System overview LT3 Lambda Transmitter KS1D Combination Probe

System overview LT3 Lambda Transmitter KS1D Combination Probe
System overview
LT3 Lambda Transmitter
KS1D Combination Probe
Sensors and systems for combustion engineering
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LAMTEC | LT3 Lambda Transmitter | KS1D Combination Probe
LAMTEC Measuring System
LT3 KS1D.
The cost-effective package for simultaneous COe/O2 measurements.
With the LT3 Lambda Transmitter, LAMTEC provides customers with a simple, cost-effective device for the simultaneous measurement of oxygen (O2) and oxidising gas components (COe).
When used in conjunction with the LAMTEC Combination
Probe, the LAMTEC LT3 Lambda Transmitter is a universal
measuring device based on micro-processor technology. This measuring transducer has been specifically
developed for the simultaneous measurement of O2
concentration and oxidising components COe (CO/H2)
in emissions from combustion systems in the superstoichiometric range (> 1). The measurement value COe –
e = equivalent - is the sum signal of all oxidisable emissions components.
The LT3 evaluates the voltage values of two measurement electrodes (UO2 and UCO/H2). These values are formed
of UO2 (oxygen characteristic) and the so-called mixed
potential (UO2 + UCO/H2). The formation of the mixed potential takes place very quickly, t60-times below 2 seconds
are achieved. Even when the concentration of combustible gases (for example, H2 or CO) is low, the LT3 displays
a significantly higher mixed potential than when measuring O2 alone. Furthermore, the mixed potential characteristic is much sharper than that for the O2 measurement, causing the sensor signal's dynamic range to
increase quickly, particularly when the content of nonburned fuel begins to rise.
Advantages:
 Direct (in situ) measurement of oxygen
(O2) and oxidising exhaust gas components
(CO/H2) in the raw gas up to a temperature
of 1 200 °C
 O2 measurement range: 0 to 21 vol.%
 COe measurement range: 0 to 10,000 ppm
 Not affected by false air (COe)
 No gas preparation required, measurement
directly in the moist flue gas
 Response time set to 60 % (T60)
O2 < 10 seconds with standard extraction
COe < 2 seconds
 Measurement gas temperature up to
1 200 °C
 Low heating power 20 ... 25 watts depending on the exhaust gas temperature
 Certified flame arrestor
 Universally compatible
 Simple to use – probe connection using
plug-in socket
 Low-maintenance
 Approved according to DIN EN 16340
This makes simultaneous CO/O2 measurement using the
LAMTEC LT3 distinctly superior to O2 measurement alone
when it comes to sensitivity and speed. The LT3 delivers
first-class basic values for the downstream control of air
and fuel supply.
Measurement principle
Sensor technology principle for the O2 electrode:
The LAMTEC KS1D Combination Probe is based on a heated electrochemical measuring cell made from zirconium
dioxide ceramic (ZrO2).
It has 3 electrodes:
 O2 electrode (platinum)
 COe electrode (platinum/noble metal)
 Reference electrode (platinum)
The probe is a zirconium dioxide ceramic tube that is
sealed on one side. It protrudes into the combustion
system's emissions channel and divides the reference
gas compartment (surrounding area) from the measuring gas compartment (emissions channel) so that no
gas can escape. The reference electrode is located on
2
2
8
7
3
equation becomes zero and the offset voltage is measured U0 = UO2 at 21 vol. % per volume O2. A typical Nernst
O2 characteristic (UO2) at a typical sensor temperature T =
923° [K] with a typical offset voltage of U0 = -5 [mV] is
shown in “Nernst sensor characteristic Us = f (O2)”.
4
6
5
Design principle for the LAMTEC KS1D Combination Probe.
1 Reference electrode 2 Cap with gas inlet 3 O2
electrode 4 Housing 5 Heater 6 Functional ceramics
7 COe electrode 8 Protective coating
Sensor voltage UO2 [mV]
1
UO2 [mV]
O2 share [vol. %]
UCO
UO2
UHeater
Nernst sensor characteristic Us = f (O2).
