United States Patent [191
Franks et a1.
2073994 10/1981 United Kingdom ......... .. 340/ 825.24
2140248 11/1984 United Kingdom .............. .. 381/119
Amek Systems & Controls Limited,
Richards et al., “An Experimental All-Digital Studio
Mixing Desk,” J. Audio Eng. Soc., vol. 30, No. 3, Mar.
1982, pp. 117-126.
Primary Examiner-Donald J. Yusko
Assistant Examiner-Edwin C. Holloway, III
Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Dennison, Meserole, Pollack
Salford, England
[21] Appl. No.: 65,877
[22] Filed:
Jun. 24, 1987
Foreign Application Priority Data
Jun. 27, 1986 [GB]
Nov. 13, 1986 [GB]
United Kingdom ............... .. 8615758
United Kingdom ............... .. 8627191
Int. Cl.4 ............................................. .. H04B 1/00
US. Cl. .................................... .. 381/119; 381/81;
& Scheiner
modules connected between an input and a common
output bus. The modules are identical, and contain a
Field of Search ................. .. 381/119, 123, 80, 81;
plurality of circuits for carrying out functions on a sig
nal from the corresponding input. A central control unit
is connected to each of the modules and controls se
lected circuits of the units, to control the operation of
the module. In this way the functions carried out by the
modules are freely selectable, and hence the switching
84/345; 364/514; 369/1-4, 83; 360/13;
340/825.24, 825.25
References Cited
et a1.at. . .al. . . . . ". .
4,187,544 2/1980 Larner ............... ..
. . . . .. 84/124
Kolodny et a1.
Olden et a1. ............... .. 381/1
production console to be omitted from each module’
.... .. 381/81
4,479,24010/1984 McKinley, 11..
the normaleach
may section
of an audio
Stadius ...... ..
An audio production console has a plurality of input
381/109; 381/123
Sim rf .
d 1
“no “em
12 Claims, 8 Drawing Sheets
as awhole
4,677,674 6/1987 Snyder .............................. .. 381/119
Nov. 7, 1989
[75] Inventors: Nicholas Franks, Wilmslow; Graham
A. Langley, Knutsford, both of
[73] Assignee:
Patent Number:
Date of Patent:
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Nov. 7, 1989
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bly suffer from wear and tear, which decreases reliabil
The introduction of computer-assisted mixing has
given the engineer critical control over both levels and
mutes, and the use of timecode-based synchronization
This invention concerns an audio production console.
has allowed memorized events to be repeated in se
quence with multiples of audio and video recorders
locked together. As mixing is often interrupted by time
Traditionally, sound recording was based on a combi
constraints on studio availability, a need has become
apparent to include memorization of control settings in
nation of excellence of microphone placement tech
niques used to capture performances, and faithful regis
the computer system to allow engineers and producers
to return to the point where they had left off at the
previous close of work. To date, however, although the
development of recall systems for console potentiome
tration on tape of the signals received. Nowadays, how
ever, many recordings are principally assembled from a
wide range of exactly-repeatable signals produced from
a variety of non-performing programmable machinery
such as synthesizers, sampling devices, and digital
ter and individual channel con?guration has made a
step towards repeatability, this is only through rela
tively slow manual reloading of the memorised position
sound effects units.
The traditional technique was a two-stage process of
recording signals onto multitrack tape and then remix
ing to stereo, adding sound effects processing during
mixdown. Effectively, the ?nal result was obtained only
towards the end of the recording process. Consoles
incorporated elaborate monitoring facilities which con
stituted a ‘mixer within the mixer’, allowing submixes to
be created to guide the engineer and the musicians as
the tracks were ?lled. Once the tape was full, the moni
tor mix was largely forgotten and the ‘real’ mixing be
gan. Developments in computer techniques allowed a
’ degree of mixing to precede and assist the actual mix
using elaborate graphics-based prompts.
, In prior art consoles, inputs were divided into moni
tory inputs and'mixing inputs each associated with an
input module. Those modules each carried out func
tions on a signal received at the corresponding input,
such as fading, filtering, etc., controlled by electronic
circuits within the module. The activation of those
circuits was controlled by switches in the module, nor
mally adjacent the adjustable control for that circuit.
Furthermore, each module had a separate monitoring
section, for use when the corresponding input was to be
30 a monitoring input.
down process.
In recent times, four main tendencies have become
apparent in the studio, namely the use of a larger num
The present invention, however, proposes that the
ber of tracks —- 48 and heading for 64; the use of synthe
division between monitoring inputs and mixing inputs
sizers and drum machines with multiple outputs; the use
of very large quantities of external signal processing
equipment; and the abandonment of the monitoring
be eliminated, and for the modules to be identical. Then
system provided with the console as being unsuitable
for what might be called ‘virtual mixing’ recording
the modules are connected to a common control, which
acts on ‘the circuits of each module to activate, or de
activate them as desired. Thus the functions carried out
on a signal to a particular module may be selected at the
common control.
The essence of ‘virtual mixing’ is that the producer
and engineer attempt to work from the onset with the
Thus, a large number of identical input channels may
be provided, each capable of receiving any suitable
sounds and sound sources that will be used in the final
signal, be it tape output, effects device, or source. These
As the recording process continues the layers of
effects increase and must be exactly repeated with each
signals are then mixed to one or more common output
pass of the tape. Overdubs are made not within the
reo bus and stereo monitor) according to the needs of
the moment. Since the full range of input functions
carried out on a signal to the corresponding input (e.g.
context of raw microphone signals replayed from tape
but as part of the overall conceptualization of the piece
of music, and must be accompanied therefore by the
?nished product at whatever stage it has reached. The
engineer, producer and musicians all need to hear iden
tical signals. The‘end ‘result is that there is no longer any
signi?cant division between the ‘monitor’ mix and the
‘Stereo’ mix. The target has always been the stereo mix
and the present-day approach to it is to ‘mix as you go’,
buses, with multiple outputs available from stereo (ste
equalization,,inserts, auxiliary sends, automation, etc.)
may now be used selectively on most signals, these
multiple inputs effectively need to be standard input
channels with all normal functions except for a monitor
mix section.
The addition of more inputs to a console makes it
Normally, many of the various functions of the cir
cuits of each module were activated (i.e. switched into
or out of the signal path) by electromechanical switches
in the module. Preferably, in a console according to the
present invention at least some of those electromechani
wider and in the past this has lead to ergonomic and
cal switches are replaced by switching by the common
operational problems, since the console has become
excessively long and unwieldy. Moreover, with the
control of the units. This enables the electromechanical
switches to be dispensed with. Furthermore, a suitable
extensive features now required on production con
memoryv in the control unit may store one or more se
i.e. to create the end product from the commencement
of recording.
" soles, conventional designs have become increasingly
lected patterns of activation of the module circuits, so
complex and confusing owing to the sheer density of
that the pattern may be reset when desired.
‘controls. Many switch functions are virtually unused 65 The removal of most or all of the electromechanical
from day to day, or are ‘presets’ which when set up are
not touched during operation. Furthermore, as the
switches are electro-mechanical devices, they inevita
switches from the modules chassis leads to increased
reliability as well as a reduction in module width and,
potentially, better control room performance.
