Broadcasting to schools
ROADCASTING
TO SCHOO
Reports on the organization
of school broadcasting services
in 'various countries
UNESCO
1949
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Published by
United Nations Educational
Scientific and Cultural Organization
Printed in France
by
Société Ndionale des Entreprises de Presse
Imprimerie Chbtealrdun
59-61, rue L a Fayette, Panis (9”)
Copyright 1949 by Un8escoParis
Unesco Pubkcation 661
INTRODUCTION
'I'he Commission on Technical Needs of the Press, Film, and Radio, convened
by Unesco in August 1948, recommended that the Secretariat should carry
out a survey of school broadcasting and publish a work o n the subject,
intended chiefly for the use of Governments and broadcasting organizations,
in order to facilitate the organization and development of such broadcasts.
In October F948, the Radio P r o g r a m m e Commission reaffirmed the
suggestion that a survey should be m a d e of school broadcasting, çovering the
concepts and methods used and the results achieved in different countries.
1% further recommended that an advisory committee on educational broadcasting should be s u m m o n e d to advise and help Unesco in the field of
educational and school broadcasting.
In accordance with these recommendations, the Secretariat sent a detailed
questionnaire to representative countries where school broadcasting has been
Considerably developed. These countries were chosen to provide examples
of school broadcasting organizations operating under different regimes, both
as pegards the radio and the general educational system. T h e countries
were : Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Great Britain, India, Mexico,
Poland, Sweden, Switzerland, the Union of South Africa, the United States of
America.
Full reports on the school broadcasting services of these countries were
obtained and are reproduced in Part II of this document.
A n advisory committee composed of five experts and a certain number of
observers met at Unesco House from 27 June to 1 July 1949. T h e members
of the committee were:
Ewperts :
MM: Dovaz, Director of Radio-Geneva ;
Lakshmanan, Director-General .of "All India Radio" ;
Okkenhaug, Head of School Broadcasting, Norwegian
Broadcasting Service ;
Postgate, H e a d of School Broadcasting, British Broadcasting Corporation ;
Miss Waller, Educational Director, N.B.C. Chicago ;
Rapporteur : M. Roger IClausse, Deputy Director-General, Belgian National
Broadcasting Service ;
Observers :
M. Caballero. of the International Bureau of Education ;
Miss Combs, of the N e w Zealand Broadcasting Service ;
Mrs. Gorey, Education Director, KDKA, Pittsburgh ;
M. Delatour, Head of Educational Television, Radiodiffusion
francaise.
Eefore the meeting, the members of the Committee had received a complete
file containing the survey reports collected by the Secretariat, short notes on
s ecialized aspects of school broadcasting (which appear in Fart III of this
J c u m e n t ) and a detailed study on the problems of the organization of school
broadcasting which had been prepared as a working paper for the Commi'ttee
by the rapporteur, M. Clausse.
'This file served as a basis for the discussions of the Committee, and aided
the members to d r a w u p the recommendations and statements reproduced on
the following pages. T h e Committee also adopted unanimously the following
declaration :
"A report written for the meeting of experts b y M. Qausse, Deputy DirectorGeneral of the Belgian National Broadcasting Institute, w a s found invaluable
as a guide to discussion, and m a n y of its conclusions have been incorporated
into the finding8 of the Committee. For this reason, and Yo avoid repetition,
Mr. Clausse's report is not being reproduced, but the Committee wishes to pay
tribute to the author for his excellent preparatory report."
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
P - ~I T: Report of the Advisory Committee on Educational Broadcasting
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PARTII : Qpical school broadcasting systems
Qaestionnajrc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
..................
School broadcasting in AUSTRALIA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
BELGIUM
.....................
ßRAZII. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CANADA
............................
...........................
GREAT BRITAIX......
...........
INDIA ......
..............
LuExIco . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
..........
POLAND . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
..........
SWEDEN ........................
.SWITZ~:RLAND
........................
U N I O N OF SOUTH AFRICA. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
UNITEDSTATES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
27
31
39
49
53
65
75
91
103
107
113
1215
135
141
PARTJI1 : Special aspects of school broadcasting
Frequency modiilation in school broadcasting . . . . . . . . . . . .
School broadcasiing in the kindergarten ..................
School broadcasting as a substitute for direct teaching ....
Internalional understanding and school broadcasting ......
I<:rtlio in lire !ight against illiteracy ..................
T h e quipinent of schools with .receiving sets ............
159
169
173
175
185
189
APPENDICES
Gent.:.al h i b l i o ~ r ~ p h y. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Lit$ oî school 1ro:idcas~ing specialists
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201
207
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PART I
REPORT OF THE
ADVISORY COMMITTEE
O N EDUCATIONAL
BROADCASTING
1. OBJECTS OF SCHOOL BROADCASTING
Ais a prekirninary to its views and recommendations on School Broadcasting
the Advisory Committee on Educational Broadcasting wishes to affirm the
followirngprinciples :
1. The prowision of broadcasts for schools is a service w%ich every country
shhouid find wofih while to provide. T h m e programmes do not replace the
teacher or compete with him. They supplement, enrich and extend bis work.
As radio lhas a very great range of material and of prQgramme form, its
contributions to education m a y be of m a n y kinds, dependent upon the particular organization and state of the educational and broadcasting systems of the
country concerned, and upon its resources. But the following principal contributions Seem established:
Q) Sebool broadcasting can extend the pupiIs' awareness and understanding
of the world of the past and of the present.
b) It ean develop tiheir incentive to read, study and think.
c) It can contribute to and extend their enjoyment and appreciation Of the
arts.
2. T h e m a n y means by which school broadcasting can help to achieve these
educalional objectives, include :
a) The presentation of outstanding personalities and authorities.
b) Dramatizations, features, eye-witness descriptions and other methods
the illusion of "being &here".
c) iBst-class performances of the arts-music, drama and literature,including that of radio itselif.
d) Sometimes, as is the case in the Uinited States, the provision of an outlet
for the creative expression of the pupils themselves.
3. School broadcasting can often be of great assistance where the educational
system has some particular deficiency, e.g. where there is widespread illiteracy
or a shortage of qualified teacihers and textbooks or other educational facilitiey.
4. A rchool broadcasting service provides training in selective and critical
listening; and it serves to interpret tlnc schools to $he community and the
community to the schools.
5. f i e Committee observed that the countries which they studied differed
from ea& other trery widely in point of their social and economic resources
and development, and in their educational systems and traditions. T h e Committee m a d e the following rough classification into three groups :
Q) Those where school curricula are extremely flexible and can he adapted
for inclusion of school radio (e.g. Great Britain, U.S.A.,Canada) and Where
seho01 broadcasting has already achieved s o m e maturity.
b) Counfrirs where school progranimes are "rigid" (e:g. France, Italy and
Belgium) and where scrhool broadcasting is either non-esisteqt or is relatively
und e v eloped.
c) Countries where the educational system is still defective and where the
shortage of properly qualified teachers hampers the development of a service
of school bsoadcastb, even though lihe service mag itself be desired.
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II. MANAGEMENT A N D CONTROL
1. T h e essential problem. of Dhe control of a school broadcasting service
derives from tihe fact that it has to satisfy the criteria of education and radio.
??his problem is present w h e t h r broadcasting is provided 'by commercial
ageneies entirely, by a state service, or by both at once; and whether &e
edlrcational system is centralized and authoritarian, as 'for asample in F r a m e ,
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decentralized and non-authoritarian,as for example in Great Britain and India,
or occupies s o m e m i d w a y osition between t%ese extremes. In Australia for
example, while the Central overnment has no control over the confent or form
of the education in the various states, the state education authorities exercise
full control over t'he schools which they direct; and a public corporation
created under a statute of the Federal Cbtvernment provides the radio
programmes.
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2. However, the problem is id all cases essentially the same. As an aid to
education, school broadcasting must be guided by the needs of the schools.
O n the other hand. it is a broadcasting service, a seirvice utilizing a n e w
means of pu,blicationwhose limitations and possi\bilitiesare 'by no means fully
explored, and it must respond to the rules of this n e w m e d i u m as these become
revealed.
3. %he marriage of these t w o partners is achieved in different ways, but in
nearly all instances it has been found necessary 40 set up an educational body
to guide the broadcasting organization on the general educational policy of its
school broadcasting. This body usually requests annually $he transmission of
broadcast ,serieson the topics selected, and settles the aims and scope of each
series, and t<henature of any accompanying literature which m a y be required.
In s o m e instances, this body formulates its requirements in general terms only,
but later approves in detail the proposals which hhe broadcasting. authorities
m a y m a k e to meet the requirements stated. In other,s,Che guidance is expressed
in greater detail in tlhe first instance, and the responsibility of the broadcasting
organization is not to propose broadcasts but to carry out the wislhes of the
educational authorities unless it finds their suggestions to be unibroadcastable.
In others again, the whole process is less formal, the broadcasting and educational representatives meeting together around a table and reaching conclusions
as to what should be done without any clear distinction as to Where tihe
responsibility for proposal or approval lies. T h e exact solution varies, and
must vary very widely, according Yo circumstances, not only of the educational
and broadcasting systems, but also according to the status of the broadcasting
organization, its experience of educational radio, its staff, and tlhe regard in
which it is (held by the educational world as a whole. A n e w broadcasting
service must expect that its proposals will be very narrowly scrutinized; but
as it gains experience and prestige, it m a y Io& forward to greater responsibility and freedom. At the early stages particularly, it is essential bhat in an
endeavour to keep school broadcasting close to the aahool's needs it should
not be too closely tied to the habits of (the classroom, otherwise it m a y not
be able to exploit its spiecial characteristics fully.
4. The composition and powers of this guiding educational body vary considerably. In most cases central and local educational authorities, the univerbities, teachers, lecturers in training colleges, form the bulk of the membership,
whether they are appointed directly or b y nomination of representatives of
proifessional associations and in most cases their powers are somemhere
between merely adivisory and wholly mandatory. @ut the exact relationslhips,
w-liich are extremely important for the welfare of Itbe service, concern very
minute matters, hnd often are closely related to staffing and procedure.
5. In all these systems however there is one other c o m m o n factor; namely,
that all of them require for their successful working, harmonious and co-operative relations between tihe broadcasting and the educational elements. Wihile
it m a y be useful and sometimes unavoidable to define exactly the particular
functions of eaclh party for practical working it is more essential to s t r m the
need for their co-operation and for the necessity of a great deal of goodwill
and give-and-take.
Specimen systems are:
Q) Sweden, as an example of a country (with relatively great resources)
havin a centralized radio system and educational system which operates with
same ?ocal freedom.
b) Belgium, as an example of a compact country I(with substantial resources)
having a state radio system and a centralized authoritarian educational system.
c) India, as an example of a country with a centralized state radio system,
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a largely decentralized educational system, and particular difficulties of illiteracy, resources and language.
b) Texas, as an exam le of an American state, wifih a University, and state
educational system, a n 8 commercial radio station collaborating to provide a
school broadcasting service.
e) Great Britain, as an example of a country with an extremely decentralized system of education, a highly centralized broadcasting system, and a
well-endowed and elalborate system of sohool broadcasting.
III. RESOURCES
Like other forms of broadcasting, school broadcasting can be done expensively
or cheaply, and there is a great variety in the means of financing such broadcast
services. These varieties depend in part upon the actual resources of the
country in question, but also to a large extent upon the value whiah the
community attadhes to education and to sc'hool broadcasting in particular.
Where trhe educational world and the broadcasting organizations haive
convinced the ublic that scihool broadcasting is worth while, it receives a fair
share of availa%le resources.
Resources m a y c o m e from various quarters; from a government agency,
national, federal, state, county or city, in its general or its educational capacity,
OP' from the radio organization dhefiher public or commercial, or even from
some private murce. Most school broadcasting services are financed from
public funds derived from one source or another. This is also true in the
United States, but in addition m a n y radio programmes [forschools are financed
by commercial radio stations.
In the United States Bhere are comparatively few cases where individual
ci,ties such as Cleveland, N e w York, Chicago, San lkancisco and Detroit have
allocafed funds by their respective Boards of Education for the erection of
School Board o w n e d radio transmittem. In sucih cities a Director of Radio,
attached to the school system has been empowered to set u a staff and
arrange a programme of broadcasts for the school year. n m o r e caser
commercial radio stations working in co-operation with the local school
systems plan series of broadcasts to be taken b y the schools of the community.
In these cases there is no charge for the facilities nor for the preparation and
presentation of bhe broadcasts. The arrangement is purely an altruistic gesture
of good will towards the schools and the community. dn Texas, over a statewide network, the school programmes are prepared in co-operation with the
State Department of Education and the University af Texas.
T h e purposes which tlhe resources have normally to serve, are as follows:
a) Broadcasting installations such as studios, transmitters and so forth;
though w'here school broadcasting is (as is usual) operated as part of a fullscale radio organization,these charges are not specifically school broadcasting
clharges;
b) T h e staff for directing and producing the programmes, including administrative, technical and clelrical staff. S o m e discussion of this matter appears
in section VU.
c) T h e provision and maintenance of suitablie listening equipment.
d) T h e provision of the printed material needed to m a k e k n o w n the
schedules oQ broadcasts and to help the. school to m a k e the best use of them
(see section BII).
e) Provision for the publicizing of the service in trhe educational world and
the community at large (see section XI).
O n point c), the methods currently in use of obtaining equipment are very
inany. Receivers m a y be provided by any or all of the agencies mentioned
earlier as being responsible for the resources oif the service as a whole. It is
evidently- of great help to a n e w service if offficial agencies will provide the
wts; or, if they cannot do tihis, exempt from purc'hase taxes and licence fees,
receivers for school use. In ,default of these aids self~helpand charity of all
kinds are found. 77ie receiTTers provided in bhis w a y are often felt to be the
more valuable for the effort5 which haIr c gone into getting them-parent groups
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have presented sets to schools; children have raised the money to buy their
sets; and teachers have furnished sets for their o w n classrooms. This
naturally results in random distribution OP receivers, but when the sets cannot
be obtained in any other way this seems to be an alternative. The Committee,
however, felt that since school broadcasting is, in their opinion, a necessar]
tool of education, public funds should be more widely availabIe for the
purchase of listening equipment.
IV. BROADCASTS
1. Radio is essentially a means ob communication, and the subject matter it
covers and tlhe forms of expression it employs are as extensive as those of the
printed word. On the other hand, no a school broadcasting organization has
either the resources of men and money, or the tim'eon the air, to permit it to
give time to every programme which m a y be considered 'tomake a contribution
to scbool education. The problem is to select tihose broadcasts which make
the greatest contribution; and this (decisionha,sto be taken in the light both
of the educational need and the broadcasting opportunity.
2. In nearly all educational systems tlhere are some gaps. In the United
Kingdom, for instance, there is currently a s'hortage of teachers qualified in
science; and in many countries well-qualified music teachers are lacking; in
some with particular problems, there is a very great shortage of trained
teachers d any kind. T'hese slhortages tend to set up demands for direct
teaching by radio and, though sucih programmes do not niake the ,fullestuse
of radio's peculiar potentialities, and perhaps should not be thought of as
more than stop-gap steps, they may h,ethe right use o1 the resources and airtime available. As examples of this type of programme m a y %e given the
teachin,gof rea'ding,of choral 'singing,o'fwoodwork, of drawing, of indoar
physical training and of the niovements of swimming.
3. Where the service can penform its more normal task of supplementing
and enrichin'gexisting teaching, there is general agreement t'hat some topics
are more suitable than others. Radio m a y (be at its. ibesl when dramatizing
persons and events, and at its worst when propagaiing generalizations. It is
also at a disadvantage when trying to do what can he bet'terdone through the
eye. A visual medium-film, film strip or still pictures-is generally superior
to the radio for conveying pictures of places. aiid things, or, for,example,
mechanical processes. O n the other hand, by careful selection of inaterial and
scripting, and the preparation of illustrated accompanying literature,sa.tlsfactory work in these fields has been 'frequentlydonc.
4. The subjects most normally to be faund in most school broadcasting
services and usually successful are:
0) News ufid current artairs. (lnsome countries, i1lc~udillgGreat iiir-iixin,t h e
schools receive a short daily objective explanation of an item of ncws. WeeBP>or monthly programmes on current events, and the immediate historical bac.kground to them, are coninion, and, in some instances, opposing views upoil
controversial matters are pres,ented. All the school broadcasting services
studied take particular pains to avoid propaganda,in t'lie sense of endeavouring
to sway the minds of children to incline to a particular pditicnl view point.
The usual age ifor these programmes is from 13 years onwards.
b) Science. Effective broadcasts in some braniche of nature 'study,clementary science a n d tihe 'bearingof science upon modern life :ire ron::non. In
general, these topics seem to need some visual follouwp i f [hey are :o !befully
successful. (Ages 9-15.)
C) Y U S ~ A
Cll.organizations devote a considerable,thotrgh varying, proportion of their time to mu:sic. T,heforms of these programnies include:
(i) for y0un.g clhildren: listening, singing, dancing a n d interpretative
movement;
lii) dass sin'ging;
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{iii) appreciation through listening, sin [ling,musical games, score following.
Most of tlhese programmes have expyanatory commentary, though some
consist entirely of extracts from the performance af a musical work. A c c o m panying literature is often fousd desirable.
d) Histony. This is a c o m m o n and successful subject for radio treatment
and it allows the use of the dramatization which has become a popular and
stapIe feature od school broadcasting. Both national and international history
are treated and Che programmes are directed at children of various a g s
between 9 and 15. These programmes, together with a group which m a y be
loosely termed social studies. shade off into t'he group labelled N e w s a n i
Current Affairs.
e) Geography aiid Tiuwel. Programmes on thesc topics are popular and
successful at various ages. They are often supplemented b y illustrated
literature.
f) 5ifepafure. T h e presentation of national language and literature (and
sometimes of the classics a€ other countries) appears in all school broadcasting
programmes, in s o m e cases for cfhildren at all ages between G and 15, but
principally between 9 and 15. T h e programmes, whiclh are of very great
variety and offer the widest scope for the invention and harnessing of broadcasting techniques to educational needs, deal with stocies, adaptations of prose
and verse, works originally composed for reading, works originally composed
for the theatre and creations especially for the radio.
g) Foreign lmguages. In as m u c h as language is rimarily a matter Os
speech, radio appears particularly suited to help t e sclhools to provide
examples of correct, idiomatic speech a n d an introduction to the life and
habits of the country studied. at has also been used successfully for m o r e
elem e n tary instruction.
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V. PREIENTATION
1. TYPES OF lBROADCAST
School broadcasting employs all the forms of presentation k n o w n to radio. No
one form can be regapded as intrinsically more suited to school broadcastin
than any other. T h e essential task is to discover and use the form most suite
to the subject matter and W e audience in each case. Popular forms include
narrative with dramatic interludes, dialogue, dabate, dramatic sketches,
"features", "running commentaries" (i.e. impromptu eyewitness accounts of
events with or without authentic sound effects). As to the talk, it has, through
its similarities to the traditional classroom lesson, passed through the same
history in m a n y school broadcasting organizations. At first it w a s the princi al
form used; then, as more elaborate forms were developed and proved popugr,
it became less used and is n o w perhqps under-valued. Nevertheless, despite
the special care needed in compasing the script and clhoosing the %broadcaster,
it still has an important place in school broadcasting.
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2. The forms illustrated above are not an exclusi~elist and 'new comlbinations and forms must be expected to emerge.
3. Most school broadcasts, it appears, m a k e use of a narrator of s o m e kind,
although this is not invariable, as when, for instance, radio versions of lays
are performed or concerts of music given. In musical broadcasts c h i p d m
aften take part by singing and even by following the score. In m a n y other
broadcasts, the children participate through compositions, and b y sending
requests for particular items.
4. DUURATIQN
The Committee noted that broadcasts differ in length considerably and this
difference appeared to depend upon various factors; for example, h o w long
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the periods in the schools lasted; h o w old were the children addressed; and
h o w the broadcasting aurhority wished to divide up the air time available. It
a peared that no broadcast lasts for less than 10 minutes and few for more
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30; the most c o m m o n duration seems to be in t‘he neighbourhood of
20 minutes. The selection and treatment of the topics need to be made in the
light of the duration adopted; but similarly, when the schedule of broadcasts is being planned it is desirable that the nature of tlhe subject matter
should be allowed to have some influence upon the length of the broadcasts.
5. PIGRFORIMAMCE
For a school broadcast to be fully effective the performanre must be first-class.
In consequence, the utilization of prafessional actors, broadcasters and
musicians is recommended. Nevertheless, it appears that for various reasons
amateur performers and even children are widely used. On some occasions,
as when, for instance, the broadcast needs a cihildren’s choir, children are
introduced (becauset’heprograinme requires it. In other instances,they may
be introduced because the organization wishes to popularize the school broadcasting service among children,and in some countries,notably U.S.A.,cihildren
are used, particularly OR short distance transmissions, because the whole
service is organized in a more intimate and personal w a y than in otber
countries where the broadcasts are organized on a national scale.
VI. UTILIZATION A N D PREPARATION
1. A broadcast may iisefully be thought of as the centre section of an educational event having three parts: preface, broadcast and conclusion. Of these
the first and last take place in the classroom under the complete control of the
teacher. The central portion, the broaidcast itself, is praoided by the broadcasting authority under guidance from the educational interests, and the
suwess of the whole process depends upon the successful relationship of the
three parts, a problem to which a close attention is required.
2. So far, though very little fundamental study of this matter lhas 0een
carried out, there is general agreement that the problem exists. It is also clear
that whereas certain broadcasts w
ill need substantial preparation and followup, ot’hers require very little; and that the effect of some broadcasts, e.g. the
performance of a work of radio art, m a y be spoiled if the teacher attempts
to drive points home.
3. The steps commonly taken by the (broadcasting authority to aid this
understanding include the publication of informational documents, often :
a) A n annual schedule of broadcasts published some months ahead of the
school year in which the broadcasts w
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l be transmitted and giving the aims
of the series, the titles of the (broadcasts,and short explanatory notes abou%
their content alnd background. These details enable teachers to prepare their
o w n work, so far as they are able and willing to adapt their time-table and
syllabus.
b) Some organizations issue termly revisions of this schedule,published
a large sheet which can hang on the wall of tche school staff-room.
C) Some organizations issue [for certain series teachers’ manuals or leaflefs
(from two to twenty pages) which give more information for teachers about
particular series, and m a y include any or all of the following items:
(i) Statement of educational purpose of the series, plan, titles aad background of broadcasts;
(¡i) Lists of books and visual material which might provide teachers and
pupils with collateral amplification;
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(iiì) Suggestions of w a s in which the p u ils might (be prepared for the
broadcasts, and w at they might do a terwards. (Qbviausly, considerable tact in framing tlhis section is required.)
d) W h e r e pamphlets for the individual pupils are issued, these commonly
consist mainly of illustrations to provide visual amplification and extension of
the material o'fthe broadcasts, but m a y also give >suggestions for individual or
group activity.
4. It should be noted that the provision of these pu.blications is a considerable undertaking alnd m a y involve difficulty. A fuller discussion is given
in Section VII.
5. T h e types od preparatory and follow-up activity are very numerous and
must be devised for the particular circumstances. In general, the purpose of
preparation is to whet the appetite of the children for the broadcast and to
give them whatever background to the sulbject that m a y k (necessary. FolIowu p usually consists of rounding off the broadcast, correcting any misapprehensions and! to direct the children in activities which the broadcast m a y Kave
stimulated. T h e following instances m a y serve to indicate what is comnionly
found :
heparation: A short introduction to the subject 'by the teacher; through the
use of maps; the writing af names of places or people on the blackboard; the
showing of Televant pictures; and other methods.
Follow-Up Activity: For young children, the miming, acting, or retelling of
stories; the making OP pictures and models. For older children, discussion
of the sulblject of the broadcast and of related topics; the compilation of notebooks containing relevant illustrations, press cuttings, etc.; expeditions to
places of interest of the kind dealt with in the broadcast (e.g. a quarry or
factory); projects based on the broadcast; simple scientific experiments or
observations.
6. This plainly requires close co-operation between the broadcatsting and
educational parties, and an understanding of tlhe relative functions of each.
Such an understanding is principally the result of continued joint experiment
and practice; but it has also displayed the necessity for special training:
a) OP teachers-to-be,introducing the use of school broadcasts as part of their
pedagogical training;
b) 'Of practising teachers, w h o need to add an understanding of school
broadcasting to their other pedagogical knowledge.
7. It is worth stating that there is a limit to tihe closeness of the connection
betwaen the broadcasts and the schools' activitie,s. lln instances where the
system of education is highly centralized and authoritarian, it m a y be possible
to aim at a fairly close relationship, since it m a y be more confidently assumed
that the teaching practice is likely to !be relatively uniform. In educational
systems having greater local autonomy and variety, it is c o m m o n to find that
the 'broadcasts are planned so as to be suitable to a wide range of different
educational situations, and to include morte broadcasts which can be appreciated by themselves; and also that within series, the broadcasts, though they
are related 'to each other, are not so closely tied that a class missing one
broadcast cannot usefully use the next.
VI I. PU B LICATIO N S
It is customary for nearly all organizations to issue publications in connection
with school broadcasts. S o m e of these have the purpose of informing the
public about tlhe broadcasts; others are designed to go with the broadcasts
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themdpres. Thus, there are publications which give advance inlosmation
about the 'broadcasts; leaflets aid pamphlets tor teaohers and pupila designed
to help them,to m a k e trhe best use of the broadcasts, or to give them additional
material, and annual and otlher reports which are compiled to s h o w what has
been done and h o w effective the broadcasts have been. S o m e organieations
conibine two or more or all of these purposes in a single document.
Organizations proposing to issue publications should reflect that the use
considerable resources of time and staff in the pre aration. Not only tiatthey m a y afifect the method of tihe broadcasts. gor instance, if a p u il's
pamphlet is to give supplementary information about a broadcast, it fa&ws
bhat the broadcast must be mitten and.planned in s o m e detail before the
content of the pu,blication can. be settled. This in turn means that the
broadcast must b,e planned m u c h earlier than would otherwise be necessary.
On the other band, there can be no doubt that su& pam,Mets and leaflets
are a great ihelp to the .teacher at the listening end. T g e y often consist
largely of illustrations, and enable him to prepare for or follo'w u the
broadcasts by giving the children accurate information on specialize3subjects wbich might not otherwise be readily available.
It appears that publications intended for teadhers and administrators are
always distributed free of change, Mhereas publications for pupils are sometimes sold, the cost being rovided by the .education autlhorities, the schools,
or the pupils themselves. fn no country are these publications profit-making;
and While certain ma!jor organizations m a n a ' s to recover the costs of printing fro" sales, others-mostly tihe smaller countries-have often to set aside
considerable sums for this purpose.
The Committee were informed that in s o m e countries, ublications to go
with ,broadcasts are sufficiently attractive to compete
books produced
by school book publishers. It must be emphasized however that tn others
any sudh competition would be more likely to do harm to s&ool broadcasting than assist its progress.
.
wig
VIII. STAFF
1. W h a t staff should a school broadcasting service engage? miis question
is difficult to answer sihortly, in view of the extreme variety of systems and
resources referred to previously. Whereas a well-endowed and centralized
system m a y adopt a policy b y diich all the constituents od a broadcast are
handled by a team of specialists of various kinds working under a sin le
producer, oraanizations less well endowed will adopt other solutions. T%e
essential is &at behind good sahool broadcasting lie certain skills; a n d it
m a y be useful to describe these first, and then to see h o b they m a y be
provided.
2. A successful sclhool broadcast must satisfy a11 the following conditions:
u) It must correspond to an educational need; in other words, it must do
something which the sohools cannot do for themselves, or cannot do so
well. Consequently, those who plan the broadcasts must be aware of what
happens in the school;
b) It must respect the rules of tha .ddio art, attempting only what is
possible by radio and avoidinig what is Ill-adapted. Consequently, those w h o
plan and execute the broadcasts must be expert in the radio medium;
c) It must speak to the children. Radio is a service for the use of
teachers; but its particular service to them is that it addresses the children
directly. Consequently those w h o execute the broadcasts must be familiar
with the interests and capacity of children at the various stages.
d) It must have a distinction which makes it worth while divertinig the
class from the regular classroom procedure.
3. After a successful sdhool broadcast, the teaclhers and the d d d r e n
should feel that it has provided an experience wlhilc'h they ought not to have
missed; in other words, a broadcast needs to display excellence both as
16
,
an educational incident and as a work of art Whkh justifies its interru tion
of class routine. Consequently, the.staff responsible must be alble to acRieve
standards of composition and performance a,bove trhose of which the schools
are capable.
4. T h e practi'calconsequences of these considerations are greatly influ-.
enced by'the scale of resour'cesavailalble and (by such questions as whether
the broadcasts originate from one or several points. .In t;hemost favourable
circumstances, the school broadcasting service will employ a number of
full-time officers of w h o m m a n y will previously' bave had extended and
distinguished teaching experience, a thorough training and practice in
radio w o r k (whether on educational or general programmes) and possess
that flair ifor creative w o r k in the radio field, or for recognizing it id others,
whioh appears to be an innate rather than an acquired capacity. In s o m e
cases tlhe m a y write and produce programmes themselves. In others, they
will empfoy script writers of acknowledged distinction in their particular
spheres to write the drafts of the broadlcast scripts. IIn s o m e cases, academic
consultants to advise on tihe choice of material and watcb its bdance and
interpretation will be brought in. In a smaller onganization, the staff m a y
habitually conceive, write and produce the scri ts themselves, or collaborate with teachers in schools and other non-prol)essional composers. As to
performance, in s o m e cases, the organization m a y be able to engage the
most distintguished;artists-actors, singers, musicians-to perform the scripts;
in otmhers, the broadcasting staff itself, amateurs, students, m e n school cbildren m a y be 'called in.
1
5. In these circumstances, it would be unwise to dogmatize as to whether
thle whole of the staff should be full-time and 'wihether it.is essential that
it should )beemployed wholly upon school Ib,roadcasting,or upon otiher radio
tasks as well. E ually, it is a matter for decision in eaoh instance whether
programmes shoucfd be Written by the staff in order to ensure that t'heyhave
a higher radio competence, or whetiher the organization is better advised to
seek the stimulus and tariety which a search for writers from outside m a y
produce. Tlhese problems are for each organization Yo decide in the light
of the circumstances in each case.
F. However, t8he followinig general points seem to be worth notin'g:
a) Most organizations attempt to have s o m e staff, even if onlly the director,
w h o are engaged w/lmlme'time o n sohool broad'caSting, and as resources
increase, the tendency is to increase the numbmer of s ecialists in this sense;
b) T h e larger oirganizations,have m o v e d towards t e appointment o n the
programme side of an increasing number of staff having successful experience in both teaching and radio;
c) That all organizations m&e
extensive use of contributions W h o are
not full-time employees of t.lw broadcasting wganization: parti'cularly for
programme ideas, script-writing, and performance, but also for advice at
the planninmg stage and checiking of scripts;
d) That the employment at any and every stage of the w o r k (planning,
scripting, rehearsal, pepformance) of professionally qualifled persons in
preference to amateurs, is a potent factor in increasin the effectiveness of
the programmes in the schools and the reputation o the servke in the
community; and is 'an investment unhitch .brings good dividends.
e) That every radio or,ganization requires competent and adequate secretaria']staff, if the creative and pedagogic talents of those responsible for the
programmes are not to be diverted from their proper function to t'hese
necessary, but less highly qualiffed occupations.
7
7. S o m e organizations find difficulty in attractin from the teaching profession individuals w h o would m a k e good school froadcasting staff, either
because they ape nervous that servimce in sdhool broadcasting m a y adversely
affect their chance of proni,otion,or bhat service in school ,broadcasting is
not reco,gnized as teaching service.for eduicational purposes and their pension rights m a y be affected. T h e rfirst hesitancy can only be overcome by
#he school broadcasting service gaining sufficient prestige in the edaeational
world, and by teachers and administrators coming to realize that experience
17
a
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of school broadcasting can be a valuable additional ualifìcation for a teacher.
T h e other objection m a y be got over or lessenel in various ways. For
example, in the United Kingdom, full-time service in sohool broadcasting up
to a m a x i m u m o'f five years is n o w recognized as teaching service for superannuation purposes. S o m e organizations, b y agreement %th the appropriate
education authorities, have arranged for the loan or transfer of teachers for
short terms from schools to the radio organization, so that either they may
w o r k alongside and advise the radio staff, or, after some training in radio
work, be able to take over production responsibilities.
IX. RECEIVING EQUIPMENT
I. To secure full value Ifrom,school broad'caststhe equipment should be sumch
that reception is natural and undisturbed and' can 'he heard by %he whole
'class without strain. W h e r e the sifgnalis W e a k a more efficient aerial and
earth system is necessary than where a strong signal, is obtainable. A more
sensitive receiver m a y also be required. iMany 'countrieshave tried to Ax certain standards olf equipment, or list types of radio sets apprcwed~fore d m a tional purposes b y the Department of 'Education or obher school authorities
or the sahool broadcasting authorities.
2. Tlhe types of soh001 m a y be divided into three groups:
a) For the small one-classroom sohool an ordinary radio set will normally
be suitable, provided that it is selected from tihose approved as beinig suitable
for school use;
b) T h e school with up Yo four classrooms. Most sets likely to be approved
ill have connections makinlg it poss+ble to attach
as suitable for school use w
one or two additional loudspeakers, but in selecting rhe set it is necessar
to
ensure that it has a sufficient output to feed the m a x i m u m number of spea ers
likely to 'be used simultaneously;
IC) T h e big type of sclhool wilh m a n y classrooms and a great number of
pupils. Such schools might use equipment of t w o types, either a certain
number of ordinary receivers used in the same m a y as in small scrhools or a
central system consi'sting of:
I(¿A) receiving unit of a kind approved as suitalble for school use.
(ii) A n amplifier powerful enough to feed the number of loudspeakers
needed.
'(iii) Extra loudspeakers in the classrooms,,auditoriums, gymnasiums, etc.
(¿u) T8he necessary installations to m a k e the systelmlwork well.
%r
GENERAL R E Q U I R I E M E N T SBN SCHOOL R A D I I O WECEIVESRS
3. T h e radio set should be rigidly constructed and not easily damaged. Et
should be easy to operate; for esample, having pre-set tuning. T h e various
parts of the equipment needed for a large school might usefully be housed in
a central control room and consist of a number of separate units grouped
together on, for esample, a rack.
4. T h e loudspeaker should be 3t least 10 inches in diameter and capable
of reproducing the transmitted sound without distortion. T h e classroom loudspeaker should have a volume control and the installation should be suclh that
the required volume can be obtained mgardless of the number of louds eakers in use simiiltaneously. A well-balanced sound diffusion throughout
tfe entire classroom should be secured.
5. Classroom acoustics sometimes cause bad listening conditions to such an
extent that children find it impossible to listen with pleasure. In such circumstances steps should he taken to improve the acoustics of some o r all of
bhe classroooms.
6. A good antenna is very essential for good listening.
18
'
R.EX%RU)IING AND PLAYBACK EQUiIIP!M&VT
For m a n y schools the p r o p a m m e schedules d o not fit into the time-table.
:
Su;biject to copyrilght restrictions, schools can buy recording and playback
equipm,ent which will enable them to record the programme while it is
actually lbroadcast and use it later, w h e n convenient. This type of equipment
might play an important part .in the teaching of languaiges and similar exercises, in countries Where this is permissi'ble.
There are different types of such equipment available to schools:
a) T h e disc recorder, Which shoula be of a standard type;
b) T h e tape recorder or tihe malgnetophone;
c) m e wire recorder.
,By trhese n e w technical aids it b'ecomes possible for sohools to build-up
a library of recordings. In buying such equipment one should ensure that the
equipment is portable, adaptable, simple in operation and as fool-proof as
possible. T h e same applies to such equipment as wceiving sets: that they
must !be capable of reproducing t;hes'ourcematerial as well as possible.
Provision for the proper maintenaqce of the receiver is often overlooked,
although it is evidently a most important detail. If a school receiver deteriorates, the pupils will get progressively less benefit from the programmes.
In general it appears that three methods ostain:
a) T h e matter is left to local radio dealers, wtho maintenance the set w h e n
invited by t!he sclhool. Tihis is frequently not satisfactory because (i) the
teachers are not always sufficiently experienced to k n o w what standards o9
reception are dbtainable, and (U) the dealers may not appreciate the particular acoustic proiblems of school listening.
b) S o m e official body takes the responsibility. For example, in the State
of Victoria, Australia, the education authorities employ specialist technical
offilcers whose tasik is to see that the sets are eifficient. %his system, though
it inakes a charge on the education authorities, has the advantages that it
is inore likely tihat technicalIy good receivers will be bought in the first place,
and that the general standard of reception in the schools will be satisfactory.
c) In some cases, the broadcasting organization gives, through its o w n
technical officers, what assistance it can ; though this is evidently limited, and
m a y not appear to the broadcasting onganization a duty which it ought
normally to undertake.
'It is perhaps worth noting that in general the lange central installation
requires less frequent servicing than small receivers.
x. GAUGING
THE RESULTS
A m o n g all forms of broadcasting, school blroadcasting is unique in that its
results can be studied. For the rest of radio broadcasts, the results and effects
can only be guessed, but in the case of scihool broadcasting the audiences are
collected in organized groups, :tiid the effects of the broadcasts can be conveniently observed. It would seem reasondble to m a k e the most of this
opportunity, .since such a study can not only improve the broadcasts themselves, but stimulate teachers to improve their methods of using them. Study
m a y improve school broadcasts in two ways:
a) By providing knowledge of conditions in whiah broadcasts are being
or might be heard;
b) By assessing the suitability of current broadcasts and the opportunities
for lfuture ones as a supplement to the education given in the schools.
In practice both these forms of sfudy go on simultaneously,though the mare
uniform the school curricula the simpler is the problem that (a) presents.
In Great Britain, where there is least uniformity, conslderaible use is m a d e of
r a n d o m sampling for this purpose. Methods by which study is carPied out
include the following:
19
?
i
:
.
.5
'*
1. A report sheet is sent out to the teacher from the Radio Director’s office,
to be filled in, following each broadcast. Teachers are requested to answer
suah question as:
a) W a s the subject well presented;
$b) Did it follow tihe lines as outlined in the teachers’ radio manual;
C) W e r e the children interested;
d) Did they become bored or restless during the broadcast;
e) W a s the broadcaster a good broadcaster, i.e. good voice, pleasing manner,
good delivery, good diction, etc.;
f) Are there any suggestions for the improvement of the broadcast ?
N.B.-In some cases the school principals ask the teachers to return the
reports directly to them. In tlhat w a y the principals learn to what use the
teachers put the Iradio. This holds true if principals are truly interested
and teachers are more likelj to usc the radio if they k n o w the principals are
interested and sympathetic.
2. Teachers on the broadcasting staff (in Great /Britain,specially trained
officials) are sent out into thc schools to observe h o w the teacher and children
are reacting to the broadcast and to make suggestions whioh might be
helpful to the teacher.
3. The children themselves are a5ked to fill in a simple questionnaire as
to what they thought of the broadcast and if they themselves have sugges~tions to make.
(This method is opeil to the objection that the children’s criticisms of a
broadcast may be a ‘verymi;uleading indication of its real ef,fecton them.)
4. Principals and teachers are often called to meet in special sessions to
determine the value of school broadcasts and to make recommendations for
future programmes to the broadcaster.
5. In some cases radio courses are given in teachers’ colleges and the
teachers are asked to listen to radio programmes and/or transoriptions and
report their reactions to the broadcaster. Or the colleges may themselves
conduct a study of broadcasts in neighbouring schools.
6. Estimates are made of the number of schools listening either by ues
tionnaires to random samples or lby sending out from the broadcaster’s c%fice
a return card asking for the teacher’s manual and for suggestions. If they
are not interested, bhe card w i l l not be returned.
Arrangements of this kind if carefully planned and studied can give a
good general idea of whether the service is on the right lines and Whether
particular broadcasts and series are achieving their aims; and the interplay between the teacher and tlhe broadcasting official can provide occasions
for collaboration which can knit the two together.
The responsibility for handling this side of the work commonly rests
with the hroadcasting organization, as part, as it were, of its intelli ence
service. In some countries (notably in the United Kingdom), the desira%iltty
of providing an assessment of the broadcasts which 1s independent of the
broadcasting organization, has resulted in the responsibility for assessment
being allottcd to the educational body guiding the radio oqganizalioa and in
its having special staff for this purpose.
The arrangements described above as study are undertaken for ad hoc
actica! purposes and do not amsount to systematic long-term research.
gany of the plroblems of school broadcasting are of course reflections of
wider educational prolblems, but there are also some that are peculiar to the
medium. For example, little research has ibeen done on the problem of h o w
effectively the subject of a broadcast really is retained over a certain perio3
of time; i.e. does a child listen to a broadcast today and forlgel the contents
tomorrow? Some teachers hare reported that children have rrequently
aiccapted as more authoritative and have retained longer facts gleaned from
broadcasts than from text books or class room instruction.
Not
study, however, has been given to this particular matter as mcll
as to t e
whole subject of thc effect cif radio upon immature minds.
20
XI. SCHOOL BROADCASTING A N D THE PUBLIC
School broadcasting offers specialized broadcasts to a limited audience. It
is consequently necessary Yo build u p that audience by every reasonable
means.
Clearly, the best w a y of ersuading teachers and children to listen is to
o do only this, however, is not enough. 'Ehe
provide good broadcasts.
potential users m a y not k n o w , unless specifically told, that the )broadcasts
are available or can be of service. Consequently all countries find it necessary
to bring the Ibroadcasts to the listeners' notice and different w a y s are found
suitable in different circumstances.
W h e r e the broadcasting service is fully developed, little persuasion perha s
is required, but in other countries the public chave not only to be told of &e
existence of the service, but also to be convinced of its value. T h u s W h e n the
service is still in the early stages of development, receivers m a y be introduced to the classrooms experimentally. Radio competitions m a y be organized and the hames of thc prize winning schools or individuals be read. out
at the microphone. S o m e of the best broadcasts m a y be repeated at evening
listening periods as a m.eans of engaging the interest of the parents. These
are measures necessary in some cases. However, in all cases, the need is to
keep attention focused on what the school 'broadcasting service is providing.
To this end, s o m e organizations arrange a free dlstrilhtion of schedule, of
programmes, of teachers' leaflets, pamphlets and books. Similar material is
provided for the press. T h e same end is pursued indirectly by the organization of lectures, demonstrations and discussions in which broadcasting
assistants,feacbers, parents and students take part. Articles concerned with
the various problems of school broadcasting m a y be inserted in official educational and radio journals. In this way, teachers are brought to think about
school broadcasting and, thereby, to use it.
;F
XII. SPECIAL PROBLEMS
nhe growth of school broadcasting in India and the Middle East lhas not been
as rapid as in the West. In India, out of a total of 12,500 secondary schools,
listening facilities are available in only 650 schools. In the Middle East the
number offschools provided with listenimg facilities is still less; in s o m e
countries no beginning has yet been made.
3n view of the vast area to be covered, Ibroadcasting, in this part of the
world is essentially conducted on short waves. T h e short w a v e service is
au plemented b y a medium,w a v e service in im ortant cities and towns with
a Parge population. At the present time only {per cent of the total area is
provided with a m e d i u m wave service.
Although electrification of towns and villages is being actively taken up,
the expansion has not been commensurate with Che growing needs of the
people. Less than 1 per cent of the towns and villages have electric supply:
even in the case of s o m e of the electrified towns, the schools have no electric
connections for the operation of [receivers.
In view of these divers factors the type of receiver required for schools
varies from one location to another. A n all-wave receiver will be necessary
l h e n the broadcasts are to be received on short waves. O n the other hand,
,schools within the m e d i u m w a v e service range of a broadcasting station can,
with advantage, use a single band receiver. In the case of schools situated
in non-electrified areas, the use of a battery-operated receiver becomes
essential. Such a receiver can either be a 6-volt accumulator or dry batteryoperated type. Thus, the special requilrements of the school broaacast
receiver are :
1. a) A n all-wave receiver for operation from AC/DC mains with an output of 1 or 1.5 watts.
b) A n all-wave receiver of the battery-operated type kith an output of
600 to 91M) mw.
o
ail
2. u)
single band m e d i u m w a v e receiver for operation from AC/DC
mains with an output of I to 1..5 watts.
b) A single band me'dium w a v e receiver for operation from batteries 'with
an output of 600 to El00 mtnr.
Receivers for u.se jn 'the areas distant from the transmitter should have
a sensitisvity of 100 microvolts and for use within the range of the m e d i u m
wave transmitters of 500 microvolts. Superhetrodyne mceivers are preferred
in view of the better selectivity olbtained from such types.
iMost of the suhools normally cannot afford more than one teacher on a
su 'ect for a particular class; thus there is no necessity to provide listening
faci ities in more than one classroom at a time. Additional loudspeakers or
amplaers to feed several classrooms simultaneously are not required. A
receiver which is 'easily portalble and which can be m o v e d {rom one classroom to another will meet the requirements of sohools satisfactorily.
The prob:lem of school broadcasting in India and the Mi.ddle East is mainly
a problem of cost and maintenance. A n all-wave mains receiver costs
approximately f40 and a battery-operated receiver an additional s u m of $5.
Similarly, t'hecost of a single band m,edium w.ave mains receiver is g20 and
that cd a battery-operated receiver €25. T h e h q h cost oí' receivers has stood
in the w a y of development of school broadcasting, and unless inexpensive
sets are manufafctured indigenously or supplied from overseas, the pace of
development of any school broadcasting scheme will contiuue to be slow.
T h e successful operation of the scheme depends on the servicing facilities
available within easy reac'hof the schools. For this purpose servicing stations
need to 'be set u p at convenient locations so that the receivers could be
serviced ,quiokly and batteries could be replaced or charged periodically.
Forty to sixty schools, if they form a compact unit, could easily be looked
after lby one servicin,gstation. T'he average cost of maintenance of receivers
o n 'thisbasis is expected to be €1 1'0.for .mains opemted receivers and E2 for
battery aperated receivers.
Experience shows that receivers operated from dry battery 'would 'be more
economical to maintain than those operated from aclcumalator batteries. T h e
dry battery receivers currently available in the market do not 'give sufficient
audio level even to cover a small classroom and investigations are beinlg
carried out to produce a design suitable to meet the school requirements.
9
CONCLUSION
The Committee considered that a school broadcasting service would be
of value to every country, and they believe that it can bring benefits whether
it is provided for a large or a small school. They consider, however, that its
establishment presents real problems which need to be faced and overcome.
There m a y be reluctance, hesitation or opposition a m o n g the teachers, the
educational administrators or the general public: consideraMe resources are
needed and must be obtained from public or private authorities: every n e w
school 'broadcasting service must go through a period ln dhich it gains its
experience through trial and error, and w h e n it is endeavouring to secure
an efBcient organization and an experienced staff adequately qúalified. T h e
first years of a n e w school broadcasting service are bound to be strenuous
and full of problems; however it is worth recording that m a n y of the successful sohool broadcasting organizations today o w e their existence to a few
inspired and resolute individuals w l h o manatged to overcome the deficiencies
of organization and resources which normally effect every n e w venture.
RECOMMENDATIONS TO UNESCO
To afford practical assistance both to countries desirous of introducing or
extending a school broadcast servisce and to those wishing to know, all that
.9
22
is being done in this field, the Committee recommends bhat Unesco should set
up at its headquarters a Documentation and Information Centre to be avail&le to all persons desirous of informing themselves about the functioning and
evolution of school broadcasting throughout the world.
T h e Documentation Centre should comprise:
a) A general and specialized lbibliography on school broadcasting in
card-indels form. So far as funds permit, the bibliography should be backed
up by a library;
b) A reigister of periodicals of all countries dealing with the questions raised
by sah001 broadcasting. Wherever possible, files of such periodicals should
be secured;
c) T h e programme-booklet published by the majority of broadcasting organizations whose school-broadcast service is of some years’ standing, and the
printed material distributed to schools to complement the broadcasts;
d) A limited selection of scripts and recordings chosen by the broadcastin
organizations themselves. T h e choice should be m a d e judiciously and s h o d
include only examples of the best broadcasts or recordings in the field of
school radio m a d e each year by eaah broadcasting organization;
e) T h e fullest possible information collected by Unesco during tlhe inquiry
already held on school broadcasting and dvring the investigation of the
Commission on Technical Needs into each country’s school broadcasting
service;
f) X h e reports of school broadcasting organizations, in so far as they exist.
The Committree further suggests that the Radio Division of Unesco’s Department of Mass ‘Communicationsshould proceed to the distribution on a limited
scale to school broadcasting services throughout the world of programme
material, whether in script or recorded form (subject to copyright and performers’ rights clearance), either on its o w n initiative to assist better international understanding through school broadcasting, or on the request of
the services concerned themselves, should they desire information o n a particular subject.
Lastly, while recognizing the difficulties inherent in any exchange of
school broadcast programmes between countries, the (Committee does not
exiclude the possibility of Unesco’s proceedlng, in certain instances, to some
such exchanges in clearly defined circumstances and with the prior agreement
of the school broadcasting services involved.
Furthermore, Unesco:
Should at regular intervals supply to school broadcasting organizations
throughout the world a list of the documents available in its documentation
centre and should d r a w attention to the publication of works of special
interest with full details for securing them direct.
Wherever ossible should inform school broadcasting services throughout the w o r d of agreements for exchanges of programmes concluded between
the broadcasting organizations of different countries, and
6hould study to encourage these wherever possible.
T h e Committee su gests that practical assistance might be secured for
the Unesco National Eommission of the U.S.A.from1 Foundations, for setting
up a small* service in the United States with the task of collecting all the
information on scthool broadcastin#$ in that country, necessary to Unesco’s
documentation centre and Radio Division.
f
I
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I .
23
PART II
TYPICAL SCHOOL
BROADCASTING SYSTEMS
QUESTIONNAIRE
-
The survey of types of school broadcasting systems was carried out in the
f0110 wing CY)untries :
[nr Europe
:Belgium, Great Britain, Po[and, Sweden, Switzerland;
In North America : Canada, Mexico, United States:
In South America :Brazil, Chile:
In Asia
: India;
In Oceania
: Australia;
: Union of Soufh Africa.
In Africa
The surwy was made on the basis of the following qiicstionnaire:
HISTORY
1. HISTORY OF SCHQOL BROADCASTING
Report briefly the most important facts, properly dated.
If available, attach appropriate statistics.
SUPERVISION AND CONTROL
2. RELATIONS BETWEEN THE STATE AND THE RADIO ORGANXZATIONS
a) Is school broadcasting organized by independent bodies, by radio
organizations, or by the State ? If not organized by the State, to what
extent is it subject to the supervision of the Government, local councils
olr other public authorities ?
b) W h a t is the part played by the Ministry of Education or other education authorities in school broadcasting ?
c) Is there a council for school broadcasting, and if so what are its
functions ? H o w is it organized ? B y w h o m are the members appointed
and w h o is eligible for membership ? Are the members remunerated and
il so by w h o m ?
3. REGULATIONS GONCERNING SCHOOL B R O ~ C A S T I N G
Are there any laws or administrative decrees concerning school broadcasting, or only rules drawn up by the radio organizations themselves?
W h a t are they ?
MANAGEMENT ANDLBUDGET
4. ADMINISTRATIVE STRUCTURE
How is the school broadcasting service organized 7 W e r e possible, please
include an organization chart.
27
.
5. PERSONNEL
Q) T o what extent is the personnel employed in school badcasting
separate from the general radio personnel ?
b) How m a n y people are en aged, either full or part-time, in school
broadcasting, and w h a t are tteir functions ? H o w m a n y of them are
permanently, h o w m a n y temporarily engaged ? Are they recruited from
the radio organizations or from educational organizations, or both ?
c) Do the members of the staff broadcast ? Do they prepare the final
scripts ? If not, w h o does ?
6. F I N A N C E S
W h o finances school broadcasts? Is there a separate budget and what
is it ? How is it broken d o w n ? How does it compare with the total radio
programme budget ?
EDUCATIONAL ASPECTS OF SCHOOL BROADCASTS
7. T E A C H I N G METHODS AN'DSUBJECTS
u) W h a t are the general teaching methods used in school broadcasts?
b) W h a t are the subjects regularly taught by radio? Which, in your
o inion, are the most appropriate ?
cf W h a t are the special teaching methods applied to each subject, and
what are the most c o m m o n forms of broadcasts (talks, dialogues, ètc.)
used for each subject ? Which, in your opinion are the most effective 7
d) W h a t do you consider to be the most favburable length for each broadcast, and what are the most suitable times ? Please give your time
schedule of broadcasts.
8. C O - O P E R A T I O N OF R A D I O A N D THE SCHOOLS
a) O n what basis is general co-operation organized beiween the radio and
the schools ? Is it effective ? Does it raise any special problems ? Are
efforts m a d e to interest teachers in using school broadcasts ? Are there
courses to instruct teachers in the use of school broadcasts 1
b) In what ways are educational methods used in school broadcasting
and in the schools co-ordinated?
c) How are the schools broadcasts co-ordinated with the syllabi of the
schools ? Are the results satisfactory ?
9. S U I T A B L E AGES
W h a t are the principal age groups of pupils to which the school broadcasts
are directed, and which age groups yield the best results ?
10. SCHOOL B R O A D C A S T I N G STATIST1C.S
a) W h a t is the approximate total number of schools ? H o w m a n y of them
use school broadcasts ?
b) W h a t is the approximate total number of pupils ? How m a n y of them
are reached by school broadcasts ?
If possible, please give statistics showing the increase year by year in
the number of schools and pupils reached by school broadcasts since these
have been initiated.
28
11. PUBLICATIONS DESIGNED TO BE USED WITH
SCHOOL BRQADCASTS
Are there any such publications, for teachers or for upils, and what is
the subject matter of the most important ones? 8 y w h o m are they
published ? H o w are they financed ? D o they appear regularly, and if so,
h o w often?
12. MISCELLANEOUS E D U C A T I O N A L PROBLElMS
Please group under this heading any educational problems which have not
been the subject of a definite question; for instance those resulting from
the existence of both state and free education, multiplicity of national
languages, etc. Please describe these problems and such attempts as have
been made to solve them.
13. SYSTEMATIC ENQUIRIE§ ON SCHOOL BROADCASTS
a) What are the educatianal results obtained from school broadcasts 7
b) Have any systematic enquiries on this point been undertaken ? Please
give all the relative information (experimental schools, research centres,
ën uiries, etc.).
c)%ave
any surveys been made of the opinions on school broadcasts
of broadcasters, teaching staff, pupils, parents 2 If so, please give full
information.
d) Has a survey been made to determine to what extent the expenditure
on school broadcasting is justified by the results 7
'
TECHNICAL CONDlTiONS
14. EQUIPMENiT OF S C H O O L S W I T H RECEIVING SETS
What are the usual types of receiving sets used in schools? W h o pays
for their supply and installation ?
15. PROBLEMS CONNECTED W I T H FAVOURABLE RBCWTION
a) Are conditions of reception generally satisfactory? If not, what has
been done to improve them 7
b) Is a special room usually reserved for listening to school broadcasts,
or are receivers (or loudspeakers connected to a central receiver) installed
in several class rooms? Please give details of the arrangements most
commonly used.
c) Are the pupils generally grouped in sonie special w a y for listening
to the broadcasts ?
d) Has any official advice been issued to schools on these subjects ?
A-DD ITI O NA L t N FOR MATIO N
16. FREQUENCY M D D U L A T I O N IN SCHOOL B R O A D C A S T I N G
Is F.M.used ? What advantages do you receive from this technique 1
17. TELEVLSION IN SCHOOL B R O A D C A S T I N G
D o you use television in school broadcasting? If so, please give your
opinion in detail of its value. If not, are you contemplating installing it 5'
29
18. IWI'ERNATIQNAL EXCHANGES
If any kind of international exchange of school broadcasts has been made,
please give details o€ the rogrammes and of the organization of the
exchanges. If no exchanges Rave been made, are you contemplating starting
them T
19. FUTURE PLANS
Please describe any plans for the extension, alteration or improvement of
school broadcasts.
24. DIFFICULTIES OF ALL KINDS
Please group here any difficulties, other than ed&ational, experienced in
connection with school broadcasting not already referred to in the questionnaire.
21. SCHOOL BROADCASTING IN PROFESSIONAL TRAINING
Do you use school broadcasting in training for the professions ? To what
extent and with what results ?
22. BIBLIOGRAPHY
Please d r a w u p a bibliography of works or articles o n school broadcastinc
published in your country, indicating author, title, ublisher, lace and dair
of publication. Please list eriodicals which regul%Iy inchife profession:?i
articles on school broadcasying.
23. USEFUL REFERENCES
Please furnish a list, with addresses, of particularly well-qualified persons,
specialized libraries, experimental study centres, archives or other bodirs
concerned with school broadcasting.
Nolle: Answers received to questions 22 and 23, have been removed froin
the individual reports on countries and incorporated in the general bibliography and list of personalities engaged in school broadcasting activities.
(See Appendices).
30
AUSTRAL IA
Author of the report:
R. Bronner, Director of Youth Education, Australian Broadcasting Commission.
1. HISTORY
A n attempt w a s m a d e in N e w South Wales in 1924 to establish school
broadcasting under the then wholly commercial organization of broadcasting,
but it w a s soon discontinued. A more successful attempt w a s m a d e in Victoria in 1931 but n o consistent policy w a s followed until the establishment
of the Ausralian Broadcasting Commission in 1932, which w a s soon followed
by the beginning of the broadcasts to schools in NSW, in 1933. School broadcasts were later established o n a regular basis and were administered by a
department under supervision of Mr. Charles Moses w h o w a s later a pointed
General Manager of the A X . During this time talks programmes a i o c a m e
under the control of his department. B y 1937 the development of school
broadcasts in the different States m a d e necessary the setting u of a separate
Federal School Broadcasts Department under a Director.
R. Bronner
w a s appointed to the position. In the following years up to 1941 school
broadcasts sections were set up in each State under the control of an E d u cational Broadcasts Officer (later Supervisor), and between 1941 and 1943
Presentation Officers were added to the staff in each State.
&.
SUPERVISION A N D CONTROL
2. R E L A T I O N S BETWEEN THE STATE AND THE RADIO O R G A N I Z A T I O N S
a) School broadcasting is organized by the Australian Broadcastin Commission, a statutory body responsible to the Australian Federal Parfiament
through the Postmaster-General’s Department.
b) In Australia school education is a State instrumentality. In each State
there is a Director of Education w h o is the ermanent head of the State E d u cation Department and is responsible to tge State Minister for Education.
In addition to the schools controlled by the State Education Departments,
there are a number in each State controlled by ireligious organizations, and
other private bodies and persons. These. schools normally follow, to a
considerable extent, the syllabuses laid d o w n by the State Education Departments, particularly al the stage of secondary education, as ‘their pupils normally sit for the public examinations organized by the State Departments.
In 1946 a Commonwealth Office of Education w a s established under a Director to provide a source of advice for the Commonwealth Government on
general educational questions.
T h e school broadcasting service is controlled and organized by the ABC.
To maintain liaison with the educational authorities and co-ordinate school
broadcasts with their activities the ABC has established a Federal Youth E d u cation Advisory Committee and State Youth Education Advisory Committees in
each State. The Federal \Committee comprises the Director of the C o m m o n .
wealth Office of Education and the State Directors of Education, and meets
annually under the chairmanship of the ABC’S Director of Youth Education, to
advise on general policy questions in relation to school broadcasts. T h e
31
_ ?
i
-I
r
-
-
members of this Committee are appointed by the Commission. Details
regarding the State Advisory Committee are given in 2 c).
In w a y s that vary from State to State the Education Departments co-operate
with the ABC in the planning of programmes, the distribution of booklets,
and in research regarding school listening. In t w o States there are Education
D e artment officers seconded to the ABC to act as liaison and listener research
oftcers. They w o r k under the supervision of the ABC'S Youth Education
Supervisor. In two other States a senior officer of the Education Department
acts as liaison officer with the ABC.
c) T h e State and Federal Advisory Qmmittees outlined above fulfil the
functions of a Council for School Broadcasting. Each State Advisory
Committee consists of a sniall number of educational representatives including
the State Director of Education as Chairman, an Inspector of State Schools,
representatives of private schools (Catholic and non-Catholic), the University,
Teachers' Union (some States), Youth Organizations (some States), etc. Their
functions are to. advise the ABC on educational matters in relation to local
school broadcasts programmes. The members are appointed b y the Commission on advice from the bodies invited to participate. T h e members receive
no remuneration. Sub-Committees, consisting of practising teachers with
radio experience, appointed by the Advisory Committee, assist the ABC
officers to d r a w u p the school broadcasts programmes.
3. I U 3 G U L A T I O N S C O N C E R N I N G SCHOOL B R O A D C A S T I N G
T h e m are no special laws regarding school broadcasting, which is controlled
by the ABC'S general policy, programme policy being determined in consultation with the Advisory Committees.
MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET
4. A J M I N I S T R A T I V E STRUCTURE
T h e AEG's service is under the control of a Commission and comprises a
Head Office, wibh a General Manager as Chief Executive Officer, and six State
Branches, each under a State Manager, the w o r k of the Branches being supervised, directed and co-ordinated by Head Office.
T h e school broadcasting service is organized, within this general framework,
by a department of the ABC k n o w n as the Youth Education Department.
At the head of this department is a Federal Director of Youth Education,
w h o is responsible to the ABC Controller of Programmes. In each State Branch
there is a Supervisor of Youth Education, responsible to his State Manager,
through the State Director of Pirogrammes, for the administrative control
of his section and general programme standards. T h e State Supervisors of
Youth Education also have a functional responsibility to the Federal Director
of Youth Education with regard to the implementation of school broadcastin
policy and the detailed content of school broadcasts. Most of the schoo?
broadcasting production officers are located in the State Branches, because
the majority of school broadcasts are produced separately in each State, to
fit in with the re uirements of the local syllabi of the Education D e artments.
Certain subjects,%owever, are broadcast on national relay to all &ates, [email protected]
health talks, current events, etc. T h e following chart illustrates the administrative organization explained above :
Commission
General Manager
Controller of Administrative (Federal)
Controller of Programmes
State Manager
(Fed eral)
State P r o g r a m m e Director
.
Director of Youth Education
State Youth Education Supervisor
(Fedseral)
32
6. PERSONNEL
.
Mficers responsible for organizing, administering, and producing the school
broadcasts service are members of the ABC staff. Scripts are prepared by
free-lance writers but are finally edited by ABC Youth Education officers.
T h e programmes are broadcast by speakers and artists specially engaged for
these programmes.
Federal Office. Director : Assistant Director : Producer Script Editor.
State Office. Supervisor in each State : Assistant Supervisor, NSW and
Victoria only.
Presentation Assistants : 2 each in N S W , Victoria and
Queensland. O n e each in West Australia, South
Australia and Tasmania.
Total :20, plus clerical staff.
All but the clerical staff are, in the main, recruited from
educationcl organizations.
Members of staff do not broadcast.
6. FINANCES
School broadcasts are wholly financed by the ABC. There is a separate
budget for all youth broadcasts for progranime purpose. It is broken d o w n
into budgets for each State, national relay, school concerts, etc. T h e Youth
Education budget is approximately 7.05 per cent of the total programme
budget.
EDUCATIONAL ASPECTS OF SCHOOL BROADCASTS
7. TEACHING METHODS AND S U B J E C T S
a) T h e pupil is approached through the accepted techniques of broadcasting$
e.g. dramatization, talks, plays, etc. School broadcasts are designed to supplement the w o r k of the teacher in the classroom by providing stimulus and
interest; and ex eriences such as dramatization, impossible or difficult in
the school, and tge contributions of ex erts. School broadcasts are in no
sense lessons, and are not intended to
the place of ‘the classroom lesson.
b) N o subiects are taught by radio except possibly songs by ear for schools
without musically traihed teachers, and without musical instruments. Radio
as a supplement is most eflective for music (including folk dancino, singing,
eurythmics, appreciation), literatwe (including plays), history ?especially
w h e n dramatized, including social studies), and for talks giving health
guidance and for foreign languages.
Subjects regularly covered in ABC school broadcasts are : Health, Singing,
History, Geography, Literature, Music, Vocational and Civic Guidance, Current
Affairs, French, Kindergarten and Infants’ Sessions, Nature Study.
c) Talks are effective only w h e n the speaker is a radio personality and can
also hold his audience through the value and interest of the subject. Various
forms of dramatization, ranging from dialogue to play are valuable, especial1
With the middle groups, ages 10-14 years, provided the scripts are we6
written, without distractions, and well produced. Participation methods,
i.e.. inviting listeners to undertake s o m e activity, as opposed to passive listening, are best with youn children and for singin and eurylhmis. In brief,
apart from a few straigtt talks by effective spea ers, s o m e form of artistic
presentation must be found for each broadcast rangina from simple dialogue
and a propriate music, to quite elaborate features or pyays.
d) $or talks and all broadcasts for the middle groups tlQ-l4), the most
taie
f
33
s
effective length is considered to be not more than 15 minutes ; for participation groups about 20-30 minutes. T h e suitable times are those which do
not conflict with the major factors in school organization, such as average
opening and closing times, lunch times and to a less extent the times devoted
to major school activities.
