Audio Magazine May 1957
MAY, 1957
50;
ENGINE ER IN G
MUS I C
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-'1 0 SWITCH
Simplification of an attenuator makes it
possible to use a single·pole switch for
any three desired losses. See page 46.
A transistorized remote for broadcast
stations, but many of its design features
apply to other applications. See page 36.
ABOVE ALL, THE EAR
THE ROLE OF PRINTED WIRING IN HIGH FIDELITY
FORD MEMORIAL AUDITORIUM SOUND REINFORCEMENT
TRANSISTORIZED SINGLE-CHANNEL REMOTE AMPLIFIER
Weathers high fidelity achievements are not measured in words-but dramatically in sound! Weathers
new, improved FM Pickup system is perfectly balanced to a one-gram stylus force, faithfully tracks the
finest record engravings, causes no record wear. Only such dependable design results in perfect tone
quality. Weathers Speaker systems are just as finely engineered. Here you have sound reproduction in
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Write for full
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The DECORATOR
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Export:
Joseph Plasencia. Inc.
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The MONTE CARLO
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selective line of systems for
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WEATHERS STYLUS GAUGE
-a simple. accurate measure
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pickup for its specifically designed tracking force . "makes
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better.
Industries, Div. of Advance Industries, Inc.
66 E. GLOUCESTER PIKE. BARRINGTON, N. 1.
MAY, 1957
VOL. 41, No. 5
Successor to RADIO, Est. 1917.
ENGINEERING
MUSIC
SOUND REPRODUCTION
c.
G. McProlld. Editor anrl Publisher
Henry A. Schober, Business Manager
Harrie K, Richardson, Associate Editor
Joan Dioguardi, Assistant Editor
J arret M. Durgin, Production Manager
Special Representative-
·MEMBER·
NCSTIIUTI
O.
H. Thorpe Covington,
26 East Pearson Street, Chicago 11, Ill.,
DEL 7,0506
Mid West RepresentativeSanford R. Cowan, 30Q W. 49rd St.,
The Unidynes
New York 36, N. Y.
are the world's
W est Coast RepresentativesJames C. Galloway and J, W. Harbison,
6535 Wilshire Boulevard, Los ·..!ngeles 48, Calif,
most widely used
fine microphones.
CONTENTS
Audioclinic- Joseph Giovanelli
2
Letters
6'
New Liter ature
8
Coming E vents
Editor's Report
8
12
Above All, The Ear- J ennis A . N unley
15
The Role of Printed W iring in High Fidelity- N 01'man H. C1'owhurst
17
AUDIO I s 10
21
H i-Fi Salesman-Friend or Foe~-lJ![cwco Ka1'poclines
Ford Memorial Auditorium E xemplifies Sound Redesign-Be1·t Ennis
26
28
A Single-Channel Transistorized R emote Amplifier-John K. B weh
1\\t ~t~1 \~
......... 36
A Matching Impedance, Variable A ttenuation Box-Ha1'old R eed ............................ 46
Equipment Report-Shu1'e B"othe,'s' new ((Dynetic" phon o 1'eproduce1' and a1'm 48
.......................... 51
Record Revue--Edwa1'd Tatnall Canby
Audio ETC-Edwanl Tatnall Canby . .............. .. .......
56
J azz and All That-Cha1'les A . Robe1·tson .
62
About Music-Ha1'old LaW1'en ce
66
New Products
Industry Notes and People
68
79
Advertising Index
80
AUDIO (title recl.tered U. S. Pat. Olr.) .. publlshed montbly by Radlo Magazines, Inc., aenry A. Scbober. Pr",ident;
C. O. MeProud. Secretary. Executive and Editorial om.es. 204 Front St., Mineola, N. Y. SubsrripUo. rat...-U. S.•
P...... ions. Canada and Mexico. $4.00 ror one year, $7.00 ror two years. all otber countries. $5.00 »Or,.aT !lingle
copies SOt . Printed in U. S. A. at Lancaster, Po. All rights reserved. Entire contents copyright 1957 by Radio M..az!nes,
Inc. BDtered u I!oeond C1aa Matter February 9, 1950 at tbe Post om .., Lancaster, Pa. IInder tbe Act
Morell 3, 1879.
0'
RADIO MAGAZINES, INC.,
AUDIO
•
MAY, 1957
p~
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These unidirectional
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Another example of the
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216
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low Hum Pickup: May be used in mod·
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send
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Send for Bulletin TB-4.
Representatives in
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z
,
ALL READERS KNOW, this is the
tenth anniversary of AUDIO MAGAZINE. I have been privileged to be
a regular contributor for somewhat more
than a year and a half. Considering this,
it seems to me that I should try to find
some way for me and AUDIO CLINIC to offer
help to even more readers. There are times,
though, when it seems that the response to
this column has been such that I seem to
get letters from at least three times as
many readers as there are subscribers.
To come down to earth, I believe I have
found the means for giving you, the
reader, a better AUDIOCLINIC. As it stands
now, I answer all' questions submitted to
me, regardless of their suitability for use
in this column. I shall continue doing
this. What I have in mind is a How-ToDo-It section. If you have had difficulty
in doing a particular operation, but finally
did come up with a rsolution, let me know.
If I can use your hints in this section I
shall do so, with credit to whomever sends
in the idea.
These ideas are typical of what I mean;
How you finally prevented overheating
shielded wire when soldering it into place;
a method you developed for simple assembly of speaker or equipment cabinets ;
or perhaps something along this line. In
conj unction with Robert W. Gunderson,
the author developed a means for running
crystal mikes over long lines. This came
about because I had to make a recording
under conditions where the mike was located two hundred feet from the recorder.
'(At the time I did not have any lowimpedance mikes.) We accomplished this
by triode-connecting one of the sub -miniature hearing aid tubes so common on
the bargain counter today, and wiring it
as a cathode follower. From the usual
vacuum tube formulas we determined the
correct bias resistance for this tube. We
had to figure for ourselves since no data
were available for these tubes in the triode
connection. The mike was mounted directly
to the box containing the cathode follower,
with the other end of the box attached to
the microphone stand. With a 200-ft. cable
we could not detect any serious degradation of high frequencies.
You can see that this How-To-Do-It
section can take in almost everything. If
your suggestions can be used, they will be
printed in AUDIO CLINIC over your name.
A
Needle Talk
Q. Quite often, while playing records, I
notice an unpleasant sound coming from
the speaker similar in quality to needle
talk coming f1'om the pickup. This is especially true of loud trumpet passages. How
may I correct this difficulty? Harold E .
Lamb, Atlanta, Georgia
A. The trouble you describe is not at all
unco=on, and it stems from two sources.
The first of these is that too many discs are
recorded with far too much lateral devia·
tion. Secondly, certain cartridg6f:l do not
have sufficient compliance to follow rapid,
wide modulation excursions. In your par* 3420 Newki1'k Ave., Brooklyn 3, N. Y.
ticular case, it is quite likely we a re seeing
a combination of the two factors.
The only thing which I can r ecommend,
short of using another cartridge, is to check
the stylus. If it is woru, this type of distortiou will be all the more apparent.
Power Supply Hash
Q. I am having t1'ouble with a power
supply_ This seems to have caused a 5881
in my amplifie1' to burn out. There doesn't
seem to be much hum in the power supply.
P1'i01' to connecting t he scope to the powe1'
supply, the al1tplifier was disconnected and
the powe1' supply was properly loaded ,'esistively, the value being such as to ca~!se
CU1'1'ent to be dmwn equal to that taken
by the amplifier. The sensitivity of my
scope is 25 millivolts_ When I connect it
directly to the cathode of the rectifie1', 1
must set the sensitivity at x 100, and notice
a nonnal fu ll-wave pattern. Moving the
scope connection to the junction of the two
chokes, (the supply consists of a two-section LC filter), I then need, to increase
the sensitivity to x 10, at which point I
still see the n01'mal full -wave pattern. But
when I connect the scope lead to the output
of the filte1- and increase the sensitivity to
x 1, I note that the pattern does not ,'emain stationa1'y, but jumps up and down,
sometimes going right off the screen. COI!ld
you please explain to l1te what might be
happening? A ll power supply components
have been thoroughly tested, and are of
the highest quality. Charles L. Wilson,
Kansas City, Mo.
A. First, let me say that your power
supply could not in any way be responsible
for the 5881 blowing out. It was either defective to begin with or was bnrned out
because the amplifier was oscillating or because of insufficient bias. You will be glad
to learn that the pattern yon have observed
on your scope is not at all strange. Since
your scope was set at maximum sensitivity,
a change of only 25 thousandths of one
volt would canse a picture to deviate an
inch. Assuming that the supply delivers 400
volts, a change in line voltage of approximately 6.5 millivolts, 6.5 thousandths of one
volt, would be sufficient to cause a trace
to vary one inch. The line is constantly
undergoing changes of at least that much,
and of course they are very rapid. These
changes will canse the filter capacitors to
charge' up to a slightly different value,
which wonld canse some slight fluctuation
in the output. Since these are not necessarily average d.c. changes but, rather, are
instantaneous, they can be translated into
a picture on the scope screen.
It should also be borne in mind that,
because of the proximity of the last choke
in the two-section filter to the power transformer, some 60 cycle hum voltage is induced in that choke. Some of this voltage
can find its way through the filter and appear at the inpnt terminals of the scope.
To prove the existence of this hum voltage,
disconnect the last choke, and connect the
leads directly across the scope's input
terminals. You will probably find quite a
bit of voltage present_
These small fluctuations in power supply
output are not at all harmful, and cannot
even create hum in the output of an ampli'
fieI'. This is so, since the output voltage
and the minute changes in it form a large
ratio. These changes are not so likely to
occur with a power supply whose filter
components are RC, rather than Le, which
probably accounts for your being able to
AUDIO
•
MAY, 1957
o
4-Pol. Shaded "Induction Surge"
Heavy Steel Precision Turntable : A
Motor: He a vy duty, wit h min imu m of vi bration
II inch high I Shields motor; elimi nat es possible
or rumbl el Smoothest. qui etes t, most powerful
hum caused by stray magnetic fields. Flywheel
type available. No hum, eve n w hen used with oction fo compensate fo r any vol tag e varia ti on
sensitive pickups. Self·aligning Oilite bearings
in drive motor.
top and bottom.
I-----------------~
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Genuine Rubber Turntable Traction
Mat: Special tread .. . no abrasive action o n
lusive, Dynamically-Balanced
Super·finished and individually weig ht ed
usive Garrard e(!uipment for true speed.
record grooves .
•
Nois'u less Main Spindle : Rotates
specially designed bearing.
t1'
Iizing Pull-Away Idl.,
True .. tangent Tone Arm of Alumi-
num: Provides rigidily wilh low moss and light
weight. The finest mal e rial for this use ... sim~
ilar to professional orms. End socket pivots to
p ermit perpendicular stylus alignment .
idler perfectl y round and
.•• no rumbl e. AutQmoti~
in any shut~off position.
':"::'::::.!~~:::'::~"::":':':""_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _- I
"Finger-form" Star Switch :
"
Exclusive, Sansi-matic Trip: Permits per·
feCi operation even with lone orm set 01 lowes t
tracking pressures. Safe, gentle. quiet and po s i ~
Knurled knob on back of tone arm sels
pressure instantly and maintains it • •• easy to
use regard less of where player is si tuat ed in
cabinet.
tJ:)
Convertible Tone Arm "$afti .. Res''' :
Supports lon e arm-ready for ploy .. . simple
Exclusive "Snap Mount" Spring As"I-=-~_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
sembly: Permits instant mounting and egn eosMinimum Cabinet Dimensions:
ilv be leve ll ed from lOP of unit.
l eft to right : 143/4" • Front 10 reo r: 12V2"
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Interchangeable Plug-In Heads: Ac-
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Reody (or Plug-Inl 6·ft. Ul-opproved e lect rical
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RC88
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Please send High Fidelity Plan Book
Now, there's a Garrard for every high fidelity system
,
Above Motor Boord: 3"
Below Motor Boord: 2'11 b"
a)
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Mod.,
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~<~.,.'
Zone_ _ _ State_ __
find one among all of your power supplies
which does not exhibit this condition.
Head Alignment
Q. How may I properly align the heads
of my tape recorder? Nat Silvers, N.Y.C.
A. If y.our machine is one of the small
home models, it is likely that there is no
adjustment for this, and !lence nothing can
be d.one. If the machine is one with .one
Dr tw.o heads, proceed in the following
manner. Try to secure a good alignment
tape. (D.o not be t.o.o surprised if you encounter tw.o alignment tapes which yield
differing results.) Run it through the machine, adj usting the alignment to .obtain
maximum output as noted on the machine's
own VU meter, an output meter connected
to the speaker terminals, or aurally as
heard from a loudspeaker or headphones. If
the machine is a single head model, you've
dOlle all you can, and the machine will
automatically record tapes and play t hem
back and they will be in alignment. The
second head on t he two-headed model is
generally the erase head. The positioning
of this head is llOt at all critical, and the
chances are good that there isn't any p r ovision for adjusting it. If poor erasure is
observed, look for a worn head, or for a
weak tube. If no alignment tape is available, use a high-grade recorded tape. If
such a tape is used, do not align for maximum output but for maximum frequency
response as noted aurally. To align a machine which has separate playback and
record heads, proceed as follows: 1. Align
the playback head as . indicated in the
section devoted to aligning single Dr two-
head units. Make this adj ustment as accurately as it can be determined. 2. Remove alignment tape and repl ace it with a
reel of fresh tape or one whose contents
are .of no value. Set the machine to record,
and feed in a test oscillator, tuned to 10 kc,
setting the level at 15 db below zero VU.
3. Monitor the output of th e playback amplifier with the machine's own VU meter,
output meter or loudspeaker, and adjust
1·ecording head for maximum .output.
If a test oscillator is not a vailable, use
the thermal noise .of an FM tuner whose
dial is set between stations. Proceed as
above, but in this instance, listen to the
output and adjust the reco1·ding head for
maximum clarity .of the hiss. Your machine
is now aligned so that the recording and
playback heads correspond to each .other
magnetically . If the pl ayback head was not
properly aligned, t apes recorded .on more
accurately aligned machines, when playea
back on yours, will sound muffled and lack
sheen, the amount of degr adation dependent upon the degree of misalignment .of
the playback head.
Table Rumble
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CANADIAN ASTATIC LIMITED. TORONTO . ONTARtO
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Q. On many records, especially when
playing soft passages, I hear a sound which
can be described only as a roaring. Could
it be caused by voltages induced in the
motor by the pickup? Would a mmb le
filter be of any help? Anyway, how can I
fix it, since I'd rather listen to music than
be 1-oared at. Herebrt M1~ir, Waltham, Mass.
A. The noise you encounter on some
discs is probably caused by the cumulative
effects of turntable rumble, hum pickup
from the motor, and preamplifier hum, plus
whatever rumble components impinged .on
the record at the time of recording. Your
combination of components and discs w.ould
seem ideal for this. Starting with the records, I have observed hum on some recordings, low in amplitude to be sure, but can
become annoying if the turntable rotates
slightly slow or slightly fast. '1'he hum .on
the disc will then form beatnotes with the
hum which is always present in some preamplifiers. Further, some turntables are
known to contain considerable rumble.
From this distance it would seem t hat the
,hum picked up from the motor is probably
the least serious obstacle to overcome, for,
while there is little that can be done to
shield the cartridge, it can be made to
traverse an arc over which the hum will
be at a low minimum.
Before resorting to a rumble filter, try
cleaning up the hum in the preamplifier.
This might be done by applying d .c. to
the heaters of all tubes if they ar e now
supplied with a.c., and by rearranging the
a .c. lines and power supply c.omponents so
that they are separated from the preamplifier proper. If these modifications shonld
be of no avail, a rumble filter is the .only
thing left to try. These devices limit the
low-frequency response of a sound system,
and by so doing, reduce r umble. They are
composed of RC Dr LC circuits, placed at
the input to the preamplifier, or at some
other convenient point, depending upon the
manufacturer.
Reactance Formulas
Q. What are the formulas fOT capa{}itive
and inductive reactance? I f you find this
question suitable for use in your column,
please do not use my name.
A. The formula for inductive reactance
is XL = 2ltfL, wher e XL is t he reactance .of
the coil, f is the f r equency in cycles and L
is the inductance in henrys. The reactance
of a capacit.or may be found by the for mula Xc = 1/2ltfC, where Xc is the reactance of a given capacit or, f is the frequency in cycles, and C is t he capacitance
in farads.
AUDIO
•
MAY, 1957
Arnperex®TUBES
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High-fidelity .authorities may not be in perfect agreement as to the
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world's leading high-fidelity manufacturers. Sold by franchised distributors everywhere ___ available for off-the-shelf deliveries in any
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POWER AMPLIFIER TYPES
6CA7/EL34-Exceptionally linear high-power output pentode with lowvoltage drive requ irements . Up to 100 watts in pu sh-pull.
ELa4/6BQ5- Unique AF power pentode combining high gain and linearity
with 9-pin miniature construction . Up to 17 watts in push-pull.
VOLTAGE AMPLIFIER TYPES
EFa6/6267 - High-ga in pentode with exceptionally low hum, noise and
microphonics. * Particularly suitable for pre-amplifier and input stages.
Equivalent to the Z739 and the 5879 .
ECCal/12AT7 - Medium-gain dual triode with low hum, noise and microphonics. Replaces the 12AT7 without circuit changes .
ECCa2/12AU7-Low-gain dual triode with low hum, noise and microphonics.* Replaces the 12AU7 without circuit changes .
ECCa3/12AX7 - High-gain dual triode with low hum, noise and microphonics.* Replaces the 12AX7 without circuit changes.
ECCa5/6AQa- High-gain dual triode for FM tuners, with shie ld between
sections for reducing oscillator radiation.
RECTIFIER TYPES
EZaO/6V4-lndirectly heated, full-wave rectifier with 6.3 v, 0.6 amp
heater, 90 rna output capacity and 9-pin miniature construction .
EZ81/6AC4-lndirectly heated, full-wave rectifier with 6.3 v, 1 amp
heater, 150 rna output capacity and 9-pin miniature construction.
CZ34/5AR4-lndirectly heated, full-wave rectifier with 5 v, 1.9 amp heater
and 250 rna output capacity. Octal base . Replaces the 5U4G without circuit changes with the advantage of lower tube voltage drop because of
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Nov. 8, 9,10
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6
LETTERS
The Fourth Speed
SIR:
I should like to add a few (im)pertinent
comments to your remarks about the fourth
speed for records. I understand that the
45-rpm speed was arrived at by subtracting
33 from 78. By following this same logic
( ~) we could have:
12 rpm
33 from 45
12 from 33
21 rpm
57 rpm
21 from 78
24 rpm
33 from 57
etc, etc, etc.
By following this system on out we could
have an awful lot of new standard speeds
-without bothering to work it out I'd
say at least a dozen-and if each one could
contribute as much to the standardization
of the industry as RCA said the 45 speed
did . . .
As you can see, in creating new standard
speeds, this system is vastly more efficient
than merely halving existing ones, since
with the latter method we will quickly run
out of speeds at which the quality of reproduction is acceptable, even when the
discs are played on these new distortionless, super-fidelity reproducing systems_
(Available for $19.95 and up at better
gas stations and super-markets everywhere.)
I just can't understand where such an
unscientific speed a s 16% ever came from.
PHIL PHILLIPS
228 S. Summit,
Iowa City, Iowa
"Judge for You rself"
SIR:
If we adopt the attitude that all things
are good, and (since each individual's
opinion is subjective) that one evaluation
of an experience or a product is as good
as another, then all is lost. Competitive
striving for perfection in any realm then
becomes useless. For this reason I feel that
a few more comments on this subject are
in order.
The entire audio reproduction or hi-fi
effort is directed to completely accurate
reproduction of sound. That we are yet
far from this unattainable, but approachable, goal is clear. However, the fact that
some components and some systems closely
approach this ideal while others f all far
short is perhaps not sufficiently well known.
Insurance of accurate reproduction imposes a fantastically difficult set of requirements on each component of a system.
L et us assume a perfect signal source-a
tape or record or FM signal which contains
sufficient totally accurate information to
be identical to the original sounds. Then
all that our reproducer must do is possess
an infinite bandwidth with no phase shift,
contain no harmonic or intermodulation
distortion, have completely flat response
over this infinite band, and produce wave
configurations and apparent sound sources
precisely duplicating the original.
Not all manufacturers of equipment currently meet these minimum specifications,
and not all ears can define how closely
these requirements are met. It is then
necessary to appeal to instruments other
than the ear for preliminary judgements.
So intermodulation meters, calibrated microphone sets, and the like are invoked.
Now, the degree of subjectivity of the
opinion of a unit has been considerably
lessened. After using such devices to obtain the best possible reproduction, then
(Continued on page 78)
AUDIO
•
MAY, 1957
CLARINETS, OVERTONES
AND LOUDSPEAKERS
Leaving
the adjectiv"" to
the people who need them to bolster an absence of facts, we have undertaken a test whereby the JansZen
Electrostatic Speaker and one of the
"best-sounding" Dynamic Speakers
are allowed to "speak" for themselves. Here are the r~sults of the test
- simple, factual and conclusive.
Robert McGinnis, Solo Clarinetist of
the N. Y. Philharmonic, cooperated
with us in tbe measurement of sounds
of the clarinet. Actually, anyone clarinet sound is a composite of over a dozen
different tones, arranged in a natural
acoustical progression. These are the
overtones - or· harmonics.
A "pure clarinet" tone, with its accompanying overtone series (represented by line "A"), was measured. We
charted the intensities relative to the
fundamental tone through the JansZen
Electrostatic ("B") and the Dynamic
Tweeter ("C"). This experiment was
based on a "flat" system response right
up to the speaker terminal. The results
were illuminating. Study the chart, and
note how closely the progression of
tones through the JansZen parallels the
oo·soo
live sound. Compare that with the distortions in the high range of the Dynamic speaker - reaching as much as
18db of difference at 3729 cps! This is
a graphic portrayal of comparative frequency distortion.
While the basic electrostatic principle bas been acknowledged superior
to dynamic designs for upper octave
sounds, it is in the !ansZen, 'With its
precision push-pull design, that this
principle reaches its optimum performance. Because of this, the test must be
considered not an analysis of electrostatic principle per se, but rather a specific comparison of the JansZen Electrostatic with a good dynamic speaker.
While the JansZen does not produce
absolutely identical reproduction of
the live clarinet sound, it does come
closer to the original than any other
high frequency speaker made.
Interestingly enough, women are
more sensitive than men to overtones
in the higher ranges. If your present installation includes a Dynamic
Tweeter, the resultant distortion of
these overtones may well be the cause
of your wife's complaint about the
"shrillness", or "loudness" of your
sound system. She won't be bothered
by this common ailment of high fidelity sound, with the JansZen - and
neither will you. Because the JansZen
gives you the closest thing to live
sound - by actual measurement!
Send for complete
literature on the JallSZen 1-30
Electrostatic as well as the name of
your nearest dealer.
prodllct of NESHAMINY ELECTRONIC CORP"
AUDIO
•
MAY. 1957
NESHAMINY, PA, Export Division: 25 Warren Street, N_ Y. C. 7 Cable: Simontrlce, N. Y.
7
NEW LITERATURE
professional eng in eers, laboratory technicians and e lectroni c h obbyists. Requests
s h o uld specify Form SM- 30.
E-2
• Triad Transfonl1er Corporation, 4055
Redwood Ave., Ven ice, Calif., a nnoun ces
t h e p ublication of its n ew 1957 General
Catalog. Described a nd illustrated are
more th a n 700 transformer types, of whic h
117 are n ew items. Among the new li stings
are toroids, pulse, tra nsi stor, geoph ysical,
power, fi la m e nt a nd a udi o tra nsformers,
a lso chokes an d television components.
Available from any Tri ad distributor or
by writing direct a nd r eq u esting Catal og
TR- 57.
E-l
• Lafaye,t te Radio, 165-0 8 Lib e rty Ave.,
Jamaica 33 N. Y., is offeri ng free a n ew
16-page high fidelity broc hure. I nclude d in
the booklet is a wide selection of speaker
systems, tun ers, amplifiers, an d record
play in g eq uipm ent. Profusely i llu strated,
B r ochure HF-250 is an excellent directory
of latest models made by leading manufact urers. Copy may be ob tained at any
of the s ix Lafayette hi-fi centers or up on
wri tten request.
E-3
• Hickok Electrical Instrument Company,
10 61 2 Dupont Ave., Clevelan d 8, Ohio, li sts
25 pieces of n ew test gear , in cludin g two
co lor gen e r ators and the Cardm a tic "au tomatic" tube tester, in an 8-page catalog
which wi ll be mailed up on request. Thi s
p ublication will b e of di stin ct inte r est to
• Livingston Audio Products Corporation,
L i v in gston, N. J., has just released a new
comprehensive catalog of a ll record ed
tapes avail ab le fro m the compan y's tape
libra r y . Containing more than 40 stereophonic a nd 160 monaural titles, the attr ac tive 48-page book let contains a great var-
iety of music material r anging from clas.
sical to jazz. It a lso features such u nusual
items as a complete performance of a
Shakespeare p lay by a name cast and a
se lect ion of satirical monologues b)<
Henry Morgan. If you own a tape re o
co r der, this catalog is a virtual n ecessity.
Free upon written r equ est.
E-4
• John F. Rider Publishers, Inc., 116 W.
14th St., New York II , N. Y., announ ces
the avai lab ility of a 32-page spring-summer 1957 catal og wh ich describes t h e Rider
p u blications. Covered are the contents of
books presentl y in the Rider lin e as well
as approximate ly 20 titles which will be
released by June. A 4-page a rtic le titled
"Why Read" stresses t he fact that the
printed word is one of the most effective
methods of improving one's background in
the fie l d of professional activ ity . Copy
will be mailed on request.
E-S
• Klipsch and Associates, Hope, Ark., will
mail f r ee a li sting of the titles in cluded
in t h e firm's new line of stereoph on ic recorded tapes. Deve loped to meet t h e demands of those w h o ow n high quality
stereo p layback equipm ent, Klip sc htapes
are recorded to be played at 15 ips. They
a r e recorded under the direction of Paul
"V. K lipsch, des;gner of the well-known
K lipschorn speaker system. A ll Klipschtapes are first gen erat ion copies of origin a l master tapes, made directly from the
master tapes at or iginal recording speed.
E-6
• L.E.E. Inc01'Porated, 625 New Yorl, Ave.,
N.W., Washingto n I, D . C., describes and
illustrates its compl ete line of high fide lity speaker systems, includi ng the well known Catenoid model, in a 6-page 2-color
fo lder which h as just been r e leased. Copy
wi ll be mailed upon written request. E-7
• Shasta DiviSion, Beckman Instruments,
Inc., P.O. Box 296, Station A, Richmond,
Cali f ., has performed a distinct p u blic
service in m ak in g availab le a n 8-page 2co lor brochure describing the function,
appli cations, a11d recent im proveln e nts of
the National B ureau of Standards r adio
stations WWV a nd WWVH. Th e publication a l so d escribes the new Shasta Model
905 WWV rece iver which received its first
public s h owing at the recent l.R.E. trade
s h ow in New York. When r equesting your
copy, specify Data File No. 10.
E-8
"It's the man from down stairs. He says it would sound
better if we had Tung-Sol Hi-Fi Tubes';'
What we're' driving..at is the simple fact that Tung-Sol Audio
Tubes are preferred by makers
of the fine~t Hi-F,i equipfnent.
TUNG-SOL ELECTRIC INC.
'~l!~ark 4,N. J.
@YUNG-SOr
AUDIO TUB·E S
Apr. 28-May 3-81st Convention of the Society of Motion Picture and Television
Engineers, Shoreham Hotel, Washington,
D. C.
May 22-Juue I -Scottish Radio Show, Kel·
vin Hall, Glasgow, Scotland.
August 20-23- WESCON .(Western Electronic Show and Convention) sponsored
by the 7th Region of LR.E. and the West
Coast Electronic Manuf:J.cturers Association. Cow Palace and Fairmount Hotel,
San Francisco, Calif.
Aug. 28-Sept. 7-National Radio & Television Exhibition, E arls Court, London,
England.
Oct. 9-12-New York High Fidelity Show,
presented by the Instit ute of High Fidelity Manufacturers. N . Y. Trade Show
Bldg., New York City.
Nov. 8-10-Puerto Rico Hi-Fi Show, Normanrue Hotel, San Ju an, Puerto Rico.
8
AUDIO
•
MAY, 1957
..
II
"/?// I
U/.f!/P3.
tI~ 4-
HEATH KIT.®.
•
BECAUSE IT'S SUCH GREAT FUN ... AND BECAUSE
WE GET SO MUCH MORE FOR OUR MONEY!"
Every day more and more people (just like you) are finding out why it's smart
to "do-it-yourself" and save by building HEATHKIT high fidelity components.
These people have discovered that they get high-quality electronic equipment
at approximately one-half the usual cost by dealing directly with the manufacturer, and by doing their own assembly work. It's real fu'n -and it's real
easy too! You don't need a fancy work shop, special tools or special knowledge
to put a Heathkit together. You just assemble the individual parts according
to complete step-by-step instructions and large picture-diagrams. Anyone can do it!
Heathkit Model SS-l Speake r System Kit
This high fidelity speaker system is designed to
operate by itself, or with the range extending unit
listed below. It covers the frequency range of 50
to 12,000 CPS within ± 5 db. Two high-quality
Jensen speakers are employed. Impedance is 16
ohms, and power rating is 25 watts'.
Can be built in just one evening.
~5
Shpg. Wt. 30 Ibs.
$3,9
Heathkit Model SS-l B Speaker System Kit
This high fidelity speaker system kit extends the
range of the model SS-I described above. It employs a 15" woofer and a super-tweeter to provide
additional bass and treble response. Combined frequellCY response of both speaker systems is ± 5
db ftom 35 to \6,000 CPS. Impedance is 16 ohms,
and power is 35 watts. Attractive
styling matches SS,\. Shpg. Wt.
801bs.
$999.5
HEATHKIT
"LEGATO" SPEAKER SYSTEM KIT
Months of painstaking engineering by Heath and
Altec-Lansing engineers has culminated in the design of the Legato, featuring "CP" (critical phasing)
and "LB" (level balance). 'The result is a nell' kind
of high fidelity sound, to satisfy even the most
critical audio requirements. Two high-quality 15"
theater-type speakers and a high-frequency driver
with sectoral horn combine to cover 25 to 20,000
cycles without peaks or valleys. "CP" and "LB"
assure ,you of the smooth, flat audio response so
essential ' to faithful reproduction. Choice of two
beautiful cabinet styles below.
"Legato" Traditional Model HH-1-T
Styled in classic lines to blend with period furniture
of all types. Doors attractively paneled. African
mahogany for dark finishes unless
you specify imported white birch $3450~'
for light finishes. Shpg. WI. 246 Ibs.
"Legato" Contemporary Model HH-1-C
This fine cabinet features straightforward design to
blend with your modern furnishings. Slim. tapered
struts run vertically across
the grille cloth to produce ·
a strikingly attractive shadowline. Wood parts are
precu t and predrilled for
simple assembly. Supplied in
African mahoga ny for dark
finishes unless you ' specify
imported white birch for
light finishes.
00
Shpg. wt.
231 Ibs.
•
$325
A Sujisidiary- of Day-stro.!!}, .! nc.
U'J'
BENTON HARBOR 25, MICHIGAN
AUDIO
•
MAY, 1957
>
Il
•
HEATHKIT®
It's Easy (and fun) to Plan Your Own Hi-Fi Installation
By Choosing the Heathkit Components
That Best Suit Your Particular Needs.
As the world's largest manufacturer of electronic equipment in kit form, Heath
Company can provide you with a maximum variety of units from which to
choose. You can select just the amplifier you need from five different models,
ranging in power from 7 watts to 25 watts, some with preamplifiers, and some
requiring a separate preamplifier. You can pick your speaker system from four
outstanding high fidelity units ranging in price from only $39.95 to $345.00. You
can even select a fine Heathkit FM or AM Tuner! Should there be a question
in your mind about the requirements of an audio system, or about planning
your particular hi-fi installation, don't hesitate to contact us. We will be pleased
to assist you.
MATCHING CABINETS . .•
The Heath AM Tuner, FM Tuner
and Preamplifier are housed in
matching satin-gold finished cabinets to blend with any room decorating scheme. Can be stacked one
over the other to create a central
control unit for the complete high
fidelity system.
~
-~~
~
_
-
[email protected]
MODEL FM·3A
~~
-~
"" r-.
_
IV.....
MODEL Be.l
~
=::;
tr.
e <0 <0 <0 (l)
II,!'
MODEL WA·P2
PRE. ALIGNED TUNERS • ••
A unique feature of the Heathkit AM and
FM Tuners is the fact that both units are preali gned. A signal generator is not necessary!
IF and ratio transformers are pretuned at the
factory, and some front-end components are
preassembled and pretuned. Another "extra"
to assure you of t'asy kit assembly.
_ .-.1".
HEATH COMPANY
A Subsidiary of Daystrom, Inc .
BENTON HARBOR 25, MICHIGAN
EASY TIME PAYMENTS ••• We invite you to take advantage of the Heath Time Payment Plan on any order
amounting to $90.00 or more. Just 10% down and the balance in twelve monthly
payments. WRITE FOR COMPLETE DETAILS.
10
AUDIO
•
M~Y,
1'957
HIGH FIDELITY SYSTEM
o
HEATHKIT HIGH FIDELITY FM TUNER KIT Features AP C
and stabilized, temperature-compensated oscillator.
Sensitivity is 10 microvolts for 20 db of qui eting. Modern
circuit covers standard FM band from 88 to 108 mc. Employs ratio detec,t or for effici ent hi-fi performa nce. Power
suppl y is built in. Illumin ated slide rule dial for easy
tuning. Housed in compact satin-gold enamel cabinet.
Features prealigned transform ers and front end tuning
unit. Sbpg. Wt. 7 Ibs.
MODEL FM-3A Incl. Excise Ta x (with cab.)
$2,60 dwn ., $2 ..1 8 mo .
E)
HEATHKIT BROADBAND AM TUNER KIT This fine AM
Tune r was designed es peci all y for use in hi gh fid elity
applications, and features broad bandwidth, hi gh sensitivity and good selectivity. Employs special detector circui t.
using crystal diodes for minimum signal distortion, eve n
at high levels. Covers 550 to 1600 kc. RF a nd IF coils a re
preali gned. Power supply is built in. Housed in attractive
satin-gold enamel cabinet. Shpg. Wt. 8 lbs.
MODEL BC-1 Incl. Excise Ta x (with cab.)
$2 .60 dwn ., $2.18 mo .
o
HEATHKIT DUAL-CHASSIS HI-FI AMPLIFIER KIT This
20-watt Williamson-type amplifier employs the
fa mous Acrosou nd model TO-300 output transformer, a nd
uses 588 1 tubes. Frequ ency response is ± ' 1 db from 6 cps
to 150 kc at 1 watt. H armonic distortion less th an 1 % at
2 1 watts, and 1M distortion less th an 1.3 % at 20 watts.
Output impedance is 4, 8 or 16 ohms. Hum and noise are
88 db below 20 watts.
MODEL W-3M
MODEL W-3 : Consi sts of W-3M
plu s WA-P2 Preampl iiier
Shpg. WI. 37 lb •.
$6. 95 dwn.
$69 • 50
Express onl y
G)
E)
HEATHKIT HiGH FIDELITY PREAMPLIFIER KIT This pre-
amplifier meets or exceeds specifications for even
the most ri gorous high fid elity applications. It provides
a total of 5 inputs, each with individual level controls.
Hum and noise are extremely low, with special bala[Jce
control for absolute minimum hum level. Tone controls
provide 18 db boost and 12 db cut at 50 cps, a nd 15 db
boost and 20 db cut at 15,000 cps. Four-position turnover and four-position rolloff controls for "LP", "RIAA",
"AES", and "early' 78" equ alization. Derives power from
mai n amplifier, requiring only 6.3 V AC at lA and 300
VDC at 10MA. Beautiful satin-gold enamel fini sh. Shpg.
Wt. 71bs.
$197.5
MODEL WA-P2 {with cab.}
$1 .98 dwn ., $1 .66 mo .
o
HEATHKIT ADVANCED-DESIGN HI-FI AMPLIFIER KIT
This fine 25~watt high fidelity amplifier employs KT6 6
output tubes by Genalex and a Peerless output transformer for top performance. Frequency response ± 1 db from
5 to 160,000 cps at 1 watt. H armonic distortion less than
1 % at 25 watts, an 1M distortion less th an 1 % at 20 watts.
Hum and noise are 99 db below 25 watts, Output impedance is 4, 8 or 16 ohms . Extremely stable circuit with
"extra" fe atures.
MODEL W-5: Consists of W·5M
plus WA-P2 Preamplifier
,Shpg. WI. 38 lb •.
Express only
$79 • 50 $7$6.95
dwn . .
.68' rna :
MODEL W-5M
$59 75
$5 .98 dwn .
•
$5.02 mo .
Shpg . WI. 31 lb •.
Ex press only
$4. 98 dwn.
~ 4 . 18 mo.
Shpg. WI. 29 lb •.
Express only
$5.84 mo .
20-watt Williamson-type amplifier combines high perfo rmance with eco nomy. Employs Chicago-Standard output tra nsfo rm er and 5881 tu bes. Frequ ency res ponse ± 1
db from 10 cps to 100 kc at 1 watt. H a rmonic distortion
less th an 1.5% and 1M distortion less than 2.7% at f ull
output: Output 4, 8 or 16 ohms. Hum and noise-95 db
below 20 watts.
MODEL W-4AM
$59 • 50
Expres s onl y
I::),.
t'
$49 75
•
HEATHKIT SINGLE-CHASSIS HI-FI AMPLIFIER KIT This'
. MODEL W-4A : Consist s of W-4AM
plus WA-P2 Preamplifi er
Shpg. WI . 35 lb •.
$5.95 dwn.
r
I:. .
t
f ..
I
$39 75
$3.9 8 dwn .
•
$3. 34 mo .
Shpg. WI. 28 lb •.
$5 .00 mo.
Express only
HEATHKIT 20-WATT HIGH FIDELITY AMPLIFIER KIT
IL
'. ,
~ Features full 20 watt output using push-pull 6L6
tubes . Built-in preamplifier provides four separate inputs.
Separate bass and treble controls. Output transform er
tapped at 4, 8, 16 and 500 ohms. D esigned for home use,
but also fi ne for public address work. Response is ± 1 db
from 20 to 20,000 cps. H armoni c distortion less th a n 1 %
at 3 db below rated output. Shpg. Wt. 23 Ibs.
$355~
MODEL A-9B
O•
$3 .55 dwn. , $2 .98 mo .
HEATHKIT ELECTRONIC CROSS-OVER KIT This device
separates high and low frequencies electronically, so
they may be fed throu gh two separate amplifiers driving
separate speakers. Eliminates the need for conventional
cross-over. Selecta ble cross-over frequencies are 100, 200,
400, 700, 1200,2000 and 3500 cps. Separate lev~l controls
for high and low frequency cha nnels. AttenuatIOn 12 db
per octave. Shpg. WI. 6lbs.
95 $1.90 dwn .,
$18
MODEL XO-1
•
$1.59 mo .
t:'\ HEATHKIT 7-WATT ECONOMY AMPlIF~ER. KIT .Qualifies
U
for hi gh fidelity even though more lImIted ~n power
th an other Heathkit models. Frequency response IS ± 11/2
db from 20 to 20,000 cps. Push-pull output a~d sepat:at.e
bass and treble tone controls. Good high fid elIty at mlntmum cost. Uses special tapped-scree n output transformer.
MODEL A-7E: Same as A-7D exce pt one
more tube added for e xtra preamplifl cation . Two inputs , RIAA compensation
and e xtra gain .
Shpg . WI. 10 Ib, .
Incl . Excise Ta x
$19 • 95
$2.00 dwn .
$1.68 mo .
MbDEL A-7D
$1.80 dwn .
$1.51 mo .
$17 95•
.,,
I ncl . Excise Ta x
Shpg. Wt. 10 Ib, .
HOW
to ORDER.
Just identify kit by model ntimjjer
and 'send order to ' address below. :
Write for further details jf you wish
to budget your purchase on the
HEATH T fM E' PAY MENT P L AN .
r;:;;-A-;-;:;~;';;';;-----------
.I
A Subsidiary of Daystrom, Inc.
1 BENTON HARBOR 25. MICHIGAN
I Please send Free HEATHKIT catalog.
I
I
' I Narne
' I .4:ddress
·'1 City & Zone
State
"
I
1
I
I
II
I
I
___L...--------------------J
AUDIO
•
MAY, 1957
.11
EDITOR'S REPORT
SO MUCH HAS BEEN SAID
ON THE SUBJECTof sound r eproduction draws us r epeatedly to that old saying which
relates to the senior in college who expanded the
freshman's "I don 't know" to the more erudite "So
much has been said on the subject and on the whole
so well said that I do not feel that I can add anything
further. " In a sense, this is the way we feel about
much of the published material concerning stereo and
about sound reproduction as a whole.
So we went to Sound Headquarters-Bell Telephone
Laboratories-and requested permission to bring to
our readers some of the original technical papers
covering many of the classic experiments and developments upon which our industry is founded. Permission has been granted and, beginning with the June
issue, AUDIO will present as a monthly series these
authoritative articles-complete and unabridgedfrom the pages of the Bell Laboratories R ecord and
The Bell System T echnical Journal.
The first article in the series is titled The Reproduction of Orchestral Music in Auditory P erspective. It
covers that notable event of April 27, 1933, when a
performance of the Philadelphia Orchestra was transmitted by wire from the Academy of Music in Philadelphia to Constitution Hall in Washington with a
degree of effectiveness which would be impressive even
by today 's standards. Later articles will include such
classics as Technical Problems of Stereophonic Reproduction by a group of BTL engineers, and Loudness, Its Definition, Measurement and Calcttlation by
Harvey Fletcher and W. A. Munson.
It goes without saying that our gratitude to Bell
Telephone Laboratories for this generous gesture is
both deep and sincere. And we are certain that our
satisfaction in being able to publish these articles will
be matched by the interest with which they are accepted by our readers.
C
ON TEMPLATION ON THE SCIENCE
STACKED vs. STAGGERED
This is a subject which has been handled with kid
gloves for too long, yet it is one which affects everyone
who is either a user or a potential user of recorded
stereo tapes. 'Way back in the 20's we had two different typ.es of phonograph records-vertical cut, as
represented by Edison and one or two others, and
lateral cut, as represented by Columbia Gramophone,
Victor Talking Machine Co. and others. There was a
time when it was necessary to have a "turnover"
sound box if one were to play both. Finally, the
Edison-type gave way completely, and the lateral
phonograph record became the standard. As we all
know too well now, we were far from standardized as
to recording characteristics, but before electrical recording and reproduction it didn 't make too much
difference.
Records improved considerably over the next tenyear period, and we· r esorted to tone controls to make
any final adjustments. With the advent of the LP,
along with high quality magnetic pickups, minor .differences in recording characteristics became really
important, and anyone who has followed hi-fi since
LP 's were introduced knows how long it was until we
had even a fair amount of standardization . . Now, of
course, practically any current record will play well
with RIAA equalization.
Up to now, it seems as though we are likely to have
a similar problem with tape-particularly stereo tapes.
It is bad enough that the equalization characteristics
of the various machines are not uniform, but part of
that can be attributed to differences in tastes among
those who have the responsibility of passing on the
prototypes before they go into production. A much
more important variance from good engineering practice is the existence of two types of stereo tapesstacked and staggered.
