670 pages200 - tdtoolshopvietnam
Machinery Protection
Systems
API STANDARD 670
FOURTH EDITION, DECEMBER 2000
COPYRIGHT American Petroleum Institute
Licensed by Information Handling Services
COPYRIGHT American Petroleum Institute
Licensed by Information Handling Services
Machinery Protection
Systems
Downstream Segment
API STANDARD 670
FOURTH EDITION, DECEMBER 2000
COPYRIGHT American Petroleum Institute
Licensed by Information Handling Services
SPECIAL NOTES
API publications necessarily address problems of a general nature. With respect to particular circumstances, local, state, and federal laws and regulations should be reviewed.
API is not undertaking to meet the duties of employers, manufacturers, or suppliers to
warn and properly train and equip their employees, and others exposed, concerning health
and safety risks and precautions, nor undertaking their obligations under local, state, or federal laws.
Information concerning safety and health risks and proper precautions with respect to particular materials and conditions should be obtained from the employer, the manufacturer or
supplier of that material, or the material safety data sheet.
Nothing contained in any API publication is to be construed as granting any right, by
implication or otherwise, for the manufacture, sale, or use of any method, apparatus, or product covered by letters patent. Neither should anything contained in the publication be construed as insuring anyone against liability for infringement of letters patent.
Generally, API standards are reviewed and revised, reaffirmed, or withdrawn at least every
five years. Sometimes a one-time extension of up to two years will be added to this review
cycle. This publication will no longer be in effect five years after its publication date as an
operative API standard or, where an extension has been granted, upon republication. Status
of the publication can be ascertained from the API Downstream Segment [telephone (202)
682-8000]. A catalog of API publications and materials is published annually and updated
quarterly by API, 1220 L Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20005.
This document was produced under API standardization procedures that ensure appropriate notification and participation in the developmental process and is designated as an API
standard. Questions concerning the interpretation of the content of this standard or comments and questions concerning the procedures under which this standard was developed
should be directed in writing to the standardization manager, American Petroleum Institute,
1220 L Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20005. Requests for permission to reproduce or
translate all or any part of the material published herein should also be addressed to the standardization manager.
API standards are published to facilitate the broad availability of proven, sound engineering and operating practices. These standards are not intended to obviate the need for applying sound engineering judgment regarding when and where these standards should be
utilized. The formulation and publication of API standards is not intended in any way to
inhibit anyone from using any other practices.
Any manufacturer marking equipment or materials in conformance with the marking
requirements of an API standard is solely responsible for complying with all the applicable
requirements of that standard. API does not represent, warrant, or guarantee that such products do in fact conform to the applicable API standard.
All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or
transmitted by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise,
without prior written permission from the publisher. Contact the Publisher,
API Publishing Services, 1220 L Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20005.
Copyright © 2000 American Petroleum Institute
COPYRIGHT American Petroleum Institute
Licensed by Information Handling Services
FOREWORD
This standard is based on the accumulated knowledge and experience of manufacturers and
users of monitoring systems. The objective of the publication is to provide a purchase specification to facilitate the manufacture, procurement, installation, and testing of vibration, axial
position, and bearing temperature monitoring systems for petroleum, chemical, and gas
industry services.
The primary purpose of this standard is to establish minimum electromechanical requirements. This limitation in scope is one of charter as opposed to interest and concern. Energy
conservation is of concern and has become increasingly important in all aspects of equipment
design, application, and operation. Thus, innovative energy-conserving approaches should be
aggressively pursued by the manufacturer and the user during these steps. Alternative
approaches that may result in improved energy utilization should be thoroughly investigated
and brought forth. This is especially true of new equipment proposals, since the evaluation of
purchase options will be based increasingly on total life costs as opposed to acquisition cost
alone. Equipment manufacturers, in particular, are encouraged to suggest alternatives to those
specified when such approaches achieve improved energy effectiveness and reduced total life
costs without sacrifice of safety or reliability.
This standard requires the purchaser to specify certain details and features. Although it is
recognized that the purchaser may desire to modify, delete, or amplify sections of this standard, it is strongly recommended that such modifications, deletions, and amplifications be
made by supplementing this standard, rather than by rewriting or by incorporating sections
thereof into another complete standard.
API standards are published as an aid to procurement of standardized equipment and materials. These standards are not intended to inhibit purchasers or producers from purchasing or
producing products made to specifications other than those of API.
API publications may be used by anyone desiring to do so. Every effort has been made by
the Institute to assure the accuracy and reliability of the data contained in them; however, the
Institute makes no representation, warranty, or guarantee in connection with this publication
and hereby expressly disclaims any liability or responsibility for loss or damage resulting
from its use or for the violation of any federal, state, or municipal regulation with which this
publication may conflict.
Suggested revisions are invited and should be submitted to the standardization manager,
American Petroleum Institute, 1220 L Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20005.
iii
COPYRIGHT American Petroleum Institute
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IMPORTANT INFORMATION CONCERNING USE OF ASBESTOS
OR ALTERNATIVE MATERIALS
Asbestos is specified or referenced for certain components of the equipment described in
some API standards. It has been of extreme usefulness in minimizing fire hazards associated
with petroleum processing. It has also been a universal sealing material, compatible with
most refining fluid services.
Certain serious adverse health effects are associated with asbestos, among them the
serious and often fatal diseases of lung cancer, asbestosis, and mesothelioma (a cancer of
the chest and abdominal linings). The degree of exposure to asbestos varies with the product and the work practices involved.
Consult the most recent edition of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration
(OSHA), U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Standard for Asbestos,
Tremolite, Anthophyllite, and Actinolite, 29 Code of Federal Regulations Section
1910.1001; the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Emission Standard for
Asbestos, 40 Code of Federal Regulations Sections 61.140 through 61.156; and the U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) rule on labeling requirements and phased banning
of asbestos products (Sections 763.160-179).
There are currently in use and under development a number of substitute materials to
replace asbestos in certain applications. Manufacturers and users are encouraged to develop
and use effective substitute materials that can meet the specifications for, and operating
requirements of, the equipment to which they would apply.
SAFETY AND HEALTH INFORMATION WITH RESPECT TO PARTICULAR
PRODUCTS OR MATERIALS CAN BE OBTAINED FROM THE EMPLOYER, THE
MANUFACTURER OR SUPPLIER OF THAT PRODUCT OR MATERIAL, OR THE
MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET.
iv
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CONTENTS
Page
1
GENERAL. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.1 Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2 Alternative Designs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.3 Conflicting Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2
REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
3
DEFINITIONS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
4
GENERAL DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1 Component Temperature Ranges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2 Humidity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3 Shock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.4 Chemical Resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.5 Accuracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.6 Interchangeability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.7 Scope of Supply and Responsibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5
CONVENTIONAL HARDWARE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
5.1 Radial Shaft Vibration, Axial Position, Phase Reference, Speed Sensing,
and Piston Rod Drop Transducers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
5.2 Accelerometer-Based Casing Transducers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
5.3 Temperature Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
5.4 Monitor Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
5.5 Wiring and Conduits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
5.6 Grounding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
5.7 Field-Installed Instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
6
TRANSDUCER AND SENSOR ARRANGEMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.1 Location and Orientation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.2 Mounting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.3 Identification of Transducers and Temperature Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
28
28
34
36
7
INSPECTION, TESTING, AND PREPARATION FOR SHIPMENT . . . . . . . . . . .
7.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.2 Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.3 Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.4 Preparation for Shipment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.5 Mechanical Running Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.6 Field Testing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
36
36
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37
37
37
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8
VENDOR’S DATA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.2 Proposals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.3 Contract Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
38
38
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43
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APPENDIX A
APPENDIX B
APPENDIX C
APPENDIX D
APPENDIX E
APPENDIX F
APPENDIX G
APPENDIX H
APPENDIX I
APPENDIX J
MACHINERY PROTECTION SYSTEM DATA SHEETS . . . . . . . . .
TYPICAL RESPONSIBILITY MATRIX WORKSHEET . . . . . . . . . .
ACCELEROMETER APPLICATION CONSIDERATIONS . . . . . . . .
SIGNAL CABLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
GEARBOX CASING VIBRATION CONSIDERATIONS. . . . . . . . . .
FIELD TESTING AND DOCUMENTATION REQUIREMENTS . . .
CONTRACT DRAWING AND DATA REQUIREMENTS . . . . . . . . .
TYPICAL SYSTEM ARRANGEMENT PLANS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SETPOINT MULTIPLIER CONSIDERATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ELECTRONIC OVERSPEED DETECTION SYSTEM
CONSIDERATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
45
53
55
59
61
63
67
71
79
83
Tables
1
2
3A
3B
D-1
F-1
Machinery Protection System Accuracy Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Minimum Separation Between Installed Signal and Power Cables. . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Accelerometer Test Points (SI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Accelerometer Test Points (Customary Units) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Color Coding for Single-Circuit Thermocouple Signal Cable. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Tools and Instruments Needed to Calibrate and Test Machinery
Protection Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
F-2 Data, Drawing, and Test Worksheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
G-1 Typical Milestone Timeline. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
G-2 Sample Distribution Record (Schedule) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
J-1 Recommended Dimensions for Speed Sensing Surface
When Magnetic Speed Sensors are Used . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
J-2 Recommended Dimensions for Non-Precision Speed Sensing Surface
When Proximity Probe Speed Sensors are Used . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
J-3 Recommended Dimensions for Precision-Machined Speed Sensing Surface
When Proximity Probe Speed Sensors are Used . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
Figures
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
Machinery Protection System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Standard Monitor System Nomenclature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Transducer System Nomenclature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Typical Curves Showing Accuracy of Proximity Probe Channels. . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Standard Probe and Extension Cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Standard Options for Proximity Probes and Extension Cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Standard Magnetic Speed Sensor With Removable (Non-Integral)
Cable and Connector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Piston Rod Drop Calculations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Piston Rod Drop Measurement Using Phase Reference Transducer
For Triggered Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Typical Standard Conduit Arrangement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Typical Standard Armored Cable Arrangement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Inverted Gooseneck Trap Conduit Arrangement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
System Grounding (Typical). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Standard Axial Position Probe Arrangement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Typical Piston Rod Drop Probe Arrangement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Typical Installations of Radial Bearing Temperature Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Typical Installations of Radial Bearing Temperature Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Typical Installation of Thrust Bearing Temperature Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Calibration of Radial Monitor and Setpoints for Alarm and Shutdown . . . . . . . . 39
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C-1
C-2
C-3
H-1
H-2
H-3
H-4
H-5
H-6
I-1
J-1
J-2
J-4
Calibration of Axial Position (Thrust) Monitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Typical Field Calibration Graph for Radial Vibration and Axial Position. . . . . . .
Typical Flush Mounted Accelerometer Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Typical Non-Flush Mounted Arrangement Details for Integral-Stud
Accelerometer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Typical Non-Flush Mounting Arrangement for Integral-Stud
Accelerometer and Armored Extension Cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Typical System Arrangement for a Turbine With Hydrodynamic Bearings . . . . .
Typical System Arrangement for a Double-Helical Gear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Typical System Arrangement for a Centrifugal Compressor
or a Pump With Hydrodynamic Bearings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Typical System Arrangement for an Electric Motor With Sleeve Bearings. . . . . .
Typical System Arrangement for a Pump or Motor With Rolling
Element Bearings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Typical System Arrangement for a Reciprocating Compressor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setpoint Multiplication Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Overspeed Protection System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Relevant Dimensions for Overspeed Sensor and Multi-Tooth Speed
Sensing Surface Application Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Precision-Machined Overspeed Sensing Surface. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Machinery Protection Systems
ASME2
Y14.2M
PTC 20.2-1965
1 General
1.1 SCOPE
This standard covers the minimum requirements for a
machinery protection system measuring radial shaft vibration, casing vibration, shaft axial position, shaft rotational
speed, piston rod drop, phase reference, overspeed, and critical machinery temperatures (such as bearing metal and
motor windings). It covers requirements for hardware
(transducer and monitor systems), installation, documentation, and testing.
CENELEC3
EN50082-2
DIN4
EN 50022
Note: A bullet (•) at the beginning of a paragraph indicates that
either a decision is required or further information is to be provided
by the purchaser. This information should be indicated on the
datasheets (see Appendix A); otherwise, it should be stated in the
quotation request or in the order.
IEC5
584-1
1.2 ALTERNATIVE DESIGNS
The machinery protection system vendor may offer alternative designs. Equivalent metric dimensions and fasteners
may be substituted as mutually agreed upon by the purchaser
and the vendor.
IPCEA6
S-61-402
1.3 CONFLICTING REQUIREMENTS
ISA7
S12.1
In case of conflict between this standard and the inquiry or
order, the information included in the order shall govern.
S12.4
2 References
S84.01
2.1 The editions of the following standards, codes, and
specifications that are in effect at the time of publication of
this standard shall, to the extent specified herein, form a part
of this standard. The applicability of changes in standards,
codes, and specifications that occur after the inquiry shall be
mutually agreed upon by the purchaser and the machinery
protection system vendor.
API
RP 552
RP 554
Std 610
Std 612
ANSI1
MC96.1
Electromagnetic Compatibility Generic
Immunity Standard. Part 2: Industrial
Environment
Low voltage switchgear and controlgear for industrial use; mounting
rails, top hat rails, 35 mm wide for
snap-on mounting of equipment.
Thermocouples,
Tables
Part
I:
Reference
Thermoplastic-Insulated Wire and Cable
for the Transmission and Distribution of
Electrical Energy
Definitions and Information Pertaining
to Electrical Instruments in Hazardous
(Classified) Locations
Instrument Purging for Reduction of
Hazardous Area Classification
Application of Safety Instrumented Systems for the Process Industries
Military Specifications8
MIL-C-39012-C Connectors, Coaxial, Radio Frequency,
General Specification for
MIL-C-39012/5F Connectors, Plug, Electrical, Coaxial,
Radio Frequency, [Series N (Cabled)
Right Angle, Pin Contact, Class 2]
Signal Transmission Systems
Process Instrumentation and Control, Section 3, Alarm and Protective Devices
Centrifugal Pumps for Petroleum, Heavy
Duty Chemical and Gas Industry Services
Special Purpose Steam Turbines for Petroleum, Chemical, and Gas Industry Services
2American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 22 Law Drive, Box
2300, Fairfield, New Jersey 07007-2300.
3European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization, Rue de
Stassart, 35, B - 1050 Brussels.
4Deutsches Institut Fuer Normung e.V., Burggrafenstrasse 6, Postfach 11 07, 10787 Berlin, Germany.
5International Electrotechnical Commission, 1 Rue de Varembe,
Geneva, Switzerland.
6Insulated Power Cable Engineers Association, 283 Valley Road,
Montclair, New Jersey 07042.
7Instrument Society of America, P.O. Box 12277, Research Triangle
Park, North Carolina 27709.
8Available from Naval Publications and Forms Center, 5801 Tabor
Avenue, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19120.
Temperature Measurement Thermocouples
1American National Standards Institute, 11 West 42nd Street, New
York, New York 10036.
1
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Line Conventions and Lettering
Overspeed Trip Systems for Steam Turbine-Generator Units
2
API STANDARD 670
MIL-STD-883B Tests, Methods, and Procedures for
Micro-Electronics
NEMA9
250
WC 5
NFPA10
70
496
OSHA11
Form 20
Enclosures for Electrical Equipment
(1000 Volts Maximum)
Thermoplastic-Insulated Wire and Cable
for the Transmission and Distribution of
Electrical Energy
National Electrical Code
Purged and Pressurized Enclosures for
Electrical Equipment
Material Safety Data Sheet
Schneider Electric12
PI-MBUS-300
Modbus® Protocol Reference Guide
2.2 The standards, codes, and specifications of the American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI)13 also form part of this
standard.
2.3 The purchaser and the machinery protection system
vendor shall mutually determine the measures that must be
taken to comply with any governmental codes, regulations,
ordinances, or rules that are applicable to the equipment.
3 Definitions
Terms used in this standard are defined as follows:
3.1 accelerometer: A piezoelectric sensor containing integral amplification with an output proportional to acceleration.
3.2 accelerometer cable: An assembly consisting of a
specified length of cable and mating connectors. Both the
cable and the connectors must be compatible with the particular accelerometer and (when used) intermediate termination.
3.3 accuracy: The degree of conformity of an indicated
value to a recognized accepted standard value or ideal value.
3.4 active magnetic speed sensor: A magnetic speed
sensor that requires external power and provides a conditioned
9National Electrical Manufacturers Association, 2101 L Street,
N.W., Washington, D.C. 20037.
10National Fire Protection Association, 1 Batterymarch Park, P.O.
Box 9101, Quincy, Massachusetts 02269.
11Occupational Safety and Health Administration, U.S. Department
of Labor, The Code of Federal Regulations is available from the U.S.
Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402.
12Schneider Electric–Automation Business, 1 High Street, North
Andover, Massachusetts 01845-2699.
13American Iron and Steel Institute, 1101 17th Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20036-4700.
COPYRIGHT American Petroleum Institute
Licensed by Information Handling Services
(that is, square wave) output. Typical excitation is between +5
to +30 Vdc.
3.5 active (normal) thrust direction: The direction of a
rotor axial thrust load expected by the machinery vendor when
the machinery is operating under normal running conditions.
3.6 alarm (alert) setpoint: A preset value of a parameter
at which an alarm is activated to warn of a condition that
requires corrective action.
3.7 alarm/shutdown/integrity logic: The function of a
monitor system whereby the outputs of the signal processing
circuitry are compared against alarm or shutdown setpoints
and circuit fault criteria. Violations of these setpoints or circuit fault criteria result in alarm or shutdown status conditions
in the monitor system. These status conditions may be subjected to preset time delays or logical voting with other status
conditions, and are then used to drive the system output relays
and status indicators and outputs.
3.8 bench test: A factory acceptance test performed
within the testing range (see 4.1 and Table 1).
3.9 best fit straight line: The line drawn through the
actual calibration curve where the maximum plus or minus
deviations are minimized and made equal.
3.10 blind monitor system: Does not contain an integral
display. A blind monitor system is permitted as a “when specified” option of this standard provided it is supplied with at
least one dedicated, continuous, non-integral display. The
blind monitor provides certain minimal integral status indication independently of any non-integral displays (see 5.4.1.6.b).
3.11 buffered output: An unaltered, analog replica of the
transducer input signal that preserves amplitude, phase, frequency content, and signal polarity. It is designed to prevent a
short circuit of this output to monitor system ground from
affecting the operation of the machinery protection system.
The purpose of this output is to allow connection of vibration
analyzers, oscilloscopes, and other test instrumentation to the
transducer signals.
3.12 channel: The monitor system components associated with a single transducer. The number of channels in a
monitor system refers to the number of transducer systems it
can accept as inputs.
3.13 channel pair: Two associated measurement locations (such as the X and Y proximity probes at a particular
radial bearing or the two axial proximity probes at a particular
thrust bearing).
3.14 circuit fault: A machinery protection system circuit
failure that adversely affects the function of the system.
MACHINERY PROTECTION SYSTEMS
3
3.15 construction agency: The contractor that installs
the machinery train or its associated machinery protection
system.
processing, and alarm/shutdown/integrity logic. Its function
is to continuously measure shaft rotational speed and activate
its output relays when an overspeed condition is detected.
3.16 contiguous: Mechanically connected and included
in the same housing or rack containing the signal processing
and alarm/shutdown/integrity logic functions of the monitor
system.
3.26 extension cable: The interconnection between the
proximity probe’s integral cable and its associated oscillatordemodulator.
Note: Installation of all monitor system components in the same
panel or cabinet is not the same as contiguous.
3.17 continuous display: Simultaneous, uninterrupted
indication of all status conditions and measured variables in
the machinery protection system as required by this standard.
It also continuously updates this indication at a rate meeting
or exceeding the requirements of this standard.
3.27 field changeable: Refers to a design feature of a
machinery protection system that permits alteration of a function after the system has been installed.
3.28 filter: An electrical device that attenuates signals outside the frequency range of interest.
3.29 g: A unit of acceleration equal to 9.81 meters per second squared (386.4 in. per second squared).
3.18 controlled access: A security feature of a machinery protection system that restricts alteration of a parameter to
authorized individuals. Access may be restricted by means
such as the use of a key or coded password or other procedures requiring specialized knowledge.
3.30 gauss level: The magnetic field level of a component. It is best measured with a Hall effect probe.
3.19 dedicated display: A display which indicates only
those parameters from its associated machinery protection
system(s) and is not shared with or used to indicate information from other systems such as process controllers, logic
controllers, turbine controllers, and so forth.
3.32 inches per second (ips): A unit of velocity equal
to 25.4 millimeters per second (1 in. per second).
3.20 display: An analog meter movement, cathode ray
tube, liquid crystal device, or other means for visually indicating the measured variables and status conditions from the
machinery protection system. A display may be further classified as integral or non-integral, dedicated or shared, continuous or non-continuous.
3.21 dual path: A configuration of the monitor system
such that the same transducer system is used as an input to
two separate channels in the monitor system, and different
signal processing (such as filtering or integration) is applied
to each channel.
Note: An example of this is a single casing vibration accelerometer
that is simultaneously processed in the monitor system to both acceleration and velocity for separate filtering, display, and alarming.
3.31 inactive (counter) thrust direction: The direction opposite the active thrust direction.
3.33 integral display: A display that is contiguous with
the other components comprising the monitor system.
3.34 linear frequency response range: The portion
of the transducer’s voltage output versus frequency curve,
between lower and upper frequency limits, where the
response is linear within a specified tolerance.
3.35 linear range: The portion of a transducer’s output
where the output versus input relationship is linear within a
specified tolerance.
3.36 local: Refers to a device’s location when mounted on
or near the equipment or console.
3.37 machine case: A driver (for example, electric
motor, turbine, or engine) or any one of its driven pieces of
equipment (for example, pump, compressor, gearbox, generator, fan). An individual component of a machinery train.
3.22 dual voting logic: A monitor feature whereby the
signals on two channels must both be in violation of their
respective setpoints to initiate a change in status (two-out-oftwo logic).
3.38 machinery protection system: Consists of the
transducer system, signal cables, the monitor system, all necessary housings and mounting fixtures, and documentation
(see Figure 1).
3.23 dynamic range: The usable range of amplitude of a
signal, usually expressed in decibels.
3.39 machinery protection system vendor: The
agency that designs, fabricates, and tests components of the
machinery protection system.
3.24 electrically isolated accelerometer: An accelerometer in which all signal connections are electrically insulated from the accelerometer case or base.
3.25 electronic overspeed detection system: Consists of speed sensors, power supplies, output relays, signal
COPYRIGHT American Petroleum Institute
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3.40 machinery train: The driver(s) and all of its associated driven pieces of equipment.
3.41 machinery vendor: The agency that designs, fabricates, and tests machines. The machinery vendor may
4
API STANDARD 670
Sensor
Proximity probes
RTDs
Thermocouples
Accelerometers
Magnetic speed sensors
Sensor leads
Extension cables
Accelerometer cables
Transducer
system
Signal conditioner
(where required)
Machinery
protection
system
Oscillator-Demodulator
Signal cable
Signal processing
Monitor
system
Alarm/Shutdown/
Integrity logic processing
Power supply(ies)
Display indication
Inputs/Outputs
Protective relays
Figure 1—Machinery Protection System
COPYRIGHT American Petroleum Institute
Licensed by Information Handling Services
Radial vibration
Axial position
Casing vibration
Temperature
Piston rod drop
Speed indication
Overspeed detection*
* See paragraph 5.4.8.2.
MACHINERY PROTECTION SYSTEMS
purchase the monitor system or transducer system, or both,
and may install the transducers or the sensors on machines.
3.42 magnetic speed sensor: Responds to changes in
magnetic field reluctance as the gap between the sensor and
its observed ferrous target (speed sensing surface) changes.
By choosing a proper speed sensing surface, the magnetic
speed sensor’s output will be proportional to the rotational
speed of the observed surface. Magnetic speed sensors may
be either passive (self-powered) or active (require external
power).
3.43 monitor system: Consists of signal processing,
alarm/shutdown/integrity logic processing, power supply(ies), display/indication, inputs/outputs, and protective
relays (see Figures 1 and 2).
3.44 non-integral display: A display that is not contiguous with the other components comprising the monitor
system.
3.45 oscillator-demodulator: A signal conditioning
device that sends a radio frequency signal to a proximity
probe, demodulates the probe output, and provides an output
signal suitable for input to the monitor system.
3.46 overspeed protection system: An electronic
overspeed detection system and all other components necessary to shut down the machine in the event of an overspeed
condition. It may include (but is not limited to) items such as
trip valves, solenoids, and interposing relays.
3.47 owner: The final recipient of the equipment (who
will operate the machinery and its associated machinery protection system) and may delegate another agent as the purchaser of the equipment.
5
3.50 phase reference transducer: A gap-to-voltage
device that consists of a proximity probe, an extension cable,
and an oscillator-demodulator and is used to sense a onceper-revolution mark.
3.51 piston rod drop: A measurement of the position of
the piston rod relative to the proximity probe mounting location(s) (typically oriented vertically at the pressure packing
box on horizontal cylinders).
Note: Piston rod drop is an indirect measurement of the piston rider
band wear on reciprocating machinery (typically addressed by API
618).
3.52 positive indication: An active (that is, requires
power for annunciation and changes state upon loss of power)
display under the annunciated condition. Examples include
an LED that is lighted under the annunciated condition or an
LCD that is darkened or colored under the annunciated condition.
3.53 primary probes: Those proximity probes installed
at preferred locations and used as the default inputs to the
monitor system.
3.54 proximity probe: A noncontacting sensor that consists of a tip, a probe body, an integral coaxial cable, and a
connector and is used to translate distance (gap) to voltage.
3.55 probe area: The area observed by the proximity
probe during measurement.
3.56 probe gap: The physical distance between the face
of a proximity probe tip and the observed surface. The distance can be expressed in terms of displacement (mils,
micrometers) or in terms of voltage (volts DC).
3.57 purchaser: The agency that buys the equipment.
3.48 passive magnetic speed sensor: A magnetic
speed sensor that does not require external power to provide
an output.
3.58 radial shaft vibration: The vibratory motion of the
machine shaft in a direction perpendicular to the shaft longitudinal axis.
3.49 peak-to-peak value (pp): The difference between
positive and negative extreme values of an electronic signal or
dynamic motion.
3.59 remote: Refers to the location of a device when
located away from the equipment or console, typically in a
control room.
Power
supply(ies)
Vibration
channel(s)
Thrust
channel(s)
Accelerometer
channel(s)
Piston
rod drop
channel(s)
Speed
indicating
channel(s)
Temperature
channel(s)
Figure 2—Standard Monitor System Nomenclature
COPYRIGHT American Petroleum Institute
Licensed by Information Handling Services
Electronic overspeed
detection monitor
Redundant
power
supplies
3 overspeed
sensing
channels
6
API STANDARD 670
3.60 resistance temperature detector (RTD): A temperature sensor that changes its resistance to electrical current
as its temperature changes.
3.61 root mean square (rms): The square root of the
mean of the sum of the squares of the sample values.
3.62 sensor: A device (such as a proximity probe or an
accelerometer) that detects the value of a physical quantity
and converts the measurement into a useful input for another
device.
3.63 shaft vibration or position transducer: A gapto-voltage device that consists of a proximity probe, an extension cable, and an oscillator-demodulator.
3.64 shutdown (danger) setpoint: A preset value of a
parameter at which automatic or manual shutdown of the
machine is required.
3.65 signal cable: The field wiring interconnection
between the transducer system and the monitor system.
Note: Signal cable is typically supplied by the construction agency.
3.66 signal processing: Transformation of the output
signal from the transducer system into the desired parameter(s) for indication and alarming. Signal processing for
vibration transducers may include, for example, peak-topeak, zero-to-peak, or rms amplitude detection; pulse counting; DC bias voltage detection; filtering and integration. The
output(s) from the signal processing circuitry are used as
inputs to the display/indication and alarm/shutdown/integrity
logic circuitry of a monitor system.
3.67 signal-to-noise ratio: The ratio of the power of the
signal conveying information to the power of the signal not
conveying information.
3.68 spare probes: Probes installed at alternate locations
to take the place of primary probes (without requiring
machine disassembly) in the event of primary probe failure.
3.69 speed sensing surface: A gear, toothed-wheel, or
other surface with uniformly-spaced discontinuities that
causes a change in gap between the speed sensing surface and
its associated speed sensor(s) as the shaft rotates.
3.70 speed sensor: A proximity probe or magnetic
speed sensor used to observe a speed sensing surface. It provides an electrical output proportional to the rotational speed
of the observed surface.
3.71 standard option: A generally available alternative
configuration that may be specified in lieu of the default configuration specified herein.
3.72 tachometer: A device for indicating shaft rotational
speed.
COPYRIGHT American Petroleum Institute
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3.73 temperature sensor: A thermocouple or resistance
temperature detector and its integral sensor lead.
3.74 thermocouple: A temperature sensor consisting of
two dissimilar metals so joined to produce different voltages
when their junction is at different temperatures.
3.75 transducer system: A proximity probe, accelerometer, or sensor; an extension or accelerometer cable; and
oscillator-demodulator (when required). The transducer system generates a signal that is proportional to the measured
variable (see Figure 3).