Simple equivalent circuit diagram for the KS1D.
the inner side of the zirconium dioxide ceramic in the
reference gas compartment. The two measuring electrodes for O2 and CO/H2 are located on the outer side of
the ceramic in the measuring gas compartment. An integrated heater warms the probe to a temperature of
around 650 °C and controls this temperature. At this temperature, the zirconium dioxide ceramic conducts oxygen
ions and the two sensor signal voltages UO2 (between
the reference and O2 electrodes) and UCOe (between the
reference and COe electrodes) form accordingly and can
be measured.
The sensor voltage UO2 [mV] corresponds to the known
Nernst voltage, which is dependent on the sensor temperature T [K] and on the logarithm for the O2 partial
pressure ratio between the reference and measuring
chambers, with the constants k = 0.21543 [mV/K] and the
sensor-specific offset voltage U0 [mV]. as per the formula: UO2 = U0+kTln(pO2,ref/pO2,meas).
U0 is determined by calibrating the probe with the ambient air: With pO2,ref = pO2,meas = 0.21, the last part of the
Sensor technology principle for the COe electrode:
The COe electrode is identical to the O2 electrode apart
from the fact that the electro-chemical and catalytic
properties in the signal materials are different, thus
enabling combustible components such as CO, H2, to be
detected.
For ‘clean’ combustion, the Nernst voltage UO2 also
forms on the COe electrode and the characteristics of
both electrodes follow an identical path. In the event
of incomplete combustion and in the presence of combustible components, a non-Nernst voltage UCOe also
forms on the CO electrode and the characteristics for
both electrodes move apart (see “Typical signal characteristics for the two KS1D sensor voltages”).
The total sensor signal UCO/H2 on the COe electrode is
made up of the total of these two voltages: UCO/H2 = UO2 +
UCOe. If the oxygen content – measured by the O2 electrode – is deducted from the total sensor signal, the result UCOe = UCO/H2 - UO2 can be used to generate the concentration of combustible components COe in ppm. The
“Typical signal characteristics” for the two KS1D sensor
voltages shows the typical path for COe concentrations
(dashed line) when O2 content reduces gradually. When
moving into the deficient air range, the COe concentration increases significantly at the so-called emissions
limit as a result of the poor/incomplete combustion
caused by insufficient air for combustion. The resulting
signal characteristics UO2 (continuous line) and UCO/H2
(dotted dashed line) for the KS1D are also shown. In the
excess air range with clean COe free combustion, the two
sensor signals UO2 and UCO/H2 are identical to one another
and show the current oxygen content in the exhaust gas
channel in accordance with the Nernst principle. Close to
the emissions limit, the sensor signal for the COe electrode UCO/H2 increases at a disproportionate rate due to
the additional non-Nernst COe signal.
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LAMTEC | LT3 Lambda Transmitter | KS1D Combination Probe
The typical signal characteristics for the two KS1D sensor
voltages UO2 and UCO/H2 in relation to the O2 content in
the emissions channel. The typical characteristic of combustible components COe is also shown.
Sensor voltage UCO/H2 [mV]
Deficient air
In addition to the absolute sensor signals UCO/H2 and
UO2, the relative change to the sensor signals after time
dUO2/dt and dUCO/H2/dt and, in particular, the signal dy-
UCO/H2 [mV]
UCO/H2 [mV]
UCO/H2 min [mV]
Emissions limit
Signal
dynamic range
> ± 100 mV
Excess air
Sensor voltage UO2 and UCO/H2 [mV]
Deficient air
Excess air
O2 content [vol. %]
UO2 [mV]
UCO/H2 = UO2 + UCOe [mV]
UCO [ppm]
Emissions limit
O2 content
Dynamic range of the COe electrode signal UCO/H2 in the deficient air
range.
namic range for the COe electrode can also be used to
determine the emissions limit (see “Dynamic range of
the COe electrode signal UCO/H2 in the incomplete combustion range”).
Typical signal characteristics for the two KS1D sensor voltages.
System overview.
Various probe designs.
Programming
unit
PC
interface
Combination Probe KS1D
Combin
KS1D in
n housing
with GED
GE and PIF
KS1D in HT-Design
(High Temperature)
T
KS1D-Ex
KS1D-E
Ex / IIC
KS1D fo
for
o Compressed
air clea
cleaning
a
Lambda
Transmitter LT3 *
LSB
B module
modu
ule
* Only one probe possible for each LT3.
