WiFi Offload Architectures
WiFi Offload Architectures
Peter Gaspar
CSE, SP Mobile, Emerging Theater
December 2011
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
Cisco Confidential
1
• Motivation
• Offload Architectures
• Cisco SP WiFi Solution Core
• Cisco SP WiFi Solution Radio
• Summary
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
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2
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3
Mobile Video Driving Traffic Explosion
There will be 5B mobile
devices and
2B M2M nodes
Global mobile traffic will
grow 26X to 6.3 EB/mo
Video will be 66% of all mobile traffic by 2015
Source: Cisco Visual Networking Index (VNI) Global Mobile Data Forecast, 2010–2015
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
Cisco Confidential
4
Spectrum is Precious
PRO’s
CON’s
 Licensed spectrum
 Prohibitive costs
 Operator managed
network
 Complex provisioning
 Limited licensed spectrum
 LTE Femtos
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5
Small Cells Increase
Existing Capacity
26x
Growth
Macro
2G/3G/4G
1000
Growth
Macro
Capacity
100
Spectrum
10
Consumer
1
1990
1995
2000
Source: Agilent
2005
2010
2015
Wi-Fi
Femto
Business
Community
Future networks supporting the mobile Internet will need
to integrate smaller cell architectures to scale
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6
Macrocell (3G/4G)
QPSK
16QAM
QPSK
64QAM/
MIMO
16QAM
64QAM/
MIMO
Wi-Fi/Femto/Pico
QPSK
16QAM
64QAM/
MIMO
QPSK
16QAM
64QAM/
MIMO
1 km
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
 Voice coverage with
uniform bandwidth, but not
always where people are
 Limited data capacity
 Sub-optimal delivery of
high BW to POPs
 High CapEx/OpEx: $400K
 Poor spectral efficiency
 New sites: Zoning issues
 Delivers targeted coverage
and capacity
 Support high-capacity data
 Precision delivery of high
BW to POPs
 Lower CapEx/OpEx
 Good spectral efficiency
 Low environmental impact
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7
Increase Revenues
New business models
Data Traffic
(Costs)
New services and partnerships
$
Gap
Reduce Costs
Manage “Over The Top”
Optimize use of network assets
ARPU
(Revenue)
Improve Experiences
Three-screen experience and
sessions
Video quality experience
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8
Offload of expensive 3G Data
OPEX savings on existing Macro 3G network
CAPEX savings on network expansion / capacity demand growth
New Revenue Models
Localized advertising revenues (Mobile Service Advertising Protocol)
Business to Business Revenue opportunities
Customer Retention
Superior performance advantages in WLAN coverage (4G-like Experience)
More flexible application delivery in WLAN (Facetime, Skype video calls, IPTV)
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9
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10
• 3GPP Access
2G, 3G, LTE
• Non-3GPP IP Access
Trusted – own WiFi or trusted partner, encryption over the air, authentication
Untrusted – 3rd party public hotspot, home access point etc.
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11
• Used architecture depends on operator’s preferences
3rd party WiFi or own build WiFi?
Charging requirements for WiFi traffic?
Authentication needed for WiFi?
Types of devices targeted for offload (smartphones, PCs, any device)?
Mobility requirements?
Visiting customers and one-time customers integration?
• Selection of the suitable architecture is important to
Make sure offload will be utilized by subscribers (simple setup, available
devices, benefits for subsriber…)
Reach expected level of service quality
The cost of the solution is balanced by the benefits
Achieve flexibility for future expansion
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12
Architecture
Subscriber
Administration
Needed
UE
Configuration
Policy
Mobility
3rd Party
Networks
3rd Party
Offload
Contract with 3rd
party
yes
no
no
yes
Transparent
Auto Logon
Purchase
User/Password
yes
If routed to
core
Expandable
If Roaming
EAP
Authentication
Non SIM
Subscribers only
minimal
If routed to
core
Expandable
If EAP
Roaming
Hotspot 2.0
Non SIM
Subscriber only
no
If routed to
core
Expandable
If Roaming
MIP Mobility
Client Installation
no
yes
yes
Yes, non
encrypted
I-WLAN and
Mobility
Client Installation
no
yes
Mobility
yes
Yes,
encrypted
yes
(not
seamless)
If MAG
enabled
ProxyMIP
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
no
Authentication
no
yes
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3rd Party
Interne
t
AP
Interne
t
Subscriber
3GPP Radio
BTS
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
SGSN
GGSN
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3rd Party
Interne
t
AP
4.
3.
1.
2.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Subscriber
IPw
Subscriber activates service with WiFi SP
Subscriber configures the device to connect to WiFi SP
When in reach, device connects to WiFi using the configured method
All data traffic sent to WiFi SP,
3GPP data session can be disconnected
Interne
t
IPr
5.
3GPP Radio
PCEF
BTS
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SGSN
GGSN
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3rd Party
Interne
t
AP
4.
•
Subscriber Administration
• Needs to have service from 3 rd party
3.
• UE Configuration
1.
• Configures the SSID and authentication according to 3 rd party SPs requirements
2.
• Configures precedence of WLAN over 3GPP Radio (if not default) and precedence
Interne
of
the
SSID
t
Subscriber
• Policy
• IPwTraffic is not crossing mobile operator’s network, so no MO’s policies are possible
• Mobility
IPr
• Each radio has own IP address. Subscriber needs to configure, which interface is
to be used.
5.