A system in accordance with the invention in which
the functions to be performed by the modules to be
position may be “recalled”. Indeed, the memory may
store a plurality of different positions, and the operator
selected allows many problems of size, ergonomics and
can then select which of the stored positions is to be
general dif?culty of operation, together with those of
used. In practice, this means that different con?gura
supplying consoles in various con?gurations, to be 5 tions of the functions carried out by the console on
input signals can be memorized, so that the console may
The removal of the monitor mix and associated rout
be changed rapidly from one con?guration to another
ing sections from each module permits a reduction in
as the console is set up for different jobs.
the width of each module, and thus a reduction in the
Of course, the memory of the common control of the
overall length of the console for a given number of 10 console may have different “levels” corresponding to
input channels. Conversely, for a given console width
different priorities of stored information.
there can be a considerable increase in the number of
Furthermore, the common control may have suitable
input channels.
displays for displaying the functions it is controlling.
In this way, not only may a console according to the
Then, by providing a suitable switch or other means on
present invention be much more manoeuvrable than a
each module, the control may be caused to display the
information relating to that module in the memory.
Thus it is very easy for the operator to check which
functions are to be carried out by a given module, and
change them as desired.
Also, the use of advanced mixing systems, such as the
console of conventional design with an equal number of
input channels, but it also occupies less space in the
control room. The initial importance of this is that al
though very large consoles are undoubtedly impressive
to look at, they are recognized as being the primary
disturber of the acoustic environment in the control
GML (George Massenburg Laboratories) moving fader
room. Thus a better acoustic performance becomes
feasible with a smaller console.
system, is possible and AFV (Audio Follows Video)
Also in video and teleproduction applications, space
equipment can be provided. Furthermore, increased
amounts of output buses (up to 64) facilitate assignment
ports for remote control of levels and mutes from video
is often at a premium and audio facilities generally come
a poor second to video. In many cases a new audio desk
to multitrack recorders and stereo machines and the
buses can be used as extra auxiliary send outputs when
must be ?tted into existing space originally designated
for much less sophisticated sound equipment. Thus
using multiple effects devices.
whilst complex consoles are now often required, not
much room is allocated for them. Space is similarly at a
The common control may also be used to select
which of a plurality of bus lines of the output bus a
premium in mobile recording and video production
(EFP) trucks, where many inputs are often needed,
be stored in the memory for repeated use.
given module is connected. Again, the connections may
especially as, video shoots and live, coverage increases in
In the console of the invention data is handled in
size and scope. Hence a reduction in console size is
much the same way as in a word processor with the
again advantageous for broadcast and video production
requirements. Similar comments apply to recording
35 difference that the ?nal output is an audio signal which
has been allowed to pass through the console in a set
way, en route to the speaker units, and the tape record
ers. Like all computer controlled systems the process
can be repeated over and over again. The proposed
studios in which existing consoles need to be replaced
by much “larger” ones (in terms of inputs) in order to
keep up with the number of inputs required by contem
porary technology, preferably without engaging in the
expense of tearing the control room apart.
The absence of a dedicated monitoring section in the
mixer of each input channel of the console of the inven
tion also permits the console to be made simpler since
the confusing division between monitoring and mixing
has largely been removed. Thus the increased number
of inputs is compensated for by a reduction in complex
An embodiment of the invention will now be de
scribed in detail, by way of example, with reference to
the accompanying drawings, in which:
ity of the console, making the engineer’s task propor
tionally simpler at the point when he has to focus his
attention on a greater number of signals.
console design thus applies microprocessor capabilities
to the signal path structures within the console to expe
dite instant setup, long term memory storage, and repet
itive control.
FIG. 1 shows a schematic plan view of a console
according to the present invention;
The activation of circuits giving particular functions
FIGS. 2a to 2d show an input module and additional
within each module may be achieved by suitable solid
modules for each channel of the console of FIG. 1;
state switching devices within the module, which
FIG. 3 is a detailed view of the control unit of FIG.
switching devices are controlled by e.g. a microproces
sor in the central control. That control may be operated
FIGS. 40 and 4b are simpli?ed diagrams of memory
by a keyboard.
The central control preferably contains a memory for
FIG. 5 is a diagrammatic representation of the vari
storing information relating to the various modules. As
ous control functions;
discussed above, that memory may store preset patterns
FIG. 6 is a simpli?ed diagram of the audio path
of activation of the circuits of the module, to enable 60 within a module of the console of FIG. 1; and
them to be “reset”. In addition, however, many of the
FIG. 7 is a simpli?ed diagram of the operating system
functions carried out by the circuits of the module will
of the console of FIG. 1.
have manually operated controls for varying the effect
of the function, and the memory may store selected
positions for those controls. Then a display associated 65
Referring ?rst to FIG. 1, a console 10 has a large
with each unit may be used to determine when the
number of identical elongate modules 11, each capable
manually operated controls have been positioned at the
of carrying out a plurality of functions on an audio
selected positions stored in the memory, i.e. the stored
signal arranged side-by-side along the width of the con
sole 10. Each module 11 is connected to a correspond
42 ,may then act on either the trimmed, or untrimmed
ing input, and the inputs of the modules may be located
signal as determined by the control unit 15.
at a common input block which may be mounted in the
front‘ of the console as shown at 12, or at another loca
tion as is convenient. Additional modules 13 for carry
ing out additional functions may be connected in series
to the modules 11, and each module 11 also has a corre
sponding display 14. These‘ components will be dis
cussed in more detail later.
FIG. 20 shows an additional module 13 which is an
optional dynamics module, which receives an input
signal, expands and/or compresses it as appropriate
using expander 43 and/or compressor 44 as appropri
ately determined by the control unit 15, before the input
signal is fed to the central part 19 of the module 11.
Finally, FIG. 2d shows the display 14 associated with
each module 11. Each display 14 has two parallel lines
of LEDs 45,46, one of which displays the actual posi
As compared to known consoles, the modules 11 do
not have a mechanical switch for activating each of the
functions of the module, but instead at least some of the
tion of a selected control of the module 11, whilst the
functions are controlled by a control unit of the console,
other displays a position stored in the memory of the
and so the module may be made narrower than existing
control unit 15. There are preferably 20 LEDs in each
modules, e.g. may be approximately 30 mm wide. In this 15 row, 19 of which are used to display the position of the
way, the total width of the console may be made smaller
potentiometer, with the 20th LED used to indicate
exact correspondence with the memorized value. The
than with existing arrangements. As illustrated, there
use of an odd number of LEDs to display the potenti
are two blocks of 16 modules, making 32 in all. How
ometer position means it is easy to display the central
ever, the number of modules may be freely chosen,
position of that travel. Thus, for example, the control
depending on the number of input channels of the con
Also shown in FIG. 1 is a common control unit 15 for
controlling the operation of each of the modules 11,13,
unit 15 may be caused to display on one row of LEDs
the stored position of e. g. one of the rotary potentiome
ter controls of an auxiliary unit 37, and then that rotary
control may be adjusted until the memorized position is
and there may also be a keyboard 16 for programming
25 reached.
into the control unit 15, the various operations that are
The display may also be used to indicate the level of
the signal on the channel connected to that unit.
The control unit 15, and its interaction with the vari
control unit 15 (not shown in FIG. 1) to display the 30 ous circuit elements of the modules 11 and the auxiliary
modules 13 will now be described with reference to
various functions that module 11 is currently pro
FIG. 3. FIG. 3 shows the keyboard of that control unit
grammed to perform. Each module 11 also has a central
15. The keyboard comprises five separate areas desig
part 19 with a row of knobs 20 for adjusting e. g. potenti
to be carried out.
