Ammonia (Anhydrous)
MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET
Ammonia (Anhydrous)
ABN: 81 008 668 371
Section 1 – Identification of the Material and Supplier
Product Name
Ammonia (Anhydrous)
Other names
Anhydrous ammonia, ammonia, and ammonia gas. Company product code 1670.
Recommended use
Manufacture of fertilisers, sodium cyanide and explosives. Nickel refinement. Refrigerant.
Company name
CSBP Limited
Address
State
Postcode
Kwinana Beach Road, KWINANA
Western Australia
6167
Telephone number
(08) 9411 8777 (Australia), +61 8 9411 8777 (Overseas)
Emergency telephone number
1800 093 333 (Australia only), +61 8 9411 8444
Section 2 – Hazard Identification
Hazard Classification, including a statement of overall hazardous nature
HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCE.
Anhydrous ammonia is classified as hazardous and specified in the NOHSC List of Designated Hazardous
Substances [NOHSC:10005 (1999)].
DANGEROUS GOODS.
Anhydrous ammonia is classified for physicochemical hazards and specified as dangerous in the Australian
Code for the Transport of Dangerous Goods by Road and Rail (ADG Code), 6th Edition, (FORS, 1998).
Risk Phrases
Anhydrous ammonia is classified as a toxic gas and corrosive.
May cause frostbite.
RFb
Reacts violently with water.
R14
Explosive when mixed with oxidizing substances.
R16
In use, may form inflammable/explosive vapour-air mixture.
R18
Very toxic by inhalation/if swallowed.
R26/28
Causes severe burns.
R35
Irritating to eyes/respiratory system/skin.
R36/37/38
Risk of serious damage to the eyes.
R41
Risk of explosion if heated under confinement.
R44
Danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure.
R48
Very toxic to aquatic organisms.
R50
Toxic to flora/fauna/soil organisms/bees.
R54/55/56/57
Harmful: may cause lung damage if swallowed.
R65
Repeated exposure may cause skin dryness or cracking.
R66
Safety Phrases
Anhydrous ammonia is a hazardous and dangerous substance.
Keep container tightly closed, dry and in a well ventilated place.
S7/8/9/
Keep away from food, drink and animal feeding stuffs, halogens, mineral acids,
S13/14/15/16
oxidizing agents, heat and sources of ignition – No smoking.
When using do not smoke.
S21
Do not breathe gas or spray.
S23
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MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET
Ammonia (Anhydrous)
ABN: 81 008 668 371
S24/25
S26
S27
S28
S29
S30
S36/37/39
S38
S41
S45
S46/62/64
S50
S51
S63
Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek
medical advice.
Take off immediately all contaminated clothing.
After contact with skin, wash immediately with plenty of water.
Do not empty into drains.
Never add water to this product.
Wear suitable protective clothing, gloves and eye/face protection.
In case of insufficient ventilation, wear suitable respiratory equipment.
In case of fire and/or explosion do not breathe fumes.
In case of accident or if you feel unwell seek medical advice immediately (show the
label where possible).
If swallowed, rinse mouth with water (only if the person is conscious), do not
induce vomiting: seek medical advice immediately and show this container or label.
Do not mix with halogens, minerals acids and oxidizing agents.
Use only in well-ventilated areas.
In case of accident by inhalation: remove casualty to fresh air and keep at rest.
Poison Schedule
SUSDP Poison Schedule 6
Section 3 – Composition/Information on Ingredients
Chemical identity of ingredients
Ammonia
Water
Proportion of ingredients
CAS Number for ingredients
> 99·5 % (wt/wt)
Remainder
7664-41-7
Section 4 – First Aid Measures
First Aid
ANHYDROUS AMMONIA IS POISONOUS BY INHALATION AND INGESTION, AND
CORROSIVE TO THE BODY ON CONTACT. FIRST AID ATTENTION MUST BE GIVEN AS
URGENTLY AS POSSIBLE AS OUTLINED BELOW.
ALL SUSPECTED ANHYDROUS AMMONIA BURNS SHOULD RECEIVE MEDICAL
ATTENTION.
TRAINING ON HANDLING AMMONIA INCIDENTS USING THIS MSDS SHOULD BE
PROVIDED BEFORE ANY AMMONIA HANDLING OR USE COMMENCES.
