
•Videos. The Marketing and Communications unit has also increased production of informative videos on behalf
of both MnDOT and the LRRB. One video project begun in 2012 will feature interviews with Technical Advisory
Panel (TAP) members and Research Services managers, explaining their roles for the benefit of new TAP members,
Research Services staff, investigators and other stakeholders. Interviewees will provide their insights about the
MnDOT research process and describe the responsibilities of the Project Coordinator, Technical Liaison, Project
Advisor and Principal Investigator. Another video project under way for FY2013 will feature the city and county
“pothole professionals” who maintain safe and smooth roads throughout the state. Additional videos will highlight
technical resources developed through specific research projects.
•Transportation Research Syntheses (TRSs). During FY2012 both MnDOT and LRRB increased their requests for TRSs, which
are short-turnaround assessments of recent research and best practices in a particular area of transportation. The
Marketing and Communications unit has produced a brochure explaining and promoting this service (page 31).
Investigators produce TRSs through Web and database searches, interviews and surveys. These reports may
serve as preliminary research during the early stages of a full project or they may eliminate the need for a more
extensive effort. TRSs completed during FY2012 include:
TRS1102
Estimating Non-Automobile Mode Share
September 2011
TRS1103
Small Metropolitan Planning Organization Funding
September 2011
TRS1104
Use of Social Media by Minnesota Cities and Counties
November 2011
TRS1105
Bridge Deck Cracking
November 2011
TRS1201
Impact of Vibratory Equipment to Surrounding Environments During Construction
July 2012
TRS1202
Far-Field Testing of Noise Wall Effectiveness
June 2012
TRS1203
Innovative Bridge Construction for Minnesota Local Roads
July 2012
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M n D O T R e se a rc h Se rv ic e s • R E se a rc h se rv ic e s ov e rv i e w
Minnesota Department of Transportation
RESEARcH SERvicES
TransporTaTion research synThesis
Quick-turnaround information for MnDOT and LRRB
Recent TRS topics
What is a TRS?
• Useofsocialmedia
• A synthesisoftechnicaland/orpolicy
informationonaspecifictopicthatyouhave
requested.
TRS 1104
Published December 2011
Use of Social Media by Minnesota Cities and Counties
The purpose of this TRS is to serve as a synthesis of pertinent completed research to be used for further study and evaluation
by MnDOT. This TRS does not represent the conclusions of either CTC & Associates or MnDOT.
Introduction
Minnesota’s Local Road Research Board (http://www.lrrb.org) is
interested in knowing the extent to which Minnesota counties and
cities are using social media: Which social media outlets are they
using? How are they using them? Of particular interest are
transportation-related communications through social media channels.
LRRB requested a nonscientific scan of counties and larger to help
establish the scope of social media use by local governments for
transportation purposes throughout the state of Minnesota.
Summary
In Scope of Social Media, we present a brief primer on the social
media outlets and platforms used by local governments scanned in this
effort. The Sampling process describes the nonscientific method by
which 25 cities and 25 counties were selected for closer examination.
The Summary of Findings presents summary tables with statistics on
the use of social media for transportation-related communication
among the 50 cities and counties sampled followed by a number of
observations and conclusions that may be drawn from the data.
Among the 50 governments sampled, Facebook was found to be the most common social media outlet (used by 20 for any
reason and by 11 for transportation communications) followed by Twitter (used by 16 for any reason and by 10 for
transportation). Across all social media channels, the most common transportation-related topics for communication were
planning and zoning and road construction and street closures.
Finally, Guidance and Best Practices for Social Media presents websites and publications that provide further information
specific to the areas of transportation and local government.
Prepared by CTC & Associates LLC
1
• Estimatingnon-automodeshare
• Twotypes:1)Summaryofcompletedand
in-progressresearchor2)Reportonthe
stateofpracticeamongDOTsnationwide.
• SmallMPOfundingestimates
• I dentifiesinnovations,recenttrends,best
practicesandfederalguidance.
• 24-hrheadlightuse
• Basedonstate,nationalandinternational
sources,includinginterviewswithexperts.
The source data behind these summary findings are presented in the Detailed Findings section of this report. For each city
and county sampled, we list and provide links to the social media outlets and platforms used and illustrate the extent of their
use for transportation-related issues.
• Bridgedeckcracking
• C learlywrittenandorganizedforyouto
digestandapply.
• Snowplowblades
• Distance-basedroaduserfees
• Unpavingroads
• Surveyandrightofwaydata
• Projectmanagementsoftware
SeetheTRSwebpage.
How can a TRS help me?
To request a TRS
• Investigateaproblemwithoutstartingfromscratch.
• FindoutwhatotherstateDOTsaredoing:designs,specifications,manuals,procedures.
• ReviewthelatestandgreatestonanyissuethataffectsstateDOTs.
ContactShirleeSherkow
at651-366-3783or
[email protected]
• R eceiveaclear,concisereportwithalloftherelevantfindings,contactnamesandweblinks
inoneplace.
Calltodayandgetyourreport
infour to eight weeks!
• Saveyourselfabunchoftime.
TRSRequestForm
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M n D O T R e s e a r c h S e r v i c e s • F Y 2 0 1 2 a n n u a l r e p ort
Education and Outreach
Marketing and Communications staff members help the Department with idea gathering and market research using Web
collaboration and survey tools like IdeaScale, MnDOT’s Online Community and SurveyMonkey.
Research Services has continued to implement social media for transparency and communication of research results.
The Department anticipates using such media as Facebook (www.facebook.com/MnDOTResearch) and YouTube
(www.youtube.com/user/MnDOTResearch) to share current and past research, important events and awards, and online
resources for the benefit of the entire transportation community. These free channels allow Research Services to expand its
reach in a manner that aligns with MnDOT’s strategic directions of innovation and transparency. By using these applications,
Research Services hopes to open new channels of communication to our customers, the public and other government
organizations.
While the Internet and social media are powerful and useful tools, the Marketing and Communications unit is also
active in grass-roots stakeholder outreach through a number of organizations, committees and conferences. For example, in
May, we held our annual TRB meeting and conducted a TRB Strategic Highway Research Program 2 (SHRP 2) bag lunch
presentation to educate and involve MnDOT employees regarding these national programs. Other key outreach efforts
include the CTS Education and Outreach Council, the CTS Research Conference Planning Committee, the Toward Zero
Deaths Conference Planning Committee, the Minnesota Roadway Maintenance Training and Demo Day (previously Spring
Expo), and the Minnesota LTAP and National LTAP annual conferences. We also facilitate meetings focused on particular
research topics and functional areas to solicit stakeholder ideas and feedback.
To help MnDOT staff keep abreast of developments in their areas, Research Services created a new portal on MnDOT’s
iHUB to support access to TRB’s RSS feeds. This new page contains hyperlinks directing the user to the RSS feeds; TRB e-newsletter
subscription and customization functionality; and the multiple ways of receiving a TRB report: downloading it, ordering it
from the MnDOT Library or requesting a hard copy from TRB.
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M n D O T R e se a rc h Se rv ic e s • R E se a rc h se rv ic e s ov e rv i e w
Strategizing for the Future
Research Services is moving toward a more customer-centric approach, reaching out to customer groups to determine
what kind of research information they need and their preferred channels for receiving it. We are working to collaborate
more effectively with other transportation research programs, both within MnDOT and at universities, to develop
communications and marketing products that meet customer needs.
In spring 2012 Research Services engaged a consultant to assist with developing a comprehensive marketing and
communications plan. First steps included internal workshops aimed at defining the Research Services vision and how to
better serve customers. Research Services then conducted baseline interviews to evaluate its current products and determine
how to improve them. Interviewees included a small representative sample of key customers and stakeholders. Key results of
this initial survey follow:
•Overall, Research Services received high marks for competently fulfilling a valued administrative role in the research
process.
• The research conducted through Research Services is respected for its quality and usefulness.
•Leadership and several staff members were individually praised for their contributions.
Next steps include a baseline survey of all customers and stakeholders (city and county engineers, district engineers,
LRRB and TRIG members, researchers, consultants and TAP members) to evaluate Research Services programs and services.
Figure 4. 4 A’s of Customer Service
Attitude
Potential users and advocates
prefer to interact with a
customer-focused organization.
Systems, processes and terms
need to be clear, fair, consistent
and readily understood.
Approachable
Potential users want
to know how the results
are relevant to their situation.
Applicable
To value the services,
potential users need to be
aware of what is offered.
Aware
Marketing plan workshops made use of this “four A’s” mnemonic to evaluate the current Research Services program and devise
strategies for improvement.
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M n D O T R e s e a r c h S e r v i c e s • F Y 2 0 1 2 a n n u a l r e p ort
Research Funding Programs
Figure 5. FY2012 Research Funds
by Funding Source
3%
COPTRS
27%
LRRB
10%
Other
30%
State Research
Program
29%
FHWA SP&R
State Research Program
$3,284,000
FHWA State Planning and Research (Part II) $3,190,840
Local Road Research Board
$2,902,378
Cooperative Program for
Transportation Research and Studies
$363,000
Other*$1,117,087
In FY2012, Research Services managed $10,857,305 aimed at
improving transportation in Minnesota. These funds are generated at
state, federal and local levels; the amounts from the various funding
sources are shown in Figure 5.
Research Services provides leadership, financial management,
information services and administrative support to the following
programs:
FHWA State Planning and Research (SP&R). SP&R funds,
representing 29 percent of MnDOT’s research budget this year, come
from the FHWA. At least 25 percent of the money goes to state-specific
research needs. The SP&R program supports funding for federal
programs (NCHRP, TRB Core Services and AASHTO Technical Services
programs); pool fund projects; and single-state projects (research,
implementation and research support contracts). More information
about the single-state and cooperative research and implementation
efforts supported by SP&R Part II funding is available beginning on page
52 of this report.
MnDOT’s State Research Program (SRP). SRP funds comprised
30 percent of MnDOT’s FY2012 research budget. The Minnesota state
government provides this funding to ensure that agency research needs
*Includes contributions from other MnDOT offices (Maintenance,
Traffic, Materials, Investment Management and Policy Analysis,
are addressed and to support MnDOT’s strategic directions: safety,
Research & Innovation) and districts along with the Twin
Cities Metropolitan Council and the University of Minnesota
mobility, innovation, leadership and transparency. SRP funds are often
Intelligent Transportation Systems Institute.
used to match dollars from other funding sources, including FHWA
SP&R, CTS and the Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) Institute.
These funds are also used to promote, support and complement MnDOT’s other research programs. More information about
these funds is available starting on page 77 of this report.
Total$10,857,305
Local Road Research Board (LRRB). These funds, which comprised 27 percent of MnDOT’s FY2012 research budget,
come from the LRRB, which was created to facilitate transportation research and information sharing among Minnesota
city and county engineers. Research Services administers the budget and research program for the LRRB. Some of the
services that we provide include contract administration; financial management (at both the program level and for individual
projects); communications and logistics management (meeting arrangements, record keeping and purchase orders);
reporting; and technology transfer. We apply our full research management methodology: from identifying research needs
and facilitating proposals to guiding LRRB projects to closeout and implementation. Details about the LRRB are available
beginning on page 81 of this report.
Cooperative Program for Transportation Research and Studies (COPTRS). In addition to the three major programs
described above, 3 percent of the FY2012 budget was dedicated to the University of Minnesota through COPTRS. This
program was established in 1983 to foster cooperation in basic and applied sciences and engineering to solve transportation
problems, speed technology transfer, and stimulate new ideas and areas of research. The level of funding for this program is
determined by legislative action.
Other Funding. As Figure 5 indicates, 10 percent of MnDOT’s research budget come from funding sources other
than those listed above. These funds are contributed by public agencies as well as MnDOT offices and districts, and clearly
demonstrate the commitment and support for MnDOT’s statewide research programs.
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M n D O T R e s e a r c h S e r v i c e s • r e s e a r c h f u n d i n g p rogr a m s
FHWA State Planning and Research
SP&R funds are received from the FHWA for MnDOT planning and research activities. A minimum of 25 percent of
these funds are allocated specifically for research (designated SP&R Part II) to address state-specific research needs; the
remaining funds are assigned to planning, administration and other needs (SP&R Part I). While this publication only covers
Part II funds, it should be noted that unlike most other state DOT research programs, MnDOT Research Services oversees
Part I spending as well.
SP&R Part II funds comprised 29 percent ($3,190,840) of MnDOT’s FY2012 research budget. (See Figure 5 on page 34.)
Figure 6 illustrates the distribution of these funds. Upon determining the funds available for the year, contributions toward
national programs are allocated first. A portion of the remaining funds then goes to multi-state pooled funds, research and
implementation projects, and the small amount remaining is applied to administrative support.
The FY2012 SP&R work plan included contributions to 47 projects:
Figure 6. FY2012 SP&R Part II
Funding Distribution
•Pooled funds. In FY2012 MnDOT contributed to 30
multi-state pooled fund projects, and additional
pooled funds that MnDOT contributed to prior
to FY2012 are still active and gaining benefits for
MnDOT. Among all of these currently active pooled
funds, 12 are MnDOT-led (described with current
status updates in “MnDOT-Led Multi-State Pooled
Fund Projects” on page 38) and 30 are led by other
states or agencies (listed in “Other Active Multi-State
Pooled Fund Projects” on page 47).
Single-State
SP&R Projects
25% Multi-State
Pooled Funds
a: 22%
a: 36%
b: 3%
•Single-state projects. MnDOT contributed to 15
single-state projects. Numerous additional contracts
funded through previous allocations were also active
in FY2012, including those listed under “Program
and Administrative Support” in Figure 6. MnDOT
will contribute funds to these projects in FY2013.
The “Single-State SP&R Projects” section on page 52
of this report lists all of these active contracts along
with some newly funded projects that do not yet
have an associated contract.
a: 23%
b: 10%
Program
& Admin
b:
5%
c: 1%
29%
Federal Program
Support
Single-State SP&R Projects
$ 1,327,327
a: Research and Implementation
$ 1,036,539
b: Program and Administrative Support* $ 290,788
•Federal program support. SP&R funds are used to
support NCHRP, TRB and AASHTO technical
programs, described in “Research Services
Partnerships and Programs” on page 15. These
federal programs sponsor a variety of research and
information-sharing efforts and are supported by all
of the states.
Multi-State Pooled Funds
a: Participation in Pooled Funds Led by Other States
b: MnDOT-Led Pooled Funds
$ 706,200
Federal Program Support
a: NCHRP
b: TRB
c: AASHTO
$ 820,604
$ 658,689
$ 128,915
$ 33,000
$ 613,700
$ 92,500
Total$2,854,131
*Funding during FY2012 for Program and Administrative support
came from the 2011 SP&R work plan as a result of MnDOT’s
transition from calendar to fiscal year SP&R accounting.
SP&R funds enable MnDOT to invest in and pursue long-range strategies and research into innovative new technologies
that might not otherwise be feasible. SP&R funds are often used to fund implementation and technology transfer efforts to
ensure that developed innovations are understood and used by MnDOT districts and offices.
The oversight of the SP&R program was modified this year based on its program being judged a “lower risk area.”
This provided MnDOT with more delegated authority, and so the use of SP&R funds was expanded to research along with
implementation and administrative activities.
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M n D O T R e s e a r c h S e r v i c e s • F Y 2 0 1 2 a n n u a l r e p ort
Feature
North/West Passage Pooled
Fund Improves Road
Condition Information for
Interstate Travelers
Travel between the Midwest and the West Coast along
I-90 and I-94 began to improve about 10 years ago,
thanks to a MnDOT-led effort with seven other states
between Wisconsin and Washington. Research for this
project—called the North/West Passage Corridor—is
aimed at providing travelers with uniform, real-time
information about road and weather conditions along
this corridor.
“This study’s dynamic message sign project is a great
example of the importance of sharing solutions across
boundaries,” says Cory Johnson, traffic research director
for MnDOT’s Office of Traffic, Safety and Technology.
“Making dynamic message signs consistent between
states is critical to drivers using them to make better
travel decisions.”
Another key component of the study was the
development of i90i94travelinfo.com, a website that
provides travel information for the entire corridor,
including camera images, truck stop and rest area
information, and weather conditions.
As part of the TERRA Innovations
Series, in October 2011 TERRA hosted
the MnROAD Research Conference to
share findings from several TERRAinitiated studies. More than 160
attendees participated from at
least 13 states and Norway.
36
The study has also helped Minnesota to better
understand federal regulations requiring that state
agencies measure, calculate and report transportation
system information to travelers. And it has made
Minnesota more aware of the value in developing
contacts and sharing lessons learned with other states.
“One of the big benefits of North/West Passage Corridor
is the ability to communicate with other states,” says
Johnson. “Collaboration can actually occur face to face,
helping us to build relationships with peer states and
learn about the latest best practices. This supports the
larger objective of making sure we do our homework and
establish national baselines before beginning a project.”
For its leadership of this pooled fund study, MnDOT
Research Services received the CTS 2010 Research
Partnership Award and the 2010 Best of ITS Rural
Award in the category Best New Practice at the National
Rural ITS Conference.
For more information about this project, see the
Technical Summary on page 170.
M n D O T R e s e a r c h S e r v i c e s • r e s e a r c h f u n d i n g p rogr a m s
FY2012 Research Highlights
TPF-5(215): Transportation Engineering and Road
Research Alliance (TERRA) is a MnDOT-led pooled fund that
The National Cooperative Highway
Research Program
brings together government, industry and academia to foster
The National Cooperative Highway Research Program
collaborative research and innovation in road engineering
(NCHRP) addresses the national need for research
and construction, including issues related to cold climates.
into highway safety, planning, design, construction,
operations and maintenance. NCHRP research includes
Its work includes enhancing the capabilities and use by
the development and evaluation of fundamental new
the broader research community of MnROAD, MnDOT’s
technologies and techniques as well as sharing of best
state-of-the-art outdoor pavement research facility. Current
practices among states.
projects include a five-year study to test the performance
MnDOT staff members actively participated on 31
of thinner unbonded concrete overlays subject to
NCHRP technical advisory panels in 2012, giving
interstate traffic and Minnesota’s extreme climate; a unique
Minnesota a voice in shaping the scope and direction
partnership of several state DOTs and four universities to
of these large projects. (See “Active NCHRP Projects
develop asphalt mixture specifications for low-temperature
with MnDOT Panel Membership” on page 48 for a full
cracking based on laboratory fracture testing and modeling;
list of participants.) MnDOT leaders also work with
other TRB cooperative programs including the Transit
and a project to evaluate the durability, hydrologic
Cooperative Research Program and the SHRP 2.
characteristics and environmental effects of porous asphalt
One NCHRP report
pavement when used on a low-volume roadway in a cold
producing significant
climate. A Technical Summary about this project can be
benefits in Minnesota
found on page 152.
today is NCHRP Report 691,
TPF-5(198): Urban Mobility Study is developing
Mix Design Practices for
better tools to monitor and evaluate urban congestion.
Warm Mix Asphalt, which
Researchers are using the latest mobility data sources to
MnDOT’s Tim Clyne helped
guide as a panel member
develop comprehensive performance measures for tracking
for the project. Warm mix
congestion improvements, which member agencies then
asphalt was a promising
apply to their congestion planning. The study generates
alternative to hot mix
products like the well-known Urban Mobility Report,
designs, offering improved
which depicts nationwide congestion trends as well as statefield performance (with
focused research efforts such as Twin Cities Metropolitan
better compaction and a smoother ride), environmental
advantages and better conditions for workers as a
and MN Statewide IRC Arterial Travel Time Analysis: Use
result of lower exposures to petroleum vapors. But this
of Private Sector Traffic Speed Data. This study showed
report helped to standardize the procedures for warm
how speed data already being collected by industry could
mix application and gave MnDOT greater confidence in
be used to help MnDOT monitor the statewide network.
the viability of warm mix. Consequently, Minnesota has
Current research includes evaluating private sector data
gone from applying 20,000 to 50,000 tons of warm mix
from GPS and other mobile devices as well as a variety of
per year to well over a million tons in FY2012.
studies on land-use and other planning practices, access
and traffic management strategies, and transportation data
collection devices. For more information about this project, see the Technical Summary on page 160.
TPF-5(153): Optimal Timing of Preventive Maintenance is a MnDOT-led study that seeks to better understand the
environmental aging of asphalt binder and how aging effects can be reduced through pavement preservation techniques. The
work is performed on specially built test sections at MnDOT’s MnROAD test facility, which provides a unique opportunity
to study pavement aging with detailed weather information and known traffic inputs in a controlled work environment. The
findings of this project will help establish recommended guidelines about how and when to apply asphalt surface treatments.
Proposed practices will ideally balance maximum life for pavements and minimum costs for preventive maintenance.
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MnDOT-Led Multi-State Pooled Fund Projects
This section provides basic information about MnDOT-led SP&R projects funded by multiple states that were active in
2012. In some cases, state financial commitments ended prior to 2012, but these funds are still being spent.
TPF-5(093), TPF-5(190): North/West Passage—Phase III
URL: http://www.pooledfund.org/Details/Study/412
Funded by: SP&R, SRP
Total Cost: $600,000
Number of Participating States: 9
MN 2011 Commitment: $25,000
TL: Cory Johnson
MN 2012 Commitment: $25,000
PC: Deb Fick
Description: Interstates 90 and 94 from Wisconsin to the state
of Washington form a major corridor for commercial and
recreational travel, and states typically provide motorists
with real-time road and weather information using dynamic
message signs, 511 phone systems and the Web. These
communication tools, together with roadway maintenance
and traffic operations systems, are supported by Intelligent
Transportation Systems (ITS) technologies. Because states
independently maintain their own ITS, it can be difficult
to accomplish ITS-related goals that require sharing
information among states. This study provides a platform to
allow states in the corridor—the North/West Passage—to
integrate traveler information systems and coordinate
maintenance operations across state lines.
The i90i94travelinfo.com website from pooled fund study
TPF-5(190) is a valuable information portal for travelers
along the North/West Passage Corridor.
Status: Completed projects in the past year include a custom cost-benefit evaluation tool for rural ITS applications
commonly used among the North/West Passage states, a study to help coordinate regional permitting throughout
the corridor, and a synthesis of technologies and best practices to help define options for automating road condition
reporting. In addition, work continued on a project to promote consistent application of Code of Federal Regulation rules
for the Real-Time System Management Information Program. An effort was also started recently to advance open source
software throughout the corridor as a way to reduce individual states’ software development costs.
Impact: As individual projects continue, work already completed through this pooled fund is making a difference. A
notable example is a corridorwide traveler information website, i90i94travelinfo.com, which provides road condition
information to the public. This program offers significant value to member states as well, providing a platform for
participants to establish contacts, share lessons learned and develop strategies to solve issues of common concern.
Member states benefit from efforts toward standards development and work on improved methods for sharing,
coordinating and integrating traveler information among neighboring states along the corridor.
MN Commitment End Date: 2011
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M n D O T R e s e a r c h S e r v i c e s • r e s e a r c h f u n d i n g p rogr a m s
TPF-5(129) Recycled Unbound Pavement Materials (MnROAD Study)
URL: http://www.pooledfund.org/Details/Study/361
Funded by: SP&R, SRP
Total Cost: $718,120
Number of Participating States: 6
MN 2011 Commitment: $15,000
TL: John Siekmeier
MN 2012 Commitment: $0
PC: Nelson Cruz
Description: Using recycled materials, particularly concrete, as a substitute for aggregate will continue to rise as aggregate
supplies around the world diminish in the face of increasing demand. This research aims to quantify the mechanistic and
performance value of several common recycled aggregate sources and consider their impact on the environment through
effluent runoff.
Status: This work has been completed.
Impact: This study will put the use of recycled aggregate sources on firmer footing for use in mechanistic-empirical design
and will situate the use of recycled unbound materials so that their environmental impact can be better understood and
considered in design choices.
MN Commitment End Date: 2011
TPF-5(132) Low Temperature Cracking in Asphalt Pavements (Phase II, MnROAD Study)
URL: http://www.pooledfund.org/Details/Study/395
Funded by: SP&R, SRP
Total Cost: $475,000
Number of Participating States: 7
MN 2011 Commitment: $20,000
TL: Timothy Clyne
MN 2012 Commitment: $0
PC: Bruce Holdhusen
Description: To help prevent low-temperature cracking in
asphalt pavements, it is necessary to understand fracture
mechanisms and develop low-temperature specifications
for conventional and polymer-modified asphalt binders and
mixtures. This study, the second phase of a multipart effort,
set out to validate the Phase I laboratory test procedures,
models and pavement designs by monitoring two new test
sections at MnROAD. This study includes three MnROAD
test cells, consisting of 500-foot road segments, to study lowtemperature cracking in recycled asphalt.
The tools developed
from pooled fund
study TPF-5(132) will
improve asphalt binder
selection to help
combat cold weather
cracking of asphalt
pavements.
Status: Most of the work for this pooled fund study was completed by the close of the fiscal year and produced three
key final results: First, from among the fracture tests studied in Phase I, the study established the disk-shaped compact
tension test as the most reliable and most accurate tool for predicting cold temperature cracking. Next, a mixture
specification was developed to give pavement engineers design criteria for asphalt mixes with respect to low-temperature
resistance. Finally, investigators developed a thermal cracking computer model, a stand-alone tool that represents an
improvement over the methods in the AASHTO Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide for predicting cold
weather cracking.
Impact: This research helped to determine which binder test was most effective for predicting low-temperature pavement
performance, and it validated the new laboratory and pavement design procedures investigated in Phase I. Together
the procedures, specifications and software will lead to improved binder selection and more durable, economical roads.
MnDOT has initiated an implementation project, scheduled to begin in autumn 2012, that will use these test procedures
on three to five asphalt paving projects in the state. Moreover, these methodologies may prove useful for future studies
that investigate asphalt fracture resistance to other influences, such as moisture and aging.
MN Commitment End Date: 2011
39
M n D O T R e s e a r c h S e r v i c e s • F Y 2 0 1 2 a n n u a l r e p ort
TPF-5(134) PCC Surface Characteristics—Rehabilitation (MnROAD Study)
URL: http://www.pooledfund.org/Details/Study/363
Funded by: SP&R, SRP
Total Cost: $275,000
Number of Participating States: 3
MN 2011 Commitment: $0
TL: Bernard Izevbekhai
MN 2012 Commitment: $0
PC: Bruce Holdhusen
Description: The relationship between texture and ride in reducing pavement noise remains poorly understood. This study
compares diamond grinding techniques used on concrete pavement surfaces in terms of friction, ride and texture, and
correlates these to comfort, noise and safety of riding experiences.
Status: Participant state agencies are presenting findings to their state transportation communities.
Impact: This study will provide designers with necessary data for balancing safety, ride comfort and noise generation in
approaches to concrete pavement rehabilitation. It will ensure the quietest, most comfortable and safest configuration of
pavement surfaces for drivers.
MN Commitment End Date: 2010
TPF-5(148) The Effects of Implements of Husbandry “Farm Equipment” on Pavement Performance (MnROAD Study)
URL: http://www.pooledfund.org/Details/Study/375
Funded by: SP&R, SRP
Total Cost: $1,000,258
Number of Participating States: 5
MN 2011 Commitment: $0
TL: Shongtao Dai
MN 2012 Commitment: $0
PC: Bruce Holdhusen
Description: Heavy agricultural equipment like manure spreaders can overstress rural roadways, causing premature failure
and incurring premature repair and replacement costs.
Status: This work has been completed. A Technical Summary covering report 2012-08 issued as part of this study can be
found on page 138 of this report.
Impact: As a result of this study, researchers found that heavy equipment can seriously damage rural roadways. By
encouraging use of paved shoulders or driving in the center of the road, rural transportation agencies can limit this
damage. Such measures have been implemented in northern Wisconsin as a result of this study and are proving effective.
MN Commitment End Date: 2008
TPF-5(149) Design and Construction Guidelines for Thermally Insulated Concrete Pavements (MnROAD Study)
URL: http://www.pooledfund.org/Details/Study/376
Funded by: SP&R, SRP
Total Cost: $438,980
Number of Participating States: 4
MN 2011 Commitment: $20,000
TL: Timothy Clyne
MN 2012 Commitment: $0
PC: Nelson Cruz
Description: Thermally insulated concrete pavements consist of thin HMA overlays of concrete structures, combining the
durability of concrete structures with the ride quality of asphalt. This study evaluates life-cycle analysis; environmental/
climatic effects on performance; pavement design; materials properties for the asphalt and concrete materials; and design
details such as joint spacing, dowels and joint support.
Status: This work has been completed.
Impact: This study will establish strong, research- and performance-based design and planning standards for thermally
insulated concrete pavements.
MN Commitment End Date: 2011
40
M n D O T R e s e a r c h S e r v i c e s • r e s e a r c h f u n d i n g p rogr a m s
TPF-5(153) Optimal Timing of Preventive Maintenance for Addressing Environmental Aging in HMA Pavements
URL: http://www.pooledfund.org/Details/Study/380
Funded by: SP&R, SRP
Total Cost: $335,000
Number of Participating States: 6
MN 2011 Commitment: $15,000
TL: Thomas Wood
MN 2012 Commitment: $0
PC: Bruce Holdhusen
Description: The purpose of this study is to determine the
proper timing of preventive maintenance treatments for
asphalt pavements. Environmental aging of asphalt binder
is still not well understood, and this study will seek to better
understand the aging mechanism and how aging effects
can be reduced through pavement preservation techniques.
The work is performed on specially built test sections at
MnROAD.
An asphalt core is subjected to fracture energy testing
conducted in this study. The test helps compare cracking
resistance of different asphalt binders and mixes.
Status: This multiyear aging study remains on track, with investigators now in their third year of testing asphalt core
samples taken from travel and nontravel lanes of field-test pavements. Investigators are extracting binder from these
samples to evaluate binder property changes and to identify the most informative test parameters with respect to aging.
Impact: MnROAD provides a unique opportunity to study pavement aging with detailed weather information and known
traffic inputs in a controlled work environment. The research findings will help establish recommended guidelines about
how and when to apply asphalt surface treatments. Proposed practices will ideally balance maximum life for pavements
and minimum costs for preventive maintenance.
MN Commitment End Date: 2013
41
M n D O T R e s e a r c h S e r v i c e s • F Y 2 0 1 2 a n n u a l r e p ort
TPF-5(165) Development of Design Guide for Thin and Ultra-Thin Concrete Overlays of Existing Asphalt Pavements
(MnROAD Study)
URL: http://www.pooledfund.org/Details/Study/389
Number of Participating States: 8
Funded by: SP&R, SRP
MN 2012 Commitment: $0
Total Cost: $330,000
MN 2011 Commitment: $9,200
TL: Thomas Burnham
PC: Nelson Cruz
Description: Construction of thin and ultra-thin concrete overlays of existing asphalt
pavement—also known as whitetopping—is growing in use as a rehabilitation
option; in Minnesota, county highway agencies have shown a particular interest in
using these overlays. The need for research-based design guidance on thin and ultrathin overlays prompted this pooled fund project. The aim is to study performance
of thin and ultra-thin overlays on highway test sections, assess performance models,
and develop design guidance software.
Status: This project is nearly complete, and participant agencies have evaluated an
early release of the design software. Based on field testing results, which showed that
thin and ultra-thin overlays tend to crack longitudinally rather than transversely
as originally assumed, the software is being updated accordingly. In addition, a
training module for this software is now under development.
Impact: The final software will represent a unified national design guide for thin and ultra-thin concrete overlays of
existing asphalt pavements. It is a significant improvement over current design guidance, and MnDOT plans to use the
revised software when it is completed. Though the software design program is a stand-alone tool, it was designed be
compatible with the Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide if AASHTO chooses to adopt it. This pooled fund
study served as a model for TPF-5(269), which will similarly develop guidance for unbonded concrete overlays.
MN Commitment End Date: 2012
TPF-5(269) Development of an Improved Design Procedure for Unbonded Concrete Overlays
URL: http://www.pooledfund.org/Details/Study/498
Funded by: SP&R, SRP
Total Cost: $420,000
Number of Participating States: 7
MN 2011 Commitment: $0
TL: Tom Burnham
MN 2012 Commitment: $20,000
PC: Deb Fick
Description: Construction of unbonded concrete overlays on existing concrete or composite pavements has been gaining
popularity as a pavement rehabilitation option. This pooled fund study was patterned after MnDOT-led pooled fund
study TPF-5(165), which developed design guidance software for thin and ultra-thin overlays. This new study looks
at unbound overlays of all thicknesses, from the very thin to the very thick, which are not addressed in detail in the
AASHTO Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide.
Status: This study recently started, with the participant states meeting in summer 2012 to define the request for proposals.
Contractor selection is expected by the end of 2012.
Impact: This study will create a unified national design guide for unbonded concrete overlays of existing concrete and
composite pavements. The guidance will also help highway agencies determine suitable separator layer (interlayer)
materials and properties to ensure long-term performance of this type of overlay system. Like TPF-5(165), the goal is to
develop stand-alone software that is also compatible with the AASHTO Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide.
MN Commitment End Date: 2014
42
M n D O T R e s e a r c h S e r v i c e s • r e s e a r c h f u n d i n g p rogr a m s
TPF-5(192) Loop and Length-Based Classification Pooled Fund
URL: http://www.pooledfund.org/Details/Study/416
Funded by: SP&R, SRP
Total Cost: $510,000
Number of Participating States: 15
MN 2011 Commitment: $0
TL: Gene Hicks
MN 2012 Commitment: $0
PC: Deb Fick
Description: This pooled fund study focuses on two different
areas surrounding length-based vehicle detection systems
(compared to traditional systems based on axle count and
weight). First, investigators are conducting extensive field
and laboratory tests of in-traffic detection hardware systems
that can be used to measure vehicle length. This includes
inductance loop detectors and nonloop detectors along with
the associated controllers and data processors. The second
part of the study is an analysis of vehicle length-based data
to support recommendations for a length classification and
sorting system that can be standardized across states.
Status: A preliminary final report for this study is in draft form, and follow-up testing is ongoing. Initial findings include
establishment of margin of error for the different detector configurations and controllers studied. Results to date present
preliminary data from participant states on categorization efforts for vehicle length data. Final project deliverables
will include a length detection calibration and verification procedure to be validated through multistate testing. This
project will also assess conversion of length-based data to the existing vehicle class system used in the national Highway
Performance Monitoring System.
Impact: When used for the appropriate application, a vehicle classification system based on length can have advantages
over traditional systems. It is less expensive and can be done with portable and nonintrusive equipment for short-term
data collection. Length-based vehicle class data can be used to support a variety of highway agency activities: pavement
design and management, maintenance and rehabilitation scheduling, freight flow predictions, capacity projections,
environmental impact analysis and weight enforcement strategies.
MN Commitment End Date: 2008
43
M n D O T R e s e a r c h S e r v i c e s • F Y 2 0 1 2 a n n u a l r e p ort
TPF-5(215) TERRA Pooled Fund Support—Transportation Engineering and Road Research Alliance
URL: http://www.pooledfund.org/Details/Study/443
Funded by: SP&R, SRP
Total Cost: $200,000
Number of Participating States: 7
MN 2011 Commitment: $7,500
TL: Maureen Jensen
MN 2012 Commitment: $7,500
PC: Deb Fick
Description: Established in 2004, The Transportation Engineering and Road Research Alliance (TERRA) brings
together representatives from government, industry and academia to foster collaborative research and innovation in
road engineering and construction, including issues related to cold climates. TERRA’s work includes enhancing the
capabilities and use by the broader research community of MnROAD, MnDOT’s state-of-the-art outdoor pavement
research facility. Current projects include a five-year study to test the performance of thinner unbonded concrete overlays
subject to Interstate traffic and Minnesota’s extreme climate; a unique partnership of several state DOTs and four
universities to develop asphalt mixture specifications for low-temperature cracking based on laboratory fracture testing
and modeling; and a project to evaluate the durability, hydrologic characteristics and environmental effects of porous
asphalt pavement when used on a low-volume roadway in a cold climate.
Status: TERRA has grown significantly in the last two years to six member states. Its board meets three times a year.
In summer 2012, TERRA members went through a strategic planning process to promote a greater focus on research
and implementation. Planning is currently under way for the next phase of MnROAD, to begin in 2016. For more
information, see the Technical Summary on page 152.
Impact: TERRA has had a dramatic effect on MnDOT’s approach to research, increasing its focus on finding partners and
existing solutions before commencing projects. By bringing partners together to collaborate on transportation research
problems, TERRA gives MnDOT a broader perspective and keeps it focused on results and implementation.
MN Commitment End Date: 2014
44
M n D O T R e s e a r c h S e r v i c e s • r e s e a r c h f u n d i n g p rogr a m s
TPF-5(218) Clear Roads Winter Highway Operations—Phase 2
URL: http://www.pooledfund.org/Details/Study/446
Funded by: SP&R, SRP
Total Cost: $2,105,000
TL: Thomas Peters
Number of Participating States: 27
MN 2011 Commitment: $25,000
MN 2012 Commitment: $25,000
PC: Deb Fick
Description: New winter maintenance materials, methods and equipment are constantly being developed, and states need
to know the effectiveness of these tools before they can be widely implemented. As state DOTs pursue new technologies
and practices for improving winter highway operations, this pooled fund study supports their evaluation in both the
laboratory and the field to develop industry standards, performance measures and cost-benefit analyses, practical field
guides and training curricula. The scope of the effort is currently expanding to focus on state agency needs, technology
transfer and implementation, including support for staff in the field.
Status: To date, 11 projects have been completed and 11 more are under way or scheduled to begin soon. This pooled
fund study recently published a step-by-step instructional video to accompany the previously developed Field Testing
Guide for Deicing Chemicals. The video demonstrates the levels of field testing that can be performed to determine the
effectiveness of a deicing chemical. Another project now under way is a follow-up effort to enhance a cost-benefit analysis
toolkit developed in 2010, which MnDOT recently began incorporating into its training program. Other upcoming
projects include efforts for establishing effective salt and anti-icing application rates, understanding how winter chemicals
perform on special pavement types, training snowplow operators and supervisors, comparing materials distribution
systems and improving snowplow design. For more information, see the Technical Summary on page 124.
Impact: Identification and field testing of innovative winter maintenance solutions improve safety and save money.
With participation from more than half the states in the nation, this MnDOT-led study is delivering value to a broad
audience of state DOTs by addressing a range of winter maintenance questions. The benefits extend well beyond state
agencies to the public at large, as illustrated in nontraditional research activities like a coordinated national winter driver
safety campaign, “Ice and Snow…Take It Slow,” which continues to reinforce the importance of safe driving in winter
conditions.
MN Commitment End Date: 2012
45
M n D O T R e s e a r c h S e r v i c e s • F Y 2 0 1 2 a n n u a l r e p ort
TPF-5(262) Evaluation of Guide Sign Fonts
URL: http://www.pooledfund.org/Details/Study/490
Funded by: SP&R, SRP
Total Cost: $165,000
Number of Participating States: 5
MN 2011 Commitment: $0
TL: Cory Johnson
MN 2012 Commitment: $15,000
PC: Deb Fick
Description: The federal government gives final ruling on
which fonts are acceptable for highway signs. The lettering
in the current standard font, Series E (Modified), presents
readability problems for some motorists, particularly older
motorists driving at night. A proposed alternative has not yet
met with final federal approval, and as a proprietary font it
comes with significant cost issues. This study seeks to develop
a new font based on the current standard and to conduct
comparison visibility and readability tests using test drivers
in a controlled field environment.
Status: Work on this project began recently. Contractor
selection has been completed, and work began in autumn
2012.
Pooled fund study
TPF-5(262) is
seeking to improve
upon FHWA’s
current standard
highway font, Series
E (Modified).
Impact: The final report from this study will include a recommended alternative font based on testing and analysis. A
planned follow-up step beyond this pooled fund study will be to submit the findings and the proposed font to the FHWA
for adoption into the federal Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices. If this is accomplished, states will be able to
produce highway signs that are easier to read and that provide for a safer driving experience for all motorists.
MN Commitment End Date: 2013
46
M n D O T R e s e a r c h S e r v i c e s • r e s e a r c h f u n d i n g p rogr a m s
Other Active Multi-State Pooled Fund Projects
Study
Number
Title
Technical
Liaison
Project
Coordinator
Lead State
or Agency
Number of
Current MN
Participating
Commitment Total Cost
States or Agencies End Date
Total MN
Commitment
MN 2012
Commitment
SPR-2(207)
Transportation Management Center
Pooled Fund Study
Brian Kary
Deb Fick
FHWA
33
2012
$5,632,267
$350,000
$50,000
SPR-3(042)
Aurora Program
Curt Pape
Deb Fick
IA
19
2013
$3,697,500
$425,000
$25,000
SPR-3(074)
Pavement Research and Technology
Roger Olson
Deb Fick
WA
4
2012
$625,000
$310,000
$15,000
TPF-5(029)
High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV)/
Managed Use Lane (MUL)
Brian Kary
Deb Fick
FHWA
12
2013
$1,990,000
$225,000
$25,000
TPF-5(054)
Maintenance Decision Support
System (MDSS)
Curt Pape
Deb Fick
SD
20
2013
$4,383,841
$250,000
$25,000
TPF-5(114)
Roadside Safety Research Program
Michael Elle
Deb Fick
WA
9
2013
$1,565,000
$500,000
$50,000
TPF-5(139)
PCC Surface Characteristics:
Tire-Pavement Noise Program
Part 3—Innovative Solutions/
Current Practices
Bernard
Izevbekhai
Deb Fick
IA
9
2008
$720,000
$55,000
$0
TPF-5(156)
Mid America Freight Coalition
Pooled Fund
John
Tompkins
Deb Fick
WI
10
2013
$1,325,000
$150,000
$25,000
TPF-5(159)
Technology Transfer Concrete
Consortium
Maria
Masten
Deb Fick
IA
24
2015
$667,000
$51,000
$7,000
TPF-5(174)
Construction of Crack-Free Bridge
Decks—Phase II
Paul Kivisto
Deb Fick
KS
14
2011
$995,000
$75,000
$0
TPF-5(179)
Evaluation of Test Methods for
Permeability (Transport) and
Development of Performance
Guidelines for Durability
Bernard
Izevbekhai
Deb Fick
IN
11
2011
$843,000
$87,000
$0
TPF-5(193)
Midwest States Pooled Fund Crash
Test Program
Michael Elle
Deb Fick
NE
16
2013
$2,667,005
$190,100
$66,700
TPF-5(197)
The Impact of Wide-Base Tires on
Pavement Damage: A National
Study
Shongtao
Dai
Deb Fick
FHWA
7
2012
$725,000
$100,000
$25,000
TPF-5(198)
Urban Mobility Study, 2009
Continuation
Paul Czech
Deb Fick
TX
12
2012
$310,000
$265,000
$30,000
TPF-5(202)
HY-8 Culvert Analysis Program—
Phase Three of Development Efforts
Petra DeWall
Deb Fick
FHWA
8
2011
$160,000
$30,000
$0
TPF-5(209)
Transportation Curriculum
Coordination Council (TCCC)
Catherine
Betts
Deb Fick
FHWA
16
2012
$1,100,000
$75,000
$15,000
TPF-5(224)
Investigation of Jointed Plain
Concrete Pavement Deterioration
at Joints and the Potential
Contribution of Deicing Chemicals
Bernard
Izevbekhai
Deb Fick
IA
9
2013
$430,000
$60,000
$15,000
TPF-5(225)
Validation and Implementation of
Hot-Poured Crack Sealant
Jim McGraw
Deb Fick
VA
9
2013
$825,000
$100,000
$25,000
TPF-5(231)
ITS Pooled Fund Program
(ENTERPRISE)
Jon Jackels
Deb Fick
MI
11
2012
$1,585,000
$60,000
$30,000
TPF-5(237)
Transportation Library Connectivity
and Development
Sheila
Hatchell
Deb Fick
MO
24
2012
$905,528
$40,000
$20,000
TPF-5(238)
Design and Fabrication Standards to
Eliminate Fracture Critical Concerns
in Two Girder Bridge Systems
Yihong Gao
Deb Fick
IN
9
2013
$840,000
$60,000
$20,000
cont. 
47
M n D O T R e s e a r c h S e r v i c e s • F Y 2 0 1 2 a n n u a l r e p ort
Other Active Multi-State Pooled Fund Projects, Cont.
Study
Number
Title
Technical
Liaison
Project
Coordinator
Lead State
or Agency
Number of
Current MN
Participating
Commitment Total Cost
States or Agencies End Date
Total MN
Commitment
MN 2012
Commitment
TPF-5(245)
2012 Multi-State Asset Management
Implementation Workshop
Cassandra
Isaackson
Deb Fick
FHWA
11
2011
$120,000
$10,000
$0
TPF-5(247)
Field Testing Handheld
Thermographic Inspection
Technologies Phase II
Paul
Rowekamp
Deb Fick
MO
10
2012
$610,000
$60,000
$30,000
TPF-5(253)
Member-Level Redundancy in BuiltUp Steel Members
Todd
Nieman
Deb Fick
IN
8
2013
$550,000
$75,000
$25,000
TPF-5(254)
Evaluation and Analysis of Decked
Bulb T Beam Bridge
Dave Conkel
Deb Fick
MI
5
2014
$380,000
$60,000
$15,000
TPF-5(256)
HY-12 Storm Drain Hydraulic
Analysis Program—Phase Two of
Development Efforts
Lisa Sayler
Deb Fick
FHWA
6
2013
$80,000
$10,000
$10,000
TPF-5(258)
Traffic Signal Systems Operations
and Management
Steve
Misgen
Deb Fick
IN
10
2014
$525,000
$75,000
$25,000
TPF-5(265)
Watershed Modeling System
License Renewal Agreement
Lisa Sayler
Deb Fick
FHWA
8
2013
$112,000
$5,000
$5,000
TPF-5(266)
Surface-Water Model System
License Renewal Agreement
Lisa Sayler
Deb Fick
FHWA
7
2013
$86,000
$10,000
$10,000
TPF-5(270)
Recycled Materials Resource
Center—Third Generation
Jerry Geib
Deb Fick
WI
4
2014
$300,000
$75,000
$25,000
Active NCHRP Projects with MnDOT Panel Membership
Project
Number
Project Title
MnDOT
Panel Member
D0148
Incorporating Pavement Preservation into the MEPDG
D0362
Guidelines for Accessible Pedestrian Signals
D0836
Division
Role
Start Date
End Date
Roger C. Olson
Policy, Safety & Strategic
Initiatives
Member
2010
2012
Beverly Farraher
Operations
Member
2001
2013
Research for AASHTO Standing Committee on Planning: Support for
Improved Transportation Planning and Project Development
Timothy A.
Henkel
Modal Planning & Program
Management
Member
1998
Ongoing
D0836113
The Role of Planning in a 21st Century Transportation Agency
Timothy A.
Henkel
Modal Planning & Program
Management
Member
Pending
Pending
D0876
Strengthening and Integrating Safety in the State and Regional
Planning Processes: Best Practices and Recommended Procedures
Brian K. Gage
Modal Planning & Program
Management
Member
2009
2012
D0885
The Comprehensive Economic Effects of Highway-Rail At-Grade Crossing
Crashes
Susan H.
Aylesworth
Modal Planning & Program
Management
Member
2011
2012
D0888
Effective Project Scoping Practices to Improve On-Time and On-Budget
Delivery of Highway Projects
Michael T.
Ginnaty
Engineering Services
Member
Pending
Pending
D0950
Performance-Related Specifications for Asphaltic Binders Used in
Preservation Surface Treatments
Shongtao Dai
Policy, Safety & Strategic
Initiatives
Member
2011
2014
D0951
Material Properties of Cold In-Place Recycled and Full Depth
Reclamation Asphalt Concrete for Pavement Design
John A.
Siekmeier
Policy, Safety & Strategic
Initiatives
Member
2012
2014
D0952
Short-Term Laboratory Conditioning of Asphalt Mixtures
Timothy R. Clyne
Policy, Safety & Strategic
Initiatives
Member
2012
2014
D1084
Modulus-Based Construction Specifications and Issues for Highway
Earthwork and Unbound Base Materials
John A.
Siekmeier
Policy, Safety & Strategic
Initiatives
Chair
2010
Ongoing
D1085
A Guidebook for Construction Manager-At-Risk Contracting for Highway
Projects
Jay J. Hietpas
Engineering Services
Member
2011
2013
cont. 
48
M n D O T R e s e a r c h S e r v i c e s • r e s e a r c h f u n d i n g p rogr a m s
Active NCHRP Projects with MnDOT Panel Membership, Cont.
Project
Number
Project Title
MnDOT
Panel Member
Division
Role
Start Date
End Date
D1089
Determination of Best Practices for Optimal Construction Inspection
Terry Ward
Engineering Services
Member
2012
2014
D1283
Calibration of LRFD Concrete Bridge Design Specifications for
Serviceability
David Dahlberg
Engineering Services
Member
2009
2012
D1284
Guidelines for the Load and Resistance Factor Design and Rating of
Riveted, Bolted, and Welded Gusset-Plate Connections for Steel Bridges
Kevin Western
Engineering Services
Member
2008
Ongoing
D1426
Culvert and Storm Drain Inspection Manual
Bonnie Peterson
Engineering Services
Member
Pending
Pending
D1539
Superelevation Criteria for Horizontal Curves on Steep Grades
James Rosenow
Engineering Services
Member
2010
2012
D1546
A Design-Management Guide for Design-Build and Construction
Manager/General Contractor Projects
Jon Chiglo
Engineering Services
Member
2012
2013
D1749
Guide for Effective Tribal Crash Reporting
Linda Aitken
Government Affairs
Member
2011
2013
D1751
Input to the Development of a National Highway Safety Strategy
Bernard J.
Arseneau
Deputy Commissioner/
Chief Engineer
Member
2011
2012
D1761
Work Zone Crash Characteristics and Countermeasure Guidance
Susan M. Groth
Policy, Safety & Strategic
Initiatives
Member
Pending
Pending
D2036
Highway Research and Technology—International Information Sharing
Mukhtar Thakur
Modal Planning & Program
Management
Member
1993
2012
D2082
Next Generation of the FHWA Transportation Pooled Fund (TPF) Website
Susan J. Lodahl
Operations
Chair
2009
2012
D208304
Effects of Changing Transportation Energy Supplies and Alternative Fuel
Sources on State Departments of Transportation
Jean Wallace
Policy, Safety & Strategic
Initiatives
Member
2009
Ongoing
D208307
Sustainable Transportation Systems and Sustainability as an Organizing
Principle for Transportation Agencies
Robert Edstrom
Engineering Services
Member
2010
2013
D2085
Wind, Solar and Ground-Source Energy for Maintenance Area Facilities
Robert Miller
Operations
Member
2010
2013
D2433
Development of Design Methods for In-Stream Flow Control Structures
Petronella L.