• Because
Mobile Operator has no WLAN service agreement with subscriber,
mobility is not possible
• 3rd Party
• Based on use of
3 rd Radio
party network
3GPP
BTS
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
SGSN
GGSN
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Interne
t
Hot Zone
DHCP
AAA
Portal
PCRF
Billing
WLC
Gx
AP
AP
AP
Gy
Interne
t
BNG
Non-SIM
Subscriber
Hot Spots
AP
PCEF
WLC
AP
On-Net
3GPP Radio
BTS
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
SGSN
GGSN
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Interne
t
Hot Zone
DHCP
AAA
5.
Portal
PCRF
Billing
WLC
2.
AP
AP
AP
1.
Non-SIM
Subscriber
3.
6.
4.
Gx
Interne
t
7.
BNG
Gy
8.
Hot Spots
AP
IPw
IPr
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
PCEF
Subscriber associates to SSID
DHCP server assigns IP address
WLC if subscribers MAC is not registered yet, AAA instructs
AP packet triggers authentication,
First
BNG to redirect
HTTP request redirected to log-in portal, subscriber logs-in or purchases one time access
(SMS, Credit
CardRadio
etc.)
3GPP
Portal update AAA with user’s MAC address
If user has logged in, AAA returns authentication success
BTS
Internet
traffic can flow directly.SGSN
BNG can do basic policing GGSN
For advanced policing and charging, traffic should be routed to core network’s PCEF
function
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
On-Net
Cisco Confidential
18
•
Interne
Subscriber Administration
t
• Needs to purchase service from Mobile Operator, so he is provided with username
and password
DHCP
AAA
Portal
PCRF
Billing
Hot Zone
• UE Configuration
WLC
• Configures the SSID
4.
3.
5.
• Configures
precedence
of
WLAN
over
3GPP
Radio
AP
• Needs toAPenter
username/password every time login expires 6.
AP
Interne
2.
ISG
• Policy
t
1.
Non-SIM •
Traffic to be charged and policed, needs to be routed to the core of the network
Subscriber
• Basic policing canHot
beSpots
implemented on ISG
7.
• Mobility
AP
PCEF
• Each radio has own IP address. Subscriber needs to configure, which interface is
IPw
Subscriber associates to SSID
to 1.
be used.
IPr
2.
DHCP server
assigns IP address
• No seamless
mobility.
WLC if subscriber has not logged in yet, AAA instructs ISG
AP
3. First packet triggers authentication,
• MobiletoIP
and
I-WLAN
can
be
added to the architecture to provide mobility On-Net
redirect
4. HTTP request redirected to log-in portal, subscriber logs-in or purchases one time access
• 3rd Party
(SMS,has
Credit
CardRadio
etc.) agreement with mobile operator, registered users may
• If 3rd party
3GPP
roaming
5. If user has logged in, AAA returns authentication success
login
visited
network
6. in
Internet
traffic
can flow directly. ISG can do basic policing
BTS
7. For advanced
and charging,
trafficSSID
should be routedGGSN
to core network’s PCEF
• Subscriber
needspolicing
to know
theSGSN
correct
function
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19
Interne
t
Visiting
Subscriber
Hot Zone
DHCP
AAA
HSS
Portal
PCRF
Billing
WLC
Gx
AP
AP
AP
Gy
Interne
t
BNG
Non-SIM
Subscriber
Hot Spots
AP
SIM
Subscriber
PCEF
WLC
AP
On-Net
3GPP Radio
BTS
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
SGSN
GGSN
Cisco Confidential
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Interne
t
4.
Visiting
Subscriber
Hot Zone
DHCP
AAA
HLR
Portal
PCRF
Billing
WLC
Non-SIM
Subscriber
6.
3.
AP
AP
AP
Gx
Interne
t
7.
BNG
Gy
5.
Hot Spots
AP
8.
PCEF
2.
1.
SIM
Subscriber
1.
2.
AP 3.
4.
IPw
5.
6.
IPr
BTS
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
7.
8.
Subscriber associates to SSID
802.1x EAP-SIM(AKA) request to AP
WLC
AP (or WLC) sends RADIUS
auth-request
AAA server checks SIM credentials with HSS, optionally, AAA can register MAC
address as authenticated
Only
after
successful authentication, IP address is assigned
3GPP
Radio
Optional: BNG may be used for basic policy control. First packet triggers
authentication, subscribers MAC is already registered (step 4)
SGSN
GGSN
Internet traffic can flow
directly. Optionally, ISG can
do basic policing
For advanced policing and charging, traffic should be routed to core network’s
PCEF function
On-Net
Cisco Confidential
21
Interne
t
4.
Visiting Subscriber – same as TAL architecture with
DHCP
AAA
HSS
Portal
Hot Zone
ISG,WLC
AAA and
Portal
Non-SIM Subscriber - uses EAP-FAST or EAP-TLS
6.
3.
AP
instead
of
EAP-SIM(AKA).
User
credentials need to be
AP
AP
7.
ISG
provided
to subscriber ―offline‖
or by Portal
Visiting
Subscriber
Non-SIM
Subscriber
PCRF
Billing
Interne
t
5.
Hot Spots
AP
8.
PCEF
2.
1.
SIM
Subscriber
1.
2.
AP 3.
4.
IPw
5.
6.
IPr
BTS
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
7.
8.