First Aid Facilities
First aid procedures, equipment, medication and training for the treatment of burns with anhydrous ammonia
should be in place BEFORE the use commences. First aid personnel should be aware of the nearest hospitals
which are familiar with the treatment of anhydrous ammonia burns.
Equipment and medication in place should be:
•
Safety shower and eyewash stations immediately accessible in the workplace;
•
Eye-wash bottle;
•
Personal protective equipment for use by first aid personnel;
•
Fresh, clean cool drinking water;
•
5 % aqueous boric acid solution;
•
Oxygen;
•
“Space” or thermal blankets for treating patients for shock.
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MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET
Ammonia (Anhydrous)
ABN: 81 008 668 371
FIRST AID PROCEDURES FOR DEALING WITH THIS PRODUCT AND EXPOSURE TO IT
1. Personal Protection By First Aid Personnel
First aid personnel providing first aid treatment to a patient exposed to anhydrous ammonia should observe
the following precautions for their own personal protection:
•
Avoid contact with contaminated skin, clothing and equipment by wearing protective gloves to prevent
contact of anhydrous ammonia with skin;
•
Wear chemical goggles as a minimum level of eye protection to prevent splashes of ammoniacontaining liquids entering eyes;
•
Avoid inhalation of anhydrous ammonia fumes or mist during rescue in contaminated areas by wearing
suitable respiratory protection.
•
Respiratory protection suggested is: an air supplied breathing apparatus, or positive pressure selfcontained breathing apparatus.
2. Swallowed
Do not give anything by mouth if victim is losing consciousness, or is unconscious, or convulsing. If victim is
conscious, rinse mouth thoroughly with clean fresh water immediately and spit out rinse water. Give water or
milk to drink.
DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING.
Obtain medical attention immediately.
3. Eyes
Persons with potential eye exposure should NOT wear contact lenses.
Immediately flush the contaminated eye(s) with gently flowing copious amounts of clean fresh water for at
least 15 minutes, holding the eyelid(s) open. Take care not to rinse contaminated water into a non-affected
eye.
Continue irrigation with normal water until the severe pain of the burn is relieved.
Obtain medical attention immediately.
NOTE: Do not use anything other than clean fresh water, or sterile saline on the eye.
4. Skin
First aid personnel must avoid contact with this chemical. Wear protective gloves when assisting patient.
DO NOT USE HOT WATER.
Immediately flush contaminated skin area thoroughly with gently running copious amounts of clean fresh
water (if cryogenic “burns” are experienced use lukewarm water) for at least 15 minutes. While washing with
water remove contaminated clothing, jewellery, footwear and leather goods, e.g., watchbands and belts.
Lauder these thoroughly before re-use.
Apply 5 % aqueous boric acid solution to affected areas to neutralise ammoniacal alkalinity.
Obtain medical attention immediately.
5. Inhalation
Rescuer should wear appropriate personal protection to avoid skin contamination and breathing ammonia
fumes or mist.
Move patient from area to a well ventilated position, resuscitate if necessary. DO NOT CARRY OUT
EXPIRED AIR RESUSCITATION IF RESCUER MAY BECOME CONTAMINATED. Keep warm and at
rest.
If breathing is difficult give oxygen. If the patient suffers cardiac arrest, commence cardio-pulmonary
resuscitation immediately, ensuring that the rescuer does not become contaminated.
Seek medical attention immediately.
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MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET
Ammonia (Anhydrous)
ABN: 81 008 668 371
ADVICE TO DOCTOR.
Ammonia is an alkali, which on contact with flesh causes a liquefaction necrosis on proteins, and is
potentially much more dangerous than acid burns. Alkali agents liquefy tissue by denaturation of
proteins and saponification of fats. In contrast to acids, whose tissue penetration is limited by the
formation of a coagulum, alkalis can continue to penetrate very deeply into tissue.
1. Treatment for ammonia burns to eyes:
•
Retract eyelids to ensure thorough irrigation of conjunctival cul-de-sacs;
•
Irrigate eyes with several litres of saline for at least 20 minutes;
•
Perform pH tests, if available, before and after each set of eye irrigations, and continue this monitoring
until the pH returns to the normal range (pH 7 to 8);
•
DO NOT use neutralising agents or any other additives;
•
Evaluate completely general appearance of the globe, conjunctiva, anterior chamber and cornea, with
attention to redness, pallor, or opacification, and presence of foreign bodies;
•
Stain with fluorescein to look for areas of increased uptake signifying corneal abrasion. A slit lamp
examination may be useful - it allows for a more detailed examination of the cornea and anterior
chamber, including presence of hyphema or hypopyon;
•
Verify pupillary and extraocular muscle function;
•
Document the visual acuity of patients with ocular exposure or complaints. Documentation should
include right eye and left eye individually, then vision with both eyes;
•
Before administering, or prescribing cycloplegic drops, steroid drops, or vasoconstrictive agents,
consider consulting an ophthalmologist.