Throughout the industry it is recognized that the
original stereo recorder resulted from the idea that a
machine made for two-channel instrumentation could
also be used for music. Trial proved that it could, and
since the machines were available it was natural that
this use would be publicized. And with a rapidly developing market~ wha~ was more natural than the introduction of recorded stereo tapes 1
Most instrumentation applications demand a very
high degree of isolation between the two (or more )
channels, and it is most easily obtained by the use of
completely separate heads. Thus the two recording or
reproducing gaps had to be spaced, and a distance in
the vicinity of 114 in. became standard. However,
with the staggered tracks, it is practically impossible
to do a proper job of editing. Furthermore, it seems
doubtful if completely accurate spacing can be maintained in production of the machines. Anyhow, stereo
tracks do not need a high degree of isolation, because
the material on one track is so very similar to that on
the other, and after all, both ears h ear both tracks at
the same time.
With a more realistic approach, another company
brought out the stacked-head machine. The tapes are
easier to edit, and the phase relation of the two tracks
r emains absolutely constant. But with two "standarqs,'" recorded-tape companies almost had to provide
tap·es for bGth, which doubles their inventory and it
doubles the inventory of the retail dealer.
At this moment, however, it looks as though the
stacked head will be the winner in the long run. According to R etailing Daily (now Home Furnishings
Daily ) for March 29, RCA has discontinued the manufacture of recorded tape for staggered-head machines,
two manufacturers of staggered recorders are r eady
with kits to convert the machines to stacked-head
models and a third is considering the change, and
there are no signs of the reverse of this trend. Naturally we are in favor of this move, and hope it will
soon become universal.
One tape and recorder retailer recently sent out an
open letter to the industry with a strong plea for
standardization on stacked heads, and they back up
their opinion by r(jfusing to handle staggered machines and tapes because they "like to keep their
customers happy." We believe they are right, and
trust that more will follow in their lead. There is certainly no room for both systems.
AUDIO
• . MAY, 1957
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En joy a de monstration at your hi -Ii sound s t~dio .. . you 'l l hear the diff ere nce. For the dealer nearest you or lor literature writ e Dept. A-16
AUDIO
•
MAY, 1957
13
Bell Laboratories engin eer Cyril A. Collins, B.S. in E.E., Uni versity of Washin gton, demonstra tes new TV switching control panel for black and white or color. Complex switching
connec tions are set up in advance; in a split-second a master button speeds dozens of
programs to their desti nati ons all over th e nation_ Special constant-impedance techniqu e
permits interconnection of any numb er of broadband circuits without picture impairment.
•
T·e lephone SCIence
speeds TV enjoyment
Telephone science plays a crucial
part in your TV entertainment. An
interesting example -one of many
-is the latest TV switching center
developed at Bell Telephone Laboratories.
Switching centers control the
transmISSIOn of programs which
come to your local TV station over
Bell System facilities. To be available exactly on cue, programs must
be switched at high speed and with
very great accuracy.
To create the new switching center Bell Laboratories engineers borrowed from the switching control
art which handles your dial teleph-one calls. They developed a
special control panel which puts
complex swi tching patterns within
the easy grasp of one man. By pushing buttons, he sets up-and doublechecks-forthcoming network
changes far ahead of time. On cue
he presses a master button which
sends the programs racing to their
respective destinations around the
nation.
To connect the broadband CIrcuits, the Laboratories engineers
developed a new video switch which
operates on a constant-impedance
principle. The new switch permits
the interconnection of any number
of circuits, without the slightest impairment of transmission quality.
Thus the technology which serves
your telephone also works for your
TV enjoyment.
BELL TELEPHONE LABORATORIES
@.
~
~I.O.TlII
~::,
WORLD CENTER OF COMMUNICATIONS RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
Above All, The Ear
JENNIS A. NUNLEY ':'
A light in the darkness anent the mysteries of hi-fi as practiced by the cultists: This
author, with his feet on the ground, wraps a strong lesson up in a bit of humor which
may tend to mislead, but, if we may resort to a colloquialism-he's got a point there.
Marry, this is yet but young, and may
be left
To some ea1'S um·ecounted.
Shakespeare.
catalog number 112, dated 1947 (actually published in 1946) which I have
carefully preserved . In " this catalog,
there are about four pages devoted to
things which were then termed high
fidelity (versus over 60 pages in the
AOK IN 1946, when high fidelity first
Allied 1957 catalog). The most choice
started to roll again, I was working amplifier offered then was the Altec
in the office of an oil firm and of A-323, a 15-watt job. This boasted the
about 300 _office "workers,_there. were. only phenomenal resp"onse ~ of 20-20,000 .cps,
two of us who had any knowledge of within plus or minus 1 decibel. The unit
what hi-fi meant. The other fellow, Jack, had 2 percent harmonic and 8 perce.nt 1M
was a good deal more active than " I , distortion at rated output and sold for
being on a higher salary (hi-fi was some- $118.00. This was hot stuff. Allied's own
what more expensive then than it is Knight hi-fi amplifier was somewhat less
today). Jack used to take great pleasure expensive at $59.95 and carried these
in regaling me with recounts of his ex- words in the specifications list: "F1'eperiences over the weekends, which he q2tency R esponse. High-fidelity fredevoted entirely to experimentation. At quency r Esponse-flat within plus 01'
that time, the triode was the thing, and minus 2 db, from 30 to 12,000 cps.
Jack had been building up an amplifier Extremely wide coverage." The unit inwith transformer-coupled triodes, using cluded variable automatic volume expanexpensive imported "pots" (his word for sion , a feature which I would like to see
the transformers), which came from incorporatec1 more extensively in present
[Implifiers. Altogether, we felt, the
England.
One Monday morning, Jack came Knight was not a bad amplifier. Another
bursting into the office, wild-eyed and statement extracted from the specificalacking for sleep. "The doggone thing tions list of the Knight seems a trift.e
will pass a square wave!" he announced naive today but is a splendid indication
triumphantly. I was positively struck of the almost natal state of hi-fi in 1946 :
" Inve1'se F eedback. Imparts triode qualidumb.
Jack's announcement had been' made ties to the 6L6G beam-power output
in a loud voice and I became aware of stage and yet preserves the well-known
irritated looks from the clerks around efficiency of the 6L6G tubes; improves
me, and a particularly malignant one tone quality and reduces hum and noise.
from the section boss, who had been ' An important engineering feature."
hearing too much lately of decibels, frequency response, and waves. To avoid Proof of the . . .
Getting back to Jack and his all-triode,
antagonizing my associates, I hurried
Jack off downstairs for a cup of coffee. transformer-coupled amplifier. Finally:
In the coffee sh0p, Jack breathlessly after, a , couple of weeks of. ironing out
told me "of his completing the amplifier bugs (mostly hum and noise), he invited
and of the various tests he had made on me around to listen to his rig. The first
it. All of the tests had indicated results part of the "audition" consisted of peerfar exceeding his expectations and he was ing at a 3-inch oscilloscope screen while
completely jubilant. The fact that the the amplifier "passed" square waves, and
amplifier had succeeded in reproducing then observing the needle of an a.c.
a square wave with only a small amount meter while Jack fed various signals to
of deformation was the crowning the input of the amplifier. At last, Jack
achievement and, in 1946, that did rep- got around to connecting the amplifier
to a pickup and to a pretty decent Altec
resent a fair accomplishment.
Although this has nothing to do with 12-in. coaxial in a " conventional bassthe main subject of this piece, with your reft.ex cabinet. He put on a couple of
indulgence I will digress a moment to his better 78's (no LP's in 1946) and I
describe brieft.y the state of high fidelity sat back to listen. This part obviously
in 1946, for the newcomers and for those made Jack nervous; he much preferretl
who have forgotten. This is best pre- the oscilloscope and "meter tests to the
sented by a copy of Allied Radio Corp. rather mundane act of just listening.
The listening test was quite satisfying
* 225 "J " St., Salt Lake City 3, Utah. to me, especially since Jack had put on
B
AUDIO
•
MAY, 1957
one of my favorite recordings. The latter
fact, of course, I would not dare mention to Jack, in fear of revealing to him
my incredible naivete in considering the
music itself almost as important as the
electrical characteristics of the reproduc·
ing system. Actually, with no vanity involved, I secretly did not think that
Jack's system sounded much better than
my commercially built combinatiou:
which Jack had degraded violently, refused to consider as a serious sound reproducer, and would not condescend to
listen to.
To some, Jack may sound like an intolerant, disagreeable person, but, on the
contrary, he was ple:u::ant, enthusiastic,
and a nice person to know. He was infected, however, with a condition that
has grown right along with high fidelity
and is part and parcel of a great many
audiofans today. This condition consists
of being too much intrigued with electrical matters rather than with the product of these elaborate electrical schemes,
and with being too much impressed by
more or less abstract electrical- tests and
data. Jack, being one of the avant garde;
was perhaps more radically inclined
toward this condition than most; happily, many audiofans strike a good balance between listener and electrician.
The two roles are "intertwined and complement each other perfectly, if allowed
to do so.
In the November 1953 issue of Rad-io
and T elevision News, Alva R. Wilson
describes an amplifier of his own design
(the merits of which will not be discussed here), and in the second paragraph makes this statement: "Just to
be different, therefore, we ine going to
describe an amplifier whose audio curve
is far from flat. We have designed an
amplifier to please the human ear and
not an oscilloscope." This paragraph
startled me somewhat, and I can imagine
the knowing smiles and disgusted sneers
it must have evoked among hi-fi people
all over the country. What startled me
was not the unspeakable idea expressed
in the paragraph but that Mr. Wilson
should have the courage to allow his
name to appear in connection with such
a statement in a serious, widely-read
magazine. ~o publicly blaspheme against
the response curve and the hallowed
oscilloscope in connection with audio
seemed so alien as to smack of extreme
liberalism, or communism, or something,
15
The Ear's the Thing
So here we have a man who designed
an amplifier to please the human ear!
I'm almost as .dumbfounded as I was
when Jack first told me that his rig
would pass a square wave. And now I'm
going to jump right into the pool of
sharks with Mr. Wilson and confess
that I, too, feel that the human ear, not
an oscilloscope or an a.c. meter, should
be the ultimate test for any music system. In the following paragraphs, I am
going to ga,.as far as to let a little of
my blood ~'t~ the water, just to infuriate
the sharks, and see if I can come out
without being chewed up. In other
words, I will attempt to justify, or at
least to rationalize my stand,
I am going to take the liberty of referring occasionally to that great and
amusing oracle, Mr. G. A. Briggs, using
as a source his book, Sound Reproduction (3rd Edition), which is published
by the Wharfedale Wireless Works of
England, and purveyed in this country
by British Industries Corporation.
I will start by making a direct quotation from Mr. Briggs' chapter on The
Ear, which will lead toward certain observations: "It is often stated that distortion is produced in the ear at low
frequencies by the non-linear lever
action of the bones of the middle ear,
but I am inclined to think that this
statement should be accepted with reserve." Mr. ' Briggs is certainly correct
in accepting the statement with reserve
but should the statement be accepted at
all, with or without reserve ~ There are,
no doubt, some people who would like to
be able to wire the output of an amplifier directly to the brain (with appropriate matching transformer) , thus
avoiding the clumsy exchange of sound
impressions from speaker to air to ear
to brain. The ear, being composed of
spontaneously formed protoplasm, is
not subject to redesign and therefore
must frustrate many experimenters who
see a number of flaws in its construction.
We must consider, however, whether
or not the ear is capable of imperfection
or of introducing distortion, within the
limits of the definition of the term "distortion" as applied to audio matters.
Distortion, as we all know, is any deviation in reproduction from the original
sound as pe1'ceived by the human ea1',
be it spurious harmonics, unequal reproduction at different frequencies, or any
of the other improper variations which
beset the reproducing system. This definition obviates the possibility of the ear
being responsible for real distortion .
barring actual physiological change i~
the ear between the time of hearing the
ori.g inal sound and hearing its reproduced replica. If there is "distortion"
in the ear at a given frequency then
this "distortion" is generated ~s the
original sound is heard and identically
16
generated as the reproduced sOl,lIld is
heard. The "distortion" becomes a real
part of the sound to the individual listener and to him is the natural and true
sound; thus, in actuality, there is no
real distortion present. We must concede
that all true reception of sound begIns
at the ear shell. From there through the
various bones, liquids, membranes, and
nerves, there is, by definition, no distortion possible. The "response" of the
ear is p e1'!ect to the individual to whom
the ear belongs; it is the instrument
which has acquainted him with the world
of sound since birth and it is the instrument which brings it to him today, and
he has no othe1·. (Look around the othe1'
side of his head, En.)
If there were some way of improving
hearing, say by increasing the highfrequency hearing of one whose ear
naturally and inherently does not perceive the high frequencies, the result
would not be pleasing. The individual
would, until sufficient time had elapsed
for him to become accustomed to the
change, complain unnaturalness in
sound, and possibly he would develop a
dislike for the piccolo. Similar results
would be obtained if the lever which is
presumably responsible for low frequency "distortion" in the ear were remodeled in conformance with good audio
pmctice. We may fiddle with amplifiers;
design new speakers and enclosures,
even control the temperature and humidity of the air that surrounds the ear, but
once the vibrations have reached the ear.
then the matter is beyond our purview. .
/lllir~""';~ ;;'!' . ,"
c,~
i-.
Use of Instruments
Outside the ear, then, we have thc
various tests, the 1M figures, the curves:
the scope tracings, and so on, which
(don't mistake me) are of great value,
but they are of value only in helping
the ear to find out why it is not pleased:
never to tell the ear when it is pleased
or when it is not pleased. If distortion
is heard in the playback of a recording,
OJ:: if it sounds flat or unnatural, it is
quite proper that assistance from instruments more precise and discriminating
than the ear should be sought in order
to determine why the reproduction was
not pleasing. But picture the predicament of the fool whose instruments, by
all the established rules, indicate that he
should have good reproduction but whose
ears find the final result unpleasing.
("Oh, but that is iillpossible," you may
say.) I s he to ignore the evidence of his
ears and conclude that the reproductioll
is good because the instruments tell him
so'! His diametric opposite is the mall
(like Mr. Wilson) whose amplifier tests
poorly but renders sounds that are almost indistinguishable from the originaL
Of these two, who is the happier '! Well,
if we must make a choice, I will be found
in the camp of the man whose rig sounds
good, for (am I a freak'll I can sooner
forget a poor scope trace than a tortured
chord assailing my ears.
But, alas, you are going to win over
me to an extent, for I am forced to make
a rather large concession (and here the
shark gets a bite of me) : a reproducing
system which tests good almost invariably sounds good. With eyes downcast,
I also concede that this is one of the
major reasons why tests are used so extensively in connection with audio equipment. Another reason, however, is that
a battery of test equipment can remarkably transform an amateur into a professional, at least in the eyes of another
amateur, and nothing can hide the shprtcomings of a reproducing system quite
so well as a cluster of data and a lengthy
demonstration of characteristics on the
faces of meters and scope screens. It
might be pointed out that :Y.Ir. Briggs
relies heavily on oscillograms in his research, but it is also evident that he takes
a distinct pride in his ability to hear,
without the aid of instruments, what is
best in reproducers.
It has OCCUlTed to me that absolutely
precise measurements of sound (as differentiated from electrical voltages 01'
currents) are impossible. We most certainly may say that a reproducing system has definite electrical characteristics;
each component may be measured electrically with results as precise as the
measurer has time, money, skill, and patience to make them. A magnetic pickup
delivers exactly so many volts at such
and such a current at a given excitation
(the record grove) ; an amplifier delivers
constant-wattage output at a given excitation and this can be compared with
the level of excitation to produce very
exact and useful results. We may then
use this precisely known energy to excite a loudspeaker cone and we may
measure the excursions of the cone for
each given excitation, again with exact
r esults. If we assume blindly that the
cone excursions represent an exactly
proportional amount of actual sound,
then we know how much sound has been
reproduced. But we can make no such assumption without actually measuring the
intensity and volume of sound and comparing them with the excitation and cone
excursions. This is where the impossible
is introduced, for the1'e is no known
method of m easu1'ing sound exactly .
If that last sentence has taken your
breath away, I will wait calmly while
you recover, then listen patiently while
you gasp, "But, my dear sir, all that is
necessary is to place a microphone in
front of the speaker and measure the
electrical output of the microphone."
You are right, but to a limited extent.
In such a measuring set-up, we must take
into account the sound-to-electrical-out(Continued on page 73)
AUDIO
•
MAY, 1957
The Role of Printed Wiring
High Fidelity
NORMAN H.
•
In
CROWHURST~:
While t here is often an advantage in cost with this new technique, its principal advantage is in
t he im prove ment in pe rformance, particularly when applied to tuner and audio ampl ifier ci rcuits.
announcements of
a "revolutionizing" development.
So often that thoughtful p eople,
and engineers in particular, are apt to
think "wait and see," whenever a reporter writes, "I ventUl'e to predict that
the present system will be . entirely obsolete in 5 years from now." The advent
and development of printed wiring, or
printed circuitry, has been followed with
c0nsiderable interest by manufacturers
of high fidelity equipment, waiting to
see what someone else would do. This is
understandable in view of the investment involved.
About 18 months or so ago, H armanKardon undertook this very bold stepand they are still very much in business !
Now that they have this experience behind them, I decided to investigate their
conclusions on the subject: whether they
had found a productive field or whether
they may be thinking of abandoning it
as a rather expensive experiment: Over
at the Harman-Kardon plant I found
a very interesting story.
W
E OFTEN READ
What a re its Poten ti al Advantages ?
Probably most r eaders would expect
the principal advantage of the n ew process to be reduced production costs. This
is the big point in its use for television
production and consequently is probably
its best known advantage.
What seems to be less known is the
advantage it achieves in precision construction and the consistency of the resulting product. This fact is exemplified
in the use of printed wiring technique
for all items of computer and guided
missile equipment. There it is not used
primarily because of reduced production
cost, which is not usually a factor, but
because it gives greater reliability and
product consistency.
N ot on~y are lead dress, and similar
f eatures of a product, identical from
unit to unit along an indefinitely long
production run, but quality control is
much simplifie~ by the very fact that
the entire circuit is readily visible. It is
much easier to look for defective wiring
simply by inspecting a printed board.
* 150-47 14th Road, Whi·t estone 57., N. Y.
AUDIO
•
MAY, 1957
Fig . 1. Ha rma nKa rd o n
re ceiver
chassis co nstr ucte d
wi th t he p rinte dwi rin g te ch ni q ues
d e scribe d .
Pe rforman ce is he ld
t o ext re me ly close
limi ts.
A dry joint is at once visible. The "qual- sign "to bed" so the production departity" of the wiring can be r educe.d to a ment can go on making it, can turn
lJ1atter of tolerances the same as the their attention wholeheartedly to the
value of a r esistor or a capacitor- development and design of another new
something that was never possible using product.
But enough of this generalizing. Let's
the old method of wiring.
In the audio field a continuation of examine some of the things that Hare.xpendiful'e on engineering time, after man-Kardon found in their change-over
a product has gone into production, has . from the old fashioned ~ethod of wircome to be expected. Companies r egu- ing to the printed wiring technique.
larly allocate engineering time to pro- Originally they laid down equipment to
duction follow-through for years-in convert their existing product lines to
fact, indefinitely- because little bugs printed wiring pI'oduction. Then, havke.ep cropping up in the production line, ing found this successful, they went fur long after the prototype circuit has been ther. Engineering went to work on new
"finalized" (a word that seems to have designs. So they ar e now manufacturing
lost its meaning!). It seems as if engi- product lines that were exclusively deneering is only finished when a product signed for production by printed wirline becomes obsolete. This has always ing technique, as well as printed wiring
been a considerable drag on high fidelity versions of their original products. This
engineering departments. They never says the experiment was successful.
seem to be entirely free to give undivided attention to the development of Funda m enta l Diffe rences
They had to learn, in applying the
new products. Always they have to be
taking time out to re-work production ' process to high fidelity equipment, that
this is a different field fr0ID either teleitems.
The printed wiring technique has vision or computer and guided missile
brought in sight the end of this nevel'- type equipment. The main purpose here
finished-engineering aspect. The engi- never was p roduction in vast quantities
neering department, having put a de- at much ' lower cost, as in the television
17
o
the two sides. This is an extremely fragile method, because the plating is only
about .002 in. thick and the sharp cornel'S where it joins the etched metal on
each face of the board are weak points
where it can easily crack and break the
connection.
Another possibility is the use of a
connecting lead from a resistor or capacitor inserted in this position, relying on the solder to flow through from
one to the other and make a successful
joint with the metal on both sides of
the board. This too can prove quite unsatisfactory because it is so easy for a
contaminant to get on the resistor lead
that may obstruct the flow of solder
fJ'om one side to the other. Using an
extra long period or a higher temperature in the solder to overcome this can
result in the solder flowing too f ar up
so as to damage some of the components,
espeoially switches, volume controls and
similar items.
The best solution seems to be to design the board around a circuit that
Fig . 2 . Met hod of ma king mock-up dra w ing w hi ch se rves a s ma ste r fo r p roduction of
prints on one side only. Actually a lamiprinted-w iring pan e l. Pressure sensi ti ve tape is use d for la yi ng ou t "wi re s" betw e en
nate is used and the part of the copper
co nn e ctio n p oints.
surface not wanted for the circuit is
industry. The high fidelity consumer with "loop-over s" in a schematic) . This etched away. The etched copper is on
wants a better product for 'Ii:is money is inevitable in any electronic circuit. one side of the board and the resistors
and, as a secondary inte.rest, he would The original approach was to print some and other components have their leads
of the cU'cuit on each side of the board pushed through from the other side.
like to get it for less money too.
In the television industry, the printed and make through connections from the Loop-overs from one connection to anboards are made up in individual units, part on one side to that on the other. other are achieved by jumpers of tinned
of which there are quite a number to a This involves twice the printing cost, copper wire, inserted by the same macomplete TV set. In the high fidelity because there has to be art work and a chine that inserts the resistors. Holes are
amplifier the better approach is to get printing operation for each side of the made in the "wiring" of the etched metal
in the right place to accommodate these
as much as possible on one board. This board.
But the serious problem is getting a jumpers and the inserting machine bends
gives a maximum consistency in the finished r esults, because as much as pos- satisfactory connection between the two them to standard dimensions, just the
sible of the wiring is fixed by the print- sides of the board. One way to do this same as for inserting r esistors.
This method makes a good r eliable
ing and as little as possible is left to the is to plate through the hole that joins
variation in routing of connecting leads.
For achieving the maximum cost reduction (as in TV manufacture) a fully
automatic assembly line is desirable. But
in the high fidelity approach, because
the quantities involved are not large
enough to warrant the terrific expenditure on fully automatic equipment, and
also because "larger and fewer" is the
desirable trend in printed boards, the
technique is developed in more of a
semi-automatic fashion .
The machines for inserting resistors
are set up quite quickly to each position
on the board and 11 number of boards
run through, inserting the same resistor
in each board. A quick change of the
positioning tool, and reloading with a
different resistor value and the boards
have a second resistor inserted in all of
them. Capacitors and other components
are inserted in the board virtually by
hand, but using a production line
method whereby each operator inserts
the same components III successive
boards.
One problem in laying out a printed
wiring arrangement is how to make one
Fig. 3. Pri nted board w ith sold e r mask is shown a t top befo re insertion of compoconnection cross another (corresponding nents; sam e boa rd is sho w n at botto m after compone nts are d ip-soldered in place.
18
AUDIO
•
MAY, 1957
connection and avoids the cost of printing on both sides of the board and the
problem of satisfactOl'y connecting between sides. The path followed by the
jumper is standardized to just the same
extent · as the printed wiring, because
the ends are located by the holes into
which they are inserted and these are
fixed by the original tooling. The path
followed is straight and standard because it is fixed by the inserting machine, the same as for resistors and other
components. Thus the end product is a
circuit in which not only the components
can be to specified tolerances, but also
the exact positioning of every wire.
While the objective in applying the
. printed wiring technique for high fidelity is to put as much as possible onto
one board, not everything is put on the
board. The supply filter capacitors and
rectifiers are usually mounted separately
on the chassis. This part of the circuit
L'l not usually critical as to lead dress.
It is the circuit internal to the amplifier
and carrying audio signals that is critical as to placement of wiring. All of this
is printed and thus standardized.
For high fidelity application standard
resistors and other components are used.
Capacitors are standard, except for the
use of a type, developed for application
with printed wiring, having the leads
at one end. They are standard foil capacitors in a suitable casing. Printed
resistors, capacitors, coils and other circuit components are not recommended
for high fidelity application. The technique is, for the present at any rate, restricted to . the use of printed w'i ring,
into which standar d resistors, capacitors
and other components are connected. '
Process Problems
Next we come to the solder ing process
itself, where the biggest saving in time
Fig. 4. Re si sto r-inse rti ng ma chi ne in
a c tio n. Circ ui t
board is positio ned
by guid e cla mped
to w o rk ta b le an d
one resi stor is inserted in same posi t ion in e ach boa rd
of en t ir e run .
Clamp i s t h e n
moved to guide
board fo r a se cond re si sto r, and
so on .
and cost occurs. Here it is important to
use a skilled operator for the actual
dipping. Various companies have tried
skillfully designed machines to do the
dipping, but there seems to be as yet no
satisfactory substitute for the "touch"
that a skilled ope.rator can acquire. It
does not take too long to learn to do a
good job but this is essential to a satisfactory operation.
It is very similar to the ordinary soldering operation. There is no ready sub-
Fig. 5 . Solder d ipp ing ope ration
AUDIO
•
MAY, 1957
stitute for knowing how to solder by
applying the iron and the cored solder
to the joint for just the required amount
of time, feeling 01' seeing when the
solder runs into the joint, and removing
heat from the joint as soon as it does,
so it will "freeze" without becoming a
dry joint. The man who does the dipping has to acquire a similar technique
applied to the many joints that are made
on the one board.
An important factOl' is the control of
the solder composition. This is apt to
deteriorate over a period of time. For
one thing, tin being lighter than lead,
the tin is apt to rise to the top, especially when the bath is switched off and
allowed to cool and then heated up
again. Even with agitation to get the
mixture well homogenized a certain
amount of separation occurs which
means the bath needs replenishing with
tin.
Also, contaminants from the board
can slowly but surely reduce the effectiveness of the solder composition. To
take care of this a procedure of carefui
analysis with critical standards has to
be established so the solder is maintained
in good condition. This is not a serious
disadvantage to the process, because the
rejected bath of . solder is not wasted.
When it has become too contaminated
it is returned to the manufacturer for
recovery and the bath is filled with fresh
good solder.
An aid, particularly in the inspection
depar tment, is the use of the solder
mask. This is a further printing, on top
19
Effect on Design
Fig. 6. Comparison between older type tube socket, left, and newer type, right, giving
increased serviceability.
of the etched circuit, that prevents
solder from "taking" on all the wiring,
so solder only adheres to the points
where joints need to be made. This
makes all the joints stand out visually
in a different color from the rest of the
"wiring" so the operator concerned with
quality control can much more easily inspect all the joints at a glance, to find
any that may not have taken, or are dry.
Effect on Production
There are many more details that
Harman-Rardon have found out about
the process that enable it to be more effective. These are some of the main ones.
The general effect is that the material
costs rather more than in a unit of conventional construction (using the same
circuit, anyway). At present capacitors,
for example, cost a little more than
those with conventional lead-outs for
normal circuits.
On the other side of the "bill," however, labor costs come down considerably so the over-all cost of the unit is
still well below that using conventional
wiring methods. But the company have
not cut back on their employment be'- cause of reduced labor cost per unit.
Their wage bill is probably a little
higher, but their production has increased ve1'y much m01·e. While a fewer
number of people would theoretically
be required to produce the same output,
what is more to the point is that the
same number of people can produce a
much bigger output.
A greater degree of skill is required
for most of the work. In this connection, a surprising thing is the relation
between the number of people working
on P1'odA~ction, making the unit, and
those whose job is to inspect and test it
at various stages. Because the actual
production takes so much less time and
labor, it is possible to devote considerably . more effort and attention to test
20
and inspection and still produce the
product at a cost below that of the conventional method. Not that printed wiring needs more inspection and test. But
the method enables comparatively minor
defects to be eliminated, that would
,nev,er have been economic with the old
method. The product can now go out
essentially perfect at a cost hitherto impossible.
The fact that a larger proportion of
the labor is now spent in test and inspection means a higher degree of skill is
needed. In the author's opinion this fact
is to be commended on sociological
grounds. Much of the modern trend has
been away from skilled or craftsmanlike labor, toward unskilled. It is good
to see this process reversed, so the
worker can feel he is really putting a
personal contribution to the quality of
the finished product. Also it means his
work is worth more and hence his pay
improved.
The components for printerl wiring
have developed rapidly in the past 18
months. As with any other npw types,
they have had their "teething" troubles
and were not at first as reliable as components which have had the test of time.
Component manufacturers have given
excellent cooperation, as a result of
which these troubles are now a thing of
the past. Improved design from the
viewpoint of handling and service has
also evolved.
For example, the earlier type of tube
sockets which solder solidly into the
board were difficult to remove if they
should be defective. The newer improved
type of socket stands up on pins so it is
possible, if it develops a defect, to clip
the pins around and then remove them
one at a time with a soldering iron. This
makes tube socket replacement quite
simple without the risk of wrecking the
printed board in the process.
The printed board manufacturers
have improved their service in providing sample boards- almost over night.
The quick technique of drawing the
boards has b~en developed using adhesive tape on a four times full size paper
version. This can be done much more
quickly than using pencil or ink. Prints
of this mockup drawing can then
quickly be rushed to the sample board
manufacturer and a printed board is
back with a minimum delay enabling the
circuit to be made up and tested at
quite a reasonable cost before investing
in all the tooling. Of course, these
sample printed boards are not cheap in
comparison with a bread board for conventional experimental work, but they
are well worth their cost in expedited development.
Care is necessary in the arrangement
of the boards to keep any of the heavier
components in positions where they are
not likely to wreck the printed board in
transit, due to stresses placed on it. This
should go without saying, but it needs
a little more attention than the conventional construction.
The advantages of improved precision
in production were evident in several
ways. Taking the company's tuners as
an example, a single stage lillliter is
used, with a sensitivity comparable with
two-stage limiters of conventional design, and it is quite consistent in its performance. It gives, in fact, better performance than many two-stage limiters.
The f act that the circuit wiring is so
consistent and uniform enables pretuned Lf. cans to be used with an absolute minimum of post-assembly alignment. With the conventional construction, the degree of adjustment necessary
in alignment means the performance of
the finished unit is f ar from uniform,
either in bandwidth or sensitivity. The
I close
consistency possible in the tuner
construction means the performance of
any unit taken from the production line
will be quite uniform.
The increased gain from a single stage
is possible because controlled regeneration can be used. With a conventional
design this would need extremely careful
attention to lead dress, and a jar in
transit might ~ell make the unit unusable. The use of printed ,viring makes
it possible to design a "hot" cireuit
with a closely controlled amount of regeneration. Of course it cannot be made
too "hot," otherwise variation in tube
tolerances would render it unstable in
some circumstances. But it is possible
to design a circuit much hotter than a
conventional type can be made ana still
achieve a more consistent performance
than was previously possible with
"cooler" circuits.
It is fairly obvious that this advantage
applies to tuner construction. What is
(Continued on page 75)
AUDIO
•
MAY, 1957
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Presen ting some of the fac ts about the oldest magazine
in hi-fi and the people who put it together. The history
of AUDIO and of the high fidelity industry are so closely
intertwined as to be almost inseparable so that even the
well inform ed audiofan is never quite sure which came
first. Actually, of course, there was no recognized hi-fi
industry in 1947, bu t AUDIO ENGINEERING was aimed
in tha t direc tion from the first issue.
TENto a newborn
is not a long' time to an octagenarian, but
babe it could seem like forever. And
YEARS
when the "babe" wasn't born until three years after
its strongest booster started, we get into the realm of
infinity squared or light 'years or something equally
hard to comprehend.
The "babe" is, of course, the high fidelity indu~try,
which wasn't thought of when the planning commenced
for the first issue of AUDIO ENGINEERING. The time
was January, 1947; place, New York City; occasion,
the need for a new type of magazine which would
cater to the professional sound engineer and whichit said in small print- would bring together those who
followed hi-fi as a hobby.
It was for these people that AUDIO ENGINEERING
first offered a means of exchanging ideas, and as they
were gradually drawn together they began to show a
purchasing power, and more and more products became available to them, so that by 1950 a small but
steady demand for hi-fi equipment was apparent.
From then on, the growth of the high fidelity industry
has continued to surprise practically everybody-even
those who are in it-evei·y year.
Originally, AUDIO ENGINEERING was a professional
sound engineer's magazine, but just as the ,growth of
hi-fi pushed the magazine in the direction of specialization in home equipment, so also did the growth of
television push advances in the professional field into
the background. Radio stations and networks didn't
have the money for improved audio facilities when
every cent was needed to expand into television, and
the novelty of the convex white screen held the eyes
of the country while the ears were assailed by 4-inch
speakers squirting out the sides or tops of millions of
thin-walled, open-backed cabinets. Sound was definitely in second place. But as the novelty wore off,
the tide turned toward music and with the coming of
the Vinylite LP the cornel' was turned.
The first few years of AUDIO ENGINEERING saw the
interest r ising in better amplifiers and in better
speaker enclosures; as new and better equipment was
described-usually as the product of a serious home
experimenter-modifications of these designs began
to be available commercially. For example, the first
big swing toward the Williamson-type amplifier followed the publication in November, 1949, of the story
about the "Musician's Amplifier." The cornel' speaker
cabinet which incorporated both front and rear radiation was first described in AUDIO ENGINEERING in
1949, and many variations began to show up in the
stores. As early as 1948 there was published in .2.EJ an
article on the loudness control; the one described then
has become practically a "contour control" while a
modification described in 1949 has been simplified to
the extent that about half of the amplifiers on the
market today incorporate a loudness control.
The trend of the market made it advisable to change
the name of AUDIO ENGINEERING magazine in 1954,
and while the newly-named AUpIO continued to include serious articles, the predominance of editorial
material was in the realm of the home system. And
that readers like the magazine's policy seerus to be
attested by a list of over 700 Life Subscribers and a
renewal rate that is unusual in the magazine industry.
AUDIO does not have a big staff. Since a large percentage of its editorial material is submitted by outside contributors who are deeply interested in the
subj ects they write about- there are a few people who
are involved with every issue. On the following pages
will be found photographs and specifications of those
whose work is related to the production and dish'ibution of your monthly copy of AUDIO. There are a few
others whose work is equally important, but it doesn't
bring them into contact w~th the reader- in fact, he
may never heal' of them. AUDIO, on its tenth anniversary, salutes those who make it possible: first, the
r eader, without whom there would be no advantage to
the advertisers; second, the advertisers who have their
own messages to get across to the readers; and its
staff-who, on the whole, have a pretty good time at
producing YOU1' favo1··i te magazine..
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•
MAY, 1957
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G. McPROUD
Editor and Publisher
Engineer, writer, editor, publisher, C. G. McProud
has worked in audio for twenty eight years. A graduate mechanical engineer, his first few working years
were spent in civil engineering. He joined Paramount
Pictures in the early days of sound pictures, and was
employed in the same studio for thirteen years. W orking with audio all day, he followed it as a hobby
in spare time, and designed and installed high fidelity
systems in the homes of many movie greats.
During the war, he worked at design, development,
and installation of underwater sound equipment; he
.was later assigned by the Navy to help in preparing
a series of Maintenance Manuals on the same equipment. Following the war, he entered the magazine
field, did free lance writing, and finally planned the
editorial policy for AUDIO ENGINEERING in January,
1947, leading up to its first issue in May of that year.
He was the magazine's managing editor until the
death of John H. Potts-its co-founder, editor, and
publisher-in 1949, at which time he became editor.
Duties of publisher were added in 1952.
Mr. McProud was among the original group which
founded the Audio Engineering Society and was president of this organization during the year 1951-52.
He is a charter member of the AES, and received the
Society's award in 1952 as the person who did the
most for the advancement of the Society. He is also
a member of the Institute of Radio Engineers and
of the Acoustical Society of America, and an associate
member of the SMPTE.
Often called "Mr. Audio," he is credited with conceiving and naming the Audio Fair-forerunner of
the current high fidelity shows.
~
HENRY A. SCHOBER
~~
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B0rn in the Bronx, Henry A. Schober is a member
of ANNY, considered by its members to be the most
select fraternity on the Manhattan professional scene.
Surrounded by Kansans, Oklahomans, New Jerseyites
and other westerners, he takes just pride in being
A Native New Yorker.
Educated in New York public schools, he began
work in 1927 as office boy for Arbuckle Brothers, Inc.,
wholesale food merchants. Sixteen years later, after
working his way up to the position of assistant comptroller, he resigned to enlist as an infantry private in
the U.S. Army. During his tour of duty he was promoted to master sergeant and was assigned to civil
affairs and finance and property control divisions of
military government. After serving overseas for approximately three years he received his honorable
discharge and returned to civilian activity.
In February, 1946, he joined Radio Magazines,
Inc., as comptroller. At the time, RMI published CQ,
a "ham" magazine and AUDIO ENGINEERING, forerunner to AUDIO. After a realignment of corporate
structure which was culminated in April, 1952, he
became president of the company, in which he and
C. G. McProud are sole stockholders. Since then its
entire activity has been in the field of audio publications-both magazines and books.
.
Mr. Schober is married, and his principal hobby is
romping with his two sons-Steve, 7, and Wayne, 5.
Among Mr. Schober's academic tributes is the
W. Keith Reid Accounting Award, presented each
year as a mark of merit "for excellence in accounting
and good citizenship." His principal hobby is people
pe9' se, and a great P?rtion of his outside-the-office
time is devoted to an mformal study of what makes
them tick.
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AUDIO
•
MAY, 1957
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HARRIE K. RICHARDSON
EDGAR E. NEWMAN
Associate Editor
Circulation Director
Hal'l'ie K . Richardson made his first impression on
the audio world in Pauls Valley, Okla. According to
the gr aybeards who were present, it was the first time
100 per cent fidelity and 100 pel' cent distortion had
bE'en achieved with th e same transducer.
After education in Oklahoma public schools he
joined the staff of Th e Da'i ly Oklahoman, the state's
largest newspape.r, as Radio Editor.
In 1929 he became chief announcer of Station
KVOO in Tulsa where, after some months, he was
named assistant manager, which position he occupied
for the following three years. During these same years
his hobby was electronics in a general sense, with
specific interest in audio .
In 1931 he appeared on the Hollywood broadcast
scene and for three years worked with all networks
as producer, announcer and/or writer for many national programs. He was one of three persons engaged
in the opening of NBC's first Hollywood studio.
Leaving Hollywood he returned to the Midwest and
was located in Chicago until 1944, except for 1938
when he was manager of station WNAX in Yankton,
S.D. While in Chicago he held a number of executive
positions in the radio advertising field. Among his
ad· agency affiliations· were the firms of Needham, Louis
& Brorby, Inc., Roche, Williams & Cunnyngham, Inc.,
and H. W . Kastor & Sons, Inc. .
In the fall of 1944 he withdrew from commercial
activity to join the Office of Scientific Research and
Development in New York as editor of Sonar instruction manuals published for the U.S. Navy. It was during this chore that he first worked with C. G. McProud .
His name appeared on the masthead of AUDIO in
June, 1951, and has r emained there. without interruption since that time.
Edgar E. Newman was born in Boonton, New
Jersey, and is now married and has three childrenGeoffrey, Douglas, and Lorie Jean. In the interval between, he pursued the usual preparatory studies, attended the American Institute of Banking, Naval
Radio Communication Schools, and Melville Radio
Institute. H e joined Radio Magazines in April, 1947,
as an editorial assistant, and a month later assumed
duties as Circulation Manager for both AUDIO ENGINEERING and CQ in addition to his editorial duties. He
became Circulation Director in June, 1952, and when
the Book Division was formed in September of that
year he became its manager. He became Managing
Editor of LECTRODEX (formerly Radiofile), which is
also published by Radio Magazines, Inc., in January,
1957. In addition to these duties, he is also Circulation
Director of THE TIBIA. Furthermore, he was draftsman for AUDIO ENGINEERING for a number of years,
but as might be expected from the list of his present
duties, the days were just not long enough.
Th e importance of the Circulation Director in a
publishing company is one which cannot be overempha sized, since he. is likely to be the first point of contact between the reader and the organization, and it is
from him that readers are most likely to form their
impression of the magazine. It is a position that l'equires patience, skill, and tact, yet all the while it is
made up of thousands of small operations-anyone
of which can win or lose a friend for the organization.
How well Mr. Newman meets these r equirements of
a difficult a,ssignment is atteste.d by the many frien ds
he has among our readers. Aside from his family, he
. receives his gr eatest pleasure in r eceiving subscriptions to AUDIO.
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AUDIO
•
MAY, 1957
23
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1):DWARD TATNALL CANOY
CHARLES A. ROJlERTSON
A simple listing of Edward Tatnall Canby's activities since 1927 would more than fill this page. He
attended both Yale and Harvard, earning AB and
MA degrees in music at the latter, and during the
summers he went to Concord Summer School of Music.
He was Instructor in Music at Princeton for three
years and at Finch College for four, and was Visiting
Professor of Music at Washington University for
one year. In addition, he has done private teaching
of harmony and musical analysis·.
Mr. Canby has been the mainstay of the record
review and music sections of AUDIO ever since the first
issue in 1947, and is considered by many as the most
reliable record reviewer in the country. He has an
intense interest in records and in their proper reproduction, and while he approaches hi-fi equipment from
the viewpoint of the novice, his analysis of its perfOl·mance is usually well-founded and in many cases
has been of considerable assistance to manufacturers.
His AUDIO ETC column is devoted largely to observations on equipment and to the musical scene at large,
and is invariably entertaining. He also reviews records
for Harp e1·s, The R eview of Recorded Music, and
Musical Cou1·ie1·, and has appeared in many other
publications. He is the author of "Home Music Systerns" (Harper & Bros.) and with C. G. Burke and
Irving Kolodin eo-authored "The Saturday Review
Home Book of Recorded Music."
H,e is a member of the Audio Engineering Society
and of the Am erican Musicological Society, and is on
the Committee on Recordings of the National Council
of Teachers of English. He has appeared continuously
on radio station WNYC in New York since 1947
(where AUDIO first heard him) and has hIS own program throughout the United States and Can ada on
transcription and tap e.
Mr. Robertson tells us that lhis collection of records
was started in the late tijirties, after he attended
Columbia College and found out that it was practically impossible to replace those he had enjoyed there
and later given away. His tastes extend to a goodly
portion of recorded literature- jazz, oddities, and
classical-but he confines his comments in AUDIO to
the first two categories. Many of the finest performances of jazz were recorded in the 20's and 30's, and
in those later years it was still possible to find some
rare items in stores and junkshops. Mr. Robertson was
fo ru
t nate enu
0 gh to concentrate on them Two rich
.
lodes were in export companies gathering discs for
shipment to South America, and in return for going
till:ough stacks of records and salvaging those still
saleable, he could keep those he wanted at only one
cent each.
He ended this era with two years in the Air Force
as a tail gunner on a B-24 in England, and upon returning he found that the old shellacs had been reclaimed to make the evil-sounding wartime product,
so he bought only those he could not resist.