SAMPLE B R O A D C A S T S SCHEDULE, 1949
MORNING
~~
~
11.00-11.10
11.25-11.40
Correspond.
8chool
_.___I
The World of ScienFou and
Work
(Secondary) (Secondary)
1
Listening
Time
(Infantü'
Schools)
F2ngllsh
( T e r m I)
Forelgn
Languages
amlid Dictat on
(Term 2)
Third Year
AFTERNOON
Music
through
Movement
[Infants' and
Primary)
2.05-2.45
2.25-2.45
1
Let's -Lizten
to M u S c
(Primary)
or Let's Read
a Tune
(Primary)
I
I
2.46-3.00
Advent urea
in Bookland
(Classes III
ani IV)
Music
Through
Song
(Primary)
French for
Schools
(Secondary)
Keep Your E y e s O p e n
(Primary) or
You Can Join In
(Primary)
8. CO-OPERATION OF RADIO AND THE SCHOOLS
Subject committees of practising teachers plan in detail the courses of
broadcasts as determined by the ABC Youth Edtication Department and its
Federal and State Advisory Committees. Listener reports c o m e io regularly
from representative schools, and a general questionnaire is sent Out al least
annually. In two States seconded officers from the State Education Departments, conduct constant research. Reoular visits are paid by lhe ABC Youth
Education Supervisors and Liaison Oyficers to schools in city and country,
and the results of these personal visits are collated with those of the written
reports. This system is beconling increasingly effective with lhe seconding
of special full-time listener research officers by the State Education Departments. T h e chie€ problem raised is that of distinguishing the desire of
teachers for direct aid with the details of their syllabus, from the broader
educational contribution of the radio in the classroom. Constant and regular
efforts are m a d e to interest teachers in schools and teachers in lraining in
the use of scliool broadcasts. Special courses are given in all Stales at
34
Teachers’ Colleges, with the aid of portable recording equipment. Also oc=fional vacation schools are conducted.
T h e results are becoming increasingly satisfactory as m o r e teachers underetand the purpose of school broadcasts, and beconie more experienced in their
use.
8. S U I T A B L E AGES
1. Kindergarten 3 to 6 years.
2. Infant and L o w e r Primary O: to 8 years.
3. Primary 8 to 11 years.
4. Post Primary 11 to 13 years.
5. Secondary 12 to 18 years.
Of these groups, school broadcasts are most effective with roups 3 to 4.
We should like to mention here our Kindergarten of the Air, or pre-school
f
children, which has had outstanding success. -4rising out of a w a r emergency,
the sess-ion was first cstablished in 1943. A Federal and also State Advisory
Committees have been set up, comparable to the School Broadcasts Committees
mentioned previously. These Committees consist of Kindergarten and Child
Music experts w h o advise on all that concerns the principles of sound
kindergarten education. Broadcasters and accompanists are selected from
trained Kindergarteners w h o possess, in addition, those qualities of voice and
ersonality wquired for an unseen audience. T h e session, which is of
5! minutes duration, every day of the w e e k except. Sunday, is based on alternation of quiet listening and activity (either singing or movement) and
includes hcalth habits (cleanliness, rest, relaxation, posture, etc.), music
(nursery rhymes and songs, etc.), literature (stories and poetry, enlargement
of vocabulary, etc.), nature study (domestic animals, care, etc.), creative activities (play, outside and inside, handwork and other activities expressing
subject matters mentioned in the broadeasts ; specific activities include
painting, drawing, modelling, etc.). T h e session has been studied by a
number of overseas countries, including Great Britain, U.S.A., South Africa,
Canada, where a session on similar lines is n o w programmed, Norway, India,
etc. A part of the session is broadcast each week over Radio Australia, and
recordings of it are sent to Japan for replay over WLKS.
10. SCHOOL B R O A D C A S T I N G STATISTICS
a) T h e approximate number of schools in Australia is 10,700; 5.868 of these
were listening schools as at Deccmber 31st, 1948.
b) T h e total number of school iipils is about 1,107,000. Approximately
400,000 are rcached by school broaicasts.
The following figures s h o w the increase in the number of listening schools
rince 1935.
193.5, IC0 schools ; 1936, 900 schools ; 1937, 1,214 schools : 1938, 1.565
schools ; 1939, 1.764 schools ; 1940, 1,894 schools ; 1941, 1901 schools ;
1942, 1.968 schools ; 1943, 2,357 schools ; 1944, 2,601 schools ; 1945, 3.483
6chools ; 1946, 4,007 schools ; 1947, 5,068 schools ; 1948, 5,8138 schools.
11. PUBLICATIONS D E S I G N E D TO BE USED WITH SCHOOL BROADCASTS
School broadcast booklets of programmes for a complete school year are
published annually in January in each State.
In s o m e states additional notes for teachers are issued also, and distributed
fortnightly or monthly. These booklets and notes are financed hy the ABC,
but in the case of boolrlets a small charge is m a d e for each. S o m e Slate
Education Departments lighten the cost to the schools by subsidizing the
nrchase of booklets. T h e number of school booklets printed for 1949 was
h 5 0 .
83
la. MISCELLANEOUS EDUCATIONAL PROBLEMS
T h e main problem is 'the difficulty experienced by secondary schools in
using school broadcasts due to rigid syllabus and external examinations and,
in country schools, to shortave of specialist staff, leading to the need for very
complicated organization. $he secondary school problem is being met by
encouraging the use of wire recorders, by arrangino broadcasts in short
groups so that regular disturbance of time tables is avoixed, and by attempting
to m a k e broadcasts too good to be missed in spite of difficulties.
13. S Y S T E M A T I C - E N Q U I R I E S ON SCHOOL BROADCASTS
a) Teachers' estimates aire almost unanimously in favour.
b) Continual enquiry is m a d e by the ABC as mentioned above. Teachers'
colleges are beginning research and an experimental school has been set apart
in one State.
TECHNICAL CONDITIONS
c
14. EQUIPMENT OF SCHOOLS WITH R E C E I V I N G SETS
In large schools there is usually a central receiver and loudspeakers with
separate volume control in each room. Broadcasts can be switched at the
centre to any room or rooms, or m a d e available to all and taken by those
w h o wish to do so. In smaller schools a console or mantel set equipped with
one or more speakers is normally used. YThe schools, with the aid of Parents'
Clubs, pay for these installations, but in varying ways the Education Depar-tments subsidise the purchase, or pay installing and maintenance costs. T h e
Federal Government remits wireless licence fee (El per annum) for schools
with fewer than 50 children, and some State Education Departments pay the
.licence fee for their schools. T h e Post-Master General's D e artment, which
handles the technical services of the ABCr assists schools w\erever possible
with technical advice.
15. PROBLEMS CONNBCTED WITH FAVOURABLE R E C E P T I O N
a) Reception is generally satisfactory except in outback areas which are not
reasonably close to a regional (repeater) station, or in pockets a m o n g himh
hills, etc. T h e Radio Inspectors of the P.M.G.'s Department help considerak8y
in advising schools h o w to overcome difficulties due to high tension wires,
etc.
6) See Section 14. T h e use of special rooms, especially assembly halls, is
diminishing except possibly for concerts or special occasions such as a Royd
Funeral, etc.
c) T h e class is not arranged in any special w a y w h e n listening-in.
d) T h e ABC has issued a technical handbook giving advice on the installation
of equipment for school broadcasts reception.
ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
16. FREQUENCY M O D U L A T I O N IN SCHOOL B R O A D C A S T I N G
Not used.
36
-
17. T E L E V I S I O N
Not yet used in Australia.
18. I N T E R N A T I O N A L E X C H A N G E S
Exchanges of programmes have been m a d e with Canada, U.S.A., and are
being arranged with the BBC, but they are limited as yet. Exchanges of
booklets and general school broadcasts information take place continually
between the ABC and the broadcasting organizations in England, U.S.A.,
Canada, New Zealand, South Africa, Malaya, India. Norway, etc.
19. FUTURE PLANS
.
Present plans are concerned with tlhe im rovement of scripts, editing and
production. Further National relays at a figh level of material and presentation are contemplated.
W. DIFFICULTIES OF A L L KINDS
None.
81. SCHOOL B R O A D C A S T I N G IN P R O F E S S I O N A L T R A I N I N G
None.
37
B
slufhvr of the report:
Frans Hoosemans, director of the Spoken W o r d at the Belgian National
Broadcasting ilnstitute.
1. H I S T O R Y
Two periods must li. taken into account as regards schoul (broadcasting in
Bel,'aium :
a) From 1930 lo 1940
Broadcasting c a m e into existence in 'Belgium in 1923 through the establishment of the Radio-Belgique Station. This w a s n privately o w n e d station
and remained in existence until 1930, w h e n a Statute on Broadcasting w a s
passed by Parliament. But, even before 1930, the Directors of Radio-Bel$que, and in parti.cular M. Thko Fleischman, n o w Director-General of
French broadcasts and m e m b e r of the Board of Governors of the Belgian
National Broadcasting Service, bad interested themselves in the question of
school broadcasting, and, from time Lo time had included in their programmes special (broadcasts for schools. It must be noted, in lhk respect,
tlhat one of the first collaborators qf the school broadcasts of R-adio-Belg Q u e w a s AI. Dubois, C.hief Inspector of Schools, w h o is n o w a m e m b e r of
the Advisory Commission of School Broadcasting.
But it w a s only wit,h the establishment of the National Radio Institute
(I.N.R.),whlch w a g m a d e a public institution by an Act of Parliament, that
school broadcasting w a s really organized. These broadcasts were given
under the direction of the Ministry of Public Education, in collaboration
with 1:N.R. They o w e d their development chielly to the activity of NI. Julien
Kuypers, a high-ranking official of the Ministry and a m e m b e r of the Board
of 'Governors of I.N.R. A S,cE.oollbroadcasts staff, under the control of the
Ministry of Education, but installed in the buildings of I.N.R.,w a s given the
task of organizing programmes, obtaining t'heservices of collaborators, draftinle and publishing the School Broadcasts Bulletin.
8chool broadcasting w a s established in 1931 b y the Ministlry of Education.
As the result of an agreement m a d e with I.N.R.,
the.latter co-operated in the
production of &he broadcasts. These were 'given at the following times:
At the beginning, a weekly broadcast of 55 minutes;
In 1932, 1933, 1934 and 1935, two weekly broad,casts at the following
times:
O n Tuesdays, from 2 p.m. to 2.50 p m . for pupils from 12-15 years of age;
On Wednesdays or Fridays from 2 p.m. to 2.50 .m.'for pupils from 15
years of age onward; from 2.55 p.m. to 3.15 p.m. &r pupils from 10 to 14
years of age.
T h e working principle of this body w a s as follows:
T h e programmes were drawn u p by the Ministry of Education (General
Board of.Education). A Commission had been set up within this Ministry and
w a s composed of tèachers and educationists under lhe chairmanship of
M. Likgeois, Director-General of Secondary Education. In addition to drawing
up the general programmes, this Commission designated the main collaborators. F r o m October 1935 onwards, a school broadcasts staff working at
the headquarters of I.N.A.w a s engaged in producing the broadcasts as well
as the publication of the school broadcasts Bulletin, which appeared
every month (eight or nine numbers each school year), and which w.assent
39
~
to the various educational institutions. This staff w a s in direct contact with
the p r o g r a m m e services OP I.N.R. which collaborated with it in the production of broadcasts. T h e staff also proposed programmes to the Ministry.
T h e number of schools listening-in to the school broadcasts w a s estimated
at 400. Thirteen hundred copies of the Bulletin were printed.
Experience has shown that if the principle of this organization was good
in itself, it nevertheless required certain improvements. For this purpose,
closer and more active co-operation with I.N.R. w a s contemplated. T h e
intervention of the Dhcctors-General and of the programme services of
I.N.H. w a s extended during the last months of 1939 and the school broadcasting staff w a s thereafter under the control of the Directors-General of the
broadcasts in Flemish and in French. This intervention already affected
the production of the programmes, and was to produce its full effects not
only on the production, but also on the general planning of the programmea
from the beginning of 1940. T h e following were the main improvements
aimed at:
Close collaboration between the p r o g a m m e services of I.N.R. and the
school broadcasting staff for the working out of programmes, suggestions to
be submitted to the Ministry of Education;
A detailed study of the general programme and the drawing up of this
programme for the entire season;
Strong efforts to reconcile educational needs with broadcasting requirements;
To m a k e the broadcasts radiogenic, 'that is, as animated and rttractìve
as possible for pupils;
To see that Radio does not replace the teacher, but merely helps h i m by
iIilnstrations and examples which are lacking to him. This principle
shou d m a k e clear what subjects should be included in the school broadcast
programmes:
Perfect quality of the programmes so conceived and preparee
Strict choice of collaborators;
A more genera1 collaboration with the specialists of I.N.R. and the utilization, subject to the necessary adaptations, O F those programmes of the
Institute which fall within the field of education;
A closer liaison with the educational institutions (surveys, suggestions, etc.).
To sum up, it m a y be said that T.N.R. lent its equipment, technicians and
artists, and produced the broadcasts, but the direction, conception and choice
of the programmes, as well as the choice of the collaborators depended exclusively on the Ministry of Education, which also 'bore the expenses invohcd.
b) Silice the Liberation
W h e n the Belgian National Broadcasting Service w a s entrusted with the
production of broadcasts after the liberation of Belgium and with the
reorganization of broadcasting services in Belgium, it decided to take control
of school broadcasts. T h e Board of Governors of the Be1 ian NationaI
Broadcasting Service instructed the Director of French Spoken-%or&
Broadcasts, M. Roger Clausse, to resume, in a n e w form,the broadcasts for schods.
A n Advisory Committee w a s constituted with the same number of represeatatives for the Ministry of Education and State Schools as for the Denominational Schools. T h e task of this Advisory Committee w a s to help the Director
of the Spoken-Word in the working out of programmes and to m a k e all useful supestions on the matter. A Didactic Service w a s set u p within the
S p o k e n k o r d Department and w a s instructed to co-ordinate the activities of
the different sections of the School Broadcasting Division, that is to say:
Section A-for children from 8 to 12 years of age.
Section B-for children from 12 to 15.
Section C-for young people from 15 to 18.
11 m a y be added that this Service also includes a University Broadcastu
Section. W e do not intend to enter into details on the activities OF the latter,
as the formula adopted does not c o m e within the framework of school broadcasting properly so called, but rather within that of popular education
broad casting.
It must be noted that the School Broadcasts Bulletin is n o longer published
owing to lack of funds. But an agreement is about to )be reached on the
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40
matter with the Ministry of Education in virtue of which the letter will @if&
at its o w n expense a small monthly bulletin containing the monthly d o d
brczad.casto programme.
SUPERVISION AND CONTROL
a. RELATIONS BETWEEN THE
STATE &W THE RADIO O R G A m T I m
a) As has aIready been said in the brief historical introduction, school broadcasting w a s controlled by the State until 1940, Since 1945 it is under the
control of the Belgian National Broadcasting Service.
b) At the present time the Ministry of Education or other school authorities
do not play any official part in school broadcasting. But, the Ministry and
the authorities of the denominational schools have been asked to 'designate
their delegates to the Advisory Commission, and, on the other hand, close
collaboration exists between these authorities and the School Broadcasting
Division through the channel of the Director of the Spoken-Word..
c) There,is an Advisory Commission for School Broadcasting, made np of
representatives of the [State schools, the denominational schools, the National
Youth Council and the Belgian National Broadcasting Service.
T h e members of the Advisory Commission are appointed by the Board of
Governors of I.N.R.,after having been designated fby the Minister OS Education for the State Schools and by the Chairman of the Higher Board of Denominational Schools for the latter.
They carry out their duties in an honorary capacity.
As its n a m e indicates, the Commission is an advisory one. Its task is to
advise, guide and inform those entrusted with the preparation and prodwtios
of school broad casts.
3. REGULAIT;IONS CONCERR’IKI;SCHOOL BtH0ADCSI”PG
2
There is no legislation on this matter. School Broadcasting [email protected] meft
governed by Rules of Procedure m r k e d out by the Belgian National €3”
aasting Service of which it is a part.
MANAGEMENT A N D BUDGET
School broadcasting is one of the services under the control of the Dir=torate of the Spoken Word. It is placed under the authority of the Director
and of a IChief Producer. It includes. as has already been said R ~ O V G three
Sections corresponding to the various categories of listeners to wpom. they
broadcast: Section A for pupils from 8 to 12 years of age, Sectlon B for
those from 12 to 15, and, lastly Section C for p o m g people from 15 to 118.
5. P€”am
a) T h e school broadcasting staff has been recruited from a m o n g emanent
members of the broadcasting staff in general; that is to say that, a ter having
flrst engaged in broadcasting in general, they have now specialized them6ehe.s
in school broadcasting.
b) T h e school broadcastin staff includes t!hree members : two scrip&
writers and one producer. Sfhey all three belong to the permanent broadcasting staff. They are sometimes assisted in their task by temporary
collaborators: teachers, lecturers, actors, singers, etc.
P
41
,$
I
c) T h e task of the script-writers is to prepare the three weekly broadcasts
to schools; the producer looks after the actual production of the broadcasts.
T h e script-wrilers not only prepare Lhe !broadcasts but speak over the air.
6. FIINMm
'l'he school broadcasts alre financed by the Belgian National Broadcasting
Ser vi ce.
T h e budget Cor 1949 ,amounts to Frs.25,000, equally distributed between the
three sections. T h e general rogramme budget of the broadcasts in French
amounts to Frs.73S,400 for 1&9, of which the percentage for school broadcasting is 2.95 per cent.
EDUCATIONAL ASPECTS OF SCHOOL BROADCASTS
7. TEACHIX'
importance of broadcasting is to be fonnd in its nature as a comlement and supplement to education. Guiding princi le: to do what the
gacher cannot do, and never to do what he refuses to #o or can do himself.
Broadcasting will be able to give pupils whht the teacher cannot ,give them
in such good conditions: it will widen their intellectual horizon and their
sphere of interests. Broadcasting, which stimulates the imagination, can thus
vitalize teaching and break a certain monotony that characterizes it. If
broadcasting aimed at replacing the teach.cr,it would h e necessarx to banish
it from the schools. Indeed, in such a case, school broadcasting would mean
a return to collective and assive teaching. But such objections disappear
when lbroadcasting is m e r e g contemplated as an auxiliary to education, as
a means of information or even of entertainment. Its role, and this point can
never be stressed enough, is not to replace the living lesson of the teacher but
to illustrale it and perhaps sometimes even to give original views on literature, history,,etc. iJn its present state, broadcasting can be no more than an
accasional and supplementary means of education, in the same w a y as the
cinema, the gramophone, etc., although it has a wider field of action. Through
it. pupils can listen to outstanding Belgian and ,foreignteachers, m e n of letters,
orators, artists, musicians, scientists, explorers, etc. Thanks to running commentaries, they can partkipate in official ceremonies, in important events
of everyday life, in visits to school, industrial or scientific establishments, and
in the achievements of their little Belgian or foreign comrades. But,we repeat,
far Eram replacing the teacher, this method of teaching requires his presence: the teacher must remain the most important factor in education. It
is for him lo prepare his class for the broadcasts, 'by making use of the
programmes, and, at the end of the broadcast, to make clear certain details,
rectify t h e erroneous interpretations of the pupils, and coniplete what has
been said over the air so as to obtain the best possible results from the broadcasts. School broadcasts must also play an important part in competition
between pupils of the different schools of the same country and even between
pupils of different countries. This will be the utilization of the active method;
to make the pupils of a class or of a school, alone or under the supervision of
their teacher, participate as often as possiblc in the conception, wórking out
and 'broadcastingof a program.nle given for all listeners of the school broadcasts.
School broadcasting also has an important part to play in the international
field. It can and must be the ideal iustrunient for making k n o w n the work
of UNO and Unesco as well as important philanthropic and mutual aid activities. By means of programnies relayed from country to counlry it will
atrengthen the friendly relations between children of different countries and
help to ive them a better idea of that international understanding and solidarity w \ k h are indispensable for the defence of peace. dndced, rather than
give pupils a systematic education, it is preferable to give them, on the
(I)
The
,
METHODS A N D SUBJECTIS
4%
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occasion of national or international events, interesting talks about ouistanding personalities, but on condition that these talks,are resented 'in a form
accessible to children. T h e wish to avoid giving pupifs the impressjon of
being instructed in a systemati,c manner does not m e a n that the aim of these
broadcasts should not be methodically pursued. Moreover, talks on civilization, folklore of the various countries, the w a y in which children in different countries live and play, as well as short statements by foreign personalities in their native language, popular songs, comparative studies on popular
arts, literary works, music, paintings, the lives of famous m e n OE different
countries, are exceedingly valuable for inculcating the international outlook
upon pupils.
If it is really desired to make school broadcasting a success, the close cooperation of the teacher must be obtained. If radio balks are to be profitable,
they must be equivalent to real lessons. They must be very carefully preared, by means of pamphlets for instance, and, for this purpose, should be
FIased on the publication of a s u m m a r y in a special bulletin. T h e fact that
they must preferably be in the form 0.f a lesson means that the lecturers
should not only have voices suitable for broadcasting, but should, as far
as possible, be teachers. It is clear, then, that the radio must dispose not'only
of picked collaborators with training in educational methods, but also of
considerable funds.
Lastly. w e must not delude ourselves and, as will be pointed out -below,
must vary the methods according to whether we address ourselves to young
children or to trained pupils, for experience seems to s h o w that broadcasting
cannot be more than a means of entertainment for pupils of less than 12 years
of age.
As regards taIks, preference must be given to diaIogues, which are the most
animated and most appropriate form of broadcasting.
6) Experience has s h o w n that the following are the most appropriate subjects for broadcasting: firstly, music. There are indeed few teachers w h o can
organize concerts under good conditions. Their ,nerformancesmust be accompanied b commentaries. As regards singing, tfie words should be read out
even to &e youngest pupils at the same rhythm as dictation tests.
We will not dwell on the value of Radio as an instrument for the teaching
of languages,
Another interesting subject: Lectures on literary subjects accompanicd if
possible by the reading of selected passages by the best actors. Records m a y
be used here as in the case of concerts.
Other subjects suitable for educational broadcasting are: the ,history of
art, geography and history lessons, all of which are subjects which can eventually be illustrated by radio montages. As regards the sciences, the possibilities of radio would seem to be rather restricted.
A form of broadcasting that appears to sive valua'ble results is .the spoken
commentary, which brings the pupil into direct contact with events in remote
parts of the world. In 'country schools, in particular, it is of enormous documentary value and an .effective means of. developing feelings of national and
international solidarity.
O u r experience seems to s.how that, for pupils of less than twelve years of
asge? -broadcasting is rather a source of entertainment than a means of education. W h a t they prefer are tales, sketc,hes,recitations, songs, music. Therefore, in Belgium, both before and after the war, broadcasts for children were
in the nature of entertainmcnt, and the educational broadcasts were reserved
for secondary students as well as Ior those of the vocational acd teachers'
training schools.
c) During the experimental period through which school broadcasting is
still passing, it is not possible to determine precisely and methodically what
are the spccial teaching methods and the most useful and effective forms of
broadcasting. Every day new efforts are made, and it is not vet possible
to ,gauge their results. W e refer back to what has been said incidentally on
this subject under a) and 6).
d) Time-tables, length of the broadcasts and suitable hours:
Sect;on A: Every M o n d a y from 3 p.m. to 3.30 p.m.
(1) Singing
(2) N e w s of the week.
(3) Montage.
43
(4) T h e school hail-bag.
(5) Information for teachers.
Section B: Every Tuesday from 3 p.m. to 3.30 p."!.
This hroadcast, strictly speaking, IS a musical inltiation broactccast. The
method consists of giving alternately a montage evoking the life and w o r k
of a great musician with a musical accompaniment of e:rtAracts from those of
his works which characterize (his evolution, and a concert accoqanied by
comments, of the musical masterpieces of all periods.
Selclion C: Every Thursday f o m 2.30 p,.m. to 3 p.m.
This broadcast, conceived in the form of a magazlne, is entitted '%ruisr"
and includes:
41) Editorial;
(2) Radio montage : histarical, musical, literary or scientific (the montage
has already beeil replaced by discussions). This formula seems to have gained
the approval of the listeners as well as of the teachers and we irrtend 'toapply
it more frequently.
(3) S o m e good music.
A half-hour seems to 'be the most suitable length for each of the three
broadcasts.
T h e question of times is more complex. T h e time-table of School )Broadcasts
Section A does not give ri,se to any dispute; but this is not so as regards
Section B and C. T h e broadcast of Section B has been included in the
programmes on Tuesdays at 3
because, in Belgium, the pupils of lhe lower
classes of the secondary schoofiTave a recreation period or a holiday in the
afternoon of that day, IBut, according.to our statistics, this .does not alter the
Pact that the broadcast does not seem to be listened to regularly. Indeed,
according to the locality or the level of teaching, the teachers m a k e use of
Tuesday afternoons to visi! m u c e u m s or to indulge in sport. As to listening
in at h o m e by the pupils w h o have a holiday, it is almost impossible to obtain
accurate information. On the other .hand,to arrange l'hisbroadcast at another
tinie or on another day would be difficult, for in the lower classes of the
secondary schools the programmes are so heavy that the teacher does riot
dispose of half-an-hour for listening to school broadcasts.
T h e same prolblem ari.ses lor Section ,C. But Che members of the Advisory
Committee consider that this broadcast would attlract m a n y more listeners if
it could be given on Saturday afternoons. That is true, but the Directorate of
Broadcasting would ithen find itself confronted with the complex prdbleni of
+he generai policy of programmes. Of course if it disposed of a supplementary
wavelength it would ,be able to undertake such a reform.
8. (;O-OPERATIONOiF RAiI,PO ANO 'PHESCHOOLS
This co-operation is good and even easy. W e are considerably aided by the
kindness of the Department of Education and the Higher Board of Denominational Schools.
This co-operation even tends to bcconie closer and closer since w e adopted
a n e w and somewhat special formula requiring the participation of pupils and
teachers in our broadcasls. W e have established contact with different schools
bhrou hout the country, primary schools, elementary schools, secondary
schoo s, athenaeums, colleges, lycées, boarding schools and even lvocational
whools, in order to ask them if they could submit to us a &aft programme
d r a w n up either by the teachers or by the pupils, but which would in all
cases be interpreted and carried out by the pupils them*;elves. This prog r a m m e varies drom ten to twenty minutes. It consists of group songs, the
performing of certain scenes from classical or modern plays, visits m a d e by
the pupils, evpcations of the history or folklore of the locality or region in
which the school is situated, etc. Once this programme is examined and
accepted by us. the Head of the Section and the producer travel to the spot
with their recording van and spend the day working with their young
interpreters in order to prepare the programme. T h e latter is then broadcast
with an indicaiion of the school or class which has organized it. Since w e
have engaged in this work, w e have been able to note that w e have not only
succeeded ln winning over an increasing n u m b e r of teachers but have stimulated fruitful competition between the schools throughout the country as well
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44
u m o r e frequent contacts and exchanges between them. W e not? with
pleasure that today the teachers themselves establish contact with us and ask
ns to preparc such broadcasts with their co-operation.
As regards special training in the use of school broadcasts, this does not
exist except in very rare cases in a few very modern teachers' training
colleges. Some time ago I w a s vi5ited by a teacher of one of the teachers'
training colleges. Having listened in to certain of OUT recordings m a d e in
schools, he calne to ask me whether I could help h i m to train his students,
future teachers, in the use of educational broadcasting. It is contemplated
giiring a first broadcast, during. which this teacher's students will listen to
certain of our recordings and wlll attend a broadcast. It is possible that later
on this professor will arrange For his studenls lo prepare certain broadcasts,
which will then be criticized both from the educational a n d from the broadcasìing point5 of view.
,
9. SUITABLE BIGES
As 'has already been said, school broadcasts, as organized by. the Belgian
National Broadcasting Institute, give broadcasts for pupils from elght to twelve
(Section A) from twelve to Efteen (Section B) and from fifteen to eighteen
(Section C). I1 is difficult to determine precisely what are the most suitable
ages. T h e reactions on the art of listeners do not enable us to do so. Indeed,
the !question depends not on y on age and programmes, h i t als^, as has already
been said, 011 time-tables and school syllabi.
ff
10. SCIIICNOI, BWOADICAST?NG STATISTICS
L
T h e members of the Advisory Commission on School Broadcasting have asked
that information o n the number of schools and pupils using school broadcasts
be withheld, as statistics are being prepared by the Ministry of Education and
the latter is desirous of giving precise and recent data. Moreover, the
authorities of the denominational schools have not yet answered this question.
fiowever, 'M.Verniers, Director-General of Primary Education and Teachers'
'Training at the Ministry of Education, has given us statistics which sum up
the situation, on 31.12.47, in the primary elementary (state-controlled and
rivate) and subsidized schools, throughout the country. Out of a total of
776 primary schools:
888, oq approximately 10 per cent, are equipped with receiving sets;
lG4, or less than 2 per cent, re ularly use the school broadcasts;
1,181, or 13 per cent, occasiona ly m a k e use of these broadcasts.
1,
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11.
PUBLICAII'IONS D E S I G N E D TO BE USED WITH SCHOOL BROADCASTS
Before the war, there w a s a school broadcasting bulletin, edited and financed
by the Ministry of Education and drafted in co-operation with the lecturer.
This bulletin w a s sent in due time to 'the teachers to enable them to prepare
their pupils for the broadcasts. It contained, in addilion to the programmes,
a s u m m a r y of the talk and the aim which it had in view, the calegories of
pupils for which the broadcast w a s intended, and, in the case of n broadcast
on the w o r k of a great master, a biographical notice; an indication of the
exercises to be done by the pupils, the texts of the (broadcasts,illustrations,
maps, reproductions of various instruments, etc., with the aim of preparing
the class for the broadcasts.
W h e n the Belgian National Broadcasting Service rcsvmed school broadcasting after the liberation of Belgium, it immediately gave attention to the
publication and dissemination of a bulletin. Unfortunately, it w a s unable to
find the necessary budgetary funds, and that explains w h y such a bulletin is
no longer published. Howelver, as the result of an agreement with the Ministry
of Education, the programmes of the school broadcasts will henceforth be
published by the Ministerial Department and disseminated 'by it to all schools
throu hout the country, both State and Denominational. This \bulletinwill be
issuedi monthly.
as
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1%
M I S C E L L A N E O U S EDUCATIONAL PROBLBNS
a) As has already been said, most of the problems of a general nature still
remain to be solved.
b) The Co-existence of State and Denominationa1 education does not raise
any particular problem, since co-operation (has already been established wilth
the responsible authorities of both forms of education, and both are represented on the Advisory Commitsion for School Broadcasting.
T h e existence of two naLional languages also does not raise any special
problem, as the School Broadcasting Division is divided into Flemish and
French Services.
13. SYSTEMATIC ENQUIRIES ON SCHOOL BROAD CASTS
u) and b) No cnquiry has been m a d e concerning the educational results
obtained by school broadcasts.
c) Until fairly recently, public opinion shad not been sounded on this ma!ter.
However, since Unesco's questionnaire has c o m e to our notice, w e have Begun
this task by asking teachers, pupils and sometimes even parents for their
opinions on cerlain of our 'broadcasts.
d) No survey has been m a d e to determine to what extent the expenditure
on school broadcasting is justified by the results.
TECH NICAL CQNDITIONS
14. EQUIPMENT OF SCHOOLS WITH RECEJVING SETS
W e can give a parlial answer to this question. It m a y be said in gcnerat, that
this is one of the main problems to be qolved in ,the field of school broadcasting. T b e majorily of schools do not possess technical equipment. It m a y
be easily understood that Ihis confronts the responsible authorities, whether
public or private, with the difficult question of finding considerable funds. On
several occasions appeals have been m a d e over the air to teachers to fake their
sets into their classrooms. Several teachers have responded to the appeal, but
almost exclushely jn tthe country districls where the teacher frequently lives
at the cchool or in the neighbourhood. In certain communes, the public
anthoritks have equipped the:r schools with a receiving set. Here again it is
only in 'the case of small schools, in which one set is sufficient. In the larger
schools such as athenaeums and colleges, in wh'ch the classes and pupils are
nllmeroiis, the technical problem is of quite a different nature. It is only by
consenting to heavy ex cnditure that such establishments will be able to obtain
the necessary technicap equipment. Appeals in this direction have k e n m a d e
to Old Sludcnts' Associations asking them to get together the necessar funds.
We d o not yet know if these appeals have been successful. Tkc onry esact
information which w e can give on .this subject is that out OF a lotal of 8,776
primary schools existing in the country on 31.12.1947, 883 or approximately
10 per cent have a receiving set.
ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
16. FREQUENCY M O D U L A T I O N IN SCHOOL BROADCASTISG
For the m o m e n t frequency modulation is not used for school broadcasting.
17. TELEVISION IN SCHOOL BROADCASTING
Television does not yet exifl in Belgium. W e have not so far studied the
question from the point of view of school broadcasting.
46
A,
18. INTERNATIONAL EXCHANGES
W e have noi yet undertaken international exchange3 in any form in the field
of school !broadcasting,as no foreign radio has proposed to us programmes
of school broadcasts, and on the other hand, w e did not feel ready to propose
certain of our o w n progranlines. However, w e have already had occasion, and
particularly in a recent report sent to Unesco, to draw the Iatter’s attcntion to
all the advantages which ~ - o u l dbe offered by exchanges in this field. W e have
asked, for instance, for short musical and folklore montages, interviews with
children on their w a y of life, their work, etc., montages which could be sent
to us in exchange for similar broadcasts pre ared by us. T h e question is therefore being examined on the international p m e .
f
19. FUTURE PLANS
W e cannot yet give details OR plans for the extension, modification and
improvement of school broadcasting. These plans are at present being
examined and depend chiefly on what funds will be at our disposal in the
future.
20. DIFFICULTIES OF ALL KINDS
See all other answers to this questionnaire.
21. SCHOOL BROADCASTING IN PROFESSIONAL TRAINING
To date, school broadcasting hns nut been used in professional training.
However, ns has been said in the present report, w e have already m a d e certain
experiments, particularly in having certain programmes of Section C prepared
by students in profess’onal schools (more particularly in the agricultural
schools). These programmes were then recorded and broadcast. We cxpcct
to continue these experiments in order to see whether, in present circumstances, school broadcasting can be used in professional training.
47
BRAZIL
Author of the report:
Di-.Fernando Tude de Souza, Director of the Educational Broadcasting Service
of the Brazilian Ministry of Education and Wealth.
Note: Por the reasons set out below, this report does not answer all the
questions asked.
I N T R O D U C T O R Y NOTE
T h e definition of school broadcasts contemplated by Unesco's survey has
no practical appIication to BraziI, as il deals particularly with "broadcasts
for classes", or "didactical broadcasts", forms of broadcasting which are
not favoured by the organization of this country.
Only the Federal Government has a model service of educational broadcasting, but, in virtue of the L a w which leaves primary teaching to the State
Governments, the Federal Government cannot give what might strictly be
called school broadcasts. T h e Federal District, which has a municipal broadcasting station for educational purposes, includes in its programme a broadcast entitled "Radio School". Unfortunately, the latter has recently been
limited to fifteen minutes a day for some schools, except on Thursdays, Saturdays and Sundays. For these reasons, the questionnaire does not apply to
Brazil.
Last year in Sao Paulo, a "Radio University" experiment w a s carried out
under the auspices of the Service for the Training of Commercial Employees,
with lessons given over the air and listened to by groups under the supervision
of a teacher w h o added to the explanations broadcast. Five stations in Sao
Paulo relayed this interesting programme. It was one of the most interestin
experiments m a d e in educational broadcasting to groups. It w a s intende3
for adults and not for children, and the standard w a s at the secondary level.
HISTORY
Broadcasting in Brazil began with the Broadcasting Co. of Rio de Janeiro
on 20 April 1923. A Brazilian A c a d e m y of Sciences w a s established by a
roup of scientists and outstanding personalities. It had at its head Professors
oquette-Pinto and Henrique Moris.
In 1936 Broadcasting Co. of Rio de Janeiro was unable to maintain the
standard of its programmes owing to financial difficulties and the competition of commercial stations. It decided to hand over its patrimony to the
Ministry of Education o n condition that the latter established an educational
broadcasting service for Brazil. It is in this w a y that the present service w a s
established in 1936. T h e power of the original station w a s 1 k W ; it is n o w
25 kW, and it has also a short-wave station of 1 kW. It has the best technical
installations, three studios, including a studio for symphony orchestras, and
it operates fourteen hours a day. Its programmes are exclusively educational
and cullural, and it does not engage in any comniercial or political propaganda. Its first real director w a s appointed in 1943 : Dr. Fernando Tude de
Souza, w h o is also responsible for the modifications and developments of the
service.
8
49
4
i
SUPERVISION A N D CQNTROL
The Ministry of Education and Health is in charge of the whole of the
Educational Broadcasting Service. The latter has its own budget and a staff
of 60 persons including : technicians, producers, scri t writers, speakers,
administrative personnel. All the programmes are prodPuced by the Service
which is also able to arrange programmes under contract with persons outside
the Service, under the supervision of -theDirector.
The Prefecture of the Federal District has a station of 5 k W (medium wave)
dependent on the budget of the Prefecture ; it does not engage in commercial
propaganda. This station was established for giving school hroadcasts, but
such' broadcasts are not very numerous at the present time.
MANAGEMENT A N D BUDGET
The Director of lhe Educational Broadcasting ,Service of the Ministry of
Education is appointed by the Ministry of Education. H e has three assistants
or #lieadsof sections (administration,programnies and techniqne). The Service also includes : six speakers, seventeen technicians, three script writers,
two eclucational technicians,a librarian and the administrativeand subordinate
staff. The Director siiyervises the whole of the Service.
PERSONNEL
The whole of the personnel of the Educational Broadcasting Service of
the Ministry oí' Educalion is appointed exclusively for educational broadcasting work.
The whole of the personnel is subject to the l a w s governing State employees
and is recruited according to the standards established by the Administrative
Department of Public Services.
FIN.ANCES
The finances are emured by the geiieral budget of the Federal Governmenl
through the channel of the Ministry of Education. Tn 1948, the Educational
Broadcasting Service Qbtained a credit of 150,000American dollars (approximately), for the personnel, material and programmes, of which 35,000 dollars
were nl1o:led to programmes. In 1949, the sanie Service obtaiiied 200,0041
Amer:cnn dollars of which 41,000were allotted to programmes,
EDUCATIONAL ASPECTS OF SCHOOL BROADCASTS
TEACHING METHODS AND SUBJECTS
The Educational Brmdcasting Service gives lessons every day on lhe following subject5 : Portuguese,English, French, Spanish, Geography, the History of
Brazil. The lessons last half an hour with a small niusical jntcrlude between
the iirst and second parti. The method mostly employed is a dialogue
between teacher and pupil. Our experiment has shown thal dramatizatioii
is always preferable at the primary level, dialogues between teacher and pupil,
at the secondary level ; talks or lectures at the university level.
The results obtained in the teaching of languages are considerable and the
lessons are followed with great interest.
50
Experiments in broadcasting lessons in handicrafts for small children bave
been crowned with success.
Teachers prefer to arrange their lessons so that considerable importance is
given to the question of intonation.
SUITABLE AGES
The students enrolled for the lessons of the Educational Broadcasting Service are from 7 to 70 years of age, since lhe lessons are intended for listeners
in general and not exclusively for schools. About 3,000 students are regularly
enrolled and prepalre their exercises, which are scnt by post to the teacher
for correction.
The Educational Broadcasting Service every day sends abstracts of the
lessons for the followins week, keeps a record of all correspondenw with the
students, and gives the information and particulars asked for.
MISCELLANEOUS FBUCAT1 O X-41 PliOH JA EMS
\Ve consider that the problem of educatioiial broartcasling rn the large
regions of Brazil w
ill not be solved for ten or twenty years. It is impossible
to establish schools in all the regions which need them, but, thanks to the
radio and cinema, w e w
ill be alde to achieve miracles. The extensive use of
the radio and cinema, as a means of education, in the Amazon and Rio Doce
regions, particularly in conncrtion with the cxripaigl for giving sanitary
education to the populations of the interior of the coun!ry, is giving excellent
results. The popular servicc of loud speakers installed in the public squares
of the small localities for the brosdcn5ting of recorded lessnns,is very much
used.
TECHNICAL CONDITIONS
‘ J W X N I C A L MATERIAL
‘
The Educational Broadcasting Service of the Ministry of Eduealion has
technical material of first quality, almost entirely of RCA make. It lias eight
recorders and a Scully machine for industrial recording. In 1949, it will
acquire a transmitter of 50 kw.. medium wave, and three transmitters of
7.5 kw.,short wave, 1 kw. of frequency modulation, and it plans organizing
in one of the poor suburbs of Rio de Janeiro a communication centre. It
will certainly be the most complete oukfit in the world for educational broadcasting purposes. Television is one of the future possibilities for the Ministry
of Education’s broadcasting service in Rio de Janeiro.
The public’s response is as favourable as possible and the prestige of the
Service is increasing every day.
ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
LlBHARY
The Educational Broadcasting Service has a library open to the public,
containing more than 3,000 Golumes on music and broadcasting, and books
of reference.
81
RECORD LIBRARY
T h e Educational Broadcasting Service has a record librar dhich is considered to be the best and most c o m lete in the country.
has about 12,000
selected records, and includes main?y serious music. T h e records of popular
music are not broadcast. Foxtrots and sambas are rarely heard.
During its fourteen hours of daily broadcasting, the Educational Broadcasting Service endeavours to satisfy the tastes of its various groups of
listeners. F r o m 6 a.m. it gives a lesson in gymnastics and physical training.
F r o m 9 a.m. it gives various lessons. Later, there are lighter programmes, but
always of an educational nature, and every musical broadcast is preceded by
a commentary. At noon, it gives broadcasts for w o m e n , domestic and medical
advice, special recorded concerts, or concerts with the assistance of artists,
information on problems relating to the rearing of children, domestic arts, etc.
There is an interval from 2 p.m. to 5 p.m. w h e n thc stations again give
educational programmes: historical, biographical, etc. At 7 p.m. there is
music, and at 8 p.m. the presentation of national and foreign artists in
essentially cultural programmes. Radio plays, with biographies of m e n w h o
have contributed to the progress of humanity, etc. Complete descriptions of
tre lives and works of great composers. Interviews with outstanding personalities visiting Brazil. Concerts by symphony orchestras, string quaartets, etc.,
piano, violin and 'cello soloists, etc., until 11 p.m. Every afternoon at 5.30
p.m. there is a programme for children and young people. At the moment,
this is one of the best features of our radio. Our programmes for children
and young people always aim at promoting international understanding. T h e
results are splendid. There are also broadcasts devoted to the teaching of
agriculture and handicrafts for children.
Each day of the week has its o w n special broadcasts. T h e stations ensure
an information service on subjects dealing with education, science and
culture. Every day they relay a n e w s bulletin from the BBC, London. There
is a weekly Unesco programme, which, from June onwards, will be broadcast
twice a week.
52
CANADA
Author a/ the report:
.
Richard S. Lambert, Supervisor of Educational Broadcasts, Canadian Broadcasting Corporation.
PREPATORY OaSERVATIONS
of Canadian school broadcasting are:
Notable feecrtu:es
1. Extent of urea covered. All (English speaking) schools in the Dominion,
which comprises 3,690,000 square miles, and covers five time zones, are served
by VCBGwith a m i n i m u m of thirty minutes of school broadcasting per school
da y.
2. Co-operation b e t w e e n educators und broadcasfers. A n equal working
partnership between the two sides has been built up, an active inferest from
offlcial education authorities, both in planning the programmes and in promoting their use. GBIG co-operation ensures high professional standards of
programme production.
3. Decentralization and cultural unity. Canadian school broadcasting gives
full weight to provincial autonomy in matters of education, !but stresses also
the cultivation of national unity and citizenship, and the fostering of wider
international contacts.
4. Idernational Exchanges. Exchanges of school broadcasts with U.S.A.
have been a regular feature since 1941. Exchanges with Britain and Australia
have now b e n established. Canada is the first country to collaborate directly
with U.N. Radio Division in producing school broadcasts about U.N. for
elementary school pupils.
P
i. HISTORY
Before 1942 several Provinces of Canada experimented briefly with school
broadcasting, but only in two provinces, N o v a Scotia (1926) and British
Columbia (1938) did it take permanent root. In 1941-42 the broadcasts of the
(CBS) American School of the Air were introduced into Canada and put on the
air over the Trans-Canada network of the CBC. This at once led to a demand
for a nation-wide all-Canadian school broadcast. The first national school
broadcasts were provided by CBC in 1942. In 1943 the National Advisory
Council on School Broadcasting was set up, and the CEC Education Department w a s formed in Toronto. School broadcasting w a s then rapidly extended
to cover all nine provinces of the Dominion (except French-speakin6 Quebec,
which is served by Radio C d l è g e , the educational organ of the CBE French
network, which provides broadcasts aimed at the secondary school and adult
level only). In 1947 CBS Schaol of the Air w a s terminated, and its place taken
by a development of exchanges of sehool ,broadcasts with Britain, Austl'alia
and ofher countries.
. *
, %
53
1
SUPERVISION A N D CONTROL
2. R E L A T I O N S BETWEEN THE STATE &ND TlHE RADIO ORGANIZATIONS
Accordin to the Canadian Constitution, education is a Ifunction, not of the
Federal government, but of the Governments of the nine provinces. Each
province is educationally autonomous, and there is no Federal .Office of Education at Ottawa.
School broadcasting in Canada is therefore based upon agreement between
the CBC and the Education Departments 1 of the nine provinces, to present, on
a co-operatiwe basis, programmes specifically planned to tie in with the course
of studies in the classroom.
T h e basis of this agreement is that the education authorities take responsibility fo- the content, the broadcasting organization for the form of the
broadcasts. Or,to put it another way, the education authority is responsible
for whatever is heard in the classroom. tihe GBC for whatever goes on the air.
Naturally, there is s o n e overlap, on both sides, in this division of function.
Broadly speaking, ho-vever. lhe Provincial Department or Departments cvf
Education choose the subJscts,plan their treatment, supervise the preparation
of the material, help to insta! receivers, publicise lhe programmes. instruct the
teachers in utilizing them in the classroom, and evaluate the results. T h e CBC
Education Department helps shape the plans from the angle of radio suitability
md feasibility,engages and instructs scriptwriters, produces the programmes
in the studio, shares in publicising and evaluating the broadcasts.
Advisory Coumils
In 1943 the CBC, in consultation with Lhe Canadian Education Association set
u p the National Advisory Council on School Broadcasting to help plan the
National School Broadcasts, and advise generally on the progress and development of school broadcasting in Canada.
T h e composition of this Council is as follows:
a) Chairman-an Educator of nation-wide distinction appointed by the CBC.
6) Departments of Education-one representative nominTitecl by each of the
nine Departments of Education (two from Quebec).
c) Teachers-two
representatives nominated by the Canadian Teachers
Federation.
d) Parent-Teachers-two representatives nominated by the Canadian Federation of H o m e and School Associations.
e) Universities-two represen'lalives nominated b y the Conference of Canadian Universities.
f) School Boards-one representatire nominated by the Canadian Trustees
Association.
g) Secretary-the CBC Supervisor of Educational Broadca% is ex officio
Honorary-Secretary of the Council.
T h e Council meets annually for three days in March to plan programmes
and receive reports aiid m a k e recommendations on school broadcasting
problems. [t has an Executive Commiltee which meets every autumn or as
often as called together by the Chairman.
T h e recommendations of the Council regarding plans for national school
broadcasts are given to CBC Education Department, to be carried into effect
as far as feasible.
The original two-year term of office of the Advisory Council expired in
1945. Ilt tras since been renewed for t w o further periods of t w o years each.
Others
COURCih
a) T h e three provinces of Nova Scotia, N e w Brunswick and Prince E d w a r d
Island have Co-operated-with CBC in setting u p the Maritime Schools Radio
1. In a Pew cam8 (e.g.. Toronto). the School Board of a blg city has undertaken to gresent.
In co-operation wlth CBC. short coursee of schad broadcasts for the puplls In thelr care.
The system of shared responsibility for them is the aame
Deparrmenrs of Educatlon.
54
BS
in the case of Pr.ovlncW
~
,
Committee, which meets several times a year to plan and review school broadMaritime Region.
this Committee is the CBC School Radio organizer
for the Re,'Dion.
b) T h e four Western provinces, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta and British
Columbia have set up a Western Schools Radio ,Committee which meets twice
a year or more, io plan and review school broadcasting programmes for the
Prairie and Pacific Regions. CEX representatives attend meetings of this
Comnii ttee.
c) Most of the provinces have Departmental School Radio Committees which
advisce the Department of Education in the planning of its o w n rovincial
prognimmes. S o m e of these consist solely of departmental OfficiaTs; others
include representatives of teachers' organizations and local H o m e and School
Federations.
3. RPÆULATIONS CONCERlNWG SCHOOL 1BROADCASTTNG
There is no s ecial legislation or rules governing school broadcasting in
Canada. T h e &C does not put on the air any school broadcasts, except t h a w
for which the Education D,epartmentcatakc responsibility, as s h o w n in No. 2.
above.
MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET
4. A D M I N I S T R A T I V E STRUCTURE
T h e CBC !has an Education (School Broadcasts) Department, which f o r m s a
part of its programme division.
a) CBC Educafion Department
This Department consists of a Supervisor of Educationa1 (School) Broadcasts.
an Assistant Supervisor, a Script Editor, one full time producer and several
others on assignment, t w o secretary-stenographers, and two Field Representatives (one in the Maritime Provinces, the other in the West). All thesle are Pull
mem'bers of the Staff of the CBC.
6) Provincial Deportmelits of Education
The Department of Education of -each province has ap oiiited one or more
E
Staff officials to take res onsibility for handling school roadcasting matters,
in co-operation wilh CBf!.
Soirte of theae officials are solely concerned with
school broadcastinu. others arc concerned with the broader field of audiovisual education w%ch includes films and other ivisual material along with
broadcasting.
T h e number of these full time officials is approximately ten. This does not
take into account stenographic $elpl or w o r k of subject specialists, teachers,
inspectors, etc., employed by the Departments on a part-time or ad hoc basis,
in preparing the programmes.
Recruitment
CBC Education Department staff is recruited €rom persons with radio qualifications and experience. The radio staff of the Departments of Education is
chiefly recruited fromthe teaching and administrative (educational) profiession.
m
SlMf Broadcasts
Members of the staff of CBC and Provincial Departments of Education rarely
appear at the microphone. Most of the school broadcasts are performed by
professional actors, announcers, musicians and speakers; some, however, are
given by teachers and students, Scripls are commissioned mostly from
professional writers and edited b CBC hducation Department. Occasionally
they are written in the office of t&s Department.
6. FINANGES
"he cost of school broadcasts is shared between the CBC and the ]Provincial
Departments of Education, in tbe following w a y :
a) National School Brondcasts-cost borne entirely b y CBC.
b) Provincial School Broadcasts-the CBC provides free time on the air,
bears the costs of all nelwork lines, and provides free studio and production
facilities. T h e Departments of Education, respectively, bear the cost of
whatever scriptwriting, acting and music tmalent is employed in their programmes. T h e y also bear the chief cost of publicising the broadcasts in print.
c) International Exchange School Broadcasts-cost Ihrne entirely by CBC.
Budget
The CBC allocates a s u m of approximately $22,000 each year to the CBC E d u cation -Department 1 to be spent mainly on national school broadcast proa m m e s (ie., scripts, research and music). This sum does not include overead costs involved (salaries, rent, etc.) or value of time on t'he air, wire-line
charges or production costs.
T h e nine Departments of Education allocate between them a s u m of
approximately $50,000 each year to the cost of providing provincial school
broadcast programmes. This s u m again does not include the overhead costs
involved.
N o estimate of overhead costs in either case is possible.
r
EDUCATIONAL ASPECTS OF SCHOOL BROADCASTS
7. TEACHINlG METHOIDS A N D SUBJECTS
School broadcasting in Canada has three main aims:a) To strengthen the sense of Canadian citizenship a m o n g school students,
and to increase their awareness of the achievements, culture and problems
of their o w n country as a whole.
b) To supplement the course of classroom studies in each province by
providing broadcasts that will stirnillate the pupils' imagination, motivate their
studies, and su ply factual and background material that ties in closely with
the actual w o r t of the teacher. School broadcasts are planned as a supplement to not a substitue for, classroom teaching.
c) To exchange with other countries school broadcasts that will increase
Canadian students' knnwletlge of those countries and their ways. and will
contribufe t6 the building of international understanding and good will.
T h e above aims are carried into effect by:
a) The National School Broadcasts, which go on the air on the Trans-Canada
Network of the CBC and are heard in everv Dart of the Dominion, e v e w
Friday in the school ear.
b) The Prouìn,ciaZ,&ho01 Broadcasts, which vary from province to
vince according to the requirements of the individual Department of
cation. These are heard, four days a w e e k (Mondays to Fridays) on provincial
or regional networks set up 'by the CBC.
Y
I
;:8
-
I. Not lnclndtng the Bum allocated ,by CBC to Ranldo 0021&pe (French sDeaklng Quebec).
M
c) International Exchmigr School Brocrdcasts, which are arranged by CBC
to go on the air either nationally or regionally, as Provincial Departments
of Education wish.
As indicated 'above,most Canadian school broadcasts aim at supplementing
the w o r k of the classroom teacher, rather than at providing a substitute for
classroom teaching.
T h e method used in (b) (supplementing classroom studies) varies according
to the end aimed at. T h e following examples will e:.plain
this:Q) Motivation. Broadcasts on such subjects as Mathematics, Greek and Latin
Classics and Guidance aim at stimulating the students' primary interest in the
subject, in order to arouse a keener desire to study it. Actual impafrtingof
knowledge is a lesser consideration.
b) Stimulation. Broadcasts in Social Studies (e.g. History) and Literature aim
at arousing the students' imaglnation regarding topics already under study
in class, or supplying additional background material to enrich that study.
Such broadcasts are also often used for revision purposes in class. Music
Anareciation broadcasts and performances of Shakemeare and other dramas
faii under this category.
c) Practice. Broadcasts in French language pronounciation, solo and choral
singing, speech training, physical drill, &.;a&
used to give students in class,
practice in carryina out a part of their studies which the teacher alone cannot
impart so adequateyy.
d) Instruction. Broadcasts on hygiene, health and safety habits, Junior
Music and Kindergarten activities, often contain a large amount of direct
instruction to pupils.
e) Yodel Lessons. In one region only, the Maritimes, certain school broadcasts have been planned to serve as model lessons, to help rural teachers
(often uncertificated) during teacher shortage periods.
T h e majority of school broadcasts in Canada are resented in dramatized
form. This form ranges from sim le dialogue to fu I-blown dramas written
and performed by profcssionals. &e dramatized programme has the strongest ap ea1 to our students. For instance, even in the most elementary cate
gory ?Grades 1-3), children s h o w a marked preference for dramatized fairy
tales over narrated fairy tales. School broadcasts given in the form of straight
talks or lessons are relatively unpopular and ineffective. However, stress is
laid by teachers on the necessity of simplified dramatic presentation. A
sperial type of dramatized broadcast has been worked out for school purposes, which includes a sdbstantial amount of straight narration, and special
stress on clarity of diction, moderate pace of movement, sparing use of
musical sound effects, elimination of slang dialect and "tricks" of all kinds.
All school broadcasts are planned for listening by specific grades of students. They are put on the air in such a form as to enable the teacher to
incorporate them with his class work, or to use them as illustrations for that
work. T h e most popular broadcasts have proved to be those which provide
for pupil participation, either at the studio end or in the classroom, or both.
P
Visual Aids
In s o m e provinces correlation of school broadcasts with visual alds has been
experimented with. For instance, Ontario reports (January, 1949) success in
the use of filmstrips in conjuncticn with broadcasts. "The general consensus
of teacher and student opinion favoured the use of the fiImstrip as a n introduction, with the broadcast following."
Manitoba has carried out for the past two years an interesting experiment
in the correlation of pupil self-expression in art, with specially planned school
broadcasts.
Subjects of School Broadcasts
- See
chart on page 58 of Young Canada Listens (1948-1949) for outline of
sub'ects of current Canadian school broadcasts. Please note the following:aj Programme schedule s h o w n under "Quebec" (French) column is that
of Radio Collèye, the educational organ of the French network of the cW=.
61
These Ibfoadcasts, which are given niainly in the forni of lectures, are aimed
at the senior high school, university and adult level only. They are given in
after-school hours, and heard as an extra-curricular activity in certain resldential high schools in the province.
b) "Kinder arten of the Air" is a daily pre-school broadcast, intended rimarily to be aeard in the home, though it IS also listened to in m a n y binZergarten classes and nursery sohool groups.
c) In addition to the programmes scheduled under "Alberta", the Alberta
Department of Education provides, on its o w n initiative and without CBC cooperation, certain other school broadcasts, including. s o m e aimed at correspondence school students (i.e., pupils living in outlgmg areas and unable to
attend school).
Time-tuble
See times given in cbarl.
T h e must favourablc length for each broadcast is generally considered
to 'be fifteen minutes, or for history dramatizations, twenty minutes. Western
Canada favours afternoon times for the broadcasts, while IEastern Canada o n
the whole prefers morning times.
Important Note
,
T h e Dominion of 'Canada n o w extends over five time zones (Atlantic, Eastern,
Central, Mountain and Pacific) and m a y possibly (when Newfoundlan-d is
included) extend over six zones. This fact involves immense complications
in scheduling of all radio programmes, especially school broadcasts, which
have to go on the air during school hours. For instances, it is impossible to
schedule a national school broadcast at any one period which will suit
the schools in all provinces. T h e s a m e difficulties, to a lesser degree, occur
in regional and even in provincial school broadcasting.
8. CO-OPERATION OF RADIO
AND THE SCHOOLS
I-lelations between the GBC and the Departments of Education, teachers, etc.,
have already been outlined under 2, in so .far as concerns planning of progr ammes.
In so far as concerns carrying out of programme plans, each broadcast, as
a rule, passes through several stages, viz:a) Planning: done in conjunction with ,educators.
b) Research: done usually (by specialists nominated b y Depártments of
Education, but sometimes done by t8hescri twrjter :himself.
.c)-Scripting:A series of -onferences is Beld 'between CBC representatives,
Departments of Education represcntatives, subject specialists and roFessiond
scriptwriters. These w o r k on the successive drafts repared by t e writcr.
d) Supervision: Scripts are usually approved by bepartment of Education
officials. Sometimes they are referred for opinion on suitability to classroom
teachers, or to such institutions as the Teaching Aids Centre of the Toronto
Board of Education.
e) Production: W h e n passed to the producer, scripts become subject to
ad'ustment in t.he li-ght of technical requirements.
Ufilizdion: This is a matter left to Departments of Education.
g) Evaluation: Conducted jointly by CBC and Departments of Education.
Prom the above, it will be seen that collaboration with teachers and administration takes place at various stages. However:
(i) F e w school teachers can write dramatized script,s, or try to learn
to do so.
(ii) Few teachers or administrators understand the technical re uirements
and complexities of radio. This lack of knowledge vitiates mu& of their
advice about planning, research and scripting.
(CU)Effeetive classroom utilizat.ion of school broadcasts is far from universal.
r:
))
69
(iv) Not enough attention is given to the training of teachers in the classm o m use of radio.
Propaganda a m o n g teachers is carried on at teachers’ conventions, meetings
of Departmental Inspectors, nnd teachers’ s u m m e r courses and week-end
institutes.
Co-ordination
This has been satisfactorily established in our provincial school broadcasts,
which comprise four-fifths of the total. Subjects are planned in close relation
td the requirements of specific grades of pupil.
In national school broadcasts, there is less direct co-ordination, since the
courses of studies followed in the nine provinces differ considerably from
one another.
Generally speaking, school broadcasts aire most listened to in junior grades
of elementary sahool, and least listened to in senior grades of high school.
This is due to curriculum conlgestion in high schools, which leaves little or
no time for radio listening.
Timetable problems always arise in school listening, e.g., broadcasts overlapping with recess periods, etc. W e seek gradually to ”educate” classroom
teachers and school principals to the necessity of making their time-tables
more fleGble, ‘if they are to take full advantage of the facilities offered them.
9. SUITABLE AGES
In Canada, school broadcasts are provided for pupils of all ages i.e.:
Yre-school (Kindergarten)
Grades 1 and 2
tirades 3, 4, and 5
Grades 6 and 7
Grades 7 to 9
Grades 10 to 13
T h e lower grades are able to do more listenin than the upper grades and s h o w
greater response. A large proportion of %roadcasts, however, have been
directed to pupils in Brades 6 to 10 w h o are of an age (eleven onwards) w h e n
dramatized presentation is likely to m a k e its m a x i m u m appeal to lhe imagination.
In the high schools, our most successful series have been dramatizations DI
literature (Shakespeare,the Classics) and presentations of symphony concerts.
10, SCHOOL BFlOADCASTIMG STATISTICS
T h e following figures have refereme to the year 1948.
T h e total number of schools a plying (through the Department of Education)
to the Ministry of Transport (8ttawa) for free receiving licences w a s 4,1355.
There are, however, m a n y schools (including private schools) who listen, but
either use borrowed receivms, or do not take the trouble to apply for free
licences. Therefore, the total number of schools in English-speakind Canada
makin use of school broadcasts should be estimated as at least 6,080.
Tota! number of schools in English-speaking Canada is approximately
23,721. T h e percentage of listening schools is therefore estimated as over
25 per cent.
The number of pupils reached by school broadcasts in 1948 is estimated at
500,000.
11. P U B L I C A T I O N S DESIGNED TO BE USED WITH SCHOOL BROADCASTS
For Teachem
A number of illustrated manuals is published in connection with Canadian
school broadcasts. These are as follows:
a) Published by CBC
(i) Young Canadu Listens -annually, with 52 pages. 40,000 copies we
distributed to teachers. Gives outline of all school broadcasts in Canada and
full detail of national school broadcasts.
(ii) Alartfime School Booklet -published twice a year, with 68 pages.
Gives c o m lete details of the school broadcasts programmes for the three
Mariliny .&ovinces, of Nova Scotia, N e w Brunswick, and Prince E d w a r d
Island. lhis publication is edited by the CBC for the three departments but
it is paid for on a pro rata basis by the lbree departments.
(iii) Radio Coll&ge -"programme-horaire" published annually, 52 pages.
6) Published by Departments of Edircation
(i) R.C. School Broadcasfs Teachers Bulletin -published annually, with
monthly supplements, 68 pages.
(ii)Alberfa Schoo! Broadcasfs -twice a year, 112 pages.
(iii) Young Saskatcheuian Listens -published annually, 110 pages.
(iv) Young Manitoba Listens -published annually, 132 pages.
(u) Ontario School Radio Broadcasts --puhlished annually, I6 pages and
sent to a11 (30,000)teachers in the province.
(ui)Onfario School Music Broadcasts -published annually, with 4 pages.
Most of the above booklets contain inserts in the form of m a p s , charts and
pictures for classroom use. In addition, several of the Departments of Education distribute mimeographed inaterial to teachers, giving. specific advice on
utilization for different subjects, All the above are distributed gratis to
schools registered with the Departments of Education or to teachers genrerally
or to specific groups of teachers.
Radio In Canadian Schools -published by School Aids Publishing Company, (Regina, Saikatchewan), written by "I. A.S. Lambe+ (A guide for
teachers to help thein m a b e use of school broadcasts, and giving the necessary
technical programme and utilization information.)
c) For Pupils
C5C SchooZ Concerts -Story of the Orchestra and instruments. Illustrated
hooklet (16 pages) published by CHC and sold to students at 15 cents per copy.
12. MISCELJANEOUS EiDU CAT60SAI. P ROBLEAIS
a) So far successful co-ordination between school broadcasts in Englishspeaking Canada and the educational broadcasts made available to Frenchspeaking Quebec by Radio Collège, has not been achieved. French-speaking
Quebec is the only part of the Dominion where no school broadcasts are
provided by the Department of Education for elementary or secondary schools.
b) There is a strong d e m a n d a m o n g schools for transcriptions of school
broadcasts to be used Ifor extended study in classrooms. subseqaent to the
broadcast. No effective way has et been found to ineet this d e m a n d because
of union restrictions and technicay and financial difficulties.
c) T h e vast size of Canada and the difficulty of communication and heterogeneity of the population m a k e it difficult to secure complete statistics about
school broadcasting and satisfactory evaluations of the programmes. Solving
this is a matter of timte.
d) Inadequate rates of pay often hamper the commissioning of the best
professional writing talent for school broadca+i. There is a distinct shortage
ckf such talent available.
< "
13. SYSTEMATIC E N Q U I R I E S
T h e educational result obtainled from our school broadcasts are assessed by
the following means:
Q)
CI1
li) Seriodic (visits to classrooms by GBC and Provin&&
Department of
Education representatives, followed by discussion with $romps sf. teachers.
(ii) Programme Reports (usually twice a year) compiled By Wlovincial
Departments of Education from the following sources a) registered liste gin^
schools b) selected school "listening posts" c) Inspectors d) individasi?
teachers.
