2013 Abstracts
10-14 March 2013
Technical Summaries
Conferences & Course
Town & Country Resort
and Convention Center
San Diego, California, USA
10–14 March 2013
12–13 March 2013
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Symposium Chairs
Norbert Meyendorf, Fraunhofer-Institut für
Zerstörungsfreie Prüfverfahren (Germany)
and Univ. of Dayton (USA)
8686: Bioinspiration, Biomimetics, and Bioreplication III. . . 3
8687: Electroactive Polymer Actuators and Devices
(EAPAD) XV. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Norman Wereley, Univ. of Maryland,
College Park (USA)
8688: Active and Passive Smart Structures and
Integrated Systems VII . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
8689: Behavior and Mechanics of Multifunctional
Materials and Composites VII. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Symposium Co-chairs
8690: Industrial and Commercial Applications of Smart
Structures Technologies VII . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
Victor Giurgiutiu,
Univ. of South Carolina (USA)
8691: Nano-, Bio-, Info-Tech Sensors and Systems. . . . . . 80
8692: Sensors and Smart Structures Technologies for
Civil, Mechanical, and Aerospace Systems . . . . . . . 92
Christopher S. Lynch, Univ. of California,
Los Angeles (USA)
8693: Smart Sensor Phenomena, Technology,
Networks, and Systems Integration VI . . . . . . . . . . 134
8694: Nondestructive Characterization for Composite
Materials, Aerospace Engineering, Civil
Infrastructure, and Homeland Security VII . . . . . . . 142
Sponsored by
8695: Health Monitoring of Structural and
Biological Systems VII. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
Co-sponsored by
American Society of
Mechanical Engineers
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Technical Program
Cooperating Organizations
Intelligent Materials Forum (Japan)
Jet Propulsion Lab.
National Science Foundation
t Structur
Conferences & Courses: 10–14 March 2013 Exhibition: 12–13 March 2013
Town & Country Resort and Convention Center, San Diego, California, USA
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Conference 8686:
Bioinspiration, Biomimetics, and Bioreplication III
Monday - Wednesday 11–13 March 2013
Part of Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 8686 Bioinspiration, Biomimetics, and Bioreplication 2013
8686-1, Session KEY
actuator technology to robotic or aerospace applications. However, to
enable accurate feedback control of systems employing such PAMS,
the actuators must be characterized in terms of blocked force, and
free contraction over pressures ranging from 1-120 psi. In addition,
because these actuators are applied in actuation schemes with
bioinspired antagonistic muscle kinematics, the antagonistic force was
also characterized, that is, the force was measured when stretching the
muscle beyond its resting length in the absence of air pressure. During
these experiments, four key nonlinear phenomena were observed:
nonlinear PAM stiffness, hysteresis of the force vs. displacement
response for a given pressure, a pressure deadband, and antagonistic
stiffening. To analyze the nonlinear aspects of PAM response, a nonlinear
stress vs. strain model, a hysteresis model, and a pressure bias were
introduced into a refined force balance analysis. Parameters of these
nonlinear model refinements were identified from measured force vs.
displacement data. The improved nonlinear force balance model captures
the nonlinear actuation behavior of the PAMs over the operating pressure
range. It is also shown that this analysis reconstructs quasi-static PAM
response with much higher accuracy than has been previously reported.
Biomimetic textiles (Keynote Presentation)
Michael S. Ellison, Clemson Univ. (United States)
Clothing is quintessentially human. While there are, of course, reports
of other species using natural materials for shelter, there are no reports
of, for example, monkeys wearing clothing of their own making (the
organ grinder man’s venerable friend notwithstanding). It is a common
belief that animal skins and even vegetation (e.g., fig leaves) were used
as body coverings. Whatever their inception, textiles and clothing have
been present in human history since the earliest records and reflect both
the raw materials available to a people and the technologies that they
In a sense, the archetype of bioinspiration for materials design and use
is textiles. The field of biomimesis has spawned many new materials
and continues to be a fruitful field of investigation, so it behooves us
to explore its roots. This talk begins with an introduction to textiles,
in that I have found many preconceived notions about the field that
need addressing before the application of biomimetics to textiles can
be truly appreciated. Next, naturally enough, some details on fiber and
textile science and engineering, and biological concepts that resonate
with textiles, are discussed. Some examples of remarkable fibrous
materials, including spider silk, and Hagfish slime threads, are presented.
Finally, the marriage of biomimesis and textiles is performed and some
consequences revealed.
8686-4, Session 1
Characterization and modeling of geometric
variations in McKibben pneumatic artificial
Erick J. Ball, Yong Lin, Ephrahim Garcia, Cornell Univ. (United
8686-2, Session 1
This paper presents experimental data on the actuation properties of
McKibben muscles constructed with varying bladder pre-strain and
thickness. The tests determine quasi-static force-length relationships
during extension and contraction, for muscles constructed with
unstretched bladder lengths 50%, 67%, and 100% of the stretched
muscle length, as well as two different wall thicknesses of the rubber.
Existing models do not adequately describe the effects of these
variations, making it difficult to determine the best geometry for an
application. The quasi-static actuator force and maximum contraction
length are found to depend strongly on the thickness and modulus of
the rubber, as well as the amount of pre-strain. A model is presented to
better predict force-length characteristics from geometric parameters.
It accounts for the nonlinear elastic properties of the bladder, friction,
and stiffness of the mesh strands and end connectors. It includes
axial force generated by stretching the bladder during construction,
and it also describes the hoop stress created by radial expansion of
the bladder, which partially counteracts the internal fluid pressure that
presses outward on the mesh, thus reducing both axial force and friction
between the mesh and bladder. The axial force generated by the mesh
is found directly from contact forces rather than from potential energy.
This method allows the calculation of the tension in each mesh strand,
which determines how much they stretch. The model closely matches
the experimental data on wall thickness, while the effects of bladder prestretching are not fully explained.
Bioinspired hydraulic control systems
Michael A. Meller, Ephrahim Garcia, Cornell Univ. (United States)
Hydraulic control is an attractive actuation means due to its high force
density and quick response. Some of the major drawbacks of traditional
hydraulic systems include system inefficiency and leakage. In order to
be more efficient, momentum, gravity, and other forces must be allowed
to help translate the hydraulic actuators instead of the actuators always
working against these loads. A common example in nature where passive
dynamics is utilized to operate at optimum efficiency is the swing phase
of the human walking gait. Taking inspiration from this, a spool valve that
can actively drive a double-acting hydraulic cylinder in both directions,
hold its current position, and dangle has been developed and modeled.
The novel feature of this valve is the dangle function which permits
the fluid to freely flow between both cylinder chambers and the return
reservoir. This yields efficiency gains due to the utilization of passive
dynamics rather than only actively driving the actuators. Additionally,
leakage can be reduced while attaining more biological motion by
implementing fluidic artificial muscles in antagonistic pairs instead of
using traditional cylinder actuators. These artificial muscles are almost
always actuated pneumatically, and characterization tests of these
muscles being utilized hydraulically are reported as well.
8686-3, Session 1
8686-5, Session 2
Nonlinear analysis of quasi-static response of
pneumatic artificial muscles for agonistic and
antagonistic actuation modes
Analysis of fish and bioinspired robotic fish
swimming together in a water tunnel (Invited
Ryan Robinson, Norman M. Wereley, Univ. of Maryland College
Park (United States); Curt S. Kothera, Techno-Sciences Inc.
(United States)
Giovanni Polverino, Andrea Facci, Paul T. Phamduy, Marco
Drago, Kamran Khan, Lu Yang, Maurizio Porfiri, Polytechnic
Institute of New York Univ. (United States)
Pneumatic artificial muscles (PAMs) have excellent actuator
characteristics, including high specific work, specific power, and power
density. Recent research has focused on applying such pneumatic
The possibility of integrating bioimimetic robots in groups of live social
animals may constitute a valuable tool to investigate the bases of social
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Conference 8686:
Bioinspiration, Biomimetics, and Bioreplication III
behavior and explore the fundamental determinants of animal functions
and dysfunctions. Here, we investigate the interaction between individual
Golden shiners (Notemigonus crysoleucas) and robotic fish swimming
together in a water tunnel. The robotic fish is designed to mimic its
live counterpart in terms of aspect ratio, body shape, dimension, and
swimming pattern. The latter feature is addressed through the design of
a miniature multi-link mechanism that allows for replicating the speciesspecific locomotory pattern of carangiform-subcarangiform swimmers,
wherein a large portion of the body undulates to propel the animal.
sustainability of AUVs for long periods of time. To achieve this goal,
we take inspiration from the constant feeding and energy generation
achieved by jellyfish. The feeding mechanism can be used to supply
nutrients to the microbial fuel cells within the artificial structure to convert
chemical energy into electricity. The Rhizostome model in particular
utilizes oral structures comprised of internal channels that capture
zooplankton on distal capture surfaces. The effect that the simulated
oral arms and terminal clubs have on the hydrodynamics of the AUV
must be fully understood. The robot’s physical dimensions were based
on the morphology of Mastigias papua with a bell diameter of 16.4
cm. Geometry and structure were derived from literature, live samples,
and digitization of video of natural animals. Based upon this data the
AUV was molded out of silicone and assembled to achieve jellyfish like
architecture. The assembled robot was inserted into a water tunnel to
simulate the average swimming velocities of 12 cm/s with minimum and
maximum pulsation velocities of 7 and 17 cm/s respectively. A stereo
Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) setup was utilized to resolve the velocity
fields around the AUV while varying morphological parameters such as
the length of terminals clubs and density of branching from the internal
channels of the oral arms. The results of these experiments provide
a hydrodynamically optimum configuration for the oral structure and
terminal clubs of the Mastigias Papua robot.
Fish positional preference with respect to the robot is determined using
two orthogonal references, that is, frontal and sagittal planes. The
flow structure generated by the robotic fish tail-beat is investigated
using a digital particle image velocimetry (PIV) system. Experiments
are conducted by systematically varying the color pattern and tailbeat frequency of the robot to offer insight into the role of visual and
hydrodynamic cues in shaping fish-robot interactions. Experimental
results show that both the robotic fish tail-beat frequency and color
pattern influence the positional preference of live individuals. Specifically,
fish-robot interaction is maximized when the robot mimics both the visual
aspect and swimming pattern of its animal counterpart, that is, when the
color of the robot is silver and its tail beat frequency equal to 3 Hz for a
flow speed of approximately 10 cm/s.
Acknowledgement: The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial
support from Office of Naval Research.
8686-6, Session 2
Enhanced propulsion from converging radial
velocity in jellyfish jetting
8686-8, Session 3
Solution-based techniques for bioreplication
(Invited Paper)
Michael Krieg, Doug Lipinski, Kamran Mohseni, Univ. of Florida
(United States)
Michael H. Bartl, The Univ. of Utah (United States)
The morphology of the velar cavity opening of jellyfish Sarsia tubulosa
is examined as it relates to propulsive performance. Jellyfish propel
themselves through the water by successively ingesting and expelling
jets of fluid out of the velar cavity. This species creates a distinct high
momentum jet with each cycle unlike more oblate species of jellyfish
like Aequorea victoria whose wake contains a highly packed array of
thin cored vortex rings. The exact shape of a swimming Sarsia tubulosa
was captured visually, and exported to a direct numerical simulation
(DNS) to recover the motion of fluid around the jellyfish, which was used
to determine propulsive efficiency in Sahin et al. (2009), and analyze
swimming patterns as they relate to feeding by Lipinski & Mohseni (2009).
Nature generates structurally complex architectures with feature sizes
covering several length scales under rather simple environmental
conditions and with limited resources. While we start to better
understand the structure-property relationship for many of these
biological architectures, in many instances, we still lack the ability to
create such hierarchical structures with similar functionalities. In recent
years, significant progress in fabricating functional architectures with
similar structures as those found in nature has been achieved with
bioreplication techniques. Bioreplication combines the strength of two
worlds: structural engineering in biology with materials fabrication and
processing. Borrowing nature’s structural blueprints as templates enables
synthesis of polymeric, ceramic and metallic materials with entirely
new nano-to-microstructural features. Such bioreplicated materials
are interesting for a range of applications, including optical materials,
high surface-area scaffolds in catalysis, and coatings with interesting
properties such anti-fouling, superhydrophobicity, and anti-icing. Among
the various bioreplication techniques, solution-based methods provide
simple, inexpensive routes to generating bioreplicated structures. In
this talk, we will give a general introduction into different solutionbased bioreplication methods and provide an example for generating
three-dimensional photonic-crystal structures based on colored weevil
scales. In particular, we will focus on sol-gel chemistry methods and
demonstrate how sol-gel parameters can be adjusted to tune properties
of bioreplicas (refractive index, filling fraction, type of replica). We will
discuss the properties of these new structural materials and show
how bioreplication can be used to create new optical materials with
fascinating properties.
Here the velocity field data is analyzed according to a jet control
volume analysis (derived in Krieg & Mohseni (2012)) to determine the
effect of `nozzle’ morphology on the propulsive jet output. The control
volume analysis assumes an axisymmetric inviscid fluid jet allowing the
rate at which circulation, impulse, and energy are created, as well as
the pressure at the `nozzle’, to be solved in terms of velocity profiles.
Viscous losses play an important role at the low Re jellyfish swimming,
and are subtracted from the flux of quantities into the domain, resulting
in excellent agreement with the bulk quantities. It is observed that
converging radial velocity resulting from the conical shape of the `nozzle’
increases the total impulse of the jet by nearly 30% over a parallel jet
with identical parameters. The converging radial velocity also nearly
doubles the total circulation of the jet which can benefit the feeding at
downstream tentacles.
8686-7, Session 2
Effect of oral and tentacle structure on
the propulsion and feeding of bio-inspired
Mastigias papua robot
8686-9, Session 4
Functionalization of biomaterials with metals
by atomic layer deposition (ALD) (Invited
Tyler Michael, Alex Villanueva, Pavlos P. Vlachos, Shashank Priya,
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ. (United States)
Seung-Mo Lee, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials
(Korea, Republic of); Mato Knez, CIC nanoGUNE Consolider
This study reports progress towards understanding the low energy
propulsion mechanisms of Hydromedusa (jellyfish) for developing
energy efficient autonomous underwater vehicles (AUV). In conjunction
to propulsion, another area of interest in our investigations is the
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Conference 8686:
Bioinspiration, Biomimetics, and Bioreplication III
Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a thin film deposition technique, which
was developed in the 1970s to meet the needs for processing thin film
electroluminescent displays (TFEL). Technically and chemically it is similar
to chemical vapor deposition (CVD). However, in contrast to CVD, ALD
separates the chemical reaction into two half-reactions. The exposure of
the substrate to separate precursor vapors allows for chemical saturation
of the substrate surface with a monolayer of the precursors and thus for
a precise sub-Å growth control in a cycle-by-cycle manner. In addition,
being a non-line-of-sight deposition technique, ALD allows good coating
conformality even with 3D nanostructured substrates or structures with a
high aspect ratio together with a good capability for upscaling.
develop biomolecular devices featuring arrays of artificial hair-cells that
mimic the frequency discrimination properties of the human cochlea.
This work investigates the fabrication of hydrogel based lipid bilayers
arrays using micro fabrication technologies that enable high precision
in controlling the cell-scale droplets. Arrays of hydrogels that support
curved aqueous lenses are deposited on two parallel substrates using
photolithography techniques on top of a network of Ag/AgCl electrodes.
First step in the fabrication process is to deposit silver electrodes using
physical vapor deposition through a mask, a layer of silver chloride is
then formed around the silver channels using electroplating. The hydrogel
arrays are then achieved by exposing a thin film of photocrosslinkable
hydrogel to light through a mask. The last step is to deposit thin aqueous
curved lenses on the hydrogel arrays.
A recently evolving application of ALD deals with the modification
of phyical properties of soft materials after infiltration of metals by
ALD. Although the detailed chemistry behind the approach is barely
understood, biological or organic materials, such as spider silk, collagen,
or diverse polymers can change their mechanical properties after being
treated with pulsed vapors of metal precursors. The toughness of such
materials increased by up to 10-fold, outperforming most manmade
materials. With such potential to produce (bio)organic-inorganic hybrid
materials, the infiltration by ALD promises use in the textile industry or
the production of artificial tissues.
Bilayer arrays are formed by using a technique similar to the regulated
attachment method (RAM), where mechanical force is used to bring
adjacent aqueous lenses in contact. Capacitance and protein gating
measurements of the multi array interface bilayer, are used to prove the
ability of bilayer formation using arrays of gel-supported aqueous lenses.
8686-12, Session 5
The talk will show various approaches towards functionalization of
biomaterials through insertion of metals by means of ALD.
Biomimetic optical sensor for real-time
measurement of structural bending deflection
(Invited Paper)
8686-10, Session 4
Susan A. Frost, NASA Ames Research Ctr. (United States);
Robert Streeter, Cameron H. G. Wright, Steven F. Barrett, Univ. of
Wyoming (United States)
Biomimetic topologically and chemically
tuned CVD-grown nanodiamond layers and
their biointeractions
Research at NASA focused on reducing the environmental impact of
aviation depends on accurate wing deformation measurements to enable
safe and efficient operation of new aircraft configurations. Existing sensor
solutions, such as strain gauges, are hindered by high computational
requirements. A bio-mimetic vision sensor (based on Musca domestica,
the common house fly) for detecting aircraft wing deformation is
described. The sensor is a very small, low power device that makes use
of revolutionary optical sensor design resulting in significantly improved
motion detection capabilities when compared with conventional optical
sensors. The simple analog architecture allows for real-time solution at
any desired bandwidth to enable accurate measurement of structural
bending deflection.
Hans J. Fecht, Andrei P. Sommer, Ulm Univ. (Germany)
There is increasing observational evidence for an implication of the order
of interfacial water layers in biology, for instance in processes of cellular
recognition and during first contact events, where cells decide upon
survival or entering apoptosis. Experimental methods allowing access
to the order of interfacial water layers are thus crucial in biomedical
engineering. Here we show that interfacial water structures can be
nondestructively analysed on nanocrystalline diamond. layers having
atomic scale roughness and bioinspired surface topography (resembling
a “strawberry pattern”). The sampoles have been prepared by a
combination of CVD and photolithographyic processes. This approach
opens the gate to a new chapter in the design of biomaterials inspired
by biomimetic principles. Recent results on the role of topological
surface modification and chemical surface termination of stress-free
nanocrystalline diamond layers or free-standing films for biocompatible
and biomimetic materials will be discussed.
While much of the work to date on compound insect eye based sensors
has focused on the apposition compound eye, the neural superposition
compound eye has been the basis for previous research by the authors.
This paper describes extensions to previous work to create a sensor that
includes groupings of photoreceptors with seven parallel optical axes
and seven partially overlapping Gaussian response curves. The signals
from the six photoreceptors in the “outer ring” of a group are combined
using signal routing and analog preprocessing circuitry to create the
bio-mimetic equivalent of the laminal cartridge. Any arbitrary number of
these artificial ommatidia can be combined to create the desired sensor
characteristics for the application. The proposed sensor takes advantage
of the motion hyper-acuity inherent in its design to detect extremely small
motions, thereby enabling structural deflection measurements.
8686-11, Session 4
Biomolecular hydrogel-based lipid bilayer
array system
Joseph Najem, Donald J. Leo, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and
State Univ. (United States)
8686-13, Session 5
Animals have the ability to sense a wide range of stimuli through hair
cell receptors. These mechanical sensors are found in a range of animal
species especially in the inner ears for vestibular and auditory sensing.
For instance, the human cochlea contains around 16,000 hair cells in
addition to 135,000 vestibular hair cells. These hairs vary in dimension
which provides a wide range of frequency selectivity.
A µ-biomimetic uncooled infrared sensor
Georg Siebke, Siegfried Steltenkamp, Ctr. of Advanced European
Studies and Research (Germany)
Inspired by the natural hair cell structure and function, recent research
in our group has demonstrated that hair-like structures embedded in
artificial cell membranes can serve as flow and vibration sensors in a
similar fashion to the mechanotransduction system found in the hair
cell. In our previous work, artificial hair cell was formed in an open
biomolecular unit cell, where the transduction element is an artificial cell
membrane, or a lipid bilayer. However, this study motivated the need to
The beetle Melanophila acuminata detects forest fires from distances of
about 80 miles. For the detection of the fire, the beetle uses specialized
infrared-sensing receptors. Inspired by this extremely sensitive natural
device, we are developing an uncooled IR sensor.
The beetle’s IR receptors are based on a fluid-filled pressure cell. By
absorbing IR radiation, the fluid heats up and expands. The receptor
senses the ensuing pressure increase using a mechanoreceptor. To
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Conference 8686:
Bioinspiration, Biomimetics, and Bioreplication III
discriminate between fast and small pressure signals, evoked by a distant
heat source and slow and large background signals, due to changes
in ambient temperature, the beetle has developed a sophisticated
compensation mechanism.
system can be mimicked through various optical techniques. However,
before the benefits of this type of sensor can be fully realized, a
processing system has to be designed that is also fast, analog, and
parallel. In addition, this system has to preserve the hyperacuity
characteristic of the optical platform. This paper will discuss a processing
system that is being investigated for use with two different fly-inspired
optical front ends. Techniques for achieving biomimetic light adaptation
and edge detection will be discussed, and these techniques will be
compared and contrasted with techniques used on traditional imaging
systems. It will be shown that the underlying structure that allows for
motion hyperacuity can be utilized to improve the accuracy of locating
small linear objects such as power lines.
Our sensor will feature a size of a few mm2 and is fabricated using
silicon MEMS. The sensor uses the same mechanism as the beetle’s IR
receptor, except for pressure sensing. The pressure increase inside the
pressure cell deflects a membrane on top of which one electrode of a
plate capacitor is located; this evokes changes in capacitance of a few
femtofarad. A long and narrow channel connects the pressure cell to a
compensation chamber. To the outside, this chamber is sealed by a thin
and elastic PDMS membrane. The channel enables the slow transfer of
fluid to the compensation chamber while the thin membrane maintains
the pressure inside this chamber close to the ambient pressure. Without
this mechanism, the high pressure inside the capacitor chamber would
destroy the sensor.
8686-16, Session 6
Geodermis: Biomimicry of distributed sensing
for earth-based building
This presentation focuses on the technical design and the progress of the
manufacturing process.
Hae-Bum A. Yun, Univ. of Central Florida (United States);
Lakshmi Reddi, Florida International Univ. (United States); ToniGaye McCulloch, Bryan Paul, Univ. of Central Florida (United
8686-14, Session 6
Integration and flight test of a biomimetic
heading sensor (Invited Paper)
The issue of sustainable development in building engineering has been
discussed since the early 90’s. The current research seeks to aid in
this endeavor by reducing the heating and cooling loads on a building
through its envelope, more specifically the wall material. The problem as
viewed by most researchers is that the most common building materials,
such as concrete and steel, allow for easy heat and mass transfer into
buildings. Researchers now look to earth-based materials as passive
building materials for increased thermal regulation. The building envelope
of earth-based materials is an important buffer for heat and mass transfer
into the building environment, but is a part of a bigger picture, which
includes hygrothermal loads from the occupants and other facets of the
indoor environment, as well as the mechanisms that regulate the indoor
Javaan S. Chahl, Univ. of South Australia (Australia); Akiko
Mizutani, Odonatrix Pty Ltd. (Australia)
We report on the first successful development and implementation of
an automatic polarisation compass as the primary heading sensor for a
UAV. Polarisation compassing is the primary navigation sense of many
flying and walking insects, including bees, ants and crickets. Manually
operated polarimeters were fitted in passenger airliners operating
over the arctic prior to the advent of the global positioning system to
compensate for the dangerous degradation of conventional navigation
sensors in Polar Regions.
The device we developed demonstrated accurate determination of the
direction of the Sun, with repeatability of better than 0.2 degrees and
linearity of better than 0.5%. These figures are comparable to any solid
state magnetic compass, including flux gate based devices. Practical
calibration of a polarimeter for navigation required the development of
new techniques. Challenges also existed in managing the configuration
of optical system, both in terms of intensity of measured skylight and
in developing an optical design to exclude direct and reflected sunlight.
Integration of the sensor into an integrated flight control sensor suite
also required a new approach, and a new understanding of the limits of
polarisation sensors.
This research looks at the soil-based building materials in different
light. Our premise is that an understanding of the analogies between
thermoregulatory systems in skin, plant, and soils, would inspire us
to use soils as intelligent materials in stabilized earth construction
with their pore geometries engineered based on these analogies. This
biomimetic approach of developing “geodermis” can be broken into two
smaller problems: (1) “sensory/nervous systems” to collect and process
surrounding hygrothermal data, and (2) “motor system” for semi-active
hygrothermal control with the combination of passive regulation by soil
and active regulation based on the information from the sensory/nervous
The performance and characteristics of a calibrated solid state magnetic
compass and the polarisation compass will be compared. Flight
trials were undertaken in which the output of the polarimeter was the
only heading reference used by the aircraft as it flew GPS waypoints
and followed heading commands without GPS. The aircraft was fully
instrumented with a magnetometer aided attitude reference unit and a
GPS unit allowing an assessment of in-flight performance to complement
static testing. The use of a biomimetic sensor in this way is a microcosm
of the general problem of creating a hybrid system that is partly
conventional and partly biomimetic.
An on-going international collaborative study between the University of
Central Florida (UCF) and Florida International University (FIU) in USA,
University of Nottingham (UON) in UK, and Auroville Earth Institute (AEI)
in India is being conducted for long-term continuous monitoring for earthbased buildings. The field test site is located the AEI, which is located
10 km north of Pondicherry, on the Coromandel Coast of southern India.
The climate is tropical with its dry season from January to May and its
rainy season from June to December. The temperature ranges from 24°C
to 40°C in the dry season. The selection of the AEI as the field site is
highly desirable since as a representative of the UNESCO Chair “Earthen
Architecture, Constructive Cultures and Sustainable Development,” the
AEI is known for researching, developing, and promoting earth-based
techniques, such as building technologies using compressed stabilized
earth blocks (CSEB). A total of 20 temperature and 4 humidity sensors
were installed to a building made of the CSEB. A web-based monitoring
system was developed to transfer the sensor data from the publisher at
the to the server at the UCF. The sensor data are further transferred to
the “clients” at FIU and UON for hygrothermal analysis. Using the field
monitoring data and hygrothermal analysis results, this paper focuses on
the development of sensory/nervous system of geodermis.
8686-15, Session 6
Biomimetic image processing techniques for
use on fly-inspired vision sensors
Brian K. Dean, Oakland Univ. (United States); Cameron H. G.
Wright, Steven F. Barrett, Univ. of Wyoming (United States)
Previous research efforts in mimicking the compound eye of Musca
domestica, the common house fly, in hardware have primarily been
focused on optical design. These designs have shown that the fast,
analog, parallel and motion hyperacuity properties of the biological
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Conference 8686:
Bioinspiration, Biomimetics, and Bioreplication III
8686-17, Session 7
8686-19, Session 8
Approaching limits of sensing using
neuromorphic noise-exploitation principles
(Invited Paper)
Simulation analysis on the optical role of the
various structural disorder in the Morpho
butterfly’s color (Invited Paper)
Shantanu Chakrabartty, Michigan State Univ. (United States)
Akira Saito, Takuto Shibuya, kosei Ishibashi, Megumi Akaikasaya, Yuji Kuwahara, Osaka Univ. (Japan)
Neurobiological sensing systems serve as a marvel of nature’s
engineering by achieving energy efficiency (bits per Joule) that is orders
of magnitude superior to its synthetic counterparts. For example, the
filiform hair in crickets can sense mechanical stimuli at fundamental
limits of noise. The electro-sensitive cells in an electric fish can detect
small insects in its environment even in the presence of hydrodynamic
disturbances. The auditory sensors in the parasitoid fly Ormia ochracea
can precisely localize ultra-faint acoustic signatures in spite of the
underlying physical limitations. A common recurring theme amongst the
neurobiological sensing systems is the constructive role “noise” plays
in signal processing. In man-made sensors, device and sensor noise
are typically considered as a nuisance, whereas in neurobiology “noise”
has been shown to be a computational aid that enables sensing and
operation at fundamental limits of energy efficiency and performance. In
this paper, we first describe two important noise-exploitation techniques:
(a) stochastic resonance; and (b) noise-shaping and then we discuss how
these principles can be used for designing neuromorphic sensors. Within
the context of noise-exploitation, we will present a design framework
called sigma-delta learning that integrates the noise-exploitation
principles within neural dynamics. As a case-study, we describe the
application of sigma-delta learning for the design of a miniature acoustic
source localizer whose performance matches that of its biological
counterpart (Ormia ochracea).
Morpho butterfly’s conspicuous blue is well known as an example of the
structural color and attracts interest due to a metallic luster produced by
their organic body. The blue is produced by their scales containing no
pigment. The basis of the color with high reflectance (> ~60%) is then
attributed to an interference from a periodic microstructure. However,
the blue observed in too wide angle (> ± 40° from the normal) cannot be
explained by interference. This mystery has been clarified by a specific
nanostructure that contains nano-disorder preventing the rainbow
coloration. This principle has been proved successfully by emulating the
3D nanostructures by deposition of multilayer film on a nano-patterned
substrate designed with a specific disorder. Such artificial structural color
has recently been found to have wide potential applications. However, for
the true applications, we need to predict and simulate the coloration and
spectra from the nanostructures containing nano-disorder that has long
been difficult to treat by analytical calculation. However, the recent FDTD
method enabled us to predict the optical properties of the disordered
nanostructures by numerical approaches. Thus, we could analyze
theoretically the optical roles of the several different kinds of nanodisorders in the Morpho butterfly’s scale. These analyses will serve not
only to understand the optics on the nano-disorder, but, also to design
artificially the specific Morpho-color.
8686-20, Session 8
8686-18, Session 7
Optical simulations of biomimetic
nanostructures and applications (Invited
Bat biosonar as an inspiration for dynamic
Rolf Mueller, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ. (United
Surojit Chattopadhyay, National Yang-Ming Univ (Taiwan); Yi-Fan
Huang, National Yang-Ming Univ. (Taiwan)
Sensory systems found in nature continue to outperform their manmade peers in many respects. In particular, their ability to extract salient
information from complex, unstructured environments is often superior
to engineering solutions. Bat biosonar is an example for an exceptionally
powerful yet highly parsimonious sensing system that is capable of
operating in a wide variety of natural habitats and achieve a likewise
diverse set of sensing goals. One aspect in which bat biosonar appears
to differ from man-made sensing of acoustic or electromagnetic waves
is its heavy reliance on diffraction-based beamforming with intricate
baffle shapes. Observations of these baffle shapes in live bats with highspeed video have provided evidence for non-rigid baffle deformations
that coincide with the diffraction of the outgoing or incoming waves. In
horseshoe bats, a bat group with one of the most elaborate biosonar
systems, the emission baffles (noseleaves) have been found to twitch
in synchrony with each pulse emission. On the reception side, the
animals’ outer ears can likewise be deformed while the incoming pulses
impinge on them. The acoustic effects of the outer ear motions can be
characterized using frequency-domain characterizations (beampatterns)
revealing significant acoustic effects. However, a time-domain
characterization of a biomimetic prototype has shown even stronger
effects. Hence, it may be hypothesized that these mobile baffle provide
a substrate for a time-variant strategy for the encoding of sensory
information - a hypothesis that is well suited for further exploration with
bioinspired sensing technology.
Many natural surfaces are texturized in the nano-scale to impart certain
optical properties, such as anti-reflection, and wetting properties, such
as superhydrophobicity in lotus or certain plant leaves. The cornea of the
moths or wings of Cicada has tiny conical burls that reduce reflection
(in moths) and increase transmission (in Cicada) of the surfaces. We
have fabricated nano-tip structures on semiconductor (Si, GaAs,
GaP, GaN) surfaces by a top-down type self masked plasma etching
process involving a plasma of silane, methane, hydrogen and argon.
Biomimetic silicon and GaAs nanotips demonstrated ultra low optical
reflectance over a broad spectral range from UV to THz. Since these
are subwavelength structures (SWS) we could simulate their optical
properties with VASE and FDTD softwares. Selection of suitable models
could lead to exact simulation of the experimental data obtained on
these surfaces. The anti-reflection properties are explained on the basis
of gradient refractive index (GRIN) profiles of these structures. The
plasma etching can be tuned with respect to substrate properties to
arrive at superior surface designs meeting the application needs. For
example, silicon nanotips demonstrated geometry-tunable hydrophilicity
(water contact angle, C. A, ~2°) and chemically-tunable hydrophobicity.
Substrate properties such as doping, and polarity, could offer interesting
photonic and phononic signatures when textured.
Another application of these nanotips is in molecular sensing via surface
enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). Optical sensing of DNA has been
demonstrated at the sub-picomole level using self assembled silver
nanoparticle (AgNPs) decorated gold nanotip (AuNT) arrays. The plasmon
field distribution, from FDTD simulation, of such AuNP clarifies why the
assembly is a good SERS substrate.
Return to Contents
Conference 8686:
Bioinspiration, Biomimetics, and Bioreplication III
8686-21, Session 8
8686-33, Session PTues
Progress toward visual decoys to trap the
male emerald ash borer
Bionic design and analysis of morphing
Drew P. Pulsifer, Akhlesh Lakhtakia, The Pennsylvania State Univ.
(United States); Mahesh S. Narkede, Univ. of Massachusetts
Lowell (United States); Michael J. Domingue, The Pennsylvania
State Univ. (United States); Beverly G. Post, Pennsylvania State
Univ. (United States); Jayant Kumar, Univ. of Massachusetts
Lowell (United States); Raúl J. Martín-Palma, Thomas C. Baker,
The Pennsylvania State Univ. (United States)
Weilong Yin, Harbin Institute of Technology (China)
The flexible trailing-edge actuated by pneumatic muscles is developed
from the viewpoint of bionics in this paper. The alternate contraction
of pneumatic muscles located on the upper and lower surface makes
the deformed wing surface smooth, Continuous and Seamless. The
pneumatic muscle with the outer diameter of 4mm is developed. The
experimental results show that the maximum output force of pneumatic
muscles fibers with the diameter of 4mm is 27N when the air pressure
is 0.4MPa and the maximum contraction ratio can reach 26.8%. The
mechanical model of the flexible trailing-edge actuated by pneumatic
muscles is developed by use of deformation theory of the elastic beam.
The effect of the bending deformation on the axial displacement is
considered. The numerical results show that the deflection angle of
the flexible trailing-edge can be controlled by adjusting the pressure of
the pneumatic muscle. The deflection angle of the steel plate with the
thickness of 0.6mm can be up to 20° when the pressure of the pneumatic
muscle is 0.3MPa.
The Emerald Ash Borer (EAB), Agrilus Planipennis, is an invasive species
threatening the ash trees of North America. EABs exhibit a mating
behavior in which the flying male will spot a stationary female at rest, then
execute a pouncing maneuver where he dives sharply onto the female.
It is thought that this pouncing behavior is cued by some visual signal
from the elytra of the EAB. Here we present a method for reproducing
the elytra of the EAB. These bioreplicated elytra were then used in an
experiment which compared four types of bioreplicated EAB decoys with
a dead EAB female to determine if the artificial lures were effective at
cuing the pouncing behavior in males. Artificial decoys were produced
by hot stamping polymer sheets which had a quarter-wave-stack Bragg
reflector deposited on its upper surface and a black absorber layer
deposited on its lower surface. The negative die used in the hot stamping
process was produced by initially coating an EAB with an ~ 500 nm thick
evaporated nickel layer which was then reinforced by electroforming and
mounted in a steel ring which could be electrically heated. The positive
die was produced through successive castings of the negative die; first
with a soft polymer and then with a hard epoxy. The positive die was
then mounted to a stainless steel plate which was electrically heated.
Over 100 artificial lures were produced, demonstrating this technique’s
industrial scalability. It was found that several variations of artificial
decoys produced in this way were more effective than dead EAB females
at cuing the pouncing behavior in males.
8686-34, Session PTues
Experimental analysis on the effect of milk fat
concentration on light scattering intensity
Jinying Yin, Harbin Institute of Technology (China)
An important indicator that gets more and more attention to measure
the quality of dairy products is ingredient content of nutrients in dairy
products. One of main component of milk, the concentration of milk
fat is of great significance for light scattering measurements. The
photomicrograph of the different homogeneous state of milk fat solution
with is different concentrations obtained by using high magnification
optical microscope. And the particle size distribution of different
homogeneous state and different concentrations of milk fat solution are
analyzed. Based on the principle of light scattering technique for the
detection of milk composition, as well as analysis of the physical and
chemical properties of milk fat solution, the energy spectrum, absorbance
spectrum, the transmittance spectrum of the different homogeneous
state and the different concentrations of milk fat solution are determined
by the dual-beam spectrophotometer (TJ270-60). Then the effects of
fat solution concentration, particle size distribution and homogeneous
state on the light scattering intensity are analyzed. Furthermore, it is
derived the relationships among milk fat solution concentration with
energy, absorbance and transmittance based on experimental results.
This study will bring a progress in processing quality control of product,
and contribute to promote the development of China’s dairy industry for
bringing practical significance and great economic benefits.
8686-22, Session 9
Design and simulation of an intra-ventricular
assistive device for end stage congestive
heart failure patients
Milad Hosseinipour, Mohammad H. Elahinia, The Univ. of Toledo
(United States)
In an attempt to produce a less invasive and more suitable alternative
for current ventricular assistive devices, this study proposes a novel
intra-ventricular VAD for end stage heart failure patients. VADs are
approved by FDA as “short-term” to “destination” therapies for patients
at NYHA Class IV level as an alternative to heart transplant. While current
devices generally need open heart surgery, the flexible structure and thin
active membrane, made of Ionic Polymer Metal Composites and Shape
Memory Alloys, enables the transcatheter implantation and so eliminating
the thoracotomy. Also exerting almost no shear stress on blood cells and
having no stagnant points reduces the risk of hemolysis and thrombosis.
Hemodynamics of eligible patients is first examined to define the average
working conditions and supply needs. Different motion mechanisms are
then evaluated to find the one with maximum volume displacement and
True Forward Flow (TFF) ratio. As the preliminary evaluation of the device,
1D results of the FEM solution to the governing differential equation of
the electrochemical behavior of IPMCs are extended to 3D to check the
compliancy of IPMCs with those needs defined by hemodynamics and
motions analysis. Although modeling and simulation results provided
in this paper are for left ventricle, the same progressive design and test
processes are valid for right ventricle.
8686-35, Session PTues
Inspiration from Morpho wing scales
structrue to design advanced optical
Wang Zhang, Di Zhang, Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ. (China)
Nature generates 150,000 to 200,000 Lepidoptera species (butterflies
and moths). Each has more than one kind of wing scales with three
dimensional (3D) complicated sub-microstructures. In this work, we first
introduce the fabrication of inorganic oxides replica of the morpho wing
Microstructure characters of original butterfly wing scales were
maintained faithfully in this biomorphic inorganic replicas, such as ZnO,
TiO2 and ZrO2. All these replicas can reflect iridescent visible lights,
which can even be observed by naked eyes. The uniform blue colour of
Morpho butterflies have been known as interference of light due to the
Return to Contents
Conference 8686:
Bioinspiration, Biomimetics, and Bioreplication III
multilayer of cuticle and air. But the multilayer structure isn’t consistent
with Morpho’s low angular dependence. The irregularity in the lamellae
deviation destroys the interference among neighboring ridges, which
results in the diffuse reflection in a wide angular range. The wide angular
range was investigated using finite-difference time-domain (FDTD)/
particle swarm optimization (PSO) analysis. Using FDTD method different
parameters of Morpho’s tree-like structure were studied and their
contribution to the angular dependence was analyzed. Moreover, the field
map of the wide range reflection in a large area was given to confirm the
wide angular range.
teach us how to live in harmony with nature, rather than dominate it”
-Janine Benyus
There is also a demanding need for the design scientist’s to develop
products inspired by nature and explain its advantages of being clever
& sustainable to the world. Particularly at this juncture of cross roads
the world is today in regard to a sustainable future. We have to be
reassessed. The quest for change would definitely be arduous. So there
is a need to develop a „model setup? with such products designed which
later should inspire the fellow design scientists as well.
The issues relating to sustainable development are substantial, the
parameters are numerous and complex, and without any doubt,
navigation in sustainable waters is difficult, arbitrating on the relevant
decisions to be taken and making sense without compromising
ourselves. As Baron de Coubertin so wisely said; “The important thing is
to participate.” We are in the first stage of a long conquest for the more
reasonable and the more sustainable.(Elodie Ternaux, Industry of Nature,
2012, Pg.7)
8686-36, Session PTues
Research on biomimetic material templated
from nature materials
Di Zhang, Wang Zhang, Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ. (China)
All life forms on this planet Earth have been working towards their
survival and in the process have evolved through millions of years to
sustain. Can we challenge this process of evolution? All throughout this
survival process, these species have been working towards the growth
of the planet through synchronizing with each other in equilibrium, unlike
the homosapiens who in one way or the other constantly- knowingly or
unknowingly destroying the nature.
Biological materials naturally display an astonishing variety of
sophisticated nanostructures that are difficult to obtain even with the
most technologically advanced synthetic methodologies. Inspired from
nature materials with hierarchical structures, many functional materials
are developed based on the templating synthesis method. This review
will introduce the way to fabricate novel functional materials based on
nature bio-structures with a great diversity of morphologies, in State Key
Lab of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University in near
five years. We focused on replicating the morphological characteristics
and the functionality of a biological species (e.g. wood, agriculture
castoff, butterfly wings). We change their original components into our
desired materials with original morphologies faithfully kept. Properties
of the obtained materials are studied in details. Based on these results,
we discuss the possibility of using these materials in photonic control,
solar cells, electromagnetic shielding, energy harvesting, and gas
sensitive devices, et al. In addition, the fabrication method could be
applied to other nature substrate template and inorganic systems that
could eventually lead to the production of optical, magnetic. or electric
devices or components as building blocks for nanoelectronic, magnetic,
or photonic integrated systems. These bioinspired functional materials
with improved performance characteristics are becoming increasing
important, which will have great values on the development on structural
function materials in the near future.
The uncertain future of our green planet is a fearing factor what the
humankind is facing these days. As design scientist’s it is very important
for us to create environments which are more suitable and sustainable.
So the following design process and methodology could be helpful,
useful and meaningful in designing a Bioinspired design.
8686-38, Session PTues
Adhesion performance of gecko-inspired
flexible carbon nanotubes dry adhesive
Yang Li, Nanjing Univ. of Aeronautics and Astronautic (China);
Geng Xu, Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics
(China); Ling Gong, Nanjing Univ. of Aeronautics and Astronautic
(China); Géza Tóth, Univ. of Oulu (Finland); Qingwen Li, Suzhou
Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics (China); Zhendong Dai,
Nanjing Univ. of Aeronautics and Astronautic (China)
8686-37, Session PTues
Geckos’ super switchable adhesive capability to cling to different smooth
or rough surfaces is attributed to hierarchical fine structure of gecko foot
hairs (microscale setae and nanoscale spatula). Extensive efforts have
been made to fabricate gecko-inspired adhesive which can be used for
gecko-mimetic climbing robots. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are wellknown for exceptional mechanical properties and are one of the most
outstanding candidates for developing gecko-inspired dry adhesive.
Recent experiments revealed that the side contact of CNTs with
substrates over a larger contact area could provide a stronger adhesion
force than that of a tip contact. However, the limited choice of growth
matrix, and the weak interaction between CNTs and matrix could restrict
adaptability of CNTs adhesive. In addition, the attaching-detaching laws
of CNTs adhesive used for gecko-mimetic climbing robot are also lack of
Redesigning of industrial product design
systems on biological lines
Avinash Raipally, National Institute of Fashion Technology (India)
“Go take your lessons from nature, that?s where our future lies” Leonardo da Vinci
The design practices currently are being clearly focused on sustainability
by trying to reduce carbon footprints and carbon mileage, but there
is also an another approach called Biomimicry or Biologically Inspired
Design or Biominetics.
Environmental sustainability can be achieved through emulating nature
which has been constantly sustaining from millions of years.
In this paper, a CNTs dry adhesive was fabricated by catalytic chemical
vapor deposition and was transferred onto flexible polymer substrates
with an effective polymer intermediate. Adhesion performance of the
CNTs adhesive was measured with an adhesion/friction performance test
platform. A pre-drag process was implemented during the test in order to
help increasing the side contact area of CNTs. A transferred CNTs array
on flexible PET substrate with an increased adaptability was obtained.
SEM pictures suggested no obvious structural damage happened after
transfer process. The normal and shear adhesion performance were both
enhanced dramatically due to the pre-drag process, which had been
investigated in gecko adhesive that dragging along the natural curvature
of setae is necessary for gecko foot to generate sufficient adhesion.
The fabrication and test methods provided here will be useful for the
application of CNTs dry adhesive.
The challenge of designs for today’s unsustained world is through
Biomimicry in a way. The future of product design could sustain if it
could be Biommiced through Form and Function inspired by nature and
introducing sustainable materials and practices. We could use nature’s
power and designing technicality for our advantage in product design is
the idea.
The literature available in this area for designers in particular is limited at
this point. We should be able to develop more theoretical understanding
among many disciplines of design and technology- let it be material or
fiber, as there is a great potential for the future development of product
design through Biomimicry.
“Technology break through not only enhance human power but also
Return to Contents
Conference 8686:
Bioinspiration, Biomimetics, and Bioreplication III
8686-39, Session PTues
microflyer concepts developed by a number of researchers will be
described in detail. Modeling of the aeromechanics of flapping wing
microflyers will be described. Finally, some of the sensing mechanisms
used by natural flyers and are being implemented in man-made
microflyers will be discussed.
The driving pattern and safety margin of
gekko gecko on slopes
Zhendong Dai, Institute of Bio-inspired Structure and Surface
Engineering (China)
8686-24, Session 10
Gecko is a kind of sprawled-posture animal, the research on its driving
and adhesive pattern is representative to reveal the law of sprawledposture. Thus scholars have tried to reveal that how gecko moves freely
in the space utilizing its superior adhesive setae. An important feature
of gecko setae is the frictional anisotropy: along the setal direction of
friction. setae can generate frictional adhesion with substrate; conversely,
against the setal direction of friction, that generate dry friction. The
anisotropy of friction and adhesion ability of gecko setae is an important
reason of its excellent performance.