His hi-fi components were put together just as the
Korean War began to make them scarce, and he went
back to buying as many r ecords as three growing children allowed. Strangely enough, Mr. Robertson is a
working newspaperman-and has been for 22 years
- and when not hunting records (which his night beat
gives him daytime "leisure~' for) he gardens and collects books. He has been with AUDIO for a relatively
short time, but his reviews on jazz and variety items·
are sound and are couched in ordinary English-a
rarity in the jazz reviewing field where one is assumed
to be an aficionado if he reads jazz reviews at all, with
its attendant phraseology which is lucid only to the
cats.
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•
MAY, 1957
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HAROLD LAWRENCE
JOSEPH GIOVANELLI
~
Without some knowledge of the material we use in
our music systcms for just listcning, we would most
certainly derive much less enjoyment thel·efr om. And
it is in this r ealm that H ar old Lawren ce helps us all
out with his r egular feature, ABOUT ~IUSIC. He is a
native New Yorker , and has studied piano and co mposition both her e and in P aris. H e has written extensively on music for the New Y O?'k T im es Book R.eview and Music sections, the Sat w 'cl(!y R e'V'i ew) the
R ep01't e?') and other p ublications. H e has also lectured
on musical sub j ects of the School of Gener al Studies
of Br ooklyn College as well as fo r the New Yo rk
Times a nd the New York Board of Education.
H e managed the Imported R.ecords Department at
Liberty Music, Inc. -one of New Y ork'. lar gest music
and record stores- in the la te forties; was director of
recorded music at WQ X R. f r om 1950 to 1956, a nd is
presently music director of th e classical division of
Mer cury R.ecord· Corpora tion. His first column ap p ear ed in AUDIO in April, 1954, an d he has been in
every issue since.
AUDIO believes tha t most p eople who ar e interested
in high -quality sound r eproduction have that inter est
because they like music, yet the average p er son has
not had the opportunity of acquiring a musical education along with the other skills he must have to
make a living un less, of course, he makes t hat living
f rom music. Mr. Lawrence a pproaches music with a
practical viewpoint and never hecomes stuffy or
pedantic- largely because he has a sense of hum or.
His mater ial is not intended to be weighty or prof ound, but only to give us an insight into the general
subj ect of music, and p articula rly into t he methods
of approach employed by composers and the per£ormer s of their music. W e like to think of ABOUT ~WSIC
as "painless educa tion ."
It was in Ap ril, 1929, when the light of day first
saw Joseph Giova nell i. During his childhood it seemed
that his n atural bent wo uld lea d him to be a watch
r epairma n (01', to de.·cribe it mor e correctly, b?'eakman) , but eventually his inclination turned t o breaking r adios instead, which developed finally into a
serious inter est in electronics . He studied the bas ics of
electronics in high school a t the New York Institute
f or the Educa tion of the Blind, a nd dm ing the same
period he became a r adio ama teur and la ter got his
first class r adio telephone ( comm er cial ) license.
H e obtained much practical exp erien ce in sound
r eproduction during his four-yea r stint at Syr acuse
University, f rom whi ch he gr aduated cum /clue/e) wher e
he made ma ny location recordings of symphon y COIl certs and con cert ba nd performances as well as shows,
singing gr oup s, and, in short, almost any kind of r ecording. To round out his kn owledge and to get a
f uller apprecia tion of t he problems of the sound engineer he studied musicology, acoustics, radio writing,
radio production, and r adio ad ver tising, a nd he
worked in the school r adio station .
H e now has his own r ecording studio, designs and
builds sp ecialized meters and other types of equipment, and builds and sells a custom speaker of his
own design in corp orating ideas he first had as a
grammar school student. This sp eaker is included in
any of the custom hi-fi installa tions which he makes
in his spal'e time. H e has been a r egular contributor
to AUDIO since November, 1955, and his dep artmentAUDIO CLINIC-draws more correspondence than any
other. In this issue, Mr. Giovanelli proposes an extension of the question-and-answer technique to include "answers" provided by r eader s- the new department to be known as AUDIO TECHNIQUES.
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AUDIO
•
MAY, 1957
25
Hi-Fi Salesman-Friend or Foe
Reflections of a hi-fi salesman on the whys and wherefores which govern the
intelligent buying of sound equipme nt. Wa tch out for the well-meaning friend.
MARCO
T
HE PURCHASE of a home music system
is an important event, akin in many
r esp ects to the purchase of a new cal'.
First, it is a major acquisition, often an
expensive one. Second, it provides pleasure r athe.r than just filling a need. Third,
it requires proper advice, and there the
similarity ends.
In buying a new car you shop around,
decide on a make you like, and then buy
it- as is. The salesman does his p art by
pointing out the virtue.s of the p articular
car he r epresents in the. light of your
own needs, and once he does that hi job
is over. The audio salesman, however , is
a different bree.d from ou.r auto salesman
in many ways. First of all, he carries
many different brands of mer chandise.
His shelves contain innumerable tuner s
and amplifiers, many speaker systems,
not to mention tUl'lltable.s, cartridges, enclosur es and various accessories. A formidable array. However, he is not interested in anyone particular item as such,
but r athcr in y our own per sonal1'equil'ements.
Price is ofte.n the most important consideration. So, although a first glance at
all the equipment on display may leave
you confused, your budget will eliminate
many items. Limited sp ace, p ossession
of certain still-usable components, the
desir e to modernize or pUl'chase in steps
r ather than all at once, possible custom
01' inbuilt installations ; all these factors
also t end to narrow down your ultimat e
selection. Thus, although ther e. may be
many systems available, ther e is only on e
that best meets your own individual 1'equirements.
The audio salesman should have some
technical background. H e. is constantly
asked technical questions concerning
equipment, and your money is riding
on the accuracy of his answers. Obviously, you want to feel that you are
making a proper purchase, and the only
way to insure this is to make certain that
the. p erson advising you is technically
qualified.
The Well-Meaning Fri end
Friends always stand r eady to advise
you-both before and after you have
bought your hi-fi system. But keep the
f ollowing in mind. Although advice may
be given freely, if the results are not
satisfactory, it is the salesman who must
be prepared to rectify mistake.s. Your
dealer stands to lose or gain on the basis
of your purchase. If you are pleased
with the sound and operation of your
equipment, he has made his profit, you
* 1510 Elm A ve., B1'00klyn 30, N . Y .
KAR P ODINES ~'
loudsp eaker measur ements do not lend
themselves to the same degree of mathematical analysis.
Speaker selection p oses an additional
p r obl em in that the average p erson exposed to extended-range sound for the
first time will p erhaps find the higher
f r equncie.s obj ectionable. It then becomes
the j ob of the audio salesman not only
to demonstrate but to explain and teach.
The listener must be shown that the offe nding highs ar e actually the top sheen
of the violin or the overtones of the
tr umpet- sound he may not have heard
live in a long while. Once this typ e of
custo mer appreciates these basic sounds,
his fi nal decision is readily reached.
It is the approach to this realization
that sometimes makes the audio salesman 's job a difficult one. Most customers
want to be shown why they should invest more in a better speaker. But bef ore they can detect the differ ence between speakers they must be taught
what to listen for and how. In other
words, a good audio salesman must be
a good teacher as well as a handy man
with the r ecords.
All too often, demonstr ations are. allowed to deteriorate into a hodge-podge
AB e D listening test which proves nothing in p articular . The true 'A-B test
should be of extremely short duration,
since if C,.'c(tended p ast a r easonable fiveto-tell-minute time limit, it generally
til'es and produces confusion. In an A-B
comparison, more than two sp eaker s
should not be demonstr ated at the same
time. The customer's decision should be
made between two sp eakers. Then a
thir d sp eaker can be introduced and
compar ed with the preferred one of the
Demonstration Technique
two he has already judged ,
More f r equently than not the deterAlthough demonstration technique is
mining fa ctol' in the final choice of a of prime impor tance, the effectiveness
component 01' a complete system is the of any demonstration is determined by
demonstr ation. It is true, although har d tbe appreciation of the salesman for
to believe, that the average p er son, in an th e. customer's individual needs. In no
initial A-B te t, will generally prefer . other industry must the salesman so
the poorer sounding of two sp eaker s. th or oughly shoulder the r esponsibility
But p oorer sounding to whose ears ~ The of his r ecommendations.
customer's ears-but only before. he has
If f or no other r eason, the sound salesbeen shown or taught what to listen for man must, literally, always be on the
and how. Let me explain.
customer 's side. Remembe.r this when
The loudsp eaker is p ossibly the most you shop f or high fidelity equipment.
difficult-to-choose single component in Profit by the salesman's technical backany home music system, and is the one. gr ound, take ad\7antage of his exp erience
item which should be selected on the in p lanning home music systems, and
basis of a subjective listening test. This above all, accept him as one who gains
does not minimize the importance of a only if you are thoroughly satisfied with
tuner 01' amplifier . The problem is attrib- the equipment you purchase.
uted to the f act that, wher eas distortion
H e is the well-meaning friend we
measuremen ts and sp ecifi cations have mentioned e.arlier with one exceptionbeen standardized in the case of ampli- his 01Jinions al'e back ed by sound judgefiers, for example, practically speaking, m ent.
have p Ul'chased wisely, and all is well.
If you are not satisfied and retUl'n for
either adjustmen t or r eplacement, he
has lost money. He holds himself r esponsible to you and he bases this r esponsibility on the. soundness and exp erience
of his salesmen.
On the other hand, a friend who ill
advises is not liable to answer f or the
r esults obtained, either good or bad. Why
should such emphasis be placed on this
p oint ~ Simply because the gl'eatest cause
of mis-matchecl 01' un-hi -fi syst ems is the
well-meaning jl'iend. H e has a p articular
cartridge with a p articular speaker in
his home so he feels it is best for you. It
may be the most unhappy combin ation
f or your installation because of the dif f er ence in acoustic conditions which prevail in your home and his. But room
acoustics ar e of ten neglected in his consideration. Only a properly qualified
sales t echnician should advise. you on
your installation.
This attitude is backed by the growing
sale of used high fidelity equipment.
Much of this equipment is sold 01' tradedin within one year of pUl'chase, but not
because it is defective. In f act, most of
it is in p erfect condition. It is unsati sfa ctory because it just does not sound
rig'ht in the listener's home. Admittedly
ther e ar e exceptions, but this is gener ally
the case, since. some of the best known
components in the high fid elity field simp ly do not work well with one another.
This f act has been proved in the most
practical audio testing lab ever devisedthe sound sale.s demonstration room.
Photos cour tes), of Ih e M elm jJo litan M useum of Art
*
hearken
ye
it is
indeed
that
the voice of
Unibrsity
The pyramid builders had no high fid elity loudspeakers,
but their ancient language had the "words" for
this ultra-modern development ... as demonstrated by this translation
into hieroglyphics of University Loudspeakers' slogan.
It's a slogan University proudly introduced to the high fidelity field
because it summarIzes our aim: tQ pmvide you with truly better listen ing.
Words can try to describe this superior sound ... but the rich tonal pleasure
offered by these loudspeakers is experienced only when you hear them.
So whether in hieroglyphics ... or in Chinese, Arabic,
Greek, Sanskrit or Hindustani used in other University advertisements ...
this slogan conveys our sincere invitation to vIsit your dealer and ...
I
LISTEN
(symboi for
loudspeaker)
(is) good
more than
anything
AUDIO
•
MAY, 1957
Tmnslation into Eady N ew Kingdom manu·
mental tyt,e h iemg lyphics b)' C)'ril A IdTed, a.sso ·
cia te curator of the D epartmen t of Egyptian
Arts, th e Metroj)olitan Museum of A ,·t, N.Y.C.
"Listen . University Sounds Better" p osed n ovel
difficulties to Egyptologists when transla ted to
hieroglyphics. For exam ple. the simple English
request, listen} became hem'hen yeJ it is ind eed
that. There was no Egyptian verb for to sound,
so I.he vo ice of was substituted . And si nce the
Ancient Egyptians used no comparative forms
of adjectives or adverbs, they had no word for
1
better; in stead , the labored construction good,
more th all anything was substituted.
For University the "easy" sym bol of school
faT sCTibes could not be used. since the n ame
refe rs here to a manufacturer. A brand new
" high fidelit)," h ierog lyphic was developed by
"vocalizing" -phonetically spelling out- Univer·
sity as u"ibnit)' (there was no "v" in Ancient
Egyptian). Then . just as the Egyptians did when
inventing a hie.roglyphic for an object. a picture
of the loudspeaker was added ... thus bringing
a 4.000·year·old form of picture writing up' to
d a te on 20th century high fidelity soundl
27
Ford M emorial Auditorium
Exemplifies Sound Redesign
BERT ENNIS ':'
Photos by Ed Sullivan, Paramount Stall Photographer
While many public buildings are outfitted wi th " commercial " quality public address and sound reinforcement systems, the newest tre nd is to employ br oadcast-qual ity equipment in professional ci rcuitry.
of the man who gave
the world the T Model Ford wer e to
visit the. H enry and Edsel Ford Memorial Auditorium, Detroit, in the 1957
ver sion of his original cal' creation, his
reaction to the advances engineering has
made in the ar eas of acoustics and automo tives might be well worth recording .
And oddly enough, as is the case. somet imes in the automobile field, the r emarkable sound r einforcement system
which serves t he magnificent, ultra-modern structure dedicated to the memor y
of the For ds, father and son, on the
banks, of the Detr oit River , came about
t hrough the art of r edesign ; sound system redesign, that is.
When Detroit's city f ather s decided
a f ew year s back tha t drastic face-lifting op er a tions must accommodate the
mammoth Lawrence Seaway p r oj ect, the
}'ord Foundation-together with Lincoln and Mer cury dealer s in the areaca me into the picture. In eompany with
a Veteran's Building, new Convention
H all, County and City Buildings, p lans
were drawn f or the er ection of the H enry
and Edsel Ford Memorial Auditorium.
Toward an over -all exp enditure of five
million dollars f or this building, t he
F or d Foundation donated one million,
the aforesaid car dealer s contributed another million and a half, with the city
of Detroit p icking up the t ab for the
balance. Complet ed la te in 1956, the
Auditorium is the. third of the numerous
str uctures 'compr ising the Civic Center
now r ising along the shore of the rehabilitated Detroit waterfront.
An enormous array of al'chitects, con tractor s, engineers submitted plans and
sp ecifications, including those of H arlan
E lectric Comp any, elect r ical contractors,
involving a sound r einf orcement system
calculated to serve an auditor ium proj ect of this magnitude properly . F or t his
proj ect embraced a huge stage, lower
floor and balcony seating 3000, r ehear sal
hal ls, dressing r ooms, a lOO-member
or chestra p it, a Social R oom accommodating 500, with its own stage.
Into this multimillion dollar maze of
constr uction and p lans came late, but
decisively, a man named Alan Roseberry.
I!' THE WRAITH
I
" Altec L ansing COl·poration.
28
Fig . 1. The magn ificent st ructure know n as the Henry & Edse l Ford Memor ial Audi tor ium , locate d on th e De tro it Riv e r along th e redeve lop e d wate rfront of the city of
Detroit, is equippe d with one of th e most elaborate and comprehe ns ive sound systems in th e country.
Fig . 2. Plug-in preamplifiers are use d in th e consol e, and th e front panel is h inged
to, permit fast and easy access for inspection and service .
AUDIO
•
MAY, 1957
Modern -High
Born of 37 Years of Electronic Experience~.-.~
CHOOSING YOUR AMPLIFIER
P o wer Output, Frequency Response and Distortion
•
The most flaunt ed ampli fier feat ures in th e \vo rldhigh power out put , wide frequ ency response , low dis·
tortion-are virtu all y mea nin gless terms unl ess they
are interrelated . Specificat ions that fail to show this
relation, say nothin g, and can be quite decepti ve.
An amplifier th a t claims "20 walls of audio power
- 20 to 20,OOO·cycle fr equency response-and less
than 1% harmonic distortion" may have them all.
But, there is nothin g to indicate any r elationshi p
among th em. The distortio n may be " less th an 1%"
... !it 2 watts, and only between 50 and 8000 cycles,
beyond and below which the distortion may rise appre·
ciably. At 20 watts the distorti on may be as hi gh as
10% . Who knows? The 'facts' are not facts.
Here for example, ar e the vital spec ifications of
two new Pilot amplifiers with built·in preamps. Not e
how they are stated . There isn't the sli ghtest chance
for misunderstandin g.
Both amplifiers have built·in preamps with equ ali.
zation for tape·head playback as well as for records.
Other features include : variable phono input impe.
dance, independent bass and treble tone controls,
rumble and scratch filt e rs, separ a te loudness a nd
volume controls, tape recorder- output , and use of
hum· fre e dc on tube heate rs.
AA·903B
(illustrated)
AA·920
14 wa tt s
20 walt s
Total Harmonic Dist or tion
at Rat ed Output
less than 1 %
less than 1 %
Intermod ulaji on Di stortion
at Rated Output
1.5 %
1.5 %
20·20,000 cyc les
± 1db
20·20,000 cycles
Powe r Output
Frequency Response
at Rat ed Output
Pri ce
$79 .95
± 1db
$99.50
prices slightly hi gher we sf of Rockies
There is a promise of performance in these stateme nt s upon which you can really rely in c hoosing
yo ur ampl'ifie r - a promise that will be fulfilJ ed the
very moment the amplifier is turn,e d on in yo ur higb
fidelity sys tem.
And, as an added reward for yo ur choice of Pilot,
yo u will enjoy sty lin g that will a lwa ys bring
admirin g comment when shown off in your homehandsome metal enclosures fini shed in contrasting
burgundy a nd burnished brass. A Pilot Amplifier
alongsid a Pilot Tuner make an attractive pair on an
open shelf or table.
A t roue hi·fi d"l", " w, i" f" compl", ,p"ific",i,m " D, pt.FE·l.
RADIO CORPORATION
I
-fa~
37·06 36th Street, Long Island City 1, N. Y.
~~~
IN CANADA: Atlas Radio Corp., 50 Wingold Avenue, Toronto 10, Ontario
AUDIO
•
MAY, 1957
29
Head of the finn of Roseberry & Son,
Detroit sound-engineering dealer, he
secured from Harlan Electric Company
an order to install a specified sound system. Poring over these ~p ecifications,
Roseberry noted they called for a miscellany of public-address equipment, an
imported line of intercommunication
t~lephones, with public-address equipment for the Social Room differing in
make from that chosen for the auditorium.
Satisfied that the specifications would
not provide a sound system worthy of
the project, Roseberry sought and obtained permission from the electrical
contractors to redesign a system around
a complete line of Altec equipment. For
a period of weeks he and his so n took
upon themselves the task of building in
their studio the exact systems called for
in the original specifications, using the
equipment designated. They then put to-
Fig. 3. The orchestra platform of the auditorium is hydraulically controlled and ra ises
up to the level of the stage. Three " Voice of the Theatre" systems are installed it:! th e
grilLe above the curtain to provide thre e-channel stereophonic sound.
Fig. 5 . Above the unique murals on the
walls, the ceiling of the auditorium rotunda is equipped with five 8-inch speakers in Lowell baffles.
Fig. 4. The control room is provided with Rek-O-Kut turntable, three-channel Ampex
recording and playback mechanism, two Altec FM-AM tuners, and four power amplifie rs in addition to complete control console.
30
gether an alternate system comprised
of Altec components.
When this man-sized chore of redesign had been completed- Roseberry invited an audience of architects, contracting engineers, Detroit city engineers and officials of the various Ford
organizations involved to attend a comparison demonstration. Employing identical music and voice sources on both the
original and alternate system, Roseberry
left the decision to this critical jury. The
verdict was unanimous. The Detroit
sound expert was given the go-ahead
to install a complete Altec system. Matters of price differential concerning a
cost rise of approximately $12,000 were
ironed out. Approval of the $40,000
eventual price tag on the work and
equipment involved in the redesign project was manifest by the comments of
officials during a trial run prior to official opening of the Ford Auditorium.
Patron reaction since the system has
AUDIO
•
MAY, 1957
If you're a musically literate audiophile-rather than just a hobbyist with sound-you're more concerned with high
fidelity performance than you are with electronics.
You want predictable results-and know you must pay for professional audio engineering to get them. You'd rather
leave the uncertainties-together with the expense-to the hobbyist.
You're no doubt pretty wary of advertising claims-and weary of listening to pseudo information and double talk by
salesmen hot after a sale. You're lucky. Or wise. Or both.
Too many "Do-it-Yourself" schemes to make things "easy" for the uninitiateq are all too often unsatisfactory ... costly.
Who, but professional engineers, are qualified first to select-then precisely to integrate and balance the many components of a high fidelity system? Who, but exp'erienced engineers, are equal to the exacting demands of designing and
constructing horn enclosures? Who, but technically competent people-supplied with all the elaborate equipment
necessary-can measure the performance characteristics of a sound system, account for its mechanical operation, see
to its unimpaired functioning? All you need do yourself is listen.
And who, but you, can judge whether or not a sound system fits your ear ... your recordings ... the individu'al acoustical requirements of your home? There are a few superior sound systems. AMI has made one of them. It will never
be "sold" to you-but you may buy it . . . ajter you've decided that it's for you. Six different models.
Write now for the name of a dealer nearest you. Illustrated literature and performance data will be forwarded to you.
The Precision
~
Instruments of High Fidelity
~
'~f
1500 Union Avenue, S. E.
Grand Rapids 2, Michigan
Engineers, Designers and Manufacturers
Professional and Commercial Sound Systems Since 1909.
EXCLUSIVE THREE-CHANNEL FRONT-LOADED EXPONENTIAL HORN SYSTEM: Below 45 cps to above upper limits of audibility. Exceptional transient responS'e. Three-way frequency-dividing
network with cross-over at 550 cps and 4,000 cps. High output 22 watt
.amplifier with preamp for 20 to 20,000 cps range. Less than 2 % 1M
.distortion (60 cps and 7,000 cps; 4::1 ratio signal). Precision calibrated
bass and treble tone controls for definite steps in cut and boost; separate
<ontinuously variable volume control: professional three-step loudness
<ontrol: 12 db/octave high frequency roll-off control (scratch filter);
equalization controls. "Tuner," "Mic," "Tape," TV input ' ME M R E , '
and "Mag Tape" output. AM-FM tuner with AFC: ~~ MA",v,...
4-speed pre.cision intermix changer of advanced design; g~111IIi~
'G -E variable reluctance cartridge with 1 mil diamond ~~J
and 3 mil sapphire styli.
~'INC' ,,'t>
AUDIO
•
MAY, 1957
31
been in r egular operation ha confirmed
this judgment.
System Requirements
A highlig'ht of th e system is the emp loyment of three channel stereophonic
sound in the main auditorium. Originally, the design provided for only 35
watts of power feeding a sp eaker array
with a frequency response of only 80
to 7500 cps. 'This was proved to be inadequate. Redesign permitted the 75-watt
output r ecommended b)r the Research
Council of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences to 'erve an auditorium of this size proper ly. Additionally, th e speaker array was r edesigned
to accommodate this increase in p ower ,
and to afford a mOl'e r ealistic f r equency
r esponse of 30 to 22,000 cps. Low-frequency horns and high-f r equency multicellular horns wm'e installed in the
proscenium arch to accomplish these desirable and necessary ends.
Fig . 6 . Another view ' of th e main equipme nt rac ks w hich a re locate d to the righ t of
Ample microphone inputs, 31 in all ,
the cont rel c::ns o le . Syste m is engin e ered to se rve as fe ed for rad io broadcast or TV wer e installed thro ug'hout the entire area .
audio pickup when required, as w e ll as to provid e sound reinforce ment.
Magnetic loops, placed in the floor of
the. auditorium, wer e a proper conces ion
tl) the futUl'e application of the presently
experimenta l aud io-frequency wireless
microphone. Four of the microphone
locations on the stage, oopable of handling any type of production in point
of magnitude, utilize automatic microphone stands. Controlled f rom the stage
switchboard, these stands are electrically
driven to p ermit elevation from below
stage level, thro ugh automatic doors,to
a height six feet a bove stage level.
Installed in the unusually large control room strategically located in the
real' of the main auditorium is a functionally-designed, compact control consol e. This instrument accommodates a
professional-type tUl'l1table, and a transcription pickup arm. Here again, th e
art of proper redesign entered the picture, as the Ol'iginal plans provided a
tUl'Iltable of a typ e usually found in an
inexp ensive portable phonograph. F 'i gu re 8 is a simplifi ed block schematic of
the entire installation .
The left turret of the con~ole contains
the phono volume and tone controls,
talkback micl'ophone controls, tap e-r ecorder r emote controls, and the "AllBridge control." The center tUl'l'et holds
the stage microphone control, master
volume controls, sp eech-music filter, and
YU meters. In the r ight tUl'l'et are installed the controls for audience microphones.
The "All-Bridge control" governs the
circuit which bridges each of the three
channels, combining these into a monaura l feed which may be used to feed radio
and TV, as well as the other systems
throughout the auditorium. The speechmusic filter is employed to increase the
intelligibility of vocal p erformance.
If at any time conditions warrant the
Fig . 7. Tom Roseberry, of Roseberry & Son, points out some of the features of th e
use of either a single- or a two-channel
control console. Telephone communication is provid e d throughout the building from
system, provision has been so made. A
the control room, linking all production and operating faciliti e s.
32
AUDIO
• . MAY, 1957
"You'll Have The Best
in Hi-Fi Sound with
a Jensen Speaker System!"
/I
ADD YOUR OWN TOUCH TO HI-Fl... and SAVE!
You'll enjoy hi-fi music doubly when you put together your own easy-to-assemble
Jensen speaker kit ... and you don't need a work shop. The acoustically correct
Jensen-designed Cabinart enclosure kit and the famous Jensen loudspeaker kit can be
assembled right in your living room without any messy woodworking or
wood finishing. Everything is accurately pre-cut and pre-finished with a professional
furniture finish in your choice of mahogany or korina blonde. You'll have the same fine
matched speaker components used in Jensen's factory assembled complete
high fidelity reproducers- and at far less cost, t.oo!
Send 50¢ for your copy of Manual 1060 for full information about
selecting and building Jensen speaker systems.
Type
3-Woy
3-Way
3-Way
2-Way j
2-Way j
2-Wayj
2-Way j
2-Wayj
2-Way
t
Basic
Cabinet
Jensen
Reproducer
Imperiol
Triple x
Triple x
Concerto
Concerto
Contemporary
DueHe Tre asure Chest
* Gives excellent results aga inst sidewall. Boss-Ultrofle x is a
f
Cabinert Cabinet Kits
Jensen
Speaker Kit
Equivalent
"Woofer"
Size
15"
15"
IS "
IS"
IS "
12"
12"
8"
8"
System
Model
KT-31
KT-32
KT-32
KT-21
KT-21
KT-22
KT-22
KDU- l0
KDU - l0
Price
$ 184.50
169.50
169.50
99.S0
99.S0
7 3.00
73.00
24.7S
24 .7S
Type
Corner* Horn
Corner* Boss· Ultroflex
Low Boy Boss-Ultroflex
Corner* Boss-Ultroflex
low Boy Boss-Ultrofle x
Corner. Boss-Ultrofle x
low Boy Boss-Ultroflex
Corner. Boss-Ultroflex
Duette
Kit
K- l0l
K-l03
K- l0S
K-l03
K-l0S
K- l07
K-l09
K-lll
K-113
Dress
Price
. $89.00
48.00
48.00
48:00
48.00
39.00
39.00
23.00
18.00
Kitt
P-201
P-203
P-20S
P-203
P-20S
P-207
P-209
P-211
P-213
Price
$54.00
39.00
39.00
39.00
39.00
36.00
36.00
2S.00
21.00
Jensen trademark.
Cabinet provides for expon sion to 3-way system at an y time wifh Jensen KT X-l Range Extender Supertweeter Kit f price $43.75 .
Available in Mahogany or Karina Blonde.
BURTON BROWNE: ADVE:RTISING
8- .en~en
MANUFACTURING COMPANY
6601 SOUTH LARAMIE AVE., CHICAGO 38, ILLINOIS
Division of The Muter Co.-In Conada : Copper Wire Products, ltd., Toronto
JENSEN
LOUDSPEAKERS
AUDIO
•
MAY, 1957
WORLD'S
QUALITY
STANDARD
FOR
MORE
THAN
A
QUARTER
CENTURY
33
MIKES
IIHII
TO RIGHT
AUDITORIUM SPEAKERS
I
r.J
IIHII
TO CENTER
AU DITORIUM SPEAKERS
IIHI
TO LEFT
AUDITORIUM SPEAKERS
VU SWITCH
TS
TA PE
TO CUE
~-~-AMPLIFIER
I'-... AMPLIFIER
l/'"AB -- 1510
1511
C -15-40
D - 1530
~
NORMALLED JAC KS
~ SINGLE JACKS
SPARES
--0-
KEY
Fig . 8. Simplified block schematic of entire -auditorium system.
patch panel has also been provided to
offer more flexibility to the system. So
that two-channel stereo programs may be
received and played to auditorium
patrons, two AM-FM tuners are availabll'>. A three-channel stereophonic tape
recorder is part of the comprehensive
control-room equipment. Operation of
the three channels is entirely independent, except fOl' the main a.c. supply.
Steps have been taken to make sure t.he
Henry and Edsel Ford Memorial Auditorium will always be certain of sound.
Should one channel fail, the control engineer has only to patch the system into
either a two-cha11l1el or single-channel
setup, thus assuring continuance of tile
pel"formance. During intermission, he
may patch the faulty amplifier out, and
patch in a replacement.
Another outstanding feature of the
Ford Auditorium system is the telephone
hook-up that ties the various operating
points together, employing a common
talking, selective ringing Western Electric phone -system. Thus, during a performance, the stage manager has ready
contact with spotlight men, projectionists, orchestra conductor, sound engineer, and all other vital locations.
Backstage dressing' rooms are completely covered by a cue system which
permits the house manager or stage
manager to page backstage, and to feed
the performance to -the dressing rooms
by bridging the "All-Bridge Buss." He
may also page the lobby, the large social
room adjacent to the lobby, or he may
permit the lobby system to be fed backstage.
The lobby system was specifically designed for the convenience and use of
the chief usher. He can reach those in
the lobby and social room, and when
occasion demands, feed the stage performance to overflow crowds in these
two locations. The system in the social
room may be employed independently
of the lobby equipment to reinforce the
sound for small groups. Projector sound
may also be fed through this setup.
Throughout this entire elaborate installation, 1500-series Altec amplifiers
are used exclusively, with a variety of
microphones of _the same manufacture.
Through the process of redesign employe_d by H. A. Roseberry and Son,
t he quality of sound provided is su ch
that various Ford Auditorium patronsare unaware that sound reinforcement
is employed for a variety of stage attractions. As a fitting comment, it would
3eem proper to add that this monument
0-[ steel and stone to the Detroit automotive pioneer boasts of a decor equa]
in modernity to the sound installation.
Magnificent murals and g leaming basrelief figures employing gold-like metalsprovide an architectural beauty richly
complementing the acoustic wonders of
the Henry and Edsel Ford Memorial
Auditorium .
AUDIO
•
MAY, 1957
THE
BEST
IN
SEAT
TH E
CONCERT
HALL
It
may be a difficult notion to
accept at first, but most seats in
a concert hall provide the listener with a compromised performance_ For one seat, the
violin is muffled; for another, a
flute passage is lost. Even excellent halls suffer from unwanted reverberations and
reflections, and frequently you
must listen at a sound level substantially above or below that
at which you listen best.
Were you free to shift from
. seat to seat in the concert hall,
you would finally arrive at the
one, uniquely best for you-the
seat in which you could hear the
music as the composer would
wish you to.
Although it isn't practical to
play concert hall "musical
chairs", you can now effect that
one best seat in your own home
with Harman-Kardon high fidelity instruments. There, free of
the acoustic limitations of the
concert hall, untroubled by audience noise and the accident of
seating location, you and the music meet under ideal conditions.
A high fidelity perform ance in your home is fashion ed from
a broadcast or recording created under ideal conditions. This
material is faultlessly received or amplified, then reproduced
with precise adjustment for the acoustics of the room and your
own hearing traits. It is characteristic of Harman-Kardon high
fidelity that these significant corrections are effected by operation of a small group of very simple controls.
The two high fid elity instruments seated atop the cabinets
in our illustration are The Rondo AM-FM tuner, model T-120,
and The Melody amplifier, model A-120. Each is only 12Vz"
wide by 3%" high by 7%" deep. A total of seven operating controls and two slide switches provide: magnificent Armstrong
FM with Automatic Frequency Control to insure accurate
tuning automatically; sensitive AM with built-in whistle
filter; dynamic loudness contour control to provide precise
balance for your own hearing characteristics; separate bass
and treble tone controls; record and FM rumble filters;
built-in record equalization; remote speaker selector switch;
and 20 watts of distortion-free, hum-free power output.
The Rondo tuner and Melody amplifier each sell for $95.00.
The Recital, model TA-120 (silhouetted above), priced at
$175.00, combines all the features of the Rondo and Melody
in one compact, handsome unit only 14%" wide by 3%" high
by 10-15/16" deep. Simply plug in a suitable loudspeaker and
record player, and a high fidelity system of incomparable
performance and unique good looks is yours.
FREE : Beautiful, new, fully illustrated
catalog. Describ es complete Harman-Kardon line, includes guides on how and where
to buy high fid elity. For your copy write
Dept. A-OS, 520 Main St., Westbury, N. Y .
kardon
AUDIO
•
MAY, 1957
35
,
A Single-Channel Transistorized
Remote Amplifier
Built to broadcast standards ye t miniaturized as completely as a pocket radio
set, this unit provides the necessa ry amplification to feed a line at normal levels.
The circuitry and tech niques are wort h a thorough study by the experimenter.
JOHN K.
the wide
variet y of r emote broadcast amplifiers t hat h ave alipeared over
the year s is according to the method by
which :flower is obtained. Although a.c.
equipment Is the most straightforward,
buttery operation has always been extremely desira ble, as anyone will agree
who has tried to stretch a 300-foo t extension cor d to the field house 400 fee t
away at an unfa miliar athletic field. But
all battery 'p ower ed amplifiel's have t wo
things in common- they ar e heavy, and
t hey defy any reliable estimate of useful
activity r emaining in their power plants.
This uncertainty plus the f actor of shelf
deterioration r esult in a consider able
economic problem where extensive porta bl e oper ation is planned. To th e designer of r emote equipment, then, transistors supplied the means to build a
unit wi th ba ttery life far in excess of
anything else available ; in fact, one tha t
would ,carry the broadcaster through a n
entir e season on only one set of batteries , A discussion of the design considera tions f or such a unit should be of value
t o anyone interested in the p ortability
a nd high-quality audio perf ormance obt ainable by the use of transistors.
At the outset of the development of
t his new r emote amplifier , five design
goals wer e listed which it was felt must
be included at any cost. These will be
described briefly .
O
N E M ETH OD OF CLASSI FYING
Design Features
1 . The complete assembly must be as
small as p ossible to p rovide max imum
mobility. Only one micropbone input
ch annel would be provided, adequate for
a large variety of progr ams such as
sports, interviews, and church pickups.
Size r eduction had l'eached a stalema te in vacuum t ube equipment not only
because of the t ubes themselves, but also
due to the volume taken up by the power
supply and transformers. Transistor circuitry p ermits the elimination of the
" Gates Racl'io CO?ltpany, Qui,n cy, Illinois.
36
BIRCH ~'
micropho ne inp ut tr ansformer due to
the inher ently low input imp edance of
the common emitter amp lifier. W orking
a 150-ohm microphone into a typical inp ut impedance of 2000 ohms r esults in
only a slight r eduction in gain and signal-to-noise ra tio, mor e than comp ensated fo r by tbe r em oval of the transformer. Omission of the " A" battery is
Fig. 1. The singl e-chann e l re mote amplifier in its carry i ng ca se .
one of t he biggest factors in designing
f or compactness, and the VU meter can
be consider ed unnecessary in a singlemicrophone set-up .
2. F requency r esponse and distortion
must be beld close to r a tings f or pr evious equipmen t. Transformer size and
p owel' output m'e the cr itical factors
her e and these must be equated with
unit size, batter y drain and t ypical program ma terial to arrive at specifications
which are not better than the service 1'e·
quires, n or below custom ary broadcast
standards. A frequency r esponse of ± 2
db from 70 to 10,000 cps was decided
upon, with harmonic distortion under 2
per cent at full output. Low-f r equency
response comes dearly witb miniature
transformers carrying d.c. in their windings, as will be described later. R esponse
at the high end is dictated p r incipally
by the alp ha cut-off f r equencies of the
four cascaded tra nsistors, and here any
inclination toward improvement is tem per ed by the hard facts of r emote line
p erf orma nce.
. 3. An adequate overload factor must
be provided. By this it is meant t hat if
+ 4 U is to be the n ormal output level
with program material, all sp ecifica tions
must hold f or test with a sine wave signal 10 db higher, or + 14 dbm. This is
.. tandard broadcast p r ocedure, and i t insures that t he entire amplifier is abl e to
handle p ea.ks 10 db higher than n ormal
without overloading- esp ecially important her e since no level-indi cating device
is provided.
4. A line-isolation p ad must be included, of sufficient attenuation to r educe the effects of variation in lipe imp edan ce t o a negligible amount. This is
one of the more u npleasant asp ects of
remote amplifier design since it appears
wasteful of hard-earned output milliwatts, but its value is proven by a few
actual measurements.
A r emote line one or two miles in
length will measure quite close t o 600
ohms when it is terminated at t he console by a r ep eat coil and .a 600-ohm a ttenuator. A longer line, or the presen ce
of numer ous stubs, may present an en tirely different impedan ce. R esp onse of
the amplifier under discussion was measured at the line t erminals when connected to a telephone line t en miles long.
The following table shows ,the effects of
the line isolation p ad:
PAD
60 cps
10,000 cps
None
+ 4
+ 0.7
+ 0.5
-13
8
6
2 db
4 db
AUDIO
-
•
MAY, 1957
,~
I
The Charming B-305 Provincial
Two-woofer, three-way system to grace the traditional
living room . 35 to 16,000 cycles, 16 Ohm,s, 30 Watts.
l
,i
ONE LINE -
ONE QUALITY
The Elegant B-305 Contemporary
I
In acoustical specifications and performance a twin
to the Provincial. Unrivalled for the average living
room with modern decor.
You will find the Bozak name on only one. grade
of loudspeaker The very finest we know how to build-
hecause we huild them for only one man The experienced listener who will settle
for nothing less than the best.
All Bozak Speaker Systems are identical in the
quality of their components, consonant in their
tonality ... differ in power and realism only
'h ecause of the number of speakers and size of
infinite-baffie enclosure employed.
The B-302A Gem
One-WOOfe r, three-way spealie r system in the smallest
practical enclosure. 40 to 16,000 cycles, 8 Ohms , 15
Watts. B-300 two-way system in the same enclosure
with the same specifications.
The quiet elegance of Bozak cahinetry, like the
unequalled listening ease of Bozak Sound, will
never outlive its welcome.
Your nearest Franchised Bozak Dealer will be
happy to show off hi s Bozak Speakers. Write for
his name. Careful comparison, using the finest
associated equipment and program material, will
show you why the Bozaks are known the world over
The Distinguished B-400
for
Four-woofer, three-way speaker system, offering in a
low-boy enclosure the only rival of the 8-310. 28 to
16,000 cycles, 8 Ohms, 50-60 Wat~s .
All Bozak Products are De signed and Bui lt
~y the R. T. Bozak Manufacturing Company
T4e B-3~4 Stereo-Fantasy
Single-cabinet two-channel stereophonic speaker sys,
. tem. Each Channel 40 to 16,000 cycles, 8 Ohms 30
Watts. Also available In graceful provincial 'styling.
EXPORTS: ELECTRONICS MANUFACTURERS' EXPORT CO.
•
PLAINVIEW •
N. Y.
THE R. T. BOZAK SALES COMPANY • BOX 1:166 • DARIEN • CONN_
AUDIO
•
MAY, 1957
37
2N44
XQ~
2N I 06
XQ I
2N44XQ3
2N I06
XQ2
C3
-5.5 '0'.
•
RI
25
-2.8,...
:-2.8,...
N
~
~
." .
~
R5
68
68
8.
g,
~
R2
~
E
R~
::1
68
RIO
~
R~
68
8.
~
I
+
+
110
::1
I
I
C2
0<
I
I
15/XYJ
:l!
LINE
l OUT
ci
62/XYJ
I
I
=
8
~
~
~
::;
~~
~
"
+
10
0
~
~
+
25
.., §.
0<
;Sl
100
~
~
8.
______ .JI
"0<
~
AT I
2N44
XQ5
~
~
,----,
I
RED
I
I
I
YLW
I
L __ _ _ ...JI
J2
I.
0
DESIGNATES C HASSIS LUG CONNECTI ON
2. A LL RESISTORS Y2-WATT AT 5%.
3. A LL CAPAC ITA N CES IN M ICROFARADS
~_
D. C. VO LTAGES MEASURED WITH V. T. V. M
TO GROUND
EMITTER
COLLECTOR
SASE
TRANSISTOR TERMINAL ARRANGEM ENT
Fig. 2 . Over-all schematic of the remote a mplifier.
Effect of the line pad on decrease in output level when line impedance is r educed
from 600 ohms to 150 ohms is as follows:
PAD
Non e
DECREASE
11 db
2 db
4 db
3.5 db
6 db
Decrease does not include loss in the
pad. Note that the advantage gained by
isolation more than compensates for the
pad insertion loss; this would not be
true, however, of pads larger than 4 db
in this case.
5. Noise must be as low as is measured in similar vacuum-tube equipment,
requiring an equivalent input noise figure of from - 115 to - 120 dbm. A brief
discussion of equivalent input noise
might be of interest, since it illustrates
an important phase of amplifier design.
Visualize a two-stage amplifier having
a volume control between stages. With
the control open, a signal of - 50 dbm
(50 db below a reference of 1 milliwatt
in 600 ohms) is f ed to the input, and a
level of 0 dbm is measured at the output.
When the signal is removed the noise
present at the outpnt terminals is found
to be 60 db below the output level. We
would then say that this ampli fier has
38
a signal-to-noise ratio of 60 db . Increasing the input signal by 10 db to - 40
dbm will make it necessary to tmn down
the volume control until it produces 10
db of attenuation to obtain 0 dbm out.
Now when the signal is removed, the
noise will measure 70 db below the signal because the control is attenuating 10
db of the noise originating in the first
stage. We could now say that the amplifier had a signal-to-noise ratio of 70
db, but since it is the same amplifier as
before we must resist the temptation and
look for a more accmate method of describing noise.
It is best done by r elating noise to the
input signal, because by doing so attention is focused on the principal
SOUl'ce of noise-the input circuit, and
it can be seen at a glance what is the
lowest level the amplifier can accommodate and still produce the desired output noise level. Equivalent input noise
is obtained by adding the output signalto-noise ratio to the input signal level,
and it may be thought of as being the
output level of a hypothetical noise generator connected to the amplifier input.
In the two examples given, the equivalent input noise level would be - 110
dbm . It can r eadily be seen that this
figme is not affected by the setting of
the volume control. The foregoing ex-
ample, in which the signal-to-noise ratio
improved for a constant output as the
input level is raised, illustrates the advantage of placing the attenuatar after.
the input stage in a line or monitor amplifier, and employing hig)J.-Ievel mixing
in a mul tichannel amplifier.
An important point here is that the
interstage volume control must. not be
turned down to the point where the input to the second stage falls below the
input to the first stage. If this occms,
the signal-to-noise r atio will be decreased by the amount of the difference
between input levels. Also, where the
two levels are nearly the same, the second stage must have as Iowa noise figure
as the first.