(iii) Answers from teachcrs to questionnaires sent out by CBC through
Departments of Education. These deal chiefly with the ,form rather than
the content of the broadcasts.
(iv) Wrilten reports prepared 'by each Provincia1 Department of Education
and presented at lhe annual meeting of tbe Xaiional Advisnry Council 011
School Broadcasling.
(u) Correspondence.
b) Enlquiries
In 1946 the Canadian Education Association presentcd to Che special Committee on Radio of the Dominion House of Commons. a detailed report on all
aspects of school broadcasting in Canada. This was prepared jojnily by Dr. C.
E. Phillips (then Secretary of the 'CEA),and Mr. R.S. Lanibert (CBC Supervisor
of School Broadcasts). The report was fully discussed at a session of the
Parlianientary Radio Committee.
Numerous ariicles evaluating school broadcasticg in Canada have appended
in Canadian and U.S.educational journals. Several Ph.D.theses on the subject
have been written for Canadian Universities. Mr. Walter I<rulevi.tc.h{former
Progrnmme Director of Station W H A Wizconsin, and n o w head of the Radio
Division of the University of California) has just completed for #hisPhB. at
N e w York University, a thesis on N:ytionaI School Broa&casting,in Canada.
Special pieces of research into particular aspects of school ,broadcasting
have been made from linle to time by cducational g~onps,e.g. Ontario High
School Inspeciors' Rexearch Committee have published .an investigalion into
School Fteceiring E,quipment,etc. Researeh ilnto subject teachines by radio
(e.g. of the French language) has btcn made by committees of the National
Advisory Council on School Broadcasting '(see question 3).
TECHNICAL CONDlTlONS
14. EQUIP,MENTOF SCHOOLS
WITH RECEIVING SETS
S&ools are not conìycll.edto purc,haseor use receiving sets, aud listening is
a voluntary activi&y at the di.scretionof class kachmers and school principals.
The installation of one or m o r e receivers is at the discretion of the school
principal, rubject to the approval of Ihc local School Board, which is usually
All Depariinents of EducaLion 1 n o w give some form
of grant aid to schools for school broadcasts and lhe iiecessary receiver
inslallalions. Sonietimes this is a percentage grant, someiiinrs :i flat rate grant.
In addition, the Ministry of Transport in Ottawa grants a free w d i o receiviag
license (value, $2.50) to any school applying for it through :a Department of
Education.
Mose of the receivers in use are commercial model.: supplied by leading
radio niannPacturers and designed primarily for home use. In certain cases
(Britixh 'Coluin'biaand Saskatchewan), receivers have Ibecii specially designed
and maaufacturecl for school use. In many of the larger city schools,complete
sound rcccjii ing systems 'have b'een installed (espccially in 'High Schools),
giving reception in 311 classrooms from one centrally situated receiver. However, on the whale. tcachers favour the individual classroom receiver,as being
better adaptcd lo 'thcirneeds.
In early days, whcn school broadcasting in Canada w a s (being dcveloped
during the war period, produclion of receivers wss suspmded, and consequently a large num8berof second-hand or .borrowed receivers were placed in
rcspoiisible for thc COS(.
1. (Except Minitnba.)
fi 2
the sohools, giving mediocre or poor reception. Many of these h a w now been
replaced by a belter type of equipment; however there are still €ar too many
cas'cswhere classrooms are using undersized "mantel" models which do no1
give adequate reception nI music.
Efforts have #beenmade to deal wilh this situation through the dirtri%ution
of leafleis giving technical advice, e.g.,by the Radio IManufacturers Association
of Canada, and the National Fedteration of Home and School Associations.
15. PROBLEMS
CONNECTED W I T H ??AVOURABLE RECEPTION
One of the major problems of Canadian school broadcasting is to achieve
complete coverage in a country which extends over five time zones (see
f'ootnotje to Question 7) and possesses inany outlying settlements not connected
by road or rail with the main centres.
The CBC accepts responsibility for providing coverage of all school
broadcasts to the best of its ability. Studio transcriptions ot programmes arc
supplied for delayed broadcasting in isolated centres, e.g.. ihfrYukon, Northern
British Columbia,Northern Maniloha, Western Alberta, and Northern Quebec.
As a rule, schools receive broadcasts in lhe individual classrooms. However,
in sonie cases, reception takes place in the school auditorium, where several
classes are brought togeth'er. The latter is not regarded as satisfactory by the
U$(;
or the Départments od Education.
Adivice on reception, :ind arrangement of pupils for listening, is given in
CBC's publication "Young Canada Listens" and in the teachers' manuals
published hy the fipartments of Education.
ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
16. FREQUENCY MODULATION
IN SJClHOOLER'OADCASTING
The Minister of Transport in Ottawa has, on the recommendation of the GBC
Board of Governors,reserved a porlion of Lhe E V l W a v e Band for the exclusive
non-commercial use of the educational bodies. A number of applications for
the reservation of frequencies for this purpose have been received and Bled
by tshe Departinent of Transport. Thmese include applications 'from several
Departments of Education and School 1ßoard.s of larger Canadian cities.
However, up to date,no such station has been constructed in Canada.
The advantages offered by FM are:
e) increased freedom from static and isnterference;
bl improved quality of recep!ion (especially of niusic) ;
c) increase in the time available for educational broadcasts.
T h e s c advantagcs ap ear to he of definile use in certain parrs of Ga.nad:r.
especially in southern niario,
. where consideration has already been giveh t.o
the crenfion of a network of educational F'N stations.
However, the fact that the CBC supplie,ssuch extensive facilities for edwcational broadcasting to the ,Departments oif ;Education lends to lessen [!he
incientive of the latter to set up their o w n educational FM stations. Before
they reach this point, a substantial preparatory period is necessary, during
which teachers can be trained more intensively in the use of radio, and Ihr
problems of programme planning worked out.
B
17. TELEVISION IN SCHOOL BHOAlDCASTlNG
Television is not yet in use in connection with Canadian school broadcasts.
Our impression is that it will be a number of years before it is so used on
account of a) the high cost of programming and b) the cost of installing
television receivers.
1. CKUA (Edmonton), a non-commercial station mvned Ly the Alberta Covemment. IX)W
has an F M transmmitter, w e d to duplicate its A M ~nmlssions. However. them is little ih'it
Is distinctively educatlonal about the programmes of C K U A , thoqgh these include the Alberta
school brondcasts.
63
*
O m opinion is that television has great possibilities in school broadcasting
if the abcm handicaps could be overcome. Canada, however, is not a wealthy
country, and it will be hard work to persuade the education authorities to
replace their resent radio receiving equipment by more expeasivse television
equipment. &is applies particularly to the rural areas. However, before
long television can be expected to enter a period of experimentation in the
schools of certain larger cities.
18. I N T E R N A T I O N A L EXGSIANiGES
International exchanges have been for some years a strong feature of Canadian
school broadcasting. They include the following:
a) American School of Lhe Air (CBS). F r o m 1941 to 1948 CBC participated
regularly in programme exchange with C B S through American School of the
Air. This involved CBC broadcasting on Canadian networks selected courses
offered by this school, and per contra, CBC contributing each year a number
of programmes about Canada for inclusion in the School of the Air broadcasts
to be heard in U.S.schools. These exchanges gave us most valuable experience
in reconciling the distinctive educational needs of t w o neighbouring countries.
M a n y problems were encountered and solved. S o m e were left unsolved at the
time w h e n lhe School of the Air w a s terminated by CBS in 1948.
b) Exchanges with Britain. Preliminary attempts to begin exchanges of
broadcasts with the BBC during World W a r II came to nothing on account of
technical difficulties. However, on the demise of the American School of the
Air, and on the initiative of the CBC, a n e w plan of exchange with Britain was
taken u p and resulted in the incorporation of selected BBC school broadcasts
(in transcription form) in the school broadcasts schedule Qf certain provincial
Departments of Education in Canada. Conversely, in the Fall of 1948. the GBC
contributed its first school broadcast about Canada to the BBC School Schedule,
to be heard in the schools of Britain.
c) Exchanges with Australia. For the first time in 1948, the aBC and the
Australian Broadcasting Commission began exchanges of programmes of school
broadcasts.
d) Unifed Nafiom broadcasts. T h e Educational Department of the CBC in
co-operation with the Radio Division of the United Nations (Lake Success) has
roduced a first series of three broadcasts for elementary schools entitled "A
isit to Lake Success". This is a documentary account of a visit paid by an
imaginary school boy fom Ottawa to the Uniled Nations Headquarters. These
programmes were first heard in Eastern Canada in the early part of 1949.
e) Short-wave broadcasts. T h e International Service of the CBC has sent
a number of specially prepared school broadcasts in foreign languages to
countries of Central Europe, Eastern Europe and elsewhere. S o m e of these
have been based on material contained in our National or Provincial School
Broadcasts.
t
19. FD'FURE P L A N S
W e are concentrating on the following:
a) Improving the standards of production of our school ibroadcasts.
b) More long-term planning of future programmes.
c) Clozer correlation of programmes with curriculuni ,meeds.
d) Extension of supplementary :visual aids.
e) More systematic and extended International Exc'hanges.
I
20. In;LFFICULTrES OE' ALL KINDS
T h e chief difficulties encountered are:
n) Lack of funds for employment of adequate personnel.
b) Decentralized basis of Canadian education which makes overall cormlation of school broadcasting in a country of t'his size disfficult.
21. WXIOOLt BROADCASTING IN PROFESSIONAL TRAINItNG
None.
64
/
CHILE
Author of the report:
Senorita Maria 'TeresaFemenias L. Head of the Educational Radio and Filin
Service, Ministry of Education.
1. HISTORY
O n June 1942,by virtue of Decree No. 942,the Ministry of Public Education
introduced educational broadcasting in the Republic of Chile ; an institution
w a s created to this experiment and to conduct it in accordance wilh 'Ihr
educational policies of the Government to serve the specific objectives of
Chilean education.
This organism, callled the Experimental School Broadcasting Service, integrated the group of special institutions designed to test-in a limited field
of action-all those procedures, systems or innovations which, if satisfactory
would be definitely adopted and incorporated into the educational system
of the country. 'Henceits name of "experimental".
The same order which established its creation also specified its objectives,
which may be summed up under three main headings :
The use of radiotelephony and a'll its resources as :
a) an ai,din the technique of teaching for th'ebenefit of Chilean education;
b) a means of raising the cultural level of the people ;
c) a means of technical training of teachers.
W h e n the Experimenta1 School Broadcasting Service was created, the field
of action alaotted to it was limited to elementary teaching.
The introduction of educational broadcasting in Chile was the result of a
plan worked out by the present head of this service, Maria Teresa Femenias
L., and put into effect by Senor Oscar Bustos Aburto, Minister of Education
at the time,w h o issued the Order establishing the Experimental School Broadcasting Service. Education in Chile owes to 'Mr.,Oscar Bustos A. not only
the creation of this service, but its complete technical elaboration,the adoption of n e w and modern ways of teaching, qnd the creation of numerons
schools and institutions using n e w methods, such as the one already mentioned.
1942
Only five people were appointed to this Institution when it m a s founded :
1 directress,
1 secretary-accountant,
2 teacher-script-writers,
1 music teacher.
This small staff had to set in motion a vast undertaking, without economic
resources or working materials.
The Service began by setting up the internal organization of the institution,
establishing rules and creating working procedures.
As an experiment and in order to test the rea'ctionsof a public accustomed
to commercial rogrammes it presented programmes of a historical character
for adults on $e occasion of national holidays in the different countries of
Latin America. For elementary schools special programmes weie prepared,
mainly recreational.
This is h o w the Institution worked during the fi,rst six m ths of its
existence. It was a time of experiment and economic difficultiep' The programmes were broadcast by ,CE130 Radio La Americana and, to cover the
65
5
expenses not only of participating artists but of air-timeitself,the Service w a s
obliged to acce t commercial sponsorship from two large enterprises.
T h e historicaf programmes were well received by the listening public, and
a number of educational institutions immediately proceeded to buy receiving
sets.
1843
In this year, the Service drew up a more co-ordinated plan. It prepared a
rooramme of broadcasts for all elementary-school grades, and chose three
asic subjects for development:
Ist Mother Tongue (Castilian),
2nd Nature Study (Natural Sciences),
3rd Social Education (History and Geography).
It arranged a special programme for Teachers’ Training College and for
teachers already in service. Its ohject was to provide talks which would guide
and improve them professionally, and to keep them regularly informed on
matters of concern to them : specialized training courses, seminars, competitive examinations, publications, appointments, etc.
A publicity campaign was started to encourage schools to procure radio
sets. The Service continued to receive funds from private sources, and it
began to provide specialized training for teachers in the various tasks of
school broadcasting.
The results were encouraging. Schools began to incorporate listening to
educational programmes into their activities, and teachers began to respond
to the new stimulus.
E
1944
The Service continued its work with greater assurance. Its internal organization began to assume a final form after the experience accumulated in the
previous years. The staff of script-writers was enlarged. It formed its o w n
radio teams made up of teachers and advanced students. It received a grant
from the Ministry of Education,and the use of premises which, though small,
allowed it to carry on its activities in a more suitable manner.
It introduced n e w pro ranimes, such as Builders of the Americas, designed
10 extol the great men o? Latin America : statesmen, scientists, intellectuals,
artists, etc. It organized programmes for workers and trade unions, and
started technical training of teachers so that they mi ht get the best out of
school broadcasting. The interest and enthusiasm of teachers and schools
grew, as did the number of schools supplied with radios.
1945
This year marks the beginnin of the Service’s positive achievements. Extending beyond elementary schooqs, it n o w organized programmes for secondary
schools (lyckes). It enlarged its staff and engaged a professional Director
drawn from commercial radio.
The Ministry supplied the Service with office furniture and other equipment
and granted a larger sum of money in its budget, which a1,lowedthe Service
to operate with greater ease. The latter prevailed upon the most important
radio network to broadcast all its programmes without expense to the State ;
this is C.B. 57 and C.E. 1,180,”Radio Sociedad Nacional de Agricultura”,
workin through affiliated stations all over the whole country.
‘The&vice organized administratively and obtained the passage of several
orders, notably one which declared: ”that the reception of its programmas is
compulsory for those institutions having radio sets”.
1946
Its influence continued to expand. It maintained the programmes of previous
years and gained another important sector of listeners : students of industrial
schools, vocational schools, commercial institutes, crafts and trades schools,
etc. It n o w covered all fields of education.
A n artistjc director, a State teacher, w h o spent more than two years in
studies and specialization with the BBC in London, was added to the staff.
The reception of programmes was organized in final form. Collaboration
66
was secured with the most important musical body, the Faculty of Fine Arts,
which furnished interesting and valuable musical programmes for all classes
of people : students, adults, specialists,etc.
The staff in charge of the different programmes was increased, and so was
the Service's grant 111 the national budget.
1947-1948
In these years. the Service attained to full maturity. It was given large,
comfortahle and up-to-datepremises, from which all its programnies are now
broadcast. There are a well-equipped control-room,recording-room,studies,
rehearsal-room, records-lib'rary,offices for script-writers, administrative
offices, etc.
A modern set of RCA Victor studio equipment was purchased in the United
States of America by the Ministry of E,ducation.
The staff w a s n o w enough to cope, without difficulty, with all the different
activities ; it included programme engineers, producers, records librarians,
artistic directors, adult and child broadcasters, etc.
Its work was carried out scientifically. It organized thorough controls and
checks of its work through :
a) Liaison teachers for the technical training and supervision 0f the work
of teachers in the schools.
6) Control cards.
c) Technical councils and seminars.
d) Statistical charts.
Educational institutions continucd to acquire radio sets. The authorities
gave unqualified official support. The Service w o n the respect not only of
the schools hy its essentially educational work and unquestionable eontribution to the role of the teacher, but throughout the counlry by the character
and qualiby of its programmes.
A further achievement of these years was the edncational cinema. Through
agreements with lhe Fi,lmDivision of the Embassy of the United States of
America, the use of films, film strips and slidcs as teaching material was
introduced as the result of a well-organized eflort. In this way, the Service
became responsible for the use of educational radio and film.
1949 :
In 1949 the whole structure w.as completed. By a Decree-Law of May, the
Experiinental Schoo'lBroadcasting Service and the Institute of Educational
Films w e r e merged, and there was formed the Educational Radio and Film
Service as a department of the Ministry of Education.
The period of experimentation was over and lhe organization had n o w
evolved into a service that controls all aspects of teaching by radio and film.
The staff needed for the proper discharge of its n e w responsibilities was
added, and all necessary working e'quipmentacquired.
SUPERVISION A N D CONTROL
2. RELNTIONS BETWEEN THE STATE AND THE R A D I O ORGANIZATIONS
a) As previously noted in No. 1 of this report, school broadcasting in Chile is
organized by the State.
b) Constant care is taken lest the educational value of work be lessened,
and so that it m a y develop on a high artistic level, and that educational radio
as well as educational film m a y be utiaized to their fullest by teachers, and
its benefits reach the greatest number of the school population.
c) The Educational Radio and Film Service plans its work and field of
action in accordance with directives from the Administrative Technical
Council, made up as foPows :
1. Head of service.
2. Artistic director.
-
67
.
,
3. Educational advisor for elementary education and teachers’ training.
4. Educational advisor for secondary education.
5. Educational advisor for special educaticm (vocational and industrial).
AU agreements, plans, projects and solutions to various problems studied
by the Administrative Technical CounciI concerning radio and film are submitted for consideration to the {Ministry of Education, which, on accepting
them,converts them into Regulations, administrative orders, laws, etc. governing ,radio and film for the nation’s schools.
3. REGULATIONS CONCERNING SC€TOOL BROADCASTING
Answered under 2 (c) above.
MANAGEMENT A N D BUDGET
4. ADMINISTRATIVE STRUCTURE
T h e Service is organized in four large sections. Each section has its specific
functions and we1.l defined responsibilities and the staff necessary to carry
out its activities.
A n organizational chart is given below : .
STAFF
SECTION
DUTIES
GENERALSECRETARIAT Adniinistrative in nature :
Administrafive
Accountant
Typists
Maintenance
Chauffeur
ED U CATIO NAL
Responsible for the educational
nuidance of the work of the
Service in its respective fields.
Elementary teaching Direct collaborators with the Head.
Secondary teaching
Members of the Administrative.
Vocational or special
Technical Council.
teaching
Script-writers
Preparation of scripts and scenaScenario-writers
rios or film commentaries. T h e
scri t writers carry on their
w o r g -as follows :
Q) Working out for the entire
school year of the programme of
broadcasts for respective grades
based on syllabi and consulting the interests of schools and
teachers.
t’) Through documentation.
c) Scripting of programmes.
d) Supervision of interpretations
given by the artistics directors.
Special professor of Responsibility for all musical promusic and singing
grammes broadcast.
Development of the radio choral
classes.
Supervision of musical accompaniments to scripts.
Training and conducting of choral
group s.
ADVISORS IN THE FIELD
OF :
Y,*/
Rudio
68
Secretariat. Archives. Inventories. Purchases and stores. Care
of premises, u p keep of instalations. etc.
I
Rudio
DUTIES
STAFF
SECTION,
'rogramme engineers Responsibility for technical quality and sound of broadcasts.
and producers
Production of the scripts.
Upkeep and handling of the reiecords librarian
cords library.
Care of the service of recordings
for schools.
icting teams of adults Participation in the different
broadcasts and prograinines of
and children
the Service.
In charge of the technical training
Liaison teachers
of staff for the use and improvement of school broadcasting.
In char e of statistical control in
the sc 001s.
Links between the Service and all
educational institutions under its
charge. These are the staff
members w h o have the inost responsible duties, as they have to
carry out an intense campaign
to get schools to acquire .radios,
instruct the teachers in the
handling of the t w o techniques,
and receive criticisms, observations and suggestions by the
teachers on the work of the Service.
The work of the Liaison teachers
applies to radio and film equally.
a
-
Film
EDCCATIONAL
ADVISOR Responsible for the educational
value of the material filmed, as
well as for the w a y the educational film is used in schools.
Programme arrangers In charge of arranging film proand film librarians
grammes in the schools.
Responsible for the upkeep and
circulation of the film library.
Operators
In charge of the projection of
films in the schools.
Draughtsmen
All work connected with their
speciality :. fraphs, statistical
charts, filmtit es, etc.
Cameramen
Photographers
'Technicalexperts in filming.
Mechanics
Electricians
The same staff engag- This section was formed this year
ed in other activi- and is in the organizational
ties Lin the pre- stage. Its urpose is to collaboSchool Decoration viously .mentioned rate with exuucational institutions
sections are used : concerning their decoration and
draughtsmen,photo- to furnish material to guide them
graphers. etc.
in drawing. art work. etc.
5. Personnel
a) There is one fundamental difference between the school broadcasting and
1
69
general radio personnel, namely, that the staff engaged in school broadcasting,
must have pursued higher studies and possess professional titles, such as
training college teachers or State teachers, specializing in addition, in radio
and film techniques.
b) The entire staff of the Educational Radio and Film Service work on
a full-time basis, that is, they devote all their time to the activities of ‘the
Service. As they are teachers a pointed by the Government, their work is
permanent. Before entering the {ervice, they must take specialization courses
given by the Service. W h e n a vacancy is expected, a competitive examination
covering the candidate’s background and knowledge is held, selection being
made of the best qualified candidates.
The only persons not appointed by the Government but engaged by the
Service, and w h o work on a temporary basis, are actors and artists. They
generally belong to ’other cultural institutions. T h e Service prefers to engage
artists belonging to the Experimental Theatre of the University of Chile, as
they are of recognized quality and possess a broad culture and artistic training.
c) As explained above, a team of professional actors is used to broadcast
Lhe programmes.
Nevertheless, an attempt has been made this year to use the same staff of
teachers as actors in order to effect economies under this heading, since the
fees for professional broadcasters are a heavy expense. Some teachers proved
successful as actors,but not all of them have the natural bent for this work,
so that it w
ill still be necessary to engage artists.
6. Finances
The Service is financed in two ways :
H y its o w n revenues : through contributions from institutions having
relations with school activities, such as the ”Educational Establishments
Building Society” and the ”Nitional Saving Fund”, in exchange for educational campaigns which the Service carries out in its radio classes, though
without their becoming commercial broadcasts. These campaigns are conducted by the teacher script-writers discreetly so as not to impair either ‘the
educational value or the artistic qualities of broadcasts.
This source of income is neither permanent nor fixed, and depends on the
economic conditions within the co-operating institutions.
By state funds :each year the Ministry of Education earmarks certain funds
in the General budget for the Service ; the sum is not always the same. It
general7y amounts to 150,000 Chilean pesos, out of which the following expenses inust be met :
1. Payment of artists’ and actors’ fees.
2. Purchase of materials and working equipment.
3. Purchase of recordings and blank discs.
4. Upkeep of apparatus and installations.
This amount is small and limits the activities of the Service. Fortunately,
items which would represent the biggest outlay,such as staff salaries and airtime, have been met in the following way :
1. ‘The staff‘s salaries are paid by the State, as staff is composed entirely
of teachers.
2. Air-time is granted without cost by the ”Radio Sociedad Nacional de
Agricultura”. It is only fair to underline this gesture on the part of this
Station, for all broadcasting in Chile is essentially commercial.
EDUCATIONAL ASPECTS OF SCHOOL BROADCASTS
7. T E A C H I N G MET€€ODS AND SUBJECTS
or) Since the Educational Radio and Film Servicc is controlled by the Ministry
of Education, it has to use the same official methods, base its work on the
syllabi in force, and shape it Lo the methods recommended by higher tcchnical
bodies.
70
b) School broadcasts in Chile cover all topics or subjects, from choral
singing to philosophy.
From our experience, the suQects lending themselves best to radio are :
history and geography, natural sciences, mother tongue (Castilian), music and
Si"c%e
radio classes have three main parts, which may be indicated
broadly as :
1. Purpose or Introduction.
2. Fundamental theme or subject to he presented.
3. Synthesis and mem<orizationof subject dealt with.
Agreeableness and variety in the treatment of their subjects are left to the
creative powers of the teacher-script-writers. No script is therefore repeated.
The authors must be permanent inventors so that the radio class shall always
be original, novel and interesting to upils and teachers.
The technique most often used is tEat of dramatization, especially in broadcasts for elementary and secondary schools. In broadcasts for students in
the schools of advanced learning use is made of interviews, round-table discussions,forums, etc.
d) After many trials the conclusion has been reached that a radio class
should last 3.0 minutes. In this way it fits into the work plan of the Service,
constitutes an effective help to the teacher and does not tire the pupil
listeners.
The most favourable listening times are during school hours, as the broadcasts are listened to in the classroom. This is the present time-table of the
Service :
Ist Grade, Elementary schools.
Monday
: 11.0 -11.30
,I
4.0
3.30
Commercial institutes ànd technical
4.30
5.0
schools.
Secondary schools.
Tuesday
: 11.0 -11.30
Secondary school teachers.
4.0
3.30
Homes and parents.
5.0
4.30
2nd
Grade, Elementary schools.
Wednesday : 11.0 -11.30
,>
4.0
3.30
Elementary school teachers.
5.0
4.30
Secondary schools.
Thursday : 11.0 -11.30
Homes and parents.
4:30 - 5.0
3rd Grade, Elementary
schools.
Friday
: 11.0 -11.30
,
3.30 - 4.0
Industral schools.
4.30 - 5.0
Vocational schools and occupational
Saturday
: 11.0 -11.30
guidance.
Sunday
: Y p.ni. Y.30 p.m. €or General public.
-
9
>I
-
9,
,J
9,
9,
,9
9
99
-
8. 'CO-OPERATIONOF THE R A D I O AND T'HE SCHOOLS
a) Under administrative arrangements made by the Ministry of Education
thro4gh decrees, circulars,resolutions,etc. it is compulsory for schools having
their o w n radios or sets loaned to them to listen to educational programmes.
This system works efficiently.
In order to carry out this work in the best w a the Educational Radio and
Film Service is requested to solve all problems tzat arise ; and in collaboration with the Higher Training College it holds courses to train the staff for
the most advantaqous use of school broadcasting.
b) School broa&asting must be adapted to the rules and syllabi laid down
by the technical 'educationalbodies.
c) School broadcasts are part of the school syllabus. Listening ta these
broadcasts is strictly controlled by a system of control cards which have
to be filled in by the teachers. The effectiveness of these cards is confirmed
by the liaison teachers.
Cards are filled in after each broadcast, thereby constituting not only
.
71
permanent control over the number of listeners, but over the work of the
Service itself, since the cards ask teachers their opinions on the fdlo~ing
points :
1. Educational content of broadcast.
2. Method of conducting the class.
3. Artistic quality.
4. Technical quality.
O n these same cards the teachers record suggestions and criticisms, which
afford the Service a permanent means of correcting and improving its work.
In addition, after each Radio class the students practise such work ns
sketches, cutting, clay modelling, composition, etc.
At the end of the school year exhibitions are heId showing the work doiir
b students of the educational radio and film. ,Theseexhibitions afford nieans
of appreciating not only the number of schooIs and pupils that listen to the
broadcasts, but also the way in which the radio and film are received 111
children and the inipressions they make.
9.SUITABLE AGES
7 to 12, Elementary school pupils.
13 to 18, Secondary school pupils.
15 to 21, Girl’s technical schools, coinniercial institutes, industrial schools.
The pupils of these three age-groups benefit from and are interested in
these programmes because they are made to suit the pupils’ respective interests.
10. SCHOOL BROADCASTING STATISTICS
Out of a total of 4,799 schools, 820 are at present eqnipped with receiving
sets.
This figure is only for schools owning radio sets. -4number of schools use
radios belonging lo teachers or pupils.
Although the number of institutions having their o w n sets s e e m s small,
the number of pupil listeners is considerable, as a set is used to its fullest
and serves at least four institutions. This system has been sought because
the (Statefurnishes neither resources nor means for the purchase of radios.
Despite their high cost, for they are not duty-free,it is for the schools io
purchase them.
11. PUBLICATIONS DESIGNED TO BE USEiD U’IiTH SCHOOL B R O A D C A S T S
The Ministry of Education publishes annually a time-table of programmes to
be broadcast, which contains,in addition,practical suggestions and inrlicationv
to teachers for the best use of school broadcasts.
It also sends,each year, circulars of a similar nature.
It has not been possible to issue fuller publications, owing to the high
cost of paper and printing.
12. &fISICELLANWUS I D U C A T F O N A L PROBLEMS
The problems mentioned in question 12 of the questionnaire do not arise in
Chile, as official teaching is the same throiighou€ the country and there is
unity of race and language.
BROADCASTS
13. SYSTEMATIC ENQ’UIRIES ON SlCI-I~OOL
Teachers have at their disposal a powerful aid fhnt makes their work more
eompletc and more enjoyable.
It contributes to better discipline because radiotelephony, with all its
resources, exercises a positive infinence on the child.
52
It brings about a better coinniand of language and coriiributes to ease of
expression, better understanding of subjects and more interest in them, development of artistic feeling and opportunities for specially gifted children.
Systematic enquiries are carried out by means of the control cards referred
to above. Answers and results have so far been positive. The principal
network in the country provides school broadcasting gratis with the air-time
it needs for the transmission of its programmes,and provides all the technical
elements that help to make its work .more efiicient. Teachers use the radio
more and more as a complement to their work, and to the pupils not to listen
to the programmes constitutes a punishment.
No survey has yet been made to determine lo what estent the expenditure
on school broadcasting is justified by results.
TECHNICAL CONDITIONS
14. EQUIPMEXT OF SCHOOLS WITH RECEIVING SETS
The types of sets used in the schools are long-wave and short-wave sets, A.C.D-C.and, in the country districts, battery-sets. Makes : RCA Victor, Philips,
Philco.
15. PROBLWS CONNECTED WITH FAVOURABLE RECEPTION
Listening conditions are not always favourable and depend
V~P.~QUS
€actors,namely :
1. Mountainous territory unfavourable to reception, although transmitters
m a y be good and a directional antenna used. The topography of South
.4merica, especially of the countries within the cordillera of the Andes, is
extremely broken and renders good reception impossible.
2. Poor acoustics of school buildings.
3. Mediocre quality of many radio sets. Wheir high cost makes it impossible to acquire the best sets,
b) In school buildings where acoustic wnditions are poor, the room
offering the greatest possibilities for good listening is used. In others, programmes are listened to in each room. Gentral sound systems have been
installed in modern buildings constructed in the past five or six years, arrangements having been made with the ”Educational Establishments Building
Society” to provide the necessary installations for radio and film when the
construction of a n e w building is contemplated. This Society is furnishing
the country with magnificent buildings for educational institutions.
c) Teachers have to see to it that programmes are listened to, in aecordance with instructions given, in such a way that the pupil becomes a good
listener and grasps all the details of the radio class, i.e. :
1. Undivided attention aiid complete silence.
2. Freedom for pupils to listen in comfort and in keeping with their
listening habits. The rigid posture of traditional discipline is proseri’bed,
as it interferes with the desire to listen.
3. Practice, during the broadcast, in taking notes, making sketches,pointing
out places on the map, etc.
Before each class,teachers are advised of materials asd other aids necessary
to complement the broadcast. In this w a y teachers and pupils become active
listeners, working in conjunction with the lesson broadcast.
d) Advice to schools is continually given through precise instructions CQPtained in the programmes of broadcasts, circulars, and through the liaiscn
leachers, w h o are the agents of the Service in permanent contact .*sith the
schools.
CI)
73
ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
16. FREQUENCY NODULATTON I N SCtHOOLBROADCASTING
F.M.is used, resulting in clear, good quality, static-freebroadcasts.
17. TELEVISION IN SCHOOL BROADCASTING
Television is not used.
18. INTERNATIONAL EXCHANGES
The Educational Radio Service of Chile maintains an exchange with BBC of
London. BBC furnishes numerous recorded programmes dealing with differ~
ent school subjects, and in return receives scripts dealing with South American topics.
A fundamental purpose of the Service has been the exchange of staff for
additional training.
Plans are n c w under way for an exchange of programmes with the School
Broadcasting Service of Brazil, the only other South American country with
an organized Service.
19. FUTURE PLANS
The plan for reshaping and extending the Service was put into effect in
May, 1949, organized in the form given in detail, in the answer to question
4 above.
20. DIFFICULTIES OF ALL KINDS
The setting up of educational broadcasting in Chile has been an effort not
Iacking in daring, since it has been faced with the greatest of all stumbling
blocks-economic stringency. The difficulties may be summed up as follows:
a) Lack of a permanent place in the national budget.
b) Shortage of radio sets in the schools due to high duties, which makes
it impossible for schools to buy sets.
c) Lack of its o w n broadcasting station.
21. SCHOOL BROADCASTING ANI) PROFESSIONAL TRAINING
There are special broadcasts for students of the Department of vocational and
special training. The listen to two programmes a week in their respective
institutions with satisLCtory results,the topics dealt with being always based
on the particular interest of this student group.
74
GREAT BRITAIN
Authors of the report :
Answers supplied jointly by the British Broadcasting Corporation and the
School Broadcasting Council for the United Kingdom.
1. H I S T O R Y
1Y22
Regular broadcasting in Great Britain began in November, 1922. The service
was operated by the British Broadcasting Company. Shortly afterwards a
committee was formed to advise upon, and watch the progress of, educational
broadcasting.
19.24
An experimental seriles of school broadcasts was given in the Summer
Term of 1924. This w a s followed in the Autumn Term by a regular service
directed by the late Mr. J. C. Stobart w h o was seconded from the then Board
o€ Education.
1926
By June, 192'6 the broadcasts had already so established themselves that it
was felt possibl'e to conduct a definite experiment into the use of School
Broadcasting 'and a y~ear's experiment was conducted in Kent schools by the
lient Education Committee and the BBC in co-operation. This investigation
was linanced by the Carnegie Trustees w h o published th'eir conclusions in
"Educational Broadcasting: Report of a Special Investigation in the County
of lient".
1Y27
In 1927 the British Emadcasting Company w a s replaced by the British Broadcasting Corporation, a public corporation operating under a Royal Charter.
In the same year the report on the [Kent experiment showed that School
Broadcasting had come to stay and the Advisory Committee appointed by
tbc British Broadcasting Cocporation voluntaril resigned in order to facilitate
the establishment of a #CentralCouncil for Sc!~ool
Broadcasting.
1929
This Council w a s set up in 1929 to advise the BBClboth on contemporary
educational policy and on the detail of educational practice, and to secure
the recognition of scKool broadcasting by teachers as an activity
and recommiend'edby a qualified educational body. The Dkector of chool
Broadcasts (,MissNary ,Somerville,O.'B:E.), %'ho had hitherto been responsihle
for school programmes under tfïe Corporation's Director of Education (Mr.J.
C. Stobart), was appointed Secretary of the n e w Council as well as Director
of School Broadcasts.
1935
In 1Y35 the Report of the Broadcasting Committee to ,Parliament(the Ulswater
Committee: 'Cmd.5091), officially expressed satisfaction ;as to the value of
school broadcasts and hoped that in time every school would have wireless
apparatus.
Shortly afterwards an attempt was made to give the Council the status of
R public educational body independant of the BBC with a separate professional
secretariat. T h e BBC continued to pay for the work of the Council. The
lbirector of School Broadcasts resigned the Secretaryship in order to devote
more time to programme planning and production and a n e w ,Secretary
w a s appointed (Mr.A.C. Cameron, M.C., 1935-1945,Mr. R.N. Armfelt, 1945-).
Pded
75
,
-
,
I
.
,-
. .
The War Yeurs
The school broadcasting service continuxl without inlerruption throughout
the war.. The scope of the programme ,wasenlarged,its nature was modified
as a result of practical problems {evacuation of schools and of broadcasting
staE and paper shortage) created by the mar and the us'e which schools niade
of the service also increased.
l'he Pod-war Period
At the end of t,hew a r the ICoiiicil conducted reviews of programme policy ant1
of organization to see in What w.aysthe programmes should be developed and .
what organization w a s required in the post-warperiod. At the same time the
BBC reviewed the needs of its 1School 'BroadcastingDepartment and considered
h o w lo sírengthen and improve the service.
1947
As a result of these reviews the Central Council for Sohool ,Broad'casting
resigned and the School Broadcasting Council for the United Kingdom took
its place. At the same time there were considerable changes in the Council's
organization and methods of working and a substantial increase in its staff.
Concurrently there w a s a considerable expansion of t'lie staff of the'School
Broadcasting Department. Miss Mary SomerviHe resighed froin the post of
Director of School IBroadcastiiiig in $pril and was prom,otedAssistant Controller of Ta'lks Division: she w a s succeeded by NY.Richmond Postgate.
SUPfRVlStON AND CONTROL
2. REIMrIQNS BETWEEN THE S T A T E AND THE RADIO ORGANIZATIOKS
a} ,Schoolbroadcasting in the United 'Kingdom is organized by the British
Broadcasting #Corporation,which is the only body licensed by the Poslmaster-General to carry on a broadcasting service. T'he'Corporationis guided
by the School I3roadcastin Council which stands sponsor 1 for this service vis&vis thle educational worfd.
School broadcasting is not subject to the supervision of the #Government,the
Ministry of Education or any other pulblic authority.
In this, school broadcasting is no different from teaching in general in this
country. Neither the Ministry of Education nor the local (EducationAÚthQritiec
prescribe the curricula or teaching methods of schools.
b) The ,Ministryof (Education niid the various {LocalIEducation Authorities
play no direct part in school broadcasting, i.e. in the preparation and production of programmes. The !B&C js alone responsible for what is broadcast.
Hmever, tlhese !Bodieshaye a nuniber of representatives in tlw School 'Broadcasting Council for the United Kingdom and the influence which they have on
the Serrice in tihis w a y w
ill ,be evident from the description of that Council's
work.
c) There are,tchree 'SchoolBroadcasting (Councils
: t'heSchool Broadcasting
Councils for the United 'Kingdoni,for Scotland and for Wales. In Scotland and
Wales the difference of national trad'ition and culture, of educational s stems
and of speech or lan,ouage,make it iiecessary to have separate 6choo11&roadcasting Councils w h g h provide special links with schools in Scotland and
Wales and make recominendations to the United Kingdom,Council concerning
the needs of those schools. Some inendbers are appointed by txhe Ministry of
Education, 'some by associations of Local Bducation Authorities and other
major professional and educational associations in EngBand and Northern
Ireland, some by the School IBroadcasting Councils for Scotland and Wales,
and sonie by the :BB'C
after consultation w
ith the Council. The inembxs nf
the Councils are not remunerated.
The Councils have [Programme Subcommittees o n which m a n y practising
teachers serve.
1. B y "sponsor" in this a n d obher documents w e i10 not imply that these broadclrsts are
5ponsored in the sen:e that in, some countries brodcasts are sponsored IF- cemmercial
interests.
76
The Council's principal duties are to guide the l3BC in the n-orision of a
service of broadcast programmes for schools in the United IKingAom and literature published by the Corporation thereon, and to stand sponsor for this
wrvice vis-ù-vis the educational world. The Council studies educational practice and trends in t h e schools and cousiders i n what ways the education which
they provide can be sided Iby school 'broadcasts;it formulates the general educational policy and determines the general aini and scope of the series of
broadcasts which it asks the BBC to provide; it considers plans for these series
and assesses evidence o n the suita'bilitg of the broadcasts; it conducts and
promotes research, issue? publications and assists generally in the developinent
of school broadcasting.
mm-rBTrA;2~rc"COXCESFWING SOHOOL B~ROA~DGASTING
indicated in 2 b) the Ministry of Education and the various Local Edncation Authorities cxercise no control over school broadcasting. There are,
therefore, no laws or administrative decrees relating to it.
3.
A5
MANAGEMENT A N D BUDGET
There are two separate departments concerned more or less exclusively with
school hroadcasling:the ,SchoolBroadcasting Departnient of the Talks Division
and the B~choolBroadcastin'gCouncil.
IDwcriptions and statistics given tbelotv wi'll
-beconfined to those two #Departments. No account will be taken of the services rendered b other departments
of the HBC; for example, by-the Programnie !ContractanJ 'CopyrightDepartments responsible to the Director of 'Home \Broadcasting;by most of 6hc
Engineering IDepartriients responsible to the 'Director of Technical Servi,ceS;
aiid by 'all the Departments responsible to the {Director of Administration.
Without the services provided py these ceiitral departtnents soh001 broa+
casìing would not be possible. l'liey are, so to speak. the overhead costs of
lhe SOhOOl Broadcasting tServi,ce. The I w u Departments esclusively concerned
with school broadcasting are organized as follows:
ci) School Broadcasting Department
This ;isdirected by the Head of School Broadcasting (since 1947 Air. Hicliiiiond
Postgate) wjio is responsible to the controller of Talks Division. T h e
Department is divided into four groups, viz:Directorate,Produwrs, Programme assistants and administration.
(i) DIRECTORATE
This is composed of the Head of School Broadcasting and two Assistant
Heads [one of w h o m is his deputy). Their functions a m to direct the
planning, execution and criticism, of the broadcast programnies and
s ~ p p ~ l - l i n gllblications
g
and, in general, to secure that the Department
maintains the standards rcquired by thc 1BBC and adheres to 6he cdtr8?ational
policy approved by the Council.
(fi) PROGUMME
ASSISTANTS
Of these there.are 23. Some arc responsible for a single series of programmes and its accompanyin literature while others are responsibIe for
two. Sometimes two or three 8 r o g r a m m e Assistants m a y form a temporarjunit far the purpose of planning and executing some n e w programme idea
which is more than usually difcficultor exacting. The majority of the
Programme Assistants are recruPted froni the teaching profession and are
for the most part specialists in one or more subjects. The function of tllis
group includes preparing plans for serieS.of broadcasts in fulfilment of the
educational commission provided by the School Broadbasting Council,
finding hroadcasters and scriptwriters,editing scripts,training and rehearsal
.
.
.
77
of broadcasters, writing ancillary literature and devising illnstrative
material, attendance at productions o4 broadcasts, visits to schools, preparation of programme proposals for and attendance at meetings of the Council's
Programnie Sub-Committees, co-operation with the staff of the Council and
outside bodies and other activities.
(Si)PRODUCERS
This consists of a Senior Producer and six producers of dramatized
programmes (five of w h o m are also scriptwriters; the sixth is also an
actor). Thieir function is the casting, rehearsal and studio production of
all the dramatized and of certain other programmes. The scripts of these
programmes are written ancl edited under the supervision of thc various
Programme Assistants.
(¿u) ADMINISTRATION
This unit of three is responsible for all the normal routine administration
of a programme output department, thc co-ordination and progressing of
the l)eparlnient's activities in programme planning and the preparation of
publications and lhe provision of internal and external facilities of all sorts.
( U ) SECRETARIES.
T h e four groups described above (comprised of 36 persons) are serviced
by 2b secretaries and clerks.
SCOTLANDAND WALES
In Scotland and Wales the organizatiun is not so 'elaborate but there are
small units doing the sanie kind of work as is done by the School Broadcasting 'Department in London.
Scof[cmnd.-The Head of Scottish School ,Broadcasting combines this office
with the Secretarydhip of t.he School IBroadeasting Council for lScotlandand
is aided 1b.y an Assistant 'Head,w h o is also Assistant Secretary, and an administrative unit of two whicth similarly works for the Council as well. There
are in addition six Programme Assistants some of w h o m are also producers
of dramatized p.rogrammes.
WaEes.-The Senior Schools Assistant for Wales is also the Secretary of
the School Brondcasting council for Wales and is assisted b y three Progranme
Assistants.
b) school Broadcastiirg CoiIncil
(i) ,C,OUNCIL.
The School Broadcasting ,Council for the United Kingdom consists of
about fifty members. The full Ccvncil meets tw'icea year to receive reports
(from its Executive ,Committee,froin the School Broadcastino Councils for
Scotland and Wales and to transact other business with wh:ch
it is competent to deal under the Constitution.
(iC) ZXECUTIVE
COMMITTEE.
The Council has appointed an Esecutive C,omrnittecof eighteen members
to w h o m it has delegated the power of conductin,g,within the limits of
policies determined by the \Council,such business as is necessary to discharge the responsibilities placed on the (Councilin the C'onstitution. This
*Committeemeets more frequently than the {Council,norinally three,or four
times a year.
(iii) FINANCE
AN'D STAFF
SUB-'COYMITDEE
The Executive )Committee has appointed a number of Subcommittees.
First there is a small Finance and Staff Sub-committee to direct the Secretary of the Council in the discharge of his responsibilities as the Head of a
BBC establishment. As will be seen from the 'Constitution,the %ho01 Broadcasting Council is a separat'eBBC establishment which means that, within
certain limits, the (Councilcontrols the espenditure on its work and the
staff engaged thereon.
(iu) PROGRAMME
SUB-'COMMITTEES
There are five Programme Sub-Committees each responsible to the Execu-
78
tive Committee for S'chooliRroadcasi-sintended for children of a particular
age range. The Sub-Committeesare :
Primary I
........ 5- 7 years
(PriniaryBI
........ 7-11 years
........ 11-13 years,
Secondary I
Secondary I'I ........ 13-15 years
. . over 1;5years
Secondary 111
In discharging their respondbilities the Sub-Committeesarc by their ternis
of ref,zrenceobliged to:
(1) iCoiisider in what ways the education which is provided in the United
Kingdom €or children of this a,gemay b e aided by school broadcasts.
2) Ma.lte recoinmendations as to the provision of school broadcasts aiid
accom.panyingliterature for children of this age.
3) %lake recommendations as to the general aims and scope of the
several series of School Broadcasts and of the accompanying literalure which
the SdbG'ommitteerecommend under (2).
4) Consider plans submitted by lhe BBIC,to implement the policy of the
Council for series of school broadcasts and accompanying literature for
children of this age and recommend the adoption or amendment of these
plans or their rejection if they do not accord with the 'Council's policy.
The Councils for ,Scotlandand Wales are organizied on similar lines -&hongh
the precise organization is different in each case 'because of the different
responsibilities and powers granted to these Councils under the Constitution.
(u)ORGANIZATION
IN REIATIOS TO PROGRAMME
PLANNING
The organization for preparing the School Broadcasting ProNgram,meworks
as follows: In 8O.ctoberof ea,chyear the Programme Sub-Committees make
recommendations as to the series of school broadcasts to be provided for
their age range in the next school year (i.e. starting in the following 6eptember). 'In making these recommendations the Sub-committees lay down
the e.ducationa1 aim of each series in what is called a Commission. In
November the Executive Committee of the United Kingdom ,Councilconsiders
the reconimend,ationsof the five Programme Sub4ommittees and of the
School Broadcasting Councils for Scotland and Wales in respect of broadcast series intended for schools in Scotland and Wales only.
,Havingreviewed all the recommendations the,Executive Committee makes
a request to the BBC to provide facilities for such of the recommended
programmes as the #Committeedecides to ask for, and in making this request
the Committee notifies tmhe BBC of the educational policy Which it wishes to
be followed in each series. In Decemlhr the BBC considers to what extent
it is able to meet the Council's request, and,when the Corporation's decisions
have been made, the School Broadcasting Department prepares Programme
Proposals to carry out the NC,ouncil's .Commissionsfor the approved se ries^
T'hese plans are considered by the five Programme S'ub-'Committeesin
February w,hen they have to say diether .the proposals for each series
conform to the Commission.
)(lui)STAFF
The Secretary i(iMr. R.IN.
Armfelt) is the 'Council's Chief Executive Oldicer.
H e has two principal assistants w h o respectively direct the professional and
administralive sides of the work.
Profession,al.-The Senior Education Officer directs the professional 'work
of the 'Councilincluding the work of fourteen Education officers working in
different parts of the United Kingdom. At the Council's headquarters he has
a deputy and two assistants: one specializing on the organization of the
Council's research work, the other on maintaining an index of all 1,he evidence on school broadcasting coming to the Council and on maintaining the
panels of reporthg teachers.
Administnati;ve.-Tihe Admin'istrativeAssistant, with the maid of three assistants, is responsible 'for all the administrative work of the Council, including
staff administration, control ,of expenditure, the progressing of publications
intended for teachers, 'Committeework for meetings of the Council, the E=cutive Committee,its Sub-committees and od hoc conferences,publicity, the
administrative wo& involve,d in Summer S~hoolsand similar courses, the
79
maintenance of the CounciYs Segister of Listening Schools and the direction
of the work or a 'group of ten Education Engineers.
Education Offiqevs.-There
are at present fourteen Education Officers
working under direction from the council's headquarters. In England there
is one for each of the ten divisions into which the Inspectorate of the gdiRiStrv
of Education is divided. There are two each in Scotland and Wales and they,
in addition to work on central assignments, do work on the broadcasts
intended €or schools in 'Scotland and Wales only.
Scotland und Wules.-In Scotland the secretariat of the School Broadcasting
Couneil for Scotland consists of the Secretary, the Assistant Secretary and two
administrative staff all of w h o m , as explained above. are also concerned with
work an the programme. Similarly, the School Broadcasting Council for
Wales has a Secretary Who is also the #SeniorSchools Aysistant responsible
for broadcasts to schools in Wales only.
5. PmSOiVN'EL
u) The personnel IeinpIoyed in school broadcasting is not separate from tlie
general radio personnel in that all are employed [by the :BX. ,It is separate
only in so far as it works in two separate departments which are almost
exclusively concerned with broadcasts to sclhools and hi ch are making a
professionaI contrifbutionto an estdblished professional social service. They
have frequent contact with colleagues employed in other branches of broadcasting.
b) Throughout the United Kingdom there are 141 people engaged )fulltime in
schooI broadcastinlo itincluding the work of the School Broadcasting Councils).
The functions of t\e DkctoriaI,Professional and Administrative staffs have
been described under 4, and most of these have tbeen recruited from the
teaching profession. The remainder are secretarial and clerical staff; they are
permanently enga'ged.
It is not possible to say how many are e.ngamged part time. Scriptwriters,
actors,musicians an$ others are engalged under various 'fornisof contract: some
ad hoc for a particular broadcast, others under longer term contracts. In
addition,as explained under 4,staff in a 'greatvariety of ot,herdepartments of
t h e IBBCspend some of their time on work necessary to the School 1Broadcasting service.
c) The general policy of the FBC is to reduce to a minimum the extent to
which staff contribute to programmes as scriptwriters or broadcasters. Thus
a smaIl proportion of the scripts used in school broadcasting is written by
members of the staff; the remainder are commissioned from outside scriptwriters. The amount of editing a script receives before it reaches its final
form depends oir t,he degree of expertise. of the scriptwriter. As explained
above, the editing of the script is done by tlie staff of the School Broadcasting
Department. .
ISmilarly,few members of the staff fb,roadcast.
6.FWANCES
School broadcasts are lfinanced by the BI3C which also financcs the work of
the School Broadcasting Councils. Separate figures of the cost are not available but it should be noted that school broadcasting has never been curtailed
for lack of funds. The cost per hour of school broadcasting is as great as that
of any other type ol bïoadcast outpui of the BBC.
EDUCATIONAL ASPECTS OF SCHOOL BROADCASTS
7. 'IIEAOHiINIG METMOlD4 A'NDSlUUBTECTS
'
Note.-The purpose of school broadcasts in the dnitcd 'Kingdom is not to
teach but suppleqent by radio What lhe teachers are doing.
80
.
,
The contribution which broadcasthg can make in this attempt to supplement the work of the teachers appears to be:
(.i) To bring to the classroom the voices of outstanding men and w o m e n
of our time.
(ii) To bring to the classroom the,voices of men and w o m e n w h o are
wart% hearing for what they have to tell-travellers, experts, people with
special experience of many different kinds which is worth passing on.
(iii) To provide first-classperformance (som,e,times
combined,with exposition) i5 the aural arts-music, drama, poetry reading, etc.
(iu) To extend c'hildren'sawareness and understanding of the present-day
world, at home or abroad, by dramatization, eye-witness descriptions, and
other devices which i v e the illusion of " b e q there".
(u) By the same or similar m'eans, to extend children's awareness and
understandinmgof the world of the past.
(ui) B y the same or similar means, sometimes combined with commentary
rir readings, to enrich children's ,e,njoyment"
and awareness of the world of
fiction.
(iuii)T o provide examples of radio as an art in its o w n right, and to give
a training in selective and critical listening.
4&i) To provide commentary, specially written for children, on topical
events. T w o series are wholly desimgne&for this purpose, but topicality is a
general property of radio as a medium of publi,cation,and is apparent in
many other school broadcasts. In general the 'factthat what w e hear over the
radio relates to what is ,happen,ingnow, is an important advantage,of broadcasting over other media.
{iz) To provide espert help to teachers in subjects in whkh they arc -not
s ecialists.
'&hhus.in few series is any direct teachin\gattempted. This affects the replies
to thw group of questions.
a) :Sinceno "general teachin'gniethods" are used in school brsad,castsit m a y
be helpful to describe the contribution of school broad'castinghy reference tu
the functions of broadcasting as they appear at present. They are:
(i) To supplenient what the schools are already doing (either in single
subject sylìabi or in "inte'grated"projects or syntheses).
'(Ji) T o provide the basis for teaching which would otherwise most likely
not be given at all in many schools l(e.g. World History, H o w Things Began).
(iii) T o provide expert help to teachers in subjects in which they are not
specialists (e.g. (Rhythm and Melody).
(iu) To provide regular weekly "ceremonial" broadcasts '(eg.in their very
dif€erentways the Religious Service and Singing Together) and other regular
"service" broadcasts either daily (e.g. the.News ICominentary), wekly (e.g.
Current Affairs) or at fised points in the year $(e.tg. Health Talks, Talks on
H u m a n Aeproduction and W h e n W e Started Work).
(u) T o introduce, or help teachers to implement, ideas concerning topics
and methods not in general use.
b) 8.0subjects are regularly taught by radio. Since each series has a specifi.eeducational aim,it is not possible to say that some are more appropriate
than others. From the onlission of, for example, arithmetic and woodwork
Prom the ,schedules,it may be assum'ed that at present other subjects are
regarded as more appropriate. Similarly, in examining the schedules it is
necessary to take account of the aspects of a subject which are treated (e.
radio treatment of English 'literature,but not of Enfglislh grammar) an$
stage in the school lile at w~hichthe broadcast contribution is aimed, (e.g.
French in the third and subsequent years of study rather than in the early
tk
stages).
c) The contribution of broadcasting to the principal school subjects in which
it is making a conlribution at the present time is discussed in Chapters V to
XII inclusive of School Broadcasting in Britain. All broadcasting forms of
presentation are used and the form at present in use in any particular case
niay be regarded as the most effective for its particular purpose, since the
producers of school broadcasts are allowed the resources to employ whatcver
hroadcasting form they .consider most appropriate.
tl) The length of tshe broadcasts depends to some extent on th,eage of lhe
children,the nature of the subject matter and the form of broadcast presentation
adopted. (Mostbroadcasts last &out eBghteen miiiut,es. Es!m-ience has showri
81
6
.
,
that it is rarely possible to broadcast effectively to children in school tor a
longer period. The most suitable times at which to broadcast depend on school
organization. It is necessary to concentrate the broadcasts in that period of
the day when most schools are in session, when least are taking meals or other
intervals and when least are engaged on some compulsory activity or on some
activity which traditionally takes place at some particular lime. For exam le,
all schools are obliged by law to have some form of religious assem'bly antto
provide religious instruction. In many schools both these activities come at
the beginning of the school day. There is also a long standing tradition that
arithmetic should be taught before rather than after morning interval. Th~is
it is that the bulk of school broadcasts are given hetu-een11.00 and 12.00 a.m.
and between 2.00 and 3.00 p.m.
8. CO-OPERATIOX OF RADIIOAND THE SGHOOLS
a) The School Broadcasting Council is the link betbeen the broadcasting
organization and the schools. It is responsible ,fora11 the work at the listeningend.
$Co-operationwith listening teachers has been an outstanding feature of-the
School proadcasting Service ,inthis country from the very early days. For
example, co-operation with teac'hersw a s an essential element in the Kent
experiment in 1926 referrcd to under 1. The organization OP effective means
of co-operation is n o w the Council's principal task and,it has the essential aim
of securing that the broadcast service is used to the best advantage in supplementing the work of the schools. Co-operation takes many forms. There is
regular contact with teachers on paper. For each broadcast se&s t'hereis a
panel of akut fifteen teachers w h o undertake to report immediately aft-r each
broadcast and to send in longer reports at the end of each term.
The willingness of teachers to report and the regularity with which they do
so are most satisfactory. T'hemain value of these weekly cards is that they
provide the School 8BroadcastingtDepartinent with an immed(iatereaction so
that, if it seems desirable, alterations m a y be made in the content or presentation of the next or subsequent broadcast.
'Inaddition, teachers help by returning lon'gerqucstionnaires issued in the
course of postal surveys. These ,surveys are thc Council's chief means of
collec&ing statistics about the audiences for tlle several broadcast series. The
accepted methods of random sainp1in.r are applied, and normally qucstionnaires are sent to a random sample of %O0 schools se!ected from the potential
audie.ncefor the series under examination. The potential audience consists
of all schools on the current Register of Listening Schools of the School Brondcasting Council whi,chhave children of the age-ranmge for which the ser.iesis
intended. In addition io obtaining information about the nunilber of schools
listening,it is possible to build up. a p,ictureof the regularity of listening,the
number of children listening and their ages, the way in which the broadcasts
relate to the rest of the school's work in the subject. -4bout 70 per cent of the
teachers normally return the forms. This is re'garded3s' satisfactory iu view
of the fact that the 'questionnaireis oEten long and complicated. Further, a
random sample inevitably includes many schools which are not listening to
the articular series of broad,castsundterexamination and perhaps naturally
ill not be so disposed to complete the form. In
kaclers in these schools w
addition to this sy'stematically collected evidence, there .is a steady flow of
unsolicited comment and suggestion in correspondence with schools.
In addition to this collecting of evidence on paper, the ,Council'sEd,ucation
Officers spend the gre,aterpart of their time visiting schools a n d talking with
teachers and children. Th,e Council's Officers have no general right of entry
into the schools but invariably the Local Education Authorities have given
ermission for these $Officersto visit their schools whenever they wis:hed.
here is no doulbt that their visits are w-elcom.edand valued by the schools.
Their visits have two main purposes. The first is to discover what is
happening in the schools, a,partaltogether fröin broadcasting. One year they
m a y be trying to find out h o w science is heiii8gtaught and what are the signi-
5
ti2
.
'
&ant trends in the teaching of the subject;in another they m a y .h,estudying
the educalion provided 'forchildren in a particular age-group. The second
purpose is to listen to broadcasts with classes of children and to assess the
effectivenessof what is provided. At any one time the Edncation Officers w
i
l
l
have both purposes in mind in phiniiilg and making their visits to schools.
In the current school year there have been a number of "teams" of Education
OBflcers each studying a partkular series-History 1, History II, Citizenship,
Living in the Country and so on. At the same time all the Education Officers
have been trying to accumulate information about practices and trends in the
treatment of social studies in the last two years of Secondary Modern Sc'h~oTs.
The way in which all these forms of co-operation with the schools are
brought together and concerted into a co-ordinatedplan of investigation m a y
be illustrated thus. Each year the Council concentrates its resources for
listening-end study on a thorough review of a group of broadcast series.
During each such review a study is made of the ways,inwhich the subject is
being taught, what 'changesare taking place and h o w school broadcasts can
best help. Somteof the information is collected by #questionnairesin the postal
surveys already described, some is sent ,inb y the panels of teachers w h o
report each week, some is collected by the Council's Education Olfficers on
their visits to schools to assess the eff,ectivenessof particular broadcasts and
to discuss with teachers the suitability of the series under review. Later, the
p,icture which is emerginlg from the investigation, or particular problems or
possibilities which have been brought to light by it, are discussed at Recional
Conferencesof teachers arranged by the Education Officers. These are folfowed
by central conferences in London of teachers and of specialists in the subject
under review. E8very source of responsible professional opinion on the
subject is used. Por example, in a review on music the Council convened a
conference of th'eM u s k Advisers to.the Local Education Authorities, and in
a review 01 science convened a similar conference of Horticultural Advisers
to the Authorities. In addition t,heCouncil's Education Officers or Head Office
staff arc invited to meet the specialist or regional paneb of H.M.Inspectors
of Schools.
,When the investiigations have been completed the Council's Senior Education Officer submits a report to the appropriate Programme Sub-committees
based on the evidence collected. This is considered side by side with provisional suggestions lor i~rogrammeswhich the ISlchool Broadcasting Department will have preparccl as a result of the survey. Thus the co-operation
with the sdhools is effective in that the Sub-ICommitteebase their reconimendations for the future policy of broadcasts series on a body of professionally assessed information to wbich many hundreds of teachers and othe.rs
engaged in education throughout the country and the broadcasting experience of the BBC have all contributed.
The School Broadcasting Service is n o w so well established as a part of the
educational life of'the country thxt it is no longer considered necessary to take
special steps to promote its wider use. But, as described elslewhere,steps are
taiken ,toincrease the interest of teachers in broadcasting as a medium and to
improve the use they make of the service. The contact with teachers in t:heir
schools and at meetings as described abovie is prubably a more effective w a y of
developing this interest.
Nevertheless there is considerzble scope for work in the sphere of teacher
training and much is undertaken. T h e Ministry of Education, ,theLocal
Education Auhorities and the associations of teachers all organiae refrezher
courses for teaohers and the ICouncil is frequently invi,tedto demonstrate at
such courses. In some casCs courses arc wholly devoted to the problems
involved in the classroom use of school broadcasts; at others a general course
or a course on a particular subject will contain a denion:s!trationon school
broadcasting. In the trainin,g colleges and university iastitutes of Education
there is a growing recognition of the importance of providing teachers in
trainhg with some introduction to the problems involved. In some cases
this is given by demonstrations by the Council's Education Officlers; in others
the Education Officer's demonstration is supplemented by work undertaken by
Che tutors themselvles. The Council has organized 'foursunimer schools each
lastino at least a week for tutors in training colleges to enable them to ander'take &is work.
83
b) As a part of the study of schoól needs described in a), the educational
methods used in the schools are studied and are reflected in fhe assessmient
which is' made of the education whiclh the schools are providi'n,gbefore it is
decided h o w ,broadcastingcan best supplement the work of the schools. New
trends in educational methods (e.g., the integration of subijects) may receive
supporf or stimulus Ifrom the provision of (broadcast seria reflecting these
trends.
c) Each school is more or less free to develop its o w n syllabus. Therefore
there is little co-ordination o4 syllabi throughout the schooIs of the United
Kingdom. dn the course of tihe enquiries described under a), school syllabi
are studied,an attempt is made to lfind what is coininon or basic amon these,
and the broadcast serie.s are then planned to take account of this.
may
happen, for example, that a year's. series of broadcasts in ,say, geography
corresponds quite clo.selyto .thesyllaibi of some sclhools and they m a y listen
to the broadcasts weak by week zsl a supplement to their o w n teachin'g. Others
may find that the broadcasts correspond in one or other of the terms and
decide to listen to that tierm's broadcasts and inot to the others. Other schools
may find occasional broadcasts throughout the year fit their syllabuses and
listen accordingly. Others may be so attracted by the year's broadcast serles
that they decide to plan their year's work in the subject round the broadcasts.
Each' broadcast in most series is complete in itself and does not de end
€or its success on the shoo1 having heard previous broadcasts; hence goth
regular and selective listening is,possible.
T h e results of these attempts to relate the broadcasts to s~c~hool
syllabi are
on the whole satisfactory.
It
I
9. SUITAIBUE'AGES
Broadcasts are provided for children of all ages from fifth to sixth forms in
Secondary Grammar Schools (i.e., 17 or 18). Broadcasts are not provided for
children in Nursery Sclhõols because there seems neither the need nor a
demand for special broadcasts for these schools and it is considered that, if
given. they might tend to introduce an undesirable formality into the free
activity characteristic of schooIs of this ty e.
Except for a fsew series intended for c ildren of a wide age-range,each
series of broadcasts is intended for children of a particular age and if the
broadcasts are suitable for children for w h o m they are intended there is no
evidencse to supest that better results are abtained with one age-goup than
with another. ?#he nature and extent of the contribution which broadcastin
can make varies with the stages in school life. At present it is considerei
desirable to provide niore broadcasts for children of 13 and 14 than for otlher
ages, but this is not necessarily a permanent feature reflccting a fundamental
property of t'he medium.
R
10. SCHOOJ, BRQADCBSTING STATISTICS
a) The approximate total num'berof school departmNe8ntsin the United Kingdom
is 35,000. This excludes a number of independent schools outside the slate
system of education 4or which no official figures are available.
T h e figures of schools using schools broadcasts are compiled in two ways.
In Scotland the Scottish Education D,epartmentissues a questionnaire to schools
each year on the use \nihi,chScottish schools are making of broadcasts.
In the rest of the United Kingdom there is 110 comparable official return and
therefore the figures are based on the Register of Listening Schools maintained
by th,eSchool Broadcasting Council for the United Kingdom. All the axailable
fimgures are given (below. No figures are given for the first two years of the war
as the distu,rbanceof schools due to evacuation makes the available figures
unreliaMe. The figures for the early years may be less reliable than the later
ones and the figures for England include all parts of the United Kingdom for
which specific figures are not quoted: The figures are:
84
-
-
%HOOL
YEAR
I
BNMAND
-
WALES
N. IRELANID OTHERS SCOTIAND
-
TOTAL
2,299
2,239
1928-28... . . .