DeWall
Engineering Services
Member
2008
2012
D2436
Scour at the Base of Retaining Walls and Other Longitudinal Structures
Petronella L.
DeWall
Engineering Services
Member
Pending
Pending
D2437
Combining Individual Scour Components to Determine Total Scour
Nicole A.
DanielsonBartelt
Engineering Services
Member
Pending
Pending
D2539
Developing Environmental Performance Measures and a Methodology
for Incorporation into Performance Management Programs
Jennie Ross
Engineering Services
Member
Pending
Pending
D2540
Long-Term Performance and Life-Cycle Costs of Stormwater Best
Management Practices
Nicklas Tiedeken
Engineering Services
Chair
2012
2014
D1749
Guide for Effective Tribal Crash Reporting
Linda Aitken
Government Affairs
Member
2011
2013
49
M n D O T R e s e a r c h S e r v i c e s • F Y 2 0 1 2 a n n u a l r e p ort
Active ACRP Projects with MnDOT Panel Membership
Project
Number
DA0327
MnDOT
Panel Member
Project Title
Evaluating Methods for Counting Aircraft Operations at Non-Towered
Airports
Peter Buchen
Division
Role
Start Date
End Date
Modal Planning & Program
Management
Member
2011
2013
Active NCFRP Projects with MnDOT Panel Membership
Project
Number
Project Title
MnDOT
Panel Member
Division
Role
Start Date
End Date
DF022
Applying Benefit-Cost Analysis to Freight Project Selection: Lessons
from the Corps of Engineers
William D.
Gardner
Modal Planning & Program
Management
Member
2011
2012
DF035
The Great Lakes Region Impacts on the Intermodal Freight Systems
William D.
Gardner
Modal Planning & Program
Management
Chair
2010
2012
Active SHRP 2 Technical Expert Task Groups with MnDOT Membership
Project
Number
MnDOT
Technical Expert
Task Group
Member
Project Title
Division
Role
Start Date
End Date
Shongtao Dai
Policy, Safety & Strategic
Initiatives
Member
2009
2013
Susan H.
Aylesworth
Modal Planning & Program
Management
Member
2011
2013
FB034
Using Infrared and High Speed GPR for Uniformity Measurements on
New HMA Layers and Nondestructive Testing to Identify Delaminations
between HMA Layers
FB052
Communicating Railroad-DOT Mitigation Strategies and Tools for
Communicating Railroad-DOT Mitigation Strategies
FC020
Incorporating Reliability Performance Measures into the Transportation
Planning and Programming Processes
Peggy A.
Reichert
Modal Planning & Program
Management
Member
2010
2012
FC029
Regional Operations Academy for Operations Management
Bernard J.
Arseneau
Deputy Commissioner/
Chief Engineer
Member
Pending
Pending
FC030
Urban Freeway Models Validation
James M. Kranig
Engineering Services
Member
Pending
Pending
50
M n D O T R e s e a r c h S e r v i c e s • r e s e a r c h f u n d i n g p rogr a m s
Feature
Bill Gardner Brings National Freight
Research to MnDOT
Dozens of MnDOT staff members take key roles in
guiding research efforts through several national
programs such as the Federal Highway Administration’s
(FHWA’s) Transportation Pooled Fund Program and
the Transportation Research Board’s (TRB) Cooperative
Research Programs. MnDOT staff also serves on
technical committees of the state DOTs’ nonprofit
group, the American Association of State Highway
and Transportation Officials (AASHTO). These efforts
multiply Minnesota taxpayer dollars by giving MnDOT a
voice in directing national research to the needs of the
state and exposure to the innovative practices of other
agencies. This helps MnDOT solve problems rapidly,
often without costly, duplicative research.
“We need to make
certain Minnesota
remains
connected and
competitive as
the national and
international
freight
transportation
systems evolve,”
Gardner says. His
involvement in
research helps keep Minnesota properly positioned for
these developments.
Bill Gardner, MnDOT director of the Office of Freight
& Commercial Vehicle Operations, actively supports a
variety of freight research activities, conducting freight
research projects in cooperation with MnDOT Research
Services. On the national level he participates in the
National Cooperative Freight Research Program
(NCFRP), serving on several project advisory panels
and as a member of the NCFRP program oversight
committee. He is also one of two U.S. representatives
to the World Road Association’s Freight Transport
Committee, which conducts international research, and
represents MnDOT in the AASHTO Mid-America Freight
Coalition, which conducts pooled fund research specific
to the Midwest. Gardner’s active involvement in freight
research helps Minnesota achieve its goal of being a
global leader in transportation, with direct access to the
latest data, technologies, practices and plans.
Gardner also cites NCFRP Project #24, “Preserving and
Protecting Freight Infrastructure and Routes,” as
particularly relevant for helping Minnesota achieve a
unified vision for freight corridors and facilities. “Part
of this effort,” Gardner says, “has been to educate
decision-makers about the value of freight to the local
and regional economy. Communities often don’t want to
accommodate freight services, but we rely upon those
services to keep our shelves stocked and enable our
shippers to move their goods to market cost-effectively.”
Gardner cites shifting supply chains and changes
in infrastructure as trends MnDOT needs to better
understand. One example is the widening of the Panama
Canal for larger ships, scheduled for completion in 2014.
This effort will shift some freight away from West Coast
ports to Gulf and East Coast ports, which, together with
the return of some manufacturing to the United States
is changing how goods flow into and out of Minnesota.
Using numerous case studies, including European
experience, this national research project developed
tools related to planning, land use, design and privatepublic collaboration to help mitigate conflicts. A
toolbox developed through this project is available at
www.envisionfreight.com/index.html.
Some Minnesota communities are struggling with
freight conflicts along highways, rail lines and ports.
“MnDOT needs to do a better job of proactively bringing
communities and the freight industry together to
mitigate existing conflicts and avoid future ones,”
Gardner says. “These tools and strategies will help with
that effort.”
51
M n D O T R e s e a r c h S e r v i c e s • F Y 2 0 1 2 a n n u a l r e p ort
Single-State SP&R Projects
This section provides basic information about single-state SP&R projects with active contracts in FY2012 or, in some
cases, funds that were committed in 2012 but have not yet resulted in a contract.
Studies with FY2012 Commitments
MPR-0(002): Culvert Repair Best Practices, Specifications and Special Provisions
Funded by: SP&R, SRP
Total Cost: $80,000
Paid to Date: $21,171
MN 2012 Commitment: $0
Performed by: CNA Consulting Engineers, Inc.
PI: Bruce Wagener
TL: Lisa Sayler
PC: Bruce Holdhusen
Description: The objective of this project is to develop best practices for the replacement and rehabilitation of culverts
during typical highway maintenance and improvement projects. Guidelines cover installation practices, advantages and
disadvantages of various methods of repair, cost comparisons, environmental safeguards, and supporting specifications
and detail drawings.
Status: Researchers have performed a literature review and a survey of MnDOT and other state personnel. An upcoming
TAP meeting will review the results to date and recommend specific repair methods that include specifications and
guidelines. A final report is expected in July 2013.
Impact: The results of this project will provide guidance to MnDOT and city and county engineers in making better
decisions on culvert repairs. New materials specifications and special provisions will ensure adherence to standardized
practices and increase the effectiveness and longevity of repairs.
Start Date: 11/1/11
Projected End Date: 7/31/13
MPR-0(003): Reporting Capabilities for Continuous Vehicle Class and WIM Data
Funded by: SRP, SP&R
Total Cost: $35,268
Paid to Date: $8,298
MN 2012 Commitment: $0
Performed by: University of Minnesota – Duluth
PI: Taek Kwon
TL: Benjamin Timerson
PC: Nelson Cruz
Description: The goal of this project is to modify software for analyzing data from MnDOT’s automated traffic recorders
at weigh-in-motion (WIM) sites, which record the number, speed, classification and weight of passing trucks. Software
modifications enhance MnDOT’s ability to ensure the quality of this data by increasing error tracking and also enhance
reporting functions for analyzing data.
Status: After modifying error decoding and existing reporting functions, researchers added new reporting functions and
are currently testing, verifying and debugging all functionality. The project will be completed in December 2012.
Impact: This project will enhance MnDOT’s ability to evaluate and verify the quality of data from WIM and vehicle
classification sites. It will also allow MnDOT to more quickly produce reports using higher quality data.
Start Date: 11/18/10
Projected End Date: 12/31/12
52
M n D O T R e s e a r c h S e r v i c e s • r e s e a r c h f u n d i n g p rogr a m s
MPR-0(004): Scour Monitoring Technology Implementation
Funded by: SP&R, SRP
Total Cost: $38,233
Paid to Date: $19,180
MN 2012 Commitment: $0
Performed by: University of Minnesota
PI: Jeff Marr
TL: Andrea Hendrickson
PC: Shirlee Sherkow
Description: This project monitors two bridges for bridge scour—the removal of sediment from abutments and piers that
can lead to bridge failure—over a three-year period. Researchers install and evaluate fixed monitoring equipment at
two bridge sites and also work on streamlining data retrieval. MnDOT will use the findings to create guidelines for
equipment maintenance and installation at other locations.
Status: In 2012, researchers summarized lessons learned from the installation of scour monitoring equipment,
addressing significant issues that arose during and immediately after installation. They also detailed post-installation
administration and maintenance, reviewing significant incidents. Moving forward, researchers will complete the
technical documentation for these systems, test them by simulating a scour event, continue to monitor sensor readings
and equipment operations, and perform data collection and analysis.
Impact: Data collected from the installed equipment will be used to implement the FHWA-mandated Plans of Action
required for all scour-critical bridges. Because bridge scour can result in bridge foundation failure, timely data collection
is critical so that countermeasures can be deployed if necessary. The equipment will help preserve bridge infrastructure
and protect the safety of the traveling public.
Start Date: 4/18/11
Projected End Date: 5/31/14
MPR-0(005): Analysis of Bridge Deck Cracking Data
Funded by: SP&R, SRP
Total Cost: $44,993
Paid to Date: $0
MN 2012 Commitment: $0
Performed by: American Engineering Testing, Inc.
PI: Dave Rettner
TL: Ronald Mulvaney
PC: Shirlee Sherkow
Description: This implementation project conducts a statistical analysis of data collected from more than 60 recent bridge
deck construction projects to identify which construction controls, material properties or environmental characteristics
most affect the cracking susceptibility of typical MnDOT concrete bridge decks. Investigators will recommend
specification revisions based on their findings.
Status: Because of problems with the data set, the project scope is slated to be modified to include fieldwork that will
provide additional data for analysis. Investigators plan to conduct under-deck crack surveys to provide this data. The
crack surveys will include a focus on inverted-T bridges, where significant cracking has been observed. An amendment to
extend the contract end date to March 31, 2013, is pending.
Impact: Based on the results of the data analysis, investigators will recommend revisions to MnDOT’s bridge construction
specifications to minimize cracking in new concrete bridge decks. Producing longer-lasting bridge decks will preserve
critical infrastructure, reduce maintenance requirements and lower life-cycle costs, ultimately leading to improved
system performance.
Start Date: 5/25/11
Projected End Date: 7/31/12
53
M n D O T R e s e a r c h S e r v i c e s • F Y 2 0 1 2 a n n u a l r e p ort
MPR-0(005): Bridge Deck Cracking TRS
Funded by: SP&R, SRP
Total Cost: $4,930
Paid to Date: $4,930
MN 2012 Commitment: $0
Performed by: American Engineering Testing, Inc.
PI: Dave Rettner
TL: Ronald Mulvaney
PC: Shirlee Sherkow
Description: This Transportation Research Synthesis provides information for the research project “Analysis of Bridge Deck
Cracking Data,” which is using statistical analysis to determine the most significant causes of bridge deck cracking. The
TRS prepares for this larger research project by examining the causative factors for bridge deck cracking identified by
previous research studies and by reviewing the statistical methods used in similar research.
Status: This work has been completed. The TRS is available online at www.dot.state.mn.us/research/TRS/2011/TRS1105.
pdf.
Impact: The analysis provided in this TRS will help researchers identify the design, construction and environmental
factors that cause cracking in concrete bridge decks. Ultimately this effort is expected to lead to revised construction
specifications that will yield longer-lasting bridge decks.
Start Date: 3/22/11
Projected End Date: 11/30/11
MPR-1(002): Development of a Spatial-Time-Domain Acoustic Device for Rapid Concrete Evaluation
Funded by: SP&R, SRP
Total Cost: $98,000
Paid to Date: $18,000
MN 2012 Commitment: $0
Performed by: MnDOT Materials Lab
PI: Bernard Izevbekhai
TL: Maureen Jensen
PC: Daniel Warzala
Description: To develop a method for the early detection of deterioration in concrete pavements and bridge decks, this
project uses a system that measures acoustic impulses reflected from concrete pavements driving speed. The system
consists of an acoustic intensity and frequency analyzer that replaces the more subjective use of the human ear with chain
drags. Researchers develop a device that transmits impulses to which concrete at various degrees of degradation or poor
mixing respond differently.
Status: Researchers have conducted a synthesis of the application of acoustic emissions to tire pavement acoustics and the
use of ultrasonic pulse waves and time-domain concepts for rapid concrete evaluation, establishing the natural frequency
bands for various pavement conditions. They are currently procuring equipment for data collection and anticipate field
trials in the summer of 2013.
Impact: Conducting comprehensive concrete evaluation at driving speed will improve MnDOT’s ability to detect concrete
deterioration, reducing the costs and duration of lane closures and detours. It will also enhance public safety by providing
a tool to detect early forms of deterioration in bridge decks.
Start Date: 4/8/11
Projected End Date: 3/31/14
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MPR-1(003): Implementation of Pavement Evaluation Tools
Funded by: SP&R, SRP
Total Cost: $78,000
Paid to Date: $0
MN 2012 Commitment: $0
Performed by: University of Minnesota
PI: Joseph Labuz
TL: Shongtao Dai
PC: Deb Fick, Nelson Cruz
Description: This project develops a user-friendly graphical interface to help county and state engineers perform state-ofthe-art pavement diagnoses using integrated ground-penetrating radar and falling weight deflectometer measurements.
Despite their effectiveness as tools for noninvasively determining pavement thickness and resilient modulus, these
devices currently are not widely used because of the difficulty of interpreting their data. The software integrates a more
consistent and reliable algorithm for back-calculation developed by the University of Minnesota, called GopherCalc.
Status: Researchers have developed initial software for interpreting GPR and FWD data. Future tasks include the
development and calibration of back-calculation capabilities and their integration with a user-friendly graphical interface.
Impact: The graphical user interface being developed in this project eliminates the usual complexities of back-calculation
involved in interpreting GPR and FWD data, and increases its accuracy by integrating data (for example, by allowing the
use of GPR measurements of pavement thickness in back-calculations of resilient modulus). The software will be useful to
pavement designers from state and local agencies.
Start Date: 11/1/11
Projected End Date: 6/30/13
MPR-1(004): Partially Grouted Riprap Implementation Matrix Riprap Implementation
Funded by: SP&R, SRP
Total Cost: $16,635
Paid to Date: $9,663
TL: Nicole Danielson-Bartelt
PC: Shirlee Sherkow
MN 2012 Commitment: $0
Performed by: Ayres Associates
PI: Paul Clopper
Description: Bridge scour causes material loss around bridge
abutments, which can result in the loss of the approach panel
and bridge failure. Matrix riprap (also known as partially
grouted riprap) is a relatively new scour countermeasure in the
United States. Although MnDOT has developed construction
specifications for this technique, implementation has been
challenging because of the lack of experience with this method.
In this implementation project, the consultant trains MnDOT
personnel on the basic design and installation of matrix riprap
on bridge abutments, and supervises its installation on a bridge
in District 3. The consultant also provides technical guidance
documentation and recommendations for revising the matrix
riprap special provision and design details.
Investigators train MnDOT staff on proper techniques for
installing matrix riprap on a bridge abutment.
Status: The training and field demonstration was completed in May 2012. Since current matrix riprap grout test
procedures use European testing equipment and standards, a contract amendment is pending that would use the
remaining project budget to define grout testing standards using typical U.S. equipment.
Impact: The training and guidance given through this project will allow MnDOT to effectively implement this promising
scour countermeasure, providing the department with a new abutment slope protection technique. Using this technique
appropriately is expected to help decrease abutment repairs and replacement, which will reduce costs and delays and
improve motorist safety.
Start Date: 12/14/11
Projected End Date: 2/28/13
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MPR-1(007): Commercial Freight Weight Enforcement Innovation
Funded by: SP&R, SRP
Total Cost: $96,613
Paid to Date: $23,109
MN 2012 Commitment: $0
Performed by: SRF Consulting Group, Inc.
PI: Brian Scott
TL: Benjamin Timerson
PC: Deb Fick, Alan Rindels
Description: This project evaluates the use of a license plate
reading (LPR) system to improve overweight vehicle
enforcement at a weigh-in-motion (WIM) site. The system
monitors traffic crossing a Mississippi River bridge in
Winona, capturing license plate data that can be linked to
WIM data for enforcement efforts. This project documents
the system’s accuracy, performance and life-cycle costs;
makes recommendations for data management; and assists
stakeholders with integrating the technology into current
systems. Investigators also evaluate and refine the vehicle
classification algorithm used in the state’s WIM systems.
Investigators use a bucket truck to adjust the
position of a new license plate reader camera at
the WIM site on US 43 in Winona.
Status: The LPR camera was installed in June 2012. The camera was initially able to read standard Minnesota and
Wisconsin license plates, but not most commercial vehicle plates. The camera manufacturer is developing an algorithm
that will improve the camera’s ability to read these plates. An amendment is pending to extend the contract end date to
November 30, 2013.
Impact: This project demonstrates how technology enhancements can improve overweight vehicle enforcement at WIM
sites. The LPR system provides evidence that will enable the State Patrol to issue many more citations than current
technology allows; this increased enforcement is expected to be more effective at deterring violators. In addition, by
refining the state’s existing vehicle classification algorithm, this project will improve the accuracy of WIM data, thereby
better measuring the tonnage of freight being shipped in Minnesota.
Start Date: 9/22/11
Projected End Date: 11/30/12
MPR-1(008): Developing Performance Measures Using GPS Arterial Travel Time Data
Funded by: SP&R, SRP
Total Cost: $125,000
Paid to Date: $0
MN 2012 Commitment: $0
Performed by: Texas Transportation Institute
PI: Shawn Turner
TL: Paul Czech
PC: Deb Fick, Alan Rindels
Description: The goals of this project are to develop and implement mobility-related performance measures for arterial
roadways using private-sector GPS speed data, similar to practices currently used on the instrumented freeway system.
Status: This year investigators began reviewing arterial mobility performance measures used by MnDOT and other
agencies, and reviewing relevant MnDOT plans and policies. The panel and investigators evaluated options for licensing
speed data from a private company, and a request for proposals was drafted in June 2012.
Impact: The performance measures developed through this project will help MnDOT better understand arterial street
performance in the Metro District and make decisions based on this information, enhancing mobility in the Twin Cities.
Similar private-sector GPS data is available for the Greater Minnesota Interregional Corridor System, giving the project
results statewide significance.
Start Date: 4/9/12
Projected End Date: 5/13/13
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MPR-1(010): Vehicle-Mounted Robotic Roadway Message and Symbol Painter
Funded by: SRP, SP&R
Total Cost: $95,000
Paid to Date: $0
MN 2012 Commitment: $0
Performed by: University of Minnesota – Duluth
PI: Ryan Rosandich
TL: Randy Reznicek
PC: Alan Rindels
Description: In this project, researchers develop a computer-controlled, truck-mounted robotic message painter system
that automates painting of pavement markings, which currently requires a stencil. The project enhances productivity
and safety by replacing a two-person painting crew with a one-person operation, completing pavement markings more
quickly and allowing the operator to remain inside the truck when markings are painted.
Status: This project is in its initial stages of development. Despite a slight delay in receiving parts, researcher will test the
robotic arm in the field by the summer of 2013.
Impact: If effective, the robotic message painter system will save money in sign painting. Typical pavement painting
projects will require only one operator and will eliminate stencils, cleanup time and some preparation time. The system
will also create shorter drying times, reducing inconvenience to drivers.
Start Date: 12/8/11
Projected End Date: 5/31/13
MPR-1(012): Statewide Cycloplan: Bicycle Planning Tool and Participatory GIS
Funded by: SP&R, SRP
Total Cost: $130,000
Paid to Date: $0
MN 2012 Commitment: $0
Performed by: University of Minnesota
PI: Loren Terveen
TL: Greta Alquist
PC: Shirlee Sherkow
Description: This project promotes the statewide implementation of Cycloplan, an innovative way to assist planners in
creating a regional bikeways system map through coordination and input from various agencies and the public. Cycloplan
lets planners keep a regional bikeways system map current and determine where additions and improvements to the
system are most needed. Key features of Cycloplan include maintenance of a bikeways registry; communication of route
closures, additions and upcoming projects that require input; and feedback from personalized geographic regions.
Status: This project is in the early stages of work on user interface features.
Impact: This project will expand existing Cycloplan Web services to the entire state. Cycloplan allows users to find
point-to-point bike routes and integrates an algorithm that refines route development based on user reviews and input.
This tool offers bike users a detailed, sensitive route-development option based on traffic volume, path access, safety
preferences and other parameters.
Start Date: 2/6/12
Projected End Date: 4/30/14
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MPR-1(013): Use of Non-Woven Fabric Interlayer for Unbonded Concrete Overlays
Funded by: SP&R, SRP
Total Cost: $74,998
Paid to Date: $34,694
MN 2012 Commitment: $0
Performed by: University of Minnesota
PI: Lev Khazanovich
TL: Thomas Burnham
PC: Daniel Warzala
Description: The goal of this project is to determine the performance and design parameters of non-woven fabric as an
interlayer for unbonded concrete overlays. Researchers conduct laboratory tests to evaluate the ability of non-woven
fabric to prevent bonding and provide drainage and stress relief.
Status: Researchers constructed several 6 feet wide by 15 feet long test sections at the Minne-ALF pavement research
facility, which simulates vehicle loads using hydraulic actuators. Sections were evaluated for strain, deflection, pavement
distress, modulus of elasticity, compressive strength and drainability. Currently researchers are performing a forensic
study of the final test section to determine the patterns of pavement failure and cycles to failure, and to evaluate the crack
arresting performance of the fabric interlayer. Results thus far show that the fabric provides stress relief, and researchers
have developed a better understanding of its drainage capabilities. Impact: Once long-term performance best design practices are established, non-woven fabrics have the potential to reduce
unbonded concrete overlay project costs. The end product for this project will include guidance to pavement designers
and construction specifications. Based on the results of this project, researchers plan to construct a similar test section at
MnROAD in 2013.
Start Date: 11/1/11
Projected End Date: 12/31/12
MPR-1(015): Implementation of LED Roadway Lighting
Funded by: SP&R, SRP
Total Cost: $40,000
Paid to Date: $0
MN 2012 Commitment: $20,000
Performed by: Short Elliott Hendrickson, Inc.
PI: TBD
TL: Susan Zarling
PC: Deb Fick
Description: This project evaluates the use of LED luminaires in MnDOT roadway lighting. Researchers replace existing
high-pressure sodium (HPS) luminaires with LED luminaires along a segment of highway, and compare the electrical
power usage and light levels of the LED luminaires with adjacent newly installed HPS luminaires. Researchers create a
cost comparison of the LED and HPS luminaires and document maintenance issues.
Status: This project is in its initial stages of development.
Impact: LED luminaires are designed to be longer-lasting and more energy-efficient than conventional roadway
luminaires. This project examines whether this emerging alternative can provide required lighting levels more costeffectively than HPS luminaires, potentially reducing energy and maintenance costs associated with roadway lighting in
the state.
Start Date: TBD
Projected End Date: TBD
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MPR-1(016): Field Implementation, Testing and Refinement of Density-Based Coordinated Ramp Control Strategy
Funded by: SP&R, SRP
Total Cost: $103,735
Paid to Date: $0
MN 2012 Commitment: $82,989
Performed by: University of Minnesota
PI: John Hourdos
TL: Brian Kary
PC: Deb Fick, Alan Rindels
Description: A recently completed research project
developed a new density-based ramp metering algorithm
that showed promise at improving traffic flow in simulation
tests. This follow-up project deploys and field-tests the new
algorithm at a heavily congested site on Highway169.
Status: This project is in its initial stages of development.
In May, the project panel agreed to amend the contract
to allow for the additional programming necessary to
implement the new ramp metering algorithm, and also
agreed that the literature review portion of the project
would be funded separately.
The new ramp metering algorithm shows promise in using
freeway capacity more efficiently and reducing long ramp
queues.
Impact: If the performance of the new ramp metering algorithm is validated in this field test, it will provide an improved
tool for decreasing congestion along the Highway 169 corridor. The data collected through this project will allow the
algorithm to be refined as needed and will help facilitate large-scale deployment on Twin Cities freeways. Ultimately
this next-generation ramp metering algorithm is expected to alleviate congestion, reduce system travel time and provide
associated environmental benefits.
Start Date: 5/3/12
Projected End Date: 4/30/14
MPR-2(001): Lighting Levels for Isolated Intersections Leading to Safety Improvements
Funded by: SP&R, LRRB, SRP
Total Cost: $94,170
Paid to Date: $0
MN 2012 Commitment: $42,185
Performed by: University of Minnesota
PI: Christopher Edwards
TL: Susan Zarling
PC: Daniel Warzala
Description: Installing roadway lighting at isolated rural intersections is a cost-effective way of increasing visibility and
reducing collisions. This project’s goal is to identify a minimum lighting level that provides drivers with adequate
information about an upcoming intersection. Investigators are measuring actual lighting levels at isolated rural
intersections and examining crash rates at these intersections.
Status: This project is in its initial stages of development.
Impact: Roadway lighting installations at isolated intersections vary throughout the state and vary in their conformance to
national lighting standards. By providing recommendations based on actual measured lighting levels and crash rates at
intersections in Minnesota, this project will directly benefit local agencies throughout the state.
Start Date: 7/31/12
Projected End Date: 7/31/14
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MPR-2(002): Time-Dependent Considerations of I-35W St. Anthony Falls Bridge Including Long-Term Monitoring Applications
Funded by: SP&R, SRP
Total Cost: $100,000
Paid to Date: $0
MN 2012 Commitment: $80,000
Performed by: University of Minnesota
PI: Cathy French
TL: Benjamin Jilk
PC: Shirlee Sherkow
Description: The objective of this project is to conduct structural monitoring of the I-35W St. Anthony Falls Bridge to
investigate how post-tensioned concrete structures change over time and to develop long-term maintenance strategies
for these systems. Researchers also evaluate the use of finite element models to account for concrete creep and shrinkage,
comparing them to static data collected by instruments on the bridge, in order to develop long-term predictions of bridge
behavior.
Status: This project is in its initial stages of development. Researchers will soon begin Task 1, the development of creep and
shrinkage finite element models.
Impact: This project will allow MnDOT to gain a better understanding of the long-term behavior of the I-35W St. Anthony
Falls Bridge and other post-tensioned concrete box girder structures. Developing creep and shrinkage models will help to
determine long-term bridge maintenance strategies, including the timing of restorative measures designed to counteract
excessive deflections, balance large prestress losses and prevent tension from developing in the concrete. It will also help
in the future design of similar structures.
Start Date: 6/29/12
Projected End Date: 12/31/14
MPR-2(003): MnPASS Modeling and Pricing Algorithm Enhancement
Funded by: SP&R, SRP
Total Cost: $103,735
Paid to Date: $0
MN 2012 Commitment: $82,989
Performed by: University of Minnesota
PI: John Hourdos
TL: Brian Kary
PC: Farideh Amiri
Description: Setting toll prices in high-occupancy toll lanes
involves weighing maximized traffic throughput against
the travel time reliability that can be guaranteed to users.
This project produces a comprehensive platform for
evaluating and optimizing the pricing algorithm used in
the MnPASS HOT lanes.
Status: This project is in its initial stages of development.
Impact: This project provides MnDOT planners and
policymakers with a tool to help make informed decisions
for balancing the service and revenue levels of the MnPASS
facility. The platform will allow MnDOT operations
engineers to develop and test algorithm refinements in a
simulated environment before deploying them in the field.
Start Date: 6/29/12
Projected End Date: 7/31/14
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This project provides tools to enhance decision-making
regarding toll prices in MnPASS HOT lanes.
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MPR-2(004): Evaluate and Develop Innovative Pavement Repair and Patching: Taconite-Based Repair Options
Funded by: SP&R, SRP
Total Cost: $32,000
Paid to Date: $0
MN 2012 Commitment: $25,600
Performed by: University of Minnesota – Duluth
PI: Lawrence Zanko
TL: Sue Lodahl, Duane Hill
PC: Nelson Cruz
Description: This project refines and optimizes two promising alternatives to conventional pavement and pothole repair
materials and methods, and evaluates their performance compared with current methods. The two innovations are a fastsetting, taconite-based pavement repair compound and a vehicle-based microwave system for in-place pavement repairs
and recycling. Guidance on selecting and using pavement and pothole repair methods is developed.
Status: This project is in its initial stages of development.
Impact: These emerging repair strategies are anticipated to lead to longer-lasting and more efficient pavement and pothole
repairs. Longer-lasting repair methods reduce the maintenance costs and traffic disruption associated with repeated
repair of failing patches, ultimately increasing driver and worker safety.
Start Date: 8/9/12
Projected End Date: 4/30/14
MPR-2(005): Value Increase and Value Capture Study—TH 610 Case Study
Funded by: SP&R, SRP
Total Cost: $81,000
Paid to Date: $0
MN 2012 Commitment: $64,800
Performed by: University of Minnesota
PI: Zhirong Jerry Zhao
TL: Matthew Shands
Description: With funding assistance through the American
Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), construction was
completed in 2011 on a new segment of Highway 610 from
Brooklyn Park to Maple Grove. MnDOT and its partners
are working to identify supplemental funding sources to
accelerate the development of the highway’s final phase,
which would extend from County Road 81 to Interstate 94.
Building on a previous value capture study, this research
project examines the property value increases that this
highway segment is expected to provide, identifies feasible
value capture strategies and estimates the strategies’
revenue-raising potential.
PC: Nicole Peterson
This project explores how value capture strategies could help
provide funding for the extension of Highway 610 to Interstate
94 (shown in red). A new segment of the highway (shown in
orange) was completed in 2011 with ARRA assistance.
Status: This project is in its initial stages of development.
Impact: This research uses the Highway 610 project as a case study to examine how value capture techniques could be used
to help fund and advance highway projects. The results will provide information and options for decision-makers as they
explore methods for funding and advancing the Highway 610 project, and will identify strategies that can be applied to
other projects as well.
Start Date: 6/29/12
Projected End Date: 3/31/14
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MPR-2(006): Monitoring of Fracture-Critical Steel Bridges, Phase 3
Funded by: SP&R, SRP
Total Cost: $166,000
Paid to Date: $0
MN 2012 Commitment: $92,800
Performed by: University of Minnesota
PI: Arturo Schultz
TL: Moises Dimaculangan
PC: Shirlee Sherkow
Description: This project builds on previous research that developed an acoustic emission monitoring system on a problemfree bridge. Researchers apply the monitoring system to a bridge with higher potential for future cracking problems and
continue monitoring the previously instrumented bridge.
Status: The contract has just gotten under way. Impact: Many steel bridges in Minnesota are designated as fracture-critical. This research develops a monitoring system
for such bridges to help MnDOT prioritize bridge maintenance needs and prevent catastrophic bridge failure such as the
fracture-critical I-35W bridge in 2007.
Start Date: 6/29/12
Projected End Date: 1/31/15
MPR-2(007): Using Truck GPS Data for Freight Performance Analysis
Funded by: SP&R, SRP
Total Cost: $96,500
Paid to Date: $0
MN 2012 Commitment: $77,200
Performed by: University of Minnesota
PI: Chen-Fu Liao
TL: John Tompkins
PC: Bruce Holdhusen
Description: Researchers integrate private-sector GPS data from commercial trucks with MnDOT’s existing freight data
and use the integrated data to conduct a freight performance analysis in the Twin Cities metropolitan area. The analysis
generates freight mobility and reliability measures, and identifies significant freight nodes and corridors.
Status: This project is in its initial stages of development.
Impact: This freight performance analysis will help MnDOT better identify system impediments such as traffic
congestion and truck bottlenecks, and examine how truck volume contributes to traffic congestion. MnDOT can use the
measures generated through this project to inform freight planning and forecasting and to help guide decisions about
infrastructure investments.
Start Date: TBD
Projected End Date: TBD
MPR-2(008): Measuring Minnesota’s Traffic Safety Culture
Funded by: SP&R, SRP
Total Cost: $235,217
Paid to Date: $0
MN 2012 Commitment: $188,174
Performed by: Montana State University – Western Transportation Institute
PI: Nicholas Ward
TL: Katie Fleming
PC: Shirlee Sherkow
Description: This project provides a survey tool to MnDOT’s ongoing effort to analyze traffic safety. The tool examines the
psychosocial determinants and risk behaviors of Minnesota’s driving culture to guide traffic safety planning.
Status: Task 1, a literature review, is scheduled to be complete by late October 2012. Task 2, identifying driver
demographics for a classification taxonomy, will begin after Task 1 is completed.
Impact: This survey tool will augment current work on traffic safety in Minnesota to assist MnDOT and other Minnesota
groups in their pursuit of zero traffic deaths.
Start Date: 6/22/12
Projected End Date: 8/31/14
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MPR-2(009): Simplified Design Table for Minnesota Concrete Pavements
Funded by: SP&R, SRP
Total Cost: $89,989
Paid to Date: $0
MN 2012 Commitment: $71,991
Performed by: University of Minnesota
PI: Lev Khazanovich
TL: Luke Johanneck
PC: Daniel Warzala
Description: The advent of mechanistic-empirical design principles requires local adaptation. Given the complexity of
the Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG), this research produces a simplified table of examined
mechanistic inputs for use in concrete pavement design. The project identifies critical inputs, submits them to sensitivity
analysis and develops a spreadsheet for engineers to use when applying mechanistic-empirical principles to their work.
Status: Researchers are identifying an initial round of critical design inputs to submit to sensitivity analysis.
Impact: This project will extract key elements from sophisticated mechanistic-empirical concrete pavement design
methods. It will analyze and test these elements, and then present them in a user-friendly way to local-level pavement
engineers not otherwise well-equipped to employ the MEPDG.
Start Date: 6/29/12
Projected End Date: 8/31/14
MPR-2(010), MPR-2(011): AASHTO Technical Services Program
Funded by: SP&R
Total Cost: $93,000
Paid to Date: $33,000
TL: N/A
PC: N/A
MN 2012 Commitment: $33,000
Performed by: N/A
PI: N/A
Description: These funding contributions support AASHTO’s Technical Services Programs. MnDOT is contributing
$20,000 per year for four years to the Transportation System Preservation program, which provides resources related to
preserving highway infrastructure. The total funding amount also reflects one-time contributions to support three other
programs: the Technology Implementation Group ($6,000); the Snow and Ice Cooperative Program ($4,000); and the
Equipment Management Technical Services Program ($3,000).
Status: AASHTO’s work is ongoing.
Impact: These contributions will help support national programs that provide significant benefits to all states. The
Transportation System Preservation program serves as a comprehensive clearinghouse of information about efficient,
effective preservation measures for pavements and bridges, and facilitates technical exchange and discussion among state
DOTs in these areas. The Technology Implementation Group accelerates the adoption of innovative technologies, while
the Snow and Ice Cooperative Program and the Equipment Management Technical Services Program focus on winter
maintenance and fleet management issues, respectively.
Start Date: N/A
Projected End Date: Ongoing
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MPR-2(017): Investigation of the Impact the I-94 ATM System has on the Safety of the I-94 Commons High Crash Area
Funded by: SP&R, SRP
Total Cost: $140,000
Paid to Date: $0
MN 2012 Commitment: $99,200
Performed by: University of Minnesota
PI: John Hourdos
TL: Brian Kary
PC: Daniel Warzala
Description: This project conducts a before-and-after study to evaluate the safety impact of a new active traffic management
(ATM) system on a crash-prone segment of Interstate 94. This roadway section has atypical traffic patterns and has
historically logged more than 100 crashes each year. The study provides a detailed analysis of traffic patterns and driver
behavior under the ATM system.
Status: This project is in its initial stages of development.
Impact: Because of the high number of crashes, this portion of I-94 presents an ideal location to implement, evaluate and
refine an ATM system. The study will help detect undesired traffic patterns early, and the data collected will help traffic
operations staff and planners understand and improve operations across the entire system.
Start Date: 8/9/12
Projected End Date: 5/31/14
MPR-6(003): Business Assessment of RSS Processes and Tools
Funded by: SRP, SP&R,
Other State Funds
Total Cost: $172,080
Paid to Date: $132,480
TL: Nicole Peterson
PC: Ann McLellan
MN 2012 Commitment: $0
Performed by: Trissential
PI: Steve Beise
Description: Research Services is redesigning the way it provides services. The primary goal of this project is to analyze and
document the remaining business processes and detail all business flows.
Status: This project is on schedule. A new process manual will be completed by the end of 2012.
Impact: This project has helped to refine and streamline Research Services’ approach to identifying, managing, scoping
and implementing research. It also has documented the process so both new and current employees are familiar with the
section’s work processes.
Start Date: 11/4/09
Projected End Date: 1/31/13
MPR-6(003): Strategic Program Development
Funded by: SRP, SP&R,
Other State Funds
Total Cost: $49,977
Paid to Date: $49,977
TL: Nicole Peterson
PC: Nelson Cruz
MN 2012 Commitment: $0
Performed by: David Johnson
PI: Dave Johnson
Description: In this project, Research Services is determining and documenting the workflows and handoff points for
managing research contracts to optimize its new Automated Research Tracking System database .
Status: This work has been completed.
Impact: Research Services has a streamlined process that should favor innovation, be more fluid in handling data and
special projects, and improve the section’s ability to work more closely with the state library.
Start Date: 12/22/09
Projected End Date: 3/31/12
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MPR-6(005): Next Generation of ARTS Tech Support and Maintenance Services
Funded by: SP&R, SRP,
Other State Funds
Total Cost: $179,400
Paid to Date: $124,850
MN 2012 Commitment: $0
Performed by: ArchWing Innovations, LLC
PI: Ryan Anderson
TL: Nelson Cruz
PC: Ann McLellan
Description: The primary goals of this project are to provide technical support and maintenance services for three Webbased applications of the current generation of the Automated Research Tracking System. Project activities include
training and knowledge transfer to MnDOT staff.
Status: This is a continuing service contract.
Impact: This contract provides MnDOT with maintenance and technical support for key databases by maintaining and
producing data for reports.
Start Date: 5/13/09
Projected End Date: 2/28/13
MPR-6(011): Intelligent Compaction
Funded by: SP&R, Other State
Funds, SRP
Total Cost: $225,000
Paid to Date: $194,453
MN 2012 Commitment: $0
Performed by: Transtec Group, Inc.
PI: George Chang
TL: None
PC: Benjamin Worel
Description: The purpose of this project is to implement intelligent compaction performance-based specifications in the
field.
Status: This work has been completed.
Impact: This enhanced software will allow efficient data management from intelligent compaction operations in the field
and will improve quality control as well as quality assurance.
Start Date: 9/13/10
Projected End Date: 6/30/12
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MPR-6(016): Construction Report for MnROAD Thin Unbonded Concrete Overlay Test Cell 5 (Sub-Cells 105-405)
Funded by: SP&R, Other State
Funds, Partnership Funds
Total Cost: $126,100
Paid to Date: $0
MN 2012 Commitment: $0
Performed by: MnDOT Materials Lab
PI: Thomas Burnham
TL: Bernard Izevbekhai
PC: Bruce Holdhusen
Description: In this project, researchers are investigating the performance of thinner unbonded concrete overlays placed
over older concrete pavements by developing better distress and life prediction models. Secondary objectives include
understanding the behavior of these overlays with regard to maturity, slab warp, curl thermal expansion and repair
techniques. In 2008, Mainline Test Cell 5 at MnROAD was resurfaced with a 1-inch drainable stress relief layer and subcells with concrete overlays of 4 and 5 inches thick. In subsequent years researchers have been monitoring these sub-cells
for load response and field performance.
Status: In the last year researchers have continued monitoring the performance of sub-cells. Two 5-inch sub-cells are
in service but have many cracks and are slowly deteriorating; some of these cracks were retrofitted in 2011 with plate
dowels to extend their life. Two 4-inch sub-cells were replaced in 2011 because of significant cracking distress caused
by panel sizes that were too large for the thickness of the slabs. These sub-cells were replaced with 5-inch sub-cells with
smaller panel sizes and a fabric interlayer. This project has produced several reports, including a construction report
(www.mrr.dot.state.mn.us/research/pdf/201030.pdf), a Technical Summary (www.mrr.dot.state.mn.us/research/
pdf/2010MRRDOC015.pdf), a report about a related test section near Duluth (www.mrr.dot.state.mn.us/research/
pdf/201023.pdf) and several unpublished task reports. An interim task report is expected in the winter of 2013, and a
final report is due in 2014.
Impact: Reduced thickness in unbonded concrete overlays will decrease their initial cost substantially, providing
additional design alternatives for cost-effectively rehabilitating older concrete pavements in Minnesota and helping
to conserve the scarce virgin aggregates needed to construct pavements. The findings of this study will also provide
guidance to counties and cities that are interested in using these overlays.
Start Date: 12/29/08
Projected End Date: 2/28/14
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MPR-6(019): Technology Transfer Material Development
Funded by: SP&R, SRP
Total Cost: $100,789
Paid to Date: $99,791
MN 2012 Commitment: $0
Performed by: CTC & Associates LLC
PI: Patrick Casey
TL: Linda Taylor
PC: Sandra McCully
Description: This project funds the creation of the two-page Technical Summaries (TSs) found in this report as well as
Transportation Research Syntheses (TRSs), which are quick-turnaround research reports that can serve as an initial step
in a research project or as a substitute for a project. This contract also covers other technical transfer materials as needed.
Status: This contract has been completed, with TSs and TRSs generated to populate the FY2011 and FY2012 annual
reports.
Impact: Reseach Services’ technology transfer efforts have helped make the most out of Minnesota’s research investments,
with TSs used to spark interest among practitioners, legislators and others about MnDOT’s research reports. TRSs have
saved time and funds by providing needed information quickly, without the need to contract for a full research project.
Start Date: 9/17/10
Projected End Date: 9/30/11
MPR-6(019): Technology Transfer Material Development
Funded by: SP&R, SRP
Total Cost: $99,973
Paid to Date: $91,331
MN 2012 Commitment: $0
Performed by: CTC & Associates LLC
PI: Patrick Casey
TL: Linda Taylor
PC: Sandra McCully
Description: This new contract continues the work of the Technology Transfer Material Development project (97585).
Status: Technical Summary and Transportation Research Synthesis production is ongoing, with new work in FY2012 to
include videos documenting Research Services’ roles and processes as well as drafting articles for the MnDOT publication
Newsline (some of which have been reproduced in this report). Funding on this contract was largely expended during
FY2012; the effort is continuing for FY2013 via a new contract.
Impact: These efforts continued to raise awareness of MnDOT’s research products.
Start Date: 4/29/11
Projected End Date: 1/31/13
MPR-6(019): Technology Transfer Material Development—2011 Annual Reporting
Funded by: SP&R, SRP
Total Cost: $35,102
Paid to Date: $35,083
MN 2012 Commitment: $0
Performed by: CTC & Associates LLC
PI: Patrick Casey
TL: Linda Taylor
PC: Sandra McCully
Description: This contract funded creation of the FY2011 Half-Year Annual Report and the FY2011 Research Services At-AGlance and LRRB At-A-Glance documents.
Status: This contract has been completed.
Impact: These products fulfill federal reporting requirements and serve as vital tools for communicating the value of
MnDOT’s products and services.
Start Date: 4/28/11
Projected End Date: 9/30/12
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MPR-6(019): Technology Transfer Material Development FY2012 and FY2013 Annual Reporting
Funded by: SP&R, SRP
Total Cost: $88,358
Paid to Date: $1,123
MN 2012 Commitment: $0
Performed by: CTC & Associates LLC
PI: Patrick Casey
TL: Linda Taylor
PC: Sandra McCully
Description: This new contract creates comparable products to those developed for project 98727.
Status: Work on this report and the accompanying At-A-Glance documents is in its initial stages of development, with the
bulk of the work coming in subsequent months.
Impact: These efforts continued to raise awareness of MnDOT’s research products and services.
Start Date: 6/13/12
Projected End Date: 1/31/14
MPR-6(019): Technology Transfer Material Development Marketing Plan
Funded by: SP&R, SRP
Total Cost: $149,575
Paid to Date: $10,000
MN 2012 Commitment: $0
Performed by: Strategic Toolbox, LLC
PI: Janese Evans
TL: Ann McLellan
PC: Sandra McCully
Description: This project develops a strategic marketing plan to guide Research Services’ efforts to align its services with
the needs of its customer groups. Investigators capture the needs and perceptions of Research Services customers and
stakeholders, and use this content to develop a marketing plan. The plan will guide the creation of collateral marketing
materials to help Research Services reach its target audiences.
Status: Two half-day Visioning Alignment workshops were held in May 2012. Research Services staff and partners
worked to define the program’s vision, identify and prioritize key targets and stakeholders, develop common language
and priorities, and discuss how to align internal resources with the program’s goals. This year investigators also began
planning stakeholder interviews.
Impact: The strategic marketing plan will help shape Research Services’ marketing, communications and customer service
efforts to ensure that the program is meeting customers’ needs. The marketing materials produced through this project
will raise awareness and value of the program’s products and services.
Start Date: 3/27/12
Projected End Date: 7/31/13
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MPR-6(021): Evaluation of Skid Resistance of Turf Drag Textured Concrete Pavements
Funded by: SP&R, Other
State Funds
Total Cost: $100,882
Paid to Date: $0
MN 2012 Commitment: $0
Performed by: MnDOT Materials Lab
PI: Bernard Izevbekhai
TL: Benjamin Worel
PC: Bruce Holdhusen
Description: This study focuses on fundamental pavement surface characteristics, including ride quality, friction,
hydroplaning potential, splash and spray, texture and noise. Various texturing configurations in the MnROAD lowvolume road and the mainline are used, but comparative analysis may introduce data from cells or test sections outside
of MnROAD. The study observes the progression of these variables with time and the function of their interdependency
within a five-year period.
Status: An interim report issued in April 2011 is available at www.dot.state.mn.us/research/TS/2011/201112.pdf.
Impact: This study will help designers understand how friction values change as concrete pavement ages and undergoes
more loading. It will also help to plan maintenance activities to address reduced friction properties.
Start Date: 12/19/08
Projected End Date: 1/1/13
MPR-6(022), INV 864: Recycled Asphalt Pavements
Funded by: SP&R, LRRB,
Other State Funds
Total Cost: $275,000
Paid to Date: $165,500
MN 2012 Commitment: $0
Performed by: MnDOT Materials Lab
PI: Eddie Johnson
TL: Gregory Johnson
PC: Bruce Holdhusen
Description: In this project, researchers study the performance of recycled asphalt pavement (RAP) under controlled testing
conditions. The asphalt concrete test sections have similar structural designs and contain 30 percent RAP but vary by
binder grade and fractionated RAP content. In 2009 three new mix designs were added: warm mix with RAP, Superpave
with no RAP and Superpave with 20 percent RAP.
Status: This study is on schedule. Researchers are drafting the final report.
Impact: This project will help to improve the quality and durability of new Minnesota asphalt pavements by focusing
on the quality of RAP mixtures. The work specifically explored the way in which RAP mixes with virgin binder and
aggregate, and examined fractionation practices and design specifications.
Start Date: 1/4/08
Projected End Date: 12/31/12
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MPR-6(024), INV 878: Porous Asphalt Pavement Performance in Cold Regions
Funded by: LRRB, SP&R,
Other State Funds
Total Cost: $82,400
Paid to Date: $59,400
MN 2012 Commitment: $0
Performed by: MnDOT Materials Lab
PI: Matthew Lebens
TL: Larry Matsumoto
PC: Bruce Holdhusen
Description: The objectives of this research are to evaluate the durability, hydrologic characteristics and environmental
effects of porous asphalt pavement when used on low-volume roads in a cold climate. Additional activities include
documenting appropriate construction and maintenance procedures.
Status: This work has been completed.
Impact: Porous asphalt pavement has been added to the MnDOT toolbox for low-volume roads. In certain situations, it
may be a viable alternative to regular asphalt with stormwater structures. Such pavements will result in less damage to
ground- and surface water, and provide good traction for drivers.
Start Date: 7/26/07
Projected End Date: 4/30/12
MPR-6(027), INV 879: Pervious Concrete Cells on MnROAD Low-Volume Road
Funded by: LRRB, SP&R,
Other State Funds
Total Cost: $48,000
Paid to Date: $48,000
MN 2012 Commitment: $0
Performed by: MnDOT Materials Lab
PI: Bernard Izevbekhai
TL: Mark Maloney
PC: Bruce Holdhusen
Description: In this project, researchers evaluate the performance of pervious concrete pavements in Minnesota’s cold
weather climate. They construct three test cells on MnROAD’s low-volume road—a porous concrete overlay, a section of
pervious concrete over a granular subgrade and a section of pervious concrete over a cohesive subgrade—and evaluate
these cells for permeability, sound absorption, texture, friction and ride quality, temperature and moisture, freeze-thaw
degradation and pavement distress.
Status: This project has been completed. Researchers have produced two final reports: Drainable Pavements at MnROAD
Pervious Concrete and Porous Concrete Overlay Cells 39, 85 and 89 (2010-16, published in April 2010) and Pervious
Concrete Test Cells on MnROAD Low-Volume Road (2011-23, published in December 2011). Results showed improved
sound absorption compared to typical pavements, highly variable permeability, reduced temperature gradient (possibly
reducing freeze-thaw damage) and higher falling weight deflectometer deflections.