Subscriber associates to SSID
802.1x EAP-SIM(AKA) request to AP
WLC
AP (or WLC) sends RADIUS
auth-request
AAA server checks SIM credentials with HSS, optionally, AAA can register MAC
address as authenticated
Only
after
successful authentication, IP address is assigned
3GPP
Radio
Optional: ISG may be used for basic policy control. First packet triggers
authentication, subscribers MAC is already registered (step 4)
SGSN
GGSN
Internet traffic can flow
directly. Optionally, ISG can
do basic policing
For advanced policing and charging, traffic should be routed to core network’s
PCEF function
On-Net
Cisco Confidential
22
•
Subscriber Administration
Interne
t
• Non-SIM subscriber needs to purchase service and receive credentials
• UE Configuration
4.
Visiting
• Configures the SSID
Subscriber
DHCP
AAA
HSS
Portal
PCRF
Billing
Hot Zone
• Configures
WLCprecedence of WLAN over 3GPP Radio
• One time configuration for EAP authentication
6.
3.
AP
• Policy
AP
AP charged and policed,
Interne
• Traffic to be
ISG needs to be routed to the7.core of the network
t
Basic policing can be implemented on ISG
Non-SIM •
5.
Subscriber
• Mobility
8.
HotIP
Spots
• Each radio has own
address. Subscriber needs to configure,
which interface is
AP
PCEF
to be used.
2.
• No seamless mobility.
1. Subscriber associates to SSID
1.
•
Mobile
IP
and
I-WLAN
can be added
the architecture to provide mobility
2. 802.1x
EAP-SIM(AKA)
request to
to AP
SIM
WLC
auth-request
• 3rd Party AP 3. AP (or WLC) sends RADIUS
Subscriber
On-Net
4.
AAA
server
checks
SIM
credentials
with
HSS,
optionally,
AAA
can
register
MAC
rd
• If 3 party has roaming agreement with mobile operator, registered users may
IPw
address as authenticated
login in visited
network
5. Only
after
successful authentication, IP address is assigned
3GPP
Radio
6. Optional:
ISG may
be used
for basic
policy case
control.subscriber
First packet triggers
• Visited network
may not
support
EAP.
In such
needs to know his
IPr
authentication,
subscribers
MAC is already
username/password
and log-in
to visited
login registered
pageGGSN(step 4)
SGSN
BTS 7.
Internet traffic can flow directly. Optionally, ISG can do basic policing
• Subscriber8.needs
to know
the correct
SSID
For advanced
policing
and charging,
traffic should be routed to core network’s
PCEF function
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23
UNTRUSTED WI-FI NETWORK
TRUSTED WI-FI
NETWORK
Web-Based Auth/No Encryption
Mostly Hotspot Side Business
802.1x/802.11i 3G Offload
Portal
Page
Auto
Portal
Page
Auto
Portal
Page
802.1x
802.11i
Username
Password
Username
Password
Username
Password
EAP-SIM
EAP-FAST
EAP-SIM
EAP-TLS
802.11
1997
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
Apple
Airport
Web
Auth
1999
WISPr
1.0
Apple
iPhone
WISPr
2.0
HS2.0
2003
2007
2010
2011
Cisco Confidential
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Roam, Authenticate, Monetize
1
3
2
4
802.1x , EAP-SIM
Auto SIM
credentials
Encrypted
Wi-Fi Link
802.11i
802.11u
Mobile ―concierge‖ service
Mobile Service Advertisement Protocol
(MSAP)
RELIABLE
SEAMLESS
SECURE
PROFITABLE
Carrier-class
solution
Simplifies network
discovery and
selection for
seamless cellular
data offload
Extends existing
SIM-based
authentication
techniques over
encrypted Wi-Fi
Enables locationbased and valueadded services
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25
Authentication and Roaming
Hotspot
(Today)
NGH
(HS2.0 Spec)
Network Discovery and Selection
SSID
802.11u
L2 Authentication
None
802.11x
Layer 2 Air Encryption
None
802.11i
L3 Authentication
WebAuth
WISPr
EAP-SIM,
AKA, TLS, TTLS
Hotspot Network
Untrusted
Trusted
IPR
No
Yes
Interoperable
No
Yes
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
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26
•
•
•
•
•
Subscriber Administration
• Non-SIM subscriber needs to purchase service and receive credentials
UE Configuration
• Configures the SSID
• Configures precedence of WLAN over 3GPP Radio
• One time configuration for EAP authentication
Policy
WBA
initiativeand
Hotspot
2.0 greatly
subscribers
• Traffic to be
charged
policed,
needssimplifies
to be routed
to theinteraction
core of the network
needed
forbe
WLAN
connections
specifying standardized set of
• Basic policing
can
implemented
onbyISG
protocols:
Mobility
• 802.11u
• Each radio has own IP address. Subscriber needs to configure, which interface is
• exchange of services provided on AP
to be used.
• which SSID provides service of subscribers home operator
• No seamless
mobility.
• 802.1x
• Mobile IP and I-WLAN
can be added to the architecture to provide mobility
• EAP-SIM
• EAP-TLS
3rd Party
EAP-FAST
• If 3rd party has •roaming
agreement with mobile operator, registered users may
•
Roaming
–
WRIX
specification
login in visited network
• Visited network may not support EAP. In such case subscriber needs to know his
username/password and log-in to visited login page
• Subscriber needs to know the correct SSID
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27
Integration
• Option 1: Through existing PCEF
+ reuses existing components and PCC interfaces
+ reuse of inline services
- Needs RADIUS proxy and support for IP sessions on PCEF
- challenging on status synchronization
• Option 2: New PCEF on Wireless Access Gateway (BNG/Cisco
ISG, dedicated PCEF)
+ part of WiFi architecture, therefore synchronization is solved
- Needs new Gx/Gy interfaces on the backoffice systems (IOTs, licenses etc.)