123
2,703
2,580
1929-30... . . .
3.344
3 61
3,183
1930-31.. . . . .
3.729
195
3,534
1931-32... . . .
234
4,020
3,786
1932-33... . . .
4399
273
4,026
1933-34.. . . . .
,3,632
350
208
3,074
1934-35... . . .
728
5,624
4,603
293
1935-36... . . .
7,770
8808
462
6,428
1936-37... . . .
1,066
9,6W
691
7,875
599
1937-38.. . . . .
1,217
11,170
118
714
9,121
1938-39... . . .
1939-41.. . . . .
N O reliable flgures availalble
12,493
92
1,194
1941-42...... 10,578
629
13,397
1O0
1,285
768
1942-43... . . . 11,244
13,850
82
32
1,340
1943-44... . . . 11,527
869
13,862
I O6
27
1,375
902
1944-45... . . . 181,452
14,794
86
55
1,375
1,036
1945-46... . . . 12,242
15,794
127
58
1,417
1,082
1946-47.. . . . . 13,110
16.790
176
69
1.560
1,047
1947-48.. . . . . 13,938
18:466
94
li560
1;189
289
1948-49...... 15,334
b) The approximate number of children in schools in the United Kingdom,
again excluding certain independent schools, is 6,300,000. It is not possible
to say wilh certainty what proportion of these children are reached by scihool
broadcasts since the number of children in the registered listening schools is
not recorded. However, it can be said that the proportion of children reached
is substantially greater than the proportion of schools registered. For example,
in,England among the largest of schools are the Secondary Modern Schools.
Nearly 80 per cent of these are registered as compared with about 50 per cent
of schools of all kinds. O n the other hand the smallest schools are the one
and two-teacher rural schools; many of these are without electricity which
makes it difficult o maintain efficient wireless reception. The proportion of
these small schools which is listening is less than the proportion of schools of
all kinds. In Northern Ireland the percentage of school children reached is
more than double the percentage of schools listening.
11. PUBLICATIONS DESIGNED TO BE USED WITH SCHOOL BROADCASTS
Q)
For Teachem
O n June 1 each year an Annual Programme is widely circulated among
schools (the print order is n o w 40,000) to enable them to decide what series to
listen to in the following school year and to plan their timetables accordingly.
About six weeks before the beginning of each school term, registered schools
are sent schedules giving further iniformation about the term's programmes.
At the same time revisLered schools are sent teachers' leaflets for those series
for which leaflets are issued and for which they have registered. Leaflets have
been issued in the current school year for the following series:
Stories from World History
Travel Talks
Nature Study
B o w Things Began
Geography
History I
History II
General Science
Srience and the Community
Religion and Philosophy
Religious Service
Health Talks
Physical Training
Rhigwm a Chan
Wales: its Life and People
Early Stages in Welsh.
,
All these publications are issued free to the schools. They are pulblished by
the BBC for the School Broadcasting Council for the United Kingdom. The
cost is paid from the money made available to the Council by the EBC.
b) For Pu,pìls
Before the war fhrere was an extensive service of pupils' illustrated pamphlets.
These were discontinued during the war because the 'disturbedstate of the
schools made disitri'bution difficult and the paper ,shorta.gerulied out a large
scale service.
In 194'6-47 the service was resumed o'n a limited scale and additional
pamphlets hare been added leach year sin'ce. Most are issued termly though
some cover the whole sc'hool year. Zn the current year the 'following have
been issued:
Adventures in Music and 'OrchestralConcert Series
Singing Together and Rhythm and Melody
Geography
Travel Talks
Intermediate French
French for Sixth Forms
Intermediate $German
General S'cience
Living in thme Country
Nature Study
Exploring Scot,lajnd
Early Stages in Welsh
Wales: its Life and People (A4nnual)
Tro Trwy Gymru !(Annual).
In 1949-50 there will be 'thlefollowing additional pnniphlets:
Stories from World 'History
Science and tihe Community
Looking at Things
Talks for Sixth Forms (autumn and spring terms)
This is M y Country (for Scottis'hschools)
Second Stages i,nWelsh
History of Wales l(Annua1).
A11 are published at Gd. per copy except "Nature Study" which contains
coloured illustrations and is sold at 9d. and "Looking at Things" which w
ill
be a larger coloured booklet selling at 2 shillings. Schools receive 33 1/3 per
cent discount on all these prices and an additional 5 per cent discount if they
order far the thme terms in autumn. These pamphlets are published by the
BB'Cand any loss of them is paid by the Corporation. An idea of the scale of
this service will be obtained from the fact that in the spring term 1949 638,000
pamphlpts were supplied and a further 51,000 were ordered but could not be
su plied owing to shortage of stocks.
%me pupils pamphlets are planned on 8tliie assumption t'hatthe pamphlet
is es,sentialto a 'fullappreciatioa of the broadcasts, and the broadcast script
can take for granted that all the listening children have the pamphlet for use
before and after the broadcast and, if so desired, duri'ngthe broadcast as well.
For other series the pamphlet is a desiralble addition 'by which the teachers
may the better prepare for,or follow up the broadcasts and are therefore not
essential to a full appreciation of them.
12. &IISICELLAh'EOUS EDUCATIONAL PROBLEMS
No special problems arise from the existence of both independent schools and .
schools within the state system of education. Only in Wales do special
problems arise from differences of language. In parts of Wales, Welsh is the
main language 4or normal social intercourse and for religious worship and is
the first language which the children learn. dn other parts both English and
Welsh are in w e sidle by side.
86
In the course of studying the effectivenessof school broadcasts in the schools
it sometimes happens that geineral educational problems, of interest to the
educational world as a whole and not only to school ibroadcasting authorities,
are brought to light. They m a y be problems requiring expert reslearch, the
results of which m a y be a contribution not only to broadcasting but to educatianal knowledge and practice as a whole. For example, in the course of
studying thte effectiveness of the broadcasts €or young children on Music and
Movement doubt was expressed whether most of the children,w h o apparently
move with pleasure to t h music, are really responding in different ways to
difierent kinds of music or whether after experience of lbroadcasts they are
able to do so, and it is hoped that research into this (question will be
undertaken.
13. SYSTF!IMATLC IEIXQU'I'RIES
ON SCHOOL l3HCMDQAISTS
a) It is not possible to say with any precision what are the educational
results obtained from school broadcasts. What is being attempted has been
described above. That some or all of t'hese aims are being achieved m a y
perhaps be deduced from the fact that a steadily increasing number of
teachers consider it worthwhile to make use of the broadcasts and to make
the adjustments to their school work which this entails.
Similarly, the general praise of the broadcasts which teachers express and
the extent to which the Ministry of Education and Local Education Authorities co-operhte in the work m a y be regarded as evidence that the broadcasts are educationally effective.
b) Thermehas \been little in the w a y of controlled experiments to test the
results obtained. The continuous study of school needs and,ol the value of
particular series of broadcasts already described ;havebeen regarded as more
effective w a s of ensuring that the medinm is used to thc best advantamge
of the schoo~s.
c) As already described,,there is continuous study by professional staff
of the opinions of teachers. In the course of the listening-end work the
reactions rather than the opinions of the pupils are also studied. There has
been no survey of the opinions of broadcasters or of parents since, with a
service having the aim of supplementing what the schools are doing, it
would not be appropriate to take account of their opinions in t1,etermininig
o k y . However, it can b'esaid that there is a substantial adult audience
for school broadcasting, that the observations of adults on the programmes
are almost invariably favourable, and that broadcasts are regarded by some
parents as a valuable link between home and school.
d) There has been no survey with the specific purpose of determining to
what estent the expenditure on school broadcasting is justified by the results.
The BBC regards school broadcasting as one of its most important and most
responsible activities. This, together with the fact that, after thorough investigation,the BBC in 1949 decided to devote substantially greater resources to
this work, may be regard,edas an indication that the expenditure is considered to be justified.
TECHNICAL CONDITIONS
14. EQUZPMENT OF !SCIHOIOLS
WiITH RBGEXV~IINGSETIS
All types of receiving sets are used in sc'hools. There are battery and mains
sets, there are AC and DIC, there are straight and super-heterodynereceivers,
there are sets made dor the ordinary domestic consumer and sets,designed
es ecially .forschool use, there are sets that can be carried, sets that can be
w'keeled about and sets that are fixed. In t'heearly days of school broadcasthg
tihe purchase of the set was frequently a matter for initiative within the
school. &t was supplied. by the teacher, by parents or from spceial
school funds. To an increasing extent Local Education Authorities are n o w
87
supplying and installing the apparatus, and as this practice spreads, there
will be greater siniilarity of equipment in the schools under a particular
Aut,hority.
15. PROEKEM CONNECl'ED W I T H FAVOURA,BLERECEPTION
a> 'Conditionsof reception are ,generallysatisfactory in the sense that broad-
casts to schools are transmitted on the H o m e Service wave-lengths of the
l3BC and practically all parts of t:heUnited Kingdom can receive a satisfactory signal on one or oth,erof these wave-lengths.
Conditions of reception are less satisfactory in so bar as t'he acoustics
of school buildings, particularly the older ones, frequent1 leave much to be
desired. The fquality of reception is frequently unsatisractory because the
equipment is unsuitable, not properly installed or inadequately m-aintaincd.
A survey is at present being conducted to find out what proporlion of the
schools using broadcasts have satisfactory reception, but the results are
not yet available.
'Th,:eiquipment and maintenance of schools is the responsibility of the
Loca' Education Aut'horities. Hence the steps taken to improve the uality
of re-eption are in the main directed towards securin' that the Loca? Education Authorities are aware of the nature of the probyems and of the steps
which can be taken to bring about improvements, In November 1947 the
Council wrote to Local Education Authorities on these matters. A scheme
for approvinlghas since come into operation.
b) It is not usual for a special room to be reserved for listening to school
broadcasts. It is difficult to .generalize as to the most usual arrangements.
hfuch d,ependson the size of the school and the extent to which they intend
to use the broadcasts. The Council is endeavourin'gto secure that a teacher
should be able to take a broadcast naturally as a part of any lesson without
disturbing lhe listening class or other classes by moving apparatus or
children. The ,Councilhas shown one way of doing this in a demonstration
school which is being visited by educationists and architects from.all parts
of the country.
c) Classes are not specially grouped for listening in.
d) T h e main advice on the organization of listening has corne from the
Sc,hool Broadcasting Council. The Ministry of Education, however, have
stated in their building regulations that they retgard it as desiralble that all
schriol halls and some classrooms should have facilities for broadcast
reception. The BBC has placed at,the disposal of the Council a group of ten
engineers w h o are able to advise Education Authorities but not, of course, le
provide anything in the nature of a service to individual schools.
,
ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
Not used.
17. TELEVISION IN SGHOOL BROADCASTING
At the present time no special television programmes a m provided ~ Q F schoob.
.
The Council has expressed the view that television might, in due course, make
an important contribution to education. It nevertheless considers that the
premature inauguration of a school television service might react unfavourably on its ultimate development. For example, the Council considers that.
school television should not be started until the BBC Television Service
covers a much wider area of the country than at ,present and until all the
children in a classrooni are enabled to see the televised image without strain.
The Council h w e s that in the interval necessary for this development there
a8
will be studies of the properties of the n e w medium and its possible application to education, and that these studies w
ill take place side by side with
sound broadcasting for schools as pari of the Council's work. The BRC
considers that experiments should begin as soon as there is a larger screen
which can be seen from all parts of a classroom and w
i
l
l invite lhe Council
to take part in tllese experiments. Since the BBC regards television as a
development of sound broadcasting, it hast ailgreed that television for schools
should be developed as a part of the work ofthe School Broadcasting Council.
Before 1943 a f e w rogrammes or parts of programaes had been commissioned, to our specigcation, in one or other of the Commonwealth countries
or in the United States of America and then only when the subject matter
of the programme suggested that there might be an advantage in obtaining
one locally produced. From time to time offers of programmes are made,
but for various reasons (e.g., unfamiliar vocabulaTy, rate OP delivery, unsuitability of material) itrhas not usually proved possible to malie any use of such
programmes. Again, from time to time w e have been asked to prepare a
special programme for use abroad.
In 1948 the Canadian Broadcastinlg Corporation's School Department asked
for twenty-three of our programmes to be supplied during the school year
11948-49. The arrangements to record,process and transport these programmes
were niade by the BiBC Transcription Service. The following programmes
were selected:
Citizenship
5
Senior English
3
Senior History
6
Travel Talks
9
This experiment is reported to have been a success so far and arrangements are being made to supply a further series of twenty-five programmes
in 1949-50. These programmes are being taken by a very wide range of
English-speaking countries.
19. FUTURE PLANS
As will be evident the school broadcasting programme is under constant
review and decisions as to its scope are taken annually. In this way
an attempt is m a d e to reduce as far as possible the delay (between completing listening-end studies and introducing the programmes shown to be
desirable in lhe course of these studies. Thus there are no long-term future
plans affecting the programme.
The numher of (broadcasts to schools in the school year 1948-49 was
1,503. In 1949-50 there will be 1,827. Of the additional broadcasts 1018
will be due io the fact that school broadcasting year w
ill be somewhat
longer and the remaining 216 additional broadcasts w
ill be a result of these
developments in the programme.
A n e w development at the listening-end is the holding of the first National
Conference on )School Broadcasting. If successful, this may become an
annual event.
20. D I F F L C U L T E S OF ALL K,INDS
W e have nothing to add on this.
89
INDIA
Aufihors of the report:
S.N. 'Chib,Director of Programmes, All India Radio, New Delhi;
G.T. Sastri, Station Director, All India Radio, Madras;
Dr. R a m Marathey, Joint Station Director, Al1 India Radio, New Delhi;
S.M. Mazumdar, Listener Research Officer, All India Radio, Bombay.
IN~RODUCTION
It is not possible to answer some parts of this questionnaire on school
broadcasting without stating briefly the constitutional position vis-à-vis education and broadcasting in 'India,and h o w they are opganized. Also to view
school ibroadcasting in the right perspective it seems necessary to give a
few important facts about the development of broadcasting in this country.
There are at present eight large provinces in the Indian Union, namely,
East Punjab, United IProvinces, Bihar, West Bengal, Orissa, Central Provinces.
Madras, Bomfbay,and a large number of States Which have since August 1947
acceded to dndia, some as single units and others in groups. (Barringthe
small units of Delhi, etc., which are administered centrally, the provinces
and the States have semi-autonomous democratic governments functioning
under the control of the Central Government called "Government of India"
(not Federal Government).
Education is mainly controlled by provincial governments through their
Education Departments; the permanent head of the Education Department
is the Director of Public Instruction w h o works under the Provincial Education Minister. The Ministry oE Education of the Government of India acta
in a supervisory and advisory capacity and directly controls education in the
centrally-administered areas only.
Mainly there are two types of schools in India: schools financed by the
State (provincial governments) called Government Schools; Private Schools
started by missions, trusts, endowments, philanthropic and religious organizations, etc.,,but largely dependent on fees paid by pupils. Most of the
private schools receive a subsidy from the Government, a so-called grant-inaid, and in turn accept supervisory control of the Education Department.
There are, however, some private schools which do not receive grant-in-aid
because they wish to run on a pattern which does not fit into the €ramework of the Education Department.
Broadcasting is a Department of the Government o€ India which under the
name of "All India Radio" l(usual1y called A W ) came into beinig in the middIe
of 1936. AIR owns and operates stations at Delhi, Bombay, Calcutta, Madras,
Lucknow, Tiruchirapalli, Patna, Cuttack, Jullundur, Shillong-Gauhati, Nagpur,
Vijayawada, Baroda and Allahabad. In the next few months stations w
i
l
l be
opened at Ahmedabad, Calicut and bharwar. .Of these the first six existed
before the war and the rest have come into being only since January 1948;
the first ifour operate on medium-wave and short-wave while the rest on
medium-wave only.
AIR broadcasts news in its Home Service in English and in fourteen Indian
languages; about three news bulletins per day in each language. All news
broadcasts are centralized in Delhi and each regional station relays those
which pertain to its linguistic area.
All the external services of ALW are also centred in Delhi under the
Director of External [Services.
There is a unified control of all programmes, public relations and administrative activities at each station exercised by its head, the Station Director.
91
All Station Directors and the Directors of External Services and of News are
under the centralized control of Director-General,All India Radio. All India
Radio as a Department works under the Ministry of IInfosmation and Broadcasting of the Government of India.
1. HISTORY
t
Before AIR started functioning in 1936, educational broadcasting was done
in India by the Municipal Radio Station at (Madras for elem,enta,ryschools
within the 'Municipal limits. This school programme was listened to b>probably eleven schools.
AIB started ibroadcasting to schools From its four important stations at
Del,hi,{Bombay,Madras and Calcutta in IOctober 1938 and from Tiruchirapalli in 1940.
'Schoolbroadcasts are di,rectedto:
Q) Elementary schools '(a'ge-group6 to 11)
and
b) Secondary schools l(age-group 10 to 16).
Almost all school broadcasting is directed to secondary schools (age-group
10 to 16) and regular educational programmes for elementary schools are at
present being done only by the Madras station. AIR, however, broadcasts
from all its stations for the age-group roughly from six to eleven, children's
programmes,iwliich are not in any way linked up with the school syllabus
and are not addressed to pupils organized into a class workinlg under the
guidance of a teacher. The #group-ideais, therefo,re,not fundamental to these
broadcasts.
Though the stress is on entertainm,ent,a fair proportion of these programmes is edueative and may be regarded as an extension of school broad- .
casthg for younger children for w ' h o m we cannot cater in our school broadcasts.
O n an average each of the fourteen radio stations of AIR broadcasts a Children's Programme of thirty minutes in each Indian language, twice a week;
Bombay, Calcutta and Madras in addition broadcast a Children's F'ro,gramme
in Engiish of thirty minutes duration once a week, the total duration of
Children's Programmes for the whole of AIR per week bein,g982 minutes.
Broadcasts for )Colleges (Universities).
Madras commenced broadcasts for colleges on 2 November 1939. These
program,mes,in Englib-h,were broadcast twice a week, for thirty minutes.
In October 1942, all the stations of AIR started broadcasting a fifteen
minute programme in English once a week for the universities. This has been
extended to all the n e w stations opened since 1947. It is usually sent out
in the evening, between 7 p.m. and 10 pm. at different times by different
stations. The group-idea is not fundamental to this programme in the sense
that the pupils do not listen to it in an organized manner followed by a discussion among themselves or with the teacher.
SUPERVISION A N D CONTROL
2. RELATIONS 8ETWEE;N THE STATE & THE RADIO ORGANIZATIONS
a) School broadcastin'g is organized by the State in the sense that it forms a
part of the normal progranimes of Ali India Radio.
b) In planning school broadcasts the provincial governments, in particular
their Education Departments., are consulted.
c) The Government of India (Ministry of Education) constituted in 1940,
an Advisory 'Committee for educational broadcasts for the whole of AIR.
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I
This Committee reviewed its work after two years and recommended that
the Committee could noli function effectively on an overall basis and instead
of th,is Central Committee for the Whole AIR there should 'be a panel of
advisers for each station that was broadcasting school programmes. T h e
present position is that there are separate Educational Advisory Committees
attached to eac,h of the four stations, Delhi, Bombay, Calcutta and Madras;
the Committee for Madras and Tiruchirapalli being joint. TZle functions of
each Educational Advisory Committee are to advise the Station Director on
all matters relating to school broadcasting and in particular on programmemaking. Four meetings are held per year and the agenda for eneh meeting,
prepared in advance by the Station Director w h o is ez-off6cxio Chairman o€
the Committee, is circulated among the members in advance. The Adv'isory
Committee has no executive functions hut in actual practic: its advice is
seldom disregarded.
Each Educationa1 Advisory Committee consists of the Station Director and
five members, one of the five beinlg the Head of the Provincial Education
Department, the Director of Public 'Instruction,or his nominee. 'Phe other
four members are headmasters of listeninig sc,hoolsand other educationists
seriously interested in school broadcasting. members are appointed by the
Ministry of Information and Broadcastin'gof the Government of India out
nf a list of namies recommended by the Station Director in consultation with
the Director of Public Instruction. The tenure of each member is for two
years, but only two out of the five members retire at a time. This method
enables All India Radio to have the benefit of f,reshadvice and yet provides
for continuity in each Committee.
All members of the Coinmittee work in an honorary capacity but outstation
members w h o have to travel to the radio station to attend meetings are paid
'travellingand halting a1lowance.s.
There is no separate advisory Committee for t h e university broadcasts
directed tci collegcs.
'
3. IRFlGUI,ATIOSS CONCERMNiG SGHOOT, BBOADCASTIIS'G
Therc are no laiws concerning school broadcasting nor any special rules
drawn M Y by All Jndia Aadio.
MANAGEMENT A N D BUDGET
4. ADMINISTRA TIVE STRU C TUIE
Each statim of AIlR brcmdca5ts its general programmes consisting of music,
spoken-word and draina. etc., and a number of minority programmes for
special audiences, e.g., women, children, schools, rural areas, working class
population of large town$. Armed Forces, schools and colleges, etc.
School broadcasts are only one of the special programmes at the five stations
of AIR mentioned above.
5. PERSONNEL
(0 At each radio station of AIR there are a iiiimber of Piograninle Officers
under the Station Director w h s are permanent members o€ the Service.
Attached to theye Officers are a number of writers, producers, actors,musicians
etc., who are employed on contract. The personnel employed in school broadcasting, therefore, consists of two categories:
(i) The Programme Offic'ers w h o are nieinbers of the Service and are
mterchangeable from one programme category to another.
(ii) T h e persons employed on contract are called "Staff Artists" on full OF
part-time basis, and may be regarded as separate from the general radio
personnel.
93
b) The school broadcastin'gunit consisting of (i) and '(ir') above for each
station is given separately below:
D/EbHI
Programme Assi,stant
1)
Programme Secretary - 1) l(8Pernianlent)
Contract Staff
-2)
They have inot been recruited from educational organizations, nor from any
broadcasting organization, as AIR is the only broadcasting organization in the
country.
BOMBAY
Programme Assistant
programmesecretary
1 each permanent)
Contract Staff
- 2 1(1 full-time
1 part-time)
Programme Assistant in this case is an ex-teacher and the part-the staff
artist is an educationist with an esperience of more than twenty years in
schools and colleges of +he Bombay Province.
-
CALCIUTTA
Xot drawn from any educational institution.
MADRAS
Programme Assistanis - 3)
Programme Secretaries - 2) (Permanent)
Contract Staff
-- 4
One staff artist drawn from an educational organization.
TIRUGHIRAiPALLI
-
Progranime Assistant
1)
Programme Sec.retary
1) (Permanent!
Contract Staff
-2
One staff artist works part-time and is an educationist.
c) Permalnent members of thle service do not, as rule, #broadcast. Scripts
are mostly written by experts and teachers and the members of the staff who.
as a rule, are engaged on producing and presenting them, sometimes revise
them to their final shape. In the case of features,"voices" taking part in these
are drawln from the general repertory staff lor drama.
6. SINANCES
A'IR finances schools broadca3ls.
There is no separate budget.. The total expenditure on scliool hroadcasting
would consist of the following:
(i) Expenditure on spoken-word programmes.
(ii) Royalties paid to script writers.
(iii) Salaries of contract staff exclusively engaged on school broadcasting.
(io) Expenditure on draina and music forming part of school programmes.
(u) Printing charges of school broadcast programmes for distribution
among schools.
(ui) Salaries of permanent members of the service.
Nos. (i) to (¡u) are paid out of the total progr:iniiiie budget of each station.
94
At the beginning of each financial year each Station (Director allots funds
for (i). (ii) and (iii) out of the total programme budget. Expenditure on (!u)
calnnot be assessed precisely as it is shared by all minority programmes wltlh
the general programme.
The following statement shows expenditure on school broadcasting under (i),
(ii) and (iii') as compared to the total programme budget at each station:
TOTAL
P R O G R A M M E BUWErP
April 1947 Aprii'948
APrl11946
194'7 to March 34,gto March '47 to March '48
to March '47 to March '<IS (antlcipat.) R~
Rs
Rs
RIS
T(S
ns.
(Corrected ta the nearest 100)
EXPENDlTURE O N SCHOOL BROADCASTS
STATION
Delhi ........
Bombay .. .. ..
Calcutta . . ...
Madras ....I
Tiruchirapalli.
April 1948
16,530
S,620
8,505
17,000
9,000
I
16,780
7,755
7,990
17,500
9,000
10,160
8,400
7,600
17,800
9,000
April 1946
4,36700
3,54,700
3,42,000
3,16,600
1,89,000
I~~~~&~~
1
3,68,600
3,28,100
3,31,300
3,39,500
2,11,200
4,13,000
3,38,600
3,34,500
3,45,000
2,19,-500
Umiuersi ty Bro adc&s
Delihi ... . . ...,
Bombay .. ....
Calcutta .....
Madras ......
Tiruchirapalli.
2,600 I
2,iOO 1 2,700
About Rs. 2,000 per year
970
1,440
3,060
2,000
Same as above.
EDUCATIONAL ASPECTS OF SCHOOL BROADCASTS
7. TEACHING METHODS AND SUBJECTS
a) The classroom method of lecturing to students and of merely conveying
verbal information is avoided. The aims are to enrich their personal
experience of persons, places and things and to convey information,not ordinarily available from the teacher and as part of the school curriculum, in a
form easily acceptable to the pupils at their o w n level. T o achieve the flrst
the outside world is brought to the school : well-known personalities, writers,
national leaders, educationists, sportsmen and explerts, in short, m e n and
w o m e n w h o are worth hearing for what they have to say, recite from their
works and speak to school children from personal experienoe; feature
programmes built up around the museum and the zoo, India's great monuments and temples,national laboratories and factories etc., form part of school
broadcasting; and to fulfil the second function, taks and reviews on subjects
of a general interest and those with a social angle are arranged; current affairs.
sports,civics and citizenship, health and hygiene, etc. While straight talks on
a large variety of subjects form an important part of school broadcasts, dramatization, eye-witness descriptions. discussions and debates, [email protected] and
stories,readings from classics are very laruely used to make school broadcasts
interesting and to create tthe illusion of "beiing there". T o create interest
among pupils and to give them a feeling that it is their programme, students
from local schools are regularly invited to participate.
b) It is difficultto classify subjects; in fact, the aim is not to treat them as
separate subjects but .as part of unified experience. Thus,a series of talks on
architectural monuments would bring in history and biogra hy, a series of
feature programmes on rivers would touch upon geography, istory, classics,
R
95
3o1k music and mytholog . The folIowing list mentions groups of subjects
more or less regularly hcfuded in school programmes:
(i) Literature [Indian languages according to tihe [email protected](s)
of each
province, and English).
(ii) History (Indian and world).
(Ci)Geograph .
(io) General Jcience (Physics, Chemistry, Botany, Zoology, Astronomy,
Mechanics etc.)
Gu) Sociology i(Civics and citizenship,Economics, Political Sciences etc.)
(viil Current affairs and world news.
Literature, history, geography,heauh and hygiene, civics,current affairs and
science, treated in a popular way, are the most appropriate subjects. Indian
music is a most ap ropriate subjert to which sufficient attention has not been
paid in our schoof broadcasts. Certain subjects suoh as mathematics have
as a rule, been avoided.
c) Straight talks when primarily written as radio talks by teachers or other
persons w h o have gained some practice in broadcasting, generally prave
effective for almost all subjects and, hence, are most commonly used in our
school programmes. But sometimes talks are arranged in preference to dramatized programmes and dialogues and discussions because they are easier to
handlie and involve less wonk for the rather overworked programme staff.
Bcsides, an indifferent talk is less of a ”flop” than an indifferent dramatized
programme.
Besides straight talks the other methods used, which have proved effective,
are summarised against each subject below:
Ll‘terafnre-Readings with comments. ?toriles from and about classics and
dramatization of scenes from plays and novels.
Histor DTamatization of well-known events and historical places, and
story-teZG.
Geography-Stories of travel and exploration, features built around towns
and rivers, dialogues albout natural phenomma etc.
Generd Science-Dramatization
and story-telling with illustrations of
significant inventions and discoveries; nature study, particularly Por junior
students.
with studio audience consisting of students.
Health H!jgiene-Talks
Socislogg-Dialogues and discussions.
Current Affairs & world nlews-Usually straight talks.
d) Duration of broadcasts: 30 to 40 minutes for each school broadcast programme, 10 to 12 minutes for talks, dialogues, discussions and debates, 15
minutes, occasionally a little more, for a play or a feature programme, but a
composile programme consisting of a number of continuous items, such as a
aumber of short plays by students, m a y run for the entire school broadc,ist
-30 to 40 minutes.
The usual working hours of an Indian school are 10 a.m. to 4.00 p.m. with
a break for half an hour ia the middle (in North India from 7 a.m. to 12.00
noon in the hot weather). The most suitable time for school broadcasts has
Been found to be either beforc or after the break for lunch or immediately
before thle school closes. ATRs stations,ab a rule,broadcast for 10 hours a day
divided into three transmissions;morning, afternoon and evening. The tiine
for school broadcasts is either linked up with or forms a part of one of the
three transmissions.
The time sehiedule for broadcasts from Delhi and Madras station9 is given
below:
Madras: 211 3, 42.37,and 31.28 metres. Five days per week (not Saturdag and
Sunday).
H I G H SCHOOL5
Monday
Tuesday
11’edln esclay
l‘bursd ay
Friday
96
12-30 to I p m .
-- English-General
~- Tamil-Literature &Ark
- Tamil-Science
- Tamil-Social studies
- Tamil-General,
plays,
debates, music, ques
tions, news.
2-15 to 2-45p.m.
Telugu-Scicace
Tclugu-Social studies
Telugu-General
Telugu-Literature L Arts
English Science.
ELEMENTARY
scnoou
4-00 to 4-30 p.m.
Monday
Tamil
Tuesday
Telugu
Thursday
Tamil
Friday
Telugu.
-
Delhi
338~6and 41.15 metres in summer.
434.8 and 31.15 metres in wilnter.
Five days in the w e e k (except Saturday and Sunday).
9.30 to 9.55 a.m. '(in summer).
Zi3O to 3~00p.m. (in winter).
Monday
Tuesday
Wednesday
Thursday
Friday
- Geography, Politics.
- History, Literature, Biography.
- N e w s Reviews, Gen'eral Knowledge.
- Debates, Handicrafts.
- Programmes presented by
school students includi,ngelocution
contests, plays etc.
8. C O 4 P E R A T I O N OF R A 0 1 0 A N D THE SCHOOLS
a) Apart from confqct with schools through the Advisory Committees on which
school authorilies are represented, direct approach is m a d e to schools by:
(i) Sending them school broadcasr programmes for each term and inviting
their reactions to programmes actually broadca-t.
(ii) ICorresponding with listening schools on problems arising from school
broadcasting.
(iii) Visitin the listening schools situated in the same town.
Co-operation getween the Radio stations and the schools is comparatively
more effective in rovinces where school broadcasting has m a d e considerable
headwav. i.e.. M a g a s (South India). B o m b a v (West India). and least effective
in Calcitta (Bengal). .
Efforts have been made. Darticularlv bv (Madras and B o m b a v stations, to
interest teachers in using sc6ool broadEast: though no special cÓurses have so
far been arranged. T h e rôle of the teacher in making school broadcasts a
success has been explained from time to time in introductory notes published
along with school broadcast programmes and distributed a m o n g school;. Tihe
Madras Education Department has taken two significant steps in this direction:
it has advised the educational institutions in the province to m a k e the educatioiial (broadcasts part of the school curriculum and is going to incorporate
school broadcasting in the courses of Teachers Training Colleges.
T h e total picture in this regard, however, is far from satisffactoryowilng t
a number of s ecial problems, mostly of a non-educational type, which hav
been dealt wit1 under Question 20.
b) T h e plan is that :Cho01 broadcasting, 00th in the subjects selected and in
the manner of its presentation, should supplement and not substitute or duplicate the school syllabus. School /broadcasting uses the aural m e d i u m and
depends for its success on the co-operation of the teacher in the follow-up
lesson, malking use, if necessary, of visual illustrations etc. S o m e of the
methods of audio and visual education and of discussion and debate and
conducted tours etc., usled in propessive sch001s would be the same. T h e
total effect is arrived at by co-ordination between us and the school teacher.
c) While most of the subjects have a bearing on the school syllabus, they
do not necessarily form a part of it. S o m e subjects are deliberately chosen
because they fall outside the four corners of the school curricnlum. School
broadcasting in the sense of being an extension of school syllabus has established satisfactory co-ordination vith the latter. Particularly in Madras,
I
*
I
. I .
I
I
97
7
the utility of school broadcasting as a necessary adjunct to the school syllabus,
has'been widely recognized. The increasing element of student participation
and reporta,geon school activities, conducted tours and travelogues which
are bound to be of interest to students in remote areas, a broadcast by a
leading personality w h o normally could not have been heard by pupils of
such schools, have all tended to make the school broadcasts an important
contribution to High School education.
9. SUITABLE AGES
It would be difficult to generalize about age groups of pupils as there is often
a Wide disparity between the argegroups of pupils in remote areas where
educational facilities are scarce, and in larger towns equipped with modern
progressive schools, in reaching the same standard. It may roughly be stated
that a sixth form student in a village would be two years older than his opposite number in a large town. The aim has therefore been to cater for classlevels rather than for age groups. As already mentioned, our school broadcasts are mainly addressed to Secondary-often called Middle and HighSchools the age group being 10 to 16 in towns. Within this age group two
types of programmes are usually arranged for the age group 10-13 and 14-16.
It would be difficult to generalize as conditions vary in different provinces
but on the whole the higher age groups yield Ibetter results.
10. SCHOOL BROADCASTING STATISTICS
a) A comparative statement is given below:
STATION
TOTALNo. OF SCHOOLS
NO. OF SCHOOLS USING
S C H O O L RR0AI)CASTS
Delhi ....................
68
Bombay ................
1,181
Calcutta ................
819
Madras & Tiruchi ........
586
b) The statement helow will indicate the position:
STATION
Delhi ....................
Bombay ..................
Calcutta . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Madras & Tiruchi ........
TOTAL No.O F PUPILS
(APPROSIXATE)
40,0'00
285,026
378,046
217,255
33
190
38
140
NO.OF PUPILS REACHED
BY SCHOOJdRHOADCASTS
18,000
70,000
17,974
51.904
It is not possible to give statistics regarding the increase year by jt'w in
the nuniber of schools and pupils reached by school broadcasts 5iocz thehe
were initiated.
School broadcast programmes are published by All Indlia Radio for each
term in the form of booklets and distributed among schools some time before
the beginning of each term. As a rule, there are two school broadcast terms
in a year. These booklets are financed by All India Radio and are distributed free of cost. They are intended to be used by teachers in conjunction
with broadcasts to schools and a few copies are sent to each listening school.
To encourage school broadcasting one copy each is also sent to nonlistening s'chools. They contain descriptive notes on each series of programmes together with questions etc., to be used in the classroom in the
follow-up lesson after the broadcast is over, and wd-charts (givingthe timetable for the whole term at a glance. N o other publications designed to be
used with school (broadcastsare published 'by All India Radio or any other
organization.
?
98
Until two years ago, these booklets were pu,blished in English though the
bulk of the programmes were in Indian languages, but since then each booklet
is published in the same languaige as that of the proflamme it contains.
12. MXXHLLANEOIUS IXYUCATIONAL PRCNBLBMS
The main educational problem is multiplicity of regional languages which
serve as the media of instruction in different areas of each province.
English is still the medium of instruction in colleges, i.e., at the University
stage, but no longer the medium of instruction in Indian schools barring a
few exclusive schools in each area. Of the five stations broadcasting t?
sohools, Calcutta and Tiruchirapalli are situated in fairly homogeneous unilingual areas, but Delhi, Bombay and Madras have to broadcast in two or
three languages. Considering the limited numlber of transmitters available
at each af these stations this naturally llmits the number of school broadcasts in each laquage.
The time-table dbserved both regarding the daily working hours and
regarding the long vacation in the summer and the shorter vacations, usually
in spring and autumn, is not always the same even within each area.
This makes the task of a radio station broadcasting to a number of linguistic areas, in fixing the timings of school broadcasts, the duration lof each
broadcast and of each term, somewhat difficult. As school broadcasting
comes to be recognized more and more as an effective hstrument of education, there is greater willingness on the part of different types of schools
in different areas to adjust their time-tables on a uniform basis.
13. SYSTEMATIC ENQUIRIES ON SCiHOOiL BIfiOADCASTS
u) School broadcasting lias made comparatlvely greater headway in Madras.
That school authorities have recognized its utility m a y be judged from the
fact:
(i) That it has become a part of the school curriculum.
(ii) That the Education Department of the Madras Government has
recommended to educational publishers that scripts of school broadcasts
should bc pu'blished in thc form of books to be used as text books for
schools, which is already being done.
Reports from schools in Madras, Bombay and Delhi, discussions at Headmasters' Conferences, and the official views communicated to. us by the
Provincial Education Departments,all tend to show that school broadcasting
is being appreciated by teachers and pupils, particularly in Bombay and
Madras.
b) No systematic enquiries on educational results have been undertaken.
AIlR started conducting listener I-esearchon a regular basis only about two
years ago. 60 far listener research has been confined to general programmes,
but in the near future it is intended to conduct a systeniatic listener research
regarding school broadcasting covering all the points mentioned under 13.
c) These opinion surveys have partly been answered under (a)
d) No survey has been iiiade but the comparatively small expenditure
incurred on school broadcasting should be considered entirely justified by the
results already achieved.
TECHNICAL CONDITIONS
14. EQUIPiMENT OIF SCBOCMLIS W I T H RECEIVLNG SETS
The receiving sets used in schools are of the usual commercial type available
on the market. lMost of them are all-wave sets capable of receiving programmes
both on €he medium and short wave bands. Schools situated in areas where
power supply is not available use receivers equipped with batteries.
The schools pay for their supply.installation and maintenance. (Please aIso
see Q.20).
99
,
15. PIRWLEMS C'ONNECTEDW'I'PH FAVOURABLIE RECEPTION
a) Conditions of reception ait on lhe whole not highly satisfactory. Schools
in large towns are often situated in D.C. areas which suffer from electrical'
interference ; motor traffic and noises from the street and the playground are
other sources of disturbance. T h e provincial governments have so far been
busy with the installation and maintenance of community receivers in rural
areas and have not been able to bestow the same care o n school receivers.
AIR'S staff bas been visiting the schools situated within easy reach of the five
stations to advise and help in the improvement of reception conditions, but
with its present resources in technical staff AIR has not been able to undertake this w o r k systematically. Facilities for servicing and maintenance are
improving but are on the whole inadequate.
b) Usually the receiver is installed in the school hall or in one of the laree
classrooms, and different classes which have to listen to the broadcast assembye
there at the fixed fime by rotation. T h e average number of students w h o
listen to a broadcast is about seventy-five. Only in some schools, particularly in
Delhi, loudspeaker extensions have been provided in more than one room to
enable ,a larger number of students to listen in according to a pre-arranged timetable.
c) 'Ilhe students (generally sit in the same w a y as they do in a classroom.
d) Elementary instructions about tuning, volume control, reducing electrical and other interference etc., have been issued along with booklets
containing school broadcast programmes.
T h e provincial governments have a number of schemes for the development of commuiiity listening in India; school [broadcasting would form a
part of any such scheme. T o co-ordinate all such schemes in the provinces
and to give the necessary technical guidance, all India Radio has been
making n survey of listening conditions all over India for the last six
months. O n the basis of the data so far collected, w e have alread issued
guidance notes on rural broadcasting and hope to be able to do tge same
for school broadcasting in the near future.
'
ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
16. FREQUENCY M W U L A T I O N IN 9CI3OOL B R O A D ~ C A S T I N G
Not used.
17. TELEVUSION I N SCHiOOL BROAIDCA'STIKG
Not used.
18. W T E B N A T I O N A L EXCtHA'NIGES
Exchange of school broadcasts with foreiign broadcasting onganizations has
not been m a d e on a regular basis. Until t w o years ago w h e n w e published
our school broadcast programmes in English. w e sent copies to the following
two organizations:(i) BBC, ,London.
(ii) Educational Advisory Council of Radio in Education, 60 East 42nd
Street, N e w York.
In return w e have received from time to time school broadcast material,
printed and recorded, from the BBC.
W e would like to start international exchanges but m a y not be able to
do so (fors o m e time until w e can build u p an organization within A I R which
can prepare material in English based on school broadcasts in the various
Indian languages.
19. FUTUIREB U N S
100
Our future plans are linked up with all sorts of difficulties, mostly not of an
educational type; hence questions 19 and 20 are being answered together.
The future of school broadcasting is to be viewed as part of a much bigger
question, namely the development of community listening in India. In
this connection the following facts should serve as 0ackground:a) Long distances (6) Relatively poor communications;
c) Except in towns power supply generally not available or in certain
towns not available during 24 hours;
d) L o w per capital income and {e) Radio receivers, not manufactured in
India and subject to high import duty and freight and transport charges, the
ãverage price of a reasonably good receiver being Rs.450 to Rs.500=f35 or
more.
Radio is an ideal medium in 'India for mass education though in view of
the above factors the prospects oI a rapid increase in domestic listening are
not favourable. Hence, the stress on the development of community listening
which is being developed in three directions:
(i) Community listening in villages for the farmers. Almost all stations
o€ AIR broadcast a daily ''¡Rural Programme".
(i;) Community listening in schools, both in towns and villages.
and
(iii) Community listening in industrial areas by the working class population for w h o m AIR has n o w started broadcasting special programmes
from 3 stations.
While AIR provides the pro'grammes the development of community listening is in the hands of provincial governments. It means not only installing but also maintaining in a proper working order a very large number
of receivers in towns and villages. So far the provincial governments have
beeil niostly engaged on development under part (i) above. In the case of
schools they have not so far undertaken to finance any scheme for installing
receivers which means that schools must pay for the receivers. But the
rr.ther meagre finances of most schools in India do not easily permit this
"luxury".
The word luxury has been advisedly used because it raises the question
of attitude. Unless the utility of school broadcasting is widely recognized,
it will continue to be looked upon as a luxury and hence the disinclination
to investing money for it. It must be admitted that school education in
India is run on utilitarian lines and the percentage of successful candidates
at the final examination is still the main criterion of the efficiency of a
school. The average school teacher has a limited outlook, long workin
hours and a low salary, and his environment is not conducive to intellectuaf
pursuits. A n eminent educationist some time ago described the villiage
school library as not good enough to tempt one to literacy even on a Robinson Crusoe Island. It is, therefore, not surprising that he is apathetic to
new ventures.
The special rôle of broadcasting in India is, therefore, to break through
this wall of apathy and create enthusiasm for school broadcasting to reach
the small town and village school whose students cannot have access to
well-equip ed libraries, films and other means of mass education. AIR'S
efforts in &is direction have been pretty successful in two provinces, Madras
and iBombay, but this is only the beginning. .
Our future plans regarding school broadcusting are dependent on h o w
quickly the Siate can finance it directly or by subsidizing the schools and
thus persuade them to make it a necessary part of the school time-talble,
and secondly, h o w best we can create enihusiasm among. the school authorities and the teachers. The second, to s o m e extent, is'within AIR'S competence and measureable success has 'beenachieved; but ibriclis cannot be made
without straw.
21. SCEIOOL ,mOAiDCASTING IN PR~OFEiSISIONALTRAINING
Except for oocasional talks about ,careers,school broadcasting has not been
used for trainincg for the professions,
1o1
MEXICO
Author of the report:
Ministry of Education, Mexico.
Note: This report does not follow the order of the questionnaire.
AIDMIINISTBATIVE STBUICTUJ3E
Q) The school 'broadcastingprogrammes at the primary, secondary and university levels, are controlled and supervised by the Educational Broadcasting
Department. The organization of this Department is as follows:
1. Art Section.
2. Co-ordination Section.
3. Programme Section.
4. Production and Publicity Section.
5. Record Library.
b) The personnel of this Department receives specialized training in the
Department itself. Moreover, a large part of the personnel has gained wide
experience in the commercial stations.
c) The personnel of the 'Department includes: seven producers,five s eakers,
one Head for each of the various activities, a Director-Generaland a &epuiy-'
Director. Each of them works sin hours a day on an average. T h e Department also has members recruited by the Directors from primary and secondary education, etc. Their training in broadcasting is empirical, but they
are extremely cultured. They do not, however, form,part of the permanent
staff. Their work is limited to one or three broadcasts each week, except on
important occasions when the work is intensified.
d) The permanent staff of the Educational Broadcasting Department has a
specifictask, in accordance with the distribution of functions mentioned above.
It is the Production Section Which is charged with the drafting of radio
scripts, "spots", programmes; dramatizations, under the supervision of the
ArtrSection and of the Bureau OE the Head of the Department. It sometimes
happens that the radio scripts and the dramatizations are drafted by the
teachers themselves. 'In such case they are submitted to the Department which
approves or rejects them.
As regards the budget,it may be said that, as far as the Educational Broadcasting Department is concerned,it varies according to needs. At the present
time there is no budget for the Section dealing with primary and secondary
teaching and with the training of teachers. The teachers w h o devote themselves to this talk are commissioned in virtue of their teachers' diploma. The
artistic co-operation is offered spontaneously either by the pupils or by the
National Institute of Fine Arts, whose music teachers have always given their
co-operation generously and entbusiastically.
fFL4CEDNG MEIJHODS AND SUBJECTS
a) T h e Educational IBroadcastinlg Department's slogan is to make Iearning a
pleasure. For this purpose, it was necessary to harmonize the educational aims
and the interests of listeners-in.
As regards the broadcasting pragrammes of the General Board of Primary
Education, it m a y be said that no ddnite teaching method is followed; but
10.5.
the general aim,is to complete the historical, social, literary and general artistic
knowledge of pupils with the latter's co-operation.
b) As the Educational Broadcasting [Departmentdoes not exercise any control
over school organization, nor over strictly educational programmes, and as
it gives broadcasts which, although of a cultural nature, differ from the
foregoing, it is impossible to spec5fy the number of subjects contained in its
programmes.
As to the school prolgrammes, the 'General Board of Primary Education has
indicated that about 400 pupils take part in the various broadcasts in one
school year.
c) T h e most suitalbile times for pupils are in the early morning, before their
w o r k begins, during the lunch hours and in the early evening, parlicnlarly
between 6 p.m. and 8 p.m. A s regards the primary school programmes, the
most suitable hours are on Saturday mornings; for, as most of the schools are
lacking in receiving-sets,the pupils listen to these broadcasts in their homes
and induce their mothers to listen to then1 also.
d) The IEducational Broadcasting Department broadcasts on an average fifteen
programmes each day: a total of seven hours, distributed over the variou5
networks, since the Department has not yet its o w n broadcasting station.
CO-OPEFiATJON OIF AADIQ AND THE SGHOOLS
a) T h e schools co-operate by sending teachers and pupils to take part in the
various programmes. Certain teachers already have experience in this W o r k
and n o w give a special programme during the whole of the week. Moreover,
the schools themselves are those most anxious to do everything possible to
interest p u ils and their parents in educational broadcasts.
b) T h e c%ef difficulty is that the pupils w h o take part in these broadcasts
are for a long time without any special training. They are engaged for a few
weeks only and so it is not possible to forin a homogeneous group with broadcasting experience. This is' no doubt due to lack of personnel. S o m e of the
present members of the personnel have had personal experience in broadcasting, but the others have to trust their intuition.
c) T h e teachers have c o m e to interest themselves in broadcasting owing to
their natural (bent. T h e Popularization Department of the Ministry of Education has not concerned itself u p to the present with the publication of p a m phlets,, the (broadcastingof school plays or dith other means of publicity in
this respect.
SUITABLE AIGES
a) According to the (EducationalBroadcasting Department, those w h o benefit
most from school lbroadcasts are the students of the teachers' training collages,
the pupils from approximately ten to fourteen years of age in the primary
schools, and those completing their last year in the secondary schools.
SCtHOOL B I R O B D C A I W I N G S T A T I S T W S
For the reasons already mentioned, the Department is unable to reply to these
questions.
T h e Primary Schools Board has indicated that out of the 783 schools in the
Federal District about 35 benefit each year by this form of teaching.
M~ISCJXLANBO~UUS
EDU~(UTIO~NAL
FWOBLEMS
T h e IGeneral Board of Primary Education has indicated that, as regards'school
programmes, the following difficulties exist:
a) There is no special time-table for this work. Consequently, every other
kind of activity detracts from their efficacy;
b) U p to date there has been only one professor: Carmen de la Fuenta, w h o
104
has undertaken to prepare the radio scrilpts and dramatizations, to correct
the diction and expression of the pupils and to draw up the programmes;
c) Generally, all kinds of factors are lacking, and, although the circumstances
are not strictly of an educational nature, they certainly contrlbute to the inefficiency of educational broadcasting.
SYSTBh17ATIC ENQILJIRNfiS
This field of action still remains unexplored.
TECiHNICAlL CONDITIONS
a) The receiving-setsused are of different foreign makes. They are all medium?
wave sets,
b) 'Ithas been impossible to estimate their number as they have been acquired
thanks to private contrihations from teachers and pupils, and they are not
controlled by the Ministry.
c) The conditions of reception both in the primary and higher schools are
excellent. Pupils and teachers take a definite interest in this kind of activity.
d) IReception in the schools is not arranged in any special manner except
when there is a special reception room. In most schools appropriate rooms
are improvised, if they do not already exist.
e) Generally speaking, teachers have not yet received any special advice on
this matter. The Board of Secondary Education gave a series of lectures last
year on auditory and visual education, which reatly benefited teachers interested in the subject. Likewise,an exhibition of auditory-visualaids gave very
satisfactory results.
f) Short waves are hardly ever used for school broadcasts.
FUTURE PLANS
This year, the Board of Secondary Teaching and the 'GeneralBoard of Primary
Teaching have established a n e w department called the Continuation School
Bureau, which is instructed to give concrete forin to the n e w plans.
DIJ!SICULTIES
OF ALL KINDS
a) The Ministry of Education has not its o w n broadcasting station.
b) Lack of propaganda.
c) The lack of a specific budget for meeting these needs.
1805
POLAND
Authors of bhe Report:
P o M i e Radio and the Polish National Commission for Unesco.
INTRODUCTION
The w a r and the [German occupation have left very heavy traces in Poland in
the field of national education, land the w o r k of reconstruction in this field
forms a particularly arduous task.
(However, fully aware of the importance of this reconstruction, w e are
endeavouring to carry it out with the help of the most modern methods,
including the use of broadcasting.
But the experimental nature of our school broadcasts does not yet offer US
sufficient material, particularly of a lbtatistical nature, to enable us to answer
in detailed fashion all the questions in Unesco’s questionnaire.
T o these difficulties must also Ibe added the almost total destruction of the
archives. T h e following information must therefore be considered as a proof
of our goodwill to satisfy Unesco’s request, the scope of which sometimes
exceeds our possibilities and is better adapted to countries that have suffered
less from the last world cataclysm.
Qur reply comprises all the data relating to school broadcasts organized by
Polskie Radio in primary schools.
1. H I S T O R Y
’
T h e Polskie Radio school broadcasts were resumed after the w a r from
13 October 1947 onwards.
F r o m 13 October 1947 to 22 June 1948 they ilncluded three 15 minute broadcasts a w e e k for upper classes (V-VIII) in primary schools. Moreover, in
M a y and June 1948, special history and literary broadcasts were given for
those studying for the Leaving Certificate.
For the school year 1948-49. these broadcasts were divided into three series,
namely:
Series for pupils of classes III-V in primary schools;
Series for classes VI-IX in primary schools;
Series for kindergartens.
In *view of the experimental nature and af the organization of these broadcasts, w e are not yet able to give statistics in support of the above data.
SUPERVISION A N D CONTROL
2. RELATIONS BETWEJ3N THE STATE AND THE R A D I O OfiGANIZATIQNS
a) T h e school broadcasts are organized by Polskie Radio, a State entierprise,
in co-operation with the Ministry of Education. Within thce General
Directorate, these broadcasts are supervised and controlled b y the Broadcasts
€or School Division which forms part of the Prooramme Department.
b) T h e Ministry of Education, in a circular yl.P.5769/48 No. 31, dated
23 December 1948, instructed the schools to includie school broadcasts in their
107
sylhbi and to arrange the hours of work. and particularly the recreation
{between lessons, so that pupils cain listen as often as possiible to these
sa:::E
ts.
T h e educational authorities have particularly recommended inspectors to
see that Zihte school broadcasts are incorporated in the syllalbi.
e) There is no Council for School Broadcasting in Poland.
3. RHGULATIONS CQNiCERNING SOHOOL B R O A i D C A S T I N G
School #broadcastingis not yet sufficiently developed to warrant legislation on
the question. There are only school regulations incorporating school broadcasts in the syllabi.
MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET
4. ADMINISTRATI'VE ST~RU~C'I'URE
Polskie Radio is lacking in precise data (concerningthe organization of school
broadcasts in schools. A s regards the organization of these broadcasls within
hlskie Radio ,seeanswer lo qaestion 2.a.
5. PERSONNEL
a) Tfheorganizers of school broadcasts arc officials of Polskie Radio, and the
lecturers are temporary collaborators ot that organiza'tioln.
b) T h e "ßroadcasts for Schools and Youth Section" consists of four persons.
All these persons arie university m e n and are chosen a m o n g active educationalists. A special organizer-a musician, w h o visits the schools of musicis in charge of broadcasts for popularizing music. T h e organizers are all
permanently ensacfed by Polskie 'Radio and devote all their time to thieir work.
Moreover, the" "Broadcasts for Schools and Youth Section" temporarily
engages lecturers, w h o are chosen a m o n g teachers specialized in scientific
work, professors and university m e n w h o are able to popularize science or
techniqae. Polslkie Radio asks them to broadcast lectures within thle framew o r k of school broadcasts.
Lastly, writers, whose works for children have o'bjective or artistic value,
are also employed. Polskie Radio broadcasts these wopks. Thse numiber of
persons of the t w o categori,esjust mentioned, aad w h o are employed temporarily, is approximately fifty. Naturally, they devote only a part OC their time
to school Ibroadcasting.
All the persons mentioned under b) generally broadcast and d r a w up scripts.
It is one of the principle tasks of the "Broadcasts for Schools and Youth
Section" to examine these scripts and to accept them if approved.
6. F I N A N C E S
As school lbroadcasts are financed b y different institutions, the Bolskie Radio,
the Ministry of Education, the National Committee for the Development of
Broadcasting, precise statistical data are still lacking and a partial statement
of these data would give an incomplete and erroneous picture.
EDUCATIONAL ASPECTS OF SCHOOL BROADCASTS
7. TE,ACHLNGME'IlHODS AND SUMECTS
a) School broadcasts are considered ias auxiliaries to teaching and education.
Intended for groups of listeners, and supervised by a professor, they cover
10s
the most important questions of everyday life, history and culture. They teach
pupils to ohserve nature, and inculcate in them the love of music by making
it understandablie to them through a simplified analysis of its elements.
The broadcasts for the upper classes are like a radio news bulletin for
schools. Given three times a week, they usually include tallks and sometimes
recitals with or without music.
The above mentioned radio news bulletin ifor schools comprises in particular: Talks on historical events, whiioh are interesthg from the point of
view of the development of democratic ideas in Poland and elsewhere; talks
on ciirrent social, economic,political and cultural problems; systematic broadcasts for popularizing music, ideas on the pitch end colour of sound, information on musical instruments, rhythm, etc.; talks on nataral history in relation
to prclblems of everyday life, for instance, observations of nature during a
particular month, cultivaition of flQWers, the (breeding of (furredanimals,
practical ideas on farm life, etc.; informative talks on important or new
inventions; broadcasts on the activities of young people and of their school
organizations, with a view to estalblishing friendly relations between young
people of 'differentparts of t'he country, and to encouraging them to engage
in productive work for their native-land.
b) c) All the methods of school broadcasting are determined by the fact that
the latter is an auxiliary to education. Generally, school broadcasts for pupils
of the lower grades are-closely related to the subjects: Polish,(naturalhistory,
geography, history.
.
Por pupils of the upper .grades,the acho01 broadcasts are usually in the
nature of talks.
This difierence in methods generally gives good results. In many schools,
teachers use the 'sukmject matter of school broadcasts for the purposes of
discussion, as subjects for composition and as auxiliaries to textbooks. The
pupils listen regularly to school broadcasts, frequently send in interesting and
wise remarks, showing that they (benefitby them.
d) A school broadcast lasts from twenty 'to Iwenty-five minutes. The most
suitable times are in the morning. Polskie Radio therefore gives these broadcasts for the more advanced pupils at 8.55 a.m. and for the younger pupils at
[email protected] a.m.
OP BADI0 AND THIES C H O O L S
II. ICO-OPERATION
Letters are exchanged between the "Eroadcasts for Schools and Youth
Section" of Polskie Radio and the schools. Letters from listeners-inare usually
of a collective nature and are received mort frequently from schools, entire
classes aind only occasionally from individual pupils.
The teacher often adds something to the pupils' lptters,and even asks Polskie
Radio lfor details on interesting or n e w sources of information.
Co-operation of the radio and lhe school has not met with any real diffl- ,
culties. It proceeds in smooth and harmonious fashion.
Polskie Radio does not carry out any special propaganda for school broadcasts. The nature of the broadcasts are announced in a programme in the
same way as other announcements. Tlhce special reports in this field merely
concern occasional alterations in the time-tabble.
The weekly "Radio i Swiat" #("Radio in the World"), which publishes the
programmes of Polskie Radio, gives at the beginning of each month an afbstract
of the programmes of school broadcasts with a short commentary on their
contents for the guidance of leachers.
There are no courses for instructin teachers in the use of school broadcasts.
As has already been mentioned, sc%ool Qroadcasts are merely auxiliaries to
education. They have the charaoteristics of a llecture, an educational film, a
book and a radio news bulletin for youth.
The programmes of school broadkasts are co-ordinated with the general
edncationa'l programme.
9. SUITABLE AlGES
The 'broadcasts,forupper grades are intended for children from nine to eleven
109
I
years of age, and, for the upper grades for children from twelve to fifteen
years of age.
The results have been equally satisfactory for botth groups.
10. SCIHOOL BROADCASTING STATESTICS
The total number of schools in 1'947/48 was 21,721,of which 2,236 were in the
towns and 19,485 in the country.
The schools with radio equipment in 1947/48: 1,495 schools of which 26 per
cent in tho town and 4,5 per cent in the country.
Since then the situation has considerably imprared.
1.1. PUBLUCATIONS DESIGNED TO BE USED W I T H SCHOOL BROADCASTS
Polski'e Radio i!as no ublications oE this kind except the announcements
pu(b1ishedin "Radio i fwiat" (see answer to %.(a).
12. MISCELLANEOUS EDUCATIONAL PROBLEMS
Nil.
I
13. SYSTEMATIC ENQUIRIES ON 93HOOL BROAD'CASTS
a) Polskie Radio has noted the growing interest of children for school
broadcasts.
b) During the school year 1947/48 Polskie Radio carried.out two surveys on
school !broadcasts.
These surveys were intiended to find out the opinion of pupils and teachers
on school broadcasts and the results which had beeil achieved.
c) All the opinions received up to date from Polskie Radio (broadcasters,
teachers,pupils and leven parents have been favourable to school broadcasting.
d) There haz not yet been qny survey to determine whether the expcnditure
on scliool broadrasts is justified by the results.
TECHNICAL CONDITIONS
14. EQUIPMENT OF SCHOOLS WITH RECEIVING SETS
The expenses of installing receiving sets in schools are covered in various
ways. The set, are supphed bg public educational aiilhorilies, the National
Committee for the Development of Broadcasting and Polskie Radio. Moreover,
they are frequently purchawd by Parents' Committees,youth organizations and
"roups of pupils. The equipment ini9udetl receiving sels of various makes,
%ut mostly of "Super ~ga".
15. PR'OBLEM S C'ONNECTET)\ V I TH FAV OI'Hh'BLERECEPTION
a) The conditions of reception are at present satisfactory in aboul (i0 per
cent of Polish territory. It is hoped that they will be i00 per cent satisfactory
in about a year.
h) Aibsensc o'funiformity. Generally, lhe schools' assrmhly romp is used
for listening in, but certain schools have also insialled loudspeakers, usually
of Tesla zz 10 make, in the classrooms. There are no statistics on this
matter.
c) The class is not grouped in any special w a y for listening to broadcasts.
d) Polskie Radin does not give official advice to schools on technical
questions relating to school broadcasting.
110
ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
16. FREQUENCY MODULATION IN SCHOOL BROADCASTING
Not used.
17. TBLEVISION IN SGHOOL BROADCASTING
Not used.
1-8. INTER'NATIONALEXaHANGES
None.
19. FUTURE PLANS
With the proposed extension of radio developmsent in Poland, the installation
of Echo01 radio equipment will also be extended. Polskie Radio intends to
install radio equipment in 3,285 schools during 1949.
20. DIFFICULTIES OF ALL KINDS
Nofhing to add.
21. SCHOOL BROADCASTING IN PROFESSIONAL TRAINING
The use of school broadcasting in professional training has only been fragmentary up to date.
111
SWEDEN
Airthor of the report :
School Broadcasting Dept., Radiotjiinst.
1. HISTORY
-4few school broadcasts were transmitted as early as 1926 from one or two
stations in the North of Sweden, but the first experimental Programmes,
arranged by the Board of Education, began during the spring term of 1929
with six programmes. From September 1929 school broadcasts have been
regularly transmitted by Radiotjänst (the Swedish Broadcasting Company).
Illustrated pamphleis were published from the very beginning, but first only
on a modest scale. Without exception the broadcasts consisted of talks by
experts on the subjects dealt with. Twenty-€iveor thirty programmes were
broadcast every season (September-May), and all school subjects were allotted
time in these programmes.
In 1930-1932 the Programme Chief was appointed by the Board of Education,
but in 1933 the appointment was made, not by the Board of Education, but
by the Broadcasting Company itself.
Throughout the 1930's interest grew and special programmes were arranged
on all subjects common to all classes in the elementary schools. Programmes
in the Scandinavian languages for secondary schools as well as for elementary schools increased considerably ; bui programnies in other foreign
languages were not increased.
From the beginning the time allotted to each programme was thirty minutes
which were devoted almost entirely to teaching, being varied only with
about five minutes music.
The school broadcasts, in a general way, aim to give schools the opportunity to listen at first hand to information given by experts ; they are to
supplement class-room teaching by introducing fresh personalities and ideas.
In other words they aim to give such things as the teacher himself cannot
give.
SUPERVISION A N D CONTROL
2. RELATIONS BETWEEN THE STATE AND THE RADIO ORGANIZATIONS
a) School broadcasting is organized by Radiotjiinst. Between Radiotjänst and
the Royal Board of Education there is an agreement according to which Radiotjäiist is responsible far the production of all school broadcasts, accompanying
publications and financial arrangements. The Board of Education must
approve all plans for the programmes and is responsible for the distribution
of all amphlets and it is represented on the school broadcasting committees
[2 (cf.
The schools are in no way compelled by the Board of Education to use
these broadcasts and consequently there is no supervision of their use by
any official body. However, schools w h o aim to use the broadcasts are
asked to send in reports stating'how many times during the previous year
they have listened to the programmes. They do this when ordering the free
pamphlets for the coming year. This is to ensure that, as far as possible,
the p a m hlets are really used.
b) Raiiotjänst is subortinated to the Ministry of Communications and Transport. The school broadcasting department, however, is controlled by the
113
8
Royal Board of Education [see 2 (a)] which in its turn comes under the
of Ecclesiastics (school and church). (The Board of Education is a central
government office. TRese so-called central government offices in Sweden do
not function within the ministries but are subordinated to them and administer various tasks in the field of administration, education. social welfare,
and so on).
c) One committee is responsible for planning the programmes for the elementary schools and one for secondary schools.
The committee for the elementary school programmes consists of the Chief
Inspector in the section within the Board of Education which handles school
broadcasting, the Chief of the Talks Department in Radiotjlnst (chairman),
the School Broadcastino Chief (secretary), one representative, and a de uty
from each of the foylowing federations : the State Elementary Sc\ool
Inspectors’ Association, the Superintendents (Headmasters’) Association,
]Teachers’ Training School Association, the Elementary School Teachers’
Association, the corresponding organization for women, and the Junior
School Teachers’ Association. The representatives of these federations
are nominated by the organizations themselves and appointed by the Board of
Radiotjiinst for a period of one year. The committee meets at least twice a
year, in the spring and in the autumn, in order to give their opinions and make
suggestions about the programmes for the next term, to discuss manuscripts
that have been sent in and programmes that have been broadcast since their
last meeting, to give their criticisms etc. W h e n the plan for the next year has
been accepted by the committee it is sent in to the Board of Education to
be examined and approved. The acceptance of such a programme is finally
confirmed by the Board of Radiotjänst.