These featUl'es have been includcd in
the amplifier pictured in F i g. 1 and
shown schematically in Fig. 2, but only
after overcoming a number of problems
that are peculiar to transistor circuitry.
One of these--temy'erature stabilization
- has been so thoroughly covered before' that the method used here will be
recognized as quite conventional. The
rest are concen trated in the input and
output circuits.
The Prea mplifier
As mentioned previously, noise in the
preamplifier is of utmost importance,
AUDI O
•
MAY, 1957
ELECTRONICS IN BRITAIN
The British Electronics Industry is making
giant strides with new developments in
a variety of fields. Mullard tubes are an
important contribution to this progress.
The expert choice • • • • • • • • • • for
medium
power,
high
fidelity \
equipment
Principal Ratings
British high fidelity experts know
that for ·medium powered equipment there is no finer tube than the
EL84. A pair of these tubes provide a power output of lOW at a
distortion level of less than I % while their transconductance value of
II,300 iJ.mhos results in exceptional sensitivity. The EL84 may also
be used for higher powers. For example, two tubes in push-pull will
provide outputs of up to 17W at an overall distortion of 4 %.
A single EL84 has a maximum
plate dissipation Of I2W. It provides an output of 5-6W for an input
signal of less than SV r.m.s. at plate and screen voltages of 250V.
Supplies of the EL84 for replacement in British equipments are available from the companies listed.
6.3V,O.76A
Heater
Max. plate voltage
300V
12W
Max. plate disSipation
Max. screen voltage
300V
Max. screen dissipation (max. signal)
4W
65mA
Max. cathode current
Base
Small btJtton noval 9-pin
Supplies available from:In the U'. S.A.
International Electronics Corporation , Dept, AS ,
81 Spring Street, N. Y. 12. New York. U.S.A.
In Canada
Rogers Majestic Electronics Limited. De pt. HE.
11-19 Brentcliffe Road. Toronto 17. Ontario.
Canada.
ELECTRONIC TUBES
MULLARD OVERSEAS LTD ., MULLARD HOUSE, TORRINGTON PLACE, LONDON, ENGLAND
Mulfard is the Trade Mark of Mulfard Ltd., and is registered in most of the principal countries of the world.
1611
MEV 43
AUDIO
•
MAY, 1957
39
THE BOGEN MODEL 0070 HIGH
•
PR100A AUDIO CONTROL AND
If you are ready to own the optimum in high fidelity, .
get to know these two components. They are the standard against
which others must be measured. The remarkable engineering spectfications only hint at the flawless sound they produce together.
better ...
what the 'sound men' say ...
"I get lots of calls for Bogen equipment here at Newark's
in Chicago. I like Bogen's broad line, especially the
moderately priced DB115 amplifier and its companion
R620 tun~r. They make a fine pail' for those beginning
in hi-fi.
"I have also found that the audio quality of Bogen'·s
premium line of amplifiers, tuners, receivers, and turntables satisfies the most discriminating listener. The fact
that Bogen equipment can fill most every hi-fi need both
in price and features, has sold me on Bogen."-
Richa1'd B. Roette1', Newa1-k Elect1'ic Company,
Chicago, Illinois. (Dick is widely known among Chicagoarea audiophiles as one of the mid-West's leading hi-fi
consultants. )
PREAMPLIFIER
THE D070PEAK
POWER OUTPUT,
POWER :
WATTS ; 0.5 ~ o
300
WATTS:
0.125 ~~
AT 70 WATTS:
QUENCY RESPONSE :
5
TO
70 WATTS , TONE BURST
I O ~.
DISTORTION :
AT
to
AT
80
WATTS: FRE·
100 ,,000 cPS. W I THIN 0.5 DB:
S ENSITIVITY : 1 VOLT INP UT FO R 70 WATTS : GA IN : 76
;,./
os :
HUM AND NOISE : 100 ' oB BELOW RATED OUTPUT: DAMPING .
FACT0R :
VARIABLE
FROM
'\. 0.1
THROU G H
00
TO
- 1. 5 .
BUILT IN 2 POS SPEAKER. SE LECTOR SWITC H WITH BLONDE·
OR MAHOGANY FINISHED METAL ENCLOSURE : $12,9.50.
THE PR100A -
DISTORTION ,
VI RT U AL L Y
UNMEASUR -
ABLE: FREQUENCY- RESPONSE : 10 TO 130.000 CYC L ES ± O. 5
DB : 10 FRONT PANEL CONTROLS: HIGH FREQUENCY ROLL·
OFF
16
POS I TIONS ;, LOW F REQUENCY TUR NOVER
POS ITI ON S }. ' PHONO
SE L ECTOR
( 2 ~ PO S ITIONS ).
(6
BA SS.
A UNI T HONICS C OR PO RATI O N AFFILIA T E i
TREB L E. LO FILTER ( S P OSITIONS ), HI G H FILTER 15 POSI ·
T I ONS ) . VOLUME, LO U D N ESS CONTOUR SELECTOR
<5 po -
S ITIONS ). INP UT SE L ECTOR t 6 PUSH . BUTTON SW ITCHES ):
POWER OFF, MO N , PHONO, RADIO. TAPE . AClX:
C ONTROLS :
INPUT .
LEV E L ADJUST FOR P H ONO B
TUNER
INPUT,
A UX
IN P U T .
4 CHASSIS
INP UTS , TAPE
EXC LU SIVE
" TAPE.·
MONITOR " PERM I TS MONITORING RE.CO R DED S IGNAL WHILE
RECORDING. CHASSIS: $109,QO. BLONDE
OR MAHOGANY ·
57.50.
Send 25~ 1M' new 56-page" UnderstandingHigkFidelity".
DavidBogenCo.,lnc.,Box500,PanJlmus,N.J.
but a few calculations will show how it
may be r educed below the amount tolerated by our specifications. R. F . Shea2
has related the p ublished transistor
noise figure to equivalent inp ut noise
})ower by the formula
P"i= ·9x10- I7 Fo log (fd fl)
Where F"i is the equivalent noise power
in watts at room temperature, Fo is the
noise figure converted from db to a
power ratio, and fI and f2 are the lower
and upper frequency limits. The microphone in t his case is effectively un -
~
I
Izw
'"
'"::J
0.4 I------+------,I-+--J.~__I
U
'" 0.2 1------+--+~'-+---_1
o
I-
~
a
u
o L-_ """'::::::::..L_ _ _ -L_ _ _.-l
0 .1
0.2
0.3
Source
Male voice12 in .
Piano- 10 ft.
15 piece oorch .10 ft .
Average
Level
Peak
Level
- 73 dbm
- 57 dbm
- 67
- 46
-57
- 42
The inability of the transistor voltage
amplifier to handle anything but extremely small signals is the result not
only of the high load impedance which
is required for adequate amplification,
but also of the inherent non-linearity of
the emitter-base diode shown by the
B e = 0 curve in Fig. 3. A simple method
of improving linearity is to add a resistance in series with the diode, either
at the base 01' at the emitter. The effect
of adding a 200-ohm resistor in the
emitter circuit is shpwn on the same
graph.
This procedure results in degenoe rative
current feedback, which reduces even
harmonic distortion in the same manner
BASE VOLTAGE - VOLTS
10 . -- - - , -- - - , - --
Fig . 3. Effect of extern a l resistance o n
li nearity of emitter-b ase diode.
~
-::-r-----,
8. ~--4_--~
I-
loaded, and the open circuit output voltage of a 150-ohm microphone whose output is rated at 60 db below 1 mw / 10
dynesjcm 2 is 7.8 x 10- 4 volts. This pr0duces 30 x 10- 11 watts in the 2000-ohm
base circuit. P"i must be 55 db below
this, or 9.5 x 10-16 watts. W ith a frequency r ange of 50 to 10,000 cps, and
solving for fo) we obtain
fo
=46)
or 16.6 db.
Transistors having a maximum noise
figure of 16 db or lower will be satisfactory- two popular types are the Raytheon 2N106 and the RCA 2N104. A
low-noise transistor is also used in the
second stage for the reasons mentioned,
since transistors not designed especially
for low-noise se:rvice are apt to have a
wide noise figure spread.
With noise under control, we can t um
our attention to an imp or tant but frequently ignored aspect of transistor circuit design-the dynamic range of the
input circuit . Unless the p reamplifier is
able to handle any input level t hat is
likely to be encountered, restrictions
must be placed °on the use of the remote
€quipment and it can no longer be considered an all-p urpose unit. A representative broadcast micr ophone has a
rllted output of - 55 dbm in a pressure
field of 10 dynes per square cm. From
figures available for the ave:rage and
peak sound pressures of a number of
~ources at differ ent distances,3 some typIcal levels are obtained:
42
o
o
o
The Output Stage
In the foregoing discussion of design
principles, it was seen that the output
l('vel to the line must be + 14 dbm. The
4-db isolation pad plus 1 db for a production safety factor and as a maJ:gin
for battery aging, make it necessary to
provide + 19 dbm (80 mw) at the output transformer. Design of a circuit
capable of delivering this power centers
around two choices: between Class A
and Class B operation, and between the
common base and common emitter configurations.
Class B operation is attractive because
of its offer of high power output and
a low quiescent cUlTent, qualities that
have made it imperative for portableradio and hearing-aid circuits. On the
other hand, it is difficult to obtain very
low distortion with Class B. B iasing is
critical and subject to shifting with
temperature changes unless elaborate
precautions are taken. Distortion OCCUl"S
due to the notch effect, and it is especial.ly serious at high frequencies where
variations in current gain and phase
shift between transistors cause unbalance. P ush-p ull Class A operation is the
logical choice where distor tion must be
t;;
4~--+_-~~_4-_+~-~
~
Z
~
o -60
E===~==~----~--~
-30
- 20
- 40
-50
INPUT LEVEL - DBM
COMMON
EM ITTER
-tCONNECTION
I
U 2 1-----+~-~-----,~--~
h A r i - - 7 " Q-
-
~6~~~~~-+~--~----+-----t
::J
U 4~~=--+---+~-~--+-----I
(5
Fig . 4. Effect of external emitter resist a nce on ma ximum inp ut signal.
ti
~
a
2 ~~~-----+----~__--+---~
u
10
as cathode degeneration in vacuum tube
amplifiers. Degeneration also has a valuable side effect, in almost completely
equalizing the gain figure for transistors
of anyone type and providing good
predictabili ty for the over-all gain of the
amplifier.
The effect of improving input linearity on the signal-handling capability of
the preamplifier is shown in Fig. 4. Harmonic distortion is plotted against input
level in dbm for unbypassed emitter resistances of zero, 47, and 200 ohms. Note
that 1 pel' cent distortion occurs for an
input level of - 57 dbm for Be = 0 and
- 35 dbm for Be =200 ohms. The sharp
upswing in each curve occurs when the
clipping point of the transistor is
reached. This is a function of collectorto-emitter voltage, which is kept low in
the low level stages to minimize n oise:
This type of degeneration is also usef ul in transistorized phonograph preamplifiers, where the peak output level
of a cartridge may reach - 30 dbm or
111ore.
20
30
40
50
COLLECTOR VOLTAGE - VOLTS
Fig. 5 . Collecto r characteristics fo r 2N44
in the co mmon emitter connecti o n, illustrati ng crowd ing at high collector currents.
kept low, at t he price of highei· battery
drain.
W ith this as a start, it is possible to
select a suitable t r ansistor type. With
an output power of 45 mw (for one ) the
transistor should have a collector dissipation of about 100 mw for Class A .
Allowance must be made for derating
for temp erature increase, so a dissipation of around 150 mw would be required. The G.E. 2N44 is so mted, and
i, used in t his amplifier for both the
driver and p ush-pull output stages.
Distortion in the power stage is due
to two factors: non-linearity of the collector family curves, and non-linearity
of the emitter-base d iode. The latter was
described in th e p reamplifier section,
AUDIO
•
MAY, 1957
RCA (1A~~ SPEAKER SYSTEMS
hi-quality ... hi-fidelity ... anywhere and any way you like it I
Soft and sweet or loud and lively .. . in your
den or in your living room, RCA CUSTOM
CONVERTIBLE SPEAKER SYSTEMS
offer the finest in sound satisfact1:on.
Buy with
confidence! RCA CUSTOM
CONVERTIBLE SPEAKER SYSTEMS
through exclusive RCA bottom-porting,
are readily convertible for use as INFINITE
BAFFLE ... BASS REFLEX ... CORNER
DRIVER ... to suit your room acoustics,
and your personal taste. Custom-built appearance is readily obtainable .. . panels
and grill cloths can be removed and interchanged easily for matching or contrasting effects.
RCA 501 5 1 Biaxial Speaker-compores
with models two or three times the price!
Features 14.5 ounce Alnico-V magnet and
8-ohm voice coil. Its 12-inch woofer employs
Olson-developed foam damping ring; 3-inch
tweeter is mounted off-axis to minimize
crossover interference; high frequency
response extends beyond 18,000 cps.
Suggested User Price (optional)
$33.50
RCA 50251 Direct Radiator Speakeroutstandingly smooth, unsurpassed in its
frequency range to 16,000 cps. Features
same construction as 501 Sl and incorporates
medium-weight curved cone for smoothness,
range, damping, and sensitivity to equal
sound pressure of higher power speakers
using double the power input.
Suggested User Price (optional) $25.25
RCA Enclosures-Beauty in cherry or
blonde cabinetry, the sofid Honduras Mahogany will enhance room decor with the
expensive look and feel of fine woods.
Built for a lifetime of use, RCA enclosures
feature mortise-ond-tenon joints, glue-block
reinforcements and wood-screw clamping .
For 12-inch speakers.
Suggested User 300Wl Cherry $69.95
Price (optional) 301Wl Blonde $74.50
301 X 1 Adapter Panel-converts 12-inch
enclo, ures for use with 8-inch speakers.
Suggested User Price (optional) . $2.45
'G~
.~
RADIO CORPORATION 01 AMERICA
CAMDEN, N. J.
COMPONENTS DIVISION
®
R~A SPEAKERS FOR TV! RADIO. PHONOGRAPH· HIGH
AUDIO
•
MAY, 1957
FIDELITY·
PUBLIC
ADDRESS· AT
RCA
DISTRIBUTORS
EVER YW HERE
I
43
and it was found that p erformance was
improved when the input circuit was
isolated from the source-approaching
a constant-current condition . 'I.'he same
effect can be obtained by driving the
output stage from a transform er having
a higher impedance than the input impedance. Figs. 5 and 6 show th e curves
for collector current as a fun ction of
collector voltage for the common-emitter
and common-hase configurations, and a
load line for [email protected] ohms has been super-
10
COMMO N
BASE
10
"'-
......'"
Batteries
1
CONNECT1 0N _~_
8
'" '"""
o
'"'"
flux densities. These mate.rials are, however , very sensitive to even a small
amount of d.c. flu x and most of the
gain involved in their use is elimin ated
by even a few milliamperes of d.c. The
design process settles down to a juggling process between core materials,
d.c. in windings and efficiency to determine the optimum combination for the
size allowable.
Normally with transistors a small
amount of d.c. is present, so that nickel
alloys may be used, but not at maximum
permeability. Resistance of the windings
must be kept at a minimum by crowding all possible copper into the window. Shielding may be provided by a
nlU-metal case. Transformers used in
this amplifier are sp eciall y made by the
Triad Transformer Corp.
N
"
z-
6
w
~
4
..............
20
30
w
~-
..............
10
u-
0
40
SO
CO LLE CTOR VOLTAG E - VO LT S
Fig. 6 . Coll ector characte ristics for 2N 44
in the common base conne cti on , illustrat ing even spacing .
Three outstanding features of mercury batteries make them a natural for
use in this eq uipment: they maintain a
nearly constan t loa~ voltage 0ver their
entire life, their total life is the same
whether the equipment is operated continuously or intermittently, and they exhibit an E)x tremely long shelf life.
The first is important in the design
imposed on each. The crowding at the
high cmTent end for the cornmon emitter indicates a source of distortion for
operation at maximum output, which in
this case is about 43 mw. Maximum output fO;l: the common base circuit is 45
mw. Measm·ements made on a Push-pull
amplifier at 2 per cent distortion using
2N44's show maximum output for the ·
common emitter to be + 15 dbm; for the
common base, + 19 dbm, or more than
twice as much power. 'fhe input impedance of the common base circuit is about
40 ohms. With a source impedan ce of 50
ohms, the distortion at + 18 dbm is 3
p er cent; for 150 ohms, 1.5 per cent;
and for 600 ohms, 1.2 per cent. Since the
loss in gain is 3 db at 150 ohms and
8 db at 600 ohms, the 150-ohm driving
impedance is chosen as the best compromise between high gain and low distortion. The primary impedan ces of the
driver and output transformers are 20,- Fig . 7. In te rnal v iew show ing printed
000 ohms and 8,000 Oh111S, resp ectively.
chass is for amplifi er and li ne pad .
Transforme rs
At this point, it should be emphasized
that transformers are the most critical
factor in high-quality transistor amplifier design, and the most serious obstacle to miniaturization. Although
many extremely small transformers are
available, they are not usable below
about 200 cps for the equipment . under
consideration.
Reducing the size of audio transformer s usually will involve use of one
of the nickel alloy core materials, which
have very high permeabilities at low
44
of a low-distortion amplifier , since it
guarantees that there will be no deterioration of the original specifications. A
decrease in voltage of 10 per cent was
measmed over the specified useful life
in this amplifier. The second feature is
clue to the fac t that meI'cmy cells r equiTe no r ejuvenation period, and it
makes possible an accurate estimate of
the time when the pack must be r eplaced. To simplify thi s, a chart is attached to the underside of the case on
which program time may be r ecorded .
Th e third feature is important econom-
ically, allowing a minimum of spares to
be stocked.
Since the drain of a pilot lamp could
not be tolerated, the problem arose of
how to insure that the power would not
be left on accidentally. A simple solution was found by breaking the battery
leads with a set of contacts on the headphone jack. When the headphones are
plugged in, power is applied, and the
top flap of the carrying case cannot be
clo ed until the plug is r emoved. In the
event that headphones are not used, a
p lastic dumm y plug is calTied in a clip
at one end of the case.
Fin·al Design
F 'igwre 2 is the over-all schema tic.
Emitter degeneration is provided in the
preamplifier by R2 and in the driver by
R)5 . Because of the high signal level and
low collector voltage at the booster, Q2J
degeneration is not practical because it
would cause the output impedance to be
too high. Thus the linearity resistor, R 7 )
is placed in the base circuit, and the
collector voltage is reduced by the bypassed r esistor R 1 2 • Temperature stabilization is provided for the push-pull
output stage by supplying the emitter
bias from one cell in the battery pack.
R 17 fixes the total collector em'rent at
10 rna. Th e temp eratme stabilizing networks shown insure low-distortion operation up to 1400 F.
The internal view of Fig. 7 shows that
both the amplifier proper and the line
isolation pad have been assembled on
printed Wil·ing boards. The driver and
output transformers are at the lower
end of the case, and the battery pack is
mounted under a clamp on the coverconnected to the amplifier through a
plug at the upper end. The small size
of the complete unit- 9 x 2 x 3 in. and
weighing only 3 lbs.- suggested its use
in the leath er carrying case in which
it is pictured in Fig. 1. It may be operated in a number of ways: suspended
from the shoulder with a ShOl-t mike
cord attached; serving as a base for a
microphone that has been modified by
the conne.ction of a male plug to its
swivel; placed inconspicuously in a
church, auditorium, or office; and many
others.
This amplifier illustl·ates one of the
most appropriate uses at present for
transistor s in broadcast equipment. It
provides the closest approach yet to perfec t portability, benefi ting station and
listener alike.
R EFERENCES
Paul Penfield, Jr., « Transisto r bias stabilization," AUDIO, May and July, 1956.
2 R. F. Shea, " Tmnsisto1· Ajtd'io AmpUfie1·s," P. 127, John Wiley, New York,
1955.
3 H. F. Olsen, "Musical Engine81·vng,"
P. 206, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1952.
1
AUDIO
•
MAY, 1957
NEW SONOTONE CA-12 12" CO-AXIAL LOUDSPEAKER
The price will be music to your ears, tOO!
40-14,000 cycles-:-elliptical cone tweeter-complete dividing network. And the
price ... $19.50. That's right, $19.50. Yet it out-performs speakers selling at
three times the price. Interested? Listen to the CA-12 and be convinced.
Ask your dealer for a demonstration, or send your name c:nd address for full details.
~~ MA-I<((
Electronic Applications Divis i on
SONOTONE
•
MAY, 1957
~
~
~
~
~~
'Y' lN c ' ~
ADDRESS _________________________
CORPORATION
Dept. LA-57, ELMSFORD, N . )'.
AUDIO
filii/II/I!;
,. ~~
~
®
NAME ________________________
CITY ___________ ZONE_STATE _ _
LA·57
45
,
A Matching Impedance, Variable
Attenua'tion Box
A simply constructed unit ,of this type will simplify many of the routine measurements that must regularly be made in any professional audio installation.
HAROLD
E
REED~'
or hobbyist in the audio field is continually
confronted with the problems of
signal level and impedance matching.
He must be careful not to cause distortion in an audio system by feeding into
it a signal of such magnitude as to result in overloading of the input circuit,
while at the same time providing correct •
impedance matching. For a single, :fixed
circuit, this condition may be easily sat(8)
isfied. But, in experimentation, a means
for varying both impedance and attenuat~on is desirable.
The device described in this article
(C)
may be used for all impedances and attenuations normally encountered in
For 20 db Attenuation, Rl =R2=20.5t.l R3 = 10. 1 w
audio frequency work. Simple resistive
For 30 db Attenuation , Rl =R2=23. 5 IJ R3 = 3. 1 w
networks can be employed which will
For 40 db Attenuati on , Rl =R2=24.5 w R3 = 1.0 w
work between equal or unequal impedances and provide a wide variety of attenuations. The combinations tha t can Fig . 1. Typical attenuators. (Al " H" configuration ; (Bl " T" conf igura tion; (e l " H"
be designed are practically unlimited.
configuration with values for a ttenuaFor purposes of analysis let us con- t io ns of 20, 30, and 40 db in a 50-ohm
sider the circuit of (A) in Fig. 1. Here
circuit.
we have an "H" type of attenuation
network, also referred to as a pad. R, ate resistive value for R, and R g. This is
and R z are the series arms of the net- shown in Fig. 2. Here, R, and R z are
work and R " the shunt arm . The input given as 22 ohms, while R s may be 10,
and output impedances are equal, that 3, 01' 1 ohm, selected as required by a
is Z, = Z 2' (B) of Fig . 1 shows a "T" switch, and corresponding to 20, 30, and
type pad. In calculating for impedances 40 db of attenuations. Any mismatch of
and losses of the " T" pad we find that impedances or inaccuracies in losses
the results are the same except that the would be negligible under usual circumvalues for the series legs are twice that stances.
We may build up a matching impedof the "H" pad.
In designing these pads it will be ance, variable attenuator around this
found that over a certain r ange of losses idea with plug-in networks using the
the resistive values of Rl and R z vary same series resistors for several different
only a small amount. For instance, con- losses and switching in various shunt
sider the circuit of the 50 ohm "H" pad resistors. In addition, plug-in networks
of (C) in Fig. 1. Here, Zl = Z2 =50 may be designed specifically for a single
ohms. For 20 db loss, Rl and R2 are 20 .5 attenuation value, for eq,u al 01' unequal
ohms each, and R s is 10.1 ohms. For the input and output impedances, and used
same attenuator with 30 db loss, R, and in the attenuator box. Plug-in networks
R z are 23 .5 ohms each, and R:J = 3.1 ohms, avoid complicated, costly switching dewhile with 40 db loss, Rl and R z are 24.5 sign . They have the f urther advantage
ohms each , and R s is 1 ohm. Thus it can that the constructor may design pads of
be seen from this data that Rl and R 2 any desirable impedances and losses ' as
change very little, whereas R s changes neede.d simply by wiring in the required
as much as 10 to 1. It seems reasonable, resistors into additional plugs, using
therefore, for all practical purposes, in switch Sw 1 to select the shunt leg.
this attenuation range, to vary only the Practical Unit
shunt arm, R SJ an d select an intel'mediThe unit shown in the picture is built
into a 4 x 4 x 2 inch metal hox, Fig. 3.
"3917 Mad-ison St., Hyattsville, Md .
VERY ELECTRONICS WORKER
46
An octal socket for plugging in the different pads is fitted to the top . Input
and output binding posts are mounted
on the sides. Switching is accomplished
with a wafer type switch. A dial is used
to indicate loss in db (decibels), for the
different switch positions. It is set up
for a range from 5 to 45 db in 5 db
steps.
Pads of any of the losses given on the
dial and all useful impedances can be
easily made and used in the box. It is, of
course, beyond the scope of this article
to present the innumerable combinations
that are possible. Only the values (Fig.
2) for a 50/50 ohm, 20 =30 =40 =db
network are given. When this particular
network is p lugged in, the dial would be
set to 20, 30 or 40 db according to the
loss desired. If a suitable dial is not
available these indications may be placed
on the panel with decals. The p lugs are
very inexpensive, if purchased, 01' may
RI = 22w
R2
.D
."
3ZI = SOw
~
11
0
::l
::0
."
::0
8-
~
2
~
11
11
~
u
RI = 22w
= 22w
."
Z2 =5
M
""
).~.~
, 9
0
SWITCH
Fig . 2 . By comp romising the values of the
series legs of the H-pad as shown he re,
t hree different values of atte n uation may
be ob tained simply by changing the
shunt resistor, which may be done by
means of a switch .
be octal bases from old tubes. A ll resistors arc of the 1h-watt size.
Wiring of the plug-in unit, socket,
and switch is given in Fig. 4. The impedances and loss values of each network should be markeel on each plug-in
unit with white ink. The impedances
indicate the values which will be available a t the input and output binding
posts when a certain plug-in unit is inserted in the socket, and the loss values
will be obtained when the switch, Sw"
is set to the indicated loss on the dial
(Continued on page 74)
AUDIO
•
MAY, 1957
quality thTOUg hout
?nakes the
difjeTence in the
FAIRCHILD
cartTidge
1. Pr ecision ground a nd
la pped, grain ori ented diamond stylu s fitted and bonded
to stylus arm for minimum
reco rd wea r and lon g life.
2.
Center beam support insures precise verti cal placement of stylus arm.
3. Special all oy aluminum
stylus arm with low moving
mass provides vastly improved
tracking.
4.
Micradjust Screw - permits exact factory setting of
damping after final assembly.
Assures uniform flux gap ,
proper centerin g of stylus arm
a nd correct damping.
S. Movin g coil comprised
of 825 turns of copper-silver
alloy wire .00115" diameter
wound on nylon bobbin .077"
diameter . Wire is triple gold
plated before enamellin g for
maximum protection under
all climatic conditions.
6.
Special composition silicone rubber damping ring for
movin g coil.
7.
Alnico V ma gnet for
greatest energy product. Sp ecial alloy flux return path
prevents leakage and hence
insures full utilization of magnetic energy and maximum
sensitivity.
8.
Mylar vane anchors coil
bobbin to base. Fl exure pivot
construction provides extreme
freedom of motion.
9. Rubb e r impre g nated
molded base of extremely hi gh
impact resistance_Non-hygroscopi c, hence impervious to
moisture absorption .
THE
RECORDING
FAIRCHILD
EQUIPMENT
10.
MODEL 225A
COMPANY
CARTRIDGE
Long Island City 1,
$37.50
New York
Gold plate d terminal
lugs for corrosion-free contact
and improved signal-to-noise
ratio.
AUDIO
•
MAY, 1957
FAIRCHILD
47
Equipment Report
•" 1-H--I-+I+It- -j--j-t-+H+I'i- -t--t-+t-H1It1--l
·101-H-t-HItIt-++/-t;I+H+--+-+-tt-ttlftt----t
Shure Brothers' new " Dynetic" phono reproducer and arm
o DESIGN A PHONOGRAPH PICKUP that
was different in operating principles
from any other on t he market would
appear to be an almost insurmouutable
problem, but that is apparently what Beuj amin B. B auer did with the new Shure
Brothers' "Dynetic" reproducer, ' even
though that may not necessarily have b een
one of the original r equirements.
The operating principle of the new
pickup is similar in ejf ect to most othel'
variable reluct ance pickups- a variation in
the magnetic flu."'l: through the coils being'.caused by the motion of t he stylus. In this
unit, however, the movable portion of t he
magnetic circuit is the magnet itself,
shown in F ig. 1, which rotates on its own
axis as the stylus follows the groove in the
J'ecord. The stylus propeJ' is mounted in a
shoe which is made of magnesi um to reduce
mass as much as possible, and the natural
flexin~ of the shoe gives a dequate vertical
compliance. As can be seeu in Fig. 1, t he
o'.'81·-all . size o.f the moviug p art of t he
l)lckup IS r elatIvely small, and the effective
mass is claimed to b e somewhat under 1.5
milligr ams. The magnet itself- a pproxi~at~ly n. in. sq uar e and ~ in. longIS SImply .1Ilserted i~ a square opening ill
the damplllg m aterIal and seated in an·
o~her similar opening at the top of t he
pIckup, Thus the armature is flexibly
mOUl~ted, and the damping material i s
suffiCIently soft that t he compliance is
equal to or greater than 7 x 10-6 cm/ dyn e
making it possible to track at very I01~
~tylus forces. The housing for the pickup
'IS a molded plastic, and the unit is fitted
wi~h a small .coaxial plug (see Fig. 2)
wInch mates WIth a receptacle in the arm.
Because of the high compliance aud t he
desir e f(;)1' a minima.l tracking force, t he
Shur e pIckup IS deSIgned to work in its
own arm, F ig . 3. Th e horizontal axis of
the pickup assembly is supported by watchtype sJ:"nthe~ic ruby j ewel bearings. As
sho,~n III F tg . 4, e~ch of t hese bearings
con s~ s t.s of a sleeve Jewel and a cap jewel
proVldIllg greater r eliability than would
needle-point .bearings- a necessity because
when I?Sertlll~ o.r removing the pickup
the entue str.am IS carried by th e j ewels.
A counterweIght p ermits adjustment of
T
I
stylus force between one and two grams.
The arm itself-made in a tapered challllel
form-i s st atically and dynamically bal·
anced and moves only in the horizontal
plane, being supported by a j eweled thrus~
bearing. The height of the arm i s readily
adjustable so as to accommodate a ny type
of tnrntable. A plastic lift button actnates
a spring which engages the r ear of the
t hr eaded rod Oll which the connterweight
is screwed, and when the button i s depressed the pickup is raised. The arm-J'est
magnet holds the arm against a simple
vertical post.
CA P
=== -'~'''7 S"" ~:
~_--'~t."~.;; ,]
Fig . 4 . Detoil showing bearing detail and
arrangem e nt of cartridge moun t ing .
Oue uuique feature of t he arm is in t he
damping of th e counten veight to eliminate
the effect of arm r esonance. The counterweight is att ached to the arm by a fl at
spring which is surrouuded by an elastic
polyn18r. The effect of t his "dyn amic
damping" is t o eliminate the peak in
r esponse (which usually occurs below 15
cps) . Without t he clamping material, the
arm resonates with one peak if the counterweight is blocked, and with two p eal{s wh en
it is allowed to swing freely. With a
proper choice of the clamping, t he r esponse
rolls off smoothly below about 20 cps.
Elimination of t he low·frequency resonance
record wear which can b e sever e in the case
of a pronounceel peak.
Fig~i?'e 5 shows th e Tesponse measur ed
from a Cook Series 10 (78 Tpm ) test
record without low·freq uenc), equalization,
-"I-H -l+I+tI- + - b-+<I li-ltI-- +-H'+HItI t -IOH H-t-HItIt-:;i-"'l-I-H+H+--+-+-tt+HfH---I
-ISj-------- _ _
V
Fig . 5 . Re spo nse curve fro m Cook Seri e s
10 (78 rpm ) t e st record.
and thus showing the ro11off at t he low
end. Note that t he r espo nse is quite smooth,
\-rith only a 2-db peal, at ar ou nd 12,000
cps. This measurement was maele with a
tracking force of 1.5 g r ams, although t he
pickup will track satisfactor ily as 1m" as
1 gram. Because of the balancing of t he
arm, t he tlll'ntable may be pl ayed nf an
angle of 45 deg. from t he horizonta l so
t Ul'ntal)le levelling is not a J'equisite.
The S hlll'e pickup is norm ally f Ul"1j sheel
wit h a 0.7 -mil stylus fo r LP use, which
is an innovation in t he stanela rd stylus,
althou gh 0.5-111il styli m ay be had on some
other t ypes. '1'he main ael vantage of t he
smaller I'3dius of the stylus t ip show s lip
when playing the inner grooves of a full y
modulated r ecord. In many inst ances, a
definite elegr aelation of quality is observed
toward the center, anel in dir ect compa rison
between 1.0- and 0.7 -mi l styli, it has been
conclusively observed t hat consider ably
}jetter qu ality is ob taineel with t he smaller
stylus. This is t ru e consisten tly with nell'er
r ecords, although not n early so noti ceable
with some of the ea r ly LP ' s,
On paper, the new SIl'.lre pickup wo uld
app ea l' to be " loaded " with elcsir 3bl'}
feat ures, and t he listening tests bear out
the success of t he design objectives. We
would describe the quality of r eproductjoll
as extremely good and on th at basis alone
it shoulel be well accepted. Coupled "ith
that ar e the low stylus force and a. high
degree of freed om from the eff ects of flo or
vibr ation, in addition to a very low h1m1
pickup-a r es ult of th e balanced coil COll·
struction.
The output from the picku p is 15 mv for
a groove velocity of 10 cm/ sec, a nd the
unit is designeel to feed into a load of
27,000 ohms (used for the curve of Fig . 5 ) .
Fig . 3. Phontom v ie w of Shure " Dynetic" reprc ducer ond orm.
JEWEL THRUST BEARING
WE IGHT
Act ual sizes of stylus and
magnet (above, Fig . 1) and
of complete pickup (below, Fig . 2 ).
OYNET1C CARTRIDGE
48
AUDIO
•
MAY, 1957
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AUDIO
•
MAY, 1957
49
50
AUDIO
•
MAY, 1957
EDWAR D TAT NALL CANBY'::
1. MODERN SP ICE
liovhaness: Saint Vartan Symphony, O p .
8 0 (1950). M-G-M Chamber arch ., Surinach o
M-G-M E 3453
Th is is a n extraordinary record, one that
will Q.uickl y a ppea l to a lmost a n y ea r that enjoys sensuous mu s ical ton e, whether unue]"stood or not.
Hovhaness is t h e half-A rmen ia n who. afte r
a convention al con servatory education in Boston a nd a t housand -odd co m positions which h e
destroyed a lmost completely ( in cludin g two
big sym phonies, severa l f ull oper as) t urn ed
to a unique n ew style or music. Eastern-influenced to a degree so fa r unlmown in recent
Western mu sic, yet built upon Weste rn sta ud ards w ith a mostly con ven t ion a l modern Western orch est ra . It's aston is hin g stufl' an d , to
tell t h e truth, can't really be judged by the
normal canons of Western taste and style.
Hovhaness' mus ic stan d s still- like n
stageful of ba lle t dance rs weavin g nn intricately dynamic patte rn of immoveability.
(Beethoven's music runs; it is a lways go ing
so mewh e re, rounding out a vast architectural
fo rm. ) Nothing happens, yet eve r ything is
a live, brilliant, · color ful The "movem ents"
don't begin and they don 't en d-they just
exist, fo r awhile-then suddenly stop a s
thou gh a switch h a d been turned off.
Strange, bra ssy combinations of tone color,
exotic yet utte rl y transparent,
complex
stan ding rhythms ( liJ,e standin g waves . . . )
t h at overlap each other in irregula r, asymmetri c patterns, elabora te canons t h at look
fantastic on paper but simply stand still and
produce lovely ton e clusters in t he li sten ing
-these a l'e some of the m ean s which Hovhaness u ses,
This "symphon y," in honor of an Armenian
saint 150 0 years old, is a "mosaic in tone,"
24 short sectio ns g rouped in fi ve big par ts,
like so many mosa ic clu ste rs of Jim piu to ne;
there is unity, you will discover, in s imifar
motives a nd patte rns that r etu rn , but none
of th e soa ring architecture of the "'est's big
pieces. The mu sic, t h ough technically polytonal (many-k eyed), stays put, m ostly scin tillating about a single scale or ch o rd; the
dissonances a re co lorful ra th er t h a n h a r sh .. ..
Enough said- but go out anu get this d isc
quickly, if yo u wa nt th e l atest hi-fi novelty.
Superb r ecorUing, in spite of a rumble pa t te rn on the disc (it doesn't so uud noticeably)
and reversed labels in m y copy. (The second
siUe shoulU begin with a saxop hone solo , unaccom pan ieu. )
Pa no rama of Musique Concrete . (Wo rks
by He nry, Scha e ffe r, A rt hu ys.)
Lon d on Ouc _-Thompson OTL 9309 0
This it woulu seem, is primarily a historical sU ;'vey ; for the taped a nd disceu "mus ic"
dates mostly from before 1950- some of it,
incredibly, assembled befo re tape edi t ing was
available, f rom num erous di sc . fragme nts.
lIIus iqu e Concrete, in case you uldn 't Imow,
is (French term) music made from "concrete"
so unds a s oppo sed to abstract or purely musl780 G1'eenwich St ., New Y01'7c 14, N. Y.
AUDIO
•
MAY, 1957
rill sound s. Anythin g goes an d in tbis you
will hear locomotives a nd tbe like, as well a s,
of all th ings, phonograph r eco rds, these last
in bits a nd pieces, a couple of n otes repeated
again and again.
I've heard some sniUe remarks a nen t this
disc a nu there is no doubt of its ultra-ultrasp r ious uedication . If yo u go to "avante
gar de" cin ema, you'll instantly be remindeu
of the r oll iug uisembodied eyes, the strange
shapes, t h e uouble exposures and t he gene ral
a it' of dedicateu surreali sm! You'll a lso h ea l',
if you ' re in on t he recording biz, so me tooobvious stu n ts t h at quick ly pall; s uch as 1 he
inevitable tape echo (multiple h ead s) a nd t he
ti red slow ing down of a n llD coupled phon o
motor. Art- even this a rt- is not se n 'eu by
obvious ness; but t hese were pion eer expe l'i men t s, I suppose.
I'd suggest t h nt as of now, lVl usique Concrete is generally pretty zany and of the
lun atic f ringe, artistically speaking. But I
think it ought to be said, too, t hat mo st new
moveme n ts begin , and must begin , a mong the
ded icated radicals. Nobody else h as the onet rack approach necessary to break t he II P\· ·
g round. It takes work, l'emember . Would j /O/l
sit aro und editing tape 12 hours a day :yea r
i n a n d yen r out fo r such sou nds as this '?
When the fanat ical pioneers ha "e done t he i I'
st ull', othe rs will step in and p rofit, 111 01'e
con stru ct ively and conserva nvely. And t h e r~
is n o dou bt at a ll that "orgu nizeu so und," ;)"
E dgard ' >arCse calls h is work, is a vast field
and ripe for purely artist ic expe rim en t. We' r e
at the dead, zero beg inni n g-poin t now, bllt
maybe there'll be a Bach or a Michelangelo
of t his a r t, in times to come. No reason why
not-if people keep worldng.
Stravin sky: The Soldie r's Ta le (L' Histo ire
du Soldat). Rob e rt He lp ma n n, Te re nce
Lon g don , Ant hon y Nicholl s; Gl yn d e b o urn e Ope ra Co. RCA Victo r LM 2 0 79
Here is Stra \'i nsk y's li ttle wbimsy on cemore--it seems to be recot'ueu ever y other
week now'adays, after Dlany a long year o f
obscul'i ty . (1 h ave t he ea rliest job, on 78's,
done by Stra \' insk.l' in t he very en dy 1930·s.)
This version i s th e complete one, with the
story natration ; h er e it is in B rit"i sh Englisll ,
whereas the r ecor d in g on Vox of p te sam e
presents it in t he o riginal French.
All oth e r versions are of t he Suite- the
bulk of t h e musiC, minus com men.tary.
As always, I find it quite delightful. ~'hc
translation pl'eserves the jauuty, se lll i ~s l a n g.
semi-fairy -tal e feel ing o·~ t he French, anu
t hat odd trick of saying the words in time
to the music. The little sold ier is bedev iled
by the Dev il in va ri ous gu ises- th e fi e nd g~tR
his fiddle away from him a nd enslaves hun
wit b a magic book. The fiddle, we ca n n
S UIlH' ,
is the so ldie r'S soul , in the class ic devil tradition , but it appea l's ver y ylolini stically in
t he music itself from beg innin g to end,
A bi t wordy , to tell the tl'uth (the origina l
stage pa ntomim e, ball et style, h ~lp s I,e.cp
thin~s in teresti ng), but t he sto ry hIts a nt ce
stride and manages to ge t over i ts fol\,-Iike,
legendary sense a lon g with t he slang. Goo d
en tertainmen t anu beaut ifully reco rued- well
played, too.
Milh·aud : Suite Provencale (1936); Saudad es do Brasil (1920). Conce rt Arts
Capitol P 8358
a rch., Milhaud ,
What with t h e r age for L atin -Amer ican
rh ythm s. few of us touay will have the s lightest t rouble t horoug hly en joying Milhaud's little snite of Brazilian rhythm s, a n outlandishly
modern piece back in 1920. It hums along
sw eetl y in t h e familia r way a nu indeed, e~­
cept fo r a sharper, h a rder, firmer onUm.e, It
might well pass as one of t he mo re exo,t lc of
todny's juke box item s. Very lllce fo r ~l-fi, too.
The la t er opu s, S'tite P'r o'vencale, 1S based
on mu sic by an obscure ea rl y 18th century
compo ser of Milbaud's birthplace in F rench
Provence. TlH! tun.es are sturdy 18th century
in ou tline, the Milhaud harmony breezily. polyton a l the orchestra rather loud anu nots;, to
boot. ' But 1 like this com poser's version a Jot
better t han a n earlie r 7 8 recording that, as I
remember, took t he whole suite dre~df ull y
seriously and heavily. Not so h ere--lt lIlts
a long quite cr ashingly.
2. MORE VARI ETY
Campaign Fifty-Six: Sounds of an Elect ion Year Campaign . Ed . Profs. H. Lama r,
e. Blitzer, Yal e Un iv. (1 779 Yal e Sta.,
Ne w Have n, Ct.)
The patte rn for this very inte resting di sc
has been well set by the CBC do cumentar i e~
of the past done by the now famo us MurrowFriendly team . The techniqu e of narratIOn
wit h edited tape-clips fad ing in a nd out I S
s ure-fire and, in t his case, is very well managed. You h ea r major excerpts from b .~ campaign moments beginning far back 1Il the
preceding years and highlighting t~l e two conventions principally the DemocratIc one s m ce
t hat w ;'s, in this last campaign, the most
cruc ia l.
The importance of the Univers ity b~ck­
ground he re is simply t hat the non-poltttcal,
obj ect ive approach is more eas1ly lllam~amed,
both because of excellen t bacl,ground, \,1a two
professors, History and Po li tical SCie?Ce, and
because of the sa fely n on-controversIal a ura
of 'University patronage. Cons ide ring what
was at stake these euitors do a royally tmpartial job. Net result, be you Republican. or
Democratic, you 'll think they're on you;... s1~ e .