Impact: If pervious concretes can be shown to perform adequately in Minnesota’s climate, their use would help MnDOT
both to reduce stormwater runoff and to lessen tire-pavement noise pollution. Pervious concretes have the potential to
lead to large savings in costs associated with building stormwater facilities to manage runoff from regular impervious
concretes.
Start Date: 7/30/07
Projected End Date: 9/30/11
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MPR-6(029), INV 868: HMA Surface Characteristics
Funded by: SP&R, LRRB,
Other State Funds
Total Cost: $250,000
Paid to Date: $122,625
MN 2012 Commitment: $0
Performed by: MnDOT Materials Lab
PI: Timothy Clyne
TL: Gregory Johnson
PC: Bruce Holdhusen
Description: This project is evaluating the noise, texture, friction and ride characteristics of more porous hot-mix asphalt
pavement designs that are used for noise reduction, and comparing them to more dense-graded HMA pavements.
Researchers have constructed test cells at MnROAD using various kinds of porous HMA, and are monitoring them over
time for noise and other characteristics.
Status: Researchers are continuing the annual and seasonal monitoring of surface characteristics for MnROAD test
cells, collecting data on how these change over time. Testing includes noise (OBSI and sound absorption), texture
(circular texture meter), friction (skid truck and dynamic friction tester), permeability, ride quality (LISA and Pathways)
and durability (distress surveys and ALPS rutting). Preliminary results show trends in how the pavement surface
characteristics change over time and help to identify good and poor performers in terms of surface characteristics
(especially skid resistance and noise). In the next few months, researchers will send data to Purdue University for analysis,
and project reports will be completed by the summer of 2013.
Impact: The results of this study will enable MnDOT to optimize pavement friction, ride and texture for quieter HMA
mixtures, reducing the incidence of uncomfortable ride and hydroplaning.
Start Date: 9/18/07
Projected End Date: 6/30/13
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MPR-6(029), INV 868: HMA Surface Characteristics Related to Ride, Texture, Friction, Noise and Durability
Funded by: SP&R, LRRB,
Other State Funds
Total Cost: $50,000
Paid to Date: $14,635
MN 2012 Commitment: $0
Performed by: Purdue University
PI: Rebecca McDaniel
TL: Timothy Clyne
PC: Bruce Holdhusen
Description: As part of the larger HMA Surface Characteristics project (LAB868), Purdue University has been
subcontracted to develop a model to predict on-board sound intensity on hot-mix asphalt pavements using on-site and
laboratory data. Data measured on MnROAD test sections is used to develop a nonlinear statistical model that predicts
one-third octave band and overall sound intensity on HMA pavements and identifies the pavement parameters that most
affect tire-pavement noise generation.
Status: Researchers have conducted a literature review to determine which pavement characteristics are important in
predicting noise on HMA pavements and to identify frequency ranges or mechanisms that are dominant for a broad
collection of HMA types. They have also examined MnROAD data to establish relationships between seasonal variations
in environmental conditions and HMA surface characteristics. Currently researchers are identifying pavement
characteristics shown to correlate with overall noise levels and developing a model for determining the expected noise
between a tire and pavement from measured pavement characteristics. Final results are expected in the next several
months, and project reports will be completed by the summer of 2013.
Impact: This project will help improve MnDOT’s current traffic noise model so that it can be applied to open-graded
sound-absorbing pavements. The project will help to further the larger goal of using pavements that produce less noise
while maintaining friction and ride quality—a less expensive solution to the problem of road noise pollution than sound
walls.
Start Date: 8/11/11
Projected End Date: 7/3/13
MPR-6(031): Concrete Pavement Optimization: Determining the Lower Threshold of Slab Thickness for
High-Volume Roadways
Funded by: SP&R,
Other State Funds
Total Cost: $126,100
Paid to Date: $0
MN 2012 Commitment: $0
Performed by: MnDOT Materials Lab
PI: Thomas Burnham
TL: Bernard Izevbekhai
PC: Bruce Holdhusen
Description: In this project, researchers are investigating how to construct thin jointed concrete pavements that provide
predictable long-term performance. In 2008, five thin concrete test sections were constructed at MnROAD, with
thicknesses from 5 to 6.5 inches. Researchers are monitoring the performance of these sections in response to live, highvolume Interstate traffic, including visual distress, joint faulting and load transfer efficiency, panel deflections and ride
quality. Researchers are comparing observed performance to performance predicted by the current MnDOT pavement
design procedure.
Status: Surprisingly, the thinnest test sections carried more than 1.5 million CESALs before showing fatigue
cracking. However, once cracks occurred, they multiplied and sections deteriorated rapidly. Successful repairs have been
very challenging in such thin slabs, and it appears that for Interstate traffic loads, slab thicknesses should be 6 inches
or greater to ensure long-term performance. This year researchers are presenting major findings from this project at a
conference; next year forensic investigations and a final report will be completed, and test sections reconstructed.
Impact: The data and observations gathered from test sections will help in designing more cost-effective thin concrete
pavements, including the development of mechanistic-empirical design procedures.
Start Date: 1/3/08
Projected End Date: 7/31/14
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MPR-6(033): Construction Project Management Software Evaluations
Funded by: SP&R, SRP,
Other State Funds
Total Cost: $190,932
Paid to Date: $180,307
MN 2012 Commitment: $0
Performed by: Mankato State University
PI: Brian Wasserman
TL: Thomas Wiener
PC: Farideh Amiri
Description: The objectives of this project are to evaluate and improve the Transportation Automated Control System
(TRACS), which streamlines field inspectors’ documentation and payment processes on large, complex transportation
construction projects. Training on proper use of TRACS is also included.
Status: The work has been completed.
Impact: This study will help MnDOT manage business processes more efficiently. The project also establishes a standard
for management technology against which other products can be evaluated.
Start Date: 9/24/08
Projected End Date: 6/30/12
MPR-8(004): Development of a Concrete Maturity Test Protocol
Funded by: SP&R, SRP
Total Cost: $113,952
Paid to Date: $73,695
MN 2012 Commitment: $0
Performed by: Mankato State University
PI: W. James Wilde
TL: Alexandra Akkari
PC: Sandra McCully
Description: The objective of this project is to develop strength-maturity relationships in concrete that allow contractors,
field personnel and materials engineers to estimate with reduced sampling and testing the strength of concrete pavement
mixes that have high ratios of pozzolan-to-supplementary cementious materials and low ratios of water to cement.
Specific goals are to test strength-maturity relationships in the laboratory, develop a standard test method for maturity
testing and reduced physical testing in the field, and establish field strength-maturity relationships. While strengthmaturity relationships are commonly available for standard concrete mixtures, few are available for the mixtures in
question, leading to their limited use in late- or early-season paving, when ambient temperatures have a strong and
unpredictable effect on the mixtures’ development of strength during paving and curing.
Status: In fiscal year 2012, researchers completed laboratory and field validation of a test method specification developed
in an earlier task; incorporated data into the maturity protocol database; and submitted final reports for these tasks.
Researchers visited eight projects during the 2011 construction season, which brought the total projects visited to 18 in
three years, with 16 having complete maturity data. Results so far show reasonably consistent maturity curves between
most of the different mixes. The maturity database developed in this project is being used to establish the soundness
of the maturity method for predicting concrete strength in the field, includes mix characteristics and all test results
from laboratory and field projects, and allows users to develop maturity curves using additional information from new
mixes and maturity testing. Researchers developed detailed analyses of three models used to develop maturity curves
through statistical regression, recommended one of these models for use by MnDOT and made other recommendations
for implementing the maturity method to obtain the most accurate and reliable results. The chosen model fits early
age strength data well compared to others, demonstrating low error and many other advantages. In fiscal year 2013,
researchers will conduct laboratory testing to determine how various mix design variables affect strength-maturity
relationships, and will submit a final report.
Impact: The results of this project will allow MnDOT to estimate concrete strength as a function of age for nonstandard
mixtures, helping the agency to determine when to saw joints and open a pavement to traffic. Mistakes in the timing of
these steps can be costly, leading to spalling and cracking. This project also will allow MnDOT to optimize mix selection
based on performance requirements and anticipated ambient temperature conditions.
Start Date: 4/2/09
Projected End Date: 9/30/12
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MPR-8(008): Essentials Web ADF Tool Customizations
Funded by: SP&R, SRP
Total Cost: $0
Paid to Date: $0
MN 2012 Commitment: $0
Performed by: Latitude Geographics Group, Ltd.
PI: Jed Harrison
TL: Paul Weinberger
PC: Alan Rindels
Description: This project customizes an IT development framework used in various MnDOT applications such as
transportation planning, transportation business processes and geographic information system applications.
Status: The client customized the Application Developer Framework before work on the contract began. This work has
been completed.
Impact: This project will provide a criticial development platform for various MnDOT transportation applications,
transportation business processes and GIS applications.
Start Date: 11/22/10
Projected End Date: 7/31/11
MPR-8(008): Right of Way Mapping Process Improvement, Phase 3 (Prioritize Mapping Backlog, Develop Highest Priority
Data and Assist in Training and Support—Task 2)
Funded by: SP&R, SRP
Total Cost: $429,798
Paid to Date: $334,177
MN 2012 Commitment: $0
Performed by: Widseth, Smith, Nolting and Associates, Inc.
PI: Bryan Balcome
TL: Jay Krafthefer
PC: Clark Moe
Description: Right of way maps need frequent updating. This project assists MnDOT in assembling, processing and
completing right of way maps for publication.
Status: The work has been completed.
Impact: This project updated 338 right of way maps for publication, making a large portion of Minnesota’s right of way
maps current.
Start Date: 1/28/10
Projected End Date: 7/31/11
MPR-9(002): Concrete Bridge Deck Crack Sealant Evaluation and Implementation
Funded by: SP&R, SRP
Total Cost: $80,918
Paid to Date: $33,567
MN 2012 Commitment: $0
Performed by: Braun Intertec Corporation
PI: Matthew Oman
PC: Daniel Warzala
TL: Edward Lutgen
Description: This project is evaluating the performance of crack repair materials for MnDOT bridges. Researchers are
field-testing various crack sealant products, including a product MnDOT field crews have been using for several years,
to evaluate their effectiveness and depth of penetration. The results of the field testing will be used to determine best
practices and develop a guidance document or handbook of materials and methods for MnDOT practitioners.
Status: In 2011 researchers applied 11 crack sealant products to bridge deck test sections, and currently they
are monitoring these sections for permeability and pavement distress. Preliminary data is already producing
recommendations for crack sealant use on current projects. A final report is expected in March 2013.
Impact: The guidelines produced by this project will be used by bridge maintenance crews and their supervisors to select
the best treatment options and products to prevent premature failure of concrete bridge decks and avoid reactive repairs,
helping MnDOT make the most cost-effective decisions to preserve its current bridge deck infrastructure. Choosing the
right crack sealant products will help extend the service lives of bridge decks in Minnesota.
Start Date: 9/30/09
Projected End Date: 3/31/13
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MPR-9(004): Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) Pile Driving Static Load Test Data Collection (LRFD Implementation)
Funded by: SP&R, SRP
Total Cost: $99,752
Paid to Date: $99,752
MN 2012 Commitment: $0
Performed by: American Engineering Testing, Inc.
PI: Gregory Reuter
TL: Derrick Dasenbrock
PC: Bruce Holdhusen
Description: Several states, including Minnesota, have recently completed research to develop new pile design formulas
using the Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) mandated by AASHTO. The objective of this project is to provide
a reusable static load test reaction frame for a new testing program that will be applied statewide to develop an improved
LRFD model. Elements of the project includes instrumentation, monitoring, testing and reporting associated with
conducting a static load test on the MnDOT Trunk Highway 5 bridge construction project in Victoria.
Status: The work has been completed.
Impact: Conducting a static load test allows the geotechnical designer to verify the required piling depth based upon
actual site conditions rather than assuming a generalized safety factor, which will result in substantial cost savings on
large projects. By building a database of static load test results, MnDOT will be able optimize pile design methods.
Start Date: 1/21/11
Projected End Date: 7/31/12
MPR-9(005): Changeable Message Signs (CMS)/Digital Message Signs (DMS) Manual of Practice Development,
Implementation and Training
Funded by: SP&R, SRP
Total Cost: $96,302
Paid to Date: $74,271
TL: Jesse Larson
PC: Alan Rindels
MN 2012 Commitment: $0
Performed by: Iteris, Inc.
PI: Lisa Raduenz
Description: This project focuses on developing documentation similar to other states (such as Texas and California) that
contains experience and guidance for Regional Transportation Management Center (RTMC) Design, Construction and
Maintenance staff about proper messaging for changeable message signs (permanent and temporary). The goal of this
messaging is to provide traveler information without negatively impacting freeway traffic or work zone and driver safety
(causing drivers to slow down to read the message).
Status: This project is near completion. MnDOT has requested final changes to changeable message sign materials
developed by researchers.
Impact: This project will allow MnDOT to gather the available information about changeable message sign technologies
and their effects on road users and compile it into the CMS/DMS Manual of Practice that will serve as a source for RTMC
Design, Construction and Maintenance personnel. The document created from this project will be incorporated into the
MnDOT Traffic Engineering Manual and updated as new and different applications are developed.
Start Date: 11/3/10
Projected End Date: 11/30/12
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MPR-9(006): Research Implementation of the SMART Signal System on TH 13
Funded by: SP&R, SRP
Total Cost: $239,000
Paid to Date: $222,000
MN 2012 Commitment: $0
Performed by: University of Minnesota
PI: Henry Liu
TL: Steven Misgen
PC: Alan Rindels
Description: The SMART-Signal (Systematic Monitoring of Arterial Road Traffic and Signals) system generates both
intersection and arterial performance measures in real time. At the single intersection level, the SMART-Signal system
monitors the maximum queue length, intersection delay and level of service. At the arterial level, it reports travel time,
speed and average number of stops. The objectives of this project are to design hardware for the TS-2 controller cabinet
using bus interface unit connection and user-friendly graphical interface for system installation and day-to-day traffic
management, and to test the redesigned system hardware and software on Trunk Highway 13 at 14 intersections between
Yankee Doodle Road and TH 101.
Status: The work on this project is on schedule.
Impact: This project will provide MnDOT with real-time, proactive monitoring and management capability of arterial
traffic signals. This innovative system displays travel data on site for road users, gathers valuable data for planning
purposes and can be used by traffic managers to reduce congestion in the monitored area.
Start Date: 12/17/09
Projected End Date: 2/28/13
MPR-2(018): Using a Smartphone App to Help the Visually Impaired Navigate Work Zones Safely
Funded by: SP&R, SRP
Total Cost: $89,500
Paid to Date: $0
MN 2012 Commitment: $71,600
Performed by: University of Minnesota
PI: Chen-Fu Liao
PC: Nelson Cruz
TL: Kenneth Johnson
Description: This project develops a smartphone-based navigation system to assist visually impaired pedestrians in
navigating work zones safely. Researchers develop standardized message formats for conveying work zone bypass or
routing instructions, provide guidance on message content and develop a smartphone app to provide this information to
pedestrians approaching a work zone in advance of decision points.
Status: This project is in its initial stages of development.
Impact: This research will improve the consistency and quality of the accessible work zone information provided to
visually impaired pedestrians, helping eliminate physical and information barriers for the visually impaired. If successful,
the smartphone app could be implemented at all urban and suburban work zones involving pedestrian movements,
ultimately improving work zone safety and mobility statewide.
Start Date: 8/9/12
Projected End Date: 3/31/14
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MnDOT’s State Research Program
Funds dedicated to MnDOT’s State Research Program (SRP)
comprised 30 percent ($3,284,000) of MnDOT’s FY2012 research
budget. (See Figure 5 on page 34.) These funds are available
through Minnesota Statute 161.53, which states:
Figure 7. Transportation Research
Innovation Group (TRIG) Division
Representatives
MnDOT’s TRIG is the governing board for the
State Research Program. TRIG is composed of
representatives from each MnDOT office and
district, and meets quarterly to recommend research
investments.
The commissioner may set aside in each fiscal year up to
two percent of the total amount of all funds appropriated
to the commissioner other than county state-aid and
municipal state-aid highway funds for transportation
research including public and private research
partnerships.
Name
Represents
Specialty Offices
The commissioner shall spend this money for (1) research
to improve the design, construction, maintenance,
management, and environmental compatibility of
transportation systems; (2) research on transportation
policies that enhance energy efficiency and economic
development; (3) programs for implementing and
monitoring research results; and (4) development of
transportation education and outreach activities.
In many cases, SRP projects are funded using matching
dollars from other funding sources, including FHWA State
Planning and Research (SP&R) and the University of Minnesota’s
Center for Transportation Studies (CTS) and Intelligent
Transportation Systems (ITS) Institute.
MnDOT’s mission is to improve access to markets, jobs,
goods and services, and to improve mobility by focusing on
priority transportation improvements and investments that help
Minnesotans travel safer, smarter and more efficiently.
Lynn Clarkowski
Environmental Stewardship
Nancy Daubenberger
Bridges
Michael Ginnaty
Project Management and Technical
Support
Susan Groth
Traffic, Safety & Technology
Steven Lund
Maintenance
Mark Nelson
Statewide Multimodal Planning
Keith Shannon
Materials & Road Research
Linda Taylor
Research Services
Jean Wallace
Policy, Analysis, Research & Innovation
Districts
Daniel Anderson
District 3
Greg Coughlin
Metro District
Nelrae Succio
District 6
Greg Ous
District 7
Nonvoting Members
James Close
Information & Technology Services
Bill Lohr
FHWA
Research Services Support Staff
• N icole Peterson—Research Engineer
• Ann McLellan—Finance & Contract Services
• Bruce Holdhusen, Alan Rindels, Farideh Amiri—Project Advisors
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FY2012 SRP Research Highlights
A segment of road with a living snow fence
(bottom) offers better driver visibility and road
surface conditions than a segment of road
without this natural windbreak (top). MnDOT
traffic safety data suggest that living snow fences
can reduce snow- and ice-related accidents by
40 percent on roadways with super-elevated
curves.
Report 2012-03, “Economic and Environmental Costs and Benefits
of Living Snow Fences: Safety, Mobility, and Transportation Authority
Benefits, Farmer Costs, and Carbon Impacts,” was written to help MnDOT
optimize its program for compensating landowners who plant living
snow fences. Designed to reduce the volume of snow that drifts onto
adjacent roadways, living snow fences—trees, shrubs or standing corn
rows—can reduce road maintenance and safety costs as well as carbon
emissions. Researchers used input from landowner focus groups and
financial analyses to develop a calculator that determines the appropriate
compensation for a given landowner according to a per-acre cost-benefit
analysis. The study’s recommendations included offering shorter and more
flexible landowner contracts, increasing compensation at key locations,
adjusting payments for inflation, tying payments to corn and land prices,
increasing payments in the first three years to offset maintenance, reducing
risk and landowner liability, compensating for replanting and increasing
awareness of the payment program. More information about this study is
available in the Technical Summary on page 120.
Report 2012-01, “Best Value Granular Material for Road
Foundations,” described an effort to validate the use of local aggregate
sources in pavement base and subbase layers. Using local materials instead
of those brought in from gravel pits and rock quarries will promote
sustainability and cost-effective construction. Investigators studied local
aggregates to determine how an aggregate’s properties affect performance,
and consequently how these properties affect the design thickness of
unbound pavement layers. The project also determined where locally
available materials with defined performance characteristics should be
placed, what traffic levels are appropriate for these aggregates, and how
to combine high quality and marginal quality aggregates for optimal
performance. More information about this study is available in the
Technical Summary on page 134.
FY11 MnDOT Hear Every Voice Training and Assistance is a
project in which MnDOT worked with CTS to modify and deliver training
developed in 2010 under the Hear Every Voice public engagement
initiative. This program consists of 13 training modules based on the
Hear Every Voice employee handbook on public involvement efforts. The
current project modified five of these modules and delivered each training
module twice over six months in 2011. It also provided technical support
for 10 two-hour public participation webinars and developed public
participation case studies describing tools and mechanisms used to engage
the public during transportation projects. These efforts will help MnDOT
continue to involve the public in developing and implementing state plans
and programs, improving the agency’s efficiency and relationships with
customers.
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M n D O T R e s e a r c h S e r v i c e s • r e s e a r c h f u n d i n g p rogr a m s
Full-Depth Precast Concrete Bridge Deck System—Phase II
monitored the field performance of precast composite slab span bridge
systems. These systems consist of a series of 6-foot-wide, inverted precast
T-sections positioned between supports, with cast-in-place concrete
applied over the precast sections to form a monolithic slab span system.
Effective for short- to medium-span bridges (20 to 60 feet long), these
systems use reinforcement to mitigate longitudinal cracking. Several of
these systems, using three different design iterations, have been in service
for up to three years. Researchers mapped their surface cracking and
evaluated core samples for the development of reflective cracks, with
results showing that recent designs have less cracking than older designs.
Researchers also continued to collect strain and temperature data from
an early implementation of this system, the Center City Bridge. They
evaluated MnDOT’s latest design methods for these systems, providing
recommendations for improvements to future designs. The final report is
expected to be published in the next few months, and researchers recently
presented results at the Transportation Research Conference.
Report 2012-04, “Development of Freeway Operational Strategies with IRIS-in-Loop Simulation,” described the development of new
software tools for operating Minnesota freeway corridors and evaluating
traffic management strategies. These tools include new performance
measures, a computer traffic simulation environment and strategies for
improving ramp metering and variable message sign operations in the
Twin Cities area. These enhancements could lead to significant improvements in both congestion and traveler safety. More information about this
study is available in the Technical Summary on page 166.
79
A main product of 2012-04 was TICAS, the Traffic
Information and Condition Analysis System,
which allows traffic system operators to visualize
and evaluate a highway system’s performance.
This display provides a contour plot of average
vehicle speeds over time for various freeway
corridors.
M n D O T R e s e a r c h S e r v i c e s • F Y 2 0 1 2 a n n u a l r e p ort
Feature
Innovative Stormwater Treatment Device Could
Transform the Industry
A project funded through MnDOT’s SRP has led to the
development of an innovative stormwater treatment
device that is far more cost-effective than existing
proprietary systems.
Named after the University of Minnesota St. Anthony
Falls Laboratory at which it was developed, the SAFL
Baffle is a porous barrier made for use in sumps—
cylindrical tanks that are a common feature of urban
stormwater infrastructure.
“The SAFL Baffle has the potential to dramatically
transform the industry,” says Omid Mohseni, professor
at the University of Minnesota Department of Civil
Engineering and co-developer of the device. “Its use in
sumps could allow them to be turned into much more
effective stormwater treatment devices, significantly
lowering the cost of complying with federal and state
environmental regulations.”
Sumps are typically a feature of manholes that provide
maintenance access to sewers and help to reduce
harmful pollutants in runoff water before the toxins
reach lakes and streams. As water from rainfall and
melting snow flows into these tanks, its velocity is
reduced. This allows some of the sediments in the water
to settle at the bottom of the sump as the water exits
through an outgoing pipe. These sediments can carry
heavy metals and other pollutants picked up from
surfaces such as paved streets and parking lots.
However, after a heavy rainfall the velocity of the water
entering a sump can wash out the sediment it has
already collected. The SAFL Baffle is designed to prevent
washout by slowing down water as it enters the sump,
and it is porous to avoid creating a pattern of water
circulation that would decrease its effectiveness.
“The SAFL Baffle virtually eliminates washout from
sumps,” says Mohseni, whose research also showed
that the SAFL Baffle improved sediment capture by
Typical baffles are impermeable, leading to
a circulation of water that washes collected
sediment out of sumps. The SAFL Baffle
developed by the University of Minnesota
St. Anthony Falls Laboratory is porous,
distributing the water jet flowing from the inlet
pipe more evenly across the sump, reducing
its velocity and virtually eliminating sediment
washout.
10 percent to 15 percent, and can usually perform well
even when clogged with trash and debris.
Other proprietary devices used for similar purposes can
be much more expensive.
“On average, a sump equipped with a SAFL Baffle is
one-fourth the cost of proprietary devices,” says Barbara
Loida, MS4 coordinator engineer for the MnDOT Metro
District. “Cities and counties have been purchasing these
expensive proprietary devices for more than 10 years.”
In 2011 MnDOT along with Minnesota cities, counties
and private entities installed the SAFL Baffle in more
than 50 sumps. Many more are on order in 2012.
“As part of their commitment to the environment,
MnDOT and local agencies implement programs to
minimize the effects of stormwater runoff on regional
surface waters and groundwater,” says Loida. “This
project has significantly advanced that objective.”
More information about this study is available in the
Technical Summary on page 114.
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M n D O T R e s e a r c h S e r v i c e s • r e s e a r c h f u n d i n g p rogr a m s
Local Road Research Board
For more than 50 years, the Local Road Research Board (LRRB) has facilitated both new transportation research
and the sharing of the latest knowledge among Minnesota city and county engineers. LRRB innovations range from new
ways to determine pavement strength to innovative methods for engaging the public. In the last 15 years, the LRRB has
sponsored more than 200 projects and offered local communities tools to improve pavement management and rural safety;
upgrade crash analysis software; evaluate the performance of stormwater treatment technology; explore the environmental
benefits of porous pavements; and better calibrate snowplow sanders.
In FY2012, LRRB funds accounted for 27% ($2,902,378)
of MnDOT’s research budget. (See Figure 5 on page 34.)
Benefiting Transportation Practitioners
The legislative origin and purpose of LRRB are
described this way in the 2012 LRRB Strategic Plan:
Transportation practitioners involved with LRRB
projects have benefited by:
In 1959, the Minnesota Legislature established funding
from the state aid allocation for the purposes of supporting
research on problems of specific interest to local road
engineers. The legislation, Chapter 162.06 subd. 4 and
Chapter 162.12 subd. 4, also established the LRRB to
manage activities. The original legislation stated that
LRRB allocate those funds “...solely for the purpose of
conducting research in the methods of and materials for
the construction and maintenance of county state-aid
highways and municipal state-aid streets.” The 1959
legislation set the funding level at ¼ of 1 percent of the
state aid allocation and mandated that the Commissioner
of Transportation oversee the administration of these
funds. In 1974, the Minnesota Legislature modified the
original legislation by adding a research focus to improve
the design and environmental compatibility of state-aid
highways, streets, and appurtenances. It also allowed
for constructing research elements and reconstructing
or replacing research elements that fail. In addition,
the legislation broadened the LRRB’s scope to include
conducting programs for implementing and monitoring
research results.
• N
etworking outside of the office and working
with those who share similar interests
• K
eeping up-to-date on current topics within their
area of expertise and learning about cuttingedge technologies
• W
orking on real problems they otherwise
wouldn’t have the resources to address
Making a Difference
The LRRB’s current research includes projects to
explore better methods to inspect and maintain
timber bridges, determine best practices in
applying Complete Streets principles to design
work, and evaluate the impacts of implements of
husbandry on our roads and bridges.
The latest change in the LRRB legislation occurred in
1994, when the funding level was increased from ¼ of
one percent to its current level of ½ of one percent of the
state aid allocation, effectively doubling LRRB’s funding
capabilities.
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M n D O T R e s e a r c h S e r v i c e s • F Y 2 0 1 2 a n n u a l r e p ort
LRRB Mission
The mission of the LRRB is to serve local
road transportation practitioners through
the development of new initiatives,
the acquisition and application of new
knowledge, and the exploration and
implementation of new technologies.
LRRB Strategic Goals
The LRRB sponsors research projects that
improve Minnesota’s local government road
system with regard to:
1. D
esign—the determination of the
need for and nature of a proposed road
system project
2. C
onstruction—the implementation of
the plans and specifications from the
road system design process
3. M
aintenance/Operations—the
operation and maintenance of the road
system investment
Each year, the LRRB Board, including city and county engineers
and key MnDOT decision-makers, approves and funds the
most innovative research projects addressing the needs of local
transportation practitioners.
Once research has been completed, the Research and
Implementation Committee (RIC) (www.lrrb.org/ric.aspx)
communicates the results and facilitates their practical
application. This multiplies the impact of LRRB-sponsored
research, as more and more engineers see its potential
applications. The RIC uses a variety of methods to reach
engineers and others with new developments, including
presentations, videos, written reports, pamphlets, seminars,
workshops, field demonstrations, Web-based technologies and
on-site visits.
Submitting Ideas
The LRRB is continually on the lookout for research that
addresses transportation issues facing Minnesota’s cities and
counties, and that ultimately helps improve the quality of
Minnesota’s transportation systems. Please submit your research
ideas to the LRRB at www.lrrb.org/submit-ideas.
4. E
nvironmental Compatibility—the
integration of the local road system
into the community to minimize
adverse environmental impacts while
contributing to economic and social
well-being
Grass-Roots Involvement
The transportation practitioners who are
responsible for county highways and city
streets best understand the problems
and challenges in providing safe, efficient
roadways. The LRRB makes it easy for
them to participate in setting the research
agenda.
In FY2012 the LRRB developed a new set of Resource
Materials, including updates of the Strategic Plan
and Operating Procedures guide, which provides
LRRB members with a one-stop resource for LRRB
procedures, goals and background information.
These can be accessed at www.lrrb.org.
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M n D O T R e s e a r c h S e r v i c e s • r e s e a r c h f u n d i n g p rogr a m s
Figure 8. LRRB Board Members
2012
Figure 9. Research Implementation
Committee (RIC) Members
Rick West (Chair), Otter Tail County
2012
Julie Skallman, State Aid Division
Rich Sanders (Chair), Polk County
Tom Ravn, MnDOT Office of Construction &
Innovative Contracting
Jeff Hulsether, City of Brainerd
Mitch Rasmussen, Scott County
Linda Taylor, MnDOT Research Services
Dave Robley, Douglas County
Bruce Hasbargen, Beltrami County
Tim Stahl, Jackson County
Lyndon Robjent, Carver County
Klayton Eckles, City of Woodbury
Tim Stahl, Jackson County
Walter Leu, MnDOT
Steve Koehler, City of New Ulm
Rick Kjonaas, MnDOT
John Powell, City of Savage
Maureen Jensen, MnDOT
Laurie McGinnis, University of Minnesota CTS
Nicole Peterson, MnDOT
2011
Farideh Amiri, MnDOT
Rick West (Chair), Otter Tail County
Jim Grothaus, University of Minnesota
Julie Skallman, State Aid Division
2011
Tom Ravn, MnDOT Office of Construction &
Innovative Contracting
Rich Sanders (Chair), Polk County
Linda Taylor, MnDOT Research Services
Tom Colbert, City of Eagan
Mitch Anderson, Stearns County
Jeff Hulsether, City of Brainerd
Bruce Hasbargen, Beltrami County
Mitch Rasmussen, Scott County
Sue Miller, Freeborn County
Tim Stahl, Jackson County
Deb Bloom, City of Roseville
Sue Miller, Freeborn County
Steve Koehler, City of New Ulm
Walter Leu, MnDOT
Laurie McGinnis, University of Minnesota CTS
Rick Kjonaas, MnDOT
Maureen Jensen, MnDOT
Ben Worel, MnDOT
Farideh Amiri, MnDOT
Jim Grothaus, University of Minnesota
LRRB Board members: (front row, from left) Lyndon Robjent,
Carver County; Julie Skallman, MnDOT State Aid; Rick West
(Chair), Otter Tail County; Bruce Hasbargen, Beltrami County;
(back row) Laurie McGinnis, CTS director; Steve Koehler,
City of New Ulm; John Powell, City of Savage; Linda Taylor,
MnDOT Research Services director; Tom Ravn, MnDOT Office
of Construction & Innovative Contracting; Tim Stahl, Jackson
County (RIC Liaison).
RIC members: (front row, from left) Farideh Amiri, MnDOT
Research Services; Tim Stahl, Jackson County; Rick Kjonaas,
MnDOT State Aid; Maureen Jensen, MnDOT; Jeff Hulsether, City
of Brainerd; (back row) Dave Robley, Douglas County; Mitch
Rasmussen, Scott County; Jim Grothaus, CTS; Walter Leu, MnDOT
District 1; Rich Sanders (Chair), Polk County. Not pictured: Nicole
Peterson, MnDOT Research Services, and Klayton Eckles, City of
Woodbury.
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M n D O T R e s e a r c h S e r v i c e s • F Y 2 0 1 2 a n n u a l r e p ort
The LRRB’s New Website
Please visit LRRB’s redesigned website, www.lrrb.org,
for more information about LRRB research and activities.
This site lists our members, provides news and events
information, explains more about LRRB’s mission and plans,
provides links to all of our published reports, connects
readers to local and national resources, and sports a variety
of Web-based tools, including:
•Handbooks, manuals, and presentation documents
to help local agencies with a variety of issues,
including snowplow calibration, traffic sign
management and pavement rehabilitation and
management
•Software tools that analyze crash patterns, track
Minnesota’s research test sections, provide best
practices in managing interactions between local
authorities and major traffic generators, help write
project memos to attain federal funds, assist in
designing hot-mix asphalt pavements and more
•Videos demonstrating technologies and procedures
•Synthesis documents summarizing recent research
on various topics including bridge construction,
highway construction impact mitigation, social
media practice in Minnesota cities and counties, and
noise wall effectiveness testing
The redesigned site is easier to use, with improved
navigation and search functionality, an updated idea
submission process, and an LRRB members-only section
that offers access to even more resources.
The Maintenance of Recreational Trails workshop provided
guidance for maintaining trail pavement as well as designing and
maintaining vegetation, signage and other elements.
84
FY2012 LRRB Research Highlights
Report 2011RIC05, “Maintenance of Recreational
Trails,” leveraged past LRRB-funded research into best
practices for preserving trails to design and administer a
workshop for city and county maintenance managers. This
guidance covered the pavement life cycle, identifying and
prioritizing maintenance needs, building a maintenance
schedule and more. It was presented through the
Minnesota Local Technical Assistance Program at various
Minnesota locations as well as through national forums
like the American Public Works Association conference.
Maintaining trails is much more cost-effective than
rehabilitation, and this project will help ensure the safety
and enjoyment of trail users throughout Minnesota. For
more information, see the Technical Summary for this
project on page 154.
Report 2012-17, “Material Testing Rates for LowVolume Roads,” will save local governments money by
reducing the amount of testing required for the materials
going into local roads. The previous testing specifications
were designed for statewide use, but since lower-traffic
roads don’t undergo the stresses of state highways, the
testing was excessive. In fact, some required lab test results
would take longer to generate than the duration of many
local construction projects. By surveying Minnesota
inspectors, project engineers and contractors, and reviewing
information about current material control practices and
the risks associated with changing various requirements,
investigators were able to confirm that a less stringent testing
regimen could be implemented safely, and they developed
a new State Aid for Local Transportation Schedule of
Materials for Low Volume Roads tailored specifically
for city and county needs. For more information, see the
Technical Summary for this project on page 144.
INV 923, “Minnesota Concrete Flatwork
Specifications for Local Government Agencies,” is a
recently completed effort to develop up-to-date local
concrete infrastructure guidelines and to determine how
these can be used to update the 2006 State Aid Concrete
Pavement Rehabilitation Best Practices Manual.
Investigators also developed training materials to present
the new specifications to local design and inspection
personnel. These materials will provide guidance for
product selection and for testing concrete flatwork
construction to ensure that concrete flatwork construction
projects in Minnesota’s cities and counties will be consistent,
resulting in higher quality and more durable concrete.
M n D O T R e s e a r c h S e r v i c e s • r e s e a r c h f u n d i n g p rogr a m s
Feature
Implementing MnDOT Research through Strong
Partnerships and Local Training
MnDOT Research
Services and the
Local Road Research
Board work with many
partners to bring
innovation to the
Department and the
state of Minnesota.
A key partner is
the University of
Minnesota Center for
Jim Grothaus, Director,
Transportation Studies,
Minnesota Local Technical
which houses, among
Assistance Program
other joint initiatives,
the Minnesota Local
Technical Assistance Program. According to MnDOT
Director of Research Services Linda Taylor, “Leveraging
our partnerships with the University and the Local Road
Research Board to fund LTAP helps us to implement our
research by educating and training stakeholders.”
The LTAP’s mission is to improve the skills and
knowledge of local transportation agencies through
training, technical assistance and technology transfer.
Using LTAP and its mobile arm, the Circuit Training and
Assistance Program, MnDOT facilitates adoption of
successful research innovations in areas such as winter
maintenance, pavement rehabilitation, work zones,
traffic sign programs and vegetation management.
“Our outreach through LTAP helps city, county and
state agencies effectively manage changes in policies,
practices and technology by providing them with
current information and training,” says Taylor. In
addition to formal courses and workshops, LTAP tools
“can be used as refreshers for MnDOT and local staff,
such as at safety meetings. If an office is experiencing
issues regarding cargo securement, for instance, it
can just call up the training resources it needs on that
topic right from the LTAP site.” Taylor also cites the
recent Minnesota Roadway Maintenance Training
and Demo Day, where state and local maintenance
personnel were able to learn about and test the latest
innovations through classroom sessions and outdoor
demonstrations.
Program Director Jim Grothaus describes the LTAP
initiative as providing a national model: “Minnesota’s
LTAP is unique in the country due to its participating
organizations,” he says. “It is supported through both
federal funds, allocated through MnDOT Research
Services, and local tax dollars. Working out of the Center
for Transportation Studies, we have the power of the
University combined with the power of MnDOT and
LRRB.”
An emerging outreach strategy enabled by LTAP is
online training. The first module, covering maintenance
and design of gravel roads, recently became available.
(See the poster on page 86 for details.) “We realize
that as budgets get tighter and people’s time gets
tighter, there’s a need to develop and deliver different
methods of training,” says Grothaus. Interested local
road engineers can view the gravel roads training in six
to eight hours, but shorter modules are in development,
including training on work zone traffic control,
snowplow operations, culvert installation and asphalt
pavement-related topics.
Grothaus is currently president-elect of the National
Local Technical Assistance Program Association, the
professional association representing all LTAP programs
nationwide. He will begin his term as president in
August 2013. According to Grothaus, his service to the
association will “create visibility for our state, city and
county engineers, and share with other states what
MnDOT and Minnesota’s LTAP are doing so well.”
A schedule of upcoming training opportunities through
LTAP is available at www.mnltap.umn.edu/training.
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This poster, representing an innovative service that LTAP can offer local officials thanks to LRRB funding, won
first prize at the 2012 Local/Tribal Technical Assistance Program Annual Conference.
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FY2012 LRRB Technical Summaries
Summaries of many completed LRRB reports can be found in this document, organized by topic area. These
include:
INV 645: 2011RIC01: Decision Tree for Stormwater BMPs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
INV 645: 2011RIC05: Best Practices for Recreation Trails. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
INV 768: 2011-20: Monitoring Geosynthetics in Local Roadways (LRRB 768)
10-Year Performance Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
INV 854: 2012-08: TPF-5(148): Effects of Implements of Husbandry (Farm Equipment)
on Pavement Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
INV 878: 2012-12: MPR-6(024): Porous Asphalt Pavement Performance in Cold Regions . . . 140
INV 890: 2012-06: Vehicle Speed Impacts of Occasional Hazard (Playground)
Warning Signs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
INV 891: 2011-19: Performance Assessment of Oversized Culverts to Accommodate
Fish Passage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
INV 892: 2011TREE01: The Road to a Thoughtful Street Tree Master Plan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
INV 901: 2011-26: Concrete Delivery Time Study. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
INV 902: 2012-17: Material Control Testing Rates for Low-Volume Roads. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
INV 908: 2011-21: Minnesota’s Best Practices and Policies for Safety Strategies on
Highway and Local Roads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
Additionally, we have completed a summary of an ongoing project:
INV 767, INV 825 and INV 899: Research in Progress: Increasing the Gradation of
Limestone Aggregate Bases to Increase Road Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
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M n D O T R e s e a r c h S e r v i c e s • F Y 2 0 1 2 a n n u a l r e p ort
FY2012 Research Projects Summary
This section provides general information about research contracts active during any part of FY2012, both projects
managed by Research Services and multi-state pooled fund projects to which MnDOT has contributed. For your
convenience, the table of projects is also available, along with statistics and pie charts from this report, as a separate
publication, Research Services FY2012 At-A-Glance. Please contact Research Services to request this document.
Research Topic Areas
The projects in this section are organized by research topic area. Research Services managers have created these
categories to align with Department offices and functions, help managers oversee project tracking and communication
efforts, and support strategic funding decisions to ensure that all elements of MnDOT’s strategic vision are addressed
appropriately through its research. Funds were distributed as follows over these topic areas:
Figure 10. FY2012 Research Funds Allocated by Topic Area*
4% 2%
28%
6%
a: 19%
8%
b: 5%
9%
c: 4%
16%
26%
*Includes only projects with contracts maintained by MnDOT Research Services.
88
Administrative
a: Dedicated Programs (CTS & LTAP)
b: Research Administration
c: LRRB/RIC Administration
$1,492,746
$ 1,032,458
$ 268,909
$ 191,379
Materials & Construction
Traffic & Safety
Policy & Planning
Bridges & Structures
Multimodal
Maintenance Operations & Security
Environmental
$ 1,361,781
$ 865,945
$ 501,029
$ 412,027
$234,085
$ 335,551
$117,915
Total
$5,321,080
M n D O T R e s e a r c h S e r v i c e s • F Y 2 0 1 2 R e s e a r c h Proj e c t s S u mm a ry
To help readers understand this system of categorization, we have listed sub-areas for each topic area:
Figure 11. Research Topic Areas and Sub-Areas
Administrative
Maintenance Operations & Security
Policy & Planning
• Program Administration
• Research Management
• Technology Transfer
Bridge & Structures
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Structures Management
Structural Design & Analysis
Structural Materials
Bridge Rails & Transitions
Geotechnical Issues
High Mast Illumination Poles
Hydraulics & Hydrology
Overhead Sign Bridges
Structures Construction
Environmental
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Cultural Resources
Social and Economic Issues & Impacts
Noise Analysis
Erosion Control
Wetlands
Air & Water Quality
Contaminated Properties
Regulated Materials & Waste
Forestry
Wetlands
Wildlife & Fisheries
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Vegetation Management
Rest Areas
Winter Operations
Pavement Maintenance
Maintenance Contracting
Emergency Management
Pavement Preservation
•Right of Way Planning, Acquisition &
Management
•Statewide Regional & Local Transportation
System Planning
•Roadway Planning
•Traffic Data Collection/WIM
•Twin Cities Mobility Modal Plans
Materials & Construction
Traffic & Safety
•
•
•
•
•
•
Geotechnical
Pavement Design
Construction Materials
Construction Operations
Innovative Contracting
Pavement Management
•
•
•
•
•
•
Geometric Design
Signal Operations
Pavement Marking
Railroad Crossing Safety
Roadside Safety Roadway
Signing & Delineation
Multimodal
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Aviation
Multimodal & Inter-Modal Freight
Public/Mass Transit
Ports & Waterways
Railroads
Airport
Commercial Vehicles
Bicycles
Within a given topic area, completed reports in the table on page 91 are listed first, in order of report number, followed
by the report title and, when appropriate, the LRRB and/or SP&R identifier. Next, the ongoing contracts that reached their
end dates during FY2012 are listed, followed by those that are still continuing.
•The Investigator column lists the Principal Investigator employed by the contractor. In many cases, additional
investigators or authors contributed to the report.
•For information about the roles of Principal Investigator, Technical Liaison and Project Coordinator, see “Research
Management” on page 19.
•See “Research Funding Programs” beginning on page 34 for more information about the items in the Funding Source
column.
•The Amount Paid and % Paid columns reflect accounting as of July 1, 2012, in most cases. Some projects are
completed without the full contracted amount (Total Cost) being paid; % Paid does not necessarily reflect the
percentage of scoped tasks completed on the project.
89
M n D O T R e s e a r c h S e r v i c e s • F Y 2 0 1 2 a n n u a l r e p ort
The pooled fund studies (many of which involve multiple contracts not managed by MnDOT) are listed after the
contracts within a given topic area, with MnDOT-led studies listed first.
•The Technical Liaison is the MnDOT representative to the pooled fund study; for those studies not led by
MnDOT, the lead state representative as well as other information about a particular project can be found at
www.pooledfund.org.
•The Current MN Commitment End Date reflects commitments already recorded. This does not preclude Minnesota
from making a commitment beyond this date or reflect the end of the pooled fund study.
•Some pooled fund studies are listed even though Minnesota no longer contributes to them because they are still
active and producing value for the state.
•Since SP&R Part II work plans have been drafted historically by calendar year and not fiscal year, Research Services
has provided both Minnesota’s 2011 and 2012 commitments as well as the combined Minnesota commitment for all
years so far. In some cases, when a pooled fund study has continued over multiple study numbers, the total reflects
Minnesota payments to all of the studies in the series.
The TS column indicates research contracts or pooled fund studies for which a Technical Summary has been created in
FY2012; see “MnDOT Research: FY2012 Technical Summaries” beginning on page 107.
For more information about any of these projects, please contact the listed Technical Liaison or Research Services.
90
91
Bridge Deck Delam Inspection Technology Evaluation and
Development of Best Practices
National Bridge Inspection Standards
89261
WO192
89261
WO200
98511
99586
97835
97918
89261
WO131
89261
WO142
89261
WO145
89261
WO183
89261
WO244
89261
WO261
2012-09
2012-16
TRS1105
TRS1203
N/A
N/A
2012-24
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
MPR-0(004): Scour Monitoring Technology Implementation
A Research Plan and Factors Affecting Service Life for Culvert
Pipe Materials in Minnesota
Development of an Advanced Warning System for Fracture
Critical Steel Bridges—Phase II
Wakota Bridge Monitoring Program
Full-Depth Precast Concrete Bridge Deck System—Phase II
Instrumentation, Monitoring and Modeling of the I-35W
Bridge
INV 926: Innovative Bridge Construction for Minnesota
Local Roads
MPR-0(005): Bridge Deck Cracking
Validation of Prestressed Concrete I-Beam Deflection and
Camber Estimates
Development of Best Practices for Inspection of PT Bridges
in Minnesota
INV 891: Performance Assessment of Oversized Culverts to
Accommodate Fish Passage
89261
WO152
2011-19
Title
Contract
Number
Report
Number
Bridges & Structures
Contractor
University of Minnesota
University of Minnesota
University of Minnesota
University of Minnesota
University of Minnesota
University of Minnesota
HDR Engineering
EVS
HDR Engineering
American Engineering Testing,
Inc.
University of Minnesota
University of Minnesota –
Duluth
University of Minnesota
*Project titles are active hyperlinks in the online PDF version of this document.
Jeff Marr
Jeff Marr
Arturo Schultz
Arturo Schultz
Cathy French
Cathy French
Farhad Reza
Paul Keranen
Daniel Dorgan
Dave Rettner
Cathy French
Andrea
Schokker
John Nieber
Investigator
Andrea Hendrickson
Andrea Hendrickson
Moises
Dimaculangan
Arielle Ehrlich
Keith Molnau,
Paul Rowekamp
Benjamin Jilk
Thomas Styrbicki
Duane Green
Steve Misgen
Ronald Mulvaney
Brian Homan
Paul Kivisto
Petronella DeWall,
Nicole DanielsonBartelt
Technical Liaison
Shirlee Sherkow
Shirlee Sherkow
Shirlee Sherkow
Shirlee Sherkow
Daniel Warzala
Shirlee Sherkow
Bruce Holdhusen
Bruce Holdhusen
Shirlee Sherkow
Shirlee Sherkow
Daniel Warzala
Shirlee Sherkow
Nelson Cruz
Project
Coordinator
4/18/11
4/18/11
9/24/10
6/19/09
7/30/09
2/2/09
12/10/10
11/4/10
12/9/11
3/22/11
5/11/10
7/8/10
8/7/09
Start Date
Pooled Fund Tables*:
Multi-state transportation pooled fund studies led by MnDOT
Other multi-state transportation pooled fund studies in which MnDOT participates, either through a calendar year 2011 or 2012 contribution or through past
contributions that are still producing value for Minnesota
RESEARCH PROJECTS:
Completed research reports and Transportation Research Syntheses that were released in fiscal year 2012: July 2011 to June 2012
Research contracts with end dates during FY2012 that did not result in a final report
Other research contracts active during FY2012, including some tasks or contracts that are part of larger programs that MnDOT tracks individually
FY2012 Research Projects Summary
5/31/14
9/30/12
7/31/13
3/31/13
10/31/12
8/30/12
7/31/12
3/31/12
7/31/12
11/30/11
7/31/12
5/31/12
8/31/11
End Date
SP&R, SRP
SRP
SRP
SRP
SRP
Partnership
Funds
SRP
SRP
LRRB
SP&R, SRP
COPTRS
COPTRS,
SRP
LRRB, SRP,
COPTRS
Funding
Source
$38,233
$29,999
$71,950
$193,990
$165,000
$235,431
$19,534
$52,026
$24,996
$4,930
$100,000
$123,195
$83,428
Total Cost
$19,180
$28,499
$44,661
$154,893
$135,004
$164,801
$14,694
$52,026
$24,976
$4,930
$100,000
$123,195
$83,428
Amount
Paid
50%
95%
62%
80%
82%
70%
75%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
% Paid
X
X
X
TS
“Number of Participating States” for some pooled funds
includes Canadian provinces and agencies such as FHWA.
A mark in the “TS” column indicates that a Technical
Summary for this project can be found in the 2012
Annual Report or at www.dot.state.mn.us/research.
COPTRSCooperative Program for Transportation
Research and Studies
LRRB Local Road Research Board
SRP
MnDOT State Research Program
SP&R State Planning and Research (FHWA)
FUNDING SOURCE Key
92
98166
98640
99008
WO1
99008
WO41
99008
WO42
99008
WO49
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
MPR-0(002): Culvert Repair Best Practices, Specifications
and Special Provisions
MPR-1(004): Partially Grouted Riprap Implementation
Matrix Riprap Implementation
MPR-2(006): Monitoring of Fracture-Critical Steel Bridges—
Phase III
MPR-2(002): Time-Dependent Considerations of I-35W
St. Anthony Falls Bridge Including Long-Term Monitoring
Applications
Anchorage of Shear Reinforcement in Prestressed Concrete
Bridge Girders
Investigation of Shear Distribution Factors in Prestressed
Concrete Girder Bridges
MPR-0(005): Analysis of Bridge Deck Cracking Data
MPR-9(004): Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD)
Pile Driving Static Load Test Data Collection (LRFD
Implementation)
Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) Pile Driving
Project—Phase II Study
Synthesis of Bridge Approach Panel Best Practices
MPR-9(002): Concrete Bridge Deck Crack Sealant Evaluation
and Implementation
Title
[cont.]