- Needs separate inline services integration into new PCEF
• Option 3: Integration into packet core (GTP for 3G, PMIP for LTE)
+ reuse of components and PCC interfaces
+ path to session persistency – gateway and anchor point in the same box
+ reuse of inline services
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28
Charging Intermezzo
Interne
t
Visiting
Subscriber
Hot Zone
DHCP
AAA
HSS
Portal
PCRF
Billing
WLC
Gx
AP
AP
AP
Cisco
ISG
eWAG
Non-SIM
Subscriber
Gy
Interne
t
Hot Spots
AP
SIM
Subscriber
WLC
AP
On-Net
3GPP Radio
BTS
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
PCEF
SGSN
GGSN
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Charging Intermezzo
Visiting
Subscriber
Hot Zone
WLC
AP
AP
AP
1.
EAP-SIM is used to authenticate user and create session
on Cisco ISG
Interne
2. After successful authentication, MAG function of Cisco t
ISG opens PDP context on GGSN and gets IP address
assigned
3. MAG pushes the IP to client and finishes session creation
DHCPAll traffic
AAAis sent to GGSN
HSS
PortalreusePCRF
Billing
4.
which can
PCC deployed
for 3G users
Gx
L2 connection
Cisco
ISG
eWAG
Non-SIM
Subscriber
Hot Spots
Interne
t
GTP Tunnel/
PMIP Tunnel
AP
SIM
Subscriber
WLC
AP
Gy
On-Net
3GPP Radio
PCEF
BTS
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
SGSN
GGSN
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Charging Intermezzo
Visiting
Subscriber
Hot Zone
WLC
AP
AP
AP
1.
EAP-SIM is used to authenticate user and create session
on Cisco ISG
Interne
2. After successful authentication, MAG function of Cisco t
ISG opens PDP context on GGSN and gets IP address
assigned
3. MAG pushes the IP to client and finishes session creation
DHCPAll traffic
AAAis sent to GGSN
HSS
PortalreusePCRF
Billing
4.
which can
PCC deployed
for 3G users
Gx
Cisco
ISG
eWAG
Non-SIM
Subscriber
Hot Spots
Interne
t
GTP Tunnel
AP
•
SIM
Subscriber
Gy
L2 connection
PCEF
Policy
WLC
AP simplified PCC architecture
• Greatly
– no new Gx/Gy interfaces, no new PCEF/DPI
On-Net
box in the network
• No RADIUS message proxying needed
3GPP Radio
• 3GPP compliant charging
BTS
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
SGSN
GGSN
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• Characteristics
UE has two active radios, two IP addresses
No interconnection between RAN controllers of the two networks
Each RAN provides internal mobility
WLAN RAN may be operator’s own or 3rd party
Authentication differs between WLAN and 3GPP
Encryption not provided by WLAN (except when EAP is used)
• Consequence
UE decides when to handover between radios without knowledge of the RAN
and therefore client software is required
Anchor point is needed (Home Agent or Local Mobility Agent) to work with
client for service continuity
• Mobility is independent of access architecture (TAL, EAP etc.).
Access must be authenticated before mobility tunnel is created.
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
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3rd Party
Interne
t
AP
Hot Zone
DHCP
AAA
HSS
Portal
PCRF
Billing
WLC
Gx
AP
AP
AP
Gy
Interne
t
BNG
MIP Client
Hot Spots
AP
HA
WLC
AP
PCEF
On-Net
3GPP Radio
BTS
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
SGSN
GGSN
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3rd
1.
2.
Party
AP
3.
4.
Hot Zone
DHCP
WLC
5.
6.
AP
AP
AP
4.
6.
Subscriber opens PDP context and gets IPr assigned
MIP Client registers with HA and gets IPm assigned.
Interne
Different HA can be selected for varios PDNs. t
Data communication is anchored on the HA
Subscriber reaches WLAN coverage and UE
authenticates with WLAN using one of the methods
AAA
HSSIPw assigned
Portal
PCRF
Billing
earlier. UE gets
MIP registers new location with HA
Data flows over WLAN now, still anchored on HA
Gy
Gx
Interne
t
BNG
MIP Client
IPm IPw
MIP Tunnel
Hot Spots
5.
AP
1.
HA
PCEF
2.
IPr
WLC
AP
3GPP Radio
BTS
3.
On-Net
MIP Tunnel
SGSN
GGSN
IPr – Assigned on 3G
IPw – Assigned on WLAN
IPm – Assigned by HA
If GGSN integrates HA function,
IPr can be used as home address
and IPm is not needed
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
Cisco Confidential
34
1.
2.
3.
4.
Subscriber opens PDP context and gets IPr assigned
Party
MIP Client registers with HA and gets IPm assigned
Interne
Data communication is anchored on the HA
AP
t
Subscriber
reaches
WLAN
coverage
and
UE
Subscriber Administration
authenticates with WLAN using one of the methods
• Mobile IP client download and installationearlier. UE gets IPw assigned
DHCP 5. AAA
Billing
Hot Zone
UE Configuration
MIP registersHSS
new locationPortal
with HA PCRF
WLC
Data flows overAll
WLAN
now, still anchored
• Besides authentication setup, no extra6.configuration.
configuration
is on HA
3rd
•
•
Gy
predefined
in client software
Gx
AP
AP
• Policy
AP
Interne
6.