Relationship between wingbeat frequency
and resonant frequency of the wing in insects
Nam-Seo Goo, Ngoc-San Ha, Hoon Cheol Park, Konkuk Univ.
(Korea, Republic of)
Biomimetics is one of the most important paradigms as researchers
seek to invent better engineering designs over human history. However,
the observation of insect flight is a relatively recent work. Several
researchers have tried to address the aerodynamic performance of
flapping creatures and other natural properties of insects, although
there are still many unsolved questions. One of the questions is how to
save energy and enhance performance in insects. There are two major
arguments in the explanation: one is that insects could take advantage of
a structural property to save energy by matching the resonant frequency
of their compliant wings to the wingbeat frequency, the other is that
insects could save energy by flapping their wing far below the natural
resonant frequencies. Until now, there is no exact conclusion about these
arguments because of a few studies of comparative resonant frequency
and wingbeats of insects in the literature. Therefore, in this study, we
experimentally studied the resonant frequency of four species insects:
beetle (Allomyrina Dichotom), cicada (Tibiceninae), dragonfly (Anisoptera)
and butterfly (pieridae) and compare the resonant frequencies to the
wingbeat frequency. The ratio between wingbeat frequency and the
resonant frequency was plotted to wing loading and body mass. We
found that the frequency ratio of the wing for force production is in
general between 0.3 and 0.6, which suggests that the flapping frequency
should be much lower than the natural frequency for the wing to explore
the advantages of the passive deformation to save energy.
The three-dimensional reaction forces of geckos moving on different
slopes were measured using a three-dimensional force-sensors-array.
Gecko adhesion process is divided into four phases according to the
synchronization of video data. The experimental results show that:
the frictional pattern is dry friction between foot and substrate on
0°substrate, safety angle of friction was no greater than 20°; the frictional
pattern was frictional adhesion on 90°-180° slopes, safety margin did not
exceed the adhesive critical angle (-30°).
Meanwhile from 0° to 90° transitional slopes, gecko adjusts the location
of its toes to achieve different frictional pattern among each toe, utilizing
anisotropy of the toe setae. This way not only meets the needs of the
movement, but also reduces the unnecessary energy loss and improves
driving efficiency during locomotion. Above research will inspire design of
frictional pattern during gecko-like robots climbing movement, in order to
improve the performance of robots and expand its scope of application.
8686-23, Session 10
Microflyers: inspiration from nature (Invited
Jayant Sirohi, The Univ. of Texas at Austin (United States)
8686-25, Session 11
Over the past decade, there has been considerable interest in
miniaturizing aircraft to create a class of extremely small, remotely
piloted vehicles with a gross weight on the order of tens of grams and
a dimension on the order of tens of centimeters. These are collectively
refered to as micro aerial vehicles, micro air vehicles (MAVs) or
Is clicking mechanism good for flapping wing
micro aerial vehicle?
Engineers derived inspiration from natural flyers during the early
development of heavier-than-air aircraft, al- though modern aircraft have
little in common with natural flyers. Because the size of microflyers is
on the same order as small birds or large insects, engineers are once
again turning to nature for inspiration. Interest in biomimetic mi- croflyers
originated in the 1970s[1] and was revived in the 1990s by several
government funded research programs[2]. Researchers have developed a
variety of microflyer configurations including those based on bioinspired
and biomimetic concepts. Bioinspired concepts make use of structural or
aerodynamic mechanisms that are observed in insects and birds, such as
elastic energy storage and unsteady aerodynamics. Biomimetic concepts
attempt to replicate the form and function of natural flyers, such as in
flapping wing propulsion.
In this paper, a simple clicking compliant mechanism prototype inspired
from Dipteran insect thorax is presented. Many had observed and
described the click mechanism through insect’s anatomy. Through
theoretical models and numerical studies, some dismissed its effect on
flapping efficiency, while others predicted better thrust generation with it.
Without concrete experimental proof, the argument is hypothetical. This
work showed the benefits of the click mechanism by experiment, with
its simple compliant thorax designed using carbon fiber and polyimide
film. The click mechanism system is designed like a thin elastic plate
which was compressed until bent, with its center point stable at either
the top most extreme or the bottom most extreme positions. ‘Clicking’
occurs when the plate center is moved forcibly from one extreme to the
other. Before it passes the midpoint, the plate center moves slowly as it
tends to return to the original extreme and resist the displacement. When
moved passed the midpoint, it now tends to move to the other extreme,
together with the external force, resulting in a fast, snapping ‘click’ to
the other extreme. Hence, the clicking prototype showed a sudden high
increase in wing flap speed when it is moved beyond midpoint towards
the other end. It also showed quick wing reversal and is able to produce
consistent large wing stroke (~70°). The clicking prototype, which weighs
3.26g, produces a higher thrust of 1.36g at a flapping frequency of 18Hz.
In comparison, a 3g non-click prototype of similar configuration produces
only 1.17g of thrust at 17.5Hz.
Yao Wei Chin, Gih-Keong Lau, Nanyang Technological Univ.
In addition to the performance limits imposed by the square-cube
law, several other challenges appear as the size of an aircraft is
decreased. These challenges are related to the behavior of mechanical
assemblies, energy storage in batteries, miniaturization of electronics
and aerodynamics. The full paper will review recent developments in
the area of man-made microflyers. The design space for microflyers will
be described[3], along with fundamental physical limits to miniaturizing
mechanisms, energy storage and electronics. Key aerodynamic
phenomena[4] at the scale of microflyers will be highlighted. Because
the focus is on bioinspiration and biomimetics, scaled-down versions of
conventional aircraft, such as fixed wing micro air vehicles and microhelicopters will not be addressed. However, bioinspired and biomimetic
Return to Contents
Conference 8686:
Bioinspiration, Biomimetics, and Bioreplication III
8686-26, Session 11
8686-28, Session 11
Bioinspired corrugated wings for micro air
Unconstrained vertical takeoff of a flappingwing system power by on-board batteries
Javaan S. Chahl, Manas Khurana, Univ. of South Australia
Vu Hoang Phan, Tri Q. Truong, Hoon Cheol Park, Konkuk Univ.
(Korea, Republic of)
The development Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAV) is at the forefront of
Aerospace Research, Design and Analysis. Insect flight is a source
of inspiration for the development of innovative MAV platforms.
Dragonflies exhibit a wide-spectrum of flight modes including extended
hover (endurance), to efficient glide (range), and rapid dash phases
with multiple degrees-of-freedom (manoeuvre). Insects combine flight
performance flexibility with efficiency through morphing of the wing
surfaces which match the intended flight mode with precision.
Insect-mimicking flapping-wing micro air vehicles (FW-MAVs) are more
difficult to design than bird-mimicking FW-MAVs, because they have
to fly only by wings without control surfaces at tail. For stable forward
flight of an insect-mimicking FW-MAV, a pair of wings should be able
to flap symmetrically, so that they can create symmetric aerodynamic
forces to prevent rolling motion. In addition to this, the system should be
assembled such that pitching moment is zero around its center of gravity,
which can implement inherent pitching stability.
It has previously been shown that airfoils composed of surface
corrugations exhibit superior lift-to-drag ratios over conventional airfoils
at Reynolds numbers of 8,000.
We have been developing an insect-mimicking flapping-wing system,
which mimics flight of a beetle, Allomyrina Dichotom. It can create
a large flapping angle of 140 to 160 degrees at a flapping frequency
of about 40Hz, which is close to the beetle’s flapping frequency. The
engineering design of the flapping-wing system has been recently
registered as a US patent. The flapping-wing system could successfully
demonstrate uncontrolled stable vertical takeoff by applying electric
power from an external power supply. The applied voltage of 12V is
relatively high, so that a large capacity battery should be used as an
independent power source, which increases total weight of the system.
In this work, we modified our previous flapping-wing system for flight
by on-board batteries and remote power control. A 12:1 gear ratio
was adopted to reduce the required power. Forces produced by the
flapping-wing system were estimated by Unsteady Blade Element Theory
(UBET) and experimented by using a swing test and a loadcell. Finally,
we demonstrated stable vertical takeoff of the modified flapping-wing
system without any control.
Reynolds Number has a significant effect on the aerodynamic coefficients
in corrugated profiles. There exists a range of Reynolds Numbers where
the impact of wing corrugation has a minimal through to significant
influence on the aerodynamics. At a given Reynolds Number, flow
attachment might be attained due to the trapped vortices in the valleys of
the corrugation. Subtle variances in the operating envelope can result in
rapid flow separation. Due to these variations it can even be argued that
operationally, corrugation is critical only for wing stiffness.
The focus of the presented analysis is to map the efficacy of wing
corrugation at the defined Reynolds Number of interest. We will present
three critical computational analyses: Sensitivity of airfoil corrugation
shape on aerodynamics; Aerodynamics of a corrugated airfoil at different
span stations; Comparison of a corrugated airfoil against a conventional
8686-29, Session 11
8686-27, Session 11
Unsteady aerodynamics in ornithopter flight
In-flight validated flexible-multibody
structural dynamics model of a bioinspired
Juan C. Gomez, Cornell Univ. (United States)
This research involves numerically simulating the unsteady aerodynamics
generated by flapping wings using a modified quasi 2-D model. This
model in its first incarnation was a quasi-steady model that involved
modeling the effects of translation and rotation via a rotational lift term.
It has been subsequently modified to drop this term and use a dynamic
lift term involving the calculation of an ordinary differential equation. The
kinematics are handled using modified rotation matrices. Characteristics
such as propulsive efficiency are investigated and analyzed over varying
parameters, as well as unsteady effects such as dynamic stall. Various
wing kinematics are investigated as well.
Cornelia Altenbuchner, James E. Hubbard Jr., National Institute
of Aerospace (United States)
A large effort is currently underway to understand the physics of avianbased flapping wing vehicles, or ornithopters. Small aerial robots are
needed for a variety of civilian and military scenarios. Efforts to model the
flight of these vehicles have been complicated by a number of factors,
including nonlinear elastic effects, multi-body characteristics, unsteady
aerodynamics, and the strong coupling between fluid and structural
dynamics. Experimental validation capabilities are crucial in order to
achieve accurate simulations. A multi-disciplinary analysis methodology
requires the evaluation of tools representing individual disciplines before
they can be combined to form a comprehensive model. Analysis of
inertial properties and previous fight data has led to the development of
a rigid multi-body dynamics model, where the ornithopter is modeled
as a collection of chains of rigid body linkages emanating from a central
fuselage. In this paper, a flexible multi-body simulation considering fluidstructure interaction and a novel experimental validation methodology is
presented. Previous rigid-multi body dynamic models are extended to a
flexible multi-body dynamic model. To achieve high fidelity simulation,
and considering the flexibility of the flapping wing membrane, a finite
element approach with a robust integration of the equations of motions
is used. The resulting ornithopter flight simulator is validated with
experimental free flight data obtained using 53 tracking points and a
Vicon Vision® Motion tracking system.
8686-30, Session 11
An investigation of 6-DOF insect flight
dynamics with a flexible multibody dynamics
Joong-Kwan Kim, Jae-Hung Han, KAIST (Korea, Republic of)
Flying insects have wings with anisotropic flexibility, and passive
deformation of the wings is known to affect overall aerodynamic force
and moment generation. Insects can independently control two wings
with high degree-of-freedom using various well-developed flight muscles.
This complex motion of the wings is not only used as thrust generator,
but also takes charge of control force generation.
The passive deformation of the wings has distribution that increases to
the direction of distal area, and makes it hard to define a single wing
kinematics suitable for a certain flight mode, i.e. hovering. Therefore,
previous researches on insect flight dynamics extracted a representative
wing kinematics from externally measured data via high-speed-camera
Return to Contents
Conference 8686:
Bioinspiration, Biomimetics, and Bioreplication III
recordings. This passive deformation of the wings due to inertial and
aerodynamic forces can alter the actual wing motions intended by the
insect, therefore externally measured wing kinematics containing effect of
aeroelasticity could be different from commanded wing kinematics by the
insect to its flight muscles.
8686-32, Session 12
Here, we develop a flexible multibody dynamics model of a hovering
insect with flexible wings which have similar structural dynamic
characteristics that of real insects. Based on this environment, hovering
wing kinematics is searched and compared with experimentally
measured wing kinematics from other literatures. 6-DOF flight dynamic
states and wing kinematics at hovering condition are also compared
between an insect model with rigid wings and a model with flexible
wings. A qualitative analysis on the 6-DOF flight dynamics is performed,
and the effect of wing flexibility to the flight dynamics is addressed.
Eric C. Freeman, Michael K. Philen, Donald J. Leo, Virginia
Polytechnic Institute and State Univ. (United States)
Using cellular energy conversion and storage
mechanics for bio-inspired energy harvesting
Novel biologically-inspired energy harvesting devices based on
cellular mimics used for converting mechanical, chemical, photo, and
thermal stimuli into appropriate electrochemical responses are studied.
Recently our group has developed a biomolecular unit cell consisting
of encapsulated bilayer membranes stabilized between two hydrophilic
compartments. The bilayer membrane enables stimuli-responsive
control of ion transport between the chambers. The goal of this work is
to develop devices that use ion concentration gradients for generating
current and replenish these ionic gradients through utilizing external
8686-31, Session 12
Effects of motor protein binding/unbinding on
their collective transport
The proposed systems will be constructed using biomolecular unit cells
that incorporate stimuli-responsive channels for controllable transport.
These systems are highly tailorable as their performance is dependent
on the electrolyte concentrations, the lipid properties, and the type of
proteins included in the unit cell. These systems also exhibit collective
properties where the configuration of a system including multiple unit
cells may allow for abilities not exhibited in the single unit cell such
as signal rectification. This paper provides an overview of the various
pathways that may be used for energy conversion in these systems,
and focus on the development of a next-generation unit cell model that
accounts for the complex interlinking of the mechanical, chemical, and
electrical conditions.
Woochul Nam, Bogdan I. Epureanu, Univ. of Michigan (United
Kinesins are nano-sized biological motors which are responsible for
active transport in cells. A single kinesin molecule is able to transport its
cargo about 1 um in the absence of external loads. However, kinesins
perform much longer range transport in cells by working collectively.
One of the most important mechanisms involved in this long transport
is the binding and unbinding of kinesin to microtubules. Kinesin realize
the transport by a repetitive mechanochemical cycle. In this study, the
unbinding probabilities corresponding to each mechanochemical state
of kinesin are calculated. The statistical characterization of the instants
and locations of binding are captured by computing the probability of
unbound kinesin being at given locations. The forces acting on kinesins
affect binding and unbinding. This effect is also considered in this study.
It reveals that the length of the transport is significantly longer when
multiple proteins cooperatively transport the same cargo.
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The findings from this model will then be used to determine how
to optimize the performance and efficiency of these cellular energy
harvesters, and findings from the experiments will be used to validate
and further refine the model. The result is the creation of first-generation
cellular energy harvesters and energy stores that may be used for power
advanced cellular machines.
Conference 8687: Electroactive Polymer Actuators
and Devices (EAPAD) XV
Monday - Thursday 11–14 March 2013
Part of Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 8687 Electroactive Polymer Actuators and Devices (EAPAD) 2013
8687-1, Session 1
shape memory alloys are currently employed, as well as extension to
microvalves, mixers, smart phone lenses, positioners and even toys and
intelligent textiles.
Compliant mechanisms: ideal opportunity for
integrated sensors and actuators (Keynote
8687-3, Session 1
Larry L. Howell, Brigham Young Univ. (United States)
A unified model of actuation in ionic
electroactive polymers
Compliant mechanisms provide alternate solutions for transferring or
transforming motion, force, or energy. Rather than using traditional
components like bearings and hinges, compliant mechanisms rely on
the deflection of flexible members for their mobility. This enables the
integration of multiple functions into simple topologies. The functionality
of future compliant mechanisms may be enhanced by embedding
sensors and actuators, resulting in monolithic devices capable of
complex tasks. Compliant mechanisms show promise for addressing
many pressing needs that are not easily solved through traditional
approaches. These include next generation medical implants that closely
mimic the biological systems that they replace, mechanical devices in the
micro and nano size scales, high precision systems, and hyper-compact
devices for space craft.
John D. Madden, The Univ. of British Columbia (Canada)
The field of electroactive polymer actuators (EAPs) has been neatly
classified by Bar-Cohen into electronic and ionic EAPs. Ionic EAPs are
further classified by the materials employed - including conducting
polymers, carbon nanotubes, and ionic polymer metal composites. It
is shown that despite employing very distinct materials, these three
‘classes’ of actuator very likely all share the same underlying actuation
mechanism, and are thus different implementations of the same physical
effects. This realization should help in obtaining new actuators featuring
the best properties of each actuator material. It will also help in the
sharing of ideas and models.
In all three actuators ions are inserted or removed upon a change
in electrochemical potential. The ion insertion is achieved via
electrochemical double layer charging within the material or by a
pseudo-capacitive mechanism. In all materials strain is proportional
to the density of ions inserted, suggesting a first order description
involving a proportionality between strain and stored charge (the strain
to charge ratio). The deformation achieved per ion is approximately
proportional to the ion size, plus entrained solvent. Application of a load
leads to insertion of expulsion of ions, producing a sense voltage that is
proportional to the load and the strain to charge ratio. Examples of how
this basic capacitive/charge insertion model applies to the three forms
of electroactive polymers are presented to make the case for a unified
8687-2, Session 1
High-performance electrolyte-free torsional
and tensile carbon nanotube hybrid muscles
(Invited Paper)
Márcio D. Lima, The Univ. of Texas at Dallas (United States); Na
Li, The Univ. of Texas at Dallas (United States) and Nankai Univ.
(China); Mônica J. Andrade, Shaoli Fang, Jiyoung Oh, The Univ.
of Texas at Dallas (United States); Geoffrey M. Spinks, Univ.
of Wollongong (Australia); Mikhail E. Kozlov, Carter S. Haines,
Dongseok Suh, The Univ. of Texas at Dallas (United States);
Javad Foroughi, Univ. of Wollongong (Australia); Seon-Jeong
Kim, Hanyang Univ. (Korea, Republic of); Yongsheng Chen,
Nankai Univ. (China); Taylor Ware, The Univ. of Texas at Dallas
(United States); Min Kyoon Shin, Hanyang Univ. (Korea, Republic
of); Leonardo D. Machado, Univ. Estadual de Campinas (Brazil);
Alexandre F. Fonseca, Univ. Estadual de São Paulo (Brazil); John
D. Madden, The Univ. of British Columbia (Canada); Walter E.
Voit, The Univ. of Texas at Dallas (United States); Douglas S.
Galvão, Univ. Estadual de Campinas (Brazil); Ray H. Baughman,
The Univ. of Texas at Dallas (United States)
8687-4, Session 2
Reactive actuators and sensors integrated
in one device: mimicking brain-muscles
feedback communication (Invited Paper)
Toribio Fernández Otero, Jose G. Martinez, Univ. Politécnica de
Cartagena (Spain)
Artificial muscles based on conducting polymers, fullerene derivatives,
carbon nanotubes, graphenes or other carbon derivative molecular
structures are electro-chemo-mechanical actuators. Oxidation
and reduction reactions drive most of the volume variation and the
concomitant actuation: movement rate and displacement.
New electrolyte-free muscles that provide fast, high-force, large-stroke
torsional and tensile actuation are described, which are based on guestfilled, twist-spun carbon nanotube yarns. Actuation of hybrid yarns by
electrically, chemically, and photonically powered dimensional changes
of yarn guest generates torsional rotation and contraction of the helical
yarn host. Over a million reversible torsional and tensile actuation cycles
are demonstrated, wherein a muscle spins a rotor at an average 11,500
revolutions/minute or delivers 3% tensile contraction at 1,200 cycles/
minute. This rotation rate is 20 times higher than previously demonstrated
for an artificial muscle and the 27.9 kW/kg power density during muscle
contraction is 85 times higher than for natural skeletal muscle. Applying
well-separated 25 ms pulses yielded 0.104 kJ/kg of mechanical energy
during contraction at an average power output of 4.2 kW/kg (four times
the power-to-weight ratio of common internal combustion engines).
Demonstrations include torsional motors, contractile muscles, and
sensors that capture the energy of the sensing process to mechanically
actuate. Improved control and large rotational actuation, along with
long cycle life and tensile contractions up to 9%, suggest the use of
these yarn actuators in medical devices, robots, and shutters, for which
(Pol*)s + n(A-)sol + m(S) [(Pol)n+(A-)n(S)m]gel + ne- (1)
According with Chemical Kinetics, under flow of a constant current
(constant reaction rate) any working or surrounding variable influencing
the reaction (ox or red) rates will be sensed by the muscle potential (or
by the consumed energy) evolution, E(t), during actuation. The theoretical
description of this evolution has now been attained:
Where ic determines the rate of the movement; the consumed charge,
ict, defines the displacement, characterizing the movement. Eq. 2 also
includes working and surrounding variables: electrolyte concentration, [A]; temperature, T; driving current, I; and mechanical conditions, V and ka.
When the device senses the mechanical conditions (pressure, strain, or
trailed weights and obstacle for muscles) becomes an mechano-chemoelectrical sensor. Both, theoretical description and experimental results
will be presented in order to illustrate the good agreement between
theoretical and experimental results. As conclusion, any actuator (artificial
muscle, battery, smart window or mirror, smart membrane, smart
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Conference 8687: Electroactive Polymer Actuators
and Devices (EAPAD) XV
8687-7, Session 2
drug delivery systeme) based on electrochemical reactions in carbon
derivative materials will sense working and surrounding variables while
working. Only two connecting wires contain, simultaneously, actuating
(current) and sensing (potential) signals. Those constitute new feedback
intelligent and biomimetic devices opening new technological borders
and mimicking natural muscles/brain communication.
Conducting polymers are simultaneous
sensing actuators
Fransisco G. Córdova, Univ. Politécnica de Cartagena (Spain);
Yahya A. Ismail, Univ. of Nizwa (Oman); Jose G. Martinez, Univ.
Politécnica de Cartagena (Spain); Ahmad S. Al Harrasi, Univ.
of Nizwa (Oman); Toribio Fernández Otero, Univ. Politécnica de
Cartagena (Spain)
T. F. Otero, J. J. Sanchez and J. G. Martinez, J. Phys. Chem. B 2012,
116, 5279-5290; J. Phys. Chem. B 2012. DOI:10.1021/jp302931k. and
Electrochim. Acta. DOI:10.1016/j.electacta.2012.03.097.
8687-5, Session 2
Conducting polymers are the electrochemomechanical actuators
having the ability to sense the surrounding variables simultaneously.
The sensing and actuating signals are sent /received back through the
same two connecting wires in these materials. The sensing ability is
a general property of all conducting polymers arises from the unique
electrochemical reaction taking place in them. This is verified for two
different conducting polymers here – for an electrochemically generated
polypyrrole triple layer bending actuator exchanging cations and for a
chemically generated polytoluidine linear actuator exchanging anions.
The configuration of the polypyrrole actuator device corresponds to
polypyrrole-dodecyl benzene sulfonate (pPy-DBS) film/tape/ pPy-DBS
film in which the film on one side of the triple layer is acted as anode
and the film on the other side acted as cathode simultaneously, and the
films interchanged their role when move in the opposite direction. The
polytoluidine linear actuator was fabricated using a hydrogel microfiber
through in situ chemical polymerization. The sensing characteristics
of these two actuators were studied as a function of their working
conditions: applied current, electrolyte concentration and temperature
in aqueous electrolytes. The chronopotentiometric responses were
recorded by applying square waves of electrical currents for a specified
time. For the pPy actuator it was set to produce angular movement
of ± 45º by the free end of the actuator, consuming constant charges
of 60 mC. In both the actuators the evolution of the muscle potential
along the electrical current cycle was found to be a function of chemical
and physical variables acting on the polymer reaction rates: electrolyte
concentration, temperature or driving electrical current. The muscle
potential evolved decreases with increasing electrolyte concentrations,
increasing temperatures or decreasing driving electrical currents. The
electrical energy consumed during reaction was a linear function of the
working temperature or of the driving electrical current and a double
logarithmic function of the electrolyte concentration.Thus, the conducting
polymer based actuators exchanging cations or anions during electrical
current flow is a sensor of the working physical and chemical conditions
which is a general property. We propose that any reactive device based
on the same material and reaction (batteries, smart windows, electron-ion
transducers, and so on) will sense surrounding conditions.
Self-sensing ionic electromechanically active
actuator with patterned carbon electrodes
Karl Kruusamäe, Friedrich Kaasik, Andres Punning, Alvo Aabloo,
Univ. of Tartu (Estonia)
In comparison to other ionic electromechanically active polymers (ionic
EAP), carbon-polymer composite (CPC) actuators are considered
especially attractive due to possibility of producing completely metal-free
devices. However, mechanical response of ionic EAP-s is—in addition
to voltage and frequency—dependent on environmental variables
such as humidity and temperature. Therefore, similarly to other EAPs,
one major challenge lies in achieving controlled actuation of the CPC
sample. Due to their size and added complexity, external feedback
devices (e.g. laser displacement sensors and video cameras) tend to
inhibit the application of micro-scale actuators. Hence, self-sensing EAP
actuators—capable for simultaneous actuation and sensing—are often
desired. A thin polyvinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene film with
ionic liquid (EMIBF4) was prepared and masked coincidently on opposite
surfaces prior to spray painting carbide-derived carbon electrodes.
The purpose of masking was to create different electrically insulated
electrodes on the same surface of polymer in order to achieve separate
sections for actuator and sensor on one piece of CPC material. Solution
of electrode paint consisting of carbide-derived carbon, EMIBF4 and
dimethylacetamide was applied to the polymer film. After removing the
masking tape, a completely metal-free CPC actuator with sophisticated
electrode geometry was achieved to foster simultaneous sensing and
actuation, i.e. self-sensing carbon-polymer actuator was created.
8687-6, Session 2
Fabrication and characterization of a twodimensional IPMC sensor
Hong Lei, Xiaobo Tan, Michigan State Univ. (United States)
8687-8, Session 4
Ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMCs) have inherent sensing and
actuation properties. An IPMC sensor typically consists of a thin
ion-exchange membrane, chemically plated with electrodes on both
surfaces. Such IPMC sensors respond to deflections in the beambending directions only and thus are considered one-dimensional. In
this paper, a novel IPMC sensor capable of two-dimensional sensing is
proposed by plating two pairs of electrodes on orthogonal surfaces of a
Nafion beam that has comparable thickness and width. The fabrication
method is reported along with the characterization of the fabricated
sensor. Experimental results show that the proposed IPMC sensor can be
used for 2D flow and displacement sensing with promising applications in
artificial lateral line systems and biomimetic whiskers.
Electroactive polymer and shape-memory
alloy actuators in biomimetics and humanoids
(Invited Paper)
Yonas T. Tadesse, The Univ. of Texas at Dallas (United States)
There is a strong need to replicate natural muscles with artificial
materials as the structure and function of natural muscle is optimum
for articulation. Particularly, the cylindrical geometry of the fiber in the
natural muscle promotes the critical investigation of cylindrical and
other geometries of the artificial muscles in the design phase of certain
platforms. Biomimetic robots and Humanoid Robot heads with Facial
Expressions (HRwFE) are some of the typical platforms that can be used
to study the geometrical effects of artificial muscles. It has been shown
that electroactive polymer and shape memory alloy artificial muscles and
their composites are some of the candidate materials that may replicate
natural muscles and showed promise for biomimetics and humanoid
robots. The application of these materials to these systems reveals the
challenges and associated technologies that need to be developed
in parallel. This paper will focus on the computer aided design (CAD)
models of conductive polymer and shape memory alloys in various
In the fabrication process Nafion solution is first cast and solidified, and
the resulting structure is then cut to form beams with square crosssections. In particular, the sample we fabricated has cross section of
1mm by 1mm and the length of 15mm. Platinum electrodes are then
plated on four side surfaces of the Nafion beam, with insulation from
each other. The fabricated IPMC sensor are shown to respond to the
2D mechanical stimulus within the cross-section plane, and separate
sensor signals are collected from the two pairs of the parallel electrodes.
The response (short-circuit current) of the fabricated IPMC sensor is
characterized both in air and in water, to verify the 2D sensing capability
and examine the correlation between the two sensor signals.
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Conference 8687: Electroactive Polymer Actuators
and Devices (EAPAD) XV
biomimetic systems and Humanoid Robot with Facial Expressions
(HRwFE). The design of these systems will be presented in a comparative
manner primarily focusing on three critical parameters: the stress, the
strain and the geometry of the artificial muscle.
in this paper. The study of various devices using EAP has been going.
As a result, the new concept about small and lightweight devices that
can replace previous devices was announced. However, it is completely
difficult that EAP devices replace to current device due to the low driving
performance and environmental constraints. Most of developed EAP
devices is to integrate in narrow space and to reduce the weight. The
example of actual system made by integrating these devices is rare. In
this study, an anthropomorphic robot finger system was manufactured
by integrating the developed EAP devices. The system is composed of
many devices a tactile sensor like human skin, a force/torque sensor
and a linear actuator for artificial muscle that is made by using EAP.
We evaluated each device by integrating a system and verified the
performance of entire system. Through this, we will present the vision of
EAP devices.
8687-9, Session 4
Directional underwater sensor based on ionic
electroactive polymer device
Reza Montazami, Maziar Ashuri, Ruisi Zhang, Wangyujue Hong,
Abbey Machtemes, Iowa State Univ. (United States); Nichelle’Le
Carrington, Savannah State Univ. (United States)
The functionality of ionic electroactive polymer (IEAP) sensors is due
to the mobility of ions within the ionic membrane and ionic polymermetal composite (IPMC). The ions are sourced by uptake of electrolyte
(aqueous or ionic liquid) into the IPMC, and are mobilized when subjected
to an external mechanical stimulus. Thus far, the common understanding
of the sensing mechanism in IEAP sensors has been that mobility of
ions provided by the electrolyte is the primary origin of the electrical
signal. Nafion, used as the backbone structure of most IEAP sensors,
is an ion permeable polymer with sulfonate end groups and proton
counterions. In this work, we have shown that the counterions of Nafion
have significant effect on the performance of IEAP sensors and that both
signal magnitude and temporal response are closely related to the type of
counterions of Nafion. We have studied samples consisting of Nafion in
its original (protonated) form and Nafion with 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium
(EMI) counterions and have shown that the counterions participate in
the sensing process and influence the performance of the IEAP sensors.
Also, we have investigated directionality of the sensing under water. We
have fabricated sensors capable of directional sensing under water. To
further scrutinize the relation between polymer counterions and ions
sourced by electrolytes, samples with proton (H) or EMI counterions were
tested with different electrolytes.
8687-12, Session 4
Power electronics concepts for driving EAP
stack actuators
Lars Eitzen, Jürgen Maas, Ostwestfalen-Lippe Univ. of Applied
Sciences (Germany)
Compared to single layer EAP actuators, stack actuators exhibit
advantageous properties such as large displacements at acceptably
low operating voltages. Therefore, EAP stack actuators seem to be a
promising option for the successful use in commercial applications.
For an energy-efficient operation of EAP stack actuators or EAP
actuators in general an adequate power electronics with high voltage
capability is indispensable. Depending on the specific application, the
use of different converter topologies combined with suitable control
concepts has to be considered.
In this contribution three different general converter concepts for
driving EAP stack actuators will be investigated: The investigation of
unidirectional concepts comprises converter topologies only capable
of charging an actuator. Bidirectional converter concepts allow the
bidirectional operation of EAP actuators using one single bidirectional
converter topology, which can both charge and discharge an EAP
actuator. Hybrid converter concepts include structures consisting of
two single converter topologies. Using a hybrid converter approach
might result in advantageous properties of the overall converter system
compared to a bidirectional converter concept.
8687-10, Session 4
Electroactive polymer (EAP) mobility device
Mark C. Stasik, Jay R. Sayre, Megan S. Moore, Battelle Memorial
Institute (United States); Chuck A. Plaxico, RoadSafe LLC.
(United States)
For each general converter concept, different converter topologies
are evaluated regarding their general suitability. The most promising
topologies are analyzed in detail, suitable control schemes are selected
and the converter prototype design is addressed.
Ionic Polymer-Metal Composites (IPMCs) are a class of Electroactive
Polymers (EAPs) that bend and exert force in response to an applied
voltage <5 volts. In this work, a design is presented where IPMCs are
used to accomplish rotary motion. A unique feature is that EAP actuation
is used in conjunction with gravity to cause rotation. This idea could be
used to create a self-driven roller device. Such a roller could resemble
a wheel with a circular or cylindrical geometry, or a sphere capable of
rolling in all directions. Numerical simulations were performed that show
that a 2-D roller device can accomplish rolling motion as a result of
IPMC actuation. Experimental data on both the deformation and forcegeneration ability of fabricated IPMCs was used to drive the numerical
simulations of the device. A possible application of this roller mechanism
could be a mobility device on the centimeter scale that can transport a
~10g payload to a target destination.
For the evaluation, simulation and experimental results of the respective
prototypes will be presented and potential application cases for the
experimentally investigated prototypes will be stated.
8687-13, Session 4
Understanding efficiency limits for dielectric
elastomer driver circuitry
Ho Cheong Lo, The Univ. of Auckland (New Zealand); Emilio
Calius, Industrial Research Ltd. (New Zealand); Iain A. Anderson,
The Univ. of Auckland (New Zealand)
8687-11, Session 4
Dielectric elastomers (DEs) can theoretically operate at efficiencies
greater than that of electromagnetics. This is due to their unique mode of
operation which involves charging and discharging a capacitive load at
medium voltages. Efficient recovery of the electrical energy stored in the
capacitance of the DE is essential in achieving favourable efficiencies as
actuators or generators. This is not a trivial problem because the DE acts
as a voltage source with a low capacity and a large output resistance.
These properties are not ideal for a power source, and will reduce the
performance of any power conditioning circuit utilizing inductors or
transformers. This paper briefly explores how circuit parameters affect
Electroactive polymer-based
anthropomorphic robot finger system
Baek-Chul Kim, Hanjoung Cho, Seunghoon Shin, HyungSeok
Lee, Hyungpil Moon, Hyoukryeol Choi, Ja Choon Koo,
Sungkyunkwan Univ. (Korea, Republic of)
Robot finger system based Electroactive Polymer(EAP) will be introduced
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Conference 8687: Electroactive Polymer Actuators
and Devices (EAPAD) XV
the performance of a simple inductor circuit used to transfer energy from
a DE to another capacitor. Experiments have revealed a decrease in
performance at higher voltages when there is a large series resistance.
In one experiment, adding a series resistance to the circuit caused an
efficiency reduction of 12% at 1kV but 32% at 3kV. These results reveal
the significance of DE electrical parameters on the efficiency of the
overall DE device. These parameters must be taken into account when
designing the driving circuitry to maximize performance.
potential, thus replacing the high voltage supply. Our new scavenger is
fully autonomous, soft, lightweight and low cost. The structure is thus
composed of a dielectric elastomer (Polypower from Danfoss) and an
electret developing a potential of -1000V (Teflon from Dupont). The
transducer is designed specifically to scavenge energy from human
motion. Thus, it works on pure-shear mode with maximum strain of about
50% and it is textured in 3D form because electret is non deformable.
Thanks to an appropriate electromechanical analytical model, an energy
density of about 1.5mJ.g-1 is expected on an optimal electrical load.
However, for practical applications, this energy is difficult to achieve due
to the existence of residual air gaps of approximately 500µm between the
dielectric elastomer and the electret at maximum strain. Consequently,
optimization of the 3D form was proposed to enhance scavenged energy.
Lastly, experiments were carried out in order to validate our model. Our
new autonomous dielectric generator can produce about 0.55mJ.g-1
on a resistive load of 99MW, nine times more than those obtained by
piezoelectric polymers, and can further be optimized by enhancing the
performance of dielectric elastomer such as dielectric permittivity or by
increasing the electret potential.
8687-96, Session 4
Progress toward EAP actuators for
biomimetic social robots
David F. Hanson Jr., Hanson Robotics, Inc. (United States) and
Nanyang Technological Univ. (Singapore) and The Univ. of Texas
at Arlington (United States)
The author presents novel research and development in social robots,
with walking bodies, grasping hands, and expressive faces, describing
how each actuation domain could benefit from EAP actuation. The author
then describes experiments in developing the robots for EAP actuation,
and proposes future work for practical convergence of EAP capabilities
and the actuation requirements for social robotics.
8687-17, Session 5
Oscillating-water-column wave-energyconverter based on dielectric elastomers
Marco Fontana, Rocco Vertechy, Massimo Bergamasco, Scuola
Superiore Sant’Anna (Italy)
8687-15, Session 5
Ocean-wave power is a very persistent and highly spatially concentrated
form of renewable energy. To date, the development of cost effective
Wave Energy Converters (WECs) is hindered by inherent limitations of
available material technologies. State of the art WECs are indeed based
on traditional mechanical components, hydraulic transmissions and
electromagnetic generators, which are all made by stiff, bulky, heavy
and costly metallic materials. As a consequence, existing WECs result in
being expensive, difficult to assemble, sensitive to corrosion and hard to
maintain in the marine environment.
Finite element modelling of the sensing
and energy harvesting performance in ionic
polymer metal composites
Barbar J. Akle, Wassim Habchi, Lebanese American Univ.
Ionic Polymer Metal Composite (IPMC) is an Electro-Active Polymer (EAP)
that is used as an electro-mechanical sensor and being investigated
as an energy harvester. The IPMC transducer is proved to be inefficient
as an energy harvester due to the small amount of voltage it generates
when deformed. This study explores this problem by developing a
fully-coupled 2D mechano-chemo-electrical finite element model that
predicts the sensing behaviour in IPMC. The electro-chemical element
is modelled based on the Nernst-Planck and Poisson’s equations. The
chemo-mechanical coupling is due to the change in the concentration
of ions upon deforming the sensor. This paper is focused on developing
methods to control the amount of voltage and current the IPMC sensor
can generate. The developed FEM model is used to assess the effects
of increasing the thickness of the transducer and of manipulating the
architecture of the high surface area electrodes. The IPMC transducer
is simulated and experimentally tested using two electrical boundary
conditions: the open circuit voltage or the short circuit current. All
numerical results are supported by experimental data. The results are
shown to be in good agreement with model predictions.
Thanks to their lightness, low cost, easy manufacturability/workability
and high corrosion resistance, Dielectric Elastomer (DE) transducers
could be an enabling technology for the development of next generation
In this context, this paper focuses on Oscillating-Water-Column (OWC)
type WECs, and analyzes the viability of using DE transducers as powertake-off systems. In traditional OWC devices, Wells turbines are used
to convert into electricity the variable pressure that is generated by the
oscillation of the free surface of a water column in a submerged closed
chamber. In the DE-based OWC proposed here, the Wells turbine is
replaced by a properly-shaped deformable DE membrane.
Regarding paper structure, the first sections introduce the working
principle of OWC devices and discuss possible layouts for their DEbased power-take-off system. In the subsequent sections a simplified
model of DE-based OWC devices is described along with an appropriate
control strategy aiming at the maximization of the energy produced.
8687-16, Session 5
8687-18, Session 5
Autonomous dielectric elastomer generator
using electret
Soft 3D printed energy harvesters
Thomas G. McKay, The Univ. of Auckland (New Zealand);
Peter Walters, Univ. of the West of England (United Kingdom);
Jonathan M. Rossiter, Univ. of Bristol (United Kingdom);
Benjamin M. O’Brien, Iain A. Anderson, The Univ. of Auckland
(New Zealand)
Cong Thanh Vu, G2Elab (France); Claire Jean-Mistral, Institut
National des Sciences Appliquées de Lyon (France); Alain
Sylvestre, G2Elab (France)
Dielectric elastomers can work as a variable capacitor to convert
mechanical energy such as human motion into electrical energy.
Nevertheless, scavengers based on dielectric elastomers require a
high voltage source to polarize them, which constitutes the major
disadvantage of these transducers. We propose here to combine
dielectric elastomer with an electret, providing a quasi-permanent
Return to Contents
Dielectric elastomer generators (DEG) provide an opportunity to harvest
energy from low frequency and aperiodic sources. Because DEG are
soft, deformable, high energy density generators, they can be coupled
to complex structures such as the human body to harvest excess
mechanical energy.
Conference 8687: Electroactive Polymer Actuators
and Devices (EAPAD) XV
However, DEG are typically constrained by a rigid frame and
manufactured in a simple planar structure. This planar arrangement is
unlikely to be optimal for harvesting from compliant and/or complex
structures. In this paper we present a soft generator which is fabricated
using a 3D printing process. This capability will enable the 3-dimensional
structure of a dielectric elastomer to be customised to the energy source,
allowing efficient and/or non-invasive coupling.
The article for the SPIE 2013 describes the essential steps of this
research and presents a new technology for gaining sea power.
8687-20, Session 6
Platform-based design of EAP transducers in
Danfoss PolyPower A/S
This paper demonstrates our first 3D printed generator which includes
a diaphragm with a soft elastomer frame. When the generator was
connected to a self-priming circuit and cyclically inflated, energy was
accumulated in the system, demonstrated by an increased voltage.
Rahimullah Sarban, Danfoss PolyPower A/S (Denmark); Tómas V.
Gudlaugsson, Technical Univ. of Denmark (Denmark)
Our 3D printed generator promises a bright future for dielectric
elastomers that will be customised for integration with complex and
soft structures. In addition to customisable geometries, the 3D printing
process may lend itself to fabricating large arrays of small generator
units and for fabricating truly soft generators with excellent impedance
matching to biological tissue. Thus comfortable, wearable energy
harvesters are one step closer to reality.
Electroactive Polymer (EAP) has gained increasing focus, in research
communities, in last two decades. Research within the field of EAP has,
so far, been mainly focused on material improvements, characterization,
modeling and developing demonstrators.
As the EAP technology matures, the need for a new area of research
namely product development emerges. Product development can be
based on an isolated design and production for a single product or
platform design where a product family is developed. In platform design
the families of products exploits commonality of platform modules
while satisfying a variety of different market segments. Platform based
approach has the primary benefit of being cost efficient and short lead
time to market when new products emerges.
8687-19, Session 5
Electroactive polymers for gaining sea power
Benedikt Scherber, Matthias Grauer, Bosch Rexroth AG
(Germany); Istvan Denes, Robert Bosch GmbH (Germany)
Products development based on EAP technology is challenging both
technologically as well as from production and processing point of view.
Both the technological and processing challenges need to be addressed
before a successful implementation of EAP technology into products.
Based on this need Danfoss PolyPower A/S has, in 2011, launched a
EAP platform project in collaboration with three Danish universities and
three commercial organizations. The aim of the project is to develop
platform based designs and product family for the EAP components
to be used in variety of applications. This paper presents the structure
of the platform project as a whole and specifically the platform based
designs of EAP transducers. The underlying technologies, essential for
EAP transducers, are also presented. Conceptual design and solution for
the concepts are presented as well.
Because of the quest for sustainability companies are going to make
new energy-sources accessible worldwide. With consideration of current
energy policies they often focus on renewable energies. Using sea power
is very popular and qualified as well because of its constant availability
in contrast to the unstable sources like sun or wind. For the presented
new technology the up and down moving waves are delivering the power,
not the sea current. With this technology conventional hydraulic energy
converters are replaced by a new budding technology. The context of
checking and testing has shown that electro-active polymers are the best
choice for gaining sea power. The forecasted advantages of the usage of
polymers are lower production costs and that they are more durable in
comparison to former hydraulic systems. Core of the new technology is
an all new silicon-based material: an electro-active polymer (EAP), which
Bosch is currently working on together with the worldwide leader in
silicon developing and production.
8687-21, Session 6
Dielectric elastomer energy harvesting
undergoing electromechanical phase
The principle of effect is that the material changes its shape by applying
a voltage. These materials are often used as actuators or sensors. By
inverting this process (deforming the material, not applying a voltage) an
electronic charge transport is generated within the EAP with a following
separation of charge. This occurred potential difference can be taken and
saved by power electronic units. The new materials and technologies for
producing these materials are reviewed and tested currently to guarantee
their suitability for those tasks. To use this form of energy production
reasonably and efficiently many of these actuators are stacked to socalled EAP-stacks. This EAP-stack is compressed by the transfer of wave
motion and the help of the wave energy converter. Thereby a voltage
is generated by electronic displacement in each EAP-actuator. After
relaxation of the whole EAP-stack energy can be saved in a capacitor
with the help of a power electronic unit.
Xiaojian Luo, Liwu Liu, Yanju Liu, Jinsong Leng, Harbin Institute
of Technology (China)
Applied to voltage, a dielectric elastomer membrane may deform into a
mixture of two states under certain conditions. One of which is the flat
state and the other is the wrinkled state. In the flat state, the membrane
is relatively thick with a small area, while on the contrary, in the wrinkled
state, the membrane is relatively thin with a large area. The coexistence
of these two states may cause the electromechanical phase transition
of dielectric elastomer. The phase diagram of idea dielectric elastomer
membrane under unidirectional stress and voltage inspired us to think
about the liquid-to-vapor phase transition of pure substance. The
practical working cycle of a steam engine includes the thermodynamical
process of liquid-to-vapor phase transition, the fact is that the steam
engine will do the maximum work if undergoing the phase transition
process. In this paper, we investigated the phase transition process
under certain conditions, some similar conclusions as the liguid-to-vapor
phase transition and the typical steam power cycle are got. Energy
converted in an electromechanical cycle undergoing electromechanical
phase transition is much larger than that in an electromechanical cycle
including only one state. We think these results can guide the design and
manufacture of energy harvesting equipments.