As shown in FIG. 1, each module 11 has a fader
section 17 with a switch 18 which causes a display in the
nated as follows:
ometer settings within the module 11.
The module 11, the additional module 13, and the
display 14 for each input will now be described in detail
Active Recall Keyboard
with reference to FIGS. 2a to 2d. FIG. 2a shows the
Routing Keyboard
fader section 17 of the module 11, which, as illustrated,
Module Control Keyboard
Module Assign Keyboard
has a manually adjustable slider which controls the
Memory Function and Numeric Keyboard
output level of the module. Various different types of 40
faders may be used, for example a VCA-fader with
digital grouping which may be connected to an Audio
It will be noted that there is an LED
adjacent and,
Kinetics Mastermix computer, or a motor-driven fader
indeed, corresponding to each key.
which is linked to a GML computer. These fader ar
Basically, when any particular channel is interro
rangements are known in the art and will not be dis 45 gated or accessed by pressing an interrogate (INT)
cussed in more detail now. In addition to the switch 18
button adjacent that channel, or an INT button and the
for causing the control unit to produce a display for that
channel number in the MAK and MFNK keyboards,
module (hereinafter referred to as “the interrogate”)
the keys in the ARK, RK and MCK keyboards repre
(INT button), the fader section 17 may also include a
sent the switch, potentiometer and fader set-up of that
Mute control 31 which cuts off all output signals from 50 channel. A large horizontal green LED, immediately
that module, and additional switches 32,33 which inter
above each channel and at the base of the Recall bars
act with the control unit 15 in dependence on the vari
(referred to below) lights up to indicate which channel
ous functions the module is to perform, e.g. when it is
is being interrogated.
acting as a monitor.
The active Recall keyboard (ARK) allows informa
Referring now to FIG. 2b, the central part 19 of the 55 tion stored in a Recall memory page and relating to any
module 11 has a plurality of manually adjustable knobs
particular channel to be used to match the actual posi
20 and also possibly switches, which interact with the
tion of any of the rotary potentiometers with the rele
various circuits within the module 11 for carrying out
vant memory position. This Recall system is perma
the functions of the module, which in turn are activated
nently active and may be used at anytime simply by
by the control unit. Thus, the central part 19 of the
pressing the LOAD RECALL button in the MFNK
module 11 may have a control 34 for selecting input
keyboard. Each button on the ARK represents one‘
sensitivity, ?lters 35, an equalizer system 36, and auxil
particular rotary function in the accessed channel and
iary circuits 37. It can be seen that in addition to the
when a button is pressed the LED immediately adjacent
control by the control unit 15, there may be over-ride
to it lights up and the vertical rows of LEDs 7 above the
switches 38,39,40 associated with the ?lters 35, the 65 relevant channel, usually called Recall bars, show the
equalizer 36, and the auxiliary circuits 37 as desired. A
memorized potentiometer setting in green and the cur
trimming potentiometer 41 may be switched into, or out
rent level in red. The knob can then be physically
of, the signal path by the control unit 15, and a panpot
turned until the two side by side scales match, i.e. until
the red is the same as the green. The microprocessor
continually monitors the change in the actual setting
(hence the use of the designation ACTIVE) and when
there is exact correspondence the top two LED bars
(both red and green) ?ash on and off. This is especially 5
useful in cases where high resolution may be required,
the button should be pressed.
TAPEselects either OFF BUS or OFF TAPE sig
e.g. in frequency adjustment.
The Recall functions represented by the respective
nals to the main channel input (for use when the main or
trim inputs are selected to mix). When the LED is not
buttons of the ARK keyboard are identi?ed as follows:
MIC—-microphone ampli?er gain setting
nated, MIC input is selected. To obtain LINE, the but
ton should be pressed.
MIX selects the BUS/TAPE inputs to the channel
MAIN signal path. When the LED is not illuminated,
MIC/LINE input is selected. To obtain BUS/TAPE,
LINE-line ampli?er gain setting/mic ?ne gain
HFB-high frequency *boost/cut
HFF-high frequency bandcentre
illuminated, BUS input is selected. To obtain TAPE the
button should be pressed.
The normal monitoring method in this audio produc
tion console is to use the stereo bus. Thus the input
HFQ-high frequency Q (slope)
channelsqconnected to the multitrack machine will have
MFlB-mid-frequency l boost/cut
MFlF——mid-frequency l bandcentre
their outputs routed to the stereo bus. The BUS and
TAPE inputs will also be used when it is desired to
MFlQ—mid-frequency Q (slope)
make either an audio subgroup (submix) or a track re
HIGH PASS FILTER—-frequency setting
LOW PASS FILTER-frequency setting
MF2B-mid-frequency 2 boost/cut
duction (track bounce).
IN selects the channel insert in circuit.
PRE selects the channel insert pre equalizer and ?t
MFZF-mid-frequency 2 bandcentre
MC2Q-mid-frequency 2 Q (slope)
ters. The insert point is in the MAIN signal path and
LFB-—low frequency boose/cut
LFF-low frequency bandcentre
LFQ-—low frequency 2 Q (slope)
A1—auxiliary 1 level
A2-—auxiliary 2 level
Ali-auxiliary 3 level
A4-—auxiliary 4 level
A5-—auxiliary 5-6 level
A5-6P—-auxiliary pan position
A7—auxiliary 7-8 level
A7-8P—-auxiliary pan position
ETH-expander threshold
EREL-expander release
EHLD-expander hold
CTH-compressor threshold
CREL-compressor release
CRAT-—compressor ratio
cannot be routed to TRIM.
PAN IN brings the pan control into operation.
TRIM TO PAN removes the panpot from the MAIN
signal path and places it in the TRIM signal path.
When the PAN is assigned out of circuit an equal
level is sent to the selected Left and Right (or Odd and
30 Even) buses._The input to the PAN is normally con
nected to the MAIN signal path output. Its output may
normally be routed out to the stereo and multitrack
+48 V supplies phantom power to the mic input.
¢.REV reverses the phase of the signal selected to
the MAIN input.
IN selects the Hi and Lo pass ?lters into circuit. A
?lters in/out switch is ?tted to the module. The action
of this switch is to inverse the keyboard-assigned set
ting. However, use of the local switch does not change
the condition held in the memory.
TRIM-trim level
PAN-pan position
The Routing Keyboard represents the various chan
nel switches of a conventional console, which switches
are now incorporated in the underlying circuitry. When
a channel is interrogated its switch set-up is indicated in 45
IN selects the equalizer into circuit. An equalizer
the RK keyboard by the illumination of the LEDS
in/out switch is ?tted to the module. The action of this
adjacent those switches which are ON. The ON/OFF
switch is to inverse the keyboard-assigned setting.
state of any particular switchcan be altered merely by
However, use of the local switch does not change the
pressing the relevant button. Whether switches are On
condition held in the memory.
or OFF determines the electronic pathways of the vari 50
TRIM LP switchs the low frequency band of the
ous channels. The function represented by the respec
equalizer from bell to shelf.
tive buttons are as follows:
HP switches the high frequency band of the equalizer
1 to 48 allows individual selection of 48 output buses.
from bell to shelf.
Each routing switch can also function as a RECORD
ENABLE control for the track.