Contractor
Title
Construction of Crack-Free Bridge Decks—Phase II
Evaluation of Test Methods for Permeability (Transport) and Development
of Performance Guidelines for Durability
HY-8 Culvert Analysis Program—Phase III of Development Efforts
Design and Fabrication Standards to Eliminate Fracture Critical Concerns in
Two Girder Bridge Systems
Field Testing Handheld Thermographic Inspection Technologies—Phase II
Member-Level Redundancy in Built-Up Steel Members
Evaluation and Analysis of Decked Bulb T Beam Bridge
HY-12 Storm Drain Hydraulic Analysis Program—Phase II of Development
Efforts
Watershed Modeling System License Renewal Agreement
Surface-Water Model System License Renewal Agreement
TPF-5(174)
TPF-5(179)
TPF-5(202)
TPF-5(238)
TPF-5(247)
TPF-5(253)
TPF-5(254)
TPF-5(256)
TPF-5(265)
TPF-5(266)
Lisa Sayler
Lisa Sayler
Lisa Sayler
Dave Conkel
Todd Nieman
Paul Rowekamp
Yihong Gao
Petra DeWall
Bernard Izevbekhai
Paul Kivisto
Technical Liaison
CNA Consulting Engineers, Inc.
Ayres Associates
University of Minnesota
University of Minnesota
University of Minnesota
University of Minnesota
American Engineering Testing,
Inc.
American Engineering Testing,
Inc.
Minnesota State University,
Mankato
Minnesota State University,
Mankato
Braun Intertec Corporation
Study #
Bridges & Structures Pooled Fund Studies
99620
96272
N/A
N/A
96271
N/A
99136
95439
N/A
N/A
Contract
Number
Report
Number
Bridges & Structures
Deb Fick
Deb Fick
Deb Fick
Deb Fick
Deb Fick
Deb Fick
Deb Fick
Deb Fick
Deb Fick
Deb Fick
Project
Coordinator
Bruce Wagener
Paul Clopper
Arturo Schultz
Cathy French
Cathy French
Cathy French
Dave Rettner
Gregory Reuter
Aaron Budge
Farhad Reza
Matthew
Oman
Investigator
FHWA
FHWA
FHWA
MI
IN
MO
IN
FHWA
IN
KS
Lead State
or Agency
Lisa Sayler
Nicole DanielsonBartelt
Moises
Dimaculangan
Benjamin Jilk
Benjamin Jilk
Yihong Gao
Ronald Mulvaney
Derrick Dasenbrock
Paul Rowekamp,
Gary Person
Paul Rowekamp
Edward Lutgen
Technical Liaison
7
8
6
5
8
10
9
8
11
14
Number of
Participating
States
11/1/11
12/14/11
6/29/12
6/29/12
6/29/12
9/27/11
5/25/11
1/21/11
8/18/10
7/15/10
9/30/09
Start Date
2013
2013
2013
2014
2013
2012
2013
2011
2011
2011
Current MN
Commitment
End Date
Bruce Holdhusen
Shirlee Sherkow
Shirlee Sherkow
Shirlee Sherkow
Shirlee Sherkow
Shirlee Sherkow
Shirlee Sherkow
Bruce Holdhusen
Nelson Cruz
Shirlee Sherkow
Daniel Warzala
Project
Coordinator
$86,000
$112,000
$80,000
$380,000
$550,000
$610,000
$840,000
$160,000
$843,000
$995,000
Total Cost
7/31/13
2/28/13
1/31/15
12/31/14
11/30/14
3/31/15
3/31/13
7/31/12
10/31/12
5/31/13
3/31/13
End Date
$0
$0
$0
$15,000
$25,000
$30,000
$20,000
$10,000
$12,000
$15,000
$21,171
$9,663
$0
$0
$0
$7,300
$0
$99,752
$60,000
$15,304
$33,567
Amount
Paid
$10,000
$5,000
$10,000
$15,000
$25,000
$30,000
$20,000
$0
$0
$0
MN 2012
Commitment
$80,000
$16,635
$166,000
$100,000
$175,000
$320,000
$44,993
$99,752
$120,000
$25,000
$80,918
Total Cost
MN 2011
Commitment
SP&R, SRP
SP&R, SRP
SP&R, SRP
SP&R, SRP
SRP
SRP
SP&R, SRP
SP&R, SRP
SRP
SRP
SP&R, SRP
Funding
Source
$10,000
$5,000
$10,000
$60,000
$75,000
$60,000
$60,000
$30,000
$87,000
$75,000
Total MN
Commitment
26%
58%
0%
0%
0%
2%
0%
100%
50%
61%
41%
% Paid
TS
TS
93
89261
WO100
93463
Task 1
89261
WO187
89261
WO157
N/A
89421
00734
89258
WO2
89261
WO207
89261
WO211
89261
WO250
89261
WO252
96273
99008
WO54
LAB914
2011-08,
2012-13
2011RIC01
2011TREE01
2012-03
TRS1202
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
INV 914: Research Using Waste Shingles for Stabilization or
Dust Control for Gravel Roads and Shoulders
INV 932: Determination of Effective Impervious Area in
Urban Watersheds
Concrete Slurry, Wash and Loss Water Mitigation
Wetland Mitigation in Abandoned Borrow Areas
Development of Stormwater Effluent Turbidity Monitoring
Methods for Linear Construction
INV 897: Developing Salt-Tolerant Sod Mixtures for Use as
Roadside Turf in Minnesota
INV 894: Assessing and Improving Pollution Prevention by
Swales
Wetblade to Control Canada Thistle and Phragmites Along
Roadways
Flocculation Treatment BMPs for Construction Water
Discharges
The Utility of Wildlife Crossings in Minnesota
Far-Field Testing of Noise Wall Effectiveness: Survey of State
Practice and Literature Scan
Research and Assess the Farmer and MnDOT Economic and
Environmental Costs and Benefits of Living Snow Fences,
Including Carbon Impacts
INV 892: The Road to a Thoughtful Street Tree Master Plan
Decision Tree for Stormwater BMPs
Assessment and Recommendations for the Operation
of Standard Sumps as Best Management Practices for
Stormwater Treatment (Vol. 2)
Title
Contract
Number
96319
89261
WO230
Report
Number
2012-20
N/A
INV 906: LTAP Gravel Road Maintenance Independent Online
Distance Training (ODL)
Salt Brine Blending to Optimize Deicing and Anti-Icing
Performance and Cost-Effectiveness
Title
Maintenance Operations & Security
Contract
Number
Report
Number
Environmental
University of Minnesota
Minnesota State University,
Mankato
Contractor
MnDOT Materials Lab
University of Minnesota
Minnesota State University,
Mankato
University of Minnesota –
Duluth
University of Minnesota
University of Minnesota
University of Minnesota
Michigan Technological
University
Minnesota State University,
Mankato
Minnesota State University,
Mankato
CTC & Associates LLC
University of Minnesota
University of Minnesota
SRF Consulting Group, Inc.
University of Minnesota
Contractor
Jim Grothaus
Stephen
Druschel
Investigator
Thomas Wood
John Gulliver
Stephen
Druschel
Kurt Johnson
Bruce Wilson
Eric Watkins
John Gulliver
Catherine
Tarasoff
Stephen
Druschel
John Krenz
Patrick
Casey, Mark
Linsenmayer
Gary Wyatt
Gary Johnson
Mike Marti
Omid Mohseni
Investigator
Richard West
Gordon Regenscheid
Technical Liaison
Tim Stahl
Scott Anderson
Dwayne Stenlund
Sarma Straumanis
Dwayne Stenlund
Dwayne Stenlund
Barbara Loida
Kenneth Graeve
Dwayne Stenlund
Jason Alcott
John Welle
Daniel Gullickson
Daniel Gullickson
Michael Sheehan
Barbara Loida
Technical Liaison
Daniel Warzala
Daniel Warzala
Project
Coordinator
Daniel Warzala
Shirlee Sherkow
Bruce Holdhusen
Shirlee Sherkow
Bruce Holdhusen
Daniel Warzala
Bruce Holdhusen
Nelson Cruz
Bruce Holdhusen
Daniel Warzala
Farideh Amiri,
Shirlee Sherkow
Daniel Warzala
Sandra McCully
Bruce Holdhusen
Shirlee Sherkow
Project
Coordinator
11/3/10
7/12/10
Start Date
5/11/11
6/29/12
5/11/10
3/28/11
6/27/11
6/8/10
7/30/10
6/25/09
6/22/12
9/14/06
N/A
6/15/09
4/8/10
2/19/09
7/8/08
Start Date
5/31/12
7/31/12
End Date
1/31/14
7/31/15
8/31/12
8/31/14
7/31/13
8/31/14
9/30/13
5/31/14
12/31/13
7/31/11
N/A
2/28/12
9/30/11
12/31/12
5/31/12
End Date
LRRB
SRP
Funding
Source
LRRB, SRP
LRRB
SRP
SRP
SRP
LRRB
LRRB, SRP
SRP
SRP
SRP
LRRB
SRP,
COPTRS,
Other State
Funds
LRRB
LRRB
SRP
Funding
Source
$45,000
$69,600
Total Cost
$77,000
$150,000
$104,945
$142,023
$193,500
$176,516
$314,000
$139,966
$79,464
$79,937
N/A
$99,000
$20,000
$51,748
$257,000
Total Cost
$45,000
$69,600
Amount
Paid
$0
$0
$97,945
$49,671
$0
$61,779
$46,000
$71,062
$0
$75,887
N/A
$99,000
$20,000
$51,748
$257,000
Amount
Paid
100%
100%
% Paid
0%
0%
93%
35%
0%
35%
15%
51%
0%
95%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
% Paid
X
TS
X
X
X
X
TS
94
99083
99085
99392
99556
99716
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
95099
N/A
99008
WO56
94079
N/A
N/A
93463
Task 6.7
N/A
99008
WO19
89261
WO199
N/A
N/A
89261
WO191
N/A
98248
01387
N/A
N/A
98203
N/A
98247
93463
Task 4
N/A
N/A
Contract
Number
Report
Number
TPF-5(218): Clear Roads Administration, Research Support
and Information Services for FY2012
I-35 Emergency Alternate Route Signage—District 6 Pilot
Project
TPF-5(218): Developing a Totally Automated Spreading
System for Clear Roads
TPF-5(218): Snow Removal at Extreme Temperatures
TPF-5(218): Determining the Toxicity of Deicing Materials—
RFP
INV 934: Field Evaluation of Friction Measurement and
Applicator Control Systems for Winter Road Maintenance
INV 998: Operational Research Program for Local
Transportation Groups (OPERA), FY2012
TPF-5(218): Clear Roads Winter Highway Operations—
Mapping Weather Severity Zones
TPF-5(218): Clear Roads Winter Highway Operations—
Understanding the True Costs of Snow and Ice Control
TPF-5(153), INV 863: Optimal Timing of Preventive
Maintenance for Addressing Environmental Aging in HMA
Pavements
INV 886: Cost-Effective Pavement Preservation Solutions for
the Real World
INV 645: INV Task 6.7: Dust Control
Estimation of Winter Snow Operation Performance Measures
with Traffic Flow Data
Comparative Performance Study of Chip Seal and Bonded
Wear Course Systems Applied to Bridge Decks and
Approaches
TPF-5(218): AASHTO SCOM Meeting and Support for the
Clear Roads September 2012 TAC Meeting
TPF-5(218): Clear Roads Winter Highway Operations—
Phase II
INV 645: RIC Task 4: Pavement DVD/Video
Title
Contractor
[cont.]
CTC & Associates LLC
SRF Consulting Group, Inc.
Thompson Engineering
Company
Montana State University
Western Transportation
Institute
Barr Engineering Company
University of Minnesota
University of Minnesota
Meridian Environmental
Technology, Inc.
PB America, Inc.
Asphalt Institute
Minnesota State University,
Mankato
SRF Consulting Group, Inc.
University of Minnesota –
Duluth
University of Minnesota –
Duluth
CTC & Associates LLC
CTC & Associates LLC
SRF Consulting Group, Inc./
Greer & Associates/Minnesota
State University, Mankato
Maintenance Operations & Security
Kim
Linsenmayer
Andy Mielke
Gregory
Thompson
Xianming Shi
Keith Pilgrim
Rajesh
Rajamani
Jim Grothaus
John Mewes
Patrick Hughes
Mike Anderson
W. James
Wilde
Mike Marti
Eil Kwon
Eshan Dave
Kim
Linsenmayer
Patrick Casey
Mike Marti,
Richard Kronick,
W. James Wilde
Investigator
Thomas Peters
Michael Schweyen
Thomas Peters
Thomas Peters
Thomas Peters
Rich Sanders
Julie Skallman
Thomas Peters
Thomas Peters
Thomas Wood
Gregory Coughlin
Rich Sanders
Thomas Peters
Thomas Peters
Thomas Peters
Thomas Peters
Gary Danielson
Technical Liaison
Deb Fick
Nelson Cruz
Deb Fick
Deb Fick
Deb Fick
Daniel Warzala
Farideh Amiri
Deb Fick
Deb Fick
Bruce Holdhusen
Nelson Cruz
Farideh Amiri
Daniel Warzala
Nelson Cruz
Deb Fick
Deb Fick
Farideh Amiri
Project
Coordinator
10/13/11
1/25/12
2/1/12
3/20/12
2/1/12
6/29/12
9/23/11
8/17/11
8/25/11
3/30/10
9/8/09
1/22/11
8/20/10
7/8/10
6/12/12
1/19/11
2/19/09
Start Date
9/30/12
1/31/14
1/31/13
1/31/13
1/31/13
11/30/13
11/30/12
7/31/12
7/31/13
11/30/13
9/30/13
12/31/12
12/31/12
8/31/14
1/31/13
9/30/11
12/31/12
End Date
SP&R,
Partnership
Funds
SRP
SP&R,
Partnership
Funds
SP&R,
Partnership
Funds
SP&R,
Partnership
Funds
LRRB
LRRB
SP&R,
Partnership
Funds
SP&R,
Partnership
Funds
LRRB,
SP&R,
Other
Federal
Funds
LRRB, SRP
LRRB
COPTRS
COPTRS
SP&R,
Partnership
Funds
SP&R,
Partnership
Funds
LRRB
Funding
Source
$97,306
$98,101
$69,550
$50,000
$76,610
$40,000
$90,000
$49,725
$192,720
$286,185
$109,984
$31,350
$58,000
$90,872
$13,520
$69,526
$80,752
Total Cost
$77,594
$30,009
$7,900
$0
$8,245
$0
$0
$39,484
$23,462
$81,913
$26,704
$25,000
$45,000
$0
$1,030
$61,836
$80,752
Amount
Paid
80%
31%
11%
0%
11%
0%
0%
79%
12%
29%
24%
80%
78%
0%
8%
89%
100%
% Paid
X
TS
95
95
LAB886
LAB904
N/A
N/A
INV 904: Stripping of Hot Mixed Asphalt Pavements Under
Chip Seals
INV 886: Cost-Effective Pavement Preservation Solutions for
the Real World
Title
MnDOT Materials Lab
MnDOT Materials Lab
Contractor
[cont.]
Clear Roads Winter Highway Operations—Phase II
Aurora Program
Maintenance Decision Support System (MDSS)
Validation and Implementation of Hot-Poured Crack Sealant
TPF-5(218)
SPR-3(042)
TPF-5(054)
TPF-5(225)
Contract
Number
LAB879
89261
WO173
INV768
89261
WO269
96033
89260
WO1
89261
WO140
89261
WO79
Report
Number
2010-16,
2011-23
2011-18
2011-20
2011-22
2011-26
2012-01
2012-02
2012-08
TPF-5(148), INV 854: Effects of Implements of Husbandry
(Farm Equipment) on Pavement Performance
Mechanistic Modeling of Unbonded Concrete Overlay
Pavements
Best Value Granular Material for Road Foundations
INV 901: Concrete Delivery Time Study
Synthesis of Performance Testing of Asphalt Concrete
INV 768: Monitoring Geosynthetics in Local Roadways (LRRB
768) 10-Year Performance Summary
INV 893: Optimal Contract Mechanism Design for
Performance-Based Contracts
INV 879, MPR-6(027): Pervious Concrete Cells on MnROAD
Low-Volume Roads
Title
MnDOT Materials Lab
University of Minnesota
MnDOT Materials Lab
Contractor
Jim McGraw
Curt Pape
Curt Pape
Thomas Peters
Thomas Wood
Technical Liaison
University of Minnesota
University of Minnesota
University of Illinois
American Engineering Testing,
Inc.
University of Minnesota –
Duluth
Optimal Timing of Preventive Maintenance for Addressing Environmental
Aging in HMA Pavements
TPF-5(153)
Materials & Construction
Title
Study #
Maintenance Operations & Security Pooled Fund Studies
Contract
Number
Report
Number
Maintenance Operations & Security
Lev
Khazanovich
Roberto
Ballarini
Erol Tutumluer
Dan Vruno
Eshan Dave
Timothy Clyne
Diwakar Gupta
Bernard
Izevbekhai
Investigator
Deb Fick
Deb Fick
Deb Fick
Deb Fick
Bruce Holdhusen
Project
Coordinator
Thomas Wood
Thomas Wood
Investigator
Shongtao Dai
Shongtao Dai
John Siekmeier
Maria Masten
Timothy Clyne
Luane Tasa
Richard Kjonaas
Mark Maloney
Technical Liaison
VA
SD
IA
MN
MN
Lead State
or Agency
Thomas Tesch
Gregory Coughlin
Technical Liaison
Bruce Holdhusen
Daniel Warzala
Nelson Cruz
Shirlee Sherkow
Alan Rindels
Daniel Warzala
Daniel Warzala
7/19/10
9/10/09
Start Date
10/12/07
6/29/09
9/15/08
3/29/10
5/19/11
10/1/00
11/10/09
7/30/07
Start Date
2013
2013
2013
2012
2013
Current MN
Commitment
End Date
Bruce Holdhusen
Project
Coordinator
9
20
19
27
6
Number of
Participating
States
Daniel Warzala
Nelson Cruz
Project
Coordinator
5/31/12
3/31/12
12/31/11
1/31/12
9/30/11
9/1/11
10/31/11
9/30/11
End Date
$825,000
$4,383,841
$3,697,500
$2,105,000
$335,000
Total Cost
12/31/12
9/30/13
End Date
LRRB,
SP&R, SRP,
Partnership
Funds,
Other State
Funds
SRP
SRP
LRRB, SRP,
Other State
Funds
SRP
LRRB
SRP
LRRB,
SP&R,
Other State
Funds
Funding
Source
$25,000
$25,000
$25,000
$25,000
$15,000
$22,000
$2,000
Amount
Paid
$275,239
$110,000
$192,000
$99,998
$19,924
$30,000
$30,000
$48,000
Total Cost
$275,239
$110,000
$192,000
$99,411
$19,924
$30,000
$30,000
$48,000
Amount
Paid
$25,000
$25,000
$25,000
$25,000
$0
MN 2012
Commitment
$40,000
$15,000
Total Cost
MN 2011
Commitment
LRRB
LRRB, SRP
Funding
Source
100%
100%
100%
99%
100%
100%
100%
100%
% Paid
$100,000
$250,000
$425,000
$100,000
$131,205
Total MN
Commitment
55%
13%
% Paid
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
TS
TS
cont. 
TS
96
98638
98686
98782
98783
99008
WO7
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
97388
N/A
N/A
93263
N/A
89261
WO101
N/A
93103
WO16
89258
WO3
N/A
N/A
98488
TRS1201
89261
WO254
94080
2012-18
N/A
96885
2012-17
89261
WO220
97281
2012-15
N/A
LAB878
2012-12
89261
WO189
00068
2012-10
N/A
Contract
Number
Report
Number
[cont.]
INV 923: Guidelines for Local Concrete Infratructure and
Updating the State Aid Concrete Pavement Rehabilitation
Best Practice Manual (2006)
Assessment of Weather Effects on Construction Activities
Future Tools to Aid in Asphalt Paving Construction
Compaction
Seismic Research Data Analysis Support
ELMOD 6—Dynatest Deflection Analysis Software Training
Validation of DOT600 Soil Moisture Device
MPR-6(033): Construction Project Management Software
Evaluations
INV 645: Best Value Procurement Development
INV 889: Performance of Recycled Asphalt and High RAP
Asphalt Mix
INV 869: TERRA Board Support (FY2011)
TPF-5(215): TERRA Pooled Fund Support—Transportation
Engineering and Road Research Alliance
TPF-5(148): Vibrating Wire and Horizontal Clip Data Analysis
Transportation Enterprise Warm Mix Asphalt Synthesis
Technology Transfer
Impact of Vibratory Equipment to Surrounding Environments
During Construction
Subgrade Stabilization ME Properties Evaluation and
Implementation
INV 902: Material Control Testing Rates for Low-Volume
Roads
Lump Sum Estimating: Discovery and Simulation
INV 878, MPR-6(024): Porous Asphalt Pavement
Performance in Cold Regions
INV 919: Use of StreetPave for Design of Concrete Pavements
for Cities and Counties in Minnesota
Title
Materials & Construction
University of Minnesota
Professional Engineering
Services, Ltd.
Braun Intertec Corporation
Carr Geophysical Consulting
LLC
Dynatest Consulting Inc.
American Engineering Testing,
Inc.
Minnesota State University,
Mankato
HNTB Corporation
University of Minnesota
University of Minnesota
University of Minnesota
University of Minnesota
Michigan Technological
University
CNA Consulting Engineers, Inc.
Minnesota State University,
Mankato
Minnesota State University,
Mankato
Minnesota State University,
Mankato
MnDOT Materials Lab
Braun Intertec Corporation
Contractor
Jim Grothaus
Ann Johnson
Matthew
Oman
Bradley Carr
Gabriel Bazi
Dave Rettner
Brian
Wasserman
Steve Howe
Mihai
Marasteanu
Laurie
McGinnis
Laurie
McGinnis
Ahmed Tewfik
George Dewey
Bruce Wagener
Aaron Budge
Brian
Wasserman
Brian
Wasserman
Matthew
Lebens
Matthew
Oman
Investigator
Ronald Dahlquist
Thomas Wiener
Gregory Johnson
Jason Richter
Maureen Jensen
John Siekmeier
Thomas Wiener
Kevin Kosobud
Gregory Coughlin
Julie Skallman, Mark
Maloney
Maureen Jensen
Thomas Burnham
Timothy Clyne
Charles Howe
Shongtao Dai
Joseph MacPherson
Thomas Wiener,
Christopher
Anderson
Larry Matsumoto
Malaki Ruranika
Technical Liaison
Shirlee Sherkow
Alan Rindels
Alan Rindels
Bruce Holdhusen
Benjamin Worel
Daniel Warzala
Farideh Amiri
Farideh Amiri
Daniel Warzala
Benjamin Worel
Linda Taylor
Bruce Holdhusen
None
Shirlee Sherkow
Daniel Warzala
Farideh Amiri
Alan Rindels
Bruce Holdhusen
Farideh Amiri
Project
Coordinator
9/23/11
4/29/11
5/11/11
4/29/11
4/22/11
8/26/10
9/24/08
8/5/09
2/8/11
7/20/10
4/30/10
6/10/08
1/21/11
5/4/11
5/4/10
6/1/10
7/30/10
7/26/07
10/19/11
Start Date
5/31/12
7/31/11
7/31/11
7/31/11
7/31/11
7/31/11
6/30/12
7/31/12
3/31/12
11/30/11
3/31/12
12/31/11
9/30/11
7/31/12
6/30/12
7/31/12
7/31/12
4/30/12
3/31/12
End Date
LRRB
SRP
SRP
SRP
SRP
SRP
SP&R, SRP,
Other State
Funds
LRRB,
Partnership
Funds
LRRB
LRRB
LRRB,
SP&R, SRP
LRRB,
SP&R, SRP,
Partnership
Funds,
Other State
Funds
SRP
SRP
SRP
LRRB
SRP
LRRB,
SP&R,
Other State
Funds
LRRB
Funding
Source
$37,000
$15,001
$10,348
$5,000
$13,631
$29,982
$190,932
$140,547
$30,000
$35,000
$45,000
$66,500
$5,000
$9,918
$44,369
$25,000
$17,000
$82,400
$18,315
Total Cost
$37,000
$13,627
$10,348
$5,000
$13,631
$17,472
$180,307
$90,626
$30,000
$35,000
$45,000
$66,500
$5,000
$9,219
$44,369
$25,000
$17,000
$59,400
$18,314
Amount
Paid
100%
91%
100%
100%
100%
58%
94%
64%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
93%
100%
100%
100%
72%
100%
% Paid
X
X
X
X
X
TS
97
INV 840-1: Performance of PG 52-34 Oil on Local Roads
LAB840
93028
MPR6(021)
92965
95937
00669
89256
WO11
89260
WO2
89261
WO90
89261
WO103
89261
WO156
89261
WO190
89264
WO2
89264
WO5
94262
94288
97334
98108
98109
N/A
2011-05,
2012-07
2011-12
2011-25
2012RIC11
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
2012-23
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
Use of Recycled Brick in Aggregates
INV 907: Impact of Garbage Haulers on Pavement
Performance
MPR-6(011): Intelligent Compaction
INV 645: Integrated Tools for Pavement Design and
Management
MPR-8(004): Development of a Concrete Maturity Test
Protocol
Cost-Effective Means of Managing Pavements in Poor
Condition
TPF-5(129): Recycled Unbound Materials
INV 896: Quantifying Moisture Effects in DCP and LWD Tests
Using Unsaturated Mechanics
INV 887: Structural Evaluation of Asphalt Pavements with
Full-Depth Reclaimed Base
TPF-5(132), INV 865: Low Temperature Cracking in
Asphalt—Phase II
TPF-5(149), INV 867: Composite Pavements Design and
Construction Guidelines for Thermally Insulated Concrete
Pavements
Cost-Effective Base Type and Thickness for Long Life Concrete
Pavements
Construction Manager/General Contractor Issue
Identification
Alaska AUTC Funds, Alaska AKDOT Funds, INV 921: Frost
Video Update and Enhancement
INV 895: Traffic Generating Developments and Roadway Life
Consumption
TPF-5(165): Development of Design Guide for Thin and
Ultra-Thin Concrete Overlays of Existing Asphalt Pavements,
Task 2 Report: Review and Selection of Structural Response
Models
MPR-6(021): Evaluation of Skid Resistance of Turf Drag
Textured Concrete Pavements
TPF-5(134): Rolling Resistance Measurements at the
MnROAD Facility
Title
[cont.]
Contract
Number
Report
Number
Materials & Construction
Minnesota State University,
Mankato
Minnesota State University,
Mankato
Transtec Group, Inc.
Minnesota State University,
Mankato
Minnesota State University,
Mankato
University of Wisconsin –
Madison
University of Wisconsin –
Madison
University of Minnesota
University of Minnesota
University of Minnesota
University of Minnesota
University of Illinois
Iowa State University
SRF Consulting Group, Inc.
Minnesota State University,
Mankato
University of Pittsburgh
MnDOT Materials Lab
Minnesota State University,
Mankato
MnDOT Materials Lab
Contractor
Farhad Reza
W. James
Wilde
George Chang
W. James
Wilde
W. James
Wilde
Teresa Adams
Tuncer Edil
Kimberly Hill
Joseph Labuz
Mihai
Marasteanu
Lev
Khazanovich
Erol Tutumluer
Jennifer Shane
Michael Marti
W. James
Wilde
Julie
Vandenbossche
Bernard
Izevbekhai
W. James
Wilde
Shongtao Dai
Investigator
Terrence Beaudry
Deb Bloom
None
Rich Sanders
Alexandra Akkari
Mark Watson
John Siekmeier
John Siekmeier
Merle Earley
Timothy Clyne
Timothy Clyne
Terrence Beaudry
Jay Hietpas
Benjamin Worel
Tim Stahl
Thomas Burnham
Benjamin Worel
Bernard Izevbekhai
Brian Noetzelman
Technical Liaison
Nelson Cruz
Daniel Warzala
Benjamin Worel
Farideh Amiri
Sandra McCully
Nelson Cruz
Nelson Cruz
Nelson Cruz
Daniel Warzala
Bruce Holdhusen
Nelson Cruz
Shirlee Sherkow
Nelson Cruz
Shirlee Sherkow
Farideh Amiri
Nelson Cruz
Bruce Holdhusen
Bruce Holdhusen
Daniel Warzala
Project
Coordinator
5/26/11
2/22/11
9/13/10
4/21/09
4/2/09
6/7/11
6/4/08
9/24/10
6/4/09
6/17/08
1/30/08
6/20/11
5/31/11
6/14/12
1/22/10
9/12/08
12/19/08
7/23/08
6/22/06
Start Date
8/31/13
8/31/13
6/30/12
5/31/13
9/30/12
7/31/13
11/30/12
11/30/12
11/30/12
8/31/12
1/30/13
1/31/14
7/31/12
8/31/13
12/31/12
1/31/13
1/1/13
11/30/12
12/31/11
End Date
SRP
LRRB
SP&R,
Other State
Funds, SRP
SRP
SP&R, SRP
LRRB, SRP
SP&R
LRRB,
COPTRS,
SRP
LRRB,
Other State
Funds
LRRB,
SP&R, SRP
SP&R, LRRB
SRP
SRP
LRRB,
Partnership
Funds
LRRB
SP&R,
Partnership
Funds
SP&R,
Other State
Funds
SP&R
LRRB
Funding
Source
$77,811
$54,000
$225,000
$65,531
$113,952
$139,953
$349,910
$109,900
$38,260
$475,000
$438,980
$136,000
$59,092
$63,271
$37,038
$405,000
$100,882
$118,760
$56,200
Total Cost
$36,649
$2,000
$194,453
$48,169
$73,695
$0
$200,000
$28,574
$32,260
$305,660
$366,987
$30,925
$55,092
$0
$22,772
$133,000
$0
$71,000
$56,200
Amount
Paid
47%
4%
86%
74%
65%
0%
57%
26%
84%
64%
84%
23%
93%
0%
61%
33%
0%
60%
100%
% Paid
TS
98
Contract
Number
98110
98283
98319
99008
WO6
99008
WO9
99008
WO12
99008
WO26
99008
WO34
99008
WO44
INV 885
LAB864
LAB868
LAB887
LAB889
LAB899
LAB929
MPR1(002)
MPR6(031)
Report
Number
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
[cont.]
MPR-6(031): Concrete Pavement Optimization, Determining
the Lower Threshold of Slab Thickness for High-Volume
Roadways
MPR-1(002): Development of a Spatial-Time-Domain
Acoustic Device for Rapid Concrete Evaluation
INV929: Investigation and Assessment of Colored Concrete
Pavement
INV 899, INV 825: Performance Monitoring of Olmsted CR
117/104 and Aggregate Base Material Update
INV 889: Performance of Recycled Asphalt and High RAP
Asphalt Mix
INV 887: Structural Evaluation of Asphalt Pavements with
Full-Depth Reclaimed Base
MPR-6(029), INV 868: HMA Surface Characteristics
MPR-6(022), INV 864: Recycled Asphalt Pavements
INV 885: Research Test Section Tracking—Phase II
MPR-2(009): Simplified Design Table for Minnesota Concrete
Pavements
TPF-5(215): TERRA Membership Pooled Funds, FY2012FY2014
MPR-1(003): Implementation of Pavement Evaluation Tools
MPR-1(013): Use of Non-Woven Fabric Interlayer for
Unbonded Concrete Overlays
New Optimum Moisture Method for Soil Compaction
INV 869: TERRA Board Support, FY2012-FY2013
INV 918: Implementation of TONN 2010
INV 868, MPR-6(029): HMA Surface Characteristics Related
to Ride, Texture, Friction, Noise and Durability
Cost-Effective Base Type and Thickness for Long Life Concrete
Pavements
Title
Materials & Construction
MnDOT Materials Lab
MnDOT Materials Lab
MnDOT Materials Lab
MnDOT Materials Lab
MnDOT Materials Lab
MnDOT Materials Lab
MnDOT Materials Lab
MnDOT Materials Lab
MnDOT Materials Lab
University of Minnesota
University of Minnesota
University of Minnesota
University of Minnesota
University of Minnesota
University of Minnesota
Minnesota State University,
Mankato
Purdue University
Minnesota State University,
Mankato
Contractor
Thomas
Burnham
Bernard
Izevbekhai
Alexandra
Akkari
Matthew
Lebens
Eddie Johnson
Shongtao Dai
Timothy Clyne
Eddie Johnson
Melissa Cole
Lev
Khazanovich
Laurie
McGinnis
Joseph Labuz
Lev
Khazanovich
John Nieber
Laurie
McGinnis
W. James
Wilde
Rebecca
McDaniel
W. James
Wilde
Investigator
Bernard Izevbekhai
Maureen Jensen
Dallas Larson
Michael Sheehan
Gregory Coughlin
Merle Earley
Gregory Johnson
Gregory Johnson
Luane Tasa
Luke Johanneck
Maureen Jensen
Shongtao Dai
Thomas Burnham
John Siekmeier
Mark Maloney
Rich Sanders
Timothy Clyne
Terrence Beaudry
Technical Liaison
Bruce Holdhusen
Daniel Warzala
Bruce Holdhusen
Alan Rindels
Daniel Warzala
Daniel Warzala
Bruce Holdhusen
Bruce Holdhusen
Farideh Amiri
Daniel Warzala
Linda Taylor
Deb Fick, Nelson
Cruz
Daniel Warzala
Nelson Cruz
Julie Skallman
Farideh Amiri
Bruce Holdhusen
Nelson Cruz
Project
Coordinator
1/3/08
4/8/11
4/24/12
6/8/10
2/22/10
10/5/09
9/18/07
1/4/08
12/21/09
6/29/12
1/12/12
11/1/11
11/1/11
10/4/11
10/18/11
5/4/11
8/11/11
6/24/11
Start Date
7/31/14
3/31/14
4/28/14
2/28/15
2/28/13
3/31/13
6/30/13
12/31/12
12/21/14
8/31/14
9/30/14
6/30/13
12/31/12
5/31/13
11/30/13
12/31/12
7/3/13
1/31/14
End Date
SP&R,
Other State
Funds
SP&R, SRP
LRRB
LRRB
LRRB
LRRB,
Other State
Funds
SP&R,
LRRB,
Other State
Funds
SP&R,
LRRB,
Other State
Funds
LRRB
SP&R, SRP
LRRB,
SP&R, SRP
SP&R, SRP
SP&R, SRP
SRP
LRRB,
SP&R, SRP
LRRB, SRP
SP&R,
LRRB,
Other State
Funds
SRP
Funding
Source
$126,100
$98,000
$45,000
$36,000
$30,000
$41,548
$250,000
$275,000
$55,000
$89,989
$55,000
$78,000
$74,998
$65,289
$60,000
$35,000
$50,000
$199,000
Total Cost
$0
$18,000
$0
$0
$14,000
$8,960
$122,625
$165,500
$5,000
$0
$0
$0
$34,694
$6,244
$22,500
$0
$14,635
$0
Amount
Paid
0%
18%
0%
0%
47%
22%
49%
60%
9%
0%
0%
0%
46%
10%
38%
0%
29%
0%
% Paid
X
TS
99
Recycled Unbound Pavement Materials (MnROAD Study)
Low Temperature Cracking in Asphalt Pavements (Phase II, MnROAD
Study)
PCC Surface Characteristics—Rehabilitation (MnROAD Study)
The Effects of Implements of Husbandry “Farm Equipment” on Pavement
Performance (MnROAD Study)
Design and Construction Guidelines for Thermally Insulated Concrete
Pavements (MnROAD Study)
Development of Design Guide for Thin and Ultrathin Concrete Overlays of
Existing Asphalt Pavements (MnROAD Study)
TERRA Pooled Fund Support—Transportation Engineering and Road
Research Alliance
Development of an Improved Design Procedure for Unbonded Concrete
Overlays
Pavement Research and Technology
Technology Transfer Concrete Consortium
The Impact of Wide-Base Tires on Pavement Damage: A National Study
Investigation of Jointed Plain Concrete Pavement Deterioration at Joints
and the Potential Contribution of Deicing Chemicals
Recycled Materials Resource Center—Third Generation
TPF-5(129)
TPF-5(132)
TPF-5(134)
TPF-5(148)
TPF-5(149)
TPF-5(165)
TPF-5(215)
TPF-5(269)
SPR-3(074)
TPF-5(159)
TPF-5(197)
TPF-5(224)
TPF-5(270)
Contract
Number
89261
WO215
93463
Task 5
89261
WO136
89261
WO209
89261
WO193
89261
WO194
89261
WO204
Report
Number
2011-17
2011RIC05
2012-14
N/A
N/A
N/A
2012-19
Benefits of Mileage-Based User Fees to the Freight Industry
and Industry Concerns
Investigation of Pedestrian/Bicyclist Risk in Minnesota
Roundabout Crossings
Bike, Bus and Beyond: Extending Cyclopath to Enable
Multimodal Routing
Assessing Neighborhood and Social Influences of Transit
Corridors
Highway Cost Allocation and Determination of Heavy Freight
Truck Permit Fees
INV 645: RIC Task 5: Best Practices for Recreation Trails
TH50501: Rationale for Funding a Feasibility Study for an
Automated Rapid Transit Application in the Twin Cities
Title
Multimodal
Title
Study #
Contractor
Jerry Geib
Bernard Izevbekhai
Shongtao Dai
Maria Masten
Roger Olson
Thomas Burnham
Maureen Jensen
Thomas Burnham
Timothy Clyne
Shongtao Dai
Bernard Izevbekhai
Timothy Clyne
John Siekmeier
Technical Liaison
University of Minnesota
University of Minnesota
University of Minnesota
University of Minnesota
University of Minnesota
SRF Consulting Group, Inc.
University of Minnesota
Materials & Construction Pooled Fund Studies
Ferrol
Robinson
John Hourdos
Loren Terveen
Yingling Fan
Diwakar Gupta
Mike Marti
Lee Munnich
Investigator
Deb Fick
Deb Fick
Deb Fick
Deb Fick
Deb Fick
Deb Fick
Deb Fick
Nelson Cruz
Nelson Cruz
Bruce Holdhusen
Bruce Holdhusen
Bruce Holdhusen
Nelson Cruz
Project
Coordinator
Kenneth Buckeye
Peter Buchen
Greta Alquist
Aaron Tag
John Tompkins
Tom Behn
Mukhtar Thakur
Technical Liaison
WI
IA
FHWA
IA
WA
MN
MN
MN
MN
MN
MN
MN
Lead State
or Agency
Shirlee Sherkow
Shirlee Sherkow
Shirlee Sherkow
Daniel Warzala
Daniel Warzala
2/8/11
6/8/10
7/6/10
5/18/10
3/26/09
2/19/09
6/8/10
Start Date
2014
2013
2012
2015
2012
2014
2014
2012
2011
2008
2010
2011
2011
Current MN
Commitment
End Date
Bruce Holdhusen
Alan Rindels
Project
Coordinator
4
9
7
24
4
7
7
8
4
5
3
7
6
Number of
Participating
States
8/31/12
9/30/12
9/30/12
1/31/12
9/30/12
12/31/12
11/30/11
End Date
$300,000
$430,000
$725,000
$667,000
$625,000
$420,000
$200,000
$330,000
$438,980
$1,000,258
$275,000
$475,000
$718,120
Total Cost
SRP,
COPTRS
SRP,
COPTRS
SRP,
COPTRS
SRP
SRP,
COPTRS
LRRB
Multimodal
PRT, Modal
Planning
& Program
Management
Funding
Source
$0
$15,000
$25,000
$5,000
$15,000
$0
$7,500
$9,200
$20,000
$0
$0
$20,000
$15,000
$50,000
$65,500
$60,627
$12,500
$179,752
$27,608
$33,000
$33,299
$50,000
$50,000
$12,500
$170,764
$27,608
$33,000
Amount
Paid
$25,000
$15,000
$25,000
$7,000
$15,000
$20,000
$7,500
$0
$0
$0
$0
$0
$0
MN 2012
Commitment
Total Cost
MN 2011
Commitment
67%
76%
82%
100%
95%
100%
100%
% Paid
$75,000
$60,000
$100,000
$51,000
$310,000
$60,000
$37,500
$69,200
$100,000
$667,258
$75,000
$75,000
$532,243
Total MN
Commitment
X
X
TS
X
X
TS
100
89261
WO239
89264 WO4
89264 WO7
98383
Task 1
99008 WO8
99008
WO11
99008
WO15
99008
WO35
99008
WO59
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
INV 645 Task 13: 2012 Truck Weight Enforcement Training
Program
MPR-1(012): Statewide Cycloplan: Bicycle Planning Tool and
Participatory GIS
Mitigating Highway Construction Impacts Through the Use
of Transit
INV 909: Planning and Implementation of Complete Streets
at Multiple Scales
Methodologies for Counting Bicyclists and Pedestrians in
Minnesota
INV 645 Task 1: ADA Transition Plan for Local Agencies
INV 915: Implications of Modifying State Aid Standards:
Urban, New or Reconstruction (Mn Rules 8820.9936) to
Accommodate Various Roadway Users (Complete Streets)
INV 911: Best Practices Synthesis and Guidance in At-Grade
Trail Crossing Treatments
Transportation, Environmental and Health Impacts of
Transitways: A Case Study of the Hiawatha Line
Title
[cont.]
Mid America Freight Coalition Pooled Fund
TPF-5(156)
Contract
Number
89261
WO201
89261
WO273
89261
WO274
N/A
89261
WO258
Report
Number
2012-05
TRS1102
TRS1103
TRS1104
N/A
INV 913: LRRB Workshop: Shaping Research on Systems
Planning for Local Roads
Use of Social Media by Minnesota Cities and Counties
Small MPO Funding
Estimating Non-Automobile Mode Share
Using Twin Cities Destinations and Their Accessibility as a
Multimodal Planning Tool
Title
Policy & Planning
Title
Study #
Multimodal Pooled Fund Study
Contract
Number
Report
Number
Multimodal
University of Minnesota
CTC & Associates LLC
University of Minnesota
University of Minnesota
University of Minnesota
Contractor
John Tompkins
Technical Liaison
University of Minnesota
University of Minnesota
University of Minnesota
University of Minnesota
University of Minnesota
SRF Consulting Group, Inc.
University of Wisconsin –
Madison
University of Wisconsin –
Madison
University of Minnesota
Contractor
Linda Preisen
Patrick Casey,
Brian Hirt
Carol Becker
Carol Becker
David Levinson
Investigator
Deb Fick
Project
Coordinator
Jim Grothaus
Loren Terveen
Carol Becker
Carissa
Schively
Slotterback
Greg Lindsey
Mike Marti
David Noyce
David Noyce
Jason Cao
Investigator
Susan Miller
Linda Taylor
None
Lynne Bly
Brian Gage
Technical Liaison
WI
Lead State
or Agency
Richard Kjonaas
Greta Alquist
Donald Mohawk
Scott Bradley
Lisa Austin
Mitch Rasmussen
Paul Stine
Lisa Austin
Aaron Tag
Technical Liaison
Shirlee Sherkow
Shirlee Sherkow
Farideh Amiri
4/12/12
2/6/12
10/17/11
10/4/11
10/10/11
6/20/11
6/28/11
6/14/11
2/15/11
Start Date
2/4/11
N/A
6/2/11
6/2/11
9/24/10
Start Date
2013
Current MN
Commitment
End Date
Shirlee Sherkow
Alan Rindels
Project
Coordinator
10
Number of
Participating
States
Daniel Warzala
Shirlee Sherkow
Shirlee Sherkow
Bruce Holdhusen
Daniel Warzala
Farideh Amiri
Bruce Holdhusen
Bruce Holdhusen
Daniel Warzala
Project
Coordinator
11/30/11
N/A
6/30/11
6/30/11
2/28/12
End Date
$1,325,000
Total Cost
8/31/13
4/30/14
5/31/13
6/30/13
11/30/13
7/31/14
11/30/12
10/31/12
3/31/13
End Date
LRRB
LRRB
SRP
SRP
COPTRS
Funding
Source
$25,000
$0
$0
$34,800
$11,252
$13,407
$29,119
$17,246
$51,662
$37,500
Amount
Paid
$22,093
N/A
$7,500
$7,500
$100,000
Total Cost
$22,093
N/A
$7,500
$7,500
$100,000
Amount
Paid
$25,000
MN 2012
Commitment
$30,000
$130,000
$39,800
$101,271
$99,948
$29,119
$117,700
$96,866
$37,500
Total Cost
MN 2011
Commitment
LRRB,
Other State
Funds, SRP
SP&R, SRP
SRP
SRP, LRRB
SRP
LRRB
LRRB
SRP, LRRB
SRP
Funding
Source
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
% Paid
$150,000
Total MN
Commitment
0%
0%
87%
11%
13%
100%
15%
53%
100%
% Paid
X
TS
TS
TS
101
89261
WO114
89261
WO196
89261
WO197
89261
WO198
89261
WO227
89261
WO251
95029
98383
Task 2
98383
Task 3
99008
WO13
99008
WO52
99373
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
INV 922: System Preservation Guide—A Planning Process
for Local Government Management of Transportation
Networks
MPR-2(005): Value Increase and Value Capture Study—
TH 610 Case Study
INV 912: Improved Approach to Enforcement of Road Weight
Restrictions
INV 645 Task 3: Unpaved Roads
INV 645 Task 2: Complete Streets
TPF-5(192): Loop and Length Based Classification Pooled
Fund
What is the Risk to the Traveling Public and MnDOT
Operations from Transmission Lines Along Our ROW?
MPR-0(003): Reporting Capabilities for Continuous Vehicle
Class and WIM Data
Quality of Life: Assessment and Evaluation to Develop
Transportation Performance Measures
Economic Benefits of Telework for Employers
Case Studies of Transportation Investment to Identify the
Impacts on the Local and State Economy
Development of a Weigh-Pad Based Portable WIM System
Title
[cont.]
Urban Mobility Study, 2009 Continuation
Contract
Number
98468
89256 WO7
Report
Number
2011-21
2011-24
Pavement Marking Compatibility with Chip Seal and Micro
Surfacing
INV 908: Minnesota’s Best Practices and Policies for Safety
Strategies on Highway and Local Roads
Title
Traffic & Safety
Loop and Length Based Classification Pooled Fund
TPF-5(198)
Title
TPF-5(192)
Study #
Policy & Planning Pooled Fund Studies
Contract
Number
Report
Number
Policy & Planning
Iowa State University
CH2M Hill
Contractor
Paul Czech
Gene Hicks
Technical Liaison
SRF Consulting Group, Inc.
University of Minnesota
University of Minnesota
SRF Consulting Group, Inc.
SRF Consulting Group, Inc.
SRF Consulting Group, Inc.
University of Minnesota –
Duluth
University of Minnesota –
Duluth
University of Minnesota
University of Minnesota
University of Minnesota
University of Minnesota –
Duluth
Contractor
Neal Hawkins
Howard
Preston
Investigator
Deb Fick
Deb Fick
Project
Coordinator
Brian Shorten
Zhirong Jerry
Zhao
Rajesh
Rajamani
Mike Marti
Mike Marti
Erik Minge
Seraphin
Chally Abou
Taek Kwon
Ingrid
Schneider
Adeel Lari
Michael Iacono
Taek Kwon
Investigator
Mitchell Bartelt
Mark Vizecky
Technical Liaison
TX
MN
Lead State
or Agency
Susan Miller
Matthew Shands
Benjamin Timerson
TBD
Jeff Hulsether
Gene Hicks
Valerie Svensson
Benjamin Timerson
Karla Rains
Kenneth Buckeye
Matthew Shands
Benjamin Timerson
Technical Liaison
Alan Rindels
Farideh Amiri
Project
Coordinator
12
15
Number of
Participating
States
Farideh Amiri
Nicole Peterson
Nelson Cruz
Farideh Amiri
Farideh Amiri
Deb Fick
1/19/12
6/29/12
9/21/11
6/20/11
6/20/11
1/27/10
3/22/11
11/18/10
7/14/10
6/30/10
8/27/10
12/30/08
Start Date
3/1/10
3/30/11
Start Date
2012
2008
Current MN
Commitment
End Date
Shirlee Sherkow
Nelson Cruz
Shirlee Sherkow
Shirlee Sherkow
Bruce Holdhusen
Nelson Cruz
Project
Coordinator
10/31/11
9/30/11
End Date
$310,000
$510,000
Total Cost
11/30/14
3/31/14
11/30/13
7/31/14
7/31/14
10/31/12
6/30/13
12/31/12
4/30/13
4/30/13
1/31/13
12/31/12
End Date
$0
SRP
LRRB
Funding
Source
$30,000
$53,854
$0
$20,000
$0
$12,680
$447,095
$11,000
$8,298
$213,072
$36,400
$67,927
$98,550
Amount
Paid
$39,991
$61,272
Total Cost
$39,991
$61,272
Amount
Paid
$30,000
$0
MN 2012
Commitment
$698,876
$81,000
$90,000
$48,336
$45,708
$469,191
$67,511
$35,268
$262,249
$145,600
$89,378
$160,000
Total Cost
MN 2011
Commitment
LRRB
SP&R, SRP
SRP, LRRB
LRRB
LRRB
SP&R,
Partnership
Funds
SRP
SRP, SP&R
COPTRS,
SRP
COPTRS,
SRP
COPTRS,
SRP
SRP,
COPTRS
Funding
Source
100%
100%
% Paid
$265,000
$40,000
Total MN
Commitment
8%
0%
22%
0%
28%
95%
16%
24%
81%
25%
76%
62%
% Paid
X
X
TS
X
TS
TS
102
89261
WO195
89261
WO202
89261
WO203
89261
WO240
89261
WO247
89261
WO271
91150
96737
N/A
N/A
N/A
2012-22
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
00977
N/A
89261
WO178
00976
N/A
N/A
00714
N/A
89261
WO143
99008
WO10
N/A
N/A
96125
N/A
89256
WO10
89264 WO6
N/A
N/A
89261
WO139
2012-06
89256 WO8
89261
WO169
2012-04
N/A
Contract
Number
Report
Number
[cont.]