Right now, the disc alt'eady sounds slgmficant-)'<)U · can hear t he clear dtfl'erence ·111
approach between E isen hower a?d Stevenson,
one preaching plenty of prospenty, t he other
talking doom. (Maybe t hat was t h e editor's
intention. ) In a few years, of course, the
whole th ing w ill take on that air of unreali ty
t hat old political speeches alw a~s hav~so go
out and "collect" this item qUlck, whlle t h e
gett ing's good. A fine j ob. (Add ress above:
priced at $3.98. )
Jean Ritchi e Fie ld Trip. Collector 120 1.
(Coll e ctor Lim . Eds., 43 W. 4 6th St., New
Yor k 19 ,)
My favorite gal has done it again. Jean
Ritchie is a fol k si nger, a rea l one in that she
comes fr om a "si ngin' " Kentucky family anu
51
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Isimetric drive with servo control completely elim inates adjustments usually required to maintain top performance.
•
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Either reel may be rocked for close editing. Continuously variable skip and rew ind sF.eeds, easy access to heads, and
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Positions for six heads permit any comb ination the user desires.
Standard rack size for vertical or ho rizonta l use.
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COLORADO SPRINGS, COLORADO
Addre ss InquIrIes to:
52
SALES OFFICE, 1 5 ELLIS RD., W ESTON, MASS.
h as learned most of he r son gs there or i n her
own region from actual lis tening. S h e is also
a top·notch m usician with a beau tifully true
voice a nd a fi ne sense of style--h er ow n . £ h e
does her own things to her music, t oo, a nd
t h is is within the fol k tradi tion ; for fol k
m usic g rows as each transmitter-personality
adds his own wrin kles and twists.
J ean now lives in New York a nd she's
ple n ty edu cated. B n t i nstead of " s poiling" h e r,
t h is h as t u rned h er interest towards learning
m ore a bou t t h e an teceden ts of t h e son gs she
knows. T he p resent disc is part-prodn ct of a
year in E ngla nd, Scotla n d, Irela nd , where s he
traded he r own Amer ican m ou ntain mus ic fo r
son gs on t he same subj ect s stili sung i n t he
old places. She took a Magn ecorde r wi th h er ,
bu t she also too k h e r owu growi ng knowledge
of t h e m ns ic itself, a nd t h e t r ade, judging
f rolll exam ples her e, was a fai r on e.
T h e reco rd j uxtaposes r ather loosely some
of J ean Ri tchie's own songs a nd the sim ila r
ones she fo nnd i ll t he old country. T h e sch ola rShi p is casua l, t he mu sic comes fi rst. Fo r
those w ho love real fol k m usic t h e re are s uperb thin gs here, inclu ding m a ny deli ghtfu l
to uches-bits of speech a n d comment left ill
whe re t h ey g ive us a flash of character or a
bi t of baCkgro u nd, ol d voices, ch ilds' voi ces,
hear ty ones and fra il ones.
T he f resh Kent ucky sound of J ean's own
s inging, between the othe rs , mal;es for a fine
va ri ety a nd cont inui ty of i n ter est. My on ly
compla in t is t hat there is n o wor d sheet included. T he re shonld be (and Ill ay he by t he
ti me you get you r copy). Address abo,·e.
Adve nture in Time. Sau ter-F inega n O rche st ra , et al.
RCA Victor LPM 1240
Well , I henes tly don' t know what one is
supposed to make of this . . . in pa r t icular
whethe r i t's f unny or deadl y seriou s. S-F is
a band kuown fo r rela tively progressive experimen t in g ( if you ca n u se that word ) a nd
wh at's significan t here, I gness, is simply t h e
n atu re of t he wei rd ies t h ey've gone to s nch
t rou ble to wax , in su per-hi -fi.
Cou ple of items are j ust jazz-pardo n me,
pops. I honestl y like 'em best, especiall y t hose
which play a s imple bi t of a mn sical figure,
in a mn s ica l sort of way. B u t tben yo u get
into liE ;;;; l\1.C2/' it piece fo r per Cll ssion t hat
bangs a nd wha ngs bn t d oes n't h old a cand le
to its fo rerunne rs com posed by sn ch as E dgRr
Varese (beg inning in 1925 i ) . " The Minu te," a
poem by K a rl Shapiro, is read ult ra-ser iousl y
in a h a lf wbisper , to odds a n d ends of semipercussio n sound , by Ru t h Yorke. Then t here's
a li ttle item i u which a Jot of people scream
ungod ly m urder, off in t he synthet ic ech o.
"Whoo doo Voodoo" by name bu t it sou nds to
me like Sau ter-Finegan acting just too, too
soph ist icated.
T he n t here a re pi eces t hat seem migh ty like
old 1 2-toue Schoenberg at h is m ost unlubricated. (He sq ueaks a nd scrapes a nd scratches.)
Not exactl y popular-style, t h ese. An item
"pa in ted on t he pia n o" is a very seriousminded so lo. ""\'i' orld W it h ou t Time" is a
classic-style m odeI'll t rio, flu te pia n o and percuss ion, a nd coul d have bounced ri gh t ou t of.
a ny concert h a ll , m ore or less. Then t here's
"S \Vingcll ss ion," in wh!ch a dedicat ed young
ma n l oudl y a nnoun ces he likes Swingcussio n
-at close ra n ge- a nd is ech oed by other dedicated sonls i n t he backg round.
Quite eerie, t he whole t hing, and it must be.
as t bey say, "a phen omen on of our age." You
kn ow, I have a dreadfu l feeling ma ybe it is
se rious, all of it. On th e ot he r h a nd .. . maybe
t hey' re kidd ing u s around. Or t h ey' re taking
RCA V icto r for a ride. You t ry it. I g ive u p.
Soundproof. (The Sound of Tomorrow
Today.) Ferrante and Teicher, duo-pianists, tape-t reated .
Westminst er WP 6014
This is probabl y t h e ult imate that can be
done with two pianos, seven teen chan nels,
fo u r mixe rs ( mon a.ura l a nd ster eo), H30 " tape,
and lots a nd lots of time. Each number adds
a n ew electroni c t ri ck t o t h ose i·n the on e preceding. T ape ed it ing does t he rest.
What's it like? ' Veil , t here a re t wo t hings t o
consider. The t riel;s a nd effects, and t he mu sic.
No doubt a bout it, t he s t u nts here a re fa n tast ic a ud bean ti full y ca rried off, without a t race
of clu ms iness. T he music just rips alon g with
AUDIO
•
never a slip, as though it were, indeed, being
played t his way by human beings. The "music
concrete" tapes ichord boys had best l ook to
their laurels, technically; t his is t he most expert stuff yet.
What you hear is a sort of orchestra, for
which these are arrangements. P iano sounds,
harp-like effects, lots of pluckings and pizz icato, a few vibrato sounds, not unlike Hawaiian guitars (could this be a celesta b rought in
clandestinely?), woody xylophone-like noises,
plenty of low, low bass (moved down a n oc·
tave) and lots of s kittering high virtuoso
spurt s of incredible speed (moved up au octave
or two). It all flows a long effortlessly a nd
naturally, if you can see what I m ean. Nothing weird about it.
But t he music? That's t he rub, for me. With
all t he enormous effort and t ime a nd skill
spen t on it, the stu ff ends up as just a lot of
rather conventional dinner music, with a
Latin-American sort of fl avor. "What is This
Thing Called Love," "Dark Eyes" a nd so on.
Now isn't t his typical of our age? On the
one hand, t he clumsy, idealistic "classical"
experimenter s try to write original, new, different stuff, with tape techniques that vary
from amateurish to so-so. And on the other,
the popular artists tlun ou t fabulous, unbelievably fancy tech nical perfection-and play
the same old tunes in the same old way.
Now if some of our really original, progressive composers of music would just get together with the purveyors of t his Idnd of tape
trickery, we might come ou t with something
to knock t he listeners flat a couple of centur ies
hence. I doubt if t his record will.
Elektra Playback System Calibration Rec·
ord (Engineer: David Hancock).
Elektra EKL 35 (10")
All those wh o are test-minded should h ave
this disc on hand, regardless of whether other
test records may be favorites . It'll do no harm
to have more t h an one, even if this one doesn't
prove to be t he best. I s uspect maybe it is,
however.
The record is simple, providing no more
t han a series of car eful tone sweeps, with
pauses at fixed and indi cated frequencies. This
combines the virtues of a sliding sweep, covering all f requencies (and perhaps picking up
resonances and t he like in your equipment)
and the obvious values of steady-freqyency
tone. The spectrum is covered in three bands,
plus two at 1000 cps for level setting, before
and after. Within each band there are slight
separations a s tbe tone slides from one level
to the next, so that wi th care you can "feel"
each one and move the pickup accordingly. No
• speech or other direct identification of frequencies.
The two sides of t he record are identical,
provid ing double life. The cutting is done with
RlAA bass but fiat treble, in order to avoid
pre-emphasis trouble at the high levels required for the very high upper tones, which
begin at 20,000 cps.
I suspect the main practical problem w i·th
the record will be in identifying the f requen cies as they pass by. The onl y s ure way is to
play each band from the beginning, following
the list of freq uencies printed on t he album.
Though you can, as I say, "feel" t he subbands, i t is easy to miss one a nd unless yo u
have absolute pitch you're likely to l ose your
place frequency-wise.
As to quality, the evidence is that t his one
beats most or all others. T he Chris tmas t ree
looks good, the engineer, David HanCOCk, has
a good reputation and I hear good reports on
the disc, as well, f rom many sources. Actual
professional testing of test records is decidedly
beyond my province.
How to Use Your Tape Recorder. Dir. Hal
Michael; narr. Dr. Millard McClintock.
Golden Crest CR 3005
This is a sincere attempt to tackle t he problem of amateur instruction via t h e LP medium, with recorded musi cal examples as well
as test tones. The results a re fair, some parts
being usefully informative a nd others inconclusive.
The extensive narration is by Dr. McClintock of Sound Book Press (which has done in-
AUDIO
•
MAY, 1957
teresting experiments in combining visual and '
reco rded mater·ial) . He speaks in a friendly
way, but t he material is read in the tradit ionally slow manner of spoken directions,
impersonally, with exaggerated care, as t hough
the a udien ce were listening with ear trumpets.
A waste of good t ime and especially since t he
entire spoken text is printed out in a handy
booldet, word fo r word! You'll go nuts if you
try to follow it at the record's snail-like pace.
It seems to me that a more sensible use of
t he combined lool<-and-listen medium could
ha ve been devised than this.
1'he discussion and examples cover s uch
items as frequency range; waver and wow
from wrongly a djusted reel tens ion, recording
leve l (with examples of low-level recording·
plus tape hiss a nd overload with distortion) ,
mi ke placement, editing a nd t he effects of
magnetized heads, scissors, a nd t he like.
Admittedly, t he j ob of simplification here i .
a u almost impossible one. Ramifications loom
up at every turn; a ll s ort~ of uneasily sleeping
dogs must be left strictly alone, so to speak.
I fo und the discussion and examples of fret .lit
n ey r an ge lliirel'ences, of spli cing and
-5
-I
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m ag~
netism problems and of righ t and wrong rec·
ol'diug levels t he most useful fo r t he practici ng amateu r, who will qu ickly recognize t he
"symptoms" as here presented to his ear and
eye.
Some other parts struck me as probably
more confu sing than helpful, with the best of
intentions. The mike placement examples offer
a dreadful pianist (maybe he's a typical
amateur !) hacking away at Chopin while
mikes and drapes are shifted about. The
close-m iked effect h ere described as "in timate"
s ounds as t h ough the body of t he piano were
a hundred feet away, which is ha rdly likely
to clarify th ings though t he effect is familiar
to a nyone w ho has worked witjl mikes. (It was
correct, h owever , to do this recording in a
h ome-type living room, where most amateur
reco rding takes place.)
And finally may I take one more poke at II
few in s tances where tough problems a re
dodged by falling back on techn ical m umbo·
jumbo. (Mumbo-jumbO, that is, to the amateur.) Two unfortunate examples a re t he account of monaural mildng and of t he need for
a direct program feed into the recorder
(rather t han a pickup with the mike from a
radio or phono loudspeaker , as is commonly
done by home u sers). Try this on your inquiring, non-electr onic wife: "The proper way is
to feed the electrical signal from the ou tpu t
of the detector or at any early audio stage ill
t he FM receiver directly into t he r adial input
of the tape recorder."
True, quite true; but if you can understand
tbat language yon don't need this record.
Elektra Code Course. Graded, with inElektra CC.l
struction booklet.
JIlC Holzman of E lektra, h avin g tri ed a
standard- Leo ancient 78 rpm-code course,
thought, " I can do better than tbat," and
herew ith the r esults, on a single LP . Out of
my field and I haven't taken time to try to
learn, but the beeps are very neatly reco rded
(with only a slight annoying trace of groove
ec ho) in a rich tone with plenty of blip at the
iJeginning--no s in e wave, th is. And th e grad·
ing is ve,'!J grud ual. Even I could l,eep up with
the earlier lessons. Alphabet, mixed l ette rs,
l etter s and numbers, punctuation, two-character code groups, three, four, and finaHy towards the end, actual words a nd "ham" terms.
The tric]<y things are (a ) you won't easil y
memorize the letter groups as you wo uld
words; a goo d idea, an d (b) when you've got
through the whole at 33, play it at 45 and
then, if you dar e, at 78. (If you have a big,
fnt professional table you can whirl it with
yo ur finger at about 60 rpm an d get a posi·
t ively whirlwind code speed.)
3. CLASSIC BY-WAYS
M~gens W~ldike Conducting. (J. C. Bach,
Haydn, Mozart, Dittersdorf). Danish
State Radio Chamber Orch.
London LL 13Q8
This fi ne record is fu ll of mid-18th centu ry
melody, as purveyed by four composers whose
The lSI speaker system is the result of
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The lSI system invites listening comparison with "LIVE" performance rather
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music is r emarkably of an equality here-conside ri ng t h at two of the names are much more
famous than the other two. All the music
da tes from th a t time of tremendously rapirl
ch ange, the 1760's and 70's, just before the
great flowering of Mozart's and of Haydn's
later works. The Mozart here is t he early
Symphony #14 fro m his fifteenth year and
the Haydn is a relatively early Divertimen to
from about 1760.
If you a re a Mozart and H aydn fan-there a re millions of th em today-and if you are
curious as to the origins of su ch marvelously
perfected music, this is the sort of record
that can open up whole new vistas of understanding. Here is the symphony itself 'in the
process of coalescing-for that is clearly what
happened . (" Papa" Haydn didn't simpl y innn t t h e form as we used to be told !) We
have here the lig htn ess and decorative quality
of t he Italian music and the symph onic feel
of an Italian type of overtnre to an ope raJ. C. Bach, "the" Bach's yonn gest son , contrihu tes a three-movement work of t his sort
which is virtnally a symphony of the Mozart
type. But Mozart's own sm all symphony featnres a Viennese add ition that Bach didn't
use, t h e dance-style m inuet that r ounded out
the larger symph onic for m to four movements.
It came from many a Viennese worl, and Haydn's Divertimento, a typical one, has two
minuets in its rather formal entertainm ent
style.
Oddly en ough, yo u'll find t hat the opening
sections of the Dittersdorf symphony strikes
a. the most melodic and expressive music on
this disc, with the Mozart symphony com ing
second. Both the Bach and the Haydn are on
a more gli ttering, cool level of expression . All
four works are beautifully recorded with
bright, close-up tone color and fu ll, round
liveness, a nd t h e Danes play with excellent
style a nd feeling. The record itself is very
heavily cut and some passages m ay cause
tracking trouble with cartri dges of insufficient complian ce.
English Keyboard Music (Tudor to Res·
torationf. Paul Wolfe, harpsichord.
Experiences Anonymes EA·OOI3
Tbis is r eally a very good harpsichord record, of sturdy British music from the Tudor
age t hrough to the mid·Seventeenth century.
Mr. Wolfe, who h as wandered far from his
nathe Texas h ere, is nevertheless a r elaxed,
easy player with what my ea r would call a
considerable en tilUsiasm for the music he
plays and a good feeling for counterpoint, an
excellent sen se of phrasing and rhythm and
color. The music, as the saying goes, "comes
a li ve. "
Wolfe h as stud ied with Landowska and
with one of her pupils; my ear seems to detect a cons ide rable Landowslta touch in these
performances- in the phrasing, the flexibility
of the rh ythm anel in that peculiarly d ramatic coloring (registration) that keeps Landowska's a udiences figurati veIl' hopping.
Maybe it's the conscious imitation of a good
stlident, but in lIfr. Wolfe's case I can't find
any reason to object; if t he imitation is there,
it is well don e anel highly effective. Landowska fans-who pl'obably haven't ever heard
t he grand old lady play British music-should
be especially pleased.
A good collection, one side of short works
from a private Elizabethan collection, the
Mu llin er Bool" and the other side several
brillian t longer pieces from a late collection
written out by the splendid madrigal an d keyboard composer, Thomas Tomk ins, of the earl y
Se"enteenth century; two by himself, one by
vVilliam Byrd and one by John Bull-who
was a genuine and very British composer,
bacl' in this period .
Mozart: Twelve Songs and Two Comic
Ensembles. M. Gui·lleaume, sop ., L. WolfMatthaus, alto, H. Krebs, F. Wunderlich,
tens., H. G. Nocker, bass; F. Neumayer,
"Mozart" piano.
Archive ARC 3061
I su ppose you must like vocal music and
Mozart in particul a r if you are to enjoy this
one-but if you do, and if you are fond of exploring small corners of the musical world,
this is a superb disc a n d awfully f unny, as
well as m u sically beautiful.
AUDIO
•
MAY, 1957
/
l\fozart wrote more str aight songs than most tr ied them out know w ell how quickly the ir
of his opera fans reali ze. The.\" a re not a rias char m grows-and h ow tough they a r e to
bu t true songs with "verses," not unlil\: e those pl ay, under their seem ing s impli city.
The key to this m usic of a time sligh tll"
of Schubert himself, yet the music benefits
f rom Mozart's enormou s expe rience with the earlier tban Mozart is in the original in stmvo ice and operatic vocal expression. Indeed, if ments that must have pl ayed it. The sonatas.
you know your Mozart you' ll hear eve r -So- fi r st, go very well on the h arpSich ord a nd are
clear influ ences f r om t hi s or that opera- de- often played t h us-the'y abo un d in big, rich
pending on the time of composition of t h ese arpeggio fi g ures, trills and orllaments. clea rl v
songs. Wonderfu l !
s uitable for harpsicho rd tone , and t h eir "t hi~ ­
But there are some works h el·e that al·e big· ness" comes in part from the greater overtone
ge r, notably the Mason ic-style cantata for brilliance of tbe harpSichord , n eeding less
tenor K. 610, one of Mozart's ver y l ast wo rks. padding-out of notes for a fu ll effect than in
A.nd t h e comic ensembl es are preposterous-in the case of the big modern piano .
the real Mozart horse-play tradition, highly
But there was a piano then, of cou r se, ancl
suggestive, bawdy and howlin gly funny, m ix- it a lso is a key to the so und of these works.
ing Italian and Germ an and sheer g ibbe ris h , in t b e period of tra n sition from the h ltt·psi taking off t he extremes of fancy opera w riting. c h ord to t h e piano. The piano or Haydn's and
about which Mozart knew so mu ch.
~-Iozart's day as we no 'w have frequently Il eaI'd
Complete texts and translations, and the is a bright, hard, brilliant l ittle instrument
s inging is clear, musical nncl imaginative with a bvan gy, percussive bass and a steely
through ou t.
uppe r r egister. On s uch an in strument t h esp
sonatas would not sound · thin in tone at a l l.
Many a pianist today, intent ionally or
Woodwind Classics {Beethoven: Trio in oth erwise, plays t hi mu s ic w it h a h a r d, bril liant,
l oud tone t h at does in fact restore a
G. Quintet; Shaw: Little Suite f rom "For
goo d deal of the original st'yl e to the mu s ic.
the Gentlemen."} Berkshire Woodwind Kathl een Long is not a player of this persuaEnsemble .
Unicorn UNLP 1024 .. ion, however. She is cl early of th e ol der
A slightly m isleading title-this is made up school that plays Haydn unequivocally for
of two very early, little l(nown Beethov en the modern piano, and plays it with deli caC)"
works and a s h ort filler p iece by an earl y and taste, if some tonal t hin ness. Her piano
American IIpl'imitive." 'l'he mus ic is int e rest~ is a big one and the bass is str ong and bumbling, as H ayd n's ~vou lt1 not have been. 'l'h e
ing, if no t exactly tremendous stuff.
The best work is the Trio of Beethoven. sonatas do so und sma llish.
But is "authentic" tone color Inore jmpoI'dating perhaps f r om h is fi ftee nth year but
showing, as I hear it, quite Beethovenesque tant than good musiciunship? Hardly . If yo u
details of melody and harmony in its Haydn· will take a ll of th e abo,e into account in
like frameworlL A very well written and welI .iudging the outward sound of this Haydn on
balanced little work for piano, flu te a u d bas- the piano, you ' ll the more enjoy Kathleen
soon . Th e QUintet, played by th r ee hum s. Long's f;n e mus ical sense, h e r co nviction thnt
oboe and bassoon , i s hig hly doubtf ul, having t h ese four works are top quali ty music and
been largely lost; big hunk s a r e fi lled in bv not mere b its of wh im sy and tin sel. It's a
a researcher named Zellner. It isn't tbe Zel i. good r ecord .
ner that l eaves me col d-I'm s ure most of us
wouldn't be abl e to spot hi s additions- but
merely the piece itself. Homy, thick, and
sort of du ll .
Mr. Shaw's Massachusetts t idbit of 1807 is Mozart: Piano Sonatas K. 333, 311, 282,
the first woodwind mu sic to be publish ed by 283; Rondo in A, K.Sll; Country Dances,
an American, a n d it's pretty du ll too, and K.606. Wanda landowska, piano .
very amateu l·ish as might be expected. No
RCA Victor LM 6044 {2}
amo u nt of patriotic fervor ca n make such
early works ill teresting in the h earin g!
I-Jere is the f amou s barps icho rdist i n on~
It doesn't matter much, but U n icorn has of h e r long-time but l ess well Imown roles,
mixed its l abels and lists the '£rio where thc t hat of pianist. (She has reco r ded piano beQuintet is. Somebody wasn't l istening.
fo re, Oil several occasions.) This a lbum is a
po ·tscript to h er "fi nal" project, tbe Bach
vVell Temper ed Cl avier, a l r eady com pleted
Adam Krieger: Neue Arien (12 Songs). on t h e h arpSicho r d .
Let's say at once-since it mu s t be sa idM. Guilleaume, sop., Hans-Pete r Engel ,
thllt I'm not in t h e camp who t h inks th e great
boy alto, J . Feyerabend, ten ., F. Harlan , lady call do no w rong. Like a ll famous and
bar., Kammermusikkreis Scheck, Neu - st l·o ng personalities in a rt, hers is so posith·e
meyer.
you
get down
to
fundamentals
with
GOODMANS
ARtJ 3-'WAV
speaker
systems
Archive ARC 3055 as, on occaSion, to flout many n less spec-
What un expected pleasures there are in
some of t h ese forbiddingly-title. d ~ rchi ve albUIlls! Herr Krieger died at an enrl.\' age in
1666 at DreSden and l eft behind him numbers
of the most catchy, l y ri c, hu morous, musica l
little songs yo u can imagine, mostly sol os but
some duets, each one se t to h a rpsichord-cello
figured bass accompanimen t, with a five-part
string in terlude between each verse.
Krieger is very Germ an and so, of course,
a re tbese performers. But if yo u can get past
that, you'll begin to hear the charming wit
and pbilosophy, the superb melody, that makes
Krieger a sort of minor earl y Schubert and
GUbert-and-Sullivan comb in ed. Most of the
songs are or the sort you'll be humming to
yourself after a couple of hearings. One l ovel y
duet is between Venus and Cupid, bel' SO il,
with Cupid sung by a boy alto. Several of tbe
items are quite rowdy drinking songs-and
the performe rs are well aware of the fact. No
prissy singing here! Recomm en ded for any
tune lover a nd especially tbose who can understa nd salty German.
tacular a rtist who may have different ideas.
'l'h is grand pe r son is s urely one of the big
MIDAX Mid-Range
clraulutic na mes in our mu sic nnd with ever;r
r easo n. But her Mozart, fascinating stuff and
as positive as ever, is goin g to hurt some
people's feelings on the subject.
I think we can enjoy .and lea rn from a person like Landowska withou t having to go
a lon g with her 100 per cen t or be stepped
upon . As always, h er rhythm and h er phrasing, her fee lin g for the mu si cal drama, are
superb and inim itable. S he ca n not playa note
of any m usic without mak ing it forcefu l in
musical ways. And so lVlozar t , under her finger', is ::;trong and th ls very fact will di stl'PSR
some-though not me-who thinl' that Mozart's pia n o music should be delicate and
gossamer. Refiued and well played-yes; but
not gossamer! It co ulcl not h ave bee n so, in
an'y case, on Mozar t's ow n r ath er hard a n d
b rilli ant l ittle piano. (And it seemed big to
him , who had never scen a Stein way.)
But t h ere's more h e r e. Landowsku pl ays
h er Mozart, as I bear it, w it h a h ai·psi ch ord
touch, dry, almost staccato, sharp and percussive. Possibly authentic-for in hi s day the
harps ichord was still the standard in str um en t 1·
4. BIG NAMES
and its technique was the esta bli s h ed k eyHaydn : Four Piano Sonatas. Kathleen board techn ique. But there is also somet hi ng
of the Fren ch-Ru ss ian app r oach to mu s ic in
long, p iano.
London LL 1380 this style that is clearly at odds with the
Austrian-German-English
Moza r t trndit·ion,
For todny's ear, so accustomed to big piano
mus ic both popu l a r and "classical, " tbe tb in ri~~en~~;_ w ill grate on many so uls, i n the
Haydn sonatas are at first a bit perplexing.
(Contimt ecl on page 71)
But the many amateur pianists who have
TREBAX Tweeter
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--I
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I
II
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AUDIO . •
MAY, 1957
I
I
I
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650 Ha lstead Avenue, Mamaroneck, N. Y.
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I
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56
Ere.
edward latnall Canby
TENTH ANNIVERSARY
"The records I1ste d below are not neces sarily the· fine st r ecordings, t echlllca.Ily
speakin g', of recent month s• ..•"
With th at somewhat nega.tive st at ement,
ten years ago, I began my first column in
the fir st issue of AUDIO E NGINEERING. Believe it or not, this departm ent r eally did
begin as a Reco1"d Rev ue, and man aged to
st ay in one piece under t ha t title for six
years, too. Until my incr easingly irrelevant
comments got so hopelessly far r emoved
f rom r ecords t hat common sense inclicated
a split ting up-and so "AUDIO E T C. " was
born, with the accent on the ETC.
In its slightly zany way, this column has
had, in t hose t en lon g years, I gath er, some
influence on the course of hom e-style· hi-fi.
We don ' t have any H oopers or Opinion
P olls to tell us so and I could not prove
it t o you statistically. Moreover I 'm n ot
going t o plough through 120 i ssues of
AUDIO just to demonst ra te it-I 've just
finished quailin g at the ver y thought. I can
only snggest it via. quotes of what I said
-when .
Thus I had hoped, t llis 10th Anniversar y,
to concoct a neat and easily r eadable summary of th e Ca nby contributions to audio
hi story over a decade. Instead I 'm going
to t ake a look at merely one year, our first!
It was a f asciuating year for all of us.
It is ou r most distant one and the most
glam01"ous f or t hat r eason, of course. But
t hat first yem' was also i n special ways a
Year of Decision-f or our magazine, f or
the audio fi eld Hself an cl fOl' our wh ole
country .
The war was almost t wo year s over , in
1947, and at last, t hings were sta rting to
move. Th at year we fiIlally caught up , in
Amer ica, wit h th e t ime lost in t he war. The
whole p ent·up f orce of progress, held b ack
for so many years, burst forth and r aced
f orwar d, b eginning in th at year. New
things b urst upon us f r om every side. New
businesses, new product s, n ew industries,
new ideas. It was t ypical of t hat fr enzied
tim e of _progress that our magazine, a n ew
kind of m agazine, should be fo undecl , to
cater to a newly emer ging professional
field, and th at in the same year, the first
ser ious b eginnings of an immense new
industry shonld have made th emselves felt
-the home " hi gh ficl elit y " business.
It was th ere, too , that I stepped in, in
my unprececlented role of garrulous r ecord
r eviewer, writing about r ecords " et c. " So
- let's look at my etceteras f or 1947.
Our fir st " Record Revue " cover ed one
p age (small size) and th e " reviews "
weren't even r eviews ; I merely list ed some
likely 78-rpm items that seemed .to offer
good stuff for t he engineer 's ears : Khat cha turian 's " Gayne " Snite in Columbia M
664, Copland' s " A Lincoln Portrait" in
RCA Victor DM 1088, the" Sylvia" ballet
suite of Delibes on what I then listed as
Decca Lonclon EDA 2- one of the very
first of t he f amed ffn r ecords, then offered
on 78·rpm shellac.
But in t ha t first issue I did unwittingly
start the chain of printed even ts that split
Ca nby in t wo fo r the present dual sections.
Right away, I started to editoriali ze, so
t o sp eak. And in the process I used up
more th an half the allotted space before
I even got t o th e list of r ecords ! Typical,
th e editor is likely to breat he, p erfervidly.
In each succeeding i ssue th e p reliminary
st uff g rew more extellsi ve---!and more varied
-but still we blithely calleel it " Record
Revue " and n obody seemecl t o mind. Soon
my ramblings under th at unlikely t it le
became a sort of tradition. And " Record
Revue" it sta yed until December, 1953,
when I fin ally broke in t wo of my own
weight.
In that fir st -i ssue spouting of Canbyese
I man aged to make a fiat proph esy th at is
rather typical of mo st of min e, and i ndio
cates r at her neatly the problem I 'm having
in trying to glamorize my ear ly year s. I 'll
give it to you in all its unvarnish ed platitudillouslless.
"It is quite possible that for r eally high
fidelity equipment the plastic recor(lls t he
onJy answer."
( 'fhat is, t he only answer to the then
acute problem of surface lloise in the old
shellac-type r ecords.)
S o th e plastic r ecorcl was the 1947 a nswer
t o the r ecord problem! Anybocly could
have figureel t hat out, you 'll say. Look at
the billions of 'em n ow. But in 1947 n ot
anybody could. Only a very f ew "bodies"
were th en hepped up on the i dea of a universal plastic r ecord. Recol'ds wer e shellac
and they stayed breakab le, scr at chy, and
78, for '30 lon g while afterw~rcl s. The LP
r ecord wasn 't announced untIl 0\7er a year
lat er-a nel dicbl't become universal f or
fi ve. Anybody who came out f or plastic
records in 1947 was being ra dical-minded.
I wasn ' t r adical. It was just common
sense. I was all f or plastic r ecorcl s because
during the wa r I h ad worked with. r a~io
tl"anscription libr ari es pressed on vln yhte,
and I was ver y well able to appr eciate what
a good plastic disc could clo with the aid
of wi el e-range recor ding and high -quality
magnet ic cartridges, such as t he WE 9A
heads we had used. I ha cl even "aired "
the first RCA p lastic 78 on my progr am,
with mu ch f uror, beca use it look ed like a
big thing t o me. It wa s (even thou gh I
played it "fl at," with out roll-off, s).n ce I
hadn' t lea rn ed a bout such ma tters t hen ! ) .
Audio 1947
You 'll have to get your imagination to
work, th en, if y ou want to r ecapture with
me a bit of t he strange and dist ant world
of audio in 1947, ten years ago, and you 'll
have to apply it to th e whopping platitucles that I seem to have written back
then! For the n ear er they were to the true
prophetic b eam, t he sillier t hey sound no.w.
Plastic r ecords ! That was only t he begm]ling.
In 1947 the borne audio business, the
AUDIO
•
MAY, 1957
"hi-fi" of later years, did Rot exist. The
standard home phonograph ruled supreme
and it was not labelled high fidelity. The
microscopic bit of "hi-fi" commer-cially
e
available was then confined to two areas
mostly, for the handful of hardy souls who
had ideas about such "radical things as
• • • • • separate· unit phonograph equipment. E ither
you got yourself one of the few expensive
professional·type amplifiers and the like,
or you went to the P .A. market and took
home one of those nice little P.A. ampNfiers
with a mere 5 per cent distortion at 8 or
10 watts and no preamp. That was low·cost
hi-fi in 1947, for the very few who knew
about it .
In the f all of 1948 I quite seriously
reco=ended these P.A. jobs as the only
pra ctical and inexpensive form of home
high fidelity, short of your own home-made
stuff. As of now, almost a decade later, I
stand back of my suggestions. Indeed, I
had a P.A. amplifier myself and I knew
that it could bring to any home a vast
improvement in sound quality over the
equivalent staudard one-piece phonogr aph's
built-iu amplifier. There wasn 't anything
else.
And don ' t forget r ecords. In 1947 there
was no microgroove, no LP, no 45. Only
, , standard " breakable 78's. Among them,
once in a blue moon, a few of the new unbreakable plastics were thrown in, at positively outrageous prices. A single 78 plastic
--4 minutes to a side-cost more than a
• top-price LP today. It was that sort of
plastic I had to deal with, which made my
prediction a pretty rash one 1
• • • "
But remember, too, that almost all recordings were then reissues of pre-war
jobs, new postwar recording sessions having
barely begun. And worse, t he shellac material (so-called) had not yet recovered
from that ghastly admixture of reclaimed
flotsam and j etsam that had afflicted virtually all discs made during the disrupted
war ' years. Surfaces in 1947 were terrible,
All that it takes to make a speaker great
and sudden wide-range sound had brought
- excellent basic design, precision-made
the noise problem hor ribly to the fore. Our
parts, painstaking craftsmanship,
first thought in "hi-fi " then was the record
meticulous assembly - goes into JBL
,surface-our second, pel'haps, was the
Signature Loudspeakers. The JBL
sound quality.
As for the general public in 1947, it is
Signature Model D130 is the only
politic to remember that t he average record
fifteen-inch extended range speaker
owner then played his records scratchlessly
made with a four-inch voice coil of
via a fat crystal cartridge that was not-soedge·wound aluminum ribbon . .It has a
fiat to a high of around 3500 cps .and rerigid cast frame, silvery dural dome,
quired something like three or four O1tnc eS
highly refined magnetic circuit. The
of weight on its removable \iteel point. The
D130 is distinguished by its clean,
new magnetics for home use were barely
launched aud generally unknown t o the
smooth coverage of the complete audio
layman, though this was not to be for
spectrum . . . crisp, clean bass;
long, thanks to the firm int entions of such
smooth, extended highs. It is the most
as GE and Pickerip.g.
efficient speaker made anywhere,
But most of all, in 1947, there was no
such term as HI-FI in the popular mind.
Indeed, I suspect that the most significant
part of my quoted st atement above was not
PRECISION
the reference to plastic, but the use of t he
HIGH FREQUENCY
t erm high fid elity! I'm surprised at myUNITS
self, as of then, for this was long before
high fidelity had gone over to the magazines, and to the makers of mascara and
beer and what-have-you, and long before
anyone had thought to label every record
Tile gre atest si ngle improvement you
and every piece of phono equipment as hi-fi.
can make in your hi gh fidelity system
High fidelity was a relatively esoteric t erm
is to add a JBL Signature High Fre·
then, and if I didn't invent it- I certainly
Quency Unit. The popul ar 175DLH is
didn't- I was one of t he first to start using
made with all of t he precision necesit in everyday phonographic language.
sary to retain ' the subtl eti es whi ch are
Some distinction ! I 'm not too sure I'm
the esse nce of high frequ ency repro·
happy about it , all things considered . . .
ducti on. In additi on it has an acousti cal
Maybe I shoulda shut my mouth.
lens-an exc lusive JBL Si gnature f eaBut I didn 't , and soon after that I was
t ure - which disperses sound over a 90
in the first hopeless throes of an attempt
solid angle with equal intensity regardto define high fidelity. A wasted labor of
less of frequency.
love- but, I see by the papers, people are
Circle 57A
still trying to do so, each t ime one of those
4;>
•
•
greCl;t
5 pea'ke r.s .......
If you are to hear fundamental bass
tones, your speaker must be properly
enclosed. JBL Signature Enclosures are
engineered to make full use of the great
sound potenti.al in Signature Speakers.
They are handsome to look at, wonderful
to Iisten to. A wide range of types bass reflex and folded horns - and sizes
is available. All are superbly engineered,
superbly designed, superbly built.
Panel s of speCially selected plywood
are precision cut. Joints are lock-mitred
and wood-welded. An unusually wide
choice of fine, hand-rubbed finishes is
offered. It is even possible to order an
enclosure from the factory to exactly
match a sample supplied by you. If you
want to build your own, you can get
detailed blueprints of most Signature
Enclosures from your audio dealer
or the manufacturer.
. $~ perb
..
enclo·sures
·
. . ... .
..
Below is sh~wn the new JBL srgQature
"H arkne ss," a back·loaded folded <horn in
• • lowboy console styli ng, Althou gh its'
propottip ns are such tha t it will be we l~ om e
in any livi iig l oom , the Harkness enclose$ an
inge niously fold ed six foot ho~n path for •
• • • s.m ~ oth , cri sp, d e~eg-down ba ss .•
..
THERE IS A JBL
SIGNATURE SP~AKER
SYSTEM FOR'
~ EI/,E~YONE •• • ONE IS
JUST RIGHT FOR YOU • • •
Write faT fT~e .,aialog, a11d J.echnical
bulletin. and the name
of th e authorized JB L
Signa ture Dealer in
your community.
e
means
0
AUDIO
•
MAY, 1957
JAMES B. LANSING SOUND, INC
2439 Fletcher Drive , Los Angeles 39, Calif.
Circle 57B
57
special hi-fi supplements to the newspapers
and magazines comes out, each time a new
book or pamphlet on high fidelity is issued.
More power to 'em. I gave up defining
hi·fi about six years ago, when I started
my book, which incidentally, until the
editors thought better on possible ethical
grounds, I had planned to call "High Fidelity for the Music Lover." That was in
1951, and we were scared the censors might
think this fidelity stuff a bit too sexy for
any kind of "lover." Some librarian might
have put the book on the Marital Fidelity
shelf. . . . So it became "Home Music
Systems' '-prosaic title-and I lost a· claim
to fame. Just as well.
Early Canbyese
Why More People Buy Racon
HI· FI LOUDSPEAKERS
Racon is the oldest company (1922) in the U. s.
devoted exclusively to the manufacture of loudspeakers. R acon's 35 years of pioneering effort
have served as a guide in the rapid development of
the loudspeaker industry. Racon speakers differ
radically from competitive types by many exclusive features of con struction and design. The model
15-HTX tri-cone above, is a typical example 01
outstanding originality. It is characterized by the
following :
MACNETIC STRUCTURE
A unique magnetic "pot" structure with external
leakage so minute tha t the outside surface will not
attract a pin. Yet the air gap will support an iron
weight of 1000 pounds!
I
•
FOAM SUSPENSION
A plastic loam suspension (pat. applied for) is
used between the cone and basket to provide high
compliance resulting in a lowered resonant frequency (24-30 cycles*) and for the fi rst time, introducing pneumatic damping. There arc no harmful
"hangover" or boomy effects.
CONE RE-ENFORCEMENT
A series of low-mass stiffening struts reinforce the
cone to permit distortion·free response at high
levels.
APEX DIFFUSER
A mid-range propagator is used in the 15-HTX to
increase output in the region where the large cone
would tend to fall off. It is set into a circumferential slot filled with a compliant compound near
the apex of the large cone.
TWEETER
The high frequency speaker is a combined com·
pression and direct radiator type. Highs are clean
and natural without the strident Quality of many
horn type tweeters.
CROSSOVER
Crossover at 2000 cycles is ach ieved mechanically
and at 5000 cycles electrically, built in.
SOLID CUARANTEE
Every Racon high fidelity loudspeaker is guaran teed
onc year.
fOT
MODEL
TECHNICAL DATA
15-HTX
RESPONSE
POWER
IMPEDANCE
RES. FREQ.
FLUX
CROSSOVER
DISPERSION
DIMENSIONS
SHIP WT.
20-20,000
25 w.
8 ohms
24-30'"
14,500
2000, 5000
100 '
15Ya x 8Y2
27 Ibs.
NET PRICE
109.50
*Normal production variation.
If your favorite dealer is out of stock, please
write us for name of the nearest one.
FREE LITERATURE ON REQUEST
HIGH FIDELITY LOUDSPEAKERS
~RACON
~ ~,,~!::g~~~:~
Export: Joseph Plasencia
4Ql Broadway, New York, N. Y.
Canada: Dominion Sound Equipments Ltd.
4040 St. Cat.he,ine St., West-Montreal 6, Que.
58
That's a bit of the background. What,
then, was eating me-and the audio world
-back in 194H
Well, it took me three or four issues to
settle down to work. If I have had something to do with shaping at least a hunk
of this mag, then the mag shaped me, too.
I started out most formally, as was befitting for an outsider in the professionaf
engineering field. .(Remember-no hi-fi
then.) But along about November of that
year I began to hit my then new stride.
"As a musician bungling into an engineer's private magazine (!), I occupy a
somewhat anomalous and very stimulating
position on this pag.e," I began hopefully,
and thereby set the tone for the next. nineand-a-half years. But before then I had,
in a somewhat for'mal kind of language,
barged into several interesting contemporary problems.
In our second issue-June, 1947-1 took
up the idea of low-priced pickups of the
new lightweight types-wide-range crystal
and magnetic-and pointed out what seems
pretty darned obvious right now, that the
low-output magnetics would never be practical for the home user until somebody
started selling preamplifiers. Believe it or
not, tIllS had to be suggested, in them thar
days! I don't know just when the first of
the separate phono preamps appeared, but
I can guarantee -you the market was not
exactly fiooded with them in June, 1947.
Then in the next issue I got off into a
fine account of the uses of tone color in
giving a sense of loudness to music, an
argument in f avor of wide-range reproduction. If you blow or bow an instrument
hard, you get more of the higher overtones,
and this gives us a sense of strain and
, 'loudness' '-even if in the reproduction
the actual volume isn't so loud. Cut off the
highs and you can't hear tlllS loud effect
as well. Tricky, but essentially true and it
still holds for the necessa ry dynamic compression that we still have in all presentday records.
In August of 1947 I unwittingly described to a T (or an SSS) the coming
sound of our present hi-fi recording tech'
niques. I was gabbing away about the tricks
of mike accentuation that could make for
brilliance of effect in musical recording
even with a top reproduced range of
around 4000 cycles, standard for home
phonos and for jukeboxes of the day. But,
said I, the advent of FM just before the
war (and I did a broadcast on FM from
1943 onward) showed us what strange and
remarkable sounds could be heard from
close-mike techniques, given the novelty of
real wide-range reproduction. Who among
us had heard such sounds then' Not many
people.
I described my wide· range, close-up
sound thusly, and you'll admit that it fits
today'8 sound effects, though we no longer
ver y much object.
"A speaking voice at one foot range
seems to hiss In your face; an oboe or
similar Instrument at two or three feet or
even a dozen Is strident and mechanical;
the player's breath and the mechanics of
finger work are horribly apparent. A flute
player spits sillIva between every note,
perfectly au(Ubly."
That 's the first impact of hi-fi sound
on an unsuspecting ear! It is amazing how
we have adjusted ourselves to these same
effects now, and like them too.
Even in juke boxes and in broadcast
soap opera. You'll be amused at my August, 1947, description of what happened
when a conventional AM-style radio drama
was put on the FM air over our station.