2. Treatment for ammonia fumes, or mist inhalation
•
Pulmonary oedema may arise. Symptoms may be delayed for several hours. Affected persons should
not be left unattended during this period;
•
If the larynx is involved, local oedema may produce respiratory distress, stridor and a hoarse voice.
3. Treatment for ammonia burns to skin
•
Skin lesions require copious saline irrigation;
•
Treat alkali burns as thermal burns with non-adherent gauze and wrapping;
•
Deep second-degree burns may benefit from topical silver sulfadiazine.
4. Treatment for ammonia ingestion
•
Severe burns from alkali ingestion may lead to the life-threatening complications of oesophageal
perforation and mediastinitis. These are associated with chest pain, dyspnoea, fever, subcutaneous
emphysema of the chest or neck, and a pleural rub. Symptoms and signs associated with significant
alkali-induced tissue injury include pain in the mouth and throat, drooling, pain on swallowing,
vomiting, abdominal pain and haemat emesis. Extensive tissue injury may be associated with fever,
tachycardia, hypotension and tachypnoea;
•
Initial management is primarily supportive. Particular attention should be directed towards securing the
airway, fluid resuscitation and provision of analgesia;
•
DO rinse any visible material from the mouth with water or saline;
•
DO NOT induce vomiting as re-exposure of the mucosa to the alkali is harmful;
•
DO NOT attempt to neutralise the ingested alkali since exothermic reaction may extend the corrosive
injury;
•
Consider passing a naso-gastric tube;
•
A chest X-ray, upright abdominal film, is recommended – this may show widening of the
mediastinum, pleural effusions, pneumomediastinum and/or pneumothorax. Perforation of the stomach
or small intestine is associated with clinical features of chemical peritonitis, fever, abdominal
tenderness, guarding and rebound, and ileus. Septic shock and multi-organ failure complicate
perforation;
•
DO NOT give oral fluids as these may interfere with endoscopic evaluation;
•
DO NOT give oral activated charcoal as it will interfere with endoscopic evaluation;
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MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET
Ammonia (Anhydrous)
ABN: 81 008 668 371
ADVICE TO DOCTOR (cont..)
4. Treatment for ammonia ingestion (cont..)
•
Inspection of the oropharynx may reveal areas of mucosal burn, which appear as white patches with
erythematous borders. The absence of visible burns to the lips, mouth or throat does not necessarily
imply an absence of significant burns to the oesophagus;
•
Tracheoesophageal fistulae may result from perforation of the anterior oesophageal wall. The fistula
may extend to involve the aorta and, in this case, is fatal;
•
Symptomatic patients may need the following investigations:
• Arterial blood gas analysis;
• Coagulation profile;
• Complete blood count;
• Contrast oesophagography or thoracic CT (to detect oesophageal perforation);
• ECG;
• Electrolytes;
• Glucose;
• Liver and renal function;
• Chest X-ray, upright abdominal film;
• Type and cross-match;
•
Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy should be performed as soon as practicable and within 24 hours of
ingestion. This investigation is essential to assess the severity of mucosal damage and plan treatment.
Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy should also be considered for asymptomatic patients who have
intentionally ingested a strong alkali and children, where the history may be unreliable;
• Early esophagogastroscopy, by direct visualisation of the lesion with fibre optic endoscopes is the
most effective investigation for the classification of alkali burns and in planning management
follow-up.
•
Ongoing supportive care includes maintenance of adequate analgesia, fluid electrolyte and pH balance,
nutritional support, and monitoring for the development of complications.
Subsequent management and prognosis is largely dictated by findings at upper gastrointestinal tract
endoscopy. These may be graded as follows:
• Grade I: Simple inflammation;
• Grade II: Few ulcerations and focal necrosis limited to part of the oesophagus;
• Grade III: Multiple ulcerations, extensive necrosis involving the entire oesophagus and massive
haemorrhage.