INV 900: Hennepin/Minneapolis LED Light Study
TPF-5(093): North/West Passage Program Support and
Phase II Work Plan Projects
INV 917: Two-Lane Roundabout Field Research Regarding
Signing and Striping
Evaluation of the Effect MnPASS Lane Design has on Mobility
and Safety
Investigating the Effectiveness of Intelligent Lane Control
Signals on Driver Behavior
Expanding and Streamlining the RTMC Freeway Network
Performance Reporting Methodologies and Tools
Improving Traffic Signal Operations for Integrated Corridor
Management (ICM)
INV 898: Estimating the Crash Reduction and Vehicle
Dynamic Effects of Flashing LED Stop Signs
MPR-9(006): Research Implementation of the SMART Signal
System on TH 13
Portable, Non-Intrusive Advance Warning Devices for Work
Zones With or Without Flag Operators
Rumble Strip: Evaluation of Retroreflectivity and Installation
Practices
Implementation, Training and Outreach for MnDOT
Pavement Marking Tool—Phase II
TPF-5(190): North/West Passage—Phase III
TPF-5(190): North/West Passage—Phase III
Power Sources for Automatic Traffic Recorders—TRS
ITS Institute MnDOT Match—2012
TPF-5(093): North/West Passage Website Maintenance
TPF-5(190): North/West Passage Corridor-Wide Commercial
Vehicle Permitting—Phase II
INV 890: Vehicle Speed Impacts of Occasional Hazard
(Playground) Warning Signs
Development of Freeway Operational Strategies with IRISIn-Loop Simulation
Title
Traffic & Safety
Hennepin County
Athey Creek Consultants, LLC
University of Minnesota
University of Minnesota
University of Minnesota
University of Minnesota
University of Minnesota
University of Minnesota
University of Minnesota
University of Minnesota
University of Iowa
Iowa State University
North Dakota State University
University of Wisconsin –
Madison
Bolton & Menk, Inc. Consulting
Engineers & Surveyors
University of Minnesota
North Dakota State University
University of Wisconsin –
Madison
University of Minnesota
University of Minnesota –
Duluth
Contractor
Robb Luckow
Dean Deeter
John Hourdos
John Hourdos
Kathleen
Harder
John Hourdos
Henry Liu
Gary Davis
Henry Liu
John Hourdos
Neal Hawkins
Omar Smadi
None
Teresa Adams
Bryan Nemeth
Max Donath
Amy Scott
Teresa Adams
John Hourdos
Eil Kwon
Investigator
Susan Zarling
Cory Johnson
Kristin Asher
Julie Johnson
Jesse Larson
Jesse Larson
Steven Misgen
Bradley Estochen
Steven Misgen
Randy Reznicek
Kenneth Johnson
Mitchell Bartelt
Cory Johnson
Cory Johnson
Chu Wei
Linda Taylor
Cory Johnson
Cory Johnson
Amy Marohn
Brian Kary
Technical Liaison
Shirlee Sherkow
Deb Fick
Shirlee Sherkow
Daniel Warzala
Daniel Warzala
Shirlee Sherkow
Alan Rindels
Shirlee Sherkow
Alan Rindels
Daniel Warzala
Nelson Cruz
Alan Rindels
Deb Fick
Deb Fick
Shirlee Sherkow
Linda Taylor
Deb Fick
Deb Fick
Shirlee Sherkow
Daniel Warzala
Project
Coordinator
6/25/10
9/14/07
6/30/11
5/31/11
5/12/11
10/28/10
2/2/11
6/28/10
12/17/09
7/30/09
5/26/11
5/7/09
5/29/12
5/29/12
3/13/12
9/23/11
3/24/10
2/15/11
6/30/09
10/1/09
Start Date
9/30/12
8/31/12
10/31/13
11/30/13
9/30/12
1/30/13
9/30/13
11/30/12
2/28/13
10/31/12
2/28/14
10/31/12
4/30/14
7/31/13
10/31/12
6/30/12
3/1/12
3/31/12
2/28/12
1/31/12
End Date
LRRB
SP&R,
Partnership
Funds
LRRB
SRP
SRP
SRP
SRP
LRRB, ITS
Institute,
COPTRS
SP&R, SRP
SRP
SRP
SRP
SP&R,
Partnership
Funds
SP&R,
Partnership
Funds
SRP
SRP
SP&R,
Other DOTs,
Other State
Funds
SP&R,
Partnership
Funds
LRRB
SRP,
COPTRS
Funding
Source
$50,000
$487,250
$105,000
$169,000
$144,500
$89,000
$163,000
$112,000
$239,000
$61,986
$65,000
$86,970
$7,056
$25,000
$9,923
$300,000
$6,039
$24,968
$79,647
$86,000
Total Cost
$48,000
$415,447
$25,000
$60,600
$137,275
$49,000
$0
$40,000
$222,000
$58,887
$0
$67,970
$882
$0
$432
$200,000
$6,039
$24,968
$79,647
$86,000
Amount
Paid
96%
85%
24%
36%
95%
55%
0%
36%
93%
95%
0%
78%
13%
0%
4%
67%
100%
100%
100%
100%
% Paid
X
X
TS
103
99008 WO3
99008
WO25
99008
WO32
99008
WO43
99008
WO57
99542
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
MPR-1(007): Commercial Freight Weight Enforcement
Innovation
MPR-1(016): Field Implementation, Testing and Refinement
of Density-Based Coordinated Ramp Control Strategy
MPR-2(003): MnPASS Modeling and Pricing Algorithm
Enhancement
MPR-1(010): Vehicle-Mounted Robotic Roadway Message
and Symbol Painter
INV 925: Advanced LED Warning Signs for Rural Intersections
Powered by Renewable Energy (ALERT) System—Phase II
Development of Active Traffic Management Strategies for
Minnesota Freeway Corridors with Enhanced Variable Speed
Limit Control System
MPR-1(008): Developing Performance Measures Using GPS
Arterial Travel Time Data
MPR-2(008): Measuring Minnesota’s Traffic Safety Culture
Evaluation of Pavement Markings on Challenging Surfaces
TPF-5(190): Use of Mobile Sensors and Maintenance
Decision Support for Automated Road Condition
Reporting—RFP
INV 645 Task 4: Toward Zero Deaths
INV 903: Best Practices for Sign Reduction on the Local
System 2009-2011 RIC Task 15 (Phase 2 of Task 10)
MPR-9(005): Changeable Message Signs (CMS)/Digital
Message Signs (DMS) Manual of Practice Development,
Implementation and Training
Title
[cont.]
North/West Passage—Phase III
Transportation Management Center Pooled Fund Study
High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV)/Managed Use Lane (MUL)
Roadside Safety Research Program
Midwest States Pooled Fund Crash Test Program
ITS Pooled Fund Program (ENTERPRISE)
SPR-2(207)
TPF-5(029)
TPF-5(114)
TPF-5(193)
TPF-5(231)
Title
TPF-5(093),
TPF-5(190)
Study #
Traffic & Safety Pooled Fund Studies
99007 WO2
N/A
98623
N/A
99004 WO2
98383
Task 4
N/A
99006 WO1
98039
N/A
N/A
97078
N/A
N/A
Contract
Number
Report
Number
Traffic & Safety
Jon Jackels
Michael Elle
Michael Elle
Brian Kary
Brian Kary
Cory Johnson
Technical Liaison
SRF Consulting Group, Inc.
University of Minnesota
University of Minnesota
University of Minnesota –
Duluth
University of Minnesota –
Duluth
University of Minnesota –
Duluth
Texas Transportation Institute
Montana State University,
Western Transportation
Institute
Iowa State University
Meridian Environmental
Technology, Inc.
SRF Consulting Group, Inc.
CH2M Hill
Iteris, Inc.
Contractor
Deb Fick
Deb Fick
Deb Fick
Deb Fick
Deb Fick
Deb Fick
Project
Coordinator
Brian Scott
John Hourdos
John Hourdos
Ryan
Rosandich
Taek Kwon
Eil Kwon
Shawn Turner
Nicholas Ward
Neal Hawkins
Ben Hershey
Mike Marti
Howard
Preston
Lisa Raduenz
Investigator
MI
NE
WA
FHWA
FHWA
MN
Lead State
or Agency
Benjamin Timerson
Brian Kary
Brian Kary
Randy Reznicek
Victor Lund
Brian Kary
Paul Czech
Katie Fleming
Mitchell Bartelt
Kenneth Hansen
TBD
Mark Vizecky
Jesse Larson
Technical Liaison
11
16
9
12
33
9
Number of
Participating
States
Deb Fick, Alan
Rindels
Deb Fick, Alan
Rindels
Farideh Amiri
Alan Rindels
Alan Rindels
Daniel Warzala
Deb Fick, Alan
Rindels
9/22/11
5/3/12
6/29/12
12/8/11
12/14/11
9/23/11
4/9/12
6/22/12
6/13/12
11/7/11
6/20/11
6/6/11
11/3/10
Start Date
2012
2013
2013
2013
2012
2011
Current MN
Commitment
End Date
Shirlee Sherkow
Nelson Cruz
Deb Fick
Farideh Amiri
Farideh Amiri
Alan Rindels
Project
Coordinator
$1,585,000
$2,667,005
$1,565,000
$1,990,000
$5,632,267
$600,000
Total Cost
11/30/12
4/30/14
7/31/14
5/31/13
6/30/14
11/30/13
5/13/13
8/31/14
4/30/15
7/30/12
7/31/14
7/31/12
11/30/12
End Date
$30,000
$66,700
$50,000
$25,000
$50,000
$25,000
$23,109
$0
$0
$0
$0
$0
$0
$0
$0
$39,059
$0
$19,081
$74,271
Amount
Paid
$30,000
$66,700
$50,000
$25,000
$50,000
$25,000
MN 2012
Commitment
$96,613
$103,735
$150,000
$95,000
$86,596
$98,700
$125,000
$235,217
$108,929
$50,000
$94,304
$26,515
$96,302
Total Cost
MN 2011
Commitment
SP&R, SRP
SP&R, SRP
SP&R, SRP
SRP, SP&R
LRRB
SRP
SP&R, SRP
SP&R, SRP
SRP
SP&R,
Partnership
Funds
LRRB
LRRB
SP&R, SRP
Funding
Source
$60,000
$190,100
$500,000
$225,000
$350,000
$100,000
Total MN
Commitment
24%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
78%
0%
72%
77%
% Paid
X
TS
TS
104
2012 Multi-State Asset Management Implementation Workshop
Traffic Signal Systems Operations and Management
Evaluation of Guide Sign Fonts
TPF-5(245)
TPF-5(258)
TPF-5(262)
340
01351
89261
WO263
93463
94156
94376
95501
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
00147
N/A
N/A
97585
N/A
89261
WO225
N/A
96048
89261
WO219
N/A
N/A
89261
WO210
N/A
95936
163
N/A
N/A
Contract
Number
Report
Number
INV 999: Local Road Research Board Website Hosting and
Maintenance, 2010-2011
MPR-6(003): Business Assessment of RSS Processes and
Tools
MPR-6(005): Next Generation of ARTS Tech Support and
Maintenance Services
INV 645: RIC Implementation of Research Findings, FY2009FY2011
Librarian Services, 2011-2012
MPR-6(019): Technology Transfer Material Development
FY2012 and FY2013 Annual Reporting
INV 927: LRRB Outreach Website
MPR-6(019): Technology Transfer Material Development
Marketing Plan
MPR-6(019): Technology Transfer Material Development
Library Development
MPR-6(003): Strategic Program Development
INV 668 LTAP 0001(210): Local Technical Assistance Program
(LTAP), FY2011
INV 999: RSS Report Publication Services, FY2011
INV 998: FY2011 Operational Research Program for Local
Transportation Groups (OPERA)
E-Book Project
Title
Administrative
Title
[cont.]
Study #
Traffic & Safety Pooled Fund Studies
MIS Sciences Corp
Trissential
ArchWing Innovations, LLC
SRF Consulting Group, Inc.
University of Minnesota
CTC & Associates LLC
HNTB Corporation
Strategic Toolbox, LLC
CTC & Associates LLC
Law Library Consultants, Inc.
David Johnson
University of Minnesota
University of Minnesota
University of Minnesota
Law Library Consultants, Inc.
Contractor
Cory Johnson
Steve Misgen
Cassandra Isaackson
Technical Liaison
Jeff Willis
Steve Beise
Ryan Anderson
Mike Marti
Arlene
Mathison
Patrick Casey
Timm Claudon
Janese Evans
Patrick Casey
Kathleen
Bedor
Dave Johnson
Jim Grothaus
Arlene
Mathison
Jim Grothaus
Kathleen
Bedor
Investigator
Deb Fick
Deb Fick
Deb Fick
Project
Coordinator
Farideh Amiri
Nicole Peterson
Nelson Cruz
Rich Sanders
Sheila Hatchell
Sandra McCully
Lowell Schafer
Ann McLellan
Sandra McCully
Sheila Hatchell
Nicole Peterson
Julie Skallman
Sandra McCully
Mark Maloney
Sheila Hatchell
Technical Liaison
MN
IN
FHWA
Lead State
or Agency
Sandra McCully
Ann McLellan
Ann McLellan
Farideh Amiri
Carole Wiese
Sandra McCully
Sandra McCully
Sandra McCully
Sandra McCully
Sheila Hatchell
Nelson Cruz
Farideh Amiri
Sandra McCully
Farideh Amiri
Sheila Hatchell
Project
Coordinator
5
10
11
Number of
Participating
States
3/17/10
11/4/09
5/13/09
4/17/09
3/21/11
6/13/12
2/2/12
3/27/12
9/17/10
4/7/10
12/22/09
8/30/10
7/15/10
9/9/10
11/4/11
Start Date
2013
2014
2011
Current MN
Commitment
End Date
7/31/12
1/31/13
2/28/13
12/31/12
7/31/12
1/31/14
1/31/14
7/31/13
9/30/11
7/31/11
3/31/12
10/31/11
8/31/11
9/30/11
4/30/12
End Date
$165,000
$525,000
$120,000
Total Cost
SRP
SRP, SP&R,
Other State
Funds
SP&R, SRP,
Other State
Funds
LRRB
SRP,
COPTRS
SP&R, SRP
LRRB
SP&R, SRP
SP&R, SRP
SRP,
COPTRS
SRP, SP&R,
Other State
Funds
Other
Federal
Funds,
LRRB
SRP, LRRB
LRRB
Other State
Funds
Funding
Source
$0
$0
$10,000
$17,200
$172,080
$179,400
$497,697
$97,295
$88,358
$99,991
$149,575
$100,789
$59,995
$49,977
$440,500
$35,913
$90,000
$5,000
$16,100
$132,480
$124,850
$482,022
$46,604
$1,123
$24,589
$10,000
$99,791
$59,995
$49,977
$440,500
$35,913
$90,000
$5,000
Amount
Paid
$15,000
$25,000
$0
MN 2012
Commitment
Total Cost
MN 2011
Commitment
94%
77%
70%
97%
48%
1%
25%
7%
99%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
% Paid
$30,000
$75,000
$10,000
Total MN
Commitment
TS
TS
105
98725
98726
98727
99008
WO5
99008
WO18
99008
WO23
99008
WO60
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
INV 936: LRRB Focus Groups
FY2012-FY2013 CTS Operations
INV 999: MnDOT RSS Report Publication Services, FY2012
INV 668 0001(211): Local Technical Assistance Program
(LTAP), FY2012
MPR-6(019): Technology Transfer Material
Development—2011 Annual Reporting
MPR-6(019): Technology Transfer Material Development
INV 916: LRRB Technical Transfer Material Development
INV 645: RIC Task 6: LRRB Outreach and Marketing
Transportation Curriculum Coordination Council (TCCC)
Transportation Library Connectivity and Development
TPF-5(209)
TPF-5(237)
Title
Core Program Services for a Highway RD&T Program—FFY2011
(TRB FY2012)
National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP)
Study #
TPF-5(240)
TPF-5(410)
Federal Program Support
Title
Study #
Administrative Pooled Fund Studies
98383
Task 6
INV 645: RIC Task 5: Research and Implementation
Roadmapping
98383
Task 5
N/A
INV 645: RIC Implementation of Research Findings, 20122014
98383
N/A
Title
Contract
Number
[cont.]
Report
Number
Administrative
Linda Taylor
Linda Taylor
Technical Liaison
Sheila Hatchell
Catherine Betts
Technical Liaison
University of Minnesota
University of Minnesota – CTS
University of Minnesota
University of Minnesota
CTC & Associates LLC
CTC & Associates LLC
CTC & Associates LLC
SRF Consulting Group, Inc.
SRF Consulting Group, Inc.
SRF Consulting Group, Inc.
Contractor
Deb Fick
Deb Fick
Project
Coordinator
Deb Fick
Deb Fick
Project
Coordinator
Linda Preisen
Laurie
McGinnis
Arlene
Mathison
Jim Grothaus
Patrick Casey
Patrick Casey
Patrick Casey
Mike Marti
Mike Marti
Mike Marti
Investigator
FHWA
FHWA
Lead State
or Agency
MO
FHWA
Lead State
or Agency
Richard West
None
Farideh Amiri
Julie Skallman
Sandra McCully
Sandra McCully
Julie Skallman
TBD
TBD
Rich Sanders
Technical Liaison
All
N/A
Number of
Participating
States
24
16
Number of
Participating
States
Linda Taylor
Linda Taylor
Sandra McCully
Farideh Amiri
Sandra McCully
Sandra McCully
Sandra McCully
Farideh Amiri
Farideh Amiri
Farideh Amiri
Project
Coordinator
Ongoing
2013
Current MN
Commitment
End Date
2012
2012
Current MN
Commitment
End Date
3/30/12
12/14/11
10/11/11
9/23/11
4/28/11
4/29/11
5/20/11
6/20/11
6/20/11
6/20/11
Start Date
N/A
N/A
Total Cost
$905,528
$1,100,000
Total Cost
7/31/13
9/30/13
11/30/12
11/30/12
9/30/12
1/31/13
9/30/13
7/31/14
7/31/14
7/31/14
End Date
N/A
$127,705
MN 2011
Commitment
$20,000
$15,000
$4,257
$701,985
$128,915
MN 2012
Commitment
$20,000
$15,000
25%
46%
79%
50%
100%
91%
57%
20%
0%
20%
% Paid
$658,689
N/A
Total MN
Commitment
$40,000
$75,000
Total MN
Commitment
$1,100,000
$28,936
$220,750
$35,083
$91,331
$41,012
$12,165
$0
$92,581
Amount
Paid
MN 2012
Commitment
$17,000
$2,400,000
$36,861
$441,500
$35,102
$99,973
$71,804
$60,826
$141,452
$465,497
Total Cost
MN 2011
Commitment
LRRB
SRP, PARI
SRP, LRRB
LRRB, Other
Federal
Funds
SP&R, SRP
SP&R, SRP
LRRB
LRRB
LRRB
LRRB
Funding
Source
TS
TS
TS
M n D O T R e s e a r c h S e r v i c e s • F Y 2 0 1 2 a n n u a l r e p ort
106
M n D O T R e s e a r c h S e r v i c e s • T e c h n i c a l s u mm a r i e s
MnDOT Research: FY2012 Technical Summaries
These project summaries, organized by topic area, were produced by Research Services with the help of participants
on the projects described. They have been created for technology transfer purposes. You can use them as handouts at
conferences, mailings to staff in areas that should be made aware of this research, information sheets for legislators or simply
as quick-reference sheets.
You can access and download any of these summaries from http://www.dot.state.mn.us/research. For more
information about Technical Summaries, please contact Sandy McCully at [email protected]
For more information about any of these projects, please contact the listed Technical Liaison or Research Services.
107
2011-19TS
Published February 2012
Accommodating Fish Passage at
River Crossings
What Was the Need?
TECHNICAL
SUMMARY
Technical Liaison:
Petra DeWall, MnDOT
[email protected]
Administrative Liaison:
Nelson Cruz, MnDOT
[email protected]
Principal Investigators:
John Nieber, University of Minnesota
Bioproducts and Biosystems Engineering
Jeff Marr, University of Minnesota
St. Anthony Falls Laboratory
LRRB PROJECT COST:
$83,428
To allow streams to pass under roads, engineers build
tunnel-like structures called culverts. However, some
culvert designs can have an impact on the stability and
ecology of streams. If the slope of a culvert is steeper
than that of a stream or its cross-sectional area smaller,
the velocity of water running through it will be greater.
Increased water velocities impede fish and other aquatic
organisms by hindering movement upstream and creating
other conditions that overmatch their swimming abilities, including turbulence, inadequate depth and abrupt
changes in water surface elevation at culvert inlets and
outlets. A culvert may also destabilize the stream itself,
with changes in water flow leading to erosion that propagates upstream in a process called head cutting.
Improving culvert design
will benefit the
environment by
accommodating fish
passage and preventing
stream disruption as well as
reducing culvert
maintenance costs.
To minimize these effects, some culverts in Minnesota are recessed into the stream
bed, allowing natural sediment to accumulate in a way that reduces water velocity
so that it more closely matches stream velocity. Other design improvements include
matching a culvert’s slope to that of the stream and its width to the “bankfull width” of
the stream. Bankfull width is realized during biennial flooding, when water completely
fills the stream channel and the water surface height coincides with bank margins.
Other methods for managing water velocity include the use of side barrels—additional
culverts placed at a higher elevation to accommodate increased flow during flooding,
relieving pressure on the main barrel.
While Minnesota is considering expanding the use of such environmentally friendly
culverts, they can be more expensive than standard culverts, and there was little data
on whether they are effective.
To determine bankfull width,
researchers analyzed
cross sections of channels
upstream from culverts.
What Was Our Goal?
The objective of this project was to assess how well the use of recessed culverts in Minnesota makes hydraulic conditions, including reduced water velocities, more amenable
to the passage of fish at river crossings.
What Did We Do?
Researchers conducted field surveys to evaluate the effectiveness of recessed culverts
at 19 sites in various regions of Minnesota, chosen to cover the state’s key geographic
conditions and represent areas with important fish populations.
RESEARCH
SERVICES
Researchers determined the effectiveness of culverts primarily by measuring the
amount of sediment in the recessed culvert barrel. The lack of sediment indicated
an improperly functioning culvert. Researchers also compared the stream’s bankfull
width, slope and water velocity to that of the culvert; evaluated whether the stream
had been destabilized by the presence of the culvert; examined site work plans to determine whether culvert or stream channel dimensions had changed between installation and the time of the survey; and took photographs of each site.
O F F I C E O F P O L I C Y A N A LY S I S ,
R E SE A R C H & I N N OVAT I O N
continued
108
“The lesson of this study
is that recessing culverts
is not enough. Culvert
widths must be matched
as closely as possible to
those of streams.”
—Petra DeWall,
Assistant State Hydraulics
Engineer, MnDOT Office
of Bridges and Structures
“Implementing the proper
culvert designs will not
only improve ecology but
reduce maintenance costs
involved in removing
debris.”
—John Nieber,
Professor, University of
Minnesota Bioproducts
and Biosystems
Engineering
Wide floodplains common in Minnesota sometimes require that culverts be designed with
multiple barrels to handle additional flood capacity so that the water velocity in the main barrel
does not become too great.
What Did We Learn?
Thirteen of the 19 sites surveyed used recessed culverts, and six of these were not
functioning properly, with a lack of sediment in the recessed culvert barrel. This lack
of sediment accumulation was caused by two factors: improperly sized culverts and an
accumulation of sediment in side barrels. Researchers ruled out several other possible
causes in each case, including an improper culvert slope, a recent large flood event,
lack of sediment transfer from the riverbed and the culvert not in place long enough to
accumulate sediment.
At 13 sites, including all six sites that had insufficient sediment accumulation, the
recessed culvert width was less than the width of the bankfull channel. At seven sites,
sediment had accumulated in side barrels to a depth that could reduce its flow during
flooding, forcing water through the main barrel at greater velocities and so washing out
its sediment.
These problems were most prevalent for wider channels, suggesting that it is more
difficult in such cases to design a culvert that is wide enough to match natural stream
conditions. Researchers recommend remedying such problems by collecting better data
on streams so that culverts can be designed to more closely match their conditions as
well as improving designs to address the challenges of Minnesota’s wider channels and
floodplains.
What’s Next?
Produced by CTC & Associates for:
Minnesota Department
of Transportation
Research Services Section
MS 330, First Floor
395 John Ireland Blvd.
St. Paul, MN 55155-1899
(651) 366-3780
www.research.dot.state.mn.us
Researchers recommend developing a GIS-based tool that can be used collaboratively
by local transportation agencies, MnDOT and the Minnesota Department of Natural
Resources to determine what locations in Minnesota require culverts designed to accommodate the passage of fish. This tool would incorporate information about topography,
geology, land use, stream characteristics and other factors.
This Technical Summary pertains to the LRRB-produced Report 2011-19, “Performance Assessment
of Oversized Culverts to Accommodate Fish Passage,” published August 2011. The full report can be
accessed at http://www.lrrb.org/PDF/201119.pdf.
109
2012-09TS
Published September 2012
RESEARCH
SERVICES
O F F I C E O F P O L I C Y A N A LY S I S ,
R E SE A R C H & I N N OVAT I O N
TECHNICAL
SUMMARY
Technical Liaison:
Paul Kivisto, MnDOT
[email protected]
Project Coordinator:
Shirlee Sherkow, MnDOT
[email protected]
Principal Investigator:
Andrea Schokker,
University of Minnesota
PROJECT COST:
$123,195
Identifying Grouting Problems
on Post-Tensioned Bridges
What Was the Need?
To strengthen concrete after it has hardened, engineers
have sometimes used a method called post-tensioning,
which involves running steel strands through a hollow
plastic or metal duct within a concrete beam. Tension is
then applied to these strands with a hydraulic jack, compressing the concrete beam and creating internal stresses
that resist external traffic loads. Post-tensioning improves
the durability of concrete and virtually eliminates cracking. It also allows the use of fewer and smaller beams and
other elements when building structures such as bridges,
reducing construction costs and environmental impacts.
This project improved public
safety by identifying
grouting and corrosion
problems in some
post-tensioned bridges in
Minnesota, and by
developing inspection
procedures so that these
problems can be routinely
identified and addressed.
However, the steel strands used in post-tensioning are
susceptible to corrosion from contact with air, water and
chlorides in deicing chemicals. To protect these strands,
engineers use grout, a thick emulsion of water, cement
and sand that hardens over time. Grout is used to fill in the gaps between the strands
and the duct through which they run. Nevertheless, these voids, which leave strands
vulnerable to corrosion, may remain if the duct is improperly filled or if water bleeds out
of the grout mixture before it has fully hardened.
During the late 1990s and early 2000s, problems were found in grouted post-tensioned
ducts in Florida bridges. As a consequence, in 2003 state transportation agencies
significantly improved their grouting methods and began using a grouting material not
susceptible to bleeding. However, in bridges built before 2003, voids around grouted
strands are fairly common, leading to widely varying levels of deterioration depending
on climate, construction practices and structure type.
What Was Our Goal?
The objective of this project was to conduct inspections of post-tensioned bridges built
in Minnesota before 2003 and update current bridge inspection procedures so that potential problems in these bridges can be detected and remedied.
What Did We Do?
Researchers began by reviewing the plans and inspection reports for 40 of these posttensioned bridges. Based on this information, they identified for further inspection 10
bridges most likely to have grouting-related corrosion problems. These bridges were
chosen from across the different bridge construction types so that the sample would effectively represent Minnesota’s post-tensioned bridge inventory.
To visually inspect grout and
post-tensioning strands within a
duct, researchers inserted a
borescope, which consists of a
small camera lens mounted at
the end of a flexible tube.
Researchers visually inspected these bridges, focusing on signs of distress related to
post-tensioning. These inspections consisted of an exterior examination from ground
level, from the bridge deck or from a snooper truck—a vehicle equipped with a crane
that allows access to the underside of bridges.
Researchers then chose three bridges for a more invasive inspection. Because the corrosion of post-tensioning strands typically provides few external visual indications of
problems, traditional nondestructive inspection methods are not reliable for inspecting
these bridges. Consequently, ducts were inspected using ground-penetrating radar to
map their location and shape. Based on these maps, researchers drilled holes into the
continued
110
“This project is helping
MnDOT ensure the safety
of the traveling public by
establishing bridge
inspection procedures that
take into account problems
with grouting on some
bridges built before 2003.”
—Paul Kivisto,
Metro Region Bridge
Engineer, MnDOT Bridge
Office
“The problem with
post-tensioned bridges is
that the warning signs are
not easy to see because
they are hidden inside the
concrete. This project
developed a way of
identifying signs for these
bridges so we can be
confident of their safety.”
—Andrea Schokker,
Professor and Head of
Civil Engineering,
University of Minnesota
Duluth Department of
Civil Engineering
A borescope inserted into a duct reveals a large void, with post-tensioning strands covered only
by a thin layer of grout. Ideally the grout would completely fill the duct, protecting strands from
corrosion.
structure and used a borescope to visually inspect the duct interiors, including the grout
and post-tensioning strands. After inspection, the holes were sealed with epoxy. When
visual signs indicated a potential problem such as moisture, rust staining and cracking, a
section of concrete was removed to expose a length of the duct for further inspection of
grout and strand condition, and to take samples for chloride testing.
What Did We Learn?
Researchers summarized the characteristics of all 40 post-tensioned bridges built prior
to 2003 in Minnesota. Each bridge summary includes an aerial view photograph, design
drawings, inspection notes applicable to the post-tensioning system condition and a
discussion of the bridge’s characteristics.
Researchers also documented the results for the 10 bridges chosen for visual inspections
and three chosen for invasive inspections, and made recommendations for follow-up
inspections. In general, the inspected bridges were in good overall condition. Invasive
testing showed that one of the three bridges showed no strand corrosion or grouting
problems, one had major corrosion problems related to construction issues but appeared to have good grout, and one had significant problems with grouting and the
beginning of corrosion. Researchers recommend a full investigation of the third bridge
to identify and remedy the grouting problems and protect it from future corrosion.
Using these results, researchers developed a general inspection plan for post-tensioned
bridges in Minnesota and a concise guide for MnDOT bridge inspection staff.
What’s Next?
Produced by CTC & Associates for:
Minnesota Department
of Transportation Research Services
MS 330, First Floor
395 John Ireland Blvd.
St. Paul, MN 55155-1899
(651) 366-3780
www.research.dot.state.mn.us
MnDOT has adopted the new bridge inspection procedures developed in this project
and has started a follow-up implementation project as of summer 2012 to conduct a
more detailed investigation of grouting in post-tensioned bridges.
This Technical Summary pertains to Report 2012-09, “Development of Best Practices for
Inspection of PT Bridges in Minnesota,” published April 2012. The full report can be accessed
at http://www.dot.state.mn.us/research/documents/201209.pdf.
111
2012-16TS
Published July 2012
RESEARCH
SERVICES
O F F I C E O F P O L I C Y A N A LY S I S ,
R E SE A R C H & I N N OVAT I O N
TECHNICAL
SUMMARY
Technical Liaison:
Brian Homan, MnDOT
[email protected]
Administrative Liaison:
Dan Warzala, MnDOT
[email protected]
Principal Investigators:
Cullen O’Neill, Meyer Borgman
and Johnson
Catherine E. Wolfgram French,
University of Minnesota
PROJECT COST:
$100,000
Improving Camber Estimates in
Minnesota Bridge Girders
What Was the Need?
Since the 1950s, employing prestressed concrete girders has offered Minnesota bridge engineers an economical, low-maintenance design option for increasing girder
strength, durability and stiffness. Prestressing involves
casting the concrete around stretched steel strands. When
the concrete hardens, the strands are released. The strands
then contract, compressing the concrete. Because these
strands are located primarily in the bottom of the girder,
there is more compression there than at the top. This
counteracts the tension created by traffic loads and the
weight of the girder itself, helping to prevent cracking.
The upward deflection caused by the prestress is called
camber.
The new methods for
predicting release and
erection camber developed
in this study improve their
accuracy from 74 percent to
99 percent and 83 percent
to 95 percent, respectively.
Better camber prediction
accuracy will ensure a good
fit between a bridge deck
and its girders, avoiding
delays and increased costs.
Because of such factors as concrete shrinkage and temperature, the camber of a girder immediately after the release of prestressing strands, or release camber, can differ
significantly from the camber it will have during construction, or erection camber. Engineers must take into account
erection camber when designing bridges; if its design value is inaccurate, there can be
construction problems in fitting the bridge deck to the girders and roadway profile, leading to delays and increased costs.
Engineers use a multiplier to calculate erection camber from the predicted release camber. Inherent uncertainty in some of the factors affecting these cambers can introduce
errors in estimating the actual cambers from the predictions. It was recently observed
that girders being erected at bridge sites in Minnesota often had much lower than predicted erection cambers despite MnDOT’s modification of its multiplier method in 2007.
What Was Our Goal?
The objective of this study was to improve MnDOT’s bridge girder camber prediction
methods by investigating factors affecting both release and erection cambers, quantifying the relative uncertainty in the different factors and creating a new set of multipliers
taking into account these factors.
What Did We Do?
Researchers began by analyzing:
• Current release camber prediction accuracy by examining camber records for
more than 1,000 girders from two precasting plants and from measurements taken
during the erection of Minnesota I-girders produced between 2006 and 2010 to compare measured camber values to design values.
Storage conditions for
girders during winter months can
subject them to high humidity,
increasing their camber.
• Factors affecting release camber by testing concrete samples at these precasting
plants to determine the concrete compressive strength and elastic modulus over time,
and comparing these values to the assumptions used in design.
• Thermal effects of concrete and ambient temperatures on the strand stress at release.
continued
112
“This project gave us a lot
of insight into what can be
done to improve camber
predictions, including a
range of options for
multipliers.”
—Brian Homan,
Assistant State Aid Bridge
Engineer, MnDOT Office
of Bridges and Structures
To measure girder camber to an accuracy of 0.5mm, researchers used a simple but effective method
involving a stretch wire, mirror and ruler.
“Because the age of the
girder and its storage
conditions can
significantly increase its
camber, an important
factor in improving camber
predictions is associating
the erection multiplier
with an estimate of the
time the girders spend in
storage.”
—Catherine E.
Wolfgram French,
College of Science &
Engineering Distinguished
Professor, University of
Minnesota Department of
Civil Engineering
Produced by CTC & Associates for:
Minnesota Department
of Transportation Research Services
MS 330, First Floor
395 John Ireland Blvd.
St. Paul, MN 55155-1899
(651) 366-3780
www.research.dot.state.mn.us
Researchers used these analyses to devise an improved method for predicting release
cambers and tested it on a data set for which detailed fabrication information was
known, including curing and temperature records.
Researchers then investigated factors affecting long-term and erection cambers, including solar radiation, relative humidity, concrete creep and shrinkage, length of cure and
storage conditions. They used the resultant computer modeling to perform long-term
predictions of camber for girders of varying depths and lengths. By comparing these
predictions to current MnDOT and improved release camber predictions, researchers
created four sets of multipliers, allowing the calculation of more accurate release and
erection camber predictions. Researchers applied these multipliers to the historical
girder data set and compared results to the measured erection camber data.
What Did We Learn?
From historical data, researchers found that measured camber values differed significantly from those for which they were designed. On average, the release camber of girders was only 74 percent of the design value, and the erection camber only 83 percent.
Concrete compressive strength attained at the precasting plants was often greater than
the design value, leading to greater stiffness and decreased camber. Current methods
used in design underestimated the concrete modulus of elasticity from the concrete
compressive strength. Also, strand stress at release was lower than predicted because of
thermal effects and strand relaxation.
With better estimates for these factors, researchers created a more accurate method
for predicting release cambers, improving the average discrepancy between measured
and design release camber values from 74 percent to 99 percent. They also created sets
of multipliers that, on average, improved the accuracy of erection camber predictions
to between 95 percent and 97 percent of the design value. There is still scatter in the
results due to inherent uncertainties involved in the construction process. The multiplier sets for erection camber include an option for using a single multiplier or various
multipliers, depending on the age ranges of the girders at erection, to reduce the scatter
in the results.
What’s Next?
MnDOT is currently evaluating the multiplier options and other recommendations
developed.
This Technical Summary pertains to Report 2012-16, “Validation of Prestressed Concrete I-Beam
Deflection and Camber Estimates,” published June 2012. The full report can be accessed at
http://www.dot.state.mn.us/research/documents/201216.pdf.
113
2012-13TS
Published July 2012
RESEARCH
SERVICES
O F F I C E O F P O L I C Y A N A LY S I S ,
R E SE A R C H & I N N OVAT I O N
TECHNICAL
SUMMARY
Technical Liaison:
Barbara Loida, MnDOT
[email protected]
Administrative Liaison:
Shirlee Sherkow, MnDOT
[email protected]
Principal Investigators:
Omid Mohseni, University of Minnesota
John S. Gulliver, University of Minnesota
PROJECT COST:
$257,000
Standard Sumps and the SAFL Baffle as
Economical Solutions for Stormwater
Treatment
This study found standard
What Was the Need?
As part of their commitment to the environment, MnDOT
and local agencies implement programs to minimize the effects of stormwater runoff on regional surface waters and
groundwater. Runoff occurs when water from rainstorms
or melting snow flows over surfaces such as paved streets
and parking lots, collecting sediments that can carry pollutants such as phosphorus and heavy metals.
One of MnDOT’s management practices for stormwater
involves the use of pollution control devices within the
storm sewer system to reduce runoff sediment. However,
the proprietary devices available for these purposes can
be expensive. MnDOT was interested in learning how
effectively sediments can be removed by the significantly
cheaper standard sumps, which are cylindrical tanks that
are already a common feature of stormwater infrastructure.
sumps to be effective and
economical at removing
sediment from stormwater
in urban areas. With a
retrofit device developed
in the second phase of this
study, sumps also can retain
much of this sediment,
even under high flow
conditions, at one-fourth
the cost of most proprietary
devices.
These sumps are typically part of manholes that provide maintenance access to sewers.
As water flows into these tanks, its velocity is reduced, causing some sediments to drop
to the bottom of the tank as the water leaves through an outgoing pipe. Showing sumps
to be effective as a sedimentation device would significantly lower the cost of complying with federal and state environmental regulations.
What Was Our Goal?
The goal of this project was to evaluate the effectiveness of standard sumps for stormwater management, including sumps retrofitted with the SAFL Baffle, a device designed to
increase the effectiveness of sumps for removing and retaining sediments from stormwater runoff.
What Did We Do?
Each sump was placed on a
wooden base and mounted on a
steel frame sitting on load cells,
with inlet pipes connected to a
plumbing system supplying river
water at controlled flow rates.
Researchers evaluated how well each of four laboratory sump configurations—4x4, 4x2,
6x6 and 6x3 feet—removed sediments from water moving through them at a number
of different flow rates. To do this, they fed a known amount of sediment into a pipe
carrying water into the sump, and at the conclusion of the test, they dried and weighed
the sediment that remained at the bottom. Researchers then performed a similar test
to evaluate washout rates for each configuration, or how well sumps retained captured
sediments when water moved through them at high flow rates. Then they calculated the
removal efficiencies and washout rates for sumps under a variety of conditions, including diameter and depth, sediment type, storm severity, water temperature and watershed size.
In a second phase of the project, researchers designed a retrofit to improve the performance of standard sumps in treating stormwater runoff. Called the SAFL Baffle, this
retrofit consists of a porous grate that dissipates energy from water flowing into the
sump, preventing a pattern of water circulation that increases washout. Researchers then repeated tests to evaluate sumps of various configurations for how well they
continued
114
“Standard sumps are
a much less expensive
solution for stormwater
treatment than the
proprietary devices that
cities and counties have
been purchasing for more
than 10 years.”
—Barbara Loida,
MS4 Coordinator
Engineer, MnDOT Metro
District
“With the retrofit device
developed in the second
part of this study, standard
sumps can be very
effective stormwater
treatment devices with
very little washout and
have the potential to
dramatically impact the
industry.”
—Omid Mohseni,
Adjunct Associate
Professor, University of
Minnesota Department of
Civil Engineering
Typical baffles are impermeable, leading to a circulation of water that washes sediment out of
sumps. The SAFL Baffle developed by the St. Anthony Falls Laboratory is porous, distributing the
jet flowing from the inlet pipe more evenly across the sump, reducing its maximum velocity and so
virtually eliminating washout.
captured and retained sediment. Some tests were conducted with the baffle clogged by
debris such as trash and vegetation.
What Did We Learn?
Results showed that while standard sumps are effective for removing sediment from
stormwater flowing at low flow rates, before installation of the SAFL Baffle they were unable to prevent captured sediments from washing out under high flow rates. The greater
the depth of sumps and the larger their diameters, the greater their removal efficiency
rates and the lower their washout rates. The formulas developed for calculating the efficiency of sumps can be used to determine how often they should be maintained and
cleaned.
Tests of the SAFL Baffle showed that it dissipated the energy of water entering the sump,
improving sediment capture by 10 percent to 15 percent and decreasing washout by
a factor of 16, to nearly zero at high flow rates. Shallow sumps with baffles clogged by
debris had significant washout, but this can be mitigated by increasing baffle hole diameters. Washout was also high in sumps with outlet pipes angled at 90 degrees to inlet
pipes, but could be decreased by installing the baffle at an angle of 90 to 120 degrees to
the inlet pipe. Additionally, researchers developed recommendations for using the SAFL
Baffle in sumps receiving water from both inlet pipes and grates.
What’s Next?
Produced by CTC & Associates for:
Minnesota Department
of Transportation Research Services
MS 330, First Floor
395 John Ireland Blvd.
St. Paul, MN 55155-1899
(651) 366-3780
www.research.dot.state.mn.us
In 2011 the SAFL Baffle was installed in more than 50 sumps by MnDOT, Minnesota
cities and counties, and private entities, and many more are on order in 2012. On average, a sump equipped with the SAFL Baffle reduced the cost of removing sediment to
one-fourth its prior cost. Researchers are continuing to share the results of this project
in journals and at conferences.
This Technical Summary pertains to Reports 2011-08 and 2012-13, “Assessment and Recommendations for the Operation of Standard Sumps as Best Management Practices for Stormwater Treatment,
Volumes 1 and 2,” published February 2011 and May 2012, respectively. The full reports can be accessed at http://www.lrrb.org/PDF/201108.pdf and http://www.lrrb.org/PDF/201213.pdf.
115
2011RIC01TS
Published February 2012
Putting Research into Practice: Selecting
Optimal Stormwater Treatment Strategies
What Was the Need?
TECHNICAL
SUMMARY
Technical Liaison:
Mel Odens, MnDOT
[email protected]
Administrative Liaison:
Bruce Holdhusen, MnDOT
[email protected]
Principal Investigator:
Michael Marti, SRF Consulting Group Inc.
LRRB IMPLEMENTATION
PROJECT COST:
$51,748
One common cause of water pollution is stormwater runoff, which occurs when water from rain and thawing snow
flows across paved surfaces or soils that are too saturated
to allow more water to pass through them. As runoff flows
over the surface, it can accumulate pollutants and carry
them into waterways.
The decision tree tool
developed in this project will
help city and county public
works employees more
efficiently select stormwater
BMPs appropriate to their
projects to protect the
environment with the most
cost-effective available
methods.
To manage stormwater, engineers use a number of treatment strategies, typically referred to as best management
practices. As state and federal regulations for stormwater
management have become more stringent, the number of
available BMPs has increased significantly. However, not
all BMPs perform the same treatment functions or remove
pollutants with the same efficiency. They also vary in cost
of construction and maintenance. Consequently, choosing
between BMPs can be a complex task, and research was
needed to develop a tool that would assist stormwater managers in selecting BMPs to
meet the needs of specific projects.
What Was Our Goal?
The goal of this project was to create a tool to assist city and county public works employees in selecting stormwater BMPs appropriate to their projects.
What Did We Implement?
This tool implements and is intended to work in conjunction with Report 2009RIC12,
“Stormwater Maintenance BMP Resource Guide,” and the 2005 “Minnesota Stormwater
Manual.” The resource guide describes the five most commonly used stormwater facilities in Minnesota and details the best inspection and management practices for each.
How Did We Do It?
Underground treatment devices
such as sump catch basins do
not require much land area, but
require frequent maintenance to
be effective.
Investigators created a planning-level decision tree tool to assist practitioners in selecting
BMPs for stormwater management. The decision tree incorporates a cost-benefit analysis
using whole-life costs as determined by the Water Environment Research Foundation and
covers methods commonly or increasingly used in Minnesota, including:
• Stormwater ponds, which capture runoff to mitigate its effects on downstream water
quality or quantity.
• Bioretention basins, such as bioswales, rain gardens and filtration basins, which are
landscaped depressions that remove pollutants from runoff using plants, soils and naturally occurring microbes found in the soil.
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• Underground treatment devices, which remove pollutants and debris from underground drainage systems. They are typically used as pretreatment systems with other
BMPs.
• Underground detention systems, which store runoff temporarily and regulate its flow.
These can be used in conjunction with underground treatment devices to provide
additional water quality treatment.
• Infiltration systems, which temporarily trap runoff and allow it to seep into the soil.
These can be surface sand filters or underground pipe galleries.
continued
116
“We wanted to create a
tool to help engineers
quickly zero in on the
relevant part of BMP
manuals—which can
be large or difficult to
navigate—based on the
circumstances of their
particular project.”
—Mel Odens
State Aid Engineer,
MnDOT District 8
“This guide simplifies the
task of deciding between
the large number of
available stormwater
BMPs by presenting a
series of questions that
can be answered in a
step-by-step fashion to
narrow the options.”
—Michael Marti
Principal, SRF Consulting
Group Inc.
Stormwater ponds are a commonly used BMP in Minnesota and have the benefits of effectively
reducing many pollutant loads and controlling runoff rates. However, because they require a
large amount of space, they are not a feasible BMP in all situations.
• Porous/pervious/permeable pavements, which reduce runoff pollution by allowing
water to filter through pavements into the underlying soil or underdrain system.
• Tree or planter boxes, which consist of containers filled with a soil mixture, mulch
layer, underdrain system and a shrub or tree. These boxes can be used to temporarily
store and filter runoff in urban areas.
What Was the Impact?
This tool is a five-step BMP selection process that narrows BMP choices according to
physical constraints, the regulatory environment, capital costs and other factors. It is especially intended for projects where there is no regional stormwater facility downstream
designed to provide treatment. The five steps are:
1. Select Your Project Type by determining how much space will be available for
BMPs after a project is completed and whether the project is a site project (involving
residential, commercial or other development) or roadway/linear project.
2. D
escribe Your Project according to location, receiving waters, soil types, setting
and special site considerations.
3. Determine the Regulatory Environment for Your Project by determining which
of the state, local and federal agencies might have jurisdiction over the project, with
the intent to identify the most stringent design criteria.
4. C
reate a Preliminary BMP Toolbox by using information from previous steps to
help narrow a matrix of seven BMPs to two or three that are most appropriate for the
project.
5. R
efine BMP Selection/Select the Right Tool by comparing factors such as maintenance, life-cycle costs and aesthetics.
Appendices to this tool contain a list of further resources as well as the cost-benefit
analysis on which it is based.
What’s Next?
Produced by CTC & Associates for:
Minnesota Department
of Transportation
Research Services Section
MS 330, First Floor
395 John Ireland Blvd.
St. Paul, MN 55155-1899
(651) 366-3780
www.research.dot.state.mn.us
Investigators are presenting this tool at numerous conferences and are monitoring its reception among practitioners. As stormwater management practices continue to evolve,
the decision tree will be updated so that it continues to help practitioners select the
most effective measures for managing stormwater runoff.
This Technical Summary pertains to the LRRB-produced Report 2011RIC01, “Decision Tree for
Stormwater BMPs,” published March 2011. The full report can be accessed at
http://www.lrrb.org/PDF/2011RIC01.pdf.
The research being implemented via this project can be found mainly in the LRRB-produced Report
2009RIC12, “Stormwater Maintenance BMP Resource Guide,” published January 2009. This report
can be accessed at http://www.lrrb.org/PDF/2009RIC12.pdf.
117
2011TREE01TS
Published February 2012
Street Tree Planning for Healthier
Community Landscapes
What Was the Need?
TECHNICAL
SUMMARY
Technical Liaison:
Dan Gullickson, MnDOT
[email protected]
Administrative Liaison:
Sandy McCully, MnDOT
[email protected]
Principal Investigator:
Gary Johnson, University of Minnesota
LRRB PROJECT COST:
$20,000
As urban communities develop, they benefit from greening measures that make them more livable, including the
use of open space, public parks and trees planted along
streets. Trees reduce energy costs by sheltering buildings
from the sun during the summer and from the wind in
winter; reduce pollution from stormwater runoff and filter
the air; fence roads from snow drifts; provide a habitat
for birds and other organisms; and delineate curves and
intersections, increasing the safety of motorists and pedestrians.
The presentation developed
by this project can be used
to teach community
decision makers how to
avoid common street
tree design and selection
mistakes, saving
communities significant
maintenance costs while
helping to improve quality
of life.
However, poor tree placement can lead to roots damaging pavements and branches impinging on power lines,
requiring costly pavement repairs and pruning. Poor species selection can make communities vulnerable to having
their entire population of trees decimated by a single
disease. In 2008, to help improve street tree planning
by landscape architects, city planners and other community decision makers, the LRRB sponsored the production of a manual, “The Road to
a Thoughtful Street Tree Master Plan,” which outlines objective criteria for street tree
design and plant selection. Because of the large amount of information contained in
this manual, a follow-up project was needed to heighten awareness of its existence and
communicate its core principles to target audiences.
What Was Our Goal?
The objective of this project was to create brochures and a PowerPoint presentation to
increase awareness of best practices for street tree planning among Minnesota community decision makers.
What Did We Implement?
Workshop attendees
collaborated in teams on various
scenarios to create street tree
plans balancing genetic diversity
with infrastructure needs.