3.76 transverse sensitivity: An accelerometer’s
response to dynamic loads applied in a direction perpendicular to the principal axis. It is also sometimes called cross-axis
sensitivity.
3.77 unit responsibility: Refers to the responsibility for
coordinating the delivery and technical aspects of the equipment and all auxiliary systems included in the scope of the
order. The technical aspects to be considered include, but are
not limited to, such factors as the power requirements, speed,
rotation, general arrangement, couplings, dynamics, noise,
lubrication, sealing system, material test reports, instrumentation (such as the machinery protection system), piping, conformance to specifications and testing of components.
3.78 velocity transducer: A piezo-electric accelerometer with integral amplification and signal integration such that
its output is proportional to its vibratory velocity.
3.79 voted channel: A channel requiring confirmation
from one or more additional channels as a precondition for
alarm (alert) and shutdown (danger) relay actuation.
4 General Design Specifications
4.1 COMPONENT TEMPERATURE RANGES
Machinery Protection System components have two temperature ranges, testing range and operating range, over
which accuracy shall be measured and in which the system
components shall operate, as summarized in Table 1.
Note: The testing range is a range of temperatures in which normal
bench testing occurs. It allows verification of the accuracy and operation of transducer and monitor system components without the
need for special temperature- or humidity-controlled environments.
The operating range represents temperatures over which the transducer and monitor system components are expected to operate in
actual service conditions.
4.2 HUMIDITY
4.2.1 For transducer systems, the accuracy requirements of
Table 1 shall apply at levels of relative humidity up to 100%
condensing, non-submerged, with protection of connectors.
MACHINERY PROTECTION SYSTEMS
Mounting
stud
Probe tip
Body
Integral
cable
Thermocouple
Magnetic
speed
sensor
Accelerometer
Proximity
probe
Accelerometer
cable
7
Magnetic
speed sensor
cable
Resistance
temperature
detector
Sensor lead
Connector
Extension cable
Terminal
head
OscillatorDemodulator
Signal cable
(Shielded triad)
Signal cable
(Shielded triad)
Proximity Probes
Accelerometer
Radial vibration
Casing vibration
Axial position
Phase reference
Piston rod drop
Speed indication
Overspeed detection (when specified)
Signal cable
Magnetic Speed Sensor
Speed indication
Overspeed detection
(TC signal
cable)
Signal cable
Thermocouple and RTD Sensors
Bearing temperature
Motor winding temperature
Figure 3—Transducer System Nomenclature
4.2.2 For monitor system components, the accuracy
requirements of Table 1 shall apply at levels of relative
humidity up to 95% non-condensing.
4.3 SHOCK
Accelerometers shall be capable of surviving a mechanical
shock of 5,000 g, peak, without affecting the accuracy
requirements specified in Table 1.
4.4 CHEMICAL RESISTANCE
4.4.1 Probes, probe extension cables, and oscillatordemodulators shall be suitable for environments containing
hydrogen sulfide and ammonia.
●
4.4.2 It shall be the joint responsibility of the purchaser and
machinery protection system vendor to ensure that all of the
machinery protection system components are compatible
with other specified chemicals.
COPYRIGHT American Petroleum Institute
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4.5 ACCURACY
4.5.1 Accuracy of the transducer system and monitor system in the testing and operating temperature ranges shall be
as summarized in Table 1.
4.5.2 If monitor system components or transducer system
components will be used in applications exceeding the
requirements of Table 1, the machinery protection system
vendor shall supply documentation showing how the accuracy is affected or suggest alternative transducer and monitor
components suitable for the intended application.
Notes:
1. Some applications may require piston rod drop and axial position
measurements with measuring ranges greater than 2 millimeters (80
mils). Special transducer systems, such as those with 3.94 mV per
micrometer (100 mV per mil) scale factors, are required for these
applications, and are not covered by this standard.
8
API STANDARD 670
Table 1—Machinery Protection System Accuracy Requirements
Temperature
Components
Accuracy Requirements as a Function of Temperature
Outside Testing Range
but Within Operating Range
Testing Range
Operating Range
Within Testing Range
Proximity probes
0°C to 45°C
(32°F to 110°F)
–35°C to 120°C
(–30°F to 250°F)
Incremental Scale Factor1: ± 5%
of 7.87 mV/µm (200 mV/mil)
Incremental Scale Factor1: An
additional ±5% of the testing
range accuracy
Extension cables
0°C to 45°C
(32°F to 110°F)
–35°C to 65°C
(–30°F to 150°F)
Deviation from Straight Line2:
within ±25.4 µm (±1 mil) of the
best fit straight line at a slope of
7.87 mV/µm (200 mV/mil)
Deviation from Straight Line2:
within ±76 µm (±3 mils) of the
best fit straight line at a slope of
7.87 mV/µm (200 mV/mil)
Oscillator-demodulators
0°C to 45°C
(32°F to 110°F)
–35°C to 65°C
(–30°F to 150°F)
Minimum linear range: 2 mm (80
mils)
Minimum linear range: same as
for testing range
Accelerometers and accelerometer extension cables3
20°C to 30°C
(68°F to 86°F)
–55°C to 120°C
(–65°F to 250°F)
Principal Axis Sensitivity: 100
mV/g ±5%
Principal Axis Sensitivity: 100
mV/g ±20%
Amplitude Linearity: 1% from
0.1 g pk to 50 g’s pk4
Frequency Response5: ±3 dB
from 10 Hz to 10 kHz, referenced
to the actual measured principal
axis sensitivity6.
Temperature sensors and
leads
0°C to 45°C
(32°F to 110°F)
–35°C to 175°C
(–30°F to 350°F)
±2°C (±4°F) over a measurement
range from –20°C to 150°C (0°F
to 300°F)
±3.7°C (±7°F) over a measurement range from –20°C to 150°C
(0°F to 300°F)
±1% of full scale range for the
channel
Same as for testing range
Temperature
±1°C (±2°F)
Same as for testing range
Speed and Overspeed
±1% of alarm setpoint
Same as for testing range
Monitor system components for measuring:
Radial Vibration,
Axial Position,
Piston Rod Drop, and
Casing Vibration
0°C to 45°C
(32°F to 110°F)
–20°C to 65°C
(0°F to 150°F)
Notes:
1. The incremental scale factor (ISF) error is the maximum amount the scale factor varies from 7.87 mV per micrometer (200 mV per mil)
when measured at specified increments throughout the linear range. Measurements are usually taken at 250 µm (10 mil) increments. ISF
error is associated with errors in radial vibration readings.
2. The deviation from straight line (DSL) error is the maximum error (in mils) in the probe gap reading at a given voltage compared to
a 7.87 mV per micrometer (200 mV per mil) best fit straight line. DSL errors are associated with errors in axial position or probe gap
readings.
3. During the testing of the accelerometers, the parameter under test is the only parameter that is varied. All other parameters must remain
constant.
4. Conditions of test: at any one temperature within the Testing Range, at any single frequency that is not specified but is within the specified frequency range of the transducer.
5. Frequency Response testing conditions: at any one temperature within the Testing Range, at an excitation amplitude that is not specified
but is within the specified amplitude range of the transducer.
6. Principal Axis Sensitivity testing conditions: (Testing Range) at any one temperature within the Testing Range, at 100 Hz, at an excitation amplitude that is not specified but is within the specified amplitude range of the transducer. (Operating Range) at any one temperature
within the Operating Range, at 100 Hz, at an excitation amplitude that is not specified but is within the specified amplitude range of the
transducer.
COPYRIGHT American Petroleum Institute
Licensed by Information Handling Services
MACHINERY PROTECTION SYSTEMS
4.7.2 The details of systems or components outside the
scope of this standard shall be mutually agreed upon by the
purchaser and machinery protection system vendor.
2. Aeroderivative gas turbines typically require special high-temperature transducer systems that exceed the operating range specified in
Table 1, and monitor systems with special filtering based on original
equipment manufacturer recommendations. Consult the machinery
protection system vendor.
5 Conventional Hardware
3. Radial vibration or position measurements using proximity probe
transducers on shaft diameters as small as 76 mm (3 in.) do not
introduce appreciable error compared to measurements made on a
flat target area. Shaft diameters smaller than this can be accommodated but generally result in a change in transducer scale factor. Consult the machinery protection system vendor.
5.1 RADIAL SHAFT VIBRATION, AXIAL POSITION,
PHASE REFERENCE, SPEED SENSING, AND
PISTON ROD DROP TRANSDUCERS
5.1.1 Proximity Probes
5.1.1.1 A proximity probe consists of a tip, a probe body,
an integral coaxial cable, and a connector as specified in
5.1.3, and shall be chemically resistant as specified in 4.4.
This assembly is illustrated in Figure 5.
4. Proximity probe measurements on shaft diameters smaller than 50
mm (2 in.) may require close spacing of radial vibration or axial
position transducers with the potential for their electromagnetic
emitted fields to interact with one another (cross-talk) resulting in
erroneous readings. Care should be taken to maintain minimum separation of transducer tips, generally at least 40 mm (1.6 in.) for axial
position measurements and 74 mm (2.9 in.) for radial vibration measurements.
5.1.1.2 Unless otherwise specified, the standard probe
shall have a tip diameter of 7.6 to 8.3 millimeters (0.300 to
0.327 in.), with a reverse mount, integral hex nut probe body
approximately 25 millimeters (1 in.) in length and 3/8-24UNF-2A threads.
4.5.3 The proximity probe transducer system accuracy
shall be verified on the actual probe target area or on a target
with the same electrical characteristics as those of the actual
probe target area (see Figure 4).
Notes:
1. Reverse mount probes are intended for use with probe holders
allowing external access to the probe and its integral cable. The use
of a reverse mount probe as the standard probe allows a single probe
configuration and thread length to be used throughout the entire
machine train. The length of the probe holder stem will typically
vary from one probe mounting location to the next, but this can be
trimmed in the field without the need to employ different probes.
4.5.4 When verifying the accuracy of any individual component of the proximity probe transducer system in the operating range, the components not under test shall be
maintained within the testing range.
4.6 INTERCHANGEABILITY
4.6.1 All components covered by this standard shall be
physically and electrically interchangeable within the accuracy specified in Table 1. This does not imply that interchangeability of components from different machinery
protection system vendors is required, or that oscillatordemodulators calibrated for different shaft materials are electrically interchangeable.
4.6.2 Unless otherwise specified, probes, cables, and oscillator-demodulators shall be supplied calibrated to the machinery protection system vendor’s standard reference target of
AISI Standard Type 4140 steel.
Note: Consult the machinery protection system vendor for a precision factory target when verifying the accuracy of the transducer
system to this standard. The machinery protection system vendor
should be consulted for applications using target materials other than
AISI Standard Type 4140 steel as they may require factory re-calibration of the transducer system.
4.7 SCOPE OF SUPPLY AND RESPONSIBILITY
4.7.1 For each train, the purchaser shall specify the agency
or agencies responsible for each function of the design, scope
of supply, installation, and performance of the monitoring
system (see Appendix B).
COPYRIGHT American Petroleum Institute
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9
2. Piston rod drop applications do not generally enable reverse
mount probes to be used. A standard option forward mount probe
should be selected instead.
●
5.1.1.3 When specified, the standard options may consist
of one or more of the following forward mount probe configurations (see Figure 6):
a. A tip diameter of 7.6 to 8.3 millimeters (0.300 to 0.327 in.)
and 3/8-24-UNF-2A English threads.
b. A tip diameter of 4.8 to 5.3 millimeters (0.190 to 0.208 in.)
and 1/4-28-UNF-2A English threads.
c. A tip diameter of 7.6 to 8.3 millimeters (0.300 to 0.327 in.)
and M10 x 1 metric threads.
d. A tip diameter of 4.8 to 5.33 millimeters (0.190 to 0.208
in.) and M8 x 1 metric threads.
e. Lengths other than approximately 25 millimeters (1 in.).
f. Flexible stainless steel armoring attached to the probe
body and extending to within 100 millimeters (4 in.) of the
connector.
5.1.1.4 The overall physical length of the probe and integral
cable assembly shall be approximately 1 meter (39 in.), measured from the probe tip to the end of the connector. The minimum overall physical length shall be 0.8 meters (31 in.); the
maximum overall physical length shall be 1.3 meters (51 in.).
10
API STANDARD 670
mils
µm
Channel Accuracy
Deviation from best–
fit straight line (DSL)
at a slope of
7.87 mV per micrometer
(200 mV per mil)
Channel Accuracy
Incremental scale factor (ISF)
Referenced to
7.87 mV per micrometer
(200 mV per mil)
Typical Gap-to-Voltage
transducing characteristic
Output (volts DC)
Gap (mils)
Gap (millimeters)
Note:
A – Maximum error during bench test within testing temperature range of 0°C TO 45°C (30°F TO 110°F).
B – Maximum error over operating temperature range.
Figure 4—Typical Curves Showing Accuracy of Proximity Probe Channels
COPYRIGHT American Petroleum Institute
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MACHINERY PROTECTION SYSTEMS
11
O-ring (optional)
Clear shrink
sleeve for field
identification
3/8 – 24 UNF – 2A
body
7/16 Hex
Probe cable
Probe 8.0 mm
tip
0.31 in.
Connector
15.3 mm
(0.60 in.)
35.0 mm
(1.38 in.)
1.0 m (39 in.)
STANDARD PROBE
Clear shrink
sleeve for field
identification
O-ring (optional)
Connector
1.0 m (39 in.)
4.0 m (158 in.)
STANDARD PROBE AND EXTENSION CABLE
Figure 5—Standard Probe and Extension Cable
COPYRIGHT American Petroleum Institute
Licensed by Information Handling Services
12
API STANDARD 670
Variable unthreaded
lengths
Jam nut
Forward mount proximity probe body
without integral hexnut
Flexible stainless steel armoring (optional)
Connector
Wrench flats standard for
forward mount probes.c
Proximity probe tip diameter and threads a
8.0 mm (0.31 in.) with 3/8 – 24 UNF 2A threads
8.0 mm (0.31 in.) with M10x1 metric threads;
5.0 mm (0.197 in.) with M8x1 metric threads; b
5.0 mm (0.197 in.) with 1/4 – 28 UNF 2A threads b
Notes:
a.
The standard option proximity probe may consist of one or more of the options
discussed in 5.1.1.3.
b.
Forward–mount probes are generally only available in case lengths longer than 20.3
millimeters (0.8 in.). A 1/4 – 28 (or M8x1) body more than 51 millimeters (2 in.) in
length is undesireable from the standpoint of mechanical strength and availability.
c.
Wrench flats shall be compatible with standard wrench sizes. The dimension of the
flats will vary with the diameter chosen for the probe body.
Figure 6—Standard Options for Proximity Probes and Extension Cables
5.1.1.5 A piece of clear heat-shrink tubing (not to be
shrunk at the factory) 40 millimeters (1.5 in.) long shall be
installed over the coaxial cable before the connector is
installed to assist the owner in tagging.
5.1.4 Oscillator-Demodulators
5.1.2 Probe Extension Cables
5.1.4.1 The oscillator-demodulator output shall be 7.87
millivolts per micrometer (200 millivolts per mil) with a
standard supply voltage of –24 volts DC. The oscillatordemodulator shall be calibrated for the standard length of the
probe assembly and extension cable. The output, common,
and power-supply connections shall be heavy-duty, corrosion-resistant terminations suitable for at least 18 American
Wire Gage (AWG) wire (1.0 square millimeters cross section). The oscillator-demodulator shall be electrically interchangeable in accordance with 4.6.1 for the same probe tip
diameter. The interference or noise of the installed system
(including oscillator-demodulator radio-frequency output
noise, line-frequency interference, and multiples thereof) on
any channel shall not exceed 20 millivolts pp, measured at
Probe extension cables shall be coaxial, with connectors as
specified in 5.1.3. The nominal physical length shall be 4
meters (158 in.) and shall be a minimum of 3.6 meters (140
in.) (see Figure 5). Shrink tubing shall be provided at each
end in accordance with 5.1.1.5.
5.1.3 Connectors
The attached connectors shall meet or exceed the mechanical, electrical, and environmental requirements specified in
Section 4 and in MIL-C-39012-C and MIL-C-39012/5F. The
cable and connector assembly shall be designed to withstand
a minimum tensile load of 225 newtons (50 pounds).
COPYRIGHT American Petroleum Institute
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The standard oscillator-demodulator shall be designed to
operate with the standard probe as defined in 5.1.1.2 and the
probe extension cable as defined in 5.1.2.
MACHINERY PROTECTION SYSTEMS
the monitor inputs and outputs, regardless of the condition of
the probe or the gap. The transducer system manufacturer’s
recommended tip-to-tip spacing for probe cross-talk must be
maintained. The oscillator-demodulator common shall be
isolated from ground. Oscillator-demodulators shall be
mechanically interchangeable.
Note: The intent of this paragraph is that interchangeability requirements apply only to components supplied by the same vendor.
●
5.1.4.2 When specified, oscillator-demodulators shall be
supplied with a DIN rail mounting option.
5.1.5 Magnetic Speed Sensors
A magnetic speed sensor consists of the encapsulated sensor (pole piece and magnet), threaded body, and cable.
5.1.5.1 The standard magnetic speed sensor shall be a passive (that is, self-powered) type with a cylindrical pole piece.
The standard body shall have 5/8-18-UNF-2A threads. The
maximum diameter of the pole piece shall be 4.75 mm (0.187
in.) (see Figure 7).
●
5.1.5.2 When specified, the standard options may consist
of one or more of the following:
a. Conical or chisel pole pieces.
b. 3/4–20 UNEF-2A threads.
c. M16 x 1.5 metric threads.
d. Explosion-proof design with integral cable and conduit
threads at integral cable exit.
e. Removable (that is, non-integral) cable and connector.
f. An active (that is, externally-powered) magnetic speed
sensor.
Note: Active magnetic speed sensors or proximity probes are often
used on machines where rotational speeds below 250 rpm must be
reliably sensed. Passive magnetic speed sensors do not typically
generate a suitable signal amplitude at slow shaft rotational speeds.
To sense shaft rotation speeds down to 1 rpm, active magnetic speed
sensors or proximity probes are required.
5.1.5.3 The sensor body and any protective housings for
the sensor shall be constructed of non-magnetic stainless steel
such as AISI Standard Type 303 or 304.
Note: Magnetic stainless steel, such as AISI Standard Type 416,
tends to alter the flux path and reduce the sensor’s output voltage.
Aluminum housings can decrease the sensor’s output voltage and
introduce phase shift as speed changes.
5.1.5.4 The sensor and its associated multi-toothed speed
sensing surface must be compatible (refer to Appendix J).
5/8 – 18 UNF – 2A
Female cable connector
1.0" clearance
required
Jam nut
13
Male connector
Figure 7—Standard Magnetic Speed Sensor With Removable (Non-Integral) Cable and Connector
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14
API STANDARD 670
5.2 ACCELEROMETER-BASED CASING
TRANSDUCERS
5.2.1.2.2 Unless otherwise specified, the nominal physical
length of the accelerometer cable shall be 5 meters (200 in.).
5.2.1 Casing Vibration Transducers
5.2.1.2.3 A piece of clear heat-shrink tubing (not to be
shrunk at the factory) 40 millimeters (1.5 in.) long shall be
installed over the accelerometer cable at each end to assist the
owner in tagging.
5.2.1.1 Piezoelectric Accelerometers
5.2.1.1.1 The standard accelerometer system shall be an
electrically isolated transducer consisting of a case, a piezoelectric crystal, an integral amplifier, and a connector.
5.2.1.3 Connectors
The attached connector or connectors shall meet the
mechanical, electrical, and environmental requirements of the
accelerometer. The body material shall be AISI Standard
Type 300 stainless steel. The accelerometer cable and connector assembly shall be designed to withstand a minimum
tensile load of 225 newtons (50 pounds).
5.2.1.1.2 The accelerometer case shall be constructed from
AISI Standard Type 316 or other equivalent corrosion resistant stainless steel, and shall be electrically isolated from the
piezoelectric crystal and all internal circuitry. The case shall
be hermetically sealed. The case shall have a maximum outside diameter of 25 millimeters (1 in.). The overall case
height shall not exceed 65 millimeters (2.5 in.), not including
the connector. The accelerometer case shall be fitted with
standard wrench flats.
5.2.1.1.3 The mounting surface of the accelerometer case
shall be finished to a maximum roughness of 0.4 micrometers
(16 microinches) Ra (arithmetic average roughness). The center of this mounting surface shall be drilled and tapped (perpendicular to the mounting surface ±5 minutes of an arc) with
a 1/4-28 UNF-2A threaded hole of 6 millimeters (1/4 in.) minimum depth. The vendor shall supply with each accelerometer a standard mounting option consisting of a double-ended,
flanged, 1/4-28 UNF-2A threaded, AISI Standard Type 300
stainless steel mounting stud. The stud shall not prevent the
base of the accelerometer from making flush contact with its
mounting (see Appendix C). The standard accelerometer shall
have a top connector capable of withstanding the operating
environment.
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5.2.1.1.4 When specified, accelerometer standard
options may consist of one or more of the following (see
Appendix C):
a. Integral stud for non-flush mounting (see Appendix C).
b. Mounting stud: U.S. Customary threads other than 1/4-28
UNF.
c. Mounting stud: metric threads.
d. Integral accelerometer cable.
5.2.1.1.5 The accelerometer transverse sensitivity shall not
exceed 5% of the principal axis sensitivity over the ranges
specified in Table 1.
5.3 TEMPERATURE SENSORS
5.3.1 Sensors
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5.3.1.1 The standard temperature sensor shall be a 100ohm, platinum, three-lead resistance temperature detector
with a temperature coefficient of resistance equal to 0.00385
ohm/ohm/°C from 0°C to 100°C (32°F to 212°F). When
specified, the standard optional temperature sensor shall be a
grounded, Type J iron-copper-nickel (for example, Constantan) thermocouple manufactured in accordance with ANSI
MC96.1 (IEC 584-1). Temperature sensors for electrically
insulated bearings shall maintain the integrity of the bearing
insulation (see 6.2.4.5 Note).
●
5.3.1.2 Sensor leads shall be coated, both individually and
overall, with insulation. When specified, flexible stainless
steel overbraiding (see note) shall cover the leads and shall
extend from within 25 millimeters (1 in.) of the tip to within
100 millimeters (4 in.) of the first connection.
Note: Stainless steel overbraiding may be difficult to seal in some
installations.
5.3.1.3 A 40-millimeter (1.5 in.) piece of clear heat-shrink
tubing (not to be shrunk at the factory) shall be installed at the
connection end to assist in the tagging of the sensor.
5.3.2 Wiring
Wiring from the temperature sensor to the monitor shall be
as follows:
5.2.1.1.6 The accelerometer transducer shall have a noise
floor no higher than 0.004 g rms over the frequency range
specified in Table 1.
a. For resistance temperature detectors (RTDs), use threeconductor shielded wire in accordance with Appendix D.
b. For thermocouples, use thermocouple extension wire of
the same material as the thermocouple and in accordance
with Appendix D.
5.2.1.2 Accelerometer Cables
5.3.3 Connectors
5.2.1.2.1 Accelerometer cables shall be supplied by the
machinery protection system vendor. They shall meet the
temperature requirements of the accelerometer.
The standard installation shall employ a single compression-type, like-metal-to-like-metal connection technique
between the sensor and the monitor. Unless otherwise speci-
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MACHINERY PROTECTION SYSTEMS
fied, this connection shall be at a termination block external
to the machine. Plug-and-jack, barrier-terminal-strip, or lug
connectors shall not be used.
e. Electrical or mechanical adjustments for zeroes, gains, and
alarm (alert) and shutdown (danger) setpoints that are field
changeable and protected through controlled access. The
means for adjustment, including connection(s) for a portable
configuration device, shall be accessible from the front of the
monitor system. The monitor system alarm and shutdown
functions shall be manually or automatically bypassed in
accordance with 5.4.1.9 during adjustment.
f. A method of energizing all indicators for test purposes.
g. Printed circuit boards shall have conformal coating to provide protection from moisture, fungus, and corrosion.
5.4 MONITOR SYSTEMS
5.4.1 General
5.4.1.1 The entity with system responsibility for the monitor system shall provide documentation certifying compliance with all provisions of this standard.
5.4.1.2 Unless otherwise specified, signal processing/
alarm/integrity comparison, display/indication, and all other
features and functions specified in Section 5.4 shall be contained in one contiguous enclosure (rack) (refer to Figure 1).
5.4.1.3 At minimum, each monitor system shall be provided with the following features and functions:
Note: Circuit board and backplane connectors may require additional corrosion resistance in extreme environments (that is, goldplating, gas tight connector design, and so forth). Consult the
machinery protection system vendor for availability.
●
a. A design ensuring that a single circuit failure (power
source and monitor system power supply excepted) shall not
affect more than two channels of radial shaft vibration, axial
position, casing vibration, speed indicating tachometer, or six
channels of temperature or rod drop on a single machine case
(see note).
●
b. When specified, the requirements of Safety Instrumented
Systems (SIS) shall apply to some or all of the machinery
protection system, and the machinery protection system
supplier(s) shall provide the reliability/performance documentation to allow the SIS supplier to determine the safety
integrity level for the SIS. SIS requirements are specified by
ISA S84.01–1996.
c. When specified, selected channels (or all channels) of the
monitor system shall be available in two additional configurations utilizing redundancy or other means:
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1. A single circuit failure (power source and monitor system power supply excepted) shall only affect the offending
channel and shall not affect the state of alarm relays.
2. A single circuit failure (power source and monitor
system power supply included) shall only affect the
offending channel and shall not affect the state of alarm
relays (see note).
Note: This requirement is mandatory for all electronic overspeed
detection system channels (see 5.4.8.4.n and 5.4.1.7.i).
d. All radial shaft vibration, axial position, rod drop, and casing vibration channels, associated outputs, and displays shall
have a minimum resolution of 2% of full scale. Temperature
channels, associated outputs and displays shall have one (1)
degree resolution independent of engineering units. Tachometer and electronic overspeed detection system channels,
associated outputs, and displays shall have a resolution of one
(1) rpm.
COPYRIGHT American Petroleum Institute
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h. When specified, a monitor system provided with an internal timeclock shall have provisions for remotely setting the
time and date through the digital communication port of
5.4.1.4.e.
5.4.1.4 A monitor system shall include the following signal processing functions and outputs:
Note: The intent of this requirement is to ensure comparable or
higher reliability for digital, compared with analog, monitor systems.
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15
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a. Isolation to prevent a failure in one transducer from affecting any other channel.
b. A means of indicating internal circuit faults, including
transducer system failure, with externally visible circuit fault
indication for each individual channel. A no-fault condition
shall be positively indicated (for example, lighted). A common circuit fault relay shall be provided for each monitor
system. A circuit fault shall not initiate a shutdown or affect
the shutdown logic in any way except as noted in paragraphs
5.4.2.4 and 5.4.3.4.
c. Individual buffered output connections for all system
transducers (except temperature) via front-panel bayonet nut
connector (BNC) connectors and rear panel connections.
When specified, the monitor system may employ connectors
other than BNC or locations other than the front panel.
d. Gain adjustment for each radial shaft vibration and axial
position channel. Gain adjustment shall be factory calibrated
for 7.87 millivolts per micrometer (200 millivolts per mil).
e. A digital output proportional to each measured variable
shall be provided at a communications port located at the rear
of the monitor system. A short circuit of this output shall not
affect the machinery protection system and the output shall
follow the measured variable and remain at full scale as long
as the measured variable is at or above full scale. Unless otherwise specified, the protocol utilized for this standard digital
output shall be Modicon Modbus.
f. When specified, a 4-20 milliamp DC analog output shall
be provided for each measured variable in addition to the digital output of 5.4.1.4.e above.
16
API STANDARD 670
5.4.1.5 A monitor system shall include the following alarm
and integrity comparison functions:
a. For each channel, alarm (alert) and shutdown (danger) setpoints that are individually adjustable over the entire
monitored range.
b. An alarm (alert) output from each channel to the corresponding alarm (alert) relay. Nonvoting (OR) logic is
required.
c. A shutdown (danger) output from each channel or voted
channels to the corresponding shutdown (danger) relay, as
discussed in 5.4.2.4, 5.4.3.4, 5.4.4.6, and 5.4.6.4.
d. With exception of electronic overspeed detection, fixed
time delays for shutdown (danger) relay activation that are
field changeable (via controlled access) to require from 1 to 3
seconds sustained violation. A delay of 1 second shall be
standard.
e. With exception of electronic overspeed detection (see
note), the time required to detect and initiate an alarm (alert)
or a shutdown (danger) shall not exceed 100 milliseconds.
Relay actuation and the monitor system’s annunciation of the
condition shall be fixed by the time delay specified in
5.4.1.5.d above.
position, piston rod drop, speed indicating tachometer, and
electronic overspeed detection channels used with non-contact displacement transducers.) The display shall be updated
at a minimum rate of once per second. Unless otherwise specified, the system shall continuously indicate:
1. The higher radial shaft vibration at each bearing.
2. All axial position measurements.
3. The highest temperature for each machine case.
4. The highest casing vibration for each machine case.
5. All standard speed indication and overspeed detection
channels.
6. The highest rod drop channel for each machine case.
The display may be an analog, digital, graphic, or other
indication specified by the purchaser.