Grade I and II lesions heal completely with supportive care alone and can be adequately managed on a
generic medical ward.
Patients with Grade I lesions will usually tolerate oral fluids, but those with Grade II lesions may
require a period of total parenteral nutrition or feeding jejunostomy.
Patients with Grade II endoscopic findings require intensive care management, total parenteral
nutrition ora feeding jejunostomy until healing is documented, and are likely to develop oesophageal
strictures.
Urgent laparotomy (without associated thoracotomy) with surgical resection of necrotic tissue and
surgical repair is indicated in the presence of symptoms or sign of gastrointestinal perforation or where
full thickness necrosis is found at endoscopy.
There is no clinical evidence that corticosteroids prevent the development of strictures following alkali
ingestion.
Prophylactic broad-spectrum antibiotics are not indicated unless there is evidence of gastrointestinal
tract perforation or full thickness necrosis.
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MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET
Ammonia (Anhydrous)
ABN: 81 008 668 371
ADVICE TO DOCTOR (cont..)
Long Term Complications
Those patients with Grade II burns are at risk of developing an oesophageal stricture. For this reason, these
patients require follow-up evaluations that include endoscopic examinations and/or contrast radiography until
complete healing or stricture formation is documented. Eighty percent of strictures produce symptoms within
two months. Oesophageal stricture formation requires long term-dilation or surgical repair. Survivors of alkali
ingestion are at an increased risk of developing carcinoma of the oesophagus. The average interval between
the original injury and diagnosis of carcinoma is greater than 40 years.
Further information about the treatment for exposure to this product can be obtained from
the Poisons Information Centre on (08) 13 1126 (Australia only)
Section 5 – Fire Fighting Measures
Product flammability
Ammonia gas is flammable, but requires significant heat to initiate combustion.
Suitable extinguishing media
Extinguish small fires with dry powder, or carbon dioxide. Use water spray to reduce vapour, but do not put
water on the leak. Extinguish large fires by applying aqueous film forming foam and knock down ammonia
vapour by using water fog.
Hazard from combustion products
Ammonia produces oxides of nitrogen and water vapour on normal combustion in air.
Special protective precautions and equipment for fire fighters
Wear full protective clothing, including respiratory protection.
Anhydrous ammonia vapour is lighter than air, and pockets of ammonia are likely to be trapped in ceilings or
under roof. Use water fog to dampen an ammonia cloud and reduce vapours.
Chemical absorbent and substantial amounts of water will be required for large spill.
Portable shower and eyewash facility may also be needed.
Prevent run-off into drains and waterways.
Hazchem Code
2 RE
Section 6 – Accidental Release Measures
Emergency procedures
The hazardous nature of anhydrous ammonia, require emergency and spill procedures to be effective to avoid
both human and environmental exposure. Hazardous conditions may result if material is managed improperly.
Make plans in advance to handle possible emergencies, including obtaining stocks of absorbent materials.
Always wear recommended personal protective equipment and respiratory protection. Good ventilation is
necessary.
One volume of liquid anhydrous ammonia released from a container at15 ºC will dissipate into approximately
850 volumes of gaseous ammonia. However, liquid anhydrous ammonia may take considerable time to
evaporate due to its latent heat of evaporation. Anhydrous ammonia vapours are lighter than air, and pockets
of ammonia are likely to be trapped in ceilings or under roof.
Anhydrous ammonia dissolves very readily in water, giving off large quantities of heat. Avoid direct water
contact with ammonia leaks.
Methods and Materials for containment and clean up
For ALL spills, evacuate unprotected personnel upwind and out of danger.
Shut off anhydrous ammonia supply, if safe to do so. If anhydrous ammonia container is leaking, and if
possible, try to position it so that gaseous ammonia rather than liquid ammonia leaks out. Shut off all possible
sources of ignition. Stay upwind of vapours. Restrict access to spill site.
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MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET
Ammonia (Anhydrous)
ABN: 81 008 668 371
Small Leaks
Gas: Increase ventilation and allow gas to vent to a safe area
Liquid: If possible contain the surface area of a spill by bunding with earth or vermiculite. Allow vaporisation
to a safe area. Prevent run-off into drains and waterways.
Large Leaks
Gas: Use water fog to dampen an ammonia cloud and reduce vapours. Do not spray water directly on the leak
or ammonia container.