STIL and STIR allows individual selection of the
stereo-buses, Left and Right, from the MAIN signal
MIC/LINE selects the TRIM input to follow the
MAIN input MIC/LINE switch. Note that MIC/
LINE and BUS/TAPE signals can be selected to both
MAIN and TRIM signal paths at the same time. How
TSTlL and TSTlR allows individual selection of the
ever, the inputs to both signal paths will be the same;
stero buses, Left and Right, from the TRIM signal path. 60 both inputs will be MIC if MIC is selected, and both
The Module Control Keyboard (MCK) allows con
LINE, if LINE is selected. It should also be noted that
?guration of the channel signal paths from input to
the FINE gain control only operates on the MAIN
output. Again, selection of any particular function is
indicated by illumination of the adjacent LED. The
signal path.
MIX selects the TRIM input to follow the MAIN
- keyboard is made up as follows, taking each section in 65 input BUS/TAPE switch.
MIC/LINE selects MIC or LINE input to the chan
nel MAIN signal path. When the LED is not illumi
AUX selects the TRIM input from the pre-fader
output of AUX l (N. B. This may also be con?gured by
an internal jumper to be the pre-fader output ofAux 3).
The principal reason for routing AUX l to the input of
TRIM is to enable extra auxiliary send outputs to be
created by routing the TRIM output to the Multitrack
buses. The Pre/Post function is retained. In the simplest
terms this means that an extra 48 outputs can be ob
tained from the Aux send signal. These can be patched
into FX devices as required. More practically, the 48
buses can be split over a number of inputs and FX de
vices allowing a great extension of control over inputs
to and outputs from FX equipment.
MIX/BUS assigns the input of the TRIM control to
the mix bus output, i.e. on chan 1, mix bus 1 will be
selected, and so on up to 48. This routes the bus signal
into TRIM and allows an audio subgroup to be set up.
Thus the input to MAIN can be set to TAPE whilst the
TRIM input can obtain its input from the BUS of the
module concerned.
If for example AUX to TRIM function was being
used to create extra sends and several channels were
required to be sent to an FX unit and overall level con 2O
trol was required over the mix of signals going to the
FX, the BUS INPUT will assign whatever is going to
the module’s bus to the TRIM control. It is then possi
ble to assign the output of the TRIM by using TRIM
its channel number on the central display, and the MCK
and RK will display the functions selected on that chan
nel. The recall system may also be used by way of the
< steps the INT channel number down by one. The
number of the ‘new’ channel is displayed and its switch
con?guration data shown by the LEDs adjacent the
RK keyswitches. The rotation is cyclic; if the present
channel assigned is number 1, operation of this function
will bring channel number 64 resident in the keyboard
(in a 64 channel console).
> steps the INT channel number up by one. The
number of the ‘new’ channel is displayed and its switch
con?guration data shown by the LEDs in the keyswit
ches. The rotation is cyclic; if the present channel as
signed is number 64, operation of this function will
bring channel number 1 resident in the keyboard (in a 64
channel console).
MARK by enabling this function the number of the
presently assigned channel is memorized. The MARK
display will indicate the number of the ‘marked’ chan
nel. The engineer may then INTerrogate other modules
as required, but can return to the MARKed channel
TO PATCH giving an overall output level control at 25 when required simply by a second press of the MARK
SWAP allows switch settings and Recall data to be
the patch?eld.
swapped between any two channels. After enabling this
MULT TO TRIM transfers the multitrack routing
the computer memorizes the switch and Recall
from the MAIN signal path output to the TRIM output.
TO PATCH assigns the output of the TRIM control 30 data of the currently-assigned channel. A second chan
nel is assigned from the keyboard. A further press of
to the post mix stage of the bus/mix amp. Each bus is
SWAP loads the data from the ?rst channel into the
brought through a half-normalled pair in the jack?eld
second, and from the second into the ?rst.
and terminated in a multiway. This is usually connected
COPY allows copying of switch and Recall data
to the input of the multitrack machine. By assigning
BUS INPUT and TRIM TO PATCH together, control 35 from any one channel to another, making their data
idenitcal. The currently-assigned channel and its data
of the output level of the respective bus can be obtained
becomes the ‘Master Copy Data’. Another channel is
using the TRIM pot, simulating a group fader. Thus, for
assigned from the keyboard. When COPY is pressed
example, output level of bus 18 will be controlled, in
again, the master data is loaded into the newly-assigned
this mode, by the TRIM control on module 18.
40 channel.
ALL loads all selected modules with the same data.
PRE (l-8) switches the input to the Aux send pre the
The ?rst press of ALL will instruct the computer to
selected input source fader, be it TRIM or MAIN.
memorize the switch and Recall data for the presently—
TRIM selects the input to pairs of Aux sends from the
assigned channel. This becomes the ‘Master All Data’.
TRIM control.
Another channel is assigned. When ALL is pressed
1 to 8 Aux in/out; switches the aux send on.
again, the Master All Data is loaded into all of the chan
DYNAMICS (the Dynamics section is optional):
EXP FAST ATT expander fast attack
nels inbetween and including the last channel assigned
COMP FAST ATT compressor fast attack
while in this function.
GATE selects Gate mode
CANCEL when pressed this keyswitch will halt the
AUTO RELEASE compressor program controlled 50 execution of the following:
KEY selects Side Chain insert in/out
FLTS IN SC inserts pass ?lters to sidechain
IN dynamics section in
LINK links dynamics section to next channel on right 55
for stereo operation
enables various master console set-up functions, which
are described brie?y in the following:
INT (LOCAL) This is to assign any channel from the
central keyboard area. When pressed, INT causes the
channel display (mentioned later) to ?ash with the let
ters CH. The computer is wating for a two digit entry
from the numeric section of the MEMORY FUNC
TION and NUMERIC KEYBOARD (MFNK). When 65 Of course, the memory is not in any way affected by use
of this keyswitch.
the number is entered, the computer will interrogate the
channel which has been selected, illuminating the long
TOGGLE allows one module switch function (e.g.;
horizontal LED behind the selected channel, indicating
Insert In) to be toggled on/off for a group of channels.
TOGGLE Mode is comprised of two stages: Setup and
INLAY is normally used in conjunction with MIC,
TOGGLE ENABLE enables the Setup mode. When
pressed this puts the computer into a different opera
tional mode, allowing the MCK and RK keyboards to
be used to select a switch to be toggled, and the channel
INT buttons to be used to slave channels to the TOG
MIX, INLINE and FX and allows them to be overwrit
ten in an existing channel switch setup. Use of MIC,
MIX, etc, by themselves clears a channel of all other
existing switch data. When used with INLAY, all exist
ing data is preserved except for those functions which
are covered by MIC, MIX, etc (as described above).
The keyswitch press routine is INLAY followed by
MIC when an INTerrogated channel is resident in the
GLE group. The INT switches on those channels in
tended to be group are pressed and these INT switches
will illuminate. Any combination of channels can be 10 computer.
assigned to the TOGGLE group. To de-assign a chann
DISPLAY shows which switch functions are com
nel, its INT switch is pressed again. At the same time,
mon to which modules; or monitor the status of a partic
the MCK and RK keyboards are used to select the
ular switch throughout the entire console. For example.
switch you intend to toggle when TOGGLE EXE
pressing the EQ IN switch on the MCK in this mode
CUTE is pressed. The required functions are simply
will display all channels selected EQ IN by illuminating
selected on. Once setup is complete, TOGGLE EN
the long horizontal green LED behind each channel. In
ABLE is pressed again to revert the computer to nor
DISPLAY mode all the LEDs on the MCK and RK are
mal operating mode. Note when a switch is selected the
switched off allowing functions to be DISPLAYed to
be selected clearly.
default condition is off. If you require the switch to be
The FLIP button and the SWITCH GROUP button
on, then the TOGGLE EXECUTE switch is pressed
function will be described later with reference to the
whilst in TOGGLE ENABLE mode. Otherwise, actual
MFNK keyboard, since their functions will be more
execution of the TOGGLE function would always
easily understood after certain other of the MFNK
switch the function ON at ?rst press, whilst you may in
functions have been described.
fact wish to switch OFF.