●
Note: Electronic overspeed detection system response is specified in
Section 5.4.8.4.b
●
●
f. Alarm (alert) indication for each channel or axial position
channel pair.
g. Shutdown (danger) indication for each channel that indicates channel alarm status independent of voting logic.
Shutdown (danger) indication shall be positive indication (for
example, illuminated when channel violates its shutdown setpoint). When specified, shutdown (danger) indication shall
conform to operation of the voting logic.
h. When specified, a tamperproof means for disarming the
shutdown (danger) function and a visible indicator (positive
indication, for example, lighted when disarmed) shall be provided for each channel. Any disarmed condition shall activate
a common relay located in the rack or power supply. This
relay shall be in accordance with 5.4.1.8 and may be used for
remote annunciation.
Note: This requirement is intended for use to remove a failing or
intermittent channel from service.
i. Front-panel switch and rear-panel connections for remote
reset of latching alarm (alert) and shutdown (danger)
conditions.
j. A means to identify the first-out alarm (alert) and the firstout shutdown (danger).
5.4.1.6 A monitor system shall include the following display/indication functions:
a. An integral, dedicated display capable of indicating all
measured variables, alarm (alert) and shutdown (danger) setpoints, and DC gap voltages (for radial shaft vibration, axial
COPYRIGHT American Petroleum Institute
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b. When specified, a non-integral display may be used provided it fulfills all the same measurement and status
indication criteria required of the integral version.
When a non-integral display is specified, the signal processing/alarm/integrity components (that is, blind monitor)
shall be provided with the following minimum local status
indication (positive illumination, for example, lighted in the
annunciated condition) as applicable:
1. Power status.
2. Status of the communication link with the non-integral
display.
3. System circuit fault.
4. System alarm (alert).
5. System shutdown (danger).
6. System shutdown bypassed.
5.4.1.7 Power Supplies
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a. The monitor system components shall be capable of meeting the accuracy requirements specified in Table 1 with input
voltage to the power supply of 90 to 132 volts AC rms or 180
to 264 volts AC rms, switch selectable, with a line frequency
of 50-60 hertz. When specified, the following power supply
options may be used:
1. 19 to 32 volts DC.
2. 14 to 70 volts DC.
3. 90 to 140 volts DC.
b. The monitor system power supply(ies) shall be capable of
supplying power to all components of the machinery protection system as defined in 3.38.
Note: Non-integral displays are excepted from this requirement and
may be powered by external supplies.
c. The output voltage to all oscillator-demodulators shall be
–24 volts DC with sufficient regulation and ripple suppression to meet the accuracy requirements specified in Table 1.
d. All power supplies shall be capable of sustaining a short
circuit of indefinite duration across their outputs without
MACHINERY PROTECTION SYSTEMS
●
damage. Output voltages shall return to normal when an overload or short circuit is removed.
e. The transducer power source shall be designed to prevent
a fault condition in one transducer circuit from affecting any
other channel.
f. All power supplies shall be immune to an instantaneous
transient line input voltage equal to twice the normal rated
peak input voltage for a period of 5 microseconds. Such a
transient voltage shall not damage the power supplies or
affect normal operation of the monitor system.
g. All power supplies shall continue to provide sufficient
power to allow normal operation of the monitor system
through the loss of AC power for a minimum duration of 50
milliseconds.
h. As a minimum, the input power supply transformer for all
instruments shall have separate windings with grounded laminations or shall be shielded to eliminate the possibility of
coupling high voltage to the transformer secondary. In case of
an insulation fault, the input voltage shall be shorted to
ground.
i. When specified, the monitor system shall be fitted with a
redundant power supply capable of meeting all the requirements of 5.4.1.7. This redundant supply shall be capable of
accepting the same input voltages or different input voltages
as the other power supply (for input voltage options, see
5.4.1.7.a). Each power supply shall be independently capable
of supplying power for the entire monitor system, and a failure in one supply and its associated power distribution busses
shall not affect the other.
circuit shall be field changeable to be either normally deenergized or normally energized. Deenergize to alarm and energize to shutdown shall be standard except for overspeed
channels. All relays shall be double-pole, double-throw type
with electrically isolated contacts. All contacts shall be available for wiring.
5.4.1.8.4 The relay control circuits for all overspeed channels shall be normally energized.
5.4.1.8.5 Shutdown (danger), alarm (alert), and circuitfault relays shall be field changeable to latching (manual
reset) or nonlatching (automatic reset). Latching shall be
standard.
5.4.1.8.6 The circuit fault relay shall be normally energized. A failure in the transducer system, monitor system, primary power supply power, or redundant power supply shall
deenergize the circuit fault relay.
●
5.4.1.9 A single, tamperproof means of disarming the shutdown function for the entire machinery protection system
(except for overspeed channels) shall be provided for each
monitor system, along with corresponding status indication
(positive indication, for example, lighted when disarmed) and
two sets of isolated external annunciator contacts. The system
shutdown disarm may be internal or external to the monitor
system. Operation or maintenance of the monitor system in
the disarmed mode, including power supply replacements,
shall not shut down the machine (see note).
5.4.1.8.1 As a minimum, one pair of relays, alarm (alert)
and shutdown (danger), shall be provided for each of the following monitored variables:
Axial position.
Radial shaft vibration.
Casing vibration.
Bearing temperature.
Piston Rod drop.
One circuit fault relay shall be provided.
5.4.1.8.2 As a minimum, one pair of relays, shutdown
(danger) and circuit fault, shall be provided for each channel
of the electronic overspeed detection system. These relays
shall not be shared or voted with any other monitored variables. The shutdown relay on all channels of the electronic
overspeed detection system shall be actuated when the voting
logic as specified in Section 5.4.8.4 detects an overspeed setpoint violation.
●
5.4.1.8.3 Output relays shall be the epoxy sealed electromechanical type. When specified, hermetically sealed electromechanical type relays shall be provided. The relay control
COPYRIGHT American Petroleum Institute
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5.4.1.8.7 Contacts shall be rated at a resistive load of 2
amperes at 120 volts AC, or 1 ampere at 240 volts AC, or 2
amperes at 28 volts DC for a minimum of 10,000 operations.
When inductive loads are connected, arc suppression shall be
supplied at the load. When specified, contacts rated at a resistive load of 5 amperes at 120 volts AC shall be provided.
5.4.1.8.8 For normally deenergized shutdown (danger)
output relays, an interruption of power (line power or DC output power) shall not transfer the shutdown (danger) relay contacts regardless of the mode or duration of the interruption.
5.4.1.8 System-Output Relays
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
17
Note: This feature is intended to be used during monitor system
maintenance only.
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5.4.1.10 When specified, any one or more of the following
shall be available from the digital communications port of
5.4.1.4.e:
a. Channel status of alarm or no alarm.
b. Armed/disarmed (maintenance bypass) shutdown status
for the monitor system (see 5.4.1.9).
c. Alarm storage for storing the time, date, and value for a
minimum of 64 alarms.
d. Channel value ±2% full-scale range resolution.
e. Measured value as a percent of alarm (alert) and shutdown
(danger) values to 1% resolution.
f. Channel status; armed/disarmed (see 5.4.1.5.h).
18
●
API STANDARD 670
g. Transducer OK Limits.
h. Hardware and software diagnostics.
i. Communication link status.
j. Alarm setpoints.
k. Gap voltage, when applicable.
l. Current system time, time stamp and date of event for all
transmitted data.
m. System entry log to include date, time, individual access
code, and record of changes.
n. Setpoint multiplier invoked (see 5.4.2.5 and 5.4.5.4).
(for example, lighted), shall be provided on the monitor system when the multiplier is invoked.
5.4.1.11 Location of Monitor Systems
5.4.3.1 The full scale range for axial position monitoring
shall be from –1.0 to +1.0 millimeters (–40 to +40 mils) axial
movement.
Note: The use of setpoint multiplication is strongly discouraged
unless it is clearly required. Refer to Appendix I for guidance on
when setpoint multiplication may be required.
5.4.2.6 Altering a vibration measurement to arithmetically
subtract (suppress) mechanical or electrical runout or electrical noise shall not be allowed.
5.4.3 Axial Position Monitoring
The purchaser shall specify whether monitor systems are to
be located indoors or outdoors (see note).
5.4.3.2 The axial position circuit-fault system shall be set
to actuate at the end of the transducer’s linear range but not
closer than 250 micrometers (10 mils) of absolute probe gap.
Note: Outdoor installations must be designed and located to avoid
adverse vibrational and environmental effects. Area classification,
orientation, prevailing lighting conditions, display brightness, and
legibility must all be considered.
5.4.3.3 Axial position shall be monitored in paired channels. The monitoring system shall be capable of displaying
the deviation from zero for both channels. The two channels
may share common alarm (alert) and shutdown (danger) setpoints, but shall have separate zeroing and gain adjustments.
5.4.2 Radial Shaft Vibration Monitoring
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5.4.2.1 The full-scale range for monitoring radial shaft
vibration shall be from 0 to 125 micrometers (0 to 5 mils) true
peak-to-peak displacement. When specified, the standard
optional full-scale range shall be from 0 to 250 micrometers
(0 to 10 mils) true peak-to-peak displacement.
5.4.3.4 The axial position shutdown system shall be field
changeable so that one (single logic) or both (dual voting
logic, see note following) transducer signals must reach or
violate the shutdown (danger) setpoint to actuate the shutdown (danger) relay. Dual voting (two out of two) logic shall
be standard.
5.4.2.2 The radial shaft vibration circuit fault system shall
be set to actuate at 125 micrometers (5 mils) less than the
upper limit and 125 micrometers (5 mils) more than the lower
limit of the transducer’s linear range. The minimum allowable
setting for the lower limit shall be 250 micrometers (10 mils)
absolute gap.
Note: In an axial position dual voting logic system, although each
channel may have reached or violated its respective preset shutdown
(danger) setpoints at different times, both channels must jointly and
continuously be at or above the shutdown (danger) setpoints for the
time delay specified in 5.4.1.5.d before the shutdown (danger) relay
activates. In the event of the failure of a single transducer or circuit,
only the circuit-fault alarm and the alarm (alert) will activate [that is,
the shutdown (danger) relay will not activate]. The shutdown (danger) relay will activate when any of the following conditions occur:
5.4.2.3 Radial shaft vibration shall be monitored in paired
channels from the two transducers mounted at each bearing.
5.4.2.4 The radial shaft vibration shutdown system shall be
field changeable so that one (single logic) or both (dual voting
logic – see note) transducer signals must reach or violate the
setpoint to activate a shutdown (danger) relay. Dual voting
(two-out-of-two) logic shall be standard.
a. Both axial position transducers or circuits fail.
b. Either channel has failed, and the other channel has violated the shutdown (danger) setpoint.
c. Both channels jointly violate the shutdown (danger)
setpoint.
Note: In a dual voting logic system, although each channel may have
reached or violated its respective shutdown (danger) setpoints at different times, both channels must be jointly and continuously at or
above the shutdown (danger) setpoint for the time delay specified in
5.4.1.5.d before the shutdown (danger) relay activates. In the event
of failure of a single radial shaft vibration channel transducer or circuit, only the circuit-fault alarm will activate [that is, the shutdown
(danger) relay will not activate].
●
5.4.2.5 When specified, a controlled-access function shall
be provided such that actuation by an external contact closure
causes the alarm (alert) and shutdown (danger) setpoints to be
increased by an integer multiple, either two (2) or three (3). A
multiplier of three (3) shall be standard. Positive indication
COPYRIGHT American Petroleum Institute
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5.4.3.5 Each axial position monitoring channel shall be
field changeable so that the display will indicate either
upscale or downscale with increasing probe gap. Indicating
upscale with increasing probe gap shall be standard.
5.4.4 Piston Rod Drop Monitoring
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5.4.4.1 When specified, piston rod drop monitoring shall
be provided.
MACHINERY PROTECTION SYSTEMS
Note: This measurement is made to prevent the piston from contacting
the cylinder liner by monitoring the rider band wear (see Figure 8).
5.4.4.2 Unless otherwise specified, the piston rod drop
monitor system shall include a once-per-crank-revolution signal using a phase reference transducer of Section 6.1.4 for
timing the measurement location on the piston rod and for
diagnostic purposes (see Figure 9).
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5.4.4.3 The piston rod drop monitor system shall be supplied with one channel per piston rod. When specified, two
channels per piston rod for X-Y measurements shall be provided (see also 6.1.3.6).
5.4.4.4 The piston rod drop monitor display range shall be
from 9.99 millimeters (400 mils) rod rise to 9.99 millimeters
19
(400 mils) rod drop with a minimum of 10 micrometers (SI
units) or 1 mil (U.S. Customary units) resolution.
Note: See Figure 8 to determine rod drop limiting clearance. The
limiting clearance may be the clearance between the rod and the
pressure packing case.
5.4.4.5 The piston rod drop monitor circuit-fault system
shall be set to actuate at the end of the transducer’s linear
range but not closer than 1 millimeter (40 mils) of absolute
proximity probe gap.
5.4.4.6 Unless otherwise specified, the piston rod drop
monitor’s shutdown (danger) function shall activate if any
individual sensor reaches or violates the shutdown (danger)
setpoint for any channel.
Length A
Pressure packing
case
,,
,,,,,,,
,,,,,,,,
,
,
,
,,,
,
Crosshead
pin
,
,
,
,
,
,
,, ,,,,,,,,
,,,,,,, ,,,,,
,,,,,,,
,
Length C
CE
head
Piston rod
Clearance E
Crosshead
Crosshead guide
Piston rod drop
transducer
Clearance D
Piston
Clearance B
Cylinder
Rider rings
• Length A (Crosshead pin to piston center)
• Clearance B (Clearance between piston and cylinder, bottom)
• Length C (Crosshead pin to piston rod drop transducer)
• Clearance D (Packing case to Piston Rod, bottom)
• Clearance E (Piston rod to transducer tip, rod drop)
Calculation 1: Piston rod drop limiting clearance.
This calculation is required to determine whether the component limiting the running clearance is the pressure
packing case clearance or the piston-to-cylinder clearance.
a) If A x D/C < B, then the pressure packing case clearance is limiting; otherwise the piston-to-cylinder clearance is limiting.
b) If the piston-to-cylinder clearance is limiting, the maximum rod drop at the transducer is C x B/A.
Calculation 2: Convert piston rod drop to piston drop.
A change in clearance E represents a loss of piston-to-cylinder clearance as follows:
Piston drop= ∆E x A/C.
Figure 8—Piston Rod Drop Calculations
COPYRIGHT American Petroleum Institute
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20
API STANDARD 670
Phase reference
transducer
PA
Rod Drop
Transducer
Note 1
Phase reference
transducer
TA
Rod Drop
Transducer
Note 1
Piston Angle (PA)= The number of degrees, in the direction of rotation, between phase reference mark and the phase reference
transducer when the piston is at top dead center (TDC).
Trigger Angle (TA)= The number of degrees, in the direction of rotation, between TDC and where in the stroke you want the
reading to be taken. (Should not be too close to TDC or bottom dead center (BDC)).
Note 1: Rod drop transducer mounting should consider the direction the rod will move (toward or away) from the probe as
the rider bands wear.
Figure 9—Piston Rod Drop Measurement Using Phase Reference Transducer For Triggered Mode
5.4.4.7 The piston rod drop monitor shall be able to calculate piston rise or piston drop based on the position of the piston rod, the position of the proximity probe, and
measurements of different machinery components.
5.4.4.10 The piston rod drop monitor system scale factor
shall be adjustable within ±50% of the nominal sensitivity
value to accommodate different materials, coatings, and coating thicknesses on the piston rod.
5.4.4.8 The piston rod drop monitor system shall be capable of being reset to its initial rider band wear setting after
reaching operating temperature to compensate for thermal
growth of the piston.
Discussion:
Note: The initial running position of the piston rod will change due
to thermal growth of the piston and pressures encountered when in
operation.
5.4.4.9 The monitor scale factor shall be field changeable
to either 7.87 mV per micrometer (200 mV per mil) or 3.94
mV per micrometer (100 mV per mil) to match the output of
the transducer system employed. Unless otherwise specified,
7.87 mV per micrometer (200 mV per mil) shall be standard.
COPYRIGHT American Petroleum Institute
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Piston rods or plungers may be manufactured from (or
coated with) a variety of materials, and are often coated with
chrome or tungsten carbide. These factors can affect transducer sensitivity requiring field calibration of the piston rod
drop monitor system. In order to maintain accuracy in these
cases, an adjustable scale factor is necessary. The machinery
protection system vendor should be advised of materials and
composition (including any coating) of the rod to be monitored to provide proper transducer calibration.
5.4.4.11 The piston rod drop monitor system shall be capable of displaying rider band wear in two separate modes.
MACHINERY PROTECTION SYSTEMS
a. Display rider band wear based on the instantaneous gap
voltage at a specific and consistent point on each piston stroke
(triggered mode).
b. Display rider band wear based on the average gap voltage
throughout the stroke (average mode).
velocity range in 5.4.5.5.b is generally desirable for eliminating spurious noise sources and potential false alarms.
5.4.5.2 The monitored frequency range of each casing
vibration channel shall be fixed with two field-changeable filters, high and low pass, or equivalent. Filters, or equivalent,
used to set the frequency range, shall have the following characteristics:
Discussion:
The piston rod drop transducer system measures all piston rod
movements. These movements are caused by not only rider
band wear, but may also include one or more of the following:
a. Unity gain and no loss in the passband greater than 0.5
decibel, referenced to the input signal level.
b. A minimum roll-off rate of 24 decibels per octave at the
high and low cutoff frequency (–3 decibels).
c. Filtering shall be accomplished prior to integration.
d. Unless otherwise specified, casing velocity shall be monitored within a filter passband from 10 hertz to 1,000 hertz.
a. Rod mechanical runout due to crosshead-to-cylinder misalignment in the measurement plane.
b. Rod deflection.
c. Forces imposed by load and process condition changes.
These conditions occur in all reciprocating machines to
varying extents and can potentially lead to erroneous conclusions regarding rider band wear when displayed in the average mode. In order to minimize these effects and obtain the
most reliable indication of rider band wear, it is necessary to
use the triggered mode. To use the triggered mode properly,
find a point on the stroke where the gap voltage changes due
to all influences other than rider band wear are minimized.
This must be done through field testing during commissioning of the piston rod drop monitor.
The most effective way of interpreting piston rod drop
measurements is through the application of long- and shortterm trending. This trending allows users to reliably determine rider band wear.
5.4.5.3 The casing vibration circuit fault system shall activate whenever an open circuit or short circuit exists between
the monitor system and accelerometer. The circuit fault system shall be latching and shall inhibit the operation of the
affected channel until the fault is cleared and the channel reset.
●
5.4.5.5 Unless otherwise specified, the following sets forth
requirements for monitoring casing vibration on gears, pumps,
fans, and motors equipped with rolling element bearings.
Note: The triggered mode should not be used for this measurement.
a. Gear casing vibration shall be monitored in acceleration
and velocity modes from a single accelerometer.
Acceleration shall be monitored in a frequency range
between 1,000 hertz and 10 kilohertz from 0 to 500 meters
per second squared true peak (0 to 50 g’s true peak).
5.4.5 Casing Vibration Monitoring
5.4.5.1 Requirements in this section apply to monitoring
casing vibration utilizing acceleration transducers on
machines such as gears, pumps, fans, and motors equipped
with rolling element bearings. Unless otherwise specified,
machines with fluid film bearings that are designated for monitoring shall be equipped with shaft displacement monitoring
in accordance with the system arrangements in Appendix H.
2. While unfiltered overall vibration is necessary for test stand
acceptance measurements (such as outlined in API 610), it is generally not recommended for machinery protection or continuous monitoring applications. Experience has shown that the default filtered
COPYRIGHT American Petroleum Institute
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5.4.5.4 When specified, a controlled-access function shall
be provided such that actuation by an external contact closure
causes the alarm (alert) and shutdown (danger) setpoints to be
increased by an integer multiple, either two (2) or three (3). A
multiplier of three (3) shall be standard. Positive indication
(for example, lighted), shall be provided on the monitoring
system when the multiplier is invoked.
Note: The use of setpoint multiplication is strongly discouraged
unless it is clearly required. Refer to Appendix I for guidance on
when setpoint multiplication may be required.
5.4.4.12 The piston rod drop monitor shall be capable of
indicating piston rod runout when the crankshaft is slowly
rotated (2 rpm or below).
Notes:
1. When casing vibration is used for machine protection, velocity
measurements are recommended (see Appendix E). Acceleration
measurements should be used to indicate condition and not for
machine protection.
21
Note: As an alternate, an acceleration filter bandwidth centered on
the gear mesh frequency with low and high pass filter settings from
three to six times the rotational frequency of the high speed pinion
may be considered.
Velocity shall be monitored in a frequency range between
10 hertz and 1,000 hertz; amplitude from 0 to 20 millimeters
per second rms (0 to 1.0 ips rms).
●
b. Pumps, fans, and motors with rolling element bearings
(see notes following Section 5.4.5.1):
Velocity shall be monitored in a frequency range from 10
hertz to 1,000 hertz: amplitude from 0 to 25 millimeters per
second rms (0 to 1 ips rms).
22
API STANDARD 670
When specified, acceleration shall be monitored from the
same transducer in a frequency range from 10 hertz to 5 kilohertz; amplitude from 0 to 100 meters per second squared
true peak (0 to 10 g’s true peak).
Equipment operating at shaft speeds from 750 rpm down to
300 rpm should be monitored in a frequency range from 5
hertz to 1,000 hertz.
●
●
5.4.7.1 When specified, a speed indicating tachometer shall
be provided. It shall have the ability to record and store the
highest measured rotational speed (rpm), known as peak speed.
●
5.4.7.2 When specified, controlled access reset capability
for the peak speed function shall be available both locally and
remotely. A speed indicating tachometer shall not be used for
overspeed protection.
5.4.5.6 When specified, a casing vibration monitor system
shall include one or more of the following options:
a. Monitor and display of single channel acceleration or
velocity.
b. Monitor and display two channels in either acceleration or
velocity.
c. Monitor and display alternate filter or frequency ranges.
d. Monitor and display unfiltered overall vibration (see note
2 following 5.4.5.1).
e. Monitor and display in true root mean square (rms).
f. Monitor and display in true peak.
g. Alternate full-scale ranges.
h. Dual voting logic.
5.4.6 Temperature Monitoring
●
5.4.7 Speed Indicating Tachometer
5.4.6.1 The full-scale range for temperature monitoring
shall be available in either SI (0°C to 150°C) or U.S. Customary Units (0°F to 300°F) as specified, with a minimum resolution of one (1) degree independent of engineering units.
When thermocouples are used, temperature monitor systems
shall be designed to be suitable for grounded thermocouples.
5.4.6.2 A fault in the temperature monitor or its associated
transducers shall initiate the circuit-fault status alarm. Downscale failure (that is, a failure in the zero direction) shall be
standard.
5.4.6.3 Temperature monitoring shall include the capability of displaying all monitored values. Unless otherwise specified, the display shall include automatic capability to display
the highest temperature.
5.4.6.4 The temperature monitoring shutdown (danger)
function shall be field changeable to allow either of the following two possible configurations:
5.4.7.3 The system shall accept transducer inputs from
either standard probes or magnetic speed sensors.
5.4.8 Electronic Overspeed Detection
●
5.4.8.1 When specified, an electronic overspeed detection
system shall be supplied.
Note: The electronic overspeed detection system is only one component in a complete overspeed protection system. This standard does
not address these other components such as solenoids, interposing
relays, trip valves, and so forth. Refer to the machinery standard for
the machine in question (such as API 612) for details pertaining to
these other components of the overspeed protection system.
5.4.8.2 The electronic overspeed detection system shall be
dedicated to the overspeed detection function only. It shall be
separate from and independent of all other control or protective systems such that its ability to detect an overspeed event
and activate its output relays does not depend in any way
upon the correct operation of these other systems and does
not depend on these other systems to trip the machine.
Note: The intent of this paragraph is to prevent the electronic overspeed detection system hardware from being combined with hardware from other systems or from using other interposing control or
automation systems between the electronic overspeed detection system and the other components of the overspeed protection system
(such as interposing relays or solenoids).
This requirement for complete segregation of the electronic
overspeed detection system from other systems includes not
only the hardware for process control and machine control
systems, but also the hardware used for other machinery protection functions described in this standard such as radial
vibration, axial position, temperature, and so forth.
a. Any individual sensor must reach or violate the shutdown
(danger) setpoint.
b. Dual voting logic between predetermined pairs of sensors
must reach or violate the shutdown (danger) setpoint.
5.4.8.3 When digital or analog communication interfaces
are provided, they shall not form part of the overspeed protection system and shall not affect its operation in any way.
Dual voting logic shall be standard when two sensors are
installed in the load zone of the bearing. Single violations (OR
logic) shall be standard for all other sensor configurations.
Note: The intent of this paragraph is to allow status and other data
from the electronic overspeed detection system to be shared with
process control, machine control, emergency shutdown, or other
control and automation systems via digital or other interfaces.
COPYRIGHT American Petroleum Institute
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MACHINERY PROTECTION SYSTEMS
5.4.8.4 The electronic overspeed detection system shall
satisfy the following requirements:
a. The system shall be based on three independent measuring
circuits and two-out-of-three voting logic.
b. Unless otherwise specified, the system shall sense an overspeed event and change the state of its output relays within 40
milliseconds when provided with a minimum input signal frequency of 300 Hz. Response time must consider complete
system dynamics (see note) as outlined in ASME PTC 20.21965 Section 7.
Note: 40 millisecond response time may not be adequate in all cases
to keep the rotor speed from exceeding the maximum allowed for
the machine. Give consideration to the following:
1. The electronic overspeed detection system is only one part of the
total overspeed protection system. Total system response time is
affected by, but not limited to, the rotor acceleration rate, the electronic overspeed detection system, the trip valve(s), the electrohydraulic solenoid valves, the entrained potential energy downstream of the trip valve(s) and in the machine, and (where applicable) the extraction check valve(s).
2. To achieve proper electronic overspeed detection system
response time, a minimum number of events per unit time is
required. This is dependent on the method of speed sensing
employed and could, for example, be affected by the number of teeth
on the speed sensing surface, the tooth profile, and the shaft rotational speed (refer to Appendix J).
3. The use of intrinsic safety barriers to meet hazardous area classification requirements may introduce signal delays that preclude the
system from meeting acceptable response time criteria. Care should
be taken to consider these effects when designing the electronic
overspeed detection system and choosing components. Alternative
methods should be considered as required to meet the area classification requirements.
c. An overspeed condition sensed by any one circuit shall
initiate an alarm.
d. An overspeed condition sensed by two out of three circuits
shall initiate a shutdown.
e. Failure of a speed sensor, power supply, or logic device in
any circuit shall initiate an alarm only.
f. Failure of a speed sensor, power supply, or logic device in
two out of three circuits shall initiate a shutdown.
g. Items c, d, e, and f shall require manual reset.
h. All settings incorporated in the overspeed circuits shall be
field changeable and shall be protected through controlled
access.
i. Each overspeed circuit shall accept inputs from a frequency generator for verifying the trip speed setting.
j. Each overspeed circuit shall provide an output for speed
readout.
k. The speed sensors used as inputs to the electronic overspeed
detection system shall not be shared with any other system.
COPYRIGHT American Petroleum Institute
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23
l. A peak hold feature with controlled access reset shall be
provided to indicate the maximum speed reached since last
reset.
Note: Depending on system design, it may be necessary to reset the
peak hold feature after testing to ensure that maximum rotor speed
reached during an actual overspeed event is captured.
m. Activation of online testing functions shall only be permitted through controlled access.
n. The system shall be provided with fully redundant power
supplies in accordance with 5.4.1.7.i.
Note: These power supplies should be energized by the purchaser’s
independent and uninterruptible instrument branch power circuits.
o. The electronic overspeed detection system shall accept
speed sensor inputs from either magnetic speed sensors or
proximity probes (see 6.1.6). Unless otherwise specified, the
inputs shall be configured to accept passive magnetic speed
sensors.
5.5 WIRING AND CONDUITS
5.5.1 General
Installation shall be in accordance with the following:
a. Wiring and conduits shall comply with the electrical practices specified in NFPA 70 (see Figures 10, 11, 12, C-1, and
C-2).
b. All conduit, signal and power cable, and monitor system
components shall be located in well-ventilated areas away
from hot spots such as piping, machinery components, and
vessels.
c. Machinery protection system components shall not be
covered by insulation or obstructed by items such as machinery covers, conduits, and piping.
d. All conduits, armored cable, and similar components
shall be located to permit disassembly and repair of equipment without causing damage to the electrical installation.
e. Signal and power wiring shall be segregated according to
good instrument installation practices (see 5.5.2.4).
f. Signal wiring shall not be run in conduits or trays containing circuits of more than 30 volts of either alternating or
direct current.
g. Signal wiring shall be shielded, twisted pair, or shielded
triad to minimize susceptibility to electromagnetic or radio
frequency interference.
5.5.2 Conduit Runs To Panels
5.5.2.1 Conduits shall be:
a. Weatherproof and of suitable size to meet NFPA 70 requirements for the size and number of signal cables to be installed.
b. Supplied with a drain installed at each conduit low point.