The head of the division in the Board of Education which handles secondary
education is the Chairman of the Committee for the Programmes for Secondary
Schools. Other members of the Committee are the School Broadcasting Chief,
an official from the school broadcasting section w h o handles these programmes, and five representatives from the secondary schools, most of w h o m are
foreign language experts. If needed other specialists in various fields are
called to the meetings. The Committee meets only once a year, when the
programmes are planned for the whole of the coming school year. Its functions are synonymous to those of the committee for the elementary school
broadcasts.
To be elected member of either of the two Committees the candidate must
be an active teacher or school administrator. The members of the committees
are paid twenty crowns for each meeting they attend, an allowance to cover
travelling expenses and, if needed,the cost of a teacher substituting for them
at S C ~ O Q ~ But
.
they do not receive any fixed annual pay. Radiotjänst’s o w n
representatives and those representing the Board of Education are of course
not paid anything. Whenever a member of ejther of the Committees is asked
to express an expert’s opinion on any particular programme he (or she) is
paid a fee.
3. R E G U L A T I O N S C O N C E R N I N G SCHOOL BROADCASTING.
No s ecial regulations exist concerning school broadcasting except that in
the cgarter of the radio organization (Radiotjänst is a semi-stateorganization)
there is a clause saying that school broadcasting is to be pursed in co-operation with the Board of Education. O n a Government order an agreement
has been concluded which regulates in detail the co-operationbetween Radiotjiinst and the Board of Education 12 (a)].
MANAGEMENT A N D BUDGET
4. ADMINISTRATIVE STRUClTURE
The talks department of Radiotjänst is divided into different sections, of
which school broadcasting is one. The head of each section is responsible
to the chief of the talks department.
114
5. PERSONNEL
a) The personnel belonging to the school radio works exclusively with
school broadcasts. Their employment conditions are identical with those
of other personnel within the company.
b) The School Broadcasting ,Section consists of :
i. The IChief of the School Broadcasting Section whose functions are : to
outline, in consultation with the Chief of the Talk Department, definite proposals for the term’s school broadcasts curriculum; to conduct the preparations for coming programmes through conferences with the committees and
the experts required for different subjects ; to call the necessary meetings
together and to introduce the agenda unless he commissions another officer
of the Department for this purpose; to outline before April 1 every year
a budget for the school broadcasting during the coming budget year; to
take responsibility for the reading of manuscri ts within the section; to
take responsibility for the co-operation with tte publications department
about the pamphlets and other printed material in connection with the programmes of the section; to conduct or supervise the production of programmes after it has been agreed within the Section that he shall do so ; to
compile and write manuscripts for programmes (for this he is paid an extra
fee) ; to conduct polls to estimate listeners’ reaction to programmes from
the section ; to co-operatewith the Board of Education and other authorities,
institutions, and organizations about matters concerning the work in the
Section ; to organize the teaching of English by the combined radio-correspondance method (referred to in paragraph 19) ;
2. One Programme Assistant w h o is employed full-time for programmes
to the elementary schools. Functions : to deputize for the chief where
programmes to the elementary schools are concerned ; to take responsibility
for such programmes. To this end he makes the proposals for Swedish programmes for elementary schools ; to complete the production of these ; if
commissioned by the Chief of the Section he calls together and introduces the
agenda at conferences of experts called to discuss programmes for which
he is responsible ; to read and adapt manuscripts ; to advise script writers
and performers ; to supervise the editing and publishing of text and ictorial
material for the programmes for which he is responsible; to conict and
supervise programmes generally after it has been agreed within the Section
that he shall do so; to compile programmes; to write manuscripts for
programmes (extra fee) ; to keep contact with listening schools,i.e. by listening
to school radio programmes in schools; to make analyses that may be
necessary in the Section.
3. One w o m a n junior school teacher, w h o works part time as Programme
Assistant for the junior (seven to eight) schools’ programmes: she then takes
over both the programme work and other matters that concern the school
broadcasts for the first four school years ;
4. One programme assistant, employed full-time,for programmes to secondary sohools. Functions : to deputize the Chief of the Section for programmes to secondary schools ; to take responsibility for programmes to
these; to this end he makes the proposals for the prsgrammes in foreign
languages and other subjects for secondary schools ; if commissioned by
the Chief of the Section he is to call and introduce the agenda at conferences
with experts about programmes for which he is responsible ; to complete
the work with the roduction of these programmes; to read and examine
manuscripts; to atvise script writers and performers; to supervise the
editing and publishing of text and pictorial material for the programmes for
which he is responsible ; to compile and conduct or supervise the production
of programmes.after it has been agreed within the Section that he shall do
S O ; to keep contact with listenina schools, i.e. by listening to radio programmes in the schools ; to assist he Chief of the Section wlth programmes
in foreign languages for elementary schools i.e. the combined radio-correspondence course in English ; to assist the Chief of the Section to maintain
contact with foreign school broadcasting organizations.
5. T h e Secretary of the Section. Functions : to divide the work over the
115
section as required ; to be Secretary at Committee meetings and subject
conferenceswhen commissioned by the Chief of the Section ; Yo take responsibility for the liaison with the publications department and to deliver to it
the material for the pamphlets ; to supervise the editin and publishing of
this material upon agreement with the ersonnel of the ection and to keep
the Chief of the Section informed on &is work; to assist the Programme
Assistants with the reading and adapting of scripts; to take art in the
work with the programmes; to be the Personal Secretary of tKe Chief of
the Section; to assist the Chief of the Section with the work of the
combined radio-correspondence course in English for elementary schools.
Also there are three secretaries for current business in the Section such
as making fee-lists,reporting on the forthcoming programmes, sending out
calls (in which people are reminded of their participation in programmes)
registering manuscri ts and correspondence,typing out scripts, etc. One of
them devotes about Ralf her time to the office work concerning the correspondence course in English (sending out study material, registering tests and
the pupils’marks, etc.).
If needed, and when they are considered suitable,teachers are employed for
short periods. They are then given duties connected with particular programmes, or series of programmes, editing work, etc.
Those w h o are employed in school broadcasting are recruited from educational organizations. It is desirable that they have experience of work within
the type of school for which their programmes are designed.
The technical staff is identical for all broadcasts. The production of programmes requiring more complicated direction is taken over by one of the
producers belonging to the theatre department.
c) The members of the stafcf broadcast to a certain extent, e.g. as narrators
in plays, or as commentators. They prepare the final scripts, if these are not
delivered by the authors Lo the school broadcasting section in such a form ‘that
they can be broadcast without any changes.
6. FINANCES
School rbroadcasting activities are financed by the proceeds from the licence
tees annually and given to the Corporation by the government.
‘r’hebudget of the school broadcas’tsamount to half a million crowns annually
which makes about 5 per cent of Radiotjlinst’s budget. The costs are
approximately distributed as follows:
200,000IKr.
12,000 ”
68,000 ”
50,000 ”
80;0001 ”
90,000 ”
programme pamphlets to elementary schools
programmes for secondary schools fees to partakers
programmes for elementary schools . outside the personnel
other direct costs for programmes \ of the section
salaries, etc.
technical costs and share in Radiotjänst’s
general expenses.
,
EDUCATIONAL ASPECTS OF SCHOOL BROADCASTS
7. TEAGHIINIG MET~HIOD’S
AlND SUBJECTS
a) Every effort is m$ade to arrange the programmes in such a w a y that they
create mental and manual activity both during and after the programme.
This is achieved by letting the children read or write, in certain programmes
they are told to write answers to questions asked them over the air; they
are told to repeat words, names, dates, etc., and in foreign language teaching
they are told to repeat words after the teacher, either individually or in
chorus. They join in the singing or carry out rhythmic movements during
the singing and music lessons.
116
b) The Subjekts are taken from practically all fields covered by the school
curriculum, even mathematics and gymnastics. However, history, literature
and music are the most suitable subjects for broadcasting. In the field of
geography. travel-talks are found to lhe the best in as far as they are based
upon authentic material. Certain character fostering elements dealing with
good behaviour, road safety thrift, temperance, and social responsibilities, etc., have been advantageously presented in the form of radio plays.
Programmes aiming at a wider citizenship have been given more and more
room in the curriculum.
c) Experience has shown that in most cases one single voice cannot hold
the attention of the pupils for very long. Variation should be aimed at
through the balancing of different voices. Por history the radio play has
proved to be the most suitable forni, for literature talks interwoven with
songs, music and recitals; geography and general science are presented in
the form of talks, interviews or descriptions closely related to pictorial
material contained in the pamphlet.
In the higher schools (the secondary schools) Swedish school broadcasting
does not rold such an advanced position as in the elementary schools. This
is due to the fact that it is a good deal more difficult to co-ordinate the
broadcasts with the times of the class periods. In the elementary schools
the same teacher takes most of the subjects, but the secondary schools have
different teachers for different subjects which makes it difficult, and in a
few cases impossible, to use the school broadcasts to full advantage. The
broadcasts €or secondary schoo!s have hitherto mostly been devoted to language teaching, for which radio is particularly suitable. In a small country
like Sweden foreign languages are IlIound to require plenty of room in the
school curriculum.
Every year series of programmes are arranged in English, German, French,
and in the languages of our neighbouring countries, Norway and Denmark.
In all they amount to about fifty programmes annually.
Since the language teachers in our schools are attaching increasing importance to practical knowledge-the ability to understand the foreign language in its spoken form and also to speak it-it is quite obvious 'that broadcasts in which native voices are brought to the microphone must become
more and more important, provided that they are well arranged and used.
In preparing suitable programmes the greatest difficulty has been to find
scriptwriters w h o realize the need for simplicity and the limitation of vocabulary that is imperative if the listeners are to follow the continuity of the
radio presentation. O n top of this the material of the programme itself must
be interesting and preferably lie within the scope of the pupils' o w n experience, if we are to succeed in overcoming the listening fatigue that becomes
such a danger when listening to a foreign language for twenty minutes. The
Eorm mostly used so far, the straight talk, is being surrendered more and
more. The dialogue is replacing the straight talk as it is better able to
reflect the spoken language and-if it is well written to drive home important phrases and expressions without tiring the listener.
The importance of the Programme pamphlets and their use in connection
with lhe foreign language transmissions has been very much discussed. At
present separate pamphlets are issued for each series. They contain ample
material for every {broadcast,pictures to which reference is made during
the broadcast (sometimes the whole broadcast is based on the illustrations
in the pamphlet), lists of difficult vocabulary, and, very often, the complete
text af the manuscript. It seems that the ideal rocedure would he to give
the teachers and pupils as much help as possiile in order that they m a y
thoroughly prepare themselves for the broadcast, and further to help them
in the follow-up work after it; and yet at the same time it would appear
best not to give them the detailed contents of the programme, otsherwise
they will never free themselves from depending on a written script. Yet we
often do rint the whole text. This is done at the request of schools w h o
refer to %arc the complete texts so that they can nia~keuse of them as they
Eke. The price of these pamphlets of 48 or 64 pages is forty ore each,
which is only calculated to cover printing costs.
The programmes in Danish and Norwegian are mostly transmitted direct
from the countries themselves: talks and reports on a variety of interesting
places and activities.
3
The instruction in the languages of the neighbouring countries intended
for elementary schools takes the form of lessons with the aid of special
Danish or Norwegian ”readers” or material published in the ordinary pamphlets. The terms usually finish with a quiz between Swedish children and
Danish or Norwegian children depending on which one of the languages has
been taught during the term. Norwegian is taught during the autumn term
and Danish durins the spring.
In order to stimulate the efforts of the schools to (find n e w and better
teaching methods a certain amount of air time is put at the disposal of
teachers with n e w ideas, w h o then arrange programmes on the ordinary
subjects but with an experimental approach. They are therefore given much
freedom in planning the broadcasts.
d) As a rule the school broadcasts are of thirty minutes’ duration. Experience shows that a straight talk by a single vdce should not e w e d
eighteen to tw-enty minutes, even if by a ver good narrator. The rest of
the time is taken up by music, messages to tge schools, etc. For all other
pTogrammes, including mixed programmes and feature programmes, twentyfive to twenty-six minutes have ,(beenconsidered the maximum.
Polls have shown that these times suit the Swedish conditions )best. The
programmes for the lowest ages (now broadcast at 9.30) will be changed
in 9.15.
8. CO43FWRATlION OF RADIO A N D THE SCHOOLS
W e take it for granted that this work should tbe carried out in close cooperation with the teachers’ associations and organizations. This has been
so, and no complications have arisen. Purposeful propaganda is pursued.
As a rule about three week-end courses are arranged annually in different
parts of the country, and some fifty teachers attend each one of them. Some’times a further course is arranged on a larger scale, lasting for about R
week and dealing with methods of listening and scriptwriting.
The two Commissions which during the 1940’s have been studying the
future structure of the Swedish school system have sugdested that regular
instruction in the usage of the school broadcasts should %e included in the
prospective leachers’syllabus at ihe training colleges. This aim has to some
extenf been effected through courses or through lectures by representatives
of Radiotjänst.
T o increase the listeners’ interest and to promote more work after the
broadcasts competitions are arranged ln drawing and composition writing.
Such topics are then introduced to focus and develop moral qualities and
compatible social conduct, animal protection, nature studies, traffic sense
folklore, games, legends etc. In a few cases 50,000 to 60,000 entries have
been received.
W e have also run teacher scripts’ writing competitions.
b) Through the broadcasts given over to eigerimenting With new ideas
in teaching, n e w methods which are being tried out in certain progressive
schools are made known to a wide audience.
c) As teachers in the schools have great freedom to outline their instruction programmes as they like, early attempts to link the programmes
closely to the curricula of the schools met with little success. Indeed difficulties increase as the classes pursue the system of concentration study, even
in the lower grades. Latest attempts to solve the prdblem have met with
more success. Programmes are lhluilt up in conformity with the needs of
age groups.
(I)
9. SUITABLE AGES
Attempts have been made to adapt the programmes to the age groups at
which they are aimed. The majority of programmes are for the age-group
eleven to fourteen years. However, with the increase of air time w e have
tried to give programmes for the lower age-groups as well. The programmes
for the secondary schools are chiefly for the age-group fifteen to eighteen.
118
It is hard to tell which age-group benefits most from the ,broad,castsfor
schools. As stated above each programme is aimed at a particular age-group,
and a11 results seem equally satisfactory.
18. SCHO'OLBROADCASTIK~GSTATISrlICS
Available statistics are not based on schools. It has been considered more
accurate to count the listening schools by "teachers' groups", i.e. all pupils
who are taught by the same teacher in the same classroom at the same time.
irrespective of the foim they belong to (from one to four forms in each class.
See 12). The figures below' are taken from the summary of a questionnaire
sent out by the School Commission in 1947 but since then the figures have
increased considerably.
.
Number of sdhool districts that ,have been enquired .............. 2,453
Number of school districts that have replied ...................... 2,362
TYPEOF SCHOOL
A (i.e. one teacher for each form)
a (=A, juniors) ..................
B1 '(i.e. one teacher for two forms)
b (=B1, juniors) ................
B2 (one teacher for forms 1-2,one
for 3-7) .......................
B3 (i.e. one teacher for forms 1-7)..
Other types .....................
TOTAL
NUMBER
OF
TEACHERS' GROUPS
.
6,782
4,892
4,717
5,010
4,699
2,344
3,402
2,620
2,801
1,151
1,798
27,151
2,179
583
261
16,078
1I
69.1%
47.9%
72.1%
52.3%
77:8%
50.7%
14.5%
59.1%
Saconldary schodls
Approximately 50 per cent of the secondary schools have ordered the
pamphlets. This estimate w a s made for the autumn 1948.
11. PUBLICATIONS DESIGNED :TOBE USED WITH SCHOOL B R O A D C A S T S
Ever since the start of school [broadcastinga pamphlet has been published
each term, i.e. twice a year, ror the elementary schools containing text and
pictorial material, together with suggestions for follow-upwork and hints on
further reading. The contents and size of the pamphlets has steadily increased
since its inception. In 1944 those programmes intended for'the first two
school years were printed separately and this n e w pamphlet later became a
special pamphlet for this stage. In autumn 1948 the original pamphlet was
divided still further, so that n o w there is a separate pamphlet for each strige:
one for the first and second forms, one for forms three to four and one for
the forms five to eight in the elementary schools. The school commission
suggested this division,but a further motive for its adoption was th2 shortage
of paper.
The pamphlet for the lower stages comprises sixteen pages. The typogmphical appearance of the pamphlet is based upon the results of teaching
psychology: big print, division of the text into phrases, etc. The pamphlet
also contains text and notes for the songs :hat are to be sung during the
term.
The pamphlet for the intermediate stage comprises 48 pages of 19 by 21 cm.
and is printed in offset. The cover is in rotogravure. The illustrations consist
of drawingb and photographs. Texts and notes for the songs are also included.
119
\
The pamphlet for the upper stage,the forms five to eight, has 64 pages 19 by
21 cm. The illustrations consist of drawings and photographs and when
neededce.,g. in certain telchnical prqgrammes-graphic descriptions, diagrams etc. Son'gtexts and notes are included.
The pamphlets contain material for all the programmes for the respective
stages irrespective of subject.
All.the three above-mentioned pamphlets are published by Radiotjänst and
paid for out of the licence fees. They appear twice a year: one
the sprinig term and one for the autumn term,. They are .distri%g%hkt
schools free of charge upon an order sent in by them each year. The question of charging for the pamphlets ,hasbeen discussed several times and it
has n o w been 'decidedto charge ten, tweiity and thirty ore respectively. T h e
local school districts will have to pay for the pamphlets, as they n o w receive
10 crowns a year €or every pupil lo defray costs for workbooks and textbooks.
The figures of t,hecirculation for the spring term 1949 were:
Pamphlet for forms 1-2................................... 160,000~copies
Pamphlet for forms 3-4................................... 165,000 copies
Pamphlet for forms 5-8................................... 210,000 copies
(The supply could not meet the demand).
F o r the programmes in Danish and Norwegian special books have been
gublished, containhg texts in those languages, one book fo-r each language.
uring the last few terms, however, these texts have been.included in the
intermediate pamphlet,bgt the books are used to a great extent in the secondary schools as textbooks for each of the languages. They can be bought by
schools at 75 ore each.
Concerning study material for the teaching of English on the elementary
school stage see special report.
The school broadcasts for secondary schools have so far mainly consisted
of foreign language broadcasts : English, 'German,French, Norwegian and
D'anish. For these programmes a pamphlet was published which contained
the complete texts of all the broadcasts in the three chief foreign languages,
and a short amgraph about the Danish and Norwegian programmes. However,
this pam,phl% too was divided in autumn 1948. Separate pamphlets are n o w
ublished for each of the languages: English (64 pp), 'German (48 pp) and
French (64 pp) and a n e w type is used. They cost 40 ore each and are paid
for by the schools. The Danish and Norwegian programmes are introduced
separately in pamphlets, which also include Swedish programmes for secondary schools. This last-mentioned pamphlet has this term also included
"English by Radio" programmes. The pamphlet costs 25 ore and is paid by
the schools.
There is also a "School Rad.io Song Book" comprising sixty of the best
son.gsthat have b!een sung during the singing lessons. However a new and
enlarged songbook will be published.
There.are no special teachers' pamphlets.
All the pamphlets are edited by the publimcations department in close cooperation with the school broadcasting section.
:l
I
12. NLSCSLLANEOUS E D U C A T I O N A L PROBLEMS
In a small number of schools in sparsely populated areas the pupils o to
school only every second day. And some schools have classes where chifdren
from seven to fourteen years are taught at the same time in the same classroom. However, there are only a few such schools. The problem is greater
in those schools where two or four year groups are taught by the same
teacher at the same time which is the case with about 40 per cent of the
schools in Sweden. T w o methods have been tried to solve this problem: (I) to
let pupils w h o are not going to listen, occupy themselves with silent exercises,
or (II) to put the listening group into a special room.
13. SYSTEMAT'IC ENQUIEUES ON SCiHOOL BROAiDOASTS
a) IUpon enquiries concerning the results of the listening teachers have
repeatedly testified that school broadcasting has been a stimulus in their o w n
120
w o r k and that they consider the variation it gives to the lessons invaluable.
and moreover that it is a real help in giving instruction. School broadcasting also helps to accustom the children to listen actively and not only
inattentively.
In a few subjects, for instance in the case of the Scandinavian lan
roadsinging and music, and during the last few years, in English, school rages,
casting has become completely self-sufficient in so far as it has provided
the whole of the instruction necessary in these subjects.
b) Certain experiments have been started to transmit s o m e programmes in
advance iby wire to certain classes to check the effect of the broadcast. A
psychological analysis of the ability to reproduce and absorb the programmes
in different subjects at the m o m e n t of the broadcast itself is under preparation. E d e a v o u r s are also m a d e to lget the reaction to the programmes
through personal contacts : visits to the schools and at small conferences
arraiigecl in different districts. In this connection it should be mentioned
that for s o m e years we have had a report system to test the reaction of classes.
A number of selected teachers report on the programmes they and their
classes have listened to by filling in a form. This form, sent out by the
school broadcasting section, is designed to note the children's attention during
each five-minute period of the programme and also the children's o w n opinions
about the programme (expressed 'by points system) and the teacher's viewpoints on speed, audibility etc., and the programme generally: its weaknesses,
its merits, and on the material in the pamphlet connected with the broadcast etc.
c) N o opinion surveys on school 0roadcasting have )been made.
d) N o abjective research has been m a d e to determine whether the cost of
school broadcasting is justified by the results, but the interest s h o w n by the
local and central school authorities has encouraged the radio organization to
continue.
TECHNICAL CON DITIONS
14. EQUIPMENT OF SClHOOLSI WIT'HR E C E I V I N G SETS
T h e local school authorities take care of the equi ment of the schools'
receiving sets, but in m a n y cases the teacher uses gis o w n set which he
carries into the classroom. T h e government gives a grant of 50,000 crowns
annually to be distributed a m o n g the districts that send in applications. A
contribution is thereby given to about 285 schools each year, w h o receive
175 crowns (for the purchase of a set (good sets can be obtained for 2150 to
300 crowns. This is therefore to )be looked upon as considerable help.) T h e
rest is paid by the school.
T h e smaller schools procure ordinary receiving sets but (centralradio units
are becoming increasingly c o m m o n . W h e n n e w schools are built government
grants are given for the installation and wiring of such sets on the s a m e princilples as other grants are given to n e w buildings.
15. PROBLEMS COINNECTEIDWITH FAVOURABLE R E C E I P T I O N
.
a) and b) As a rule the school classrooms are not designed for listening to the
radio and are unsatisfactory from the accoustic point of view but Radiotjänst is conducting certain experiments with various technical measures,
various "baffling" material on the walls etc., in order to bring about an
improvement. tln some cases special listening rooms have been constructed,
i.e. at s o m e secondary schools. Another solution tried w a s to have the pupils
listening in material rooms (the r o o m where m a p s and other equipment is
kept), the library or other localities where small groups could follow the
broadcast instruction. Such room6 are often used for the language teaching
since the gramophone is played there too. T h e great improvements that
have been m a d e of late have mostly been in the elementary schools. T h e
121
t
secondary schools lack equipment completely or if they have any it is
obsolete and in many cases worn out. New equipment has been procured
only to a small extent. (Governmentgrants for the purchase of sets in these
schools have also been suggested, and due to the interest shown by the local
authorities n e w secondary schools are furnished with radio equipment.
c) In most cases the children listen in the classrooms (butoften some other
suitable room has been furnished with a radio set (see 15 @J)and 12.).
d) Radiotjänst has on different occasions advised the schools as to what
should Ibe done to get the most favourable reception. In the pamphlets,w h k h
really are intended for the pupils, the teachers have sometimes been given
some general advice on h o w to get the best reception.
ADDITIONAL I N FORM AT10N
116. FREQUENCY MCNDUILA’I~IOINIINSCHOOL BROADCASTING
FAI. is not used.
17. T~ELEVISIONIN SGHOOL BROADICASTIING
Telecasts are not yet made in Sweden. Certain experiments are carried out
by a Committee for television research at Radiotjänst. This (Committeealso
takes up problems concerned with the possibilities of television for schools.
18. INTElRNATIONAL EXOHANtGE
International co-operation has chiefly concerned thle exahange of manuscripts, in the first place between the Scandinavian countries but also with
the BBC, GBC l([Canada), and the Australian school broadcasting section. In
most cases the scripts have been translated and adapted to Stwedish conditions. In the Scandinavian countries soine of the programmes can be broadcast in the native langua<ge. The radio organizations help each other in
paring programmes and a continuous exchange of rogrammes is establis!%
The Finnish radio can of course use the Swedisg scripts for the Swedish
language broadcasts. Norway can use the Swedish scripts if the weech is
slow and distinct but mostly they are translated. The same goes for Denmark.
A numiber of programmes are [broadcastin the language of the neighbouring
country in order to facilitate the understanding of the three Scandinavian
laniguages. In Sweden school broadcasts are made in Norwegian and Danish.
But Danish requires more explanation than Norwegian.
Concerning the contents in the programmes that come from foreign countries such topics are preferred that deal with conditions in the country itself:
land, people, culture but also other topics of general interest. T h e Canadian
radio has for instance prepared especially for Sweden a few programmes,
which were recorded in Canada ’bySwedes living there. Sometimes recordings
that have been made in foreign countries bv Radiotiänst’s reDorters are used
for school broadcasting purpöses.
The Swedish radio has also taken UP the BBC’s series ”Endish hv Radio”
in a few experimental broadcasts during the spring of 1939. These are
intended for the upper classes OC the elementary schools and for the lower
classes of the secondary schools. If successful this type of programme w
ill
be used more in future.
‘OnSwedish initiative a lively exchange of manuscripts was started between
the Scandinavian countries (see above). Very many scripts are used, and
the supply of good scriptwriters (with plenty of good ideas and material) in
a country like Sweden with its small population is comparatively limited. It
would, therefore, he a good thing if this exchange of scripts could be
expanded to include still more countries. There should be so to speak a
clearing office for manuscripts. Thus cultural work in the various democratic
countries could be maae available to young people in all of them.
122
19. FUTURIESPlLANS
.
In Sweden there exists one type of 6ChOOl broadcasting instruction which
is rather unique and as #faras we k n o w nothing similar has been tried out
elsewhere. W e shall therefore givc rather a detailed account of this experiment: The comlbined radio-correspondance course in English for the elementary schools.
The background of it is the school reform that is being planned in Sweden
which is intended to give the young people of Sweden a broader general
education. One of the points is to start with a foreiign modern language as
soon as possible. T o get a contact with the rest of the world it is necessary
for a people living in a country as small as Sweden to be familiar with one
of the world languages. This instructiou should be started in the elementary
schools, but the great obstacle is that the teachers on this level as a rule do
not have sufficient knowledge or ability to teach languages effectlvely. O n
the initiative of the commissioners (members of two commissions set up in
1940 and 1946 to report on the state of Swedish education) w h o have been
working to plan this reform,one of w h o m is the Head of school brsadcasting,
research has been going on for some years to find out if school radio could
be of any assistance in this teaching. The first period of the experiment
lasted for two years and concerned 500 pupils, the becond period concerned
1,500 pupils and in the autumn of 1949 a n e w two-year experimental period
is planned for about 5,000 pupils in 500 schools. The pupils have been of
two categories: the three to ten best pupils in the classes that take part have
been selected, or whole classes have taken part including the less talented
pupils. The latter category is intended to test the value of the advice given
by the commissioners that all pupils in the elementary schools should have
instruction. The first experiment was started in the si?.th form of the elementary school, i.e. the sixth school year when the pupils complete their
twelfth year. The second experimental period, however, was started on
pupils w h o had reached the age of eleven. The schools were selected together
with the local elementary school inspectors and represented various schwl
types in districts with different geographical and social conditions. T h e
methnd has briefly been as folloufs:
The instruction is a combination of radio, correspondence and direct
instruction by the classroom teacher. Study letters-leaflets written by the
radio teacher and sent to the schools free of charge,eight of them each yearform the basis of the course. The material of each lletter is gone 'through
during two half hour lessons each week for four weeiks (Tuesdays and Fridays
8.15-8.45).
For two periods per week the pupils work alone in their classrooms on the exercises in the leaflets; the two other periods are conducted
by the teacher. (The pupils w h o do not take part in the course work with
silent exercises on other subjects.) After a four-week period the pupils get a
written tes1 containing questions and simple translation exercises. This
constitutes 4he correspondence part of the teaching. These tests are sent in
together from each school to Radiotjiinst to be corrected. The correction is
done by undergraduates w h o are employed for this purpose. They are paid
in proportion Yo the number of tests they corlrect. Before the tests are passed
on to be corrected, the school broadcasting section works out rules for the
corrections and a scale for marking. The results are afterwards summarized
in a commentary which is sent out to tbe teachers at the same time as the
corrected tests are returned. This summary contains the correct answers with
alternative answers, commentaries on the solutions oI the pupils, and statistics
of the results a m also sent in order that each teacher can compare the progress
of his pupils with that of other schools. The marks are registered in a Ale
in the school broadcasting section to be dealt with statistically when the
results of the course are to be reported.
Other measlires to assist the instruction
Some of the texts have been recorded and discs have been sent out to schools
free of charge. Week-end courses and longer instruction courses have been
held for the teachers in the several districts. In a f e w districts counsellorsmostly seconsdary school teachlers-have visited the schools regularly, about
123
once a month, and taken a lesson with the pupils and afterwards given the
teachers advice and guidance. At the beginning of the courses instructions on
methods have been sent out to the teachers as a complement to the oral courses.
(When these experiments were planned it was assumed that the teachers were
not competent to teach English on their own.) Questions and conversation
exercises have therefore been compiled to be used along with the material in
the leaflets, and are sent out from time to time. The staff of the School Brosdcasting Section travel around and try to visit every school at least once a year,
but with the expansion (mentioned aibove) this will not (be possible in the
future. Advicie is of course also given to the teachers w h o address themselves
direct to the School Broadcasting Section. There is regular correspondence
with the teachers. Exchange oI letters with pen-friendsin English-speaking
countries is promoted.
In a limited area-the Island of Gotland in the Baltic-two courses are being
run simultaneously, one first-year and one second-yearin order to find out
h o w the technical difficulties with the curricula are to be solved in cases
where two groups of pupils on different levels are studying English and the
school having only one teacher w h o can conduct such teaching. In order to
create a basis for the judging of the results,all the pupils have been subjected
to two intelligence tests and two language tests. T b e opinions of the teachers
of their pupils and the pupils' school reports in Swedish have also been
collected. This material has been scientifically scrutinized by the "psychological-pedagogical institution" of the University of Gothenburg under the
direction of the professor of psychology, w h o has also carried out extensive
psychological research concerning Swedish school children.
T h e results that have been reached so far show 'that the method is usable.
It may eventually show n e w ways in which ordinary school broadcasting may
best be used. A comprehensive report will be made when the second experimental period ends after the spring term of 1949.
20. DIWICiULTIES OF ALL KINDS
Owing to the vastness oQ the country the relay stations are not strong enough
to reach the most distant regions. Geological and atmospherical conditions
also render the listening more difficult. These difficulties which ordinary
listeners meet with w
ill of course affect the schools still more with their higher .
claims on good reception.
21. SCHOOL BROADCASTING IN PROFESSIONAL TRAINING
Due to the limited air time that is at the disposal of thle school broadcasting it
has not been possible to promote the pupils' professional training. Vocational
guidance, however, has lbeen given to some extent.
124
SWITZERLAND
Author of the report:
René Doraz,Director of Radio-Geneva.
1. HISTORY
The main difficulties in Lhe organization of school [email protected] in Switzerland
are due to the political make-up of the country. Being a itonfederation of
twenty-two cantons which have retained complete independence in educational matters, Switzerland has to adopt rather unusual methods to cope with
any cultural pro'blems. Any organization can be centralized only in its administration, for it would not be tolerated if it imposed uniform methods in the
different cantons of the Conlkderation.
The Swiss broadcasting organization attempted to solve the problem by
setting up a central administrative organization with three transmitters for the
three linguistic regions and six studios, distributed accordine to the relative
importance of the three regions, three for German, two for grench and one
for Italian-speakingSwitzerland.
School broadcasting is organized on the same lines, having on'e central
administrative body, three regional commissions for the three transmitters and
six local commissions for the six studios.
T h e first attempts at school broadcasting were made in 1930 in Germanspeaking Switzlerland. From the outset, 125 schools from two cantons (Berne
and Solothurn) assisted in the experiments. In 1932 the organization received
official recognition in German-speaking Switzerland and in 1933 in Frenchand Italian-speaking Switzerland.
It should (be noted that educators and not the broadcasting authorities took
the initiative in school broadcasting in all three linguistic regions. Its status
was fixed by a decision of the Société Suisse de Radiodiffusion on 6 July 19.33.
SUPERVISION.A N D CONTROL
2. RELATIONS BETWEEN THE STATE AND THE RADIO ORGANIZATIONS
School broadcasting is one of the offshoots of the Société Suisse de Radiodiffusion, and is therefore 'entirelyindependlent of the official bodies of the
Conlfederation and the cantons. However, from the beginning of its school
broadcasting activity, the Société Suisse de Radiodiffusion has made a point
of collaborating with representatives of the Departments of Education in the
different regions of the country and members of the teaching profession. The
necessary contacts with interested schools are made through these members.
But it is worth noting that the School Radio is not organized by the State or
controlled in any way by governments, Communal Councils or public authorities. It (enjoys complete independence, but has to conform to the rules
governing the general operation of the Radiodiffusion Suisse. As Switzerland
has no Minister of Education it could not be under the control of any central
authority.
Owing to the decentralization mentioned above, there is no place for a
Council for School Rroadcasting, and the respons?bilities of such an organization are therefore shared by the various regional and local commisrions.
There is no state legislation on school ibroadcasting,but a Statute for the
purpose of ensuring regular broadcasts for schools. It was drawn up by the
125
commissions which took the initiative of introducing school broadcasting into
Switzerland and was adopted in 1933 by the Société Suisse de Radiodiffusion.
These re lationr define thle administrative set up of school broadcasting and
the jurisgction of its various (bodies. The chief authority in the organization
is a Central Commission, a (Regional Commission being attached lo each
linguistic region and a Local Commission to each studio.
The Central [C'ommfssion
consists of threle representatives of the Sociétk
Suisse de Radiodiffusion and the three Chairmen of the Regional Commissions.
It is responsible for relations between the Société Suisse de Radiodiffusion,
the Departments of Education of the different cantons and foreign school
broadcasting organizations. It makes regular reports to the Sociéti!Suisse de
Radiodiffusionon the1 general work of the various commissions. It looks after
the exchange of scripts between the different parts of thje country and also
carries out general financial work: preparation of the annual budget and the
special budgets of the differlent regions, according to a quota system which it
draws up itself.
,
The Central Commission is so made up that, even it were not for the special
provisions in the Statute, it would provide liaison between thce educational
authorities in the different cantons.
There are three Regional Comimissions:one for German-speakingSwitzerland,
attached to the Beromiinster transmitter,one for French-speakingSwitzerland,
attached to the Sottens transmitter and the third for Italian-speakingSwitzerland. attached to the MonteXeneri transmitter.
Their work is to draw up the programmes for the school broadcasts in their
region,in accordance witch suggestions from the local commissions;to determine the length of the broadcasts and issue general instructions on the lines
along which the school broadcasts should be given, to carry out any necessary
propaganda to bring home to the pupils' parents the iniportanoe of school
broadcasting and lastly, to sulbmit general annual reports to the Centri1
Commission.
The Regional Commissions are so constituted that even apart from the
special provisions in the Statutes,they providle liaison between the educational
authorities in the different cantons.
'1hereare six Loca! Commissions, each being attached to one of the studios
at Basle. Zurich and Berne in German-speaking Switzerland, Lausanne and
Geneva in French-speakingSwitzerland and Lugano in Italian-speakingSwitzerland. 'In order to stress the importance of school broadcasting in general radio
work, the Statutes provide for thqe Director of the studio or his deputy to he
an officer of the Local Commission attached to his studio. The members of
those Commissions are appointed by the studio, in agreement with the local
school authorities and teachers' associations.
(Only representatives of the teaching profession, headmasters of schools,
specialist teachers and the studio manager or his deputy sit on the Local
Commissions which form the real backbone of the school broadcasting
organization in Switzerland. Their duties are as follows: preparation of
broadcasts in collaboration with the overall programme heads of leach studio;
choice of peuformers,artists, musicians and producers; examination of scripts,
adoption or refusal of projects; supervision of rehearsals and performances;
listening to and criticizing broadcasts and the examination of teachers' reports
on broadcasts.
The Local Commissions are so constituted that, even apart from the
provisions in the Statutes,they act as a liaison with the educational authorities
in the various cantons.
-
3. REIGULA'I'IONS
C O N C E R N I N G 9CJHOOLBROADCASTING
See albove.
MANAGEMENT A N D BUDGET
4. A!DMINISTRA'TIVE STRUCTUiRE
See reply to question 5.
126
5. PERSONINEL
There is no special personnel for the school broadcasts. Once they have been
adopted by the above-mentioned Conlmissions, they come under the ordinary
programme arrangements of the broadcasting organization. This means that
it is impossible to tell h o w many people work full time on the school broadcasts. The producers, engineers, operdtors, announcers and the specialists in
sound effects are all part of the regular studio personnel. Mo employee works
exclusively on the school broadcasts. The other staff necessary is chosen from
among the re,oular studio assistants or from among members of the teaching
-profession, or authors belon8in.g to neitlier of these two categories but w h o
have gradually come to specialize in scripts ifor school broadcasts.
The authors rarely make the actual broadcasts, except when they are considered by the Local Commission to have sufficient talent for the purpose.
Similarly, the texts prepared by authors are generally handed over to ex ert
adapters w h o re-write them in a form more suitable for broadcasting. T .ey
frequëntly have to be entirely revised by the szecialists in the broadcasting
studios, though the suibstance remains the same.
B
6. FINANCES
School broadcasting in Switzerland has its own budget which is voted each
year by the SociétC Suisse de Radiodiffusion. No grants are made by the
Departments of Education. Once the budget has been voted by the Committee
of the Soci& Suisse de Radiodiffusion, it is distributed among the different
regions in the country accordin to a quota system which may vary with the
degree of local development of &e broadcasts.
In 1948, the total expenditure on school broadcasts amounted to approximately 150,000 Swiss ‘francs. However, this sum covers only the expenses for
performers and authors and for the Control ICommissions but not the cost of
technical operation,which is included in the general budget of the studios.
It is difficult to say what relation this sum bears to the Swiss broadcasting
organization’s total expenditure on programmes. In 1948 the total expenditure
for programmes, including orchestras, was 5,400,000francs. This shows that
the percentage for school broadcasts, if it could be calculated, would be
extremely small, but the 5,400,000 francs cover all programme expenses,
whether for cultural purposes,mere entertainment or information without any
educational character. It is impossible to tell from the w a y expenditure is at
present set out what is the actual percentage.
EDUCATIONAL ASPECTS OF SCHOOL BROADCASTS
7. TEACHING METHODS AND SUBJECTS
a) The general principles governing the preparation of school broadcasts may
be summed up as follows :
1. The receiving equipment should be well tuned-in.
2. The classroom where the lessons are given should be used for listening,
or else a special room holding one class only.
3. ÍThe teacher need not listen to all the school broadcasts, some of which
are suitable for his pu ils while others are best for a colleague’s pu ils. Some
choice should be ma& with the help of the ”documentation leaflets” indieating the age’groupfor which each of the broadcasts is intended.
4. Preparation will be made for the broadcast either one or several days
beforehand. For this purpose, the teacher w
ill use the information supplied
by the ”documentation leaflets” and if he feels this to be insufficient,he will
carry out further research himself. If an epidiascope is available, he w
ill
project the illustrations on the leailets and comment on them.
5. During the broadcast, the teacher should not allow any other work to
be carried out, as the pupils should taike notes for making a summary and
127
-. ~.
.
.
..........
...
.
.
---
.
...
...I,i......,,
,.
-
........
,.,~,.
for later reference. In some cases, pupils might be allowed to sew w h e n
music is broadcast without any commentary.
6. After the broadcast, if ossible the following da the teacher should ask
his pupils to do some wor! based on what they tave heard. This w o r k
should be written in a speclal copybook and illustrations cut out and stuck
on the o posite page.
It wonrd be a good idea to m a k e special drawings for the text.
7. T h e teacher should encourage his pupils to enter regularly for school
broadcasting competitions. They should enter individually or as a group,
according to the circumstances: only the teacher can decide whicb would
be best.
These principles underlie the educational w o r k of the Swiss school broadcasts. They are a general guidance but not a complete methodology, which
is at resent being worked out for the three regions in the country. Incidentalyy, it is worth pointing out that it has not been possible in Switzerland
to publish any w o r k on the methods of school broadcasting applicable to
the whole country, as the broadcasts are worked out according to very
different principles in the various regions. O n e region (German-speaking
Switzerland) likes to have long unbroken reports, whereas the French and
Italian-speakingregions cannot endure them. In these regions the m a x i m u m
len th for a broadcast is twenty-five minutes and in German-speaking Switzerfand forty minutes, for it has been found that the ethnical characteristics
of the pupils have a very great influence on their powers of absorption and
concentration.
b) T h e methods of presenting broadcasts vary from one region to another
for the same reasons. T h e result of sixteen years’ experience m a y be s u m m e d
up by quoting the following average percentages for school broadcasts in
the three linguistic regions of Switzerland :
FPench-speaking Switzerland
Music ..................... 30 % D r a m a .....................
7.5%
Literature ................. 18 % Geography ................. 5 %
Other subjects .............. 17 %
History .................... 12.5%
Science .................... 10 % including an annual broadcast for
Goodwill Day.
Germanspeaking Switzerland
Music ......................
20%
Literature .................. 6.5%
Science ....................
201%
D r a m a .....................
4.5%
History ....................
18%
Other subjects .............. 22 %
Geography .................
9%
Italim-speaking Switzerland
D r a m a .....................
17%
Science .....................
9%
Literature .................. 13%
Geography .................
9%
9%
13% C o m m e r c e ..................
Music ......................
History ....................
9% Other subjects .............. 21 %
These figures are natural1 only an indication but, though the percentages
given are not permanent, d e y do s h o w the relative interest s h o w n by the
children in school broadcasts in the-light of surveys which have been carried
ont.
All experience has s h o w n us that in most of the schools the types of broadcast preferred by teachers and pupils were as follows :
1. Music, in all different forms from simple concerts with n o commentary
to biographies illustrated by a f e w works or extracts from the works of the
composer in question.
It should be mentioned that the favourite musical performances are s y m phonic works with commentaries analysing the pieces, and presented simply ;
performances of orchestral instruments as solos or ensembles ; performances
of the w o r k of a composer within the compass of children e.g. Miozart, Schubert, S c h u m a n and Debussy. A noteworthy discovery has been that the
least successful musical broadcasts for schools are those devoted to chamber
or choral music.
128
a. LNerufuR. Experience has s h o w n that the most successful broadcasts
are those which discuss the personality of an author regarded as a classic
for schools, or those where a living author actually speaks over the radio.
3. Science. Although a fairly small proportion of broadcasts is devoted to
gcience, it is noteworthy that children love scientific subjects, particularly
Chose that are illustrated in every-day life, locomotion in all its forms, the
industries of the country, hydro-electric power, etc.
4. Hisfory. T h e tendency is to reserve a very important place to national
history in the school broadcasts. Only rarely do the children hear sketches
dealing with the history of other countries. even of those bordering on Switzerland.
5. Drama. In these broadcasts the clqssical plays which are part of the
regular school syllabus are performed. For example, Molière's works are
included each year in the school broadcasting programmes.
6. Geography. These broadcasts are generally in the form of talks or descriptions given by explorers themselves rather than straightforward lessons
in geography. In recent years Switzerland has organized quite a number
of expeditions and each time they have been dealt with in the school broadcasts, so that the children can listen to the actual explorers or else to the
results of their experiences.
It should further be pointed out that a number of moral subjects are tauaht
in the broadcasts every year, e.g., courtesy, good manners, etc. There are &o
special broadcasts for Christmas and Goodwill Day.
c) It is practically impossibIe to say whether there is a special methodology
for each subject, as everything depends on the ability of the outside expert.
A broadcast in the form of a simple talk m a y be of outstanding quality and
sure of success if the author is his o w n interpreter and has excepiional
microphone talent. However, it m a y be said that in general, talks are less
popular than dramatic performances in the form of sketches, impressions,
scenes and connected vignettes. All experience has s h o w n that music should
be used as s aringly as possible except for qpecial sub'ects. Finally, sound
effects, whic! are m u c h used in dramatic broadcasts dor adults, should be
alnlost totally excluded from school broadcasts, where the attention of pupils
should be focused on lhe text itself. There should never be any distractions
to take a w a y from the child's concentration. Another point worth mentioning is that children do not like hearing works performed by other children.
In such cases, it seems that children s o m e h o w are afraid that adults are
bein condescending by representing performances of young people. W e
shoufd like to k n o w if the same experience has been m a d e in other countriea.
It should be noted that all the information w e have sup lied refers to school
broadcasting for primary and higher primary school pupi?s. For the purposes
of the survey the only results which should be given in this report are those
arising out of group w o r k under the guidance of a leacher. Such being the
case, it should tbe m a d e clear that in Switzerland there are only two types of
school broadcasts, those intendrd for primary schools and experimental broadcask for secondary school pupils, but there are no broadcasts at the unibersity
level within the ternis of reference.
School broadcasting in Switzerland is mainly concerned with primary and
higher primary schools. However, secondary education has not been overlooked 'by the responsible Commissions. French-speaking Switzerland is the
only region where attempts have been m a d e to m a k e a regular feature of
secondary zchool and university broadcasts. T h e experiment w a s begun in
1939 and has just been given up (because it has been found that the results
were almost completely negative. It should (be stated that it w a s not the pupils
w h o formed a negative judgment in this matter but the teachers Ihemselves,
who were influenced by practical considerations and perhaps also by the fact
that lhe Commissions responsible for drawing u p the school broadcasting
pr?grammes consist chiefly of primary school teachers, the other levels not
being represented. T h e main difficulty is that secondary schools and udiversities in French-speaking Switzerlahd have very different time-Pdbles,according
to the district, and that the syslem of having specialist teachers to give lessons
every hoUr makes it very difficult to leave space in the ordinary time-table for
the whool broadcasts. T h e Commissions have c o m e to the following
conclusion: if the scheme of broadcasts for secondary schools and universities
129
,.
"5
A-
f
9
were to be taken up again, they would have to be given outside the normal
hours of attendance and the leachers would need to be prepared to leave a
place in their regular sylltibus lfor discussions on the broadcasts thus heard at
home. This supposes that all the pupils. in the class have receiving sets.at
home, which is not the case at present. However, the natural development of
broadcartinu in Switzerland indicates that it will be the case in two pears at
the latest. ft seems pmbable that a proposal will then be m a d e to reconsider
the organization of school 'broadcasts at the secondary school and university
Level. Indeed it would ibe rather extraordinary if senior school teachers were
not athractrd by the possibililies which the Swiss broidcasting organization
offers young people in the field of music and especially classic drama.
d) Interesting experiments have been m a d e in connection with the length
of ibroadcasls. The normal duration for pupils from ten to fifteen years of age
is thirty to thirty-five minutes, with a m a x i m u m of forty minutes w h e n the
broadcast is particularly varied. But {he pupils in German-speaking Switzerland bave a greater ower of concentration than those in French or Italianspeaking Switzerlancf In the latter region, the broadcasts generally d o not
exceed iwenty-fke. Finally, children from seven to ten years of age do not
like listening for more than fifteen to tw:nty minutes even to the mo:t wonderful stories. In French and German-speaking Switzeïlanct the hours of broadcasting are between 9 and 11 a.m., while in Italian-speaking Switzerland they
are always in the early af!ernoon.
In French-speaking Spv'tzerland, t w o systems are used: in winter, the broadcast is given once-between
10 and 11 a.m.-and
in summer, the sanie
broadcast is given twice, between 9 and 10 a.m. and between 10 and 11 a.m.
of the same day. T h e reaxon for this is as follows: schools in French-speaking
Switzerland have very different time-tables, as there' are mountain, country
and city schools, but they all listen to the same broadcasts. Many schools let
their pupils go at 11 a.m. once they change over to the s u m m e r time-table and
in lhe schools in s o m e districts the last hour in .the morning is often devoted
to religioub instluction. It is therefore necessary io prgvide two opportuni,ties
for listening in th,e summer.
It should further [be no!ed that the best broadcasts for pupils are rebroadcast
for parents, either on Saturday afternoon or in the evening. This kind of
propaganda has given excellent results.
T h e ,broadcastsare arranged as follows:
In French-speaking Switzerlrmd:
A n average of forty broadcasts a year at íhe rate of four a month, broadcast
between 60.10 and 10.40 a.m. (9.10 to 9.40 a.m.).
In Germnn-speaking Switzerland:
A n average of forty-fivebroadcasts a year at the rate of six lo seven a month,
broadcasl betwcen 10.20 and 10.50 p.m.
In Italian-speakinq Switzerlflnd:
An average of twecty-five broadcasts a year at the rate of three a month,
broadcast befween 2 and 2.25 p.m.
8. C O L L A B O A A T I O N BETWEEN R A D I O A N D THE SCHOOLS
o) The degree of collaboralion depends en!irely on the systems in Switzerland:
1. tn French-sperrlcing Switzerlmd the pupils have the option of l'stening
to the broadcasts, which are @ten once a week during the school period.
2. In Gtrman-speaking Swztzerlsrrid,the broadcasts, which are given o n an
avenge of lwice a week during ,the school period are more emphatically
reconimended to the tench'nn profpssion.
3. In Itolian-speaking Swifzerland the canton authorities compel pupils to
listen to the broadcas's, the time-table of which fits in with thc general timetable of the schools; these broadcast three times a month during lhe school
period.
Collahoration between the rad'o and schools follows automatically from the
very constitution of the rCommissions which include rrprrsentntives of the
teaching profession and school governors. It is most credive, for there has
130
never been any conflict between the brohdcasting and school authorities since
the introduction of school broadcasts. Propaganda is carried on a m o n
teachers through officia: educational bulletins, the direct influe,!ce 0
inspectors, headmasters or school groups, and by the teachfrs w h o are
responsible for iraining future school masters and mistresses. In the cantons
wherp there are teachers’ training schools, lectures are organized on the aims,
use and value of school broadcasts. W h e n there is no teachers’ training school
in the canton, the future schoolmasters and mistreses (student teachers) are
taken to the studio where they receive general instruction on the use of school
broadcast s.
Propaganda is carried out a m o n g parents, as well as a m o n g members of the
teaching profession, in the form of meetings and lectures which are held in
the schools or community halls. Teachers, the parents of the pupils and
official representatives are invited to these meetings. Series of lectures have
also been organized for towns and villages far removed from the itudios; the
lecturer turns on extracts of recorded broadcasts and then projects illustraiions
relating to them.
T h e necessity of co-ordinating .the general methods in school broadcasis
and ordinary schooling has never been felt. However, it has been observed
that the techn ¡que o€ presenting school broadcasts has already influenced
general education. for s o m e of its more -vividmethods have been spontaneously
adopted by m a n y teachers.
4
c) Lastly, the presencc of headmasters and representatives of the Departments of Education on the conimissions ensures ihe general co-ordination of
radio and school syllabì. For instance, the literary works chosen arc those
which have to be treated in thP regular school syllabus; the school broadcasts
present seleclcd texts and extracts from the books which have to he read in
the State schools and the community songs, which vary from year to year in
the general school syllabus. are a regular feature in the school broadcasts, so
that the pupils and teachers can hear model performances.
I).
S U I T A B L E AGES
It ,has been found that school broadcasts arc of the greatest benefit to pupils
between ten and fifteen years of age. However, s o m e broadcasts are m a d e for
younger children from seven to ten; stories are usually the main feature in
such programmes. Details are given abovc l‘or pupils at the secondary and
higher level, between fifteen and nineteen years of age.
10. SCHOOL BROADCASTING STATISTICS
a) b) c). T h e development of school broadcasting since 1933 has been as
follows: starting from the theoretical number 0, w h e n the Swiss plan w a s
inaugurated, there were in 1935, 13,500 pupils in French-speaking Switzerland,
10,000 in German-speaking Switzerland and 1,225 in Italian-speaking
Swilzerland.
in 1941:
23,000 pupils in French-speaking Switwrland
20.000 ”
” German-speaking
,3
2,450
”
’’ Italian-speaking
,I
in 1947 & 1948:
27,260 pupils in French-speaking Switzerland (1,045 classes)
9)
(1,500 classes)
40,000 ’) ” German-speaking
9,
4,900 ” ” Ilalian-speaking
(1 70 classes)
foial: 72,160 pupils and 2.715 classes. These figures are naturally for primary
achool classes.
At present, unless a special drivc is made,. it is to be feared that the number
af classcs lislening io the school broadcasts IS more or l e s stabilized.
131
’
11. PUBLICATIONS DESIGNED TO BE USED WITH SCHOOL BROADCASTS
Three publications are used in conjunction with the school broadcasts, wesponding to the three linguistic regions of Switzerland.
1. In Fremchspeuking Switzerland ”La Radio P l’Ecole’’, which L now
entering its sixkenth year and is published in two !forms,a booklet for sale in
bookshops and bookstands for periodicals, and documentation leaflets, printed
on one side onlv, intended for distribution to classes or for despatch to
subscribers in schools only. This publicafion appears three times a year, with
sixteen leaflets in each smeries. It should be noted that this publication is the
only one run off in photogravure and sold at such a low price that e v e w pupil
canafford io buy a copy.2. German-speaking Switzerland has ”Schweizer Schulfunk”, a small booklet.
with line engravings, published six times a year and sold either by the n u m f h r
or by subscription.
3. Italian-speaking/ Switzerland has the ”Radioscuola”, an even smaller
booklet, alzo published six times a year and sent to teachers, since listening is
compulsory.
Only the French publication is so m a d e that âny documentary material
relating to the broadcasts can be projected by epidiascope. It has been found
that these illustrations, p.tintcd on one side only, are used by the pupils €or
their project w o r k even if they do not listen to the corresponding broadcask
12. MISCELLANEOUS EDUCATIONAL PROBLEMS
The details given above show that there is co-ordination between the broadcasting organization and the aubhorities in government schools. There has
never been any restion of establishing pei-manent relatioris between this
organization and t e private schools in Swilzerland as they are not nearly as
important as the government schools.
However, the statistics on reception aod reporh m a d e io the Commission
show that rivale schools etc. take an interest in the school broadcasts and
encourage It eir o w n pupils to follow them.
The headmasters of private schools are not even afraid to let their pupils
enter for the competitions organized by the school [broadcasts. There is no
prcvblem to be solved in this connection, nor with regard to *he diversity of
languages for the very Set-up of the school broadcasting organization has
enabled this problem to be solved.
R
13. SYSTEMATIC ENQUIRIES ON SCHOOL B R O A D l C A S T S
a) b) c) d) Enquiries in Switzerland are carried ou1 as follows: members of
the teaching profession periodically receive questionnaires asking them to give
their opinion on each of the broadcasts in the season. Analysis of these
questionnaires shows the Regional Commissions h o w far these broadcasts have
been successful in their preparation and execution. W h e n all the questionnaires have been analysed, the result, at least in French-speaking Swiizerland,
is used for drawing up a final conclusion which is entered in the general files
kept by the Regional Commissions. This collection of files gives a complets
history of the w o r k carried out in school broadcasting. It contains the
conclusions on each experiment and thus supplies important and interesting
documentary eFidence.
Furthermore, in French-speaking Switzerland, the teachers in some cnntons
are obliged to include in their annual report a special section on school broadcasts, describing their aims, effectiveness and the results of their experience.
These remarks are collated by the Departments of Education which communicate them to members of the Regional Commissions.
There is no experimental school in Switzerland, nor any research centre
dealing zpecially with school Ibroadcasting. T h e very lact thst a remlar
enquiry is m a d e a m o n g teachers and pupils implies that Switzerland has never
yet felt the need of investigating opinions on school broadcasting. Lastly,
with regard to the delicate question of determining to what extent the expenses
involwed in school broadcasts are justified by their results, neither the Rcgional
Commissions nor the Société Suisse de Radiodiffusion have ever thought of
cafrying out such an enquiry, as they felt it would be dangerous 10 organize
this. Indeed its condusion might very likely be thaZ the rewltr, are not
132
proportionate to the expenses involved, but that would not m e a n that an
educational work, the importance of which is clear to all, should be
discohtinned.
I
BECHN lCAL CONDITtONS
14. [email protected] SCHOOLS WITH RECEIVING SETS
T h e schools are equipped with commercial receiving sets, the price of which
varies between 2 0 and 400 Swiss francs. In mort cases, the cost OP e uip in
schools with receiving sets is not borne by the school, but by t e oca
K P f
authorities, parents' groups or the teacher himself; they supply the receiving
set or m a k e it available to the pupils. No systematic campaign has been
carried out to supply schools with receivino sets. But it should be mentioned
that a drive called "La radio i la montagne" w a s launched, for the purpose of
providing the schools in the poorer localities with free receiving sets. This
appeal was macle through the radio and gave excellent results. It is repeated
every t w o or three years so that the most urgent needs can be met. Another
society with the slogan "the radio for the blind and needy invalids" has a
clause in ils statutes providing for part of the m o n e y placed at its disposal
to )bespent on the purchase of receiving sets for schools.
However, it seems that a general survey should be carried out, fo: !he
purpose of supplying schools, and schools only. with very chea receiving
sets. T h e eternal obstacle to Ibis solution is t h e problem of the Ludspeaker
which should be wf excellent quaIity.
15. P R O B m S CONNECTED WITH FAVOURABLE RECEPTIQN
Reception conditions are generally excellent. T h e only problem which remains
to be solved is the regular check-up on receiving sets, the quality of which
deteriorates with time. Whenever there is sufficient space in the school
building, a special r o o m .i set aside for radio reception, but this is not often
possible. Experience shows that broadcasts yield better results if the pupils
can listen to them in the building where they are used to working. T h e Radio
School Commissions advocate this system, where the class remains tinchanged.
In all the buildings now being constructed, at least in the towns, rovision is
m a d e for central reception with loudspeakers in each classrooms. !his system
has the advantage of serving two purposes: reception of the school broadcasts
each morning, or in special circumstances, the playing of records which enable
the headmaster to create a certain atmosphere. T h e members of the teaching
profession receive regular instructions on reception-conditions; reminders are
also given in etIuc:itional pu'blicafionsand all student-teachers receive apecial
advice.
ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
16 t 17. FREQUIEUICY &IODlULATION A N D TELEVISTON IN SQHOOL
BROADCASTING
As neither of these is used in Switzerland, iher- can be no question of adoptmg
them for school broadcasts.
18. INT"NATI0NAL
EXCHANGES
W e have never tried making international exchanges. However, our experience with exchanges between the various linguistic regions of the country
has been disap ointin Consequently w e are rather sceptical about exchanges
on a broader Easis. owever, with Unesco's expert services, an interesting
experiment could be carried out along these lines, scripts with translation
being supplied to countries so requesting as well as the sound part of the
programme.
%
133
'1
19. FUTURE PLANS
Various experiments have been started and will be carried on, but it is still too
early to give their results. One articular experiment is in connection with
a series of broadcasts on musicafappreciation, to be inserted in the regular
.school broadcasts ; another relates to the presentation of complete dramatic
works. and still another to the adaptation of ncvels for children of a certain
age group. The introduction of broadcasts on current affairs, chosen in
Rccordance with the wishes of the children themselves, is also being considered.
As regards propaganda, a schemc is being considered for supplying the
Local Commissions with some kind of mobile unit with play-back equipment,
so that propaganda can be carried out in the villages some distance from the
studios.
Lastly, with regard to secondary school broadcasts, the possibility is bein
considered of carryinm out an experiment specially intended for technicaf
school pupils between ?ifteen and nineteen years of age.
The short-wave service has also decided to see if it would be possible to
relay some of the best school broadcasts for Swiss nationals living abroad.
20. DIFFICULTIES OF ALL KINDS
The main difficulty is the equipment of schools with good quality receiving
sets which are not too expensive. There is also the problem of a reception
room, as broadcasts are often hampered by the fact that in Switzerland some
of the village schools have several classes in one room.
However, it is safe to claim that radio broadcasts are widely used throughout the country and that, though sonic teachers are not interested and uncooperative, most of them are accessible to this n e w method of educating their
. pupils.
21. SCHOOL BROADCASTING 1 N PROFESSIONAL TRAlNING
Attempts have been made in Germana and French-speaking Switzerland to
provide broadcasts in connection with professional training, In Germanspeaking Switzerland, these broadcasts intended for technical schools have
assumed the character of national educalion. There are six broadcasts in the
winter, each broadcast twice, at 6.30 and 8 p.m. (malring twelve broadcasts)
and arrangements are made in schools for .pupils to listen to them under the
guidance of teachers, particularly in technical and handicraft schools. They
are specially addressed to apprentices who, in Switzerland,betwcen the ages
or thirteen and sixteen are obliged to talie supplementary lessons in general
culture for two days a week,apart from their regular training. The broadcasts
have been listened to by forty schools in German-speaking Switzerland and
have yielded excellent results. ln addition to the national education, these
broadcasts also included dramatic work and discussions in which young
people themselves spcak on problems which might be of interest to their
companions.
In French-speaking Switzerland, four broadcasts each winter are arrmgcd
for boys and girls w h o are not serving any apprenticeship (farm workers.
messengers, etc.). They are all organized by the Dcpartinent of Education
of the canton of Vaud. in connection with the lessons in civics for young
people from fifteen to nineteen years of age. These lectures are intended
lo help intellectual, moral and civic development. The broadcasts are introdrrced at the beginning of the year with a talk by the Head of the Department
nf Education w h o takes the opportunity of reininding his audience of the
value of the lectures and their aims, and of the behavioiir which is expected
of the listeners. The following subjects arc dealt with : civics, economics,
agriculture, national history, topical science, tourism, courtesy and good
manners. All these talks are given on the responsibility of the Department
The opportunity is taken to let the listeners hear
rlf Education of Vaud.
leaders in the teaching of science,medicine and sport,magistrates and canton
and federal officials. It is èstimatcd that these programmes have about 3,000
listeners each year.
184
UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA
Aufhor of the report:
J.J.G.Grobbelaar, Chairman, National Council for School Broadcasting.
1.
HISTORY
T h e first experiment in school broadcasting in South Africa w a s carried out
in March, 1930, by the Cape Education Departnient in collaboration with the
African Broadcasting Company. Four lessons were broadcast to selected
schools in and around Cape T o w n and receiving sets were loaned to the
sahools for the purpose. This first experiment aroused a great deal of interest
and reports received from princi als were in favour of its continuation, hut
it w a s dropped owing to lack of Ands.
In May, 1934, African Broadcasting C o m p a n y approached the 1)epartnlenl
again and a tentative plan w a s drawn u p for further experimental w o r k in
connection with school broadcasting. T h e n c a m e the N e w Education Fellowship Conference in C a e T o w n and a representative of the English Board of
Education, Mr. G.'T.
,nikna!€
reported on the w o r k done in Great Britain
This w a s followed by the official visit of Sir John Reith, the Ih.rec.tor of the'
British Broadcasting Corporation and the meetin with the Provincial authorities in Pretoria in October 1934, A s a result of all this the SuperintendentGeneral of Education (Professor h1.C. Botha) decided to give school broadcasting a thorough trial in the Cape Province. A n advisory committee on
school broadcasting w a s appointed and this body met for the first time
on 14 November 1934. It w a s decided that a regular service of school
broadcasts ,sFould be inaugurated as from the beginning of the next school
year, consisting of t w o twenty-minute lessons on each school day, one in
English and one in Afrikaans, one for the primary standards and one for the
secondary standard.
In 1938, w h e n the service w a s firmly established in the Cape, the Superintendent-General of Education (Dr.W. de Vos Malan) approached the South
African Broadcasting Cor oration and the Directors of Education in the other
provinces and suggested ttat the school broadcast service of the Cape Province
might be extended to the other provinces. A s a result of negotiations a National Council for School Broadcasting w a s appointed in August, 1938, consisting
of representatives of each of the five Education Departments, of the Teachers'
Associations in the different provinces, and of the South African Broadcasting Corporation. This Council met for the first time on 12 September, 1938,
and it was decided that the school broadcast service should be extended lo
the Transvaal and the Orange Free State as from the beginning of the school
year 1939. T h e Natal Education Department could not see its w a y clear to
join in the scheme and only recently asked for representation o n the National
Council. T h e South African Broadcasting Corporation agreed to broadcast
the school talks from all the stations in the Gape Province, Orange Free State
m d Transvaal.
SUPERVISION A N D CONTROL
2. R E L A T I O N S BETWEEN TX3E STATE AND THE RADIO O R G A N I Z A T I O N S
School broadcasting is organized by the Provincial Departments of E d u cation viz., T h e Cape, Transvaal, Orange Free State, Natal and the Union
Education Department. It is not subject to the supervision of the Government, local council or other public authorities.
CI)
135
-
.......
..
.
,
I
,
.
:
.,
".
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:.