Functions in the LT3 with KS1D.
4
PROFIBUS module
PBM100
Basic system.
LT3 with user interface.
LT3 with an integrated programming unit.
Probe
connector
Power connection
connectable
Cable
bushing
LSB LAMTEC
SYSTEM BUS
LT3 connections on the underside.
LT3 version: The LT3 SA.
The LAMTEC LT3 Lambda Transmitter is available in three
different designs: with and without a user interface or
programming unit. The user interface (UI) is attached to
the front door and is equipped with the following functions:
 Password entry
 Readings for O2 and CO measuring values
 Information on the probe, fuel, warnings, faults,
software version, CRC and serial number
 Calibration of measurements
 Settings for maintenance, filter time, analogue
output, replacing probes, display. All other functions and parameter settings can also be carried
out using the integrated programming unit.




KS1D probe connector (probe signal/probe heater)
External LSB connector for the PC (use of LAMTEC
remote software)
Cable bushing for connecting to the LAMTEC
SYSTEM BUS
Cable bushing for connecting to
LSB modules
LT3 SA Lambda Transmitter
 The LT3 SA version provides the Lambda transmitter
with IP65 protection. This option is ideal if the
transmitter is intended for use outside. The
integrated programming unit provides users
with a full set of functions.
The following connections are located on the underside
of the device:
 Power supply
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5
LAMTEC | LT3 Lambda Transmitter | KS1D Combination Probe
LAMTEC KS1D Combination Probe
The LAMTEC KS1D Combination Probe is available in a
number of designs and can be combined with the LT3
Lambda Transmitter to suit any requirement.
Properties:
 Measurement directly in the moist flue gas up to
1,200 °C
 Option for semi-automatic calibration during
operation with test gas
 IP65 protection rating
KS1D Combination Probe
Applications:
 Natural gas, domestic oil (extra-light), coal,
particle-laden fuel emissions (available with
optional compressed air cleaning).
 With de-dusting clean: emissions containing ash
such as biomass, heavy fuel oil, lignite, etc.
KS1D-Ex / IIC Combination Probe
Properties:
 Measurement directly in the moist flue gas up to
450 °C
 Protection rating IP42, the probe must be protected against water, snow, etc., if installed outside.
Applications:
 Natural gas, domestic oil (extra light), biomass.
KS1D Combination Probe in a unit with the GED and PIF
Properties:
 Measurement directly in the moist flue gas up to
1,200 °C
 Option for semi-automatic calibration during
operation with test gas
 IP65 protection rating
 Atex: Ex 2 IIG - Ex dIIC T4 (-20 to +60 °C).
Applications:
 Natural gas, heating oil (extra-light), heating oil
(heavy), coal, non-standard fuels
KS1D Combination Probe for manual cleaning
Properties:
 Measurement directly in the moist flue gas up to
300 °C
 Protection rating IP42, the probe must be protected against water, snow, etc., if installed outside.
Applications:
 Natural gas, domestic oil (extra-light), emission
gases with a low ash content
KS1D Combination Probe in HT design (high-temperature)
Properties:
 Measurement directly in the moist flue gas up to
450 °C
 Option for semi-automatic calibration during
operation with test gas
 IP65 protection rating
 Manual compressed air cleaning
Applications:
 Natural gas, heating oil (extra-light), heating oil
(heavy), coal, non-standard fuels, biomass
6
Optional components.
LSB modules
The LSB modules are universally-compatible input and
output modules that can be controlled via the LAMTEC
SYSTEM BUS. For this to occur, the module is triggered by
an adjustable address. The relay outputs are activated
manually using switches.


Two analogue outputs 0/4 to 20 mA to emit the
flue gas temperature and its efficiency
Power supply 24 VDC / 50 mA
Analogue outputs:
There are two different modules for analogue outputs:
 Power module with 4 analogue outputs 0/4 to
20 mA
 Voltage module with 4 analogue outputs 0/2 to
10 VDC
Digital outputs:
The digital LSB module is equipped with 4 outputs.