24
API STANDARD 670
Extension cable
Weatherproof-type
connector
Weatherproof-type
connector
Extension cable
Proximity probe
connector
Insulating sleeve or wrap
Probe integral cable
Oscillator-Demodulator
mounting box
Optional
purge
Appropriate support
as required
Flexible
conduit
To opposite end
bearing housing
Tee
with
drain
Tee with drain
Rigid conduit
Note: Proximity probe extension cable connectors shall be insulated from the ground.
Figure 10—Typical Standard Conduit Arrangement
5.5.2.2 Signal cable installed in underground conduit
shall be suitable for continuous operation in a submerged
environment.
Note: Underground conduit will accumulate moisture over long
periods of time regardless of the sealing methods employed.
5.5.2.3 Signal cables shall:
a. Be supplied in accordance with the provisions of Appendix D.
b. Not exceed a physical length of 150 meters (500 feet). The
use of longer cable runs must be reviewed and approved in
writing by the machinery protection system vendor.
c. Use continuous runs only. The use of noncontinuous runs
must be approved by the owner and, if employed, the shield
shall be carried across any junction.
COPYRIGHT American Petroleum Institute
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5.5.2.4 The minimum separation between installed signal
and power cables shall be as specified in Table 2 (see note).
Note: More detailed information on signal transmission systems is
available in API Recommended Practice 552.
Table 2—Minimum Separation Between Installed
Signal and Power Cables
Minimum Separation
Voltage AC
Millimeters
Inches
120
300
12
240
450
18
480
600
24
MACHINERY PROTECTION SYSTEMS
25
Insulating sleeve
or wrap
Probe integral cable
(non-armored)
Cable seal and
pullout protection
Armored
extension
cable
Proximity probe
connector
Optional
purge
Oscillator-Demodulator
mounting box
Armored
extension
cable
Appropriate support
as required
To opposite end
bearing housing
Optional
drain
Armored
extension cable
Figure 11—Typical Standard Armored Cable Arrangement
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26
API STANDARD 670
Conduit box
Cable connection
Conduit with inverted
gooseneck (to minimize
oil leakage)
Rigid conduit
Figure 12—Inverted Gooseneck Trap Conduit Arrangement
5.6 GROUNDING
g. The shield is not used as the common return line.
h. Shields are carried through any field junctions.
5.6.1 Grounding of the Machinery Protection
System
5.7 FIELD-INSTALLED INSTRUMENTS
The responsible party as identified in Appendix B shall
ensure that:
a. The system is grounded in accordance with Article 250 of
NFPA 70 and all metal components (that is, conduit, field
junction boxes, and equipment enclosures) are electrically
bonded (see Figure 13).
b. All metal enclosure components are connected to an electrical grounding bus and that this electrical grounding bus is
connected to the electrical grounding grid with a multi-strand
AWG 4 or larger, dedicated copper ground wire.
c. Mutual agreement is obtained from the purchaser and the
machinery protection system vendor with respect to grounding, hazardous area approvals required, instrument
performance, and elimination of ground loops.
d. The transducer signal and common is isolated from the
machine ground.
e. The machinery protection system instrument common is
designed to be isolated (not less than 500 Kohms) from electrical ground and installed with single-point connection to the
instrument grounding system.
f. The signal cable shield is only grounded at the monitor
system.
COPYRIGHT American Petroleum Institute
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5.7.1 Field-installed machinery protection system installations shall be suitable for the area classification (zone or
class, group, and division) specified by the purchaser and
shall meet the requirements of the applicable sections of IEC
79 (NFPA 70, Articles 500, 501, 502, and 504) as well as any
local codes specified and furnished on request by the purchaser. If instruments are located outdoors or are subject to
fire sprinklers, their housings shall be watertight (NEMA
Type 4 X), as specified in NEMA 250, in addition to any
other enclosure requirements necessary for the area classification in which the instrument is installed. Nonincendive or
intrinsically safe instruments are preferred (see note). When
air purging is specified to meet the area classification, it shall
be in accordance with ISA S12.4 or with NFPA 496, Type X,
Y, or Z; as required.
Note: Explosion-proof or intrinsically safe instrumentation is
acceptable for Class I, Division 1 and Division 2 hazardous (classified) locations; nonincendive instrumentation is acceptable for Class
I, Division 2 hazardous (classified) locations when installed in
accordance with Article 501, NFPA 70.
●
5.7.2 When specified, air purging shall be used to avoid
moisture or corrosion problems, even when weatherproof or
Non-classified area
Transducer housing
(NEMA 3 or 4)
Optional
purge
Monitor System Housing
I/O Terminals
Proximity
probe
Conduit seal,
required if area
is classified
Connector
Flexible
conduit
Shield
V–
Power
Input
Terminals
COM Common
Ground
Connector
Extension
cable
Adapter
Rigid conduit
–VT
COM
Output
Rigid conduit
to monitor
Shield
Optional
drain
No. 14 awg
minimum
No. 8 awg minimum
MACHINERY PROTECTION SYSTEMS
Monitor System
Instrument ground bus bar
Grounding system and cables to
meet NFPA – 70, Article 250.
Figure 13—System Grounding (Typical)
27
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28
API STANDARD 670
watertight housings are used (see 5.7.1). Purge air shall be
clean and dry.
and free from stencil and scribe marks or any other mechanical discontinuity, such as an oil hole or a keyway. These
areas shall not be metallized or plated. The final surface finish shall not exceed (be rougher than)1.0 micrometer (32
microinches) root mean square, preferably obtained by diamond burnishing.
5.7.3 The satisfactory operation of electronic instrumentation in the presence of radio-frequency interference requires
that both the level and the form of the interference, as well as
the required degree of immunity to it, be clearly defined by the
owner (one company may not allow the use of radios in a control room whereas another may allow their use behind instrument panels in the control room while the enclosures are
open). Once the requirement for immunity to radio-frequency
interference is defined, the details of electronic design and
hardware installation can be established (see note). Unless
otherwise specified, monitor systems shall comply with the
electromagnetic radiation immunity requirements of EN
50082-2 and shall use metallic conduit or armored cable.
Note: Diamond burnishing has proven to be effective for electric
runout reduction.
6.1.1.3 These probe areas shall be properly demagnetized
or otherwise treated so that the combined total electrical and
mechanical runout does not exceed 25% of the maximum
allowed peak-to-peak vibration amplitude or 6 micrometers
(0.25 mil), whichever is greater (see note).
Note: Diamond burnishing with a tool-post-held, spring-mounted
diamond is common. Final finishing or light surface-removal finishing by grinding will normally require follow-up demagnetization.
The proximity probe area should be demagnetized. The gauss level
of the proximity probe area should not exceed ±2 gauss. The variation of gauss level around the circumference of the proximity probe
area should not exceed 1 gauss.
Note: In addition to sound practices in the areas of instrument
design, grounding, and shielding, the use of metallic conduit or
armored cable and radio-frequency interference (conductive) gasketing is critical to a successful installation. To ensure a trouble-free
installation, the detailed requirements of a particular system must be
discussed during the procurement phase by the machinery protection
system vendor, the construction agency, and the owner. The machinery protection system vendor does not usually have control over the
installation of the monitor system.
6.1.1.4 For all conditions of rotor axial float and thermal
expansion, a minimum side clearance of one-half the diameter of the probe tip is required. The probe shall not be affected
by any metal other than that of the probe area.
6 Transducer and Sensor Arrangements
6.1.1.5 Unless otherwise specified, the probe gap shall be
set at –10.0 volts DC (±0.2 volts DC).
6.1 LOCATION AND ORIENTATION
Refer to Appendix H for typical system arrangement plans
showing quantities and types of transducers for various
machines.
6.1.1 Radial Shaft Vibration Probes
6.1.1.1 For monitored radial bearings, two radially oriented probes shall be provided. These two probes shall be:
a. Coplanar, 90 degrees (±5 degrees) apart, and perpendicular to the shaft axis (±5 degrees).
b. Located 45 degrees (±5 degrees) from each side of the vertical center.
c. Referenced such that when viewed from the driver end of
the machine train, the Y (vertical) probe is on the left side of
the vertical center, and the X (horizontal) probe is on the right
side of the vertical center regardless of the direction of shaft
rotation.
d. Located within 75 millimeters (3 in.) of the bearing.
e. Located the same with respect to the nodal points as determined by a rotor dynamic analysis of the shaft’s lateral
motion (for example, both sets of probes shall be either inside
or outside the nodal points) (see API Recommended Practice
684).
f. Located such that they do not coincide with a nodal point.
6.1.1.2 The surface areas to be observed by the probes
(probe areas) shall be concentric with the bearing journals
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6.1.2 Axial Position Probes
●
6.1.2.1 Two axially oriented probes shall be supplied for
the thrust bearing end of each casing. Both probes shall sense
the shaft itself or an integral axial surface installed within an
axial distance of 300 millimeters (12 in.) from the thrust bearing or bearings (see Figure 14). When specified, the standard
optional arrangement shall be one probe sensing the shaft end
and one probe sensing an integral thrust collar (see note).
Note: Measurement on a loose non-integral thrust collar will result
in a false indication of shaft axial position.
6.1.2.2 It shall be possible to adjust the probe gap using
commercially available wrenches. No special bent or split
socket wrenches shall be required. The electrical box shall
protect the axial probe assembly so that external loads (for
example, those resulting from personnel stepping on the box)
do not impose stress on the assembly and result in false shaftposition indication (see Figure 14).
6.1.2.3 Externally removable probes shall include provisions to indicate that the gap adjustment has not been
changed from the original setting. This may be accomplished
by either tie wires or external markings.
6.1.2.4 Shaft and collar areas sensed by axial probes shall
have a combined total electrical and mechanical runout of not
more than 13 micrometers (0.5 mil) peak-to-peak. The provi-
Electrical
box with base
bored out
Axial position
locked here
Standard
extension ring
(if necessary)
Dome cover
(typical)
MACHINERY PROTECTION SYSTEMS
Adapter for standard holders
Surface free from stencil
marks and other
discontinuities
Figure 14—Standard Axial Position Probe Arrangement
29
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30
API STANDARD 670
a. With new rider bands installed after allowing for thermal
expansion of the piston.
b. With the rider bands completely worn and the piston
riding directly on the cylinder liner.
sions of 6.1.1.2 regarding surface finish and the requirement
of 6.1.1.4 regarding minimum side clearance shall be
observed.
6.1.2.5 The axial probe gap shall be set so that when the
rotor is in the center of its thrust float, the transducer’s output
voltage is –10 volts DC (±0.2 volts DC).
●
6.1.3 Piston Rod Drop Probes
Note: The convention for X and Y probes when making piston rod
drop measurements is to view the probes from the crankshaft looking towards the cylinder. The probe referred to as “Y” is always
located 90 degrees counterclockwise from the probe referred to as
“X,” regardless of what vertical or horizontal orientation they may
have.
6.1.3.1 Piston rod drop probes shall be mounted internally
in the distance piece with a mounting block attached to the
face of the pressure packing box. The mounting bracket
length shall not exceed 75 mm (3 in.). The probe area is the
piston rod. Unless otherwise specified, the piston rod drop
probe shall be mounted directly below the piston rod (see Figure 15).
6.1.3.7 For all conditions of machine operation and thermal expansion, a minimum side clearance of one-half the
diameter of the probe tip is required. The probe shall not be
affected by any metal other than that of the probe area.
Note: Piston rod drop measurement do not generally enable the use
of reverse mount probes. A standard option forward mount probe
should be selected instead.
●
6.1.4 Phase Reference Transducers
6.1.3.2 When specified, the piston rod drop probe may be
mounted directly over the piston rod rather than below the
piston rod.
6.1.4.1 A one-event-per-revolution mark and a corresponding phase reference transducer shall be provided on the driver
for each machinery train (see Figure H-4 for an example), on
the output shaft(s) of all gearboxes (see Figure H-2), and on
reciprocating compressors when piston rod drop measurements are made (see Figure H-6).
Note: This location may also be used when a redundant or spare
probe is needed.
6.1.3.3 It shall be possible to adjust the probe gap using
commercially available wrenches. No special bent or split
socket wrenches shall be required.
6.1.3.4 When the piston rod is coated, the proximity probe
shall be calibrated on the individual coated piston rod itself.
Note: Coated probe areas will affect system calibration and require
special calibration of the probe system depending on the coating
material used and the thickness.
6.1.3.5 Unless otherwise specified, the piston rod drop
probe shall be gapped as follows:
a. –15 volt DC (± 0.2 volt DC) for bottom-mounted probes.
b. –5 volt DC (± 0.2 volt DC) for top-mounted probes.
Discussion:
1. Piston rod drop probes need more linear range available in
the piston rod drop direction than in the piston rod rise direction. Therefore, these probes should not be gapped at center
range. Proper gap for these probes depends on the rider band
size, the amount of piston rod rise expected due to thermal
growth, and whether the probe is mounted above or below the
piston rod. The position of the piston rod in a. is with the piston rod at its maximum height. The position of the piston rod
in b. is with the piston rod at its minimum height.
2. The initial piston rod drop probe gap must allow the probe
sufficient range to view the piston rod under the following
two conditions.
COPYRIGHT American Petroleum Institute
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6.1.3.6 When specified, an additional probe shall be
mounted in the horizontal plane to assist in diagnostics in
accordance with 5.4.4.3 (see Figure 15).
●
6.1.4.2 When specified, a spare phase reference transducer
shall be installed per 6.2.1.1.c. The radial location of a spare
phase reference transducer, relative to the primary phase reference transducer, shall be documented.
Note: Loss of a phase reference transducer, when used as an input to
a tachometer, results in loss of speed indication. Also, loss of a phase
reference transducer results in the loss of diagnostic capabilities for
all other radial and axial transducers referenced to that shaft.
6.1.4.3 Where gearboxes are used, a one-event-per-revolution mark and a phase reference transducer shall be provided
for each output shaft.
6.1.4.4 Phase reference probe mounting requirements and
electrical conduit protection shall be identical to that of a
radial shaft vibration probe (see 6.2.1.1).
6.1.4.5 The phase reference probe and its angular position
shall be permanently marked with a metal tag on the outside
of the machine casing. The angular position of the one-eventper-revolution mark on the rotor shall be marked on an accessible portion of the shaft.
6.1.4.6 A change in the transducer’s output voltage of at
least 7 volts shall be provided for triggering external analysis
equipment and digital tachometers.
6.1.4.7 The minimum width of the marking groove shall be
one and one-half times the diameter of the probe tip; the minimum length shall be one and one-half times the diameter of
MACHINERY PROTECTION SYSTEMS
31
Piston rod
packing flange
Op
pist tional
on loca
rod tio
n
(6.1 drop p for
.3.2 rob
e
)
To cable exit
Location for optional
diagnostic probe for X–Y
rod monitoring (6.1.3.6)
Pis
ton
De
pis faul
ton t lo
rod catio
(6. drop n for
1.3 pr
.1) obe
rod
To cable exit
Figure 15—Typical Piston Rod Drop Probe Arrangement
COPYRIGHT American Petroleum Institute
Licensed by Information Handling Services
e
as
kc
an
Cr
32
API STANDARD 670
the probe tip; and the minimum depth shall be 1.5 millimeters
(0.06 in.). All edges shall be radiused to a minimum of 0.8
millimeter (0.03 in.). The one-event-per-revolution mark shall
be long enough to allow for shaft thermal expansion and rotor
float.
6.1.4.8 Phase reference probes shall be radially mounted to
sense a one-event-per-revolution mark. The mark shall not be
placed in the path of the normal radial vibration probes.
6.1.5 Standard Tachometer Transducers
●
6.1.5.1 The phase reference transducer in 6.1.4 shall be
used as the input to the tachometer. Mounting requirements
and electrical conduit protection shall be identical to that of a
radial shaft vibration probe (see 6.2.1.1). When specified,
options include the following:
a. The standard probe of 5.1.1.2 observing a multi-tooth
speed sensing surface.
b. The magnetic speed sensor of 5.1.5 observing a multitooth speed sensing surface.
Notes:
1. To achieve the required tachometer accuracy and response time, a
multi-tooth speed sensing surface may be required, particularly for
applications involving low shaft speeds (below 250 rpm) such as
slow-roll or zero speed. Refer to Appendix J for application considerations pertaining to multi-tooth speed sensing surfaces.
2. Refer to notes following Section 6.1.6.2 for application considerations pertaining to speed sensor selection.
6.1.6 Electronic Overspeed Detection System
Speed Sensors
6.1.6.1 Three separate speed sensors that are not shared
with any other system shall be provided for the electronic
overspeed detection system.
6.1.6.2 Unless otherwise specified, speed sensors used as
inputs to the electronic overspeed detection system shall be
passive magnetic speed sensors (see 5.1.5).
Notes:
1. While passive magnetic speed sensors are often employed for
speed sensing, they may not allow low shaft speeds (typically below
250 rpm) to be measured, even when a multi-toothed wheel is
employed. Externally-powered sensors (both active magnetic speed
sensors and proximity probes) are capable of providing a signal
down to shaft speeds of 1 rpm or lower and represent a better choice
for these applications.
2. For applications involving overspeed sensing, powered sensors
have inherent advantages over passive magnetic speed sensors and
should be considered because they allow the electronic overspeed
detection system to assess the integrity of its inputs more fully. They
enable self-checking and circuit fault diagnostic capabilities (such as
COPYRIGHT American Petroleum Institute
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sensor gap within acceptable range or sensor and field wiring deterioration).
3. Proximity probes can be gapped further from the speed sensing
surface than active or passive magnetic speed sensors and are therefore less likely to rub and fail during abnormal rotor vibration conditions (such as encroaching on a second critical speed during an
overspeed condition) when radial vibration amplitudes at the speed
sensing surface location may be large.
6.1.6.3 Mounting requirements and electrical conduit protection for speed sensors shall be identical to that required for
radial shaft vibration probes (see 6.2.1.1).
6.1.6.4 A multi-toothed surface for speed sensing shall be
provided integral with, or positively attached, or locked, to
the driver shaft. This surface may be shared by other speed
sensors, but shall not be used as a gear for driving other
mechanical components. Refer to Appendix J for typical
details of this multi-toothed surface.
6.1.7 Accelerometers
6.1.7.1 Accelerometers intended to monitor radial casing
vibration shall be located on the radial bearing housing. Location and number of accelerometers shall be jointly developed
by the machinery vendor and the owner. In some applications,
field determination of the optimum mounting location may be
required.
Note: Accelerometers intended to monitor axial casing vibration
shall be oriented axially located on or as near as possible to the
thrust bearing housing.
6.1.8 Bearing Temperature Sensors
6.1.8.1 Radial Bearing Sensors
6.1.8.1.1 Unless otherwise specified, temperature sensors
for sleeve journal bearings shall be arranged as follows:
a. Bearings whose length-to-diameter ratio is greater than 0.5
shall be provided with two axially collinear temperature sensors located in the lower half of the bearing, 30 degrees (±10
degrees) from the vertical centerline in the normal direction
of rotation.
b. Bearings whose length-to-diameter ratio is less than or
equal to 0.5 shall be provided with a single sensor axially
located in the center of the bearing, 30 degrees (±10
degrees) from the vertical centerline in the normal direction
of rotation.
6.1.8.1.2 Unless otherwise specified, temperature sensors
for tilting-pad journal bearings shall be arranged as follows:
a. Bearings whose length-to-diameter ratio is greater than 0.5
shall be provided with two axially collinear embedded temperature sensors located at the three-quarter arc length (75%
of the pad length from the leading edge). For pads with self-
MACHINERY PROTECTION SYSTEMS
aligning pivots, installation in accordance with 6.1.8.1.2.b is
acceptable.
b. Bearings whose length-to-diameter ratio is less than or
equal to 0.5 shall be provided with a single sensor axially
located in the center of the pad at the three-quarter arc length
(75% of the pad length from the leading edge).
c. For bearings with load-on-pad designs, the sensor or sensors shall be located in the loaded pad (see Figure 16).
d. For bearings with load-between-pad designs, the sensor
or sensors shall be located in the pad trailing the load (see
Figure 17).
6.1.8.1.3 The machinery vendor shall notify the owner
when the point of minimum lubrication film thickness does
33
not coincide with the sensor locations specified in 6.1.8.1.1
and 6.1.8.1.2. The location of the temperature sensors shall
then be mutually agreed upon by the owner and the machinery vendor.
6.1.8.1.4 For machines such as gearboxes, the shaft operating attitude shall be considered in determining the exact location of the temperature sensors.
Note: The gearbox manufacturer should be consulted to define the
normal shaft-to-bearing load points, when selecting the exact location of temperature sensors, because the position of the journal in the
bearing depends on such considerations as transmitted power and
direction of gear mesh.
(A) SLEEVE BEARING
L
L
n
R
Babbitt
otatio
D
0.8 mm (0.030")
minimum
1.5 mm (0.060")
6.4 mm (0.250")
30'
'
±10
Temperature
Sensor
Location
0.5L
0.5L
0.25L
0.25L
L/D ≤ 0.5
(see Note 2)
L/D > 0.5
(see Note 1)
(B) TILTING PAD BEARING
(5 PAD, LOAD ON PAD)
Bearing shell
0.8 mm
(0.030")
75%
R
1.5 mm (0.060")
2.5 mm (0.100")
L/D
0.5
(see Note 2)
otatio
0.8 mm
(0.030")
75%
L/D 0.5
(see Note 1)
Babbitt
n
otatio
n
Babbitt
R
Bearing shell
1.5 mm (0.060")
2.5 mm (0.100")
0.25L
0.5L
0.25L
Temperature sensor
location
Notes:
1. If the length-to-diameter (L/D) ratio is greater than 0.5, two sensors shall be installed, each located at a
distance of 0.25L from the end of the bearing's running face.
2.
If the L/D ratio is less than or equal to 0.5, a single sensor shall be axially located in the center of the bearing.
Figure 16—Typical Installations of Radial Bearing Temperature Sensors
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34
API STANDARD 670
(C) TILTING PAD BEARING
(5 PAD, LOAD BETWEEN PAD)
Bearing shell
Bearing shell
5L
0.
1.5 mm (0.060")
2.5 mm (0.100")
Temperature
Sensor
L
5
Location
0.2 L
0.8 mm
(0.030")
75%
75%
L/D 0.5
(see Note 2)
R
1.5 mm (0.060")
2.5 mm (0.100")
otatio
n
n
Babbitt
R
Babbitt
otatio
Temperature
Sensor
Location
L/D
0.5
(see Note 1)
0.5 25L
0.
Temperature
Sensor
Location
Notes:
1. If the length-to-diameter (L/D) ratio is greater than 0.5, two sensors shall be installed, each located at a
distance of 0.25L from the end of the bearing's running face.
2.
If the L/D ratio is less than or equal to 0.5, a single sensor shall be axially located in the center of the bearing.
Figure 17—Typical Installations of Radial Bearing Temperature Sensors
6.1.8.2 Thrust Bearing Sensors
6.1.8.2.1 A temperature sensor shall be located in each of
two shoes in the normally active thrust bearing. These sensors
shall be at least 120 degrees apart. For maintenance purposes
and also to identify the maximum pad temperature, the sensors preferably shall be located in the lower half of the thrust
bearing assembly (see Figure 18).
6.1.8.2.2 Thrust bearing temperature sensors shall be
placed at 75% of the pad width radially out from the inside
bearing bore and at 75% of the pad length from the leading
edge (see Figure 18).
6.1.8.2.3 Unless otherwise specified, at least two additional temperature sensors shall be provided in the normally
inactive thrust bearing, arranged as specified in 6.1.8.2.1 and
6.1.8.2.2.
6.2 MOUNTING
6.2.1 Probes
6.2.1.1 All probes (except piston rod drop probes) shall be
mounted in holders that permit adjustment and are retractable
or removable while the machine is running. Internal mount-
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ing of probes is acceptable only when approved by the owner
or when externally mounted probes do not allow true measurement of the rotor-to-bearing relative motion but internally
mounted probes do. When internal probes are used, they shall
be installed with complete spares, and the location of these
spares shall be approved by the owner and provided in the
machinery protection system documentation. The preferred
location for the installed spare probes is as follows:
a. Radial Probes—180 degrees radially from that of the
installed primary probes. If this mounting location is inaccessible, spare probes shall be mounted where space permits but
shall always be mounted 90 degrees apart from one another
per Section 6.1.1.1.
b. Axial Probes—Spare axial probes shall be mounted to
observe the same axial surface(s) as that of the installed primary probes. Their radial orientation relative to one another
can vary depending on machine design.
c. Phase Reference Probes—Spare phase reference probes
will ideally be at the same radial orientation as the installed
primary phase reference probes. When this is not possible,
they shall be located 180 degrees radially opposite the
installed primary phase reference probes.
MACHINERY PROTECTION SYSTEMS
35
Top
Rotation
75'
0.8
min mm
imu (0.0
30"
m
)
1.5
(0.0 mm
60"
)
2.5
m
(0.1 m
00"
)
Pa
Ba
d
bb
itt
75'
Temperature
sensor
location
Notes:
1. The temperature sensor shall be located 1.5 to 2.5 millimeters (0.060 to 0.100 in.) from the bearing
running face and not less than 7.6 millimeters (0.030 in.) from the (white metal) babbitt/pad
interface. The holes shall be finished with a bottoming drill, and all corners shall be broken.
2.
The sensor lead shall be routed from the bearing to the outside of the machine through a
penetration fitting. The sensor lead shall be properly secured, with no internal connections, to
prevent damage as a result of whipping, chafing, windage, and oil. The sensor lead shall not
restrain pivoting thrust shoes.
Figure 18—Typical Installation of Thrust Bearing Temperature Sensors
6.2.1.3 When a probe is internally mounted, the probe
holder shall be at least 10 millimeters (3/8 in.) thick. The
probe lead shall be securely tied down to prevent cable whipping or chafing resulting from windage or oil. No cable connections shall be made inside the machine. To facilitate
maintenance while the machine is running, all cable connections shall be made in conduit boxes located outside the
machine.
Discussion:
1. Depending on the installation, internally mounted probes
may be preferable because they can often be mounted on the
bearing itself and provide true relative displacement between
the bearing and the rotor. Externally mounted probes may not
provide this bearing-to-rotor measurement and instead may
simply provide a casing-to-rotor relative motion that is a less
direct measurement of true machine behavior.
●
2. When constrained mounting areas do not allow spares to be
installed, externally mounted probes should be used instead,
or, with the owner’s agreement, a single spare probe can be
installed for each radial and axial bearing location.
6.2.1.2 Probe holders shall be free from natural frequencies that could be excited by machine-generated frequencies.
The free cantilevered length of a probe holder sleeve shall not
exceed 200 millimeters (8 in.). Longer lengths require the use
of a probe holder sleeve support guide.
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6.2.1.4 In the standard configuration, all extension cables
shall be protected in conduit as shown in Figure 10. Extension cable connectors shall be electrically isolated from conduit using an insulating sleeve or wrap located in an
externally accessible junction box. When specified, armored
extension cable as shown in Figure 11 shall be provided.
6.2.2 Oscillator-Demodulators
The number, location, and installation of mounting boxes
for oscillator-demodulators shall be approved by the owner.
36
API STANDARD 670
6.2.4.4 The leads from all temperature sensors shall be oriented to minimize bending or movement during operation
and maintenance. The sensor leads shall be secured to prevent
cable whipping and chafing resulting from windage or oil
without restricting pad movement. Unless otherwise specified, no sensor lead connections shall be made inside the
machine (see note). To facilitate maintenance while the
machine is running, a terminal head for all cable connections
shall be provided outside the machine. The sensor leads shall
be free from splices (see Figure 3).
Unless otherwise specified, the following requirements shall
be met:
a. There shall not be less than one mounting box per machinery casing.
b. All mounting boxes for oscillator-demodulators shall be
located for ease of access and on the same side of the equipment train.
c. These boxes shall not be mounted on the machine. The
mounting location shall be selected so that minimal vibration
is imparted to the oscillator-demodulator. The mounting location shall also be selected so that the oscillator-demodulators
are not subjected to ambient temperatures exceeding their
operating range (see Table 1).
Note: The default configuration does not permit connectors on temperature sensor leads inside the machine because connectors are an
intermittent source of potential problems. Requiring all connections
outside the machine ensures connector problems can be addressed
without machine shutdown and disassembly. However, the paragraph does allow the user to specify internal connectors when
required for ease of mechanical maintenance.
6.2.3 Accelerometers
6.2.3.1 The machinery vendor shall provide machined and
finished accelerometer mounting points as shown in Appendix C. The boss or surface shall be part of the machine casing.
●
6.2.4.5 When specified, the temperature sensor tip shall be
electrically insulated from the bearing (see note).
6.2.3.2 Unless otherwise specified, the machinery vendor
shall provide the standard accelerometer mounting configuration as shown in Appendix C for each accelerometer.
Note: Many machines, notably electric motors and generators,
require electrically insulated bearings to prevent circulating shaft
currents. Bearing temperature sensors must not violate this insulation requirement (see 5.3.1.1 and 5.6.1).
6.2.3.3 All cables shall be enclosed in conduit. The conduit
shall be attached to an enclosure, not to the accelerometer
(see Appendix C for typical mounting and enclosure arrangements).
6.2.4.6 The temperature sensor signal cables shall not permit liquid or gas to leak out of the point where they penetrate
the bearing housing.