TOGGLE EXECUTE at the ?rst press switches all 25
multifunction display area located above the central
the previously selected channel functions to OFF (ON)
keyboard area, has already been mentioned several
on all channels selected in TOGGLE ENABLE. At the
times. It provides details of the channel being interro
second press TOGGLE EXECUTE will switch all the
gated, any channel for which the MARK button has
previously selected channel functions to ON (OFF).
been depressed, the memory area presently being used,
MIC is an initial pre-programmed module switch
lists for dynamic and synchronous reset systems (see
hereinafter), and MAIN and TRIM signal path con
structions in the channel being interrogated.
As described in the earlier application, the console
setup that selects the INTerrogated module's MAIN
signal path to a suitable con?guration for basic micro
phone signal recording. The actual switches activated
by MIC are:
35 has three memory levels dented LIVE, SAFE and -
PAGE. The LIVE memory is the normal active mem
ory area where keyswitch entry and changes are en
tered and stored automatically. PAGE is a final mem
No output routing selection is made.
MIX is an initial pre-programmed module setup that
ory of all the switch functions for the entire console,
selects the INTerrogated module’s MAIN signal path
40 stored from the LIVE memory and denoted by a num
to a suitable con?guration for basic stereo mixdown.
The actual switches activated by this function are:
ber. Multiple pages can be created. SAFE is a backup
copy of the initial contents of the LIVE memory, eg
when a PAGE is created a backup is also made into the
SAFE memory area. On loading a previously stored
45 console setup from a page into the LIVE memory, the
previous console setup is still retained in SAFE if it has
7 INLINE the input signal is on the MAIN path and a
simulated inline monitor is formed around the TRIM
control. The switches selected include:
also been STOREd.
As just mentioned, the memory area currently being
accessed is shown in the Channel Status Display, the
50 words LIVE or SAFE being illuminated along with
their respective numbers.
The memory levels are protected by long-life battery
back-up from accidental erasure through power-down
FX the channel acts as an effects return. The input on
Finally, the functions designated by the buttons or
keyswitches of the MEMORY FUNCTION and NU
MERIC KEYBOARD will be briefly described.
STORE RESET stores the switch data, i.e. the data
indicated by the RK, for the entire console into a sepa
the MAIN path but is also rerouted out to the multi
track bus for ‘sub-mixdown’ via TRIM. The switches 60 rate area of memory called a ‘page’. To store a page, the
STORE RESET function is enabled by pressing the
selected include:
keyswitch. The master display above the keyboard will
?ash the prompt SP (Store Page). The computer is now
waiting for a two-digit entry from the numeric section
65 of the central keyboard. If, for example, the number
selected is 12, then the present state of all of the switch
data for the console is now in the page of memory area
at section 12. Note that the LIVE r'nemory remains
unchanged but the SAFE memory area has its last data
overwritten with a ‘back-up’ copy of the LIVE mem
ory which hasv just been stored. 16 PAGEs of memory
are available in the console.
STORE RECALL stores the RECALL data, i.e. the
The DYNAMIC RESET may be executed at any
time. By pressing DYNC RESET, the page of switch
is enabled by pressing the keyswitch. The master dis
play above the keyboard will ?ash the prompt SP
data under which the cursor is positioned is loaded into
the console. A second press of DYNC RESET loads
the next page in the sequence into the console, and so
on. After the last page in the List has been loaded the
next press of DYNC RESET will load the ?rst page of
the list again, and so on through the sequence. When the
last of the 8 pages in the ?rst block has been selected,
the next sequence of 8 pages in the DYNC LIST is
(Store Page). The computer is now waiting for a two
automatically loaded.
digit entry from the numeric section of the central key
board. If, for example, the number selected is (61, then
time by pressing DYNC LIST; the cursor moves each
potentiometer settings indicated in the ARK, for the
entire console into a separate area of memory called a
‘page’. To store a page, the STORE RECALL function
The current cursor position may be viewed at any
the present state of all of the switch data for the console
time DYNC RESET is pressed, thus showing the page
is now in the page of memory area at- section til. 16 15 currently loaded into the console. The current block
PAGEs of RECALL memory are available in the con
number will also be displayed.
A SYNCHRONOUS RESET system extends the
LOAD RESET enables a page of switch setup data
concept of DYNAMIC RESET by allowing the pages
.to be reloaded into the console. On pressing LOAD
to be loaded at predetermined SMPTE timecode
RESET the display above the keyboard will ?ash the 20 prompts, i.e., under automatic control. The SYN
prompt LP (load page) and then wait for a page number
CHRONOUS RESET system is also comprised of two
to be keyed in. This is the source page for the console
stages: listing and execution.
switch settings you wish to load. The page number
To enter into SYNCHRONOUS RESET mode
which has been loaded will overwrite the current con
LIST must be pressed. The DYNAMIC LIST
tents of the LIVE memory and will change all the
DISPLAY is now transformed into the SYNCHRO
switch settings accordingly. SAFE is not overwritten.
NOUS RESET (list) DISPLAY and the current page
LOAD RECALL enables a page of RECALL data
of switch data resident in the console along with its
to be reloaded. The operation of this function is similar
associated SMPTE time code position is shown. A typi
cal display would look like:
12 53 321192 939
to 9 are provided for use in all functions where numeric
where 12 indicates hours, 53 indicates minutes, 32 indi
identi?cation is required. Single ?gure numbers should
cates seconds, 11 indicates frames, (62 indicates sub
be pre?xed with a (ll, e.g. 0l9.
frames (quarter frames) and (69 indicates the page num
The FLIP function in the MAK exchanges the LIVE 35 ber
NUMERIC KEYS Q) to 9 individual keys numbered ¢
memory with the SAFE memory. When a STORE
To enter a new page number and/or time code value
RESET has been executed the contents of the LIVE
memory are stored as a page. At the same time, a ‘back
the cursor is positioned under the pair of digits to be
changed and the new value enter from the numeric keys
up’ is made which is placed in a memory area called
SAFE. In order to compare the current contents of the
segment of the display, pressing LIST> indicates the
in MFNK. If the cursor is underneath the page number
LIVE with the last STOREd page (held in SAFE),
next page and its timecode values. If the cursor is under
FLIP is pressed and the contents of the two memory
neath the hours segment of the display and <LIST is
areas are exchanged. The switch settings for the console
pressed, then the previous page and its timecode values
of course will also change. To revert to LIVE, FLIP is
will be displayed. A separate display indicates the last
pressed a second time.