Liquid: If possible contain the surface area of a spill by bunding with earth or vermiculite. Use protein foam
blanket, at least 150 mm thick, to cover liquid anhydrous ammonia and thus prevent evaporation into large gas
cloud. Use water fog to dampen an ammonia cloud and reduce vapours.
Prevent run-off into drains and waterways.
Dispose of all contained spill residues in accordance with the requirements of the Department of Environment.
For the management of anhydrous ammonia emergencies during transport by road or rail, SAA/SNZ HB76:
Dangerous Goods-Initial Response Guide, Guide 07 should be consulted. This Guide should be carried at all
times when anhydrous ammonia is being transported.
Clean up personnel will need personal protection equipment and respiratory protection. Portable safety shower
and eyewash facilities may also be needed for clean up personnel.
Protein foam blanket may be required for large spills. Chemical absorbent and substantial amounts of water
will also be required for large spills.
Section 7 – Handling and Storage
Precautions for safe handling
Regulated dangerous goods as Toxic Gas Class 2; with a subsidiary risk listing in Class 8, as Corrosive.
Proper protective clothing must be worn that encapsulates the body including the face. A safety shower and
eyewash should be available. Do not breathe vapour or mist. Avoid contact with skin, eyes and clothing.
Do not touch with bare skin any surface that has been iced by the storage of anhydrous ammonia. If skin
sticks to the surface of iced anhydrous ammonia storage and carrying equipment, thaw out with lukewarm
water before removing – failure to do so will result in serious injury and frostbite.
Do not add water to anhydrous ammonia. In dilution process anhydrous ammonia should be added to plenty
of water, preferably under the surface of the water, in order to minimise the generation of ammonia vapour
and splashes.
Do not smoke anywhere near the storage and handling of anhydrous ammonia or associated pipework and
equipment.
Do not touch damaged containers or spilled material unless wearing appropriate personal protective
equipment.
Change and wash clothing, and personal protective equipment if contaminated, or before storing and/or reusing. Wash hands and face thoroughly after handling and before work breaks, eating, drinking, smoking and
suing toilet facilities.
Conditions for safe storage, including any incompatibilities
Store in accordance with Australian Standard AS 2022 Anhydrous ammonia storage and handling (SAA
Anhydrous Ammonia Code).
Always store cylinders upright, in a cool, dry well ventilated area, protected from weather, sunlight and direct
heat. Bulk storage anhydrous ammonia containers should be painted white to reflect direct sunlight. Intense
localised heat may cause ammonia containers to explode. Periodically check anhydrous ammonia storage
containers for leaks, using a sulfur dioxide test bottle.
Anhydrous ammonia should be stored in an electrically classified Zone 1 Class 1 area.
Store away from halogens, mineral acids and oxidizing agents (such as hypochlorites, chlorinating and
brominating agents).
Anhydrous ammonia is highly corrosive to aluminium, copper, tin, zinc and their alloys. Without at least 0.5
% moisture, anhydrous ammonia will cause stress cracking in carbon steel. Not corrosive to 304L or 316 SS.
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MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET
Ammonia (Anhydrous)
ABN: 81 008 668 371
Section 8 – Exposure Controls/Personal Protection
National exposure standards
ES-TWA
25 ppm
ES-STEL
17 mg/m3
35 ppm
ES-Peak
24 mg/m3
No data available
No data available
Biological limit values
No data available
Engineering controls
Use in open, or well ventilated areas.
Use local and /or general exhaust ventilation to keep inhalation exposures below the exposure standard and as
low as possible.
Personal protective equipment
Personal protective equipment (PPE) should be used where other control measures are not practicable or
adequate to control exposure. It should be chosen to prevent routine exposure and to protect workers in the
case of accidental splashes, spillage or release.
Eye/face protection: Wear chemical goggles and face shield to prevent eye and facial contact.
Skin protection: Wear PVC gauntlet gloves to prevent skin contact. Wear PVC jacket and trousers to prevent
contact. A complete encapsulating suit is recommended for heavy exposures.
Respiratory protection: When opening anhydrous ammonia container valves and connecting and
disconnecting ammonia lines wear self contained breathing apparatus (or ensure it is readily available for
immediate use) with type ABEK1 cartridge, or air supplied full face mask complying with AS/NZ 1715 and
AS/NZ 1716.
Thermal hazard: Wear thermal chemical resistant gloves if handling iced lines.
Section 9 – Physical and Chemical Properties
Appearance (colour, physical form, shape)
Colourless gas or liquid.