, r C
b) T h e Ministry of Education -i.e. the Union Education Department is a
co-organizer.
c) There is a National Council of School Broadcasting. The members are
elected by the Provincial Departments of Education and by the Teacher's
Associations Only eminent educationists are eligible for membership and
members of the council are not remunerated. T h e functions of the National
Council for School Broadcasting are:
1. To study the needs of the schools.
2. 'To draw u p the programmes i.e., the series of broadcasts for the year,
and to discuss the general principles of policy.
3. R E G U L A T I O N S C O N C E R N I N G SCHOOL BROADCASTING
There are no laws, administrative decrees or rules concerning broadcasting.
MANAGEMENT A N D BUDGET
4. A D M I N I S T R A T I V E STRUCTURE
T h e actual broadcast service is arranged by the Cape Education Deparlmenl.
After the draft rogrammes have been approved by the National Council the
rest of the worf in connection with the editing and revision, etc, is undertaken by the Cape Education Department. T h e actual production of the
rogrninmes is in the hands of the South African Broadcasting Corporation.
g h e functions of the South African Broadcasting Corporation are :
a) To grant the necessary facilities for broadcasting the school programmes.
b) To produce the broadcasts and to pay for this servim. This was undertaken in 1943.
c) T o m a k e the necessary recordings of dramalogues and musical talks.
T h e Education Departments thus provide the programmes and the South
African Broadcasting Corporation produce them.
5. PERSONNEL
a) and b) At the head of the school broadcasting service is the organizer
w h o is also Chairman of the National Broadcasting Council. Ne is ta fnlltime Education Department official and is assisted by two clerks and a
shorthand typist. They are also members of the Cape Education Departmest,
and all are quite separate from the personnel of the South African Broadeastina C o oration.
c) f i e &!airman,
w h o devotes half his time to the School Film Service,
revises the final scripts. T h e members of the staff seldom broadcast.
6. F I N e N C E S
School broadcasts are financed in the first Instance by the Cape Education
Department of the Provincial Administration. The amount required each
year is incorporated in the Cape Provincial Administration budget. At the
m o m e n t the position is as follows:Annual Eapenditure:
1/2 Salary of Chairman plus full salary of Assistants (including
cost-of-living allowance) ......................................
1,650
Cost of printing 50,000 radio gazettes ..........................
900
Pees for scripts submitted for broadcasting ....................
1,300
Estimated cost to South African Broadcasting Corporation for school
broadcasting
................................................. 1,500 .
Total ............................
136
f&356
Annual Xeumnze:
Contribution by Transvaal
Education Department .............
Contribution by Free State
Education Department ..............
f350 for 119 schools participating
in broadcast
E250 for 30 schools participating
in broadcast
Contribution by Natal
Education Department
.... i
.........
€250 for 100 schools participating
in broadcast
Contribution by Union
Education Department .............. €100 for
-
40 schools articipating
in broa&ast
Sale of 20,800 radio gazettes to co-organdzing departments ..................
Total .................. f1,168
289 Total schools
EDUCATIONAL ASPECTS OF SCHOOL BROADCASTS
a.
7. TEAGHiINC;MEFHODS AND SUBJBjC'I'S
a) Tlie same as in the ordinary classro&
but of course the approach is
different.
b) Subjects include: (1) Literature, (2) History, (3) Geography, (4) Musical
Appreciation, (5) Nature Study, '(6) Bible History, (7) Civics, (8) Vocational
Guidance, etc. T h e most appropriate are Nos. (l), (3), (4),(5) and (7).
C) T h e most c o m m o n and most effective programmes are dramalomes or
dis.cussions-the straight talk is avoided as far as possible.
,d)For a talk, fifteen minutes.
In Sonth Africa the most suitable times are 11.15 a.m.- 11.38 ;1.111., 11.38 a.m.12 p.m.
L
Sample School Broadcmte Scherlolc
FIRSTQUARTEH,
1949.
Mondays:
a) (11.15-11.35 a.m.):
K e n u land: Die Oranje-Vrystaat.
(Standerds IV lot VI.)
b) 411.38-11.58 a.m.):
R o u n d the 'Globe: T h e United Kingdom.
(Standards V1.X to X.)
Tuesdays :
a) , K n o wvour countrv: The Orange Free State.
. ,(Standards IV to VI.)
b) Ons reis om die wêreld: Die Verenigde Kaninkryk.
QStanderds VI1 tot X.)
Wednesdsvs:
a) Uistappim in die Natuur:
(Standerds IV to€ va.)
b) Musical Appreclation: Folk music.
(Standards IV to VI).
Thursday:
a) Rambles in Nature.
(Standards IV to V'I.)
b) Mndekwaardering: Vo1kniusit.k.
(Standerds IV tot VI.)
-
Fridays :
01 Nuusbespreking.
(Standerds IV tot VI.)
b) Current Topics.
(Standards VtI to X.)
8. CO-OPERATION OF HAD180 AND THE SCHOOLS
a) There are panels in each province w h o study the needs of the pupils
and report on their reactions to the broadcasts. This means is effective and
raises no special problems. Efforts are being m a d e to interest teachers in
using school broadcasts-by relfresher courses, by lectures and denionstrations to students at the trashing institutions and %y the circuit inspectors
w h o encourage teachers.
b) The methods used by the Radio are usually the same as those used by
the schools.
IC) Every effort is being m a d e to co-ordinate the school ibroadcast with the
syllabi but it is a difficult matter so that in the past only subjects have been
tackled which the teachers could not do equally well themselves e.g.. national
prohlems. Results are satisfactory.
a
'9. SUIT'ABLE AGES
There are two age-groups namely:10 years to 13; 14 years to 17 years or roughly the primary and the seconclary stages. T h e 10-13 group yields the best results.
10. S G H W L B R O A D C A S T I N G STATISTICS
Total number of schools in the Cape Province as at 30 September, 1948
(exclusing training colleges):
European, 1,333
Coloured, 1,099
Native,
2,243
In the Cape Province approximately 200 European schools and 110 Coloured
schools participate in the service. Native schools do not participate. T h e
figures for the schools of the other provinces which participate are set out in
reply No. 6. -The followino numbers of pupils were enrolled in the Department's schools (excluding ?'raining Colleges) on 30 September, 1948:
European, 160,139
Coloured, 169,092
Native,
275,613
T h e total number of pupils w h o actually listen in in schools is difficult to
stale. It is estimated at 50,000.
There has been a steady drop in the number of schools participating in the
service. At the inauguration in 1938 there w e r e about 800.
II. PUBLlCATIONS DESIGNED TO BE USED WITH SCHOOL B R O A D C A S T S
A quarterly radio gazette is puMished b y the Cape Education Department and
CO ies are distributed to the Co-organizing Departments. It contains summaries
ans illustrations of the subject matter of talks, etc., to be broadcast, as well as
hints to teachers and suggestions in connection with follow-up activities. T h e
gazette is published Ib the Cape Education Department and copies sold to the
other Co-organizing JepartmentS. Expenses are defrayed from \Provincial
Funds.
12. M I S C E L L A N E O U S E D U C A T I O N A L PROBLEMS
These are m a n y and varied.
1. T h e prolbleni of bilingualism (Afrikaans a n d English). Separate broadcasts have to be prepared for each group.
158
2. 'Provincial education systems, with the result that the syllabus differs
appreciably in the different provinces.
3. T h e presence of backward races especially the natives.
13. SYSTEMATIC EiNQUIRIES ON SCHOOL B R O A D C A S T S
a) O n the whole educational results have been very gratifying.
b) Enquiries have 'been sent out from time to time.
e) Surveys have been m a d e of the school broadcasters' opinions on school
broadcasts, teaching staff and pupils.
d) T h e expenditure is fully justified by the results.
TECHNICAL CONDITIONS
14. EQUIPMENT OF SCHOOLS WITH RECEIVING SETS
The usual type of set used is the commercial type. T h e Education Department sihidises the purchase of sets on the E-for-E basis and the schools see
to the installation.
.
15. FROBLEMS CONNECTED WITH FAVOURABLE RECEPTION
a) Reception is on the whole very unsatisfactory and nothing or very little
has ibeen done by the /South African Broadcasting Corporation to remedy
this state of alfairs. T h e coverage in the outlying districts is bad.
b) S o m e schools have a pulblic address system installed but generally
speaking the individual receiving set is used in the classroom.
c) T h e pupils are grouped round the loudspeaker.
d) Yes. schools have (been given advice on organizing reception by means
of notices in the gazete.
ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
16. FREQUENCY MODULATIIOIN
Not yet used in South Africa.
17. TELEVISION IN SCHOOL BRWDCASTING
Not yet used.
18. INTERNATIONAL FaCHANGES
No exchanges have been made, but it
is
contemplated starting soon.
19. FUTU&kBLANS
Our system has been remodelled on the lines of the British Broadcasting
Corporation system.
280. DIJ3FICULTIES OF ALL KINDS
None.
21. SCHQOL BROADCASTING IN P R W W I O N A L 'ITWINING
Very little has been done in this respect except (broadcasting on vocational
topics. Results at this stage are difficult to gauge.
189
UNITED STATES
m e structure of education in the United States did not permit of a sin e
answer to our questionnaire which would be valid for the whole of ‘t t
country. In response to Unesco’s request, a special committee w a s constituted which supplied us with a survey containing a general introduction and
a series of reports on different types of school broadcasting systems.
I!
The special committee w a s composed as follows:
E d w i n F. Helman, Director of Radio, Cleveland Public Schools;
Kathleen N. Shrdie, Director of Aadio, Detroit Public Schools;
Harold McCarty, Director of Radio, University of Wisconsin;
Keith Tyler, Director of Aadio, Ohio State University;
Franklin Dunham, Chief of Radio
Ronald R. bwdermilk, Radio Education (Specialist Of
Gertrude 9;. Broderick, Radio Education Specialist
i
INTRODUCTION
by Dr. Franklin D u n h a m , Chief of Aadio, U.S. Office of Education
It is difficult to m a k e direct comparisons between school broadcasting in
the United States and school broadcasting in other countries, because, in the
United States there is no such thing as a single officially established Qrganieation for school broadcasting. Neither is there any single Rxed pattern
that could !be said to characterize school broadcasting generally. For example,
although it is k n o w n that well over half of the schools of the United States
regularly use radio in one w a y or another, a substantial majority of these d o
not participate directly in the planning or production of the lbroadcasts they
use for class-group listening. Instead, they use such broadcasts of local commercial radio stations or networks as they consider immediately applicable to
the interests and needs of their students, or, in the case of schools lying within
reception distance of one of the non-commercial radio stations operated by
school systems or universities, those of its (broadcastswhich fit the local curriculum m a y be used. O n the other hand, as of 1 March 1949, eleven putblic
school systems were operating their o w n frequency-modulationnon-commercial
broadcast stations, and another eight systems had stations of this kind under
construction, while at least another dozen systems were k n o w n to be making
plans for such stations. Between these extremes, participation by local schools,
in the planning and production of the broadcasts they use ranges all the w a y
from informal consu tation with the educational-programmedirectors of local
stations as to the kinds of school ‘broadcastspeeded,, to their actually producing
educational broadcasts over l w a l commercial radio stations.
141
1. HISTORY
.
In order to understand the reasons for th,isa:bsence of anything approaching
an organized national system of school broadcasting, one needs only to bear in
mind that scliool broadcasting in the United States has developed by what
is perhaps .best characterized as ”the process of evolution” rather than by
reason of legislative enactment or executive decrce.
No sooner had radio lhroadcasting started in the United States than ”Pioneer”
teachers, here and there, began using radio programmes for class-group listening. Here, at long last, the teacher of modern history found access, through
radio newcasts, to a richly-diversifiedwealth of n e w up-to-the-minutematerials
not available from conventional sources such as the typical news digest
magazines published at that time for school use. Similarly, music broadcasts
m a d e the performance of great musical artists of America’s symphony halls
and opera freely accessible to the m a n y music-hungry small towns and
villages of the country, while dramatization broadcasts brought the world’s
reat plays and works of literature out from between the musty covess of
ooks into the classroom. B y no means the least of radio’s early impacts on
education w a s the fact that, not only did it provide radio-equipped classrooms with more facts about more to ics m o r e quickly than had before been
possible, but, through the m e d i u m o? forum and discussion-panel broad.casts
eaturing speakers prominent ,in public life, it m a d e it possib:e for students
to examine and to compare divergent viewpoints on current public issues.
In short, teachers did not wait for ’,somebody in authority” either to tell them
to use radio broadcasts for class-group listening or to tell them which radio
broadcasts to use for this urpose; they simply went ahead on their o w n
initialive, using any radio groadcasts that seemed to be applicable to class
work currently in progress. Thus, in the initial stages of ihe use of radio in
education in America, the primary interest centered on devising instructional
te.chniques through which the m a x i m u m potential teaching value of educationally-significant radio broadcasts might be realized, rather than on actual
parti,cipation,by school people, in the production of broadcasts designed for
school listening.
t
However, as more and more teachers turned to the use of radio programmes
for school listening, school people became increasingly interested in the,
planning and production of school broadcasts. As broadcasters became aware
that schcols were makino use of their programmes, it w a s only natural for
them to check with teacgers as to whether or not these programmes were
readily applicable to specific instructional needs. Licensees of commercial
radio stations and radio-network officials w e r e motivated in this by a desire
to fulfil their obligation to ”serve the public interest, convenience, and necessitq”, as well as by a desire to win pmblic confidence and good will. Gimilar y, colleges and universities that owned and operated broadcast stations
(usually, in the beginning, as an adjunct of the college of electrical engineering) saw school broadcasting as a definite obligation to the public, and they
too, turned to the schools in their respective service areas for suggestions as
to what types of broadcasts were likely to be most useful.
,
At first, participation, by school people, in the planning and production d
school broadcasts w a s confined largely to consulting with the programme
directors of local radio stations-either infornially, or as members of advisory committees-concerning areas of jnstruction for which it might be
desirable to develop school broadcasts. However, as more and more schools
came to use radio, and as colleges and universities undertook careful research
and experimentation to determine the uni,que‘advantages and limitations of
this n e w instructional medium, the situation changed. As teachers c a m e to
understand precisely what characteristics of radio programmes determine
their potential educational usefulness, and as they became more eywrienced
in devisiiig instructional techniques suited for LISC with particular types of
radio programmes to accomplish specific learning goals, they began asking for
n e w and iniproved school broadcasts designed to fit more closely inlo the
work currently in progress in the schools. Usually, of course, a request of
i 4a
this kind amounted to asking for seliool broadcasts "designcd to fit more
closely into the work currently in pri;gress in the schools" of whichever
school or school system in the (broadcastsstation's service area happened to
make the reqiiest, for there are much wide difference from one school systeni
to another in the United States-differences as to the time classes in a
given subject are scheduled,differences as to the actual content and emphasis
of courses of the same title, differences as to the time of year any particular
topic will 'betaught, and the like--that, the more exactly any given broadcast
might fit the work being ,done in one particular school system, the less wiil be
the likelihcod that it will suit either the instructional needs or the convenience of another school! Recognition of ihjs factled to the further recognition,
by educators and broadcasters aiike, that the radio networks and the higherowered individual broadcast stations could probably serve education best
gy concentrating their school-broadcasting efforts on the production L8f programmes designed to facilitate attainment of educational objectives c o m m o n
to sizeable geographic arcas-perhaps a whole State, or a region includin
several §:aies, or even the wh0.e cf the United States-while the production 0%
broadcasts dlsigned to fit highiy-specific teaching applicaîions in any single
school system (or group of cmlinuous school systems closely similar in
curriculum Emphasis and organization) should, ordinarily, b'e undertaken
the lower-powered broadcast stations serving that particular local
owever, as the radio networks and higher-powered regional broadcast stations began discontinuing this latter type of school 'broadcasting,the
local broadcast stations usually found themselves in difficulty. Having come
to depend,principally, on re-broadcastingnetwork prograinnics and 011 playin
ready-made "packaged show" broadcast transcriptions, iiiost of theni founf
themselves inadequately staffed and inadequate1y equipped to produce the
more highly-specific kinds of broadcasls desired :by the local schao1s. Consequently,whereas the radio networks and reg'onalbroadcast stations needed
only to maintain vóluntary advisory committees of educators recognized as
spokesmen for the various subject areas and academic levels to conslilt,
periodically, with their o w n respective programme-productionstaffs, the local
broadcast stations usually found it advisable to reserve a designated number
of hours of air time each week exclusively for school broadcasts, and to invite
the local school system to accept responsibility (often, with the advice of the
station's programme manager) for producing the programmes to be broadcast for school use. Thus, education by radio in the United Sates gradually
moved inlo its second phabe, where educators themselves assumed an increasing share of the responsibility for producing the radio programmes to be
broadcast for school listening.
Once school people began broadcasting over local commercial radio stations,
the next phase-actual operation, by local school systems, of their o w n noncommercial, educational broadcast stations-was inevitable. Whereas schqol
broadcasts of the more general type had been found to hold reasonably wide
interest for radio listeners outside the schools, managers of local coniiiiercial
stations soon learned that, whenever a programme of the type designed for
very-specific teaching applications was Broadcast, the average non-school lis'tener tended either to turn off his receiving-set,or to tune to another broadcast station! B i n e commercial stations and networks in the United States
are operated as private business enterprises, and depend entirely on the income
from advertising sponsorship of programmes for their support, commercialstation managers usually try to avoid broadcasting,any types of programmes
which are at all likely to result in any substantial reductions of their respective listening audiences, even for short periods of an hoor or two in
duration. Consequently, by the time local school people in any given locality were prepared, professionally,to start producing radio programmes to
serve precise instructional applications,it was not uncommon t..) find local
broadcasters increasingly unwilling to make time on their stations available
€or school broadcasting un:ess it was clearly understood that thcy rrserved
the right to exercise sufficient "supervision" over the production of such programmes to ensure that they would hold wide listener interest. Thus, it came
to he recognized that the only w a y in which any school system could be
assured 0.f an adequate supp:y cf radio programmes designed'to fit locallyimportant instructional needs of a specific character, would be for it to o w n
and operate its o w n broadcast station.
2::.bK
.
.
143
a) THE COLLEGE-OWNED
RADIO S T A T I O N : "OLD-TEMER' AMONG
BROADCASTERS
Ownership and operation of broadcast stations by educational institutions in
the United States is by no means a development of recent origin. At the
time radio broadcastins w a s just beginning, a number of the colleges and
universities already h a 8 radio transmitters in operation. Usually, the radio
transmitter was' maintained and operated by the electrical engineering or
the communications engineering department of the college or university, primarily as an extension of the facilities of the engineering laboratories, and,
since radio, at that time, w a s generally considered to (be an instrument for
point-to-point communication, radio transmission customarily followed very
m u c h the same pattern as that of the exchange of communications between
radio amateurs today.
However, as this concept of radio gave w a y to the "pii'b1i.cbroadcasting"
concept, and the laws enacted to regulate this service m a d e the licensing of
broadcasters contingent on their broadcasting regularly-scheduled programmes
desi.gned to "serve the public ;interest, convenietxe, antd necessity", thk
colleges and universities then operating radio transmitters in the frequency
band allocated for broadcasting found themselves confronted with the problem of developing radio programmes designed to serve interests and needs
c o m m o n to a substantial majority of the listeners within reception range of
their respective transmitting stations. Although th,e general tendency w a s ta
imitate the proqramming of the commercial stations, s o m e institutions-esecially universities where college-of-education leadership w a s strong, and
fand-grant colleges where agricultural extension services were well developedturned, instead, to the production of educational broadcasts, such as broadcasts of actual college-course lectures, special extension-course broadcasts,
and public-relations broadcasts explaining the w o r k and purposes of the
college or university.
'Astime went on, college-owned stations that were attempting the same types
of progamm.ing being done by commercial stations found themselves increasin,$ly at a disadvantage. With their ,growing income from programme sponsorship by advertiscrs, the commercial radio stations and networks were able to
e m loy more and more professional talen1 on their programmcs, while the
colrqe-owned stations continued to depend, for the most part, 011 the volunteer
services of students and facult members for their programme talent. Consequently, they not only sufiereg a steadily-mounting loss of regular listeners,
but, as growth in the number of radio stations neared the point where n o
more stations could be accommodated in the 550-to-1,500kilocycle broadcastfrequency band, these college-owned stations often found themselves under
pressure either to improve their programme services, or to surrender their
station licenses! Faced with problems of this nature, a wbstantial majority
of,these early college-owned broadcast stations either voluntarily gave up
their licenses and ceased operation, or were sold to n e w owners to be opcrated as commercial stations, but, in a few instances, these colleges have
retained their stations, and operated them, either as full-time commercial
stations or as part-time ,commercial stations.
Those of $he early college-owned stations which concentrated on educational-programme production, on the other hand, fared somewhat better,
They, too, felt the programme competition of the commercial stations, but,
nnlike the college-owned stations that tried to copy the programming of c o m mercial broadcast stations, they were intercsted, primarily, in trying to serve
a number of special-interest listening audiences, rather than in attempting
to hold airy single listening audience continuously. For example, during any
given week, one of these stations might attract a succession of relatively large
special-interest listening audiences-at one time, listeners following a homestudy course in current histcry; at another, farmers interested in keeping u p
with marked trends in farm commodities; and, at still another time, a listening audience of house-commodities ; and, at still another tyme, a listening
auc'lieace of house-wives interested in learning h o w to 'budget the family
income most effectively. Thus, while commercial stations might claim the
maior portion of the total radio-listening time of all the receiving-set owners
within the service area of a given college-owned station, it w a s found, nevertheless, that a substantial majority of these listeners tended lo follow, rem-
I44
larly, one or more of its special-interest programmes, Moreover, these listen:
ers tended to develop a sort of protective loyalty to college-owned stations
of this kind, and any would-be commercial broadcaster w h o undertook to
challenge the value of the programme services of such a station quite often
discovered, to his chagrin, that they could be effectively vocal in its defence.
It would (be a mistake, however, to assume that the early college-owned
broaclcast stations specializing in educational-programmeproductipn entirely
escaped criticism of their programming efforts. Here, again, it was found
that any programme series designed to serve specific needs of any one seg.
ment of.the total potential 1is.tening audience of a station--an occupsiional
or professional ,$roup, perhaps, or listeners in a particular 'geographicarea,
or the schools oi any given ,locality-might be most highly regarded by the
audience for which it w a s intended $butthat it would hold little or no interest
for the balance of the potential audience. Accordingly, stations of this kind
generally adopted the practice .of organizing programme steering committees
to keep them continuously advised in relation to ,listenerneeds coinmon to
the largest practicable segrnent of their respective service areas. Thus it was
that most of these stations ultimately developed a type of programming
commonly known as "school of the air" operation. This type of college-station programming usually inclludes(a) schoolibroadcast series designed to
apply to work currently in progress in a majority of the schools in a given
station's service arca, (b) adult-education and continuation-coursebroadcasts
in subjects in which substantial numbers of listeners are known to be interested, (c) broadcasts designed to provide timely information of interest both
to the,general listening audience, and to specific segments of the total potential listening audience, (d) appreciation-type programmes designed to serve
cultural interes'ts characteristic of listeners of thé area served by the station,
and (e) broadcasts designed to explain the work and purposes of the colle.ge
to the general public.
This, then, is the type of programming that those of the early college-owned
stations specializing in educational-programme production finally developed
-programmes designed to serve the informational,cultural,and training needs
of a number o.f special-interest listening audiences rather than one single
general-interest audience. That these stations actually succeeded in performing a worth-while public service is attested by the fact, although dependent
entireslyon appropriations from public tax-derived funds fcr their support,
most of thc college-owned stations that started out with this type of yrogramme service from the beginning are still in existence, While ap roximately five out of every six of those which undertook general, "sometting-foreverybody" type of programming similar to that done by the commercial
stations either have suspended operation, or were sold to commercial broadcasters.
b) THE BOARD OF E D U C A T I O N - O W N E D I L W I Q STATION
With the gradually-mountingrecognition, 'by local school systems, of the fact
that they could not legitimately expect local commercial broadcasters to
continue lo provide air time gratuitously for school broadcasts if such broadcasts were increased in specificity to the point where they no longer held
wide listener appeal, (boardsof education in some of the larger cities began
giving serious consideration to the notion of constructing their o w n broadcast
stations. Moreover,it soon became obvious, in view of the amount of interest
shown, that far too few potential frequency assignments remained i
a
afandard broadcast band between 550 kilocycles and 1,500 kilocycles to
accommodate any public-schoolbroadcast st ation development of the magnitude
anticipated. Accordingly, the Federal Communications Commission set aside
a new 'band of 25 frequencies between 41,000 and 42,000kilocycles exclusively
for non-commercial educational broadcast stations, in January of 1938. Then,
in May of 1940, adter the newly-developed frequency-modulationsystem of
radio transmission had demonstrated its practicability, the non-commercial
educational broadcast band was moved up one megacycle higher in the radio
spectrum to the band from 42,000 kilocycles to 43,000 kilocycles, where it
would be continuous with and part of the newly-established PM (frequencymodulation) twoadcast band extending from 42,000kilocycles to 50,000 kilo145
10
-
cycles, and, of course,the use of frequency modulation 'by educational stations
licensed in this ban-dwas mquired.
The Cleveland, Ohio, Board of Education was the first to start operation of
one of these non-commercial educational stations in what is known as Yh,e
".ultra-highbrcqucnc band", having started operation in the late autumn of
1938 before the FeJeral Communications Commissio,n had yet changed the
assignmenrefor this type of broadcasting over to the n e w 1FiU band. Thus,
Cleveland Board o:fEducation's n e w station had scarcely staried when it w a s
necesrary to change over its entire facilities-transmitter and the special highfrequency receiving-sets-to accomodate the newer frequency-modulation type
of transmission. Y,et,despite this added expense and inconveniencc, the
CEleveland Public Schools found the n e w type of transmissions so far superior
to the conventional amplitude-modulationtype of transmibyion it had vaed with
its first high-frequency transmitter, that enthusiasm for school broadcasting
was vastly augmented. Soon, other school systems began planning stations-San Francisco U,nifiiedSchool District, New York City, Chicago, and o.thers.
Universities and colleges,ioo, recognizing the advantages in this n e w type of
transmission that could make possible high-fidelity, static-free reception
throughout the year, started planning non-commercial educational FM broadcast stations.
At the time of the entrance of the United States into World W a r II, thefe
were Ave of these non-commercial educational FM broadcast s'lations u1
opera'tion,by the ßoards of Education of Cleveland, N,ewYork City, Chicago,
and San Fraiicisco, and b the University of Illinois. Other stations were
under conslrnction by the &nivemities of 'Iowa,Kentucky, and.Southern California; two additional school systemsiMemphis and San Diego-had been
gant,ed station constriictioii pcrniits ; and applications were on Ale with the
Federal Comniunicaiiods Commission from ifour other school systems and an
equal number of universities. Although construction of n e w stations was not
practicable during the war, the interest among school systems and colleges
continued to grow. Thus it mas that, by early autumn of 1944, the Federal
Communications Commission found itself with an accumulation of some two
dozc*r-r applications from school systems and coll,eges,while over 150 other
school systems and colleges were known to 'be planlning the development of
stations. Since it was becoming increasingly obvious that the five frequencies
between 42,000kilocycles and 43,000 kilocycles would 'be far too few to meet
the anijcipnted demaiid, the 'Federai Commuinications Commission, in 1945,
once more moved non-commercial educational broadcastin to a higherfrequency band, assigning it the first twenty #frequency c%annels of the
hundred-channel JFM broadcast band extending from 88 megacycles to 1.08
megacycles. Theoretically,this represents the minimuin number of frequencies
which, with careful spacing of school-owned stations and the proper allocation of their opernling frequencies,wl.oultlmage it powihlc lo construct enougJi
of these non-commercial educ.ationa1 broadcast stations to serve every school
in the ITnitcd States.
At thr,!wesent fime, elcvcn school systeiiis and eight univerzities have noncommerc:al eduralionnl FM stations in operation, and ano'ther eight school
systems and sixteen colleges and universities have stations in process of
constriicticm. 111 addition, !the Statc of Wisconsin already has the Arst two
stations of ils state-wide educational FM broadcasting system oampleted and
in operation, and iwo more stations under construction,and statewide educational 'FM broadcasts lsystems are bei,iigplanned in each of a donen other
States.
All of these newer non-commercial educational ,FïUbroadcast stations have
onc thing in common: instead of being developed by professors of advanoed
physics and engineering as was truc in t'hecase of the early college-owned
stations, they :ire being ,developed by curriculum and inslnictiona2-methods
specialists, and by special-subjecl supcrvisors, in short, hy rducators rather
than by engineers. B y and large, the same general types of ediicational alnd
informational programmes are heilig broadcast by both the college-owned
educational FM stations and those ow-ned and operated 'by,boardsof education
of city school systems. This is to be explained largely by the fact that both
of these classes of non-commercial educational FM broadcast stations h a w
tended to copy the more successful programming trends develope-dby the
older college-owned stations the so-called "school of the air" type of )broad146
casting. They do differ markedly with respect to the specificity of their
programmes, with the board-of-educationstations tending not only to design
programmes to serve instructional objectives of the local course of study, but
making liberal use of illustrative materials drawn directly from the life of the
local community.
c) CO-ORDLNATED STATE-WIDES!IHQOI, BROADCASTING
l'he idea of prodacino educational broadcasts designed tor school listeninlg
throughout an entire %ate is, [by no means, of recent origin in the United
States. This was exactly wha'tthose of the early college-owned stations that
concentrated their ,energies on producing educational programmes were
attempling to do. Since, in all but the smallest States, it was physically
impossible to serve the entire area of a State from a single broadcast sta'tion,
usually located on the state-university campus, arrangements were made, in
some cases, with commercial radio stations to pick up, either by direct radio
reception or by tie line, and rebroadcast college-station programmes likely to
be of inter,estlocally. T o the extent that such college-station educational
programmes were sufficiently general in application to aitract reasonably large
listening audiences,commercial radio stations were usually glad to co-operate
in this respect. In some cases, it has even been ossible for a skate university
that has no broadcast station of its o w n to estabfish a complete "school-of-the
air" type of educational-programmeservice. producing the programmes in its.
o w n studios on the campus,a!id "fee'ding" them, over leased telephone tie line.<.
to commercial radio stations for actual broadcast on the air. A good example
of this type o F operation is the Texas School of T h e Air, in which school
broadcasts are produced in the State University's campus studios, an.d fed to
a local commercial station,which, in turn,feeds them to all of the stations of
a state-wide commercial-stationnetwork of which it is a member. A somewhat
different type of "school of the air" broadcast operation is rrpresented by the
Empire State Network ill the State of New York, where a number of local
coirimercial radio stations, each of which worlks closely with 'Ille local school
system in producing school broadcasts,have arranged to exchaiige edncaiional
programmes with another by means of direct radio reception and reh-oadcast,
bhhus making educational programmes produced over each of the participating
st:itions available for school listening m e r a ,substantialportion of the State.
All of these have one thing in common: the>-are made possible by reason of
close co-operatioil l)c!ween educational institutions and commercial broadcast'ers.
With the advent of non-commercial edncational FM hroadcasiinq,interest in
developing co-ordinated educational broadcasti'ng on a s'tate-widabasis has
been greatly augmented. The State of Wisconsin has planned a stat,e-wi,de
educatiohal 1FM broadcast network, and alread? has the first two of its noncomniercial educational FM stations in operation, with two others in the
procws of construc'tion. At least a dozen other States are known to be
planning the development of similar educational FM networks,aimed,.in each
case, at making a richly-diversified educational p r o g a m m e xerviee avaihble
to rchool and home listeners throughout the State.
d) EDUCATKONAL RROADGASTIS,GBY STANDARD COMIMEHCIIAI,
STATIONS
There are n o w nearly 3,000 broadcasting stations in the Uni.LedStates. There
are fifty-nine television stations located in leading cities and it is estimated
that in the year 1949 there will be over 150 such stations in operation. Of the
3,000 broadcasting stations approximately 2,000 are standard AIM stations and
nearly 1,000are FM stations. The ownership of thcse stations is approximately
as follows:One hundred are owned and operated by universities,colleges, and
school syst'ems(40 AM-6 FMI. Some 400 stations are owned by newspapers.
Approximately 25 are owned by national networks as key stations in pnncipa1
cities; 'nearly 1,000 individually owned stations are afflliated w f h these
networks and the remainder, representing approximately os:~-.hdJof all the
147
stations in the country, are independently o w n e d serving coverage area9 Of
various geographical limits according to location and power.
Through the years commercial broadcasters operating standard AM stations
(and n o w also FM stations) must be given credit for havingh begun in 1926 a
vast educakional programme reaching into the public sc 001s where over
30,000,000 children attend from M o n d a y to Friday of each week. This service
is given, of course, to an additional 3,000,000 children in private and parochial
schools as well. T h e first programme which was m a d e available to zchools
during school hours w a s the NlBC Music Appreciation Hour conducted on the
last school da for a full hour by the famour Dr. Walter Damrosch. This w a s
followed in d e years of development by programmes to correlate with the
general subject matter field of the schools i.e. social sciences includ~nghistory,
economics, civics, and geography, elementary science, American literature,
forum discussions, art, direct music teaching, and news especially prepared
for young listeners. Progranimes especially designed for the secondary school
have prelty well fitted into the same pattern of subject matter fields while
programmes for university and college reception have followed generally the
pattern of all serious programmes prepared for the adult listener in evening
hours.
There has been a considerable movement in the United States to allocate
25 per cent of all the time consumed by commercial stations for educational
purposes. If the w o r d education is used to cover programmes of a general
iniformative and uplift type it could be easily argued that m u c h more than
25 per cent of the programmes broadcast by commercially o w n e d stations are
of that character. However if programmes are to be evaluated according to
the correlation with subject matter fields in the classroom on any educational
level the percentage would fall to less than 5 per cent . It is exactly here that
the fine system of university-owned and school system operated stations c o m e
into use.
e)
TFIE FUTURE OF SCHOOL BROADCASTING IX THE UNITED STATES
These stations have proved to be of absolute necessity to carrying o n the
educational work of the schools b y means of radio and are so organized today
that nearly 70 per cent of all school children, and the college audiences as
well, of the country, are secured by such stations. The 88-92 megacycle band
with twenty cleared channels has been set aside for FM operation of educational stations. T h e w a r ending in 1945 considerably delayed the growth and
influence of this type of American broadcasting. However, in four years time
we n o w find over 100 educational stations in operation and it would be
conservative to predict that twice that m a n y should be in operation belfore
the end of 1950, the mid-point of the century. Facsimile and television are
both n o w occupying the mind's and interests of school people and a considerable study is being,given to the use of both these new educalional media.
Already m u c h experimentation is under w a y and hundreds of programmes of
such character are being utilized in the schools under co-operative arrangement with commercially owiied stations. If is only a step to considerable
ownership of such transmission facilities [by the schools and universities
themselves.
Note: T h e following replies to the questionnaire have been d r a w n up by an
analysis of the reports furnished through the U.S. Office of Education, with
the co-operation of 'a special Unesco Committee, and covering the following
-typical school broadcasting systems:
State IDivkional) Schools of Phe Air
Indiana: operated by Indiana Uirivcrsity and transmitted over corumercial
stations;
Louisiana: operated by Louisiana Slate Uiiiversity and transmitted over the
University FM station WSLU;
148
Minnesota: operated by the University ofMinnesota and transmitted over the
University station KUOM;
Ohio: operated by Ohio State University and transmitted w e r the University
station WOSU;
Oregon: operated by the Oregon State System of Higher Education and
transmitled by ils station ISOAC;
Texas: operated by the State Department of Education and transmitted over
coinniercial slations;
Wisconsin: operated by the University of Wisconsin and transmitted over
the University station W H A .
State (Intramural) School of fhe Air
Empire State FM School of the Air, an independent body m a d e up of school
and broadcast organizations co-operating to provide school broadcasts.
City Schools of the Air
Atlanta: operated by the Atlanta and Fulton County Boards Qf Education and
transmitled over its o w n F M system.
Cleveland: operated by the Cleveland Public Schools system, and transmitted
over its own FM station W B O E .
'Newark: operated by the Newark Board of Education and transmitted oirer
its FM statiOn W B G O .
New York: operated b the Board of Education of the City of Mew York,
and transmitted over its
station WYNE.
Philadelphia: operated by the Philadelphia Public Schools, in close co-operation wilh commcrciil slations, over which the different programmes are
transniitted.
St. Louis : operated by the St. Louis Public Schools. and transmitted over
commercial stations.
hI
School broadcasts by commericials!ations
Chicago :station WLS "The Prairie Farmer".
SUPERVISION AND CONTROL
2. R E L A T I O N S BETWEEN THE E D U C A T I O N AUTHORITIES AND THE
RADIO ORGANIZATIONS
In the case of State Schools of the Air, there is in general no direct control
by the State education authorities. W h e r e school broadcasts are provided by
a university, they are usually prepared by the Universi1 Radio Department,
sometimes aided by an advisory committee which usualry includes reprcsentatives of the schools for which the broadcasts are intended, and occasionally
a representative of the State Education Department, but these committees do
not have mandatory powers. There is usually, however, close co-operation
between the educational authorilia and the School of the Air; the education
authorities are kept fully informed of programmes and encourage their use
in the schools. In some cascs, and within budgetary limits, the education
authorities finance the priding of the brochures designed to accompany the
broadcasts.
O n the other hand, the Texas School of the Air provides an example of
a State school broadcasting system ogeraled directly by the State Department
of Education itself.
149
T h e Empire State Network presents an example of a State School of the
Air which is an independant body, not subject to control either by State
government, local .councils or other public authorities. T h e Steering Committee,
however, includes a representative of the State Education Department, as well
as representatives of educational institutions interested in the project and of
the commercial stations participating.
City Schools of the Air are on the contrary directly operated by the City
Educational Departments of Public Schools Systems, responsibility being that
of the Superintendent of Schools.
3. REGUI,ATIONS C O N C E R N I N G SCH0,OLB R O A D C A S T I N G
There are no laws or regulations governing school broadcasting, other than the
normal F.C.C. regulations that apply to all broadcasting. O n e of these regulations specifies that advertising is prohibited over non-commercial stations.
MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET
4. A D M I N I S T R A T I V E STRUCTURE
T h e majority of the University Schools of the Air have the sanie general
structure. They form part of the University Radio Department which, in
co-operation with the University’s Extension Division, IS responsible to a
Dean of the University. Sometimes the technical operation of the station is
run by tlie University’s Engineering School. T h e Director of Educational
programmes is usually responsible only to the Director of the Station, w h o
wnsults with the Dean of the Department of Education.
Schools of the Air of the intramural type are usually directed by a steering
committee which includes representatives of the Slate Department of Education, of the co-operating schools and possibly of the commercial stations
taking part in the project.
City Schools of the Air are operated as part of the City Educdtion
Departments.
5. PERSONNEL
In general, the frill-time staff working on the planning aiid roduction of
school programmes in University stations is small. There is usua ly a director,
a head of programmes, a producer and a secretary. T h e rest of the staff m a y
be divided into three calegories:
a) Full-time staff of the station, w h o spend part of their time on the school
programmes.
b) Paid staff working o n a temporary or part-time basis.
‘
c) Unpaid staff working on a temporary or part-time basis. This category
includes professors and students w h o prepare scripts, provide talent etc...
P
Occasionally, the school broadcasting staff also includes Fellows w h o have
graduated in education and are making a special study of educAtiona1 radio.
From this it will be seen that the directing staff is recruited from a m o n g
educators rather than from a m o n g radio men. It should be mentioned that
this school broadcasting staff is often also responsible for the preparation of
the programme brochures designed to accompany the broadcasts.
T h e City Schools of the Air broadcast exclusively programmes for schools
and the staff working on these rogrammes is therefore larger, often reaching
twenty or thirty, including tec nical staff, i.e. the normal staff for a small
radio station.
R
150
6. F I N A N C E S
In the care of State Schools of the Air operated b y Universities, the programmes are financed out of the University Station’s budget. T h e programmes
of the City Schools of the Air are paid for out of the budget of the City
Departments of Education. In the case of an intramural-type School of the
Air programmes are financed on a co-operative basis by the co-operating
schools. In the case of school broadcasts produced by commercial stations,
the stations themselves ay the cost. It should be mentioned that in the case
of University or City fchools of the Air which do not operate their o w n
transmitter, time is given free as a public service by the commercial stations
carrying the broadcasts. In addition, the commercial stations often give the
services of their educational directors and producers and, in s o m e cases,
pay the cost of the teachers’ manuals and programme pamphlets.
It is difficult to state precisely the cost of school broadcasts. S o m e sch001
broadcast directors have pointed out that a programme for in-sohool listening
costs twice as m u c h as an ordinary programme.
As an example, the following three budgets for City Schuols of the Air nay
be given:
Atlanta
Administra tive
Production (salaries)
:;;::2$
Clerical
Engineering services
Eq nip m e n t
Materials and other supplies
5,500
4,000
3,000
2,500
40,000
CI eveland
Salaries : Technicians
Supervision
Clerical
Supplies : Office
Equipment (records)
Transportation of empioyees
(mileage reimbursement)
h1iscellaneous expensos
11,700
16.979
6330
500
3,150
570
525
$ 40,054
In this example it should be noted that the budget given does not include
the total cost of personnel. T h e salaries of teachers assigned to the station
are-whenever possible pro-rated on the pay-rolls of the schools which they
serve by writing or producing for a division of instruction.
New York
Personnel
Supplies and Equipment
$ 58,000
7,500
$ 65,500
EBUCABPBNAL ASPECTS OF SCHOOL BROAQCASTS
7. TEACHING METHODS AND SUBJECTS
Programmes for schools are generally conceived as being supplementary to
the school syllabus; very little direct teaching is carried out. About the only
examples of direct teaching are the music lessons and lessons of applied
science, during which a teacher gives, over the micro hone, instructions for
carrying out experiments in the classroom without &e need of a teacher
in the classroom.
151
T h e majority of the educators consider that the educational methods used
in school broadcasts must spring from the radio m e d i u m itself, though s o m e
believe that ordinary classroom methods can be a plied. T h e forms of
presentation vary according to the age-group of the ciildren and the subject
of the broadcast. Certain programmes call for the participation of the pupils:
songs, games, applied science etc ... For others, use is m a d e of the interview,
dialogue, dramatization or narrative and the forum-type broadcast which is
widely used. Educators generally agree that the dramatized form is most
suited to the hiaher classes whereas in the lower classes the best results are
oblained Ihrougk straight talks or dialogues. Dramatization does not always
hold the interest of the younger pupils.
T h e subjects of the broadcasts are very varied. However, it can be said
that the majority of the programmes do not deal with conventional school
subjects but rather with music, civic instruction, actuality, the arts, vocational
guidance and economic sciences. Specific school subjects which are dealt
with in broadcasts are literature, foreign languages, drama, natural sciences,
experimental physics and the social sciences, -i.e. history, economics civics
and geography.
T h e methods of presentation which are most frequently used are as follows:
Natural science
Literature
Physics
Actuality
Books
Vocational guidance
Social sciences, i.e.,
Hislory, etc.. .
Talk
Dramatization
Participation or dialogue
Dramatization or illustrated talks
Readings or dialogue
Dramatization
Feature programme
T h e normal length for a school broadcast is fifteen minutes except in the
case of a music broadcast which m a y be thirty minutes. This average of
a quarter of an hour per broadcast permits the teacher to prepare his pupils
before the programmes and to consolidate the ground after it, within the
normal bell schedules.
Young ,pupils grow tired more quickly and the programme is often reduced
to ten minutes as some tvpes of broadcast cannot hold the attention of the
children for a longer time.
8. C O - O P E R A T I O N OF R A D I O AND THE SCHOOLS
The degree of- eo-operation belween the stations broadcasting school p r e
grammes and the schools utilizing the programmes varies greatly according
to the system. There is little difficulty in achieving close co-ordination w h e n
the programmes are operated by the schools themselves (in the case of an
intramural School of the Air) or by lhe City Department of Education (in
the case of City Schools of the Air). It is a m u c h greater problem to achieve
co-ordination with the schools within the service area of a State-wide School
of the Air operated by a University or by commercial stations, and different
methods are used to achieve it. Most teachers’training colleges give a course
in the classroom use of school broadcasts, and thus young teachers are a w w e
of modern educational methods and the aims pursued by the organizers of
school broadcasts. Often, too, the broadcasts are prepared by professors of
the training colleges; and these professors frequently visit the schools to keep
in touch with the teachers and be constantly aware of their needs. Talks
and denionstraiions are organized to familiarize teachers with lhe techniques
of school broadcasts; finally brochures and teachers’ manuals are sent out
to arouse their interest and keep them informed OF the w o r k of the station.
It should be mentioned that there exists in the United States a professional
national associa tion, the ”Association for Education by Radio”, which
publishes a monthly journal and organizes conventions to interest teachers in
the use of school broadcasts. There is also the National Association of Educational Broadcasting.
Education in the United States is a local matter and while it is impossible tp
satisfy at once all the schools of a State a generalized type of programme’13
152
favourably received. For this reason, school broadcasts are generally considered as complementary to classroom teaching, and the programmes are designed
to help the teacher to attain the major objeclives of education without exactly
fitting any particular series of textbooks used in the schools. City Schools of
the Air fit curriculum needs exactly.
T o Q u m up it m a y he said that the degree of co-ordination between the school
broadcasts and the school syllabi, as well as the degree of co-operation between
the teachers and the producers, varies considerably, and that w h e n this co-ordination and co-operation is not achieved by the very structure of the School
of the Air, programmes must be sufficiently general to permit their being used
in schools with varying schedules and syllabi. M a n y producers of school
broadcasts complain of the lack of co-ordination,but great efforts are m a d e to
overcome this difficulty.
9. SUITABLE AGES
There are school broa.dcasts for a11 ages of pupils. There are programmes for
kindergartens as well as for professlonal colleges. However, both educators
and producers agree that the best results are obtained with programmes
addressed to elementary classes. T h e reasons given for this are that the timetables of these classes arr mure flexible and permit a more rational use of the
broadcasts. S o m e educators think that anolher reason is because pupils at
the elementary level have a qreater enthusiasm for school than those w h o are
reaching adolescence. Yet n o counlry in the world has a greater percentage
of high-school students than the United States.
10. SCHOOL B R O A D C A S T I N G STATISTICS
'Thcre are n o complete school broadcasting statistics for the whole of the
United States, and even local statistics are too incomplete lo permit any valid
conclusion. All that can be said is that in the case of City Public Schools
systems where a School of the Air is operated, all the schools m a k e use of the
programmes. In the case of State Schools of the Air it would appear that the
programmes are used by approximately 30 per cent of the schools of the level
for which broadcasts are provided (i.e. generally elementary schools) and
which are within the service area of the station. This, however, represents
practically a total coverage of the schools equipped to receive radio within a
given state.
11. P U B L I C A T I O N S DESIGNED TO BE USED WITH SCHOOL BROADCASTS
There are a very great numhcr of school broadcasts publications in the United
States. It can in fact be said that any station which transmits programmes
for schools has a publicalions service. There are pamphlets for the teachers
ranging from a single mimeographed broadcast schedule to the voluminous
Teachers' Manuals. There are also in s o m e cases brochures for the pupils
themselves, containing illustrations and complementary material, songs books,
etc.
T h e hrochurcs are published by the station themselves, somet;mes with
financial assistance of the interested schools or the Departments of Education,
a n d are frequently m a d e by the pupils themselves.
13. SYSTEMATIC E N Q U I R I E S ON SCHOOL BROADCASTS
There hare been several systematic enquiries on the results of school broadcasts, but nonc which could give valid conclusions for the whole of thc nation.
Surveys are often m a d e loc311y to drtermine the opinion of teachers and pupils.
Postal questionnaires are used as a check on lhe utilization of thc programmes.
At Wisconsin a s ecial two-years' study, k n o w n as the "Wisconzin Research
Project in School %roadcasling", w a s conduded from 1937 to 1839. in which a
study w a s m a d e of the prcscntation and utilization results of seven series OP
153
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broadcasts. T h e results of the survcx were pwblished by the University of
\.'<isconsinPress under the title "Radio in the Classroom". Such a study w a s
wnducled in 1940 by the Federal Radio Education Committee at the U.S.Office
Education, Washington to be followed b y another to cover 1940-1950.
TECHNICAL CONDITIONS
14. EQUIPMENT OF SCHOOLS W I T H RECEIVING SETS
Most schools are equipped with standard comniercial model receivers. M a n y
educators complain of the age of the sets. These frequently are too old and
are in bad condition. There is n o w a marked tendency to use a FM-AM
receiier specially designed for classroom listening, but m a n y schools still use
portable or table models which do not always give salisfactory performanceAll n e w high-schools are equipped with central receiving systems but certain
teachers do not consider that this method is a good one, since central control
ts exercised over reception.
Money for the acquisition of sets comes from varied sources. S o m e Education Boards subsidize the purchase of sets, but in general the m o n e y is
provided by Teacher-Parent Associations. In m a n y cases the teacher began
by bringing his o w n set into the classroom and later the school or the ParentTeacher Association furnished sets.
T h e sets used by schools in the service area of FM stations are generally
combined AM-FM receivers, especially built for schools. They sell tor approximately $75.00 complele. Thousands of these sets are n o w in use.
15. PROBLEMS CONNECTED W I T H FAVOURABLE RECEPTION
Opinion o n reception conditions varies, and in general it can be said that
conditions are considered satisfactory. Schools, within the service area of FM
stalions have guaranteed satisfactory reception, static-free and of high fidelity.
Station directors complain however that in general too little attentiun is paid
to proper technical installation, and in particular to the setting up of a good
antenna. Advice on improving listening conditions is often given to the
teachers, either in the Teachers Manuals or directly over the microphone.
T h e c\ass is not in general re-arranged in any special order for listening to
radio programmes; in fact most educators do not consider this to be a good
melhod. Very few schools have rooms specially reserve.d for listening. T h e
greatest difficulty with regard lo reception is in general the bad acoustics of
the ordinary classroom, found in all countries as well as the United States.
Modern schools feature fine acoustics and lighting. About 25 per cent of
American schools are n e w (built since 1935).
ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
16. FREQUF3NCY M O D U L A T I O N
IN S(1EIQOL BROADCASTING
There is a strong tendency at present for non-commercial educational stations
to augment their amplitude modulation with frequency modulation transmitters
mnd the RCC has reserved bands in the spectrum esclusively for the use of
such stations. There are m a n y advantages to the n e w system, and educators
w h o have been able to compare the two agree that frequency modulation
should be recommended for group listening. This is particularly true in the
big towns where static and interference of all kinds are a consi.derable
hindrance to listening. There are n o w 120 such stations in operalion, o w n e d
and operated by schools and colleges.
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17. T E L E V I S I O N IN SGHOOL H R O A D G A S T I N G
Many of the non-commercial, educational stations are n o w contemplatin the
introduction of educational television programmes, in spite of the very
cost of equipment and operation. Commercial stations whilch have' already
started television broadcasting on a normal commercial basis have n o w experimented in providino television programmes for schools. ln Philadelphia for
instance, station W t A U in co-operation with the public and parochial schools
began in March 1949 providing four programmes per w e e k for in-school
viewing. Television receivers were installed in thirty-one schools throughout
the area by RCA-Victor. Great enthusiasm w a s reported, and pIans for developing the programme are being prepared. T h e first college-owned television
station will open in Iowa on February 1950. Twenty-seven other such stations
are contemplated for the year ending 31 December, 1950.
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18. I N T E R N A T I O N A L E X C H A N G E S
F e w international exchanges of school programmes are reported. T h e
Cleveland School of the Air has arranged exchanges with Great Britain, France
and Germany, and some stations hxve exchanges programmes with the
Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, however all United States schools receive
UN, Unesco and programmes provided by the Information Services of
European countries. A UN daily television programme is n o w offered all
schools.
21. SCHOOL B R O A D C A S T I N G I N P R O F S S S I O N A L T R A I N I N G
Radio is not yet widely used for professional training,though m a n y universities
n o w give extensive courses by means of broadcasting. M a n y stations include
in their broadcasts, programmes of vocational guidance Ifor the higher
secondary school classes. These broadcasts have been very welcome, since
this subject is n o w usually included in the school syllabus. [Radio has introduced m a n y n e w subjects of interest in the school curriculum in the past i.e.
personal relations, child psychology for parents, and specific courses in worldaffairs and international understanding.
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PART Il€
PECIAL ASPECTS OF
SCHOOL BROADCASTING
1
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FREQUENCY MODULATION
IN SCHOOL BRQAQCASTlNG
(As has been explained in detail in the report on school broadcastinq in h e
United States, there is a strong tendency at present for non-commercial educational stations to turn to frequency modulation. T h e following document,
which has been submitted by Dr. Franklin D u n h a m , Chief of Radio, W.S. Office
of Education, is a condensed and revised vercion of a pamphlet "FM for
Education" published by the U.S.Officc of Education.)
F M - AM OlPPQRTUN'lTYFOR EDUCATTOXit
T h e Federal Communications Commission 1m found i( possible to set aside
twenty educational channels the country over. exclusively ,forthe use of ponconimercial educational institutions. Those twenty channels afford room for
several thousands of FXI stations al1 over the country. It is not unlikely that
eirery school board or other educational body which so 'desirescan find room
on one of these channels for a long time to come. Moreover, programmes
broadcast on these channels w e audible not merely on special scbool receivers
but on all FM h o m e receivers as well. T h e rules of the Federal Communications \Commission specifically provide for adult educational and other
programmes aimed at the commnnity generally, to (bebroadcasl over the school
stations, provided only that they r'cmain non4commercial. Thus education n o w
has what it long sought in radio.
In the early nineteen twenties, w h e n broadcastiq w a s first capturing the
attention of the American people and opening up vistas of unlimited semjce
in the cause of h u m a n enlightenment, educational institutions were a m o n g the
Rrst to pioneer in this n e w medium. A considerable proportion of all the ea'rly
radio broadcasting licenses were issued to educationnl institutions. M a n y of
those early educational stations fell.by the wayside.
As competition in the radio field became more and more intense, as equipment became better and therefore more expensive, as programme quality rose
and therefore required more effort m a n y educational stations tended erst lo
lag behind, and there,after to abandon their licences.
All that is n o w ancient history. FIM opens a n e w chaptrr. T h e n e w FM
ra,d,ioband has been called into existence to provide a balance ror the old
standard broadcayt band. T h e Commission has n o w done everything in its
power to increase broadcast lfacilities. It has assigned n sufficient number of
frequencies and has estxblished rules and regulations giving snfflcient latitude
to non-commercial educational FM stations. Now education is ,buil.dingstatiuns
operating proqramme schedules and utilizing these channels. There are plenty
of other services who coiild ilse the educational channels, if they becam.e
available.
In one sense, of course, all radio is edocational, for ;better or worse. The
local commercial-stations and the networks alike are educating listeners every
hour of the day and night. T h e techniques for teaching and impressing mass
mdiences so skillfully developed (by commercial radio can and indeed are
being applied, though perhaps in somewhat modified form by the new educational FM stations.
- W H A T IT IS AND WHAT IT HOlLDS FOW
EDWCAT~ION
FM,or frequency modulation, is a method of transmitting radio waves. Exactly
how it differs from amplitude niodulation is probably not important to you
PM
unless you are a ramdio engineer. W h a t those differences m e a n to you as an
educator and listener m a y )be summarized as follows:
1. FM is less subject to static and int63erence;
2. FM ran w p p l p high fidelity programmes. Hrception qiidity is periect;
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3. I% radio transmitters are relatively inexpensive to install and to
maintain;
4. Most n e w radio receiving sets are built to receive both AM and FM
programmes ;
. 5. Certain FM radio channels have been set aside b y the Federal C o m m u nications Commission for the exclusive use of education. No such channels
have been set aside in the A M band.
S o m e edccators agree that school systems and colleges and universities
should haire their ov-firadio stations but they a.&, " W h y FM?" There are t w o
reason=:
1. T h e ether is over-crowded. In 1940 there were in the United States
only 800 transmitters in the A M band. A n d the development of radio goes on
day by day. There are n o w approximately 2,000 A M and 1,000 FM stations.
1. Education must use FM if it uses radio effectively. T h e FCC has decided
that henceforth licenses will be granted to educational institutions principally
in thc ElVI band.
This decision has its compens&ons.
Education w
ill find itself very m u c h in
the position of all pioneers, somewhat lonely at first but later reaping the
advantages of being first on the gr0un.d in a vigorous n e w development. T h e
users of educational radio m a y at first be few, but this at least has the
advantage that mistakes and shortcomings of initial efforts will be corrected
quickly.
-
IW
- WHAT IT W S T S
TRANSMKTTER
T h e transmitter is, nf course, the heart ef the school broadcast station, and
usually represents somewhere around half the entire cost of the station. An
FM transmitter of standard manufacture and of 10-watt rated power output
can n o w be obtained for approximately $1,500. Should one Irilowatt power
be needed, the transmitter will cost approximately $6,000.
STUDIOS
Ea& educational mi broadcasting station needs at least one large studio,
together with a stadio control r o o m immediately adjacent to it. It should be
noted that one control r o o m will serve t w o studios. Average costs will vary
greatly but to give an example w e m a y say that a satisfactory studio and
control room have been built for as little as $200.
STUDIOE~UIPMENT
Based o n average net prices, the m i n i m u m cost of equipping a studio and
control r o o m would probably be somewhat as follows; A speech input unit,
somewhere between $500 and $800, microphones between $75 and $300; cables
and stands between $50 and $200; an'd transportation turn-tables between $350
and $500. High qualit articles of equipment are required to take full
advantage of the high fiielity potentialities of FM.
RECEIVERS
Before World W a r II several different manufactirrcrs w e r e already producing
table model FM receiving sets ranging in price from $50 to $80. and combination AM-FM consoles from $140 to $350 (the more expensive of these
including automatic phonographs). Excellent school models n o w sell for $75
complete. However, where schools are already equipped with programme
distribution systems, all that is necessary in order to convert them for F
W
reception is to supplement the present AM tuner with an FM tuner. T h e cost
of such a tuner will be about $25. If both FM and AM reception are needed.
the cost of the combination tuner will be somewhere between $50 and $100.
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EsGIPrEeRING COUNSEL
Unless the institution or school system has on its s!aff a. radio engineer of
considerable competence. the services of a radio 'engineeringconsultant with
experience in FA% should be obtained. Expert advice on selection of
transmitter site, equipment and construction has proved economical in the
long run.
JIAINTENANCE
Fortunately, the maintenance costs for FM stations are low. Research
stimulated during the war is producing more sturdy and durahle cquipment
than was purchasable before the war. Estimated annual maintenance costs
for a 250-watt station will range from $300 to $1,000,depending upon lhe
amount of time on the air.
OPERATOR
COSTS
The FCC require> that the radio-operating engineers of an educational station
should hold at least a second-classlicense. Pinding staff inenibers or students
with such a li'censehas not been *difficultat a University. Many institiitions
and largc school syJtems engage a full-time qualified radio engineer, but if the
institution cannot hire a rad:o engineer, a science teacher aided 'by advanced
students,all properly licensed, can operate an F M station. Annual salar? of B
full-time radio engineer has ranged between $1.800 and $3,000.
P~~ODUCTION
AND MANAGEMENT STAFF
Operation of an RM station w
ill require the full time services of a radio
director. He can lbe assisted lby teachers assigned part-time. Services of a
competent radio director can usually he obtained at salaries ranging [email protected]
$2,500 up.
SUMMARYOF
COSTS
I complete FM transmitter with necessary appurtenances can he purchased €or
a pr&able mininiuni of $5,000. Minimum cost of receivers capable of effective
usg of 1FM and A M will be approximately $75 per school. Maintenance and
supply w
ill probahly average $3 to $5 per year per set. Personnel costs,
director, engineer, clerical assistants, part-toinie teacher assistants can , range
from $3,500 to as much as an institulioii sees fit to spend.
HOW CAN AN FM EDWATIONAL STATION EE USED
Although there ar,e n o w over one hun,drededucational stations,one of the first
questions still likely to come into the mind of a school or college administrator
is this: What would w e do with an FM station il w e had one? The answer
comes from hundreds of s&ool systems and institutions which, during the past
thirty yea,rs,have developed local radio programmes addressed to schools.
Abundant experience will1 local educational broadcasting supplies the patent
of potential service which can be rendered ,by school-owned and operat,edFW
stations.
Among the types of educational prograinnies which have proved most successful are the following:
X E W S AND CURRENT EVENTS PHOGRAYMBS
'Teachers faced with the prolblem of keeping their students abreast of
current events, national or international, welcome this type of assistance from
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radio. Radio current events programmes not only present news itenis which
are specially selected and re-worded in light of the capacities of children of
different age levels, but they also relate the news to geography sccial studies,
and other subjects in the curriculum. News programmes ranee from Chicago’s ”That’s News to Me”, a programme for small children, to”Head1ines for
Juniors”, presented by the University of Syracuse Radio Workshop. Again
in Chicago we find ”Young America Answers”, a diffeTent type of news broadcast in which high school students analyze and present the news to fellow
students.
ARITHMETIC
Even the best of teachers often find difficulty awakening students to the h i portance of studying certain relquired sdbjects. This is true of mathematics,
and here educational radio can come to the aid of such teachers.
”Numbers at Work”, a programme presented by the Radio Councid of the
Chica00 Board of Education, helps the elementary children of the Chicago
schooys understand w h y it is important to work hard at arithmetic. Portland,
Oregon, includes a mathematics programme addressed to high school students
and called ”Figure it out”. This consists of a ‘quiz,a number story, and an
interview with some adult w h o emphasizes the use of mathematics in a
particular vocation.
READING
Radio can open for slow learners and pupils with poor reading ability the
hi h way to enjoyment of great literature.
two years the Portland,Oregon, Public Schools and the Portland Library
Association have been presenting a programme series entitled,”Young Critics”,
in which children in grades six to eight discuss their favourite books. Their
discussion, which is extemporaneous, is led by one of the children’s librarians. Since the origin of the series, librarians report children’s attendance
in the libraries has niore than doubled and there are waiting lists for the
books discussed by the ”Young Critics”. Another programme for the smaller
children, ”Tunes and Tales”, proved to be particularly valuable for teaching
children of the rimary grades attentive listening habits. In Toledo, radio
adaptations of Eickens compress long books into half-hour presentations.
They bring the characters and a dialogue, the atmosphere and lessons of the
stories to pupils w h o may never be able to read but a small portion of
Dickens in the original text.
$ir
SUPPLEMENTARYTEACHING AID
PROGRAMMES
Fre,quently the instruction which a teacher gives in a classroom can be
enriched by supplementary material presented by radio. Examples of this
type of assistance to the teacher may ,be cited for many subject fields.
English
Radio, like journalism, stimulates vigorous creative work on the part of
English students. Teachers often arrange mock broadcasts to utilize the lure
of radio to motivate English composition. Opportunities for students gaining
a hearing for their products are far greater on a school-owned station than on
a commercial station which cannot afford time for the amateur writer.
Toledo goes farther. Al1 Toledo high schools have beginning and advanced
script and production classes. In addition, students produce all Board of
Education programmes at the Central Radio Workshop. [High schools in
Cleveland and many other communities also offer credit,courses in radio
writing. Whether radio writing remains a part of the regular English work
or becomes a separate course is immaterial.
In addition to the programmes to encourage reading, mentïoned above,
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other proniising ei.periments using ra:lio to promote literary appreciation
m a y be cited. Good books sultaible for intermediate grades are read in their
entirety on the Ohio School of the Air. ”The Wind in the Willows” by
Kenneth Graham was selected for the first semester and ”Wagons Westward”
by Armstrong Sperry for the second semester of the 1949-50school year.
Science
Teachers have to face the introduction of n e w and unfamiliar material in the
field of science. One of these subjects is aviation, which is dealt with ‘by the
Chicago Radio Council‘s ”World of Wings”, at Lafayette Indiana,a transcribed
series entitled ”Our Wonder World” was introduced to the schools by the
Director of Audio-visual Aids. Suggestions for the ilse of the programmes
were distributed to the teachers in advance. The plan proved so successful
that a new series was presented for the upper grades showing h o w industry
throu h science was meeting defense problems. In Rochester, N.Y.,radio men
in coflaboration with teachers organize outings during which simple experiments are carried out with materials readily available.
j
Mruic
Radio can also supply .coiiiplementaryteaching ïn music. In fact such broadcasts are so complete in themselves that they m a y be used by schools whkh
do not hare music courses. The University of Minnesota’s radio course in
music appreciation, n o w in its thirteenth year, is believed to be the oldest
programme of this type in the entire nation. Originated over the University
Station KUOM-FM the music a preciation programmes are also carried by
thirteen commercial stations rocated throughout the state. ”Let’s Learn
Music” is the iitle of a daily morning programme presented to all of the city
schools of Nashville, Tenn., by the supervisor of music. Beginning on
Monday with the kindergarten, each successive morning finds the children
at different grade levels first [beingprepared by their teacher with advance
information about the music later hfeardin the programme. Notes for teachers
include not only suggestions for approach activities hut for follow-upactivities
as well.
‘Over Station KSL-FM the Salt Lake ,City schools offer a series entitled,
”Fun With Musir” in which R narrative background for selected recordings
is presented in such a w a y as to interest the adolescent youth in good music.