45 number in the list. Once the required sequence of pages
Turning back to the MNFK, a DYNAMIC RESET
and timecode values has been selected, the Listing func
system allows a number of memory pages to be cued up
tion can be exited by a second press of SYNC LIST.
in an operator-determined sequence (Dynamic List) and
SYNCHRONOUS RESET is enabled by pressing
'the function button labelled SYNC RESET. Only when
RESET system is comprised of two stages: listing and 50 this is pressed will the Reset system of the console be
linked to timecode. Whenever the timecode value cur
To enter into DYNAMIC RESET mode, the func
rently being read matches a timecode stored in the Syn
tion key DYNC LIST on MFNK must be pressed. The
chronous List, the page associated with that timecode
DYNAMIC LIST DISPLAY in the meterhood indi
value will be loaded into the console automatically.
loaded into the console as required. The DYNAMIC
cates a sequence of up to 3 pages. At present, only two 55 SYNCHRONOUS RESET mode is disenabled with a
blocks of 8 pages are allowed, the block number also
second press of SYNC RESET.
being indicated. To change a page number in the list,
Note that both DYNAMIC and SYNCHRONOUS
the function <LIST or LIST> is used to move the
REST modes share the same display so that the mode
cursor left or right through the list. When the cursor is
selected automatically toggles the display into the cor
underneath an existing page number, a new page num
rect format.
ber may be entered from the numeric section of MFNK
A switch grouping system allows any number of
if required. In this way, a DYNAMIC LST can be set‘
switches on any number of channels to be grouped
up. With the cursor at position 8 of the ?rst block of 8
together and toggled between on and off states from
pages the next press of LIST> will load the next block
one master switch. An example of how this function
of 8 pages into the DYNAMIC DISPLAY. These can 65 could be used would be to turn all the auxiliary sends on
then be sequenced as required. The Listing function can
a group of 8 channels on and off simultaneously. Six
be exited with a second press of DYNC LIST. The List
INTerrogate buttons are located on the GML subgroup
is now complete and stands ready for execution.
faders. Each one of these INT buttons may be used as a
switch group master. Switch Group Mode is comprised
of two stages: Setup and Execution.
To enter SETUP mode, the SWITCH GROUP keys
automated mixing processes through sophisticated on
and off-line editing and merging routines.
witch on the MAK is pressed. This then puts the com
inputs in SdB steps over a range from -70dB to
puter into a different operational mode, allowing the
MCK and RK keyboards to be used to select switches
to be toggled and the channel INT buttons to be used to
slave channels to the group master. One of the 6 sub
tional manual console, provision of several layers of
software control allow greater integration of standard
Input sensitivity is switch-selectable for microphone
Compared to the operational procedures of a conven
functions through computer processing.
group INT switches is then pressed, and the group
number indicated on the Central Display. The INT
The operation of a console according to the present
invention will now be discussed in detail with reference
to FIGS. 4 to 7 compared to the operating procedures
of the conventional console, the use of a microprocessor
switches on those channels you intend to slave to the
master are then pressed, and these INT switches will be
illuminated. Any number of slave channels can be as
signed to a master, but overlapping Switch Groups
cannot be created. If any channels are already slaved 15
when the switch Group master is pressed, this will be
indicated by the illumination of that channel’s INT
switch. To de-assign a slave channel, the channel INT
switch is pressed. If, when creating a new Switch
Group, a channel is already slaved to another group, it 20
control unit 15 allows a greater ?exibility in operation.
Operation of the console principally generates three
types of data:
Switch settings:
Rotary Potentiometer settings:
Fader and mute information.
These can all be treated either independently or as
will be automatically slaved to the new group if the
combinations to enable the information processing
channel INT switch is pressed.
which gives the console its operational power.
At the same time, the MCK and RK keyboards can
be used to select those switches you intend to toggle
when the switch group master is pressed. A maximum 25
Each input channel of the console may have the
of 10 switches per channel may be selected to the
equivalent of 109 switches (compared to a standard 60
Switch Group in consoles with up to 80) channels.
to 70 switches per channel on a conventional electrome
When a Switch Group is used, it can be seen that it
may be required to switch some switches in the group
ON, and some OFF. Furthermore, some switches will
not be required in the group at all. Thus each switch can
chanical system) to accommodate the extra busing and
functions now provided. Of course standard potentiom
eters and faders remain on the respective modules.
be in one of 3 states: ON, OFF or OUT (not required).
During Switch Group setup, the default condition is
NOT REQUIRED. To assign a switch ON, one press is
given; OFF requires two presses, and the LED will
?ash; three presses puts the switch OUT of the group.
(Note that a further press would turn the switch ON
again, and so forth, in a 3 step cycle).
Once setup is complete, the SWITCH GROUP keys
witch is pressed again to revert the computer to normal
operating mode.
The Switch Group may be operated at any time sim
ply by pressing the Switch Group master. The assigned
switches on the slave channels will then toggle on-off
with each press of the master.
It should be noted that the TOGGLE function is
nested inside the SWITCH GROUP function, and that
a TOGGLE setup can overlap a SWITCH GROUP.
Apart from the great reduction in size which has been
achieved by inclusion of the switches in the electronic
circuitry, many new possibilities are attained through
the manipulation of the memorized switch data.
The switches belonging to each module are mimicked
on two of the five keyboards located in the center of the
console. These two keyboards are denoted Track and
Stereo Assign, and Signal Path Assign.
Using the simplest operational technique available
these keyboards are addressed from the individual chan
nel (or module) via the INT (‘Interrogation’) switch on
each module. When INT is pressed the keyboard will
display those switch functions already in use. If further
changes are to be made, the appropriate keyswitch has
simply to be operated.
There are several memory levels available. These are
denoted “Live”, “Safe”, and “Page”. These memory
levels are protected by long-life battery back-up from
Thus, for example, a Switch Group could include chan
accidental erasure through mains power failure.
nels 1 to 8, EQ IN and FILTERS IN, and a TOGGLE 50
“Live” is the memory level where all keyswitch in
setup could cover EQ IN for channels 5 to 12. When the
formation is held. Live is similar to ‘Write’ mode in
Switch Group was activated, both EQ and FILTERS
fader automation systems, except that the information
would switch in; when TOGGLE was pressed, EQ
held, instead of being levels and level changes, is switch
would switch out.
on/off information. Effectively, pressing any switch
A central 300 mm (11.8 inch) chassis section has a 55 ‘overwrites’ the preceding switch setup condition for
minimum of 6 module positions occupied by the central
that switch.
assignement section. Master monitor output and auxil
iary send modules are also located in this section.
All channels have a separate horizontal fader section
at the front. Various different types of fader units are
available, including, as standard, a VCA-fader with
digital grouping which may be interfaced to a Audio
Kinetics Mastermix computer and a motor-driven fader
“Safe” is a ‘read only’ memory level where keyswitch
operations are disenabled. No changes in switch settings
can be made. In order to make a Safe memory, informa
tion in Live must be made Safe using an ‘Update’ key on
a Page Assign keyboard. This is done by pressing the
keys ‘Update’ followed by ‘Live’ followed by ‘Safe’.
This results in the copying of the whole console switch
con?guration from the Live into the Safe memory level.
puter is used in an extended interface with the console 65 Should further switch operations on the Live memory
allowing control of auxiliary send mutes, eq in/out, and
prove to be unsatisfactory, then the Safe memory, act
?lters in/out in real ‘SMPTE’ time. The extremely
ing as a backup, can be reloaded to Live via the keys
which is linked to a GML computer. The GML com
powerful capabilities of the GML computer facilitate
witch sequence Update - Safe - Live. On the other hand,
r 17
if the version in Safe is the ?nal version, it can then be
loaded into the Page memory using the sequence Store
MIC REVERSE (effects returns)
- Reset - Page (+number).