6.2.3.4 When specified, the accelerometer cable shall be
protected by a weatherproof, flexible armor (see note) (see
Appendix C for details).
Note: This permits mounting the accelerometer with mechanical
protection without using conduit.
6.2.4 Bearing Temperature Sensors
6.2.4.1 Embedded temperature sensors shall be provided.
They shall not contact the babbitt (white metal) but shall be
located in the bearing backing metal (see Figures 16, 17,
and 18). Through-drilling and puddling of the babbitt is not
permitted.
6.2.4.2 The heat-sensing surface of the temperature sensor
shall be in positive contact with the bearing backing metal
and not less than 0.75 millimeter (30 mils) from the babbitt
bond line. The recommended distances from the babbitt running face are as follows (see Figures 16, 17, and 18):
a. For tilting-pad bearings, from 1.5 to 2.5 millimeters (60 to
100 mils).
b. For sleeve bearings, from 1.5 to 6.4 millimeters (60 to 250
mils).
●
●
6.2.4.3 When specified, spring-loaded (bayonet type) temperature sensors that contact the outer shell of the bearing
metal are permitted without bonding or embedment.
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Acceptable arrangements include the following:
a. Potted, encased sleeves that are sealed with compression
seals.
b. Molded signal leads within an elastomeric material that is
sealed with a tapered compression fitting.
c. Hermetic seals.
d. Inverted gooseneck trap arrangement in conduit (see
Figure 12).
6.3
IDENTIFICATION OF TRANSDUCERS AND
TEMPERATURE SENSORS
Each probe lead, extension cable, oscillator-demodulator,
and temperature sensor lead shall be plainly marked to indicate the location and service of its associated probe or sensor.
This tagging shall be visible without disassembly of machine
or removal from machine.
7 Inspection, Testing, and Preparation for
Shipment
7.1 GENERAL
7.1.1 After advance notification of the machinery protection system vendor by the purchaser, the purchaser’s representative shall have entry to all vendor and subvendor plants
where manufacturing, testing, or inspection of the equipment
is in progress.
MACHINERY PROTECTION SYSTEMS
7.1.2 The machinery protection system vendor shall
notify subvendors of the purchaser’s inspection and testing
requirements.
date the equipment will be ready for testing. If the testing is
rescheduled, the machinery protection system vendor shall
notify the purchaser not less than 5 working days before the
new test date.
7.1.3 The machinery protection system vendor shall provide sufficient advance notice to the purchaser before conducting any inspection that the purchaser has specified to be
witnessed or observed.
●
7.3.2 Machinery Protection System Vendor Testing
7.3.2.1 As a minimum, the machinery protection system
vendor shall individually bench test each component of the
monitor system to ensure compliance with the accuracy
requirements of Table 1.
7.1.4 The purchaser will specify the extent of his participation in the inspection and testing, and the amount of advance
notification he requires.
7.1.4.1 When shop inspection and testing have been specified by the purchaser, the purchaser and the machinery protection system vendor shall meet to coordinate hold points
and inspectors’ visits.
●
7.3.2.2 The machinery protection system vendor shall have
test documentation and certification available for inspection
by the purchaser.
7.1.4.3 Observed means that the purchaser shall be notified of the timing of the inspection or test; however, the
inspection or test shall be performed as scheduled, and if the
purchaser or his representative is not present, the machinery
protection system vendor shall proceed to the next step.
(The purchaser should expect to be in the factory longer
than for a witnessed test.)
7.4 PREPARATION FOR SHIPMENT
7.4.1 The machinery protection system vendor shall provide the purchaser with the instructions necessary to preserve
the integrity of the storage preparation after the equipment
arrives at the job site and before start-up.
7.1.5 Equipment for the specified inspection and tests shall
be provided by the machinery protection system vendor.
7.4.2 The equipment shall be prepared for shipment after
all testing and inspection have been completed and the equipment has been released by the purchaser.
7.1.6 The purchaser’s representative shall have access to
the machinery protection system vendor’s quality control program for review.
7.4.3 The equipment shall be identified with item and serial
numbers. Material shipped separately shall be identified with
securely affixed, corrosion-resistant metal tags indicating the
item and serial number of the equipment for which it is
intended. Where the equipment does not provide sufficient
room for attachment of metal tags, a mutually agreed upon
means for indicating item and serial number shall be used. In
addition, crated equipment shall be shipped with duplicate
packing lists, one on the inside and one on the outside of the
shipping container.
7.2 INSPECTION
The machinery protection system vendor shall keep the
following data available in electronic format for at least 20
years for examination by the purchaser or his representative
upon request:
a. Purchase specifications for all major items on bills of
materials.
b. Test and calibration data to verify that the requirements of
the specification have been met.
7.4.4 One copy of the manufacturer’s standard installation
instructions shall be packed and shipped with the equipment.
●
7.3.1 General
7.3.2.1.1 When specified, a factory acceptance test of the
machinery protection system shall be conducted. Details of
this test shall be mutually agreed upon by the machinery protection system vendor and the owner.
Note: This test may include (but is not limited to) integration with
process control, emergency shutdown, machinery data acquisition
and diagnostic, or other systems; simulation of transducer system
inputs and proper operation of output, display and communication
capabilities.
7.1.4.2 Witnessed means that a hold shall be applied to the
production schedule and that the inspection or test shall be
carried out with the purchaser or his representative in attendance. For factory acceptance testing of the machinery protection system, this requires written notification of a
successful preliminary test.
7.3 TESTING
37
7.4.5 The purchaser shall specify to the vendor any specialized requirements for packing, sealing, marking, or storage of
the equipment.
7.3.1.1 Equipment shall be tested in accordance with 7.3.2.
7.5 MECHANICAL RUNNING TEST
7.3.1.2 The machinery protection system vendor shall
notify the purchaser not less than 5 working days before the
Unless otherwise specified, transducer systems of the same
type and manufacture as those purchased for the installation
COPYRIGHT American Petroleum Institute
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38
API STANDARD 670
shall be in use during the factory mechanical running test of
monitored equipment.
7.6 FIELD TESTING
7.6.1 All features of the monitor system specified in 5.4
shall be functionally tested by the construction agency (see
Appendix F). Results shall be documented in accordance
with 8.3. The construction agency shall verify that the alarm
(alert) and shutdown (danger) setpoints are adjusted to the
values agreed upon by the purchaser.
7.6.2 Each monitor system shall be tested in the field to
verify calibration in the testing temperature range (see 4.1).
These tests shall be conducted in accordance with 7.6.2.1,
7.6.2.2, and 7.6.2.3 by the construction agency using the
actual monitoring system components to be installed on the
machine. Results shall be documented in accordance with 8.3
(see note).
Note: Figures 19 and 20 illustrate typical overall system functions.
●
7.6.2.1 For proximity probe transducer systems, a graph of
the gap (a minimum of 10 points in either micrometers or
mils) versus the transducer’s output voltage shall be provided
by the construction agency and supplied to the owner (see
Figure 21). This procedure shall be performed in accordance
with the requirements of the machinery protection system
vendor (see Appendix G). When specified, calibration to the
installed probe area shall be performed.
7.6.2.2 Temperature monitors shall be tested by substitution of the job temperature sensor with an appropriate sensor
simulator. A minimum of three points (20%, 50%, and 80%
of span) shall be simulated and the monitor readings
recorded.
7.6.2.3 For casing vibration systems, a shaker simultaneously exciting the job accelerometer and a calibrated
reference accelerometer shall be used for testing. The
accelerometer shall be tested over the frequency and
amplitude ranges listed in Tables 3A and 3B. The monitor
system shall be tested to full-scale amplitude by electronic
simulation.
7.6.2.4 For tachometer and electronic overspeed detection
systems, the monitor system shall be tested to full-scale range
by electronic simulation.
7.6.3 The construction agency shall perform a field test of
the entire machinery protection system to verify operation to
design specification requirements. This test shall include system performance and functionality of its integration with
other control, automation, and information systems. Details
of this test shall be mutually agreed upon by the construction
agency and the owner. Results shall be documented in accordance with 8.3.
COPYRIGHT American Petroleum Institute
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Note: This test may include (but is not limited to) integration with
process control, emergency shutdown, machinery data acquisition
and diagnostic, or other systems; simulation of transducer system
inputs and proper operation of output, display, and communication
capabilities.
8 Vendor’s Data
8.1 GENERAL
8.1.1 The information required in this section shall be furnished by the machinery vendor with unit responsibility or by
the responsible agency specified in Appendix B. The machinery vendor shall complete and forward the Vendor Drawing
and Data Requirements form to the address or addresses
noted on the inquiry or order (see Appendix G). This form
shall detail the schedule for transmission of drawings, curves,
and data as agreed to at the time of the order, as well as the
number and type of copies required by the purchaser.
8.1.2 The data shall be identified on transmittal (cover) letters and in title blocks or title pages with the following information: The purchaser/owner’s corporate name.
c. The job/project number.
d. The equipment item or tag number and service name.
e. The purchase order number.
f. Any other identification specified in the inquiry or purchase order.
g. The machinery vendor’s identifying proposal number,
shop order number, serial number, or other reference required
to identify return correspondence completely.
8.1.3 A coordination meeting covering the API 670
Machinery Protection System shall be held (preferably at the
entity holding unit responsibility for the entire machinery
train in the case of new machines), within 4 to 6 weeks after
the purchase commitment.
Unless otherwise specified, the machinery vendor having
unit responsibility will prepare and distribute an agenda prior
to this meeting, which, as a minimum, shall include review of
the following items relative to the API 670 Machinery Protection System:
a. The purchase order, scope of supply, unit responsibility,
and subvendor’s items.
b. The datasheets.
c. Applicable specifications and previously agreed-upon
exceptions.
d. Schedules for transmittal of data, production, and testing.
e. The quality assurance program and procedures.
f. Inspection, expediting, and testing.
g. Schematics and bills of material.
h. The physical orientation of the rotating equipment with
relation to the API 670 system components.
i. Other technical items.
200mVAC pk–pk
Oscillator
Demodulator
Test signal
junction
Y
Test signal
junction
VDC
Oscillator
Demodulator
400mVAC pk–pk
X
VDC
Danger
Alert
X Probe
µm
µm
Bearing 1 vibration
Rotati
on
Danger
setpoint
100 µm
2)
e
ot
(N
Danger setpoint
signal generator
Set at 800mVAC pk–pk
(4 mils)
(Note 1)
Shaft
center
VDC
Y
p
Am
Am
p
X
Alert
setpoint
75 µm
(3 mils)
(Note 1)
k
–p
m
–p
pk
pk
ils
ils
k
m
–p
2
Bearing
1
Alert setpoint
signal generator
Set at 600mVAC pk–pk
VDC
pk
µm
pk
µm
–p
k
Bearing
center
50
25
800mVAC pk–pk
MACHINERY PROTECTION SYSTEMS
Y Probe
1
k
Notes:
1. The example shown is for illustration only and does not necessarily represent any actual condition or machine.
2.
Probe cold gap setting is typically 1250 µm (50 mils), which corresponds to approximately 10 volts DC.
Figure 19—Calibration of Radial Monitor and Setpoints for Alarm and Shutdown
39
COPYRIGHT American Petroleum Institute
Licensed by Information Handling Services
40
API STANDARD 670
Thrust
monitor
display
(mile)
N
O
R
M
A
L
N
O
R
M
A
L
C
O
U
N
T
E
R
C
O
U
N
T
E
R
mils (mm)
5 mils (0.125)
10 mils (0.250)
16 mils (0.400)
10 mils (0.250)
5 mils (0.125)
To trip
To alarm
Float
To alarm
To trip
O
K
Thrust
monitor
display
(mm)
Set Point mils (mm)
active shoe
+23.00 (+0.575)
+18.00 (+0.450)
+ 8.00 (+0.200)
inactive shoe - 8.00 (-0.200)
- 18.00 (-0.450)
- 23.00 (-0.575)
Shutdown (active)
Alarm (active)
Active shoe (bump)
Float
zone
Inactive shoe (bump)
Alarm
A
O
Output
(Volts DC)
K
Shut
down
B
(mils)
GAP
Oscillator
Demodulator
(mm)
Oscillator
Demodulator
Float
zone
Active
(16 mils) thrust
bearing
Counter thrust
Normal thrust
Rotor
(Inactive)
(active)
Active shoe (bump)
gap (58 mils)
Notes:
1. The monitor is calibrated for 200 millivolts per mil and has a cold float zone of 16 mils. The monitor's range is from +40 mils to -40
mils. The calibration procedure consists of the following steps: (1) assuring the calibration curve, (2) bumping the shaft to the
active shoe, (3) adjusting the probe for a meter indication of 8 mils (a transducer output of approximately 11.6 volts DC), (4)
bumping the float to confirm the thrust, and (5) setting the alarm and shutdown points.
2.
The example shown is for illustration purposes only and does not necessarily represent any actual condition or machine.
Figure 20—Calibration of Axial Position (Thrust) Monitor
COPYRIGHT American Petroleum Institute
Licensed by Information Handling Services
Radial Vibration
Ac
tiv
e
O
K
O
K
Axial Position
Thrust
meter
indication
(mils)
O
K
O
Gap (mils)
Gap (mils)
Gap
(millimeters)
Calibration
Gap (mils)
Gap
(millimeters)
Output
(volts DC)
Machine Tag Number:
Probe Tag Number:
Probe Serial Number:
Model:
Extension Cable Number:
Probe Resistance (ohm):
Probe and Cable Resistance (ohm):
Oscillator-Demodulator:
Type/Serial Number:
Supply Voltage:
Cold Gap Set:
Alarm Set Point:
Shutdown Set Point:
Date:
Note: Referenced to 200 millivolts
Output
(volts DC)
Machine Tag Number:
Meter
Probe Tag Number:
Indication Probe Serial Number:
Model:
Extension Cable Number:
Probe Resistance (ohm):
Probe and Cable Resistance (ohm):
Oscillator-Demodulator:
Type/Serial Number:
Supply Voltage:
Cold Gap Set:
Alarm Set Point:
Shutdown Set Point:
Date:
MACHINERY PROTECTION SYSTEMS
K
C
ol
In
ac
tiv
e
Output
(volts DC)
N dF
or lo
Sh Ala ma at
ut rm l
do
w
n
Output
(volts DC)
Note: Referenced to 200 millivolts
Figure 21—Typical Field Calibration Graph for Radial Vibration and Axial Position
41
COPYRIGHT American Petroleum Institute
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42
API STANDARD 670
Table 3A—Accelerometer Test Points (SI)
Acceleration
Frequency
(Hz)
m/sec2
rms
Table 3B—Accelerometer Test Points
(Customary Units)
Velocity
m/sec2
peak
mm/sec
rms
mm/sec
peak
Acceleration
Frequency
(Hz)
g
peak
g
rms
Velocity
ips
peak
ips
rms
10a
1
1.41
15.92
22.51
20
7
9.90
55.70
78.78
10a
0.15
0.11
0.92
0.65
50
7
9.90
22.28
31.51
20
1
0.71
3.08
2.17
100a
7
9.90
11.14
15.76
50
1
0.71
1.23
0.87
159.15b
7
9.90
7.00
9.90
61.44b
1
0.71
1.00
0.71
200
7
9.90
5.57
7.88
100a
1
0.71
0.62
0.43
500
7
9.90
2.23
3.15
200
1
0.71
0.31
0.22
1000a
7
9.90
1.11
1.58
500
1
0.71
0.12
0.09
1000a
1
0.71
0.06
0.04
1000
2
1.41
0.12
0.09
2000
4
2.83
0.12
0.09
5000a
4
2.83
0.05
0.03
4
2.83
0.02
0.02
1000
15
21.21
2.39
3.38
2000
30
42.43
2.39
3.38
5000a
30
42.43
0.95
1.35
10,000
30
42.43
0.48
0.68
Notes: All values are based on sinusoidal waveforms.
aThese values are required test points.
bAt 159.15 Hz, 1.0 m/sec2 = 1.0 mm/sec (crossover frequency).
10,000
Notes: All values are based on sinusoidal waveforms.
aThese values are required test points.
bAt 61.44 Hz, 1 g = 1.0 ips (crossover frequency).
8.2 PROPOSALS
8.2.1 General
8.2.2 The machinery vendor shall forward the original proposal and the specified number of copies to the addressee
specified in the inquiry documents. As a minimum, the proposal shall include the data specified in 8.2.2 and 8.2.3, as well
as a specific statement that the system and all its components
are in strict accordance with this standard. If the system and
components are not in strict accordance, the machinery vendor shall include a list that details and explains each deviation.
The machinery vendor shall provide details to enable the purchaser to evaluate any proposed alternative designs. All correspondence shall be clearly identified in accordance with 8.1.2.
8.2.3 Drawings
8.2.3.1 The drawings indicated on the Vendor Drawings
and Data Requirements form shall be included in the proposal
(see Appendix G). As a minimum, the following data shall be
furnished:
a. A general arrangement or outline drawing for each monitoring system, including overall dimensions, installation
details, and maintenance clearance dimensions.
b. Schematics of all control and electrical systems. Bills of
materials shall be included.
8.2.3.2 If typical drawings, schematics, and bills of materials are used, they shall be marked up to reflect the actual
COPYRIGHT American Petroleum Institute
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equipment and scope proposed and shall have the same specific project information as noted in 8.1.2 a-f.
8.2.4 Technical Data
The following data shall be included in the proposal:
a. The purchaser’s datasheets, with complete machinery vendor’s information entered thereon and literature to fully
describe details of the offering.
b. The Vendor Drawing and Data Requirements form, indicating the schedule according to which the machinery vendor
agrees to transmit all the data specified as part of the contract
(see Appendix G).
c. A schedule for shipment of the equipment, in weeks after
receipt of the order.
d. A list of spare parts recommended for startup and normal
maintenance purposes.
e. A list of the special tools furnished for maintenance. The
machinery vendor shall identify any metric items included in
the offering.
f. A statement of any special weather protection and winterization required for start-up, operation, and periods of idleness
under the site conditions specified. The statement shall show
the protection to be furnished by the purchaser, as well as that
included in the machinery vendor’s scope of supply.
g. A description of any special requirements specified in the
purchaser’s inquiry and as noted by bulleted paragraphs in
Sections 5.4 and 7.4.5.
MACHINERY PROTECTION SYSTEMS
43
h. A description of how the system meets specified area classification requirements, as discussed in 5.7.1.
i. Any special requirements or restrictions necessary to protect the integrity of the machinery protection system.
ments shall be uniquely identified by part number for interchangeability and future duplication purposes. Standard
purchased items shall be identified by the original manufacturer’s name and part number.
8.3 CONTRACT DATA
8.3.4.2 The machinery vendor shall indicate on the above
parts lists which parts are recommended spares for start-up
and which parts are recommended for normal maintenance
(see Item d of 8.2.3). The machinery vendor shall forward
the lists to the purchaser promptly after receipt of the
reviewed drawings and in time to permit order and start-up.
The transmittal letter shall be identified with the data specified in 8.1.2.
8.3.1 General
8.3.1.1 The contract data specified in Appendix G shall be
furnished by the machinery vendor or responsible agency
specified in Appendix B. Each drawing, bill of material, and
datasheet shall have a title block in its lower right-hand corner
that shows the date of certification, a reference to all identification data specified in 8.1.2, the revision number and date,
and the title.
8.3.5 Installation, Operation, Maintenance, and
Technical Data Manuals
8.3.1.2 The purchaser will promptly review the machinery vendor’s data when he receives them; however, this
review shall not constitute permission to deviate from any
requirements in the order unless specifically agreed upon
in writing. After the data have been reviewed, the machinery vendor shall furnish certified copies in the quantity
specified.
8.3.5.1 General
The machinery vendor shall provide sufficient written
instructions and a list of all drawings to enable the purchaser
and the owner to correctly install, operate, and maintain all of
the equipment ordered. This information shall be compiled in
a manual or manuals with a cover sheet that contains all reference-identifying data specified in 8.1.2, an index sheet that
contains section titles, and a complete list of referenced and
enclosed drawings by title and drawing number. The manual
shall be prepared for the specified installation; a typical manual is not acceptable.
8.3.2 Drawings
8.3.2.1 The drawings furnished shall contain sufficient
information so that with the drawings and the manuals specified in 8.3.5, the construction agency or owner can properly
install, operate, and maintain the ordered equipment. Drawings shall be clearly legible, shall be identified in accordance
with 8.3.1.1, and shall be in accordance with ASME Y14.2M.
As a minimum, each drawing shall include the details for that
drawing listed in Appendix G.
8.3.5.2
Any special information required for proper installation
design that is not on the drawings shall be compiled in a manual that is separate from the operating and maintenance
instructions. This manual shall be forwarded at a time that is
mutually agreed upon in the order, or at the time of the final
issue of prints. The manual shall contain information such as
special calibration procedures and all other installation design
data, including the data specified in 8.2.2 and 8.2.3.
8.3.3 Technical Data
8.3.3.1 The data shall be submitted in accordance with
Appendix G and identified in accordance with 8.3.1.1. Any
comments on the drawings or revisions of specifications that
necessitate a change in the data shall be noted by the
machinery vendor. These notations will result in the purchaser’s issue of completed, corrected datasheets as part of
the order specifications.
8.3.5.3 Operating and Maintenance Manual
The manual containing operating and maintenance data
shall be forwarded no more than 2 weeks after all of the specified tests have been successfully completed. This manual
shall include a section that provides special instructions for
operation at specified extreme environmental conditions, such
as temperatures. As a minimum, the manual shall also include
all of the data listed in Appendix G.
8.3.4 Parts Lists and Recommended Spares
8.3.4.1 The machinery vendor shall submit complete
parts lists for all equipment and accessories supplied. The
lists shall include manufacturer’s unique part numbers,
materials of construction, and delivery times. Materials
shall be identified as specified in Section 5. Each part shall
be completely identified and shown on cross-sectional or
assembly-style drawings so that the purchaser may determine the interchangeability of the part with other equipment. Parts that have been modified from standard
dimensions or finish to satisfy specific performance require-
COPYRIGHT American Petroleum Institute
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Installation Manual
●
8.3.5.4 Technical Data Manual
When specified, the machinery vendor shall provide the
purchaser with a technical data manual within 30 days of
completion of shop testing (see Appendix G for detail
requirements).
COPYRIGHT American Petroleum Institute
Licensed by Information Handling Services
APPENDIX A—MACHINERY PROTECTION SYSTEM
DATA SHEETS
45
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COPYRIGHT American Petroleum Institute
Licensed by Information Handling Services
MACHINERY PROTECTION SYSTEMS
47
PAGE
MACHINERY PROTECTION
SYSTEM
DATA SHEET
1 APPLICABLE TO:
PROPOSAL
PURCHASE
JOB NO.
ITEM NO.
PURCH. ORDER NO.
DATE
INQUIRY NO.
BY
REVISION NO.
DATE
AS BUILT
2 FOR
DATE
OF
REVISION
UNIT
3 SITE
4 SERVICE
5 INSTRUMENT MANUFACTURER
6 NOTE:
INDICATES INFORMATION TO BE COMPLETED BY PURCHASER
7
BY PURCHASER OR MACHINERY VENDOR
8
BY MACHINERY VENDOR
MACHINERY TRAIN COMPONENTS
9 NUMBER OF:
OPERATING ENVIRONMENT
STANDARD COMPONENTS (4.4) ________________________________________
10 _____ PUMPS
_____ ROTARY COMPRESSIONS
SPECIFIED CHEMICALS (4.4.2) _________________________________________
11 _____ STEAM TURBINES
_____ GEAR UNITS
SHOCK______________________________________________________________
12 _____ GAS TURBINES
_____ ELECTRIC MOTORS
13 _____ CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSIONS
_____ OTHER (DESCRIBE) _________
STD. 7.6-8.3 mm TIP DIA. REV. MOUNT WITH 1.0 METER INTEGRAL CABLE (5.1.1.2)
14 _____ RECIPROCATING COMPRESSOR
________________________________
OPTIONAL PROBES WITH THE FOLLOWING STANDARD OPTIONS: (5.1.1.3)
15
SCOPE OF RESPONSIBILITIES
16
APPENDIX B ___________________________________________________
17
FINAL INSTALLATION ___________________________________________
PROBE DATA (5.1.1)
7.6 TO 7.9 mm (0.300 TO 0.312 INCHES)
PROBE TIP WITH 3/8-24-UNF-2A PROBE THREADS (5.1.1.3a)
4.8-5.3 mm (0.190-0.208 INCHES) 1/4-28 UNF-2A (5.1.1.3b)
18
MONITOR SYSTEM __________________________________________
TIP DIAMETER OF 7.6 TO 7.9 mm WITH M10 METRIC THREADS (5.1.1.3c)
19
SIGNAL CABLES ____________________________________________
TIP DIAMETER OF 4.8 TO 5.0 mm AND M8 METRIC THREADS (5.1.1.3d)
20
TRANSDUCERS & SENSORS __________________________________
21
APPENDIX F REQUIREMENTS _____________________________________
FLEXIBLE STAINLESS STEEL ARMORING ATTACHED TO THE PROBE
22
________________________________________________________________
BODY AND EXTENDING TO APPROXIMATELY 100 mm (4 INCHES) OF
LENGTHS OTHER THAN APPROXIMATELY 25 mm (1 INCH) (5.1.1.3e)
23
SCOPE OF SUPPLY
24
TRANSDUCERS _________________________________________________
THE CONNECTOR (5.1.1.3f)
25
SENSORS ______________________________________________________
SENSOR DATA SHEETS
26
MONITOR SYSTEMS _____________________________________________
OTHER (DESCRIBE)
27
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
28
SITE DATA
STANDARD MAGNETIC SPEED SENSOR (5.1.5.1)—SEE OVERSPEED
_______________________________________________________________
29 DESIGN TEMP. °C OR °F ________ SUMMER MAX. _____ WINTER MIN.
_______________________________________________________________
30 DESIGN WET BULB TEMP. °C OR °F ______________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
31
WINTERIZATION REQUIRED
_______________________________________________________________
32
TROPICALIZATION REQUIRED
33
UNUSUAL CONDITIONS
MONITOR SYSTEMS (5.4.1.11)
INDOORS
OUTDOORS
NUMBER OF PROBES IN TRAIN
34
DUST
STANDARD COMPLEMENT (APPENDIX __ )
35
FUMES
NONSTANDARD COMPLEMENT REQUIRED
36
OTHER (DESCRIBE)
PRIMARY RADIAL ____________________________________________________
37
SPARE RADIAL ______________________________________________________
38 ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT HAZARD CLASS
PRIMARY AXIAL _____________________________________________________
39 CLASS ______________ GROUP _______________ DIVISION _______________
SPARE AXIAL _______________________________________________________
40
RADIO FREQUENCY INTERFERENCE (3.8.4) ___________________________
PHASE REFERENCE __________________________________________________
41
________________________________________________________________
SPEED INDICATING __________________________________________________
42
OPERATING TEMPERATURE RANGE
43
STANDARD, ALL COMPONENTS (4.1)
44
NONSTANDARD REQUIREMENTS
OVERSPEED SENSING ________________________________________________
SPARE OVERSPEED SENSING __________________________________________
ROD DROP _________________________________________________________
45
PROBE & EXTENSION CABLE
°C OR °F FROM _____ TO _____
46
OSCILLATOR-DEMODULATOR
°C OR °F FROM _____ TO _____
PROBE ARRANGEMENT (APPENDIX H)
RADIAL TRANSDUCERS
47
TEMP. SENSOR & LEAD
°C OR °F FROM _____ TO _____
STANDARD ARRANGEMENT (6.1.1)
48
MONITOR AND POWER SUPPLY
°C OR °F FROM _____ TO _____
DEVIATION FROM STANDARD RADIAL PROBE ARRANGEMENT
49
ACCELEROMETER
°C OR °F FROM _____ TO _____
REQUIRED: (DESCRIBE) ________________________________________________
50
51
____________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
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____________________________________________________________________
48
API STANDARD 670
PAGE
MACHINERY PROTECTION
SYSTEM
DATA SHEET
1
JOB NO.
ITEM NO.
PURCH. ORDER NO.
DATE
INQUIRY NO.
BY
REVISION NO.