ISG
4.
• All traffic is anchored at HA
t
MIP Client •
PCEF function is close/integrated to HA, all traffic can be policed
IPm IPw
• Mobility
Hot Spots
5.
• Seamless
mobility
AP
HA
PCEF
• Client Software decides
when
the
handover
is
needed
2.
IPr
• All communication from Internet goes to Ipm
1.
• User data
over WLAN is encrypted
if EAP is used
WLC
AP
On-Net
rd
• 3 Party
• If 3rd party has roaming agreement with mobile operator, registered users may
3GPP Radio
login in visited network
• Works over 3rd party networks, unencrypted
BTS
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
3.
SGSN
GGSN
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3rd Party
Interne
t
AP
Hot Zone
DHCP
AAA
HSS
Portal
PCRF
Billing
WLC
Gx
AP
AP
AP
Gy
Interne
t
BNG
I-WLAN
Client
Hot Spots
AP
PDG
PCEF
WLC
AP
On-Net
3GPP Radio
BTS
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
SGSN
GGSN/
HA
Cisco Confidential
36
1.
2.
3.
Subscriber opens PDP context and gets IPr assigned
Data communication flows through the GGSN
Subscriber reaches WLAN coverage and UE
authenticates with WLAN using one of the methods
Interne
earlier. UE gets IPw assigned
t
4. I-WLAN Client opens IPSec session towards PDG,
request includes the W-APN required, IPp is assigned for
WLAN communication
Data flows over
DHCP 5. AAA
HSSWLAN now
Portal
PCRF
Billing
3rd Party
AP
Hot Zone
WLC
AP
AP
AP
3. IPp
Gx
ISG
4.
IPSec
Interne
t
I-WLAN
Client
IPw
Gy
Hot Spots
AP
PDG
IPr
PCEF
5.
1.
WLC
AP
On-Net
3GPP Radio
BTS
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
2.
SGSN
GGSN
IPr – Assigned on 3G
IPw – Assigned on WLAN
IPp – Assigned by PDG to tunnel
Cisco Confidential
37
1.
2.
3.
3rd Party
AP
4.
Hot Zone
DHCP
5.
WLC
6.
3.
AP
AP
AP
IPp
ISG
4.
Subscriber opens PDP context and gets IPr assigned, this
should also be his Home Address
Data communication is anchored on the GGSN
Subscriber reaches WLAN coverage and UE
Interne
authenticates with WLAN using one of the methods
t
earlier. UE gets IPw assigned
I-WLAN Client opens IPSec session towards PDG,
request includes the W-APN required, IPp is assigned
I-WLAN Client
connects toPortal
the HA and
registers
IPp as his
AAA
HSS
PCRF
Billing
CoA
Data flows over WLAN now, still anchored on GGSN/HA
Gy
Gx
IPSec
Interne
t
I-WLAN
Client
IPw
Hot Spots
AP
PDG
PCEF
IPr
1.
5.
AP
6.
WLC
On-Net
3GPP Radio
BTS
2.
SGSN
GGSN/
HA
IPr – Assigned on 3G
IPw – Assigned on WLAN
IPm – Assigned by HA
GGSN integrates HA function, IPr
is used as home address
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
Cisco Confidential
38
1.
2.
3.
Subscriber opens PDP context and gets IPr assigned
Party
Data communication is anchored on the GGSNInterne
Subscriber reaches WLAN coverage and UE
AP
t
authenticates
with
WLAN
using
one
of
the
methods
Subscriber Administration
earlier. UE gets IPw assigned
• I-WLAN client download and installation
4. I-WLAN Client opens IPSec session towards TTG
DHCP 5. AAA
HSS
Portal
PCRF
Billing
Hot Zone
UE Configuration
I-WLAN Client
requests PDP
(GTP Tunnel)
handover
WLC
from 3GPP access
• Besides authentication setup, no extra configuration.
All configuration is
6. Data flows over WLAN now, still anchored on GGSN
Gy
predefined
in client software
Gx
AP
3rd
•
•
•
AP
Policy
AP
IPSec
Interne
ISG
4.
• All traffic is anchored
at GGSN/HA
t
I-WLAN
PCEF function is close/integrated to GGSN, all traffic can be policed
Client •
• Mobility
Hot Spots
• IPwSeamless
mobility
AP
TTG
PCEF
•IPr Client Software decides when the handover is needed
• All communication from Internet goes to IPr (assigned from GGSN)
1.
Gn’
6.
• User data
over WLAN are encrypted
WLC
AP
GTP
5.
On-Net
• 3rd Party
• If 3rd party has roaming agreement with mobile operator, registered users may
3GPP Radio
login in visited network
• Works over 3rd party networks, encrypted
3.
BTS
2.
SGSN
GGSN
ePDG
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
Cisco Confidential
39
3rd Party
Interne
t
AP
Hot Zone
DHCP
AAA
HSS
Portal
PCRF
Billing
WLC
Gx
AP
AP
AP
BNG/M
AG
Gy
Interne
t
Hot Spots
P-GW
LMA(H
A)
AP
WLC
AP
PCEF
On-Net
3GPP Radio
BTS
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
SGSN
GGSN/
MAG
Cisco Confidential
40
3rd
1.
2.
Party
AP
Hot Zone
DHCP
WLC
AP
AP
AP
L2 connection
7.