For this special application an all new construction will be developed by
the Bosch Rexroth AG. This construction is based on the competence
Bosch Rexroth has so far in relation to sea power. It contains the body,
the energy converter which consists of the EAP-stack and a mechanical
system for keeping the electronics apart from sea water. Additional to
this, the corresponding power-electronic unit which uses the powerdifference between charging and discharging to gain energy is part of the
wave energy harvesting system. By using the demonstrator model in a
wave-channel the possibility of energy generation out of sea waves will
be simulated and proved. Because of the cooperation between institutes
and companies along the whole value chain the view of specialists is
The observation of the project beginning with the material production
and manufacturing along the components and system development to
the prototype shows a closed and stable base for a concept for a new
Return to Contents
Conference 8687: Electroactive Polymer Actuators
and Devices (EAPAD) XV
8687-22, Session 6
8687-24, Session 6
Optimized energy harvesting materials and
generator design
Modular dc-dc converter system for energy
harvesting with EAPs
Christian Graf, Ostwestfalen-Lippe Univ. of Applied Sciences
(Germany); Julia Hitzbleck, Torsten Feller, Karin Clauberg,
Joachim Wagner, Jens Krause, Bayer MaterialScience AG
(Germany); Jürgen Maas, Ostwestfalen-Lippe Univ. of Applied
Sciences (Germany)
Lars Eitzen, Jürgen Maas, Ostwestfalen-Lippe Univ. of Applied
Sciences (Germany)
Electroactive polymers are soft capacitors made of thin elastic and
electrically isolating films coated with compliant and conductive
electrodes offering a large amount of deformation. These unique
properties enable the industrial development of highly efficient and
environmentally sustainable (wave) energy converters, which opens the
possibility to exploit a large renewable and inexhaustible energy source
that is widely unused otherwise. The well-known energy harvesting
principle is based on a sequence of stretching, charging, relaxing and
A possibility to achieve a high energy-efficiency for high voltage
conversion is the use of a modular converter system consisting of
several bidirectional converter modules, which are connected in series
on the converter output side and in parallel at the input side. Since each
converter stage provides only a part of the overall converter output
voltage, the converter module output voltages can effectively be reduced
by choosing the number of cascaded converter modules appropriately.
This allows the use of standard semiconductor switches with superior
electrical characteristics compared to high voltage semiconductors,
enabling a high energy-efficiency. Because of the output voltage
reduction for each module, also smaller passive components such as
inductors can be used.
Energy harvesting with EAPs requires an energy-efficient power
electronics providing a bidirectional energy transfer and operating
voltages of up to several kilovolts.
Compared to other electroactive polymer materials, polyurethanes,
whose formulation has been systematically modified and optimized for
energy harvesting applications, have certain advantages. The inherently
higher dipole content results in a significantly increased permittivity
and the dielectric breakdown strength is higher, too, whereby the
overall specific energy is better by at least factor ten. In order to reduce
conduction losses on the electrode, a highly conductive bidirectional
stretchable electrode has been developed. Other important material
parameters like stiffness and bulk resistivity have been optimized to
fit the requirements. To realize high power energy harvesting systems,
substantial amounts of material are necessary, which opposes special
attention to the mechanical design of the generator. Different measures
have been studied to e.g. reduce the defect occurrence and electrical
Since EAP devices exhibit a mainly capacitive behavior and a limitation
of the operating current is required for electrode protection, the utilized
converter structure/topology has to be operated as a controllable current
source on the lowest control level, which is achieved by operating the
converter modules of the modular converter system with a subordinate
closed-looped current control scheme. In order to avoid voltage
unbalances among the single converter modules, a method for voltage
balancing and a control scheme for closed-loop voltage control have to
be implemented, which will be presented in the final paper.
For the validation of the proposed modular converter system,
experimental results of a realized prototype in closed-loop operation are
The accompanying optimization studies of the energy harvesting cycle
result in an optimal exploitation of the material and converter. In the
final paper the material requirements, the generator design, the test
procedures and the optimized energy harvesting cycle are presented in
detail, always supported by meaningful measurement results.
8687-25, Session 6
Maximizing the energy density of dielectric
elastomer generators using equi-biaxial
8687-23, Session 6
Comparison of dielectric electroactive
polymer generators’ energy harvesting cycles
Jiangshui Huang, Samuel Shian, Zhigang Suo, David R. Clarke,
Harvard Univ. (United States)
Emmanouil Dimopoulos, Ionut Trintis, Stig Munk-Nielsen, Aalborg
Univ. (Denmark)
Dielectric elastomer generators (DEGs) for harvesting electrical energy
from mechanical deformations have been demonstrated but the energy
densities achieved are still small compared with theoretical predictions.
In this presentation, we show that significant improvements in energy
density (550mJ/g with an efficiency of 9.3%), can be achieved by using
an equi-biaxial mechanical loading configuration, one that maximizes the
capacitance changes. Quantification of the energy contributions indicate
that attaining higher conversion efficiencies is currently limited by viscous
losses within the acrylic elastomer suggesting that higher conversion
efficiencies with other elastomers can be attainable.
Research over the dielectric electroactive polymer (DEAP) generator’s
energy harvesting cycles has attracted much of the scientific interest
over the past few years. Indicatively, several publications have thoroughly
discussed and compared the ‘Constant Charge’, ‘Constant Voltage’ and
‘Constant E-field’ cycles, mainly based though, on idealized theoretical
models. In addition, the optimum way to scavenge electric potential
energy from a DEAP generator, during its relaxation phase, has itself
concentrated a significant part of the scientific research, indicating that
the ‘Constant E-field’ cycle is the most energy efficient one. Yet, it has
not been possible until present to validate those theoretical outcomes
with experimental measurements.
The basic concept of mechanical energy harvesting with a dielectric
elastomer sheet is a straightforward electromechanical cycle leading
to a voltage step-up: a sheet is stretched, electrical charge at low
voltage is placed on either side using compliant electrodes, the circuit
disconnected, the stretch is released causing the sheet’s initial thickness
to be recovered separating the charges which can then be drawn off at
higher voltage.
In this paper all three energy harvesting cycles are exhaustively
compared, by means of energy efficiency, losses and more, based for the
first time upon experimental results generated by the laboratory setup in
Aalborg University. Further, the interdependence between the system’s
energy conversion efficiency, i.e. mechanical energy converted into
electrical energy, and the operating energy harvesting cycle is thoroughly
investigated and discussed.
Return to Contents
Integral to maximizing the energy conversion is the amount of mechanical
energy that can be stored elastically in the elastomer sheet during
stretching. We show that this can be maximized by equi-biaxial loading.
Furthermore, as the electrical capacity varies with the fourth power of
the mechanical stretch, the design of the mechanical loading system
is the key to enhanced performance. Details of our dielectric elastomer
generator will be described as well as the procedures we use for
quantifying its performance. Designs based on the same optimization
Conference 8687: Electroactive Polymer Actuators
and Devices (EAPAD) XV
8687-90, Session PTue
of the mechanical loading will be described for harvesting energy from
ocean waves and wind.
Evolutionary algorithms for the multiobjective optimization of stacked dielectric
elastomer actuators
8687-26, Session 6
Electrode effect on the cellulose piezo-paper
energy harvester
Aaron D. Price, ABB AG Corporate Research Ctr. (Germany)
Dielectric elastomer stacks are a particularly promising configuration of
electroactive polymer actuators due to their uniquely favorable balance of
output force and stroke capabilities. These performance characteristics
are highly dependent on many interrelated factors including layer
geometry, mechanical and electrical properties of the electrode and
dielectric layers, driving voltage, and the ancillary electrical system and
interconnection behavior. Furthermore, these considerations are often
made more complex by varying environmental factors encountered in
service. Thus, the specification of an optimal actuator design remains a
challenging task when the competing objectives of performance and cost
must be mutually satisfied. Simulation of the electromechanical actuation
response of stacked dielectric elastomers in three dimensions is an
intensive and time consuming process, and hence the computational
effort required to survey the complete design space is prohibitive.
Lindong Zhai, Sangdong Jang, Jaehwan Kim, Zafar Abas, Inha
Univ. (Korea, Republic of); Heung Soo Kim, Dongguk Univ.
(Korea, Republic of); Joo-Hyung Kim, Chosun Univ. (Korea,
Republic of)
The potential of cellulose based Electro-active paper (EAPap) for
harvesting energy by ambient vibration with different metal electrodes
will be investigated under sinusoidal input excitation. Although
piezopolymers have smaller value of electro-mechanical coupling
constants as compared to the piezoceramics, but are very flexible,
which motivates to use these materials as potential source for energy
harvesting. Cellulose based Electro-active papers are deposited with
different metal electrodes like aluminum, gold, silver and nickel The
fabricated samples will be tested with aluminum cantilever beam under
an input excitation. The effect of area of electrodes will be investigated by
comparing the output voltage at the different values of area of electrodes
ranging from 400mm2 to 1200mm2. In order to observe the effect of
electrodes area the average output voltage will be plotted at different
values of electrode area. An attempt will also be made to investigate
work function effect on the output voltage from the EAPap specimens.
From the experimental results the potential of EAPap as a flexible energy
harvester will be optimized by considering the parameters like size effect,
electrodes area, sensitivity and shielding effects.
This study aims to efficiently elucidate the relationship of these design
factors on actuator performance by means of the application of
evolutionary optimization algorithms in conjunction with a coupled multiphysics finite element simulation to predict the dynamic performance
of silicone- and polyurethane-based dielectric stacks. Alternative
approaches to define the design of experiments (which form the starting
set of designs required by optimization algorithm) are described, followed
by the specification and application of a multi-objective evolutionary
(genetic) algorithm that features the biologically inspired aspects of
elitism and reproduction including crossover, mutation and selection. This
approach serves to rapidly identify the optimal actuator design without
the computational expense of simulating the entire design space.
8687-89, Session PTue
Hot-embossing of microstructures on
addition-curing polydimethylsiloxane films
8687-91, Session PTue
Anticipating electrical breakdown in dielectric
elastomer actuators
Sindhu Vudayagiri, Liyun Yu, Suzan S. Hassouneh, Anne L. Skov,
Technical Univ. of Denmark (Denmark)
Daniel Muffoletto, Kevin M. Burke, Jennifer Zirnheld, Univ. at
Buffalo (United States)
The aim of this research work is to establish a hot-embossing process
for addition curing vinyl terminated PDMS (polydimethyl siloxane) which
are thermosetting elastomers, based on the existing and widely applied
technology for thermoplasts. Addition curing silicones are shown to
possess the ability to capture and retain an imprint made on it 1015 minutes after the gel-point at room temperature. This property is
exploited in the hot-embossing technology.
The output strain possible in a dielectric elastomer actuator is in direct
proportion to the square of the applied electric field. However since the
likelihood of electric breakdown, and thus the irreversible destruction
of the actuator, increases with this applied field, systems employing
dielectric elastomer actuators often heavily derate the maximum
operating electric field to a value much below the absolute electric
breakdown field, so that even as the device ages and becomes more
susceptible to breakdown, failure due to breakdown remains unlikely. In
an effort to sense the strength of the dielectric material so that stronger
yet safe electric fields are applied to the actuator, partial discharge
testing detects the charge that is released when localized instances of
breakdown partially bridge the insulating gap, and can be used to assess
the health of an insulating system. The results of testing entire dielectric
elastomer assemblies using complaint electrodes, and the impact of
using interpenetrating polymer networks to prestrain dielectric samples
are explored.
In the large scale manufacture of dielectric electroactive polymers
(DEAPs) by Danfoss Polypower A/S, the surface of the PDMS elastomer
films are imparted with micro-scale corrugation lines which enhance
the performance of the films as actuators and generators due to the
directional anisotropy and it allows for high strains of the metallic
electrodes. The films are currently made on a specially designed carrier
web which imparts the corrugated structure to the films. The elastomer
mixture is applied on the carrier web and it is left to cure on the web. The
cured elastomer film is then peeled off the web to allow for the deposition
of electrodes. This process is expensive, as it requires miles of carrier
web to make the films. Therefore an alternative process to make thin,
corrugated elastomer films is required to make the DEAP technology
economically competitive with other actuator, generator and sensor
technologies. The hot-embossing process is one of the simplest, most
cost-effective and time saving alternative method for replicating microstructures on addition-curing PDMS films.
8687-92, Session PTue
Actuators based on intrinsic conductive
polymers/carbon nanoparticles
Sergio Bocchini, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia (Italy); Daisy
Accardo, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia (Italy) and Politecnico di
Torino (Italy); Mariangela Lombardi, Politecnico di Torino (Italy)
Return to Contents
Conference 8687: Electroactive Polymer Actuators
and Devices (EAPAD) XV
and Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia (Italy); Paolo Ariano, Istituto
Italiano di Tecnologia (Italy)
properties were examined and discussed. The methods to manipulate the
surface structure of Pt or Pd electrodes were proposed.
Highly conductivite and soluble polyaniline /carbon nanoparticles
nanocomposites have been successfully synthesized by in-situ chemical
oxidation polymerization using polyelectrolyte poly(styrenesulfonate)
(PSS) as surfactant agent and ammonium peroxodisulfate (APS) starting
from non-toxic N-phenil-p-phenylenediamine (aniline dimer) with a new
synthesis in emulsion. The use of surfactant agent allows the inclusion
of carbon nanoparticles such as carbon nanotubes and graphene that
was produced in-situ by graphene oxide reduction with the monomer
itself. The resulting nanocomposites show a higher conductivity due to
the synergism between conductive polymer and carbon nanoparticles.
Bimorph solid state ionic actuators were prepared with these novel
nanocomposites using different polymer membranes and a ionic liquid.
8687-95, Session PTue
Scalable low nDOF hp-FEM model of IPMC
David Pugal, Univ. of Nevada, Reno (United States); Alvo Aabloo,
Univ. of Tartu (Estonia); Kwang Jin J. Kim, Univ. of Nevada, Las
Vegas (United States)
IPMC actuation is described with a system of partial differential equations
– the Poisson’s equation, the Nernst-Planck equation, and the Navier’s
equations for the displacement field. In such systems, one physical field
can be very smooth while others are not. This can possibly result in very
large problem size in terms of number of degrees of freedom (nDOF)
when implemented with the finite element method (FEM). Furthermore,
finding an optimal mesh is challenging due to the fact that the physical
fields are time dependent. In order to overcome these deficiencies,
hp-FEM was used to solve the system of equations. The hp-FEM is a
modern version of the FEM that is capable of exponential convergence
(the approximation error drops exponentially as new degrees of freedom
are added during adaptivity). It is shown how the multi-meshing allows
reducing the problem size in terms of nDOF; also, how the solution
domain that describes IPMC can be scaled without a significant increase
in the nDOFs and solution time. The model was implemented in Hermes
that is a free hp-FEM solver.
The main novelties of this work are the production of polyaniline using
a new emulsion synthesis, the feasibility to obtain well-dispersed
polyaniline/carbon nanoparticles nanocomposites, the production of
graphene nanoparticles from graphene oxide without the use of further
reducing agents and new actuators based on the nanocomposites
8687-93, Session PTue
Kinetics evaluation of using biomimetic IPMC
actuators for stable bipedal locomotion
Milad Hosseinipour, Mohammad H. Elahinia, The Univ. of Toledo
(United States)
8687-98, Session PTue
Ionic conducting polymer-metal composites (IPMC) are revolutionary
actuators that can act as artificial muscles in many robotic and
microelectromechanical systems. The electrochemical-mechanical
behavior of these materials has been modeled by some black or gray box
models. An FEM solution to the governing partial differential equation
of IMPC and a 2D extension of the results using a thermostructural
model are already published. This model was employed to study the
stability of a bipedal gait on a seven degree of freedom IPMC-actuated
biped model. In this study the theoretical predictions of the FEM and
thermostructural models are first verified by experimental data. The
dynamic equations of motion of the bipedal gait are then solved to find
the internal forces and torques acting on the links. The feasibility of
using IPMCs as joint actuators is evaluated by considering the blocking
force and force-to-mass ratio limitation of these materials. This study will
complement the previous work by adding kinetic results to the kinematic
Development of an active isolation mat based
on dielectric elastomer stack actuators for
mechanical vibration cancellation
Roman Karsten, Helmut F. Schlaak, Technische Univ. Darmstadt
Nowadays, for active attenuation of mechanic vibrations on sensitive
devices usually voice-coil, pneumatic, or piezo-electric actuators
are used. The main disadvantages of these actuator types are high
complexity and costs and also high energy consumption.
A promising alternative is the use of dielectric elastomer stack actuators
(DESA). The dielectric elastomer actuator is built like a parallel plate
capacitor. It consists of two compliant electrodes and a soft silicone
in between which is used as a dielectric and as a return spring. High
strain and dynamics allow deploying DESA for active attenuation of low
frequencies up to 100 Hz. Higher frequencies are eliminated passively
due to the silicone damping behavior.
8687-94, Session PTue
The effects of electrode surface morphology
on the actuation performance of IPMC
This paper describes the development of an active isolation mat for
the cancelation of vibrations on sensitive devices with a mass of up to
500 g. Vertical disturbing vibrations are attenuated actively while planar
vibrations are damped passively. The dimensions of the investigated
mat are 200 x 200 x 25 mm3. The mat contains 5 DESA. Depending on
system’s requirements, the size of the mat and number of the actuators
can be easily changed.
Kwang Jin J. Kim, Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas (United States)
It is generally understood that increasing the specific surface area of the
electrodes of IPMC leads to improved electromechanical performance of
the material. Most physics based models compensate the effect of high
surface area of the electrodes by increasing both diffusion constant and
dielectric permittivity values, while using flat electrode approximation in
calculations. Herein, a model was developed to take into account the
shape and area of the electrodes. High surface area of the electrodes in
the model was achieved by generating Koch fractal structure – different
generation depths and both unidirectional and random directional
generations were studied. The preliminary calculations indicate that
increasing the generation depth of fractals, thus surface area of the
electrodes results in more overall transported charge during the actuation
process. Based on the model, the effect of the specific surface of the
electrodes on the electromechanical performance was experimentally
investigated. IPMCs with different Pt or Pd electrode structures were
prepared and their electromechanical, -chemical and mechanical
Return to Contents
The design and the optimization of the active isolation mat are realized
by Ansys FEM software. The best performance shows a DESA with air
cushion mounted on its circumference. The deployed DESA has 40 mm
electrode diameter and 50 layers. In this application the planar strain
of DESA is used. Within the mounting encased air increases static and
reduces dynamic stiffness. Experimental results show that the vibrations
with amplitudes up to 200 µm can be actively eliminated.
Conference 8687: Electroactive Polymer Actuators
and Devices (EAPAD) XV
8687-99, Session PTue
Strain-enhanced nanoparticle electrostrictive
polymer blends for actuator applications
DEAP technology has the potential to be used in a wide range of
applications. This poses the challenge to the DEAP component
manufacturers to develop components for a wide variety of products.
Danfoss Polypower A/S is developing a DEAP technology platform,
which can form the basis for a variety of DEAP technology products while
keeping complexity under control. High level product architecture has
been developed for the mechanical part of DEAP transducers, as the
foundation for platform development.
Boscij Pawlik, Christian Schirrmann, Kirstin Bornhorst, Florenta
Costache, Fraunhofer-Institut für Photonische Mikrosysteme
The electrostrictive poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene-1,1chlorofluoroethylene) – P(VDF-TrFE-CFE) terpolymer exhibits higher fieldinduced strain and larger dielectric constant (> 50) than most materials.
In this paper we show that the strain of this terpolymer can be increased
even more by mixing it with nanoparticles of high dielectric constant.
A generic description of a DEAP transducer forms the core of the high
level product architecture. This description breaks down the DEAP
transducer into organs that perform the functions that may be present in
a DEAP transducer. A physical instance of a DEAP transducer contains
a combination of the organs needed to fulfill the task of actuator, sensor,
and generation. Alternative principles for each organ allow the function of
the DEAP transducers to be changed, by basing the DEAP transducers
on a different combination of organ alternatives.
First, high dielectric constant nanoparticles such as BaTiO3 were
mixed with the terpolymer in different weight fractions. The blend’s
newly acquired properties, as compared to the polymer matrix, such
as crystallinity and phase transitions were analyzed by means of X-ray
diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC).
A model providing an overview of the high level product architecture has
been developed to support daily development and cooperation across
development teams.
We further examined the electric field-induced strain in thin films
made from terpolymer or nanoparticle / terpolymer blends. For this
examination, thin films were prepared by spin coating, they were
subsequently annealed and structured metallic electrodes were
deposited on both sides of the films to form an actuator-type structure.
To minimize the effects of nanoparticle clustering observed in the
nanoparticle / terpolymer blend thin film, an optimum annealing
temperature as well a minimum film thickness were deduced from
surface topology inspection using atomic force microscopy (AFM).
The platform approach has resulted in the first version of a DEAP
technology platform, on which multiple DEAP products can be based.
The contents of the platform have been the result of multi-disciplinary
development work at Danfoss PolyPower, as well as collaboration with
potential customers and research institutions. Initial results from applying
the platform on demonstrator design for potential applications are
Measurements of electric-field induced strain in these thin films were
carried out with a Michelson interferometric set-up. The results show
that, for the same applied electric field, the electrostrictive strain
increases with increasing the nanoparticle content in the blend.
8687-102, Session PTue
Fabrication of stable reduced-graphene
oxide dispersions in various media and their
transparent conductive electrode for the
dielectric elastomer actuators
The importance of these blends properties for micro-actuators design
and applications will be discussed.
8687-100, Session PTue
Chong Min Koo, Kyungho Min, Min Ho Kim, Il Jin Kim, Soon Man
Hong, Ji Young Jung, Won Jun Na, Korea Institute of Science
and Technology (Korea, Republic of)
Dielectric strength of elastomer membranes:
from electromechanical instability to bulk
In this presentation , we demonstrate an easy way to prepare a stable
reduced graphene oxide (RGO) dispersion in aqueous or organic
media by simple adjustment of the degree of reduction and pH of RGO
dispersion, and a subsequent fabrication of transparent conductive
RGO electrode for dielectric elastomer actuators using a spray coating
technique. RGOs were prepared using a hydrazine reducing agent from
graphene oxide (GO), which was oxidized from graphite via a modified
Hummers’ method. The degree of reduction determined the surface
properties, such as atomic composition, surface polarity and potential of
RGO platelets. In addition, pH significantly affected the surface potential
of graphene dispersion. The fine adjustment of degree of reduction
and pH of RGO dispersion made production of fine RGO dispersions in
aqueous, and organic media such as ethanol and DMF, possible without
any aid of dispersing agents. The stable RGO dispersion using volatile
ethanol medium provided a unique advantage to be spray-coated into
uniform transparent conductive RGO thin electrode films on various
dielectric elastomer substrates even at room temperature.
Alexander Kogler, Andreas Tröls, Richard Baumgartner, Rainer
Kaltseis, Reinhard Schwödiauer, Ingrid Graz, Siegfried G. Bauer,
Johannes Kepler Univ. Linz (Austria)
The dielectric strength of elastomers strongly depends on experimental
measurement conditions. We show here an experimental approach
to determine the dielectric strength of elastomer membranes. We
investigate the dielectric breakdown in pre-stretched dielectric
elastomers as a function of the stretch ratio. Without clamping the
membrane the breakdown is caused by the electromechanical pull-in
instability. Higher breakdown voltages are achieved by clamping the
pre-stretched elastomer membranes, coming closer to the materials
limited bulk breakdown. VHB and natural rubber are used as materials
for the breakdown study. We discuss and compare our measurements
with available experimental data and conclude that breakdown voltages
of dielectric elastomers are determined by experimental constraints.
Our results may find applications in the design of dielectric elastomers
actuators and energy harvesters and form the basis for theoretical
calculations of the maximum energy of conversion in dielectric elastomer
energy harvesting.
8687-103, Session PTue
Validated numerical simulation model of a
dielectric elastomer generator
8687-101, Session PTue
Florentine Foerster, Holger Moessinger, Helmut F. Schlaak,
Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany)
DEAP high-level product architecture
Dielectric elastomer generators (DEG) produce electrical energy by
converting mechanical to electrical energy. Efficient operation requires
homogeneous deformation of each single layer. However, by different
Tómas V. Gudlaugsson, Niels H. Mortensen, Technical Univ. of
Denmark (Denmark); Rahimullah Sarban, Danfoss PolyPower A/S
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Conference 8687: Electroactive Polymer Actuators
and Devices (EAPAD) XV
internal and external influences like supports or the shape of a DEG
deformation will be inhomogeneous and hence negatively affect the
generated electrical energy. Optimization of the deformation behavior
leads to improved efficiency of the DEG and thereby to higher energy
piezoelectric applications. However, the dissolution of cellulose is limited
by the high inter- and intra-molecular interactions via the hydroxyl
group. One of the novel cellulose solvent is 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium
Chloride (BMIM+Cl-) ionic liquid; it can be used in dissolving and
gelling a micro-crystalline cellulose. The thermal gravimetric analysis
shows the degradation of obtained BMIM+Cl- cellulosic gel revealing
both the degradation temperature of BMIM+Cl- and micro-crystalline
cellulose , implying the miscible state of the gel. To investigate 1-butyl-3methylimidazolium cation as an actuating ion, the dielectric permittivity
(?´r) measurement is used to investigate the polarizability of the gel.
?´r versus frequency indicates the domination of ionic polarization
over electronic polarization because the BMIM+Cl- cellulosic gel is
an ionic rich gel, especially with BMIM+ free cation. Attenuated total
reflectance incorporated Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATRFTIR) is used to investigate the distribution of DMAc bounded BMIM+
free cation showing stronger peaks of 1618, 1506, and 1402 cm-1. It
is suggested that the DMAc bounded BMIM+ free cation preferably
migrates towards the surface under 1 kV/mm of electric field strength,
proving the existence of polarizability. The polarizability of the BMIM+Clcellulosic gel is further confirmed by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM)
which provides the topological, electrostatic, and overlapped images.
They indicate the gel non-smooth surface, consisting of channels of the
BMIM+ cation agglomeration and agglomerated charges topology.
In this work a numerical simulation model of a dielectric elastomer
generator is developed using the FEM software ANSYS. The analyzed
multilayer DEG consists of 50 dielectric layers with layer thicknesses of
50 ?m. The elastomer is PDMS while the compliant electrodes are made
of graphite powder.
In the simulation the real material parameters of the PDMS and the
graphite electrodes need to be included. Therefore, the mechanical
and electrical material parameters of the PDMS are determined
by experimental investigations of test samples while the electrode
parameters are determined by numerical simulations of test samples.
The numerical simulation of the DEG is carried out as a coupled electromechanical simulation for the three different energy harvesting cycles:
constant charges, constant voltage and constant field.
Finally, the derived numerical simulation model is validated by
comparison with electro-mechanical characterization results of the real
DEG and analytical calculations. First comparisons of the determined
results show good accordance with regard to the deformation of the
Based on the validated model it is now possible to optimize the DEG
layout for improved deformation behavior.
8687-106, Session PTue
A comparison study of ionic polymer-metal
composites (IPMCs) fabricated with Nafion
and other ion exchange membranes and their
suggested applications
8687-104, Session PTue
Silver nanowires embedded gel electrodes
Yuta Abe, Jin Gong, Hidemitsu Furukawa, Yamagata Univ.
Jiyeon J. Park, Viljar Palmre, Univ. of Nevada, Reno (United
States); Kwang Jin J. Kim, Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas (United
States); Dongsuk Shin, Department of Bioengineering, Rich
University (United States); Daniel H Kim, Memorial Hermann
Health System, Department of Neurosurgery, University of Texas
(United States)
In recent years, organic electronic devices have achieved the tremendous
development. Organic light-emitting diodes (OLED) are famous organic
electronic devices. OLED have been widely used in our life, mostly in
displays of smartphones and illuminations. In addition, OLED also have
promising applications in new fields of solar panels, wearable display,
and so on. However, currently indium tin oxide (ITO) is often used to
make electrode of the organic electronic devices, and ITO has two main
disadvantages of expensive and hard. Many researchers have made
various efforts to improve the performance of the electrode. In particular,
it has been reported that single-walled carbon nanotubes electrode was
prepared successfully which having better performances compared to
ITO electrode. However, their electric conductivity is not enough high to
drive the large-scale organic electronic devices. In this study, we aimed
to develop flexible polymer gel electrode consisting of silver nanowires.
Firstly, we synthesized silver nanowires by using polyvinylpyrrolidon(PVP),
potassium bromide(KBr), ethylene glycol(EG), silver chloride(AgCl), silver
nitrate(AgNO3) as materials. Secondly, we observed morphology of silver
nanowires by scanning electron microscope. Finally, flexible conductive
films were developed by introducing silver nanowires into polymer gels,
and we measured their mechanical properties and electric conductivity.
Silver-nanowire electrode is considered that it can be granted a high
conductivity and flexibility. We expect the flexible and conductive gel
films have quite new applications in many new fields like health and care,
robot, mechanical engineering, ect.
Ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMCs) have been and still are one of
the candidates with a huge potential to be used as an actuator. So far,
the most commonly used ion exchange membrane is Nafion and many
studies have been conducted with it for IPMC applications. There are
a number of commercially available ion exchange membranes in the
market besides nafion, but only a few to none studies have been done
on those membranes to be used in IPMC. Therefore, in this study, three
other commercially available membranes, (1) CMI7000S (Membranes
International Inc.) and (2) fumapem F-14100 (fumatech) are selected to be
used in the fabrication of IPMCs and their performances are compared
to nafion by carrying out various characterizations such as DSC, Ionic
Exchange Capacity (IEC), displacement measurement, and more. In
addition, the downside of one of properties of nafion is that it limits its
performance at the temperature higher than 100 ºC. Hence, those listed
membranes are tested at high temperature and observed if they bring out
better performance at higher temperature than nafion and can potentially
broaden the field of IPMC applications.
8687-107, Session PTue
8687-105, Session PTue
Sulfonated styrenic pentablock copolymer/
silicate nanocomposite membranes and their
IPMC transducers
Polarizability investigation of 1-butyl-3methylimidazolium cation in electroactive
ionic liquid-cellulose gel actuator
Chong Min Koo, Jang-Woo Lee, Seunggun Yu, Soon Man Hong,
Il Jin Kim, Jin Hong Lee, Santosh Yadav, Korea Institute of
Science and Technology (Korea, Republic of)
Wissawin Kunchornsup, Anuvat Sirivat, Chulalongkorn Univ.
A novel ionic thermoplastic elastomer, poly((t-butyl-styrene)-b-(ethylener-propylene)-b-(styrene-r-styrene sulfonate)-b-(ethylene-r-propylene)b-(t-butyl-styrene)) (tBS-EP-SS-EP-tBS; SSPB) pentablock copolymer,
Due to internal rotation of the polar atomic groups and noncentrosymmetry of its molecules, cellulose can be utilized towards
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Conference 8687: Electroactive Polymer Actuators
and Devices (EAPAD) XV
8687-28, Session 7
and its nanocomposites with sulfonated montmorillonite (s-MMT) have
been investigated as polymer electrolytes for ionic polymer-metal
composite (IPMC) actuators. The SSPB pentablock copolymer formed
a well-defined microphase-separated nanodomain morphology on the
several tens nanometer scale. Selectively sulfonated styrene (SS) middle
blocks formed ionic conduction channels through which mobile ions are
transported. The functionalized MMTs were homogeneously distributed in
the SSPB/s-MMT nanocomposites and had the intercalated morphology.
The resulting SSPB and SSPB/s-MMT nanocomposite IPMCs revealed
not only higher tensile moduli but also higher ionic conductivities than
conventional Nafion polymer electrolyte IPMCs. Among the IPMCs,
the SSPB/s-MMT nanocomposite-based IPMCs with the developed
morphology registered the best actuation performance in terms of
bending displacement and blocking force, comparable to a typical
Modeling of mechanical properties of stack
actuators based on electroactive polymers
Dominik Tepel, Christian Graf, Jürgen Maas, Ostwestfalen-Lippe
Univ. of Applied Sciences (Germany)
Dielectric elastomers are thin polymer films belonging to the class
of electroactive polymers, which are coated with compliant and
conductive electrodes on each side. Due to the influence of an electrical
field, dielectric elastomers perform a large amount of deformation.
Because single-layer actuator films are not suitable for the positioning
applications, novel energy-efficient multilayer-actuators are utilized to
enlarge the displacement and force at a consistent high strain. In the
multilayer-technology many actuator films are connected mechanically
in series, building up a stack actuator, which elongates in the case of a
charged EAP capacitance. The contribution of this paper is to present a
model of the mechanical behavior of the actuator.
8687-124, Session PTue
Improvement of foamed ionic polymer metal
composites actuator
At first a holistic electromechanical model of a single actuator film
and a stack actuator without constraints is derived. To enable a linear
positioning and a force transmission when embedding the stack actuator
into a mechanical system, stiff end caps are mounted on the upper
and lower side. Due to these stiff end caps bulges occur at the free
surfaces of the EAP-material, which are calculated and considered in
the model for a round and rectangular stack acutuator geometry. Based
on the calculation of the lateral bulges, the strain of each stacked film
is calculated for the round stack actuator geometry. Finally the analytic
actuator film model as well as the stack actuator model are validated by
comparing them to numerical FEM-models in ANSYS.
Chuljin Kim, Kyung Soo Lee, Byung Chul Kweon, Sung Woon
Cha, Young-Pil Park, Yonsei Univ. (Korea, Republic of)
In order to improve the actuation performance, the foamed IPMC was
carried out researches on. The foamed IPMC is manufactured from
the foamed membrane with micro-sized cells that are formed by the
microcellular foaming process (MFPs). The MFPs is a technology that
forms micro-sized cells in the plastics. Traditionally, in order to increase
the driving force, the method of increasing the thickness of IPMC is
widely used. Thick Nafion is fabricated by the casting process and
foamed. With the increase of the thickness, the change of the foaming
characteristic is researched. The optimal condition to of making the foam
is found and the correlation between the performance and the thickness
are researched.
8687-29, Session 7
Electrical modeling of dielectric elastomer
stack transducers
Henry Haus, Marc Matysek, Holger Moessinger, Helmut F.
Schlaak, Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany)
8687-27, Session 7
Fast miniaturized and manufacturable µmto cm-scale dielectric elastomer actuators
(Invited Paper)
Dielectric elastomer stack transducers (DEST) with up to 100 layers
are fabricated in an automated process. While the dielectric layers are
homogeneously spin coated films the electrodes are fabricated by spray
coating conductive particles. Consequently, the electrodes cannot be
assumed as ideal as a continuous electrode. The resulting electrical field
driving the actuator will strongly depend on the distribution of conductive
Herbert R. Shea, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne
We report on recent work at the EPFL-LMTS on arrays of miniaturized
dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) with kHz response. Our goal is
highly integrated flexible systems with dozens to thousands of distributed
fast actuators and sensors, with feature sizes down to a few µm to
enable complex systems such as A4-sized haptic (braille) screens with
rapid refresh rates or reconfigurable microfluidic chips.
First we show the influence of the particle concentration in the electrode
area on the resulting electrical field distribution. Parameters like film
thicknesses, particle size and local distribution of conductive material are
considered. As a result we conclude fabrication requirements allowing to
drive the actuator efficiently.
In a second step we expand this model to a multi-layer system. We
derive an expression describing the system’s dynamical behavior as a
function of fabrication (layout, sheet and interconnection resistance),
material (breakdown strength, permittivity) and driving (voltage)
Our first emphasis is on careful material choice for the elastomer
membrane and for the electrode material to achieve both high strain
(80%) and also millisecond response time. We report on different
silicones and compare compliant electrodes fabricated by low-energy
ion-implantation and by a stamping technique with a carbon powder
– PDMS composite. We conclude which combination offers the best
strain, lack of viscoelasticity (mechanical quality factor), patternability and
manufacturability for different applications.
To be able to validate the model we need to properly characterize
actuators. Besides established methods for external characteristics
like the frequency response we use new methods to determine internal
parameters like the resistance of the interconnections which can heavily
influence the actuator’s performance.
We then discuss the important role uniaxial and biaxial pre-strain has on
silicone devices, in allowing much larger uniaxial strain by anisotropically
stiffening the elastomer and in increasing electrical breakdown field.
Finally, we validate the model by comparing theoretical results
with electro-mechanically measurements of different sample stack
transducers. We see good coherence for our electrical model.
Furthermore, the method to determine the interconnection resistance
delivers results which correspond to the observed behavior.
We present a wide range of different DEA devices we have fabricated,
based on 10 to 60 µm thick membranes of different silicones. We present
our latest data on arrays of µm scale devices to apply mechanical strain
to biological cells, arrays of micropumps for chip-scale fluid pumping,
using a zipping-type actuators, tunable lenses, miniaturized DEA rotary
motor, and an optimized minimum energy structure bending actuator for
soft robotics used as a compliant grabbing system.
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Conference 8687: Electroactive Polymer Actuators
and Devices (EAPAD) XV
8687-30, Session 7
Kepler Univ. Linz (Austria)
Modelling of dielectric elastomer
loudspeakers including dissipative effects
8687-31, Session 7
Dielectric elastomer actuators are considered as promising candidates
for robotic elements (Anderson et al., J Appl Phys, 2012). To this end,
planar dielectric elastomer actuators (p-DEAs) and dielectric elastomer
minimum energy structures (DEMES) are applicable. However, the
knowledge of their electrical and mechanical characteristics is of major
importance for engineering. Therefore we study p-DEAs and DEMES
by impedance spectroscopy and dynamic capacitive extensometry
(DCE). The boundary conditions with regard to p-DEAs (free and fixed
boundaries) and the electrode material (carbon black powder, silicone oil
– carbon black powder mixture) are varied. DCE is an electrical technique
for in situ monitoring of the actuators during dynamic high voltage
actuation (Buchberger et al., Proc I2MTC, 2012). DCE was developed
based on works of Gisby et al. (Proc SPIE, 2011) and Keplinger et al.
(Appl Phys Lett, 2008). The electrical characteristics of the p-DEAs and
DEMES are related to their transient stretch in response to high voltage
driving signals. We present electrical equivalent circuit models of the
actuators, the frequency ranges in which they are applicable and effects
of aging on the equivalent circuit models. By DCE we study the transient
viscoelastic stretch response of the actuators, the state of the compliant
electrodes and their percolation limit, the response time of the actuators
and their movement behavior. By this measurement data p-DEAs and
DEMES can be compared. Furthermore we give information about the
power consumption of the fabricated actuators. In future we plan to
measure the influence of temperature on the equivalent circuit models.
Modeling of roll-actuators based on
electroactive polymers
8687-33, Session 7
Benny Lassen, Univ. of Southern Denmark (Denmark)
This contribution presents a theoretically investigation of dielectric
elastomer loudspeakers similar in design to the loudspeakers studied at
SRI International more than 10 years ago. Additionally the more recent
designs suggested by Christian Graf and Jürgen Maas are considered.
The main emphasis of the contribution is on the effect of dissipative
effects, specifically viscoelastic effects and radiative losses.
The starting point of the theoretical model is a free-energy description
and include hyper-elastic contributions. In the designs considered in
this work the dielectric elastomer material is subject pre-strain which
has been applied either by subjecting the membrane to an applied
back pressure, or simply applying a biaxial mechanical pre-strain. The
membrane is then actuated relative to this pre-strain by the application
of an applied ac voltage. The nonlinear equations are linearized around
the given pre-strain in order to perform relatively fast calculations of the
mechanical impedance of the structure.
Novel silicone compatible cross-linkers
for controlled functionalization of PDMS
Thorben Hoffstadt, Christian Graf, Jürgen Maas, OstwestfalenLippe Univ. of Applied Sciences (Germany)
Dielectric electroactive polymers are thin films made of elastomeric
material coated with compliant and conductive electrodes. Since they
offer a large amount of deformation these materials have high potential
for actuator- and also generator-applications.
Anne L. Skov, Frederikke Bahrt Madsen, Anders Egede
Daugaard, Søren Hvilsted, Technical Univ. of Denmark (Denmark)
By winding up an EAP-film a roll-actuator can be realized, which
elongates axially, if the EAP’s capacitance is charged electrically. The
contribution of this paper is related to the modeling of the mechanical
and electrical behavior of this actuator-type to obtain a coupled model.
Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is one of the most used materials for
DEAP applications due to its good thermal stability, high efficiency
and fast response [1]. To obtain high actuation strain of DEAPs, the
activation voltage is in general too high for many practical applications.
One method to lower the activation voltage is to increase the dielectric
permittivity of the elastomer. This work presents new functional PDMS
materials for DEAP applications with increased dielectric permittivity.
The permittivity is enhanced by grafting of functionalities such as
dipoles to a novel silicone compatible cross-linker. This novel crosslinker allows for orthogonal chemistry and contains both vinyl groups
for cross-linking reactions with hydride-terminated PDMS and an azide
functionality that opens up for click reactions. In this case, the coppercatalyzed cycloaddition of an azide group and an alkyne (CuAAC) forming
a 1,4-disubstituted-1,2,3-triazole [2,3]. Incorporation of functionality
at the cross-linking point allows for controlled and well distributed
modification of the PDMS network. Even very small loadings, e.g. 1
wt%, of incorporated dipoles have led to a large increase in the dielectric
The hyperelastic material properties are considered within the mechanical
model, which is based on the calculation of the Cauchy-stresses
depending on the strain of the material. Besides the Cauchy-stresses the
electrostatic pressure caused by the charge on EAP’s capacitance have
to be considered. This stress is obtained from the electrical model, which
besides of the capacitance consists of a resistance in parallel, describing
the non-ideal insulating behavior of the polymer, and a series resistance,
taking into account that the electrode is not ideal conducting.
Since the electrical parameters and therefore the electrostatic pressure
also depend on the strain of the actuator, the mechanical and electrical
model can be combined so that a electromechanically coupled dynamic
model is obtained, which calculates the actuator force depending on the
strain and the applied electrical voltage.
The derived model is based on idealized conditions regarding the
actuator setup, which will cause deviations between the model and a
realized actuator. Therefore electrical and mechanical boundary effects
are explained and implemented finally.
(1) Brochu, P.; Pei, Q. Macromolecular rapid communications 2010, 31,
(2) Meldal, M. Macromolecular Rapid Communications 2008, 29,
8687-32, Session 7
(3) Binder, W. H.; Sachsenhofer, R. Macromolecular Rapid
Communications 2008, 29, 952–981.
A comparison of the electromechanical
characteristics of dielectric elastomer
minimum energy structures (DEMES) and
planar dielectric elastomer actuators
8687-34, Session 8
Novel silicone elastomer formulations for
Gerda Buchberger, Juergen Schoeftner, Bernhard Mayrhofer,
Siegfried G. Bauer, Bernhard Jakoby, Wolfgang Hilber, Johannes
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Mohamed Y. Benslimane, Danfoss PolyPower A/S (Denmark);
Anca G Bejenariu, Anne L. Skov, Technical Univ. of Denmark
Conference 8687: Electroactive Polymer Actuators
and Devices (EAPAD) XV
8687-38, Session 8
We demonstrate that the force output and work density of
polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) based dielectric elastomer transducers
without any prestretch can be significantly enhanced by the addition of
high permittivity titanium dioxide nanoparticles which was also shown
by Stoyanov et al[1] but for pre-stretched elastomers. Furthermore
the novel elastomer matrix is optimized to give very high breakdown
strengths. We obtain an increase in the dielectric permittivity of a factor
of approximately 2 with a loading of 12% TiO2 particles compared to the
pure modified silicone elastomer with breakdown strengths remaining
more or less unaffected by the loading of TiO2 particles. Breakdown
strengths were measured in the range from approximately 80-150 V/
µm with averages of the order of 120-130 V/µm for the modified silicone
elastomer with loadings ranging from 0 to 12%.
Fast triggering of instabilities in balloon
membranes by dielectric elastomer actuators
Richard Baumgartner, Alexander Kogler, Johannes Kepler Univ.
Linz (Austria); Choon Chiang Foo, Harvard Univ. (United States);
Rainer Kaltseis, Johannes Kepler Univ. Linz (Austria); Christoph
Keplinger, Zhigang Suo, Harvard Univ. (United States); Siegfried
G. Bauer, Johannes Kepler Univ. Linz (Austria)
Balloons are known to show a mechanical snap-through instability.
We present theory and experiment to show that the instability can be
triggered remotely by a dielectric elastomer membrane to safely harness
giant voltage-triggered deformation. We mount a dielectric elastomer
membrane and a passive balloon membrane on a chamber of suitable
volume into a stage near the verge of the mechanical balloon instability.
By applying suitable voltages to the dielectric elastomer membrane
actuator bistable operation of the balloon is achieved. The dielectric
elastomer actuator is working in a safe regime above the snap-through
instability and well below the breakdown voltage. The balloon instability
is fast due to the use of low viscoelastic natural rubber. VHB is used for
the dielectric elastomer actuator. We demonstrate bistable operation with
small and large volumes of the rubber balloon and have achieved large
volume changes around 1600% at frequencies up to 9 Hz. The remote
operation of the balloon actuator suggests applications in Braille and
haptic displays when miniaturized. There is also potential to use the large
volume changes for the movement of soft robots.
[1] Hristiyan Stoyanov, Paul Brochu, Xiaofan Niu, Enrico Della Gaspera,
and Qibing Pei: Dielectric elastomer transducers with enhanced force
output and work density: Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 262902 (2012)
8687-35, Session 8
Snap through instability of dielectric
elastomers coupling polarization saturation
and strain stiffening
Liwu Liu, Yanju Liu, Jinsong Leng, Harbin Institute of Technology
When a dielectric elastomer with randomly oriented dipoles is subject to
an electric field, the dipoles will rotate to and align with the electric field.
The polarization of the dielectric elastomer may be saturated when the
voltage is high enough. In a dielectric elastomer, each individual polymer
chain has a finite contour length. When subjected to a mechanical
force, the end-to-end distance of each polymer chain increases and
eventually approaches the finite contour length, setting up a limiting
stretch. On approaching the limiting stretch, the elastomer stiffens
steeply. We develop a thermodynamic constitutive model of dielectric
elastomers undergoing polarization saturation and strain-stiffening,
which include both nonlinear elastic and dielectric behavior. Analytical
solutions have been obtained for situations incorporating strain-stiffening
effect and polarization saturation effect. The numerical results reveal
the marked influence of the extension limit and polarization saturation
limit of elastomer material on its snap through instability. The developed
thermodynamic constitutive model would be helpful in future to the
research of dielectric elastomer based high-performance transducers.
8687-109, Session 8
Multilayer stack actuator made from new
prestrain-free dielectric elastomers
Xiaofan Niu, Wei Hu, David McCoul, Hristiyan Stoyanov, Paul
Brochu, Qibing Pei, Univ. of California, Los Angeles (United
Dielectric elastomers have attracted increasing attention for basic
research and product development. However, the best performing
materials reported so far are commercial products manufactured for
unrelated applications. Prestretching is commonly employed to obtain
high actuation strain and energy density. The limited knowledge of
the polymers’ chemical structure makes it difficult to re-formulate the
polymers for significantly improved overall material performance. We
report to the synthesis of new acrylate-based dielectric elastomers
that exhibit high actuation strain without prestretrching. Mixtures of
commercial acrylate monomers and other additives are copolymerized
by UV-initiated radical polymerization to form thin dielectric elastomer
membranes. The processing is readily scaled up to fabricate multilayer
stacked actuators with 10% linear actuation strain.