Odour
Sharp, irritating and penetrating odour.
pH
pH of a 10% solution: >12.
Vapour pressure
756 kPa at 20 ºC.
Vapour density
Relative vapour density (air = 1): 0·77
Boiling point/range
Freezing/melting point
Boiling point: -33·3 ºC at 1 atmosphere
Melting point: -77·7 ºC
Solubility
Solubility in water: 89·9 g/100 g water at 20 ºC; very soluble in diethyl ether and acetone; partially soluble in
methanol.
Specific gravity or density
Specific gravity liquid: 0·682 (water = 1);
Specific gravity gas: 0·770 (air = 1).
Flash point and method of detecting flash point
No data available.
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MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET
Ammonia (Anhydrous)
ABN: 81 008 668 371
Upper and lower flammable (explosive) limits in air
Flammability limits: 16 – 25 % (vol/vol).
Ignition temperature
Auto ignition temperature: 651 ºC.
Viscosity
Dynamic viscosity liquid: 0·255 mPa.s at 0 ºC and 1 atmosphere;
Dynamic viscosity gas: 0·00982 mPa.s at 0 ºC and 1 atmosphere.
Section 10 – Stability and Reactivity
Chemical stability
In accordance with the SAA Anhydrous Ammonia Code, anhydrous ammonia, with at least 0·5 % moisture,
stored in dedicated carbon steel containers in a electrical zone 1 class 1 area, remains stable.
Conditions to avoid
Anhydrous ammonia is extremely soluble in water giving off large quantities of heat. It can react explosively
with oxidizing agents (which include swimming pool chemicals such as chlorine and sodium/calcium
hypochlorite). It is corrosive to copper, tin, zinc and their alloys such as bronze and brass.
Incompatible materials
Anhydrous ammonia is highly corrosive to aluminium, copper, tin, zinc and their alloys. Can from explosive
compounds with mercury and silver oxide. Not corrosive to 304L or 316 stainless steel. Will attack some
forms of plastics, rubber and coatings.
Hazardous decomposition products
Ammonia produces oxides of nitrogen and water vapour on normal combustion in air.
Hazardous reactions
Anhydrous ammonia can react explosively with oxidizing agents (which include swimming pool chemicals
such as chlorine and sodium/calcium hypochlorite).
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MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET
Ammonia (Anhydrous)
ABN: 81 008 668 371
Section 11 – Toxicological Information
HEALTH EFFECTS
When handled in accordance with the guidelines in this material safety data sheet, anhydrous ammonia
should not present any health effects. If this product is mishandled, symptoms that may arise are:
Acute:
Anhydrous ammonia, liquid and vapour, is highly irritant and corrosive to exposed tissues and to
mucous membranes of the eyes and respiratory tract. May be fatal if inhaled in large quantities.
Cryogenic, or frostbite “burns” may be experienced when incorrectly handling ammonia liquid. Toxic
doses of ammonia acutely affect cerebral energy metabolism, localized at the base of the brain.
Inhalation:
Inhalation of ammonia liquid and vapour will result in burns and irritation to the nose and upper respiratory
tract, resulting in lesions of the nasal septum, pulmonary oedema and pneumonitis. Symptoms may include
coughing, sore throat and shortness of breath. Severe scarring of tissue and death may result. Damage may
appear days after exposure. 5,000-6,000 ppm for 30-120 min administered to guinea pigs has been reported to
cause blindness. LD50 (Inhalation, rat) = 7,338 – 11,590 ppm at 1 hour.
Ammonia
Resulting Conditions on Humans
Level in ppm
5 – 25
Minor irritation of the eye and respiratory tract, odour threshold by most persons.
25
National exposure standard (ES-TWA).
100
No adverse effect for average worker. Deliberate exposure for long periods not
permitted.
400
Immediate nose and throat irritation. No serious effects after 30 minutes to 1 hour.
700
Immediate eye irritation. No serious effect after 30 minutes to 1 hour.
1,700
Convulsive coughing. Severe eye, nose and throat irritation. Could be fatal after 30
minutes.
2,000 – 5,000 Convulsive coughing. Severe eye, nose and throat irritation. Could be fatal after 15
minutes.
5,000
Lowest concentration known to be lethal to humans exposed for 5 minutes via inhalation.
5,000 – 10,000 Respiratory spasm. Rapid Asphyxia.