Music education ‘by radio has been offered the children of Salt Lake City
since 1939 and I: innrked increase in music appreciatïon is reported.
Art
”Let the Artist [Speak”,produced lbg the Radio Council and the Arts Department of the Chicago Board of Education, offers splendid oppbrtunities. An
illustrated handbook for teachers includes a summary of the art under consideration, before and after broadcast suggestions for general background,and
numerous suggestions for art appreciation and creative expression. Colour
reproductions of great masterpieces are provided for the use of teachers
and students. Projections are organized in the classrooms after each broadcast. Cleveland schools have an extensive collection of colour slides of great
paintings which are used in connection with an art appreciation radio
gramme. W h e n sets of slides have been distributed, the )ClevelandArt
seum Children’s D e artinent eqert comes to the W B O E studios where a slide
projector has also leen set up. -4s she changes the slides and talks into the
microphone, the same slides are shown on screens in schools throughout the
city and thousands of children are able to proAt simultaneously from the
knowledge and skill of the expert.
%
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Soda1 Studies
Dedicated to a Ihetter understanding of America and -4niericans,the programmes feature the culture of thc Pan-American world. In spite of the fact
163
that the original appeal was directed to ckmentary grades three to eight, the
listening audience includes many liarents.
Foreign Languages
Spanish lessons broadcast each week at Evansville, Incl., are published in
advance by the local radio station for use of teachers and students. This
permits interested parents to listen to the same programmrs and to make
a ”game” of the foreign 1a:iguage drills in the home. Students foliowing French
courses given *by WBOE-FJP Clcveland,partipate in the broadcasts.
TEACHING
BY
RADIO
Most authorities consider radio to be a io01 niore useful ih motivahg learning and supplementing the work of the teacher than as an actual instrument
of instruction. However, certain communities have made promising experiments in teaching by radio. This is particularly true in Cleveland. Courses
given over WBOIE+E~JI
are created by a committee of teachers and form an
integral part of the rurriculuin. In Cleveland,radio during at least one period
per week, is ver5 definitely the assistant teacher. W e can give other
examples. In Xichiyan,Dr. Joseph Jladdy proved the possibility of teaching
band instrument playing ‘by radio. In Wisconsin, IProfessor E.B. IGordon is
music teacher to more than forty-three thousand elementary school pupils.
For more than twenty years, I h . Gordon has been teaching over thc radio.
GUIDANCE SERVICE
Radio is obviously a useful medium for transmittal of guidance information.
Guidance broadcasts of the Rochester, N.Y., school of the air have not
attempted fo guide pupils in the selection of the vocation; the prograinmes
have rbeen planned to guide pupils in the last years of the elementary school
in the importance and often difificult decisions they must m a k e in their adjusimeqts to a high school programiiic the following year. In the months preceding the broadcasts, classi o o m teachers have, as a part o€ the regutlar
social studies programme, prepared a hac1;ground through discussions and
study of the school work in its relation to thc world’s work. The ten broadcasts then carried on from that point and included general information ak,out
the high schon1 and its place in the educational patlern. One of the particular advantages of the guidance broadcasts w a s the opportunity for parents
also to listen. Station WOI-FIMIowa State College, annually presents a series
under the title ”Its Your Future”. Each broadcast consists of an interview
with some permanent leader in the vc,cational field under consideration.
Several hundred ‘Iowa high schools have regular listening groups and integrate
these programmes with orientation, guidance, and career-planning activities.
LIBK4RY PROGRAMMES
Many pulblic and school libraries have made excellent use of local radio
rogrammes to stimulate use of their resources. Some exmiples have already
g e n presented under ”(Reading”. Another example of library-school cooperation may he found at Rochester, ‘%.Y.The Rochester Public Library in
presenting its programmes to fifth and sixth graders, endeavours ”to develop
desiralble reading hzdbits and to keep constantly before the children the
resources of the public librarj”. Straight talks are followed (by book reviews
with dramatic interpretations. Branch librarians take their turns at the microphones and the children in turn become ecquainted with them. Louisrille, Ky.,and Greendboro,N.C.n o w hare their O w n PM stations.
PROMINENT GUESTS
W h e n a prominent visitor comes to ,a community, school administrators are
often faced with the fact that the visitor cannot appear at more than one or
164
two schools as the most. Radio enables the visitor to speak to all the students.
Moreover, by making a recording of the prograniiiies the ~iexvpointsof the
prominent visitor can he prescnted on the air at a time which fits the school
schedule. W h e n one such vis*itor came to Cleveland for a conference, he
accepted an invitation for an exclusive intervi’ew by two Cleveland high
schooI studenfs. Social studies classes formdated the questions which the
two students put to the visitor. The interview w a s recorded and before it
was pit on W B O E 4 U teachers received a mimeographed outline suggesting
means for using the broadcast in connection with class work.
IN-SERVICE TEACHER THAXSIhG
Michigan’s State Department of Education invites teachers throughout the
State to listen to a weekIy programme over \‘&AR presenting such subjects
as ’-SourceMaterials for the Teacher in Meeting W a r Needs” and ”problems
Confrontinlg Michigan S~lio~ls~”.
Cleveland’s WBOE-FM during the past year,
presented two in-service training programmes-”Know Your Schools”, which
serves as ”An Oral House Organ” helping teachers to understand the work of
school departiiients, divisions, and bureaus, and ”Keeping Up to Date”, a
review of outstanding books and periodicals produced in co-operation with
the Cleveland Public Library.
ADULT EDUCATTON
The adult education niovenient looks to radio as an invaluable aid. Mány
networks as well as local programmes arc today devoted to the education of
adults. before the Doctor Cornes”, a programme of professional advice, preparccl under the guidancc of the American Medical Association, is typical
of the possibilities in adult education. The University of Iowa’s [ChildW e l fare Research !Station uses radio as a means of bringing its findings to parents;
courses are giren, csperts are consulted, and parents can organize study
groups and choose i: leader who serves as liaison with the university centre.
[email protected]\CEJLEiXTS A N D SPFXIAL EMERGENCEES.
With an ErM transmitter, a chain of continuous and instant cornniunication to
alt schools in a system can be maintained at all times. Warnings of storms,
epidemics or disasters which might endanger lives of children caa be sent
out at a moment‘s notice. S e w s of great national and international events can
be brought to every classroom.
REPRODUCING
NETWO~RK PI~OGRAMMES
By pre-arrangemenf, some educational stations record outstanding nefwork
rogra.mmes on magn’etictape for subsequent presentation to schools. GleveE n d faIIows this practice as do many other school systems.
RECORDING
School systems and institutions which have made a heavy investment in
recording m a y ask whether an F M station can do anything which a recording
cannot do better and more economically?-or whether estafblishmentof a
station would diminish the usefulness of present recording libraries? Recordings are a natural complement to radio station service. mOIE4%f in
Cleveland receives many recordings which are used on the air. These sanie
recordings then go into a trans‘cription loan service. A transcription catalogue describes recordings which teachers m a borrow. Cleveland’s experiencii indicates that 1FM station ownership stimu ates greater use of recordings.
9
16.5
UNIVERSITY
TO THE PEOPLE
Lectures of many university professors have a value to the general public
as well as to the students in their classrooms. These classes, broadcast by
radio, thus reach a larger audience and enlarge the scope of adult education.
SCHOOL PUBLIC RELATIONS
The school must familiarize parents and citizcns in general with the aims,
objectives and activities of school systems. FM stations will not at first be
useful for this purpose since few citizens w
ill o w n Fhf receiving sets. This
situation will change gradually. As the FM audience expands, parents can
become more familiar with the process of instruction by listening-in to the
regular education programmes in addition, the schools will create specid
programnies designed to inform parents and solicit their co-operation in tho
education process,
RADIOFOR
HANDICAPPED CHILDREN
In every community there are children w h o cannot be brought to the school.
Sickness keeps children at home for short or long intervals. To these children an educational station can bring educational service although this development must await the wider distribution of FiM receivers. However, there
arc already children's hospitals equipped with FrM receivers.
COLLEGEAXD
UNIVER~ITYUSE OP RADIO
CuTtom nialres the term "centre of learning" synonomous with college or
university because to learn one had to go to a centre of learning. Radio
however, enables an institution to take a learning from a "centre" to learners
wherever they inny live. {Radiocan expand the limits of the campus to the
Zimits of programnie reception. INuinerous programmes created by colleges
and univcrsities suggest the growing iiiterest in radio on the part of higher
education. Some sixty colleges and universities n o w o w n their o w n stations.
More than five hundred offer courses in radio. Probably more than 90 per
cent make use of radio if only for sports or public relations programmes.
, Principal uses which colleges and universities make of radio are these:
1. Schools of the Air: these are designed to serve elementary schools in
general but many programmes are also created for high schools. Most of
the programmes supplement the work of the teacher.
2. Adult Education: despite initial disappointment,with talk programmes,
many institutions have found practical means of bringing lectures and other
educational programnies to the adult public.
3. Service to special groups: w h e n an institution operates its own station
its concern to serve general audiences diminishes; it can tailor programmes
for small special groups, if time on the university station is available.
4. Sport: local commercial stations often cannot carry local sports events
because games of national interest receive reference. Here the usefulness
of a college or university-owned station is oBvious.
5. IPulblic Relations: only in the field of public relations can the lxal
commercial station be of greater usehlness to higher education than one
owned and operated 'by the institution. College and university ehecutives
will recogni'ze,of course, that an FM station m a y not reach n large public
for some years.
A
RADIO STATION AS A LABORATORY FOR TRAINING
For training youth for jobs in the growing radio industry, a radio station
provides equipment as important in these new lfields as a lathe or bench is
to vocational training, or an experimental farm to an agricultural college.
The University of Florida has helped hundreds of youths to enter the radio
16G
'/
.
industry by giving them the opportunity for supervised experience in Operating the university's station, WRUF. Actual courses in radio technique are
few,but the opportunities for learning thy being in a real radio station Set-up
are unlimited. The colleges and universitics which operate radio stations
have contributed trained workers to the radio courses (script writing, protluction or engineering).
Post war opportunities in radio warrant school systems and colleges and
universities giving serious consideration to training radio technicians. The
United States may within the next ten years add as many as three thousand
stations,both FM and AM and television, to the pwsent roster. These stations
will recpire engineers,managers, programme directors,producers, announcers,,
scriptwriters and numerous other specblists. Oirr expanding Merchant
Marine and airways will require large numbers of radio engineers. As other
nations begin to expand their radio communication systems experienced engineers m a y be needed at least for the initial installations.
WiHAT AUDIENCES C A N E D U C A T I O N A L FM STATIONS SERVE ?
FM's potential areas of service range far beyond large cities and large universities. Other service possibilities include:
IIURAL SCHOOLS
Every student of rural education knows the difficulties of supervision and
uf administration of a county school system. Frequently, the county superintendent niay nut even find the time to visit all the rural schools of a county
more than twice or three times per year. With an Fht transmitter capable
of reaching an entire county, the superintendent and his supervisors can be
in daily communication with all county schools, large and small. Teachers
of one and two-room rural schools probably stand in greater need of curriculum enrichment possible through radio, than any other schools. What
Canada aiid Australia have done in using radio as an aid to correspondence
study points a way for rural education in the United States.
EXTENSION
SERVICE
FROM UNIVERSITIES
During the past twenty years, many of our la'rge state universities have
used A M stations. Extension services,in particular, have found radio a n e w
tool of communication exactly suited to many of their needs. Bruce Mahan,
Extension Service Director, University of Iowa, has prepared a number of
reports showing the wide variety of radio activity undertaken by extension
services throughout the nation. Althuugh some extension services have been
dubious about the usefulness of FJI, s,tate-widcservice described (belowwould
seem to eliminale their objections.
In a recent report the Radio ,Committeeof the National University Extension
Association recommended :
1. The continued development and use of broadcasting facilities in member institutions.
2. The promotion of co-operative broadcasting councils and listener
groups.
3. The encouragement of educational agencies to make application for
ultra-high frequencies n o w set aside for education.
4. Promotion of research in radio by member institutions.
PM E D U C A T I O N A L NETWORK SERVICE
Shortly before World W a r II experiments successfully demonstrated 'the
possibilities of linking FM stations without use-of land wires. Radio beam
relay services to connect FM transmitters are n o w authorized by the PCC for
continuous use. Where two FIMstations are not too distant from one another,
one may pick up a programme from the other and rebroadcast the pro-
167
gramnie on its o w n wave length. In IXew England, programmes are exchanged
at w
iIl among a group of six F W stations. In many other States,this has n o w
become common practice.
By using similar methods, local school-owned FM stations located within
reception distance of each other. can function as an educational network,
without any need to lease telephone circuits to interconnecting transmitters.
\Visconsin n o w has a State-widenetwork operating on this basis.
Olbservers see in the development of intercommunicating networks many
advantages:
1. Educational networks such as' the Empire State (New York) lighten the
local station programme load. A school system can create and broadcast five
satisfactory programmes per week, thut it does not have the necessary
resources to keep an F M station on the air four to eight hours per day. The
solution will be found when other centres contribute programmes to supplement the local programmes without extra cost.
2. Educational networks would open the way for better services from state
tlepartments of education. Contacts with teachers w
ill be more frequent
and m o r e numerous, and they w
ill reach all the schools.
3. A n educational network can expand the campus of each college or university. Many universities and colleges have long since ceased to confine their
services to the campuses on which they are located. Various means have been
employed to take learning to people where they live. With the n e w mechaiijsni of a state-wide educational radio network, distribution of learning from
centres can be accelerated.
4. Interchange of views and contributions will be encouraged by the establishment of a state-wide FN network such as Wisconsin and planned also
for North Carolina. Within a single half-hourprogramme, the views of leaders
living in five to ten different centres in a state are presented for all to hear.
5. FM networks can broaden the curriculum of the rural high school. The
courses of study of such schools, of which 40 per cent have fewer than Poirr
teachers, are enriched, thus solving their perennial problem.
168
SCHOOL BROADCASTING
IN THE KINDERGARTEN
Considera'bleexperiments have been made iil broadcasting €or kindergartens
and children of prc-school age. W e are reproducing \belo,wshort reports on
the experiments tliat have been made in three countries: Australia
Czechoslovakia and the United States of America.
AUSTRALIA
The kindergarten prograinmes which are so popular in -4ustralia,usually
begin with a song in which the children are asked to join, both with voice
and gestures, the latter having first been descritbed at the mlcrophone, and to
which a piano accompaniment gires lhe necessary rhythm. Having sung and
danced and gambolled like young animals, the children listen to some good
advice abolit healthy habits and then to some story which is often dramatized.
Mothers and nurses are asked to follow these programnies in order to
help the children later to organize their games or to cariy out soine manual
work suggested during the broadcast. It seem3 that the children take the
advice and suggestions vcry seriously and hasten lo put them into practice.
The kindergarten gymnastics given by the radio have been much appreciated
in the hospitals where children suffering from infantile-paralysishave gained
much benedit from them.
Where there is a lack of crkches or children's homes or teaching staff,this
kindergarten of the air offers unlimited possibilities.
(I.B.O.
Bulletin No. 257,June 1947).
See also the report on School IBroadcasting
Australia, Part II+
CZEjCHOSLOVAKIA
BROADCASTS
FOR
SMALL CHILDREN
( W e extract the following remarks from an article which appeared in a recent
numiber of the review IRozhlasavn Praco, Prague, by Dr. Jan 'Peka,a Czech
educationist).
The building of progFammes for nursery sEhools presents various 1xobIems
which may be placed in three catepries: (a) the listening psychology of the
child below school age; (b) the cholce and form of broadcasts; (c) technical
questions.
Listening Psychology
.
The child below school age is on approximately the same psychica1 level as
mankind before the introduction of means of culture and information: books,
theatres, press and cinema. At that stage, the spoken word was the chief
means of widening his outlook. Singers and story-tellers gave people id?as
about things and events.
As w e listen to a dramatic production,our imagination begins to work and
extracts the essential sentiment of what is heard. The fact perceived strongly
affects the emotions, forms a sort of subconscious anticipation and becomes
the cause of deliberate actions. This is one of the fundamental psychological
principles of the function of listening in the child mind. The child is a born
listener. That is w h y all problems concerning the art of influencing the mind
i59
of the young listener and of contributing to his moral and social development,
are of far greater importance than for adults. Life teaches the child that
truth is social and that the search for truth is the real destiny of man. Our
wireless plays and games must stimulate these sentiments and help to change
the child into a beiiig endowed with a social consciousness.
Bromlcusts
Programmes for little children should be based on the above considerations.
After a year's experience of broadcasts to nursery sch3ols in Czechoslovakia,
we have come to the conclusion that rather short (broadcasts,of a h m t fifteen
minutes, which include stories, are the most appropriate. It is hardly necessary to stress that the wording should (besimple. The child is particularly
receptive to plays of which the plot is familiar to him. All that is necessary
to create excitement is the appearance of dbstacles which the hero must
overcome before the happy ending. A mystery makes too great demands on
small listeners. They prefer the story of this or that personage, well-knomwn
hero or group (three little pigs, seven little goats, etc.) Jn a simple way, we
try to concentrate the child's attention and put before him car2fully selected
ideas about life. Our subjects are taken preferably from Czech, Russian,
English and American tales. W e ask certain authors to write original stories
in conformit!, with our principles of education and teaching. Ji1 our programnies some stories have not at first sight any definite object; others are
exclusively for the teaching of music, sense of rhythm, etc.
The level of broadcasts varies. There is not much difference of age between
our small listeners-but their mental age varies a great deal. For this reason
the choice of subjects and their elaboration is very important.
T-ecihn igue
Listening in nursery schools is perhaps the best organized of all educational
broatlcas,ting. Teachers n o w consider our broadcasts an indispensable part
of their teaching. A questionnaire, sent to forty-eight districts, has given us
valuable indications as to the choice of subjects and the production of programrnes.
Noisy and over-long scenes 'bother children, w h o do not like the sound of
sharp voices. Child-actors ,do not command the interest of children. That
is comprehensible: a lbudding actor cannot give a performance 'so living as
can an adult. IComplicated music is disturbing. The piano sounds besf
through the microphone, or some instruments !laying
solo. The part played
by music should 'be essentially finctiona1~b.a~
,groundnoises, onomatopoeia,
music as scenic colour is less effective. In broadcasts to young children w e
come to the problem of ,descriptivemusic of onomatopoeic and "fa.iry-iike"
character. 'Buthere iw'estill lack new practical imdeas. INothiiig equals the
effect of a n e w sound, never before heard. Experiments should be made in
this field of microphone sounds; the result would surely be "fairy-like".
Coming to the problem of putting on the air it should be noted that the
languag? of the actor, if it is to be appreciated by the small listeners, should
be well-phrased and distinct. It is true that listening is often spoilt by poor
reception due to the bad state of wireless apparatus, and account should be
taken of this factor when putting programmes on the air.
Certainly, the introduction of wireless in nursery schools has given us the
most grateful audience possilble... But w e must not under-estimate our special
task which is to prepare children for group-listening in primary and secondary schools and to constitute future adult audiences. In the nursery school
we are at the elementary stage of radio. This task is a pleasure, which should
urge us to neglect no experiment which might lead to n e w and better results.
'
,
(I.B.U.Bulletin No. 2161, October 1947).
170
UNITED STATES
INFORMATION CONCERNING PXE-SCHOOL AND KINDERGARTES-LEVEL BROADCASTING
(submitted by George Jennings, Director of Radio, Radio Coiincil-WBEZ,
Chicago Public Schools).
Since its beginnings over ten years ago, the Radio Council of the Chicago
Public Schools has served the kindergarten audience with broadcasts designed
€or kindergarten use. Although intended primarily for school listening, these
programmes siniultaneously have been widely shared by pre-school children
at home and judginlg from the numerous information requests received from
parents of pre-school children, this audience is almost as extensive n o w as is
the kindergarten group for which the programmes are designed.
Most of our kindergarten programnies are of the story-tellin,gtype, such as
'?Bag of Tales", "Mother Goose Story Lady", " W e visit 'StoryLand" and "\Story
Time". At times they are coupled with science interests (domes'tic animals,
care of pets, flowers and (birds);or they may be keyed to character education
(unse~lfishness,
kindness, courtesy), elementary social studies'(introducing children to community life and such "helpers" as the firemen, policemen,
man, the grocer, baker, milkman, coalman), group socialization (getting::tfa
with other children, p1ayin.g together, sharing the broadcast, listening
together), or play-time.
Other programmes are the children's participation programmes, most often
music with continuity offering new ideas for singing games, free rhythmic
cx:xession, folluwing dircctions for doing or playhg along with the broadcast "leader'. and other children, free creative expression in arts or crafts
or construction. This ij-pe of programme is particularly beneficial in that
it brings into the child's experience a new- and strange wice, somevne other
than the parriit or teacher fr-o111w h o m to take direction. Too often children
are "grandmotherrd" b>.parenis or Ille home-kindergartenteacher. The radio
offers excellent opportirniiy tg niect ne=.v people and is an accepted inc~lium
for widening the child's circle of acquaintances. -411pre-school and kindergarten programiries are of value in listening training. Listening is an art
equally important as reading, writing and speaking. In creating a natural
"aucdlence situation",radio listenin,glbrings kintlergarteners together as a group,
sharing the listening experience,each respecting the rights of his fellows to
listen and enjoy the broadcast too.
In planning the prograinmes for kindergarten and all << tiny tot 2 listening,
casts are held to a minimum-us'ualIy a single "story lady" or "uncle" carrying
the narration all the w a y through. Occasionally a dog barks, or a cat meows,
but sound effects too, are held to a minimum. This is because too many
strange voices and over-use of sound effects are confusing and particularly so
to the young listeners. Attention spans at this age level are shoït; therefore
at the
individual programmes approximate ten to twelve minutes in leng!h
niost. In telling the story, we endeavour to create as many word pictures as
possi'ble, to make the stor? rich in imagery, to stimulate imagination and to
motivate original, free, spontaneous follow-up activities.
All school programmes are planned carefully for'classroom use, with manuals prepared for teacher-guidance. lThese handbooks give resumés of the
broadcast stories and offer comprehensive suggestions for pre-and post-
broadcast actlvitics. The programmes mentioned have proved especially conducive toward motivating word study, oral discussion, creative arts, crafts
and construction; re-telling or dramatizing the story heard, free play, and
similar outgrowths.
In and about Chicago, kindergarten teachers and parents have been most
cnthusiastic in their acceptance of radio programmes of this kind, and at
present kindergarten programmes are scheduled from six to eight times a
week to meet the deinand of increased listening at this level.
171
a
Nole by Miss Kcithleeii X. Lardie, Malzager, Station IVDTR,Educational Radio
Station of the Detroit Public Schools.
Station WDTR, the Detroit Public Schools station, presents a series o€ programmes eutitled ”Tale Time” directed to Yery young children. ,Theie storie?
are simple in format and use a minimum of sound effects.
Listening is voluntary in kindergartens, but from our reports w e find that
it is used to some extent in our schools.
As to pre-school listening w e have no data regarding this group’s listening
habits, but members of our Parent Teacher Association have informed 11s
that they use the broadcasts with their children at home.
W e have found a number of recordings that appeal to the very young. \Ye
have presented a number of programmes relating to safety which have been
used in the kindergarten. Safety and stories from literature seem to be the
two fields most suitabIe in this area. W e have used these for speciaI programmes. We know that children listen to the radio before they are of school
age, especially in those homes where the radio is used to a great extent. It
is a field that is only n o w (being esplored to the iullest ektent by educatore.
172
SCHOOL BROADCAST1N G
AS A SUBSTITUTE FOR DIRECT TEACHING
As w e have seen school broadcasting is not generally used as a substitute
for teaching in class.
There are,however, exceptional circumstances which have coinpelled school
broadcasts to replace the teacher as far as possible. Closure of schools, difficulties in attending due to the war, epidemics or sheer distance, have in
certain cases forced the educational authorities to call in radio to perform
the task which the teacher through force of circunistances was temporarily
unable bo carry out.
FEDERATION OF MALAYA
In May 1948, an interesting experiment w a s carried oui in Singapore, where
an epidemic of infantile paralysis.coiiipelled the local schools to close down.
TWO-~OIFY
lessons w e r e given every day by radio, and the effort proved most
successful. (Unesco surveys, 1945).
Budapest radio transmits special school broadcasts twice a week for children
w h o cannot go to school on account of lack of heating. Recent examinatiom
undergone b these young home-listenershave shown that the broadcasts are
giving escel3lent results.
(I.B.U.
Bulletin No.235, Ahay 1947)-
KEW ZEALAND
On account of the epidemic of infantile paralysis in the winter of 1948 in
New Zealand, thme broadcasting service increased the duration of its progranlilies to counteract the effects of the closing of the scliools.
(I.B.O.Bulletin No. 22, January 1949).
GREAT BRITAIN
The B.B.C.has altva>-sincluded in its programmes for schools a few series
in which the broadcaster takes over the functions of the classroom teacher
and actually gives a lesson on the air. Among series of this type at present
are two music and movement for young children,two of singing lessons, one
of physical training and one of lessons on the Welsh language. (B.B.C.September 1949)
CANADA
In the far reaches of the Canadian North, above the Srctic Circle, Indiali
and Eskimo children listen to 1C:B.C. school radio programmes and talie part
in radio lessons the same as children in the rest of Canada. This is made
possible by the Canadian Army radio station et Alclavili, CHAI<,which al the
request of the Department of Mines and Resources is broadcasting CBC school
radio programmes for the benefit of schools and children for w h o m no
schools are available, in the hlaclienzie district of the Northwest Territories.
GBC transcriptions and recordings are sent regularly to the station by
air. IThe propnimes are much appreciated hj- the children and even by t h
Eskimo families, most of which possess a radio receiver although the)- are
cut off from the oulside world in ninny \\-ays.
173
Station CHAK is Canada's most northerly radio station. It was built in
1947 and is operated by military personnel on the same voluntary service
lines as the Army's broadcasting station CFWH in Whitehorse,Yukon.
(I.B.O.
Bulletin No. 17,May 1948)
NORWAY
During the last few years hundreds of thousands .of children and young
people, living far away from schools,have benefited from the correspondence
courses organized by the Norweeian Broadcasting Service. Il is also of great
value for those whose occupations prevent them from regular attendance
at ordinary schools. The number of subjects taught has increased little by
little and many study groups have been formed. Educational authorities have
expressed their very favourable opinion of this system at the microphone.
{I.B.U.Bulletin No. 261, Octoher 1947).
SWEDEN
Teaching English by Radio and Correspondence.
See report on School Broadcasting in Sweden (Part II).
NBW ZEALAND
The Education Department's Correspondence School in New Zealand has just
celebrated its silver jubilee, calling to mind the part which radio has played
in helping the school in its numerous activities during the sixteen years of
their association. Only one or two stations were used when lessons were
first broadcast; n o w the Correspondence School sessions are heard from
all the main national stations by pupils all over the country. Lessons, talks
and plays are presented.
This use of radio has strengthened the bond between the pupils of the
Correspondence School and their teachers, creating a personal touch which
makes both teaching and learning easier. A genuine feeling of fellowship
exists all over the country and results in active co-operation which is of
value to all concerned.
AUSTRALIA
The programmes broadcast are widely varied and appeal to children of
all ages. One of the most important features are the correspondence sessions.
for children living in remote districts where there are no educational
facilities. A big handicap is the time lag between the Eastern States and
South Australia and West Australia, making it extremely difficult to arrange
national relays, School broadcasting on a nation-wide basis constitutes
however a link of appreciable psychological value, enabling the children
of the city and of the country to enjoy a common experience.
(I.B.O.Bulletin No. 11, November 1947.)
174
INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING
A N D SCMQOL BROADCASTING
The role that radio can play in promoting better understanding between
nations, and particularly in the minds of youthful listeners, needs scarcely
be stressed. W e have obtained the following reports on this subject from
Canada and Great Britain.
CANADA
(Reports provided by Richard S. Lambert, Supervisor of Educational Broadcasts, Canadian Broadcasting Corporation).
CANADIAN SCHOOL BROADCASTS AND INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING
In Canada, school broadcasts are used to promote better international understanding in two ways:
,a) Through direct international exchandes with other countries. This
forms the subject of a separate memoranaum.
6) Through doinestic originations included in the provincial and national
schedules of school broadcasts inside Canada.
This mcmorandum deals exclusively with (b).
Canadian school broadcasting is organized both on a nalional and on a
provincial basis. Provincially, the BBC co-operates with the Departments
of Education of the ten rovinces, either individually or in regional groups.
Nationally, the CBC woris with the advice of a National Advisory Council
on School Broadcasting, on which all Departments of Education, teachers,
etc, are represented.
The following types of programmes taken from our provincial and national
schedules during 1948-49 and 1949-50, give examples of school broadcasts
which serve to promote better understanding of the lives and problems of
the people af other countries:
(i)
News and Current Events
The first ten minutes of every National school broadcast is taken up
with a news feature entitled ”What’s In the News?” (of seven to ten
minutes duration) which gives background information regarding important current events. Many of these deal with situations and events abroad
(e.g., Palestine settlement, Berlin Air Lift, Britain’s food and economic
problems).
I
(ii) Languages
In most provinces broadcasts supplementing the study of French in
high school are provided. These not only teach the language, but include
travel dialogues, short dramatizations from literature, etc. Good examples
taken from Manitoba’s current period ”Le Quart d’Heure Frangais” are
”A Visit to the French Consulate in Winnipeg” and scenes from Moliere’s
”Le Malade Imaginaire”.
(iii) Geography end Travel
In the ”Social Studies” portion of the school broadcast schedules, are
many programmes featuring Iife in other countries, or presenting geogra115
phical data. A good example is Ontario’s current series, ”Children of
Other Lands” (Grade III roughly age nhe) in which aspects of life in
Holland, Switzerland, Norway, China, Egypt and Arabia are presented.
-
(iv) History
M a n y dramatizations of scenes and personages in *the history of other
countries (especially Britain and U.S.A.) are included in our schedules.
In th? current series these include dramatized biographies of Colonibus,
Lincoln, Nanson, Braille, George Washington, Carver, Captain Cook, Cortez,
Mark Twain, etc. Most of these stress the contribution niade by the ”hero”
to the progress of civilization as a whole, rather than the welfare of any
one country.
(v) .wusic
Ilusic A4ppreciation programnies figure in the school broadcasting
schedule of all provinces. As there is comparatively little Canadian music
suitable for these programmes, the broadcasts tend to cultivate in our
children a particular appreciation of European composers and their work.
For instance, in the National Series for 1949.50, w e present a complete
performance, for high school students, of Gluck’s opera ”Orfeo”. Again,
British Columbia presents, for intermediate grades throughout Western
Canada, programmes on the music of Rimsky Korsakov, Albeniz and
Stephen Foster. Folk music of other lands figures strongly in all programmes, from the kindergarten level upwards.
(vi) Liferuture
Ikamatizations of scenes from great books of various countries are
commonly included in our literature broadcasts. Again, Canada’s o w n
literature is small, so that she has to draw considerably on the heritage
of others, especially Britain and U.S.A.
INTERNATIO~YAL
EXCHANGES
OF SCHOOL BROADCASTS.
CANADA’SEXPERIENCE.
Because of her geographic position I(midway between Europe, U.S.A. and
Russia), her economic ,andcultural ties i(with Britain, France and U.S.A.) and
th.emixe,d,
ethnic composition of her population, Canada is decidedly internationally minded. This is re,flectedin her school broadcasting programme.
.Canadianschool broadcasting has developed on a nation-mide scala mainly
since 1941. At present, all schools in En.glish-speaIkin8Canada can hear a
daily school broadcast of at least thirty minutes duration. either provincial
(tiedl to the curriculum of schools in one province or a group of provinces) or
national (aimed at strengthening national consciousness and citizenshi13 among
students). Some 6,000 schools, with an estimated student-audience of half R
million, take advantage of these !broadcasts.
[ln addition. several important experiments in the exchangc of school broadcasts with other countries have been tried, with :raryingsuccess. These are
as follows:
a) Exchanges mith U.S.A.(1CB.S)
From 1941-48 two or three courses of CBS American School of the Air were
regularly heard (by courtesy of (ISS) on ClBC networks, either nationally or
provincially at the request of ‘departmentsof education.
The number of programmes heard each year was [from 52 to 78, each of
thirty minutes duration. T’he subjects were history, science, literature and
music. In return,the (TBCcontributed each year a short series of programmes,
six or seven thirtg-minute broadcasts, about (Canadato be heard (as part of
the American School of the Air) over the CBS network in the U.S.
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This experiment terminated w h e n CBS liquidated the School of the Air in
1948. An attempt to substitute a sysem of exchanges w i h a
us'educationalstations (with aid fr0.m the Canada4J.S. joint C o m m i tee of Education) has so far not c o m e to fruition.
roup
b) Exchanges with Britain (BBC)
Preliminary efforts to exchange school broadcasts with the BBC were begun
in 1945, biit proved abortive. However, as soon as the American School of
the Air ended, fresh steps were taken to fill the programme gap by reopening
negotiations with Britain. In 1948-49 a number of BBC school broadcasts
(transcribed) were received in Canada and heard o n regional networks at the
request of deparimentsaofeducation. In return, CBlC contributed a programme
o n "Niagara Falls" to the BBC school schedule. So successful have these
exchanges proved, that they have n o w been put on a permanent basis. The
number of broadcasts each year is twenty-five l(of fifteen, twenty, or thirty
minutes duration each).
e) Exchanges with Australia (ABC)und New Zealand (NZBS)
In 1948-49 CBC launched a series of national school broadcasts entitled
"Children of the Commonwealth" for Grades five to nine,.to. which the EBC
and the ABC contributed programmes on child life in Britain and Australia
respectively. These proved so successful that a second series of the s a m e kind
w a s arranged for 194,940 with contributions from N e w Zealand as well as
Britain and Australia.
d) France (RDF)
During 1948-49, Ontario school broadcasts included a series of transcribed
Prench language lessons d i c h were supplied by the North Amerijcan Service
of Radiodiffusion Française. These were moderately successful with high
school students, though more appreciated by adults.
e) United Notions I(Rad¿o Division)
In 1948-49 the CBC was the first country to collaborate directly with the U.N.
Radio Division in the production of broadcasts about U.N. aimed at the
elementary school level. A series of broadcasts far grades five to eight entitled
"A Visit To Lake Success" w a s prepared at Lake Success and Toronto and
broadcast to the schools of the three maritime provinces of Canada. Reasonzble success w a s reported, but the problem of grade level 'is obviously difdicult
to solve.
f) International Service (CBC)
Since 1946 the CBC International Service has been supplying certain Euro ean
countries with transcribed programmes about Canada, aimed at the schooys of
.those countries. A m o n g the countries lreceiving these transcriptions are
Germany, the Scandinavian countries, Greece and Poland. These broadcasts
are said to be well received.
T h e general result of these experiments has been to s h o w that international
exchanges of this kind are a product of slow growth and prolonged spadewonk. The folIowing difficulties and obstacles have been encountered:
a) Technical-Unless the exchangin countries are in the same, or adjacent
time zones, tbe programmes have to %e exchanged by transcription. Obstacles
to this, in the form of copyright restrictions and union regulations, are difficult
tQ overcome (especially in tbe case of music), except at prohibitive cost.
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b) Educafional--iDifferences betwe'en the educational systems an.d standards
of the exchanging countries present a serious problem. The grade levels vary,
subjects are taught at different grad,elevels, and the curricula are different.
Also, religious influences are often a complicating factor.
In addition, there are differences in school practices (such as recess periotds
and holidays) as well as-inth'elength of period,(from ten to thirty minutes)
considered best for a sc'hoolbroadcast.
c) Radio-Satisfactory exchanges can 'hardly take place except between
countries with well developed radio systems of their own. !(,e.g., adequate
network falcilities). The type of radio system matters a good deal b'ecause,
broadly speaking,coinmercial radio systems and publicly-ownedradio syst,ems
approach school broadcasting €rom opposite angles. In countries where
commercial radio predominates, over-emphasis is usually lai'd on "entertainment value". Education,alprogrammes are giv'entime on the air mainly for
prestige and pu'blicrelations purposes. Even in schools and educational padio
stations, the scriptwriting, producing and acting talent employed tend to
become saturated with commercial and edvertising attitud,es,which are not
acceptable in pu,blicly-ownedradio.
Production standards Yary greatly from one ceintre to another. In some
centres, a "sc'hool broad'cast"means a lesson4alk deliverled by a single teacher
or lecturer with or without the presence of students in,the studio. In others,
the predominant type of school broa,d#cast
is a dramatized programme, written
and performed by a group of rofessionals.
These differencesin radio te%nique are mainly responsible for the difficulty
that has been experienced in.exchanging programmes between the IGBC and
the educational stations of the U.S.A. The former produces all its broadcasts
according to professional standards, using professional writers, actors and
musicians. The lattser '(having no direct association with the networks) relies
largely on amateur (teach,erand student) talent. The two standards do not
match.
d) Language-This is a particularly hard barrier to cross. Inside Canada, for
instance, w e have not yet overcome this barrier, as between )French-speaking
and English-speaking sections. Translation of scripts into another language
often fails to reproduce the spirit of the original; and free adaptation becomes
necessary.
The lafnguagedifference is accentuated by differences of education,religion
and attitudes. Even where IEnglisb is the common language (as between
Britain, Canada, Australia and U.S.A.), there are several p;ob!em~ to Be overcome. These are mainly difficulties o€ accent, vowel intonation, vocabulary.
pronunciation, and pace of speaking. They arise out of local variations and
habits.
First attempts at exchanges between CBC, ABC and BBC were frustrated bj
difficulties of this sort. For instance, objection w a s taken by BBC officials to
a short experimental school broadcast prepared for the CJBcfby a Canadian
school boy in the form of a talk on his daily life, on the ground that the boy
did not pronounce the word "Ottawa" in R w a y acceptable to English ears.
Conversely, the BBC's contribution to the same series was rejected in Canada.
on the ground that the mincing and refined speech of the English children used
in ths broadcast would provoke laughter when heard in Canadian classrooms.
Difficulties of speech-rhythm,intonation and pacing also aroSe between Canada
and Australia.
For the second, more successful, attempt elaborate precautions were taken
to avoid these misunderstandings. As between Britain and Canada, draft
scripts were su'bmitted and revised in advance, and radio officials of the
receivin country were present in the studio when the broadcasts were
produmi, to ensuTe that the speech was right. Pacing of the broadcasts was
slowed down, dialect eliminated, and (specially chosen voices used in the
dramatizations.
As between Australia and Canada, the method was tried of recording the
dramatized excerpts in the country of origin, and sending them across
accompanied by a script narration, which a native voice could be used to
deliver on the air of the receiving country. This device proved very satisfactory.
175
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It 'is understood that similar language difficulties have occurred in experiments conducted by €he Scandinavia11 countries iln exchanging school broadcasts.
e) Zdealogical (History,Politics,morals, etc.)-In most countries,education is a
carefully-guardedprerogative of government (eithercentral or local). Teachers,
parents, and educators generally arc ready to ob(jec2to anything that offends
their susceptibilities as guardians of the youthful mind. History, tradition,
morals, religion aiid politics-all come in this category.
In this connrction, 'Canada's experience in participating in CBS American
School of the Air has been illuminating. In relation to the U.S.A., Canada is a
small country bordering on a greater neighbour. She is therefore particularly
alert to protect herself aqainst anything that might seem to infringe upon her
cultural independence. Hence Canadian educators are quick to-take exception
to reference in school broadcasts that might run contrary to accepted Canadian
standards.
From the time when the American School of the Air broadcasts were first
introduced on the Canadian networks, they provoked a \fairly \continuous
stream of criticism from our listening public, complaining of bias and propaganda. This applied particularly to programmes dramatizing history, institutions, scientific dircovery, and current affairs; also occasionally to literature
programmes.
The complaint was that these programmes were tinged with an aggressive
(even though unconscious) U.S. nationalistic viewpoint. Similar complaints
were voiced concerning certain broadcasts that w e took from NBC's University
of the Air.
Examples are as follows:
A programme dramatizing scenes in the American war of Iindependence,
showing British troops acting in an anti-Semitic fashion.
Mistakes on the constitutional relationship of Canada to Britain, sometimes referring to Canada as wholly dependent on Britain 'and paying tribute
to King George II,at other times speaking of her as a Sister 'Republicto the
Uinited States.
A dramatization of a children's book featuring an American visit to
Quebec and containing a description of [Quebec children begging in the
streets from American tourists.
A programme dramatiziing the story of the (Mayflower Pilgrims,
exaggerating and distorting their treatment in England before their decision
to emigrate.
AttribuLion of scientific inventions (such as the telephone) to wholly
U.S. sources, without allowing credit claimed (e.g. Alexander Graham Bell)
by Canadians.
One-sided geographical presentations of Canada, picturing her as a land
of fur-trappers and lumberjacks, and overloaking the enormous modern
agricultural, industrial and mineral developments of the country.
Sometimes the criticisms were directed to the production rather than
the content of the broadcasts, i.e., they were aimed at the speech habits,
dialect or acting methods employed.
There is, of course, a converse side to these criticisms. Certain of the
Programmes contributed by the ClBC about Canada to the American School.of
the Air offended U.S. susceptibilities. iFor example:
A historical broadcast about Sir Adam Beck, the founder of Canada's
biggest public utility (the Olntario Hydro-Electric Commission) had to be
cancelled because on the U.S.side of the border, it appeared to give too
much publicity to public ownership of hydro-electric facilities.
A documentary broadcast dramatizing Canada's attitude towards world
government and the development of atomic energy provoked strong
remonstrances (conveyed at one stage through official diplomatic channels)
from the U.S. side, as being too political in character.
All these criticisms were not numerous enough to cause an interruption of
the exchange experiment, which continued for seten years with much mutual
satisfaction to both parties. The success of the experiment was due to the
close proximity of the exchanging parties. [Frequent personal visits and
constant telephone communications between New York and Toronto made
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possible the rapid straightening out of objections as they arose. However, the
fundamental difflculty of inequality between the two parties was not fully
overcome.
After the termination of the American School of the Air, its place was partly
taken, on the Canadian air, by transcribed school (broadcastsifrom Britain.
Occasional difficulties have arisen even here, but of a minor order. For
example, a junior school music broadcast from Britaia had to be cancelled
because of complaints that the old nursery rhyme "Ten Little Nigger Boys"
might have objectionable colour-barreactions in some urban 'Canadianschools.
Concìusioina
Enough has been siid to show h o w thorny is the path of developing international exchanges of school broadcasts. The following tentative conclusions
m a y be drawn from our Canadian experience up-to-date:
(i) Exchanges are most likely to succeed when they are arranged between
two (or more) countries with a c o m m o n linguistlc and cultural heritage.
Otherwise, the language barrier is a severe handicap.
(ii) The broadcasts should, as far as possible, be produced to meet a
specific need or ohjective,in the curriculum of the receiving country-rather
than be of a general character aimed vaguely at children or students. They
should also be aimed at specific grade or age levels. It is easier to plan
such broadcasts for the high school level than for the elementary. But the
listening response is likely to be much smaller, as the chjef field of school
broadcasting everywhere is at the elementary level.
(iii) The utmost care is required at all times to avoid infringing on nahonal
susceptibilities. This can only he done by direct and frequent personal
contact between those concerned with the broadcasts on both sides. This
applies not only to the supervision,lbut also the pmducers,writers and actors
employed on the work.
(io)Mutual familiarity and understanding of the educational and radio
s stems and methods of $oth the exchanging countries are essential among
tle personnel responsible for the broadcasts.
(U) Provision of scholarships,etc, to ena'bleregular exchange of personnel
engaged in school broadcasting would be one of the quickest ways to overcome the olbstacles under (iii) and (iu) above. Also, facilities for more
international conferences and meetings on school broadcasting.
GREAT BRITAIN
S C H O O L BROADCASTS .%ND INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTAXDING
Contributed by the BBC
I. Contribution through the norma! school broadcasfs
1. British school broadcasting has made a contribution to the breakin
down of what Professor G.M. Trevelyan has called "The gross ignorance o
one another" which it is essential to diminish "in this stage of the world
when m a n y nations nre brought into close and vital contact for good and
evil". Illustrations of this statement could be found in any recent \Tear. but
the examplles that follow have been drawn froni the output-of the two school
years 1947-48 and 1948-49.
2. The nature of the contribulion varies with each broadcast series.
Through some, for example those dealing with English or Music, the children
are brought into contact with the literary or artistic culture of different
countries, whereas in others dealing with History and Current Affairs they
receive information about present-day problems and interests, and the past
history o€ countries different from their own. In a third group-4eography
and Travel-the elriphasis is on the w a y in xhich people live whose geogaphical and economic background is very different from that of Great Britain.
In many series more than one of these contributions is to be found; but in
one w a y or another it is hoped that the broadcasts may help to correct one
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180
of the faults of the English which Professor Trevelyafi describes as ”expecting people of other countries to react as they do themselves to politid and
international situations”.
3. Information about lhe contemporary international scene is provided
through two series of school broadcasts dealing with News. In News C o m mentary (eight minutes), which goes out on five days a week during term,
an avera e of 25 per cent of recent broadcasts dealt with happenings abroad;
and in &ment Affairs (twenty minutes weekly), the proportion IS nearly
40 per cent. Both series aim at abjective treatment of the news and its backp u n d . It is not part of their purpose to impress on the children the
importance of international co-operation and understanding, but many of the
subjects dealt with in the past have born on this theme. There have been,
for example, broadcasts:
a) Which in explaining the news, illustrate the life and problems of other
countries, e.g. China, Germany, France.
b) Which introduce the children to famous statesmen and citizens of other
countries, e.g. Mahatma Gandhi, President Truman, Mr. George Marshall.
c) Which describe as ects of the work of the United Nations-in Pallestine, in Kashmir, throug Unesco-and h o w the U.N.functions.
d) Which tell of other forms of international co-operation,e.g. the new
lan to control the Nile.
&he response of schools shows that broadcasls dealing with people and conditions in other countries are amongst the most popular in these series.
4. The presentation and explanation of fact, important as it is, is only
one of the ways in which broadcasting informs the school child about foreign
countries. In the broadcasts which seek to show h o w other people live and
think, dramatization is frequently used or stories are chosen which will
appeal through his imagination to the child’s sympathy and interest. In
Travel Talks, for example (twenty minutes weekly for ten year-olds), the
children are taken on imaginary visits to places and families all over the
world. Over the last two gears the children have thus been given
of life in Japan, China, South America, Holland, the Gobi Desert,
Bulgaria, France,Italy-to quote only a few. At a slightly higher level (Geography for thirteen year-olds) there were, in 1949, ten broadcasts about life
in different parts of China and four about Japan. In another series of a
misrsellaneous character, for children of fourteen, six broadcasts dealt with
”Lifeand Arts in the U.S.A.”, six described successPu1 projects of post-war
reconstruction in Europe, such as the reclaiming of Walcheren Island, the
re-building of Norway’s fishing fleets, the development of Europe’s airways,
and the treatment of child w a r victims in lhe Pestalozzi village. For many
years the BBC have also given broadcasts iznder the title of ”Citizenship”.
This title has always been broadly interpreted as meaning that the broadcasts should promote a sympathetic understanding of the circumstances and
manner of life of people in other countries. With this in mind, one whole
term w a s spent on a series of sketohes of the life of children in different
parts of South America to illustrate the difference between the English child’s
way of life and that of children in the world outslde.
5. The History broadcasts also contribute. In one series in 1948, eight
broadcasts told stories of the events between 1860 and 1933 through the eyes
of American and Russian families. The broadcasts for children of about
ten are normally in the form of stories chosen from all over the world-stories
of the Jews, the Ancient Greeks and Romans, and, in more recent times,
stories about St.Francis, William Tell,Genghis Khan, The Cid, Cortes, Pierre
Radisson and many more. In many Science broadcasts references to the work
of foreign scientists appear. In one year a whole term w a s allotted to ,
broadcasts about ”Great Scientists”, describing something of their work and
lives; and out of the nine chosen five were, to English children, fart’g
’1 nemGaliIeo, Franklin, Linnaeus, Pasteur and Mme. Curie.
6. Through the Music broadcasts the children are made aware of the
contribution of foreign genius to the heritage of European colture. Not only
do they hear the music of Beethoven, Chopin, Tchaikorsky, Smetana, Mendelssohn and others, but some programmes tell about the lives of these
musicians as well. Folk song and dance very vividly convey the colour and
atmosphere of a nation, and in one term there was a series of broadcasts
which illustrate$ the songs and dances of eight countries outside the British
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181
Isles and also included some background information about the life and
customs of the people themselves. The countries included in this series were
France, Spain, Italy, Germany, Austria, Czechoslovakia, Poland and Russia.
7. This account of the w a y in which the culture of other countries ip
presented to the schools would not be complete without some reference to
the various English broadcasts. There are five of these each week and quite
frequently the story or the book or play chosen has a foreign source. Sometimes it is a version of a foreign legend, sometimes an English rendering of
a well-known book. For examplle, in the Senior English series there was a
programme about Jean Valjean in Victor Hugo’s Les Misérables, a perforinance of a translation of a one-act play by hnatolc France, a talk about
Erich Kastner’s book Emil m d the Deiectiues and an adaptation of Stephen
Vincent Benêt’s Freedom’s @ - H a r d Boulght Thing. In the same period for
younger children there w a s a story based on a Persian folk-tale,a Cossack
folk-tale,a story from Spain, a version of the Aucassin and Nicolette story,
and a performance of scenes from a book by the Chinese writer Chiang Yee.
8. Foreign language broadcasts, of course, make a particularly important
contrihution to the romotion of international understanding. There are two
French series, one for Sixth Form pu ils, the oilier -for those at a middleschool stage, and one German series ayso at this intermediate level. In the
Sixth Form French series the pupils hear performances of dramatic master.
pieces, readings of poetry, talks about music and art and discussions about
present-day French affairs. In the Intermediate French and German series
the programmes deal with events of everyday life in these countries by
means of dramatized scenes, and include national songs and accounts of
national festivals. In this w a y by hearing people in normal and often familiar circumstances using their native language the children not only begin
to realize that this language is a living thing but also learn a great deal
about the life ordinary people live in these countries.
9. Great Britain is in a special position because its children need to learn
not only about foreign countries but also about olhcr members of the C o m monwealth and about the Colonial territories. During the last two years
there have been a great many broadcasts with this aim in mind. In 1947-48,
for example, the whole year’? geography broadcasts were concerned with
”Britain’s Trade Links with the Dominions and Colonies”. Current affairs
and news commentary deal constantly with present-day events in the Commonwealth; in one of the history series the broadcasts described the origin,
growth and present-day conditions of what were then the five, self-governing dominions, and in another series a term was spent on the study of
”Changing Africa”. Each year there is a special Empire Day programme
which quite directly attempts to foster the sense of kinship and family within
the Commonwealth.
10. This is perhaps the point at which to refer to the illustrated pupils’
pamphlets which accompany not only all three modern language series but
also many other broadcasts, such as travel talks, geography, general science.
These pamphlek provide the children with pictures of the people, places,
and incidents relevant to the broadcast and thus are an added means of
making them familiar visually as well as aurally with foreign landq.
II. Contribution by the offering of Lbiiish school bi-oadcasts io other
countries
11. The BBC Trailscription Service makes another contribution to the
promotion of international understanding. This service is n o w offering to
all English-speaking countries about twenty-five broadcasts each year
s’electedfrom those which have been broadcast to British schools. These
broadcasts, which are distributed on processed disks, can be used up to three
years after their manufacture. The programmes are offered as a cross section
of what is broadcast to the children of Great Britain and reflect the country’s
work in educational broadcasting. Broadcasts offered under this scheme are
at present heard in Australia, British Guiana, Canada, Gold Coast, India,
Malta, Malaya, New Zealand, Nigeria, Northern Rhodesia, Singapore, South
Africa and Trinidad, and it is interesting that they have also been asked for
182
and used by non-English-speakingcountries such as Austria, Denmark,Norway
and Sweden.
12. A special service is also provided for Latin American countries. British school broadcasts are translated into Spanish and are re-performed in
Great Britain, and school broadcasts are also made in Spanish especially for
this service. The subjects includad so far have been music, history, geography,
general science, biology and mythology.
13. The rapid success of these schemes suggests that this contribution is
a welcome one, and that the demands for the broadcasts m a y considerably
increase. It is a cardinal point of BBC policy, however, not to attempt to
"sell" these broadcasts. All that is done is to make as widely known as
possible among educational and broadcasting organizations that the service
exists.
III. Exchange of progrunimes und progrumme material
14. For some years past the school broadcasting organizations of the Commonwealth have exchanged material for programmes. This material m a y be
written, e.g. letters, or be sound material, or draft scripts which m a y be used
by the recipient country in building up its o w n programmes; or, parts of
a programme may be written and performed in one country and built into
the programmes of another. Or again, the countries may by requtst make
on record complete programmes which will be used in the uther countries.
This exchange has gone on in an informal way for some time,hut recently,
principally owing to the initiative of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, a trial exchange of programmes was instituted (see preceding report).
15. All that lias been said is only a summar ; but it is sufficient to
show quite c1,early that in its programmes to sclools in this country the
B.B.C. is very conscious of its opportunities and responsibilities in this
matter of promoting international understanding.
183
RADIO IN THE FIGHT AGAINST
t LhlTERACY
(submitted by Roger Clausse, Deputy IXrcdor-General, Belgian National
Broadcasting Servicc)
Although it is slightly outside the scope ~i a work principally concerned
with an examination of school broadcasting in its fully developed form, the
use of radio in literacy campaigns deserves a moment‘s consideration, if only
to set out the main elemenis and sketch the general lines of a solution for
which many countries in the grip of illiteracy are eagerly waiting.
Throughout extensive areas of the world the percentage of illiteracy is high,
and it constitutes one of the principal-obstacles to any materrsl, moral and
cultural advancement of the countries concerned.
There are two basic difficulties which beset the organization of literacy
campaigns: lack of teachers and poverty. The first weakens the effort against
illiterac itself an obstacle to the training of a sufficiently numerous teaching
body; tge second stifles the need for education, which would find no sustenence if it ever appeared. And these are the beginnings of vicious circles.
The problem, then, is h o w to escape from this bondage of discouraging circumstances. It is only natural that men’s minds should turn to radio, in view
of the amplc proof it has given of its effectiveness; that they feel it might
well be the ideal instrument which w
ill bring a swift solution. It has, after
all, two outstanding merits which would bring a large return in lands where
ignorance and poverty n o w prevail: it is unusually economical as it can
work from a single headquarter, with only a few technicians, and effortlessly
fill the intellectual and moral needs of a very large number of individuals;
while, in addition, and provided it conforms to certam conditions, it is a very
effective and practical tool of collective education.
But to obtain the desired results with the maximum economy of means
and the best chance of success, the first necessity is to have a clear idea of
the tasks that await those pioneers, w h o plan to use radio in literacy campalps.
Briefly they are these: the formahion of a team of radio producers for
educational broadcasts; the supply of receivers to the localities to be covered
by the experiment; the recruitment of at least one monitor able to read, write
and calculate in each locality to be served; the technical training of these
monitors thrwgh the radio; building up d a pupil-audience; and the
provision of educational broadcasts for that audience.
Ixt us cast a rapid glance over them.
1. FQXMATION OF A ‘ITAM OP RADIO PIRODUCERS FOR EDUCATIONAL
BROADCASTS
While, at the receiving cud, the effeclive use of radio against illiteracy
depends on a team of teachingmonitors (see below), at the sending end it is
dependant on a team of producers of educational broadcasts; it is thus essential that the latter as well as the former should be bullt up with the most
scrupulous care and with due regard to certain specific conditions.
The first point to be noted is that, as far as can be seen,it should be possible
to find,even in the liniited educated strata of countries affected by illiteracy,
a sufficient number or persons OP adequate culture and havin8 the special
qualities essential for the radio producer. Even were it otherwise, it would
not be impossibly difficult to traih a few carefully selected youths for this
profession.
The first point to be noted is that, as far as can be seen, it should be
possible to find, even in the limited educated strata of countries affected by
illiteracy, a sufficient number of persons of adequate culture and having the
special qualities essential for the radio producer. Even were it otherwise
185
it would not be impossibly difacult to train a few carefully selected yoÙths
for this profession. .
In the particular case under consideration, however, the producer must
be something more than a radio expert. In the case of the staff of a school
broadcasting service,w e believe that knowledge of, and aptitude for, broadcasting must take precedence over knowledge of, and aptitude for, teaching.
Jn the present case however, it is the other way about.
The reason for this is that, in the countries where illiteracy prevails, producers w
ill be required to undertake a duty from which their colleagues in
countries with a fully organized school system are exenipt. The pr.xpective
pupils' lack of the keys of learning i(reading, writing and arithmetic) puts
them beyond the radio's reach. Accordingly, before turning to the pupils
themselves, t h e producers must act as guides and instructors of the educational monitors, whose qualifications as teachers are small or non-existent and
w h o must be given the basic elements of the science of education,
simultaneously with the supply of specific lessons. Hence the producers'
rôle will be larger and more important on the educational than on the strictly
broadcasting side. W e shall revert to this subject in discussing the training
of the monitors.
2. SUPPLY O'F RESCEIVERS TO THE LOCALITIES TO BE COVERED BY
THE E B P E R F M E N T
No remarks are called for regarding transmitikrs. These facilities are avail-
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able to all countries, in the shape either of state-owned stations, or of time
bought from a private undertaking.
It is just as necessary however that each locality (be equipped with at least
one receiver installed in a place accessifrle to its public of children and possibly adults. Modest though this goal may be, in its practical adhievament
tremendous difficulties are met with, born of poverty and indifference to
culture. In all the proceedings at Unesco of the Commission on Technical.
Needs of the 'Press,Film and Radio, the question of one radio receiver per
locality comes up afresh every year like a leitmotiv, and gives rise to long
discussions whose positive results are not always encouraging. Yet that is
one of the Gordian knots in the problem of illiteracy which the countries
concerned must from the very beginning use their best endeavours to cut.
The local receiver would be the starting point of positive action: the source
of the monitor's knowledge, his inspiration and support,and a magnet whose
mysterious influence would draw young and old around it. With little expense
it could in due course become the central unit of a whole radio-redistribution system bringing into each individual home the radio programmes with
their contribution to fundamental education.
3. lRBGR~UIITMENT,
IlN OR FOR EAaH LOCALITY TO BE SESRVEiD,OF AT
LEAST ONE NONITOR
-
Radio lacks the power to wage war single handed against illiteracy; a human
intermediary is essential between it and the pupil, and instances of school
broadcasts being used as a substitute for:teaching cannot properly be quoted
in rebuttal. In all the latter cases the common feature is that radio is dealing
with a public having a certain minimum of education and invariably
possessed of the three keys of learning, which enabk it to understand the
broadcasts directed to it, and to profit from them. In all these instances radio
is not hasting its efforts in the vacuum of ignorance and illiteracy, but has
a foundation of pre-existing knowledge on which to build. Moreover radio
as a substitute for teaching only breaks into the educational sequence temporarily, to meet a fortuitous and passing need created by circumstances
such as war or epidemics. In every case the teacher goes before, and follows
after it, preparing the pupils to understand it or remedying the deficiencies
of the broadcast.
W e must not hug illusions to our breasts, which would occasion a wastage
of resources of time and of good will which countries with high illiteracy
percentages cannot afford. Radio is "unsuitable for teaching . . . any subject
186
calling for the use of eye or hand” (R. Lutigneaux), even with a teacher
there. It is useless in dealing with an audience which needs to be taught the
keys of learning, reading,writing and arifhmetic.
H o w is this difficulty to be overcome in those countries where not Önly is
lack of teachers a product of illiteracy but where the problen) of training
them by the traditional methods is set in terms which forbid any hope of
the swift solution which is needed?
The key question is this: ”Is it possible to find one lierson merely able to
read, write and calculate,in or for each locality where illiteracy3s rampant?”
If it is-and I think it isl-we are entitled to claim that the fight against
illiteracy can be begun at once, and that, thanks to radio, there w
ill be an
excellent chance of satisfactory results.
This brings 11s to the question of training as teachers a body of people
lacking all final qualifications. It can be resolved through radio, if radio temporarily eschews activity in the schools themselves and concentrates its whole
effort directly on the monitors.
4. TRAISIN(; OlF MONITORS THROUGH THE RADIO
The monitors can at least read, write and calculate, but they have neither
specialized training nor a sufficiently extensive fund of useful knowledge.
Imparting to others what one knows oneself calls for a special method and
cast of mind. To a considerable extent radio can supply these. Broadcasts
would be designed for the daily exposition, according to a meticulously calculated sequence, of the elements of teaching practice and methodology,
simple but categorical rules of professional deontology and above all specimen
lessons directly applicable to class work, to guide and inspire the teaching
activities of the monitors.
In addition, radio could afford a reasonably satisfactory response to another
requirement of the teacher’s craft. In ea2h of the subjects he teaches,the master
must have a m o r e estensive fund of knowledge than is directly used in the
schools. In the present instance, w e are seeking to utilize relatively illinstructed people, and accordingly radio must give them a methodical course
of general education, parallel to their technical training.
Briefly,what we seek is for radio to become an elementary teachers’ training
school concentrating,concurrently wlth scholastic education, on the practical
side, to meet the specific needs, both actual and incidental, of the fight against
illiteracy,as and when they arise. With modest ambitions,radio would be the
monitors’ guide and daily counsellor, and a perennial well of teaching practice.2 With the broadcasts behind them, the monitors wouId bring more competence, and thus more faith, to their ta&, finding daily, in their private listening, knowledge and inspiration; little by little, slowly perhaps but surely,
they would raise themselves to the dignity of fully qualified teachers.
A difficult task indeed, but one which we claim emphatically can bc done
and is worth doing.
5. BUFIJDlNlG UP A PUPIL-AUDIENCE
So much for the educational instrument: production staff, receiving sets and
monitors. It remains to collect an audience of pupils.
This too is an important task, but one which can be left in the hands of the
, monitors because they are best placed to undertake it. They are in direct contact with the people and often share their life; and with that and the prestige
which their knowledge and their selection as monitors gives them, they have
at once what is needed to appreciate the situation and to take effective actlon.
Provided they have the support and advice of the responsible authorities,
there can be no doubt of their ability to carry out this task without serious
checks or too much difficulty.
I shall not enlarge on this poinl, as local circumstances (which cannot be
I. Cf. the experiment carried out in Mexico in the illiteracy campaign, by Mi-.Tornes
mdet. the present Director-General of Unesco.
2. Better stlll if they had recording apparatus to buiild themselves a reserve of knowledge
constantly available. !But the hope is almo& too far fetched.
_,VCV
-
.-
.
.
187
k n o w n or assessed from a distance) will necessarily have a major influence
on the constitution of an audience. I would say, however, that in m y view
effort should be concentrated mainly on children and youths, even at the
expense of the adults whose lack of desire for culture and lack of “teachability” often put t h e m beyond our reach.
In addition, it is important that the limits of the campai’gn be clearly, and
not too ambitiously, defined to avoid a scattering, and consequent waste of
effort. It should be concentrated o n the most rece tive elements, and particularly on homogenous groups whose needs m a y {e expressed in identical
terms.
6. F;I)UCATIONALB R O A D C A S T S FOR THE PUPIL-AUDIENCE
Here, haste would be definitely wrong. T h e essential thing is to teach the
three keys of learning and everything must be sacrificed to that end; if, and
only if it attained, they are open to n e w horizons.
Admittedly there can be no objection to educational broadcasts for the pupils
after a fairly long period (a year at least). But a note of caution must be
sounded; m u c h greater care must be taken there than elsewhere to ensure that
such broadcasts do not use knowledge which the monitors hava not yet
grasped; otherwise the latters’ reputation and confidence will be affected,
bringing discouragement and loss of nerve. Furthermore, care must be taken
thet proper following u p of broadcasts is not inconsistent with the use of illtrained teachers.
For these reasons, the utmost caution is called for in organizing a school
broadcast system of the fully evolved type, where it is a question of c o m batting illiteracy. In m y view, the whole effort must be concentrated on the
monitor; he is the essential element. I would even say the driving shaft,
of the whole system; if he is not up to his work-and radio can m a k e him
so-no advance will be made.
Let us then devote all our energies to trainino those w h o are to teach, for
if w e succeed, the essentials of the problem wi% have been solved; the rest
will c o m e of itself as a logical consequence of what has been achieved.
Admittedly the argument submitted for consideration has been set out
on the broadest lines... But in default of an exhaustive inquiry and in particular of methodical experiments, it is difficult, and would be rash, to go
more into details and to descri(& all the workings of a complex undertaking.
Such as they are, these suggestions m a y perha s serve as a basis and a
guiding light for any action by radio against il iteracy and ignorance. It
is w h e n experiments are m a d e that they will be justified or exploded, that
their strong and w e a k points will come out, and that clearer outlines and
greater detail will be discernible.
P
THE EQUIPMENT OF SCHOOLS
WITH RECEIVING SETS
As appears throughout the reports in Part II of this document, the equipment
of sckools with receiving sets is a major problem in the organization of any
school broadcasting service. Apart from the, purely financial side o€ the
question, there are m a n y technical considerations to be taken into account to
provide satisfactory listening in schools. T h e following article, provided by
the National Council for School Broadcasting, shows the experiments that have
been carried out and the specifications recommended in Great Britain.