BNG/M
AG
Interne
t
5.
6.
IPm
ProxyMIP enabled subscriber opens PDP context
GGSNs MAG function registers with LMA and requests
Interne
home address of subscriber (IPm)
t
3. IPm is assigned over GTP to the PDP context
4. All traffic is switched between GTP and PMIP tunnels
5. User moves to WiFi, BNG requests home address
AAAform LMA HSS
Billing
(again IPm is Portal
returned)PCRF
6. BNG assignes IPm to UE on L2 connection between
UE and BNG
Gy
7. BNG switches traffic between L2Gx
connection and PMIP
tunnel
Hot Spots
1.
P-GW
LMA(H
A)
PMIP Tunnel
AP
IPm
WLC
AP
3.
PMIP Tunnel
GTP
IPm – Assigned by LMA
SGSN
GGSN/
MAG
4.
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
On-Net
2.
3GPP Radio
BTS
PCEF
Integrating LMA with GGSN
simplifies architecture
Cisco Confidential
41
For Your
Reference
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
Cisco Confidential
42
•
•
•
•
1.
•
ProxyMIP enabled subscriber opens PDP context
GGSNs MAG function registers with LMA and requests
Party
Interne
home address of subscriber (IPm)
Subscriber AP
Administration
t
3.
IPm
is
assigned
over
GTP
to
the
PDP
context
• None
4. All traffic is switched between GTP and PMIP tunnels
UE Configuration
5. User moves to WiFi, BNG requests home address
DHCP
AAAform LMA HSS
Billing
Hot
Zone
(again IPm is Portal
returned)PCRF
• Besides authentication setup, no extra configuration.
WLC
6. BNG assignes IPm to UE on L2 connection between
Policy
UE and BNG
Gy
• All traffic
AP is anchored at GGSN/HA
7. BNG switches traffic between L2Gx
connection and PMIP
7.
L2
connection
AP
• PCEF function
is close/integrated
all traffic can be policed
BNG/M to GGSN,tunnel
AP
3rd
1.
2.
Interne
AG
Mobility
t
5.
6.
• IP persistency
IPm
• Not seamless. Handover
time depends on OS or drivers because UE has to deal
Hot Spots
with single
IP address on two active interfaces
and triggerLMA(H
switchover.
PMIP Tunnel
AP
PCEF
A)
• Client Software (connection manager) is needed, if handover
should be
IPm
deterministic and seamless.
• All communication
from Internet
WLCgoes to Ipm (assigned by LMA)
AP
PMIP Tunnel
On-Net
• User data over WLAN
are
encrypted
if
EAP
is
used
3.
2.
3rd Party
• If 3rd party has 3GPP
roaming
Radioagreement with mobile operator, registered
IPm – Assigned
users by
may
LMA
login in visited network
GTP
GGSN/
SGSN
Integrating LMA with GGSN
• Works BTS
over 3rd party networks,
encrypted
MAG
4.
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
simplifies architecture
Cisco Confidential
43
For Your
Reference
1.
2.
3.
3rd Party
AP
4.
Hot Zone
DHCP
WLC
3.
I-WLAN
Client
6.
AP
AP
AP
IPr
5.
Subscriber opens PDP context and gets IPr assigned, this
should also be his Home Address
Data communication is anchored on the GGSN
Subscriber reaches WLAN coverage and UE Interne
t
authenticates with WLAN using one of the methods
earlier. UE gets IPw assigned
I-WLAN Client opens IPSec session towards PDG,
request includes
required
AAA
HSS the W-APN
Portal
PCRF
Billing
PDGs MAG function requests IP from LMA. This is
assigned to IPSec tunnel
PDG switches traffic between IPSec
tunnel
Gxand PMIPGy
IPSec
Interne
t
ISG
IPw
Hot Spots
4.
6.
PDG/M
AG
AP
PCEF
IPr
1.
WLC
AP
5.
3GPP Radio
BTS
2.
SGSN
GGSN/
LMA
On-Net
IPr – Assigned on 3G as home
IPw – Assigned on WLAN
GGSN integrates LMA function,
IPr is used as home address
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
Cisco Confidential
44
For Your
Reference
1.
•
•
•
Subscriber opens PDP context and gets IPr assigned, this
should also be his Home Address
2. Data communication is anchored on the GGSN
3rd Party
3. Subscriber reaches WLAN coverage and UE Interne
AP
t
authenticates with WLAN using one of the methods
Subscriber Administration
• I-WLAN client download and installation earlier. UE gets IPw assigned
4. I-WLAN Client opens IPSec session towards PDG,
UE Configuration
request includes
required
DHCP
AAA
HSS the W-APN
Portal
PCRF
Billing
Hot Zone
PDGs MAG function
requests IP fromis
LMA. This is
• Besides authentication
setup, no extra5.configuration.
All configuration
WLC
assigned to IPSec tunnel
predefined in client software
6. PDG switches traffic between IPSec
tunnel
Gxand PMIPGy
AP
Policy
AP
IPSec
Interne
All traffic isAPanchored at GGSN/HA
3. IPr•
ISG
t
PCEF function is close/integrated to GGSN, all traffic can be policed
I-WLAN •
Client
IPw
• Mobility
4.
6.
• Seamless mobilityHot Spots
PDG/M
AP
PCEFas
• Client Software
does not need to support Mobile IP, AG
but should function
IPr connection manager
1.
• All communication from Internet goes to IPr (assigned from GGSN)
WLC
AP over WLAN are encrypted
• User data
5.