Skin:
Ammonia liquid will cause severe burns and necrosis. Ammonia vapour will cause irritation, including
redness and itching, and at high concentrations burns and blistering. Cryogenic “burn” may result as a result
of contacting ammonia liquid.
Eye:
Ammonia liquid will cause severe eye burns and permanent eye damage. Ammonia vapour will cause severe
irritations and burns, at high concentrations leading to redness and pain following contact.
Swallowed:
Ammonia liquid will cause severe irritation and burns to the mouth, oesophagus and stomach, accompanied
by severe burning sensation. Severe scarring of tissue and death may result. Ammonia vapour will cause
severe irritation and burns. Symptoms include bleeding, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhoea and fall in blood
pressure. Damage may appear days after exposure. LD50 (Oral, rat) = 350 mg/kg.
Chronic:
Prolonged, or repeated exposure to ammonia vapour may result in pulmonary function effects, and will
cause drying of the skin with cracking, irritation and blistering that may lead to dermatitis and
necrosis.
Ammonia toxicity is a major factor in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy associated with
chronic liver disease. Populations at special risk of exposure to ammonia include individuals with
reduced liver function, corneal disease, glaucoma, or chronic respiratory diseases.
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MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET
Ammonia (Anhydrous)
ABN: 81 008 668 371
Section 12 – Ecological Information
Ecotoxicity
Very toxic to aquatic organisms. In low concentrations in water and soil, ammonia acts as a fertiliser to
promote plant growth. Free ammonia concentrations of 2·5 mg per litre at pH 7·4 to 8·5 are considered
harmful to marine life. In water ammonia (NH3) is considered to be the primary toxic form while the more
prevalent ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH) form is much less harmful. Increases in pH above 7·5 will lead to
an increased level of non-ionised ammonia (NH3). Ammonia is readily oxidized to nitrite which is also toxic
to marine life.
Vegetation contacted with anhydrous ammonia or exposed to significant vapour concentrations may suffer
leaf scorching
Persistence and degradability
Ammonia will dissolve and disperse in water. However, ammonia may degrade water quality and taste.
Downstream water users should be notified. There is evidence of photo degradation in air. The products of
biodegradation, oxides of nitrogen (NO,NO2), nitrites and nitrates are less toxic than the original product.
Mobility
Ammonia has low mobility is soil.
Environmental fate (exposure)
48 hr LC50 (daphnia magna): 24 mg/L;
48 hr LC50, S (daphnia magna) :189 mg/L;
24 hr LC50 (rainbow trout): fertilised egg:> 3·58 mg/L;
alevins (0-50 days old): 3·58 mg/L;
fry (85 days old): 0·068 mg/L;
adults: 0·097 mg/L.
Bioaccumulative potential
Under aerobic conditions ammonia will oxidize to nitrate and has low potential for bioaccumulation.
Section 13 – Disposal Considerations
Disposal methods and containers
Due to its inherent properties, hazardous conditions may result if material is managed improperly. Dispose of
in accordance with Department of Environmental requirements. Shut all valves in empty containers. As
required under the ADG Code treat empty containers as filled containers.
Special precautions for landfill or incineration
No data available.
IF0846 Version No.6.0
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Document last modified: 10 December 2008. PDF Created: 11 December 2008.
MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET
Ammonia (Anhydrous)
ABN: 81 008 668 371
Section 14 – Transport Information
UN Number
1005
UN Proper shipping name
Ammonia, Anhydrous
Class and subsidiary risk
Class 2.3 Toxic Gas; Subsidiary Risk Class 8 Corrosive.
Packing group
None allocated
Special precautions for user
Not to be loaded with explosives (Class 1), flammable liquids (Class 3), spontaneously combustible
substances (Class 4.2), dangerous when wet substances (Class 4.3), oxidizing agents (Class 5.1), organic
peroxides (Class 5.2), radioactive substances (class 7) and food and food packaging in any quantity.
Hazchem code
2RE
Section 15 – Regulatory Information
Australian regulatory information
SUSDP POISON Schedule 6. Licensing is required for this chemical in some States and Territories.
Listed on the Australian Inventory of Chemical Substances (AICS).
Additional national and/or international regulatory information
OSHA: Hazardous by definition of Hazard Communication Standard (29CFR 1910.1200).