8687-37, Session 8
Effects of filler modification and structuring
on dielectric enhancement of silicone rubber
8687-39, Session 9
Mehdi Razzaghi-Kashani, Sara Javadi, Tarbiat Modares Univ.
(Iran, Islamic Republic of)
Field-distribution in EAP-transducers with
diagonal-edge contacts
Addition of particulate fillers such as Silica or Titania improves dielectric
properties of silicone rubber. Modification of filler surfaces enhances
dielectric permittivity of silicone rubber as well as possibility of structuring
filler particles in the direction of an applied electric field. By modification
and structuring fillers in the polymer matrix dielectric properties of the
composite changes to a great extent. It was shown that although Titania
has much higher dielectric permittivity than Silica, they perform similarly
in this regard since the dominant mechanism in improving dielectric
properties and structuring of filler particles is the inter-facial polarization
rather than intrinsic properties of filler.
Christian Graf, Thorben Hoffstadt, Jürgen Maas, OstwestfalenLippe Univ. of Applied Sciences (Germany)
Dielectric electroactive polymers are soft capacitors made of thin elastic
and electrically isolating films coated with compliant and conductive
electrodes, which belong to a new class of smart materials, whose
functional principle is based on electrostatic forces. They can either be
used as actuators to provide considerable stretch ratios or as generators
to convert mechanical strain energy into electrical energy based on
an electrostatic energy converter concept. Since the polymer material
and also the covering compliant electrodes have non-ideal electrical
properties, such as, respectively, finite resistivity and conductivity,
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Conference 8687: Electroactive Polymer Actuators
and Devices (EAPAD) XV
design rules are usually required to optimize the devices. The electrode
conductivity combined with the polymer resistivity causes a voltage
drop along the electrode surface, reducing the energy gain in case of
energy harvesting applications or actuation force in case of actuator
to anisotropic strain profile. To validate the theoretical analysis, we have
fabricated 2 x 2 mm2 actuators by patterning perpendicular compliant
electrodes on both layers of a silicone elastomer using a pad printer.
The elastomeric membrane is prestretched with different ratios and the
effect of isotropic and anisotropic prestretch is investigated on device’s
performance. The maximum actuation strain is increased more than 10
folds by uniaxially prestretching the silicone membrane compared to a
nonstretched membrane.
In a previous contribution, it could be shown that the voltage drop can
be calculated analytically in the case of opposite contacts with respect
to the axis of film thickness. For this case, important design rules for
the optimal placement of electrode contacts were derived. However, the
technically important option with diagonal contacts with respect to the
axis of film thickness has not been considered. Therefore, an equivalent
network model has been developed to calculate the voltage distribution.
The detailed modeling approach and simulation results will be presented
in the final paper. Based on this model, it is possible to derive design
rules for the electrodes of generators and actuators in order to increase
the EAP transducer performance.
8687-42, Session 9
Enhancement of the dielectric properties of
dielectric elastomers by Janus particle fillers
Hsinyu Chen, City College of New York (United States)
Dielectric elastomers respond to an electric field by changing their shape
due to electrostatic attraction within the elastomer. Because they are
flexible, affordable, and easily-fabricated, they are good candidates for
electro-mechanical materials. The electromechanical mechanism of
dielectric elastomers is described by the Maxwell equation that relates
the elastic and dielectric properties of the material. However, most
polymers exhibit a low Young’s modulus coupled with a low dielectric
constant. Thus, high dielectric constant fillers are used to solve this
8687-40, Session 9
Uncertainty quantification and stochasticbased viscoelastic modeling of finite
deformation elastomers
William S. Oates, The Florida State Univ. (United States); Paul
Miles, Grove City College (United States); Michael Hays, The
Florida State Univ. (United States); Ralph C. Smith, North
Carolina State Univ. (United States)
Silica particles carry a slight negative charge on their surface when
immersed in an aqueous electrolyte and as a result responded to an
electric field. In our studies, we have modified silica particles with a
neutral thin gold layer on one hemisphere. Due to the discontinuous
surface charge, these modified silica Janus particles can be aligned in
an E-field when dispersed in an elastomer, resulting in the generation
of a highly localized dipole moment that efficiently enhances the overall
dielectric constant of the material. In addition, we have observed that
the Janus modification leads to a reduction of the conduction loss of
the composite compared to the increased loss when other conductive
materials are used as fillers.
Model uncertainty is a well known issue in formulating continuum scale
models based on the unknown molecular and microstructure evolution in
large deformation elastomers. The quantification of a stochastic model
that includes probability distributions of critical underlying molecular
constitutive behavior is not trivial. This is particularly challenging
in identifying rate-dependent deformation over a broad range of
deformation rates. To address this problem, a Bayesian statistical
analysis is applied to modeling the viscoelastic behavior of an elastomer
material commonly used in smart structure applications, VHB 4910.
Probability distributions are identified using simplified viscoelastic
model assumptions and a Bayesian statistical analysis. The probability
distributions for individual stretch rates are then used to construct a
total distribution describing the viscoelastic behavior. We show that by
incorporating these probability distributions into a stochastic based
homogenized viscoelastic model, excellent fits to the constitutive
behavior are obtained in comparison to uniaxial experiments when the
model is coupled to an Ogden hyperelastic stress.
In our research, silica Janus particles are mixed with an EGPEA monomer
precursor. The cured p(EGPEA) are swelled with toluene, which leads to
an enlargement of the polymer matrix. Then, an electric field is used to
align the Janus particles within the swollen matrix. The cap alignment
and rotation of the Janus particles is monitored using optical microscopy.
The p(EGPEA) actuators with aligned Janus particles have very high
dielectric constants, resulting in a high compressive strain when an
external electric field is applied.
8687-43, Session 9
8687-41, Session 9
More than 10-fold increase in the actuation
strain of dielectric elastomer actuators
Very-high breakdown field strength for
dielectric elastomer actuators quenched in
dielectric liquid bath
Samin Akbari, Samuel Rosset, Herbert R. Shea, Ecole
Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (Switzerland)
Thanh Giang La, Gih-Keong Lau, Nanyang Technological Univ.
Prestretching the elastomer is a known technique to enhance the
actuation strain of dielectric elastomer actuators as it thins down the
membrane and suppresses the instability mode. This is reasonable for
VHB based elastomers sold with predefined initial thickness. But with
silicone elastomers, any thickness can be manufactured and the desired
final thickness of the device determines the initial thickness before
prestretching. In this case, biaxially prestretching is a disadvantage, as
it stiffens the hyperelastic membrane and increases the required voltage
to reach the same actuation strain of a device with a nonstretched
membrane. In this paper, with theoretical modeling, we explain that
uniaxial prestretching is the effective technique to enhance the actuation
strain of dielectric elastomer actuators with predefined device thickness.
The membrane stiffens in direction of prestretch and remains soft in the
other direction, leading to higher actuation strain in the nonstretched
direction and smaller strain in the prestretched direction. This also leads
Dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) are prone to premature failure at a
lower driving voltage, as compared to the ultimate breakdown voltage,
which limits the work life and the actuation performance. Prestretch
was well-known to increase the breakdown strength of elastomers by
preventing pull-in instability, during which the actuated dielectric film lost
tension and buckles. However, dielectric film may fails beyond the pull-in
voltage. It remains a question if DEAs could survive the pull-in instability.
In this work, we showed that DEAs, which were immersed in a silicone oil
bath ((Dow Corning Fluid 200 50cSt).), can survive the pull-instability and
operates beyond the pull-in voltage. Membrane DEAs (VHB4905), which
were pre-stretched biaxially at 200% strain and immersed in the oil bath,
sustained a very high electric field (>800 MV/m) without breakdown, and
they demonstrated areal strains up to 140%. The achieved field strength
in the immersion is approximately two times larger than that in the air
(450 MV/m). This is achieved because the dielectric liquid bath help to
quench the localized electrical breakdown, which would have discharged
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Conference 8687: Electroactive Polymer Actuators
and Devices (EAPAD) XV
sparks and burnt dielectric film in the air. The oil immersion promises to
extend the safe operation of DEA up to a very high electric field.
a broad range of frequency and temperature. We focus on the influence
of pre-stretch in the change of the dielectric constant. An originality of
this study is related to the significant influence of the nature of compliant
electrodes deposited on these elastomers. Additionally, the electrical
breakdown field of these two elastomers has been studied as a function
of pre-stretch and temperature. Lastly, thanks to these experiments,
analytic equations have been proposed to take into account the influence
of the temperature, the pre-stretch and the nature of the compliant
electrodes on the permittivity. These analytic equations and the electrical
breakdown field were embedded in a thermodynamic model making it
possible to define new limits of operation closer to the real use of these
elastomers for energy harvesting applications.
8687-44, Session 9
Optimized flexible electrode for EAP
(electroactive polymer)
Junman Lee, Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science &
Technology (Korea, Republic of); Sangryeoul Ryu, Dongjoo Lee,
Yeungnam Univ. (Korea, Republic of); Hongsoo Choi, Daegu
Gyeongbuk Institute of Science & Technology (Korea, Republic
8687-46, Session 10
Electrochemistry of electromechanical
actuators based on carbon nanotubes and
ionic liquids (Invited Paper)
In this paper, the optimized flexible electrode was studied for electro EAP
(electro-active polymer).
Not only an electrode but also elastomer determines the properties of
EAP. The electrode should have a low modulus and electrical resistance.
Kinji Asaka, Ken Mukai, Takushi Sugino, National Institute of
Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (Japan); Hyacinthe
Randriamahazaka, Univ. Paris 7-Denis Diderot (France); Toribio
Fernández Otero, Univ. Politécnica de Cartagena (Spain)
Typically, the conductive grease and rubber were used for electrode,
however the conductive grease has a problem for molding and the case
of conductive rubber is difficult for extension.
Therefore, in this paper the electrode with low electrical resistance, easy
flexibility and extension is developed.
In this paper, we have developed electrochemical equivalent circuit
model of the electromechanical actuator composed of the ionic liquid
(IL) gel electrolyte layer sandwiched by the electrode layers based on
single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and ILs (bucky-gel actuator).
The model is composed of the resistance of ionic gel electrolyte layer
and the impedance of electrode layer. The electrode impedance is
the transmission line circuit composed of a distributed double-layer
capacitance, a distributed Faraday impedance of redox reaction and a
distributed resistance of ion-conductive pore. The electrochemical model
can be applied to the electromechanical effect only due to the electric
double-layer (DL) charging, or due to both the DL charging and redox
reaction of SWNTs.
First, the flexible silicone rubber was made by adding the RTV (room
temperature vulcanization) thinner.
Second, to provide the conductivity for flexible silicone rubber both the
conductive CB (carbon black) and MWCNT (multi-walled carbon nanotube) were filled. The carbon particles were dispersed with an overhead
stirrer and ultrasonic device.
The mechanical (modulus, elongation) and electrical (surface and
volume resistance) properties of the flexible electrode were investigated
The experimental results showed that the electrical resistance decreases
with increasing CB and MWCNT content compared to the pure silicone
We have found that the electromechanical response of the bucky-gel
actuator is originated by the dimensional changes of both electrode
layers due to the electric double-layer charging on the surface of the
SWNTs. We have also found that the redox reaction of the SWNTs
contributes to the electromechanical effect of the bucky-gel actuator
under appropriate conditions. We carried out the electromechanical
measurements and electrochemical impedance measurement of the
bucky gel actuators. The proposed model was compared with the
experimental results.
The modulus of optimized flexible electrode was 0.05 MPa when the CB
content, MWCNT content, and thinner content is 20 phr, 2.5 phr, and
80 phr, respectively. And the surface resistance of that was 100 ? at the
same condition.
The actuating capability of the EAP with optimized flexible electrode was
confirmed using the 3M 4910 elastomer.
It is believed that the EAP based on flexible electrodes are expected a
field of applications in artificial muscles, artificial skin, artificial hearts, etc.
8687-47, Session 10
8687-45, Session 9
Development of piezoresistive PVDFnanocomposites for strain sensing
New operating limits for applications with
electroactive elastomer: effects of the drift of
the permittivity and the electrical breakdown
Reza Rizvi, Hani E. Naguib, Univ. of Toronto (Canada); Elaine
Biddiss, Holland Bloorview (Canada)
Cong Thanh Vu, G2Elab (France); Claire Jean-Mistral, Institut
National des Sciences Appliquées de Lyon (France); Alain
Sylvestre, G2Elab (France)
The emergence of novel electronic systems and their requirements
have necessitated the evolution of new material classes. The traditional
electronic semiconductors and components are shifting from silicon
based substrates to polymers and other organic compounds. Sensor
components are no exceptions, where compliant polymeric materials
offer the possibility of flexible electronics. This paper examines the
fabrication and characterization of piezoresistive nanocomposites
for strain sensing applications. The matrix material employed was
Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF). The PVDF phase was reinforced
with conductive particles, in order to form a conductive filler network
throughout the nanocomposite. Multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNT),
graphene nanoplatelets (GNP) and carbon black (CB) were chosen
as conductive particles to form the networks. The composites were
prepared by melt mixing the PVDF and conductive particles in
compositions ranging from 0.5 to 26 wt% conductive particle in PVDF.
Dielectric elastomer generators are a promising solution to scavenge
energy from human motion, due to their lightweight, high efficiency, low
cost and high energy density. Performance of a dielectric elastomer used
in a generator application is generally evaluated by the maximum energy
which can be converted. This energy is defined by an area of allowable
states and delimited by different failure modes such as: electrical
breakdown, loss of tension, mechanical rupture and electromechanical
instability, which depend deeply on dielectric behaviors of the material.
However, there is controversy on the dielectric constant (permittivity)
of usual elastomers used for these applications. This paper aims to
investigate the dielectric behaviors of two popular dielectric elastomers:
VHB 4910 (3M) and Polypower (Danfoss). This study is undertaken on
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Conference 8687: Electroactive Polymer Actuators
and Devices (EAPAD) XV
The dielectric permittivity and electrical conductivity of the composites
was characterized and the electrical percolation behavior of PVDF
nanocomposites fitted to the statistical percolation model. Scanning
electron and atomic force microscopy were employed to understand
the morphology of the filler networks in the nanocomposites. Quasistatic piezoresistance of the nanocomposites was characterized using
a custom-built force-resistance measurement setup under compressive
and tensile loading conditions.
artificial sphincter applications.
[1] J. Köser, S. Gaiser, B. Müller, European Cells and Materials, 21, 479487 (2011).
8687-50, Session 10
Fabrication of shape-memory nanofibers by
electrospinning method
8687-48, Session 10
Fenghua Zhang, Zhichun Zhang, Yanju Liu, Jinsong Leng, Harbin
Institute of Technology (China)
Improving dry carbon nanotube actuators
by chemical modifications, material
hybridization, and proper engineering (Invited
Nafion as a promising material is considered in lots of fields involving
functional composite materials, sensors and actuators, smart textiles and
so on. Nanofiber having shape memory effect is a novel smart material.
The fiber spinning technique of electrospinning is optimized in order to
prepare unidirectional aligned, structurally oriented, and mechanically
useful fibers with diameters in the nanoscale range. Nanometer-sized
fibers with big surface area and loose structure can expand the scope
of application. In this paper, a series of smart Nafion nanofibers with
shape memory effect were successfully obtained via an electrospinning
technique. TGA was used to text their thermal properties. SEM was
applied to investigate the morphology and structure of Nafion nanofibers.
And the structure change taking place in the electrospinning process
was discussed. The mechanical properties of Nafion nanofibers were
examined through tensile tests. The shape memory effect tests were
evaluated in a fixed force controlled tensile tests. It was found that the
fibers showed an excellent shape memory property. It was significant to
expand the technical potential for shape memory polymers.
Maurizio Biso, Alberto Ansaldo, Davide Ricci, Istituto Italiano di
Tecnologia (Italy)
Low voltage, dry electrochemical actuators can be prepared by using
a gel made of carbon nanotubes and ionic liquid.[1] Their performance
can be significantly improved by combining physical and chemical
modifications with a proper engineering. We demonstrated that
multi walled carbon nanotubes can be effectively used for actuators
preparation;[2] we achieved interesting performance improvements by
chemically cross linking carbon nanotubes using both aromatic and
aliphatic diamines;[3] we introduced a novel hybrid material, made by
in-situ chemical polymerization of pyrrole on carbon nanotubes, that
further boost actuation by taking advantage of the peculiar properties
of both materials in terms of maximum strain and conductivity;[4] we
investigated the influence actuator thickness showing that the generated
strain at high frequency is strongly enhanced when thickness is reduced.
To overcome limitations set by bimorphs, we designed a novel actuator
in which a metal spring, embedded in the solid electrolyte of a bimorph
device, is used as a non-actuating counter plate resulting in a three
electrode device capable of both linear and bending motion. Finally,
we propose a way to model actuators performance in terms of purely
material-dependent parameters instead of geometry-dependent ones.[5]
Our latest advances on CNT actuators will be given and discussed.
8687-51, Session 10
Silica reinforced polypropyleneoxide network:
a novel silicone-resembling elastomer with
enhanced dielectric properties
Kaustav Goswami, Piotr Mazurek, Frederikke Bahrt, Anders
Egede Daugaard, Anne L. Skov, Technical Univ. of Denmark
[1] T. Fukushima et al., Angew.Chem. 2005 117, 2410
[2] M. Biso et al., Phys. Status Solidi B, 2009 246, 2820
A novel very soft elastomeric material for EAP purposes is investigated.
The elastomer consists of silica reinforced polypropyleneoxide which are
crosslinked into an elastomer. The dielectric permittivity was measured in
the range of epsilon=6-12 at 1 Hz and even higher with high-permittivity
titaniumoxide particles added, breakdown strengths around 60 V/microns
and Young’s moduli slightly lower than the commonly used silicone
elastomer Elastosil RT625. The response time is similar as for silicones,
but the viscous loss is slightly higher as the crosslinking reaction is not
complete. Compared to silicone this material has favorable properties
especially in the low-frequency range where very high dielectric
permittivities are measured.
[3] M. Biso et al., Carbon, 2011 49, 2253
[4] M. Biso et al., Carbon, 2012 50, 4506
[5] L. Ceseracciu et al., Sens.Act.B, 2011 156, 949
8687-49, Session 10
Measuring the bending of asymmetric planar
EAP structures
Furthermore the PPO elastomer opens up for more easily modifications
of the elastomer backbone compared to the traditional silicone
Florian M. Weiss, Xue Zhao, Univ. of Basel (Switzerland); Konrad
Vogelsang, Paul Scherrer Institut (Switzerland); Gabor M. Kovacs,
EMPA (Switzerland); Bert Müller, Univ. of Basel (Switzerland)
In order to describe electro active polymer (EAP) systems with
nanometer-thin films but areas of square centimeter for applications
such as artificial sphincters, characterization methods with nanometer
resolutions are needed. Optical methods are usually restricted to
sub-micrometer limited by wavelength. Hence, we propose the use
of a cantilever bending system revealing a resolution of 2.8 nm at the
deflection of the free end. Based on estimations this method allows us to
detect bending of planar asymmetric EAP-structures applying voltages
well below 1 V. Here we have considered structures of silicone layers
thinner than 800 nm and polyetheretherketone (PEEK) substrate, films
with thicknesses between 6 and 25 µm. Knowing the deflection of the
cantilever free end, conclusions on the Maxwell power could be made
(cp. [1]). This method should become the basis to analyse low voltage,
dielectric EAP-structures to reach nanometer scale stack actuators for
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8687-52, Session 11
Characterization and modeling of humiditydependence of IPMC sensing dynamics
Chai Yong Lim, Arizona State Univ. (United States); Hong Lei,
Xiaobo Tan, Michigan State Univ. (United States)
Ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMCs) have intrinsic actuation
and sensing capabilities, and they need hydration to operate. For an
IPMC sensor operating in air, the water content in the polymer varies
with the humidity level of the ambient environment, which leads to
its strong humidity-dependent sensing behavior. However, the study
Conference 8687: Electroactive Polymer Actuators
and Devices (EAPAD) XV
of this behavior has been very limited. In this paper, the influence of
environmental humidity on IPMC sensors is characterized and modeled
from a physical perspective.
framework which can be used to design practical purpose IPMCs
depending on the end users interest. By explicitly coupling electrostatics,
transport phenomenon, and solid mechanics, design optimization is
conducted on a simulation in order to provide conceptual motivation
for future designs. Utilizing a multi-physics analysis approach on a
three dimensional cylinder and tube type IPMC provides physically
accurate results for time dependent end effector displacement given
a voltage source. Simulations are conducted with the finite element
method and are also validated with empirical evidences. Having an
in-depth understanding of the physical coupling provides optimal
design parameters that cannot be obtained from a standard electromechanical coupling. These parameters are altered in order to determine
optimal designs for end-effector displacement, maximum force, and
improved mobility with limited voltage magnitude. Design alterations are
conducted on the electrode patterns, electrode size and Nafion diameter
in order to provide greater mobility, efficient bending, and improved
force respectively. The results of this study will provide optimal design
parameters of the IPMC for different applications.
Specifically, a cantilevered IPMC beam is excited mechanically at its base
inside a custom-built humidity chamber, where the humidity is feedbackcontrolled by activating/deactivating a humidifier and a dehumidifier
properly. We first obtain the empirical frequency responses of the sensor
under different humidity levels, with the IPMC base displacement as input
and the tip displacement and short-circuit current as outputs. Based
on physics-based model for a given humidity level, we then curve-fit
the measured frequency responses to identify the humidity-dependent
physical parameters, including moment of inertia and Young’s modulus
for the mechanical properties, and effective dielectric constant, ionic
diffusivity and charge-stress coupling constant for the mechanoelectrical
dynamics. These parameters show a clear trend of change with the
humidity. By fitting the identified parameters at a set of test humidity
levels, the humidity-dependence of the physical parameters is captured
with polynomial functions, which are then plugged into the physicsbased model for IPMC sensors to predict the sensing output under other
humidity conditions. The latter humidity-dependent model is further
validated with experiments.
8687-55, Session 11
Viscoelastic model of IPMC actuators
8687-53, Session 11
Veiko Vunder, Andres Punning, Alvo Aabloo, Univ. of Tartu
Charge dynamics of ionic polymer metal
composites in response to electrical bias
One of the constraining properties of the IPMC actuators is their backrelaxation. An excited IPMC actuator, instead of holding its bent state,
relaxes back towards its initial initial shape even when the exciting signal
is a DC voltage. This behavior is reported by many authors and is usually
explained with diffusion of water back, or out of the electrodes.
Youngsu Cha, Maurizio Porfiri, Polytechnic Institute of New York
Univ. (United States)
Ionic polymer metal composites (IPMCs) are a novel class of
electroactive materials which find application as sensors, actuators, and
energy harvesters. IPMCs are fabricated from an electrically charged
polymer membrane which is infused with a solvent, neutralized by mobile
counterions, and plated by noble metal electrodes. Electrode deposition
generally results in the formation of a heterogeneous layer, wherein
metal particles are dispersed within the polymer matrix. Such layer has
conductive and dielectric properties and we refer to it as the “composite
The bending-relaxing behavior of IPMC actuators resembles
viscoelasticity, but seems working partly conforming, partly contra to
the electrical excitation. The classical schemes of viscoelasticity – the
Maxwell model, Kelvin-Voigt model, and the various combinations of the
two – cannot describe adequately this situation. Due to the constraint of
the application of force, they are unable to describe simultaneously both
– the actuation and relaxation – of the IPMC materials. The cause of this
failure is the standard pattern of the viscoelastic models, where the load
is external, and is applied to the whole system. The situation changes
completely, when the impelling factor is applied between the spring and
damper, resembling for instance charge making the elastic threads of the
polymer molecules network expanding-contracting.
Here, we analyze the effect of the composite layer on the response of
IPMCs to voltage inputs consisting of an arbitrarily large DC bias and
as small AC signal. We model the IPMC as a stacked sequence of five
homogeneous layers, wherein the polymer core is separated from the
metal electrodes by two composite layers. The Poisson-Nernst-Planck
framework is used to describe IPMC charge dynamics and perturbation
methods are employed to establish an equivalent impedance model.
The circuit consists of the series connection of a resistor associated
to diffusion in the IPMC core and two complex elements pertaining to
charge build up and mass transfer in the electrode regions. Each of these
complex elements is composed of the parallel connection of a capacitor
and a Warburg impedance that are, in turn, controlled by the DC bias.
The framework is validated through comparison with experimental results
on in-house fabricated IPMCs. Further insight on the accuracy of the
circuit model is garnered through finite element analysis of the PoissonNernst-Planck system.
We show that a non-traditional approach to the well-known elements of
the traditional viscoelastic schemes – spring and damper – results with
a qualitatively new model of viscoelasticity. This mechanical analogy of
viscoelastic behavior elucidates the naturalness of the back-relaxation
behavior of the actuators. The PDE describing the system gives an
intuitive and accurate charge-deflection correlation with back-relaxation
8687-56, Session 11
Deformation behavior of ionic polymer metal
composite actuator in several pH solutions
8687-54, Session 11
Masaki Omiya, Wataru Aoyagi, Keio Univ. (Japan)
Design optimization of rod-shaped IPMC
In this paper, the pH value of working solution of Ionic Polymer Metal
Composite (IPMC) actuators was systematically changed and the effect
of pH on the deformation behavior was experimentally investigated.
Siul A. Ruiz, Benjamin Mead, Hyeok Yun, Kwang Jin J. Kim,
Woosoon Yim, Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas (United States)
Ionic polymer metal composite (IPMC) actuators, which consist of a
thin perfuorinated ionomer membrane and electrodes plated on both
surfaces, can undergo a large bending motion when a small electric
field is applied across its thickness direction. Because of its lightness,
softness and usableness in wet conditions, IPMC actuators are
promised to be used for artificial muscles, biomimetic actuators and
medical applications. The deformation properties of IPMC actuators are
influenced by working solutions. However, the basic understandings
about the effect of pH value of working solution on the deformation
Ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMCs) are some of the most wellknown electro-active polymers. This is due to their large deformation
provided a relatively low voltage source. IPMCs have been acknowledged
as a potential candidate for biomedical applications such as cardiac
catheters and surgical probes; however, there is still no existing mass
manufacturing of IPMCs. This study intends to provide a theoretical
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Conference 8687: Electroactive Polymer Actuators
and Devices (EAPAD) XV
8687-59, Session 12
properties have not been clarified yet. Therefore, the pH characteristics of
IPMC actuator were evaluated in this paper.
IPMC actuators with the palladium electrodes were used and the
responses for step voltage in several pH solutions were investigated.
The results showed that the deformation behavior is drastically changed
between acid and alkali solutions. In acid solutions, IPMC actuator
showed a relaxation motion, though IPMC actuator in alkali solutions
kept its deformed shape during applying a voltage.
Modeling and experimental study of bistable
dielectric elastomer structures
Cyclic voltammetry and alternating current impedance of IPMC were
also measured. The results revealed that the maximum tip displacement
and relaxation phenomenon of IPMC actuator were governed by the
reduction of palladium electrode. The residual tip displacement is related
to the charge transfer resistance and the double layer capacitance of
IPMC actuator.
Mechanical energy and electrical energy can be converted to each
other by using a dielectric elastomer transducer. Energy dissipation
caused by high voltage has been a major challenge in the practical
applications of dielectric elastomer actuators. Properly designed
dielectric elastomer bi-stable structures can actuate with a voltage
pulse and remain the deformation without keeping high voltage. Critical
actuation voltage, output force and displacement of the structure have
been studied experimentally. We build up an analytical model for the
dielectric elastomer bi-stable structure based on the frame work of
thermodynamics and continuum mechanics. Various methods have been
proposed to enhance the performance of the bi-stable structure and
demonstrate the principles of operation in experiments.
Tiefeng Li, Zhannan Zou, Ke Li, Shaoxing Qu, Zhejiang Univ.
8687-57, Session 12
Electrorotation of novel electroactive
polymers in uniform DC and AC electric field
Miklos Zrinyi, Semmelweis Univ. (Hungary); Masami Nakano,
Tohoku Univ. (Japan)
8687-60, Session 12
On the development of planar actuators for
variable stiffness devices
We present experimental demonstration of the development of novel
electroactive polymer composites which perform rotation in uniform DC
and AC electric field. Small non-conducting objects dispersed in liquid
dielectrics and subjected to homogeneous DC electric field exceeding
some threshold value exhibit spontaneous rotation, called Quincke
rotation. Polymer composites as well as pure polymers that fulfill these
requirements have been developed and electro rotation of disk shaped
polymer has been investigated. We have studied the angular motion of
polymer disks around to an axis that perpendicular to the direction of
applied electric field and have concluded that dynamics of the polymer
rotor is very complex. It was found that angular deformation can also be
induced by low frequency AC fields. Controllable rotation of small rotors
is of relevance for a range of practical applications, for example in micromotors or in microfluidics.
Markus Henke, Gerald Gerlach, Technische Univ. Dresden
The contribution describes the development, the potential and the
limitations of planar actuators for controlling bending devices with
variable stiffness. Such structures are supposed to be components
of new smart, self-sensing and -controlling composite materials for
lightweight constructions. To realize a proper stiffness control, it is
necessary to develop reliable actuators with high actuation capabilities
based on smart materials. Several actuator designs driven by
electroactive polymers (EAPs) and shape memory alloy wires (SMAs)
are presented and discussed regarding to their applicability in such
8687-58, Session 12
To investigate the actuators, a variable flexural stiffness device based
on the control of its area moment of inertia was developed. The device
consists of a multi-layer stack of thin, individual plates. Stiffness variation
is caused by planar actuators with can control the sliding behavior
between the layers by form closure structures. Previous investigations
have shown that it is necessary to develop actuators with high actuation
potential to ensure reliable connections between the layers.
Artificial muscles emerging from lamina
Sina Sareh, Jonathan M. Rossiter, Univ. of Bristol (United
To develop such planar actuators, several kinds of EAPs, including
Danfoss PolyPower, VHB by 3M and a silicon elastomer actuators
developed at the TU Dresden, have been studied as driving unit. These
EAP driven actuators are compared to SMA driven ones. Comparison
includes analytical models, finite element analysis and experimental data.
The soft actuation capabilities of electroactive polymers can be best
exploited through formal design techniques. In this paper, the kirigami
(literally ‘cutting paper’) design process is used to build monolithic
mechanisms from lamina materials. These smart structures actuate
out of the fabrication plane in response to a single electric stimulus.
Kirimimetic patterns are cut into IPMC lamina materials in order to create
complex transformable morphologies. This enables sub-mm scaling
and monolithic batch fabrication to be used, thereby facilitating ready
integration into commercial products. These technologies open up
avenues for exploitation including ultra-small disposable mechanisms
for a range of biomedical applications, smart deployable structures,
and engineering applications where space is constrained. This paper
reviews and classifies previous morphologies of EAP lamina materials
and proposes novel kirimimetic actuation mechanisms. We also discuss
the design and efficiency of novel flow control devices based on kirigami
techniques and IPMC actuators.
8687-61, Session 12
Electromechanical and electrooptical
functions of plasticized PVC with colossal
dielectric constant professor, president of
fiber science and technology, Japan
Toshihiro Hirai, Shinshu Univ. (Japan)
Plasticized PVC shows very peculiar electrical deformation. The durability
exceeds over 20 thousand times continuous operation with tacking
force of 2 N/cm2 by applying dc electric field. The mechanism, however,
remains unclear for long times. We recently found the PVC can show
huge dielectric constant under the application of dc field. The colossal
dielectric constant appears at certain plasticizer content at around 60%
and reaches maximum at around 80%. The huge value of dielectric
constant reaches over thousands at 1 Hz. The value is far higher than
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Conference 8687: Electroactive Polymer Actuators
and Devices (EAPAD) XV
8687-64, Session 13
those of each components. The colossal dielectric constant depends
strongly on the chemical nature of the plasticizer. The phenomena can
also explain the strong tacking force observed on the PVC. These nature
was shown to be applicable for gripper, contractile actuator, etc. The
colossal dielectric constant could also induce electrooptical function
through changing refractive index. The mechanism proposed here can
be suggested to be applicable to any conventional polymers if they meet
some conditions required.
Stable electroosmotically driven Nastic
actuators (Invited Paper)
Elisabeth Smela, Deepa Sritharan, Univ. of Maryland, College
Park (United States)
Nastic actuators use electroosmotic pumping to deform a compliant
material. They are inspired by biological structures such as muscular
hydrostats and bulliform plant cells, in which force transmission is
provided by hydraulic pressure. The nastic actuators have embedded
microchannels and reservoirs filled with a polar dielectric liquid; when an
electric field is applied across the microchannels, liquid is pumped by
electroosmosis between the reservoirs. Liquids are incompressible, so
a change in volume of one reservoir results in compensatory changes
in the other. We aim to create modular soft robots with arrays of nastic
8687-62, Session 12
High-dielectric permittivity elastomers from
well-dispersed expanded graphite in low
Malgorzata Kostrzewska, Anca G. Bejenariu, Anders Egede
Daugaard, Anne L. Skov, Technical Univ. of Denmark (Denmark)
Water has a high electroosmotic mobility, and therefore was used in
initial prototypes. However, the electrolysis of water, which generates
bubbles, limits the performance of the actuator. In the present work, we
have replaced water with propylene carbonate and succeeded in the
bubble-free operation of the actuator up to several kilovolts. The actuator
deflects over 100 ?m within seconds, and operates continuously and
stably for long times. High forces are achieved using large surface area
porous polymer monoliths embedded between the reservoirs.
The development of high dielectric permittivity elastomer materials has
attracted increased interest over the last years due to the direct relation
to the overall performance of dielectric electroactive polymers. For this
particular use both the electrically insulating properties as well as the
mechanical properties have to be tightly controlled in order not to destroy
the favorable elastic properties by the addition of e.g. particles or dipoles
[1,2]. In the following expanded graphite in low concentrations (up to
5wt%) are investigated as a possible candidate as filler materials in very
soft elastomers which by the addition of many traditional fillers requiring
high concentrations, would either lose their stability or their softness. It
is shown that the dielectric permittivity can be increased up to a factor
of 4.5 compared to the pure silicone matrix. Furthermore the influence of
several mixing procedures on the electrical and mechanical properties is
8687-65, Session 13
Adaptive lenses using transparent dielectric
elastomer actuators
Samuel Shian, Harvard Univ. (United States); Roger M. Diebold,
Harvard Univ. (United States) and Univ. of California, Santa
Barbara (United States); David R. Clarke, Harvard Univ. (United
[1] Egede, A. D.; Bejenariu, A. G.; Bøgelund, J.; Benslimane, M.; Skov, A.
L., Influence of micro- and nanofillers on electro-mechanical performance
of silicone EAPs. Proceedings of SPIE, 2012.
[2] Kussmaul, B.; Risse, S.; Kofod, G.; Wache, R.; Wegener, M.;
McCarthy, D. N.; Krueger, H.; Gerhard, R., Enhancement Of Dielectric
Permittivity And Electromechanical Response In Silicone Elastomers:
Molecular Grafting Of Organic Dipoles To The Macromolecular Network,
Advanced Functional Materials 2011, 21 (23), 4589-4594.
Variable focal lenses, used in a vast number of applications such
as endoscopes, digital cameras, binoculars, information storage,
communication, and machine vision, are traditionally constructed as a
system consisting of solid lenses and separate actuating mechanisms.
However, such lens systems are complex, bulky, inefficient, and costly.
Each of these shortcomings can be addressed using an adaptive lens
that performs as a lens system. In this presentation, we will push the
boundary of adaptive lens technology through the use of a transparent
dielectric elastomer actuator that is integral to the optics. Concept detail
and lens construction will be described as well as electromechanical
and optical performance. Preliminary data indicate that our adaptive
lens prototype is capable of varying its focus by more than 37%, which
is higher than that of human eyes. Furthermore, we will show how our
approach can be used to achieve control over the lens characteristics
which are difficult or impossible to achieve in other adaptive lens
8687-63, Session 12
Drop and dry film fabrication of Beta-phase
Poly(vinylidene fluoride)
Go Murasawa, Ken Miyata, Akihiro Nishioka, Hidemitsu
Furukawa, Yamagata Univ. (Japan)
We confirmed the presence of beta-phase poly(vinylidene fluoride)
(PVDF) crystals when a PVDF solution drop was dropped on a substrate,
then dried and formed as film (drop & dry fabrication). This study is
conducted to investigate beta-phase PVDF formation mechanism
in drop & dry fabrication technique. First, PVDF films are fabricated
by drop & dry fabrication technique. Second, their PVDF crystalline
structure is analyzed using x-ray diffraction. The presence of beta-phase
PVDF crystals depends on the initial solution state and dry condition.
Therefore, the effect of PVDF concentration in the solution, quantity of
the solution drop, and dry speed on beta-phase PVDF crystal formation
is investigated, and the formation mechanism is discussed with present
experimental results.
8687-66, Session 13
Few layer graphene drive transparent
dielectric elastomer actuator for variable
focus lens application
Taeseon Hwang, Hyeok Yong Kwon, Joon-Suk Oh, Jung-Pyo
Hong, Seung-Chul Hong, YoungKwan Lee, Hyouk Ryeol Choi,
Sungkyunkwan Univ. (Korea, Republic of); Kwang Jin Kim,
Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas (United States); Jae-Do Nam,
Sungkyunkwan Univ. (Korea, Republic of)
Transparent and stretchable dielectric elastomer actuator was fabricated
for variable focus lens. Transparent few-layer-graphene (FLG) electrode
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Conference 8687: Electroactive Polymer Actuators
and Devices (EAPAD) XV
was prepared with simple chemical and mechanical exfoliation and
transfer technique.
precisely control the strain of DEAs in quasi-static mode, even for VHB
actuators which suffer from viscoelastic behavior in open loop mode.
8687-67, Session 13
8687-69, Session 13
Design optimization of a linear actuator
Dielectric elastomer actuators for active
microfluidic control
Björn Rechenbach, Morten Willatzen, Univ. of Southern Denmark
(Denmark); Kim P. Lorenzen, Danfoss PolyPower A/S (Denmark);
Benny Lassen, Univ. of Southern Denmark (Denmark)
David McCoul, Coleman Murray, Dino Di Carlo, Qibing Pei, Univ.
of California, Los Angeles (United States)
In this work the mechanical contacting of a linear dielectric elastomer
actuator is investigated. The actuator is constructed by coiling the
dielectric elastomer around two parallel metal rods, similar to a rubber
band stretched by two index fingers. It has been developed at Danfoss
PolyPower. The main challenge for this actuator design is to develop
a durable solution for the mechanical connections between the soft
elastomer material and the hard metal.
Dielectric elastomers with low modulus and large actuation strain
have been investigated for applications in which they serve as “active”
microfluidic channel walls. Anisotropically prestrained acrylic elastomer
membranes are bonded to cover open trenches formed on a silicone
elastomer substrate. Actuation of the elastomer membranes increases
the cross-sectional area of the resulting channels, in turn controlling
hydraulic flow rate and pressure. Bias voltage increases the active
area of the membranes, allowing intrachannel pressure to alter channel
geometry. The channels have also demonstrated the ability to actively
clear a blockage. Applications may include adaptive microfilters, microperistaltic pumps, and reduced-complexity lab-on-a-chip devices.
In this paper different connection types are investigated both
experimentally and theoretically. It is shown theoretically that the design,
where the elastomer can slip freely over the rod surfaces, shows the most
uniform distribution of the mechanical stresses and the lowest values
of the von Mises stress of the connection types considered. However,
experiments under cyclic operation showed that wear of the elastomer
material becomes a serious issue. The simplest way to overcome this
issue is by gluing the elastomer onto half of the circumference of the
metal rods. Unfortunately this leads to an uneven distribution of the
mechanical stresses and high von Mises stresses around the points of
contact, making the elastomer material there prone to failure.
8687-70, Session 13
All inkjet-printed electroactive polymer
actuators for microfluidic lab-on-chip
The results of the theoretical investigations are used to design the
geometry and the mechanical properties of a polymeric interlayer
between the elastomer and the rods, gluing all materials together, so
as to optimize the mechanical durability of the system. Finite element
analysis is employed for the theoretical study which is linked up to
experimental results performed by Danfoss PolyPower.
Oliver Pabst, Fraunhofer-Institut für Angewandte Optik und
Feinmechanik (Germany) and Friedrich-Schiller-Univ. Jena
(Germany); Jolke Perelaer, Friedrich-Schiller-Univ. Jena
(Germany); Erik Beckert, Fraunhofer-Institut für Angewandte
Optik und Feinmechanik (Germany); Ulrich S. Schubert,
Friedrich-Schiller-Univ. Jena (Germany); Ramona Eberhardt,
Fraunhofer-Institut für Angewandte Optik und Feinmechanik
(Germany); Andreas Tünnermann, Fraunhofer-Institut für
Angewandte Optik und Feinmechanik (Germany) and FriedrichSchiller-Univ. Jena (Germany)
8687-68, Session 13
Tunable grating with active feedback
Samuel Rosset, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne
(Switzerland); Benjamin M. O’Brien, Todd A. Gisby, Daniel Xu,
The Univ. of Auckland (New Zealand); Herbert R. Shea, Ecole
Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (Switzerland); Iain A.
Anderson, The Univ. of Auckland (New Zealand)
Piezoelectric electroactive polymers (EAP) are promising materials for
applications in microfluidic lab-on-chip systems. In such systems, fluids
can be analyzed by different chemical or physical methods. During the
analysis the fluids need to be distributed through the channels of the
chip, which makes a pumping function necessary. We present here all
inkjet-printed EAP actuators that can be configured as a membranebased micropump suitable for direct integration into lab-on-chip systems.
Drop-on-demand inkjet printing is a versatile digital deposition technique
that is capable of depositing various functional materials onto a wide
variety of substrates in an additive way. Compared to conventional
lithography-based processing it is cost-efficient and flexible, as no
masking is required. The actuators consist of a polymer foil substrate
with an inkjet-printed EAP layer sandwiched between a set of two
electrodes. The actuators are printed using a commercially available EAP
solution and silver nanoparticle inks. We have manufactured membranetype as well as cantilever bending beam actuators. When a voltage is
applied across the polymer layer, piezoelectric strain leads to a bending
deflection of the beam or membrane. With lateral dimensions in the mm
range and EAP thicknesses of 10 to 15µm the cantilever beams exhibit
deflections of 190µm at driving voltages of 600V. Circular membrane
actuators with 20mm diameter exhibit 70µm central deflection. A
concept of a polymer-based micropump is presented. From the behavior
of membrane actuators a pumping rate of several 100µL/min can be
estimated, which is promising for applications in lab-on-chip devices.
Dielectric Elastomer Actuators are interesting candidates for tunable
optics. Through the fabrication of demonstrators such as tunable lenses,
gratings or phase shifters, researchers have already demonstrated how
DEAs’ large deformations can be beneficial for optical applications.
However, in addition to the tuning range, optical tunable devices must
exhibit a very stable behavior under static actuation, showing little to
no long-term drift. This requirement is problematic for DEAs, due to the
viscoelastic nature of the elastomers used in the manufacturing of these
We report on the use of capacitive self-sensing to operate a DEA-based
tunable grating in closed loop operation, which allows precise control of
the grating period.
Additionally, we introduce a new actuation scheme for elastomeric
tunable gratings based on two pairs of electrodes, each acting on an
opposite side of the grating. The two sets of actuators are operated
antagonistically in closed loop mode in order to keep the surface area of
the grating constant during deformation: elongation along one side of the
grating is compensated by compression on the perpendicular axis.
This configuration allows changing the grating period while keeping the
amplitude of the periodic structure constant. The diffraction angle can
therefore be tuned without simultaneous variation in the transmitted
intensity, as observed for the traditional uniaxial stretching of a soft
grating. We demonstrate that the use of active feedback allows to
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Conference 8687: Electroactive Polymer Actuators
and Devices (EAPAD) XV
8687-71, Session 14
joints. But the implementation of simultaneous actuation and self-sensing
in groups of DEAs has remained a technical challenge. This is due to
associated hardware costs and the computational workload required to
accurately deduce sensory information in real time. As a result, only a
small number of DEAs are able to be controlled economically. To address
this, a portable self-sensing unit was developed that takes advantage of
parallel processing, thus allowing multiple actuators to be sensed without
any significant increase in computation time. This also dramatically
increases the speed at which DEAs can be controlled. The self-sensing
unit was designed with an easily scalable architecture thereby allowing a
large network of DEAs to be controlled quickly and simultaneously.
Six-axis capacitive force/torque sensor based
on dielectric elastomer
Hyouk Ryeol Choi, Ja Choon Koo, Hyungpil Moon, Dae Gyoeng
Kim, Baek Chul Kim, Sungkyunkwan Univ. (Korea, Republic of)
The six axis F/T sensor is a primary component for the service robots,
but its amazing cost (over $10,000) hampers the popularization of the
service robots to the general users. In this paper, we present a six-axis
force-torque capacitive sensor for robotic applications.
Dielectric elastomer is compressed or decompressed with external forces
acting on it, resulting in variation of capacitance, which can be used
as a kind of sensing scheme. The proposed sensor consists of plastic
structure and dielectric elastomer capacitors. Since it takes a simple
and easy structure, it is possible to fabricate by using a plastic molding
process, which results in extremely lower cost than commercial products
(100times less).
8687-74, Session 14
Large displacement zipping DEAs for
microfluidic large-scale integrated chips
Luc Maffli, Samuel Rosset, Herbert R. Shea, Ecole Polytechnique
Fédérale de Lausanne (Switzerland)
We present the basic structure and design of the sensor with explanation
of the working principle. And a fabrication method dedicated to the
sensor is explained. Finally, a prototype will be demonstrated with
calibration procedures.
We report on a silicon microfabricated pump based on the zipping
actuation principle, which consists in attracting a compliant electrode
placed on a membrane against a rigid conductive body. In addition to
the large strain common to DEA, zipping DEAs offer specific features like
out-of-plane displacement, sealing of the rigid electrode and bistable
operation. For particular configurations, the driving voltage is reduced
using a high-quality rigid dielectric.