On-Net
• 3rd Party
• If 3rd party has roaming agreement with mobile operator, registered users may
3GPP Radio
IPr – Assigned on 3G as home
login in visited network
IPw – Assigned on WLAN
• Works BTS
over 3 rd party networks,
encrypted
GGSN/
SGSN
2.
LMA
GGSN integrates LMA function,
IPr is used as home address
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
Cisco Confidential
45
• Two active radios in UE
Network does not have full control about active connections on the UE
Same IP address can be assigned to two interfaces for certain period of time
UE decides when which radio is to be used
• Consequence
Each OS can behave differently, depending on the IP stack implementation
Handover can take from milliseconds to multiple seconds
For seamless handover, intelligent connection manager is needed
• However
Most application do not require seamless handover
IP persistency is enough
• Example YouTube – What happens after change from 3GPP to WLAN
No Handover – Video needs to be reloaded after user moved from 3GPP to WLAN
IP Persistency (PMIP) – Video pauses and needs to be restarted.
Seamless Handover (PMIP with Connection manager) – user does not notice
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
Cisco Confidential
46
• In 3G, only PMIP for I-WLAN is specified
However, customer architectures can include standard IETF elements either
as standalone or integrated into packet core elements
• In LTE, MIP is integral part of specification
• Client Mobile IP
DSMIPv6 for S2c interface
PDN-GW as HA
• Proxy Mobile IP
PMIPv6 used
PDN-GW as LMA
ePDG as MAG (S2b interface)
Trusted non-3GPP access as MAG (S2a interface)
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
Cisco Confidential
47
SWu
IPSec
AP
3rd Party
Untrusted
Interne
t
SWu
IPSec
WLC
Hot Zone
Trusted
DHCP
AAA
HSS
Portal
PCRF
Gx
AP
AP
AP
BNG/M
AG
ePDG
Hot Spots
S2a
PMIPv6
AP
Billing
Gy
S2c
DSMIPv6
S2b
PMIPv6
Interne
t
WLC
AP
S2c
DSMIPv6
P-GW
LMA
PCEF
On-Net
3GPP Radio
eNB
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
S-GW
Cisco Confidential
48
For Your
Reference
3GPP TS 23.402
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
Cisco Confidential
49
For Your
Reference
LMA
MAG
MAG
3GPP TS 23.402
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
Cisco Confidential
50
For Your
Reference
3GPP TS 23.402
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
Cisco Confidential
51
For Your
Reference
3GPP TS 23.402
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
Cisco Confidential
52
For Your
Reference
3GPP TS 23.402
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
Cisco Confidential
53
For Your
Reference
Architecture
Subscriber
Administration
Needed
UE
Configuration
Policy
Mobility
3rd Party
Networks
3rd Party
Offload
Contract with 3rd
party
yes
no
no
yes
Transparent
Auto Logon
Purchase
User/Password
yes
If routed to
core
Expandable
If Roaming
EAP
Authentication
Non SIM
Subscribers only
minimal
If routed to
core
Expandable
If EAP
Roaming
Hotspot 2.0
Non SIM
Subscriber only
no
If routed to
core
Expandable
If Roaming
MIP Mobility
Client Installation
no
yes
yes
Yes, non
encrypted
I-WLAN and
Mobility
Client Installation
no
yes
yes
Yes,
encrypted
yes
yes
(not
seamless)
If MAG
enabled
ProxyMIP
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
no
no
Cisco Confidential
54
• MSAP (Cisco proprietary)
Advertisement push
Localized and targeted
• Access Network Discovery and Selection Function (ANDSF)
Centralized database of policies for connection managers
UE can contact the ANDSF to update the rules like: Priority of different access types,
time of day for priorities, timers for handover etc.
Later, it will also be possible to bound application to certain access type
• Breakout for Seamless mobility
Send cheap traffic directly to Internet
Send traffic to core only if policy needed
• Voice integration
IMS integration (client)
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
Cisco Confidential
55
Offload
New Revenues
Operator Benefits
Macro network savings (OPEX)
Cost efficient network expansions
(CAPEX)
Advertisement revenues
Service for one-time customers
Roaming Charges
B2B revenues
Enablers in the
Architecture
EAP-SIM Authentication
(WLAN/3G Mobility)
Roaming
Preconfigured devices
Cisco MSAP
Portal based authentication
Roaming
Subscriber
Communication
Flat WLAN rate for monthly fee
4G coverage (speed)
Loose policies in WLAN coverage
Rural (Villages) Broadband Coverage
Time-limited use of WLAN with online
payment (CC, SMS)
Roaming for visiting customers
Managed WLAN coverage
Managed Enterprise WLAN with UC
Wholesale WLAN
Targeted and localized advertisement
Reduction of Churn (more services, better network quality, innovation leadership…)
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
Cisco Confidential
56
© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
Cisco Confidential
57
Access + Aggregation + Core
Mobile Packet Core
Access Aggregation
Subscriber Policy Layer
H L R/HSS P o l icy
S e r ver
Access
Web
P o r tal
DH CP
S e r ver
Mobile
Network SP
Subscriber Policy Layer
A AA
Policy Web
D HCP
Server Server Portal Server
Converged
Core
ASR 5000
Internet/Core
Controller
ASR 1000
Seamless
Experienc
e
Unified Architecture
Radio Intelligence
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
Video
Audio
Servers
Open/Walled Garden
Access
Network SP
Cisco Confidential
58
Packet
Core
Packet
Core
Radio
Network
Controller
Femto
Controller
Macro
Coverage
Cell
UE
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
Packet
Core
Licensed
Femto
Cell
UE
Packet
Core
Wi-Fi
Controller
Trusted
Unlicensed
SP Wi-Fi
HS 2.0
Inter-Tech H/O
ePDG
TTG
Untrusted
Wi-Fi
AP
I-WLAN
IPSec Access
Cisco Confidential
59
Separation of Platform and Functions
Enhanced Charging Service
Intelligent Traffic Control
Stateful Firewall
Content Filtering
Peer-to-Peer Detection
and Control
Dynamic Policy
Heuristic DPI
TPO
In-Line
Services*
Network
Function
Modules*
Session Control Manager: P-CSCF, I-CSCF, S-CSCF
GGSN
SGSN
PDSN
HA
HSGW
A-BG
ASN GW
TTG PDG Femto GW
PGW
MME
SGW
Control = Green Bearer = Purple
Platforms
ASR5K
EMS
*Current and future solutions
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
Cisco Confidential
60
I-WLAN / IPSec / IKEv2
Third
Party
AP
Portal
CAPWAP RRM (optional)
PMIPv6
Rx
Residential
AP CPE
Standalone
Hotspot/SMB
AP
Access
Zone
Router
Portal/
PCRF
L2VPN
Gx
L2VPN
WLC
On prem.