DATE
PROBE ARRANGEMENT (APPENDIX H) (CON'T)
2 AXIAL TRANSDUCERS (6.1.2)
OF
PIEZOELECTRIC ACCELEROMETER DATA (5.2) (CON'T)
ACCELEROMETER WITH THE FOLLOWING OPTIONS: (5.2.1.1.4)
3
STANDARD SHAFT END OR INTEGRAL AXIAL SURFACE
CENTER-POST MTG—ENGLISH THREADS OTHER THAN 1/4-26 UNF (5.2.1.1.4b)
4
OPT. ONE PROBE ON SHAFT & ONE PROBE ON INTEGRAL THRUST COLLAR
SPECIFY THREADS _______________________________________________
5
OTHER (DESCRIBE) ______________________________________________
CENTER-POST MOUNTING—METRIC THREADS (5.2.1.1.4c)
6
________________________________________________________________
SPECIFY THREADS _______________________________________________
7
PROBES MOUNTED TO MEASURE INCREASING GAP FOR NOR. OP. (5.4.3.5)
INTEGRAL EXTENSION CABLE (5.2.1.1.4d)
8
PROBES MOUNTED TO MEASURE DECREASING GAP FOR NOR. OP. (5.4.3.5)
INTEGRAL CENTER POST (5.2.1.1.4a)
9 PHASE REFERENCE TRANSDUCERS/ONE EVENT PER REVOLUTION
10
DRIVER
11
GEARBOX
STANDARD 5 METER (200 INCH) ACCELEROMETER EXTENSION CABLE
OTHER (DESCRIBE) (m) (INCHES) ___________________________________
EXTENSION CABLE PROTECTION (6.2.3.3)
12
INPUT SHAFT
13
OUTPUT SHAFT
14
DRIVEN EQUIPMENT
NUMBER OF ACCELEROMETERS PER BEARING ___________________________
15
SPARE TRANSDUCER (6.1.4.2)
NUMBER OF CHANNELS IN TRAIN ______________________________________
16
OTHER (DESCRIBE) _____________________________________________
STANDARD CONDUIT _____________________________________________
OPTIONAL WEATHERPROOF FLEXIBLE ARMOR (6.2.3.4)
17 ROD DROP PROBES
TEMPERATURE SENSOR DATA (5.3.1)
SENSORS NOT REQUIRED
18
DUAL PROBES TOP AND BOTTOM
STD GROUNDED, TYPE J IRON/COP.-NICKEL (CONSTANTAN) THERMOCOUPLE
19
TOP ONLY (6.1.3.2)
OPT. 100 OHM, PLATINUM, THREE-LEAD RTD'S, WITH A TEMP. COEFFICIENT
20
BOTTOM ONLY
OF RESISTANCE EQUAL TO 0.00385 OHM/OHM/°C ________________________
21
OTHER (6.1.3.6) __________________________________________________
OTHER (DESCRIBE) __________________________________________________
22 SPEED INDICATOR PROBES (6.1.5.1)
FLEXIBLE STAINLESS STEEL OVERBRAIDING ON LEADS (5.3.1.2)
23
STANDARD
___________________________________________________________________
24
OTHER _________________________________________________________
25 OVERSPEED SENSING PROBES (6.1.6)
TEMPERATURE SENSOR MOUNTING
EMBEDDED SENSORS
26
STANDARD
SPRING-LOADED SENSORS (BAYONET TYPE) (6.2.4.3)
27
STANDARD OPTION
OTHER (DESCRIBE) __________________________________________________
28
OTHER _________________________________________________________
29
OSCILLATOR-DEMODULATOR
ELECTRICALLY INSULATED FROM BEARING (6.2.4.5)
___________________________________________________________________
RADIAL BEARING TEMPERATURE SENSOR ARRANGEMENT
30
SUPPLIED WITH DIN RAIL MOUNTING (5.1.4.2)
31
OTHER (SPECIFY) ________________________________________________
SENSORS REQUIRED
32
________________________________________________________________
SENSORS NOT REQUIRED
33
EXTENSION CABLE DATA (5.1.2)
SLEEVE TYPE, L/D RATIO > 0.5 (6.1.8.1.1.a)
34
STANDARD 4.0 METER (160 INCHES) LENGTH, NONARMORED
SLEEVE TYPE, L/D RATIO ≤ 0.5 (6.1.8.1.1.b)
35
4.0 METER (160 INCHES) LENGTH, ARMORED (6.2.1.4)
TILT-PAD TYPE, L/D RATIO > 0.5 (6.1.8.1.2.a)
36
CABLE CONNECTOR ELECTRICAL ISOLATION (6.2.1.4)
TILT-PAD TYPE, L/D RATIO ≤ 0.5 (6.1.8.1.2.b)
37
INSULATING SLEEVE
LOAD-ON PAD (6.1.8.1.2.c)
38
INSULATING WRAP (DESCRIBE) _______________________________
LOAD-BETWEEN-PADS (6.1.8.1.2.d)
39
____________________________________________________________
40
OTHER (DESCRIBE) ______________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
41
________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
42
PIEZO ELECTRIC ACCELEROMETER DATA (5.5)
43 GENERAL:
OTHER (DESCRIBE) __________________________________________________
THRUST BEARING TEMPERATURE SENSOR ARRANGEMENT
SENSORS REQUIRED
44
INSTRUMENT MANUFACTURER'S MODEL NO. _______________________
SENSORS NOT REQUIRED
45
ACCELEROMETER POWER REQ. _________ 24VDC ___________ (mA)
STANDARD TWO SENSORS IN ACTIVE BEARING
46
SPECIAL BODY MATERIAL ________________________________________
SENSORS ______________ DEGREES APART
47
MOUNTING ENVIRONMENT TEMPERATURE °C OR °F _________________
STANDARD TWO SENSORS IN INACTIVE BEARING
48 TRANSDUCER MOUNTING:
SENSORS ______________ DEGREES APART
49
API APPENDIX FIGURE:
C1
C2
50
OTHER _________________________________________________________
51
STANDARD MOUNTING/STANDARD ACCELEROMETER (5.2.1.1.3)
52
53
COPYRIGHT American Petroleum Institute
Licensed by Information Handling Services
C3
OTHER (DESCRIBE) __________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
MACHINERY PROTECTION SYSTEMS
49
PAGE
MACHINERY PROTECTION
SYSTEM
DATA SHEET
1
JOB NO.
ITEM NO.
PURCH. ORDER NO.
DATE
INQUIRY NO.
BY
REVISION NO.
DATE
MONITOR SYSTEM
OF
RADIAL SHAFT VIBRATION AND AXIAL POSITION CHANNEL (CON'T)
2
MONITOR MOUNTING DIMENSION (mm) (INCHES)
3
HEIGHT __________ WIDTH __________ DEPTH __________
4
LOCATION
5
REQUIREMENTS OF SAFETY INSTRUMENTED SYSTEM (SIS) APPLY AS
SHUTDOWN BYPASS EACH CHANNEL (5.4.1.5.h)
6
SPECIFIED BELOW (5.4.1.3b) ____________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
7
_____________________________________________________________
ADDITIONAL DISPLAY AND/OR DIGITAL OUTPUTS (5.4.1.10)
8
REMOTE TIMESET
9
POWER SUPPLY REQUIREMENTS
INDOOR
SHUTDOWN SYSTEM (5.4.2.4)
OUTDOOR
SINGLE CHANNEL
DISPLAY
STANDARD
11
OTHER (SPECIFY) (5.4.1.7a) __________________________________
12
ACCURACY REQUIREMENTS FOR STANDARD OPTION POWER
13
SUPPLIES IN ACCORDANCE WITH 5.4.1.7a
14
REDUNDANT POWER SUPPLY REQUIRED (5.4.1.7i)
ARMED/DISARMED SHUTDOWN STATUS
ALL MACHINES
ALARM STORAGE FOR STORING THE TIME, DATE,
AND VALUE FOR A MINIMUM OF64 ALARMS
CHANNEL VALUE ±0.5% FULL-SCALE RANGE
OUTPUTS
RESOLUTION
16
4 TO 20 mA
17
ANALOG
18
OTHER (DESCRIBE) (5.4.1.6b) ________________________________
TRANSDUCER OK LIMITS
19
TAMPERPROOF SHUTDOWN DISARM W/LIGHT EMIT. DIODE (5.4.1.9)
HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE DIAGNOSTICS
20
CONNECTORS OTHER THAN BNC (5.4.1.4c) __________________
COMMUNICATIONS LINK STATUS
21
22
MEASURED VALUE AS A % OF ALARM (ALERT) AND
STANDARD DIGITAL OUTPUT
GRAPHIC
RELAYS
SHUTDOWN (DANGER) VALUES TO 1% RESOLUTION
ALARM SETPOINTS
ALARM (ALERT)
GAP VOLTAGE
23
STANDARD NORMALLY ENERGIZED
TIME STAMP AND DATE ALL TRANSMITTED DATA
24
OPTIONAL NORMALLY DEENERGIZED
LOG OF SYSTEM ENTRY TO INCLUDE DATE, TIME,
25
SHUTDOWN (DANGER)
26
INDIVIDUAL ACCESS CODE AND RECORD OF CHANGES
STANDARD NORMALLY DEENERGIZED
27
SETPOINT MULTIPLIER INVOKED
OPTIONAL NORMALLY ENERGIZED
OTHER (DESCRIBE) _________________________________
28
HERMETICALLY SEALED ELECTRO-MECHANICAL TYPE RELAYS (5.4.1.8.3)
29
CONTACTS RATED AT A RESISTIVE LOAD OF 5 AMPERES AT
30
120 VOLTS AC (5.4.1.8.7)
31
NUMBER OF PROBES MONITORED
ANALOG
34 TYPE OF DISPLAY
__________________________________________________
PISTON ROD DROP CHANNELS
PISTON ROD DROP MONITORING REQUIRED (5.4.4)
RADIAL SHAFT VIBRATION AND AXIAL POSITION CHANNEL (5.4.2 & 5.4.3)
32 TYPE OF DISPLAY
33
__________ RADIAL
STANDARD MONITOR SYSTEM SUPPLIED WITH ONE CHANNEL PER
PISTON ROD (5.4.4.3)
STANDARD OPTION—TWO CHANNELS PER PISTON ROD (5.4.4.3)
NUMBER OF PROBES MONITORED
CASING VIBRATION CHANNEL (5.4.5)
35
LIQUID CRYSTAL DIODES
CASING VIBRATION NOT REQUIRED
36
LIGHT EMITTING DIODES
CASING VIBRATION REQUIRED
37
OTHER (DESCRIBE) ________________________________
38
OUTPUT
CHANNEL ALARM STATUS
10
15
STANDARD DUAL VOTING LOGIC
REDUNDANT CIRCUIT REQUIREMENT (5.4.1.3c)
39 READOUT RANGE
40 RADIAL DISPLAY (5.4.2.1)
PUMP, FAN, OR MOTOR WITH ROLLING ELEMENT BEARINGS FREQUENCY
AXIAL DISPLAY
41
STANDARD 0 TO 125 MICROMETERS
42
STANDARD 0 TO 5 MILS
–40 TO +40 MILS
43
OPTIONAL 0 TO 250 MICROMETERS
OTHER (DESCRIBE)
44
OPTIONAL 0 TO 10 MILS
____________________
45
CONTROLLED ACCESS FUNCTION FOR NOTIFICATION OF ALARM AND
46
DANGER SETPOINT MULTIPLIER APPLICATION REQUIRED (5.4.2.5)
47
STANDARD 3X
48
STANDARD OPTION 2X
NUMBER OF ACCELEROMETERS MONITORED ________________________
STANDARD MONITOR (5.4.5.1)
–1.0 TO +1.0 mm
RANGE (5.4.5.1)
OPTIONS (5.4.5.6)
MONITOR AND DISPLAY OF SINGLE CHANNEL
ACCELERATION
VELOCITY
(5.4.5.6a)
MONITOR AND DISPLAY TWO CHANNELS IN EITHER
ACCELERATION
VELOCITY
(5.4.5.6b)
MONITOR AND DISPLAY ALTERNATE FILTER OR FREQ. RANGE (5.4.5.6c)
SPECIFY ____________________________________________________
MONITOR AND DISPLAY UNFILTERED OVERALL VIBRATION (5.4.5.6d)
49
OTHER (DESCRIBE) ______________________________________________
MONITOR AND DISPLAY AMPLITUDE IN RMS (5.4.5.6e)
50
_______________________________________________________________
MONITOR AND DISPLAY TRUE PEAK (5.4.5.6f)
51
ALTERNATE SCALE RANGE (5.4.5.6g) SPECIFY _______________________
52
DUAL VOTING LOGIC (5.4.5.6h)
53
COPYRIGHT American Petroleum Institute
Licensed by Information Handling Services
50
API STANDARD 670
PAGE
MACHINERY PROTECTION
SYSTEM
DATA SHEET
JOB NO.
ITEM NO.
PURCH. ORDER NO.
DATE
INQUIRY NO.
BY
REVISION NO.
DATE
1
CASING VIBRATION CHANNEL (CON'T)
2
CONTROLLED ACCESS FUNCTION FOR NOTIFICATION OF ALARM AND
3
DANGER SETPOINT MULTIPLIER APPLICATION REQUIRED (5.4.5.4)
OF
SYSTEM WIRING & CONDUIT (CON'T)
OSCILLATOR-DEMODULAR MOUNTING BOXES
ONE PER MACHINE CASE
4
STANDARD 3X MULTIPLIER
TWO PER MACHINE CASE
5
STANDARD OPTION 2X MULTIPLIER
OTHER (DESCRIBE) __________________________________________________
6
OTHER (DESCRIBE) _____________________________________________
7
______________________________________________________________
8
______________________________________________________________
9
BEARING TEMPERATURE CHANNEL (5.4.6)
10 MONITOR CONFIGURATION
11
___________________________________________________________________
FIELD-INSTALLED INSTRUMENTS (5.7)
LOCATION
INDOOR
OUTDOOR
HOUSING/MOUNTING BOX
NEMA TYPE ______________
TOTAL NUMBER OF SENSORS MONITORED ________________________
DRY AIR PURGE REQUIREMENTS (5.7.2)
12 NUMBER OF BEARINGS MONITORED
NONE REQUIRED
13
RADIAL __________________________
REQUIRED PER ISA-512.4 & NFPA 496
14
ACTIVE THRUST __________________
TYPE X
15
INACTIVE THRUST ________________
TYPE Y
16
OTHER (DESCRIBE) _____________________________________________
17
______________________________________________________________
VENDOR'S DATA (8.3.5.4)
NO. OF COPIES OF REQUIRED DOCUMENT _______________________________
18 TYPE OF DISPLAY
REQUIRED BY (SPECIFY DATE) _________________________________________
19
NO. OF PRINTS AND/OR REPRODUCIBLES REQUIRED ______________________
STANDARD DIGITAL
20
LIQUID CRYSTAL DIODES
REQUIRED BY (SPECIFY DATE) _________________________________________
21
LIGHT EMITTING DIODES
OTHER (DESCRIBE) __________________________________________________
22
OTHER ____________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
23
OTHER ________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
24 READOUT RANGE (5.4.6.1)
___________________________________________________________________
25
STANDARD 0°C TO+150°C
___________________________________________________________________
26
OPTION 0°F TO +300°F
27
OTHER (DESCRIBE) _____________________________________________
TESTING INSPECTION AND PREP FOR SHIPMENT (7.1.4)
28 SHUTDOWN SYSTEM
FIELD TESTING PER APPENDIX F
INSPECTION REQUIRED OF MONITORING SYSTEM IN INSTRUMENT
29
STANDARD DUAL VOTING LOGIC
30
EACH RADIAL BEARING
10 DAY NOTICE REQUIRED BEFORE TEST
31
ACTIVE THRUST BEARINGS
MONITORING SYSTEM TO BE USED DURING MECHANICAL RUNNING TEST
32
INACTIVE THRUST BEARINGS
33
OTHER (DESCRIBE) _________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
34
35
36
SINGLE CHANNEL
MANUFACTURERS FACILITY (7.3.2.1.1)
(DESCRIBE EXTENT TO BE USED)
___________________________________________________________________
TACHOMETER (5.4.7)
___________________________________________________________________
37
TACHOMETER NOT REQUIRED
___________________________________________________________________
38
TACHOMETER REQUIRED
PROBES CALIBRATED TO INSTALLED PROBE TARGET AREA (7.6.2.1)
39
ABILITY TO RECORD/STORE HIGHEST SPEED (5.4.7.1)
40
CONTROLLED ACCESS RESET REQUIRED (5.4.7.2)
41
SYSTEM WIRING & CONDUIT (5.5)
42 VIBRATION & POSITION SIGNAL CABLE
MISCELLANEOUS
SPECIAL PACKING, SEALING, MARKING OR STORAGE REQUIREMENTS:
DESCRIBE (7.4.5):
_______________________________________________________________________
43
SINGLE CIRCUIT CABLE (APPENDIX D.2)
_______________________________________________________________________
44
MULTIPLE-CIRCUIT CABLE (APPENDIX D.3)
_______________________________________________________________________
45 TEMPERATURE SIGNAL CABLE
_______________________________________________________________________
46
SINGLE CIRCUIT THERMOCOUPLE (APPENDIX D.4)
_______________________________________________________________________
47
OTHER (DESCRIBE) _____________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
48
______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
49
______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
50
______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
51
______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
52
_______________________________________________________________________
53
_______________________________________________________________________
COPYRIGHT American Petroleum Institute
Licensed by Information Handling Services
MACHINERY PROTECTION SYSTEMS
51
PAGE
SPEED SENSOR
DATA SHEET
JOB NO.
ITEM NO.
PURCH. ORDER NO.
DATE
INQUIRY NO.
BY
REVISION NO.
DATE
1
ELECTRONIC OVERSPEED DETECTION SYSTEM REQUIRED (5.4.8.1)
2
OVERSPEED DETECTION SHALL BE PART OF A SAFETY INSTRUMENTED SYSTEM (5.4.1.3b)
3
CUSTOMER PROFILE
OF
SPEED SENSORS
4
5
MACHINERY VENDOR
6
OWNER
SPEED SENSOR TYPE:
7
OTHER ________________________________________________________
PASSIVE MAGNETIC1
SYSTEM INTEGRATION PERFORMED BY ____________________________
ACTIVE MAGNETIC1
PROXIMITY PROBE
8
9
10
11
TIP OR POLE PIECE DIAMETER _________________________________________
12
LINEAR RANGE
13
(PROXIMITY PROBE ONLY) __________________________________________
14
15
MACHINE DETAILS
DRIVER
16
STEAM TURBINE
17
18
GAS TURBINE
TURBO EXPANDER
19
OTHER ____________________________________________________
20
21
MANUFACTURER _______________________________________________
22
MODEL NO. ____________________________________________________
23
POWER _______________________________________________________
24
RATED SPEED __________________________________________________
25
OVERSPEED TRIP SPEED ________________________________________
26
FASTEST TIME IN WHICH MACHINE SPEED CAN DOUBLE DURING
27
START UP __________________________________________________
28
29
DRIVEN MACHINE
30
COMPRESSOR
31
PUMP
32
GENERATOR
33
OTHER ____________________________________________________
34
35
MANUFACTURER
36
MODEL NO. ____________________________________________________
37
POWER _______________________________________________________
38
RATED SPEED _________________________________________________
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
COPYRIGHT American Petroleum Institute
Licensed by Information Handling Services
MANUFACTURER ____________________________________________________
MODEL NO. _________________________________________________________
ARE THESE SPEED SENSORS SHARED WITH THE GOVERNOR?
2
YES
NO
52
API STANDARD 670
PAGE
SPEED SENSOR
DATA SHEET
1
JOB NO.
ITEM NO.
PURCH. ORDER NO.
DATE
INQUIRY NO.
BY
REVISION NO.
DATE
SPEED SENSING SURFACE
OF
SUPPLEMENTAL PROXIMITY PROBE INFORMATION
2
3
LOCATION:
MAXIMUM PEAK-TO-PEAK RADIAL VIBRATION OF SPEED SENSING
4
5
DRIVER SIDE OF COUPLING
SURFACE __________________________________________________________
6
OTHER __________________________________________________
3
7
8
9
10
(DIMENSION B) _____________________________________________________
DESIGN:
MAXIMUM RUNOUT OF SPEED SENSING SURFACE DUE TO
NON-CONCENTRICITY _______________________________________________
4
11
NON-PRECISION OR GEAR
(SEE FIGURE J-3)
12
PRECISION
13
MAXIMUM VARIATION IN TOOTH DEPTH
SIGNAL CABLE LENGTH BETWEEN OSCILLATOR/DEMODULATOR
(SEE FIGURE J-4)
AND MONITOR _____________________________________________________
14
15
EVENTS PER REVOLUTION _______________________________________
16
17
SENSING SURFACE _________________________________________________
DIMENSIONS (SEE FIGURE J-2):
SUPPLEMENTAL MAGNETIC SPEED SENSOR INFORMATION
18
19
TOOTH LENGTH A =
20
TOOTH DEPTH B =
21
NOTCH LENGTH C =
22
TOOTH WIDTH F =
MINIMUM RPM TO BE SENSED _______________________________________
SURFACE SPEED OF SPEED SENSING SURFACE AT THIS
23
MINIMUM RPM _____________________________________________________
24
ARE ANY DIMENSIONS ABOVE SMALLER THAN ALLOWED IN
25
26
27
TABLES J-2 OR J-3 (AS APPLICABLE):
28
PEAK-TO-PEAK OUTPUT VOLTAGE OF TRANSDUCER VIEWING SPEED
PEAK-TO-PEAK VOLTAGE OUTPUT AT
MINIMUM RPM _____________________________________________________
5
YES
NO
MAXIMUM SURFACE SPEED AT MAXIMUM
29
(TRIP) RPM ________________________________________________________
30
IS CENTERLINE OF SPEED SENSING SURFACE SUBJECT TO PEAK-TO-
31
PEAK RADIAL VIBRATION AMPLITUDES GREATER THAN B/4
PEAK-TO-PEAK VOLTAGE OUTPUT AT MAXIMUM
32
33
34
(1/4 TOOTH DEPTH):
(TRIP) RPM ________________________________________________________
35
5
POLE PIECE TYPE:
YES
NO
36
37
CYLINDRICAL
IS THE FOLLOWING RELATIONSHIP TRUE:
CONICAL
38
CHISEL
39
(Events / rev) x (Trip Speed) x (A + C)
40
41
42
A or C (whichever is greater)
YES
43
NO
> 720,000 RPM
5
44
POLE PIECE DIAMETER _____________________________
GEAR OR TOOTH PITCH _____________________________
GEAR OR WHEEL DIAMETER _________________________
45
Notes:
1. When magnetic speed sensors are used, the section of the data sheet titled "SUPPLEMENTAL MAGNETIC SPEED SENSOR INFORMATION" should be completed.
2. Transducers shared between the overspeed detection system and the governor are not permitted under this standard (see Section 5.4.8.4k).
3. Since a coupling failure and consequent instantaneous loss of load is a common cause of driver overspeed, this standard does not permit speed sensing of the driven shaft for
overspeed applications (see Section 6.1.6.4).
4. A speed sensing surface used as a gear for driving other mechanical components is not permitted under this standard (see Section 6.1.6.4).
5. A "yes" response requires additional information to be supplied to the machinery protection system vendor to ensure the proposed speed sensing surface is compatible with the
speed sensors and monitor. The section of the data sheet titled "SUPPLEMENTAL PROXIMITY PROBE INFORMATION" should be completed and reviewed with the machinery
protection system vendor.
COPYRIGHT American Petroleum Institute
Licensed by Information Handling Services
APPENDIX B—TYPICAL RESPONSIBILITY MATRIX WORKSHEETa
JOB NO.______________________ ITEM NO.____________________
PURCHASE ORDER NO._________________ DATE ______________
REQUISITION NO.______________________ DATE ______________
INQUIRY NO.__________________________
DATE ______________
PAGE ___________ OF ____________ BY __________________
FOR _________________________
REVISION __________________________________________________
SITE _________________________
UNIT ______________________________________________________
SERVICE _____________________
NO. REQUIRED _____________________________________________
FUNCTION
MACHINERY
PROTECTION
SYSTEM VENDOR
MACHINERY
VENDORb
CONSTRUCTION
AGENCY
OWNER
OTHER
(SPECIFY:
__________)
Project coordination (see 8.1.3)
System design
Instrument purchase
Panel design and assembly
Grounding plan (see 5.6.1)
Supply of drawing and data per
Appendix G
Installation on machinery train
Mechanical running test with
contract instrumentation
(see 7.5)
Factory acceptance test
(see 7.3.2.1.1)
System integration verificationc
Field test (see 7.6)
Discussion:
a. The purpose of this form is to assist in project coordination. It should be completed by the purchaser by placing an “X” in the
appropriate boxes to indicate responsibility for each function (see 4.7).
b. Responsibility would normally be placed with the prime machinery vendor having unit responsibility for the entire machinery
train. If responsibilities are divided among individual machinery vendors, appropriate statements should be noted above or on
an attached sheet.
c. This pertains to the digital output options (see 5.4.1.4.e and 5.4.1.10) that may be integral to the machinery control system.
This task is normally the responsibility of the construction agency.
53
COPYRIGHT American Petroleum Institute
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COPYRIGHT American Petroleum Institute
Licensed by Information Handling Services
APPENDIX C—ACCELEROMETER APPLICATION CONSIDERATIONS
C.1 General
The following are offered as guidelines for proper flushmounting:
C.1.1 The accelerometer is a contact sensor (as opposed to
a non-contact proximity probe) that measures the motion of
the surface to which it is attached. Its many benefits include
linearity over a wide frequency and dynamic range. Accelerometers have typically been used in higher frequency applications (over 1 kHz) for machinery monitoring and diagnostics.
In order to apply the accelerometer and get reliable measurements, proper attention must be paid to the following areas:
a. Requirements for the surface finish, flatness, and size of
the mounting surface are as shown in Figure C-1.
b. The accelerometer must seat itself to the mounting surface
over its entire base to prevent mounting-post resonance.
Mounting-post resonance occurs when the accelerometer
base is not flush against the mounting surface and the mounting stud becomes a structural element, lowering the mounted
resonance frequency. To prevent this from occurring, the stud
axis must be perpendicular to the mounting surface and the
tapped hole must be deep enough to prevent the stud from
bottoming. The mounting hole must be perpendicular to the
surface within 5 degrees of arc or less.
a. Sensor mounting configurations.
b. Frequency range of interest.
c. Amplitude range of interest.
d. Use for machine protection or for diagnostics.
e. Characteristics of the particular accelerometer under
consideration.
f. Cabling and signal conditioning.
g. Environmental considerations.
c. Excessive mounting torque might distort the accelerometer case, thus affecting the accelerometer response
characteristics. Too little torque will result in a loose accelerometer that can lead to large errors at higher frequencies.
Torque requirements vary with stud size, but published values
range from 0.6 to 2.7 newton-meters (5 to 24 pound-inches).
Manufacturer recommendations should be followed.
C.1.2 There are many good reference sources discussing
these considerations. The manufacturer of the particular
accelerometer can also be consulted for answers to application questions. The primary focus of this appendix is to
address sensor mounting, cabling, and signal conditioning
considerations for use with machine protection systems. Typically, accelerometers are recommended for use up to about
one-third to one-half of their mounted resonant frequency.
Therefore, mounting techniques can limit the useful frequency range of the accelerometer. Knowing these limitations
and applying the proper technique are necessary to meet the
requirements of the monitoring application. Cabling and signal conditioning can affect the accelerometer output signal
and therefore are also important considerations in the overall
design of the measurement system.
d. The mounting interface should be clear of any particles or
debris that could prevent the accelerometer from coming
down flat on the mounting surface. A thin layer of silicone
grease may be applied between the accelerometer and the
mounting surface to fill minute voids and improve the stiffness of the mounting.
C.2.2 NON-FLUSH–MOUNTING
C.2.2.1 Figure C-2 shows a non-flush-mounted accelerometer application. This mounting configuration uses tapered
pipe threads. The advantage of this type of mounting configuration is that it only requires a drilled and tapped hole to be
made at the measurement location for proper mounting. The
accelerometer is already built onto the stud and sealed in its
case. However, this type of accelerometer mount is not appropriate for applications where frequencies above 2 kHz must
be monitored. This design is often used for solid-state velocity transducers (accelerometers with a built-in accelerationto-velocity integrator).
C.2 Accelerometer Mounts and Mounting
Considerations
Since the accelerometer is a contact device, care in mounting is of particular importance because improper installation
can affect the performance of the device and give unreliable
and unexpected output signals.
C.2.2.2 The following should be considered when using
this type of accelerometer configuration for monitoring:
C.2.1 FLUSH-MOUNTING
Figure C-1 shows a typical flush-mounting application
allowing the accelerometer base to fully contact the mounting
surface. This mounting technique is necessary for applications where frequencies above 2 kHz must be monitored such
as gear mesh frequencies on gearboxes, blade or vane passing
frequencies on pumps and compressors, and rolling element
bearing frequencies for predictive maintenance diagnostics.
a. The machine point at which the accelerometer is to be
mounted should be massive enough to accommodate the
mass of the accelerometer without altering the response of the
structure. The machines considered for permanent monitoring
in this specification will typically be suitable for this method
of mounting.
55
COPYRIGHT American Petroleum Institute
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56
API STANDARD 670
Transducer
Flanged mounting stud
1/4 – 28 UNF
Protective
Housing
Mounting surface
Typical accelerometer
(size and detail may vary)
Sealed by gasket
or silicone rubber
adhesive (RTV)
Machine case
Flex conduit (standard)
Armored cable (standard
option)
1/4" – 20 UNC, tap 1/4" deep
(full threads); three holes at 120
deg on 1 – 9/16" bolt circle
2 – 1/2" diameter spot
face, surface finish (0.8
um microinches) Ra or
better and surface
flatness below 25 um
(1 mil.) Required when
accelerometer housing
is used.
Machine case
1-1/8" diameter spot face,
surface finish (0.8 um
microinches) Ra or better
and surface flatness below
25 um (1 mil.) Required
when accelerometer
housing is not used.