Section 16 – Other Information
Key / legend to abbreviations and acronyms used in the MSDS
AICS
NOHSC
SUSDP
ES-TWA
ES-STEL
ES-Peak
FORS
LC50:
LD50
%(wt/wt)
%(wt/vol)
PPM
Zone 1 Class 1
Australian Inventory of Chemical Substances
National Occupational Health and Safety Commission
Standard for the Uniform Scheduling of Drugs and Poisons
Exposure Standard – Time weighted average
Exposure Standard – Short term exposure level
Exposure Standard – Peak level
Federal Office of Road and Safety
Lethal concentration 50, median lethal concentration
Lethal dose 50. The single dose of a substance that causes the death of 50% of an animal
population from exposure to the substance by any route other than inhalation
Percent amount on a weight per weight basis
Percent amount on a weight per volume basis
Parts per million
An area, in which an explosive gas atmosphere can be expected to occur periodically or
occasionally during normal operation.
(More than 10 hours per year but less than 1000 hours per year)
IF0846 Version No.6.0
Page 12 of 13
Document last modified: 10 December 2008. PDF Created: 11 December 2008.
MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET
Ammonia (Anhydrous)
ABN: 81 008 668 371
Literature references
Occupational Safety and Health Regulations 1996, State Law Publisher, Western Australia, Reprinted 15
October 1999.
National Code of Practice for the Preparation of Material Safety Data Sheets, [NOHSC:2011(2003)],
Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, April 2003.
Australian Code for the Transport of Dangerous Goods by Road and Rail, 6th Edition, Australian Government
Publishing Service, Canberra, January 1998.
Chemical Rubber Handbook, D.R. Lide, CRC Press, 65th Edition, Boca Ratón, 1987.
Perry's Chemical Engineers' Handbook, R.H. Perry & D. Green, 6th Edition, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1984.
International Critical Tables of Numerical Data, Physics, Chemistry and Technology, National Research
Council, 1st Edition, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1928.
Condensed Chemical Dictionary, G.G Hawley, 8th Edition, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1950.
Dangerous Properties of Industrial Chemicals, N.I.Sax & R.J. Lewis (Sr), 7th Edition, Van Nostrand Reinhold,
New York, 1984.
Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology, F.A. Patty, 3rd Revised Edition, G.D. & F.E. Clayton (Editors),
John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1981.
Matheson Gas Data Book, W.Braker & A.L. Mossman, 6th Edition, Matheson Gas Products, Secaucus, 1980.
Encyclopaedia of Occupational Health and Safety, International Labour Office, 4th Edition, J.M. Stellman
(Editor), Geneva, 1998
Kirk-Othmer Encyclopaedia of Chemical Technology, 4th Edition, Wiley InterScience, New York, 1997.
Ullmann's Encyclopaedia of Industrial Chemistry, F. Ulmann, 6th Edition, Wiley Interscience, New York,
2001.
Standard for the Uniform Scheduling of Drugs and Poisons, National Health and Medical Research Council,
Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, 1992.
Poisons Act 1964, State Law Publisher, Western Australia, Reprinted 22 January 1999.
Adopted National Exposure Standards for Atmospheric Contaminants in the Occupational Environmant,
[NHSC:1003(1991)].
Hazardous Materials Handbook for Emergency Responders, Onguard Training for Life, J. Varela (Editor),
Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1996.
Chemwatch www.chemwatch.net
Guidance for the Compilation of Safety Data Sheets for Fertilizer Materials, European Fertilizer
Manufacturers Association, online at www.efma.org/Publications/Guidance/Index.asp
Sources for data
No data available
Important Notes
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
To the best of our knowledge this document complies with the National Code of Practice for the
Preparation of Material Safety Data Sheets 2nd Edition [NOHSC:2011 (2003)].
This material safety data sheet summarises our best knowledge of the health and safety hazard
information of the product and how to safely handle and use the product in the workplace. Each user
should read this material safety data sheet and consider the information in the context of how the
product will be handled and used in the workplace, including in conjunction with other products.
If clarification or further information is needed to ensure that an appropriate risk assessment can be
made, the user should contact the Safety and Emergency Services Department, CSBP Limited on
(08) 9411 8777 if in Australia or +61 8 9411 8777 if overseas.
Our responsibility for products sold, is subject to our terms and conditions, a copy of which is sent to
our customers, and is also available on request.
CSBP reserves the right to make change to material safety data sheets without notice.
IF0846 Version No.6.0
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Document last modified: 10 December 2008. PDF Created: 11 December 2008.
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