Content
Stadium
AP
L2VPN
CAPWAP C&U Plane
Cellular
Base
Station
Femto
AP
CMIPv4
ASNGW
PDSN
GGSN
Carrier
Core Network
Agg.
WLC
Cellular/WiMAX
IP
Services
ISG
AP
Metro and
Integrated
Hotspot
Cloud
WLC
CAPWAP
RRM
TTG
PDG
HA
PCEF
PMIPv4
Iuh/IPSec
Native
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
Cisco Confidential
61
© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
Cisco Confidential
62
Not All Access Points Are the Same
ClientLink
CleanAir
Best in class Radio Resource Management coupled with
beamforming to deliver focused power to clients
Improves Network Throughput and Coverage
Sophisticated spectrum Intelligence to monitor the airwaves;
detect, locate and classify interference; alert Ops; and
reconfigure the network to avoid
Improves Network Reliability
Band
Select
Optimized RF utilization by moving 5 GHz capable client
out of the congested 2.4 GHz channels
Improves Network Throughput
Video
Stream
Extends reliable multicast into the wireless network by
converting multicast to unicast at the AP
Quality Video over WLAN
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
Cisco Confidential
63
Miercom Testing Validation
ClientLink Benefits
Miercom Testing Results
Improves throughput for
existing 802.11a/g
devices
Throughput vs. Distance
Up to 65% increase in
throughput for 11a/g
devices
 Extends useful life of older
devices, saving upgrade
costs
Increases overall
wireless system
channel capacity
 Faster 11a/g transactions
opens airtime to increase
11n performance
Reduction in Coverage
Holes for 11a/g devices
 Higher data rates with fewer
dropped packets
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
ClientLink Enabled
ClientLink Disabled
44%
56%
Up to 27%
Improvement in
Channel Capacity
25%
< 14 Mbps
75%
> 14 Mbps
Channel Util of 74.2%
ClientLink Disabled
Channel Util of 45.2%
ClientLink Enabled
Fewer coverage holes
in dynamic RF
environments
Cisco Confidential
64
 Silicon-level intelligence to automatically mitigate the impact of
wireless interference, optimize network performance and reduce
troubleshooting costs
 Classification processed on Access Point
 Interference impact & data sent to WLC for real-time action
 WCS & MSE store data for location, history, and troubleshooting
© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
Cisco Confidential
65
OUTDOOR
• 1550 Series—four
models
• DOCSIS 3.0 and
EuroDOCSIS 3.0
option
• Dual radio APs and
dual band stick
antennas
• RF excellence with:
CleanAir
ClientLink
RRM All rights
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All
rights reserved.
reserved.
INDOOR
• 1140 or 1260
Series
• 2x3 MIMO
• RF excellence with:
ClientLink
BandSelect
RRM
VideoStream
For reliable, highperformance rich media
experience
• 3500 Series
• 2x3 MIMO
• RF excellence
with:
CleanAir
ClientLink
RRM
VideoStream
Band Select
Cisco Confidential
66
66
Accelerated Deployment and Reduced OpEx
Provisioning:
Operational management
through CAPWAP standard
interface for visibility,
control, troubleshooting,
and reporting
Automatic image download
Self-Configuring:
Zero-touch configuration
Wireless Control System (WCS)
Based on Customer Experience
Deployment Time
Reduced by
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
Operational
Management Reduced
by
Network Visibility,
Stability, and EndUser Performance
Cisco Confidential
67
© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
Cisco Confidential
68
 Offload Architectures
Each MO has different motivation for Offload
Multiple technologies can be deployed depending on requirements
Flexibility is needed to adopt the architecture to new business models
 Flexible and Modular Core
Different levels of offload integration are supported
Step-by-step deployment as requirements grow
Integrated core functions in the ASR 5000
Developed in-line with 3GPP standards
 Outstanding Radio Performance
Years of experience
Controller based for better RRM, Security and Mobility
CleanAir, ClientLink, BandSelect, VideoStream
Industry leading outdoor access points
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
Cisco Confidential
69
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