This project implements 2008-32, The Road to a Thoughtful Street Tree Master Plan,
which provides a step-by-step, pragmatic method for planning street landscapes. It also
implements MnDOT’s online Plant Selector tool, developed to ease the frustration of
selecting the best trees for the most variable street landscapes by providing a userfriendly interface allowing search queries to be narrowed easily by region, species and
environmental factors. The Master Plan and Plant Selector tools guide users through:
• Planting in spaces that accommodate healthy trees.
• Matching tree species to locations with size restrictions.
• Planting trees for longevity since only at maturity do trees realize their full environmental potential.
RESEARCH
SERVICES
O F F I C E O F P O L I C Y A N A LY S I S ,
R E SE A R C H & I N N OVAT I O N
• Developing a planting arrangement that enhances traffic flow and guides pedestrian
and motorist behavior.
How Did We Do It?
Researchers developed a PowerPoint presentation using information from 2008-32.
This presentation was refined through beta-testing at workshops with several
audiences, including the exhibit area at the 2011 Shade Tree Short Course; volunteer
continued
118
“The manual and
presentation developed
by this project are ahead
of their time. As tree loss
more severely affects
Minnesota communities
in the next few years,
it will be important to
re-establish street tree
populations according to
the principles set forth in
these tools.”
—Dan Gullickson,
Urban and Community
Forester, MnDOT Office of
Environmental
Services
Elm trees have long been popular in urban areas because they grow quickly, thrive in
harsh environments and have canopies that grow above utility lines. But relying too heavily on them can leave communities completely barren if the trees are affected by Dutch
elm disease, with the added expense of removing and replanting trees.
training sessions at the University of Minnesota; and community training presentations
in Grand Rapids, Rochester and Crookston, Minnesota.
To increase awareness of the Master Plan, Plant Selector and presentation, researchers
also developed two brochures that advertised these tools to appointed or elected officials, and to landscape architects, city planners and engineers, arborists and park staff.
These brochures were sent to 826 communities in Minnesota.
What Was the Impact?
“Proper street tree
planning saves
communities money,
helps keep pedestrians
safe and attracts
economic activity.”
—Gary Johnson,
Extension Professor,
University of Minnesota
Department of Forest
Resources
Produced by CTC & Associates for:
Minnesota Department
of Transportation
Research Services Section
MS 330, First Floor
395 John Ireland Blvd.
St. Paul, MN 55155-1899
(651) 366-3780
www.research.dot.state.mn.us
The PowerPoint presentation includes 10 lessons covering the most common issues
leading to the success or failure of a street master plan, and provides users with a
practical primer showing them how to avoid common street design and tree selection
mistakes by following a step-by-step process. Issues include community receptiveness
to street trees, the functions street trees should perform, the practical degree of species
diversity for street tree populations, tree selection and placement, creating a master
plan and planting. Complete with notes, the presentation can be used in its entirety as
the basis for a comprehensive workshop or its individual lessons can be used for more
focused workshops.
Researchers used three chapters from the PowerPoint presentation to conduct a half-day
workshop in Rochester focusing on tree placement and species selection. The workshop was very well-received by attendees and showed that a combination of preworkshop homework assignments and hands-on problem-solving during the workshop can
be a successful training model.
What’s Next?
The PowerPoint presentation developed in this project is most effectively used as a
teaching tool in classes or workshops, and parts of it are currently used for tree inspector training in several Minnesota communities. Researchers recommend continued
publicity about the manual and presentation to city managers, engineering departments
and conferences. They also recommend the development of performance measures for
roadside vegetation management so that its benefits can be quantified.
This Technical Summary pertains to the LRRB-produced project 2011TREE01, “Outreach Program for a Thoughtful Street Tree Master Plan,” published September 2011. The presentation
and brochures produced for this project can be accessed at http://www.myminnesotawoods.umn.
edu/2011/12/the-road-to-a-thoughtful-street-tree-master-plan-slideshow-series-2011/.
The research being implemented via this project can be found mainly in the LRRB-produced Report
2008-32, “The Road to a Thoughtful Street Tree Master Plan,” published August 2008. This report can
be accessed at http://www.lrrb.org/PDF/200832.pdf.
119
2012-03TS
Published May 2012
RESEARCH
SERVICES
O F F I C E O F P O L I C Y A N A LY S I S ,
R E SE A R C H & I N N OVAT I O N
TECHNICAL
SUMMARY
Technical Liaison:
Dan Gullickson, MnDOT
[email protected]
Project Coordinator:
Dan Warzala, MnDOT
[email protected]
Principal Investigator:
Gary Wyatt, University of
Minnesota Extension
Evaluating the Costs and Benefits of
Living Snow Fences
What Was the Need?
Blowing or drifting snow on roadways is a major transportation safety and efficiency concern, causing accidents
and requiring expensive snow removal and other maintenance. This issue can be especially problematic near farmlands, where snow can drift onto roadways from harvested fields. To address this problem, MnDOT has operated a
program that pays landowners in identified problem areas
to plant living snow fences. LSFs consist of trees, shrubs
or standing corn rows designed to serve as windbreaks to
reduce the volume of snow that blows or drifts onto the
roadways. MnDOT traffic safety data suggest that using
LSFs can reduce snow- and ice-related accidents by
40 percent on roadways with super-elevated curves.
By contracting 40 percent
of sites with snow problems
to the Living Snow Fences
program, MnDOT could save
$1.3 million per year. LSFs
improve driver visibility and
road surface conditions, and
have the potential to reduce
accidents, snow removal
costs and removal
equipment emissions.
However, inducing landowners to participate in the
LSF program has been difficult, and as of 2011 MnDOT
had only used 12 percent of its LSF budget, obtaining
contracts for just 2.3 percent of problem sites. The current level of payments offered
to landowners may not be a sufficient incentive to establish and maintain LSFs, and research was needed to determine a payment structure that will increase adoption rates
while remaining cost-effective.
What Was Our Goal?
PROJECT COST:
$99,000
The goal of this project was to develop a calculator for estimating optimal LSF program
payments to landowners by identifying costs, benefits and obstacles to implementing
the program.
What Did We Do?
Researchers began by conducting focus groups to get input from landowners about
their costs for establishing and maintaining snow fences, and the constraints that limit
landowner participation in the LSF program. Researchers also conducted an online
survey of key staff at MnDOT and other agencies to get their perception of the value of
LSFs, their familiarity with the LSF program, and whether they had sufficient resources
and time to implement LSFs.
A snow fence can be as simple as
two rows of corn that form a barrier
to snow drifting onto roadways.
Researchers then conducted a detailed financial analysis to improve estimates of LSF
costs to landowners by examining agency records, conducting interviews with agency
representatives and conducting on-farm interviews with current LSF participants. They
quantified the benefit of LSFs in terms of reduced greenhouse gas emissions from
reduced use of snow removal equipment and carbon sequestration by vegetation as
well as costs avoided due to the reduced number of crashes caused by blowing and
drifting snow.
Using all of the data collected in this study on costs and benefits of LSFs, researchers developed the Living Snow Fence Payment Calculator, a software tool that allows users to
calculate optimal LSF payments to landowners by analyzing per-acre cost-benefit ratios
in terms of avoided road maintenance and safety costs and reduced carbon emissions.
continued
120
—Dan Gullickson,
Living Snow Fence
Program Coordinator,
MnDOT Office of
Environmental
Stewardship
“The Living Snow Fence
Payment Calculator will
help agency staff work
with local landowners to
arrive at a realistic,
economical and
cost-effective payment for
land practices protecting
state and local highways.”
—Gary Wyatt,
Agroforestry Extension
Educator, University of
Minnesota Extension
Greg Mensen, MnDOT District 8
“Of about 3,800 possible
LSF sites in Minnesota, not
all have the same traffic,
crash rates and snow
problems. The tool
developed in this project
will allow personnel to
prioritize LSF funding to
target the most critical
sites.”
Segments of roads with LSFs (right) have better driver visibility and road surface conditions than
those without (left), leading to lower road maintenance costs and fewer accidents. LSFs can also
benefit the atmosphere by storing carbon dioxide and reducing emissions from snow removal
operations.
What Did We Learn?
Focus group participants discussed a variety of costs and constraints to landowner participation in the LSF program and most frequently mentioned life-cycle costs associated
with the implementation, maintenance and removal of snow fences. Some participants
said compensation was insufficient to cover all costs.
Agency survey results indicated great interest in LSF and a high confidence that it is
effective. While agency staff has the technical competence needed to promote and
implement the program, time and funding are limited, and 36 percent of agencies felt
they were not equipped to conduct LSF plantings.
Based on agency and landowner feedback, researchers recommend improving the LSF
program in the following ways:
• Payments. Create shorter and more flexible contracts with a flexible formula that accounts for varying maintenance costs, inflation of land values, crop yield, production
costs, inconvenience factors, income or financial benefit received, and the price of
corn. Consider increasing payments in the first three years to reflect greater maintenance costs, compensating for the removal of trees at the end of the agreement,
paying for the entire area between the snow fence and right of way to reduce the
difficulty of farming around it, and allowing a single strip of standing corn rather than
the recommended two strips.
• Prioritization. Target landowners in problem areas by considering bonus payments
for locations with high potential benefits, such as those with high accident rates.
• Promotion. Promote LSFs by improving education materials to give a clear and
complete presentation of the program to landowners, showing concrete information
about what is required of them and expected payments and benefits. Consider doorto-door visits to landowners, providing incentives and training to LSF participants
to promote the program to other landowners, and establishing a dedicated LSF staff
member in each agency office.
What’s Next?
Produced by CTC & Associates for:
Minnesota Department
of Transportation Research Services
MS 330, First Floor
395 John Ireland Blvd.
St. Paul, MN 55155-1899
(651) 366-3780
www.research.dot.state.mn.us
Researchers suggest that once MnDOT snowplows are fully equipped with GPS, resulting data should be used to quantify sand and salt applications to determine where
snow fences are needed most and what impact they are having. Further research is also
needed on the effectiveness of various plant species for use as LSFs.
This Technical Summary pertains to Report 2012-03, “Economic and Environmental Costs and
Benefits of Living Snow Fences: Safety, Mobility, and Transportation Authority Benefits, Farmer
Costs, and Carbon Impacts,” published February 2012. The full report can be accessed at
http://www.lrrb.org/PDF/201203.pdf.
121
2012-20TS
Published October 2012
RESEARCH
SERVICES
O F F I C E O F P O L I C Y A N A LY S I S ,
R E SE A R C H & I N N OVAT I O N
TECHNICAL
SUMMARY
Technical Liaison:
Tom Peters, MnDOT
[email protected]
Project Coordinator:
Dan Warzala, MnDOT
[email protected]
Principal Investigator:
Stephen Druschel,
Minnesota State University, Mankato
PROJECT COST:
$69,000
New Temperature-Based Cost Model
Compares Effectiveness of Deicers
What Was the Need?
With shrinking budgets, rising prices for winter maintenance materials and an interest in limiting environmental
impacts, MnDOT and other transportation agencies are
seeking tools that can help snowplow operators apply
deicers and anti-icers in “the right amount at the right time
in the right way.”
While researchers have long been examining the effectiveness of deicers under laboratory conditions to predict
how they will perform in the field, relatively few studies
have examined the temperature-specific ice melt capacity
of deicers: the amount of ice melted—or brine created—
given the amount of deicer applied. Coupling an assessment of ice melt capacity with performance factors such
as application rates and roadway surface will help winter
maintenance supervisors reduce reliance upon anecdotal
observations and vendor claims when trying to select the
most appropriate deicer for a given situation.
What Was Our Goal?
Researchers developed a
spreadsheet-based
evaluation tool to compare
the relative ice melt capacity
and cost-effectiveness of
up to 50 deicer compounds
and blends across a range of
temperatures. Maintenance
supervisors can use the tool
to guide preseason
purchasing and select the
most effective product to
fight a specific winter event.
The objective of this research was to develop a temperature-based cost model for comparing the relative field performance of deicers and deicer blends by evaluating the ice
melt capacity and other factors that can contribute to deicer performance.
What Did We Do?
Researchers began by meeting with MnDOT staff to assess existing winter maintenance
practices and identify samples for testing based on differences observed among deicers
and deicer blends most often used by MnDOT. The test method, developed specifically
for this study based on Strategic Highway Research Program methodology, analyzed
more than 1,200 samples of 20 granular and liquid deicers of three types:
• Individual deicers.
• Salt brine blends (a liquid deicer blended with salt brine).
• Rock salt stockpile treatments, in which a liquid deicer is applied to rock salt as an
additive.
The cost and performance
evaluation tool produces a line
graph that compares the cost per
lane mile of the selected deicers
at various temperatures.
Samples were tested at 11 temperatures that ranged from +30 °F to -30 °F, in 5 °F increments. In addition to ice melt capacity, researchers examined four other factors that
could contribute to better relative performance of the deicers: bounce, ice penetration,
ice undercutting and grain size.
What Did We Learn?
Researchers found that of these factors, ice melt capacity has the greatest impact on
deicing, with the ice melt capacities of both individual deicers and brine blends closely
related to application temperature. However, in the temperature range tested (5° F to
30° F), none of the three deicer types tested demonstrated substantial improvement
in ice melt capacity over the control (rock salt). While some of the individual deicers
showed a dramatically reduced ice melt capacity as compared to rock salt, researchers
continued
122
“We strive for more
effective and efficient use
of all types of snow and ice
treatments on our
roadways as we operate
under a higher expectation
to balance our safety,
environmental and
budgetary priorities.”
—Tom Peters,
Research and Training
Engineer, MnDOT
Maintenance Operations
“The model we developed,
which considers ice melt
capacity, cost and
temperature in addition to
subjective factors that
contribute to deicer
effectiveness, offers
practitioners a structure
to evaluate and provide
feedback.”
—Stephen Druschel,
Professor, Minnesota
State University, Mankato,
Department of
Mechanical and Civil
Engineering
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Water-filled beakers covered with foil were placed in thermal stabilization units and housed in a
laboratory freezer for a minimum of 16 hours to create ice specimens for testing.
noted that the other benefits of these deicers, such as improved adhesion to the roadway and a low chloride content that limits environmental impacts and corrosion, may
outweigh the products’ more limited ice melt capacity.
Using the results of the ice melt analysis, researchers developed a spreadsheet-based
cost model that compares the cost and effectiveness of a deicer or deicer blend with
a commonly known control—rock salt at 28 °F—across a range of temperatures to
generate a cost per lane mile. The model can be used with neutral field conditions so
that only ice melt capacity, cost and temperature are considered. Alternatively, other
performance factors such as application rate, ice thickness, pavement material and sun/
wind conditions, which have been given subjective weights by the research team, can
be added to the cost per lane mile equation.
The spreadsheet tool’s input screen allows users to select or specify:
• Deicers to consider and show on graphs.
• Delivered costs of deicers.
• Performance factors to be considered.
A graphical output displays two graphs (one each for granular and liquid deicers) with
deicer cost per lane mile by temperature with and without performance factors. The
model can analyze products used in deicing, anti-icing and prewetting applications.
What’s Next?
This study provides strong evidence that ice melt capacity is a substantial factor in determining the cost-effectiveness of deicers and anti-icers at a given temperature. A second
phase of this project, expected to begin by early 2013, will expand on the results of
the current project’s lab studies of ice melt capacity with real-world tests on actual
pavements under conditions comparable to those tested in the lab. By quantifying the
significance of other factors affecting deicer performance—traffic levels, truck volumes,
weather, pavement type and age, plow cutting edge, application frequency and others—
researchers will refine an evaluation tool that can help MnDOT’s winter maintenance
managers select the most effective treatment for a wide range of winter conditions.
This Technical Summary pertains to Report 2012-20, “Salt Brine Blending to Optimize Deicing
and Anti-Icing Performance,” published July 2012. The full report can be accessed at
http://www.dot.state.mn.us/research/documents/201220.pdf. The spreadsheet tool, when available,
will be accessible at http://www.dot.state.mn.us/maintenance/training.
123
2012-TPF-5(218)TS
Published October 2012
T R A NSP O R TAT I O N P O O L E D FU N D
PROGRAM
TECHNICAL
SUMMARY
MnDOT Technical Liaison:
Tom Peters
[email protected]
MnDOT Project Coordinator:
Deb Fick
[email protected]
TOTAL STATE CONTRIBUTIONS
TO DATE:
$2,755,000
MnDOT CONTRIBUTIONS
TO DATE:
$225,000
PARTICIPATING STATES:
CA, CO, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, MA, ME, MI, MN,
MO, MT, ND, NE, NH, NY, OH, PA, UT, VA,
VT, WA, WI, WV, WY
Pooling Our Research: Improving Winter
Maintenance with New Technologies
Why a Pooled Fund Study?
New winter maintenance materials, methods and equipment are constantly being developed, and states need to
know the effectiveness of these tools before they can be
widely implemented. Prompt and rigorous identification
and field testing of innovative solutions improve safety and
save money.
The Clear Roads pooled fund study was established in
2004 to fulfill this need. The program annually funds
research projects focused on identifying innovative solutions, evaluating them under real-world conditions, and
assessing their practicality and ease of use within varied
highway maintenance organizational structures.
Participating agencies make a $25,000 annual commitment
to Clear Roads. States may use 100 percent federal funds
for their contribution. MnDOT took over leadership of the
study from Wisconsin DOT in 2010.
TPF-5(218): Clear Roads
Winter Highway
Operations Pooled Fund.
Launched in 2004, this
ongoing, multistate study
is aimed at rigorous testing
of winter maintenance
materials, equipment and
methods for use by highway
maintenance managers
and crews.
What is the Pooled Fund Study’s Goal?
As state DOTs aggressively pursue new technologies and practices for improving winter
highway operations, Clear Roads supports their evaluation in both the laboratory and
the field to develop industry standards, performance measures and cost-benefit analyses,
practical field guides and training curricula. The scope of the effort is currently expanding to focus on state agency needs, technology transfer and implementation, including
support for staff in the field.
What Have We Learned?
Every year, Technical Advisory Committee members propose numerous research ideas
for consideration and select five or six to fund as projects. To date, 11 projects have
been completed and 11 more are under way or scheduled to begin soon. While all Clear
Roads projects serve to advance the practice of winter maintenance, some projects have
had a particularly significant impact on MnDOT.
Clear Roads developed an
instructional video to accompany
its Field Testing Guide for
Deicing Chemicals.
RESEARCH
SERVICES
O F F I C E O F P O L I C Y A N A LY S I S ,
R E SE A R C H & I N N OVAT I O N
A research project completed in 2008 evaluated the accuracy of the automated systems
used on winter maintenance trucks to deliver sand, salt and other deicing materials at
a specified rate. The project’s added bonus—a spreader calibration guide—provides general guidelines and procedures that can help winter maintenance programs save money
by increasing efficiency and using materials more effectively.
MnDOT used the Clear Roads calibration guide as a baseline to develop its own userfriendly how-to manual that MnDOT and local governments can use to calibrate their
material spreaders. “We use the guide’s step-by-step instructions for calibrating both
automatic and manual controllers during the hands-on portion of our training classes,”
said Kathy Schaefer, MnDOT’s Circuit Training and Assistance Program coordinator.
“And we give copies of the guide to participants in the training program to take back to
their own shops.”
A 2010 Clear Roads project identified the circumstances and most effective methods for
using liquid deicers during winter storm events. Optimizing material use and minimizcontinued
124
“MnDOT continues to find
great value in Clear Roads.
We reaffirmed our
commitment to Clear
Roads by taking over as
the lead state, which we
continue today while
remaining active in its
many research initiatives.”
—Tom Peters,
Research and Training
Engineer, MnDOT
Maintenance Operations
A Clear Roads project found direct liquid application during a winter
storm can be an effective addition to an agency’s winter maintenance
toolbox, especially for use in milder weather.
ing environmental impacts are among the benefits of using liquid deicers to treat winter
roadways. Joe Huneke, MnDOT Maintenance Operations winter coordinator, reported
that results from the Clear Roads research coupled with warmer winter temperatures
prompted last year’s evaluation of liquid-only plow routes in MnDOT Districts 3 and 7.
“A Clear Roads project
that standardized test
procedures for carbide
insert blade wear is
helping six MnDOT
districts compare the
cost-effectiveness and
durability of multiple
plow blades.”
MnDOT’s own research program has also benefited from Clear Roads-funded research.
A MnDOT research project that produced a temperature-based cost model for comparing the relative field performance of deicers and deicer blends began with an examination of the results of a 2010 Clear Roads project that correlated lab testing and field
performance of deicers and anti-icers.
—Ryan Otte,
A project examining the toxicity of deicing materials fits well with MnDOT’s commitment to reducing the environmental impact of winter operations. A MnDOT technical
expert who oversees MnDOT’s lab and field tests of alternative winter chemicals is
providing feedback to Clear Roads researchers.
Research Project
Manager, MnDOT
Maintenance Research
What’s Going On Now?
Six research projects are under way, including a follow-up study to enhance a costbenefit analysis toolkit developed in 2010. The enhanced tool will include more materials, equipment and methods for analysis and more flexible reporting options. Last year
MnDOT began incorporating the original cost-benefit tool in its training program. Costs
are the subject of another project in process that is developing a tool to estimate the
true costs for snow and ice removal.
Clear Roads activities go beyond traditional research, including coordinating a national
winter driver safety campaign, “Ice and Snow…Take It Slow,” to educate drivers about
driving safely in winter conditions and a variety of partnership projects.
What’s Next?
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In 2013, five scheduled research projects will address a range of winter maintenance
topics: establishing effective salt and anti-icing application rates, understanding how
winter chemicals perform on special pavement types, training snowplow operators and
supervisors, comparing materials distribution systems and improving snowplow design.
This Technical Summary pertains to the ongoing Pooled Fund TPF-5(218), Clear Roads
Winter Highway Operations Pooled Fund, continuing the project initiated under TPF-5(092).
Details of this effort can be found at http://www.pooledfund.org/details/study/446,
http://www.pooledfund.org/Details/Study/317 and http://www.clearroads.org.
For more than 25 years, FHWA’s Transportation Pooled Fund Program has been providing state
DOTs and other organizations the opportunity to collaborate in solving transportation-related problems. The TPF Program is focused on leveraging limited funds, avoiding duplication of effort, undertaking large-scale projects and achieving broader dissemination of results on issues of regional and
national interest.
125
2011-18TS
Published July 2012
Designing Performance-Based Contracts
for Pavement Construction and
Maintenance
By using carefully designed
TECHNICAL
SUMMARY
Technical Liaison:
Rick Kjonaas, MnDOT
[email protected]
Administrative Liaison:
Dan Warzala, MnDOT
[email protected]
Principal Investigator:
Diwakar Gupta, University of Minnesota
LRRB PROJECT COST:
$30,000
What Was the Need?
Most highway pavement construction work is performed
by contractors. To ensure that these contractors produce
high-quality pavements with long service lives, MnDOT
contracts include performance-based specifications: Constructed pavements are tested to determine performance
and life-cycle cost predictions, which are then compared
to those called for in the pavement design. Bonuses are
paid or penalties are assessed, depending on whether
pavement quality exceeds or falls short of design expectations, respectively.
incentives and disincentives
to encourage contractors to
perform preventive
maintenance, PBCs could
help align the interests
of contractors and state
transportation agencies to
produce better quality roads
with lower life-cycle costs.
These contracts typically do not include long-term agreements for pavement maintenance. MnDOT either performs
this maintenance or creates new agreements with contractors. Other transportation
agencies and industries suggest that it may be beneficial to enter into longer term
contracts that include such maintenance. Called performance-based contracts, or PBCs,
these agreements give contractors leeway in how a pavement is designed but hold them
accountable for its actual performance over the pavement’s entire service life. Instead
of being paid in full upon completion of construction, contractors receive a series of
payments that are modified with bonuses or penalties based on how well pavements
meet desired performance targets over time. These payments are designed to encourage
contractors to perform preventive maintenance during the life of the structure, which
improves operational performance and prolongs pavement life.
Despite their potential, PBCs are not widely used by state transportation agencies, and
their implementation requires complex calculations to estimate the expected performance of pavements and determine the timing and amounts of bonuses or penalties.
Research was needed to establish guidelines for designing these contracts.
PBCs help foster innovation by
giving contractors flexibility in
choosing materials and
construction methods.
What Was Our Goal?
The objective of this project was to develop a method for designing PBCs for highway
construction projects by estimating pavement life-cycle costs and determining the
amount and timing of incentives and disincentives to influence contractor behavior.
What Did We Do?
RESEARCH
SERVICES
O F F I C E O F P O L I C Y A N A LY S I S ,
R E SE A R C H & I N N OVAT I O N
Researchers began by investigating different kinds of procurement contracts and their
use in a variety of industries, including health care, defense and transportation. Then
they developed a method for predicting certain kinds of pavement distress, such as rutting and cracking, to determine a pavement’s expected service life and life-cycle costs.
The method uses computer simulations allowing a variety of inputs, including pavement
design specifications and such factors as expected weather and traffic. In developing
this method researchers used closed form solutions—mathematical equations that take
less computational time to arrive at predictions than those used in the Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide, the typical method for predicting distress in pavements.
Finally, researchers developed a framework for implementing PBCs by determining the
structure of penalties and bonuses to contractors that will provide the optimum control
continued
126
“Performance-based
contracts would shift the
risk to contractors, giving
them a little more
flexibility on design but
holding them responsible
for the final product.”
—Rick Kjonaas,
State Aid Engineer,
MnDOT
“One advantage of PBCs is
that they allow agencies
to price out the true cost
of pavements—including
maintenance—upfront.
It’s more efficient for
contractors to take
responsibility for
maintenance for the life
of the contract without
going through another bid
process once maintenance
is required.”
—Diwakar Gupta,
Professor, University of
Minnesota Department
of Industrial and Systems
Engineering
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PBCs require determining the frequency and magnitude of payments to contractors. By basing
incentives on how well actual performance meets criteria specified in the contract, these contracts reduce errors associated with predicting the as-built performance of structures.
of their maintenance policies so that these match agency goals. They also identified PBC
implementation issues.
What Did We Learn?
Results suggest that using PBCs would encourage contractors to implement the best
construction methods and perform timely preventive maintenance activity, significantly
improving the quality and long-term performance of their products. However, the implementation of these contracts is challenging, requiring more contract parameters and
implementation effort than traditional contracts. The project report includes an inventory of performance metrics that agencies can use to evaluate contractor performance
and a set of actions that contractors can use to control the quality of the final product
and increase its usable life. To produce stronger pavements, contractors can control mix
design, reduce variability in construction practices and control the timing and extent of
preventive maintenance activities.
Researchers developed a mathematical model for selecting incentives that would elicit
the desired responses from contractors without being too costly. Incentives would be
smaller and disincentives larger near the beginning of a pavement life cycle, when good
performance was expected. Incentives for good performance would grow as the pavement aged, when poorer performance such as cracking was expected. Researchers argued that if a competitive bidding mechanism were used to award contracts and optimal
incentives were selected, agencies would pay only for improved quality and contractors
would not earn unreasonable excess profits.
What’s Next?
MnDOT will continue to evaluate the possibility of using PBCs and other innovative contracting methods, but further research is required before implementation. Researchers
recommend conducting a field evaluation of the effect of PBCs and maintenance activities on the performance lives of pavements. One possibility for implementing further
research is a new pooled fund study involving MnROAD partners.
This Technical Summary pertains to the LRRB-produced Report 2011-18, “Optimal Contract
Mechanism Design for Performance-Based Contracts,” published August 2011. The full report can be
accessed at http://www.lrrb.org/PDF/201118.pdf.
127
2011-20TS
Published December 2011
Using Geosynthetics to Improve Road
Performance
What Was the Need?
TECHNICAL
SUMMARY
Technical Liaison:
Lou Tasa, MnDOT
[email protected]
Administrative Liaison:
Dan Warzala, MnDOT
[email protected]
Principal Investigator:
Tim Clyne, MnDOT
[email protected]
LRRB PROJECT COST:
$30,000
To increase performance, roads are sometimes reinforced
with geosynthetic polymer materials, including geogrids
and geotextiles. Geogrids consist of polymers formed into
relatively rigid, gridlike configurations. They are commonly placed between the subgrade and base or base
and subbase layers of roads to add strength and stiffness
and to slow deterioration. Geotextiles are polymer fabrics
that may also provide some reinforcement, but are used
primarily to:
The use of geogrids in road
foundations clearly benefits
pavement performance,
potentially leading to longer
service lives for roads and
reduced maintenance costs.
• Facilitate filtration and water drainage through road foundation soils without the loss
of soil particles.
• Provide separation between dissimilar base materials, improving their integrity and
functioning.
• Provide a stable construction platform over soft or wet soils, facilitating the movement
of equipment and the process of soil compaction.
Of several kinds of geotextiles, Type V is the most commonly used in Minnesota,
primarily as a separator. Despite the relatively widespread use of geosynthetics in
reconstructing paved county roads and state trunk highways as well as in constructing
new roads, their performance has not been well documented in Minnesota. Research
was needed to obtain field data that would indicate whether geosynthetics extend the
service lives of roads and reduce the need for maintenance.
What Was Our Goal?
The objective of this project was to quantify the pavement performance benefits of
geosynthetics in pavement base and subbase layers, including improved ride quality
and reduced cracking and rutting.
What Did We Do?
Geotextiles have been used
widely on roads in northeastern
Minnesota.
RESEARCH
SERVICES
O F F I C E O F P O L I C Y A N A LY S I S ,
R E SE A R C H & I N N OVAT I O N
From 2001 to 2011, researchers monitored the performance of several paved county
state-aid highways in northeastern Minnesota. Several test sections covering approximately 44 miles and incorporating geogrids and Type V geotextiles were compared to
12 miles of control sections without them. For both the test and control sections, the
subgrade soil was typically heavy clay (a soil classification of 130). Researchers also
tested one section built with saw-and-seal construction, in which joints are sawed into
the pavement at regular intervals, reducing the tensions that lead to cracking and other
distress as pavements expand and contract from temperature fluctuations.
This monitoring involved an annual inspection of each road segment using MnDOT’s
Pathways digital inspection vehicle, a van with digital cameras mounted on top of it to
capture pavement distresses such as cracking and patching. This vehicle also has four
lasers mounted across its front bumper to measure the pavement’s smoothness, which
can be used to determine both ride quality and rutting. The van takes measurements at
short intervals while traveling on the roadway at high speed.
Researchers analyzed this data for trends in ride quality, rutting and cracking over the
10-year period. This analysis provided both a snapshot of average pavement performance in 2010 and long-term performance trends for individual test sections.
continued
128
“This project shows that
geosynthetics can be
used to increase road
performance, potentially
leading to savings in
maintenance costs.”
—Tim Clyne,
Research Forensic
Engineer, MnDOT Office
of Materials and Road
Research
“If roads are to perform
well, it’s critically
important that they have
good foundations—and
geosynthetics are one
more tool to help
accomplish this goal.”
—Lou Tasa,
Research Fellow,
HumanFIRST Program,
University of Minnesota
Where geogrids (left) consist of polymers such as polyester or polystyrene formed into open
grids that provide support, geotextiles (right) have the quality of woven fabrics, making them
good solutions for facilitating separation, filtration and drainage.
What Did We Learn?
Results show that geogrids clearly benefit pavement performance, with test sections
showing a better ride quality and surface rating than control sections. Surface rating is
a composite measure of surface distresses including rutting and cracking. Test sections
also had slightly less rutting than control sections, indicating an increased structural
capacity. The saw and seal sections also had a better ride quality than control sections
and an even higher surface rating than geogrid sections, but had more rutting than
control sections.
However, Type V geotextiles did not provide increased strength or better pavement
performance, performing only as well as and sometimes worse than control sections.
Test sections had more rutting and about the same ride quality and surface rating as
control sections. While the use of Type V geotextiles did lead to less transverse cracking than in control sections, they exhibited more longitudinal cracking. Type V fabrics
also had the most variation in performance, with some sections performing poorly
and others well, whereas geogrid sections had a much more consistent performance.
However, problems with this project, including problems with data for the project’s
first few years, make these conclusions tentative and project specific. Knowledge of the
use of geotextiles has advanced since these test sections were constructed, and more
recent research projects have shown them to be beneficial.
What’s Next?
Based on these results, researchers recommend geogrids in situations where increased
pavement strength or better pavement performance is needed. And while this project
did not show increased performance for pavements with Type V geotextiles, recent
developments in the use of geotextiles suggest that they can be beneficial for reinforcement and for separating fine from coarse materials.
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This Technical Summary pertains to the LRRB-produced Report 2011-20, “Monitoring Geosynthetics
in Local Roadways (LRRB 768) 10-Year Performance Summary,” published August 2011. The full
report can be accessed at http://www.lrrb.org/PDF/201120.pdf. For related studies, see
http://www.lrrb.org/PDF/PP07GEOTS.pdf.
129
2011-22TS
Published June 2012
RESEARCH
SERVICES
O F F I C E O F P O L I C Y A N A LY S I S ,
R E SE A R C H & I N N OVAT I O N
TECHNICAL
SUMMARY
Technical Liaison:
Tim Clyne, MnDOT
[email protected]
Project Coordinator:
Alan Rindels, MnDOT
[email protected]
Principal Investigator:
Eshan Dave, University of Minnesota
PROJECT COST:
$20,000
Laboratory Tests for Predicting the
Performance of Asphalt Concrete
What Was the Need?
To ensure the quality of its asphalt mixtures, MnDOT sets
requirements specifying ingredients, quantities and mixing
procedures. These specifications, like those of most
departments of transportation, do not require that mixtures be tested in the laboratory for mechanical properties
such as stiffness and strength.
If feasible, including a laboratory performance test in
MnDOT’s asphalt mixture specifications would improve
the longevity of asphalt pavements and reduce the risk of
early cracking, rutting and other deterioration. Research
was needed to identify candidate tests based on how well
they predict field performance.
Including a laboratory
performance test in asphalt
mixture specifications
would improve the
longevity of asphalt
pavements and reduce the
risk of early cracking, rutting
and other deterioration.
What Was Our Goal?
The goal of this project was to synthesize research and implementation efforts related
to asphalt performance tests as a first step toward identifying a suitable test for material
specifications.
What Did We Do?
Researchers began by determining the current state of practice for asphalt performance
tests by reviewing material specifications of various state transportation agencies. Investigators then reviewed technical literature on the relationship between laboratory tests
and pavement performance to determine the current state of the art for the topic, and
reviewed previous MnDOT research projects dealing with asphalt performance tests.
This information was synthesized to:
• Determine the suitability of including mechanical tests in material specifications.
• Identify potential laboratory tests used by other DOTs as performance indicators,
and evaluate their labor intensiveness and potential for predicting field performance.
Researchers focused on tests that measure cracking, which is the most common form
of asphalt pavement distress in Minnesota.
• Make recommendations for future studies that can be undertaken to evaluate the suitability of a performance test and develop implementation plans.
What Did We Learn?
The use of a performance test
in material specifications could
help prevent the most common
type of pavement distress in
Minnesota—cracking caused by
low temperatures.
The literature review showed that several agencies have routinely made use of performance test requirements in standard material specifications, typically to evaluate the
likelihood of rutting or damage caused by moisture. However, a few demonstration
projects have shown that the use of performance testing-based material specifications is
feasible for predicting asphalt pavement cracking.
The review of laboratory tests used by other DOTs to predict field performance indicated that few of these tests have undergone a satisfactory validation, and fewer are simple
enough to be used on a routine basis. Most tests tackle one or more kinds of asphalt
pavement distress, but none can be used as a global performance indicator. The availability of vetted tests that satisfy the requirements for use as a simple cracking performance test is limited.
continued
130
“By scanning the practices
of other departments of
transportation,
researchers from this
project identified a few
promising performance
tests that warrant further
investigation.”
—Tim Clyne,
One promising performance test is the
indirect tensile strength test, which can be
used to measure tensile strength by applying a load across the diameter of a cooled,
cylindrical specimen and increasing the
load until the specimen fractures.
Senior Research Engineer,
MnDOT Office of Materials
and Road Research
“Once it can specify that
manufacturers produce
asphalt not just with a
certain constitution but
with predetermined
mechanical properties,
MnDOT will improve the
performance of its
pavements.”
—Eshan Dave,
Assistant Professor,
University of Minnesota
Duluth Department of
Civil Engineering
Most research at the national level has focused on the development of an asphalt mixture performance test. The results for this test correlate well with rutting, and some
studies have shown that it can successfully predict cracking with the use of mechanistic
models.
Tests with the greatest potential for use in performance-based material specifications for
asphalt mixtures in Minnesota include:
• The indirect tensile strength test, in which specimens are loaded to the point of
failure.
• Fracture energy tests, including the disk-shaped compact tension and semi-circular
bend tests, in which specimens are loaded and the resulting cracks measured.
• The Texas overlay tester, which measures the number of cycles it takes for a specimen
to fail.
• The four-point bending beam fatigue test, which is used to evaluate cracking.
Fracture energy tests have shown very good correlation with cracking in the field,
particularly thermal and reflective cracking, which are prominent distresses on flexible
and composite pavements in Minnesota. However, fracture test procedures need to be
simplified to be well-suited to routine use in performance-based specifications.
What’s Next?
A second phase of this study will evaluate the candidate tests identified in this project.
Researchers recommend:
• Evaluating indirect tensile strength for use as a performance measure since it is already
used as part of MnDOT’s mix design process and would require no additional implementation if used for performance-based specifications.
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• Evaluating fracture energy tests for asphalt mixtures for routine use in Minnesota. This
evaluation should include an analysis of required equipment, specimen preparation
and data postprocessing.
• Further reviewing and synthesizing the significant amount of test and field performance data available from previous MnDOT projects to help identify candidate tests
for further validation and implementation studies.
• Trial projects to evaluate the feasibility of using performance-based specifications.
This Technical Summary pertains to Report 2011-22, “Synthesis of Performance Testing of
Asphalt Concrete,” published September 2011. The full report can be accessed at
http://www.lrrb.org/PDF/201122.pdf.
131
2011-26TS
Published January 2012
Extending the Delivery Time of
Concrete Mixtures
What Was the Need?
TECHNICAL
SUMMARY
Technical Liaison:
Maria Masten, MnDOT
[email protected]
Administrative Liaison:
Shirlee Sherkow, MnDOT
[email protected]
Principal Investigator:
Dan Vruno, American Engineering
Testing, Inc.
LRRB PROJECT COST:
$99,998
To transport concrete from mixing plants to construction
projects, workers use trucks with large rotating drums,
which keep the plastic concrete agitated, maintain its
workability and delay the process of setting. Setting occurs as water reacts with portland cement, which then
gradually hardens and binds the aggregates together.
Agitating concrete in transit delays setting but does not
halt it altogether. The longer this process goes on, the
less the concrete is workable enough to be placed and
finished during construction. While workability can be
restored by adding water, doing so decreases the final
product’s strength and durability.
Extending the allowable
delivery time of concrete
mixtures would make some
construction projects less
costly. Before changing
MnDOT specifications, it was
important to verify that the
use of additives to delay
setting would not
compromise concrete
performance.
Setting can be delayed by using chemical additives, including water reducers, retarding admixtures and hydration stabilizers. Water reducers lower the amount of water
necessary in a mixture, making it possible to extend the
setting time without compromising workability and durability. Retarding admixtures—
which are usually also water reducers, called water-reducing retarders—slow the
reaction of water with cement. Hydration stabilizers delay the onset of setting. Concrete mixtures typically also contain air-entraining agents, detergent-like additives that
increase the durability of hardened concrete by promoting the formation of a matrix of
air bubbles within the concrete.
MnDOT limits the transport time of concrete mixtures containing air-entraining agents
to 60 minutes. However, other states allow transport times as long as 90 minutes for
similar concrete mixtures. Research was needed to verify whether hauling times for
concrete mixtures used in Minnesota could likewise be extended without compromising concrete performance.
What Was Our Goal?
Researchers cast and cured
concrete samples to test
hardened air content,
compressive strength and
freeze-thaw durability.
The objective of this project was to evaluate how the performance of air-entrained
concrete mixtures containing water reducers, water-reducing retarders or hydration
stabilizers would be affected by extending their transit time from 60 to 90 minutes,
with a potential for additional testing up to a 120-minute delivery time.
What Did We Do?
RESEARCH
SERVICES
O F F I C E O F P O L I C Y A N A LY S I S ,
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Researchers began by batching 23 concrete mixtures using the same mix design with
various kinds and combinations of cement, fly ash, water reducer, water-reducing retarder, hydration stabilizer and air-entraining admixtures. Then they conducted laboratory tests to evaluate the consistency and plastic air content of these mixtures directly
after initial mixing and after 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes.
The compressive strengths of concrete cast directly after initial mixing were then compared to concrete cast after waiting 120 minutes. Compressive strengths were determined for all mixes at one, seven and 28 days. Similarly, a portion of the concrete was
used to cast a set of two 15-inch-long rectangular beams to compare the freeze-thaw
durability of the samples cast directly after initial mixing to concrete cast after waiting
120 minutes. In addition, researchers compared the hardened air content of the mixes.
continued
132
“As MnDOT is planning
reconstruction of many
bridges in less accessible
rural areas, extending the
delivery time for concrete
will potentially allow
more flexibility for the
contractor, making these
and similar projects less
costly.”
–Maria Masten,
Concrete Engineer,
MnDOT Office of
Materials
“One unanticipated
benefit of this project
came from getting out
into the field and
communicating with
ready-mix concrete
suppliers to exchange
ideas and resolve other
issues.”
–Dan Vruno,
Senior Engineer,
American Engineering
Testing, Inc.
Produced by CTC & Associates for:
Minnesota Department
of Transportation
Research Services Section
MS 330, First Floor
395 John Ireland Blvd.
St. Paul, MN 55155-1899
(651) 366-3780
www.research.dot.state.mn.us
Researchers measured workability using the slump test (left), in which an inverted cone-shaped
mold is removed from soft concrete and the resulting slumping measured. They measured plastic air content by using a pressure gauge (right) to calculate the percentage of the soft mixture
composed of air bubbles.
Researchers then batched four mix designs at a single ready-mix concrete control plant
in the field, using laboratory results from the first 23 batches to refine the use of chemical additives. Researchers supervised the mixing process and then repeated tests from
the laboratory phase of this project.
Researchers oversaw seven additional ready-mix plants located throughout Minnesota
design and produce similar mixtures using locally available materials and repeated the
same testing on these samples.
Finally, researchers conducted a statistical analysis of data from laboratory, control
plant and regional testing to determine how the performances of concrete mixtures
was affected both by their ingredients and by extending their delivery time from 60 to
120 minutes.
What Did We Learn?
Final field results showed that extending the delivery time of air-entrained concrete
mixtures from the current 60 minutes to 120 would not significantly affect compressive strength or freeze-thaw durability, and researchers recommend updating MnDOT
specifications to allow a longer delivery time. This adjusted specification, however,
must offset expected losses in plastic air content and slump, as results showed small
decreases in some concrete properties with the additional time.
What’s Next?
In the final report, researchers recommend that suppliers be required to develop a
quality control plan for plastic concrete testing to make sure mixtures meet MnDOT
specifications prior to being placed on a project. This plan should include slump and air
content testing at the concrete plant and delivery location, and a mix modification procedure at the delivery location if the concrete does not meet specification requirements
after being transported.
This Technical Summary pertains to the LRRB-produced Report 2011-26, “Concrete Delivery
Time Study,” published November 2011. The full report can be accessed at
http://www.lrrb.org/PDF/201126.pdf.
133
2012-01TS
Published October 2012
RESEARCH
SERVICES
O F F I C E O F P O L I C Y A N A LY S I S ,
R E SE A R C H & I N N OVAT I O N
TECHNICAL
SUMMARY
Technical Liaison:
John Siekmeier, MnDOT
[email protected]
Project Coordinator:
Nelson Cruz, MnDOT
[email protected]
Principal Investigator:
Erol Tutumluer
University of Illinois
PROJECT COST:
$192,000
Best Value Local Aggregates for
Road Foundations
What Was the Need?
To achieve long-lasting roads, materials are typically mined
from gravel pits and rock quarries. Because these materials
are becoming increasingly scarce and expensive in many
parts of Minnesota, it is important to better predict how
aggregates affect road performance. The quality of an
aggregate is determined by how well particles interlock to
provide structural support for upper pavement layers and
protection to lower subgrade soils, and also how stable the
aggregate is under freeze-thaw and wet-dry cycles. These
functions in turn depend on properties including aggregate shape, surface texture and angularity.
Better quantifying the
quality of local aggregates
will help Minnesota make
the most efficient use of its
resources, achieving better
value for its construction
dollars and promoting
sustainability.
By better understanding the quality of local aggregates,
the mechanistic-empirical pavement design software application MnPAVE was used to
determine where and how these aggregates can be used most effectively in roads. This
requires establishing the relationship between aggregate properties and MnPAVE inputs
such as shear strength and resilient modulus.
What Was Our Goal?
The goal of this project was to determine how mechanistic-empirical design procedures
can be used to make effective use of local Minnesota aggregates in the unbound layers
supporting flexible pavements by determining:
• How an aggregate’s properties affect its quality, as measured by resilient modulus and
shear strength, and consequently how they affect the design thickness of unbound
aggregate layers.
• Where locally available materials with defined quality should be placed.
• What traffic design levels are appropriate for locally available aggregates.
• How to combine high quality and marginal quality aggregates for optimal performance.
What Did We Do?
Researchers began by analyzing the properties of aggregate materials from gravel pits
and rock quarries throughout Minnesota. They supplemented this data by analyzing images of aggregate samples to determine their shape, angularity and surface texture. They
correlated this data with laboratory and field tests of aggregate strength and resilient
modulus from MnDOT-sponsored research studies using computer modeling to establish
resilient modulus as a function of aggregate properties.
Researchers evaluated several
local aggregate samples for size
and shape properties using the
University of Illinois Aggregate
Image Analyzer.
Researchers then classified aggregates used in Minnesota into three representative quality ranges based on resilient modulus and peak deviator stress at failure. Then they used
MnPAVE to determine the expected service lives of flexible pavements using aggregate
bases with varying properties. They also explored the relationship between the gradation and mechanical properties of aggregates.
Finally, researchers established target mechanistic design input values for aggregate base
and subbase layer strength and modulus under various design scenarios using various locally available aggregate materials. They also made recommendations to facilitate aggregate source management, property determination and cost-effective source selection.
continued
134
“This project helps us get
better value from our
aggregates by using them
more efficiently to
construct more miles of
road with the same
quantity of materials.”
—John Siekmeier,
Research Engineer,
MnDOT Office of Materials
“On low-volume roads,
lower road layers that
don’t receive the highest
loads don’t always require
the highest quality
aggregates, making the
sustainable use of local
sources a good option.”
—Erol Tutumluer,
Professor, University of
Illinois Department of
Civil and Environmental
Engineering
This graph illustrates the estimated effect of unbound granular quality on the fatigue life of pavement sections in Beltrami County given an estimated 1.5 million equivalent single-axle loads per 20
years: high quality base and subbase (black), high quality base and low quality subbase (red), low
quality base and high quality subbase (blue), and low quality base and subbase (green).
What Did We Learn?
Results showed that aggregate angularity and surface texture were important in determining the resilient modulus of aggregates and far better correlated to this property than
gradation alone.
Analyses using MnPAVE showed that use of locally available materials can be costeffective for low-volume roads provided that the 20-year design traffic level does not exceed 1.5 million equivalent single-axle loads. Most state and local roads have traffic levels
less than this. Analyses confirm that the quality of base layer materials directly impacts
the predicted service lives of roads. Increasing the thickness of a base layer with low
quality materials did not improve the fatigue life expectancy of a road, although it did
significantly improve subgrade rutting performance. The quality of aggregates used in
the subbase had a much greater effect on rutting performance. Researchers concluded
that a high quality, stiff subbase has a bridging effect and can offset some of the negative
effects of low base stiffness.
What’s Next?
MnDOT is currently incorporating the results of this study into MnPAVE, including
design inputs for surface texture and angularity, and equations for predicting resilient
modulus from them. Researchers recommend continuing to build a database of properties for an increasing number of local aggregate sources to improve the correlations
developed in this study. They also recommend establishing guidelines for using visual
inspection to characterize aggregate properties and developing rapid field imaging
technologies for the same purpose. MnDOT is currently conducting a related project to
improve concrete pavement foundations.
Produced by CTC & Associates for:
Minnesota Department
of Transportation Research Services
MS 330, First Floor
395 John Ireland Blvd.
St. Paul, MN 55155-1899
(651) 366-3780
www.research.dot.state.mn.us
This Technical Summary pertains to Report 2012-01, “Best Value Granular Material for
Road Foundations,” published January 2012. The full report can be accessed at
http://www.lrrb.org/PDF/201201.pdf.
135
2012-02TS
Published May 2012
RESEARCH
SERVICES
O F F I C E O F P O L I C Y A N A LY S I S ,
R E SE A R C H & I N N OVAT I O N
TECHNICAL
SUMMARY
Technical Liaison:
Shongtao Dai, MnDOT
[email protected]
Project Coordinator:
Dan Warzala, MnDOT
[email protected]
Principal Investigator:
Roberto Ballarini, University of Minnesota
PROJECT COST:
$110,000
Using Computer Modeling to Improve the
Design of Unbonded Concrete Overlays
What Was the Need?
As pavements age, they are subject to cracking, rutting
and other deterioration that decreases their ride quality
and ability to sustain traffic loads. Since completely reconstructing pavements is costly, transportation agencies
sometimes extend their lives and restore their ride quality
using rehabilitation techniques that involve overlaying an
existing road with new pavement layers.
One such method, called unbonded concrete overlays, or
UBCOs, involves applying a layer of asphalt to an existing
surface followed by a layer of portland cement concrete,
or PCC. The asphalt interlayer of UBCOs helps prevent reflective cracking in which the deterioration of the original
pavement surface transfers stress and damage to the new
concrete layer. UBCOs can also be placed quickly and efficiently, making them an increasingly popular method of
pavement rehabilitation.
By using advanced
computer modeling that
employs fracture mechanics
to better predict cracking in
pavements, it may be
possible to design
thinner, more cost-effective
unbonded concrete overlays
that achieve the same
performance as more
conservative designs.