8687-72, Session 14
Study on the anti-slip using dielectric
elastomer slip sensor
We have previously measured up to 300?m vertical deflection on 2mmside zipping chambers with ion-implanted electrodes. Even if these
electrodes have unique advantages compared to carbon-based ones
(features down to 35?m, cleanroom compatibility and fast response), their
stiffening impact is difficult to control accurately and limits the maximal
deflection. In this work, we use silicone electrodes with dispersed carbon
particles patterned by indirect stamping, taking benefit of a lower and
better controllable stiffening on the membrane.
Cho Hanjoung, Baekchul Kim, Daegyeong Kim, Lee Youngkwan,
Jae-Do Nam, Hyouk Ryeol Choi, Hyungpil Moon, Ja Choon Koo,
Sungkyunkwan Univ. (Korea, Republic of)
There are some ongoing researches on contact information. It is very
hard and also complex to define contact state between two confining
objects. . It is even harder to find the contact state if the confining area
continuously changes in time. Indirect assessment methods through
existing force measurement is not easy to find out change of contact
state clearly. But slip sensor was studied in this paper, that use dielectric
elastomer that facilitate deformation. Since we can determine the
detailed procedure of the state change of a direct contact with an object,
we can apply anti-slip right before the slip occurs. We are designing
dielectric elastomer slip sensor and we will determine and verify contact
state various changes. To test the performance of the slip sensor, we
set up equipment which induces slipping on the slip sensor. it is very
important for grip stably between two objects. In order to make an object
anti-slip, it is necessary to invastigation the current contact state of the
object. So we can detect and prevent some slip status such as slipping
for slip sensor made of dielectric elastomer. Therefore, In this paper wrote
for an anti-slip technology.
The performances of an actuator during a pumping cycle are directly
related to the elastomer properties. We therefore investigate the use
of different silicones by conducting electrical (permittivity, resistance
under equibiaxial stretch) and mechanical (uniaxial stretch-stress curve)
characterization. Inserting these data in the model, we further asses it by
measuring the vertical deflection of mm-size zipping actuators.
Three zipping chambers with an embedded channel are integrated in-line,
to build a peristaltic micropump. This demonstrates that it is possible to
replace the pneumatic actuators of microfluidic large-scale integrated
chips, making them portable. Zipping DEAs could also be first choice
candidates for applications like braille displays or tunable optics.
8687-75, Session 14
Development of the dual-axis hybrid tactile
8687-73, Session 14
Seonggi Kim, Hyungpil Moon, Ja Choon Koo, Hyouk Ryeol Choi,
Sungkyunkwan Univ. (Korea, Republic of)
Self sensing of multiple dielectric elastomer
Recently, the tactile sensors using polymer have been studied in various
robot fields which are required feedback on the contact force because
the polymer is flexible and affordable.
Daniel Xu, Todd A. Gisby, Sheng Quan Xie, Iain A. Anderson, The
Univ. of Auckland (New Zealand)
In previous work, the dual-axis hybrid tactile sensor using PDMS
(Polydimethylsiloxane) with a pair of electrode, that the metal was
deposited directly on the PDMS surface, was proposed. The hybrid
sensor can measure normal force and shear force with change of
capacitance and resistance values. However, the metal is hard to
be deposited on the surface of the PDMS because the PDMS is
hydrophobic. The hydrophobic surface can be changed to hydrophilic
using O2 Plasma treatment or UV treatment. When O2 plasma treatment
or UV treatment is used, there is the problem that metal deposition and
wiring should be going in limited time. Also, the deposited metal on the
surface of the PDMS is easy to break because the deposited metal is
There are over 600 skeletal muscles in the human body, many of which
work together antagonistically, such as the muscles across the shoulder
and knee joints. The coordination and control of groups of muscles is
essential to achieve smooth coherent motion and precision positioning.
This is made possible through muscle’s ability to simultaneously provide
actuation and sensing, a property known as self-sensing.
Actuation and self-sensing can now be mimicked on robotic devices
using dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA) artificial muscles. DEAs, labelled
artificial muscles owing to their comparable properties to real muscle,
can be placed in antagonistic arrangements like the muscles across the
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Conference 8687: Electroactive Polymer Actuators
and Devices (EAPAD) XV
exposed in the air.
introduced into the metal films, thereby causing a network of folds
to form. In this paper, we study the change in the topography of the
crumpled metal electrodes as the metal films are subjected to varying
extents of bi-axial compression: from wrinkling to folding to hierarchical
folding. It was found that this altered the electrodes’ stretchability, as
manifested in the performance of dielectric elastomer actuators using
these crumpled metal films as electrodes.
In this paper, we propose the developed dual-axis hybrid tactile sensor
that the PET (polyethylene terephthalate) film is inserted between the
PDMS films. The deposited metal is not removed easily from the PET film
because the adhesion is strong. Also, the PDMS surrounding the PET film
plays the roles of dielectric elastomer and shielding the deposited metal
from the external environment at same time.
Experimental results verify the effectiveness of the proposed developed
dual-axis hybrid type force sensor.
8687-78, Session 15
Closed-loop control of a tube-type cylindrical
8687-76, Session 15
Dielectric elastomers with novel highlyconducting electrodes
Benjamin Mead, Woosoon Yim, Siul A. Ruiz, Univ. of Nevada, Las
Vegas (United States)
Holger Böse, Detlev Uhl, Fraunhofer-Institut für Silicatforschung
Ionic polymer metal composites (IPMCs) are one of the most widely
used types of electro-active polymer actuator, due to their low electric
driving potential and large deformation range. In this research a tube
type IPMC was investigated. This IPMC has a circular cross section with
four separate electrodes on its surface and a hole through the middle.
The four separate electrodes allows for biaxial bending and accurate
control of the tip location. One of the main advantages of using this type
of IPMC is the ability to embed a specific tool and accurately control
the tool tip location using the large deflection range of the IPMC. This
ability has widespread applications including in the biomedical field
for use in catheter procedures. In this report the results of the bending
and force experiments were examined to determine the performance
of this actuator alone. These experiments were then repeated using
different embedded materials including plastic catheter lines, fiber optic
cables, and electrical wiring. The results of these experiments were then
compared against a theoretical three dimensional COMSOL Multipysics
model. From here an electro-mechanical model of the IPMC was
developed and integrated into a closed loop control system. To improve
functionality and the user’s experience the control system was designed
to work on a laptop touchpad. This will provide a more familiar and
intuitive interaction and cut down on operator training time.
Beside the characteristics of the elastomer material itself, the
performance of dielectric elastomers in actuator, sensor as well as
generator applications depends also on the properties of the electrode
material. The most relevant requirements on the electrode material
are a high electric conductivity, even under stretch, a low mechanical
resistance against stretch and a high durability of the electrode coating.
Various novel electrode materials based on metal particles in a silicone
matrix were manufactured and their electrical and mechanical properties
were investigated. For this purpose, electrode coatings with variation of
the thickness and the metal particle concentration below and above the
percolation threshold were prepared. Electric resistance measurements
on the electrode materials were performed with the 4-point method.
Furthermore, mechanical investigations of stress vs. strain on silicone
films with and without electrode coatings were carried out in order to
determine the mechanical resistance of the electrode coating. Finally,
measurements of the actuation strain in the electric field on model
actuators with the novel electrode materials were conducted. The specific
conductivities of the electrode materials derived from the resistance
measurements surmount those of reference materials based on graphite
and carbon black in silicone by up to two orders of magnitude. A high
conductivity of the new electrodes can be maintained even at uniaxial
stretch deformations of 200 %. The results of the studies with the novel
electrode materials are presented in detail in this contribution.
8687-79, Session 16
P(VDF-TrFE) stacked actuators: design,
fabrication, and performance
8687-77, Session 15
Alan Poole, Danfoss PolyPower A/S (Denmark); Julian D. Booker,
Univ. of Bristol (United Kingdom)
The effect of folds on highly compliant
crumpled thin metal film electrodes used in
dielectric elastomer actuators
Magnetostrictive alloys, shape memory alloys, piezo ceramics and
some active polymers all generate strain due to a molecular structure
change which can be stimulated in a variety of ways. An electrically
derived stimulus is often a compact method of delivering the input
power for conversion into mechanical work, and as such, contributes
to an actuator’s high power density compared to other stimulus
sources. For a given volume or mass, a greater amount of mechanical
power is often desirable. (Poly)vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene
or P(VDF-TrFE), a ferroelectric polymer, offers an alternative set of
performance characteristics compared to other dielectric elastomer
materials, exhibiting similar stroke and response times to more common
dielectric elastomers, but approximately two orders of magnitude higher
force, together with a stiffer bulk material. This makes P(VDF-TrFE) a
complementary technology to occupy the gap between existing dielectric
elastomers and active alloys and ceramics. The implications of design
and fabrication of P(VDF-TrFE) at a prototype level are discussed, as
currently there is very little information available reporting on the physical
realisation of useful actuators in this respect. The key stages include thin
film production (melting, stretching, annealing and irradiation), cutting,
electroding, electrical connection and final assembly as encapsulated
and insulated stacked actuators of 7 and 40 layers. A selection of
experimental performance results is provided and areas for further work
are suggested.
Sze Hsien Low, Gih-Keong Lau, Nanyang Technological Univ.
Due to high electrical conductivity, metals have been the traditional
material for electrodes. However, as metal films have low fracture
strains, they are not commonly used as compliant electrodes in
the field of dielectric elastomer actuators and generators. We have
recently demonstrated that the use of metal films as electrodes can in
fact allow dielectric elastomer actuators to have large actuated area
strains of more than 100%. The metal film electrodes used have a
network of crumples that unfolds as it is subjected to in-plane strains.
This mechanism enables the metal electrodes to have a relatively low
stiffening effect on the soft dielectric elastomer and to be able to retain
its low resistance despite being bi-axially stretched to high strains. This
is in contrast to corrugated metal electrodes that are stretchable only
along one axis. When subjected to uni-axial strain, these crumpled
electrodes had a sheet resistance of less than 100 Ω up to 200% and
less than 1 GΩ up to 400%. This ability of metal electrodes to have a
low sheet resistance would be particularly useful for dielectric elastomer
generator applications as it facilitates in the reduction of parasitic losses.
By metalizing a highly bi-axially pre-stretched dielectric elastomer that
was subsequently partially relaxed, a bi-axial compressive force was
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Conference 8687: Electroactive Polymer Actuators
and Devices (EAPAD) XV
8687-80, Session 16
California, Los Angeles (United States)
New DEA by organic modification of silicone
and polyurethane networks
Dielectric Elastomers (DEs) are actuated under high electric field to
produce large strains. Most high-performing DE materials such as
the VHB membranes are commercial products designed for unrelated
applications. The limited knowledge of the exact chemical structures
of these commercial materials has made it difficult to understand the
relationship between structures and electromechanical properties.
We report the synthesis of an acrylic copolymer elastomer based on
n-butyl acrylate and acrylic acid by UV curing process. The crosslinked
poly(n-butyl acrylate) moiety leads to low modulus or rubbery behavior
in the resulting elastomer. Acrylic acid has the polarizable carboxylic
group which results in an increase in dielectric constant. Silicone and
ester oligomer diacrylate were also added to prevent crystallization and
crosslink the polymer chains. Four acrylics formulations were developed
with different amounts of acrylic acid. This gives a tunable stiffness and
increases the dielectric constants from 4.3 to 7.1. The samples of best
formulation demonstrated a 186 % area strain, a dielectric strength of
222 MV/m and an calculated energy density of 2.7 MJ/m3. To overcome
electromechanical instability, different prestain ratios were investigated as
well and an optimized point was determined. This material has a lifetime
of thousands of cycle while showing an area strain more than 100%..
Bjoern Kussmaul, Michael Wegener, Martin Bluemke, FraunhoferInstitut für Angewandte Polymerforschung (Germany); Jens
Krause, Joachim Wagner, Torsten Feller, Karin Clauberg, Julia
Hitzbleck, Bayer MaterialScience AG (Germany); Hartmut
Krueger, Fraunhofer-Institut für Angewandte Polymerforschung
Dielectric elastomer actuators (DEA´s) enable a wide range of interesting
applications since they are soft, lightweight, low-cost and have direct
voltage control. First industrial applications were implemented; a further
increase of this DEA technology arises from the successful demonstration
of energy harvesting by means of such transducer films.
However, one of the main obstacles is their high operating voltage,
which tends to be several thousand volts. The operating voltage can be
decreased by reducing elastomer film thickness, mechanical stiffness or
increasing permittivity. Mostly, permittivity is increased by inorganic filler
particles with high dielectric constant, which is disadvantageous due to
material stiffening and sophisticated homogenization techniques.
8687-83, Session 16
Recently, we introduced a dipole grafting process as a simple and useful
tool to enhance the permittivity of various silicones, which prevents
agglomeration and gives homogeneous elastomer films even at molecular
level. Additionally the Young’s modulus is decreased due to a decrease
in network density, so that the operating voltage is reduced by these
synergetic effects. A similar approach can be achieved by using “smart
fillers”, which are adapted macromolecular fillers with high permittivity
and satisfying compatibility to the silicone.
Effect of mechanical parameters on dielectric
elastomer minimum energy structures
Jun Shintake, Samuel Rosset, Dario Floreano, Herbert R. Shea,
Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (Switzerland)
Soft robotics is a field of robotics that potentially has many advantages
compared to traditional approaches using rigid materials, such as, safe
human-robot interaction, efficient/stable locomotion, etc. The objective
of this study is to develop an artificial-muscle-based actuator for soft
robotics using dielectric elastomer minimum energy structures (DEMES).
We aim at a one-dimensional bending actuator with 90 degree stroke.
DEMES consist of a pre-stretched dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA)
laminated onto a flexible frame, which results in out-of-plane shape
and large actuation stroke. Along with shape, actuation performance of
DEMES depends on mechanical parameters such as thickness of the
materials and pre-stretch ratio.
Until now, these approaches were only tested with silicones and few
organic dipole molecules were investigated.
At this point we can show that a new technique can be used with a wide
spectrum of organic molecules that can be applied to polyurethanes,
improving their actuation performance without reducing other material
and electrical properties. The chemical, thermal, mechanical and
electrical properties of films are discussed.
8687-81, Session 16
We report here the characterization results on the effect of mechanical
parameters on actuation performance. The tested actuators have cm-size
flexible-PCB (polyimide, 50 µm thickness) as frame-material. For the
DEA, PDMS (DC186, ~50 µm thickness) and carbon black mixed silicone
were used as membrane and electrode, respectively. The actuators were
characterized by measuring the deformation and blocking force as a
function of applied voltage. During the experiments, for the mechanical
parameters, different pre-stretch methods (uniaxial, biaxial and its
ratio), and frame geometries (rectangular with different width, triangular
and circular) were used. In order to compare actuators with different
geometries, same electrode area was used in all the devices. The results
showed that the actuation stroke increased when biaxial pre-stretch was
used. Also, the stroke changed with the ratio of biaxial pre-stretch. The
triangular and circular frame required no reinforcing parts to realize the
desired deformation unlike rectangular frame.
Effect of viscoelastic relaxation on the
electromechanical coupling of dielectric
Bo Li, Hualing Chen, Junjie Sheng, Xi’an Jiaotong Univ. (China)
Dielectric elastomer is able to produce a large electromechanical
deformation which is time-dependent and unstable due to the viscohyper-elasticity. In the current study, we use a thermodynamic model
to characterize the viscoelastic relaxation in the electromechanical
deformation and instability of a viscoelastic dielectric. The parameters
in the model were verified experimentally. We investigate the timedependent mechanical deformation, electrical breakdown strength,
polarization, and the electromechanical stability which are coupled by
viscoelastic relaxation. The results show the electromechanical stability
has strong time dependence, due to the stress relaxation when the prestretch is applied.
8687-84, Session 17
GEM Printer: 3D gel printer for free shaping of
functional gel engineering materials
8687-82, Session 16
Hidemitsu Furukawa, Muroi Hisato, Kouki Yamamoto, Ryo
Serizawa, Jin Gong, Yamagata Univ. (Japan)
Synthesis and electromechanical
characterization of a new acrylic dielectric
In the past decade, several high-strength gels have been developed.
These gels are expected to use as a kind of new engineering materials
in the fields of industry and medical as substitutes to polyester fibers,
which are materials of artificial blood vessels. However it is difficult for
Wei Hu, Xiaofan Niu, Univ. of California, Los Angeles (United
States); Xinguo Yang, Hunan Univ. (China); Qibing Pei, Univ. of
Return to Contents
Conference 8687: Electroactive Polymer Actuators
and Devices (EAPAD) XV
8687-86, Session 17
gels to mold into forked structure or cavity structure by using cutting or
mold. Consequently, it is necessary to develop the device to synthesize
and mode freely gels at the same time. In this study, we try to develop
an optical 3D gel printer that enables gels to mold precisely and freely.
In the gel printer, the UV laser is focused by the objective lens to put out
the optical fiber efficiently. For the free forming of double network gels,
the 1st gels are ground to particles and mixed with 2nd pregel solution,
and the mixed solution is gelled by the irradiation of UV laser beam
through an optical fiber. The use of the optical fiber makes one-point UV
irradiation possible. In addition, because the optical fiber is controlled by
3D-CAD, the precise and free molding in XYZ directions can be realized.
Proceedings of the molding are divided into two main steps. Gelation in a
plane performs by moving optical fiber in X-Y directions. Then moving the
optical fiber in Z direction, gelation in a plane carries on in the same way.
We succeeded in synthesizing and molding gels at the same time using
the gel printer. The dimensions of gel samples prepared by the gel printer
are almost the same as the designed.
The effects of bilayer geometry on the
detachment process and operation efficiency
of polypyrrole/gold bilayer actuators
Vinh Ho, Lawrence Kulinsky, Marc J. Madou, Univ. of California,
Irvine (United States)
Polypyrrole/gold (PPy/Au) bilayer actuators are used in a wide variety of
applications, from micro-robotics to drug delivery. PPy is biocompatible
and it requires only a small voltage for actuation, typically less than 2 V.
It has good electrical and mechanical properties, and it can be actuated
in different electrolytes including those similar to biological fluids. For
optimal utilization of PPy/Au bilayer actuators, ongoing research efforts
have focused on theoretical development and experimental validation
of predictive bilayer bending models. Although these models provide
an adequate prediction for free-standing or detached actuators, these
studies do not discuss actuators that are initially attached to a substrate,
which are relevant for many applications including drug delivery and
biosensing platform.
8687-85, Session 17
Polyelectrolyte gels as bending actuators:
modeling and numerical simulation
In this work, the influence of geometry, corners and edge effects on
the PPy/Au bilayer actuator release process was examined. Initial
detachment was observed to begin along the corners and edges due to
higher interfacial stresses there. Narrow rectangular actuators detached
most effectively among the tested actuators due to their high perimeter
to area ratio and presence of corners. In contrast, circular actuators with
smaller perimeter to area ratio were last to detach. While the results and
discussion in this paper are specific for PPy/Au bilayer actuators, the
insights gained from this study can be applicable for other actuators that
are initially attached to the substrate, but are designed to detach or peel
off in the process of normal operation. The actuator’s operation efficiency
can be controlled by the selection of actuators’ geometry.
Thomas Wallmersperger, Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany);
Karsten Keller, Univ. Stuttgart (Germany); Abdolhamid Attaran,
Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany)
Polyelectrolyte gels are ionic electroactive materials. They have the ability
to react as both, sensors and actuators. As actuators they can be used
e.g. as artificial muscles or drug delivery control; as sensors they may be
used for measuring e.g. pressure, pH or other ion concentrations in the
In this research polyelectrolyte gels placed in aqueous solution with
mobile anions and cations are investigated. Due to external stimuli the
polyelectrolyte gels can swell or shrink enormously by the uptake or
delivery of solvent.
8687-87, Session 17
Study of hybrid actuators based on
conducting polymer sandwich complex
In the present research a coupled multi-field problem within a continuum
mechanics framework is proposed.
The modeling approach introduces a set of equations governing multiple
fields of the problem, including the chemical field of the ionic species, the
electrical field and the mechanical field.
Rudolf Kiefer, Univ. of Tartu (Estonia); Jadranka Trava-Sejdic,
Paul A. Kilmartin, The Univ. of Auckland (New Zealand); Rauno
Temmer, Tarmo Tamm, Alvo Aabloo, Univ. of Tartu (Estonia)
The constitutive law will be carried out by extending the Gibbs free
energy to include the contributions from the different fields in the system.
In the presentation it is demonstrated that the proposed constitutive law
is thermodynamically consistent.
Novel bending hybrid conducting polymer actuators were made from
pure electrochemically polymerized conducting polymer materials. The
working principle for these free-standing conducting polymer (CP) films
is based on their selective anion and cation-driven actuation. If one
CP layer shows during certain potential (0V to 0.8V) minor actuation
of anions, (PPy/DBS) the second layer can be chosen for anion-driven
actuation such as PPy/TFSI. Polymerization of both CP layers together
can result in sandwich complex with bilayer functionality in certain
potential range depending from solvent and electrolytes. The results of a
comparative study of various combination of sandwich CP films in terms
of actuation properties are presented in this study.
The numerical simulation is performed by using the Finite Element
Method. Within the study some test cases will be carried out to validate
our model against published experimental results.
In the works by Gülch et al., the application of combined anionic-cationic
gels as grippers was shown. In the present research for an applied
electric field, the change of the concentrations in the complete polymer
is simulated by the given formulation. These changes lead to variations
in the osmotic pressure resulting in a bending of the polymer gripper. The
obtained numerical results match quite well with the experimental results.
In case of PEDOT/TBACF3SO3, it was recently discovered that the anion
or cation-driven actuation depends from the polymerization conditions.
Intensive electro-chemomechanical deformation measurements studies
of free-standing PEDOT/TBACF3SO3 films have revealed that careful
selection of polymerization potentials can be used to form PEDOT/
TBACF3SO3 films with mainly cation or anion driven actuation.
Free-standing films of PEDOT actuators electrodeposited in same
electrolyte at different polymerization potentials in bilayer functionality are
investigated in this work in view of their bending properties at different
solvent and electrolyte. Linear actuation at certain applied voltage ranges
can be achieved, if three carefully chosen different conducting polymer
layers (Trilayer) are piled together.
Return to Contents
Conference 8688: Active and Passive Smart
Structures and Integrated Systems VII
Sunday - Thursday 10–14 March 2013
Part of Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 8688 Active and Passive Smart Structures and Integrated Systems 2013
8688-1, Session 1
pressure ripple, which is caused by the action of pumps and actuators.
Pressure ripple is generally a deterministic source with a periodic
time-domain behavior conducive to energy harvesting. An energy
harvester prototype was designed for generating low-power electricity
from pressure ripples. These devices generate low-power electricity
from off-resonance dynamic pressure excitation. The power produced
per volume of device was increased through decreasing the device
size and adding an inductor to the system circuit. Fluid-mechanical
interface modifications that increase the force applied to the piezoelectric
element allow for more compact devices. The prototype device utilizes a
piezoelectric stack with high overall capacitance allowing for inductance
matching without using a switching circuit. Initial testing with addition of
an inductor produced over 2.1 mW, an increase of 78% as compared to
the device without the inductor. Power output model simulations assume
a resistive-inductive circuit.
Frequency-tunable vibratory energy harvester
for powering consumer electronics
Xiyuan Liu, Mohammed F. Daqaq, Clemson Univ. (United States)
Energy harvesting from human locomotion has been highlighted in
current technologies for self-powering electronic devices. In this report,
we introduced an electromagnetic vibratory energy harvester to generate
electricity from the strides taken during walking or jogging. In this design,
the electricity was generated from a time-varying magnetic field in the
flux path induced by the oscillation of a magnetic pendulum between two
fixed magnets. A nonlinear electromechanical model, which mimicked
the behavior of a damped Duffing oscillator, was presented to describe
the interaction between the mechanical and electrical subsystems,
and then solved analytically using the method of multiple scales. Our
design offered unique tunable characteristics on its peak frequency, in
which the frequency can be adjusted to specific values that match user
requirements, thereby increasing the power generated. Under optimal
loading conditions, the device is capable of generating 1.6 mW of output
power at a frequency of 5.2 Hz and a base acceleration of 2 m/sec^2.
The performance of the device in charging a small battery while jogging is
investigated. The motion of a typical swinging arm in terms of frequency
and acceleration is reproduced on an electrodynamic shaker and used
to charge a 100 µAh battery yielding an estimated charging time of 12
8688-4, Session 1
Piezoelectric PVDF film energy harvester for
powering a wireless sensor system
Enrico Bischur, Norbert Schwesinger, Technische Univ. München
Floorings are dynamically stressed if masses move on it. Energy
harvesters with piezoelectric PVDF film were built that generated electric
energy out of this dynamic stress. These harvester modules were used to
power a wireless sensor system.
8688-2, Session 1
Two layers of PVDF film and two aluminum foils are stacked alternating
and rolled on a winding mandrel. The rolled laminate was flattened
afterwards. The last fabrication step was the polarization of the PVDF
Steady-state dynamics of a two degreeof-freedom bistable oscillator for energy
The piezoelectric properties depend strongly on the remanent
polarization of the PVDF material. The value of the remanent polarization
of the PVDF film is influenced by the electric field strength across the
film and the polarization temperature. The main problem preventing a
sufficient polarization of the modules is the dielectric breakdown of the
film. Thus different setups of temperature and electric field strength were
tested. In the end the modules were polarized with field strength of 100 –
120 MV/m at a temperature of 90°C.
Ryan L. Harne, Manoj Thota, Kon-Well Wang, Univ. of Michigan
(United States)
Recent interest in bistable devices for vibration energy harvesting has
given evidence of their beneficial performance in realistic stochastic or
low frequency excitation environments since the snap through effect
(high displacement switching from one stable state to another) is a nonresonant dynamic. It has yet to be rigorously determined how coupling
to other degrees of freedom may play a role in enhancing bistable
energy harvesting performance since the nonlinearities do not allow for
a direct analogy from linear examples. This paper assesses the potential
for improving energy harvesting performance by coupling a bistable
oscillator to a conventional linear oscillator. A theoretical investigation
is presented to evaluate the influences of coupling using the metrics of
mass ratio and tuning ratio. Advantageous design regimes are classified
and physical explanations for the results are provided.
Modules with a dimension of 160mm x 90mm and 20 layers of active
PVDF material were used to power the EnOcean ‘EDK 300 development
kit for Energy Harvesting Wireless systems’. Each module was connected
by a full bridge rectifier with the energy management system. It was
possible to charge the storage capacitors of the system to the desired
voltage level. The system was able to check its sensors and to send the
values to the systems receiver station. The configuration could be used
also to check if a person steps on one desired module.
8688-5, Session 2
8688-3, Session 1
Piezoelectric array of oscillators with
respective electrical rectification
Design and performance enhancement
of hydraulic-pressure energy harvesting
I-Ching Lien, Yi-Chung Shu, National Taiwan Univ. (Taiwan)
This talk reports both modeling and experimental observations of
the case of parallel connection of multiple piezoelectric oscillators
with respective electrical rectification. Such an array structure offers
advantages of boosting power output and exhibiting broadband energy
harvesting. Indeed, the array problem based on an overall electrical
rectification has been recently investigated by the present authors who
showed its electrical behavior is determined by the matrix formulation of
generalized Ohm’s law (Lien and Shu, Smart Materials and Structures,
Vol. 21: 082001, 2012). In contrast, here we show that the electrical
response for an array structure with respective electrical rectification is
Ellen A. Skow, Kenneth A. Cunefare, Alper Erturk, Georgia
Institute of Technology (United States)
Hydraulic pressure rippled energy harvesters generate low-power
electricity from off-resonance dynamic pressure excitation of
piezoelectric elements. Improvements were made to a hydraulic pressure
ripple energy harvester prototype design and performance. Hydraulic
systems inherently have a high energy intensity associated with the
mean pressure and flow. Accompanying the mean pressure is dynamic
Return to Contents
Conference 8688: Active and Passive Smart
Structures and Integrated Systems VII
governed by simultaneous nonlinear equations with constraints indicating
blocking by rectifiers. The theoretical estimates are proposed and
validated numerically by circuit simulations. In addition, experimental
validation is carried out by developing an array structure consisting
of three piezoelectric bimorphs. Harvested power against frequency
for various electrical loads are measured and compared to analytic
estimates. The results show that both are in good agreement. Finally, the
comparisons between the case based on an overall electrical rectification
and that based on respective rectification are made and discussed.
on only one load without losing performance. The parasitic capacitance
due to the bonding is also investigated. This capacitance corresponds
to the isolation layer between the structure and the bottom electrode
of the piezoelectric patches. Results demonstrate a sufficiently large
capacitance (a few microns bonding layer) allow sufficient isolating of the
network without any risk of affecting the harvester coupling coefficients.
8688-8, Session 2
Review of power electronics for energy
harvesting systems
8688-6, Session 2
Investigating synchronized switching in
aeroelastic flutter energy harvesting
Peng Li, Lei Zuo, Stony Brook Univ. (United States)
Energy harvesting devices are designed to capture the ambient energy in
various forms surrounding the energy harvester, such as thermal energy,
solar energy, biological energy and kinetic energy, etc., and convert it
into the form of usable electrical energy. The output electrical energy
from energy harvesters is typically unstable, both in current, voltage and
power. Thus, voltage regulation is needed to make the harvested energy
suitable to either directly power electronic devices or be stored in energy
storage elements. Also, power management would be necessary to make
the energy harvesting system work in desired condition to maximize the
energy extraction and promote the conversion efficiency of the energy
harvesting systems, which can be achieved by applying appropriate
control schemes on the power electronic circuits.
Matthew J. Bryant, Alexander D. Schlichting, Ephrahim Garcia,
Cornell Univ. (United States)
This paper investigates a novel energy harvesting device for powering
wireless sensors or other low power electronics by extracting energy
from an ambient fluid flow. In particular, a device driven by aeroelastic
flutter vibrations has been designed to extract vibratory energy from the
flow and then transduce these vibrations to electrical current via cyclically
straining piezoelectric patches. The aeroelastic energy harvester device
consists of a cantilevered piezoelectric beam with a small plate attached
to the tip of the beam by a flexible joint. Above a critical flow speed,
a flutter instability occurs causing the plate to oscillate with coupled
pitching and heaving vibrations in a stable limit cycle, cyclically straining
the piezoelectric beam and generating an alternating electric current.
Power electronic circuit forms the bridge between the energy transducer
(harvester) and the energy storage element. The electronic interface
circuits have critical effects on the energy harvesting scale, robustness
and energy harvesting efficiency. Abundant work on interface
power electronic circuits with functions of voltage regulation, power
conditioning, resonance tuning and control for energy harvesting systems
has been conducted and reported. This paper will review recent reported
concepts for power electronic circuits in energy harvesting systems.
Reported interface electronic circuit concepts are compared in the view
of energy conversion efficiency, start-up behavior, and complexity. The
focus of this paper is on circuit concepts used in large scale applications
that can achieve power transfer in both directions.
We investigate the effects of the energy harvesting circuit design on
the performance of the aeroelastic harvester, and the effects of the
circuit on the flutter dynamics and limit cycle behavior. Techniques
like synchronized switching have been shown to significantly enhance
energy extraction performance in base excitation systems, but have been
largely ignored in fluid-driven vibration energy harvesting. The fluidstructure interaction limit cycles that drive aeroelastic energy harvesters
are affected by the electromechanical coupling and therefore by circuit
topology. Meanwhile, the available kinetic energy for any flow energy
harvester is proportional to the device swept area, which is determined
by the limit cycle behavior. Thus the circuit design can have significant
effects on not only the power output of the device, but also its energy
capture efficiency, and operating flow requirements.
8688-9, Session 2
Practical implementation of piezoelectric
energy harvesting synchronized switching
8688-7, Session 2
Influence of the topology for a networked
SSHI piezoelectric harvesting configuration
Alexander D. Schlichting, Ephrahim Garcia, Cornell Univ. (United
Yang Li, Daniel Guyomar, Claude Richard, Institut National des
Sciences Appliquées de Lyon (France)
Many closed-loop control methods for increasing the power output from
piezoelectric energy harvesters have been investigated over the past
decade. Initial work started with the application of Maximum Power Point
Tracking techniques (MPPT) developed for solar energy harvesting. More
recent schemes have focused on taking advantage of the capacitive AC
nature of piezoelectric harvesters to manipulate the transfer of energy
from the piezoelectric to the storage element. There have been three
main techniques investigated in the literature: Synchronized Charge
Extraction (SCE), Synchronized Switching and Discharging to a Capacitor
through an Inductor (SSDCI), and Synchronized Switch Harvesting
on an Inductor (SSHI). While significant increases in harvested power
are seen both theoretically and experimentally using powerful external
control systems, the applicability of these methods depends highly on
the performance and efficiency of the control method which implements
the synchronized switching. This work focuses on the practical
questions which dictate the applicability of SSDCI. Many piezoelectric
energy harvesting systems are used to power devices controlled by a
microcontroller (MCU). However its availability for the implementation of
the switching control depends on the duty cycle of MCU. This is because
putting the MCU to sleep is a common method for significantly reducing
system energy requirements. To remedy this issue, this work investigates
analog methods for implementing the switching control for SSDCI. The
This paper focuses on the influence of the topology of a networked SSHI
(Synchronized Switch Harvesting on Inductor) piezoelectric harvesting
configuration. Generally, an energy harvester is used as a localized and
standalone system. In the case of large structure and for large harvested
energies, it is usually not easy to increase the size of the piezoelectric
patches. In order to harvest energy in the regions of maximum strain of
the structure, the networked piezos harvester including many separated
piezoelectric patches must be set up with only one output. The main
concern is how to connect the different piezoelectric elements together
and how to implement accurately the SSHI strategy for maximizing the
total output power.
This paper presents 5 different circuit topologies with/without SSHI
strategy. This work is based on simulations made in the Matlab/Simulink
environment and using the Simscape library. The simulations are done
for pulse excitation and harvesting is thus considered in pulse mode.
For each circuit topology, the total output energy is dependent on the
output capacitance. The experiments results show: a) the SSHI in series
and the SSHI in parallel could get much higher output energy. b) the
feasibility of grouping various harvesters within a network connected
Return to Contents
Conference 8688: Active and Passive Smart
Structures and Integrated Systems VII
practicability of these methods is measured by investigating the overall
system and component level efficiency, mass, and power production.
frequency response in typical designs. Despite the fact that many
vibration sources are broadband in nature, these tuned cantilever
beams only produce significant power when operated very near their
tuned frequency. While others have proposed using multiple beams
or frequency up conversion to improve broadband response, we have
developed a device capable of responding to any input frequency.
In this paper, we propose a new method of energy harvesting that
uses free-slewing and hard stops to allow for excitation over a wide
frequency range. The device consists of a typical piezoelectric beam
with new boundary conditions. The root of the beam is pinned to the
host structure, rather than being clamped. This pinned condition allows
for excitation of the beam at all frequencies. Opposing hard stops are
placed along the beam to limit the angular deflection of the beam. We
present experimental results for such a system, and show that given the
proper spacing of these stops relative to the input vibrations, we are able
to harvest power over a much wider range than is possible using existing
cantilevered designs.
8688-10, Session 3
Broadband energy harvesting using nonlinear
2-DOF configuration
Hao Wu, Lihua Tang, Panduranga Vittal Avvari, Yaowen Yang,
Chee Kiong Soh, Nanyang Technological Univ. (Singapore)
Vibration energy harvesting using piezoelectric material has received
great research interest in the recent years. To enhance the performance
of piezoelectric energy harvesters, one important concern is to increase
their operating bandwidth. Various techniques have been proposed for
broadband energy harvesting, such as the resonance tuning approach,
the frequency up-conversion technique, the multi-modal harvesting
and the nonlinear technique. Usually, a nonlinear piezoelectric energy
harvester can be easily developed by introducing a magnetic field.
Either mono-stable or bi-stable response can be achieved using
different magnetic configurations. However, most of the research
work for nonlinear piezoelectric energy harvesting has focused on the
SDOF cantilever beam configuration. A recently reported linear 2-DOF
harvester can achieve two close resonant frequencies with significant
power outputs. However, for this linear configuration, although a broader
bandwidth can be achieved, there exists a deep valley in-between the
two response peaks. The presence of the valley will greatly deteriorate
the performance of the energy harvester. To overcome this limitation,
a nonlinear 2-DOF piezoelectric energy harvester is proposed in this
article. This nonlinear harvester is developed from its linear counterpart
by incorporating a magnetic field using a pair of magnets. Experimental
parametric study is carried out to investigate the behaviour of such
harvester. With different configurations, both mono-stable and bi-stable
behaviours are observed and analysed. An optimal configuration of the
nonlinear harvester is thus obtained, which can achieve significantly
wider bandwidth than the linear 2-DOF harvester and at the same time
overcome its limitation.
8688-13, Session 3
A piezoelectric power harvester based on
stainless steel substrate with dual oscillators
Ya Shan Shih, Sun Chiu Lin, Wen Jong Wu, National Taiwan Univ.
The powering source of the wireless sensor nodes (WSN) has been a
critical subject throughout recent years. Considering the inconvenience
of battery replacement by man, power harvesting has been profoundly
investigated by researchers so as to provide a constant power source
for every single node. This work proposes a MEMS-fabricated-micropiezoelectric power harvester based on a stainless steel substrate,
which is consisted of dual oscillators. The stainless steel substrate
not only fortifies the robustness of the device but also lowers the
resonance frequency comparing to the conventional device with silicon
substrate. The lowered resonance frequency of the harvester of the
device is 27 Hz and 66.4 Hz for different thicknesses of substrate, 30
and 50 micrometers. The overall optimal output voltages of the two
thicknesses were 1.1 V and 1.05 V, for the 30 and 50 micrometers
devices, respectively. With the second oscillator located in the middle
of the structure, the second resonance frequency was also lowered to
115 Hz. The device was also found to possess an up-conversion effect,
which can enable the device to work at multiple frequencies. Under the
harmonic frequencies, peak values of the output voltage were also found
to be close to the output voltage of resonance frequency. For example,
under 13.6 Hz, which is one-fifth of the device’s resonance frequency, the
output voltage is approximately equal to that of the resonance frequency.
Moreover, from the up-rising trend of the voltage respond, it is predicted
that the device may have a broad band effect under vibrating frequencies
lower than 10 Hz.
8688-11, Session 3
Modeling of wide-band frequency-adjustable
piezoelectric bimorph rnergy harvester
Haifeng Zhang, Univ. of North Texas (United States)
Piezoelectric energy harvesters are ideal for capturing energy from
mechanical vibrations in the ambient environment. Numerous studies
have been made of this application of piezoelectric energy conversion.
However, in order for the energy harvester to produce a substantial
amount of energy, the mechanical vibration frequency must match
the operational frequency of the energy harvester. The traditional
piezoelectric harvester only operates on a single frequency. Therefore, it
can only be used in a very narrow frequency range. In this presentation,
we discuss the modeling and the experiment for a new, broadband
piezoelectric energy harvester. The energy harvester is implemented as
a series of connected vibrating piezoelectric bimorph beams capable
of operating over a wide range of frequencies. The results show that
the operating frequency can be adjusted by changing the stiffness of a
connecting spring and/or a small mass mounted on the bimorph. The
results provide a foundation for the design of a frequency-self-tuning
piezoelectric energy harvester capable of maximizing power efficiency.
8688-14, Session 3
A multiaxial piezoelectric energy harvester
Hadj daoud Mousselmal, Pierre-Jean Cottinet, Institut National
des Sciences Appliquées de Lyon (France); Boudjemaa Remaki,
Institut des Nanotechnologies de Lyon (France); Lionel Petit,
Institut National des Sciences Appliquées de Lyon (France)
An important limitation in the classical energy harvesters based on
cantilever beam structure is its monodirectional sensibility. The external
excitation must generate an orthogonal acceleration from the beam plane
to induced flexural deformation. If the direction of the excitation deviates
from this privileged direction, the harvester output power is drastically
reduced. This point is obviously very restrictive in the case of an arbitrary
excitation direction induced for example by human body movements or
vehicles vibrations.
8688-12, Session 3
Fundamental power limits of piezoelectric
energy harvesters based on material strength
Michael W. Shafer, Ephrahim Garcia, Cornell Univ. (United States)
In order to overcome this issue of the conventional resonant cantilever
configuration with seismic mass, a multidirectional harvester is
Piezoelectric energy harvesting has been plagued by the narrow
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Conference 8688: Active and Passive Smart
Structures and Integrated Systems VII
introduced here by the authors. The multidirectional ability relies on the
exploitation of 3 degenerate structural vibration modes where each of
them is induced by the corresponding component of the acceleration
vector. This specific structure has been already used for 3 axis
accelerometers but the approach is here totally revisited because the
final functional goal is different.
custom manufacturing techniques; and determining the failure criteria
for piezoelectric actuators so that they can be driven at the highest
maximum voltage, yielding the best performance characteristics.
Through the optimization, manufacturing, and fracture strength testing
of piezoelectric bimorphs, analytical and empirical models have been
created to yield minimum mass and minimum power consumption
actuators to meet the force and displacement required in a dual actuated
This paper presents the principle and the design considerations of such
multidirectional piezoelectric energy harvester.
A finite element model has been used for the harvester optimisation.
It has been shown that the seismic mass is a relevant parameter for
the modes tuning because the resonant frequency of the 1st exploited
flexural mode directly depends on the mass whereas the resonance
frequency of the 2nd flexural mode depends on its moment of inertia.
8688-17, Session 4
Nonlinear experimental study of the vibration
energy harvester for cardiac pacemakers
A centimetric prototype derived from a commercial piezoelectric buzzer
has permitted to valid the theoretical approach.
M. Amin Karami, David J. Bradley, Daniel J. Inman, Univ. of
Michigan (United States)
Finally, the feasibility of such harvester in MEMS form is shown with the
help of a finite element model.
In vitro experiments show that a novel piezoelectric energy harvester
can generate sufficient energy to power cardiac pacemakers. Cardiac
pacemakers are used to artificially regulate heartbeats. Currently
pacemakers are powered by batteries, which consist 60 percent of their
size. Although the power consumption of a pacemaker is less than a
microwatt, the battery is depleted in 5 to 7 years. When the battery is
run out, the pacemakers is surgically replaced. We have developed a
vibration energy harvester to generate electrical energy from heartbeatinduced vibrations. Successful implementation of the technology means
that the patients do not have to endure frequent operations required to
regularly change the pacemakers.
8688-15, Session 4
Synthesizing fluidic flexible matrix composite
based cellular structures
Suyi Li, Kon-Well Wang, Univ. of Michigan (United States)
Fluidic flexible matrix composite (F2MC) cell is investigated as a building
block for multi-cellular, multi-functional adaptive structures. When
different F2MC cells are connected through internal fluidic circuit to
form a cellular structure, it will exhibit dynamic behavior with distinct
poles and zeros, which can be tailored by varying the F2MC cellular
parameters. This paper will discuss a synthesis procedure for such F2MC
multi-cellular structures. The procedure is essentially a hybrid numerical
method combining the Jacobi Inverse Eigenvalue problem solver and
Genetic Algorithm. It is capable of precisely placing the system poles
and zeros at desired locations by choosing F2MC parameters; it is
also capable of providing several feasible solutions in one run. In this
research, as an example, a three-cell string is investigated to illustrate the
system physics and synthesis procedure. It is found that, for a given set
of feasible poles and zeros, the corresponding feasible cellular design is
not unique. All of these feasible cellular designs will form a design space,
and the dimension of this space depends on the number of F2MC cells.
The extra degrees of freedom of the design space, combined with the
physical insights revealed by a dimensionless dynamic model, makes it
possible to add and achieve more design objectives.
To obtain realistic estimates of the heartbeat induced vibrations, we
use the data collected during animal surgeries. After the chest area was
opened and the heart was exposed, a laser Doppler vibrometer was
used to measure the vibrations inside the chest area. The vibration data
is used for experimental investigation of the developed piezoelectric
energy harvester. The harvester was designed based on the previously
developed models for nonlinear energy harvesters. The fabricated
harvester is connected to a closed loop shaker. The electromagnetic
shaker is controlled to precisely replicate the measured chest area
vibrations. We have measured the vibrations at several points in the
chest area including points on the heart surface as well as points on the
connective tissue, lungs, and the diaphragm. It is demonstrated that
sufficient energy can be generated if the energy harvester is positioned at
any of the measurement points. The heart rate insensitivity of the device
was confirmed by comparing the energy generation from different heart
8688-18, Session 5
8688-16, Session 4
Vibration shape effects on the power output
in piezoelectric vibro-impact engergy
Piezoelectric bimorph optimization for a dualactuated flapping-wing micro air vehicle
Robert K. Lenzen, U.S. Air Force (United States) and Air Force
Institute of Technology (United States); Ryan P. O’Hara, Garrison
J. Lindholm, Air Force Institute of Technology (United States) and
U.S. Air Force (United States); Richard G. Cobb, Mark F. Reeder,
Air Force Institute of Technology (United States)
Jens Twiefel, Leibniz Univ. Hannover (Germany)
Vibro-Impcact harvesting devices are one concept to increase the
bandwidth of resonant operated piezoelectric vibration generators.
The fundamental setup is a piezoelectric bending element, where
the deflection is limited by two stoppers. After starting the system in
resonance operation the bandwidth increases towards higher frequencies
as soon the deflection reach the stopper. If the stoppers are rigid, the
frequency response gives constant amplitude for increasing frequencies,
as long the system is treated as ideal 1-DOF system with symmetric
stoppers. In consequence, the bandwidth is theoretically unlimited
large. However, such a system also has two major drawbacks, firstly the
complicated startup mechanism and secondly the tendency to “drop”
from the high constant branch in the frequency response on the much
smaller linear branch. Nevertheless, the system has its application
wherever the startup problem can be solved. Most modeling approaches
utilize modal 1-DOF models to describe the systems behavior and do not
tread the higher harmonics of the beam element.
Piezoelectric bimorph actuators, as opposed to rotary electric motors,
have been suggested as an actuation mechanism for flapping wing micro
air vehicles (FWMAVs) because they exhibit favorable characteristics
such as low weight, adaptable frequencies, and variable amplitudes.