Communication via PROFIBUS:
The field bus modules are connected via the LSB. With
regard to integration into a parent process and building
management system, PROFIBUS communication offers
many advantages.
 Either installed straight onto the LT3 or externally,
e.g. on the switch board
 Fast and precise transmission of processor values
 Direct reading of inputs and outputs
 Remote diagnosis through a readout of the fault
history
PROFIBUS PBM100
Digital inputs:
The digital LSB module is equipped with 4 inputs. Use of
a strapping plug means that two modules can be wired
quickly and increases the number of inputs to 8.
Programming unit
If the device is supplied without a control field or if you
simply require an additional control solution, you can
also operate the device using a hand-held programming
unit. The hand-held programming unit can be connected
to the LT3 Lambda Transmitter via the LAMTEC SYSTEM
BUS.
LSB module for calculating combustion efficiency:
The efficiency module has the following properties:
 Two PT100 temperature inputs to record the flue
gas temperature and ambient temperature
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LAMTEC | LT3 Lambda Transmitter | KS1D Combination Probe
LSB Remote Software
The LSB USB module PC interface makes working with
the LT3 Lambda Transmitter even easier: The device can
be operated remotely using a laptop. Set configurations
and curve data can be archived – this backs up data so
that it can be re-imported in the event of an emergency,
enabling the device to be ready for operation again in
just a few minutes. Using the LSB Remote Software enables users to retrieve and monitor data from the LAMTEC
Lambda Transmitter from their office without needing to
be on site.
Cleaning unit for the KS1D Combination Probe.
PCB probe connection box
The LAMTEC PCB probe connection box has been designed to bridge longer distances between the LT3 and
the probe without need for an extension cable (> 2 metre). Here, the probe connection jack and the blank cover
replace the standard screwed cable gland. The PCB contains a terminal strip and the conversion for the probe
connector.
Connections for the cleaning unit.
High dust
mounting
flange
probe head
with
connections
for purge unit
Compressed air
Lambda
Transmitter LT3
Cleaning unit for the KS1D Combination Probe
Users whose applications require a cleaning device can
benefit from the LAMTEC cleaning unit. The unit is integrated in a separate wall-mounted housing. It is controlled via the LT3 or directly using the process control
system.
g
Purge
device
cont system
m
control
Compressed air
SPS
Functions in the cleaning unit when combined with the LT3.
8
Inputs.
Outputs.
LSB module
Analogue outputs
1 02 measurement value
2 C0e measurement value
3 Not assigned
4 Not assigned
1 Resolve offset calibration
2 Reset fault
LSB module
Digital inputs
LSB module
Digital outputs
1 Fault
2 Warning
3 Changeover to
COe curve fuel 1
3 Limit value 1
4 Deactivation of limit
value 1 to 4
4 Limit value 1
5 Reset limit value 1 to 4
6 Changeover to
COe curve fuel 3
7 Changeover to
COe curve fuel 4
8 Deactivation for
calibration
1 Recording for flue gas
temperature
LSB module
for calculating combustion efficiency:
3 Flue gas temperature
4 Efficiency
2 Recording for ambient
temperature
1, 2 Fault/
warning reset
Communication via PROFIBUS
1, 2 COe actual value
3, 4 COe actual value status
5, 6 O2 actual value
3 ID of the digital module
1 to 16
7, 8 CO sensor voltage
rough
4 Coding for setting digital
outputs
9, 10 O2 sensor voltage
rough
11, 12 Probe voltage UCOe
13, 14 LT3 status
15, 16 Warning value 1
17, 18 Warning value 2
19, 20 Fault value 1
21, 22 Fault value 2
Power supply
230 VDC
Lambda Transmitter LT3
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9
LAMTEC | LT3 Lambda Transmitter | KS1D Combination Probe
Notes.
10
Notes.
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11
LAMTEC | LT3 Lambda Transmitter | KS1D Combination Probe
LAMTEC Meß- und Regeltechnik
für Feuerungen GmbH & Co. KG
Wiesenstraße 6
D-69190 Walldorf
Telephone: +49-6227-6052-0
Fax:
+49-6227-6052-57
info@lamtec.de
www.lamtec.de
Print No. DLT3130-15-aEN-005
Printed in Germany I Copyright © 2015 LAMTEC
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