However, current UBCO design procedures for determining layer dimensions and materials use models that do not account for the effect of the asphalt interlayer on limiting
the propagation of cracks between layers. Researchers are interested in refining these
models to design pavements that are no thicker than necessary for their intended performance lives since thinner pavements are less costly and also more environmentally
friendly because they reduce the carbon footprint of construction.
What Was Our Goal?
The objective of this project was to develop a method for designing UBCOs using fracture mechanics to model crack propagation through pavement layers.
What Did We Do?
Researchers began by reviewing Minnesota procedures for UBCO design. Then they
analyzed crack propagation using finite element computer modeling and the cohesive
zone model, or CZM, which uses nonlinear fracture mechanics to predict how existing
cracks will spread into cohesive zones or uncracked areas. Linear fracture mechanics
account for only the strength, stiffness and dimensions of materials, while nonlinear
fracture mechanics also account for fracture energy, which is the energy required to
crack a given surface area and is a measure of resistance to crack propagation.
UBCOs can be placed quickly
and efficiently to restore the ride
quality and structural capacity of
aging pavements.
Researchers used CZM to relate the ultimate load capacity of a pavement—or the load
at which it will fail—to its dimensions and material properties. Then they verified the
accuracy of CZM by using ABAQUS software to model two sample structures and compare the results to available theoretical and experimental data.
Researchers used CZM to conduct failure simulations for various single-layer PCC pavement designs to derive equations relating pavement load-carrying capacity to material
properties and structural dimensions. They established design recommendations for
UBCOs, including layer thicknesses and material properties, that would yield the same
load capacity using the same equations. Then they compared the expected performance of these designs to observations of four thin-layer UBCO test sections at the
MnROAD pavement research testing facility.
continued
136
“As MnDOT districts make
increasing use of UBCOs,
this study is a step toward
optimizing their design.”
—Shongtao Dai,
MnROAD Research
Operations Engineer
“We developed a model
that more accurately
simulates the propagation
of cracks in pavements
than existing methods.
This is critical to
developing thinner
overlays.”
—Roberto Ballarini,
James L. Record Professor
and Head, University of
Minnesota Department
of Civil Engineering
The model developed in this study allows engineers to design a UBCO (right) with the same load
capacity as a single-layer pavement designed to current specifications (left).
What Did We Learn?
Results suggest that the fracture mechanics-based design procedure for UBCOs shows
promise. The model developed in this project can be used as an additional tool to assist
in the design of UBCOs by determining the load capacity of a new single-layer PCC
pavement designed using current procedures, and then determining thickness and
material properties for a UBCO that will yield the same load capacity.
The CZM model used in this study improves on traditional stress-based failure criteria used by other models, which are not capable of quantifying the loads required to
initiate and propagate reflection cracks in PCC pavements. Use of this model suggests
that increasing the strength of the interlayer or overlay and decreasing the stiffness of
the interlayer are effective ways of improving the load-carrying capacity of the UBCO
pavement in terms of crack propagation. However, this method does not consider the
effects of temperature, moisture and traffic loads.
The UBCO test sections observed at MnROAD only cracked near poorly designed joints
separating the sections. This suggests that thus far the design of these sections is sufficient to resist reflective cracking.
What’s Next?
Further research is needed to assess the model developed in this study by comparing its predictions to field observations of UBCO test cells. Research is also needed to
evaluate the effects of climate conditions and traffic loading. With further investigation,
three-dimensional fracture mechanics simulations could provide additional insights into
whether UBCOs can be made thinner and more cost-effective.
Produced by CTC & Associates for:
Minnesota Department
of Transportation Research Services
MS 330, First Floor
395 John Ireland Blvd.
St. Paul, MN 55155-1899
(651) 366-3780
www.research.dot.state.mn.us
This Technical Summary pertains to Report 2012-02, “Mechanistic Modeling of Unbonded Concrete
Overlay Pavements,” published January 2012. The full report can be accessed at
http://www.lrrb.org/PDF/201202.pdf.
137
2012-08TS
Published October 2012
Effects of Agricultural Equipment
on Pavement Performance
What Was the Need?
TECHNICAL
SUMMARY
Technical Liaison:
Shongtao Dai, MnDOT
[email protected]
Project Coordinator:
Bruce Holdhusen, MnDOT
[email protected]
Principal Investigator:
Lev Khazanovich, University of Minnesota
[email protected]
TOTAL PROJECT COST:
$275,239
TPF-5(148) CONTRIBUTIONS:
LRRB: $105,000
MnDOT: $105,000
TOTAL TPF-5(148) COST:
$1,000,258
Heavy farm equipment can put
damaging loads on rural roads.
RESEARCH
SERVICES
O F F I C E O F P O L I C Y A N A LY S I S ,
R E SE A R C H & I N N OVAT I O N
In Minnesota, as in many other states, rural roads bear the
brunt of heavy agricultural equipment loads. These otherwise low-volume roads may rarely be built to withstand
such occasional but significant stresses. Over the years
these stresses have increased as the size of farms and farm
equipment has grown. A particular challenge has been the
increased application of liquid manure, which has led to
larger and heavier equipment.
This study isolated the
impact of heavy farm
equipment on roadways
by loading test sections.
Results of this study will
support policy decisions
and construction practices
to save money and enable
longer-lasting rural roads.
Studies of such loading conducted in Iowa in 1999 and
South Dakota in 2001 led to more restricted use of rural
roadways in those states. In Minnesota, a preliminary
investigation of damage to rural roads, which was generally blamed on large agricultural equipment, found it
difficult to distinguish between the impact of agricultural
equipment and that of other large vehicles, such as those used for gravel hauling. Damage to these roads makes transportation difficult for area residents, and road repair and
replacement are costly for local road agencies.
A rigorous examination of the impact of heavy agricultural equipment would require a
controlled setting of test roads subject only to loads directed by a research team. Only
then would it be possible to determine causes of such damage and examine possible
solutions to an expensive problem.
What Was Our Goal?
The Minnesota Local Road Research Board, in cooperation with MnDOT, other state
departments of transportation and a number of industry organizations represented by
the Professional Nutrient Applicators Association of Wisconsin initiated pooled fund
study TPF-5(148) to examine the impact of heavy agricultural equipment on rural
asphalt roads.
The current project, funded by that ongoing effort, aimed to measure the effects of different types of farm equipment on instrumented pavement test sections and compare
these to the impact of a typical five-axle tractor-trailer. The results of this effort would
be used to generate design or policy recommendations to mitigate the damage caused
by heavy agricultural equipment.
What Did We Do?
Test sections were constructed at the MnROAD facility, including one section with
3.5 inches of asphalt over 8 inches of gravel, and one section with 5.5 inches of asphalt
over 9 inches of gravel—both common rural configurations in recent years. Each was
instrumented with strain gauges and soil pressure cells. Two instrumented concrete
pavements were used as controls.
Loading included 20 vehicle configurations: three standard heavy vehicles, including a
five-axle, 80,000-pound truck; and 17 farm vehicles, from 29,400-pound tractors to tanker trucks to tractors pulling 140,000-pound grain carts on a total of three axles. Investigators from MnROAD, the University of Minnesota and Iowa State University focused
on axle loads, vehicle weights and speeds, wheel types and traffic wander. Testing was
continued
138
“When county engineers
asked us to study the
impact of heavy
agricultural equipment
on rural roads, we found
that axle loads matter far
more than vehicle weight.
Implementation of these
findings will fall to county
engineers.”
—Shongtao Dai,
Research Operations
Engineer, MnDOT Office
of Materials
“Upgrading all roads to
handle heavy
agricultural equipment
isn’t practical. We
recommend keeping
excessively heavy loads off
the roads when they are
the weakest, or
temporarily making the
road a one-way so heavy
vehicles can drive in the
middle of the road, away
from the vulnerable
edges.”
—Lev Khazanovich,
Associate Professor,
University of Minnesota
Department of Civil
Engineering
Failures on test sections like this one in March of 2009 show how heavy agricultural equipment
driven near the edge of a rural pavement can cause structural failure.
conducted in March and August of 2008 and 2010 to match spring thaw conditions and
high farm traffic periods, with additional testing in November 2010.
What Did We Learn?
Investigators found that pavement structure, axle weights, seasonal effects, traffic wander, and vehicle type and configuration all significantly impact pavement responses:
• Pavement thickness was critical to resisting failure. The thinner asphalt sections suffered extensive cracking, severe rutting and failure in spring and fall of 2009. The thinner concrete pavement suffered several corner breaks.
• Pavement damage can be reduced if heavy loading avoids sensitive conditions like
high asphalt temperature and fully saturated or thawed base and subgrade. November
testing and morning testing both proved less damaging than August and afternoon testing, respectively.
• The most stress-inducing of the agricultural vehicle configurations are not recommended by manufacturers for use on paved surfaces when fully loaded. But even vehicles
designed for use on paved surfaces caused greater stress than the standard five-axle,
80,000-pound vehicle.
• Axle weight was far more important than overall vehicle weight in stressing pavement.
Increasing the number of axles while maintaining even load distribution is the primary
recommendation for heavy vehicles on rural roads.
• Traffic wander and vehicle wheel path had significant impact on gauge responses.
• Use of paved shoulders reduced damage potential. In the absence of a paved shoulder,
vehicles should be permitted to drive in the middle of the roads.
• Modeling led investigators to recommend that on concrete pavement, farm implements should be driven 18 to 24 inches from slab edges to minimize damage.
What’s Next?
Produced by CTC & Associates for:
Minnesota Department
of Transportation Research Services
MS 330, First Floor
395 John Ireland Blvd.
St. Paul, MN 55155-1899
(651) 366-3780
www.research.dot.state.mn.us
Recommendations from this study can be implemented immediately. Some townships
in Wisconsin, a study partner-state, already have designated select roads as one-way for
two- to three-day periods of high farm traffic or sensitive temperatures.
This Technical Summary pertains to the LRRB-produced Report 2012-08, “Effects of Implements
of Husbandry (Farm Equipment) on Pavement Performance,” published April 2012. The full
report can be accessed at http://www.dot.state.mn.us/research/documents/201208.pdf.
Information about the ongoing pooled fund study TPF-5(148) can be found at
http://www.pooledfund.org/Details/Study/375.
139
2012-12TS
Published September 2012
Porous Asphalt Pavement Performance
in Cold Regions
What Was the Need?
TECHNICAL
SUMMARY
Technical Liaison:
Larry Matsumoto, City of Minneapolis
[email protected]
Project Coordinator:
Bruce Holdhusen, MnDOT
[email protected]
Principal Investigator:
Matthew Lebens, MnDOT
[email protected]
LRRB PROJECT COST:
$80,500
The first step in studying porous
asphalt pavement was to build two
sections of it around a section of
regular asphalt pavement.
Porous asphalt pavements, designed with higher air voids,
allow water to drain directly through the open-graded
pavement structure into the underlying layers, reducing
runoff. These mixes have been commonly used in parking
lots and thin surface courses but have been less studied
as full-depth roadway pavements, particularly in cold
climates. Full-depth porous pavements may lack the
strength necessary for urban high-volume roads but are
desirable for low-volume road applications because of
their potential benefits.
Porous asphalt pavements
have potential to improve
stormwater management.
Research found that even
in a cold climate, porous
pavements can perform
reasonably well on
low-volume roads.
Potential porous pavement benefits include drainage
directly into the soil and groundwater, reducing the need
for costly drainage structures and rights of way; reduction in stormwater runoff volume
and damaging surges like those responsible for the dramatic road damage in Duluth,
Minnesota, in 2012; reduction in sediment loading in the runoff that harms water quality; faster snowmelt and drainage of meltwater prior to refreezing; reduction in tire spray
and hydroplaning; absorption of noise from tires and engines; reduction in summertime
high-temperature runoff, which is harmful to nearby surface water environments; and
improved transfer of water and oxygen to nearby plant roots.
Porous pavements also present challenges. Porous asphalt typically contains high binder
content, requires thicker lifts and involves construction challenges, all potentially adding to costs. Porous pavements eventually clog with dirt and organic debris, reducing
permeability advantages. Vacuuming and other cleaning methods employed to reduce
the clogging add to costs. Toxic spills would have a more direct path to groundwater
through porous pavements; in such incidents, pavements may have to be removed to
address the problem. Deicers also drain directly through porous pavements. Finally,
porous pavements often provide less strength and shorter life spans than standard
dense-graded mixes.
What Was Our Goal?
Researchers sought to evaluate the performance of full-depth porous asphalt pavements
on low-volume roads in a climate as cold as Minnesota’s. The investigation studied durability, maintenance requirements, hydrologic benefits and environmental considerations
for full-depth porous pavements.
What Did We Do?
RESEARCH
SERVICES
O F F I C E O F P O L I C Y A N A LY S I S ,
R E SE A R C H & I N N OVAT I O N
Research began at the MnROAD facility with the construction of three test sections: a
6-inch, full-depth porous asphalt pavement over granular subgrade; a 6-inch, full-depth
porous asphalt over cohesive subgrade; and a dense-graded asphalt over mixed materials
as a control. Loading and data collection ran from December 2008 through December
2011. The sections received about 40,000 equivalent single-axle loads (ESALs) over that
period, considered to be substantial loading for porous pavements.
What Did We Learn?
MnROAD results demonstrated that the porous pavements performed reasonably well
and may suit certain applications.
continued
140
“Porous pavement is a
good tool in the toolbox
for stormwater
management. However,
it needs to be used in the
right application.”
—Larry Matsumoto,
Department of
Public Works, City of
Minneapolis
Permeability tests in which water is flushed through the pavement structure were central to the
investigation of porous asphalt pavements. The tests confirmed that porous asphalt drains and
filters water effectively through the pavement structure.
Performance and Durability
“We designed a very
robust porous asphalt mix
and structure. There were
construction and
durability challenges,
but it performed well
considering the amount of
applied loading.”
—Matthew Lebens,
Research Project
Engineer, MnDOT Office
of Materials and Road
Research
• After 40,000 ESALs, the porous pavements developed significant rutting in the loading
lane, and seasonal vertical movement was observed across the entire loading lane.
• The top inch of pavement experienced significant surface raveling, which may be partially attributed to temperature segregation at the time of construction.
• Investigators identified no cracking or other significant distress in any of the three sections after three years.
• Porous HMA showed lower resiliency and more strain than the dense-graded control,
but the lack of cracking discourages conclusions about the impact of these findings.
Maintenance
• MnROAD is a cleaner facility than most road environments, and surface clogging was
not significant. Therefore, vacuum maintenance efforts were not conclusive.
Hydrologic Performance
• Surface permeability fell, but in the end averaged 0.5 inches per second—a much
more than adequate rate for expected rainfall. No overflows were observed in the
open-graded base in either the sand or clay subgrades.
Environmental Performance
• The porous pavements proved quiet and about 50 percent better for skid resistance,
offering an excellent surface for friction testing with bald tires.
• Snow and ice melted faster on the porous pavements, and copper and zinc concentrations were reduced in water filtered through the porous structures.
• Temperature measurements indicated porous pavements would cool stormwater before discharge into sensitive areas.
What’s Next?
Produced by CTC & Associates for:
Minnesota Department
of Transportation Research Services
MS 330, First Floor
395 John Ireland Blvd.
St. Paul, MN 55155-1899
(651) 366-3780
www.research.dot.state.mn.us
The porous sections at MnROAD will remain in place for monitoring through 2014,
and investigators may look into rehabilitation and continuing research after that point.
Research findings will inform the design and maintenance of porous asphalt pavements
in Minnesota and other cold climates. Overall, the porous pavement sections performed
well in terms of ride quality, permeability, stiffness, strain response, safety and quietness. Porous asphalt remains, however, more sensitive to traffic loading and clogging
issues than standard asphalt pavement. This research has shown that full-depth porous
pavements can be effectively utilized in Minnesota in certain situations, particularly in
applications with limited heavy loading.
This Technical Summary pertains to the LRRB-produced Report 2012-12, “Porous Asphalt Pavement
Performance in Cold Regions,” published April 2012. The full report can be accessed at
http://www.dot.state.mn.us/research/documents/201212.pdf.
141
2012-15TS
Published November 2012
RESEARCH
SERVICES
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R E SE A R C H & I N N OVAT I O N
TECHNICAL
SUMMARY
Technical Liaison:
Tom Wiener, MnDOT
[email protected]
Project Coordinator:
Alan Rindels, MnDOT
[email protected]
Principal Investigator:
Brian Wasserman,
Minnesota State University, Mankato
PROJECT COST:
$17,000
Assessing the Feasibility of Lump
Sum Bidding
What Was the Need?
To ensure that taxpayers get the best value for their dollars, MnDOT solicits construction bids from contractors
and selects the lowest bid that meets all project requirements. During this process, contractors typically bid on
the price per unit of the construction materials that will be
used on the project. While MnDOT employs various kinds
of bidding processes, unit pricing is the most common.
The lump sum bidding
process is designed to
reduce quantity overruns—
minimizing the cost growth
of projects—and share the
risk of potential additional
material quantities with
contractors.
The unit pricing bid method can be cumbersome since
it requires that during construction, inspectors verify
the number of units of each material placed by contractors, which is often a time-consuming task. Furthermore,
if more units are required for a project than originally
estimated by MnDOT engineers, the contractor is paid for them at the same price per
unit (unless the quantity differs by more than 25 percent), making quantity overruns
unnecessarily expensive. Finally, bidders can exploit the unit price bidding process by
offering unbalanced bids with inflated prices of items for which they believe MnDOT
has underestimated quantities.
For these reasons, MnDOT is exploring an alternative bidding method for some of its
projects. Known as lump sum bidding, this process calls for contractors to submit a bid
on the entire price of a project or bid category rather than on the unit price of each material. The lump sum method is designed to reduce quantity overruns and the administrative costs of contracting and tracking material quantities, allowing MnDOT personnel
to spend more time on inspection and less on paperwork. A recent study shows lump
sum bidding to have the lowest cost growth of all bidding methods.
What Was Our Goal?
The objective of this project was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of changing from
unit pricing process to a lump sum bidding process by comparing these methods with
respect to total bid amount, time necessary for inspection, and the attitudes of contractors and MnDOT personnel.
What Did We Do?
Researchers asked a test contractor to submit a lump sum bid on a small bridge project
for which actual unit price bids were solicited. The test contractor had the same bidding
documents as regular contractors and developed unit quantities based on information
contained in project plans.
The expansion of MnDOT’s
laboratory testing of
construction materials has
complicated the unit bidding
process for both MnDOT and
contractors, making lump sum
bidding an attractive alternative.
In addition, researchers collected contractor and subcontractor feedback on the lump
sum bidding process and tracked labor costs by asking the test contractor to break out
hours spent on various tasks.
Researchers then conducted site visits with inspectors and project managers to evaluate the time required for various inspection tasks under projects with unit pricing. They
also conducted similar assessments of required office work for the same projects.
Finally, researchers performed an electronic survey of 60 MnDOT field personnel to
assess attitudes toward switching to a lump sum bidding system and the effect it would
have on their task priorities.
continued
142
“With unit pricing, it can
be cumbersome and time
consuming to keep track
of quantities. Lump sum
bidding would allow more
time to be spent on quality
assurance and control.”
—Tom Wiener,
Project Control Manager,
MnDOT Office of
Construction and
Innovative Contracting
“With lump sum projects,
contractors have an
incentive to be more
efficient, reducing the cost
of the project and
accelerating delivery.”
—Brian Wasserman,
Assistant Professor,
Minnesota State
University, Mankato,
Department of
Construction
Management
With a transition to lump sum contracts, the role of MnDOT inspectors would change from a focus
on tracking quantities to a greater concentration on quality control and assurance.
(Image courtesy Stonebrooke Engineering)
What Did We Learn?
Results showed that the lump sum process is viable and produces similar bid results to
the traditional process. Three contractors bid on the project using the regular bidding
process; the winning lowest bid was $621,677. The lump sum test bid totaled $682,266,
placing it between the first and second bidders and less than $200 off the MnDOT
engineer’s estimate. The proposed quantities for this bid did not differ significantly from
those estimated by MnDOT.
For labor costs, researchers also found that the lump sum method required more time
and care on the part of the bidder since there is no recourse if additional work is required. The reaction of the test contractor and subcontractors to the bidding process
was mixed, with many concerned about the time involved in determining quantities
and whether the project plan sheets would provide sufficient detail to accurately reflect
project-specific requirements. The use of lump sum bidding would require an improvement in the accuracy of construction plans, and contractors may be unwilling to bid for
some items using this process.
The results of the time study demonstrated that there would be some time savings for
the field inspector on lump sum projects since they would not be required to track
quantities. The focus of inspectors would shift instead to quality control and quality assurance, requiring new guidance and training from MnDOT.
The electronic survey found that MnDOT staff believes that transitioning to a lump sum
bidding process would require less time to quantify materials and perform clerical work,
and allow more time for inspection work.
Produced by CTC & Associates for:
Minnesota Department
of Transportation Research Services
MS 330, First Floor
395 John Ireland Blvd.
St. Paul, MN 55155-1899
(651) 366-3780
www.research.dot.state.mn.us
What’s Next?
Researchers recommend a side-by-side cost comparison of lump sum and unit pricing
for similar projects as well as a more comprehensive study of how inspectors use their
time. MnDOT has instituted a lump sum committee, which is determining the next steps
for implementing lump sum contracting on smaller pilot projects.
This Technical Summary pertains to Report 2012-15, “Lump Sum Estimating: Discovery
and Simulation,” published June 2012. The full report can be accessed at
http://www.lrrb.org/PDF/201215.pdf.
143
2012-17TS
Published September 2012
Reduced Materials Testing Requirements
for Low-Volume Road Projects
What Was the Need?
TECHNICAL
SUMMARY
Technical Liaison:
Joe MacPherson, MnDOT
[email protected]
Project Coordinator:
Farideh Amiri, MnDOT
[email protected]
Principal Investigator:
Brian Wasserman, Minnesota State
University, Mankato
LRRB PROJECT COST:
$25,000
To ensure the performance and longevity of Minnesota
highways, MnDOT requires that samples of materials used
in highway construction undergo inspection or laboratory
testing. The minimum sampling and testing required for
these materials is described in MnDOT’s Schedule of
Materials Control (SMC).
The Schedule of Materials
Control for low-volume
roads developed in this
project reduces materials
testing rates for statefunded local projects,
mitigating their costs
without compromising
quality.
The SMC is used not only for MnDOT projects, but also
for projects by city and county agencies that have received funds for construction under the State Aid for Local
Transportation (SALT) program. However, local projects
are usually smaller in scope and involve roads with much
lower traffic volumes than the state highways for which
SMC requirements were designed. Consequently, the SMC
might call for more testing than is necessary for projects
on low-volume roads, leading to significant unnecessary costs for local agencies. Research was needed to review the applicability of SMC requirements to SALT projects.
What Was Our Goal?
The objective of this project was to review existing SMC requirements in order to
establish reduced materials testing rates for low-volume road projects without an
unacceptable increase in risk and to create draft SMC specifications specifically tailored
to SALT projects.
What Did We Do?
In November 2010, researchers conducted an online survey and an identical paper-andpencil survey of field inspectors, project engineers and contractors about the SMC for
low-volume roads. Of the total respondents to the online survey and paper survey, 33
were field inspectors, 56 were project engineers and eight were contractors.
The SMC requires that even
materials such as guardrails be
tested in the laboratory, which
can be an unnecessary expense
for smaller projects.
Researchers then reviewed the MnDOT Office of Audit’s annual audit of material control
practices from June 2008 to June 2009. They also reviewed the pass-fail rates and costs
of testing for several material items to evaluate the risk associated with changing various
materials testing requirements. The source of this data was MnDOT’s Lab Information
Management System program.
What Did We Learn?
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Survey results suggested that the MnDOT SMC can be impractical for the kinds of smaller projects conducted under SALT. Respondents noted that some results from currently
required testing may take longer to get back from the lab than it takes to complete some
smaller construction projects, making the results unusable. Respondents also expressed
frustration at the redundancy of requiring inspections and testing for products that
come from certified, qualified or approved sources. Further, it may take a long time to
inspect materials that are low cost and low risk, making little sense from a cost-benefit
perspective. For this reason, many survey respondents would skip testing in the least
critical categories of erosion control and landscaping if regulations allowed. However,
mainline paving and structural concrete items were viewed as critical and in need of
continued inspection.
continued
144
“An MnDOT project might
have hundreds of
thousands of dollars in
tree plantings where a city
project might have a few
thousand. The question
was whether it made
sense for such smaller
projects to conduct testing
that is more costly than
it would be to replace the
materials being tested.”
—Joe MacPherson,
MnDOT State Aid
Construction Engineer
“This project will lower
costs for local agencies
without a decline in
service to the public.”
—Brian Wasserman,
Assistant Professor,
Minnesota State
University, Mankato
Department of
Construction
Management
Survey respondents thought landscaping and metallic materials (including guardrails) to be
least in need of inspection, while mainline paving, structural concrete, and grading and base
ranked highest in need of inspection.
Review of the audit of material control practices showed that nine MnDOT Trunk Highway projects and nine local agency projects were audited. Results of the audit indicate
that MnDOT and SALT substantially complied with applicable project requirements. The
audit recommended that SALT implement a plan to ensure cities and counties follow
the MnDOT SMC, making clear the need either to follow published SMC guidelines or
change them.
A review of materials testing pass-fail rates revealed that the asphalt cement failure rate
was less than 1 percent and the emulsion failure rate was 1.8 percent, with the cost for
repair or replacement substantially less than the costs incurred by mandating testing
of asphalt cement across all local projects. The total costs associated with SMC testing
guidelines for these categories were more than $146,000 in 2010.
These results confirm that the smaller project scope and shorter timeline of SALT projects warrant a different set of guidelines than the current SMC. Researchers developed
a new SALT SMC for low-volume roads tailored specifically to the construction project
risks encountered by local agencies. These guidelines incorporate feedback from
MnDOT, local agency representatives and the construction industry, and include
changes that remove some testing and inspection requirements and make others less
stringent.
What’s Next?
The SALT SMC for low-volume roads is currently applicable to state-funded local projects, but not to projects that are federally funded or in the state trunk right of way.
MnDOT will continue to evaluate the effectiveness of the new SMC to verify that there is
no decline in service to the public, and eventually consider extending it to all state and
federally funded projects. As technologies change, the document will continue to evolve
with input from county and city representatives and MnDOT’s materials laboratory.
Produced by CTC & Associates for:
Minnesota Department
of Transportation Research Services
MS 330, First Floor
395 John Ireland Blvd.
St. Paul, MN 55155-1899
(651) 366-3780
www.research.dot.state.mn.us
This Technical Summary pertains to the LRRB-produced Report 2012-17, “Material Testing
Rates for Low-Volume Roads,” published June 2012. The full report can be accessed at
http://www.lrrb.org/PDF/201217.pdf.
145
2012-18TS
Published November 2012
RESEARCH
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TECHNICAL
SUMMARY
Technical Liaison:
Shongtao Dai, MnDOT
[email protected]
Project Coordinator:
Dan Warzala, MnDOT
[email protected]
Principal Investigator:
Aaron Budge, Minnesota State
University, Mankato
Quantifying Subgrade Stabilization’s
Improvement of Pavement Performance
What Was the Need?
To help improve the constructability and performance of
Minnesota’s roads, MnDOT often uses stabilizing materials to increase the strength and stiffness of the subgrade
soils supporting the pavement. Typical additives include
cement, foamed asphalt, lime and recycled materials such
as shredded tires and fly ash, a byproduct of coal-burning
plants. These materials facilitate construction and reduce
the need for future maintenance.
The results of this
project will help engineers
design more cost-effective
pavements by
establishing mechanisticempirical design parameters
for the resilient modulus of
underlying soils that have
been stabilized with various
materials.
While the use of these stabilizing materials has become
more common in Minnesota, there has been no comprehensive quantification of how well they improve a soil’s
resilient modulus, a measure of stiffness. Resilient modulus
is an important input for mechanistic-empirical design, a
method that uses mathematical models to predict pavement performance from the properties of the materials
used to construct them, along with other factors such as traffic and weather conditions.
Because the effects of stabilization are not well-known, engineers currently use the
resilient modulus of unstabilized soil as an input even for stabilized roads, leading to
pavements that are thicker and more costly than necessary. Establishing improvement
factors for stabilization methods would help to refine this parameter, allowing more
cost-effective pavement design.
What Was Our Goal?
PROJECT COST:
$44,369
The objectives of this project were to investigate methods and materials for stabilizing
pavement subgrades and to establish mechanistic-empirical design parameters for the
resilient modulus of stabilized roads.
What Did We Do?
Researchers began by conducting a literature review and consulting a technical advisory
panel to identify stabilization materials and techniques that have been used by MnDOT
and local Minnesota agencies. Then they identified those materials and techniques of
greatest utility to MnDOT and local agencies, and reviewed past research projects to
evaluate them. This review focused on the design properties of stabilized materials from
field and laboratory testing in previous research and included identifying available resilient modulus data for stabilized materials.
Self-cementing materials such as fly
ash are mixed into subgrade soils to
strengthen and stiffen them.
Because of variations found in the literature regarding the degree of stiffness improvement resulting from various factors, researchers developed a testing procedure to allow
stabilized soils’ stiffness values to be obtained on a project-by-project basis. These values
can be used in the design phase to optimize pavement design.
What Did We Learn?
Researchers produced a comprehensive list of stabilization materials and techniques,
and selected those of particular interest to MnDOT and local agencies, including various
combinations of fly ash, cement, lime, gypsum and phosphogypsum, slag, polymers,
pond ash, cement kiln dust, foamed asphalt and bitumen, and emulsion.
continued
146
“Establishing resilient
modulus improvement
factors for stabilized
pavements will help in the
design of betterperforming, more costeffective roads.”
—Shongtao Dai,
Research Operations
Engineer, MnDOT Office
of Materials
“Currently engineers use
parameters for
nonstabilized materials
when designing stabilized
roads, leading to
pavements that are more
costly than necessary.”
—Aaron Budge,
Associate Professor,
Minnesota State
University, Mankato,
Department of
Mechanical & Civil
Engineering
Using software such as MnPAVE (which predicts the service life of a pavement from climate, traffic
and structural data) to determine how stabilization improves pavement stiffness is important to
mechanistic-empirical design.
The literature review showed that where data exist, there is a large variability in the
degree to which stabilization improves the strength and stiffness of subgrade materials.
This is due to variation in the amounts of stabilization material added to soils as well as
subgrade properties such as moisture content, stabilization agent content, soil type and
other variables.
In light of this variability, researchers considered it impractical to identify one factor of
improvement to estimate the stiffness properties for a combination of material and stabilization method. Instead, they recommended that a procedure be followed on a projectby-project basis to identify an appropriate stiffness resistance factor during the course
of project predesign and design. For each project, two mix designs should be created to
identify the appropriate proportions of soil, water and stabilization material required to
obtain the desired strength and stiffness properties: one with untreated subgrade material and the other with stabilized material. The resilient modulus should be established
for both the stabilized and unstabilized materials so that a database of local and regional
soil types and stabilization methods can be developed. Collecting this data will eventually allow MnDOT to establish a more general set of improvement factors for various
stabilization techniques.
To show that the stiffness values obtained from lab testing are achieved in the field,
researchers also recommended conducting field tests both during and after construction
using the lightweight deflectometer and dynamic cone penetrometer. Long-term tests
should also be conducted using the falling weight deflectometer to show how stiffness
changes with time and to assist in determining long-term pavement performance.
Produced by CTC & Associates for:
Minnesota Department
of Transportation Research Services
MS 330, First Floor
395 John Ireland Blvd.
St. Paul, MN 55155-1899
(651) 366-3780
www.research.dot.state.mn.us
What’s Next?
The developed procedure can be used in the future for MnDOT’s mix designs. This will
allow MnDOT to improve its pavements by controlling stabilized material quality for
subgrades.
This Technical Summary pertains to Report 2012-18, “Subgrade Stabilization ME Properties
Evaluation and Implementation,” published June 2012. The full report can be accessed at
http://www.lrrb.org/PDF/201218.pdf.
147
2005-005IU
Published February 2012
INNOVATION
UPDATE
February 2012
Technical Liaison:
Michael Sheehan, Olmsted County
[email protected]
Administrative Liaison:
Alan Rindels, MnDOT
[email protected]
Principal Investigator:
Matthew Lebens, MnDOT
[email protected]
LRRB PROJECT COST:
$40,000
Research in Progress: Increasing the
Gradation of Limestone Aggregate
Bases to Increase Road
Using a larger gradation for
limestone aggregate bases
Performance
What Was the Need?
To perform well, pavements must be constructed over
good quality aggregate base layers. MnDOT sets specifications governing the allowable sizes, or gradation, of particles within these aggregates. Aggregates with excessive
fine particles will tend to absorb and hold water, which
can then damage the road by expanding and contracting
during seasonal freezing and thawing, and provide insufficient support during wet periods.
is not only less expensive
than crushing rocks to meet
standard specifications,
but may also improve the
performance of roads and
their resistance to
freeze-thaw cycles.
However, MnDOT’s current aggregate base specifications
are geared toward granular materials obtained from gravel pits. In southern Minnesota,
the most prevalent aggregate base material is quarry limestone, consisting of larger
rocks that have to be crushed to meet current Class 5 specifications. The crushing effort needed to produce a Class 5 typically results in excessive fines, and this material is
susceptible to further fragmentation during the compaction process and degradation
beneath the pavement over time. Research was needed to see if the gradation of limestone aggregate bases should be increased to offset degradation during compaction. Using larger particles might not only improve the performance of roads but would require
less initial crushing effort, potentially reducing production costs.
To evaluate the use of larger particle sizes in aggregates and other factors in road performance, in 2000 the Local Road Research Board and MnDOT jointly funded
INV 767, Investigation of Flexible Pavement Performance in Relation to Aggregate Base
and Asphalt Mixture Low-Temp Characteristics. Researchers built test sections for this
project using different crushed limestone aggregate base gradations. Because these
sections did not develop cracking or other distresses before the project’s end in 2005,
further study was required for continued monitoring from 2005 to 2010.
Larger limestone rocks from
quarries in southern Minnesota
may not need to be crushed as
much as once thought necessary
for use in road bases.
What Is Our Goal?
The objective of this project was to perform follow-up performance monitoring of
Olmsted County Roads 104 and 117 to evaluate the effect on pavement performance of
limestone aggregate base particle size, asphalt binder type and the use of saw-and-seal
construction.
What Have We Done?
As part of INV 767, in 2000 researchers constructed six test sections on Olmsted
County Roads 104 and 117 near Rochester, Minnesota, using three base materials:
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• Standard Class 5, which consists primarily of ¾-inch rocks and smaller particles.
• Class 5 Modified, in which crushing was reduced to yield 2-inch top size.
• Permeable Aggregate Base, or PAB, with 3-inch top size particles.
Researchers also tested the effects on cold temperature cracking of two asphalt binders
(PG 5-28 and PG 58-34) and saw-and-seal construction, in which joints are sawed into
continued
148
“This project suggests that
by using larger particle
sizes in limestone
aggregates, we can both
save money on production
costs and produce a better
quality road base.”
—Matthew Lebens,
Research Project
Engineer, MnDOT Office
of Materials and Road
Research
Section 1b using Class 5 aggregate is experiencing worse transverse cracking than other test
sections, suggesting that larger aggregate base particles should be used to offset degradation
during compaction.
the pavement at regular intervals to allow expansion and contraction as temperatures
fluctuate.
Researchers have monitored the test sections regularly since construction and used a
variety of methods to measure:
• Layer stiffness, using the falling weight deflectometer.
“For very little cost to the
LRRB, this project resulted
in a successful change in
the specification for Class
5 limestone aggregates
used in road construction
in Olmsted County and
southeastern Minnesota.”
—Alan Rindels,
Research Development
Engineer, MnDOT
Research Services
• Ride quality, rutting, cracking and other forms of distress, using automated and visual
pavement distress surveys.
• The effects of traffic loads, by recording traffic volumes and vehicle types.
• The properties of materials used, via laboratory testing.
What Have We Learned?
Performance of test sections has not yet differed
significantly enough to form definitive conclusions
about the relative quality of the asphalt binders
or saw-and-seal construction techniques. However,
despite its higher traffic loading than other sections,
the non-sawed test section using a Class 5 Modified
aggregate base and PG 58-34 binder is performing
somewhat better than others.
Recommended Class 5 Modified
gradation specification
Sieve Size
2 inch
1½ inch
¾ inch
3/8 inch
#4
#10
#40
#200
Total % Passing
100
95-100
65-95
35-70
15-45
10-30
5-25
3-12
Postcompaction gradation testing of the Class 5 Modified aggregates showed a material that approximates
the desired Class 5 gradation specification. After winter freezing, the Class 5 Modified
aggregate base also retained more stiffness during the spring thaw and recovered it
more quickly than those with the standard Class 5 aggregate. The use of a larger gradation may maximize the effectiveness of load restrictions typically imposed during the
spring to prevent heavier vehicles from damaging weaker roads.
These initial results suggest that reduced crushing is a better design procedure for the
crushed limestone aggregate bases commonly used in counties in southeastern Minnesota.
Produced by CTC & Associates for:
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of Transportation
Research Services Section
MS 330, First Floor
395 John Ireland Blvd.
St. Paul, MN 55155-1899
(651) 366-3780
www.research.dot.state.mn.us
What’s Next?
Researchers will continue to monitor the test sections as part of a follow-up study
(INV 899) expected to conclude in 2015. The tests used in this study will continue,
including distress surveys, traffic counts and falling weight deflectometer measurements.
Researchers will also add new tests for a more detailed local traffic analysis and the investigation of subgrade soils, allowing for forensic pavement and base material analysis if
significant pavement distresses develop during the follow-up study period.
This Innovation Update pertains to LRRB projects INV 767, INV 825 and INV 899. For more information, including the Class 5 Modified crushed limestone base gradation specification developed
from this project, contact Michael Sheehan at [email protected] or Matthew Lebens
at [email protected]
149
2010-030IU
Published February 2012
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INNOVATION
UPDATE
February 2012
Technical Liaison:
John Siekmeier, MnDOT
[email protected]
Administrative Liaison:
Dan Warzala, MnDOT
[email protected]
Principal Investigators:
Dave Rettner, Melanie Fiegen
and Joseph Korzilius,
American Engineering Testing, Inc.
PROJECT COST:
$17,472
Research in Progress: Evaluating
New Technologies for Soil Moisture
Measurement
This project is addressing
What Was the Need?
During road construction, workers use rollers to compact
subgrade soils to a density that will adequately support
upper pavement layers. Optimizing compaction requires
knowing the moisture content of soils and keeping water
content as close as possible to the optimum moisture
at which a compacted soil will reach its maximum density, which imparts stiffness and strength. To determine
this optimum value, engineers typically use a laboratory
method called the Proctor compaction test, or AASHTO
T99, in which soil samples with varying moisture levels
are compacted and measured for density. To compare the
moisture content and density of soils in the field to this
optimum, MnDOT uses the sand cone test.
a pressing need by MnDOT
and other DOTs for a soil
moisture measurement
device that is less
labor-intensive and more
cost-effective than current
methods, and has less
regulatory and training
constraints than nuclear
methods.
However, drying and weighing samples in both of these
tests, called the gravimetric method, is labor-intensive and especially inconvenient in the
field. Consequently, many state departments of transportation make field measurements
using the nuclear density gauge, which determines density by measuring the amount of
radiation a material reflects and moisture content by measuring the amount of radiation
reflected by the hydrogen atoms in the water molecules of a material.
While the nuclear density gauge is a more convenient field testing method than the sand
cone test, its use involves potentially dangerous nuclear materials and numerous regulatory and training constraints. Consequently, MnDOT does not use this device, the FHWA
has been trying to phase out its use, and other state DOTs are looking for viable alternatives. One such alternative is the DOT600—a portable soil moisture measurement technology, developed by Campbell Scientific at the request of MnDOT, that can be used in
both the laboratory and the field.
What Is Our Goal?
The goal of this project was to compare the accuracy and effectiveness of the DOT600
for measuring soil moisture content to that of existing MnDOT procedures.
What Have We Done?
The DOT600 is highly portable,
easy to use and efficient.
To operate the DOT600, soil samples are sifted into a cylindrical measurement chamber, compressed by a measured force and weighed. The device determines sample water content by measuring the oscillation frequency of the electromagnetic field created
by the wave guides. The oscillation frequency is dependent on the dielectric permittivity of the moist soil in the sample chamber.
Using 270 soil specimens from 62 different soil samples, researchers compared
DOT600 measurements to those taken using the standard Proctor laboratory tests.
After each DOT600 test, operators also used a pocket penetrometer to measure the
consistency of the soil and approximate its unconfined compressive strength. Researchers also documented observations by DOT600 operators on its ease of use.
continued
150
“This project showed that
the DOT600 can produce
reasonably good
measurements over a
wide range of
Minnesota soil types and
is well worth further
investigation and
investment.”
—John Siekmeier,
MnDOT Senior Research
Engineer
“The DOT600 has the
potential to be a
cost-effective replacement
not just for the sand cone
and nuclear density gauge
field tests, but also for the
Proctor laboratory test.”
—Dan Warzala,
Research Project
Coordinator, MnDOT
Research Services
The DOT600’s measurement of field and optimum soil moisture content using electrical properties (measured as period) may be an accurate and workable replacement for existing methods,
which compare field moisture measurements to an optimum gravimetric moisture level determined by the Proctor test.
What Have We Learned?
Results show that the DOT600 has the potential to be a workable and accurate replacement for MnDOT’s current methods for measuring soil moisture. Comparisons of optimum moisture content using the DOT600’s measurement of electrical properties—expressed as a percentage of the optimum target value for the period—are consistent with
current optimum soil moisture content determined by the standard Proctor test.
Also, where the optimum gravimetric moisture value determined by the Proctor test
varies considerably between soil types, the DOT600’s optimum period seems far less
variable. DOT600 results also correlate well to lightweight deflectometer deflections (a
measure of soil stiffness) and suction (a measure of the energy state of soil water via the
molecular forces that hold water molecules in the pores between soil particles).
With further development to make it rugged enough for regular field use, the DOT600
could meet a pressing need by MnDOT and other DOTs for a soil moisture measurement
device that is less labor-intensive than the sand cone and Proctor tests but safer than the
nuclear density gauge. State DOTs nationwide are actively looking for such a solution.
What’s Next?
In a second phase of this project, MnDOT will continue to evaluate the DOT600 as well
as other technologies for measuring soil moisture, including a heat dissipation sensor
and a water potential meter. Researchers will develop draft specifications for using these
methods; describe their advantages and disadvantages; and evaluate their accuracy, precision, cost, rapidity and ruggedness during field operations.
Produced by CTC & Associates for:
Minnesota Department
of Transportation
Research Services Section
MS 330, First Floor
395 John Ireland Blvd.
St. Paul, MN 55155-1899
(651) 366-3780
www.research.dot.state.mn.us
This Innovation Update pertains to MnDOT project 2010-030, “Validation of DOT600 Soil Moisture
Device,” whose first phase was completed in July 2011. For more information about this project,
contact John Siekmeier at [email protected]
151
2012-TPF-5(215)TS
Published December 2012
T R A NSP O R TAT I O N P O O L E D FU N D
PROGRAM
TECHNICAL
SUMMARY
MnDOT Technical Liaison:
Maureen Jensen
[email protected]
MnDOT Project Coordinator:
Deb Fick
[email protected]
TOTAL STATE CONTRIBUTIONS
TO DATE:
$200,000
MnDOT CONTRIBUTIONS
TO DATE:
$37,500
PARTICIPATING STATES:
IA, MI, MN, ND, NY, WI plus FHWA
Pooling Our Research: The Transportation
Engineering and Road Research Alliance
Why a Pooled Fund Study?
To ensure a strong transportation network, MnDOT
invests heavily in pavement research and innovation. A
major portion of this investment is directed to MnROAD,
Minnesota’s state-of-the-art outdoor pavement research
facility distinguished by its network of electronic sensors
embedded in six miles of test pavements. MnROAD includes a 3.5-mile mainline consisting of a working interstate freeway carrying more than 26,000 vehicles a day; a
low-volume, 2.6-mile closed loop where controlled vehicle
weights and traffic volumes simulate rural road conditions;
and a short farm-loop test track, which represents a typical
low-volume rural road.
TPF-5(215): The Transportation Engineering and
Road Research Alliance.
TERRA works to put research
results into practice and
supports MnROAD, where
pavement research has
saved Minnesota taxpayers
$33 million or more per year
and taxpayers nationwide
$750 million.
To broaden MnROAD’s unique capabilities and to make it
a regional, national and international resource, in 2004
MnDOT spearheaded the development of the Transportation Engineering and Road Research Alliance (TERRA).
TERRA is a collaboration of MnDOT and several other
states that brings together government, industry and academia in a dynamic partnership
to advance innovations in road engineering and construction.
What is the Pooled Fund Study’s Goal?
TERRA’s mission is to:
• Develop, sustain and communicate a comprehensive program of research about pavement, materials and related transportation engineering challenges, including issues
related to cold climates.
• Provide a network for collaboration and information sharing between industry, academia and public agencies.
One of TERRA’s missions is to
broaden the use of MnROAD,
Minnesota’s state-of-the-art
pavement research facility
consisting of two road segments
next to I-94.
• Expand entrepreneurial use of the capacity and capabilities of the MnROAD facility by
pursuing opportunities to serve a broader research community.
What Have We Learned?
TERRA has sponsored numerous projects in such areas as construction, low-volume
roads, pavement design and sustainability, and communicates lessons learned through
its website and in fact sheets about various topics. Completed projects include:
• MnROAD Lessons Learned, which reviewed projects from MnROAD’s first 10 years of
operation involving more than 50 interviews; 300 published and unpublished reports,
papers and briefs; and an online survey of pavement professionals.
RESEARCH
SERVICES
O F F I C E O F P O L I C Y A N A LY S I S ,
R E SE A R C H & I N N OVAT I O N
• Pervious Concrete Pavement Study, which evaluated the performance of pervious
concrete pavements in Minnesota’s cold weather climate. Researchers constructed
test cells on MnROAD’s low-volume road and monitored their response to the environment. Results have shown that with regular maintenance, pervious concrete can
provide many benefits in addition to stormwater management and reduced runoff,
including a quieter ride.
• Field Investigation of Highway Base Material Stabilized with High Carbon Fly Ash,
which examined the use of high carbon fly ash to increase strength and stiffness of
continued
152
“TERRA has had a
dramatic effect on
MnDOT’s approach to
research, increasing its
focus on finding partners
and existing solutions
before commencing
projects.”
Using test cells in a TERRA-sponsored project
on MnROAD provides a unique opportunity
to monitor the environmental and load responses of thin unbonded concrete overlays.
—Maureen Jensen,
Road Research Engineer,
MnDOT Office of
Materials
pavement base layers consisting of recycled pavement materials and crushed stone. Results showed that fly ash significantly increased the resilient modulus of base materials.
What’s Going On Now?
There are more than 25 ongoing projects planned and initiated through TERRA. Current
projects of particular importance to MnDOT include:
“By bringing partners
together to collaborate on
transportation research
problems, TERRA both
gives MnDOT a broader
perspective and keeps it
focused on results and
implementation.”
—Deb Fick,
Research SP&R
Administrator, MnDOT
Research Services
• Performance of Thin Unbonded Concrete Overlays on High-Volume Roads, a five-year
study to test the performance of thinner unbonded concrete overlays subject to interstate traffic and Minnesota’s extreme climate. Two overlays were successfully constructed on MnROAD and on Trunk Highway 53 near Duluth, Minnesota, and are being
monitored for their performance. These projects could lead to reductions in overlay
thickness by nearly half compared to conventional designs.
• Investigation of Low Temperature Cracking in Asphalt Pavements–Phase II, a completed pooled fund study that evaluated different laboratory procedures, material properties and pavement features important for optimal selection of low temperature crack
resistant materials. The project monitored two sections at MnROAD to validate Phase I
development of a fracture mechanics-based specification for asphalt binders and mixtures that better resist crack formation and propagation.
• Permeable HMA Pavement Performance in Cold Regions, a completed project that
evaluated the durability, hydrologic characteristics and environmental effects of porous asphalt pavement when used on a low-volume roadway in a cold climate. A fully
instrumented MnROAD low-volume road test section was monitored for pavement
performance and stormwater runoff volume and quality. Researchers also documented
appropriate construction and maintenance procedures.
What’s Next?
Produced by CTC & Associates for:
Minnesota Department
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MS 330, First Floor
395 John Ireland Blvd.
St. Paul, MN 55155-1899
(651) 366-3780
www.research.dot.state.mn.us
TERRA regularly hosts events such as recent webinars on chip sealing and HMA pavement warranties, and the TERRA Innovation Series, which shares findings from TERRAsponsored studies. TERRA’s 17th annual pavement conference will be held in February
2013 in St. Paul, Minnesota. TERRA will also continue to conduct regular board and committee meetings, screen potential research projects, seek partners, and communicate
and disseminate research results. In the last few years TERRA has grown significantly
and will increase its focus on research and implementation as it looks ahead to the next
phase of MnROAD, which will begin in 2016.
This Technical Summary pertains to the ongoing Pooled Fund TPF-5(215), Transportation
Engineering and Road Research Alliance. Details of this effort can be found at
http://www.pooledfund.org/Details/Study/443. More information is available at
http://www.terraroadalliance.org/.
For more than 25 years, FHWA’s Transportation Pooled Fund Program has been providing state
DOTs and other organizations the opportunity to collaborate in solving transportation-related problems. The TPF Program is focused on leveraging limited funds, avoiding duplication of effort, undertaking large-scale projects and achieving broader dissemination of results on issues of regional and
national interest.
153
2011RIC05TS
Published July 2012
Maintaining Recreational Trails
What Was the Need?
TECHNICAL
SUMMARY
Technical Liaison:
Walter Leu, MnDOT
[email protected]
Project Coordinator:
Bruce Holdhusen, MnDOT
[email protected]
Principal Investigator:
Mike Marti, SRF Consulting Group, Inc.
LRRB PROJECT COST:
$27,608
Minnesota’s 25,000 miles of recreational trails provide
Minnesotans with exercise and recreation opportunities
critical to their quality of life. These trails also improve
the economies of nearby communities by increasing
property values, attracting tourists and encouraging the
purchase of bicycles and other equipment.