1/4" – 28 UNF, tap 3/8" deep
(full threads), one hole
Spot Face Detail
Note:
1. Spot face is shown but a raised boss with proper surface finish is acceptable.
Figure C-1—Typical Flush Mounted Accelerometer Details
COPYRIGHT American Petroleum Institute
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MACHINERY PROTECTION SYSTEMS
57
Optional Purge
Junction Box
Integral-Stud
Accelerometer
Armored
Cable
Machine or Bearing Housing
Terminal
Strips
Rigid conduit to
monitor
Cable Seal
Optional
drain
Figure C-2—Typical Non-Flush Mounted Arrangement Details for Integral-Stud Accelerometer
Armored extension cable
(standard option)
(flexible conduit standard)
Integral stud
accelerometer
Bearing
housing
Cable seal
3/8" NPT stud
Gasket
Figure C-3—Typical Non-Flush Mounting Arrangement for Integral-Stud
Figure Accelerometer and Armored Extension Cable
COPYRIGHT American Petroleum Institute
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58
API STANDARD 670
b. The drilled and tapped mounting hole should be perpendicular to the measurement surface within 5 degrees of arc or
less.
c. The manufacturer’s torque specifications should be followed to avoid damaging the case by over-tightening or
affecting the frequency response through looseness. A threadlocking compound may be used.
C.2.3 USE OF ADHESIVES AND BONDING
AGENTS
The use of bonding agents (such as bee’s wax, dental
cement, epoxy cement, and methyl cyanoacrylate cement) for
mounting is not discussed here because these agents are not
considered suitable for permanent installations.
C.2.4 ACCELEROMETER HOUSINGS VERSUS
UNPROTECTED MOUNTING
A common method of protecting the accelerometer and
its connector is to mount it within a housing. Installation
kits available from various sources consist of a modified
electric junction box or explosion-proof housing. The housing must be separated from the accelerometer (to prevent
affecting the accelerometer’s frequency response), normally
by cutting a hole in the bottom of the box or housing (see
note). Installation requires care to prevent contact between
the accelerometer case and its housing. The housing cover
must allow room for the proper cable bend radius, particularly important when top-mounted cable connectors are
used. The box must also be mounted on a relatively wide
and flat surface to permit proper sealing of the base and to
prevent water intrusion. See Figure C-1 for an example of
an accelerometer housing.
Note: Cutting the bottom of an explosion-proof box renders it nonexplosion-proof. Other means must be used to meet area classification requirements.
COPYRIGHT American Petroleum Institute
Licensed by Information Handling Services
C.3 Installation and Protection of Cables
Mechanical protection of the cable can be achieved by running the cable in rigid conduit. However, maintenance
requirements dictate easy removal and reinstallation of the
conduit section closest to the machinery. The use of flexible
conduit is not necessarily the best solution because it is not
easy to remove, does not always stay in place, and often
results in cable damage caused by the sharp edges of the
internal reinforcing coil. Consider using armored cables as
shown in Figure C-3. This type of cable is relatively flexible
and can be routed next to the machinery below guards or
flanges. If properly routed and securely clamped, it cannot be
used as a footstep. Unlike applications using conduit, installation or removal of this type of cable does not require an electrician. The following precautions apply:
a. If the accelerometer is left unprotected, water intrusion in
the connector can be alleviated by filling the connector with a
silicon grease. A commercially available silicon sealing compound or a specially designed protective boot can be used to
seal the connector entry to the accelerometer.
b. The conduit or junction box must be sealed at the cable
entry point. Rubber grommets or removable, non-adhesive
sealants should be used.
c. The cable must be routed to avoid excessive temperatures.
Cable material limits must be considered. As an example,
PTFE-insulated cables cannot normally be used above 200°C
(400°F).
d. Where the hazardous area classification requires it, consideration should be given to the use of barriers of the zener type
located as close as possible to the power source in a safe area.
Intrinsically safe installations can be achieved by using this
type of energy-limiting device. However, the machinery protection system vendor should be consulted for overall system
design considerations.
e. Avoid running the cable near sources of electromagnetic
interference (EMI) such as large motors or high-voltage
wiring.
APPENDIX D—SIGNAL CABLE
D.1 General
This appendix covers the minimum requirements for single- and multiple-circuit signal cable for vibration, axial position, speed sensing, and RTD transducers and single- and
multiple-circuit signal cable for thermocouples. All of these
cables require mechanical support and protection such as by
cable armor, conduit, tray system, or combination thereof.
The insulation shall conform to Article 725 of NFPA 70
(National Electrical Code), Class 2P, and shall withstand,
with no shorts, a 1-minute test potential of 1000 volts DC
plus two times the rated voltage between conductor-to-conductor and conductor-to-shield. More detailed information on
signal transmission systems is available in API Recommended Practice 552.
●
thick and shall be in continuous contact with the drain wire,
which shall be the same wire gage as the inner conductors of
the cable and meet the other requirements of D.2.1. A braided
shield shall have a single conductor attached to it. The single
conductor shall be the same wire gage as in the inner conductors of the cable and meet the other requirements of D.2.1.
●
D.2.4 OVERALL JACKET
The cable’s standard jacket shall be PVC with a nominal
thickness of 0.75 millimeter (30 mils) and meet the other
requirements of D.2.2. When specified, FEP with a thickness
of 0.25 millimeter (10 mils) will be the standard option for
severe environment use.
D.2 Shielded Single–Circuit Signal Cable
for Vibration, Axial Position, Speed
Sensing, or RTD Transducers
D.3 Multiple–Circuit Signal Cable (with
Group Shields) for Vibration, Axial
Position, Speed Sensing, or RTD
Transducers
D.2.1 CONDUCTORS
D.3.1 CONDUCTORS
Shielded single-circuit cable for vibration, axial position,
and speed sensing transducers shall contain three twisted conductors. The conductors shall be 16 to 22 American Wire
Gage (AWG), or 0.336 to 1.374 square millimeters, sevenstrand (minimum), Class B, concentric-lay, tinned copper
wire as specified in NEMA WC 5, Part 2 (IPCEA S-61-402).
The lay of the conductor’s twist shall be from 38 to 64 millimeters (1.5 to 2.5 in.). The conductors shall be color coded
black, white, and red. The drain wire attached to the cable
shield shall have the same specification as the three twisted
conductors. Prior to installation of the cable, a green or green
and yellow stripe sleeving shall be installed over the drain
wire.
Multiple-circuit cable with group shields is recommended
(see note). Multiple-circuit cable with group shields for vibration or axial position transducers shall contain three twisted
conductors per group. The conductors shall be 16 to 22 AWG,
seven-strand, Class B, concentric-lay, tinned copper wire as
specified in NEMA WC 5, Part 2 (IPCEA S-61-402). The lay
of the conductors’ twist shall be from 38 to 64 millimeters
(1.5 to 2.5 in.). The conductors in each group shall be colorcoded black, white, and red, and each group of three shall be
identifiable by using colors or numbers.
Note: Group shields are recommended to minimize cross-talk
between monitoring channels.
D.3.2 PRIMARY INSULATION
D.2.2 PRIMARY INSULATION
The conductors’ primary insulation shall be the same as
stated in D.2.2.
The conductors’ primary insulation shall be rated for 300
volts, 100°C (200°F) and pass the Underwriters’ Laboratories
(UL) VW-1 flame test. The standard primary insulation shall
be polyvinyl-chloride (PVC) with a thickness of 0.38 millimeter (15 mils). When specified, fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) with a thickness of 0.25 millimeter (10 mils) will
be the standard option for severe environment use.
D.3.3 OVERALL SHIELD
The shield of each three-conductor group and the overall
shield (see note) of the multiple-circuit cable shall be polyester/aluminum-coated film or braided tinned copper. The
shield specifications shall be the same as stated in D.2.3.
D.2.3 SHIELD
Note: Overall shields are recommended to provide isolation from
external noise.
The cable shield shall be polyester/aluminum film tape
with 100% coverage and drain wire, or tinned copper wire
braid with 90% coverage. The tape shall be helically applied
with a minimum of a 25% overlap. The aluminum-coated
side of the film shall be at least 0.9 micrometer (0.35 mil)
D.3.4 COMMUNICATIONS WIRE
The cable shall contain a 16 to 22 AWG, seven-strand,
Class B, concentric-lay, copper communication wire whose
59
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60
API STANDARD 670
insulation is 1.9 millimeters (75 mils) thick. The communication wire shall be coded with a color other than the group
color.
D.4 Signal Cable for Thermocouples
D.4.1 CONDUCTORS
D.4.2 PRIMARY INSULATION
The conductors’ primary insulation shall be the same as
stated in D.2.2.
D.4.3 SHIELD
The cable shield shall be the same as stated in D.2.3.
Single-circuit signal cable for thermocouples shall consist
of a twisted pair of conductors. Single- or multiple-circuit
cables are acceptable. The conductors shall be 16 to 22 AWG
solid (stranded can be used) wire, matched and calibrated as
specified in ANSI MC96.1. The lay of the conductors’ twist
shall be a maximum of 51 millimeters (2 in.). The conductors
shall be color coded as specified in Table D-1.
D.4.4 PAIR JACKET
The cable’s pair jacket shall have a nominal thickness of
0.9 millimeter (35 mils), be of the color specified in Table
D-1, and meet the other requirements stated in D.2.2.
Table D-1—Color Coding for Single-Circuit Thermocouple Signal Cable
Conductor
Typea
Pair Jacket
Positive
Negative
TX
Blue
Blue
Red
JX
Black
White
Red
EX
Purple
Purple
Red
KX
Yellow
Yellow
Red
SX
Green
Black
Red
BX
Gray
Gray
Red
aType designations are from ANSI MC96.1, Table VI.
COPYRIGHT American Petroleum Institute
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APPENDIX E—GEARBOX CASING VIBRATION CONSIDERATIONS
E.1 General
and rms measurements, 5.4.5.6 allows the user to optionally
specify both paths in either peak or rms units. Use of one
technique over the other is usually determined by geographical and historical preferences. Advocates of a peak measurement prefer it because it is easy to understand and it
responds to the short duration events described in E.2.1.
Advocates of an rms measurement prefer its smoothing
effect and the lower values it yields.
The requirements for monitoring casing vibration on a
variety of machine types are specified in 5.4.5. This appendix
provides additional considerations specific to gearboxes.
Paragraph 5.4.5.5.a requires the use of a dual-path monitor
for gear casing measurements. It receives its input signal from
an accelerometer mounted on a gear bearing housing (API
613 for special purpose gear units directs that one accelerometer be mounted horizontally on the output bearing housing,
one accelerometer be mounted horizontally on the input bearing housing, and that they be mounted below the split line
unless otherwise specified). This signal is divided into two
separate paths in the monitor. The first path is band-pass filtered and read out directly in peak acceleration units (g’s or
meters per second squared). This path observes the frequencies between 1,000 hertz and 10 kilohertz. These frequencies
are associated with gear mesh and provide information on
mesh condition. The second path is integrated to rms velocity
units (in inches per second or millimeters per second). This
signal is band-pass filtered to observe frequencies between 10
Hz and 1,000 Hz. These frequencies are associated with the
vibration of the rotating elements. It provides additional
machine condition information to supplement a shaft vibration monitor.
E.2.4 Several important additional factors must also be
considered:
a. The detection circuitry in the monitor must be consistent
with the displayed units. If peak is displayed, a peak circuit
detector must be used in the monitor circuitry. Confusion
occurs when an rms detector is used in the monitor and its
output is scaled by 1.414 to display as peak units. This conversion is only valid for purely sinusoidal signals, which is
rarely the situation except during calibration. An instrument
displaying peak as 1.414 × rms may yield significantly lower
values than one with a true peak detector when observing the
same vibration signal. Many portable instruments use this
approach, which can create confusion when comparing readings. To avoid confusion, it is recommended that peak
measurements derived from rms be referred to as “derived
peak” to distinguish them from “true peak” measurements.
E.2 Signal Detection Schemes
b. Use the same units for both acceptance testing and permanent monitoring. This allows direct comparison and reduces
confusion.
Two signal detection schemes are used simultaneously in
the gearbox casing vibration monitor. They are true peak and
true rms.
c. An AC voltmeter is commonly used for instrument calibration. Voltmeter calibration traceability is most common in
rms terms. Calibration of a peak detecting instrument using
rms × 1.414 may be utilized, but is only valid for a pure sine
wave signal.
E.2.1 A true peak detector responds (within certain limitations of the amplifier) to excursions of the signal from zero to
a maximum (or minimum). This technique is equally sensitive to both periodic and short duration (low duty cycle)
vibration events in the waveform. Because gears tend to generate the short duration (spike) vibration events when malfunctioning, peak detection is the standard for monitoring
gear-related activity.
d. Alarm limits must reflect the units used. Use of empirically determined peak limits with an instrument using rms
detection may result in machine damage. The reverse may
provide unwanted alarms.
E.2.2 A true rms detector responds to the total area within
the vibration waveform. It is less sensitive to short duration
vibration events and tends to average them out as a form of
filter. (Details of the actual mathematics of rms detection are
available in many texts.)
Selection of a scheme depends on experience. Companies
with a database of machinery measurements and vibration
limits in peak terms may not be comfortable using rms, and
vice-versa. Each scheme can be made to work by knowledgeable people. Care and understanding must be applied to
each application to ensure that adequate machine protection
is provided.
E.2.3 While the standard dual-path detection scheme for
gearbox casing vibration uses a combination of true peak
61
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COPYRIGHT American Petroleum Institute
Licensed by Information Handling Services
APPENDIX F—FIELD TESTING AND DOCUMENTATION REQUIREMENTS
F.1 General
F.2 Tools and Instrumentation
F.1.1 This appendix outlines minimum field testing and
documentation requirements for machinery protection system
components. It is intended as a convenience to the purchaser
and the owner in clearly specifying the total job requirements.
The codes in Table F-1 are used to designate tools and
instruments needed to calibrate and test various portions of
the machinery protection system.
F.3 Vendor Requirements
F.1.2 Verification and documentation shall be submitted to
the owner as follows:
The purchaser shall use the form in Table F-2 to indicate
the required activities and the responsible agency or vendor
required to perform each specified activity.
a. Machinery vendors shall submit documentation at least 2
weeks prior to any factory mechanical testing.
b. Construction agencies shall submit documentation at least
4 weeks prior to machine start-up.
Table F-1—Tools and Instruments Needed to Calibrate and Test Machinery Protection Systems
Code
Tool or Instrument
Typical Application
A
DC voltage nulling instrument
Shaft electrical and mechanical runout testing and
documentation
B
Analog X-Y plotter or dual channel storage oscilloscope
with digital plotter and required software
Shaft electrical and mechanical runout testing and
documentation
C
Proximity probe calibration test kit
System calibration, functional, and accuracy testing
D
Calibrated digital multimeter and frequency measuring
device
System calibration, functional, and accuracy testing
E
Variable frequency waveform and pulse generator with
DC offset
Simulation testing for vibration, position, tachometer, and
overspeed detection channels
F
Variable frequency shaker with calibrated reference accelerometer
Accelerometer testing
G
Oscilloscope
Simulation testing for vibration, position, tachometer, and
overspeed detection channels
H
Temperature sensor simulator
Simulation testing for temperature channels
63
COPYRIGHT American Petroleum Institute
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64
API STANDARD 670
Table F-2—Data, Drawing, and Test Worksheet
Directions:
I
–
R
–
M
–
C
–
O
–
I
R
Activity item number
An X in this box indicates a required activity to be performed by the machinery protection system vendor.
An X in this box indicates a required activity to be performed by the machinery vendor.
An X in this box indicates a required activity to be performed by the construction agency.
An X in this box indicates a required activity to be performed by other agency; specify agency.
M
C
O
Tool and Instrument Codesa
(Paragraph Reference)
Activity
1
Location of rotor nodal points
(6.1.1.1 Items e and f, Table G-2 Item 6)
2
Electrical/mechanical runout
documentation
A, B, C, D (6.1.1.3, 6.1.1.3, 6.1.2.4, Table G-2
Item 5)
3
Calibration curve for each proximity
probe transducer
C, D (7.6.2.1, Table G-2 Item 5)
4
Acceleration or velocity shaker test
D, E, F (7.6.2.3, Table G-2 Item 5)
5
System arrangement plan
(Table G-2 Item 4)
6
Monitor system calibration check
C, D, E, F, H (4.5, 7.6.2, Table G-2 Item 19g)
7
Recommended alarm and shutdown
setpoints
(Table G-2 Item 7)
7.1
Shaft vibration
(Table G-2 Item 7)
7.2
Shaft axial position
(Table G-2 Item 7)
7.3
Radial bearing temperature
(Table G-2 Item 7)
7.4
Thrust bearing temperature
(Table G-2 Item 7)
7.5
Casing acceleration
(Table G-2 Item 7)
7.6
Casing Velocity
(Table G-2 Item 7)
7.7
Piston Rod Drop
(Table G-2 Item 7)
7.8
Overspeed Detection
(Table G-2 Item 7)
8
Operation for hazardous area
compliance testing
(5.7)
9
Channel accuracy test
C, D, E, F, H (Table 1)
9.1
Radial shaft vibration
C, D, E (Table 1, 7.6.2.1)
9.2
Axial position
C, D, E (Table 1, 7.6.2.1)
9.3
Casing Vibration
D, E, F (Table 1, 7.6.2.3)
9.4
Temperature
D, H (Table 1, 7.6.2.2)
9.5
Piston Rod Drop
C, D, E (Table 1, 7.6.2.1)
9.6
Overspeed Detection
D, E (Table 1, 7.6.2.4)
10
COPYRIGHT American Petroleum Institute
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Buffered output versus input accuracy
C, D, E, F (Table 1, 5.4.1.4 Item c, 7.6.2)
MACHINERY PROTECTION SYSTEMS
65
Table F-2—Data, Drawing, and Test Worksheet (Continued)
Directions:
I
–
R
–
M
–
C
–
O
–
I
R
Activity item number
An X in this box indicates a required activity to be performed by the machinery protection system vendor.
An X in this box indicates a required activity to be performed by the machinery vendor.
An X in this box indicates a required activity to be performed by the construction agency.
An X in this box indicates a required activity to be performed by other agency; specify agency.
M
C
O
Tool and Instrument Codesa
(Paragraph Reference)
Activity
11
Power supply short-circuit test
D (5.4.1.7 Item d, 7.6.1)
12
Output relay tests
(7.6.1)
12.1
Circuit fault
C, D, E (5.4.1.3 Item a, 5.4.1.8 Item f, 5.4.2.2,
5.4.3.2, 5.4.4.5, 5.4.5.3, 5.4.6.2, 7.6.1)
12.2
Shaft axial position alarm
C, D, E (5.4.1.5 Item a, 5.4.3.3, 7.6.1)
12.3
Shaft axial position shutdown
C, D, E (5.4.1.5 Item a, 5.4.3.3, 5.4.3.4, 7.6.1)
12.4
Radial shaft vibration alarm
C, D, E (5.4.1.5 Item a, 5.4.2.4, 5.4.2.5, 7.6.1)
12.5
Radial shaft vibration shutdown
C, D, E (5.4.1.5 Item a, 5.4.2.4, 5.4.2.5, 7.6.1)
12.6
Casing vibration alarm
D, E, F (5.4.1.5 Item a, 5.4.5.4, 7.6.1)
12.7
Casing vibration shutdown
D, E, F (5.4.1.5 Item a, 5.4.5.4, 7.6.1)
12.8
Temperature alarm
D, H (5.4.1.5 Item a, 7.6.1)
12.9
Temperature shutdown
D, H (5.4.1.5. Item a, 5.4.6.4, 7.6.1)
12.10
Piston Rod Drop alarm
C, D, E (5.4.1.5 Item a, 7.6.1)
12.11
Piston Rod Drop shutdown
C, D, E (5.4.1.5 Item a, 5.4.4.6, 7.6.1)
12.12
Overspeed Detection alarm
D, E, G (5.4.1.8 Item b, 5.4.8.4 Items c and e,
7.6.1)
12.13
Overspeed Detection shutdown
D, E, G (5.4.1.8 Item b, 5.4.8.4 Items d and f,
7.6.1)
13
System shutdown disarm test
C, D, E (5.4.1.9, 7.6.1)
14
Communication interface Functional
test
C, D, E, F, G, H (5.4.1.10, 7.6.1)
14.1
Analog 4-20 mA outputs
C, D, E, F, H (5.4.1.4 Item f, 7.6.1)
14.2
Digital communications port
(5.4.1.4 Item e, 5.4.1.10, 7.6.1)
15
First out alarm and shutdown test
C, E, F, H (5.4.1.5 Item j, 7.6.1)
16
Circuit fault functional test
C, D, E (5.4.1.4 Item b, 7.6.1)
17
Shutdown system functional test
E, H (5.4.1.5 Item g, 5.4.1.6 Item b, 7.6.1)
COPYRIGHT American Petroleum Institute
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66
API STANDARD 670
Table F-2—Data, Drawing, and Test Worksheet (Continued)
Directions:
I
–
R
–
M
–
C
–
O
–
I
R
Activity item number
An X in this box indicates a required activity to be performed by the machinery protection system vendor.
An X in this box indicates a required activity to be performed by the machinery vendor.
An X in this box indicates a required activity to be performed by the construction agency.
An X in this box indicates a required activity to be performed by other agency; specify agency.
M
C
O
Tool and Instrument Codesa
(Paragraph Reference)
Activity
18
Individual channel shutdown disarm
test
C, D, E (5.4.1.5 Item h, 7.6.1)
19
Voting logic tests
(7.6.1)
19.1
Shaft axial position
D, E (5.4.3.4, 7.6.1)
19.2
Radial shaft vibration
D, E (5.4.2.4, 7.6.1)
19.3
Casing vibration
D, E (7.6.1)
19.4
Temperature
D, H (5.4.6.4, 7.6.1)
19.5
Piston Rod Drop
D, E (7.6.1)
19.6
Overspeed Detection
D, E (5.4.8.4 Items c, d, e, and f, 7.6.1)
20
Casing vibration filter cutoff frequency
D, E, (5.4.5.2, 7.6.1)
21
Temperature sensor downscale failure verification test
(5.4.6.2, 7.6.1)
22
System wiring signal loss test
D, E, G (7.6.1)
23
Wiring connection verification test
(7.6.1)
24
Radio transmission RFI verification
test
(5.7.3)
25
System integration test
C, D, E, F, G (7.6.3)
26
Final system arrangement plan
(8.3.5.2, Table G-2 Item 10)
aTool and instrument codes are listed in Table F-1.
COPYRIGHT American Petroleum Institute
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APPENDIX G—CONTRACT DRAWING AND DATA REQUIREMENTS
Table G-2 is a sample distribution record (schedule). The
listed drawing and data types are required, however the manufacturers may use different names for the same drawing. The
items in the description column should be modified in the
early stages of the order using the drawing names supplied by
the manufacturer.
For purposes of illustration, Table G-1 includes a typical
major milestone timeline.
Table G-1—Typical Milestone Timeline
Milestone
Paragraph
Reference
Typical
Schedule
Activity
T1
Initial specification and request for quotation
T2
Proposal
T3
Contract
T3.1
8.1.3
4 to 6 weeks after T3
Coordination meeting, covering the machinery protection system, involving vendor with unit responsibility, Purchaser and machinery protection system vendor.
A
7.6/Figure 19-20,
8.3.2.1, 8.3.3.1
6 weeks after T3
Purchaser obtains and supplies to Owner: setpoints, parts list & recommended
spares, system arrangement plans, system schematics and datasheets.
4 weeks prior to T4
Construction agency obtains Channel Tagging requirements from Owner
(including content, location, material and method of attachment) and forwards
the data to the Machinery protection system vendor.
B
T4
Machinery protection system vendor shipping date.
A
8.3.5.2, 8.3.5.3
5 days after T4
Machinery protection system vendor supplies standard manuals.
B
6.1.1
Before machining
Purchaser obtains from Machinery vendor and supplies to Owner the location of
rotor nodal points.
C
Appendix F
2 weeks prior to T5
Machinery vendor supplies verification and documentation data.
D
Appendix F
7.6/Figure 21 &
Table-3A
Before T5
Machinery vendor supplies to Purchaser run-out data and calibration data on
each transducer.
T5
Machine shop test date.
T6
Machine shipping date.
A
Appendix F
7.6/Figure 21 &
Table-3A
4 weeks prior to T7
Purchaser forwards contract data to Owner.
B
Appendix F
7.6/Figure 21 &
Table-3A
4 weeks prior to T7
Purchaser forwards run-out and calibration data on each transducer to Owner.
T7
Functional test
A
8.3.5.4
4 weeks after T7
Construction agency provides Purchaser technical data manual.
B
8.3.4.2
Before T8
Reviewed spare parts list is given to Purchaser with time enough to purchase and
receive spares for field start-up.
C
Appendix F
4 weeks prior to T8
Construction agency supplies verification and documentation data.
T8
Field start-up
Note: The above Milestone Timeline Table is typical of projects for which the machinery vendor is unit responsible and hence procures the complete machinery vibration protection system. With the widespread use of distributed control systems in the industry, more and more machinery
protection systems are being installed in local equipment rooms and central control rooms, rather than local to the machine train.
For these types of projects, the Engineering contractor often assumes responsibility for all aspects of the machinery protection system supply
including: procuring the protection monitor panels, coordinating the transducer supply from the machinery protection system vendor to the
Machinery vendor, and coordinating any required third party system integration testing.
67
COPYRIGHT American Petroleum Institute
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68
API STANDARD 670
Table G-2—Sample Distribution Record (Schedule)
JOB NO. _______________________ ITEM NO. ______________
PURCHASE ORDER NO. _________ DATE _________________
REQUISITION NO. _______________ DATE _________________
INQUIRY NO. ___________________ DATE _________________
PAGE _______ OF _____
BY __________________________
CONTRACT DRAWING AND
DATA REQUIREMENTS
FOR ___________________________________________
SITE ___________________________________________
SERVICE _______________________________________
REVISION _______________________________________________
UNIT ___________________________________________________
NO. REQUIRED __________________________________________
Responsible Agencya (Appendix B)
Bidder shall furnish ______ copies of data for all items indicated by an X.
Proposalb
Vendor shall furnish ______ copies and ______ transparencies of drawings and data indicated.
Reviewc
Vendor shall furnish ______ copies and ______ transparencies of drawings and data indicated.
Vendor shall furnish ______ operating and maintenance manuals.
Finalc
DISTRIBUTION
RECORD
Final—Received from vendor
Due from vendord
Review—Returned to vendor
Review—Received from vendor
Review—Due from vendord
DESCRIPTION
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
Certified general arrangement or outline drawing and list of connections (8.2.2)
Cross-sectional drawings and bill of materials (8.2.3, 8.3.2)
Control and electrical system schematics and bills of materials (8.2.2)
Electrical and Instrumentation System arrangement plans (8.3.2)
Grounding plan (5.6.1)
Calibration curves (7.3, 7.6)
Rotor nodal point analysis data (6.1.1, 8.3.3.1)
Recommended alarm (alert) and shutdown (danger) setpoints (8.3.3.1)
Data Sheets (8.2.3, 8.3.3)
Dimensions and data (8.2.2)
Installation manual (8.3.5.2)
Operating and maintenance manual (8.3.5.3)
Parts list and recommended spares (8.2.3, 8.3.4)
Engineering, fabrication, and delivery schedule (progress reports) (8.2.3)
List of drawings and data (8.3)
Shipping list (8.2.3)
Special weather protection and winterization requirements (8.2.3)
Special system integrity protection requirements (8.2.3)
List of special tools furnished for maintenance (8.2.3)
Technical data manual (8.3.5.4)
Material safety datasheets
a1. Machinery protection system vendor; 2. Machinery vendor; 3. Construction agency; 4. Owner; 5. Other (____________________).
bProposal
drawings and data do not have to be certified or as-built.
will indicate in this column the time frame for submission of materials using the nomenclature given at the end of this form.
dBidder shall complete these two columns to reflect his actual distribution schedule and include this form with his proposal.
cPurchaser
COPYRIGHT American Petroleum Institute
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MACHINERY PROTECTION SYSTEMS
Notes:
1. Send all drawings and data to _________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
2. All drawings and data must show project, appropriation, purchase order, and item numbers in
addition to the plant location and unit. In addition to the copies specified above, one set of the
drawings / instructions necessary for field installation must be forwarded with the shipment.
Nomenclature:
_________ S—number of weeks prior to shipment.
_________ F—number of weeks after firm order.
_________ D—number of weeks after receipt of approved drawings.
Vendor _____________________________________________________________________
Date __________________________
Vendor Reference ____________________________
Signature ___________________________________________________________________
(Signature acknowledges receipt of all instructions)
Table G-2 Description
1. Certified general arrangement outline drawing and list of connections, including the following:
a. Size, rating and location of all customer connections.
b. Approximate overall handling weights.
c. Overall dimensions.
d. Dimensions of mounting plates and locations of bolt holes for hardware installation.
e. Maintenance and disassembly clearances.
f. List of reference drawings.
2. Cross-sectional drawings and bill of materials, including the following:
a. Machine-mounted sensors and probe holders.
b. Vendor supplied extension cables and connectors.
c. Monitor rack assemblies.
d. List of reference drawings.
3. Control and electrical system schematics and wiring diagrams and bills of materials for all systems. The
schematics shall show all adjustment points for alarm and shutdown limits (setpoints).
4. Electrical and Instrumentation arrangement plans for all systems (see Appendix H for typical arrangement plans). The following information shall be provided for all system parts:
a. Description.
b. Machinery protection system vendor part number.
c. Machinery protection system vendor name.