As in all tear-jerkers, the heroine of the
show at one point broke down and had
herself a real, good cry, on the air. But
this was a high-fidelity cry-something
quite new, back then.
"The heroine had a good cry-Into her
closely held mlcrophone. The FM effect of
this perfectly standard AM technique was
as Niagara, or the air brakes on a dozen
traIns I"
And I went on to elaborate on the novel
sounds of wide-range reproduction.
"A high-fidelity system is super-realistic In an emba.rrassing way; it gives you
exactly, exactly the monaural sound that
would be heard at the microphone's position. Close-to mlke pIckup, then, is impossibly hIgh fidellty. [N. B. Now we'd
say hi-ti], a ghastly dIstorion (actually
a lack of distortIon) of the musIcal sound.
EngIneers now worldng with high fidelity
are finding themselves backing away
farther and farther. The whole beautffnI
edifice of close-to mlke teclmJque is
comIng· up for a drastic overhauling, and
the field Is wIde open."
High fidelity, ·most definitely, was new,
exciting and different in 1947. There were,
of course, engineers who had heard widerange reproduction of sound long before
the war; but not many. A handpicked
handful. The rest of us had been living
and were still living with the standard
4000-cps top. I will not forget, myself, the
thrills and excitements of those first days
of real extended highs, the novelty of true
sibilant sounds coming out of a loudspeaker, of violin edge and triangle tings
and the scraping of" an announcer's overtrained vocal chords. We couldn't believe
it.
It was, you'll remember, only a short
time before this that a sensational new
lightweight pickup was introduced featuring a tiny, red plastic cartridge and built-in
stylus, set into an arm that was named
after a well known snake. We installed two
of them in our FM station. By my· own
listening, they reproduced no audible
sounds above roughly 4000 cps, and this
moclel continued to do the same with great
success for years afterwards. We found
them just fine; the surface noise on our
war-time records was gratifyingly reduced
and the quality of the music was just what ·
most people liked and wanted.
As far as the upper tones of music were
concerned, our fine new FM channel sent
out nothing but dead air!
We were all then so utterly conditioned
to that old-style, velvety, muffled kind of
sound that for us it was strictly" normal,"
quite standard, ordinary and acceptable.
The new wide-range high-fidelity effect was
strange, different and for many people very
unpleasant-especially when well dosed up
with attendant hiss and scratch. It was
widely said then that the mass of the
people obviously were never going to like
high fidelity, which was strictly for engineers and special f anatics. Ho-hum.
Distortion , Well, of course there was
plenty of it, especially on records. But
, 'live" FM sound was on the whole pretty
darneel clean, and still people disliked it.
AUDIO
•
MAY, 1957
My theory, then as and now, was that it
was a matter of association or conditioned
reflex. Play any high tones to a 1947 ear
and it winced automatically, even when the
tones were actually clean. I thought then,
and I was right, that when people finally
got used to clean wide· range sound, pleas·
ant and undistorted, they would get over
the wince reaction and learn to love it.
They did.
Nowadays, ten years later, even the juke
boxes reproduce sibilants and wire brushes.
The old'style "tone control," which dominated every electric phonograph for twenty
years (and was ip.evitably turned all the
way down) is now no more. Instead, we
have RIAA and full·fidelity highs.
Said I in September 1947, reviewing
Columbia 78 rpm album M 693, "Le
Bourgeois Gentilhomme" by Strauss;
"One of the finest shellac records for
high fideIlty demonstration I've ever
heard. Very wide range, beautiful liveness, excellent surfaces. [We always
worried about surfaces then.] But the
music has much to do with it ••• the
orchestration Is perfect for microphone
use-a biggish orchestra but constantly
broken up Into solos of all sorts and solo
groups, with wonderful tone-color contrast. Try side 3-flIter to 4000 cps and
the solo vloIlnist disappears lJIre magic,
open 'er up and he's there ..again!!' ,
That's the way those of us who saw big
things in high fidelity went about promoting it, back in 1947. My judgment on that
recording seems ,t o have been pretty good.
Today after ten years it is still in the
current LP catalogue, as ML 4800. (The
original master would have been a 16·inch
disc at 33, from which the 78 's were
copied; the present LP was doubtless taped
off the same.)
Binaural and Home Hi-Fi
And so it went during that first year
that began with Vol. 1 No.1 in May, 1947.
(Actually, it was Vol. 31, No.9, deriving
from Pacific Radio News which started in
1917, and several stages of RADIO. ED.)
Something new in audio every day, and
most of it so thoroughly / / old stuff" now
that you can see how those of us who were
interested in audio at that time really had
to keep hopping.
I see my own attendance record wasn't
quite perfect. To my astonishment, I find
that in these ten years I've been repre·
sented in exactly 119 issues-out of 120.
In December, 1947, I was unaccountably
missing. Got my stuff in too late.
We started off that year 1948 with an
audio bang. On the reverse of my column
was a fine article with the magnificent
title, "The Present State of Magnetic Recording, Part III." It came from the
horse's mouth, or one of the horses' mouths,
an engineer from Minnesota Mining, which
at that point was getting itself wound up
in a new kind of red tape-recording tape.
So what's exciting about an article on
tape recording, you'll ask' Keep in mind
again, this was 1948 and tape in this country was barely at its beginning. In 1948
the entire (78-rpm) record industry was
still based upon disc master recording;
tape didn't take over in that momentous
area until the early '1950 's, and it didn't
catch on in the amateur home field for
many another year. Tape, like so much in
the audio realm, was in its commercial
infancy, but we were already talking
about it.
And in that January issue I touched for
the first time on a momentous subject, in
the light of today-binaural.
No, I wasn't talking about binaural
tapes-yet. But the stage was being set
already for that development, and I was
working myself into a tizzy about monaural
AUDIO
•
MAY, 1957
01 E-CAST BEZEL
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• FM-AM TUNER
• AUDIO CONTROLS
• lO-WATT AMPLIFIER
THE FISHER
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T
HE FISHER "500" is the most concise form in wbicb you can
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Master Audio Control and a powerful 30-watt amplifier - all on one
compact chassis! Simply add a record player and loudspeaker and you
bave a complete high fidelity system for your home. Its quality - in
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of classic simplicity.
Chassis Only, $249.50
Mahogany or Blonde Cabinet, $19.95
Outstanding Features of THE FISHER "500"
• Extreme sensitivity on Fi\1 and AM .• Meter for micro-accurate tuning. a Full
wide-band FM detector for maximum capture ratio . • Powerful, 30-watt amplifieri handl es 60·watt peaks. a Uniform response, 16 to 32,000 cycles. - 4 inputs,
including separate tape playback preamp-equalizer. - 4, 8 and 16-ohm outputs
match all existing speake rs . - Recorder output ahead of volume and tone controls. _ 7 Controls, including 9-position Channel Selector (Al'vl , FM , AES, RIAA,
LP , NAB, TAPE, AUX 1 and AUX 2), Loudness Contour (4'position), Volume, Bass, Treble, AC-Power, Station Selector. _ Beautiful die-cast, brushed
brass escutch eon and control panel. _ Pin-point, channel indicator lights.
_ Smooth , flywheel tuning. - Largest, easy-to-reao, slide-rule dial , with logging
scale. !II High efficiency FwI nnd Awl antennas supplied. - 14 tubes plus 2
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WRITE TODAY FOR COMPLETE SPECIFICATIONS
FISHER RADIO CORP_, 21-29 44th DRIVE' L. I. CITY 1
59
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liveness and the amazing difference be·
tween its ' , one·eared" sound and the
binaural, two-eared perception of natural
listening.
.
High fidelity, I had been,· -saymg, is a
faithfulness to an imagined original, since
we very seldom actually get to hear the
original live ,sound which is being reproduced for us. If we imagine a "concert
hall" sound, we are comparing our monau·
ral living-room reproduction with a binaural two-eared concert and the comparison
is obviously false, unless we take into account the monaural-binaural difference.
" ••• In nine cases out of ten even tile
intelligent listener wllo is asl.ed to judge
'fidelity' is quite unaware of tile compli.
cations of monaural sound. This single
factor may account for a great deal more
confusion than most experts are ready
to admit."
That's as of 1948 and now, almost ten
years later, the problem is very nearly the
same. Few listeners even today appreciate
the vast difference between monaural sound
and the same sound heard with two ears
on t he spot.
Naturally, I was all ears, some time
later, when Maguecord first announced its
"binaural" twin-channel t ape recorder
and in no time at all I was immersed in the
new excitements that blossomed, a bit prematurely, over "binaural" recording, and
wrote all about it in this department.
(Some of what I wrote I would gladly
swallow today! One lives and learns. )""" And
before twin-channel tape came along' I had
found still another angle to the binaural
business-in the September, 1949, issue I
speculated at length upon the effect of' a
two-eared, binaural hearing aid-one in
each ear. I still think that this was a
wouderful idea and hope that some day,
somebody will try it out. (Tch, tch-they
have, in eyeglass frames. ED.)
Well, our first year was almost over, and
in the last of its months I got myself a
bee in my bonnet, beginning in February,
1948, concerning separate-unit home audio
equipment. Shades of today's hi-fi! These
articles make strange reading now. For,
you see, the very idea of separate-unit
equipment for amateur home use was still
a novel one-there was virtually none available commercially. And so I solemnly
started off with what seems a monumental
bit of obviousness-now:
"Most people insist on tile all·ln·one
console, In spite of disadvantages, and
tllis is sig'nificant for it ·m-nst be con·
sidered .•• • I Ilave 'consistently recom.
mended tile separate-unit arrangement
[for home use]. It offers more for the
money, very mucll greater flexibllity, resistance to obsolescence, and performance
clearly superior according to engineers'
standards, to tllat of standard consoles
costing' the same."
'
Now that mild little paragraph, in February, 1948, was all unbeknownst to me
very nearly the unofficial beginning of the
great home hi-fi movement, for better or
for worse. In 1948, it seems, very f ew
people were making fl at statements in
print like that. Was I the first in prinH
As far as 1 'm concerned the whole thing
was fairly obvious then, and is so still·
1 'm merely wondering whether I didn't
come out even earlier in the same vein, in
the Saturday Review. But never mindsomebody had to start talking like that in
print and this sheet, AUDIO E NGINEERING,
was right in there spouting to all who
would listen, first or no.
But you'll be astonished at what followed next, in that first article. This will
show you neatly where I then stood on the
business of hi-fi in the American home.
"For under a Ilundred dollars a man
can Ilave Ilimself a good changer, a
modest "llig'll fidelity" ainpllfier or a P .A.
amplifier and a good 12·incll speaker; for
a bit extra tllere is tile GE or Pickering
cartridge or a nylon type crystal [!). .A
piece of wallboard baffling gives as good
results as most confined radio cabinets.
In fact here is surely tile ideal basic
equipment to suit ill its capacity the real
needs of the . . . consumer.
"Except til at it has to be put togetller.
Simple for some, but for the majority this
is an impossible tlling ! Wires to Ilook up,
soldering to be done. .A large number
of phonograpll owners are ready and wlli·
ing' to operate more than tile over· simple
controls on an averag'e machine and they
appreciate the immense values In tile
unit system enough to forego tile con·
venience of a simple console model-but
to put things together is another and an
insuperable problem. We non'engineers
are a bunch of incurable Milquetoasts In
this respect! Most people have an unreasonable fear of radio innards. Tllere
is hig'li voltag'e about, they know, and
tllings suddenly go up in smoke, inside
radios .•.• ThIs, then, is a major disad·
vantag'e that keeps many of these people
from even attempting' tile unit plan of
construction.
"SUIJpOSe, then, to come to tile point, I
were asked for sugg'estions as to how an
enterprising manufacturer might meet
the needs of tllis growing number of rec·
ord owners who are unsatisfied with conventional radios and phonographs 1 My
approacll would be sometlling as follows: •••"
And thus, logically, I was all primed to
outline the next ten years of hi-fi in the
home. 1 had led myself up to it and I
plunged straight in, and spent pages getting over my basic idea, which was, very
simply, inexpensive home equipment that
would have the advantages of separateunit specialization, flexibility and good
construction plus an ease of hooking up
that was, as you can see, very decidedly
absent in those days.
1 wouldn't quote you all those pages, if
1 could. I'm not proud of some of the
zany ideas 1 had, and some of the less
zany ones, too. (I'm not so sure I'm all
for 2-watt amplifiers, as I was then, for
instance.) But 1 don't think that is the
point. What matters is that here we were,
in 1948, beginning to think about simple
equipment for ordinary home users, and
1 was out plugging for general principles
that, quite clearly, have since become tile
basis for our vast hi-fi home market. A
question of adapting equipment that until
that time Ilad been primarily professional,
to a new and very different usefulness in
musical homes, with all that this adaptation implied.
"The problem can be met, It seems to
me, in the way tllat tile vacuum cleaner
men, tile makers of Ilome movie equip'
ment and medium· priced still cameras
have met a similar kind of problem. By
facing the necessity for fiexibllity, for
complications; and by solving these com·
plications witll fool· proof, mistake· proof,
instantaneous connections and couplings,
interchang'eable pa,rts, ingeniOusly simpli.
fied desig'n til at accords with tile modern
home owner's idea of convenience and dependability, that builds confidence instead
of fear. .A vacuum cleaner is no simple
instrument these days and a good camera
even less so. But ingenIous (not costly)
design lias removed the disadvantages to
a point wllere just about anybody can
and does use both."
Thus, you see, this magazine which,
theoretically, was an engineer's private
magazine, was helping to lay up foundations for the enormous developments that
have since taken place along these very
AUDIO
•
MAY, 1957
lines. I suppose I should claim in a big
way that this department marched ahead
in proud lea dership; the f act is, I don 't
know whether it did or not-for all I can
say, never a hi-fi man read this stuff I
then wrote ! But I surely can claim on the
basis of this evidence that we were ill
there fighting along with the best.
And if we didn't lea d 'the way in this
magazine, then you must a dmit we prophesied. One or the other, necessarily, any
way you look at it. I'll end by quoting you
just the t ail of my three articles, with
which, symbolically, I concluded our fir st
complete year in the April, 1948, issue :
"It remains to suggest, merely, that in
order to fulfill the basic idea of flexibility
and expansion for which the proposed
outfit is best suited [Le. the s epa ra te-unit
low- cos t system], a number of accessories
s]lOuld be available, notably the ra(Uo
tuner, AM or FlU, the record changer,
possibly other gadgets such as a disc or
tape recorder (no wire recording for m e !).
The policy here would seem to be fairly
obvious. Supply regular brands in these
items, adapted to fit into the standardized
plug-tog'ether system already envisioned.
• . . Thus a changer, . an Al\I, Fl\I, or
AM-FM tuner, so fixed up, could be
plug'ged Instantly into the existing system
-extending. both Its usefulness and the
beauty of its basic construction. In some
cases the "adapting" might mean no more
than the installation of a simple plug' a t
trifling' cost-yet right there is the very
thing your customer does n ot want to
have to do, for himself. Tlmt is our basic
Idea."
And that, in 1948, would seem to me the
basic idea on which home " hi-fi" has siuce
been built. I 'm certainly not sor ry I " Tote
those lines.
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The reasons for the marked superiority of the speaker are surprisingly simple. Conceived originally as a professional quality standard ,
the 604 was designed in a straight-forward manner and at the time of
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speaker, but it is interesting to note that the basic design features have
not yet been changed; the 604 remains superior and many of the fe atures built into the 604 more than 12 years ago are now being promoted
in the high fidelity industry as "new developments" and "industry firsts ."
Let's examine the 604C Duplex in detail, analyzing the design features which have made it famous.
BASS SECTION
A
(a) The oute r edge of the loudspeake r cone is clamped betwee n
the cast frame and ri gid cast clamping ring, instead of the more
common glued const ruction. This clamping ring permits mo re
B
accurate centering of the cone and assures its accurate location
ove r a long per iod. (b) The compliance section of the cone is pro·
vided with a viscous anti·reflecting compliance damping to absorb sound waves which wou l d introduce distortion if pe rmitte d
10 ref lect back down the cone. ( c) Th e three inch voice -coil is
made of 95 tu rns of r ibbon coppe r wi re, wound on edge 10 provide
greater spea ker efficienc y. The ribbon is .0033" thick and .024"
wide and is coated with two .00025" layers of insulation fo r protec '
tion against elect rical shorting between turns of the coi l. (d) A .
4..4 11l0und A lnico V ring magnet provides hi gh efficiency and pre·
cise cont rol ove r the moveme nt of the speaker cone. (e) The deep
voice· coi l gap sides provide a long path of homogeneous Ilux
dens ity pe rm itting greate r cone exc ursion (. 75") whi le mainta i n·
i ng t he vo ice ·co il i n a consta nt flux fie ld. The use of a shallow
gap would mean that the voice ·coil wou ld move to areas of va rying
fl ux dens ity w ith resulting d istortio n. (f) The woven annu lar com '
pl i ance spide r and dam ped co ne compli ance (b) permit free co ne
excu rsion for a maximum natu ral cone resonance of 40 cyc les
while at the same time cont roll ing the cone moveme nt to avoid
acoustic se rf resonances.
* * * *
Thus endeth the First Year of this column, and in no time at all we began our
Second Year; I plunged head . over heels,
the· very next issue, into the r aging controversy over H. H. Scott ' s Dynamic Noise
Suppressor-and did I get myself snarled,
though no more than a lot of other ard ent
souls, I suspect. And before long, that ver y
spring, there was the sensation of th e
centnry, the LP r ecord, which burst in our
August issue, thanks to the usual pressschedule delay.
"If l\Iicrogroove recording is to survive
commercially, ·jt must spread throu g hout
the industry until it is in e ffe ct co- stalldard with present r ecording'."
I intoned right there at the beginning,
when there were no LP 's except Columbia's
and RCA wasn't saying anything at all.
So it went . . . and I'll have to st op.
I n the next nine years, from 1948 on,
this department managed to st ep intoor f all or bungle or slide into-practically
ever y new event in the hi-fi audio area, and
I spouted ideas, too many times to enumer ate, that do, come to think of it, look
like predictions, as of t oday. But not being
a W.W. (Walter Winchell), I didn't make
'em dramatic and I can't make them so
now. As I say, they come out sounding like
platitudes.
.
That is precisely as it should be. For if
I 'd ma de a lot of sensation al bloopers that
really fell fl at , I'd be anything but anticlimactic right now ! You ' d be splitting
your sides.
So, though I don't ever expect to get
an Oscar or a Fido, or what have you, as
the F ather of Home Hi-Fi, I do claim to
have had my r eporter's nose arid brains
at work on the subject as soon as anybody
and as successfully. And I ardently hope,
to tell the truth, that somebody did rea d
all that stuff I wrote and that, therefore,
maybe I did have a bit of influeuce on
home hi-fi as it is now. It's llice to think
00.
AUDIO
TREBLE SECTION
( g) Th e 1.75 inch voice·coil co nsists of 37 turns of doub le insu·
lated ed ge wound aluminum ri bbon .0023" thick and .014'" wide for
maxi mum eff ici ency. (h) The domed diaphragm is made of an
excl usiv e fatigue resista nt al uminum all oy fo r long li fe and high
ri gidity. To provide the lowest possible mass an integ ral tangen·
tial compliance is formed of the same material. (i ) A 1.2 pound
Alnico V ring magnet physically separated from the low frequency
st ructu re. (j) A dual·annula r phasing plug automatically
mach i ned to assu r e complete production accuracy. (k) A
mechano-acoustic loading cap to provide prope r back loading of
the al uminum diaphragm. (I) A true exponential throat ending
in si x exponential horns grouped in a 2x3 multicellular configu ra·
tion to provide a 40° by 90:> distr ibuti on pattern. It should be noted
Ihal the exponential horn both in its sectoral and multicellular
shapes is stil l the only type of high f requen cy horn which has
proved acceptable i n profess iona l use.
The 604C including network $165 .00
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superior to that of any other single frame
loudspeaker.
If you are not as yet acquainted with
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161 Si xth A venue, New York 13, New York
~
•
•
MAY, 1957
61
is of first importance. I don't think it helps
them to separate sections as do some recording directors for multi-miking purposes, and
I am violen tly opposed to splitting up the
sections, especially the rhythm. Because it is
less distracting, the equipment Is set up offstage in a separate room. Seymour is in
charge of this, aided by Jan Syrjala, but we
all check balan ce. In most cases two microphones are used, one for balance, though on
occasion three may be necessary. Every session has its own problems. When using the
Siemens AKG microphone, · one that is constant is interference from the nearby FM
station WNYE, and we can't start until It
signs off in t he afternoon.
"I am afraid I grew up in the single microphone school, where th e ba nd might be on one
side a nd a vocalist on the other. When the
hall is right, I believe it makes for the most
natural dynamics and is closest to what
would reach the ear on the scene. Many tine
recordings have been made by the multi-mike
technique, but more have been marred by false
dynamics and the riding of controls. There is
none of that on our records. Our executives
are all practiSing musicians and we lmow
what we want. Seymour is a violinist, his
is certain to be the latter which is s ubj ected
brother Maynard, who is business manager, a
to the search light of Hammond 's high musical
cellist, and I still play the viola. Quality is
and sound standards, tempered by a tolerance
maintained
through all steps of production.
permitting him to discern talent in unlikely '
Masters are subjected to A-B checks with
places and extending to some of the products
original tapes and recu t if necessary. Samples
of his compet i tors. "In j azz t he improvised
from stampers are similarly checked."
performance is a ll important," he stated.
Among the engineers on the current scene
"When a ll the elements, economic a nd otherwhose work he admires most is John Palliwise, surrounding a recording date are underdino of Contemporary, William Chapman of
stood, al10wances can sometimes be made for
Columbia, and Dick Bock of Pacific Jazz . Als'o
bad sound. But with the competition so keen
Dave Hancock, an independent, who helped on
more a nd more companies are finding it poor
the trip to the Apollo Theatre to catch an
economy to stint on quality. Outright dison-the-spot stage show. "I have enjoyed maktortion is disappearing. However, jazz seems
ing our two dates on the scene and want to
to be going through the triangle stage which
do more of them," said Hammond. "In fact,
af!li~ted the classical field a year Or so ago.
arrangements are being made to go to the
Val'lous aspects of t he mu sic are emphasized
Savoy ballroom for the Cootie Williams'
for effect and the result does not compare
band."
with a live performance. Still it h as escaped
Since the 1930's he has regularly visited
the worst of the echo chamber, so I suppose
England and the Decca and EMI studios
I can't complain too much."
when. the! were far in advance of anything
His first full t ime position in the industry
on this Side of the ocean. One of his models
came in 1Q39 as associate recording drector
is
London FFRR sound and his most treasof the Columbia Recording Corp., an af!lllate
ured compliment comes from its astute head
of CBS, as it was then known. With three
E. R. Lewis, who recently told Hammond his
years out for Army service, it continued until
records were up to their standard. He keeps
1946. And his course in recording technique
his hand in as a critic with a jazz column in
was advanced by Vinnie J. Liebler now chief
the plush quarterly "Gentry."
engineer at COlumbia.
'
For the past eighteen months, Vanguard
Next came a period as recording director at
has
put domestic recordings on stereophonic
Majestic, which he left to become president of
tape.
Keynote. This was merged with Mercury in
The long friendship of Hammond and Count
1947, where Hammond worked with Bob Fine,
Basle makes the bar at 132nd Street and Sevwho developed variable pitch cutting of LP
enth
A venue a natural stop in the round of
masters. Much of the experimental work on
on-the-spot recordings. The occasion was a
this process, now billed as margin control,
welcome-home party for Joe Williams singer
was done on jazz masters. He is equally
in the Basie ba nd for the past two y~rs, on
proud of having la unched the company in
October 22, 1956. A choice group of blues
classical reco rding before he left the industry
specia lists is introduced by the host with a
in 1952 to devote more t ime to his growing
family.
.
front line of Emmett Berry. trumpet, Vic
Dickenson, trombone, and Marlowe Morris at
He was soon impatient to return to it but
the Hammond organ. Bobby Donaldson ,
at his own terms and in a capacity where the
drums, and Aaron Bell, bass, provide the
executive pressures would be less severe. In
rhyth~ with Bobby Henderson, piano, and
December, 1953, he began his association with
the blindfold test of this session is to tell If
Vanguard a nd it seems destined to be a lasthe is replaced.
ing one. "I am ha,'ing more fun than I ever
This is the first time Joe Williams has been
had In the business," Hammond said. " I can
heard in such an informal setting and it
make just t he things I want, including the
should
remove any doubts as to his abilities
work of unknowns. After we record them
the.y usua lly are no t unknown for long. Lif~
as a blues si nger. He does hi s best work on
IS Just too short to waste it on things I don' t
record in the discursive MO"e Than One Fo r
care a bou t."
My Baby. He has a new approach to I Want
. At about this time, Seymour Solomon, presa Little (fi"'l a nd does Sent For Yo" Yeste1'day for the first time. The band kicks off with
Ident and musical director, while walk ing
nea r hiS home in t he Fort Greene section of Indiana and is heard in P erdido. Too Ma,'velBrooklyn, came upon the hall u sed for all
ous Fa,' Wo,'ds and Please Don't Tall;, A bout
Vanguard domestic recordings. Its acoustical
Me When 1'1It GOne are duos for piano and
worth was evident on sight of the stretches
organ. Dickenson puts a blues .flavor into
of sturdy woodwork a nd was confirmed by
Oanadian Sunset with some earthy choruses.
tests. The series of jazz dates made there are
As an on-the-spot recording It has plenty
recognized a s the first by a commercial firm
of atmosphere and some satisfying jazz, but
to bear comparison to the work of such a
the engineers, under Seymour Solomon were
craftsman as Ewing Nunn. An attempt was
handicapped by the smallness of tile ~'ooms
made. to keep the location secret. Persisten t
especially
with an elect ric organ. At the start
questIOners were pu t off by citing an elusive
there is congestion in the bass which clears up
barroom. Actua lly it is the auditorium of a
as the room fills wi th a sound-absorbing mass
fraternal organization. "It is the nearest thing
of humanity. Though the random noise into the old Liederkranz Hall I know," sa id
creases, one of the req uisi tes of limited acousHammond .. "We have experimented at length
tics seems to be a goodly crowd. Norman
to determille how to put it to the best use
Granz, head of Clef Records, kindly allows
and have found the . stage curtains can be arranged for a final touching up of balance."
Count Basie to take part. It would be a
He is in over-all charge of each jazz date
happy event if he would ask Hammond to reand stated well defined ideas on how they are
turn the favor by taking the Basie band ou t
best conducted: "That the musicians are at
to Brooklyn to record it for him as it should
ease and ready to give a proper performance
be heard for a change.
CHARLES A. ROBERTSON*
A Night at Count Basie's
Vanguard VRS 8508
No history of jazz can be complete without
relating some of the accomplishments of John
Hammond. The list of artists he has discovered ·or furthered in their careers over the
past quarter of a century, from Benny Goodman to Ruby Braff, is lengthy and distinguished. Many a mus ician has been h elped
over a rough spot by his words of encouragement or aid in finding employment, making a
story that will never be told in full. But his
championing of jazz was preceded by an infatuation with the world of sound as revealed
by the phonograph record. It has not waned
over the years and finds outlet today in his
activities as director of the Vanguard J azz
Showcase.
At the age of thirteen this youthful enthusiasm was fully formed and a request to
attend a recording session was fulfilled two
years later during Christmas vacation from
Hotchkiss. The scene was the Pathe Studios
at 114 E. 32nd St., as Herman Rose produced
several sides by George Hall's orchestra featuring Walter Gross. Not all the mysteries of
the art were immediately unfolded, as Hammond explained: "It was 1926 and electrical
recording was in its infancy. All the equipment was hidden behind a screen and no outsider was allowed to see it."
By 1932 his reputation as a collector and
writer, e~pecially for European periodicals,
enabled him to obtain a commission to make
a. series of jazz dates 'for English consumptIon. These began with the Fletcher Henderson band in the old Columbia studios at 55
Fifth Ave., and Hammond said: "There was
no question of multi-miking then. The company had three studios with two microphones
to be shared among them. Henry Lollio was
the engineer on all the dates I made for England, and I could not have picked a more
c0mpetent instructor. I have yet to meet an
engIneer with a better, more honest ea r. He
Is with RCA-Victor in the PhHippines now,
and before that n Mexico where I believe h e
produced the fine Perez Prado sides in 1949."
In the swing era, his close a ssociation with
jazz musicians took hIm into nearly every
Important stUdio in the country. He remembers most favorably Liederkranz Hall on E .
58th St.! when it was fir st acquired by Co·
lumbia III 1939, before it was split In half
and finally willed to television. Victor used it
up to 1929 and it was there the Rhapsody in
BIlle was first made. Hammond insists there
Is no electronic substitute for the tonal qualIties of a large, acoustically-correct hall and
said: "Classical collectors are well ~ ware
many '78's still give lis tening pleasure hecause
or this characteristic. It enables the ear to
supply the missing frequencies better than
some LP's on which overemphasized and distorte~ highs must be cu t ou t entirely. Often
the Jazz collector does not have as much to
work with, but an experienced listener can
restore much of the vibrancy missing on an
old record; pa rticularly OKEH's reco rded on
Union Square.
. So the visitor to his E. 57th St. home is as
llkely to find him playing a thirty-year-old
collector's item as an unedited tape. And it
* 732
62
Th e Parkway, Ma'/1!a1'oneck, N. Y.
AUDIO
•
MAY, 1957
Kid Ory's Creole J azz Band 1944/45:
Tai/gate!
Good Time Jazz L 12022
The historic sixteen sides made by Kid Ory
In his comeback in 1944-40, after a decade
away from music, have been remastered by
recording director Ray DuNann and issued on
one LP. As one who bought the originals as
they were released, I remember the sound as
being outstanding in the days of poor wartime surfaces and undistinguished studio
work. It stand.s up well today. And so does
the music, as evidenced by the cheers greetIng Ory, Ed Garland and Minor Hall, of the
original group, on a recent European tour.
Bobby Henderson: Handful of Keys
Vanguard VRS 8511
The rediscovery of pianist Bobby Henderson makes one of those enjoyable tales which
soon becomes part of the folklore of jazz. In
the early 1930's, he had been accompanist 'for
the youthful Billie Holiday in Harlem and
in her debut on W. 02nd St. Then he disappeared from the scene until John Hammond
came across him in Albany last summer. Under the assumed name of .Jody Bolden, he had
passed the last twenty years as a successful
entertainer in upstate cities.
The fo rty-six-year-old Henderson grew up
in the best tradition of the great Harlem
party piano as exemplified by J ames P. Johnson, Fats Waller and Lucky Roberts. He began his professional career in Harlem clubs
in the 1920's, but avoided playing in bands
and never got to a recording studio. Now a
series of albums are projected to show his
qualities as a pianist, composer, singer, and
trumpetman.
The six selections on the fi rst side are all
Waller compos itions, making a comparison to
the recorded originals inevitable. He most
closely resembles t he early Waller, as he was
so seldom heard in public performances and
In the studios in later years. There is less
exuberance, but the same Joy in the piano
and the completeness of its voice. His dynamic
shading is more subtle and he likes to caress
and linger over a phrase t hat Fats would toss
oII with an air of bravado. He plays open
twelfths with both hands a nd puts down a
beat which draws the fullness of a jazz band
from the instrument. Jazzmen of this calibre
are truly timeless, and it is good to have
Henderson arou nd in 1907.
There is an extended JUterb·,tg Waltz, a
singing Squeeze Me and the title tune, among
others. A ten-minute impr ovised B lues for
Fats opens the second side with moving tenderness. Suga,·, Sweet Lorraine, and Twelfth St.
Rag a re all based in the period when Waller
was doing his best work and are given experienced and melodic treatment. Really excellent piano sound, full dynamics, and a
depth that comes from a microphone not too
close to the soundi ng board.
Miles Davis: Birth of the Cool
Capitol T762
Generally regarded as one of the high
points in modern jazz, eleven of the twelve
numbers recorded by the Miles Davis group
in 1949-00 are successfully updated in sound
by remastering on one LP. They are not in
the least overshadowed by subsequent developments in the idiom and the wide-range
brought to the scores by the u se of baritone
sax, French horn, and tuba give them a rich
tonal depth.
Formed with Gerry Mulligan and Gil Evans
the band was able to find only two weeks employment in a club. It is more emotional and
heated than the cool groups which gravitated
to the West coast, and more disciplined than
those remaining in the East. For various reasons, some of them economic, its creative impact has not been surpassed by a working
unit, or by specially assembled studio groups.
It might do well on the club circuit today,
but would do better in the concert hall. Some
enterprising entrepreneur should be inspired
to make up a package of t he Miles Davis
quintet, the Gerry Mulligan sextet, and the
Modern J azz Quartet, among others. Musicians from each could be drawn on to form
a larger group for the last portion of the concert. Only in a sustained atmosphere of interchange of ideas can such creative work be
forwarded.
AUDIO
•
MAY, 1957
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output tubes. GZ34 extra· r u gged rectifier.· Rated output : 60 w (1 3 0 w pk) . 11\1 Dis tor tion: less than 10/0
at 60 w; 0.5 0/0 a t 50 w. Harm o nip Distort,i on: less than
0.5 % [rom 20-20,000 cps within I db of r ated power.
S in c FrC(I' R eS I): at 1 w: ±O. I db 15-35,000 cps at any
level from I tn'\[ to rated power. Square Wave R csp:
excellent 20-25,000 cps: 3 IIsec rise·time; Sens: 0.52 v
for 60 w. 7" x 14" x 8". 30 Ibs . Matching Covcr E-2.
HF52 50-WATT Ultra-Linear INTEGRATED
AMPLIFIER complete with Preamplifier,
Equalizer & Control Section
KIT $69.95
WIRED $109.95
HF50 50-WATT Ultra-Linear POWER AMPLIFIER
-KIT $57.95
WIRED $87.95
Powcr amplifier sec tion ess~nt j al1 y id en ti c a l to
HFSO, includin g output transformer, GZ34 r ectifier, etc. Includes a ll-fee dback eq ualizati o n s
(5 pos.) & ton e co ntro l s. Centralab loudness
control & se parate level con trol that does not
affect response a t any setting. Cat h o d e fo llow er
output to tape. Correct input loading for new
ceramics. Zero cross-talk Biamulification in p ut
&: Olltput fac ilities. 81h" x 15" x 10". l\latc h ·
HF20 20-WATT Ultra-Linear Williamson-type INTEGRATED
AMPLIFIER complete with Preamplifier, Equalizer &
Control Section
KIT $49.95
WIRED $79.95
ing Cover E·l, 84.50.
HF12 12·WATT Williamson-type INTEGRATED
AMPLIFIER
KIT $34.95
WIREn57.95
CO Jllpl e te with Pre amplifier, Equalize r & Co ntrol Sec tion . Eq ua lized direct tape head 8: magn etic phono inputs. Pow e r Output: 12 w cont.,
25 w pk. 1M Dis t.: 1. 3% @ 12 w. Frcq. R es p .:
1 w: ±0.5 db 12·7S,000 cps; 12 w: ±O.S db
'2 5·20,00 0 cps. 2·EL84, 3 ·ECC83/12AX7,
I·EZ8 1.
HFSl TWO·WAY SPEAKER SYSTEM $39.95
complete with FACTORY-BUILT CABINET
Jensen h eavy -dULY 8" woo fer . & . mat ching
J ense n co mpression-driver exponen tia l horl1
twee ter. S mooth clean bass &: crisp, extended
n a tural highs. Overall response: ±6 db
70-1 2,000 cps. Powe r-h a ndling Cal)acity: 25 w.
Impedance: 8 ohms. Bookshelf 's ize: 23" X
11 " x 9". 25 Ibs. Wiring Time: 15 min.
84.50.
Extremel y high quality o utput tr ansfo rm er with extensively interleaved windings, 4, 8, and_ 16-ohm
speaker taps, g rain-orie nted s teel, fully potted in
sea ml ess s teel case. A ll ot h e r specs eq uiva lent to
HF60 but on 50 w l ev~ 1. J\Iatchin g cover E-2, 84.50.
Sets a new standard of performance at the price, kit
or wired. Rated Pow cr Output : 20 w (34 w peak) .
1M Distortj'on: 1. 3%. l\fax Harmonic Distortion: below 1 % , 20-20,000 cps. within 1 db of 20 w. Power
Resp (20 w): ±0.5 db 20-20,000 cps; Freq R eap
(!14 w): ±0.5 db 13,35,000 cps. 5 feedback equaliza·
iions. Low·distortion feedback tone con trols. 4 hi·level
& 2 lo-level inputs. Conservat ively rated , fully potted
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E-1,84.S0.
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84 Withers; St., Brooklyn 11, N. Y.
® Prices 5% hi ghe, on Wes t Coas t
63
There are reasons
Trigger Alpert: Trigger Happy !
Riverside RLP 12-2 25
WHY THE
The Glenn Miller bass from 1940 on
through the Army band, Trigger Alpert bas
settled down to studio work in recent years.
The virtues of allowing sucb a respected sideman to program and take cbarge of a session
are evident in tbe pains taken to secure eminent personnel and arrangements of more
than momentary value.
One of Alpert's ideas was to use only bass
a nd Ed Sllaugbnessy, drums, in tbe rbythm
sect ion. Arrangers Tony Scott, Dick Hyman,
and Marty Paich bave written to give bim
considerable solo room. T1··igge1· Happy by
Scott and bis own T"igge1' Fantasy a re showcases for th e instrument.
The seven standards are all unhackneyed
and are further enlivened by the doubling
done by tbe reeds. Scott plays clarinet and
tenor; Zoot Sims, tenor and alto; AI Cohn,
tenor and baritone. Joe Wilder, trumpet, and
Urbie Green, trombone, complete the smoothworking septet, sparked by the bappy sou nd
of Alpert's walking, bottom bass. Recorded
by Reeve Sound Studios.
DYNAKIT*
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ho u rs and guar an tees fa ithful r eproduction
of perform ance specifications.
3. Superior Component s Fea t uring
the A-430 Dynaco Transformer
And of course the follow ing minimum specif ications that can be exceeded by any home
constructor . . . . . .
Power Outp u t: 50 watts continu ous rating,
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50 watts, less than 1 % har monic distortion
at any f r equeney 20 cps to 20 kc within 1
db of maximum. Respon se : Plus or minus
.5 db 6 cps t o 60 kc. Plus or minus .1 db
20 cps to 20 kc. Square Wave R espon se:
Essentially undistorted 20 cps to 20 k c.
Sensitivity: 1.5 volts in for 50 watts out.
D amping Factor: 15 . Output I mpedances:
8 an d 16 ohms. Tubes: 6CA7/ EL- 34 (2)
(65 50's can also be used) 6AN8, 5U 4GB.
Size: 9" x 9" x 6 y." high.
Lee Morgan Indeed!
Blue Note 1538
Eighteen-year-old Lee Morgan has held
down a featured-trumpet chair in the Dizzy
Gillespie band for the past six ·montbs. Since
the age of fifteen, b e played weekends wi tb
pickup groups around his native Phila delphia,
and helped out the Jazz Messengers during
one of their visits. He bas the brashness of
youth, the technique of the prodigy, and an
instinctive grasp of the modern idiom.
All of wb ich migbt not be enough to ensu re
a successful LP without .the sympathetic sup·
port given by the men on the date and some
incisive writing. Horace Silver, piano; 'Wilbu r Ware, bass; and Philly Joe Jones make
a faultless rhytbm section. The quintet is
completed by Clarence Sharpe, anotber newcomer and friend from Philadelphia, who provides a supple and sensitive contrast to the
outpourings from t b e Morgan horn. It is a
case of two comparative unknowns accomplishing more in concert t han either might
with someone more exper'ienced but less compatible.
Horace Silver contributes Roccus, Benny
Golson, of t he Gillespie band , R egg ie of Chester and Standby, and Iftttle T is by Donald
Byrd. Owen Marshal sbows promise with Gazo
Strip and the slow, graceful The Lady. At
present Morgan resembles the mature Gillespie, who was twenty when he reached New
York and the Teddy Hill band. It took him
several years to put as much solo space on
record as Morgan has on this one disc. J ust
how healthy is the present competition among
record companies for each new star will be
decided by t ime nnd, in fiual nllal~' s is , th e
individual mu s ician.
Bill Evans: New Jazz Conceptio ns
Riversid e RLP 12-223
DYNAKIT Mark II
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DYNA CO.
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64
Bill Evans, a 28-year·old pianist from
P lainfield, N.J. and the Mannes School of Music, has been working in the Tony Scott quartet for the past year. In his first LP he
closely resembles the clarinetist-leader in bis
ability to give maturity to modern jazz ideas
while maintaining an individual voice. Rather
than u se his musical vocabulary as a base for
innovation, be applies it to tbrowing fresh
light on standards, constructing long melodic
lines in his originals and in recasting the bop
tu nes 01tr DeUght and Conception in new perspective.
He is joined by Paul Motian, drums, a l so
a member of the quartet, and Teddy Kotick,
bass, in eight numbers. Evans plays three
solos and contributes four originals, from tbe
stimulating up-tempo Five and Displacement,
the too·brief Waltz for Debby, to tbe impressionistic blues No Cover. Clear piano sound
by Reeves Studios, but more dynamics from
the drums.
Duke Elli ngton: A Drum Is a Woman
Columbia CL 95 1
Described as a musical fantasy paralleling
the b istory of the origins of jazz, the word
fantasy should be underlined as Duke E lling1:on calls on bis far-reach ing imagination and
capaci~s wit to tell th e tale of Carribee Joe
and Ill S drum. He wisely refr ains f rom asking his or chestra to copy t he early styles of
jazz when be sketches tbe New Orleans period
and introdu ces Buddy Bolden, for he is well
aware of the difficulties his present band
would bave in tin typing former Ellington organizations. Wben it is called upon to perform works long associated wi th bim, it is
allowed to try to capture a mood on its own
terms. So it is Ellington's own individual approach to jazz as expressed by bis current
m usicians that is used to outline t he eras
touched in this capricious saga, from the
'Vest Indian jungle to a visionary emerald
rock garden on the moon. Wh ether it be New
Orleans, bop, calypso, or progressive sounds,
it is a lways Ellington.
Tbe theme for such a project was first proposed to the leader in 1941 by Orson Welles
and abandoned in the planning stages. It was
exhumed in 1956 and revamped in three
months with an eye to possible production on
television. It is evident that little is left of
the origi nal idea. Since then the j azz scene
has altered considerably, and Ellington and
Billy Strayhorn collaborated with the late
John Latouche on a m usical version of "Tbe
Beggar's Opera." If anyone's influence is t o
be found in this work, it probably comes
from tbis association.
Joya Sher rill, who tou red with the band in
the mid-forties, has been J;ecalled to sing the
rewarding part of Madam Zaj j , the willful
siren wbo represents the drum which lures
Carribee Joe, as sung by Ozzie Bailey, from
his island bome. Margaret Tynes, a soprano
known for bel' appearances in opera at the
New York City Center, makes her debu t with
a jazz group and introduces the title song.
Candido and Terry Snyder are added to belp
out drummer Sam Woodyard in the West Indian interludes. Betty G1amann, harpist, is
hea rd in the celestial Ballet of the Flying
Sance,·s .
There are frequent opportunities for the
fea tured instrumental soloists, but they give
most pleasu re a s a rich backing for the singers and narrator. Much narration on records
does not wear well after several hearings.
E llington is of a d ifferent caliber, and be is
as artful as the late }<'ats Waller in bis bu·
lIIorous way of turning a fa nciful phrase. If
t h is wo r k does nothing else, it may bring a
little humor back to the creative side of jazz.