For the last 20 years, most funding for recreational trails
has been dedicated to construction rather than maintenance. Regular maintenance is important, and not just
for trail preservation and the safety and enjoyment of
users. It is also a requirement for federally funded trails
and far more cost-effective in the long run than waiting to
rehabilitate or reconstruct trails once their condition has
become poor.
The workshop developed in
this project will assist staff
in establishing programs for
the regular maintenance of
recreational trails, which
is far more cost-effective
than rehabilitation and will
help ensure the safety and
enjoyment of trail users in
Minnesota.
As the number of trail miles has expanded and the use of recreational trails increased, it
has been difficult for local agencies to maintain them with limited funding. This is made
more feasible when trail managers carefully budget and plan for the regular maintenance
of trail systems. A training workshop was needed to help managers develop maintenance programs.
What Was Our Goal?
The objective of this project was to create a PowerPoint presentation-based workshop
summarizing best practices for preserving recreational trails. The scope of the project
widened from a focus on pavement preventive maintenance techniques to include preservation of trail features such as vegetation, pavement, benches and lighting.
What Did We Implement?
Preventive maintenance of trails
while conditions are still good
is far more cost-effective than
waiting until rehabilitation or
reconstruction is required.
This project implements LRRB Investigation 876, Best Practices for Preventative Maintenance Treatments for Recreational Trails, which evaluated the effectiveness of using
available pavement preventive maintenance techniques—including various surface sealing and crack treatments—for recreational trails. Investigators applied these treatments
to several trails in Minnesota and compared them to untreated sections with regard to
permeability and surface texture. Results showed that all of the treatments reduced permeability, while fog seals also consistently provided a high-quality surface for trail users.
How Did We Do It?
RESEARCH
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Investigators created workshop materials by adapting the implemented manual on preventive maintenance treatments for recreational trails and by conducting a literature review on corridor management strategies. With the input of an advisory panel of experts
from MnDOT, cities and counties, the project team then refined the workshop presentation, which summarizes findings and provides assistance to agencies for developing a
trail maintenance program. The investigators also created a maintenance schedule and
checklist for use by agencies in managing a typical paved trail.
What Was the Impact?
The workshop developed in this project focuses primarily on the management and
maintenance of the trail pavement, but also includes other elements such as vegetation,
drainage, signing, striping, lighting and amenities. Presentation topics include:
continued
154
“This comprehensive
workshop not only will
help the staff that
maintains trails, but will
also assist managers in
tracking assets and
establishing budgets for
trail maintenance.”
—Walter Leu,
District State Aid
Engineer, MnDOT
Recreational trails include a variety of elements that require maintenance, including vegetation,
signage and the trail pavement itself.
“Nationally there is a push
to include more trails in
transportation
infrastructure to
accommodate pedestrians
and bicyclists. This project
will help Minnesota
agencies manage the
increasing number of
these trails.”
—Mike Marti,
Principal, SRF Consulting
Group, Inc.
• Operational maintenance activities, including the optimal frequency of various
activities such as safety inspections and trash pickup, pavement maintenance, vegetation mowing, trimming and other maintenance, and drainage system repair. Included
is an inspection template with a list of inspection items.
• Trail pavement management, including information about the pavement life cycle
and causes of pavement failure such as damage caused by water and sunlight, traffic
and improper construction. Also covered are typical trail pavement failure types and
treatments, including cracking and crack sealing; surface deterioration and treatments
such as fog sealing, seal coating, slurry sealing, micro surfacing and overlays; and potholes and depressions along with patching.
• Asset management, which is helpful in identifying and prioritizing maintenance
needs, projecting current and future maintenance costs and making efficient use of
resources. This section covers asset management software and data types, such as
section identification, construction, maintenance and rehabilitation history, pavement
characteristics and pavement conditions.
• How to build a trail maintenance schedule, which shows how to build a maintenance schedule based on industry estimates of pavement life spans, trail usage and
level of service, and ongoing monitoring. This section also steps the audience through
the use of the schedule and checklist created for agency use.
What’s Next?
In March 2012, investigators presented this workshop in three Minnesota locations via
the Minnesota Local Technical Assistance Program. The workshop has also been featured in several articles and presentations, and will be presented at the Fall 2012 American Public Works Association conference and other meetings. Investigators recommend
keeping the workshop materials current as new technologies relevant to trail maintenance are introduced.
Produced by CTC & Associates for:
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MS 330, First Floor
395 John Ireland Blvd.
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This Technical Summary pertains to the LRRB-produced Report 2011RIC05, “Maintenance of
Recreational Trails,” published November 2011. The full report can be accessed at
http://www.lrrb.org/PDF/2011RIC05.pdf. For information about the LTAP course, see
http://www.mnltap.umn.edu/training/topic/maintenance/trails.
The research being implemented via this project can be found mainly in the LRRB-produced Report
2009-25, “Preventative Maintenance for Recreational Trails,” published July 2009. This report can
be accessed at http://www.lrrb.org/PDF/200925.pdf.
155
2012-14TS
Published November 2012
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TECHNICAL
SUMMARY
Technical Liaison:
John Tompkins, MnDOT
John.Tompkin[email protected]
Project Coordinator:
Dan Warzala, MnDOT
[email protected]
Principal Investigator:
Diwakar Gupta,
University of Minnesota
PROJECT COST:
$179,752
Determining Equitable Vehicle Taxes
and Fees Based on Costs to Highway
Infrastructure
By conducting highway cost
What Was the Need?
MnDOT periodically carries out a highway cost allocation (HCA) study to estimate the relative contribution of
different classes of vehicles to the costs of building and
maintaining the state’s highway system. An HCA study also
estimates revenues generated by each vehicle class from
state fuel and excise taxes and from overweight permit
fees. Although fuel taxes and permit fees are determined
by the state Legislature, calculation of the cost-to-revenue
ratio helps inform MnDOT if changes to current policy
could be justified.
allocation (HCA) studies and
improving HCA
methodologies, MnDOT
helps ensure that vehicle
owners of all classes are
being fairly assessed
through taxes and permit
fees for their relative
contribution to the costs of
state highway construction
and maintenance.
MnDOT had not conducted an HCA study in 20 years,
and a 2006 truck size and weight study commissioned by
MnDOT suggested a need to develop a closer link between
overweight permit fees and actual highway maintenance
and construction costs. Research was needed to evaluate the pros and cons of different HCA methods and to
develop a methodology best suited for conditions in Minnesota.
What Was Our Goal?
The objective of this project was to evaluate HCA methodologies, use this evaluation
to customize the Federal Highway Administration’s (FHWA’s) HCA tool for Minnesota
purposes and perform HCA studies using both the FHWA tool and the Minnesota-centric
tools. Researchers also evaluated the best tax structures for equitably collecting revenue
and a method for optimizing the pricing of heavy vehicle special permits.
What Did We Do?
Researchers began by conducting an HCA study using MnDOT data collected between
July 2003 and June 2007, determining the costs and revenues attributed to various
classes of vehicles. This study was conducted using a generalized HCA study tool created by the FHWA and took into account costs associated with repairing or replacing
asphalt and concrete pavements, bridges, grading and drainage structures as well as
other types of construction and maintenance.
Most U.S. commercial freight
is transported by heavy trucks,
which because of their weight
have a greater effect on
transportation infrastructure
than passenger vehicles and
light trucks.
Researchers also evaluated several taxing methodologies for their equity and efficiency.
Equity is concerned with the distribution of benefits and costs to individuals based
either on their road usage or on their socioeconomic status. Efficiency is concerned
with determining the right pricing mechanisms for special freight permits based on
industry demand.
Using the results of this evaluation, researchers developed the Minnesota Highway Cost
Allocation Tool, a version of the FHWA’s HCA tool that is customized to be consistent
with Minnesota’s tax structure and data formats. Researchers also developed and tested
an auction-based permit system by which a state transportation agency such as MnDOT
could learn the demand for special permits and freight companies’ willingness to pay
for them.
continued
156
“This project is one step in
an ongoing effort by
MnDOT to determine the
best way to pay for the
future maintenance and
construction of
Minnesota’s highways.”
—John Tompkins,
Freight Project Manager,
Research and MFAC
Coordinator, MnDOT
Office of Freight and
Commercial Vehicle
Operations
“This study allowed
MnDOT to identify the
pros and cons of different
HCA methods, forming
the framework for further
refining MnDOT’s
methodology in a second
phase of this project.”
—Dan Warzala,
Research Project
Coordinator, MnDOT
Research Services
Minnesota has 12 vehicle classes (not including motorcycles), defined generally by the vehicle’s size,
number of axles and number of tires. In this study, class CB5—the most commonly used type of
heavy truck—had the worst revenue-to-cost ratio, responsible for 17.48 percent of costs but only
12.17 percent of revenue.
What Did We Learn?
Using the FHWA’s HCA tool, researchers found that heavy vehicle users are contributing
a smaller share of highway revenues than their impact on highway costs would require.
Passenger cars and light trucks contribute 81 percent of revenue but are responsible for
only 63 percent of MnDOT highway construction and maintenance expenditures. By
comparison, one class of heavy trucks contributed only 8 percent of revenue but was
responsible for 21 percent of expenditures. The final report includes a calculation of the
revenue-to-cost ratio for each vehicle class.
The evaluation of various tax scenarios showed that increasing overweight fees or diesel
taxes on vehicles greater than 16,000 pounds by 25 percent had only a small impact on
equity for highway users. However, assessing weight-distance fees on vehicles weighing
more than 57,000 pounds could significantly improve tax equity. Weight-distance fees
charge commercial vehicles a per-mile rate based on their travel distance, registration
weight and axle configuration.
The Minnesota-centric HCA tool developed by researchers improves on the FHWA tool’s
outdated default parameters and inability to allocate external costs. Researchers recalculated revenue-to-cost ratios for each vehicle class using the Minnesota-centric tool and
included a chart comparing these ratios to those calculated using the FHWA tool. These
ratios are not equitable between vehicle classes because taxes are not currently collected based on actual road usage, while costs are heavily affected by vehicle miles traveled.
Tests of an auction-based system for the sale of special permits for heavy vehicles
showed that a recommended mechanism is easy to implement and would allow MnDOT
to learn how much road users would be willing to pay for such permits, resulting in
more revenue.
What’s Next?
Produced by CTC & Associates for:
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MS 330, First Floor
395 John Ireland Blvd.
St. Paul, MN 55155-1899
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A second phase of this project will continue to develop HCA methods and apply them
to MnDOT data. MnDOT is planning to schedule information sessions with users to get
feedback about project recommendations, including the use of weight-distance fees and
the auction-based system for special permit sales.
This Technical Summary pertains to Report 2012-14, “Highway Cost Allocation and Determination
of Heavy Freight Truck Permit Fees,” published July 2012. The full report can be accessed at
http://www.lrrb.org/PDF/201214.pdf.
157
2012-05TS
Published November 2012
RESEARCH
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TECHNICAL
SUMMARY
Technical Liaison:
Brian Gage, MnDOT
[email protected]
Project Coordinator:
Alan Rindels, MnDOT
[email protected]
Principal Investigator:
David Levinson,
University of Minnesota
PROJECT COST:
$100,000
Evaluating the Effects of Land Use
and Transportation Infrastructure
on Twin Cities Accessibility This project will help MnDOT
What Was the Need?
A key goal of planning is accessibility, or the ability of
travelers to reach their desired destination within a reasonable amount of time. Accessibility depends both on the
efficiency of a city’s transportation network and on its land
use: the location of buildings for commercial, residential
and other uses. Transportation and land use are interdependent, and understanding their relationship is important
to planning transportation facilities and zoning.
prioritize its transportation
infrastructure investments
and land use strategies
to maximize accessibility,
producing the greatest
benefit per taxpayer dollar
for Minnesota travelers.
Despite this interdependence, land use and transportation
planning are typically conducted independently. The latter is often focused on improving congestion measures such as mobility and reliability without taking into account the
effects on land use. Focusing on mobility may result in plans that favor the decentralization of populations from the inner city to the suburbs and may be automobile-centric,
reducing options for people using other modes of transportation.
Since 2006 researchers at the University of Minnesota have been working with MnDOT
and other Minnesota organizations on a line of research called Access to Destinations to
remedy this problem and develop accessibility measures for use in transportation planning. A recent study under the umbrella of this effort uses accessibility as a performance
measure to evaluate various combinations of land use and transportation plans for
Minnesota’s Twin Cities metropolitan area.
What Was Our Goal?
The objective of this study was to evaluate how accessibility in the Twin Cities region
would be affected by various changes in land use (including population and employment trends) and the transportation network (due to proposed highway infrastructure
improvements and public transit investments).
What Did We Do?
Researchers analyzed 60 different model runs combining six land use scenarios with 10
transportation network scenarios involving both highway and transit.
Land use scenarios involved different assumptions about the distribution in population
and employment growth, specifically how centralized they are expected to be within
the Interstate 494/694 Beltway. These also included a baseline scenario reflecting existing land use in 2010, and a 2030 scenario reflecting decentralized growth predicted by
the Twin Cities Metropolitan Council.
The models developed in this
study will help MnDOT
determine how to prioritize its
investments in transit and
highway infrastructure to
maximize accessibility.
Highway network scenarios made different assumptions about the use of high occupancy toll (HOT) lanes and congestion pricing. These also included a free-flow scenario
assuming no congestion, a 2010 scenario reflecting existing conditions and a 2030
scenario reflecting mostly decentralized network improvements planned by the Metropolitan Council. Transit scenarios made different assumptions about the use of streetcars
and rapid transit, and included 2010 and 2030 scenarios.
continued
158
“The product developed
by this project will be an
excellent tool for
analysis, communications
and policy development,
and will help promote
multimodal transportation
practices that
accommodate the diverse
needs of all communities.”
—Brian Gage,
MnDOT Access
Management Coordinator
“Transportation and land
use are interdependent,
and understanding their
relationship is critical to
planning investments in
transportation
infrastructure.”
—David Levinson,
Associate Professor,
University of Minnesota
Department of Civil
Engineering
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Researchers compared the accessibility of destinations by transit and highway for a
scenario reflecting planned improvements by the Twin Cities Metropolitan Council.
Some destinations were just or nearly as accessible by transit as by highway (bluer
areas), but others were far less accessible (redder areas).
For each scenario, researchers calculated travel time using computer models to simulate highway and transit networks. Then they calculated each scenario’s accessibility,
defined as the sum of destinations reachable within a certain time threshold.
What Did We Learn?
Results showed that centralized growth in population and employment produced the
highest accessibility, followed by centralized population and decentralized employment.
Depending on the network configuration, fully centralized growth produced about
20 percent to 25 percent more accessibility than the forecast for 2030.
Of the highway scenarios, free-flowing highway networks had the highest accessibility,
with 20 percent more accessibility than the forecast for 2030. The second most accessible were HOT lane scenarios, with congestion pricing not far behind.
Transit accessibility was about twice as high for the fully centralized as for the fully decentralized scenarios, illustrating that transit networks are significantly better at connecting people to jobs at higher densities. Similarly, transit scenarios that improved speeds
in the central cities had more of an effect on systemwide accessibility than those that
expanded service areas.
While the combination of centralized population and employment with a free-flowing
highway network maximizes accessibility, it is likely not cost-effective or feasible with
current technologies, and counters trends of increasingly decentralized population and
employment. If these trends continue, an investment in congestion pricing or HOT lanes
might be best. On the other hand, decentralized development renders the transit system
ineffective and reduces the effectiveness of the highway system to connect people to
jobs. A concentrated effort for higher densities and infill development in the central cities would most benefit accessibility.
What’s Next?
MnDOT will use the methods developed in this study to further examine the accessibility of more specific scenarios, allowing it to prioritize transportation network and land
use strategies based on how much accessibility they provide per unit dollar.
This Technical Summary pertains to Report 2012-05, “Using Twin Cities Destinations and Their
Accessibility as a Multimodal Planning Tool,” published February 2012. The full report can be
accessed at www.dot.state.mn.us/research/TS/2012/201205.pdf. More information about the Access
to Destinations effort can be found at www.cts.umn.edu/access-study.
159
2012-TPF-5(198)TS
Published January 2012
T R A NSP O R TAT I O N P O O L E D FU N D
PROGRAM
TECHNICAL
SUMMARY
MnDOT Technical Liaison:
Paul Czech
[email protected]
MnDOT Administrative Liaison:
Deb Fick
[email protected]
TOTAL STATE CONTRIBUTIONS TO
DATE (SPR-3(049), TFP-5(198)):
$1,580,000
MnDOT CONTRIBUTIONS
TO DATE:
$165,000
PARTICIPATING STATES:
CA, CO, FL, KY, MD, MN, NY, OH,
OR, TX, VA, WA
Pooling Our Research: Urban
Mobility Study
Why a Pooled Fund Study?
In 2010, traffic congestion in the United States caused a
waste of 1.9 billion gallons of gas and 4.8 billion hours of
commuters’ time. Congestion’s inflation-adjusted costs
have risen from $21 billion in 1982 to $101 billion in 2010,
with the average cost per commuter rising from $310 to
$710. To address this problem, MnDOT and other agencies
typically develop programs to alleviate congestion within
transportation systems by implementing cost-effective reliability and capacity strategies. This can include providing
more mobility options such as public transit.
Finding the right improvements requires that their effects
on congestion be accurately measured. Measurement in
turn requires not only collecting traffic data using roadside
sensors, but establishing the right performance measures,
which can vary depending on the goals of travelers and
agencies. Average travel time between two points is typically important to travelers, but so are cost and reliability.
TPF-5(198): Urban
Mobility Study. By
evaluating mobility
performance measures and
developing new sources
of mobility data, this
study helps MnDOT and
other organizations develop
cost-effective congestion
mitigation measures to help
address both travel time
and public safety issues.
To help develop such performance measures and to collect and analyze the nation’s urban congestion data in the most accurate and comprehensive way possible, in 1982 the Texas Transportation Institute established the Urban
Mobility Study. In 1997, the study became a pooled fund effort involving a combination
of state departments of transportation, metropolitan planning organizations and the
Federal Highway Administration.
What is the Pooled Fund Study’s Goal?
The study focuses on developing tools to monitor and evaluate urban congestion by
identifying and evaluating the latest mobility data sources, developing and communicating comprehensive performance measures for congestion improvements and helping
member agencies apply the study’s research products to their congestion planning.
What Have We Learned?
The 2011 Urban Mobility Study
documented congestion in
Minnesota, including the Twin
Cities.
The Urban Mobility Study is nationally recognized as the leading resource for traffic
congestion research. Its database has for the most part relied on historical public data
and public agency sources, but in 2010 the study dramatically increased the accuracy
and comprehensiveness of its congestion estimates by adding data from INRIX, a private
sector company that collects traffic information from GPS-enabled vehicles and mobile
devices in every major U.S. metropolitan area.
Over the years, the study has used such data, along with increasingly descriptive and
relevant performance measures, to produce and update numerous resources, including:
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• The Urban Mobility Report, which has been published periodically since 1984 to
provide users with information about congestion problems and historical trends nationwide. The 2010 report was the first to use INRIX data, which allowed it to show
trends from 1982 to 2009 for all of the United States’ 439 urban areas.
• The Keys to Estimating Mobility in Urban Areas, which outlines important mobility
measurement concepts.
continued
160
“MnDOT’s participation
in the pooled fund study
has resulted in significant
benefits to the agency’s
efforts to measure,
monitor and communicate
the performance of the
transportation system in a
multimodal manner.”
—Paul Czech
Planning Director,
MnDOT Metro District
“The use of private
sector mobility data from
GPS-enabled devices has
allowed us to develop a
more comprehensive
assessment of urban
mobility than ever
before, giving agencies
the information they need
to choose the right mix
of congestion mitigation
measures.”
—Tim Lomax
Senior Research Engineer,
Texas Transportation
Institute Mobility
Analysis Program
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Study data shows that congestion impacts large and small cities, leading to
34 extra hours of commute time for the average urban automobile commuter
in 2010. This data also reflects the economic recession; congestion will likely
return to growth patterns seen in prior years when the recession abates.
• Twin Cities Metropolitan and MN Statewide IRC Arterial Travel Time Analysis: Use of
Private Sector Traffic Speed Data, which demonstrated that private sector speed data
can be a cost-effective way for monitoring and reporting mobility performance on
MnDOT’s statewide network.
The study has also recently focused on developing new performance measures for
freight travel and for arterial surface streets, where mobility is harder to estimate than
on instrumented freeways.
What’s Going On Now?
The Urban Mobility Study is continuing to analyze the quality of emerging mobility data,
including private sector sources for GPS, Bluetooth-enabled and other mobile devices;
examining how the land use policies of state DOTs and metropolitan planning organizations affect congestion; evaluating affordable devices for collecting transportation data
by their unit cost, life-cycle cost and effectiveness; and examining ways to communicate
the benefits provided by non-capacity and short-term, lower cost projects, such as active
traffic management and access management.
What’s Next?
Moving forward, the Urban Mobility Study will continue to focus on its core missions of
evaluating new sources of mobility data, refining performance measures and supporting
member agencies. Other efforts under consideration include:
• Developing a tool for estimating greenhouse gas benefits for roadway improvements
by correlating portable emissions measurement data with speed and start-stop traffic
data.
• Refining the performance measure for total travel time, which will help in calculating
the mobility benefits of biking, walking and working at home.
• Evaluating the use of private sector speed data to determine what speeds should be
used to represent freely flowing traffic on arterial streets, analyze issues for off-peak
and weekend congestion analyses, and determine how to get reliable measures from
historical archived speed data.
This Technical Summary pertains to the ongoing Pooled Fund TPF-5(198), Urban Mobility Study
Pooled Fund, continuing the project initiated under SPR-3(049). Details of this effort can be found
at http://www.pooledfund.org/Details/Study/424, http://www.pooledfund.org/Details/Study/200 and
http://mobility.tamu.edu/ums/.
For more than 25 years, FHWA’s Transportation Pooled Fund Program has been providing state
DOTs and other organizations the opportunity to collaborate in solving transportation-related problems. The TPF Program is focused on leveraging limited funds, avoiding duplication of effort, undertaking large-scale projects and achieving broader dissemination of results on issues of regional and
national interest.
161
2011-21TS
Published October 2012
Putting Research into Practice:
Safety Strategies for Local Agencies
What Was the Need?
TECHNICAL
SUMMARY
Technical Liaison:
Mark Vizecky, MnDOT
[email protected]
Project Coordinator:
Farideh Amiri, MnDOT
[email protected]
Principal Investigator:
Howard Preston, CH2M Hill, Inc.
IMPLEMENTATION
PROJECT COST:
$61,272
In the last several years, MnDOT has implemented a range
of safety strategies aimed at reducing traffic fatalities on
state highways as part of the state’s Toward Zero Deaths
initiative. Since about half of the state’s traffic deaths occur
on county roads and county state-aid highways, MnDOT
recognized the need to implement safety programs at the
local level as well. The department undertook a comprehensive effort to assist counties with their safety planning
efforts, funding the development of County Roadway
Safety Plans for each of the state’s 87 counties.
The guidebook is unique
nationally in its targeted
approach to helping local
agencies implement safety
best practices and policies
that are consistent with
national and state
guidance.
In these risk-based assessments, consultants analyzed each
county’s roadway system, identifying at-risk locations and
recommending high-priority, low-cost safety improvements. County engineers needed
documentation of best practices and policies related to the high-priority safety strategies
to assist them in their safety planning, safety project development and risk management
efforts.
What Was Our Goal?
This project’s objective was to create a guidebook for local agencies that describes
best practices for implementing 15 high-priority highway safety strategies and provides
sample policy language for each strategy. The guide was designed to serve as a resource
for counties and municipalities as they work to reduce the number of severe crashes on
their roads and highways.
What Did We Implement?
Traffic signal confirmation lights
help reduce red light running by
making enforcement easier.
Investigators drew from dozens of state and national guidance documents and research
reports to compile the guide. Two key national sources were the NCHRP Report 500
guides, a 23-volume series of guidance on key safety emphasis areas, and the FHWA
Crash Modification Factors Clearinghouse website. They also leveraged information from
more than 25 MnDOT and LRRB research reports as well as other state and national
research. Finally, they referenced state and national guidance documents such as the
Minnesota Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices.
How Did We Do It?
Working with a technical advisory panel that included several representatives of city and
county agencies, the investigators developed a list of 15 high-priority safety strategies for
inclusion in the guide. They grouped the strategies into three categories:
• General: Access management and traffic signs.
• Intersections: Intersection treatments, rural lighting, traffic signal confirmation lights,
pedestrian treatments, turn lanes and rural through/stop intersections.
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• Roadside: Pavement markings, edge line rumbles, horizontal curve delineation, Safety
Edge, clear zones, mailboxes, and guardrail and end treatments.
Investigators reviewed the considerable volume of guidance on the 15 strategies to identify the characteristics of successful implementations, including the strategies’ impact
on crashes. They documented these best practices in the guidebook. For each safety
continued
162
“The guidebook gets
critical information on
traffic safety strategies
into the hands of city and
county engineers who
may not have a
background in safety. This
project was driven by local
agencies asking for more
safety information.”
—Howard Preston,
Senior Transportation
Engineer, CH2M Hill, Inc.
The best practices guide helps local agencies determine when to implement safety strategies
such as curb extensions, which reduce the width of the roadway, make pedestrians more visible
in the crosswalk and encourage vehicles to slow down.
“This is the first time a
comprehensive approach
to implementing traffic
safety strategies has been
put together for local
agencies. The sample
policies are geared toward
the way cities and
counties conduct
business.”
strategy, the guidebook describes safety benefits, effectiveness, typical costs, candidate
locations, design features and impact on roadway operations, and provides citations to
related research and data. Each section includes a list of source materials that local agencies can consult for more information as they implement the strategies.
—Mark Vizecky,
The sample policy language gives local agencies a framework for drafting their own policies for implementing the strategies. Establishing safety policies can help local agencies
explain engineering decisions to the public and can provide documentation to help limit
agencies’ exposure to legal claims.
MnDOT State Aid
Program Support
Engineer
Finally, researchers developed sample policy language for each strategy that can be customized by local agencies.
What Was the Impact?
The best practices guide is a valuable resource for local agencies, providing tools to support their safety planning and policy development. The guide is unique nationally in its
targeted approach to helping local agencies implement safety best practices and policies that are consistent with national and state guidance. As a component of MnDOT’s
statewide highway safety planning efforts, the guide has helped create a culture of safety
planning at the local level in Minnesota.
Ultimately, the implementation of the best practices and policies in the guide is expected to reduce severe crashes and save lives.
What’s Next?
Produced by CTC & Associates for:
Minnesota Department
of Transportation Research Services
MS 330, First Floor
395 John Ireland Blvd.
St. Paul, MN 55155-1899
(651) 366-3780
www.research.dot.state.mn.us
MnDOT has distributed the guidebooks to all 87 counties and to more than 140 cities
in Minnesota, providing outreach and training to encourage and facilitate the guide’s
use. In addition, the Minnesota Local Technical Assistance Program is using the guide to
modify the content of its tort liability training course. The guide’s format has been well
received, and a related research project is under way to produce a similar best practices
guide on bicycle and pedestrian treatments.
This Technical Summary pertains to the LRRB-produced Report 2011-21, “Minnesota’s Best Practices
and Policies for Safety Strategies on Highways and Local Roads,” published September 2011. The full
report can be accessed at http://www.dot.state.mn.us/research/documents/201121.pdf.
The resources cited as source material for this guide include the NCHRP Report 500 guides and the
FHWA Crash Modification Factors Clearinghouse website.
163
2011-24TS
Published May 2012
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TECHNICAL
SUMMARY
Technical Liaison:
Mitch Bartelt, MnDOT
[email protected]
Project Coordinator:
Alan Rindels, MnDOT
[email protected]
Principal Investigator:
Neal Hawkins, Iowa State University
PROJECT COST:
$39,991
Improving Pavement Marking
Performance on Challenging Pavement
Surfaces
Improving the performance
What Was the Need?
High-quality pavement markings at the center and edges
of roadways are critical to public safety, helping to prevent accidents by delineating traffic lanes more clearly
and providing information to drivers about lane changing
and passing.
and durability of pavement
markings on seal coat and
micro-surfaced roadways
will reduce construction
and maintenance costs for
Minnesota agencies and
increase traveler safety
by improving marking
visibility.
However, these markings do not perform well on roadways with rougher surfaces such as those with seal coat
and micro-surface treatments, which are used to extend
the service lives of pavements by covering an existing
surface with asphalt emulsion and aggregate. It is hard
to apply markings at the right thickness to these “challenging surfaces,” and they tend initially to lose pieces of
aggregate and attached markings to traffic, especially from the abrasion of snowplows.
The service life of such a pavement marking can be up to 50 percent shorter than a
comparable marking on a smooth surface, and its retroreflectivity—how well it reflects
vehicle headlights—will be lower and degrade more quickly.
MnDOT’s current pavement marking policies were developed for smooth pavements
and do not apply well to challenging surfaces. Initial markings after a seal coat, for
example, may need to be quickly replaced, in which case it may be advisable to use
less expensive latex paint rather than the epoxy material called for by current policies.
Local Minnesota agencies are currently using ad hoc strategies for addressing the rapid
degradation of these markings, and research was needed to establish better guidance.
What Was Our Goal?
The objective of this project was to develop recommendations for improving the application of pavement markings on challenging surfaces by documenting the practices of
MnDOT districts and other state departments of transportation.
What Did We Do?
Studies have shown that
pavement markings on rough
surfaces exhibit less
retroreflectivity than other
markings.
Researchers began by conducting a literature review of published and unpublished
sources along with a survey of other state DOTs concerning their pavement marking
practices on challenging surfaces. Then they reviewed MnDOT technical guidance on
this issue, surveyed agencies by email and phone about their experiences installing
and maintaining markings, and performed a field visit in 2010 to observe the placement
of pavement markings along I-94 in MnDOT District 3B. The field visit also included
a review of existing pavement markings on other challenging surfaces within the district, including Highways 25, 47 and 71. At each site visited, researchers photographed
surfaces and took retroreflectivity readings.
Researchers used this data to identify key problems and potential solutions, and outlined a future field trial to evaluate marking performance and installation practices for
different combinations of pavement marking materials on various challenging surfaces.
continued
164
“This project will allow
MnDOT to improve its
pavement marking policy
to better serve its
districts by providing more
thorough guidance with
respect to challenging
surfaces.”
—Mitch Bartelt,
Pavement Marking
Engineer, MnDOT Office
of Traffic, Safety &
Technology
“Field trials will help us
provide control in the
evaluation of these
markings on both seal coat
and micro-surface
roadways.”
—Neal Hawkins,
Director, Iowa State
University Center for
Transportation Research
and Education
Seal coat and micro-surface treatments experience a certain amount of rock loss after application,
which also removes pavement marking material. And because the surfaces are coarse, it is difficult
to apply markings at the right thickness.
What Did We Learn?
The literature search showed that pavement markings on challenging surfaces have an
overall reduced service life of up to one year, worse uniformity and retroreflectivity,
faster degradation of retroreflectivity and higher differences in directional retroreflectivity of yellow centerline markings. They require greater marking thickness, and marking performance is sensitive to both material thickness and aggregate size.
Phone interviews with Midwestern DOTs and field visits to MnDOT districts allowed
researchers to document their maintenance treatment and pavement marking practices, and confirmed the problematic nature of using pavement markings on challenging surfaces.
MnDOT district email and phone surveys showed that districts are experimenting with
a variety of marking materials, with little success in the first year. There is a desire to
standardize methods and materials. Current strategies typically involve:
• Just after maintenance, using latex paint to stripe the centerline (for seal coating) or all
lines (for micro surfacing).
• After two weeks, using all-weather paint to stripe all lines.
• After one to two years, using epoxy to restripe all lines.
What’s Next?
Produced by CTC & Associates for:
Minnesota Department
of Transportation Research Services
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395 John Ireland Blvd.
St. Paul, MN 55155-1899
(651) 366-3780
www.research.dot.state.mn.us
Researchers recommend that MnDOT improve its guidance for pavement markings on
challenging materials with a pavement marking strategy that matches the roadway life
cycle. To do so, in 2012 they will conduct a comprehensive field evaluation of different
pavement marking materials and installation practices on challenging surfaces. The trial
will be conducted for up to three years on 500-foot test segments on four-lane divided
and two-lane roadways with both micro-surface and seal coat treatments as well as both
yellow and white pavement markings. Materials being considered for testing include
latex, high build, VisiLock, thermo (sprayed and extruded), epoxy, MMA and polyurea.
Researchers will consider the benefits of placing a primer coating before striping as well
as different glass bead delivery systems for improving retroreflectivity and directionality.
In each case they will measure both retroreflectivity and failure mechanisms such as loss
of bond between paint and surface or loss of rock.
This Technical Summary pertains to Report 2011-24, “Pavement Marking Compatibility with Chip
Seal and Micro Surfacing,” published October 2011. The full report can be accessed at
http://www.lrrb.org/PDF/201124.pdf.
165
2012-04TS
Published May 2012
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TECHNICAL
SUMMARY
Technical Liaison:
Brian Kary, MnDOT
[email protected]
Project Coordinator:
Alan Rindels, MnDOT
[email protected]
Principal Investigator:
Eil Kwon, University of
Minnesota–Duluth
PROJECT COST:
$83,000
Improving Traffic Management on
Minnesota Freeways
What Was the Need?
To minimize traffic congestion in the Twin Cities area,
MnDOT uses a computerized system called the Intelligent
Road Information System. IRIS collects real-time data from
detectors placed along highways to measure the traffic
volume and speed, and uses this data to automatically
manage traffic control devices such as variable speed limit
signs and ramp meters. Variable speed limit signs display
varying speed limits electronically and can improve traffic efficiency and safety by gradually lowering the speed
of drivers approaching bottlenecks, reducing rear-end
collisions or the propagation of bottlenecks further up
the traffic stream. Ramp meters are traffic lights that can
reduce congestion by optimizing the number and timing
of cars entering a highway.
This project significantly
refines how MnDOT
evaluates operational
strategies for
managing traffic on Twin
Cities freeways and could
lead to reduced
congestion and improved
traveler safety.
To manage these devices, IRIS uses software algorithms that make operational decisions based on traffic flow data. For many years, these operational strategies have
needed improvement because they rely on performance measures that are not always
adequately responsive to rapidly changing freeway conditions, including the effects of
weather and accidents. Improving algorithms requires testing them by using computer
models to simulate their effects on traffic, a task complicated by the need to replicate
the IRIS operating environment within the simulation so that strategies work as expected when moved to IRIS for use in the field.
What Was Our Goal?
The goal of this project was to develop new software tools for managing and operating
Minnesota’s freeway corridors by:
• Integrating a computer traffic simulator with IRIS so that operational strategies can
be emulated and refined in the simulated environment before being implemented in
the field.
• Using this new simulation tool to develop and test new operational strategies for variable message signs and ramp meters on Minnesota highways.
What Did We Do?
Researchers began by developing the Traffic Information and Condition Analysis System, or TICAS, software and processes for evaluating highway performance using such
measures as vehicle miles traveled, hours of traffic delay and speed variations. This
system can be used to evaluate highway performance based on historical data or in
real time using live traffic data to assist traffic operators in detecting traffic trends and
abnormal traffic patterns. The software includes a graphical overview allowing easy
identification of the location of bottlenecks and their effects.
The new ramp metering strategy
improves mainline traffic
congestion while preventing
queues and wait times from
becoming too long.
Researchers then developed the IRIS-in-Loop Simulation System, or ILSS, a computer
simulation environment for testing new traffic management strategies. To do so, they
developed a communications interface to directly connect a traffic simulator to IRIS so
that strategies will run on simulations just as they would in the field.
Finally, researchers developed new variable message sign and ramp meter strategies,
and tested them using ILSS.
continued
166
“Evaluating the
performance of our
highways used to be a
time-consuming process.
Now it takes a couple of
mouse clicks, and staff can
devote their time to other
duties.”
—Brian Kary,
Freeway Operations
Engineer, MnDOT
Regional Transportation
Management Center
Traffic system operators can use TICAS to visualize a highway system’s performance as in this
contour plot of average vehicle speeds over time for various freeway corridors.
“The new operational
strategies developed in this
project could substantially
reduce congestion and
improve safety on the Twin
Cities freeway network.”
—Eil Kwon,
Professor, University of
Minnesota–Duluth
Department of Civil
Engineering
What Did We Learn?
TICAS improves the way MnDOT measures the performance of its freeway network,
enabling more effective real-time traffic management, with continuous refinements to
ramp metering, incident management and travel time information systems. ILSS will
help MnDOT evaluate new operational strategies by accurately simulating them so they
can be evaluated with TICAS’ new performance measures.
The new variable speed limit strategy developed by researchers first identifies the locations of the bottlenecks by examining deceleration rates between two detector stations
in a given corridor. It then calculates advisory speed limits by using a constant deceleration, which was determined to result in a minimum increase in travel times for drivers.
An evaluation of this strategy with ILSS shows that it could significantly reduce sudden
deceleration of traffic reacting to bottlenecks while keeping travel time increases relatively small.
The new ramp metering strategy is based on corridor density instead of volume since
traditional volume-based methods do not take into account the way traffic is affected by
narrow lanes and shoulders. The algorithm identifies bottlenecks every 30 seconds and
is designed to prevent wait times from becoming too long and causing queues to extend for long distances into surface streets and intersections. A simulation with ILSS on
two corridors showed that this strategy substantially reduces congestion travel delays
while achieving the same total vehicle miles traveled.
What’s Next?
Produced by CTC & Associates for:
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MS 330, First Floor
395 John Ireland Blvd.
St. Paul, MN 55155-1899
(651) 366-3780
www.research.dot.state.mn.us
A second phase of this project is already under way to analyze the effects of the new
variable speed limit strategy on a segment of I-35W in Minnesota. Researchers will also
conduct a field trial of the new ramp metering strategy in the spring of 2012. Using
the field trials results, researchers will enhance these strategies to reduce bottleneck
identification time and incorporate weather conditions, and then expand them to other
corridors. Researchers also recommend further refinement of performance measures to
improve the real-time prediction of congestion problems so that operators can respond
proactively.
This Technical Summary pertains to Report 2012-04, “Development of Freeway Operational Strategies with IRIS-in-Loop Simulation,” published January 2012. The full report can be accessed at
http://www.lrrb.org/PDF/201204.pdf.
167
2012-06TS
Published May 2012
Impacts of Playground Warning Signs
on Vehicle Speeds
What Was the Need?
TECHNICAL
SUMMARY
Technical Liaison:
Amy Marohn, City of Bloomington
[email protected]
Project Coordinator:
Shirlee Sherkow, MnDOT
[email protected]
Principal Investigators:
John Hourdos, University of Minnesota
Gary Davis, University of Minnesota
Keith Knapp, Iowa State University
LRRB PROJECT COST:
$79,647
The yellow signs that warn drivers about nearby playgrounds are intended to alert drivers to slow down and
watch more vigilantly for children and other pedestrians.
Residents often request these warning signs from their
local governments to make their neighborhood streets
safer, but there has been little research to demonstrate the
signs’ effectiveness.
Agencies aim to install only the most necessary road
signs. If too many signs are installed, drivers may pay
less attention to all of them, or they may rely too heavily
on signs to warn them of potential hazards. In addition,
recent Federal Highway Administration regulations will
require all signs to meet new minimum retroreflectivity standards, which means signs must be replaced more
regularly than was required in the past at greater cost to
taxpayers. Limiting the number of signs can lower the
costs of complying with the new law.
Researchers found that
playground warning signs
did not cause drivers to
significantly reduce their
speeds, but drivers did slow
down when playgrounds
were busy and parked cars
lined the street. These
results can help local
agencies evaluate the
installation of these signs.
In responding to residents’ requests for playground warning signs, city and county
engineers must weigh these factors against the signs’ potential benefits. Research was
needed to investigate whether playground warning signs are effective at getting drivers
to slow down.
What Was Our Goal?
This project’s objective was to evaluate the impact of playground warning signs on
vehicle speeds at three locations in Bloomington, Minnesota. Since the state and federal
editions of the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices currently leave the placement of these signs to engineering judgment, the study results would help local engineers determine whether the benefits of the signs justify the costs.
What Did We Do?
According to state and federal
rules, playground warning signs
can be installed as needed based
on engineering judgment.
RESEARCH
SERVICES
Investigators performed a literature review of related research, including studies of
how vehicle speed relates to crashes and to pedestrian fatalities, and studies that address the speed and safety impacts of warning signs. Next, researchers reviewed 13
candidate study sites near playgrounds along residential streets in Bloomington. They
selected three sites for collection of vehicle speed data before and after the installation
of playground warning signs.
Three types of data at each study site were collected one month before a pair of the
signs was installed and one week to one month after installation. Researchers used a
pneumatic tube device to measure vehicle speeds. Since drivers might tend to slow
down when children are visible at a playground or when cars are parked on the street,
researchers also recorded data on playground activity levels and the presence of parked
cars. Then they used linear regression analysis to estimate the change in average vehicle speed associated with the presence of the playground warning signs, controlling
for the effects of varying amounts of playground activity and parked cars.
O F F I C E O F P O L I C Y A N A LY S I S ,
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continued
168
“We found that actual
playground activity is a
much stronger indicator
to drivers to be attentive
than playground warning
signs. This study gives
local engineers
quantifiable measures
of the signs’ impact to
reference as they make
decisions about sign
installation.”
—John Hourdos,
Director, Minnesota
Traffic Observatory,
University of Minnesota
“In Bloomington, we’ll
use this study as support
for our current standard
practice of not
installing playground
warning signs. The speed
reductions achieved were
not significant enough
to justify installing them
unless other unique
conditions are present.”
—Amy Marohn,
Civil Engineer—Traffic,
City of Bloomington
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Investigators gathered data at three sites in Bloomington, including this park on Colorado
Avenue South, which is adjacent to an elementary school. At this site, researchers found no
difference between vehicle speeds recorded before and after playground warning signs were
installed.
What Did We Learn?
Installing playground warning signs did not have a large effect on average vehicle
speeds at any of the three sites. At one site, the signs had no measurable effect, while
signs at the other two sites led drivers to reduce their speeds by 0.9 mph and 1.5 mph
on average.
However, researchers found that vehicle speeds were strongly related to levels of playground activity and parked cars. At one site, vehicles drove an average of 10 to
15 mph slower when playgrounds were busy, which appeared to be related to the
greater number of cars parked along the street.
The impact of playground warning signs on vehicle speeds appeared to be site-specific.
Researchers noted that some of the variability in the vehicle speed impacts is likely due
to the differences in site characteristics and suggested that it may also be affected by
subjective differences in how the field personnel categorized on-street parking levels
for the study.
What’s Next?
City and county engineers can use this research in their decision-making process when
they consider whether to install playground warning signs. This study fills a gap in
research on this topic, and serves as a timely, credible reference for engineers as they
review their sign management policies in light of the new retroreflectivity requirements.
To help local engineers make decisions about signage as they comply with the new
requirements, the Local Road Research Board recently produced a handbook on sign
maintenance and management. A follow-up research project, “Best Practices for Sign
Reduction on the Local System,” is expected to be complete in 2012.
This Technical Summary pertains to the LRRB-produced Report 2012-06, “Vehicle Speed Impacts of
Occasional Hazard (Playground) Warning Signs,” published February 2012. The full report can be
accessed at http://www.lrrb.org/PDF/201206.pdf.
169
2011-TPF-5(190)TS
Published June 2011
T R A NSP O R TAT I O N P O O L E D FU N D
PROGRAM
TECHNICAL
SUMMARY
Mn/DOT Technical Liaison:
Cory Johnson
[email protected]
Mn/DOT Administrative Liaison:
Deb Fick, Mn/DOT
[email protected]
TOTAL STATE CONTRIBUTIONS
TO DATE:
$750,000
Mn/DOT CONTRIBUTIONS TO
DATE:
$200,000
PARTICIPATING STATES:
ID, MN, MT, ND, SD, WA, WI, WY
Pooling Our Research: Improving Road
Condition Information for Interstate
Travelers
TPF-5(190): North/West
Why a Pooled Fund Study?
Interstates 90 and 94 between Wisconsin and Washington form a main corridor for commercial and recreational
travel. Extreme winter weather conditions pose significant challenges for travelers within this corridor, so states
typically provide real-time road and weather information
via dynamic message signs, or DMSs; 511 phone systems;
and the Web. Traveler information is supported in turn by
Intelligent Transportation Systems, or ITS, which include
a variety of technologies for collecting, processing and
integrating travel-related data. ITS technologies are also
important to roadway maintenance operations, traffic management and commercial vehicle operations.
Passage Corridor.
Minnesota benefits both
from pooled fund projects
that improve the safety
and efficiency of Minnesota
travelers by integrating
traveler information
systems between states
as well as the opportunity
to develop contacts and
exchange information with
other member states.
Because states independently maintain their own ITS, it
can be difficult to accomplish ITS-related goals that require
sharing information between states. Recognizing this need,
Minnesota initiated a meeting in 2002 with representatives
from seven states along the I-90 and I-94 corridor to begin
discussions on ITS collaboration. These states face similar travel-related issues because of
their predominantly rural makeup. This group then established itself as the
North/West Passage Corridor Pooled Fund Study TPF-5(093) in 2003, continuing in 2009
as TPF-5(190).
What is the Pooled Fund Study’s Goal?
i90i94travelinfo.com includes a
clickable map allowing users to
view camera images of road
conditions for key locations
along the corridor as well as
information about truck stops,
rest areas and commercial
vehicle restrictions.
The goal of the North/West Passage Corridor pooled fund study is to develop effective
methods for sharing, coordinating and integrating traveler information and operational
activities between states along the I-90/I-94 corridor from Wisconsin to Washington.
What Have We Learned?
Since its inception, the North/West Passage Corridor pooled fund study has completed
18 projects, including the development of i90i94travelinfo.com. This website provides
travel information for the entire corridor, including camera images, truck stop and rest
area information, and weather conditions. Other accomplishments include helping
North Dakota and South Dakota 511 callers receive information about Minnesota’s highways, standardizing the terminology used to describe road events along the I-90/I-94 corridor, providing a forum for state patrol and DOT staff to discuss integration of systems,
and identifying action items for increased cross-border maintenance and operations
collaboration.
Recently completed projects include:
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• Call Forwarding and Evaluation of Cross Border Information, which created recommendations to further enhance the ability of travelers using 511 systems to access
traveler information from adjacent states.
• NWP Traveler Information Website Phase 2 and Center-to-Center Communications
Concept of Operations, which enhanced i90i94travelinfo.com by adding the ability to
acquire active event reports posted by member agencies and to display active corridor
events.
continued
170
“This study’s DMS project
is a great example of the
importance of sharing
solutions across
boundaries. Making
dynamic message signs
consistent between states
is critical to drivers using
them to make better
travel decisions.”
—Cory Johnson,
IntelliDrive Program
Engineer, Mn/DOT
Office of Traffic, Safety
and Technology
DMSs such as this one on I-94 in St. Paul are used to warn travelers about accidents, congestion,
severe weather and other incidents. This study’s ongoing DMS project aims to coordinate their
use between member states. A possible future project would integrate them with other ITS
technologies.
• Traveler Information Dissemination to Commercial Vehicle Operators, which created
recommendations to enhance existing corridorwide trucker and traveler information
dissemination systems.
For its leadership of this pooled fund study, Mn/DOT Research Services received the
CTS 2010 Research Partnership Award and the 2010 Best of ITS Rural Award at the
National Rural ITS Conference in the category Best New Practice.
“Just as valuable as this
study’s projects are the
relationships it helps build
between member states,
leading to better
cooperation on critical
issues.”
—Deb Fick,
Research SP&R
Administrator, Mn/DOT
Research Services
What’s Going On Now?
Member states continue to benefit from this study by developing contacts, sharing lessons learned and promoting the exchange of traveler information. The group is also
currently working on six projects, including:
• Consistent and Coordinated DMS Use, initiated by Minnesota to establish coordinated
use of dynamic message signs and other traveler information dissemination tools along
the corridor.
• NWP Regional Permitting—Phase 2, initiated by Minnesota to identify options and
next steps to move member states toward regional permitting.
• Citizen-Assist Reporting Feasibility Study, to share the results of Wyoming’s current
program for using road condition data reported by travelers, and to explore the possibility of its expansion to other member states.
What’s Next?
The projects under consideration for this study’s next work plan would continue to integrate ITS technologies and coordinate them between states, with possibilities including:
• NWP Regional Permitting—Phase 3, proposed by Minnesota to continue exploring
regional permitting recommendations from Phases 1 and 2.
Produced by CTC & Associates for:
Minnesota Department
of Transportation
Research Services Section
MS 330, First Floor
395 John Ireland Blvd.
St. Paul, MN 55155-1899
(651) 366-3780
www.research.dot.state.mn.us
• Corridorwide Traveler Information Coordination—Operational Test, which would
build on two current projects to conduct an operational test of traveler information
coordination between DMSs, 511 phone, Web and other existing systems.
This Technical Summary pertains to the ongoing Pooled Fund TPF-5(190), North/West Passage Corridor Pooled Fund, continuing the project initiated under TPF-5(093). Details of this effort can be
found at http://pooledfund.org/projectdetails.asp?id=412&status=4,
http://pooledfund.org/projectdetails.asp?id=316&status=23 and http://www.nwpassage.info/.
For more than 25 years, FHWA’s Transportation Pooled Fund Program has been providing state
DOTs and other organizations the opportunity to collaborate in solving transportation-related problems. The TPF Program is focused on leveraging limited funds, avoiding duplication of effort, undertaking large-scale projects and achieving broader dissemination of results on issues of regional and
national interest.
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Produced by CTC & Associates for:
Minnesota Department of Transportation
Office of Policy Analysis, Research & Innovation
Research Services
MS 330, First Floor
395 John Ireland Blvd.
St. Paul, MN 55155-1800
(651) 366-3780
www.dot.state.mn.us/research
Follow us online:
www.facebook.com/MnDOTResearch
www.twitter.com/MnDOTResearch
For more information, please visit:
Minnesota Department of Transportation: www.dot.state.mn.us
MnDOT Library: www.dot.state.mn.us/library
Minnesota Local Road Research Board: www.lrrb.org
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