If the selected Page number is already in use, the
information from Safe will be transferred to the next
MIX REVERSE (submix)
In this case, the MAIN signal path selected is Mic
available page number and this will indicated on the
status display in the centre of the meter hood.
amp - Fader - Panpot - Routing to Multitrack. The
Page memory level allows storage of multiple Safe
TRIM signal path selected is (Tape Return) Monitor
and Live memories. It is possible to transfer information
directly from Page to Live and vice-versa using the
Mix - Stereo Bus. These paths are indicated in FIG. 6.
To load MIC, the key sequence is Int - Mic.
keyswitch sequence Load - Page (number) - Reset Live (or Store - Reset - Page (number)). Page is in fact
In this case, the MAIN signal 'path selected is Line
a further intermediate memory position. All informa
amp - Fader - Panpot - Stereo Bus. The TRIM signal '
tion in Page can then be loaded to and from ?oppy or
path selected is Auxiliary 1 - Multitrack Routing - se
hard disk memory.
15 lected buses appear at Bus Insert Out on Patch?eld.
The use of the Page system is illustrated diagrammati
cally in FIGS. 4a and 4b.
Switch con?guration data held in the various mem
The typical application for this function is extra auxil
iary sends in mixdown allowing mass patching and
repatching into external devices under memory control
oryv levels can be edited in various ways through a fur
with or without timecode prompts, creating a large
ther function keyboard denoted Module Assign. This is 20 audio path events controller.
illustrated diagrammatically in FIG. 5.
‘To load MIC REVERSE, the key sequence is Int The functions available, which only occur in the
Mic » Rev (or Int - Rev - Mic).
‘Live’ memory level and not in the ‘Safe’ memory level,
In this case, the MAIN signal path selected is Mix
25 (Tape) - Fader - Panpot - Stereo. The TRIM signal path
This enables the switch con?guration of one module
selected is MAIN Input (Mic or Line) - Multitrack
to be duplicated on another or more. A satisfactory
switch setup can be duplicated to another module by
To load MIX, the key sequence is Int - Mix.
pressing Copy - Int - (channel number, using Memory
MIX REVERSE (submix)
Assign Keyboard) - Copy.
In this case, the MAIN signal path selected is Mix
An Int (Interrogate) switch on the keyboard is a
(Tape) - Fader - Panpot - Multitrack Routing. The
duplicate of the channel INT switch, so either can be
TRIM signal path selected is Main Input (Mic or Line)
used to perform the Copy function. Alternatively the
- Multitrack Routing.
chevron keys < > may be used to step through chan
nels until the required channel is reached. In this case 35
Mix » Rev (or Int - Rev - Mix).
the Copy is enabled through the sequence Copy - Int <(>) - (low
If it is required to Copy from one channel to a group
This is an optional template which inserts the basic
switch setups of MIC and MIX into an already-de?ned
of channels, for example, from 24 to 25 - 48, the key
mix set-up. INLAY avoids changing existing auxiliary
sequence is Copy - Int - 24 - Int - 25 - All - Int - 48 - All.
switch settings. The key sequence would beInt ~ Inlay
- Mic (or Mix, etc. etc).
In fact one channel can be copied to the entire console
using the All sequence.
Once the copy sequence is complete, the channel
being copied from will again be resident in the key
To load MIX REVERSE, the key sequence is Int -
Each channel fader is equipped with a Remote
(REM) switch which can be assigned either (a) one
module switch function from the main keyboard or (b)
any number of module switch functions from the main
keyboard. In addition, the selected soft switch functions
This enables the information on two channels to be
may be duplicated over a number of channels. The
REM switch can then be used to toggle the selected
quence Int - Swap - Int - Swap. If the Int button on the
switches in and out. Furthermore, any number of REM
Module Assign keyboard is used then the channel num 50 switches can be allocated soft switch functions as de
swapped from one to the other through the key se
bers must be de?ned on the Memory Assign keyboard.
This enables selected switch settings from the interro
An Active Recall system allows the positions of all
rotary potentiometers at a given moment to be memo
gated channel to be duplicated to one or more channels.
rized. This Active Recall information may then be
The key sequence here would be Int - Insert - (select 55 loaded back into the pots from memory using Recall
keys to be moved on keyboard) - Insert - Int (new chan
display bars on a longitudinal display panel disposed
nel) - Insert - Int.
towards the rear of the console chassis.
The Recall system is active at all times and may be
When the keys to be inserted are selected, the original
memory settings in the “Live” or “Safe” memories are
not effected since the keyboard is thrown into a ‘demon
stration’ mode for the purposes of Insert.
used independently of other console operations. There
is no need to stop work to store or load Active Recall
Other function switches, which also are only avail
To save rotary settings the key sequence is Store able in the ‘Live’ memory level, not the ‘Safe’ memory
Recall. The information is then placed in its own sepa
level, are indicated in FIG. 5.
rate memory. If it is required to store several different
Four ‘default’ switch con?gurations allow instant 65 pictures then the information is saved to a Page number
module setup. These defaults are called ‘templates’ in
using the sequence Store - Recall - (number).
that they mimic standard signal paths. The four con?gu
Independently a Reset switch configuration may also
rations are:
be stored under the same page number giving a com
plete Reset-Recall combination. Thus Reset and Recall
can be combined or separated according to require
During COPY and SWAP routines the green LEDs
cycle across the console to indicate that the function is
being executed.
Active Recall information may ultimately be loaded
to ?oppy/hard disk.
This is comprised of module number ——for example,
Recall information is reloaded using the sequence
CH07 would shown when channel 7 is interrogated
Load - Recall - (page number). Information relevant to
—-and indicates Live or Safe and from which memory
each potentiometer is addressed using the Recall key
board, which is comprises of 32 switches covering all
module potentiometers including those on the optional
Dynamics section.
To load High Frequency boost/cut settings, for ex
ample, the switch labelled HFB is pressed. A green
LED on the display panel will illuminate and the Recall
display bars will show memory and current positions of 15
the data is being drawn.
The two signal paths for that module —MAIN and
TRIM-- are also displayed. For example, MAIN could
be comprised of whichever of MIC; LINE; MIX;
all HF boost/cut pots. The HF boost/cut pots are then
turned until the memory and current LED displays are
for each module and are automatically loaded/updated
when that module is called.
On interrogating a module the keys associated with
aligned, indicating that pot position equals memory
and PAN are being used. Thus the engineer can quickly
appraise the state of his two signal paths.
The contents of these displays are held in the memory
the module assign keyboard, namely MIC, MIX, REV
As previously mentioned, both Live and Safe memo
ries can be addressed from the Memory Assign Key
board. For example, Page 01 could be loaded to “Live”
and Page 02, to “Safe” using key sequences Load - 25
and INLAY should show the last state/ the last com
mand used by them as an indication/display.
Reset - 01 - Live; Load - Reset - 02 - Safe.
This involves the automatic timecode-prompted
loading of Page numbers to the Safe memory only. The
Safe memory is then automatically loaded to the
switches and the console recon?gured appropriately.
Any number of pages can be sequenced for continuous
The Live memory is active during Synchronous
Reset but is automatically overridden as the Page is
loaded into Safe. Once this has occurred, however, it is
possible to ?ip back to Live instigating yet another
console setup. This system can be used for rehearsing a
possible setup addition with a view to inclusion in the
Comprehensive displays are provided as a guide to
operational status. The displays can be divided into four
main areas:
A signal path keyboard allows con?guration of all
channel routing including input and output selection;
auxiliary assign; and dynamics switching. The functions
covered are as follows (by switch):
MAIN: this signal path contains the main fader.