Cecil Taylor Quartet, Vol. 1
Transition TRLP 19
An adventu resome pianist who takes up
where most of the modernists leave off, Cecil
Taylor is presented in bi s first LP with Ed
Lacey, a coo l exponent of t he soprano sax so
long associated on ly with Sidney Bechet and
his p rotegee Bob Wilber. The audito ry effect
of the vibratoless sound is more pronounced
than in other members of the sax family.
l.'hose accustomed to the hot Becbet tone may
not recognize the instrument until some of its
characteristics become e" ident.
W ith a background in ·music tbeory at the
New England Conservatory of Music, Taylor
is an accomplished tech nician and dist ri butes
a fu nd of ideas mu ch too l iberally for immediate absorption. He seems impatient to get
his message over and does not hes itate to be
angu lar a.nd dissonant, leaving an impression
of anxiety wh ich can be intriguing or irritating depending upon the mood of the listener.
His th ree originals include a n eleven-minute
blues, the baUadic Song, ' and the up-tempo
lUckickshaw wbich bounces and bobs a long
like its t itle. With some exciting drumm ing
by Denis Charles, it would serve as a qu ick
sampling of the vital Taylor imagination.
Yo·It'd Be So Nice To COll,e Home To is taken
as a piano solo. B uell Neidlinger is heard on
bass in t he adequate record ing by Steve Fassett.
Byrd Blows On Beacon Hill
Transition TRLP 17
It may have beeu the location or the atmosphere of a ra iny, spring Sunday afternoon
which served to eli cit a most relaxed and
lyrical performance from the much-recorded
new trumpetman Donald Byrd. Like many of
this label's dates, it was recorded by Steve
I"assett in b is home on the Hill.
A fu ll quartet is h eard in four of the six
nu mbers: an id iomatic_ Little Rock Getaway,
a moody Polka Dots & Moonbeams, a refiectil'e Stella By Sta:rlight and If I Love Again.
AUDIO
•
MAY, 1957
This last tune was recently revived by Thad
J ones a nd a comparison of the two solos is
rewarding. The efficient bassist Doug Watkins
and pianist Ray Santisi are a llowed to improvise at length on W hat's New and People
Will Say We'1'e in Love. Jim Zitano, drums,
completes t he rhythm section.
Ted Heath: First American Tour
London LL 1564
KLH
Ted Heath's memento of last year's successful visit to the United States is released
as his current tour of our concert halls gets
under way. He presents polite swinging versions of a dozen numbers named for various
cities and localities, from the south-of-theborder On the A lamo to a robust Lullaby of
Research and Development
Cor'p oration
Broadway.
Good sound, danceable arrangements a nd
an occasional solo of interest, as in the Trumbauer-oriented I 'm Coming Vi"ginia and the
trumpet in Sta,'s Fell on ' A labama, make this
a desirable item for his numerous fans.
Chauncey Gray: Dancin~ at the Embassy
Club
Riverside RLP 12·804
Chauncey Gray is a current favorite in the
line of smart supper club orchestra leaders
who used to fill the a irwaves in the d ays of
Bert Lown and Eddy Duchin. Now assorted
commentators have taken over the night air
and this suave music can be best heard on
records, or by picking up the tab at the Hotel
Ambassador's l!Jmbassy Club, where Gray h as
played since 1954, on leaving the El Morocco
after a fourteen-year stretch.
~'h e pianist-composer directs his band in a
dozen hit songs from this season's The Skeet
W here You Live, I've (h-own Accustomed to
yo,t?' Face and I Co,tld Have D anced A ll Night
to a sedate W h en the Saints Go Marching In.
His twenty-five years on the s tand takes him
back to 'Bye, 'Bye BI'ues, which h e composed
wi t h Lown, Danceable tempos in good sound.
La Fiesta Brava, Vol. 3, Torero!
Audio Fidelity AFLP 1818
~'he comprehens ive documentation of t h e
mu 'ic of the bull fight by the Banda T aill'ina
of the P laza Mexico, under Genaro Nunez, is
continued with nine selections closely associated with the -colorful spectacle. As many 'of
the compositions related to particular episodes in the action have been presented in the
two previous albums, the content is for the
mos t part a concert of diverting Spanisht inged backgrounds which fill interludes in
tbe act ion.
S'ilverio is dedicated to the famou s Mexican
matador. Valencia is given an extended reading, as is (h'anada, named for the province in
Spain, The haunting Cue,-das de 1IIe Guita.-ra,
Or "string of my guitar," begins s ide two
which is completed by the three-part suite
A:i1'es il.nda l'tces. Sound men should note the
fo ul' rou sing fanfares which separate the variou tracks and a re musical signals denoting
tbe Toq1te de C,tad";llos, Toq1te d e M'te'l'te,
Toq1te Bandel'illas and Toque al CO'Tal.
The unusually attractive package includes
a well-illustrated booklet of fifty pages on t he
history and art of the ring by the Mexican
artist Rafael Vilar Alvarez, who is also credited with the dramatic cover poster. No better brief introdu ction to the subject is available. Helped along by a large auditorium, the
recordi Ilg bas the same h ealthy ou t-of-doors
sound marking the rest of the series.
Jo Basile: Rome With love
Audio Fidelity AFLP 1822
Jo Basile is on horne grounds as he takes
his accord ion to Italy's capitol city for a
program of a dozen selections reflect ing the
color and charm of its gracious st reets and
su rrounding countryside. As the violin is to
the Viennese so the accordion is to the Roman,
and Bas ile makes it s ing with the romantic
skill of the native.
~'he supe rior record ing places the instrument in a sh owcase displaying a ll its basic
power in danceable melodies which include
the Twngo Chitwrra Romana, Tai'antella, An;" na e C01'e and Luna Rossa. Also such songs
as La P'iccini,na, Non D i1"enUcar' and Regi nella Campagnola, making a varied program of
agreeable !Dood music for the soundwise ear.
A newly formed organization
devoted to the design and man·
ufacture of high quality sound
reproduction equipment for the
home.
The staff of KLH has had years of
experience in the design and production of loudspeakers and loudspeaker
systems. KLH will soon start producing a loudspeaker system using the
Acoustic Suspension principle under
license from Acoustic Research, Inc.
In order to make information available on the new system, KLH is preparing a comprehensive report on its
performance. Meaningful information
on the performance of loudspeaker s
wn be obtained by measurements,
. providing that intelligently designed
procedures are followed. The report
in preparation describes and analyzes
the results of such measurements and,
in addition, describes the theory of
operation of the forthcoming . system.
We will be glad to forward a copy of
the report in response to yo ur request.
KLH RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT CORP.
30 CROSS STREET
CAMBRIDGE , MASSACHUSETTS
(Continued on page 72)
AUDIO
•
MAY, 1957
65
HAROLD LAWRENCE ':'
Clouds, Panels and Draperies
HIGH
Now Little Jack Horner
Sits in a corner
His disposition's much
sweeter
For the Illusic that swells
Is as clear as a bell
From his Twin-Cone.
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NORTH AMERICAN PHILIPS CO., INC.
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66
quencies discriminated against are likely
to be in both bass and treble, thus producing a sort of compressed bouRce in
forte sections and a lackluster quality in
softer moments. Clarity is thus obtained
at the expense of a truly wide dynamic
and frequency range, a situation which
gives the hall a curiously exposed sound.
, 'A creaking shoe, a blow through the
exhaust valve of a horn, and a noisily
turned page become a major catastrophe,"
wrote a Boston critic about the new Kresge
Auditorium at Massachusetts' Institute of
Technology where the reverberation period
is one and a half seconds, half a second
longer than that of N.B.C. 's Studio B-H.
Studio SoH, the former home of Toscanini's orchestra, represented the culmination of the radio approach to sound. From
its infant days, the broadcasting studio
was designed to blot out all reverberation,
soak up all resonance. Now an all too prevalent sonic anachronism, the "dead" studio is graphically illustrated by a certain
gesture of the announcer whose voice is in
danger of being swallowed up in the cotton-like atmosphere: to improve things for
himself at least, he will improvise a baffle
by cupping a hand behind an ear, thereby
amplifying and giving body to his mellifluous tones. Even in this er a of FM transmission and improved AM broadcasting,
however, the dead studio continues to be
built, though not every time.
In a tower in Hollywood that belongs
to no movie set and is neither old nor leaning, Capitol Records constructed recording
studios that are more sec than S-H. Instrumentalists experience the peculiar sensation of hearing their tones evaporate in
mid-air, and singers' vocal cords seem to
wilt rather than vibrate as they should.
But no matter. In an underground conSome Hall Examples
crete reverberation chamber located below
Clarity and brilliance replace the con- ' a parking lot at tlie side of the tower,
ventional mellowness-and in some cases resonance:starved signals are sent coursing
fogginess-of nineteenth century audi- through channels for a turn at the aural
toriums in such acoustically naked sur- trough before being mixed at the console.
roundings as London's Royal Festival Capitol's echo chamber is a very flexible
Hall. Acoustical engineers have traveled audio device: both the reverberation pefar and wide to see and hear the new riod and the amount of reverberation can
hall and have in many instances patterned be adjusted and the effect can be applied
their own designs on this model. The to on;;' microphone or to many at the same
trouble with most of these imitations is time. In "pop" repertoire this has proved
that the brilliance achieved is of a hollow to be a very handy electronic gaaget, or
nature and strangely disappointing. Upon rather' acoustical gadget as -the people at
closer examination, it may very well prove Capitol prefer to call it. It is simple in
that, instead of a clean reverberation, construction and yet capable of the most
there is a "slap" at loud passages due to subtle effects. Classical sessions, however,
the shape of the hall and the materials
are another matter. Musicians find the dry
that went into its construction. The freacoustics disturbing and frustrating and
derive no comfort from the knowledge that
* 26 W. Ninth Street, New York 11, somewhere underneath, a microphone and
N. Y.
loudspeaker are adding the necessary re-
E
But his speaker was bad
And he was quite mad
For the music was naught
LOW nor
SINCE THE FillST 20-piece band
clustered round a horn in pre-microphone days, the proudest claim a record manufacturer could make about his
product was to compare it to concert hall,
'seat-on-the-aisle' realism. But if the discophile is also a concert-goer who is familiar with theatres and auditoriums, he
will know from personal experience that
the seat on the aisle is not always the
ticket to aural paradise.
Among the thousands of cartoons on
" audio-pathology" that spoof the enthusiast's search for the ultimate in sound
reproduetion, certain basic themes predominate. There is the "house-wrecker"
who will stop at nothing to transform his
home into a laboratory, his living room
into a baffle; the I I dial watcher" who is
hypnotized by the twitch of a needle or
the suspense of a frequency run; and other
species of the sound kingdom. One character who reappears frequently is often pictured sitting in a hall during a symphonic
program. Turning to his companion, he
whispers indignantly, "This is awful.
There are no 'highs' in this performance! " The dual implication here is that
(1) this is his first concert and therefore
his first encounter with 'live' sound, and
(2) he is obviously a reckless treble
booster.
But our shocked audiofan may not be
as naive as all that, for a poorly constructed hall can be frequency-discriminating to a marked degree. With inadequate reflecting surfaces to distribute
sound and a high proportion of drapery
and plush to absorb it, acoustic sharpness
is at a minimum and there is a perceptible slicing off of the upper sound spectrum.
VER
Little Jack Horner
Sat in a corner
Listening to Hi-Fi
AUDIO
•
MAY, 1957
verberation lat er . They want to heal' it for
themselves-while th ey're playing.
Concert halls require their own built-in
reverberation chambers, and no mixer can
compensa te for inadequa te or too abundant doses for the listener in the hall. But
even in the finest old halls, f ew designers
have succeeded in spreading sound evenly
throughout the theatre. Iu Carnegie H all,
for example, with its renowned acoustics,
there are a number of "deaf spots. " The
sides 0f th e parquet (orchestra ) invite
phase distortion; in the entire parquet,
center included, the music soars over the
audience 's head from an above-ear-level
height leaving a distinct off-focus impression. The dress circle hear s something that
resembles a speaker system being demonstrated in a heavily carpeted and draped
room fill ed with people wearing their win ter clothes. The best seats in the house are
in the balcony and th e boxes (provided
you come early enough to claim front
positions in the latter ) .
,THE NEW ALTEC LANSING
''AcDUgtic GatQ'I*
MICROPHONE
SPECIFICAT IO N S
Typ e:
Freq uen cy Res ponse :
Output Impedance :
Suggested Remedies
A hall with shortcomings need not be
doomed to a sort of acoustical purgatory.
It can often be rehabilitated. If its weakness lies in lack of brilliance, wooden p anels along the sides or "clouds" on the
ceiling could improve matters by providing reflecting surfaces. If the orchestra 's
shell is ma de of a flimsy, porous material,
it is undoubtedly performing a miserable
job of projection and should be replaced
with a sturdier model. As for drapery, th at
is a twofold menace in th at it both dea dens the sound and can throw the orchestral musician off balance. L eopold ~tokow ­
ski once ·refus ed to conduct in Washington
unless a set of rich velvet draperies were
drawn in Constitution Hall. He gave his .
audience a 17-minute lecture on the science of acoustics and the refusal of the
management of the hall to recognize sound
principles. If more conductors took such
a stand, concert-going could be a much
more pleasant entertainment sonic ally than
it now is in too many halls.
A fi rst-class recording places the listener
in a seat he could seldom hope to land in
the concert hall, one to which t he entire
frequency r ange is evenly projected, with
the right reverberation period for the
work and the orchestral forces involved,
with each instrument in proper relation to
each other, and with no acoustic interference on the part of drapery; j utting balconies overh ead, and other sonic distractions.
On a smaller scale, the audiofan is f aced
with similar acoustical challenges when it
comes to playing back this recording.
Given a balanced set of components, he
must determine the best position for his
speaker system. Are the highs being properly dispersed '1 Is there a sufficiently long
path for the bass waves to follow' Wh at
about the proportion of hard refl ecting
surfaces to those of soft, absor bent material. Is the room square, rectangular, small,
large, with low or high ceiling ' Thus, t he
discop.h ile must solve in miniature th e
problems that confront acoustical engineers if he is to approximate live concert
hall sound.
•
AUDIO
•
MAY, 1957
6A Stand Switch
Is an acc,essory
and must be
ordered separatel y
D ynamic
30 -15,000 cps
Low. 30/50 ohms
Medi um , 150/250 ohms
Hig h, 20 ,000 ohms
Output Level:
- 58 dbm/l 0 dynes/em '
Dimensi ons :
D iameter 11" body. 1.1/2" max.
Length. 7" (with out con nector)
W eig ht :
Fi ni sh :
Mou nti ng:
Pr ice:
8 oz. (w ithout connector)
Bl ack and green anodized
" Slide in " hold er with 5/8" -27
Swi vel head.
$96.00 net
RUGGED! DEPENDABLE! Yea rs in development,
the new Altec " Aco ustic Gate"* prin ciple is available for t he
first time in t he sensational Altec 680A mic rophone. This
feature eli minates the high f requency peaks inherent in
conventional dynamic microphones; and provides
outstandin g performance throughout an extended high
frequency range. Here at last is a broadcast dynamic that ca n
be used un der an y condit ions. It is unaffected by wind, water ,
dirt or weat her. The amazing Altec "Acoustic Gate" * 680A
is fi rst f or quality, ruggedness and serviceability.
t-.
r- -..:..___
*
----
1\
1 \
-- \
.. A co ustic Gate" is a
\
peripheral sound entra nce
\
chann el of 2 mil width which
\
pr ovides an ac oustical re sistance
l oadi ng t o t he front of the
diaph rag m t hereby eliminating
hi gh frequency pea ks
an d extend i ng t he f requenc y
response over an
exceptionally w i de range .
(Patent Pending)
_
/
-- I
1/
L - - -----V
SOUND REPUTATION SECOND T O NONE
Write Dept. 5 -AJ
•
1515 S. Manchester Ave., Anaheim, Calif•• 161 Sixth Ave .• New York 13, N.Y.
67
NEW PRODUCTS
• Porta.b le A n ech oic Cha.lnber. This new
"AN-ECK-OIC" chamber is designed for
the scaled-down testing of small micro phones, hearing aids, signal devices, and
other miniaturized electronic and mechanical equipment. Measuring only 48"w x
42"d x 60"h over-all, the chamber can be
0.9 an d 1. 8 microvolt signals, respectively .
Drift is only 20 kc from a cold start, with
complete stability reached after only one
minute of operation. Complete shielding
permits reduction of spurious radiation to
a point far below FCC 'req u irements.
Cathode-follower output gives 3 volts for
100 p e r cent modulated signal, and permits up to 200 -ft . separation between
tuner a nd amplifier. The tuning system is
unique in the fact that as the pointer
travels across the d ial it takes the form
of an exclamation point (!) as the cente r
of each channel is reached. Control s in clude station selector, level control and
on-off switch. Ma dison Fielding Corporation, 863 Madison St., .. Brooklyn 21, N. Y.
.
E -ll
• Gena.le x XT88 Outp u t Tub e. This tub e
is designe d to keep pace with the trend
toward compactness in amplifiers a nd to
furnish high power with exceptiona lly low
distortion. D eveloped and manufactu red
by Genera l Electric Compa ny of England,
it is essentially a more powerful version
phragm of unus u a l ' d esign . A s wi tch at
the rear of the microphone permits selection of omnidirectional or unidirection al
r e sponse. A co ntrol which permits a
choice a mong three low-freque n cy response c urves i s loca t e d on the -pow:er
supply. Output is - 70 db . Distance betwee n mi c rophon e a nd power supply may
be up to 240 ft. Output impedance i s 600
ohms, The C37 A microphone is manu factured in J a pan by Tokyo Ts u shin Kogyo,
Ltd., and is imported exclusively in the
U .S. by Intersearch, 7 Arcadia, Cincinnati,
Ohio.
E-13
Speaker
Enclos ure
• X lips c h -Designed
xtts. Designated the "Quik-Craft" series
b ecause of the ease with which ttiey are
assembled with only one tool- a screwdriver, these new Knight speaker enclosures are of t he widely accepted Klipsch
corner- horn type. S u pplied in easy- to-assemble knocked-down form, a ll exposed
wood p a nels of these low- cost cabinets are
easily moved between widely spaced industrial test areas. T he portable unit incorporates essentially the same stru c tura l
features as full-size anechoic chambers,
including AN-ECK- OIC acoustical wedge
units, complete wire mesh lining of the
c hamber, a hinged wedge-covered c hamb er
access door, and provisions for external
e lectrical connections. The test cha mber,
measuring 16" x 20" x 32", is designed for
a low-frequency cutoff of 250 cps. Floors
which are set within the free area of th e
c hamber between wedge points cail b e built
of either spring-tension cable or grating.
Manufactured by Eckel Corporation, 1 55
Fawcett St., Cambridge, Mass.
E -9
• Microphone Calibration App aratu s. De signed for accurate calibration of the
Brush condenser microphone Model BL4111 as well as the MK-0002 microphone
cartridge employed in the B rush "artificial
ear," this equipment p e rmits b ot h a ca li bra tion procedure which is a simplified
form of the standardized- reciprocity calibration technique in accordance with the
of the popular KT66, with up to twice the
output a nd even lower distortion. Despite
the hig h er r ating, it i s con s idera bly
sma lle r than th e KT66. With fixe d bias,
an output of 100 watts m ay be obtaine d
from a p a ir of KT 88 's with a plate supply
of 560 volts. The KT88 fits the standard
octal socke t a nd h as the same pin conn ection s as th e 6L6 and KT66. For full
information, write D epartm e nt K-22, British Industries Corp., P ort Washington,
N. Y.
'
E-12
• Conde,n se·r M icrophon e. Sturdy co n struc tion an d stable operation a re comb ined
w ith high precision in the ,new Sony Type
C3 7 A microphone. Stated to h ave a freq u ency range of 20 to 18,00 0 cps ± 2 db,
t h e uni t u ses a hand-made titanium di a -
ASA standard Z 24 .4., and the d e t erm ina tion of the complete frequency-response
curve of the microphon e by m eans of a n
electrostatic actuator. The first measurement yields the accurate a bsolute sensitivity of the microphone at any a rbitra r y
freq)lElDcy witho ut th e ' u se , af any pre calibrated standard by using three condenser cartridges. The second 1tweasur'e ment gives the tota l frequencY"Tesponse
of ,t he microphone between 20 and 20,000
c ps. Brush Electronics Com,pany, 34 05
Perkins Ave., Clevela nd 14, Ohi o.
E - IO
f urniture finished 111 mahogany or blonde
a nd m ode ls are availab le for 12- and 15-in .
speakers. All p arts are precision-cut, and
t h ere is no neeel for sawing, sanding, gluing, or drilling. Flexibility of the QuikCraft enclosures i s h e ightened by the inc lu s ion of a n a d a pter panel which permits
in ternal mounting of tweeter com ponents.
F urther information may b e obtained by
writing A llie d Radio Corporation, 100 N.
Western Ave., Chicago 80, Ill.
E-14
• A ll-Tra.nsistor Audio Os cillator. The
Audiolator, a fully - transistorized BFO
,small e n o ugh to be h e ld in one h a nd, covers a freq u e n cy r ange of 50 to 15, 000 cps
within 1 elb with a single sweep of the
dia l. Powered by mercury or penlight batteries, the in strum ent is design e d primarily for field se rvice inc l uding industrial,
• Madiso·n Fiel ding I'M Tune·r . Exceptional sensitivity and frequeI)cy response
of 20 to 20,000 cps within 1 db characterize the new low-priced Madison Fie lding
Series FM-15 FM tune r. Full limiting is
achieved with a 0.7 5-microvolt signal,
while 20 and 30 db quieting result from
68
AUDIO
•
MAY, 1957
f
May, 1957
When there is something new in Audio, you will always see it first at Harvey's. Each audio advance seems io find Ha¥vey
Radio Company right in the midst of its advancement. Manufacturers as well as consumers have gotten to realize that the men down
at Harvey's know their audio business, both in what they sell and in how they sell it. Probably the best example of Harvey's place
in the industry is the choice of Harvey Radio as the outlet for the .RCA Great Britain line.
To the high fidelity fan in England the RCA label on a high fidelity component means the ultimate in quality. Now at last, the
American audio enthusiast who wants to buy superior English design in high fidelity is given the opportunity.
Take the wonderful FM Tuner as an example and you will find an exactness and
precision very rarely duplicated in manufacturing design. The new RCA electron-ray
tuning indicator' insures exact tuning for perfect response. You tune for level heights of
the 2 fluorescent light bars and perfect tuning is yours. Here is the most sensitive, easy
to use tuning indicator you have ever seen. Another of the many refinements in the RCA
FM tuner is the automatic frequency control. Once you have tuned, the "electronic lock"
of A.F.C. holds your tuning permanently. Exceptional sensitivity to 2 microvolts for 20 db quieting gives greatly improved results,
particularly in fringe areas. Price : .$79.50 (less power supply ). Power requirements - 395 volts at 40 mils; 6.3 volts AC for filament
at 2.25 amps. -which is readily available from the average amplifier. Plug in connector is furnished for use in connection with
RCA Amplifier below.
Then evaluate the RCA Power Amplifier and its companion equipment, the
preamplifier control unit and you have a package which embodies the latest in electroacoustic features. Maintaining the highest level of physical design and careful workmanship, you can be sure of the utmost quality and the enjoyment which only comes- irom
using the iinest. Just take a look at these ampliiier ieatures. A power output (20 watts;
undistorled, 40 watts peak) maintained to the limits of the audible frequency spectrum . . .
Distortion at full output measurable only by the most sensitive laboratory equipment.
This is' truly a iine amplifier system and can well stand comparison with the best in
American design.
The companion preamplifier control unit is so designed as to provide accurate
record compensation ior all agreed standards. Complete mixing. facilities are available ior
microphone, radio and tape. The output is 1.2 volts from cathode follower stage. The RCA
power amplifier and preampliiier control unit are so perfectly integrated as to provide a
combination that can meet any pick-up or recording requirement. Price: $169.50
In this day of fine speaker systems, audio perfectionists still maintain a preference for the
Bozak product_ The full utilization of the basic Bozak loudspeakers are such as to provide a bass.
midrange and treble suffiCiently capable to translate the original into an exact reproduction. They
are capable in their. physical and acoustical characteristics, and like building blocks, combine
easily into speaker systems of various sizes. They differ in realism anel power by reason only of
. the number of individual speakers and the size of enclosure employed. Typical of the B~zak design,
both in terms of sound reproduction and furniture styling, is the Elegant B-305. HOllsed within the
infinite baffle enclosure are 2 B207 As, a complete 2-way system in itself; 1 B209, a mid-range of
the highest clarity; and 1- NI02, a convertible crossover network. The resultant sound is a treat to
the ear, clean and full throughout the entire audible spectrum - crystal-clear middles balanced
naturally against a robust true pitch bass and sweet non-metallic highs, with a wide angle listening area of 120 degrees. The
enclosure measures 361j2" wide, 18 1/2" deep, 32" high. Price: Model B-305. Contemporary .. . $390.00
---rv~--
There is no question in the mind of ·the, hi-ii listener that a iine cartridge is a requisite ior the best reproduc·
tion. Each component must of necessity reach maximum standards ior maximum listening pleasure and
when looking for the best cartridge, you just can't overlook the Electro-Sonic Concert Series, recognized among the iinest by record manufacturers, radio stations and audio engineers. The ESL cartridge does
make a difference where a difference is required. Impartial Audio League tests show that the ESL is
unsurpassed in smoothness, clarity and naturalness of reproduction. The design not only gives your record
·a treat, but what you hear is an endless treat of listening pleasure. The price is far less than you would
imagine - $35.95.
---rv~-Remember HARVEY's mail order service! Just enclose an extra allowance for shipping charges
( excess will be promptly refunded) and let us ship your order the same day we receive it.
HARVEY RADIO CO., INC.
AUDIO
•
MAY, 1957
1123 Avenue of the Americas (6th Ave. at 43rd -St.), New York 36; N.Y.
JUdson 2-1500
69
commercial and domestic hi-fi, and military a pplications. Adjustments are provided for zero beat and fine freq uency
control. Output of the Audiolator is 1 volt
maximum at 600 ohms output impedance.
Attenuation is continu ously variable from
zero to maximum. Dimensions are 6 X 2 x
3%. ins. For complete information and detailed specifications, write Kay Electric
Company, 14 Maple Ave., Pine Brook, N. J.
E-15
• Weathe·r s Stylus Force Gauge. This lowpr iced device provides an easy and accurate method of checking stylus force
w hile a record is playing. Simple to operate, the user pla ces the tone arm on the
record, h ooks the gauge beneath the a rm,
Are you Boom Conscious? ..
Most people know by this time that many,
if not most, loudspeaker enclosures . . . regardless of size or price . . . boom. Boom is
that dull, heavy, toneless thud often heard at
low frequencies. Boom is also called "one-note
bass" or "juke box bass." It is an inherent
characteristic of so-called "resonant" enclosures. Boom is nothing but distortion, and any
speaker system that booms is not high fidelity.
Notwithstanding this, and believe it or not,
there are still people who will spend hundreds,
and even thousands, of dollars for prime amplifiers, tuners, etc., and then go out and buy a
boom-box. Why?
A noted psychiatrist undertook to find the
answer. He -found that (1) some people mistake
mere loudness (so-called " augmented" bass)
for true bass; (2) others are unable to ten the
difference between true bass and boom; (3)
some think boom is bass ; (4) others thmk
boom is bass because it comes from large
and/or expensive enclosuresi (S) others have
a fixation for expiring mytllS, such as. "the
bigger the box the better the sound"; (6)
some innately resist progress and never seem
able to adjust themselves to better things as
they come along; (7) others are impressed by
expensive advertising and high-pressure sales
promotion .
And so it goes, even though, actually) no
one ever heard boom from a live orchestra.
And since a live orchestra is not a boom-box,
why .hould anyone want a boom-box in his
home? Fortunately, no one has to buy a boombox.
To those who want live-music facsimile instead of boom, competent sound engineen unequivocally recommend THE BRADFORD
PERFECT BAFFLE. IT DOES NOT BOOM
. . . EVER. The result is clean, true bass.
This is accomplished by a new, patented device
based upon a scientific principle. It is not a
bass-reRex or folded horn.
Moreover, it satisfies every other criteria of
the discriminating audiophile : ComlJa&lness;
12" X 12" X 9" for 8s and lOs; 17" X 17" X 14"
for 12. and IS•. Finest Construction and Finish;
y.", genuine mahogany, korina blond, walnut
and ebony veneers; and unfinished birch. Economy; from $34.S0 to $69.S0.
1/ you are boom conscious, wan' liV6-mwic
facsimile instead of thoso dull, heavy, toneloss
thuds, hie to your deal.r or writ. for literature.
BRADFORD (;, COMPANY, 27 East 38th Street, New York 16, N. Y.
THE OUESTION:
Do you know where you can find information about
the current articles in magazines about microwaves, loudspeakers, television
repairing, electronic musical instruments, traveling-wave tubes, transistor
amplifiers, oscilloscopes, or any other electronic subject?
THE ANSWER:
then lifts the ga uge until the sty lu s is
raised from the surface of the record. As
soon as the sound ceases, the gauge indicates the stylus force a t which the tone
arm is functioning. Manufac tured by
Weathers Industries, 66 E. Gloucester
Pike, Barrington, N . J .
E-IG
• Speaker Enc10sure_ The nem;.Californian
speaker cabinet, recently introduced by
Argos Products Company, Genoa, Ill., is
available in finished form or as a pre-finished kit. The top panel is made of St.
Regis Panelite, a material which gives the
appearance of wood, yet is extremely hard
FORMERLY
MDIOFILE
Not a new publication, but one which for over ten years has served engineers,
libraries, experimenters, researchers, hobbyists, radio amateurs, radio and TV
repairmen, and anyone else connected with radio or electronics. Covers radio,
television, electronics, and related subjects, and published bi-monthly as a
cumulative index throughout the year, with the last issue of the year an
Annual which may be kept as a permanent record of all electronic periodical
literature.
LECTRODEX-the electronics index-is now published by Radio Magazines,
Inc., and has been expanded to include the contents of twenty magazines in
the radio and electronics fields. Sold by subscript~')n only, $3.00 for one year,
$5.50 for two years . Back Annual issues are available from 1946 through
1955, 504 per copy. Subscrib. now and know where to find the information
you often need so badly.
RADIO MACAZINES, INC.
P. O. Box 629,
Mineola, N. Y.
70
and which resists scratches, scuffing, cigarette burns, a nd common stains. The Californian u ses the new Jensen Ultraftex
principle to enhance speaker performance.
Space for a tweeter is incorporated. Available in .blonde or mahogany at the same
price.
:a-l'1
AUDIO
•
MAY, 1957
RECORDS
(from page 55)
Most controversial are Lan dowska' s ornamentations and cadenzas, added deliberately
to the written music. She is dead right in principle. It was, in plain fact. ex pec ted of the
player then that he improvise and ornament
the plain notes of t h e printed music! The art
of It was complex, highly musical-and very
clearly explained in all so rts of trea tlses.
Landowska Is perfectly correct in asse r ting
her own righ t t o ornamen t Mozart as sh e sees
fit. We a ll sh ould do it more, as the pops
and jazz players do in t heir m usic. T hey have
the proper appr oach .
I have only one r eservation : I don't think
much , if I may dar e to say so, of Landowska's
additions. They aren 't anything to wr ite home
about and I'm sorry to h ave ' to say t h at I
think h er added caden za to the B F la t Sonata
is badly com posed a nd out of a ll propor tion
in its length an d size. It co uld be beau t iful.
Lan dowska, it seems, is after a ll a performer first, a nd no compose r, in t rue 20th
Cen tury style.
Bach: Concerto in D m inor for Harpsichord_ Bach: Concerto in C for Two Harpsichords. Karl Richter, Eduard Muller,
harps.; Ens. of the Ansbach Bach Festival, Richter.
London LL 1445
Bach : Concerto in D minor for Piano.
Sviatoslav Richter; State Orch . of U.S.S.R.,
Sanderling . Prokofieff: Violin Concerto
#2. leonid Kogan; State Orch . U.S.S.R.,
Kondrashin .
Monitor MC-2002
By an odd coinciden ce h ere is Bach' s fam ilIa r D minor Concerto played by two gentlemen named Richter , one on t he h a r psichord
an d t he other on pian o. Karl R. is German,
Sv iatoslav R . is R ussian, a n d both play t h e
music very well on their r espective i nstr uments.
The Russians are lately doing very well,
too, in recording. This Mon itor LP, fro m Russian tapes, is beautif ully recorded and t he
Bach is played with an admirable smooth ness
and accu racy, withou t a trace of h arsh ness
yet with inten sity and fine phras ing. Th is is
as good a piano version as I' ve h ear d In a
long tlme--and th e music is well suited to
the piano.
The h ighly lyric Second Concer to of Prokofieff on t he r ever se is played with the same
pu rity and accuracy, bu t, I'd say, w ithout
the warmth and passion that there is in the
music, and t he same goes f or the fid dler ,
Leon id Kogan. Maybe I'm making men tal
comparisons with the old a nd now-extin ct
Heifetz recording, which was more d ramatic
than" this one.
T he Ansbach Festival players in Germany
also play t he Bach well, in a d ifferent manner. T heirs is m ore of an intima t e, cha mber
con cer to effect, milder a n d less d ramaticbut t hey a re dealing w ith t he less powerful
harpsich ord a n d the difference is quite proper.
Especially s ince, praise be, L ondon h as l'ecorded the harpsichord at the righ t ve ry low
level as It actua lly soun ds in perfo rmance
against a string gro up.
Good! Itls s urp riSing how often the "limitations" of music such as this t urn ou t to be
assets. An amplified harpsichord in th is mu s ic
is ugly and heavy, t he effect mon otonous, the
string sound t hrown out of balance; yet many
a r ecording has been made that way. Ju st
listen t o the solid sound of the s tdn gs h ere,
against the delicate thinness of t h e harpSichor d's m usic. This is how Bach h ear d it,
and felt it.
The same goes f or the two-h a r psichord
work, wh ich henefits even m ore pleasan tly
from t he low-level harpsichord m iking. Bach
sketches only a m inimum of orchestra l accompaniment, letting the t wo keyboar ds intertwine In the utmos t complexity. H ere, t he s livery, fain t sound of the t wo instruments is
both clear a nd easy to follow, the occasion a l
gruff Interjections of the strings a good contrast.
AUDIO .•
'. ', .
1/
(
,
'
J
j'1'' I\j'1'v\
MAY, 1957
'VVV
'
g;;~~m~.
.a..C::H.O SOUN"D
ULT R A- LINEAR
Acro sound transformers with the black and gold " K "
symbol a re correctly tapped for top' performance i n
Ultra- li near circui ts. Enjoy the finest in sound . . .
w ith the tr a nsforme r that assures best Ultra-Linear
results . Writ e fo r our "fr e e 16 page catalog .
Send 2S¢ lor new booklet "Theory and Operation 01 the Ultra-Linear Circuit"
ACRO
369 SHUR S
PR OD UC TS
COMPANY
L A NE. PH IL A D E L PHIA 28. PENNSYLVANIA
TAPE RECORDERS
AND
TAPE RECORDING
TAPE
RECORDERS
AND
TAPE
RECORDING
By
Harold D. Weiler
Author of
" High Fidel ity Simplified"
The first complete book for the home recordist. Tells why, how,
and what in easily understood language-not too technical, yet
technically accurate. Cove rs sound, room acoustics, microphones, microphone techniques, editing and splicing, sound
effects and how to make them, maintenance, and adding sound
to slides and home movies.
RADIO MAGAZINES , INC. , Book Division
P. O. Box 629, Mineola, N. Y.
Please send me .......... copies of Weiler's TAPE RECORDERS AND TAPE RECORDING. I enclose check 0 money order D. 0 Board cover, $3 .95 ,
paper cover, $ 2.95 .
o
Name
Address
... .. ....... . . . ... .... ... . ... ... . .. ..... . . . . ........ ... . . ... .. • . . .
.. , . . .... . ............... . ...... . ...... . . . ......... . . .. ... ... . . .
City . . .. . ... .. . ...• . .....•... . . .. . . .. Zone . ..... State
.... . .. ; ..... .... .
7-1
at
LEONARD RADIO .....
For the most
Versatile
Home & Industrial
Tape Recording
Applications
JAZZ
(from page 65 )
Frederick Fennell: Music of Leroy Anderson '
Mercury MG 5f)130
The welcome record debut of l"rederick
i,',mnell as a conClu Ctor of "pops" repertoire
Will be cheereCl by all acJmirer~ of hIS work
with the unique JJ:astnlan :Symphonic Wind
JJ:nsemble, as long as it does not interrupt the
tiow of discs by that lively orgaOlzation. He
nas choseu the refreshlllg · composition of Leroy Anderson to introduce the ,Wastman-liochester "l'ops" Urchestra. It is heard in the
trotting 1St,e;'gh l~tde, 11'o,-gotten D I'ea1n8, l:im'enata, l.'nunpeter'8 LuUaby, P enny-Whistle
ISung, Sandpaper Ballet, and Bugtel~s HoUday.
'£he seconCl Side is devoted to an a rrangement of SIX Gaelic airs in thil it"iBh ISui te.
Anderson IS well-known for his novelty effects a nd they are kept in musical context in
suund characteristic of the Olympian series.
This Is My Beloved
TANDBERG
featuring
8 hours play on
a 7". reel
Tandberg alone gives you the pleasure
of correct speed selection for varied
programs. Recording live music at 7 V2
IPS the Tandberg registers the full
sound spectrum audible to the human
ear.
Foolproof operation permits changing
from fast forwa rd to fast rewind instantaneously without tearing or even
stretching V2 mil tapes.
Available in 2 or 3 speed models with
or without provision for foot control.
Model
Model
Model
Model
2 . ... 2 speed .. . .
2F . 2 spd, ft. control
3 .... 3 speed . . . .
3F . 3 spd, ft. control
$249.50
$299.50
$299.50
$349.50
Complete specifications on request.
On demo~stTat ion at our studio.
TANDBERC HI-FI
CORNER SPEAKER
The TANDBERG Corner Speaker is
only 29.4 in. high , 20.9 in. wide and
9 .6 in. deep. The Wide Frequency
Range from 60 to 16,000 cycles is
provided by its combination of 8"
speaker and a tweeter cone, both
driven from the same coil. The cone is
so designed with a metal diffusion grill
that the high frequencies are distributed over a wide angle. An excellent choice for industrial , school and
home applications w here space is at a
premium and tastes in mu sical and
sound reproduction runs high.
Model 165BK ....
.. .. $65.50
Complete specifications on request.
On demonstration at our studio.
Mail orders filled. 25% deposit, balance C.O .D .
R~DIO.
yon.: 7, H. Y.
Circle 72A
72
INC.
COrtlandt 7...0315
Atlantic 1252
Since its publication in February, 1943,
Walter Benton's slim volume of poems in the
. form of a diary conveying the joys and h eartaches of young love has gone into thirty-two
editions and become standard stock with
booksellers everywhere. It reached records in
the early days of LP and soon found a secure
place on t he shelves. Now in a setting composed and orchestrated by Vernon Duke, its
continued popularity seems assured.
The young actor Alfred Ryder lends a virile
voice to the reading and is sensitive to its
many moods. The a ut hor has rearra nged the
poems in more dramatic order, as well as
editing and Slightly emasculating some passages. It is a version to take a place beside
this season's other bit of esoterica: Caedmeon's presentation of Siobhan McKenna in
the Molly Bloom :Soliloquy from J ames Joyce's
"Ulysses."
'£he score is brittle and sophisticated, more
in the spirit of the upper East Side than
Greenwich Village setting. However, the original locale has become a high-rent district
and many of its former inhabitants have
moved uptown or to the suburbs, and the sentiments are universal. It will not be surprising to find a folk singer pu tting parts of it
to guitar aceompaniment. Best touches are
in the bar scene, a distant barrel organ, and
a heartfelt waltz for "Each season of the
y~ar I will be forgetting you. "
Lehman ,Wngel conducts the orchestra, and
a chorus which does not intrude more than
to change the scene or mood. You may want
to mark equalization setting on the liner, as
it cannot be done su ccessfully until after
entry of the piano.
Vinton Wight: Sound of Steam locomotives No. 2
Folkways FX 6153
The behemoths of the roadbed are left to
speed on their. way as Vinton Wight turns to
the smaller switch engine to detail the makeup of a train in his second volume on the
steam locomotive. H is equipment was set u p
in the Burlington yards in and about Lincoln,
Nebraska, to catch the sounds of the cars as
they are shifted and classified. He then follows a loaded string to a grain elevator near
the city and brings them bacl, empty.
By Western standards a switcher i s still
quite a hunk of engine so there is no dearth
of sound as they meander about the yard,
or double up to help surmount a hill. Finally
the roundhouse is entered as they are put to
bed with snorts, grunts and ponderous wheeziug.
No adventurer with a tape recorder should
neglect to become acquainted with Wight's
work. It is sound that tells a story, has more
than momentary value, and was found within
motoring distance of his home. The editing
required the splicing of a thirty minute tape
as many as forty-four times to remove ext raneous noises. It is testimony to what care,
patience and a little imagination can accomplish.
3-way system cc>mponents
THE WOOFER : PW-15A
If th e frequency r es ponse
sh·ows a ris e in th e ·v icini ~
ty of the cone resonanc e
frequency, it indic ates tha t
both efficiency ond t ran sient characteris tics of the speaker in question
are poor. and the sound w ill be an unpl ea sant boomy one. Wh en a speoker is ove rdamped,however.bot h efficie nc y and transient
characteristics will be good. yet, one never
foil s to recei ve o n impression that bass respo nse is inadequote .
The PW - 15A is
desig ned so t hat th e frequency res ponse, the
efficiency rot io and the transient choract eris·
tics ore at optimum l eve ls.
THE SQUAKER : MH-300
Multi-cellular ho rn gives a
flot
res po nse
and
w ide
distribution charact eristics.
See
the
photograph
of
the to n e burst ge ne rat o r,
shOWing
how
the
medium
range
transi ent
characteristics ore exami ned.
THE TWEETER: PT-2
Covers the range from 3,000
to 16.000 cycles with smoo th ness and f ree f ro m distortion .
THE CROSSOVER NETWORK :
DN-3
3-channel constant r esistance
ty p e. Crossover f requ ency is
4,000 and 6 00 cycles.
LEVEl CONTROL: AT-16
Through t he use of uniqu e
hookup IPatent Pendi ngl, load
impedance v aria tion f rom i npu t
is very sma ll.
Write for information to;-
FUKUIN ELECTRIC WORKS, LTD.
5, Otowacho 6-chame. Bunky aku.
Tokyo. Japan
Circle 72B
AUDIO
•
MAY, 1957
ABOVE ALL, THE EAR
(from page 16)
put variations of the microphone at various frequencies and intensities. How are
these variations mapped ~ By feeding
sounds from a speaker into the microphone and measuring the output. Here,
the electrical-to-sound-output variations
of the speaker must be taken into account. How are these variations mapped'
With a microphone. . . .
I could continue on this circle endlessly
but I think enough of its arc has been
constructed to show that it is a circle.
I suppose that there have been instruments devised to measure sound pressures almost uniformly, but there is
never any way of knowing wh en the
measurements a1'e uniform. The whole
problem could be written in a trivia l
algebraic expr ession involving two unknowns, and neither of the unknowns
can be found until the. other unknown
becomes known. Which comes first, the
chicken or the egg~
This same circle is encountered in almost all energy measurements, such as
the volt or the erg, but the measurement
is given a beginning point by the establishment of a definite unit of measurement (volt and erg) which are defined in
terms of certain results and which are
in turn correlated to the other units of
energy. Thus the volt is simply that electromotive force required to send a current of one ampere through a conductor
having a resistance of one ohm. By appropriate computations, it can be foun d
that a volt is equal to 10 7 ergs.