NOTES UPON THE PROVlSlON
OF LISTENING EQUiPMENT FOR SCHOOLS
'
T h e provision of a satisfactory quality of reception in schools turns on three
points :
1. T h e set.
2. T h e method of iiisinllation rmployec!.
3. T h e provision OP ;I mailitenance service.
1. THE SET
T h e radio sets used in schools m a y be of t w o kinds:
(1) Sets m a d e by manufacturers to their ow'n specification.
(2) Sets manufactured to a specification laid d o w n b y the school authorities.
(1) With sets m a d e to the manufacturers' specification it is *diesirable to
estabIish s o m e machinerj to test their suitability for school purposes and to
publish a list showing those which are approved. There are some sets which
are definitely unsuitable for school use, and the main purpose of approval
machinery of this kind is to protect schools from the purchase of unsuitable
apparatus. S o m e radio manufacturers in the United Kingdom m a k e sets
specially desi ned for schools. ,In some cases these are standard 'domestic
receivers sligfttly inodilied, but in others the manufacturer has designed
completely distinct apparatus intended to satisfy what h e understands to kR
the needs of the schools. It is desirable that any apparatus which the m a n u facturers specify a; bein$ designed for school use should also be subjected to
the approval procedure since it does not follow that such sets alwa s reach the
required standard. A n approved list w a s issued by the School Jroadcasting
Council for the United Kingdom in January 1948.
(2) Some of the larges Local Education Authorities in the United Kingdom
have thought it desirable to have a set or sets designed specially for their
schools. The outstanding example has been the London County Council. T h e
procedure w a s as follows: the London County Council considered that their
schools would get better quality reception at a lower cost and c o d d be
provided with a more efficient maintenance service if the sets were standardized throughaut the Authority's schools instead of there being, as in the
past, a great variety of different types of sets. T h e Authority's technical
advisers produced a'specification for such a standard set and discussed it with
the School Broadcasting Council. Prototypes were then m a d e and tested and
the School Broadcasting Council again called in lo advise. W h e n the Authority
was satisfied with their specification it w a s put out to tender, and radio m a n u facturers were asked to submit estimates for the supply of a large n u m b e r of
sets m a d e to this specification. A tender w a s accepted ana the sets are now
188
,
being installed in the schools. The Authority reserved no exclusive rights .'10
the set: thus the manufacturer was able to submit it to the School Broadcasting
Council for approval, antdlthe set has become generally available to schools.
'Thus the smaller Local Education Authorities w h o could not embark OR a
scheme of this kind m a y benefit from the initiative and research of the Londcn
County Council.
The specification of this set is attached as Appendix A.
Whether standardization of this kind could with advantage he extended on
a national scalc is at present under discussion. It may well be that some
couxtries would be well advised to go in for the stacdardlsatjan of especially
designed school equipment sl3onsor.d perhaps by the central gwernment.
2. METHODSOP
INSTALLATION
The installation of a set in a school is in some respects exactly the saine as
installing the set in a house: for exampl,e,you cannot expect good results
without an ade,quateaerial and earth system. In some minor (but 0l)vious
respects special care is necessary with a school installation: for example,
special care Shodd h,et taken to ensure that all the apparatus'and wiriilg is
such that there is no danger of children getting electric shociks. The main
difference in installing a set in a school arises if it is wished to receive school
broadcasts in more than onse classroom either siniultaneously or separately. 'If
reception is required in a number of dassroonis it is possible to su~iplythis
need by moving the set or by providin'ga 'centralinstallation with lou(d8spcaker
extension wiring. The latter has the following advantages:
(1) It is easier to carry a loudspeaker from room to room than to carry a
receiving set and there is much less likelihood of damage to the apparatus.
(2) The installation can be made more automatic in operation, since the
receiver itself can ,be left tsuned. #It is then only necessary to operate the
"on-off" switch in order lo receive the broadcasts and to adjust the volume
cont'rolon each loudspeaker to suit the size of room in which it is being used.
73) Two more loudspeakers can be used simultaneously in different rooms if
desired without affecting the quality adversely to any noticeable exlent.
:(4) Loudspeaker extension wiring can be carried out by any competent
electrich in the same manner as electric-lightwiring and there should be no
technical difficulty rovided heavy-gauge cable is use'&.
.(5) Reception in t%e school hall can easily ;besecured so long as the school
has a loudspeaker capable of handling a fairly large volume of sound.
Such an installation can !be carri,edout with distri~butionfrom the receiver
unit either at low-power level or at high-power level. These alternative
methods are referred to in Appendix ,B which describes a .demonstration
installation which has been estaldished to help to promote jmproved metho4s
cvf installation. This paper also contains a description of the alternative
methods of providing for gramophone reproduction for ,tise with a central
installation of this kind and a technical description of the equipment.
3. 'MAINTENANCE
The provision of an adequate maintenance service is most important. It
frequently happens that a school sel is completely out of action for a long
period when slight attention from a technically qualified person would put it
right. Even more frequently, school sets are working below their maximum
efficiency for lack of attention that could (be provided through regular visits
from a servicing engineer. In some cases the necessary servicing is undertaken by a suitably qualified member of the school staff; in others a
commercial servicino agent is retained by contract to service particular
schools. In others ag& the Local Authority has its own'staff to do the work.
However, it is probably true to say that in a majority of schools no systematic
arrangements exist and that no other sin le step would bring about greater
improvement in the quality of reception &an the provision of proper maintenance services. The nature of the arrangements to this end will, however,
depend largely on local circumstances.
190
APPENDIX h
LONDON COUNTY COUNCIL SPECIFICATION FOR STANDARD RADIO
RECElVER
Genero1
A radio receiver is to be provided for the reception of the BBC programmes
within their serrice area in ihe bands of 550-1,650and 150-285 kilocycles.
The receiver is intended to provide sufficient power to operate six senior
permanent magnet moving coil loudspeakers, Provision is to be made for
connecting a gramophone record player unit. The receiver is to operate on
alternating current supply at a pressure of 100-110and 200-250volts 50 cycles.
The supply of the gramophone unit and loudspeakers w
ill he the subject O€
a separate contract aild are not included in this specification.
GEnercrl arrangelment
The receiver is îo be built in one complete unit.
The chassis and cabinet are to be of metal, rigtdly constructed, adequately
ventilated and so designed that the chassis niay easily lx removed for inspection as a complete unit, without the nsecessity of removing any control knobs.
W h e n the receiver chassis is in position in the calbinet the complete receiver
must be shockproof.
A hinged cover fitted with a lock is to be provided over the front panel so
that dl controls and sockets m a y be enclosed.
The Eollowin~fittings and controls are to (be on the Iront panel:
Tuning indicator
Tuning control and scale
W a v e change/Gram. control
Pitot lamp
Volume control
Gramophone pick-up
Tone Control
input socket
On/Off switch
Gramophone motor
sapply socket
Two haildles
The following fittings are io be on the rear of the chassis:
Loudspeaker terminals
Aerial and earth terminals
Mains connecting cable
Selectivity control
Periormance
The receiver is to (beo€ the super-heterodynetype conforming to ihe following
requirements.
Sensitivity-To (be such that an input of 500 microvolts modulated at 400
C.P.S. to a depth of 80 per cent shall fully drive the output stage.
Selectiuify-The minimum selectivity to be such that a signal 8 kilocycles off
tune is attenuated by 6 db. and a signal 15 kilocycles off tune by 40db. The
maximum selectivity to be such that B signal 8 kilocycles off tune is attenuated
by 40 db.
Second Channel Rejection-The
discrimination against second channel
response to be not less than 40 db. at any point within the tuning range of
the receiver.
Frequency Response.-The response of the amplifier to be within 2 db. from
50 C.P.S. to 12,000C.P.S. with full volume. The overall response at 300 metres
to be within 3 db. from 50 c.p.s to 8,000 C.P.S. with the selectivity control set
at minimum. For amophone record reproduction the amplifier to be within
2 dlb. from 300 to KO00 C.P.S. rising by 13 db. to 50 C.P.S.
Power Oufiput-The audio power output to be not less than ten watts at
1,000 C.P.S. measured across a 600 o h m resister for a total distorsion content.
of not more than 3 per cent.
191
Aufooiafic Volume Control-The A.V.G. arrangement is to be designed to
maintain the output constant within 10 db. for a variation of incoming signal
of 40 db.
Hum-The
total h u m in the receiver to 'be not more t h a n 5 0 db. with
reference to 10 watts output with the volume control set at m a x i m u m .
AI1 decibel references indicate a power ratio.
Contro1s
Tuning Control-The tuning scale is to be of the open scale attern clearly
engraved in metres and kilocycles to be m a d e of non-inflammab e material. A
design that does not require internal illumination will be approved. T h e
tuning control shall operate the tuning mechanism and wave-length indicator
by means of a direct friction or gear driving of an approved type. T h e use of
cords, wires or chains for the tuning drive will not be approved.
Wove Change Control-This is to be of the rotary switch type, having three
positive positions: 1. Long W a v e Band, 2. Medium W a v e Band, 3. Gramophone.
Volume C o n f r o L T h e volume control is to be of the rotary switch type
having not less than nine steps connecting fixed resistances to reduce volume
from m a x i m u m output by 30 db. T h e control is to be of substantial construction with a positive stop at m i n i m u m and m a x i m u m . T h e control knob is to
be clearly marked with an approved type of graduated scale.
Tone Confrol-The tone control is to comprise a three-position switch of the
telephone switchboard type, correction circuits are to be connected by this
switch to obtain the following: 1. A reduction of bass response from 300 C.P.S.
d o w n to a m i n i m u m o f d l 5 db. at 100 C.P.S. 2. Normal full response. 3 A reduction of treble response [rom 4,000 C.P.S. to a m i n i m u m of)-15 db. at 7,500 C.P.S.
OnlCAff SruiPch-The switch is to be quick m a k e and break type single pole,
rated at 250 volts 5 amperes, having a solid metal dolly.. A single hole fixing
type switch, in addition to having a spring washer, must be so fitted that it
will not twist.
Tuning Indicator-The indicator is to be of the electron beam type mounted
so that it is visible from the front of the receiver.
Pilot Lomp-The pilot lamp is to be provided and connected to serve as an
indicator that the mains supply has been switched on. T h e lamphollder is to
be of a type that will allow the lamp to be changed b y hand from the front
of the set. T h e lamp to be a l o w voltage type.
Gramophone Pick-up Socket-The pick-up jack is to be of the standard
Post Officetype, provided with t w o fixing screws. Contacts are to be included
on the jack (or on the wave-change switch) which are connected so that radio
reception is stopped and at the same time include the base compensation
circuit necessary for the correct reproduction of gramophone records. A n
ap roved type of plug is to be supplied. It is intended that any pick-up used
wii be of high impedance.
Gramophone motor supply socket-The motor supply socket is to be of the
flush fitting type, shutter-lock pattern t w o pole and earth, rated at two amperes.
A n approved type three-pin plug is to be supplied,
Selectllvity Control-This control is to be of the pre-set type, capable of
a8justing the selectivity within the limits specified,to be fitted in an approved
position.
P
Values
,411 valves and the tuning indicator are to have standard international octal
bases or ibasec of equal and approved type.
Terminals
Thc aerial, earth and loudspealker terminals are to be bakelite insulated with
not less than a 2 B.A. stem,fitted with an anti-twist device, the rotating head
to he non-removable.
192
.
Xnobs
All control knobs are to be of first quality insttwment type with skirt, of bhcb
material, 'having a substantial metal bush fitted with t w o @
EF%?!I'o
be 'notless than 1 lfl" dameter.
Handles
T h e two handles to be fitted to the front panel for removing the chassis from
W e cabinet are to be olf metal, finished chromium plates.
Locks
Each set is to he fitted with a s ring lever lock to secure the cover o w r *be
controls, this lock to be of L.C:cfl standard pattern, complete with three keys,
to be obtained from the Chief Offioer of Supplies. A sample lock can be seen
on application to the Chief Engineer.
Fuses
The fuses are to be of the detachable insulated bridge type. A design for the
mains fuse incorporating the fuse in the mains transformer tap changing device
will be approved. T h e fuqe for the high tension circuit to be of the standard
radio cartndge pattern.
Mains t r m f o r m e r
T h e mains transformer is to have tappings on the primary as follows-lQv-0~o~v-~oov-~~oV-~~O~V.
Condensers
T h e condensers used in the high tension circuit on the high voltage side of all
decoupling resistances are to be of the hermetically sealed paper insulatmed type
having a rated working voltage 50 per cent in excess of the p a x i m u m hi$h
tension voltage. All other smoothing condensers m a y be of the electro1 tic
type. All intervalve coupling condensers having high tension voltage ap fied
to one connection are to be rated at twice fhe working high tension voEage.
The tuning condenser is to be fitted with an approved dust cover.
x
All resistadces are to have a rating of 20 er cent in excess of the m a x i m u m
wattage in the circuit and resistances rate in excess of three watts are to be
mounted above the chassis of the receiver.
Moins Cable
Connecting each receiver is to be com lete with a three-yard len th of three
core circular tough ,rubber flexible c a g e each core to be 23/.d" or equal,
the connections at the receiver to be permantelntly made. The cable is to be
protected where it passes through the chassis by an approved type of rulbber
bush.
Lab e 1ling
Each receiver is to be labelled LAC.C.with a serial number. All controls,
sockets, valve holders and terminals are to be labelled,-the labels to €te of an
approved type, ,securelyfixed.
193
19
Regulations
The design, construction and components shall c o m 14 with British Standard
Specifications Nos. 271,415 and 666 where applicad. T h e complete receiver
shall also comply with the Regulations of the Institution of Electrical Engineers
for the Electrical Equipment of Buildings, cument edition.
Drawings and Sample
T h e successful tenderer will be required to submit copies of all necessary
working and theoretical diagram showing the final arrangement of the
receiver.
T h e successful tenderer will be required to forward one complete receiver
to the Chief Engineer for test. This ‘set must be to the complete satisfaction
of the Chief Engineer before the firm proceed with the bulk supply.
APPENDIX B
DEIPAONSTRATION I N S T A L L A T I O N FOR B R O A D C A S T RECEPTION A T
ROWLAND HILL SCHOOL, TOTTENHAM
I. General Purpose
1. T h e Ministry of Education, in their M’emorandum on the Draft Building
Regulations (November 1944), suggest that all schools should be wired for
broadcast reception in the hall and some classrooms. T o he1 Authorities
to carry out this suggestion, the Central Council for School %roadcasting
installed in an existing school apparatus to demonstrate the best current
practice.
2. Sdection of school.-With the permission of the Borough of Tottenh a m Education Committee and the he1 of the Borough Education Officer,
Dr. C. F. Strong, the Rowland Hill gcondary Modern Boys’ School was
selected. It w a s thought that this building, which w a s erected in 1937, w a s
representative of a type likely to be built, or adapted to meet the changing
needs of school accomodation. It consists of a single storey with the
classrooms and the assembly hall adjoining an open quadrangle.
3. The school’s requirements.-After
discussion with the Education
Officer and the Headmaster, it w a s decided that facilities for broadcast reception were required in eight classrooms, the art room. the science room and
the assembly hall. T h e approximate area of each classroom is 500 square
feet, of the art and science rooms 900 square feet and of the assembly hall
1,800 square feet. In addition to broadcast reception, facilities were required
for the reproduction of gramophone records in these rooms.
As with all radio equipment for schools, the installation had to be simple
to operate, and robust rather than ornamental.
T h e school’s requirements were ’ met by providing an installation with
which it is possible to listen to the same broadcast programme simultaneously
in the hall and all or s o m e of the ten rooms referred to, to listen to the same
gramo hone records simultaneously in all or some of the ten rooms and to
play Xifferent records at. the same time in the hall. O n e programme of
gramophone records and one broadcast programme can be heard at the same
time in different rooms.
II. Method of installation
1. Radio Reception.-It
is not intended to discuss fully here the various
methods of installation which could have been adopted. S o m e mention must
however, be m a d e of factors governing the choice m a d e for this particular
s&ool where the purpose was to demonstrate good practice generally and
not lo provide a model which would be exactly copied in other schools.
It is the Council’s opinion that the disadvantages of using a number of
194
separate self-contained portable receiving sets far outweigh any advantages
that this arrangement m a y possess. Therefore, it w a s decided to use a permanently installed central receiver unit with programmes distributed by
means of wiring to the hall and various classrooms.
T w o different methods of distribution from the receiver unit were possible:(I) L o w power level.-This involves distributing the output at low
power level to be amplified to loudspeaker strength at the listening point.
In addition to a loudspeaker, a separate amplifier is needed at each listening
point.
(2) High power level.-The low level output from the central receiver unit
is fed into an adjacent amplifier where it is increased to loudspeaker
strength. It is then distributed at high level to the various listening points
where loudspeakers only are required.
T h e first method, although suitable in certain circumstances, is likely to
be too costly for a large number of classrooms. T h e second method of distribution w a s therefore adopted for the classrooms. T h e programme is, however
fed direct from the receiver to the assembly hall at l o w level where a
separate a m lifier is used.
As s o m e Estenine points were a considerable distance from the receiver,
it w a s essential to be able to operaie the receiver and associated amplifier
remotely from any of these points. T h e main apparatus is therefore inaccessible except for servicing purposes and the risk of damage and faulty
adjustment is thus minimized.
2. Gramophone Reproduction.4Facilities for reproducing gramophone
records, although not strictly connected in any w a y with the reception of
broadcasts, usually have to be taken into consideration w h e n planning a
large installation.
Il) /To provide gramophone facilities in conjunction with the first (low
power level) method of distribution described above, it is only necessary
(at a comparatively small additional cost) to connect a portable turntable
unit to the amplifier at any listening point. W h e r e an installation is likely
to be used extensively for gramophone reproduction the high cost of radio
distribution by this method might be offset to some extent by the saving on
gramophone equipment.
(2) To provide gramophone facilities in conjunction with the other method
(high power level), t w o methods are possible:
a) T h e provision of separate wiring from each of the listening points to a
second centrally installed amplifier. T h e output of this amplifier would be
fed back at high level to the listening points in the same w a y as the radio
programme.
b) T h e use of a self-contained portable gramophone unit incorporating its
n w n am~lifier.
- di t G s e alternatives,
a) is more cost1 because of the additional wiring involved, but it avoids
the use of portabTe amplifiers which are liable to damage under school
conditions;
b) is simpler and would in most cases be m u c h cheaper than a).
If the amplifier were robustly constructed, b) would probably meet the
irements of m a n y schools.
re% this particular installation method a) w a s used, partly to demonstrate
the use of t w o separate distribution channels. Although in this case one
channel is used for radio and the other for ramophone programmes, the
system would be equally suitable for the distri ution of t w o separate radio
programmes which could be selected at the listening points.
3. Loudspeakers.-Loudspeakers
can either be fixed, in which case a
loudspeaker is necessary in each classroom, or ortable, w h e n the number
of loudspeakers need not exceed the number li ely to be used simultaneously. Fixed loudspeakers have several advantages, but in a big installation
with a large number of listening points the cost of the speaker is a major
item.
Fixed loudspeakers have peen used in this school,one being installed in each
. of the classrooms'and t w o in the assembly hall.
B
f:
195
111. Description of equipment
1. Distribution wiring.-A small room (5’~10’),previously a store room, has
been used to house the main equipment.
T h e distribution wiring from this room to the listening points consists of
the following:To eight classrooms, the urt r o o m and the science room.
T w o high level distribution channels each consisting of 3/.029 twin lead ,
covered cable.
O n e remote control uhannel consisting of I air 10 L C cable.
One gramophone input channel Consisting o f 1 pair 10 L C cable.
T h e 10 listening paints are connected in parallel to each of the four
channels, ‘the actual layout of the wiring being determined by the plan of
the building.
To #he assembly h d l
O n e low level distribution channel consisting of 3/.029 twin L C cable.
O n e remote control channel consisting of I pair 10 L C cable.
O n e short microphone input channel from a room at the back of the stage,
(This has been included so that the amplifier in the assembly hall m a y be
used in conjunction with a microphone in dramatic productions.)
As m u c h as possible of the wiring has been installed in ”ducts” underneath
the corridors. T h e remainder has been run on the surface high enough
to be out of normal reach. W h e r e necessary the wiring is protected by
conduit or metal channelling.
In each of the classrooms the cables are terminated at the control panels
described below and in the assembly hall at the amplifier.
Short feeders, also of 3/.029 L C cable, have been run from the control
panels and from the amplifier in the hall to the loudspeaker points, the
connection to the loudspeaker being by means of a plug and socket and
flexible lead. (The flexible lead to the loudspeaker could equally, well be
taken direct from the control panel.)
2. Mains Wiring 5 a m p 3 pin sockets have been wired in the apparatus
room for supplying the main e uipment. These are fed through an isolating
switch which is mounted on %e wall in the corridor and enclosed in an
ironclad box with a locked cover.
2 a m p 3 pin shuttered sockets have been fitted in each classroom and in
the assembly hall for operating the portable gramophone turntable.
3. Aerial.-The
aerial consists of a 12 ft. rod mounted on an extension
pole which is fixed on the roof immediately above the apparatus room. The
total height of the aerial above the roof is about 18 ft Co-axial cablewithout matching transformers-connects the aerial to the receiver.
For the earth cannection a 10 ft. fluted copper rod is driven into the
ground outside the apparatus room, à 1/2”X1/16th” copper tape h i n g used
as a link to the receiving and amplifying equipment.
4. Receiver and Amplifier.-The equipment housed in the apparatus room
consists of a receiver unit directly connected to an amplifier, the output
from which is fed at loudspeaker strength over the radio distribution channel
to the classrooms. A similar amplifier is installed for gramophone purposes.
T h e input to this gramophone amplifier is brought from any listening point
via the gramophone input channel, and the output is fed at loudspeaker
strength to the classrooms through the gramophone distfibution channel.
Both the radio and gramophone amplifiers can be brought into operation
from any of the listening points, the necessary relay switches being incorporated in the main apparatus.
5. Indicator Lflghts.4Ilhree indicator lights have been mounted on the
corridor wall outside the apparatus room. A red light indicates that the
main Isolator switch is closed and that the equipment is therefore ready for
use. T h e others s h o w w h e n the radio or the gramophone channels are in
use.
6. Classroom Control Panels.-At
each of the listening points there is a
196
.
control panel with a hinged locked cover. These panels incorporate a
selector switch marked " R A D I O - O F F - G R A M O P H O N E ' , a volume contro1
graduated in steps marked 1-12 and a socket marked "GRAMOPHONE".
7. Assembly Hall Ampliffer.-The
separate amplifier installed in the
assembly hall is housed in a wooden case with a removable front cover
and is mounted on the wall at one side of the stage. T h e controls on the
amplifier anel are a mains on-off switch, z selector switch marked "OFFih+MARG
*and a graduated volume control There is also a socket
marked ''GRAMOPHONE" and a switch marked "BASS IN-OUT".
8. Louds akers.-The
loudspeakers in the classrooms are mounted in
enclosed caEnets which are fixed to the wall about 7 ft. from the floor at
the side of the blackboard. T h e loudspeaker in the classroom which is used
as a music room has been special1 modified to improve the performance on
the higher musical frequencies.
the assembly hall t w o louds eakers are
used mounted on either side of the stage about 9 ft. from the 8oor of the
hall.
9. Gramophone Turntable Unit.-This
consists of an electrically-driven
turntable enclosed in a ortable w o o d e n cabinet. A lightweight type of pickup is used which proviies high quality reproduction with little record wear,
A
IV. Operation of Equipment
1. Reception of School Broadcusts.-To
receive school broadcasts in any
of the classrooms it is only necessary to m o v e the selector switch on the
control panel in the classroom to "RADIO". This operates a relay circuit
which switches on the central receiver and radio amplifier. The volume
control on the panel has been designed so that at the m i n i m u m setting the
programme is just audible. T h e teacher can thus hear the end of the broadcast before the one required, without disturbing the class.
To receive broadcasts in the Assembly Hall it is necessary to switch o n
the local amplifier and then to m o v e the selector switch on the panel to
"RADIO".
W h e n all the selector switqhes have been returned to the "OFF" position
the central receiving apparatus is automatically switched off. Reception
m a y be obtained in any number of classrooms simultaneously without any
variation in volume or in the quality of reproduction.
2. Reception of o M e r programmes.-In
order to obtain programmes other
than school broadcasts on the H o m e Service it is necessary to alter a
selector switch on the reaeiver panel in the ap aratus room. B y moving thia
switch to the appropriate number the Third !'rogamme
or the Light Prog r a m m e on either the long or m e d i u m waveband is fed into the distribution system. N o other adjustment of the central a paratus is necessary.
Reception in any of the classrooms or the hall may &en be obtained in the
same w a y as the H o m e Service.
In addition, the receiver is fully tuneable over both the m e d i u m and long
wave band, but this is intended mainly for checking purposes and not for
general use.
3. Reproduction of gramophone records.-The portable gramophone unit
m a y be plugged into any classroom control panel and the record programme
fed through the central amplifier into the gramophone distribution system.
It can be heard in any classroom by turning the selector switch to "GRAMO-
PHONE".
Record reproduction in the Assembly Hall is independent of the main
gramophone distribution system to the classrooms since it uses the amplifier
on the stage. It is thus possible to have a separate gramophone programme
in the assembly hall at any time.
V. Further information
8
Requests for further information about this installation should be addressed
to the Secretary, School Broadcasting Council, 55 Portland Place. London,
w.1.
197
1 -
APPENDICES
GENERAL BIBLIOGRAPHY
Preliiminary Note
M a n y works have been devoted to school broadcasting, particularly in the
A n lo-Saxon countries, but they are of very unequal value.
8 e have tried here to furnish a eneral bibliography covering the most
interesting and most recent works, ut w e cannot claim to have given an
exhaustive list. As it stands, however, w e hope that this bibliography, whioh.
includes the works indicated to .us in the course of our survey, contains
material which will be of interest and use to those concerned with school
broadcasting.
f
DIVISIONS
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Bibliographical information.
General Works on Radio and Education.
Theory and Practice of School Broadcasting.
School Broadcasting to high schools and Universities
FM in School Broadcasting.
T h e Audio-visual Techniques.
Radio Equipment for Schools.
Periodicals.
I. B I B L I O G R A P H I C A L I N F O R M A T O N
A bibliography on the early days of school broadcasting (1925-1933) is contained in ”School Broadcasting” (International Institute of Intellectual Cooperation, Paris 1933).
Broderick, Gertrude G. & Rowland, Ruth M.,Radio Bibliography, U.S. Office
of. Education, 1945.
Cooper, Isabelle M.,Bibliography on Educational Brodccisting, University
of Chicago, Chicago, 1942.
Audio-Educdion A Bibliography, prepared by Stamberg Carlson Co., Chicago, 1945.
-
2. G E N E R A L W O R K S ON R A D I O A N D E D U C A T I O N
Broadcasting and Peace, International Institute of Intellectual Co-operation,
Paris, 1935.
Le R61e intellectuel de la radiodiffusion,Institut International de Coopération Intellectuelle, Paris, 1935.
Beville, H.M. Jr. and Daniel, Cuthbert, Classification of educational d i e
reseunch, D.C. Federal Radio Education Committee, U.S.Office of Education,
Washington, 1941.
Brun, Jean-Albert, L a Diffusionde la culture pm b Uvre et par la radio
”Culture humaine”, Paris, Jan. 1946.
Bryson, Lyman, The network broadcastefls responsibility in planning educat i o d programs, US. Office of Education, Washington.
Clausse, Roger, L a Radio, huitième art, Office de publicitd, Bruxelles, 1945.
201
\
Cruenberg, Sidonie M.,Radio and children,IRadio 'Institute of Audible Arts,
1935.
Gruerhrg, ,SidonieM.,Thé use o,f the radio in pment edu'cafion,T h e University of ,ChicagoPress, Chicago, 1940.
Haley, iSir William, The wsponsibilities of broadcasting, British Broadcasting
Gmporation, 1948.
Hewitt, C.R. and Diack, H.,The impact of radio, published in "Further
Education". Vol. 3 No. 1, June-August 1949. Turnstile Press, London.
Hill,Frank E,.Listen and learn, American Association for Adult Education,
New York, 1937.
Huth, Arno, La Radiodiffusion,puissance niondiale, librairie Gallimard, Paris,
1937.
Jacques, Anne, Influence du cinbnia et de lu radio sIlr le sens intemationdl,
"Educateurs", Paris, Nov.-Dec. 1948.
Lazarsfeld, Paul F.,Audlence building in edrncufional broadcasting, Reprint
from the Journal of Education Sociology, Vol. 14 No. 9, M a y 1941. Avallable
from: Federal Radio Education Committee. US. Office of Education, Washington, D.C.
Levenson, William B., Use of sounldin modern feaching,published in "Radio
Jobber News", February, 1939.
Radio selrues education, published in "Cleveland District Teacher", September, 18319.
Radio's role in today's schools, published in "Nation's ,Schools", January,
1946.
Macandrew, James P.,Educafion re-examines d i o , Teacher's 'College Record, Columbia University, New York, December, 1945,
Power. Leonard. Radio's rôle in societu and what it could confricbute to
peaple's 'personalìiy und cultural Ieael, Office of Radio %itsearch, W. Sellock,
NPW York.
Rose, Oscar, Radio browlcmtirtg and television und anotated bibliography,
H.W. Wilson Go.,New York, 11947.
Studebalker, John W.,
Pramcmting the cause of admation b y radio, ??he Journal of Education 'Sociology,New York City, Fe&. 1941.
Tyler, (1.Keith, Radio in ediukation,National Education Association, Washington, 19'39,
Tyler, Tracy, Radio QS a cultura! agenoy
Proceedings of a national
conference on the use of radio as a cizltural agency in Q democracy, Chicago
University Press, Chicago, 1934.
Tyson, Levering, Radio and education, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
1931-119315.
Waller, Judith C.,Radio, the pìfth estate, Houghton Mifflin, Boston, 1944.
Whitehocae, JX., Broadcasting and education, Oxford University Press. 1936.
-
3. THEORY A N D PRACTICE OF .SCHOOLB R O A D C A S T I N G
During an epidemic of injantile paralysis at Melbourne, Australian Council
for Educational Research, Monthly News and Notes, No. 46, Melbourne, April
19M.
How schools use radio, National Broadcasting Co., New York, 1948.
How to luse radio in the classroom, National Association of Broadcasters,
Washin,gton,1939.
202
La Radio scolaire, son espansion de 1924 à 1944, I.IB.U.,
Geneva, 194'6.
Le Ddveloppiament de la rodl'o scolaire en temps de guerre, I.B.U. Geneva,
1943.
Redio and ¿he.clussroom, D.C.Department of Elementary School Principals,
National Education Association, Washington,'l941.
Radio in education conference,Australi an Broadcasting Commission, Can.
berra, January 21 to 24, 1946.
Radio programs ar school listening,Selected by the Radio Program Listening
Service Advisory ommittee, Federal Radio Education Committee. U.S. Office
of Education, Washington (25)D.C.
Report of radio actiuities - Station W B O E , 1938-1939,,Cleveland Public
Schools. 1939.
School broadcusts - H o w we use fhem (by a number of teachers), W3C
London, 1941.
School brocadcasting (I.I.I.C.,Paris, 1933).
School hroadcasting as an instrument of education. The position ia London
London Teachers' Association, L.I.A. Educational $amphlets, No. 10, 1938.
Schulfunk, Die Zentral Schulfunk, Kommission der Schweiz, Basel (no
date).
i sohnderuisni'ngm
1940 Ars skolutrednin,s betankande VIX radio oloh fil;m,
(Statens Offentliga utrefninger 1Y46 : 72) (Report of the School Commission
6940; VI1 Radio and cinema in the school), Stockholm, 1946.
1946 Ars skolkommissions betankmde (Satens offentliga utredninger 1948 :
27) Report of the School Commission 1946, Stockolm 1948.
Atkinson, Carroll,Education by radio in American sahools, George Peabody
School €or Teachers, Nashville, Tenn. 1938.
Atkinson, Carroll, Development of radio education policies in the American
public school system, Edinlboro Etlucational Press, Edinboro, Pa. 1939.
Atkinson, Carroll, Public school broadcasting to the classroom, Meador
Publishing Co.,Boston, 1942.
Atkinson, Carroll, Radio Programs intended for classnoom use, Meador
Publishing Co., Boston, 1942.
Atkinson, Carroll, Radio network contributions lo education, Meador
Publishing Co., Boston, 1942.
Atkinson, Carroll, Broadcmting to the classroom by unizwsities and colleges,
Yeador Publishing Co., Boston 1942.
Atkinson, Carroll, Radio in state and territorial education departments,
Meador Publishing Co., Boston 19142.
Barr, A; Ewbank, H. and McCormick, T.Radio in flhe classroom, Experimental studies in the roduction and classroom use of lessons broadcast by
radio. University of dsconsin Press, 19U.
Ber lind, H.,
suenska skolradion just nu. (Resultatet av on enquete),
Schooj broadcasting in Sweden today). Reprint of an article in "Skola och
Sambällo", Gatebord, 1933.
Bergman G.. Svensk Skolradio under fern ar (Five years of school broadcasting in Sweden), Lund. 1934.
Beville, HM. Jr. Cuthbert, Daniel, Classification of educational M I O
PPsearch, Was'hington,1941.
Callahah Jennie Waugh, Radio workshop for children, Ed. Mc-Graw-Hill
Book Co., New York, 1948.
Crane, Arthur G.,The use of racdio in the schools, The School Executive,
March, 1937.
Dal Piaz, Ricardo, L a Radio neIlluscuola, Signorelli, Roma, 11939.
Dunham, Franklin and Weynolds,' rollo G.,Radio utilisntion in the classroom, McGraw43ill Book Co., Inc. New York, 1945.
E
en
y
,
ao3
Eisenberg, Azriel, Children and radio prwrams (A study of more ‘than
thousand children in the New York Metropohtan Area), Columbia University
Press, 1936.
Frost, S.E. Ph. D., Edomtion’s o w n stafions (The History d broadcast
licenses issued to educational inStitutions), The University of Chicago Press,
Chicago, 1937.
Gordon, Dorothy, All children listen (A radio house book), G.W. Stewart,
New York, 1942.
Harrison, Margaret, Kadr‘o in the classroom, Appleton-Century Co., New
York, 1941.
Hill, Frank Ernest, Tune in for education (Eleven years of Education by
Radio), National ‘Committee on Education by Radio, New York, 1942.
Hill, Frank Ernest, Student groups at the microphone, New York, 43.
Listen and leaern, New York, 1937.
Kidd, J:R., New Ways of learni~ng(Community guide-books),Canadian Council of Education for Citizenship, Ottawa, 1946.
King, Aueu Y., Adap!ing the radio of the classroom, Social Education, New
York City, Oct. 1941.
Koon, Cline M., H o w to ilse radio in schoaf, University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming, 1937.
Lambert R.S., Radio in Canadian schools, School Aids Publishing Company
(Regina-Saskatchewan)
,Levenson,William B., Teaching throzqh radio, Farrar and Rinehart, Inc.
New York, 1945.
Lewis, Dorothy, Broudcasting to the gouilh of America (A report on present
day activities in the field of Children’s (RadioPrograms), National Associatioa
of Broadcasters, Washington, 1941.
Lewis, Dorothy, Radio and public service (A guide book for radio chairmen). .
T h e National Association of Broadcasters, 1760 N. Street, N . W . Washington, 6,
D.C. 1944.
Lobdermilk, R.R, Teaahing with radio, Bureau of Educational Research,
Ohio, State University, Columbus, Qhio, 1938.
P., L’Edulcation des a n o r m m x et la radiaphonk scolaire, ”Notre Bulletin”
(Institut des Enfants arrihrks), 16th year, No. 1, Paris, March 1940.
Palmer, R., School broadcasting in Britain, BBC, London 1947.
Peka Dr. Jan, L a Radio pour les tout petits, Bulletin U.I.R.,No. 261, Geneva,
October 1947.
(Reid,Seerley and Woelfel, Norman, H o w to judge a schod broadcast, Cclumbus, Ohio, Evaluation of School Broadcasts, Available through Federal Hadio Education ICommittee, U.S. Office of Education, Washington D.C.
Rowland, J. Howard, Adolescent personality and radio. S o m e exploratory
studies), Columbus, 1943.
Rowland, J. Howard, Tyler, I. Keith and Woedfel, Norman., Criteria for
Eihitdren’s radio programs, Columbus, Ohio, Evaluation of School Broadcasts,
available through @edera1 Radio Education Committee, U.S. Office of Education, Washington, 1040.
D e Souza, Fernando Tude, Serviço de radiodifusao educativa (Brasil),Unesco
Document E.,1015.516, 1 (81) not published.
Steele R.C., School broadcasts as an aid to instruction, The jortrnd of Education T. 71, No. 840, London, July, 1939.
Stewart, I., Local broadcosts to ~chools,T h e University of Chicago Press,
Chicago, 1939.
Thomas, ME., The efficacy of broadcasts to schools, Melbourne Universrty
Press, in association with Oxford Univemity Press, Melbourne, 1937.
Willey, Roy Derer1 and HA. Young, Radio in elementary edncntion, D.C.
Heath and Co., Boston, 1948.
204
, ..
,
I
..I.
,,.
.
.
.
. ,
.,
,
I
.
Woelfel, Norman, How to use radio in the dlassrooni, D.C., The National Association of Broadcasters,Washington,6,1939.
Woelfel, Norman and I.K. Tyler, Radio in the school, World book Co. N e w
York, 1945.
.
4. BROADCASTING TO HIiGH SCHOOLS AND UNIVERSITIES
Braun Everett C. and Stanley F.I.,Let's broadcast (A textbook on the use of
radio broadcasting as an educational tool in the secondary schools), Northwestern (Press,Minneapolis, 1948.
Ferenczi,Edmond, L a Radio et L'Université. (Une enquête de l'Entraide Universitaire internationale), hB.U.,No 286, Geneva, May 11947.
Friedrich, Carl, and Smith, Sayre, J., Radio broadcasting antu" Higher education, Harvard University,1942.
Hin, Frank Ernest, High aohool radio ivorkshops in Cleueland, Cleveland,
1944.
Jennings,George, Ed. The radio workshop in the high school, Chicago 1941.
Power, Leonard. College end workshops, U.S. Office of Education, Washington. 6940.
5. FM IN SC'HOOLBROADCASTINGS
Adair, George, FM Broadcasting and education, Federal Radio Education
Committee, US. Office of Education, Washington, D.C. 1943.
Beutwell, Wililiam D., Education's Megacycle. Federal Radio Edncation
Committee U.S. Office of Education, Washington. D.C.1913.
D m h a m F.,F M for education,U.S.Office of Education, Washington 1948.
Lowdermilk,R.R.Planning .cui educational FM Radïo-Broadcri.stStation, US.
Office of Education, Washington, D.C.1944.
Lowdermilk,R.R.,State-Wide planning, US. Offlee of Education, Washington, 1945.
Madd , Joseph E.,F W s ChalLenge to educators, Reprinted from the Ontario
Public ich001 Argus, Toronto,Ontario, 1944.
The needs o/ educational FhI broadcasting for adrlzfr'onal
Studebaker, J.W.,
channds, U.S. Office of Education, Washington,D.C.1944.
6. AUDIO-VISUAL T E C H N I Q U E S
'
Eetier tecrching throqh audio-visual materials, North Central Association of
College and Secondary School, University of Nebraska, Lincoln Nebraska,
1949.
Directory cmf col[eges courses o n radio and feleuigion, The Federal Radio
Education Committee, OIfice of Education, Washington, 1949.
Radio eilelcfronics in education. Department of Information, R.C.A., New
York (n.d.).
Telebision and education, Education on the air, Yearbook of the Institute
for Education iby radio, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, 1946.
Calvert, Leonard, BuiJdiing an audio-visud p m g r a m , Science Research Associates, Chicago, 1946.
Dale E.,Audio-Visual methods in teaching, The Ohio State University,
1947.
'
205
Ir
, '
llent, Ellswoth, ICharles, Audio-visual Handbook, Society for visual education, Chicago, 1946.
Felix, Edgar, Frequency modulation, facsimile and television, Radio Coverage Reports, 1040.
IGrierson, John, Broadcasting and the cinemrr as instruments of edwation,
National Union of teachers, London, 1936.
Lowdermilk, R.R., Facsimile us a possible adjunct of educational F M broadcasting, U.S. Office of Education, Washington D.C.1944.
M c K o w n , (Harry C. and Roberts, Alvin B., Audio-visual aids to instruction,
McGraw+Hill(Book Co, New York, 1940.
7. R A D I O EQUIPMENT FOR S C H O O L S
Broadcast receivers und phonographs for classroom use, Committee on
Scientific Aids to Learning, 19.99.
iligh school play-back equipment, U.S. Office of Education. Washington,
1941.
School sound recording and playback equipment, U.S. Office of Education,
Washington, 1946.
School sound systems (Basic Standards) developed by the U.S. Office of
Education and the Radio Manufacturers Association Joint committee on standards for School Audio Equipment. Radio Manufacturers Association,
Washington, 1946.
Broderick, Gertrude IG.,Catalog of radio recordings, U S . Office of Education,
Washington, 1946.
Hall,W.M.,Central sound slystems for schools,Committee on Scientific Aids
to Learning, 1949.
Lowdermilk, R.R., The school radio-sound system, U S . Office of Education,
Washington 1941.
Van Dyke, Karl S., Sound recording equipment for schools, Committee on
Scientific Aids to Learning, 11940.
Van Dyke, Karl S., Schoo'lrecording technique,Committee ou Scientific Aids
to Learning 1941.
8. P E R I O D I C A L S
Radiodiffusion,Revue semestrielle des problitmes radiophoniques, I.B.U., No. 1,
Geneva, Oct. d933.
Bulletin Z.B.O. (Monthly Bulletin of documentation and information), International Broadcasting Union (iI.B.U.), 37, quai Wilson, Geneva.
Bufletin Z.B.O. (Monthly Bulletin of documentation and information). International Broadcasting Organization (I.B.O.), 32, av. Lancaster, UccleBruxelles.
Educcrtion on the Air (Yearbook of the Institute for Education by Radio),
Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio.
.
Journal of the association for educatl'on b y radio, Chicago, hssociation for
education by radio, 228, N. La Salle St., Chicago 1.
The news letter (Bringing information to the teacher about the Radio, the
Press and the (MotionPicture) published by the Bureau of educational research,
Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio.
-
Frec, Radio Programs for Student Listenin Monthly. Federal Radio Education Committee. U.S. Office of Education, &ashington.
206
'
LIST OF SCHOOL BROADCASTING
SPECIALISTS IN THE COUNTRIES
UNDER SURVEY
AUSTRALIA
Mr. Bronner, Director of Youth Education, A.B.C., Sydney.
Professor G.S. Browne, Professor of Education, ,Melbourne University,
Carlton, Vic.
~Mr. L.F.Keller, Broadcasting Liaison Officer, Education Department, Sydney,
N.S.W.
Mr. H.T.Parker, Education Dmepartment, Holbart, Tasmania.
BELGlU!M
M E M B E R S OF THE ADVISORY.COMMITTEE F O R S C H O O L BROADCASTING
For Stde schoors
hl. Verniers, directeur général de l’enseignement primaire et de l’enseignement normal, ministhre de l’Instruction publique.
M. Dubois, inspecteur principal de l’enseignement primaire.
M. Coulon, consleiller pèdagogique et inspecteur principal, ministhe de 1’11~truction publique.
M. R e m y , préfet de l’Athénée Royal de Liége.
M. Bernier, inspecteur au ministere de l’Instruction publique.
M. Vandenborre, directeur d’administration au ministbe de l’Instruction
publique.
For Denominational schools
R.P. d e le Court, pr6fet général d u collège St. Michel des RBvhrends PBres
Jésuites à Bruxelles.
M. l’abbé Vervoort, inspecteur de l’mseignement libre.
M. l’&bb Cassart, inspecteur ldiocbsain, Tournai.
Pul. Collinet, inspecteur de l’enseignement libre.
For the NatìorraI Youeh Council
M. Hicter, conseiller
For the Advisory Comim.issionsqf the Wanoon Regioml stcrtl‘ons of I.N.R.
’
M. Pregaldien, for the province of Namur.
M. Van ICutwSm, for the province of Hainaut.
M. Picart, for the province of Liége.
For €he Belgian Nafional Broadcasting s e m i c e
M. Hoosemans, directeur des, hissions parlees.
207
CANADA
NATIONAL
ADVISORY
COUNCIL ON SCHOOL BROADCASTING.
Dr. W.P. Percival (Chairman), Director of Protestant Education, Quebec.
Depmbments of Education
.
~
&Mi-.Morrison L.Wdts,Director of Curriculum, Alberta Department of Education, Edmonton (Alberta).
Mr. James Kent, Director of School Broadcasts, Saskatchewan Department of
Education, Regina (Saskatchewan).
Miss (GertrutdeMcCance, Shpervisor of School Broadcasts, Manitoba Department of Education, Winnipeg ((Manitoba).
Major James W. Grimmon, Director of Audio-visual Education, Ontario
Dlepartment of Education, Toronto (Ontario).
Ah-,N o r m a n Woods, Department of Protestant Education, Quebec (Quebec).
Ur. R.J. Hickey, Director of Audio-visual Education, New Brunswick Department of Education, Fredericton ( N e w Bnunswick).
Mr. R.W. (Kane,Director of Radio Education, Nora Scotia Department of
Education, !Halifax (INova Scotia).
Dir.'L.W.Shaw, Deputy Minister and Director of Education, Prince E d w a r d
Island Department of Education, (Charlottetown(Prince E d w a r d Island).
Mr. Philip J. IKitley, Director of School Broadcasts, British Columbia Department of Education, Vancouver (British Columbia).
Canudiun Teachers Federation
Mr. D.V. Dobson, Toronto.
Mr. Bruce Adams, Teaching Aids Gentre, 349 IGeorge Street, Toronto
Canadimi Federation af Home and School
Mrs. 1K.G. Kern, Vice Resident, Vancouver.
M m . W:G. Noble, 80 Elsfield Road, Toronto.
ConfePence of Cmcrdian Universities
DI-.Floyd Maine, Director of S u m m e r School and Exlension Department.
Vniversity of Western Ontario, Lbndon (Ontario).
fknrrdian Broadcasting Corporation
Mr. A.D. Dunton, Chairman, Boand of Governors, Ottawa.
M r . E.L. Bushnell, Director-General of Programmes, Toronto.
Mr. R.S. Lambert, Supervisor of Educational Broadcasts, Toronto.
Mr. Charles Jennings, General Supervisor of Programmes, Toronto.
Mr. O.C.Wilson, Assistant Supervisor of Educational Broadcasts, Toronto.
Mrs. Lola T h o m p s o n Davis, Script Editor, Educational IBroadcasts Department, Toronto.
Mr. D.B. Lusty, Maritime School Organizer, Halifax.
Miss Catherine MacTver, Talks Representative, Winnipeg.
mg
G R E A T BRITAIN
Miss
IM, Somerville, Assistant Controller Talks, BIBC.
Mr. Richmond Postgate, (Head of School Rroadcasting, BBC.
Mr. J. Scupham, Deputy Head of School Broadcasting, BBC.
Mr. R. Armielt, Secretary, School Broacdicasting Council.
INDIA
Dr. Zaikir IHusain, Jamia Millia, Okhla, Delhi.
Dr. Tara Chand, Educational Adviser to the Government of India, N e w Delhi.
Mr. S. Natarajan, Secretary, South Indian Teachers' Union, Madras.
Miss S. Panandikar, Principal, Graduates' Basic Training Centre, Dahanu.
Miss A.B.M. Rustomjee, Principal, Government Secondary Training College
for teachers, Cruinkshand Road, Bombay.
Mrs. Cholcsi, N e w Era School, Bombay.
Prof. M. Mujeeb, Jamia Millia, Okhla, Delhi.
Orgonizutions
Central Advisory Boar'di of Education attached to the Ministry of Education,
Government of India.
South Indian Teachers' Union.
SWITZERLAND
M. Hienri Baumard, Teacher, Geneva.
M. René Dovaz, Director, Radio-Genhve, Geneva.
Dr. B. Galli, Conseiller d'Etat, Tessin.
M. A. Gempelcr, Headmaster, Basle.
M. 1G. Gerhard, Professor, Basle.
Dr. Fr. Gysling, Professor, Zurich.
M. L. Jaccard, Service Head, Department of Education, Lausanne.
M. Mayor d e R h a m , Cltergyman, Vaud.
M. J.P.'Meroz, ,Deputy iDirector of Radio Lausanne, Vaud.
M. Ed. Rast, School Headmaster, Geneva. Dr. R. V o n Reding, SecretaryJGeneral of the Société Suisse de Radiodiffusion, Bern.
Dr. K. Schenker, Director of Radio-Bern, Bern.
UNION OF SOUTH A F R I C A
e
Dr. W. de Vos Malan, Superintendent-General of Education, Cape Education
Department.
Dr. S.H.Skaife, Tierbos, Hout Bay, Cape.
:
Prof.T. Haarhoff, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg.
Dr. H.M.Dalebondt, Principal, Primary School, Somerset West, Cape.
2
Dr. J.J.G. Grobbelaar, Organizer of School Broadcasting, Cape Education
y ' Department.
.')"
Miss G. Dickson, Controller of Programmes, South African Broadcasting
' Corporation, Johannesburg.
,
-
209
r
14
,,
I
-
. ,,
,
U N I T E D STATES OF A M E R I C A
Mr. Arthur O. Baker, Directing Supervisor of Science, Cleveland Board of
Education, 1380 East 6th Street, Cleveland 14 (Ohio).
Mr. M a x U . Bildersee, State Education Department, Albany, M e m b e r of the
Steering Committee of the Empire State FM School of the Air.
Mrs. Dorothy Blackwell, Assistant Director, Division of Audio-visual Education, Board of Education, St. Louis (Mo.).
Mrs. Gertrude Broderick, Radio Department, Office of Education, Federal
Security Agency, Washington 25, D.C.
Mrs. Gloria Chandler, Gloria Chandler Inc., 422 1’2 West 46th Street, N e w
York City.
Mr. Franklin Dlunham, Chief of Radio, U.S. Office of Education,
Washington.
Professor H.L. Ewbank, Department of Speech, University of Wisconsin,
Madison, Chairman, University Radio Committee.
Miss Marguerite Fleming, Harris Teachers College, 1517 S. Theresa Avenue,
St. Louis 4 (Missouri).
Miss Ruth M. Foltz, Elementary Programme Co-ordinator, W B O E , Cleveland
Board of Education, Cleveland (Ohio).
Mr. Eugene S. Foster, M e m b e r of the Steering Committee of the Empire State
FM School of the Air.
Miss (Martha Gable, Assistant Director, School-Community Relations, Philadelphia Public Schools, 21st and Parkway, Philadelphia 3 (Penn.).
Dr. Frederick C. Gruber, Chairman, Radio Committee, Eisenlohr Annex,
3810 Walnut Stpeet, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia 4 (Penn.).
Mrs. Ella Hartman, Co-ordinator of Junior High Programmes, W O E ,
Cleveland Board of Education, Cleveland (Ohio).
Mr. Gordon Hawkins, Programme Director, Westinghouse Stations, K Y W ,
1619 Walnut Street, Philadelphia 3 (Penn.).
Mr. E d w i n F. Helman, Director of Radio, Station WBOE, Cleveland Board
of Education, Cleveland (Ohio).
Miss Ola B. Hiller, Director, Department of Radio Education, Pontiac Public
Schools, Pontiac (Michigan).
Mr. Hornell, M e m b e r of the Steering Committee of the Empire State F M
School of the Air.
Dr. A r m a n d Hunter, Director of Radio, Speech and Theatre, Educational
Director, WHIL,WJL-TV,Temple University, Philadelphia (Penn.).
Miss Margaret M. Kearney, Chairman, Catholic Schools Radio Council, 1314
South 57th Street, Philadelphia 3 (Penn.).
Mr. Allen Y. King, Directing Supervisor of Social Studies, Cleveland Board
of Education, Cleveland (Ohio).
Miss Dorothy Klock, Station WNYE, Board of Education. 29 Fort Greene
Place, Brooklyn 1, N e w York.
Mr. Charles H. Lake, 3338 Chadbourne Road, Shaker Heights (Ohio).
Mrs. Kathleen N. Lardie, Director of Radio, Detroit Public Schools.
Dr. William 8.Levenson, Assistant Superintendent of Schools, Clevelaqd
Board of Education, Cleveland (Ohio).
Mr. Ronald R. Lowdermilk, Radio Education Specialist, U.S.Office of Education, Washington.
Mr. James Macandrew, Co-ordinator of Radio Programmes, Board of Education Station WNIYE,29 Fort Green Place, Brooklyn 1, N e w York.
M. H.B. McCarty, Director, Wisconsin School of the Air, Miadison
4Wisconsin).
I
21o
Mrs. Arlene MaKellar, Assistant Director, Wisconsin School of the Air,
(Wisconsin).
Mr. Allen Miller, Director, Radio Station K W S C , Pullman, Washington.
Mrs. Ruth Weir Miller, Educational Director, W C A U , W C A U - T V , 1622
Chestnut Street, Philadelphia 3 (Penn.).
Dr. Russell V. Morgan, Directing Supervisor of Music, Cleveland Board of
Education, Cleveland (Ohio).
Mrs. Lorayne Palarine, Radio Director, St. Paul Schools, City Hall, St. Paul
(Minn.).
Mr. Paul C. Reed, Rochester Public Schools, M e m b e r of the Stteering
Committee of the Empire State FIM School of the Air.
Dr. Mank C. Schinnerer, Superintendent of Schools, Clleveland (Ohio).
Mr. Sam Serota, Educational Director, WIF,35 South 9th Street, Philadelphia
(Penn.).
Mr. Glenn L. Sprague, State Education Department, Allbany, M e m b e r of the
Steering Committee of the (EmpireState IFMSchool of the Air.
Mr. Keith Tyler, Director of Radio, Ohio State university.
Mr. Allen Wetter, Director, School-Community Relations, Philadelphia Public
Schools, 21st & Parkway, Philadelphia 3 )(Penn.).
Dr. E.W.Ziebarth, Chairman, Speech Department, University of Minnesota,
Minneapolis, 14 (IMinn.).
211
AR~ENTINA.
Editorial Sudamericana, S.A., Alsina [email protected], Buenos Aires.
AUSTRALIA. H.A God8dar.d Ltd., 255a George Street, Sydney.
AUSTRIA.
Wilhelm Frick Verlag, 27 Graben. Vienna.
BARBADOS..
S.P.C.K. Bookshop (Regional Office, Caribbean Area), Broád Street
Bridgetown.
R ~ L C ~ ILitbrairie
UM
BncyclopBdique, 7, rue du Lluxembourg, Bruasels 1,V.
BRAZIL.
Livraria Agir Editora, Rua Mexico 98-8,Caixa postal 3,291,Rio de Janeiro.
URM MA. B u r m a Elducational Bock Shop, 5h5143 Merchant Street, P.O.Box B%2, Rangoon.
CANADA.
The Ryerson Press. 2,99 Queen Btreet West, Toronto.
CEYLON. w e House Bookshop, T h e Associated Newspapers of Ceylon, Ltd., Colombo I.
CHI^. Libreria Lope de Vega, Moneda 9124, Bantiago de Chile.
*CHINA.
The Commercial Press, Ltd., Eibl Honan Road (c), Shanghai.
COLOMBIAEmilio Royo Martin, Carrera 9a. $781, Bogota.
COBA.
La Cas+ Belga, Ren6 .de Smedmt. OIReilly, Havana.
CZECHOSLOVAKIA
Onbis. Narodni a?. Prague I.
DENMARK.
EXnar MunREsgaard, 6 Nörregade, Copenhagen.
E~YPT.
Librairie James W t a n , LFburnimeur de la Cour, 118, rue E m a d el Dine, Cairo.
*€WUADOR. Casa de Cultura Ecuatoriana, Quito.
FR&CE.,Maison du Livre Français, 4 rue F61ibi.en.Paris-GE. (BQokseBers only.)
Unesco, 'Sales Unit, 1,9 avenue KIBber, (Paris-16".Tel.: MLEber 52-'010. (Individual
sales.)
GRBECH.
J3lefth6mu&kls, Librairie Internationale. Athens.
V.
H'UNßARY. "Lbusz", M e m i a - u , 101, [email protected]&
INDIA.Oxford Book and ;Stationery Go., ,&india House, New Delhi.
IBRAEL. Leo Blumstein, Book and A,rt Shop, 315 Allenby Road, Tel Aviv.
ITALY. IlMessaggerie Italiane, Via Lomaazo @Z, Mimlan.
LWANON & SYRIA.
Librairie (Universelle, Avenue des Franqais, Beirut, Lebanon.
*LIB~RIA.
P F h m n a & Co., YO Broad Street, IMonrovia.
Peter Chong & Co., P.O.Box 135, Sinigapore.
MALAYA and SINQAPORE.
MEXICO. Libreria Unsiversitaria,Justo 8ierra. 16, IMexico DJF.
N~RLANDS.
N.V. Martinus Nijhoff, Lange Voorhout 9, The ',Hague.
NEW Z!&&~D.Whitkombe & Tombs, Ud., G.P.O.,
Box 11512~6.Wellington, 12.1.
N I Q ~ R I AC.M.19.
.
hakshop, PO.Box 1 W , W g w .
NORWAY.
A/IS Bokhörnet, Stortingsplass 7, Oslo.
PAKISTAN.
' T h m a s I& Thomas, Fort Mansions, Prere Road, Karachi 3.
W R U . Libreria IInternacional del Peru, S.A., Gi,ron de la Union, Lima,
PHILIPPINJ~W. Philippine Eklucation Co., Inc., Corner Tanduay and Vergara Streets,
Qulapo, Manicla
P O R m ß A L Un,iao Portuguesa de Imprensa, 1918 R u a d'e &o
Bento, ao Esq., Lisbon.
BWEDEN. A.B. C.E Fritaes Kungl. Hovbokhandei, Firedsgatan 2, Stookholm.
SWITZERLAND.
French-speaking cantone: Librairie de l'Universit6, 2B14 rue de Romont.
Fdboung.
German-speaking cantons: Eu,ropaVerlag, 5 Rämistrasse, Zürich.
TURKEY. Ihbrairie hchette. 419 IstWlal caddesi, Beyoglu, Istanbul.
UNION OF S o m AFRICA.
v a n ISchaik's Bookstore (Pty.), Ltd., P.O. Box 724, Pretoria.
UNITIOD
KINGDOT&
H.M.Stationery Office:
Yonk mouse, Kingsway, London (RetallICounter Service), or P.O.Box 569, London,
S.E.1,.(Orders by post.)
U m m ~ S T A T ~OFS AMERICA.Columibia University Press, C9if30 Broadway, New Yonk 87.
'
,N.Y.
URUWAY.
Centro de Cooperacion Cientifka para la America Latina. Unesco, Bulevar
Artigas 1912'0,Monteirid.eo.
I
%
"
u
.mditorid "hdres Bello", Caracas.
',
* In negotiation.
1
,
Report of the Director Qenaraz on the LLctivltbs of the
Organization from October 1949 to March 1950. Paris,
19150 ........................................
$1.0.
F 3010
The Programme of U w s c o (Sor 1961), Proposed b u thc
Ezecutiw Boad. Paris, 19510 .............
$0.45
F 1%
Handbook of National Commissions. Paris. 1949 ........
$1.00
F 3080
Report of the Preparatorv Conference of Reprasentatives
af Uniwersitles. Convened at Utrecht, 2-1Q August 1948,
by Unesco in cohboration with the Netherlands
Government. Paris, 1948 ...........-..................
$1.00
F 250
$0.50
F 16tO
$0.7.5
F
200
715
PROWLEIMS IN
EDUCATION.
;I.W a r Han&[email protected]
ChWren, by Di-.Therese Brosse.
Paris, 1950 ......................................
II. Ad&
Education. Currelt Trends
Pari's,1949 ....................
XONOCIRAPHS
ON E
7
U EDUCATION.
~
~
and
Practices.
...............
~
~
~
~
~
I. F u m m m l Education. Description and Programme,
Xllu.strations by Mme. Camille Eerg. Paris, 19.119 . .
$0.215
P
LI. Co-operati/ves ROL^ Fundamentd Education, by M a u rimce Colom,bain. Paris, 1980 ......................
$0 60
F 160
A Handbook for the Pmprovement of Textbooks and
Teaching Materials as Aidn to,International Um3erstmadIng. Paris, 1949 ........................................
$0.475
F 1215
Inventories of Apparattu and Materas for Teaching
Bckwce. Vol. I: Primary, !Secondary an'd Vocational
i3chools. Paris, 1915'0 ..................................
$1.00
F 300
Catal'ogueof Colour Reproductions of Painting from 1860
to 1949. Trilingual (English-French-Spanish). Pans,
m49. ................................................
$1.50
F 400
Catalogue of Colour Reproductions of Paintings Prior to
1860. Trtlhgual (~ngllsh-French-~pani.sh).
Paris, 1960.
$2.00
F 600
Goethe, 1749-'1949.Unesco's homage on the occasion of
the two hundredth anniveremy of his birth. Paris, 1940.
$16 0
F 400
Index Translationum. International blbliography of
translations. New Beries. I, 1918. Bllingml (EnglishFrench). !Paris, 11949 ..................................
$3.00
F 900
Monuments and Sites 01 History and Art arwl Arohaeological Excavations. Problems of today. Bilingual
(iElnglish4French) ...................................
$1.50
F
300
Ntwdy Abroad. International Handbook. Fello.wships.
Scholarships, Educational Exchange. Vol. II, 1949. Paris,
19'49................................................
$1.215
F
360
M u d g Albroad. Vpcation [Study Supplement to 'Volume II,
1949. Par&, 1960 ......................................
$0.50
F 150
Suggestions for Sciencz T'eachersin Devastated Countries.
Prepared by J. P. Stephenson. Paris, 1948 ..............
$0.80
F 200
214
,
RerpcM-t on !he Dflaotioeness of the Reconstruction Pro-
-
g r a m e UkP7-I9.48 19149. Paris, 119'5O .................. $1.00
6
,
'
-
F 300
Press, Ru&?lo, F h . I. IReport. of the Commission on
Technkal Needs. Paris, 1947. (Belgium, China, Cze'choslovakia, Dmenmerk, France, Greece, Luxembourg,
Netherlands. Norway, Philippines, Poland, Yugoslavia).
$1.20
6/-
F 300
Press, Film, Rad$o, First supplement. Paris, 19*8 ........
$0'.
25
1/6
F
Prass, Film, Radio. II. Paris, 11948. (Austrig, B u r m a ,
Cuba, Do,minican Republic, Ecuador, Haiti, Honduras,
Hungary, India, Italy, Federation of Malaya, Mexico,
Paxistan. Peru, Singapore, U r u g w y , Venezuela) . . . .
$1.20
6/-
F 300
Press, Fiibm, RUC&. 1811. Paris, 1949. (Algeria, Argentina.
Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Egypt, Finland, Lebanon,
Paraguay, Sweden, Switzerland, Tunisia, Tunkey). ...
$1.20
7/-
F 350
Communications. Press, Radio, Fdm. Paris, 11960..
$1.20
7/-
Ft50
PR~s
FILM
, AND RADIO I N THE W O R L D TODAY.
Professional Training of Journalists, by Robert W.
Desmond. Paris, 1'91580 ..............................
$0.40
2/-
FlO.0
Wo&
76
Trccintng for Radio, (by Maurice Gorham. Park. 1950..
10.40
2/-
FlOlO
Ectwation by Radio : School Broadcasting, by Roger
Glausse. Paris, 1 M O ................................
$0.40
2/-
F
T h e Use of Ciruewm and Radio Vans in- Fun6rInwntal
Education, by "EWm Centre", London. Paris, 19150. .
$1.00
6/-
F 3430
The Problem 08fNewsprint and Qtkdr Primtifig Paper,
by the Intelligence of The Economist, London. Paris,
81,950.......................
...........
$0.685
41-
B'
Fihs on Art. A Specialized Study. A n International
Caatalogue. Brussels and Paris, 194'9 ....................
$0.76
5/-
F 264
100
2'00
PLEIRLODJWS
/
Annual subscription rates
li/-
F 5150
$l'.'O0
6,'-
6 3,OO
$2~080
12/3
F 600
Copvripht Bulletin. Quarterly. Bilingual ((English-French). $1.80
Unesoo OFfidal Baletin. Every two months. Published
..........................
In !Englishand French .
Unesco Bulktin for Librari
onthly. Bilingual (English(French). .............................................
finu-Zamz,anta!Education, a Qaarterlu BU
in English, French and Spanish ......
.
.
$0.70
i/-
F ZOO
Unesco Courier. Monthly. Published in English, French
and Spanish ........................................
$1.00
5/-
k
Muaeum. Quarterly. Bilingual (English-French). Review of
Mu,secgraphical Techniques ...................... , ...
$5.00
flil.O
International social 9'cienc8eBwlletin. Quarterly. Publishel
in lEnglish ,and m e n c h ............................
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9/-
...........
200
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215
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