MIC/LINE selects either mic or line input ampli?ers.
MIX selects the Tape Return signal used for mixdown.
INSERT PRE/post eq
PHASE REVERSE (both mic and line inputs)
HIGH and LOW PASS ?lters in/out (also controlled
by switch 38)
EQUALIZER in/out (also controlled by switch 39)
HF and LF bell/shelf characteristics
TRIM: this signal path contains the TRIM pot 41 lo
cated above the Panpot 42.
MAIN INPUT takes Mic/line as selected by the Mic or
Line switch on the MAIN signal path. In other
words, Mic can be selected to both MAIN and TRIM
paths at the same time.
45 MIX is the Tape Return (normally referred to as input
to monitor mix)
BUS/TAPE is the Desk Output/Tape Return.
AUX takes the input to Auxiliary l (which can be pre
or post MAIN fader).
As mentioned above, Recall information is loaded
BUS (patch trim): selected buses appear at Bus
using two ZO-segment LED bars located directly behind
Out on Patch?eld. (See above Template).
each module in the lower section of the screen. When
OUTPUT ASSIGN: Both signal paths can be routed to
Dynamics are ?tted, the LED bars also function as
additional meters, one showing Gain Reduction and the
other channel pre-insert level. Selection of Recall func
tions automatically overrides the meter function.
the same selection of outputs.
TRIM TO STEREO toggles the outputs of TRIM or
MAIN paths to the stereo assign routing.
TRIM TO BUS toggles the outputs of TRIM or MAIN
paths to the multitrack assign routing.
PAN IN TO STEREO selects the panpot to the front of
the stereo assign routing.
In both Live and Safe mode the keyboard displays the 60 PAN IN TO BUS selects the panpot to the front of the
resident memory as selected via the INT key using a red
LED in each keyswitch. When a key is pressed = for
example Track Assign l - all the modules assigned to
multitrack assign routing.
TRIM TO PATCH assigns the output of the Trim pot
to the selected multitrack bus output patchpoints on
that bus are automatically indicated by the illumination
the jack?eld. (See above MIC REVERSE).
of a large horizontal green LED 50 (see FIG. 2d) situ 65 AUX: There are 8 auxiliary outputs con?gured as 4
ated immediately beneath the LED rows 45, 46 of the
mono and 2 stereo which can take their input from
display of each module. This provides a general cross
either MAIN or TRIM paths pre or post. On the
reference and may prevent misrouting errors.
module are 4 Mute buttons, one per pair of auxiliary
outputs. These Mute buttons can be assigned to mute
PRE l - 2 - 3 - 4: default setting for auxiliary sends is
which additional modules contain circuit means for
carrying out a function on a signal, which circuit means
are controlled by the control means.
POST fader. This enables auxiliaries to be switched
PRE fader.
7. A console according to claim 1 having additional
modules between the input module and the output bus,
either output of each pair or both.
TRIM l - 2 - 3 - 4: auxiliary sends sourced from TRIM:
which additional modules contain circuit means for
l and 2 are pre-TRIM, whilst 3 and 4 are post TRIM.
carrying out a function on a signal, which circuit means
are controlled by the control means.
The procedure for pre-session setup of the console is
indicated diagrammatically in FIG. 7 and this will be
readily understood by those skilled in the art.
With the console of the invention it is possible to
pre-de?ne a console set-up con?guration for later oper
ational use. Complicated overdubs —for example or
chestral-- can be thought about and designed in ad
vance of the normal studio setup time. The memory
8. An audio production console, comprising:
a plurality of inputs;
at least one output bus;
a plurality of separate identical input modules, each
of said input modules being connected between a
corresponding one of said inputs and said at least
one output bus to de?ne a signal path for a signal
from the corresponding input, each of said plural
ity of input modules having a plurality of circuit
system can also be used as an engineer’s personalized
operating technique with his particular con?guration
requirements held in memory until required.
means, each of said plurality of circuit means being
for modifying the audio characteristics of an audio
What is claimed is:
1. An audio production console, comprising:
a plurality of inputs;
at least one output bus;
circuit means include adjustment means for vary
ing said function carried out on said signal on said
a plurality of separate identical input modules, each
of said input modules being connected between a
signal path;
corresponding one of said inputs and said at least 25
one output bus, each of said input modules com
prising a plurality of circuit means and a plurality
of switching means, said plurality of circuit means
and said plurality of switching means being inter
signal on said signal path from the corresponding
input, and predetermined ones of said plurality of
a common control means for all of said input mod
ules, said common control means including a mem
ory for storing information relating to ‘a selected
position of said adjustment means of said predeter
mined ones of said plurality of circuit means of
connected so as to de?ne a plurality of potential 30
each of said plurality of input module, said control
signal paths with the corresponding input module
means selecting one of said predetermined ones of
between said plurality of circuit means for a signal
from a corresponding one of said inputs, each of
said plurality of circuit means of each of said plu
said plurality of circuit means being for modifying
the audio characteristics of an audio signal from
plurality of potential signal paths as at least one
a module display adjacent each of said plurality of
input modules, and means for comparing the ad
justment of said adjustment means of a predeter
mined circuit means of the adjacent input module
with said selected position stored as corresponding
information in the memory, each module display
being controlled by said control means in depen
actual signal path of said audio signal from said
dence on the selection of said predetermined ones
corresponding input.
of said circuit means, each of said module displays
being for displaying when said adjustment means of
said selected one of said predetermined ones of said
plurality of circuit means of the corresponding
rality of input modules; and
said corresponding input; and
a common control means for all of said plurality of
input modules, which control means controls said
switching means so as to select at least one of said
2. A console according to claim 1, wherein predeter
mined ones of said circuit means of each input module
includes adjustment means for varying the function 45
carried out on a signal from the corresponding input.
3. A console according to claim 2, wherein the con
trol means includes a memory for storing information
input module corresponds to said selected position
stored as said information in said memory of said
control means.
corresponding to a selected position of the adjustment
9. A console according to claim 8, wherein each
means of each predetermined circuit means of each 50 module display has two adjacent display tracks, one of
input module.
those tracks displaying an indication of the selected
4. A console according to claim 3, having a module
position of the adjustment means of the corresponding
display adjacent each input module, and means for com—
module stored as corresponding information in the
paring the adjustment of said adjustment means of a
memory and the other track displaying the. actual posi
predetermined circuit means of the adjacent input mod 55 tion of the adjustment means of the corresponding mod
ule with said selected position stored as corresponding
information in the memory, the module display display
10. A console according to claim 8, wherein the mem
ing when the adjustment means of said predetermined
ory is for storing a plurality of selected positions of the
circuit means of the adjacent input module corresponds
adjustment means.
to the selected position stored as corresponding infor 60 11. A console according to claim 8, wherein the con
mation in the memory.
5. A console according to claim 1, wherein the output
bus has a plurality of bus lines, and the control means is
for selectively connecting each input module to se
lected ones of the bus lines.
6. A console according to claim 1 having additional
modules between the input and the input module and
trol means has a control display for displaying the infor
mation stored in the memory.
12. A console according to claim 11, wherein each
input module has means for causing the control display
65 to display information relating-to that module stored in
the memory.
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