Finding a similar unit for sound was
not so easy, but the decibel was finally
arrived at, based on power in watts expended in certain loads. The decibel,
however, is not closely correlated to the
human ear and is more an electrical
meaSUl'e than an actual sound measure.
This, among other things, can be inferred
from the Fletcher-Munson research.
Of course, I have been exaggerating
the situation somewhat in order to put
across my point. Considering the basic
impossibility of measuring pure sound
as such, engineers have succeeded r emarkably in approximating measurements. But the point still remains: the
ear stands aloof and inviolable, the final
and most important link in any sound
reproducing system.
Mr. Briggs even concedes to the importance of the ear in various places
throughout his book. In chapter 12,
which is devoted to questions and answers, a New York City man writes and
complains that a bass-reflex enclosure
he had constructed sounded excellent
with the back removed but with the back
screwed on, "The 15-inch unit continued
to produce the bass, the tweeter poured
out the highs, but the body was missing.
AUDIO
•
MAY, 1957
,.N
:
t,
E
write for li teratu re
AT LAST!
The book you have waited
for so long-
EDGAR M. VILLCHUR'S
HANDBOOK OF
SOUND REPRODUCTION
EDGAR M, YlUOtIJR
~
ff
For over two years, this material ran in consecutive issues of AUDIO and was followed
av idly by every reader. Now available in
book form, with corrections and minor revisions, this material will be recognized as the basis of a thorough course in sound reproduction. Covers the
subject from the elements of sound to individual chapters on each of the
important components of a sound reproducing system. Ready for immediate
delivery, $6.50 postpaid (Foreign, $7.00 postpaid) .
Customary discounts t o dealers and distributors
RADIO MACAZINES, INC., Book Division
P. O. Box 629, Mineola, N. Y.
Please send me ........... copies of Villchur's HANDBOOK OF SOUND
REPRODUCTION. I enclose check D money order D for
$6.50 each.
Name
Address ... ... ... . ...... . .............. .. .... . . . ...... . ....... .• ..••••. . .
City .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Zone ...... State . ....... . .. . ..•.. . •
73
''''Atlanlie
(John M. Conly)
"The AR-1W woofer gives the cleanest
bass response I ever have heard."
AUDIO
(Edu'ard Tatnall Canby)
" . .. the highs impressed me immediately
as very lovely, smooth, unprepossessing, mu·
sical (for music) and unusually natural. No
super·hi·fi screech and scratch . .. As to the
lows ... I was no end impressed, from the
first time I ran my finger over a pickup stylus
and got that hearty, wall·shaking thump that
betokens real bottom bass to the time when
I had played records and tapes on the speaker
for some months on end."
-rite ,Alldio ,ceouue /(epurt *
"Speaker systems that will develop much
less than 30% distortion at' 30 cycles are
few and far berween. Our standard reference
speaker system, t the best we've ever seen,
has about 5% distortion at 30 cycles."
*Vol. I No. 9. Oct., '55. Attthorized quotation #30.
For Ihe comptete technical and Jtlbjective report on
the AR·l conHllt Vol. 1 No. II. The A udio Leag"e
Report, Pleasantville, N., Y.
Removing the back remedied the defect.
Should I leave well alone~" Mr. Briggs
replied, in part, "It seems to me that
when you leave the back off the cabinet
you obtain very useful reflection from
the wall and there is a lot to be said for
this type of reproduction. I would certainly use the system which sounds best,
even if contrary to every textbook.
"In any case, as the body has disappeared, there would not be much point
in screwing down the lid of the coffin."
Bravo! Mr. Briggs. That which sounds
best is genuinely to be preferred, "even
if contrary to every textbook." And
thank you for that delightful pun.
We must remember, if we had no ears,
there would be no point in expending our
energies (and incomes) on high fidelity.
Yet, there' are people who quote response
figures endlessly and prattle on about
cathode followers and air couplers, and
when asked how their rig sounds, seem
to be deeply insulted. Sometimes I wonder if they ever turn their reproducing
systems on, except to make measurements.
Out of all this, I hope to distill a few
sterling particles of advice to each of the
several categories of hi-fi people, as follows:
To the man with good response data
-We admire and love you. We would
like to have good data too. But you are
henceforth limited to three minutes of
describing your data, after which you
will turn the rig on, allow the listener to
select the recordings he wishes to hear,
and then shut up and listen with your
guest.
tTheAR-IW
'The SaturdrgR£{)iW
(R. S. Lanier)
" .•• goes down into the low, low bass with
exemplary smoothness and low distortion. It
is starding to hear the fundamentals of low
organ notes come out, pure and undefiled.
from a pox that is two feet long and about
a foot high."
To the man with good sound--You are
one chosen among many. Don't worry
about a thing. You have achieved the
ultimate. If the man with good data
comes to visit you and starts asking
about the data on your rig or starts de·
scribing the data on his, put on your
favorite Brahms and turn up the volumc
of your good sound so high that you
can't hear each other. Thus good sound,
literally and figuratively, overrides data.
To the man who knows nothing of hi-fi
-Perhaps you are better off than all the
rest. If you visit the house of the man
with good sound, you will want to return
again and again and you may be infected
with a desire to know about hi-fi. This
may eventually lead you to the man with
good data. Don't be discouraged; arm
yourself with this one request: "Let's
hear it play." If he refuses, then break
off your friendship. He's not worth
knowing and he can't teach you anything about appreciating hi·fi.
To the novice who's shopping for a
rig-You, too, have one powerful weapon
against all comers, that being the demand
to hear the rig in operation. Don't shop
on the basis of specifications alone.
Neve?' buy without first hearing. And
don't be ashamed of your lack of hi-fi
knowledge. Even if you don't know 1M
from Imdrin, you're on a par with the
experts if you listen carefully. An ear is
an ear is an ear. If you feel that your ear
isn't trained like that of an expert (what
should it do-sit up and bark?), remember, it's yow' hi-fi rig; you've got
to live with it, not the experts.
And to all the rest of you-Remember
the ear. Yours are perfect.
VARIABLE ATTENUATION BOX
(from page 46)
corresponding to the losses marked on
the plug-in unit.
As an example, suppose we plug in a
network of 150 to 150 ohms impedance
with shunt resistors for 25, 30 and 35 db
losses, respectively. Then, impedances at
the input and output binding posts will
be 150 ohms and losses of 25, 30 and 35
HiB" 1idelilIJ
(Roy Allison)
" • • • a woofer that works exceptionally
well because of its small size. not in spite
of it ••• I have heard clean extended bass
like this only from enclosures that were at
least six or seven times its size."
TH &
i\'(l'1.,.0'I....I
.I Vc.
(E. H. Haggin)
" ... achieves the seemingly impossible; a
real and clearly defined bass in a cabinet only
14 by 11% by.25 inches in size."
audiocra*t."The reproduced sound* so perfectly dup.
licated that of the organ that no one could be
sure which was playing."
*AI a demonItration 0/ live vs. recorded pips
organ. in 1uhich Ihe reproducing system included
fa", AR·I's.
ACOUSTIC RESEARCH, INC.
24 Thorndike St., Cambridge 41, Mass.
74
Fig. 3. Using the method described, the switch may be mounted on a small metal box
with a socket for the plug·in pads, each of which accommodates three values of
attenuation.
AUDIO
•
MAY, 1957
db will be obtained when the switch is
set to these values as indicated on the
dial. It can be seen, therefore, that the
device is very flexible, inasmuch as several shunt resistors may be used without
changing the series resistors, or for close
tolerance work, individual networks may
be plugged in, using the exact values of
R I , R! and Rs as required.
The values of resistors for various impedances and attenuations may be obtained by the constructor from numerous published attenuator tables, two of
which will be found in the references!,2
given at the end of this article.
For the mathem;ttically inclined
reader the following formulas are included which may be used to compute
the resistor values for attenuating networks of equal input, output impedances
and varying losses. The symbols given
in the formulas are as shown in Fig. l.
Z
R I , R! = 2
PLUG-IN UNIT
OCTAL SOCKET
Z2 OUTPUT
INDING POSTS
ZI INPUT
BINDING POST
(K -1)
(K + 1)
2ZK
Rs= (K+1) (K-1)
15
where Z = Zl = Z2' (that is, Zl and Z!!
are of the same impedance value) and
K equals the voltage or current ratio of
the input and output of the network. K,
o
SWI
db SWITCH
The AR-l acoustic suspension* speaker
system is now widely recognized as reproducing
the cleanest, most extended, and most uniform
bass at the present state of the art. It is employed as a reference testing standard, as a
broadcast and recording studio monitor, as an
acoustical laboratory test instrument, and in
thousands of musIc lovers' homes.
The AR-2, our second model, is a two-way
speaker system UO in_ acoustic suspension
woofer and newly developed tweeter assembly),
in a cabinet slightly smaller than that of the
AR-1-131f2"x24"xll ¥a". It is suitable for use
with any high Quality amplifier which supplies
10 or more clean watts over the entire audio
range_
20
25O-~.J-h
db
then, is also equal to, K=10m. This is
true because db =20 log EI/E!, or 20
log II/I!. The above formulas are for
"H" pads. For "T" pads the same equations apply except the values found for
RI and R! must be multiplied by 2.
Accuracy Check
If the constructor has available an
audio oscillator ahd sensitive a. c. voltmeter he may check the attenuating
characteristics of his networks, if necessary for critical applications, by hand
picking the resistors or using various
resistors in parallel, and may thus construct pads with very close tolerances.
The signal from the oscillator is fed to
the attenuator input which will not require a terminating resistor if the oscillator output impedance matches the attenuator impedance. If the oscillator is
of the more generally used high-impedance type, a terminating resistor equal
'''Co=only Used T and H Pads",
The Recording and Reproduction of Sound,
page 775, by Oliver Read, Howard W.
Sams and Co., Publisher.
"'Forty Co=only Used Pads", Electronics For Engineers, page 9, by Markus
and Zeluff, McGraw-Hill Book Co., Publisher.
Fig. 4. (A) Wiring of the pads as constructed in plug-in form, and (B), the
wiring of the switch in the unit shown
in Fig. 3. Only those switch positions indicated on the pads are to be used. Any
three adjacent values separated by
either 5 or 10 db may be used.
to the input characteristic impedance of
the pad must be placed across the input
and the oscillator bridged across the
resistor. In either case, a terminating
resistor equivalent to the pad output impedance must also be connected across
the output of the pad.
The signal voltage is then measured
across the pad input with the meter and
recorded as E I • The voltage at the output of the pad is also measured and recorded as E!. The loss of the attenuator
in decibels is then equal to, db = 20 log
EI/E •. As an example, if EI =2 volts,
and E! = 0.2 volts, then the loss is 20
log 2/0.2, or 20 db.
These pads are designed, of course,
for low power work and high test-signal
voltages should not be applied to the input when using low wattage resistors.
The price of the AR-2 in hardwooa veneer
is $96.00, compared to the AR-l's $185.00.
Nevertheless we invite you to judge it directly,
at your sound dealer's, against conventional
bass-reflex or horn systems. The design sacrifices in the AR-2, comparati1(ely small, have
mainly to do with giving up some of the AR-l's
performance in the nether low-frequency regions, performance which is most costly to come
by. The AR-2 can radiate a clean, relatively full
signal at 30 cycles.
The AR-2 speaker was designed as the
standard for medium-cost high fidelity systems.
Our tests have shown it to be so far ahead of its
price class that we think it will come to be
regarded as such a standard within its first year.
PRINTED WIRING
(from page 20)
not so obvious is that a similar advantage
applies in the construction of any feedback amplifier. Feedback amplifiers rely
on the over-all performance around the
feedback loop at the extreme low ' and
AUDIO
•
MAY, 1957
high frequencies for the stability criteria. Many feedback amplifiers have
to be re-engineered during production,
merely because lead dress changes.
Maybe one of the assemblers left the
literature, including complete performance
specifications, available on request from:
ACOUSTIC RESEARCH, INC.
24 Thorndike St.. Cambridge 41. Mass,'
75
Langevin
8 Watt Audio
Amplifiers
Featuring 4 Interchangeable
Input Panels
Designed for high quality
sound systems, Langevi n Type
138 Seri es low noise, low di s·
tortion Amplifier s featur e
self·co ntained power supply
and plug·in type connectors.
Taps on th e output tran s·
former for the entire 138
Series permit match in g at
3.2, 6.4, 16, and 600 ohm s.
Small and compact, th e 138
Series Ampl ifiers mea sure
only 3Ya" wide 5" high, and
13" long in a 16 gauge cold
"oIled steel chassis.
Specifications
Harmonic Distortion : All Models
2.0% 30·15 KC across 6.4 ohm
tap at +39 dbm
138·G (includes a preamplifier input
for microphones)
Source Impedance: 30, 150, 250,
600 ohms
Gain : 96 db 600 ohms input - 600
ohms output at 1 KC
Output Noise: - 63 dbm below full
output
Response: ::;: 1.5 db 30 to 15,000 cps
138·K (includes a preamplifier equal·
ized for G.E. or Pickering type pick·
ups)
Source Impedance: 6800 ohms
Gain : 75 .3 db bridging 600 ohms at
1 KC
Output Noise: -52 dbm below full
output
138·L (includes a preamplifier input
for high impedance microphones or
crystal pickup)
Source Impedance: 1 megoh m
Gain: 77 db bridge 600 ohms at 1 VC
Output Noise: -63 dbm below full
output
Response: :!:1.5 db 30 to 15,000 cps
138·M (includes an input panel de·
signed for bridging or cueing)
Source Impedance: 150, 600, 5,000,
20,000 ohms
Gain : 58 db '600 ohm input - 600
ohm output at 1 KC
Output Noise: -76 dbm below full
output
Response : :!: 1.0 db 30 to 15,000 cps
<
Complete specifications for
138 Series available upon request. W rite : Audio Dept. 7.
MAXSON
'INSTRUMENTS
47-37 Austell Place
Long Island City 1, New York
Division of the W. L Maxson Corporation
76
line and the replacement dresses the lead
almost imperceptibly differently, in spite
of the fact that tools are provided for
this purpose.
In the amplifiers for this product line,
a type of circuit and output transformer
have been combined that would not be
economically possible with conventional
production methods. The extreme consistency of the production method makes
the circuit feasible (and indeed a very
good one to operate) because it precisely _controls the stability criteria enabling performance to be consistently
maintained.
Who Benefits?
This investigation shows conclusively
that the printed wiring technique has
a pl ace in high fidelity equipment. The
consumm' benefits by getting a better
product, custom produced, at lower cost.
In the high fidelity field many consumers seem to visualize their amplifier
as having been custom built by the manufacturer. They believe the engineer had
that particular amplifier on the bench
and adj usted its performance to be well
nigh perfect. The conventional method
of construction does not produce any
such a consistency of product. It is true
a prototype may have been built like
the consumer imagines he has in his
home. But the production item he actually gets is far from meeting this standard of perfection. The deviation between
individual units in a production run of
high fidelity equipment is likely to be
much wider than in a run of automobiles,
for example, because of the cumulative
effect of component tolerances and differences in lead dress on the over-all
stability criteria and other characteristics of the amplifier.
Use of the printed wiring technique
enables JP-uch closer tolerances to be
maintained in al: these parts of the
amplifier production. It enables a close
inspection at every stage in production
so the final product really does come out
as the "custom built" item the consumer
visualizes. This extremely close control
makes it possible for the designer to put
out a product that comes much nearer
the peak of its performance than is feasible with conventional methods, which
require too much tolerance for production deviation.
But the consumer is not the only one
to benefit. From management point of
view, a decision is involved. A much
bigger initial investment is necessary
before any product starts coming off the
line. A lot of work is needed to change
over from one system to the other. But
Harman-Kardon experience shows the
benefits are well worth it.
Production people have a much happier job. There is more interest and less
frustration in their work. Quality control is much easier and they can keep
the standards up quite well. Employees
The clocks keep ticking
away. We need your dollars to make each minute
count in the fight against
cancer.
With $70, we can buy an
eyepiece micrometer ...
$48 buys a laboratory
flowmeter ... $15 buys an
instrument sterilizer ...
$3.75,ahematocritreader.
Only you can decide how
much you can afford to
send. But send it today,
to help us, keep moving
ahead in the struggle to
save lives.
Send a generous check to
"Cancer" c/o your local
Post Office.
AMERICAN CANCER SOCIETY
AUDIO
•
MAY, 19S7
Miratwin Variable Reluctance Magnet ic Cartridge feature s unusual w ide-range response
and sensitivity .. . Faithfully and minutely
brings out the rich, full tones of today ' s
record ing s !
LOADED WITH HI FI FEATURES . ..
AT YOUR DEALER NOW!
ONLY
MST·2A - MIRATWIN Turnover
Cartr idge- with two Sapphire Styl i
$22.50
MST·2D - MIRATWIN Turnover
Cartridge with Diamond Stylu s
for Mi crogroove aQd Sapphire
Stylu s for Standard ............ ...... .. ..
$45.00
ONLY
AUDIO GERSH CORPORATION
514 Broadway. New York 12. N. Y• • WOrth 6·0800
In Canada Atlas Radio Corp ., Ltd . • Toronto, Canodo
Circle 77A
silence
startling
for the perfectionist
O ·
~eu/f./'
tURNTABLE
<'The hush of an empty church, even though
the sy nchronous motor is running - this is
the Connoisseur, crafted in traditional
English quality. Precision machining assures
pure sound reproduction. Non-magnetic, 12"
lathe-turned table; precision ground spindle ;
phosphor bronze turntable bearing; ±2%
variation provided for all 3 speeds; hysteresis motor.
$110.00
TURNTABLE: Rumble--better than 50
db down; Wow-less than 0.15% of
ra ted speed ; Dimensio ns : 13lh x15 %".
PICKUP: Frequency Response - 2020,000 cps ±2 db at 33 11.. rpm; Effective Mass-4 mg; Impedance-400
ohms at 1000 cps.
"Dynabalanced" tone arm wi th Mark II
super -lightweight . pickup
w/diamond stylus
$49.50
w/sapphire stylus
$34.50
Write todal/ for literature.
ERCONA CORPORATION
(Electron ic Division)
551 Fift h Ave .• Dept. 74 • N ew York 17. N. Y.
/ 11. Canada: A stral Electric Co. Ltd.
" Danforth R oad. Toron to 13
Circle 778
AUDIO
•
MAY, 1957
are better satisfied because they feei an
incentive and that they have a "stake"
in the end product instead of being j ust
one of the cogs in a large production
machine.
With conventional design of high fidelity equipment, pU1'chasing personnel
ar e often in trouble due to no fault of
their own. The output transformer, for
example, does not seem to behave, because of some change~ that mayor may
not be due to the work of the transformer supplier. The p urchasing agent
is always the man "in between" who has
to try and keep both ends happy. This
p r oblem is eased by the use of the
printed wiring ' technique, which makes
it much simpler to lay down a sat:sf actory procedure.
Engineers have had a perpetual moan
that they are never allowed to finish developing a really good product. It always has to be r ushed into production
and in consequence needs re-engineering
at various stages during production almost continuously. The printed wiring
technique has brought an end to this
state of frustr ation for the engineer.
He can now work a good design right
to the end, finalize it, then tr anslate
the design to printed wiring. He then has
something he knows will work consistently in production. He can now forget
this item and allow production to take
it away and make it by t he thousand,
while he starts to work on the development of another good p r oduct f or the
company line.
Maybe some engineers, being the perver se people they are, will now feel regret at the loss of opportunity to roam
around production " trouble-snooping."
But once the r e-orientation is made and
new products are designed on the basis
of producing a good unit and t hen translating it into a pr inted circuit, engineering personnel should be much happier
that the product t urns out consistently
according to their design.
Finally let's not f orget t he man who
always complains he is forgotten- the
se1'vice technician. Although printed wiring turns out a better product, this does
not mean it will be free from p ossible
defect or failure. So how does the service technician f ar e when it comes into
his shop? Unlike many of the p rinted
TV sets, that bristle with boards in obscure places, the design adopted here is
extr emely lucid.
The printed board is laid out extremely visibly close underneath the bottom plate. I n the service manual a photograph of this p r inted wiJ:ing conforms
exactly with what the technician will see
when he removes the bottom cover. This
was impossible with the old wir ing
method. The wires never ran in exactly
the places that either a photograph or
a sketch showed. H aving the entire amplifier on a single printed board makes
the unit extremely compact so a f ew
• Speeds-1 Ye, 3 341, 71/2 ips-without audible wow or flutter at any
speed.
• A hand-rubbed furniture cabinet and luggage transport
ca se in one unit.
• Microphone included has flat response within 3db to 13,000 cps.
• Balanced Playback Amplifier
with measured distortion of
under 1% at 2 watts, 5% at
3.3 watt's.
• High quality, high fidelity, Goodmans Speaker with a wide-range
frequency response.
• Playing time up to 4 hours, 16
minutes at l Ye ips on standard 1,200 ft. roll of tape. I
• Superior built·in quality to provide better than ever audio performance at the Incomparable
Value Price of $'299.50.
Ask yO lJr dea ler for a
de m o nstrati on or w ri te f o r
l ull inform a tion to .
iandbeJ'fJ
77
Complete line of
extended range and
coaxial speakers,
woofers and tweeters. Write for de_
tailed information.
UNITED AUDIO PRODUCTS
(0;',. of United Optical Mfg. Corp.)
202 East 19th St., N. Y. C. 3, N. Y.
CIRCLE 78A
quick meaSUl'ements can quickly trace
down the fault.
The work of removing faulty components and replacing requires a slightly
different soldering technique, but one
that most technicians will by now be
used to, from handling TV sets with
printed boards. Even complicated components, like tube sockets or function
switches, can be replaced by snipping the
connections round, removing each spike
or pin one at a time with a solder iron,
and putting in the replacement. The
time taken will be considerably less than
for replacing the equivalent component
in a conventionally wired set and there
is much less likelihood of errol', because
it is impossible to connect the wrong
wire to the wrong pin of a tube socket
or the wrong terminal of a switch.
The over-all impression gained from
this investigation is that printed wiring
represents a tUl'ning to a new phase in
high fidelity equipment manufactUl'e.
This makes possible the bringing of high
quality high fidelity equipment into the
home of a great many more people, just
as the invention of movable type, and
particularly the mechanical compositing
machine, made books and printed magazines available to a much wider number
of people. Nowadays it is possible to
have the highest quality books in the
home at extremely low cost. This development is making the best quality
high fidelity equipment available to the
widest number of people for a minimum
cost.
,...---.CLASSIFIED---.
Rates : lO¢ per word per Insertion for noncommercial
ad,ertlsements; 25~ per word for commercial ad..,tlsemenn. Rates are net, an. no dlscounb will 110
allowed. Copy must be accompanied by remittance In
fall, and must reach the New Yurt ofllce by tho a...t of
the month preceding the date of issue.
'l'HE AUDIO EXCHANGE has the largest
selection of new and fully guaran teed used
equipment. Catalog of used equipm e nt on re·
qnest. Audio Exchange, Dept. AE. 159-19 Hill·
side Ave., Jamaica 32, N. Y. AXtel 7·7577;
367 Mamaroneck Ave., White Plains, N. Y.
\vH 8-3380.
AUDIO EXCHANGE EXCHANGES AUDIO
HIGH·FIDELITY SPEAKERS REPAIRED
Amprite Speaker Service
70 Vesey St., New York 7, N. Y. BA 7-2580
6·Element BROAD·BAND FM ANTENNAS.
All seamless alu minum . $10.95 ppd. Wholesale Supply Co ., Lunenburg 10, Mass.
LOOKING FOR CLEAN RESPONSE TO
20 CYCLES? Listen to the radically new
Racon uRi-e" 15" foam suspension speake r .
Write for free lite rature. Racon Electric Co. ,
In c. , 1261 Broadway, New York 1, N. Y.
Long playing records 20 to 50% discoun ts ;
brand new factory fresh; un played ; all labels.
Send 20¢ for catalog to Record Disco un t
Club, 1108 Winbern, Houston 4, Texas.
Real bargains in name brand hi·fi equip·
ment. Some new, some demonstratio n equip·
ment, some used. All gnaranteed as repre·
sented. Send for list. AUDIO-VISION COM·
PANY, 1276 Old Coast Highway, Santa Bal"
bara, California.
FOR SALE-Ampex 350 2·case portable,
perfect condition, never u sed commercially,
$875.00. J . K. Smith, Gardnerville, Nevada.
RJ ;W harfedale S8BC speaker system in at·
t ractive blonde en closure. Perfect condition.
Cost $60.00. Sell for $40.00. Dana, Sagamore
Road, Marblehead, Mass.
LETTERS
(from page 6)
y
14.
1
GIBSON GIRL <8> TAPE SPLICERS
I. Semi.Pro
SP·4.
$ 3.50
2. Junior
TS·4JR
6.50
3. Standard
TS·4STO
8.50
4. De luxe
TS·4DLX
11.50
5. Industr ial (5 sizes to I")
(net) 55.00
RO-BINS PHONO AND TAPE ACCESSORIES
6. Splicing tape
ST·5OO
$ .39
7. Jockey Cloth for Tapes
JCT·2
1.00
8. Tape Th r-eade r
n·1
.98
9. AUD· O · FILE
AF·50 (net ) 23 .99
10. Chan ger Covers
CC.I, 2
2.00
II. Tu rntable Covers
CC·3
2.50
12. Di sClosures
EIO, 12 (p kg) 1.20
13. Jockey C lot h for Records JC·I
1.00
14. KleeNeeDLE,
NS·I
1.50
Phono·Cushion.
PC· 10, 12
1.50
Atomic Jewel
SE·90
5..00
CIRCLE 788
78
the ear must again be used for the final
judgement and approval. There would be
little point in listening to music which
laboratory instruments claimed was ade·
quately reproduced while the ear was pain·
fully violated. The point is, however, that
if properly and carefully conducted testing
is done, (Italics ours. ED.) there will be
good agreement between the objective and
the subjective evaluations.
One more fact must be realized. The ear
is very adaptable, and unless unusually
well trained, finds acceptable and pleasant
many sounds bearing little resemblance to
the original. Thus many sound systems are
tolerable, but once given a quick A·B switch
to the original sound, or to a more nearly
perfect reproducer, even an uncritical lis·
tener is aware of the difference.
Each manufacturer undoubtedly does as
well as he can, but unfortunately not all
reach the same degree of success, and the
uniformity of excellence may be ques·
tioned seriously. There is not more than
one tweeter on the market, for instance,
which comes even close to doing a proper
job as f ar as this listener 's ears are con·
cerned. Instrument checks are consistent
with that opinion. Similar statements could
be made for pickup cartridges, enclosures,
and the rest. Many products have such in·
tolerable departures from adequate per·
formance that they are immediately ruled
SELL excellent condition used Stephen s
microphone equipment. One C-1 head, $75.00 ;
three C·2 h eads $56.00 each; three 00·4 os·
cillator demodulators, $95.00 each; one 00·5
oscillator demodulator, $58.00; three 00·4
cases, $17.50 each; two head extension cables,
$7.50 each; two head swivels with cable,
$22.50 each. All or any part. T. W . Coulter,
5337 Pagewood Lane, Houston 19, Texas.
FOR SALE--MUST MOVE
Hi·Fidelity bus iuess-established over 9
years. More complete hi·fi installations done
on Long Island than all others in the field .
Located on Long Island's Gold Coast.
Business property
50' x 100'
Demonstration showroom
930 sq. ft.
Workshop
1000 sq. ft.
Storage
700 sq. ft.
Garage
240 sq. ft.
Ava ilable with or without woodworking mao
·chinery. Adequate room on second floor for
4·room apartmen t with separate en trance.
Price $28,500, morgage available. Reply Box
CB·1, AUDIO.
out. Yet their advertising claims glow as
attractively as the rest.
If one does not have recourse to a lab
full of equipment or a trusted expert opin·
ion, try this. Get a demonstration of sev·
eral systems as quickly as possible after
coming from a live concert, preferably full
orchestral material with more strings than
percussion. The e:lo.'perience will be charm·
ingly instructive.
LEON
D. HARMON,
Institute for Advanced Study,
Electronic Computer Project,
Princeton, N. J.
AUDIO
•
MAY, 1957
.aOFESSIONAL
DIBBCrOBY
J~hoiu
...
• AMPEX FORMS NEW DIVISION. In a
move designed to improve service to the
company's customers for p r ofessional
equipment, Ampex Corporation has forme d
a new Professional Products Divis i on, devoted exclusively to the production a nd
sales of eq uipment for the professional
recording and broadcast industries.
Circle 79A
HIGH·FIDELITY HOUSE
Most complete stock of Audio
compenents in the West
Phone: RYan 1-8171
536 S. Fair Oaks, Pasadena I, Calif.
Robert Paulson, former ly Ampex a udio
sales manager in the New York area, has
been named sales manager of the new division a nd w ill headquarter in the company's home office at Redwood City, Calif.
In anno u ncing the new set-up, Phillip
I. Gundy, vice-president, stated that the
new division would begin operations May
1, sellin g directly from factory to c u s -,
tomeI's in the specified indu stries.
Sales engineers i n seven metropolitan
areas w ill inaug'urate the direct sales program, calling on ly upon professional c u s tOlllers.
Circle 798
.'"~ ~Q
"<'1l1ntennll s'lstems
Hlah gain 8.oaOan. Vagi for max. sensitivity to both
72 and .300 ohm Input. DlIlgnod for f.lng. FM.
APPARATUS DEVELOPMENT CO.
Dept. C
Wethersfield 9, Connecticut
Circle 79C
Ampex produ cts which w ill be marketed
by the Professional Produ cts D i vision include Videotape
recorders, automati c
p r ogramming systems, time-delay systems
for broadcasting, high-speed tape duplication systems, Models 300 and 350 studio
recorders, Model 60 1 portab le recorder, and
Model 620 amplifier-speaker. Ampex dealers who h ave been selling professional
Ampex products will continu e to handle
Models 350, 601 and 620.
lone Arm scans records automatically for starting groove, Automatic tone arm locking device
prevents styli damage when not in use. An
Automatic Record Changer or a fully Automatic
Record Player, as desire~.
• M E M B E R'
, ·NSf,IUlf
NOW ava,ilable with four speeds,
78,45,33-1 / 3,16-2/3 RPM
Changing Cycle and Pause
Timer are independent of
changer speeds.
CANADA
GLECTRO .1}OICE
.
SOUND SYSTEMS
141 DUND4S ST. WiST. TORONTO, CANA"".
Circle 7 9E
IF YOU ARE MOVING
Please notify our Circulation Department
at least 5 weeks in advance. The Post
Office does not forward magazines sent
to wrong destinations unless you pay additional postage, and we can NOT duplicate copies sent to you once. To save
yourself, us, and the Post Office a headache, won't you please cooperate? When
notifying us, please give your old address
and your new address.
Circulation Department
RADIO MAGAZINES, INC.
P. O. Box 629, Mineola, N. Y.
AUDIO
•
MAY, 1957
~ ~I
~
i
"'1>""
'INC . '>
(DI". of Unlted ' Optl~~1 Mfg. Corp.!"
202 East 19th St., N. Y. C. 3, N. Y.
,
• NEW PLANT FOR REK-O-KUT. A new
25,000 squ a r e foot plant devoted exclu-
Circle 79F
PECIAL HI - FIB ARGA I N:
REPLICA RECORDS
while they last!
5-1 0
$1 0.00
4-1 2
$1 0.00
inch LP's
for only
reg. $4. 00 each -- $20.00 value
inch LP 's
for only
re g. $5.95 each -- $24 .00 value
Silber reports that in addition to expansion, plans for 1958 call for greater
diversification in the products Rek-O-Kut
manufactures.
QUANTITIES LIMITED!
ORDER NOW! WHILE THEY LAST!
LIST 2 ALTERNATE CHOICES
High Fidelity Equipment
Complete Lin'=--..!-.c0_mplete Service
Hi-F i Records - Components
and Accessories
~~~
.UNITED AUDIO"PRtiDUCTS
sively to the manufacture of Rek-O-Kut
high fidelity components and recording
equipmen t will be placed in operation in
July, according to George Silber, company
president. An o utgrowth of the greatly
increased sales volum e in the high fidelity
industry in recent years, the new plant
will be entirely modern and wi ll enable
Rek-O-Kut to substanti a lly increase its
production over present facilities. Occupying an entire city block in Queens, N. Y. ,
the p lant will feature executive offices,
production facilities, testing, in spection
and s hipping departments a ll located on
one floor.
Circle 19D
OJ
:\'{ MAI\'i/
• IXI'M P .R. COMMITTEE MEETS. Plans
for an extensive e ducational campaign,
utilizing a ll available forms of exploitation, were blocked out during the first
meeting of the n ewly -formed Public Relations and Promotion Advisory Comm it tee of t he Institu te of High F idelity Manu factu rers. Members of the committee are:
Tom Dempsey, Reeves Soundcraft Corporation; Lawrence J. Epstein, University
Loudspeakers, Inc., Chairman; Arthur
Gasman, British Industries Corporation;
C. G. McProud, Radio Magazines, Inc .;
Ray Pepe, J ames B. Lansing Sound, Inc.;
Adrian Price, Wexton Company; Oliver
Read, Ziff-Davis Publishing Company, and
Harold Reiss, Friend-Reiss Advertising.
:SABRA
In the ch airman's report of the meeting,
Epstein says t h at "I a m delighted to report encou raging progress, and have n'o
hesitancy in stating that much can be
achieved f rom the activities of this com mittee."
1001
201
2501
2503
504
510
Members of the committee were chosen
with the thought of taking best advantage
of the special talents and experiences
available within the Institute. Membership comprises t wo representatives each
from (a) technical press, (b) member
advertising agen cies serving member
clients a nd (c) a dvertising and promotion
managers of Institute members.
RECORDS
: 465 West 51st St., New York 19.
: Pl eose send me: (Allern ale choi ce ch eck Col. B)
I
I A
10" REPLICA RECORDS
500
501
502
503
505
506
507
508
512
1000
B
,I
I
I
I
I
Th e lat in Set
Glock e nspiels, Vol. 1
Hal Pe arl at Aragon Organ
Glock enspi e ls , Vol. 2
Glock enspi e ls, Vol. 3
Organ E,hoes
Glock enspie ls, Vol. 4
Swe ll To Gr e at
Hel en's Holiday
Th e Johnny Hamli n Qui nte t
I
I
,I
I
I
I
I
I
12" REPLICA RECORDS
513
Th e Hi - Fimonics
Concerts in Contrast
Glock e nspi e ls, Vol. 1
Glock e nspie ls, Vol. 2
AI Me lg ard at Chi cag o Stadium Organ
AI Me lgard at Chicago Stad ium Organ ,
Vol. 2
Matin ee
NAME ______________________________
ADDRE 5S
C1TY_~
_ __
_ _ _ _ _ STATE _______
___ ~~<;.L..?J:t::_:f!.E_'~g_~C?,.N!!_c:R.?:~'?_____I
Circle 79C
79
ADVERTISING
IN DE X
•
SAVE
•
25'0
This is our
GROUP SUBSCRIPTION PLAN
Now you, your friends and co-workers
can save $1 .00 on each subscription
to AUDIO. If you send 6 or more subscriptions for the U.S. , Possessions and
Canada, they will cost each subscriber
$3.00 each, V4 less than the regular
one year subscription price. Present
subscriptions may be renewed or extended as part of a group. Remittance
to accompany orders.
AUDIO is still the only publication
devoted entirely to
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Audio
Broadcasting equipment
Acoustics
Home music systems
Recording
PA systems
Record Revues
(Please print)
-----
Acoustic Research, Inc . . .... •• . ... 74 ,
Acro Products Company .. . .. •. .
Altec Lansing Corporation .. . .... .. 61 ,
AM I Inco rporated . . .. . ... .. .........
Amperex Electronic Corporation . . ... . .
Apparatus Deve lopment Company ....
Astatic Corporat ion .... . .....
A udak Company ... . . .... . . . .. . . . ..
Audio Fide lity Recordings ....
SO,
Audiogersh Corporation ..... . .....
Belden Man ufacturing Company . . . .
Bell Telephone Laboratories
Bogen, Dav id Company, Inc.
Bozak, R. T. , Sales Company
Bradford & Company .. . .... . .. . ..
British Industries Corporation
facing
Class ified
75
71
67
31
5
79
4
56
54
77
. . . 49
14
40, 4 1
37
... 70
p. 1, 3
. . ... . . . . ........ .
78
Dyna Company .. . .. . .... . .• • ....... 64
Eico .. . ...... . . ..... ... . .. . . ......
El ectro-Son ic Laboratori es, Inc.
Electro-Vo ice, I nc. . ... . ........ Cov.
Electro-Vo ice Sound Systems . . ...... .
Ercona Corporati on . . .. . . ... . . . .. . . ..
63
60
III
79
77
Now you can afford a real , full concert organ, just
like those made by the foremost organ manufac·
turers . Because over '/2 the cost is saved when you
assemble it yourself. And ' t ' s REALLY EASY: only
24 separate un its, all with printed circuits, and
detailed·to-the·smallest·step instructions. In addi·
tion, you purchase each of the 24 kits when you are
ready for it - and can afford it.
You ' ll get a real kick out of putting the ' Schober
Electronic Organ together - and then sitti ng down
and pulling out the stops for Strings, Trumpets,
Clarinets, Diapasons, Flutes, etc .
Compact CONSOLE
One' of the many exclusive features of this excep·
tional offer is the handsome console, made by hand
in Old World Craftsman manner. It is equally at
home in a traditional or modern setting, and takes
littl e more space than a spinet piano .
Free Literature
Fairchild Recording Equ ipment- Co. . . .. 47
Fisher Radio Corporat ion .... .. .....
59
Fukuin Electric Works, Ltd . ...
72
Complete descriptive booklet and price list' are
available on request. And, if you wish to hear the
glorious pipe organ tone of tlie Schober Electronic
Organ, a 10" long playing recording by Dr. C. A. J.
Parmentier, renowned organist , is available for $2.
This is refundable when you order. Write today and
see what a fine instrument you can get at such a
great saving.
Goodmans I ndustri es, Ltd . .. ... . . ... .. 55
The SCHOBER ORGAN CORPORATION
Harvey Rad io Company, Inc. ...
Harman-Kardon , Inc. . . ... . . .... . . . .
Heath Co. ••• . .•.. . .. . ... . .. . 9, 10,
High Fidelity House
.. . .......
Holl ywood Electronics . . .. . .. . . ... . .. .
Hycor Div ision of I ntern at ional Res istance Company ..... .... . . . . ... .. .
69
35
11
79
79
2248·K Broadway, New York 24, N. Y.
'Oesigned by Richard H. Dorf
Circle 80A
2
Name
Address . .• .•....•• •• • ••••••••. • •• •• •
o New
.. ••. .. •. • .
0
Renewal •• .. ..• •
I nternationa l Scientific I ndustries Corp.
52 , 53
JansZen Speakers (Neshaminy
Electronic Corp.) ... . . .. ... . .... . . . 7
Jensen Manufacturing Company . . . •. . . 33
Name
Address .•• • .. . •. .• .••••.••••. .•• •• ••
o New
.. • . .. . . ...
0 Renewal •. . . . . ••
Name
Address ..• .. ... . • • •••••• • • • • •• ••••••
o New
..•... . •. ..
0
Kierulff Sound Corporation . . .. .. .. .
KLH Research and Development
Corporat ion • . . .......
~~~HI-FI
79
65
Lansing, James B.,. Sound, Inc . .. ••... . 57
Leona rd Radio, Inc. . .. . . .. . . . . . . .. . 72
Marantz Company • .. . . ..... . • ...... 73
Maxson Instruments . .. . • . . .. • . .... .. 76
Mullard Overseas, Ltd. . .............. 39
Renewal •• .•.. • •
North American Philips Co.; Inc . ... . . . 66
Name
Address .. ••• . .. ••• • •••..• • ••.••.••• •
o New
.... ..... . •
0
Renewal •• . . .. • •
Name
Address ..• • • • .•• • •••••••••• • •• • • ••••
o New
...• . .. .. •.
Name
. . ..••••.• . ... . ..• ••• •.•••. •• •
0
Renewal ••••.•••
Address . .•.. . . .. .• .• .•..••• •.. ... •••
o New
• • ••. •• .. •.
0
Renewal • • • • ..••
U. S., Possessions. and Canada only
RADIO MAGAZINES, INC.
P. O. Box 629, Mineola, N. Y:
80
Pickering & Company . .... . . . ...... . 13
Pilot Rad io Corporation .. . .. . .. • ..... 29
Prof ess ional Directory •.. . .. • . • . . ... . . 79
Racon Electric Co. , Inc. ••••..... •. . . .
Radio Corporation of America . .. . •...
Rauland-Borg Corp. . . . ... . ..... . ... .
Rigo Enterpri ses ..... . .. . .• .... . . .. .
Robins Industries Corporation . . . • . ... .
58
43
80
6
78
Sabra Records .. . .. . . . .. . . ... • .. . .. .
Schober Organ Corporation ... . • .... . .
Shure Brothers, Inc. .... .. .... . .. . . .
Sonotone Corporation . . .......... .. .
Stephens Ma nufactur ing Corporati on Cov.
79
80
1
45
IV
Tandberg . . ... . ..... . ... . ... . . ... .. 77
Tung-Sol El ectric, Inc. ...... • . .... ... 8
United Audio Products •....... . .. 78, 79
Un iversity Loudspeakers, Inc. .. ..... . . 27
Weathers Industries, Inc . • .. . .. . . Cov. II
The "GOLDEN ENSEMBLE" ...
Tuner, Preamp and Amplifier
in a single, compact, balanced
unit. .. complete Hi-Fi at
extremely low cost. . .
one of a complete line of
advanced design high fidelity
tuners, amplifiers and components .• •
hear these quolity RAULAND units ot
your Hi-Fi dealer or write for detoils • ••
RAULAND-BORG CORPORATION
3515 W. Addison St., Dept. G, Chicago 18, III.
Circle 80B
AUDIO
•
MAY, 1957
Model 12WK.
Net $65
Model 18WK.
Net $115
MOdel 18 W.
Net $115
Model 12W.
Net $65
Model 12BW,
Net $33
Model 828HF with
A8419. Net $28
Mode18HD.
Net $18
Model 15WK.
Net $85
Model 848HF,
Net $52
Model T25A.
Net $58
Model TlOA,
Net $42.50
Model 15W.
Net $85
Model 15BWK.
Net $43
Model 15BW.
Net $43
Model 15TRX,
Net $145
Model 15TRXB.
Net $79
Model 12TRX.
Net $120
Model 847HF,
Net $33
Model6HD,
Net $22
MOdel T35,
Net $33
Model T35B,
Net $21
Just a rich and robust bass response that gives a majestic voice t o music reproduction. Adding
a Tru·Sonic woofer to your speaker system means unearthing buried sound . .. bringing out the
rock·bottom of the audio spectrum. Whether it's the Tru·Sonic 15" 103LKor the 12" 120LX,
both are produced of the finest materials and are engineered for superb, bass realism.
Listen . . . you'll always h e..w ?iW?'e h'o?n:
@ ST:EP:::E-3:::E~S
T~~-
SO]!oJ:J:C
I::t'TC .
8538 Warn er Drive, Cu lver City, California
•
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