Research at the Air Force Institute of Technology has shown that by
using one actuator per wing, up to five degrees of freedom are possible.
However, due to the weight constraints on a FWMAV, the piezoelectric
bimorph actuators need to be fully optimized to allow controlled and untethered flight to occur.
This study focuses on three areas of investigation in order to optimize
the piezoelectric actuators: validating and modifying analytical models
that have been previously suggested for the performance of piezoelectric
bimorph actuators; identifying the repeatability and reliability of current
Return to Contents
This work investigates the effects of the stoppers on the vibration shape
Conference 8688: Active and Passive Smart
Structures and Integrated Systems VII
of the piezoelectric beam, wherefore a finite element model is used.
The used elements are one-dimensional two node elements based on
the Timoshenko-beam theory. The finite element code is implemented
in MatLab. The model is calculated utilizing time step integration for
simulation, to reduce the computation time an auto-resonant calculation
method is implemented. A control loop including positive feedback
and saturation is used to create a self-excited system. Therefore, the
system is always operated in resonance (on the backbone curve) and the
frequency is a direct result of the computation. In this case tip velocity is
used as feedback.
sandwiched between the spring and frame. Based on the harvester’s
configuration, the energy harvesting/converting process is divided to two
steps. For the first step, the soft magnet is close to the cold side so that
the soft magnet’s temperature is lower than its curie temperature. Thus,
the soft magnet exhibits a ferromagnetic property. Due to the magneticattraction force between the soft and hard magnet, the soft magnet (fixed
on the spring) moves toward the hard magnet (on the hot side). When the
soft magnet approaches to the hard magnet (hot side), the soft magnet’s
temperature is increased. When the soft magnet’s temperature is higher
than its curie temperature (i.e., the second step), the soft magnet loses
ferromagnetic property resulting in eliminating the magnetic-attraction
force. Thus, the soft magnet fixed on the spring bounces back to its initial
location/state due to the spring-back force. Through the cyclic process,
the spring/piezoelectric-beams continuously oscillates and subsequently
produces voltage output due to the piezoelectric effect. The voltage
response of the harvester under a temperature-difference of 25°C is 16.6
mV with an oscillating frequency of 0.58 Hz. (Note: For more details,
please refer to the two-pages abstract we upload).
This technique allows effective parametric studies. Investigated
parameters include gap, excitation amplitude, tip mass as well as the
stiffness of the stopper. The stress and strain distribution as well as
the generated electrical power is analyzed with respect to the proper
operation range. Further an experimental setup is introduced for
validation of the model. Preliminary measurements show the plausibility
of the presented results.
8688-19, Session 5
8688-21, Session 5
Analysis and optimization of standing
wave thermoacoustic-piezoelectric energy
harvester: An electrical circuit analogy
A vibration energy harvester using
diamagnetic levitation
Sri Vikram Palagummi, North Carolina State Univ. (United States)
This paper will introduce a novel electromagnetic energy harvesting
device which uses a diamagnetic levitation system for powering
wireless sensors or other low power electronics by extracting energy
from ambient vibrations. The harvester uses two diamagnetic plates
made of pyrolytic graphite between which a cylindrical magnet levitates
passively. The weight of the floating magnet is balanced by the force
of the field of a big lifting magnet and the two pyrolytic graphite plates.
Two archimedean spiral coils are placed in circular grooves which are
engraved in the pyrolytic graphite plates, for converting the mechanical
energy into electrical energy efficiently.
Amr M. Baz, Mostafa A. Nouh, Univ. of Maryland, College Park
(United States); Osama J. Aldraihem, King Saud Univ. (Saudi
The performance of a standing wave thermoacoustic-piezoelectric
(TAP) energy harvester is developed using an electrical circuit analogy
approach. The harvester converts thermal energy, such as solar or
waste heat energy, directly into electrical energy without the need for
any moving components. The input thermal energy generates a steep
temperature gradient along a porous stack. At a critical threshold of
the temperature gradient, self-sustained acoustic waves are developed
inside an acoustic resonator. The associated pressure fluctuations
impinge on a piezoelectric diaphragm, placed at the end of the resonator.
The resulting interaction is accompanied by a direct conversion of the
acoustic energy into electrical energy. The behavior of this class of
harvesters is modeled using an electrical circuit analogy approach. The
developed model is a multi-field model which combines the descriptions
of the acoustic resonator and the stack with the characteristics of the
piezoelectric diaphragm. The onset of self-sustained oscillations of the
harvester is predicted using the root locus method and SPICE software
(Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis). The predictions
are validated against published results. The developed electrical analog
and the associated analysis approach present invaluable tools for the
design and the optimization of efficient thermoacoustic-piezoelectric
(TAP) energy harvesters.
The diamagnetic plates serve dual purpose of providing vertical stability
and restoring force to the floating magnet. As the restoring force is
solely due to the repulsion of the magnetic field, there is no significant
mechanical damping which is generally unavoidable in mechanical
suspension like systems, commonly designed in conventional energy
harvesting devices. A thin coil model is used to approximate the magnet
and a thorough theoretical analysis of the energy harvester is done.
A few parametric studies are conducted on the geometric configurations
of the coils along with the dimensions of the floating magnet to enhance
the efficiency of the harvester. Both theoretical and experimental results
show that this energy harvesting system is efficient and can capture low
frequency broadband spectra. This low working frequency range (0.1Hz10Hz) is especially suited for civil structures which have very low natural
8688-22, Session 6
8688-20, Session 5
Identification of flexible structures by
frequency-domain observability range
A magnetic/piezoelectric-based thermal
energy harvester
Tien-Kan Chung, National Chiao Tung Univ. (Taiwan); Ujjwalu
Shukla, Indian Institute of Technology (India) and National Chiao
Tung Univ. (Taiwan); Chia-Yuan Tseng, National Chiao Tung Univ.
(Taiwan); Ch-Min Wang, Department of Mechanical Engineering,
National Chiao Tung University (Taiwan)
Mark A. Hopkins, Rochester Institute of Technology (United
This paper presents the mathematical and algorithmic details of a
system-identification method for very high-order, very broad-bandwidth
models of flexible structures. The method uses the well-known
frequency-domain observability range space extraction (FORSE)
algorithm to individually identify a large number of parallel secondorder resonant-mode submodels. FORSE is used to create narrowband
“context models” in a lightly damped system, from which the models of
specific individual resonant modes can be extracted. The paper goes
on to show how to combine the extracted models of many individual
resonant modes at different frequencies into one larger, broadband state-
In this paper, we demonstrate a magnetic/piezoelectric-based thermal
energy harvester utilizing an optimized thermal-convection mechanism
to enhance the heat transfer in the energy harvesting/converting process
in order to maximize the power output. The harvester consists of a
serpentine CuBe spring, Gd soft and NdFeB hard magnets, mechanical
frame, and piezoelectric PZT cantilever beams. Soft and hard magnet
is fixed on the spring and frame, respectively. Piezoelectric beams are
Return to Contents
Conference 8688: Active and Passive Smart
Structures and Integrated Systems VII
8688-25, Session 6
space model. Using this method on a variety of large flexible structures,
we have created very high-order state-space models that accurately
match measured FRD over very broad ranges of frequency, i.e., FRD
having resonant peaks spread across five orders-of-magnitude (or more)
of frequency bandwidth. An interesting flexible-structure example is
included in the paper.
Increasing overall wind-farm power efficiency
by optimal cooperative control
Jinkyoo Park, Stanford Univ. (United States)
The objective of this research is to improve the cost-effectiveness and
production efficiency of wind farms using cooperative wind-farm control.
Nacelle yaw and blade pitch angles are the key factors determining
power production and loading for a wind turbine. At the same time,
these factors can adjust the wake direction and intensity in a way that
adversely affects the performance of other wind turbines in the wind
farm. Conventional wind-turbine control methods maximize single turbine
power production, but can lower overall wind-farm power efficiency due
to wake interference. By introducing a cooperative game concept from
game theory, a new equilibrium point for wind-turbine power production
can be derived such as to increase total wind-farm power efficiency. To
this end, a convex optimization problem with the objective of maximizing
the sum of power production of wind turbines in a wind farm was
formulated and simulated. The derived control policy leads to sets of
coordinated optimum control inputs (the nacelle yaw and blade pitch
angles) for various wind conditions in a wind farm. The results of this
research can lead to increased power efficiency and prolonged windfarm operation periods.
8688-23, Session 6
Modeling and control of a jellyfish-like bioinspired AUV
Cassio T. Faria, Shashank Priya, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and
State Univ. (United States); Daniel J. Inman, Univ. of Michigan
(United States)
Current autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) designs have a serious
deficiency in autonomy time due to its ballistic type of construction: a
cylindrical body propelled by a rear engine. This type of design does
not take advantage of the fluid that has to be displaced to move the
vehicle forward, drastically reducing the overall system efficiency and
consequently its operation time. In order to improve this aspect many
engineers have been looking to nature for inspiration. Jellyfish provide a
promising candidate to look for new ideas since jellyfish have a unique
propulsion mechanism. Several researches have pointed out that their
propulsion mechanism is indeed efficient allowing the animal to have
great autonomy. The use of such novel bio-inspired vehicle design
demands an evaluation of the current mathematical modeling in order to
adequately describe the behavior of such a vehicle. This paper develops
a time-varying rigid body model for the kinematics and dynamics of a
AUV based on jellyfish propulsion concept. A nonlinear sliding mode
controller is also proposed to drive the system to its origin.
8688-26, Session 6
Design of smart composite platforms for
adaptive trust vector control and adaptive
laser telescope for satellite applications
Mehrdad N. Ghasemi-Nejhad, Univ. of Hawai’i (United States)
8688-24, Session 6
This paper presents design of smart composite platforms for adaptive
trust vector control (TVC) and adaptive laser telescope for satellite
applications. To eliminate disturbances, the proposed adaptive TVC and
telescope systems will be mounted on two analogous smart composite
platform with simultaneous precision positioning (pointing) and vibration
suppression (stabilizing), SPPVS, with micro-radian pointing resolution,
and then mounted on a satellite in two different locations. The adaptive
TVC system provides SPPVS with large tip-tilt to potentially eliminate
the gimbals systems. The smart composite telescope will be mounted
on a smart composite platform with SPPVS and then mounted on a
satellite. The laser communication is intended for the Geosynchronous
orbit. The high degree of directionality increases the security of the laser
communication signal (as opposed to a diffused RF signal), but also
requires sophisticated subsystems for transmission and acquisition.
The shorter wavelength of the optical spectrum increases the data
transmission rates, but laser systems require large amounts of power,
which increases the mass and complexity of the supporting systems. In
addition, the laser communication on the Geosynchronous orbit requires
an accurate platform with SPPVS capabilities. Therefore, this work also
addresses the design of an active composite platform to be used to
simultaneously point and stabilize an intersatellite laser communication
telescope with micro-radian pointing resolution. The telescope is a
Cassegrain receiver that employs two mirrors, one convex (primary) and
the other concave (secondary). The distance, as well as the horizontal
and axial alignment of the mirrors, must be precisely maintained or
else the optical properties of the system will be severely degraded. The
alignment will also have to be maintained during thruster firings, which
will require vibration suppression capabilities of the system as well.
The innovative platform has been designed to have tip-tilt pointing and
simultaneous multi-degree-of-freedom vibration isolation capability for
pointing stabilization.
Computation of 2D vibroacoustic wave’s
dispersion for optimizing acoustic power flow
in interaction with adaptive metacomposites
Manuel Collet, Morvan Ouisse, Univ. de Franche-Comte (France);
Mohamed N. Ichchou, Ecole Centrale de Lyon (France); Roger
Ohayon, Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers (France)
Research activities in smart materials and structures are very important
today and represent a significant potential for technological innovation
in mechanics and aerospace. In order to implement new active
functionalities inside the considered system, modern processing methods
are now available which allow integration of dense and distributed set
of smart materials, electronics, chip sets and power supply systems.
It is also possible to develop the next generation of smart “composite”
structures also called adaptive metacomposite. By using such an
integrated distributed set of electromechanical transducers, one can
imagine to attain new desired dynamical behavior that can allow the
control of mechanical or acoustic flow in a large frequency band.
In this paper, we present an integrated methodology for optimizing
vibroacoustic energy flow in interaction between an adaptive
metacomposite made of periodically distributed shunted piezoelectric
material glued onto passive plate and open acoustic domain. Extension
of shifted cell operator methodology to fluid-structure interaction is
presented. The computation of interacting Floquet-Block propagators
is also used to optimize vibroacoustic indicators as noise absorption
and emission. The main purpose of this work is first to propose the
numerical methodology to compute the fluid-structure multi-modal wave
dispersions. In a second step optimization of electric circuit is used to
control the acoustic power flow. 3D standard computation is also use to
confirm the efficiency of the designed metacomposite in term of acoustic
emissivity and absorption.
Return to Contents
Conference 8688: Active and Passive Smart
Structures and Integrated Systems VII
8688-27, Session 7
structure, based on global energy redistribution by means of a network
of piezoelectric elements is proposed. It is basically using semi-active
Synchronized Switch Damping technique. SSD technique relies on
a cumulative build-up of the voltage resulting from the continuous
switching and it was shown that the performance is strongly related
to this voltage. The increase of the piezoelectric voltage results in
improvement of the damping performance. External voltage sources or
improved switching sequences were previously designed to increase
this voltage in the case of single piezoelectric element structure
configurations. This paper deals with extended structure with many
embedded piezoelectric elements. The proposed strategy consist of
using an electric network made with non-linear component and switches
in order to set up and control a low-loss energy transfer from source
piezoelements extracting the vibrational energy of the structure and
oriented toward a given piezoelement in order to increase its operative
energy for improving a given mode damping.
Vibration damping of a cantilever beam
utilizing fluidic flexible matrix composites
Bin Zhu, Chris D. Rahn, Charles E. Bakis, The Pennsylvania State
Univ. (United States)
This paper presents a novel approach for damping the vibration of a
cantilever beam by bonding a fluidic flexible matrix composite (F2MC)
tube to the beam and using the strain induced fluid pumping. The
transverse beam vibration couples with the F2MC tube strain to generate
flow into an external accumulator through an orifice that dissipates
energy. The energy dissipation is especially significant at the resonances
of the cantilever beam, where the beam vibrates with greatest amplitude
and induces the most fluid flow from the F2MC tube. As a result, the
resonant peaks can be greatly reduced due to the damping introduced
by the flow through the orifice. An analytical model is developed based
on Euler-Bernoulli beam theory and Lekhnitskii’s solution for anisotropic
layered tubes. In order to maximize the vibration reduction, a parametric
study of the F2MC tube is performed. The analysis results show that the
resonant peaks can be provided with a damping ratio of up to 13.7% by
tailoring the fiber angle of the F2MC tube, the bonding locations of the
tube, and the orifice flow coefficient.
This paper presents simulation of a clamped plate with four piezoelectric
elements implemented in the Matlab/SimulinkTM environment. The
various simulation cases show the relationship between the damping
performance on a given targeted mode and the established power flow.
SSDD and SSDT are two proposed original networks. Performances are
compared to the SSDI baseline. A damping increase of 18dB can be
obtained even with a weakly coupled piezoelectric element in the multisine excitation case. This result proves the importance of new global
non-linear multi-actuator strategies for improved vibration damping of
extended smart structure.
8688-28, Session 7
Analytical solutions to H_2and H_∞
optimization of resonant shunt
electromagnetic tuned mass damper and
vibration energy harvester
8688-30, Session 7
Lei Zuo, Wen Cui, Xiudong Tang, Stony Brook Univ. (United
Nima Noormohammadi, Paul Reynolds, The Univ. of Sheffield
(United Kingdom)
The classic tuned mass damper (TMD) is a passive vibration control
device composed of an auxiliary mass connected to a vibrating object
with a spring and an energy-dissipative element. When its parameters
are optimized, it can reduce the vibration effectively. Inspired by the
piezoelectric shunting damping treatment, this paper proposed a concept
of electromagnetic TMD, where an electromagnetic transducer shunt with
a resonant RLC circuit is placed between the primary structure and the
base, realizing the function TMD without additional mass. The resonance
created by the RLC circuit has the similar effect as the one induced by
the auxiliary mass-spring system. The parameters of the RLC circuits
are optimized in this paper for both vibration mitigation performance
and energy harvesting with closed-form solutions. Both H_2and
H_∞optimization criterions, which is to minimize the root-mean-square
vibration under random excitation, and to minimize the peak magnitude
in the frequency domain are investigated. The main contribution of this
paper is to derive the exact closed-form solutions for H_2 optimization
and approximate closed-form solutions for H_∞ optimization of the
electromagnetic TMD system. The results are then compared with the
numerical solutions in order to verify the accuracy. Furthermore, for
implementation purpose, we also investigate the sensitivity of system
performances to parameter change of the electromagnetic TMD system.
Current sport stadia designs focus mainly on maximising audience
capacity and providing a clear view for all spectators. Hence,
incorporation of one or more cantilevered tiers is typical in these designs.
However, employing cantilevered tiers, usually with relatively low damping
and natural frequencies, can make grandstands more susceptible
to excitation by human activities. This is caused by the coincidence
between the activity frequencies (and their lowest three harmonics) and
the structural natural frequencies hence raising the possibility of resonant
vibration. This can be both a vibration serviceability or safety issue.
Experimental investigation of dynamic
performance of a prototype hybrid-tuned
mass damper under human excitation
Past solutions to deal with observed or anticipated vibration serviceability
problems have been mainly passive methods, such as tuned mass
dampers (TMDs). These techniques have exhibited problems such
as lack of performance and off-tuning caused by human-structure
interaction. To address this issue, research is currently underway to
investigate the possible application of hybrid TMDs (HTMDs), which are
a combination of active and passive control, to improve the vibration
serviceability of such structures under human excitation.
The work presented here shows a comparative experimental
investigation of a passive TMD and a prototype HTMD applied on a
slab strip structure. The most effective control algorithm to enhance the
performance of the HTMD and also deal with the off-tuning problem is
investigated. The laboratory structure used here is an in-situ cast simplysupported post-tensioned slab strip excited by forces from a range of
human activities.
8688-29, Session 7
A new global approach using a network
of piezoelectric elements and energy
redistribution for enhanced vibration damping
of smart structure
Dan Wu, Daniel Guyomar, Claude Richard, Institut National des
Sciences Appliquées de Lyon (France)
A new global approach for improved vibration damping of smart
Return to Contents
Conference 8688: Active and Passive Smart
Structures and Integrated Systems VII
8688-31, Session 7
8688-79, Session PTues
Simultaneous supply of infinite and
infinitesimal stiffness of active isolation
systems that are exposed to multiple
vibration sources
Dynamic design of laminated
piezocomposites structures (LAPS) using
topology optimization method
Ruben A. Salas, Emilio C. N. Silva, Univ. de São Paulo (Brazil)
Björn T. Kletz, Technical Univ. Braunschweig (Germany) and
Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (Germany); Jörg
Melcher, Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.
Laminated piezocomposite materials are composed by layers of
piezoelectric, metal and composite material (epoxy matrix with carbon
or glass fiber), which have advantages over conventional piezoelectric
materials, because of their superior characteristics, which cannot be
achieved by any of its components isolated, for example, more flexibility
and strength and less weight. Under this approach, this work aims at
the development of Laminated Piezocomposite Structures (LAPS) what
primarily consist of multi-layer structures, through the vibration modes
and resonance frequencies design aiming at dynamic applications.
Among the potential applications of these structures it can be cited
piezomotors, sonar devices and energy harvester, being of great interest
the improvement of its dynamic characteristics and performance. The
dynamic design of a LAPS is complex, however, it can be systematized
by using the Topology Optimization Method (TOM). The TOM is a method
based on the distribution of material in a fixed design domain with the
aim of extremizing a cost function subject to constraints inherent to the
problem by means of combining the optimization algorithms and the
finite element method (FEM). The TOM formulation for the LAPS dynamic
project aims to determine together the optimal topology of the materials
for different layers, the polarization sign of the piezoelectric material and
the fiber angle of the composite layer, in order to design a particular
vibration mode by means of maximizing the vibration amplitude at certain
points for a specified resonance frequency, or the energy conversion.
Results are presented to illustrate the method.
A common aim of vibration isolation systems is to reduce the
transmissibility from seismic base level disturbances to sensitive
structures. To obtain a desirable low isolation frequency, vibration
isolation systems are typically equipped with low stiffness interfaces
between the involved structures. Strongly detrimental influences to the
possible vibration reduction performance are caused by the effects of
additional disturbances that act on the isolated object.
This paper introduces theoretically and examines experimentally the
solution on how the conflict of simultaneous vibration isolation and
energy reflection can be solved at a single component. The described
technique enables vibration reduction at a sensitive object while seismic
base and direct force disturbances are concurrently present. This
paper shows that even soft, adaptively altered isolation interfaces can
reach these contrary goals, because they can simultaneously generate
high stiffness as well as a high flexibility of the isolation interface.
These interfaces are equipped with piezoelectric patch actuators to
enable active control. The used active control mechanism and the very
promising experimental results are highlighted in this paper.
Because of the chosen mechanical setup of such isolation systems, the
used controller can be updated very quickly when system parameters
change. This is possible without any further excitations and without
further sensors.
8688-80, Session PTues
A bio-inspired test system for bionic aboveknee prosthetic knees
8688-78, Session PTues
Daihua Wang, Lei Xu, Qiang Fu, Gang Yuan, Chongqing Univ.
Damping properties of stay cable-passive
damper system with effects of cable sag and
damper stiffness
Recently, prosthetic knees in the developing stage are usually tested
by installing them on amputees’ stumps directly or on test platforms.
Although amputees can fully provide the actual motion state of the
thigh, immature prosthetic knees may hurt the amputees. For the test
platform, it just can partly simulate the actual motion state of the thigh
with the limitation of the motion model of the thigh, the merits or demerits
of newly developed bionic above-knee prosthetic knees cannot be
accessed thoroughly. Aiming at the defects of two testing methods,
this paper presents a bio-inspired test system for bionic above-knee
prosthetic knees. The proposed bio-inspired test system is composed
of a test platform and a bio-inspired control system, as shown in figure
1. The test platform includes a vertical ball screw and a horizontal
ball screw, which are used to control the movement of the thigh. The
vertical ball screw is used to simulate the up-and-down movement of
the hip joint, and the horizontal ball screw is used to simulate the swing
movement of the thigh. The bio-inspired control system comprises the
signal acquisition and processing system, which is wore by the healthy
tester, and the motor control system. The bio-inspired control system
uses the acquired motion signal of the thigh of the healthy tester, rather
than the motion model of the thigh, to control the thigh of the test
platform to track the motion of the thigh of the healthy testers. The bioinspired test system is developed and experimentally tested with a newly
developed magnetorheological prosthetic knee in our lab. The research
results show that the bio-inspired test system can not only ensure the
safety of the testers, but also track all kinds of the actual motion state of
the thigh of the testers in real time.
Min Liu, Harbin Institute of Technology (China)
At present and to reduce or eliminate the large amplitude vibration of
the stay cables, passive dampers, such as viscous oil dampers have
been successfully implemented to stay cables vibration control and
achieved effective control efficacy. Without the influence of cable sag,
bending stiffness and damper stiffness, several surveys have shown that
the maximum amount of damping added to the cable with a transverse
passive damper is approximately proportional to the distance, relative to
the cable length, between the damper and the cable/deck anchorage.
The present paper derivate the asymptotic solution of modal damping of
one taut stay cable attached with one passive damper including damper
stiffness and viscous damping. The effect of the damper stiffness on
the modal damping of the stay cable-passive system was analytical
investigated. On the basis of the asymptotic solution of modal damping
of one stay cable attached with one passive damper with the effect
of cable stiffness and by using the decay factor of damper stiffness
and the decay factor of cable sag, maximum modal damping ratio
and corresponding optimal damping coefficient, which indicates the
relationships of the characteristics of the damper and the cable sag was
theoretically analyzed. Numerical analysis of parameters on the effect of
dynamic performance of the controlled stay cable was conducted. The
numerical and analytical results show that the maximum modal damping
ratio decrease with the increasing of sag and damper stiffness, and
the corresponding optimal damper coefficient increase. The influence
on modal damping ratio of the sag and damper stiffness for different
symmetric vibration mode is same trend. The presented investigations
would be used for the passive damper design of the stay cable vibration
Return to Contents
Conference 8688: Active and Passive Smart
Structures and Integrated Systems VII
8688-81, Session PTues
8688-83, Session PTues
Theory and experiment research of twodimension acoustic metamaterial
Modeling and comparison of cantilevered
piezoelectric energy harvester with
segmented and continuous electrode
Hongwei Sun, Jiangsu Automation Research Institute (China);
Ying Li, Nanjing Univ. of Science and Technology (China);
Perngjin F. Pai, Univ. of Missouri-Columbia (United States);
Zhiming Li, Jiangsu Automation Research Institute (China)
Hongyan Wang, Harbin Institute of Technology (China) and
Qiqihar Univ. (China); Lihua Tang, Nanyang Technological
Univ. (Singapore); Xiaobiao Shan, Tao Xie, Harbin Institute of
Technology (China); Yaowen Yang, Nanyang Technological Univ.
This paper presents modeling and analysis methods for design of a
acoustic metamaterial panel consisting of two isotropic plates and
small membrane-mass subsystems for absorption of low frequencies
transverse elastic waves. Two models of a unit cell are derived and used
to demonstrate the existence of negative effective material properties.
Moreover, the design of experiment sample confirms that the model and
analysis methods are valid. (1) The frequency of the membrane-mass
subsystems are uniform distribution in whole acoustic metamaterial
panel have two vibration models. (2) The different distributions of
membrane-mass subsystems and their resonance frequencies result in
different vibration isolation characteristics.(3) PSV is used to test and
the result show that a low frequency wave absorber does not require
nano-manufacturing techniques .(4) if we design the frequency of the
membrane-mass subsystems different it can change the character of the
metamaterial panel.
Conventional cantilevered piezoelectric energy harvesters (PEHs) have
usually been designed as continuous electrode configuration (CEC). The
energy harvester with CEC can only work around the first resonance
efficiently due to the cancellation effect of the electrical output around
higher modes. Some studies show the use of segmented electrode
configuration (SEC) can improve the electrical output from higher modes.
However, the output from each electrode pair on the opposite sides of
the strain node needs to be rectified separately to avoid the cancellation
effect. Thus, theoretical formulation for power estimation becomes
challenging because of some nonlinear electrical components included.
In this paper, a method based on combining the equivalent circuit model
(ECM) and the circuit simulation is proposed to estimate the power
outputs of the cantilevered PEH with the SEC. First, the parameters
in the ECM considering multiple modes of the PEH with the SEC are
identified from the finite element analysis. The ECM is then established
and simulated in the SPICE software. The validity of the ECM is validated
using system-level finite element analysis. Finally, the optimal power
outputs from the PEH with the SEC are compared with those from the
PEH with the CEC. The results illustrate the feasibility of the SEC as a
simple and effective means for enhancing the power outputs of a PEH at
higher vibration frequencies.
8688-82, Session PTues
Analysis and modeling of a piezoelectric
energy harvester for powering a wireless
Damiano Milani, Francesco Braghin, Gisella Tomasini, Marco
Bassetti, Politecnico di Milano (Italy)
The present study deals with the modeling of a piezoelectric energy
harvester whose task is to power a transducer. The purpose of the overall
project is the realization of a sensor (an accelerometer) which measures
the same vibrations to which it is subjected.
8688-84, Session PTues
MR tactile device for minimally invasive
surgery (MIS): experimental investigation
A bimorph with two PZT layers in a cantilever configuration is dynamically
bent due to vibrations; the resulting deformation ensures enough output
current for powering an electronic circuit.
Jong-Seok Oh, Jin-Kyu W. Kim, Seung-Bok Choi, Inha Univ.
(Korea, Republic of)
Careful attention is paid to the transduction of mechanical energy into
electrical, taking concepts from models available in the literature. An
analytical model is presented, that describes the dynamics of mechanical
part using the electrical duality; in particular the coupling of the variables
is represented by an equivalent transformer.
Recently, it is very popular in modern medical industry to adopt robotic
technology for minimally invasive surgery (MIS). Compared with open
surgery, the MIS needs the robot to perform surgery through the
usage of long surgical instruments that are inserted through incision
points. This causes the surgeon not to feel viscosity and stiffness of
the tissue or organ. So, for the tactile recognition of human organ
in MIS, this paper proposes a novel tactile device that incorporates
with magnetorheological (MR) fluid. The MR fluid is fully contained by
diaphragm and several pins. By applying different magnetic field, the
operator can feel different force from the proposed tactile device. In order
to generate required force from the device, the repulsive force of human
body is firstly measured as reference data and an appropriate size of
tactile device is designed. Pins attached with diaphragm are controlled
by shape memory alloy (SMA). Thus, the proposed tactile device can
realize repulsive force and shape of organ. Also, for real application,
slave robot with force sensor is utilized to obtain information of organ or
tissue. It has been demonstrated via experiment that the measured force
can be achieved by applying proper control input current. In addition,
psychophysical experiments are conducted to evaluate performance
on the tactile rendering of the proposed device. From these results, the
practical feasibility of the tactile device is investigated.
This model is validated by means of experimental tests carried out on
two types of bimorph, assuming different kinds of real scenarios (various
input and frequency of vibrations).
Voltage and power output obtainable are investigated, considering
different load conditions and acceleration amplitudes. Focus is also given
to the determination of the natural frequency of the system as a whole:
in fact, the piezo generator is very sensitive to the electrical load and
the usable bandwidth is very narrow. For this reason, in addition, a finite
element model is provided, which simulates the dynamic response of the
electromechanical system.
Another objective is to define the optimal electrical quantities for the
power management circuit, since the bimorph is connected to a circuit
for the energy storage; this has the task of powering the sensor and the
wireless transmitter.
Return to Contents
Conference 8688: Active and Passive Smart
Structures and Integrated Systems VII
8688-85, Session PTues
knee bracing. Computers and Structures 75, pp. 65-72.
[3] Mofid M. and Lotfollahi M. (2006). On the characteristics of new
ductile knee bracing systems. Journal of Constructional Steel Research
62, pp. 271-281.
The assessment of chevron knee bracing
frames seismic behavior
[4] Kim J. and Choi H. (2005). Response modification factors of chevronbraced frames. Engineering Structures 27, pp. 285-300.
Massood Mofid, Sharif Univ. of Technology (Iran, Islamic
Republic of)
[5] Mahmoudi M. and Zaree M. (2010). Evaluating response modification
factors of concentrically braced steel frames. Journal of Constructional
Steel Research 66, pp. 1196-1204.
This study is intended to assess the behavior of a structural lateral
bracing system, called Chevron Knee Bracing (CKB). In this type of
bracing, the knee elements help the system to dissipate energy through
the formation of plastic flexural and/or shear hinges. The approach
proposed by FEMA P695 based on an acceptable low probability of
structural collapse is used in the following study. Nonlinear static and
dynamic analyses are also carried out on the models of representative
archetypes. Collapse Margin Ratios (CMRs) of the defined models are
achieved throughout the conducting Incremental Dynamic Analyses (IDA).
Then, in the next step, these ratios are modified to obtain an Adjusted
Collapse Margin Ratio, ACMR for each archetype. To investigate the
behavior of the mentioned lateral bracing frames, the values of calculated
ACMRs are compared with the accepted values proposed by FEMA
P695. The total system collapse uncertainty is also considered in this
[6] FEMA (June 2009).Quantification of building seismic performance
factors. FEMA P695. Federal Emergency Management Agency,
Washington, DC.
[7] Vamvatsikos D. and Cornell C. A. (2002). Applied Incremental Dynamic
Analysis. Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics 31:3, pp.
8688-86, Session PTues
Multichannel active vibration control using
MicroBlaze soft processor on Xilinx Virtex-4
1. The main focus of this study is on the seismic behavior of ChevronKnee Bracing (CKB) frames. Knee elements can be utilized besides the
bracing members. In this case these elements help the total structural
system dissipates more energy while the bracing elements provide
enough stiffness to limit structural drifts due to the seismic loading
[1-3]. To assess the performance of CKB frames, under the severe
earthquakes, the following steps are taken:
Shashikala Prakash, Renjith Kumar, National Aerospace Labs.
(India); Ravikiran Guledgudd, SATTVA e-TECH India Pvt. Ltd.
(India); Radhakrishna P., National Aerospace Labs. (India)
The Design & Development of a Xilinx Virtex-4 FPGA based Embedded
System Active Vibration Controller is presented in this paper. This is
achieved by implementing the MicroBlaze Soft-core Processor on
the FPGA fabric. The active adaptive controller is based on FxLMS
algorithm implemented in C++ on the MicroBlaze™ soft processor of
the high speed high Performance Compact Xilinx Virtex-4 FPGA (Field
Programmable Gate Array). Xilinx’s EDK (Embedded Development
Kit) is the development package for building MicroBlaze embedded
processor system on Xilinx FPGAs. XPS (Xilinx Platform Studio) of
EDK is used to configure and build the hardware specification of the
embedded system & SDK enables programmers to write, compile, and
debug C/C++ applications for their embedded system. The GPIOs of the
MicroBlaze™ soft core processor has been linked to the ADCs/DACs of
the indigenously designed FPGA board for completing the control loop.
The control code is in C++ & loopback codes are in VHDL. The two have
been successfully linked & four channel real time control tests have been
performed successfully on a composite research wing model. The results
of the study are brought out in the present paper.
• Several archetypes with different characteristics are considered and
• An appropriate Pushover analysis, for the archetypes under
consideration, is accordingly performed;
• The roof drifts, which are relevant to the yielding of knee elements in
shear and flexural mode as well as the ones relevant to the buckling of
compression braces, are obtained. The maximum base shear capacity
(Vmax) corresponding to the ultimate roof displacement can also be
obtained from these analyses [4,5];
• In the next step, the set of selected records, to conduct nonlinear
dynamic analyses, consists of 22 pairs of earthquake records, which is
proposed by FEMA P695 [6], is considered;
• Then, Incremental Dynamic Analysis (IDA) is performed, in order to
establish the Median Collapse Capacity (MCC) and Collapse Margin
Ratio, CMR, for each index archetype model [7];
• Then, the Collapse Margin Ratio is evaluated after conducting nonlinear
IDA for each archetype, [6];
8688-87, Session PTues
• Considering the values calculated for CMRs, ACMRfor each model,
can successfully be evaluated throughout considering the spectral shape
effects of the record set by a simple computation [6];
Electrically-controlled release of tannic
acid from calcium-alginate hydrogel in
transdermal drug delivery application
• Furthermore, the collapse fragility curve of each model can be derived
and then revised by considering all of uncertainty sources.
2. To approve the seismic behavior of the Chevron-Knee-Bracing system
which is under consideration, it is necessary for the ACMR values of each
index archetypes and the average of these values in each performance
group to be more than the acceptable values proposed by FEMA P695.
These acceptable values of Adjusted Collapse Margin Ratios are based
on total system collapse uncertainty and the values of acceptable
probability of collapse.
Nophawan Paradee, Anuvat Sirivat, Chulalongkorn Univ.
This work focuses the release behavior of tannic acid from calciumalginate hydrogels, (Ca-Alg), under applied the electric field towards
transdermal drug delivery application. Ca-Alg hydrogels are prepared
by solution-casting, using alginate and CaCl2 as the matrix and the
crosslinking agent, respectively. The Ca-Alg hydrogels properties are
determined in terms of the molecular weight between crosslinks, the
crosslinking density, and the mesh size via the Equilibrium Swelling
Theory as modified by Bray and Merril. The release behavior is
investigated using a modified Franz-Diffusion cell in the MES buffer
solution at pH of 5.5 and the temperature of 37 ºC during 48 hours based
on the effect of crosslinking ratio, (mole of crosslinking agent : mole
of alginate monomer) and under applied the electric field. The amount
of drug release, reported in the aspect of the diffusion coefficient, is
determined through the Higuchi equation. The diffusion coefficient of
Collapse Margin Ratios and adjusted values of these ratios for selected
individual archetypes are presented in this investigation. According to this
study, it is evident that an acceptable performance has been achieved by
all of index archetypes and performance groups, which are investigated
in this paper.
[1] Balendra T., Lim E.L. and Lee S.L. (1994). Ductile knee braced frames
with shear yielding knee for seismic resistant structures. Engineering
Structures 16(4), pp. 263–9.
[2] Mofid M. and Khosravi P. (2000). Non-Linear analyses of disposable
Return to Contents
Conference 8688: Active and Passive Smart
Structures and Integrated Systems VII
tannic acid decreases with increasing crosslinking ratio because of the
smaller pore size of the Ca-Alg hydrogel. The diffusion coefficient of
tannic acid increases under applied the electric field due to the electrorepulsive force between the tannic acid anion and negative charge of
8688-90, Session PTues
8688-88, Session PTues
Panduranga Vittal Avvari, Lihua Tang, Yaowen Yang, Chee Kiong
Soh, Nanyang Technological Univ. (Singapore)
Enhancement of piezoelectric energy
harvesting with multi-stable nonlinear
Optical limiting by nonlinear scattering
in 2,2’-dipyridylamine hydrofluoride
nanoparticles in chloroform and diethyl ether
8688-89, Session PTues
In the quest for long-term service of various low-power sensor systems,
there has been prominent research in the field of energy harvesting.
Vibration based piezoelectric energy harvesting (PEH) gained popularity
owing to the fact that the piezoelectric materials provide a high power
density. Due to several drawbacks of linear PEH devices, a gradual
shift towards the nonlinear PEH has been observed lately. In this article,
emphasis has been laid on investigating the performance enhancement
of a PEH device due to the nonlinearity introduced by a magnetic field
at the tip of the cantilever. The magnetic field is introduced with a few
permanent magnets. The experimental setup consists of a piezoelectric
cantilever beam with a tip mass containing an encased magnet.
Additional magnets around the tip mass are tuned to induce multi-stable
nonlinear vibrations of the cantilever beam. The whole arrangement is
mounted on a supporting frame which vibrates on a shaker. The present
work investigates the feasibility of multi-stable nonlinear configurations
to enhance the efficiency of PEH. As little work has been reported on the
multi-stable nonlinear PEH device, a basic parametric study is conducted
to obtain an optimal configuration for performance enhancement of the
harvester. The study reveals that the multi-stable configuration is able
to provide a widened bandwidth with an increased voltage output as
compared to conventional linear PEH devices.
Testing of CLEMR damper and its application
to structures using fuzzy logic
8688-91, Session PTues
Saikat Das, Univ. of Eastern Finland (Finland)
This paper reviews the optical limiting properties of 2,2?-dipyridylamine
hydrofluoride nanoparticles suspended in chloroform and diethyl ether.
Nonlinear transmittance measurements were carried out for different
sample concentrations and reveal that 2,2?-dipyridylamine hydrofluoride
nanoparticles can serve as good candidates for effective optical limiting
over broad laser energy ranges. A modified Z-scan technique was
employed to recognize the performance and basis of optical limiting in
the sample. As corroborated by the results of the Z-scan experiment,
higher the concentration of the sample, better is the performance of the
optical limiter.
Xiangcheng Zhang, Zhaodong Xu, Xinghuai Huang, Southeast
Univ. (China)
Zero-crossing velocity detector design for
self-powered piezoelectric energy harvesting
In recent years, some large tonnage Magnetorheological (MR) dampers
have been used for reduction of structural vibration. In order to produce
a large damping force, the coil number of these dampers needs to be
increased, it will lead to greater complexity in controller and external
power supply, once power fails, the damper will fail too. Additionally,
MR damper has intrinsically time-delay phenomena and nonlinear
characteristic. Therefore, it is an interesting and challenging task to
determine the control current. This study will introduce a new kind
of combined lead extrusion magnetorheological (CLEMR) damper,
which can produce a large damping force even when power fails. The
relationship between the current and the damping force of the CLEMR
damper is experimental studied. A formula relating the damping force
and the current of CLEMR damper is put forwarded that matches the
experimental data. Then a real-time control strategy based on fuzzy
control for the structures with CLEMR dampers is proposed and a fuzzy
controller is then designed to determine control currents of the CLEMR
dampers. This method can resolve the damper time-delay problem and
does not need exact mathematical models. Finally, the time-history
analysis on a reinforced concrete structure with CLEMR dampers using
the fuzzy control strategy is calculated through the programming by
MATLAB. Simulation results show that CLEMR dampers can reduce the
seismic responses of structures effectively. Simulation results of the fuzzy
control system are then compared with those of the LQR control system,
the passive-on control system, the passive-off control system, and the
uncontrolled system. Comparison results show that the fuzzy control
strategy can determine control currents of CLEMR dampers accurately
and quickly and the fuzzy control strategy can reduces seismic
responses of the structures more effectively than the passive-on control
strategy, the passive-off control strategy.
Yu-Yin Chen, National Taiwan Univ. (Taiwan) and Ecole Normale
Supérieure de Cachan (France); Dejan Vasic, Ecole Normale
Supérieure de Cachan (France); François Costa, Ecole Normale
Supérieure de Cachan (France) and Univ. Paris Est Créteil
(France); Wen-Jong Wu, Chih-Kung Lee, National Taiwan Univ.
In this study, the design of a self-powered switching based interfacing
circuit for piezoelectric energy harvesting devices using a zero-crossing
velocity detector is proposed. One of the most important applications is
to combine the energy harvesting devices with wireless sensor networks
(WSN) because the major problem of the WSN sensors is the battery
life time which will arise higher maintained requirements and limit the
application areas. In order to increase the efficiency of the piezoelectric
energy harvesting device, the synchronized switching harvesting
techniques are already proven to boost power output of energy
harvesters significantly . However, the synchronized switching technique
needs the external power to be realized and limited the application of
energy harvesting applications. To make the synchronized switching
technique be used in real applications, a self-powered technique based
on a zero-crossing velocity detector is proposed. The zero-crossing
velocity detector substitutes the function generator to make the switches
can turn on at the optimal time and can remove the time lag drawback
of the traditional peak detector. The design of the piezoelectric patch for
zero-crossing velocity detector will be presented in this study and the
theoretical analysis and experimental results will also be examined.
Return to Contents
Conference 8688: Active and Passive Smart
Structures and Integrated Systems VII
8688-92, Session PTues
Francesco Ripamonti, Politecnico di Milano (Italy)
An adaptive non-model-based control
strategy for smart structures vibration
Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBG) sensors have a great potential in active
vibration control of smart structures thanks to their small transversal
size and the possibility to make an array of many sensors. They can be
embedded in carbon fiber structures and their effect is nearly negligible.
This paper presents a control strategy for the suppression of vibration
due to unknown disturbance forces in large, nonlinear flexible structures.
The control action proposed, based on the modal approach, consists of
two contributions. The first is the well-known Independent Modal-Space
Control, which increases system damping and improves its behavior
close to the resonance frequencies. The second is a disturbance
estimator, which calculates the modal components of the external forces
acting on the system and compensates for them using actuator forces.
The system modal coordinates, required by both logics, are estimated
through a modal state observer.
Francesco Ripamonti, Matteo Morlacchi, Ferruccio Resta,
Politecnico di Milano (Italy)
The vibration reduction in mechanical systems can be performed by
means of active control strategies. For nonlinear and time-varying
systems, an attractive solution is represented by the use of an adaptive
feedback control, in which the system identification plays a fundamental
In this work, an innovative non model-based identification system
is proposed. It works splitting the measured signal into its principal
components through a real time Subspace Tracking (ST) algorithm.
Each component is then identified by a low order ARMA/ARMAX model,
returning the system natural frequencies and damping ratios. These
are used to set the gain of the Direct Velocity Feedback (DVF) control
law. More precisely the gain of the control law varies according to the
difference between estimated and desired damping ratio of a given signal
component (e.g. the first modal contribution).
The work shows how the use of FBG sensors allows improving the
performance of the control to suppress vibration. The advantage mainly
consists on the opportunity to have a large number of measurements
regarding the state of deformation of the whole structure.
The proposed control logic is tested on a carbon fiber smart structure
composed of a thin cantilever beam with 14 longitudinal FBG sensors
and 3 piezoelectric actuators (PZT).
The possibility to feedback the reconstructed velocity (with only the first
principal components) instead of the measured one, with a consequent
reduction of the required control force, is investigated too.
8688-95, Session PTues
The proposed adaptive control algorithm has been tested both
numerically and experimentally on a smart structure test rig. In particular
a carbon fiber plate, clamped on three sides and forced by piezoelectric
patches, has been analyzed.
Influence of thermal strain and pyroelectric
effects on active vibration control of a smart
piezo structure
Vivek Gupta, Himachal Pradesh Univ. (India)
8688-93, Session PTues
Augmented piezoelectric constitutive equations with temperature
dependent piezoelectric and permittivity coefficients are used to derive
a finite element model of two dimensional ‘smart piezo plate’. Equations
of motion are derived using Hamilton’s variational principal. Variation of
thermal strain effect, pyroelectric effect and static sensor voltage with
temperature is shown non-linear. This is contrary to linear one as reported
in the literature. Influence of these thermal effects on active vibration
control performance of a ‘smart piezo structure’ is also investigated.
Experiment and analysis of morphing skin
based on shape-memory composite tube
Shan bo Chen, Ning Feng, Jinsong Leng, Yanju Liu, Harbin
Institute of Technology (China); Yijin Chen, Harbin Institute of
Technology (China)
As a typical smart material, shape memory polymer (SMP) has the
capability of variable stiffness to external stimuli, such as heat, magnetic,
electricity and solvent, et al. In this study, a kind of morphing skin is
designed based on shape memory polymer composite (SMPC) tube.
The SMPC tube is made of SMP and carbon fiber. The SMP material
used in this study is styrene-based shape memory resin with glass
transition of 62?, which belongs to thermosetting resins. And the
skin is composed of silicon rubber and SMPC tube. The morphing
skin possesses the flexibility under high temperature condition and
the rigidity under low temperature condition. Significant changes in
effective engineering modulus can be achieved through regulating the
environment temperature. In order to investigate the basic performances
of deployment for morphing skin, several experimental and simulation
methods are used as follows: by using finite element analysis, we can get
the temperature distribution of SMPC tube in ventilation with hot water. In
order to examine the heating mode, a unique heating system is designed.