5. System grounding plan.
6. Calibration curves including the following:
a. Calibration curves for each shaft radial vibration transducer, casing vibration transducer, shaft axial
position transducer, bearing temperature transducer, piston rod drop transducer and machine overspeed transducer showing sensor linearity within specified tolerances (see Section 7.6, Figure 21 and
Table 3-A). The machinery protection system vendor’s serial/ model number for all transducers, and
the target material used for calibrating shaft radial vibration transducers and shaft axial position transducers shall be included on the calibration data.
COPYRIGHT American Petroleum Institute
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69
70
API STANDARD 670
b. Electrical and mechanical run-out test data at sensor mounting locations for shaft radial vibration proximity
transducers. The run-out data shall be phase related to the permanent or temporary once per revolution marker.
7. Rotor nodal analysis data showing the location of the predicted nodal points relative to the bearing centerlines
and the radial shaft vibration probes.
8. Alarm (alert) and shutdown (danger) setpoints for radial shaft vibration, casing vibration, shaft axial position, bearing temperature, piston rod drop and machine overspeed as recommended by the machinery vendor. The limits shall be stated in terms of the monitor display, For example: unfiltered mils peak-to-peak, g’s
peak or ips peak.
9. Data sheets.
10. Dimensions (including nominal dimensions with design tolerances) and data for the following parts:
a. Special transducers.
b. Special mounting fixtures.
11. Installation manual describing the following:
a. Storage procedure.
b. Mounting details.
c. Wiring connections.
d. Installation and calibration instructions.
e. Data sheets.
f. Special weather protection and winterization requirements.
g. Special system integrity protection requirements.
12. Operating and maintenance manual including the following:
a. Wiring connections.
b. Installation and calibration instructions.
c. Special weather protection and winterization requirements.
d. Board level troubleshooting instructions.
e. Basic operation details.
f. Alarm (alert) and shutdown (danger) setpoint adjustments.
g. System bypass operation.
13. Parts list and recommended spares with stocking level recommendations.
14. Progress report and delivery schedule, including vendor buy-outs and milestones.
15. List of all vendor drawings and data, including titles, drawing/ document numbers, schedule for transmission,
and latest revision number and dates.
16. Shipping list, including all major components that will ship separately.
17. Statement of any special weather protection and winterization required for startup, operation, and idleness.
18. Special requirements or restrictions necessary to protect the integrity of the machinery protection system.
19. List of special tools furnished for maintenance. Any metric items shall be identified.
20. Technical data manual, including the following:
a. Storage procedures.
b. Calibration data, per Item 6 above.
c. Drawings, in accordance with 8.3.2.
d. Tagging information.
e. Spare parts list, in accordance with Item 13 above.
f. Utility data (power source and purge requirements).
g. Machinery protection system field test documentation, including: installation and calibration details, curves
and data, rotor mechanical and electrical runouts, and recommended alarm (alert) and shutdown (danger) setpoints.
h. Rotor nodal points, in accordance with Item 7 above.
i. As-built datasheets, per Item 9 above.
j. Machinery protection system integration test results.
21. Material Safety Data Sheet (OSHA Form 20), as applicable.
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MACHINERY PROTECTION SYSTEMS
71
APPENDIX H—TYPICAL SYSTEM ARRANGEMENT PLANS
H.1 This appendix presents typical system arrangements for turbomachinery with hydrodynamic bearings
including a turbine (Figure H-1), a double-helical gear
(Figure H-2), a centrifugal compressor or pump (Figure
H-3), and an electric motor (Figure H-4). A typical
arrangement for a pump with rolling element bearings is
included as Figure H-5. Figure H-6 shows a typical
arrangement for a horizontal reciprocating compressor.
H.2 As a minimum, the arrangement plan furnished for
each machinery train (see Table G-2) shall illustrate the following items on the typical system arrangements:
a. The position of each probe in relation to the machine
bearing.
Note: The direction of shaft rotation does not affect the X and Y
probe location. The X and Y probes are always located as defined in
6.1.1.1. For piston rod drop probes, refer to note following 6.1.3.6
for probe nomenclature conventions.
b. The machine direction of active thrust (where applicable).
c. The machine direction of rotation. This shall be accomplished viewing all drivers from the high-pressure or
outboard end, and all driven machines from the driven end.
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d. A complete description of the system, including the following items, as well as any other information applicable to
the layout of the particular system:
1. The number, type, and position of probes.
2. The type of bearings.
3. The clock position of radial probes, with degrees referenced to the vertical top dead center (TDC) as zero.
4. The clock position of phase reference probes, with
degrees referenced to the vertical TDC as zero.
5. The location of axial probes.
6. The arrangement of the machine and junction boxes.
e. The layout of the radial shaft vibration, axial position,
casing vibration, tachometer, overspeed detection, rod drop,
and temperature monitors and all machine signal locations
on the monitor.
f. The type of machine.
g. The owner’s machine identification number.
72
API STANDARD 670
Item
JB
Description
P1
Axial position probe (instrument
manufacturer ID data)
P2
Axial position probe (instrument
manufacturer ID data)
3Y
Low pressure end radial vibration probe,
45° left of TDC (instrument manufacturer
ID data)
4X
Low pressure end radial vibration probe,
45° right of TDC (instrument manufacturer
ID data)
5Y
High pressure end radial vibration probe,
45° left of TDC (instrument manufacturer
ID data)
6X
High pressure end radial vibration probe
45° right of TDC (instrument manufacturer
ID data)
Ø
Phase reference transducer, 45° right of
TDC (instrument manufacturer ID data)
R
Radial bearing (description)
T
Thrust bearing (description)
S
Ø
S7
S8
S9
Ø10
4X
3Y
Active Thrust
R
Turbine
4X
3Y
R
JB
6X
P2
JP
Junction box
5Y
P1
S7–S9
Overspeed sensors
6X
5Y
Notes:
T
1. TDC – top dead center.
2. Typical temperature sensors and
monitors are shwon in Figure H-3.
P1
P2
Vibration, Axial Position, Speed
and Temperature Monitor
Tachometer
Counterclockwise
rotation
viewed
here
Ø10
Axial
position
P1
Radial shaft Radial shaft
vibration
vibration
high pressure low pressure
P2 5Y
6X 3Y
4X
Overspeed Detection
System
Redundant 3 Overspeed
Power
Sensing
Supplies
Channels
S7 S8 S9
Figure H-1—Typical System Arrangement for a Turbine With Hydrodynamic Bearings
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MACHINERY PROTECTION SYSTEMS
73
Item
3Y
Input shaft coupling end Y radial vibration
probe, 45° left of TDC (instrument
manufacturer ID data)
4X
Input shaft coupling end X radial vibration
probe, 45° right of TDC (instrument
manufacturer ID data)
A1
Input shaft coupling end horizontal radial
accelerometer, 90° off TDC (instrument
manufacturer ID data)
P1
Input shaft thrust bearing end axial position
probe #1 (instrument manufacturer ID data)
P2
Input shaft thrust bearing end axial position
probe #2 (instrument manufacturer ID data)
A2
Output shaft coupling end horizontal radial
accelerometer, 90° off TDC (instrument
manufacturer ID data)
5Y
Output shaft coupling end Y vibration
probe, 45° left of TDC (instrument
manufacturer ID data)
6X
Output shaft coupling end X radial vibration
probe, 45° right of TDC (instrument
manufacturer ID data)
Ø1
Output shaft noncoupling end phase
reference probe, 90° left of TDC
(instrument manufacturer ID data)
R
Radial bearing (description)
T
Thrust bearing (description)
JB
Junction Box
Output shaft
P1
5Y
P2
6X
T
R
R
Description
A2
Gear
R
R
A1
3Y
Ø1
4X
Input shaft
A2
P1
6X
P2
5Y
A1
Ø1
3Y
Notes:
1. TDC = top dead center.
2. For a single-helical gear, a pair of
axial probes should be installed at
each thrust-bearing end.
3. Typical temperature sensors and
monitors are shown in Figure H-3.
4X
JB
Counterclockwise
rotation
viewed
here
Vibration, Temperature and Axial Position Monitor
Radial shaft
vibration
(input shaft)
3Y
4X
Bearing cap
vibration
(input shaft)
A1
Axial shaft
position
P1
P2 5Y
Figure H-2—Typical System Arrangement for a Double-Helical Gear
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Radial shaft Bearing cap
vibration
vibration
(output shaft) (output shaft)
6X A2
74
API STANDARD 670
Item
JB
P1
P2
Description
P1
Axial position probe (instrument
manufacturer ID data)
P2
Axial position probe (instrument
manufacturer ID data)
3Y
Inboard end radial vibration probe, 45° left
of TDC (instrument manufacturer ID data)
4X
Inboard end radial vibration probe, 45° right
of TDC (instrument manufacturer ID data)
5Y
Outboard end radial vibration probe, 45° left
of TDC (instrument manufacturer ID data)
6X
Outboard end radial vibration probek 45°
right of TDC (instrument manufacturer ID
data)
R
Radial bearing (description)
T
Thrust bearing (description)
JB
Junction Box (description)
T8
T7
T
T5
T6
5Y
6X
Active thrust
R
JB
T3
T4
T1
T2
6X
Centrifugal
compressor or
Pump
5Y
4X
P1
T1, T2
Outboard end bearing temperature
3Y
P2
T3, T4
Coupling end bearing temperature
T5, T6
Active thrust bearing temperature
T7, T8
Inactive thrust bearing temperature
R
JB
3Y
4X
Note:
1. TDC = top dead center.
Vibration, Axial Position and Temperature Monitor
Axial
position
Counterclockwise
rotation
viewed
here
P1
Radial
vibration
Inboard
P2 3Y
Radial
vibration
Outboard
4X 5Y
Radial
Thrust
bearing
bearing
temperature temperature
6X T1,T2,T3,T4 T5,T6,T7,T8
Figure H-3—Typical System Arrangement for a Centrifugal Compressor
or a Pump With Hydrodynamic Bearings
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MACHINERY PROTECTION SYSTEMS
75
Item
Ø
R
T5
T7
T6
T8
T9
T10
JB
3Y
4X
T3
T4
Motor
T3
T4
T1
T2
R
T1
T2
5Y
Outboard end Y radial vibration probe, 45°
left of TDC (instrument manufacturer ID data)
6X
Outboard end X radial vibration probe, 45°
right of TDC (instrument manufacturer ID data)
3Y
Inboard end Y radial vibration probe, 45° left
of TDC (instrument manufacturer ID data)
4X
Inboard end X radial vibration probe, 45°
right of TDC (instrument manufacturer ID data)
Ø
Phase reference probe, 45° right of TDC
(instrument manufacturer ID data)
T1, T2
Outboard end bearing temperature
T3, T4
Inboard end bearing temperature
R
Radial bearing (description)
JB
Junction box (description)
T5, T6
Motor winding temperature (phase A)
T7, T8
Motor winding temperature (phase B)
T9, T10
Motor winding temperature (phase C)
Ø
4X
3Y
5Y
JB
Description
6X
JB
Note:
1. TDC = top dead center.
5Y
6X
Vibration and Temperature Monitor
Counterclockwise
rotation
viewed
here
Radial shaft Radial shaft Bearing
Motor
vibration
vibration temperature Winding
(Outboard) (coupling
Temperature
end)
5Y
6X 3Y
T5,T6,T7,
4X T1,T2,T3,T4 T8, T9, T10
Figure H-4—Typical System Arrangement for an Electric Motor With Sleeve Bearings
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76
API STANDARD 670
Item
A2
Description
A1
Inboard end radial horizontal
accelerometer, 90° off TDC
(instrument manufacturer ID data)
A2
Outboard end radial horizontal
accelerometer, 90° off TDC
(instrument manufacturer ID data)
R
Radial bearing (description)
T/R
Thrust/Radial bearing (description)
JB
Junction box (description)
T/R
Pump
A2
A1
1. TDC = top dead center.
A1
R
Notes:
JB
2. The same arrangement would be used for a
motor with rolling element bearings but
would be viewed from the outboard end.
Vibration Monitor
Bearing cap
vibration
Counterclockwise
rotation
viewed
here
Inboard end
A1
Outboard end
A2
Figure H-5—Typical System Arrangement for a Pump or Motor With Rolling Element Bearings
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Item
Ø1
Description
Ø1
Phase reference transducer
R
Radial Bearing (description)
JB
Junction Box (description)
T1-T5
Main bearing temperatures
RD1-RD4 Rod drop probes (instrument
manufacturer ID data)
A3
A1,A2,A3 Casing accelerometers
T5
T4
Cylinder
3
RD4
T3
RD3
Cylinder
2
T2
Cylinder
1
MACHINERY PROTECTION SYSTEMS
Cylinder
4
RD2
T1
RD1
A1
Ø1
A2
A3
A1
RD3
RD4
RD1
RD2
Reciprocating
Compressor
A2
T1
JB
T2
T5
T3
T4
Rod Drop, Vibration and Bearing
Temperature Monitor System
JB
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Casing
Vibration
Channels
Bearing
Temperature
Channels
RD1,RD2,RD3,RD4
A1,A2,A3
T1,T2,T3,T4,T5
77
Figure H-6—Typical System Arrangement for a
Reciprocating Compressor
Piston
Rod Drop
Channels
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APPENDIX I—SETPOINT MULTIPLIER CONSIDERATIONS
I.1 General
I.2.2 OPERATION ABOVE THE FIRST CRITICAL
SPEED
I.1.1 Setpoint multiplication is the function whereby
selected channels in the monitor system have their alarm
(alert) and shutdown (danger) setpoints elevated by some preset amount (usually an integer multiple such as 2 or 3).
I.2.2.1 For machines that operate at rotational speeds above
their first critical, it is necessary for the machine to pass
through one or more resonances as it ramps up or ramps
down. Figure I-1 shows a typical radial vibration amplitude
response of a machine operating above its first critical but
below its second critical. The first critical occurs at the speed
designated as rpmcritical in Figure I-1. The vibration amplitude at this rotational speed is shown as ampcritical. While this
figure shows only the response from a single measurement
location on the machine, similar graphs can be constructed
for each radial vibration measurement location.
I.1.2 Setpoint multiplication is usually invoked by an external contact closure (such as a turbine control system relay
output). However, this command could also be invoked via a
digital communication link on some machinery protection
systems.
I.1.3 This appendix provides an explanation of why this
feature may be required on some machine types, and also
offers guidance for the proper use of this feature.
I.2.2.2 The machine’s rated rotational speed is designated
as rpmrated and the radial vibration amplitude occurring at
this speed is designated as amprated. At this rated running
speed, the vibration amplitude amprated is less than the normal Alert (Anorm) and Danger (Dnorm) setpoints.
Note: Alarm setpoints can vary depending on the strategy and
requirements of various users for machinery protection. In some
cases, alarm levels are established very close to the mechanical
clearance limits of the machine. In these cases, setpoint multiplication should not be specified because it will result in alarm levels that
exceed these mechanical clearances and will not provide adequate
machinery protection.
I.3 Conditions Requiring Setpoint
Multiplication
I.2 Fundamental Rotor Response
I.3.1 Notice that the machine in Figure I-1 experiences
vibration amplitudes in excess of its normal alarm (alert) and
shutdown (danger) setpoints when it passes through its first
critical. If the machine remains in this speed region (rpm1 ≤
speed ≤ rpm2) for a time ∆t that exceeds the preset alarm
delays for the channel, alarm (alert) or shutdown (danger)
events will result. In the case of a danger event, this may actually result in the machine being shut down even though it was
merely experiencing normal vibration responses as it passed
through a resonance.
All rotating machinery exhibits characteristic resonances at
certain excitation frequencies. The most common form of
excitation is the rotor’s own unbalance forces occurring at the
rotational speed of the machine. This discussion assumes
excitation caused by these unbalance forces.
When a machine’s rotational speed coincides with one of
its resonances (such as during startup or shutdown), vibration
can result that is far above the levels expected at rated running
speeds.
Machinery designers are generally careful to account for
these resonances in their rotor dynamic designs such that the
machine does not operate at or near any resonances.
I.3.2 The condition defined in I.3.1 leads to the need for setpoint multiplication. As shown in Figure I-1, if the alarm
(alert) and shutdown (danger) setpoints are multiplied by a
factor of 3 while the machine is operating between rotational
speeds rpm1 and rpm2, the machine can pass through its first
critical without encountering spurious alarms. In this case, the
alarm (alert) and shutdown (danger) setpoints are elevated
temporarily to Amult and Dmult respectively. The setpoints
return to their normal levels when the machine is outside this
speed region.
I.2.1 TYPES OF RESPONSES AT RESONANCE
CONDITIONS
Vibratory response at resonance conditions can be lateral
(that is, radial vibration), axial, or torsional. This standard
does not address either axial vibration or torsional vibration
measurements as part of the machinery protection system.
Therefore, this discussion focuses only on the lateral or radial
vibration response as measured by proximity probes or by
casing transducers such as accelerometers. However, care
should be taken to recognize and document resonance
responses other than radial vibration because they can be just
as damaging to the machine.
I.3.3 Thus, setpoint multiplication is required when both
the criteria below are met:
a. The machine experiences vibration amplitudes in excess
of its danger or alert setpoints as it passes through a machine
79
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80
API STANDARD 670
Radial Vibration Amplitude
Dmult
Amult
AMP critical
Dnorm
Anorm
AMP rated
0
RPM1
0
RPM critical
RPM2
RPM rated
Rotational Speed
Figure I-1—Setpoint Multiplication Example
resonance and this results in unwanted machine shutdown or
alarms; and,
b. The duration of this setpoint violation exceeds the preset
alarm delay times.
I.4 Alarm Suppression or Bypass
Considerations
The practice of bypassing or suppressing the machinery
protection system alarms while it passes through a resonance
in lieu of using properly established setpoint multiplication
functions is strongly discouraged. Setpoint multiplication
merely elevates the alarms, it does not suppress them. This
ensures that machinery protection is provided at all rotational
speeds of the machine.
I.5 Proper Applications of Setpoint
Multiplication
The proper application of the setpoint multiplication function can be divided into 2 basic considerations.
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I.5.1 PROPER IDENTIFICATION OF APPLICABLE
CHANNELS
Each radial vibration location will typically measure a different amplitude response. Thus, the machine’s characteristic
response at each radial vibration measurement location
should be documented over the range of rotational speeds
from zero to rated speed. This information should be used in
determining which channels require setpoint multiplication.
Only those channels which meet the criteria of I.3.3.a and
I.3.3.b above should be fitted with setpoint multiplication
functions.
I.5.2 PROPER SELECTION OF SETPOINT
MULTIPLIERS
The characteristic response for each measurement location
documented in I.5.1 above should also be used to establish
the appropriate multiplier. The multiplier should generally be
chosen to be as small as possible while still elevating the
alarm (alert) and shutdown (danger) setpoints to levels that
are above the machine’s characteristic response at resonance.
MACHINERY PROTECTION SYSTEMS
Provisions for setpoint multiplication by 2 or 3 are required of
machinery protection systems complying with this standard
(the example contained in Figure I-1 assumes an integer multiple of 3 as can be noted by the tic marks on the vertical
axis). When multipliers in excess of 3 are required to accommodate the machine’s response at resonance(s), this may be
indicative of machinery that has unacceptably large amplification factors. The machinery manufacturer should be consulted.
I.6 Control System Interface
Considerations
Typically, the machine control system will be capable of
generating an output signal, such as a relay contact closure,
that is wired to the machinery protection system to invoke its
setpoint multiplication function. There are three basic ways
this is accomplished.
81
invokes the setpoint multiplication output for a time equal to
or greater than ∆t (refer to I.3 for a discussion of ∆t).
Note: The duration ∆t is dependent on the acceleration and deceleration rates governed by the machine control system. This paragraph
should not be construed as permitting the machine to dwell indefinitely at or near its critical speed(s).
I.6.3 MANUAL OPERATION
This method does not rely on an automatic machinery
control system. Instead, an operator manually invokes the
setpoint multiplication in the machinery protection system
by a pushbutton or switch or timer as part of the machine
startup or shutdown procedure. However, this is rarely
encountered because most machines are now fitted with
automatic control systems capable of performing all startup and shutdown control and sequencing without human
intervention.
I.6.1 ABSOLUTE SPEED RANGE SENSING
This method requires the machine control system to sense
the rotational speed of the machine and activates an output
any time the machine is operating at speeds between rpm1
and rpm2.
I.6.2 TIMER
This method can be used if the acceleration and deceleration rates of the machine are repeatable. In this case, a preset
timer in the machine control system is triggered whenever the
machine is accelerating through speed rpm1 or decelerating
through speed rpm2 The machine control system simply
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I.6.4 BEST PRACTICE RECOMMENDATIONS
The method described in I.6.1 above is encouraged as best
practice when integrating the machine control system with
the machinery protection system. The manual method
described in I.6.3 is least desirable because it relies on human
intervention for proper machinery protection. It can result in
false trips or alarms if the setpoint multiplication function is
not invoked. It can also lead to missed trips or alarms if the
setpoint multiplication function remains invoked even though
the machine is operating outside the region between rpm1 and
rpm2.
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APPENDIX J—ELECTRONIC OVERSPEED DETECTION SYSTEM CONSIDERATIONS
J.1 General
machine itself. Collectively, these components comprise the
overspeed protection system.
J.1.1 The standard employed for the rotating machine
under consideration will generally specify the allowable
momentary overspeed as a percent of rated operating speed.
For example, API 612 requires the overspeed protection system to preclude the rotor from ever exceeding 127% of the
rated operating speed on mechanical drives, and 121% on
generator drives.
J.2 System Response Time
This standard requires that the electronic overspeed detection system be able to detect an overspeed event and change
the state of its output relays within 40 milliseconds when provided with an input signal frequency of at least 300 Hz. However, this response time of the detection system alone does
not guarantee that the complete overspeed protection system
will be suitable for a particular application. Other system
dynamics need to be considered. Proper engineering judgment and system design must be used to ensure that the complete overspeed protection system functions properly and
responds fast enough to preclude the rotor speed from
exceeding the maximum allowable limit. Consult ASME
PTC 20.2-1965 Section 5 as an example of how to evaluate
the total system response time.
J.1.2 The electronic overspeed detection system is only
one component within the entire overspeed protection system
(see Figure J-1). The performance of the entire system is not
limited to items discussed in this standard. Other components
which are critical in determining the response of the entire
system may include, but are not limited to: interposing relays,
solenoids, trip valve(s), non-return valves, steam and hydraulic piping, and the entrained energy within the rotating
Trip
Valve(s)
Machine
Specified per
API 670
Speed
Sensors
Specified per
API 612 (or other
pertinent machine
standard)
Solenoid valves and other intermediate
overspeed protection system
components
Multi-toothed
Speed Sensing
Surface
Electronic
Overspeed
Detection
System
Relay
Contacts
Interposing Relays
Figure J-1—Overspeed Protection System
83
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84
API STANDARD 670
Overspeed
sensor
Dimension
Description
A
B
C
D
Tooth length
Tooth depth
Notch length
Diameter of proximity
probe tip or magnetic
speed sensor pole piece
Gap
Tooth width
C
E
E
F
D
A
F
B
Figure J-2—Relevant Dimensions for Overspeed Sensor and Multi-Tooth Speed
Sensing Surface Application Considerations (See Table J-1)
J.3 General Considerations for MultiToothed Speed Sensing Surfaces
The speed sensing surface may be a gear, toothed wheel,
evenly spaced holes in a shaft surface, or other such target that
provides gap discontinuities for the speed sensors to observe.
Characteristics of the sensing surface will need to be matched
to the sensor type to ensure the input signal amplitude to the
electronic overspeed detection system is within allowable
minimum and maximum voltage limits. Figure J-2 shows the
dimensions of the speed sensor and multi-tooth speed sensing
surface that are relevant to application considerations.
When designing or installing a multi-toothed speed sensing
surface, care should be taken to ensure that differential axial
movement will not cause the speed sensing surface to move
outside the transducer’s range. The machine may expand or
contract due to thermal conditions and normal rotor axial
float. Precautions can be taken to address the expansion and
contraction characteristics. The speed sensing surface should
be of suitable thickness or may be located in an area not subject to excessive axial expansion or contraction of the shaft or
the surface to which the speed sensor is affixed.
J.3.1 SPEED SENSING SURFACE FOR MAGNETIC
SPEED SENSORS
J.3.1.1 When magnetic speed sensors are used, the optimum dimensions of the speed sensing surface are a function
of the pole piece diameter (D). Refer to Table J-1 for recom-
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mended dimensions when this arrangement is used. However,
additional calculations are required to ensure optimum signal
strength for the electronic overspeed detection system inputs.
Some of these additional calculations include, but are not limited to, surface speed, gear pitch, air gap, and load. Consult
the magnetic speed sensor manufacturer to ensure correct
application guidelines are observed.
J.3.1.2 Installation considerations require a thorough
understanding of the peak-to-peak vibration characteristics at
the speed sensing location during both running speed and
overspeed conditions. Magnetic speed sensors require a close
gap, typically less than 0.51 mm (20 mils), for optimal operation. This may allow the observed speed sensing surface to
contact the sensor during high radial vibration conditions,
causing loss of signal and failure of the sensor. Applications
in which the speed sensing surface is subject to high radial
vibration amplitudes (particularly during an overspeed event)
should consider the use of proximity probes as detailed in
Sections J.3.2 and J.3.3.
J.3.2 NON-PRECISION SPEED SENSING
SURFACE FOR PROXIMITY PROBES
A non-precision speed sensing surface employs tooth
depths that exceed the proximity probe’s linear operating
range (see Figure J-3). While proximity probes do not necessarily have to be used with a precision-machined speed sensing surface (see Section J.3.3 below), that arrangement is
MACHINERY PROTECTION SYSTEMS
recommended to achieve the best possible diagnostic capabilities on the speed sensor inputs. When a non-precision speed
sensing surface is employed with proximity probe speed sensors, refer to Table J-2 for recommended dimensions.
J.3.3 PRECISION-MACHINED SPEED SENSING
SURFACE FOR PROXIMITY PROBES
A precision-machined toothed wheel employs a precise
tooth depth to keep a proximity probe system within its lin-
85
ear operating range at all times (see Figure J-4). This
arrangement permits enhanced circuit fault detection and
diagnostic capabilities beyond those achievable when speed
sensors are used as detailed in Sections J.3.1 and J.3.2
above. In addition, this arrangement is capable of providing
an OK sensor indication while the machine is not running.
Refer to Table J-3 for recommended dimensions when using
this arrangement.
Table J-1—Recommended Dimensions for Speed Sensing Surface
When Magnetic Speed Sensors are Used
Dimension
Recommended
A (tooth length)
B (tooth depth)
C (notch length)
D (diameter of pole piece)
E (gap)
F (tooth width)
≥D
≥C
≥ 3D
Typically 4.749 mm (0.187 in.).
As close as possible.
Typically 0.254 mm (10 mils) or less.
≥D
Table J-2—Recommended Dimensions for Non-Precision Speed Sensing Surface
When Proximity Probe Speed Sensors are Used1
Dimension
A (tooth length)
B (tooth depth)
C (notch length)
E (gap)
F (tooth width)
Minimum
8 mm
2 mm
8 mm
0.5 mm
8 mm
Nominal
Maximum
Unlimited2,3
Unlimited2,3
Unlimited
Unlimited2,3
1.25 mm
Unlimited
Unlimited
Unlimited2,3
0.875 mm
Unlimited
Table J-3—Recommended Dimensions for Precision-Machined Speed Sensing Surface
When Proximity Probe Speed Sensors are Used1
Dimension
A (tooth length)
B (tooth depth)4
C (notch length)
E (gap)4
F (tooth width)
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Minimum
8 mm
1 mm
8 mm
0.5 mm
8 mm
Nominal
Maximum
Unlimited2,3
Unlimited2,3
1.3 mm
Unlimited2,3
0.8 mm
Unlimited
1 mm
Unlimited2,3
0.65 mm
Unlimited
86
API STANDARD 670
Notes:
1. Tables J-2 and J-3 assume the use of standard or standard-option proximity probes (see Sections 5.1.1.2 and 5.1.1.3)
with a linear range of at least 2.03 mm (80 mils). For applications where non-standard probes are to be used, consult the
machinery protection system vendor.
2. Where an unlimited dimension is stated, the actual maximum limit will be determined by the overall diameter of the
multi-toothed speed sensing surface and the desired number of events-per-revolution.
3. An unlimited tooth length/notch length is not intended to imply that a speed sensing surface with only a single discontinuity (that is, tooth) is acceptable for overspeed applications. Such a design provides only a one-event-per-revolution
signal and is rarely able to achieve the necessary response time required for proper machinery overspeed protection.
Unlike a multi-tooth design, it requires multiple revolutions of the rotor to determine the change in rotor speed. The
greater the number of events-per-revolution, the higher the resolution of the sampled speed signal.
4. If Dimension B + Dimension E exceeds 1.8 mm (70.9 mils), the probe may indicate a NOT OK condition if the rotor
stops with the probe observing a notch.
Dimension
Description
A
B
C
F
Tooth length
Tooth depth
Notch length
Tooth width
C
B
F
A
Figure J-4—Precision-Machined Overspeed Sensing Surface
(See Table J-3)
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