The heating system can meet the uniform heating of SMPC tube. The
deflection can be gotten via the stress-bearing capability test. From the
fatigue test we can investigate the recovery capability of morphing skin.
Infrared test is done to show the temperature distribution of the skin. At
last we can get the outcome of theoretical calculations and experimental
results compared.
8688-96, Session PTues
Electroaeroelastic modeling and analysis of
a hybrid piezoelectric-inductive flow energy
José A. C. Dias, Carlos De Marqui Jr., Univ. de São Paulo (Brazil);
Alper Erturk, Georgia Institute of Technology (United States)
The exploitation of aeroelastic vibrations (coupled with a proper
transduction mechanism) for converting wind energy into low-power
electricity has received growing attention in the energy harvesting
literature. The use of an aeroelastic typical section is a convenient
approach to create instabilities and persistent oscillations for energy
harvesting. The potential applications of flow energy harvesting range
from aircraft structures to several engineering problems involving
wireless electronic components located in high wind areas. Most of the
existing research on wind energy harvesting has focused on transforming
flow-induced vibrations into electricity by employing electromagnetic
or piezoelectric transduction mechanisms separately. In this work, a
hybrid airfoil-based aeroelastic energy harvester that simultaneously
exploits piezoelectric transduction and electromagnetic induction is
analyzed based on fully coupled electroaeroelastic modeling. Both
forms of electromechanical coupling are introduced to the plunge
degree of freedom. The interaction between total power generation
(from piezoelectric transduction and electromagnetic induction) and the
linear electroaeroelastic behavior of the typical section is investigated
in the presence of two separate electrical loads. The effects of systems
8688-94, Session PTues
Implementation of a modal disturbance
estimator for vibration suppression
Simone Cinquemani, Gabriele Cazzulani, Ferruccio Resta,
Return to Contents
Conference 8688: Active and Passive Smart
Structures and Integrated Systems VII
8688-99, Session PTues
parameters, such as internal coil resistance, on the total power output
and linear flutter speed are also discussed.
Smart integrated energy monitoring and
management system for standalone
photovoltaic systems
8688-97, Session PTues
Application of a passive/active
autoparametric cantilever beam absorber
with PZT actuator for duffing systems
Ali Abou-Elnour, Ajman Univ. of Science and Technology Network
(United Arab Emirates)
In the present work, an integrated smart real-time energy monitoring and
management system for standalone photovoltaic system is designed and
implemented. The energy consumption form the PV module is controlled
based on accurate determination of the periods of times at which the
loads are required to be operated and the performance of the system
is continuously monitored by calculating and recording the consumed
and generated power from the PV system. These requirements are
fully fulfilled using an accurate and efficient programming environment.
Initially, the program is fed with the details load usage time table and
with the signals from different sensors. The program automatically reads
the date and time from the controlling computer internal clock and the
controlling signals from the different sensors are also considered to
operate the required loads based on users’ requirements. The controlling
signals are generated and send to the load driving circuits through the
data acquisition card. Based on the knowledge of the switched on loads
and the time periods at which these loads are operated, the total energy
consumed by the loads is continuously monitored and compared with
the energy generated from the PV modules at the same time. The energy
level in the storage units is determined and further decisions and/or
actions, like reduction of loads, are taken. It has to be mentioned that the
usage of the standard plate forms and programming environment in our
present work make the system flexible to be upgraded to fulfill additional
users’ requirements.
Gerardo Silva, Hugo F. Abundis, Ctr. de Investigación y de
Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional (Mexico);
Benjamin Vazquez, Univ. Autónoma Metropolitana (Mexico)
An experimental investigation is carried out on a cantilever-type
passive/active autoparametric vibration absorber, with a small PZT
patch actuator, to be used in a primary damped Duffing system. The
primary system consists of a mass, viscous damping and a cubic
stiffness provided by a soft helical spring, over which is mounted a
cantilever beam with a PZT patch actuator actively controlled through
an acquisition card installed on a PC running on a Matlab/Simulink
platform to attenuate harmonic and resonant excitation forces. With the
addition of a PZT actuator to the cantilever beam absorber, cemented
to the base of the beam, the autoparametric vibration absorber is made
active, thus enabling the possibility to control the effective stiffness and
damping associated to the passive absorber and, as a consequence, the
implementation of an active vibration control scheme able to preserve, as
possible, the autoparametric interaction as well as to compensate varying
excitation frequencies and parametric uncertainty. This active vibration
absorber employs feedback information from a high resolution optical
encoder on the primary Duffing system and an accelerometer on the
tip beam absorber, a strain gage on the base of the beam, feedforward
information from the excitation force and on-line computations from the
nonlinear approximate frequency response, parameterized in terms of a
proportional gain provided by a voltage input to the PZT actuator, thus
modifying the closed-loop dynamic stiffness and providing a mechanism
to asymptotically track an optimal, robust and stable attenuation solution
on the primary Duffing system. Some simulation and experimental results
are included to describe the dynamic and robust performance of the
overall closed-loop system.
8688-100, Session PTues
A cantilevered piezoelectric bi-stable
composite concept for broadband energy
Andres F. Arrieta, Tommaso Delpero, ETH Zurich (Switzerland);
Andrea Bergamini, EMPA (Switzerland); Paolo Ermanni, ETH
Zurich (Switzerland)
8688-98, Session PTues
A fuzzy-logic based dual-purpose adaptive
circuit for vibration control and energy
harvesting using piezoelectric transducer
Vibration based energy harvesting has received extensive attention
within the smart structures community during the last decade [1, 2].
Recently, the idea to exploit nonlinearity to achieve broadband energy
harvesting has been introduced [3]. Nonlinear systems have been shown
to operate over a wide band of frequencies delivering high power. In
particular, systems exhibiting bi-stability have been shown to achieve the
objective of broadband high energy conversion. Amongst these bi-stable
composite plates show several advantages, including design flexibility
for multiple resonance tuning owing to their two-dimensional nature,
and reduced complexity as no external magnets are required to achieve
bi-stability [4].
Qing Li, Univ. of New Haven (United States)
Due to their two-way electromechanical coupling effect, piezoelectric
transducers can be used to synthesize passive vibration control
schemes, e.g., RLC circuit with the integration of inductance and
resistance elements that is conceptually similar to damped vibration
absorber. Meanwhile, the wide usage of wireless sensors has led to the
recent enthusiasm of developing piezoelectric-based energy harvesting
devices that can convert ambient vibratory energy into useful electrical
energy. It can be shown that the integration of circuitry elements such
as inductance can benefit the energy harvesting capability. Here we
explore a dual-purpose circuit that can facilitate simultaneously vibration
suppression and energy harvesting. It is worth noting that the goal
of vibration suppression and the goal of energy harvesting may not
always complement each other. That is, the maximization of vibration
suppression doesn’t necessarily lead to the maximization of energy
harvesting, and vice versa. In this research, we develop a fuzzy-logic
based algorithm to decide the proper selection of circuitry elements to
balance between the two goals. As the circuitry elements can be online
tuned, this research yields an adaptive circuitry concept for the effective
manipulation of system energy. Comprehensive analyses are carried out
to demonstrate the concept and the performance improvement.
In this paper, a novel cantilevered bi-stable composite plate concept is
presented for broadband nonlinear energy harvesting. The cantilevered
configuration offers enhanced response characteristics over previously
proposed unconstrained bi-stable plates as larger strains close to the
clamp end increase the effectiveness of the piezoelectric transducers.
Furthermore, the current investigation couples the advantages of
broadband conversion of bi-stable composites with a broadband
shunting circuit to enhance the harvesting capabilities of the employed
piezoelectric transducers. An analytical model for the cantilevered
bi-stable harvester is developed allowing for calculation of important
dynamic characteristics, including modal frequencies and mode
shapes. The separation between the first bending modes of each stable
configuration is studied as it has been shown to control the range for
which cross-well broadband oscillations are obtained. An experimental
investigation is carried out for the proposed design showing wideband
frequency conversion maintaining large power output.
Return to Contents
Conference 8688: Active and Passive Smart
Structures and Integrated Systems VII
integrated systems of VSDIs can increase the stiffness and damping
due to activation. The simulation results also demonstrate the accurate
modeling of VSDIs using the proposed model.
[1] S. R. Anton and H. A. Sodano. A review of power harvesting using
piezoelectric materials (20032006). Smart Materials and Structures, 16:
R1–21, 2007.
[2] S. Priya and D. J. Inman, editors. Energy Harvesting Technologies.
Springer, 2009.
8688-34, Session 8
[3] L. Gammaitoni, I. Neri, and H. Vocca. Nonlinear oscillators for vibration
energy harvesting. Applied Physics Letters, 94:164102, 2009.
Continuous variable transmission and
regenerative braking devices in bicycles
utilizing magnetorheological fluids
[4] A. F. Arrieta, P. Hagedorn, A. Erturk, and D. J. Inman. A piezoelectric
bi-stable plate for nonlinear broadband energy harvesting. Applied
Physics Letters, 97:104102, 2010.
Wai Ming E. Cheung, Wei-Hsin Liao, Chinese Univ. of Hong Kong
(Hong Kong, China)
8688-32, Session 8
The use of magnetorheological (MR) fluids in vehicles has been gaining
popular recently due to its controllable nature, which gives automotive
designers more dimensions of freedom in functional designs. However,
not much attention has been paid to apply it to bicycles. This paper is
aimed to study the feasibility of applying MR fluids in different dynamic
parts of a bicycle such as the transmission and braking systems. MR
continuous variable transmission (CVT) and power generator assisted
in braking systems were designed and analyzed. Both prototypes were
fabricated and tested to evaluate their performances. Experimental
results showed that the proposed designs are promising to be used in
the bicycle application.
Principle, design, and testing of an inner
bypass magnetorheological damper for shock
and vibration mitigation
Xian-Xu Bai, Univ. of Maryland, College Park (United States) and
Univ. of Chongqing (China); Wei Hu, Norman M. Wereley, Univ. of
Maryland, College Park (United States)
Aiming at fundamentally improving the performance of the MR
dampers, including maximizing dynamic range and minimizing fieldoff damping force, this study presents the principle of an inner bypass
magnetorheological damper (IBMRD). The IBMRD mainly consists of twin
tubes, i.e., the inner tube and outer concentric tube, piston, and annular
MR fluid flow gap sandwiched between the inner and outer tubes. In
the IBMRD, the inner tube is simultaneously used as the guide for the
movable piston and the bobbin for the electromagnetic coil windings,
and five active rings on the inner tube, annular MR fluid flow gap, and
outer tube forms five closed magnetic circuits. Based on the structural
principle of the IBMRD, the IBMRD is configured and its finite element
analysis (FEA) is implemented. After theoretically constructing the hydromechanical model for the IBMRD, its mathematical model is established
using a Bingham-plastic nonlinear fluid model. The characteristics of
the IBMRD are theoretically evaluated and compared with those of a
conventional piston-bobbin MR damper with an identical active length.
In order to validate the theoretical results predicted by the mathematical
model, the prototype of the IBMRD is designed, fabricated, and tested.
The servo-hydraulic testing machine (MTS 810) and rail-guided drop
tower are used to provide sinusoidal displacement excitation and shock
excitation to the IBMRD, respectively.
8688-35, Session 9
Position control of SMA having Seebeck
voltage as feedback
VijayaVenkata Narasimha Sriram V. Malladi, Pablo A. Tarazaga,
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ. (United States)
Shape Memory Alloys (SMA), as a branch of smart material actuators,
are widely researched in the areas of control applications. These
actuators exhibit considerable hysteresis between the supply voltage
(conventionally used in resistive heating) and position characteristics
of the SMA. Unless a model matches the actuator’s nonlinearities, the
control of a SMA would result in an error between the desired and actual
strain. An Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (or ANFIS) model
is proposed to model the hysteresis of the system. The hysteresis of
SMA is path dependent, thus controlling the SMA in real time requires
a time series forecasting a nonlinear model. The input parameters for
such ANFIS model would be a physical variable at time t and at a time
t-n, where n is a time delay. The present work studies the effect of time
delay on the actuator nonlinearities for two ANFIS models. One of the
models studies the relationship between the desired displacement of
SMA and the supply voltage across the SMA. A SMA – Constantan
thermocouple measures the temperature of this SMA and feeds back
the state of the SMA to the controller. Other ANFIS model predicts the
actual displacement of SMA from the feedback temperature. A PID
controller is developed having Seebeck Voltage of an SMA – Constantan
thermocouple as feedback.
8688-33, Session 8
A new magnetorheological elastomer-base
isolator for structural control
Majid Behrooz, Xiaojie Wang, Faramarz Gordaninejad, Univ. of
Nevada, Reno (United States)
This paper presents a new MagntoRheological Elastomer (MRE)
base isolator for civil structures’ vibration control. The elastomeric
element of the traditional steel-rubber base isolator is upgraded with a
composite layer of passive elastomer and MRE which makes the isolator
controllable in terms of stiffness and damping. The variable stiffness and
damping isolator (VSDI) is designed based on optimization of magnetic
field passing through MREs to achieve maximum changes in mechanical
properties. The controllability of the prototype VSDI is investigated
experimentally under shear tests and vibration experiments include
swiping sinusoidal single degree of freedom (SDOF) tests on a single
VSDI, integrated system of four VSDIs and a mass in on and off states.
Integrated systems are used to observe the effect of combination of
multiple VSDIs in the system. Double lap shear experiments in on and off
states are performed to find the force-deformation curve of the devices.
Then the single VSDI’s behavior in on and off states is modeled using
Bouc-Wen hysteresis model. The natural frequency of VSDIs is compared
to simulation results. The results show that both the single VSDI and
Return to Contents
8688-36, Session 9
Simultaneous measurement of longitudinal
and lateral piezoelectric strain coefficients
using digital-image correlation
Mohammad H. Malakooti, Henry A. Sodano, Univ. of Florida
(United States)
Digital image correlation (DIC) will be demonstrated to be an accurate
tool for the noncontact, non-destructive and rapid characterization
of the converse piezoelectric effect in bulk and thin films. The out-ofplane (d33) and in-plane (d31) piezoelectric strain coupling coefficients
of PZT-5H wafers will be measured simultaneously by imaging the
Conference 8688: Active and Passive Smart
Structures and Integrated Systems VII
8688-39, Session 10
wafer’s cross section under free mechanical boundary conditions. The
large piezoresponse at switching domains and nonlinear behavior of
PZT-5H will be visualized in strain-electric field butterfly loops. The
results will show DIC as a simple advantageous technique to use for the
characterization of piezoelectric materials under the influence of any field
and physical constraints.
Experimental testing of spanwise morphing
trailing edge concept
Alexander Pankonien, Univ. of Michigan (United States); Daniel J.
Inman, Univ. of Michigan (United States)
8688-37, Session 9
Aircraft wings with smooth, hinge-less morphing ailerons exhibit
increased chord-wise aerodynamic efficiency over conventional hinged
ailerons. Ideally, the wing would also use these morphing ailerons to
smoothly vary its airfoil shape between spanwise stations to optimize the
lift distribution and further increase aerodynamic efficiency. However, the
mechanical complexity or added weight of achieving such a design has
traditionally exceeded the potential aerodynamic gains. By expanding
upon the previously developed cascading bimorph concept, this work
uses embedded Macro-Fiber Composites and a flexing box mechanism
to achieve a spanwise-varying morphing trailing edge. The morphing
actuators are spaced spanwise along the wing with an elastomer
spanning the gaps between them, which allows for optimization of
the spanwise lift distribution while maintaining the continuity and
efficiency of the morphing trailing edge. The concept is implemented in a
representative UAV wing with a 12 inch chord. The actuation capabilities
of the concept are evaluated with and without spanning material on a test
stand, free of aerodynamic loads. In addition, the actuation restrictions
of the spanning elastomer, necessary in adapting the morphing concept
from 2D to 3D, are characterized. The wing is then tested in the
University of Michigan 5’x7’ wind-tunnel to evaluate the capability of
the concept to maximize aerodynamic performance at various angles of
attack. The results are compared with a wing with conventional ailerons.
The results show an increase in the lift to drag ratio at each angle of
attack, with a marginal weight increase.
Design of direct-drive servo-valve operated
by the piezostack actuator
Juncheol Jeon, Quoc Hung Nguyen, Seung-Bok Choi, Inha Univ.
(Korea, Republic of)
Electro-hydraulic servo-valves have been widely used in various
automatic systems which need high precision of flow rate or pressure
control to provide excellent static and dynamic control performance.
The servo-valves are generally classified into single-stage valve and
two-stage valve. Direct drive servo-valve (DDV) is a kind of singlestage valve in which the actuator is directly connected to the spool of
the valve. In the conventional DDVs, the spool is generally actuated by
electro-magnetic actuator. Therefore, performance characteristics such
as the accuracy and bandwidth of the DDVs are limited. In this paper, a
new type of the DDV operated by piezostack actuator is proposed and
the goal of the proposed DDV is to achieve an accurate control of the
flow rate at high frequency. The proposed DDV consists of a piezostack
actuator, a displacement amplifier to amplify displacement from the
piezostack actuator and a spool valve mechanism. In this study, firstly
the mathematical model of the displacement amplifier actuated with the
piezostack actuator is derived and validated by experimental result. Then,
significant geometric dimensions of the spool are determined considering
required performance characteristics of the valve and practical
applications. Analytical model of the proposed DDV is then derived and
performance characteristics the valve are analyzed.
8688-40, Session 10
Power requirements for bi-harmonic
amplitude and bias modulation control of a
flapping-wing micro air vehicle
8688-38, Session 9
Effect of misalignment between ultrasound
piezoelectric transducers on transcutaneous
energy transfer
Justin Carl, Garrison J. Lindholm, Richard G. Cobb, Mark F.
Reeder, Air Force Institute of Technology (United States)
Flapping wing micro air vehicles (FWMAVs) have been a growing field in
the research of micro air vehicles, but little emphasis has been placed on
control theory. Research is ongoing on how to best power FWMAVs in
hover given limited mass and volume. This paper focuses on the power
requirement as a function of control authority to manipulate the wings
of a FWMAV. Bi-harmonic Amplitude and Bias Modulation (BABM) is a
novel control theory that allows two actuators to produce forces and
moments in 5 DOF. A baseline power requirement will be established
to achieve and simulate hover in order to evaluate the additional power
requirements and resulting maneuverability using BABM. Several FWMAV
prototypes will be constructed and tested on a 6-component balance.
Force and moment data will be collected as each control parameter
is varied. The results will map control parameters to forces/moments/
power for each degree of freedom. Forces and moments required to
generate desirable motion will be shown plotted against power required
to generate the forces. These results will be used to generate a feasible
design. The results will show how much power over the hovering baseline
BABM control requires in order to achieve forces and moments in 5 DOF.
This work will provide the designer with the expected maneuverability for
a given maximum available power for a FWMAV using BABM control.
Changki Mo, Scott Hudson, Washington State Univ. (United
States); Leon J. Radziemski, PiezoEnergy Technologies, LLC
(United States)
This paper investigates ultrasound-based piezoelectric recharging system
for implantable medical devices. Application of the ultrasound power
delivery to actual implantable devices is relatively new while biological
application of the ultrasound was initiated about a century ago.
Overall charging efficiency of the piezoelectric ultrasonic transcutaneous
energy transfer system depends on frequency matching of the
transmitter and receiver, electrical, mechanical and acoustical impedance
characteristics, distance between the transducers, and misalignment.
However, through a number of experiments, it was realized that the
angular misalignment between transmitter and receiver was one of key
factors to have effect on the power transmission efficiency.
Analytical modeling of piezoelectric ultrasound recharging system
was first built and computer simulation was conducted to examine
the sensitivity of non-parallel incident wave between the piezoelectric
The results indicate that the range of misalignment angle can be found in
terms of the wavelength and diameter of the transducers, and distance
between the transducers providing design flexibility without significant
degradation of the efficiency.
Return to Contents
Conference 8688: Active and Passive Smart
Structures and Integrated Systems VII
8688-41, Session 10
8688-44, Session 11
Active damping for General Electric 41%
subscale GEnx composite fan blade with
embedded piezoelectric patches
A magneto-rheological fluid-based torque
sensor for smart torque wrench application
Farzad Ahmadkhanlou, Gregory N. Washington, Univ. of
California, Irvine (United States)
Benjamin B. Choi, NASA Glenn Research Ctr. (United States);
Kirsten P. Duffy, The Univ. of Toledo (United States)
Magneto-Rheological fluid has been widely used in semi-active baseddampers, actuators, brakes, and clutches. In this paper, the authors have
developed a new application where MR fluid is being used as a sensor.
A novel MR-fluid based torque wrench has been developed with a rotary
MR fluid-based damper. The desired set torque ranges from 0.1 to 5
N.m. Having continuously controllable yield strength, the MR fluid-based
torque wrench presents a great advantage over the regular available
torque wrenches in the market. This novel design is capable of providing
continuous set toque from the lower limit to the upper limit while regular
torque wrenches provide discrete set torques only at some limited points.
This feature will be especially important in high fidelity systems where
tightening torque is very critical and the tolerances are low.
NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), in collaboration with GE Aviation,
began the development of a smart adaptive structure system with
piezoelectric transducers to improve composite fan blade damping at
resonances for future aircraft. The flexible macro-fiber-composite patches
were embedded within a 41% subscale GEnx composite fan blade in
a location of high resonant strain for the target 1B mode, protecting
the brittle piezoceramic material from the airflow and from debris.
Because the blade is too large for GRC’s Dynamic Spin Rig, a stack of
surface-mounted flexible patches was used to excite the blade at the
target frequency. One thin and small sensor patch was also embedded
next to the actuator patch for a displacement feedback controller. The
optimal locations for sensors, actuators and exciters for the test were
investigated. Since the limited space in which the blades reside in
the engine, we developed a novel digital shunt scheme to replace the
conventional electric passive shunt circuits. The digital shunt dissipates
strain energy through the load resistor on a power amplifier. Results
show that with a single actuator patch, active vibration control causes
the damping ratio to increase from a baseline of 0.3% critical damping to
about 1.0% damping.
8688-45, Session 11
Simulation of adaptive semi-active
magnetorheological seat damper for vehicle
occupant blast protection
JinHyeong Yoo, Muthuvel Murugan, U.S. Army Research Lab.
(United States)
8688-42, Session 10
Mines, specifically Anti-Vehicular (AV) Improvised Explosive Devices
(IED), are a significant threat for military vehicles and their occupants.
This study investigates a lumped-parameter human body including
lower leg in seated posture with a quarter-car model for blast injury
assessment simulation. To simulate the shock acceleration of the
vehicle, mine blast analysis was conducted on a generic land vehicle
crew compartment (sand box) structure. For the purpose of simulating
human body dynamics with non-linear parameters, a physical
model of lumped-parameter human body with a quarter car model
was implemented in a multi-body dynamic simulation software. For
implementing control scheme, a control algorithm was made to work
with the multi-body dynamic model by running co-simulation with the
control scheme software plug-in. The injury criteria and tolerance levels
for the biomechanical effects are discussed for each of the identified
vulnerable body regions, such as the lower leg, the spine, and the neck.
The desired objective of this analytical model development is to study the
performance of adaptive semi-active magnetorheological damper that
can be used for vehicle-occupant protection technology enhancements
to the seat design in a mine-resistant military vehicle.
Characterization of multifunctional skinmaterial for morphing leading-edge
Sebastian M. Geier, Markus Kintscher, Peter Wierach, Martin
Wiedemann, Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.
Former research on morphing droop nose applications revealed great
economical advantages due to gapless surfaces which support longer
areas of laminar flow along the aircraft. Various kinematics are already
published but the major challenge is still open: the qualification of a solid
material or material-mix which meets the compromise of needed stiffness
and flexibility. Moreover a list of additional functions are listed by the
flight worthiness requirements which are set by the aircraft-manufacturer.
As a result of several national and European projects the DLR developed
a gapless smart droop nose concept, which was successfully tested via
3 dimensional demonstrators under flight-similar conditions to prove the
functionality during operation. The main structure is made of commercial
available glass-fibre reinforced plastics (GFRP, Hexcel Hexply 913).
8688-46, Session 11
This paper presents elementary tests for characterising hybrid lay-ups
and their integrity by applying loads. On the one hand the presented
work is focussed on the integrity of material-interfaces and on the
other hand the efficiency and feasibility of embedded anti-icing- and
deicing-systems. The anti-icing and deicing methods are compared
under extreme thermal conditions due to their efficiency. In addition the
systems are also mechanically tested to simulate and study their longterm stability for service.
Control of 4-DOF MR haptic master: slave
robot for minimally invasive surgery
Chang-Ho Uhm, Phoung-Bac Nguyen, Seung-Bok Choi, Inha
Univ. (Korea, Republic of)
In this paper, the MR haptic master and slave robot for minimally
invasive surgery (MIS) have been designed and tested. The proposed
haptic master consists of three actuators; two MR brakes featuring
gimbal structure for 3-DoF rotation motion(X, Y and Z axes) and one MR
clutch for 1-DoF translational motion. The proposed slave robot which
is remotely connected with the haptic master has vertically multi joints,
and it consists of four DC servomotors; three for positioning endoscope
and one for spinning motion. Using force sensors and rotary encoders
that installed on the master and slave, the force and position information
sensed by the slave robot is transmitted to the master and vice versa.
In that way, the surgeon can feel the repulsive force from the slave
when he/she manipulates the master. This master-slave system runs
It can be concluded that different preparation-steps as well as different
adhesives have their significant influence to the interface-stability. The
efficiency of anti-icing and deicing is mainly influenced by the electrical
contact and the feasibility to be incorporated into the lay-up of the tested
Return to Contents
Conference 8688: Active and Passive Smart
Structures and Integrated Systems VII
8688-49, Session 11
as if a teleoperation system through TCP/IP connection, programmed
by C#. In order to achieve the desired force and position trajectories, a
sliding mode controller (SMC) is designed and implemented. The sliding
mode controller known to be robust to uncertainties can compensate
the adverse effect of the hysteretic behaviors of MR fluid. It has been
demonstrated that the effective tracking control performances for the
desired motion are well presented in time domain and their tracking
errors are evaluated.
Design of the magnetorheological mount with
high-damping force for the marine dieselgenerator set
Ok-Hyun Kang, Won-Hyun Kim, Won H. Joo, Hyundai Heavy
Industries Co., Ltd. (Korea, Republic of); Joon-Hee Park, Inha
Univ. (Korea, Republic of)
8688-47, Session 11
This paper investigates controllable magnetorheological (MR) mounts
for the marine diesel generators. Sometimes, significant vibrations
over allowable limits are observed on the diesel generators. The
vibration should be reduced to satisfy the requirements. Although
passive mounting with rubber isolators on the engine has been usually
used, the vibratin reduction is not always sufficient. Expecting that
the requirement to vibration reduction will get stronger, semi-active
vibration isolation system using MR fluid is required. To the aim, tow MR
mount configurations of flow mode type were considered. The mounts
was developed considering the necessary damping forces. The peak
force is primariliy attributed to the mount stroke, but the stroke is very
small, compared to MR dampers. To solve the problem andenhance the
damping force, configurations of increasing the flow passage of MR fluids
within restricted shapes were designed. To identify whether the required
damping force is generated, excitation test was conducted. Since
damping property of the MR fluid is changed by variation of the applied
magnetic field strength and frequency, responses of the mounts were
compared by chaning the applied current and frequency. Subsequently,
the vibration control performance for 1 DOF system was evaluated. From
the experimental results, it was verified that the developed MR mount
can be applicable to D/G set for vibration control
An improved polynomial dynamic model of
a magnetorheological fluid damper under
impact loadings
Zhaochun Li, Nanjing Univ. of Science and Technology (China)
and Nanjing Forestry Univ. (China); Zhe Yang, Jiajia Zheng, Jiong
Wang, Nanjing Univ. of Science and Technology (China)
With fast response time and adjustable damping properties,
magnetorheological (MR) dampers have shown their capabilities in
reducing vibration of structures when subjected to impact loadings.
In order to achieve the best performance of MR dampers for vibration
control, a suitable semi-active control method is needed. Understanding
and modeling of the dynamic behavior of MR dampers is crucial in
development of such control strategies.
Comparing with several commonly used models for MR dampers, such
as Bingham, Herschel-Bulkey or related models, this paper presented
both theoretical and experimental studies on modeling MR dampers
under impact loadings. An improved polynomial model with simple form,
which is easy to be solved inversely and suitable for implement in real
time control, is proposed. A series of experimental tests are performed
to evaluate the accuracy of the proposed model. The results show that
the proposed model can well describe the relationship of damper velocity
and its output force during buffering motion. And under the action of MR
damper, buffering process of the whole mechanical system becomes
8688-50, Session 12
Vibration energy harvesting using Galfenolbased transducer
Viktor Berbyuk, Chalmers Univ. of Technology (Sweden)
Traditionally the development of vibration energy harvesters was based
on the use of piezoelectric materials. A great attention, however, is paid
now to magnetostrictive alternative. The promise of magnetostriction
was greatly increased since the development of an Iron-Gallium
alloys (Galfenol). In this paper the novel design of Galfenol based
vibration energy harvester is presented. The device uses Galfenol rod
diameter 6.35 mm and length 50mm, polycrystalline, production grade,
manufactured by FSZM process by ETREMA Product Inc. Collecting coil
consists of 4000 turns of Cu wire. Magnetic bias is created by magnets
with diameter 6mm, length 10mm and flex density 1,17-1,27T. For
experimental study of the harvester, the test rig was also developed. It
was found by experiment that for given frequency of external excitation
there exist optimal values of bias and mechanical prestress which
maximize generated voltage and harvested power. Under optimized
operational conditions and external excitations with frequency 50Hz
the designed transducer generates about 10 V and harvests about
0,45 W power. Within the running conditions, the Galfenol rod power
density was estimated to 340mW/cm3. The obtained results show high
practical potential of vibration-to-electrical energy conversion by using
magnetostrictive material Galfenol.
8688-48, Session 11
Energy-efficient MRF brakes and clutches
avoiding no-load losses
Dirk G. Güth, Markus Schamoni, Jürgen Maas, OstwestfalenLippe Univ. of Applied Sciences (Germany)
A challenge opposing a commercial use of actuators like brakes and
clutches based on magnetorheological fluids (MRF), are durable no-load
losses. A complete torque-free separation of these actuators is inherently
not yet possible due to the permanent liquid intervention for the fluid
engaging parts. Especially for applications with high rotational speeds
up to some thousand RPM, this drawback of MRF actuators is not
In this paper, approaches will be presented that that allows a controlled
movement of the MRF from an active shear gap into an inactive shear
gap, enabling a complete separation of the fluid engaging surfaces.
This behavior is modeled for a novel actuator design by the use of
the ferrohydrodynamics and therefore simulations are performed for
investigating the transitions between braking resp. coupling and idle
mode. Measurements performed with a realized MRF actuator show that
the viscous induced drag torque can be reduced significantly.
8688-51, Session 12
Durability of a d33-mode piezo-composite
electricity-generating element
Nam-Seo Goo, Van-Lai Pham, Jun Zhao, Jisoo Park, Konkuk
Univ. (Korea, Republic of)
Numerous studies have demonstrated the possibility of using
piezoelectric generators to harvest energy from various ambient sources.
Return to Contents
Conference 8688: Active and Passive Smart
Structures and Integrated Systems VII
A piezo-composite generating element (PCGE) has been proposed
recently. The PCGE is composed of layers of carbon/epoxy, piezoelectric
lead zirconate titanate ceramic (PZT), and glass/epoxy cured at an
elevated temperature. Through the curing process, the PCGE stores
residual stress in the PZT layer from the mismatch in the coefficients of
thermal expansion among the constituent layers. There are two common
modes used for energy harvesting: d33-mode and d31-mode. In this
work, a d33 mode PCGE was tested concerning its mechanical and
heated behavior. The main focuses are the durability and reliability of
PCGEs in different conditions. A motor level system has been designed
for this experimental purpose. To investigate the durability of PCGEs, the
output voltage of the PCGEs will be observed every time the impact force
is applied, which can be controlled by the motor level system until several
million times. The reliability of PCGEs is examined by testing their output
voltage, owing to the impact force from the motor level system after they
are picked up from a chamber with an elevated temperature.
Energy harvesting devices are smart structures capable of converting
the mechanical energy (generally vibrations) that would be wasted in the
environment into usable electrical energy. Laminated piezocomposite
shell structures have been largely used in the design of these devices
because of their large generation areas and their possibility of changing
the displacement field by properly orienting the composite fibers. The
design of energy harvesting devices are complex and they can be
efficiently designed using topology optimization methods (TOM), which
combines optimization algorithms and finite element methods (FEM).
In this work, the energy conversion can be improved by maximizing
the electric power generated by the piezoelectric material in a damped
harmonic analysis. The effective electric power is measured at a
coupled electric circuit, which is also modeled in the FEM. The electric
power is maximized by optimally distributing piezoelectric material and
choosing its polarization sign, and properly choosing the fiber angles of
composite materials. The material model used to distribute piezoelectric
material and to choose its polarization sign is the PEMAP-P model,
and to optimize the composite fiber orientation, the discrete material
optimization(DMO) method is used. Numerical examples are presented to
illustrate the proposed methodology.
8688-52, Session 12
Enhanced piezoelectric energy harvesting
utilizing magnetic effect
8688-55, Session 12
Jiong Tang, Jiawen Xu, Univ. of Connecticut (United States)
Development of a piezoelectric polymer wind
energy harvesting flag
Piezoelectric transducers are widely employed in vibration-based energy
harvesting schemes. Fundamentally, the efficiency of energy harvesting
using piezoelectric transducers hinges upon the electromechanical
coupling effect. While at the material level such coupling is a given
material property, at the device level it is possible to vary and improve
the energy conversion capability between the electrical and mechanical
regimes by a variety of means, e.g., structural tailoring and incorporating
additional components. In this research, we explore changing the
effective flexibility of the energy harvester by using the magnetic effect.
It is shown that a properly configured and positioned magnet can induce
force that can effectively improve the electromechanical coupling of the
energy harvester. Comprehensive analytical and experimental studies are
carried out to demonstrate the concept and validate the performance
Tsutomu Nishigaki, Kinki Univ. (Japan)
In recent years, wind energy harvesting systems using piezoelectric
materials have been studied by a lot of researchers. However, energy
harvesting methods using flexible thin piezoelectric films had not
been well developed due to the extremely small power generation. In
this study, a piezoelectric wind energy harvesting method using highpolymer films was investigated experimentally. At first, the feasibility of
the systems was shown in laboratory experiment by using various sizes
and boundary conditions of piezoelectric films subjected to the airflow
direct and inverse piezoelectric effects of distributed piezoelectric films
simultaneously, active flexible structures which posess vibration damping
ability can be able to construct. However, conventional studies are limited
to the control of relatively small (micron-order) displacements of thin
flexible structures as well as numerical studies by handling controller
design of software aspects. In this paper, several fundamental active
vibration control principles, which will be valid in actual implementation,
of smart flexible structures using piezoelectric films as distributed sensor/
actuator have been developed. By applying each of these methods,
it was verified that the enough vibration control effects were actually
obtained and the theory agrees well with the experiment.
8688-53, Session 12
A hybrid electromagnetic energy harvesting
device for low-frequency vibration
Hyung-Jo Jung, Jeongsu Park, In-Ho Kim, KAIST (Korea,
Republic of)
An electromagnetic energy harvesting device, which converts a
translational base motion into a rotational motion by using a rigid bar
having a moving mass pivoted on a hinged point with a power spring,
has been recently developed for use of civil engineering structures having
low natural frequencies. The device utilizes the relative motion between
moving permanent magnets and fixed solenoid coil in order to harvest
electrical power. In this study, the performance of the device is enhanced
by introducing a rotational-type generator at a hinged point. In addition,
a frequency up-conversion technique, which makes use of an auxiliary
energy harvesting system of high natural frequencies to further improve
the efficiency, is incorporated into the device. The effectiveness of the
proposed hybrid energy harvesting device based on electromagnetic
mechanism is verified through a series of laboratory tests and preliminary
field tests.
8688-56, Session 12
Highly-integrated energy harvesting device
for rotational applications utilizing quasistatic piezoelectric and electromagnetic
Jens Twiefel, Marc C. Wurz, Leibniz Univ. Hannover (Germany)
This work addresses the design of an integrated energy harvesting
system under production viewpoints. The system is developed to harvest
energy form rotational movements. Therefore, a piezoelectric bending
element – connected to the rotational part - is actuated by magnetic
force introduced by a hard magnet installed in the fixed frame. A similar
setup is already introduced in literature; this work concentrates on a
high integration, the energy harvesting circuit, including rectifier, power
management and storage is integrated in the structure of the bending
harvester. Further on the soft magnetic tip mass is combined with a coil
for electro-magnetic energy harvesting; the necessary electronic is also
integrated in the structure. The paper addresses the special systems
demands for large scale production. The production technology for a
mall series of prototypes is explained in detail. Performance tests of the
device conclude this study.
8688-54, Session 12
Design of laminated piezocomposite
energy harvesting devices using topology
optimization methods
Cesar Y. Kiyono, Emilio C. N. Silva, Univ. de São Paulo (Brazil)
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Conference 8688: Active and Passive Smart
Structures and Integrated Systems VII
8688-57, Session 13
8688-59, Session 13
Study of a piezoelectric energy harvester with
a dynamic magnifier
Mechanical and thermal energy harvesting
utilizing phase transformations in 32-mode
relaxor-ferroelectric single crystals
Dejan Vasic, François Costa, Ecole Normale Supérieure de
Cachan (France)
Wen Dong, Univ. of California, Los Angeles (United States);
Peter Finkel, Ahmed Amin, Naval Undersea Warfare Ctr. (United
States); Christopher S. Lynch, Univ. of California, Los Angeles
(United States)
A piezoelectric energy harvester with a multi-mode dynamic magnifier is
proposed and modeled in this paper. An analytical model in the form of
matrix relations connecting the mechanical quantities of one end to the
other in the case of a dynamic magnifier energy harvester is presented.
These relations enable us to determine the behavior of magnifier by
considering the mechanical boundary conditions of assembly of the three
sections of the dynamic magnifier. A typical harvester is composed of
a cantilever beam with tip mass at the end and a PZT film on the beam
surface, which operate mainly around the first natural frequency. The
vibration energy harvester study in this paper with multi-mode dynamic
magnifier is composed of a tuned mass, where an intermediate mass is
inserted between the vibration structure and the energy harvester beam
to amplify the vibration of the harvester.
This work presents experimental evidence of giant electro-mechanical
energy conversion under ferroelectric/ferroelectric rhombohedralorthorhombic phase transformation. Combinations of stress, electric
field and temperature drive a phase transformation from rhombohedral
to orthorhombic in [011] cut ferroelectric single crystals. This phase
transformation is accompanied by a large jump in electric displacement
and strain. The results indicate that the ferroelectric crystals produce
significantly increased electrical energy density per cycle that that of
the linear piezoelectric effect. Electrical energy is harvested from a
mechanical and thermal excitations applied to a ternary Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)
O3-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PIN-PMN-PT) single crystal of
composition just at the rhombohedral side of a morphotropic phase
boundary. An overview of 32 mode phase transformation energy
harvesting is discussed.
The usual model of a magnifier, is “distributed parameters model”, it
presents the electromechanical solution of a piezoelectric cantilever
for transverse vibrations with Euler-Bernoulli beam assumption. In the
present paper, the analytical model is inspired by the 4x4 chain matrix
formalism. In addition to the benefits of a “distributed parameters
model”, the present model combines several other advantages: it is
suited for the dynamic magnifier design because the model can take into
account various electrical and mechanical boundary conditions.
8688-61, Session 14
The results show that output power of the harvesting beam is amplified
for efficient energy harvesting over a broader frequency range.
Energy harvesting from harmonic and noise
excitation of multilayer piezoelectric stacks:
modeling and experiment
8688-58, Session 13
Sihong Zhao, Alper Erturk, Georgia Institute of Technology
(United States)
Investigation of bistable piezo-composite
plates for broadband energy harvesting
This article theoretically and experimentally studies deterministic and
stochastic piezoelectric energy harvesting using a multilayer stack
configuration for civil infrastructure system applications that involve
large compressive loads, such as vehicular and foot loads acting upon
pavements. Simplified electromechanical modeling efforts of stack-based
vibrational energy harvesters have been mostly focused on deterministic
forms of mechanical excitation as in the typical case of harmonic
excitation. In this paper, we present analytical and numerical modeling
of piezoelectric energy harvesting from harmonic and random vibrations
of multilayer piezoelectric stacks under axial compressive loading. The
analytical electromechanical solution is based on the power spectral
density of random excitation and the voltage – to – pressure input
frequency response function of the harvester. The first one of the two
numerical solution methods employs the Fourier series representation of
the vibrational excitation history to solve the resulting ordinary differential
equation, while the second method uses an Euler-Maruyama scheme
to directly solve the governing electromechanical stochastic differential
equation. The electromechanical model is validated through several
experiments for a multilayer PZT-5H stack under harmonic and random
excitations. The analytical predictions and numerical simulations exhibit
very good agreement with the experimental measurements for a range of
resistive loads and input excitation levels.
David N. Betts, Christopher R. Bowen, Hyunsun A. Kim,
Nicholas Gathercole, Christopher T. Clarke, Univ. of Bath (United
Kingdom); Daniel J. Inman, Univ. of Michigan (United States)
This paper reports the static and dynamic behavior of nonlinear [0/90]
bistable composite plates with bonded piezoelectric layers, excited by
mechanical vibrations across a broadband range of frequencies. This
approach exploits the large amplitude oscillations inherent in a structure
with two stable configurations. These nonlinear devices have improved
power generation compared to conventional resonant systems and
can be designed to occupy smaller volumes than bistable magnetic
cantilever systems. A Digital Image Correlation system is used to
map the surface deflections of the devices and thus characterize the
differing modes of oscillation observed for a range of vibrational inputs.
Low amplitude oscillations, intermittent snap-through between stable
configurations, nonuniform responses and large amplitude oscillations
are observed for differing inputs, highlighting the dependency of the
power output on the vibrational input. We develop a dynamics model for
this system, extending existing static modeling and using the findings
of the presented experimental studies. Finite element analysis is used
to better understand the complex phenomena including the effects of
geometric imperfections and manufacturing asymmetry. This work will
draw the three areas of experimental data, analytical modeling and finite
element modeling together to form a comprehensive investigation of the
piezoelectric bistable composite plates as a means of converting waste
vibration energy into harvested electrical energy.
8688-62, Session 14
Shear-mode energy harvesting of
piezoelectric sandwich beam
Mohammad H. Malakooti, Henry A. Sodano, Univ. of Florida
(United States)
Piezoelectric materials with high electromechanical coupling are
good candidates for energy harvesting applications by transforming
mechanical energy to useful electrical power. Since the d15
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Conference 8688: Active and Passive Smart
Structures and Integrated Systems VII
electromechanical coupling coefficient is the highest coupling coefficient
in piezoelectric materials, the maximum electrical power output will be
obtained by exciting the shear mode of piezoelectric structure. Using the
Timoshenko beam theory, a model is proposed to simulate the energy
harvesting performance of piezoelectric sandwich beam. The significance
of geometry and material properties of layers will be studied and the final
results will be validated with numerical solutions.
have shown that the model agrees quite well with experimental data. A
parameter optimization study will be performed with the proposed model.
This study will demonstrate how a new harvester could be designed such
that maximum power output can be achieved in a given turbulent fluid
flow environment.
8688-63, Session 14
Effect of loading rate on the superelastic
behavior of SMAs under multi-axial loading
condition: analytical modeling and experiment
8688-64, Session 15
Power-generation prediction for piezoelectric
composite plates by modal analysis
Masood Taheri Andani, Mohammad H. Elahinia, The Univ. of
Toledo (United States)
Yuan-Fang Chou, Chen-Hsiang Cheng, National Taiwan Univ.
Multi-axial behavior of shape memory alloy (SMA) bars with circular cross
section is studied by considering the effect of temperature gradient in the
cross section as a result of latent heat generation and absorption during
forward and reverse phase transformations. The local form of energy
balance for SMAs by taking into account the heat flux effect is coupled to
a closed-form solution of SMA bars subjected to multi-axial loading. The
resulting coupled thermo-mechanical equations are solved for SMA bars
with circular cross sections. A number of experiments were conducted
with different loading conditions and at various loading rates. The
experimental results were then successfully compared with the model.
Several numerical case studies are presented and the necessity of
considering the coupled thermo-mechanical formulation is demonstrated
by comparing the results of the proposed model with those obtained
by assuming an isothermal process during loading–unloading. It is
shown that the isothermal solution is valid only for specific combinations
of ambient conditions and loading rates. The present approach is a
beneficial platform in modeling and analysis of applications with high
loading rates.
When the thickness of a plane structure is much smaller than its other
characteristic lengths, a plate model is more realistic than a beam model.
For a thin piezoelectric layer fully coated with metal electrodes on its
top and bottom surfaces, the internal electric field is simple and easy to
model. Therefore, it is advantageous to derive a piezoelectric composite
plate model based on E-form constitutive equations. This approach is
adopted to develop a mathematical model of Kirchhoff–Love type for a
plate composed of a piezoelectric layer and a metal layer.
To develop a method for calculating the loaded-circuit voltage between
the top and bottom electrodes is one of the major tasks of this paper.
The electric power generated from piezoelectric layer is found by modal
analysis. Top and bottom electrodes of the piezoelectric layer are shorted
for calculating the resonant frequencies and mode shapes. Once these
two electrodes are connected to an external circuit load, the boundary
conditions of top and bottom surfaces become nonhomogeneous.
Superposition of short-circuit modes and one particular field constitutes
the nonhomogeneous solution.
A composite plate composed of a 0.3mm thick copper layer and a
0.2mm thick PZT-5A layer is investigated. The cantilever plate of 25mm in
length is base-excited near the first resonant frequency. When connected
to a circuit with certain load impedance, more than 80% efficiency of
power generation can be achieved.
8688-65, Session 15
Adaptive, energy steering three-dimensional
lattice substructures
8688-69, Session 14
James Ayers, Kuang C. Liu, Anindya Ghoshal, U.S. Army
Research Lab. (United States)
Electromechanical and statistical modeling
of turbulence-induced vibration for energy
This work pursues the ability to steer energy under repeated impact
loads by an adaptive periodic 3D lattice system with modular unit cells.
Traditional beam forming relies on the structural anisotropy of the lattice
to redirect energy, however fracturing of the lattice provides a secondary
energy absorbing phenomenon. After impact and the subsequent
fracture of a modular unit cell, its beam forming and energy absorbing
capabilities have been compromised and can no longer fulfill the design
requirements. An adaptive lattice system, which will reconfigure and
thereby restoring a portion of its original capabilities, will decrease the
vulnerability of the residual structure. The proposed system contains
three sequential, repeated phases:
Jared D. Hobeck, Daniel J. Inman, Univ. of Michigan (United
Extensive research has been done on the topics of both turbulenceinduced vibration and vibration based energy harvesting; however, little
effort has been put into bringing these two topics together. Preliminary
experimental studies have shown that piezoelectric structures excited
by turbulent flow can produce significant amounts of useful power. This
research could serve to benefit applications such as powering remote,
self-sustained sensors in small rivers or air ventilation systems where
turbulent fluid flow is a primary source of ambient energy. A novel
solution for harvesting energy in these turbulent fluid flow environments
was explored by the authors in previous work, and a harvester prototype
was developed. This prototype, called piezoelectric grass, has been the
focus of many experimental studies. In this paper the authors present
a theoretical analysis of the piezoelectric grass harvester modeled as
a single unimorph cantilever beam exposed to turbulent cross-flow.
This distributed parameter model is developed using a combination of
both analytical and statistical techniques. The analytical portion uses a
Rayleigh-Ritz approximation method to describe the beam dynamics,
and utilizes piezoelectric constitutive relationships to define the
electromechanical coupling effects. The statistical portion of the model
defines the turbulence-induced forcing function distributed across the
beam surface. The model presented in this paper will be validated using
the results of several experimental case studies. Preliminary results
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1) passive redirection of perpendicular impact loads,
2) in-situ self-diagnosis of compromised unit cells, and
3) planar restructuring of lattice configuration.
The redirection of energy is achieved through the periodic arrangement
of stacked through-thickness unit cells that enable anisotropic beam
forming. The design of the unit cell reduces to an optimization function,
with particular attention given to pyramidal, cubic, and hexahedral based
Ligament-wise resistance measurements, or another suitable indicator,
will be used to diagnosis the residual structural integrity of each modular
lattice. An active path of least resistance circuit, whereby a parallel
resistor circuit with a ratio R2>>R1 (R1 being the ligament resistance)
is current monitored across R2. Once the ligament fractures, R1 will
become much greater than R2 and the current monitor will indicate
failure. This can also be used to trigger actuation mechanisms. By
measuring the total resistance of the unit cell, the number of damage
Conference 8688: Active and Passive Smart
Structures and Integrated Systems VII
ligaments can be extrapolated and its residual strength correlated. The
planar restructuring of the lattice is inspired by the simple children’s
game called the sliding puzzle. The location of each modular unit cell
is controlled via magnetic actuators, which in the future can be driven
by autonomous circuits. Mechanical interference due to fractured
components is the primary obstructions to motion. Elastic bands are
used for fragment capturing and unit cell collapsing post fracturing to
reduce the mechanical interference.
state feedback position control is shown. This is applied to a linear and a
journal squeeze film levitation bearing. For both systems the theoretical
models are validated experimentally. It turns out that the theoretical
models are in good agreement with the obtained experimental results.
The paper is closed by an outlook of future applications of ultrasonic
squeeze film levitation bearings.
8688-68, Session 15
A two phased validation and verification technique is employed. First,
numerical studies are used to simulate the energy steering of the
impact and validate the optimal lattice design. Secondly, experimental
techniques are used to determine the energy steering efficiency after
repeated impacts.
Power fluctuation reduction methodology for
the grid-connected renewable power systems
Fadhil T. Aula, Samuel C. Lee, The Univ. of Oklahoma (United
8688-66, Session 15
This paper presents a methodology for eliminating the influence of the
power fluctuations of the renewable power systems. The renewable
energies which are to be considered uncertain and uncontrollable
resources can provide only irregular electrical power to the power grid.
This irregularity could cause the instability of the power system and
impacts the operation of conventional power plants, and the power
system is vulnerable to collapse if necessary actions are not taken to
reduce the impact of these fluctuations. This methodology aims at
minimizing this fluctuation and makes the generated power close to
a constant level and maintaining it. This requires a prediction tool for
estimating the generated power in advance to provide the range and the
time of occurrence of the fluctuation. Since the most of the renewable
energies are weather based, as a result a weather forecasting technique
will be used for predicting the generated power. The elimination of the
fluctuation also requires stabilizing facilities to maintain a consistent level.
The characteristics of these stabilizing facilities depend on the type of the
renewable energies. In this study, we use a wind farm and a photovoltaic
array as renewable power systems, therefore a pumped-storage and
batteries bank are used as stabilizing facilities. The methodology for
balancing the power predictions and power stabilizations to eliminate
the influence of the power fluctuations of this grid-connected renewable
power system is presented. For illustrative purpose, a model of wind and
photovoltaic systems is included and its power fluctuation reduction is
verified through simulation.
An active control logic to improve the fatigue
strength of smart flexible structures
Francesco Ripamonti, Pasquale Ambrosio, Ferruccio Resta,
Francesco Braghin, Politecnico di Milano (Italy)
It’s general opinion that a vibration control would intrinsically imply a
fatigue damage reduction. Anyway this assumption could not be such
obvious. For example, consider a bad actuator positioning in which
the control force could be higher than disturbances, with consequent
local damage effects, or high frequency, low displacements and high
deformation conditions or even situation with strong spillover problems.
These considerations give the opportunity to deeper investigate the
fatigue phenomena on smart structures and their reduction from a control
theory point of view.
In this paper, a simplified interpretation of the fatigue damage is given
using the frequency analysis framework for a generic linear structure.
It gives an overview of the most relevant parameters, which affect
the phenomenon. As a consequence, a control logic is defined by an
optimization problem with a quadratic functional. Moreover, since the
fatigue phenomenon is non-linear with the structure displacement
amplitude, an adaptive control logic is applied. The control gains are real
time computed monitoring the modal coordinates amplitude.
Finally, the control logic was tested on a multilayer carbon fiber
plate (1100 x 1000 x 1.4 mm) fixed at three sides, sensed with five
extensometers and actuated by five piezoelectric patches. The results
with adaptive control show a sensible improvement in terms of the
fatigue damage with respect to the uncontrolled case and the “classical”
LQG control solution.
8688-69, Session 16
Experimental characterization of a bidimensional array of negative capacitance
piezo-patches for vibroacoustic control
Flaviano Tateo, Manuel Collet, Morvan Ouisse, FEMTO-ST
8688-67, Session 15
On ultrasonic squeeze film levitation:
Modeling and feedback control of ultrasonic
bearing systems
A recent technological revolution in the fields of integrated MEMS has
finally rendered possible the mechanical integration of active smart
materials, electronics and power supply systems for the next generation
of smart composite structures.
Sebastian Mojrzisch, Joerg Wallaschek, Leibniz Univ. Hannover
Using a bi-dimensional array of electromechanical transducers,
composed by piezo-patches connected to a synthetic negative
capacitance, it is possible to modify the dynamics of the underlying
In this paper the modeling and feedback control of non-contact ultrasonic
squeeze film levitation bearings are presented. Starting from linearization
of the governing nonlinear differential equations, simplified models are
given in order to make it accessible to a wide range of applications.
Besides of detailed derivation of the equations to calculate the steady
state load carrying force, the transient behavior of the overall system
is investigated. It is shown that the ultrasonic transducer as well as the
buildup of the load supporting squeeze film have a transient behavior
of first order lag type. Whereas the time constants are significantly
influenced by the operating point of the system. The influence of the
squeeze number and the vibration amplitude are presented. Moreover the
steady state open loop stability of the system is examined. In this context
the influence of lateral movement and forced vibration of the levitating
member on the stability of the system are shown. Finally the design of a
In this study, we present an application of the Floquet-Bloch theorem for
vibroacoustic power flow optimization, by means of distributed shunted
piezoelectric material. In the context of periodically distributed damped
2D mechanical systems, this numerical approach allows one to compute
the multi-modal waves dispersion curves into the entire first Brillouin
zone. This approach also permits optimization of the piezoelectric
shunting electrical impedance, which controls energy diffusion into the
proposed semi-active distributed set of cells.
Furthermore, we present experimental evidence that proves the
effectiveness of the proposed control method. The experiment requires
a rectangular metallic plate equipped with seventy-five piezo-patches,
controlled independently by an electronic circuit composed of a number
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Conference 8688: Active and Passive Smart
Structures and Integrated Systems VII
of passive elements (i.e. resistances and capacitance), and an operational
amplifier able to reproduce the negative capacitance effect. More
specifically, the out-of-plane displacements and the averaged kinetic
energy of the controlled plate under an harmonic excitation are compared
in three different cases (open-circuit, short-circuit and controlled circuit).
The resulting data will clearly show how this proposed technique is able
to damp and selectively reflect incident waves.
between the particles. To verify the experimental results, we simulate the
propagation and dispersion of mechanical waves with a discrete element
model. Closed-form analytical solutions are also obtained based on the
nonlinear wave dynamics and classical contact theory. We find that the
discrete element simulations and analytical results are in good agreement
with the experimental results. This study shows that granular chains with
the aforementioned setup can be used as a tunable filtering structure to
shield noise and vibration for different applications.
8688-70, Session 16
8688-72, Session 16
Performance-based design of buildings with
superelastic-friction base isolators
Approximate pole-placement controller using
inverse plant dynamics for floor vibration
Osman E. Ozbulut, Univ. of Virginia (United States)
The seismic performance of a three-story building isolated with
superelastic-friction base isolator (S-FBI) systems is investigated through
a performance-based evaluation approach. The S-FBI system consists of
a flat steel-PTFE sliding bearing and a superelastic NiTi shape memory
alloy (SMA) device. Sliding bearings limit the maximum seismic forces
transmitted to the superstructure to a certain value that is a function of
friction coefficient of sliding interface. Superelastic SMA device provides
restoring capability to the isolation system together with additional
damping characteristics. A probabilistic performance-based assessment
of the isolated building with S-FBI system is conducted using the
methodology developed by Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research
Center (PEER).
Donald S. Nyawako, Paul Reynolds, Malcolm J. Hudson, The
Univ. of Sheffield (United Kingdom)
Past researches and field trials have demonstrated the viability of
active vibration control technologies for the mitigation of human
induced vibrations in problematic floors. They make use of smaller units
than some of their passive counterparts, provide quicker and more
efficient control, can tackle multiple modes of vibration simultaneously
and adaptability can be introduced to enhance their robustness.
Predominantly SISO and multi-SISO collocated sensor and actuator pairs
have been utilised in direct output feedback schemes that make use of
the direct velocity feedback (DVF) control law. On-going studies have
extended such past works to include model-based control approaches,
for example, pole-placement, which demonstrate increased flexibility
in achieving desired vibration mitigation performances but for which
stability issues must be adequately addressed.
First, a probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) is performed for a
selected site at the western United States. The peak ground acceleration
(PGA) is selected as the intensity measure. An analytical model of the
isolated building with the S-FBI system is developed to determine the
response of the structure under a ground motion input. Incremental
dynamic analyses are conducted at different intensity levels. A suite of
20 ground motion records is employed in nonlinear response time history
analysis. Peak interstory drift, peak floor acceleration, and peak and
residual isolator drift are selected as the primary demand parameters.
Damage states for the superstructure and isolation system are defined
to relate the demand parameters to damage. Fragility functions of nonisolated and isolated building are derived to study the effectiveness of
the S-FBI system. A parametric study is conducted to evaluate the effect
of mechanical properties of the S-FBI system on the performance of the
isolated buildings.
The work presented here is an extension to the pole-placement controller
design using an algebraic approach that has been investigated in
past studies. An ‘approximate’ pole-placement controller formulated
via the inversion of the floor dynamics, considered as minimum
phase, is designed to achieve target closed-loop performances of the
closed-loop system. This design approach has been found to avoid
the numerical problems that are associated with the algebraic poleplacement approach for higher order plant models. Analytical studies and
experimental tests are based on a laboratory structure and comparisons
are made with the DVF control scheme. It is shown that with minimal
compensation, the approximate pole-placement controller scheme is
easily formulated and implemented and offers good vibration mitigation
8688-71, Session 16
Tunable bandgaps in one-dimensional
granular crystals composed of cylindrical
8688-73, Session 16
Passive and hybrid piezoelectric circuits
to reduce induced-atmospheric turbulence
vibration of a plate-like wing
Jinkyu Yang, Mehrashk Meidani, Taegyu Kang, Feng Li, Univ. of
South Carolina (United States); Duc Ngo, Eastern International
Univ. (Viet Nam)
Tarcisio M. P. Silva, Carlos De Marqui, Univ. de São Paulo (Brazil)
Granular crystals have shown to be able to filter out a wide range
of vibrational excitations by leveraging acoustic bandgaps, in which
mechanical waves in certain frequencies are not allowed to transmit.
In this study we examine the variations of the filtering properties of
granular crystals composed of short cylindrical particles. According
to the Hertzian contact theory, the lateral interactions of two slanted
cylindrical bodies form an elliptic contact that is strongly affected by the
relative alignment angle and the applied static forces. We investigate the
filtering behavior of these granular crystals as we gradually change the
axial force, eccentricity, and contact angle between the particles. For
experiments, we apply broadband, white acoustic noise to one end of the
granular crystal and measure the transmitted mechanical waves from the
other end to obtain its frequency responses. As a result, we find that the
position and number of bandgaps in frequency space can be tuned by
changing eccentricity and axial force between the particles. Particularly,
we can successfully create multiple bandgaps either by imposing
unbalanced eccentricity, or by strategically varying alignment angles
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The effects of atmospheric turbulence on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles
(UAVs) are an important design parameter for both structural and
performance aspects. In this work, a method to damp random
(turbulence induced) vibrations of a plate like wing by using hybrid
(active-passive) piezoelectric circuits, in addition to passive piezoelectric
circuits, is presented. The performance of the different vibration control
strategies is verified at several flight conditions, ranging from low airflow
speeds to the proximity of the flutter condition. An electromechanically
coupled finite element model (that accounts different external circuits)
is combined with unsteady aerodynamic models (the doubletlattice method and Roger’s model) and an atmospheric turbulence
model (Karman spectrum) to develop a piezoaeroelastic model of
cantilevered plates representing wing-like structures. The behavior of the
piezoaeroelastic system is investigated in time and frequency domains. In
the first case study, load resistances (one for each mode to be controlled)
are connected to a bimorph piezoceramics and the shunt damping effect
is investigated. Later, resistive-inductive circuits (in series connection)
Conference 8688: Active and Passive Smart
Structures and Integrated Systems VII
are considered in the electrical domain of the problem (one for each
mode). Each inductor is calculated for a target frequency (resonance)
as well the optimal resistor obtained for maximum damping. In the last
case study, a voltage source is combined to the circuits of the previous
passive cases and a Linear Quadratic Gaussian controller designed. The
performance of the hybrid controller (which uses the direct and inverse
piezoelectriceffects simultaneously) is investigated and compared to the
previous passive cases.
In order to prove the advantages of this new method, a comparison
between the IMSC and DMSC using numerical simulations and
experimental tests on a cantilevered beam are carried out.
8688-76, Session 17
Numerical assessment of seismic
performance of steel building with
recentering damper under near-fault ground
8688-74, Session 17
Simulation study of semi-active control of
stay cable using MR damper under wind
Hui Qian, Zhengzhou Univ. (China); Hongnan Li, Dalian Univ. of
Techonolgy (China); Gangbing Song, Univ. of Houston (United
Jiangyun Liu, Hongwei Huang, Limin Sun, Tongji Univ. (China)
The seismic performance of steel building with recentering damperbased energy dissipation system under near-fault ground motions are
numerically investigated in this paper. Innovative hybrid shape memory
alloys friction damper, possessing both large energy dissipation and recentering capabilities, was developed and tested. The goal of the paper
is to assess the effectiveness of the recentering damper in mitigating the
seismic response of steel structure exited by strong near-fault ground
motions. A simulation program was presented, and nonlinear analysis
of a three-story steel frame with and without the dampers subjected to
representative near-fault ground motions was performed. The results
show the damper has both the stable energy dissipating capacity and
re-centering feature under reverse loading and is effective in reducing
the seismic response of steel building exited by strong near-fault ground
Mechanical dampers have been proved to be one of the most effective
countermeasures for vibration mitigation of stay cables in various
cable-stayed bridges over the world. However, for long stay cables, as
the installation height of the damper is restricted due to the aesthetic
concern, using passive dampers alone may not satisfy the control
requirement of the stay cables. Therefore, semi-active MR dampers have
been proposed for the vibration mitigation of long stay cables. However,
the highly nonlinear feature of the MR damper lead to a relatively complex
representation of its mathematical model, and makes it difficult to be
applied to suppress cable vibration with an efficient control algorithm.
This paper aims to evaluate the effectiveness of MR damper for vibration
mitigation of stay cable under complex wind excitations. A semi-active
control algorithm based on the universal design curve of dampers
was developed using a bilinear mechanical model of the MR damper.
Simulation study was carried out for the cable-MR damper system.
Firstly, fluctuating wind field was generated using the method of weighted
amplitude wave superposition (WAWS) and Kaimal spectrum and the
time-history sample curve of turbulent wind speed of stay cable was
obtained. Then the dynamic response of the cable-MR damper system
was computed using the proposed semi-active control algorithm. Finally,
the effectiveness of the MR damper for control of cable vibration was
assessed through computing the root mean square value of acceleration
at each measuring point.
8688-77, Session 17
Novel vibration-assisted cell injector based
on shearing piezoactuator
Zenan Wang, Su Zhao, Wei Tech Ang, Nanyang Technological
Univ. (Singapore)
Various designs of piezo-assisted Intracytoplasmic sperm injection
(ICSI) has been developed, which achieved higher success rate than
conventional ICSI. A common issue is that lateral oscillation of the
injection pipette tip is always excited by the intended axial actuation.
Researchers hold different opinions on which oscillation, axial or lateral,
has more dominate effect on the piercing process. In this paper, different
functionality of the axial and lateral oscillations during cell injection is
investigated. A novel vibration-assisted injector is developed which
uses a piezoelectric shear actuator with free stroke of 10?m in two
axes. Different from the previous designs, axial and lateral oscillations
are generated separately. For axial experiment, a short pipette (450 ?m
in length, 30 ?m in diameter) with high first bending and longitudinal
natural frequencies (137.6 kHz and 1.08 MHz) is fabricated. While
driven in axial direction at frequency below 40 kHz, the pipette can be
considered as rigid body. In lateral case, a 51 mm long micropipette is
driven in a transverse direction at the thick end to excite bending modes.
Experimental results obtained using zebrafish embryos reveal that
lateral oscillations reduces the cell deformation rate during penetration
dramatically, while axial oscillations show little effect. As less deformation
on the cell wall leads to less pressure change inside the cell, thus lateral
oscillation is more beneficial than axial oscillation in piezo-assisted ICSI.
These findings help to understand the underlying physics of vibrationassisted injector. Future design vibration-assisted injector should focus
on generating lateral oscillations instead of axial ones.
8688-75, Session 17
A comparison between the IMSC and the
DMSC for vibration suppression of smart
flexible structures
Francesco Ripamonti, Mattia Serra, Ferruccio Resta, Politecnico
di Milano (Italy)
The proposed paper deals with a new control technique for the vibration
reduction of flexible smart structures based on modal approach and
named Dependent Modal Space Control (DMSC). The well-known
Independent Modal Space Control (IMSC), devised in the ‘80 s, allows
changing the frequency and the damping of the controlled modes leaving
the mode shapes unaltered by using diagonal control gain matrices. The
DMSC, instead, besides frequency and damping, can also impose the
controlled mode shapes through full control gain matrices. In this way the
DMSC can be applied allowing the creation of virtual nodes in desired
point of the structure with consequent advantages in many applications.
Anyway in the most of control problems, due to the limited number of
sensors-actuators available and the worsening spillover effects, the
generic eigenvector imposition is not possible and the same method
is applied in a different way. Imposed the desired controlled poles, the
optimal eigenstructure assignment can be suitably computed through a
Genetic Algorithm in order to reduce the structure vibration by minimizing
an Input-Output performance index in a desired frequency range,
depending on the physics of the problem. Constraining the optimization
the stability of a determined number of modes in closed loop can be
ensured too.
Return to Contents
Conference 8689: Behavior and Mechanics of
Multifunctional Materials and Composites VII
Sunday - Thursday 10–14 March 2013
Part of Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 8689 Behavior and Mechanics of Multifunctional Materials and Composites 2013
8689-1, Session 1
8689-3, Session 1
Ultrahigh-energy density and fast discharge
nanocomposite capacitors (Invited Paper)
Analysis of the impedance resonance of
piezoelectric multi-fiber composites
Haixiong Tang, Henry A. Sodano, Univ. of Florida (United States)
Stewart Sherrit, Samuel C. Bradford, Jet Propulsion Lab. (United
States); Ashot Djrbashian, Glendale Community College (United
Recently, nanocomposites combining a high breakdown strength
polymer and high dielectric permittivity ceramic filler have shown
great potential for pulsed power applications. However, while current
nanocomposites improve the dielectric permittivity of the capacitor,
the gains come at the expense of the breakdown strength, which limits
the ultimate performance of the capacitor. Here, we develop a new
synthesis method for the growth of barium strontium titanate nanowires
and demonstrate there use in ultra high energy density nanocomposites.
This new synthesis process provides a facile approach to the growth
of high aspect ratio nanowires with high yield and control over the
stoichiometry of the solid solution. The nanowires are grown in the
cubic phase with a Ba0.2Sr0.8TiO3 composition. The poly(vinylidene
fluoride) nanocomposites resulting from this approach have high
breakdown strength and high dielectric permittivity which results from
the use of high aspect ratio fillers rather than equiaxial particles. The
nanocomposites are shown to have an ultra high energy density of 14.86
J/cc at 450 MV/m, and provide microsecond discharge time comparable
to commercial biaxial oriented polypropylene capacitors. The energy
density of our nanocomposites exceeds those reported in the literature
for ceramic/polymer composites, and is 1138% greater than the reported
commercial capacitor with energy density of 1.2 J/cc at 640 MV/m for the
current state of the art biaxial oriented polypropylene.
Multi-Fiber Composites (MFC’s) produced by Smart Materials Corp
behave essentially like thin planar stacks where each piezoelectric layer
is composed of a multitude of fibers. We investigate the suitability of
using previously published inversion techniques by Sherrit et al[1]. for the
impedance resonances of monolithic co-fired piezoelectric stacks to the
MFC to determine the complex material constants from the impedance
data. The impedance equations examined in this paper are those based
on the derivation by Martin[2] . The utility of resonance techniques to
invert the impedance data to determine the small signal complex material
constants are presented for a series of MFC’s. The technique was
applied to actuators with different geometries and the real coefficients
were determined to be similar within changes of the boundary conditions
due to change of geometry. The scatter in the imaginary coefficient was
found to be larger. The technique was also applied to the same actuator
type but manufactured in different batches with some design changes
in the non active portion of the actuator and differences in the dielectric
and the electromechanical coupling between the two batches were easily
measureable. Since the model is based on material properties rather
than circuit constants, it allows for the direct evaluation of specific aging
or degradation mechanisms in the actuator. A simplified impedance
equation in the limit of a large number of layers is also presented and
standard methods of determining the material coefficients that does not
require non-linear regression are presented.
8689-2, Session 1
[1] S. Sherrit, S.P. Leary, B.P. Dolgin, Y. Bar-Cohen, R. Tasker, “The
Impedance Resonance for Piezoelectric Stacks”, Proceedings of the
IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium, pp. 1037- 1040, San Juan, Puerto Rico,
Oct 22-25, 2000
Non-uniform electric field and nonlinear
piezoelectric behavior in active fiber
[2] G.E. Martin, JASA, 36, pp. 1496-1506, 1964
Hassene Ben Atitallah, Zoubeida Ounaies, Pennsylvania State
Univ. (United States); Anastasia Muliana, Texas A&M Univ.
(United States)
8689-4, Session 2
A quantum informed continuum model for
ferroelectric and flexoelectric materials
(Invited Paper)
Active fiber composites (AFCs) are comprised of long circular fibers
in a polymer (usually a polyimide and epoxy). The fibers are made of
a piezoelectric ceramic, lead zirconate titanate (PZT). The AFCs use
interdigitated electrodes, which produce electric field lines parallel to the
fiber direction instead of through-the-thickness as in the more common
d31-piezoelectric configuration. As a result, the AFC takes advantage
of the PZT’s d33 constant, which is approximately twice as high as the
d31 constant. It is noted that, the d33 of the AFC is almost a third of
the PZT’s, mainly because of the mismatch in the dielectric properties
between the polymer matrix and the ceramic fiber. Nonetheless,
the AFCs are still of great interest because they have the potential
to combine the flexibility and light weight of the polymer to the high
piezoelectric performance of PZT. Most of the available modeling work
on AFCs consider the piezoelectric behavior of the fibers to be linear, or
to take full advantage of the actuation capabilities of AFCs, high electric
fields needs to be applied which causes non linear behavior as we have
seen in the experiments we did on AFCs. So the model will evaluate
the AFC properties taking into consideration the non linear piezoelectric
behavior of the fibers and releasing the assumption of a uniform electric
field inside the fibers.
Return to Contents
William S. Oates, The Florida State Univ. (United States)
Connections between quantum mechanics and continuum mechanics
are explored by utilizing relations based on electron density within
a lattice, strain, and strain gradients. Theoretically, it is shown that
anisotropic stress is proportional to quadrupolarization and can be
directly determined if the nuclear charge and electron density is known.
The result is an extension of the Hellmann-Feynman theory which
illustrates how electrostatic stresses can be used to model stress in
solid materials. Further, flexoelectricity is found to be proportional to the
next two higher order poles. These relations are obtained by correlating
a nucleus-nucleus potential and nucleus-electron potential with a
deformation gradient. An example is given for barium titanate by solving
the electron density using density function theory (DFT) and open source
Abinit software. Stresses under different lattice geometric constraints
are modeled and compared to nonlinear continuum mechanics to
understand differences in formulating stresses directly from DFT versus a
Landau-deGennes free energy function that includes rotationally invariant
polarization and quadrupolarization order parameters.
Conference 8689: Behavior and Mechanics of
Multifunctional Materials and Composites VII
8689-5, Session 2
changing the ratio of Zr4+, Sn4+, and Ti4+. The A-site can be modified
by adding either La3+ or Ba2+ and usually decreases hysteresis.
The La3+ or Ba2+ is selected to increase or decrease coercive field,
respectively. Both AFEt-FEr and AFEo-FEr phase transformations
are evaluated to compare two different types of AFE-FE phase
transformation. Each composition was fabricated with the conventional
mixed oxide method and grain size of samples is examined by the
scanning electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction method was used to
confirm the crystal structure of each composition.
Effect of stress loading on large field
dielectric loss in lanthanum-doped lad
zirconate titanate
John A. Gallagher, Hwan Ryul Jo, Christopher S. Lynch, Univ. of
California, Los Angeles (United States)
Ferroelectric material losses in devices ranging from acoustic transducers
to energy harvesters result in the conversion of energy to heat. Under
small amplitude sinusoidal drive, either electrical or mechanical, the
losses can be expressed in terms of a loss tangent. The largest source of
loss is associated with domain wall motion. This paper focuses on large
field dielectric loss in the presence of stress in lanthanum-doped lead
zirconate titanate (Pb0.92La0.08(Zr0.65Ti0.35)0.98O3, or PLZT 8/65/35).
Dielectric loss was experimentally measured using a technique that
matches the area within a unipolar electric displacement – electric field
hysteresis loop to an equivalent area ellipse-shaped hysteresis loop. The
results indicate that the dielectric loss initially increases with electric field
amplitude, but then decreases as the field amplitude is further increased.
This is consistent with the material nearing polarization saturation levels.
8689-8, Session 3
Bayesian techniques to quantify parameter
and model uncertainty in nonlinear distributed
smart material systems
Ralph C. Smith, Nathan Burch, North Carolina State Univ. (United
Piezoelectric, magnetic and shape memory alloy (SMA) materials
offer unique capabilities for energy harvesting and reduced energy
requirements in aerospace, aeronautic, automotive, industrial and
biomedical applications. However, all of these materials exhibit creep,
rate-dependent hysteresis, and constitutive nonlinearities that must be
incorporated in models and model-based control designs to achieve
their full potential. Furthermore, models and control designs must
be constructed in a manner that incorporates parameter and model
uncertainties and permits predictions with quantified uncertainties. In this
presentation, we will discuss Bayesian techniques to quantify uncertainty
in nonlinear distributed models arising in the context of smart systems.
We will also discuss the role of these techniques for subsequent robust
control design.
8689-6, Session 2
Experimental characterization of
interdigitated electrode designs
David M. Pisani, Christopher Lynch, Univ. of California, Los
Angeles (United States)
Interdigitated Electrodes (IDEs) on thin ferroelectric plates or fibers
enable the use of the d33 piezoelectric coefficient in the plane of the
plate or along the fiber. Several geometric parameters affect the poling
process and the resulting piezoelectric coupling of the device. These
include the electrode width, electrode spacing, and plate thickness.
This work uses experimental techniques to compare the effect of IDE
geometry to computational models. The comparison focuses on two
phenomena that can reduce the net polarization achieved in the material
if not properly addressed: The volume of material beneath the electrodes
shielded from electric field, and electrode width to fiber thickness ratios
causing polarization to saturate underneath the electrode and not in the
plate cross section. Through experimental and computational means, the
mechanisms of IDE geometry to device performance have been found
and can be used to tailor device design accordingly.
8689-9, Session 3
Lamb-wave dispersion under finite plastic
Kuang Liu, Anindya Ghoshal, U.S. Army Research Lab. (United
The effect of elasto-plastic material behavior on Lamb wave speeds
is investigated. This research is motivated by potential applications to
nondestructive evaluation and structural health monitoring, particularly
crack tip plasticity. The finite deformation of a semi-infinite plate due
to plasticity is used to accommodate the changes in density and plate
thickness. This is achieved by superimposing small strain waves upon a
finitely deformed volume. The characteristic Lamb wave equations are
modified such that the thickness and density become functions of plastic
deformation. This in turn alters the shear and longitudinal wave speeds.
Results illustrating the change in group velocities of the fundamental
Lamb wave modes are shown for the load cases of uniaxial tension,
uniaxial compression, and biaxial tension/compression. The results show
that the S0 exhibits significant variations in group velocity in the highly
dispersive regions, up to 20% variations in wave speed. By exploiting
this result, it may be possible to utilize wave speed measurements to
determine plastic zones through Lamb-like waves. The nondispersive
regions show insignificant changes, likely on the level of experimental
noise. Further analysis of the results illustrate that isolating changes in
velocities into thickness and density effects is not straightforward as
the mechanisms both behave nonlinearly. A geometrically nonlinear
finite element of a notched plate was performed to quantify the finite
deformation near the crack tip. The results confirmed that in applications,
both thickness changes and density changes can be expected and are
driving mechanisms for wave speed variations.
8689-7, Session 2
Electric-field induced antiferroelectric to
ferroelectric phase transformation in the
modified PZT system and the effects of
compositional modifications
Hwan Ryul Jo, Christopher S. Lynch, Univ. of California, Los
Angeles (United States)
Electric field induced antiferroelectric to ferroelectric phase
transformation is observed in the modified PZT systems. The advantage
of this phase transformation is the large polarization and strain that
are attractive for various electromechanical devices. The effects of
compositional modifications on both A- and B- site were investigated
to obtain the proper dielectric and piezoelectric properties required for
device functionality. The compositions of interest are near to or on the
morphotropic phase boundary between antiferroelectric and ferroelectric
phases at which the dielectric and piezoelectric properties are the
highest. The main effort of this compositional study was focused on
finding the composition with large polarization and strain, low hysteresis
and coercive field, and high dielectric and piezoelectric coefficients. The
B-site modification was carried first by doping Sn4+ to the system and
Return to Contents
Conference 8689: Behavior and Mechanics of
Multifunctional Materials and Composites VII
8689-10, Session 3
Micromechanics and finite element analysis
of piezoelectric structural fiber composites
The interaction of photons and electrons in photoresponsive
azobenzene liquid crystal polymer networks is analyzed to understand
thermodynamic efficiency characteristics in conversion of light energy
into mechanical work. A modeling framework based on a Lagrangian
density is developed and numerically implemented to include timedependent Maxwell’s equations, finite deformation mechanics, and a
set of dynamic optical displacements. The results illustrate how the
flux of photons and interactions with electrons fit into a continuum
theorem using a conserved Lagrangian density with losses associated
with light absorption and emission. Key thermodynamic parameters are
identified and implemented in a finite element framework to illustrate
how electromagnetic light waves interact with time-harmonic optical
displacements within a solid continuum.
Qingli Dai, Kenny Ng, Michigan Technological Univ. (United
This paper presents the combined micromechanics analysis and finite
element modeling of the electromechanical properties of piezoelectric
structural fiber (PSF) composites. The active piezoelectric materials are
widely used due to their high stiffness, voltage-dependent actuation
capability, and broadband electro-mechanical interactions. However,
the fragile nature of piezoceramics limits their sensing and actuating
applications. In this study, the active PSF composites were made by
deploying the longitudinally poled PSFs into a polymer matrix. The PSF
itself consists a silicon carbide (SiC) or carbon core fiber as reinforcement
to the fragile piezoceramic shell. To predict the electromechanical
properties of PSF composites, the micromechanics analysis was
firstly conducted with the dilute approximation model and the MoriTanaka approach. The extended Rule of Mixtures was also applied to
accurately predict the transverse properties by considering the effects of
microstructure including inclusion sizes and geometries. The piezoelectric
finite element (FE) modeling was developed with the ABAQUS software
to predict the detailed mechanical and electrical field distribution within a
representative volume element (RVE) of PSF composites. The simulated
energy or deformation under imposed specific boundary conditions
was used to calculate each individual property with constitutive laws.
The comparison between micromechanical analysis and finite element
modeling indicates the combination of the dilute approximation model,
the Mori-Tanaka approach and the extended Rule of Mixtures can
favorably predict the electromechanical properties of three-phase PSF
8689-13, Session 4
Morphing structures using ionic transistors
through digital combinatorial logic
Vishnu Baba Sundaresan, The Ohio State Univ. (United States)
The integration of nanofluidic diodes and conducting polymer into a
thin-film device results in a three-port device that resembles an ionic
transistor. A sodium-ion rectifying nanofluidic diode made from PET
and polyimide has been integrated with polypyrrole-based polymer
[PPy(DBS)] and mathematical formulation of transistor function has been
developed. The PET and polyimide membranes measure 6 microns
thick and have a wide aspect ratio conical pore with the small end of
the measuring 10nm and the big end of the pore measuring 1 micron
and fabricated through ion tracking and chemical etching. The interior
of this pore is functionalized with positive and negative charges with
surface adsorption of cations for its function as a nanofluidic diode.
The membrane on one side is sputtered with gold and PPy(DBS) is
electropolymerized on one side. The combination of nanofluidic diode
and the conducting polymer leads to a thin-film transistor in which local
stresses can be generated by individually controlling the applied voltage
across the diode. Localized stress results from two inputs applied to this
thin-film device and can be controlled independent of the neighboring
transistor. This transistor framework has been developed into digital
combinatorial logic for the performance of morphing function of a
2D-plane. This proceedings article will discuss the concept, fabrication
procedure and characterization techniques for this ionic transistor and
realization of various functional configurations through combinatorial
8689-11, Session 3
Feasibility study of shape control with zero
applied voltage utilizing hysteresis in strainelectric field relationship of piezoelectric
Tadashige Ikeda, Tomoki Takahashi, Nagoya Univ. (Japan)
To enhance shape accuracy of antenna reflectors, active shape control
of the reflectors in obits have been studied. Piezoelectric ceramic plates,
which expand and contract with electrical stimulation, are one of the
candidates of actuators used for the active control. They are usually
bonded on the structural elements of the reflectors and voltage is applied
to them to control the shape. To keep the controlled shape, the voltage
must be also applied continuously. The electric power itself is low but
amount of electricity must be accumulated to become big. To reduce
the amount of electricity usage, a new control method is proposed. In
this method the hysteresis in strain-electric field relationship is utilized
effectively, in which some amount of strain remains even at zero voltage
once the voltage is applied. In this paper to examine feasibility of this
control method residual strain of piezoelectric ceramic plates and
residual displacement of a beam with a piezoelectric ceramic plate
bonded are measured. The obtained result shows that the residual strain
and the residual displacement depend on the initially applied voltage
and time over which the voltage is applied. This result suggests that
the shape can be kept with zero applied voltage within some level of
accuracy and the amount of electricity usage can be reduced by using
the proposed method.
8689-14, Session 5
Development of novel multifunctional
biobased polymer composites with tailored
conductive network of micro-and-nano-fillers
Siu Ning Leung, Hani E. Naguib, Univ. of Toronto (Canada)
Biobased/green polymers and nanotechnology warrant a multidisciplinary
approach to promote the development of the next generation of
materials, products, and processes that are environmentally sustainable.
The scientific challenge is to find the suitable applications and thereby
to create the demand for large scale production of biobased/green
polymers that would foster sustainable development of these eco-friendly
materials in contrast to their petroleum/fossil fuel derived counterparts.
In this context, this research aims to investigate the synergistic effect
of green materials and nanotechnology to develop a new family of
multifunctional biobased polymer composites with tailored electrical,
mechanical, and thermal properties. A special focus is to develop a novel
thermally conductive biobased/green polymer composite with tailored
electrical properties that can be used as a heat management material in
the electronics industry. A series of parametric studies were conducted
to elucidate the science behind materials behavior and their structureto-property relationships. Using biobased polymers (e.g., polylactic acid
8689-12, Session 4
Nonlinear dynamics and thermodynamics of
azobenzene polymer networks (Invited Paper)
William S. Oates, Garret Vo, The Florida State Univ. (United
Return to Contents
Conference 8689: Behavior and Mechanics of
Multifunctional Materials and Composites VII
(PLA) or biobased polyamide (bPA)) as the matrix, heat transfer networks
were developed and structured by embedding hexagonal boron nitride
(hBN) and carbonaceous nano- and micro-fillers of different sizes and
shapes. The use of hybrid fillers, with optimized material formulations,
was found to dramatically promote the composite’s effective thermal
conductivity. This was achieved by promoting the development of
an interconnected thermally conductive network through structuring
hybrid fillers with appropriate shapes and sizes. The thermal conductive
composite affords unique opportunities to injection mold threedimensional, net-shape, lightweight, and eco-friendly microelectronic
enclosures with superior heat dissipation performance.
structure decoration at intermediate mesoscale. This method is named
Meso-Decoration (Meso-Deco). High-performance polymer fine crystals
of polybenzimidazole, polyamide and polyurethane were synthesized
firstly through reaction-induced phase-separation during solution
polycondensation. Many kinds of morphologies for these polymer fine
crystals were generated: brush, chestnut-like, coral-like, nanofiber,
microsphere, and so on. These rigid-rod polymer fine crystals with
various morphologies are introduced into soft gels to create novel
functional Meso-Deco strength gels. Functions of self-healing and
thermal responsiveness, as well as low frictional property are provided to
Meso-Deco gels through molecular design to control network structure at
8689-15, Session 5
8689-17, Session 5
Network modeling of membrane-based
artificial cellular systems
Observation instrument of dynamic frictional
interface of gel engineering materials with
polarized optical microscopic
Eric C. Freeman, Michael K. Philen, Donald J. Leo, Virginia
Polytechnic Institute and State Univ. (United States)
Naoya Yamada, Masato Wada, M. Hasnat Kabir, Jin Gong,
Hidemitsu Furukawa, Yamagata Univ. (Japan)
Computational models are derived for predicting the behavior of artificial
cellular networks for engineering applications. The systems simulated
involve the use of a biomolecular unit cell, a multiphase material that
incorporates a lipid bilayer between two hydrophilic compartments.
These unit cells may be considered building blocks that enable the
fabrication of complex electrochemical networks. These networks can
incorporate a variety of stimuli-responsive biomolecules to enable
a diverse range of multifunctional behavior. Through the collective
properties of these biomolecules, the system demonstrates abilities
that recreate natural cellular phenomena such as mechanotransduction,
optoelectronic response, and response to chemical gradients.
Gels are soft and wet materials that differ from hard and dry materials like
metals, plastics and ceramics. These have some unique characteristic
such as low frictional properties, high water content and materials
permeability. A decade earlier, DN gels having a mechanical strength of
30MPa of the maximum breaking stress in compression were developed
and they are expected as the biomaterial of the human body. Indeed
its frictional coefficient and strength are comparable to our cartilages.
In this study, we focus on the dynamic frictional interface of hydrogels
and aim to develop a new apparatus with a polarization microscope
for observation. The dynamical interface is observed by the friction
of gel and glass with hudroxypropylcellulose (HPC) polymer solution
sandwiching and the polarization microscope image of interface is
taken due to orientation of HPC. At the beginning, we rubbed hydrogel
with HPC solution on glass plate. The frictional interface was observed
successfully with a polarization microscope and recorded as moving
image. Second, we designed a new system through combining
microscope with friction measuring machine. A glass ball is set in
place of glass plate in this feature with consideration that the friction
measurement of gels runs with this ball. The comparison between direct
observation with this instrument and measurement of friction coefficient
will become a foothold to elucidate distinctive frictional phenomena that
can be seen in soft and wet materials.
A crucial step to increase the utility of these biomolecular networks is to
develop mathematical models of their stimuli-responsive behavior. While
models have been constructed deriving from the classical HodgkinHuxley model focusing on describing the system as a combination
of traditional electrical components (capacitors and resistors), these
electrical elements do not sufficiently describe the phenomena seen
in experiment as they are not linked to the molecular scale processes.
From this realization an advanced model is proposed that links the
traditional unit cell parameters such as conductance and capacitance
to the molecular structure of the system. Rather than approaching the
membrane as an isolated parallel plate capacitor, the model includes
the impact of the surrounding electrolyte and the electrostatic forces
that govern the bilayer response. This model is then applied towards
experimental cases in order that a more complete picture of the
underlying phenomena responsible for the desired sensing mechanisms
may be constructed. In this way the stimuli-responsive characteristics
may be understood and optimized.
8689-18, Session 6
Aging effects of epoxy shape-memory
8689-16, Session 5
Kannan Dasharathi, John A. Shaw, Univ. of Michigan (United
Meso-decorated self-healing gels: network
structure and properties
Thermo-responsive Shape Memory Polymers (SMPs) are a class of
materials which exhibits a strain recovery behavior when thermomechanically cycled across the rubber-glass transition temperature (Tg).
SMPs are being considered for adaptive tooling in manufacturing and
as matrix material for advanced composites. In some SMPs, operating
temperatures may exceed a nearby chemo-rheological temperature (Tcr)
resulting in chemical aging/degradation due to oxidative scission and
recross-linking. This manifests as either irrecoverable residual strain or as
embrittlement of the polymer, both of which can limit the useful life of an
SMP device.
Jin Gong, Kensuke Sawamura, Susumu Igarashi, Hidemitsu
Furukawa, Yamagata Univ. (Japan)
Gels are new soft and wet materials having three-dimensional network
structures of macromolecules. They possess excellent properties
that hard materials like metals and plastics hardly have, for example,
swellability, high permeability, low friction, shock absorbability, and
biocompatibility. However, some degree of strength is necessary for
gels to use actually as industrial materials. New high-strength gels like
Topological Gel, Nanocomposite Hydrogels, Double-Network Hydrogels,
Tetra-PEG Gels were developed since 2001. In our group, novel strength
shape-memory and thermoreversible gels were developed. These
novel gels have bright promising applications as new flexible actuator
materials in many fields like machinery, robot, electronics, health, and
so on. In this study, we tried to create new multi-functional and highvalue added polymer gels by using one new method of hierarchical
The purpose of this research is to study the chemo-rheological
degradation of SMPs and to develop a constitutive model that can be
used to predict its useful operating range for particular applications.
We present an experimental study of evolution of the uniaxial thermomechanical behavior of a commercially available epoxy SMP, Veriflex-E
(Tg=105°C), subjected to temperature conditions of 100-150°C. Similar
to the approach originated by Tobolsky, a combination of constant strain
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Conference 8689: Behavior and Mechanics of
Multifunctional Materials and Composites VII
and intermittent relaxation experiments are used to deduce the kinetics of
scission of original cross-links and the generation of newly formed crosslinks. A comparison of the thermo-mechanical behavior of virgin and
aged specimens is performed to assess the effects of chemical aging on
shape memory behavior. These results are used to calibrate a constitutive
model within a continuum multi-network framework to predict the
evolution of behavior for general cyclic thermo-mechanical histories.
thermomechanical behavior state of Epoxy-SMP such as the tensile
process and the yielding process, and the time-dependent stress change
in the thermalmechanical cycle. The proposed constitutive model could
predict nicely the complex thermomechanical behavior of Epoxy-SMP
in the glass transition region. The model is useful for the design of SMP
8689-21, Session 6
8689-19, Session 6
A constitutive theory for fiber reinforced
shape-memory polymer composite
Shape-memory effect in crosslinked
polymers: effects of polymer chemistry and
network architecture
Qiao Tan, Liwu Liu, Yanju Liu, Jinsong Leng, Harbin Institute of
Technology (China)
Jacob D. Davidson, Yali Li, Nakhiah C. Goulbourne, Univ. of
Michigan (United States)
A considerable amount of interest has developed for use of shape
memory polymer based composite in constructing deployable space
structure. Shape memory polymer composite(SMPC) can be soften
significantly and can be packaged and deployed at elevated temperature.
In order to enhance the ability of space deployable structures, the
constitutive relationship is required to pursuit the better performance of
SMPC. In the present study, the finite deformation thermo-mechanical
behaviors of SMPC are experimentally investigated. Based on the
experimental observations, a mathematical formulation is presented to
describe the finite deformation thermo-mechanical response of fiber
reinforced SMPC. This formulation is based on the composite’s bridging
model, and considering the material’s (the fiber and matrix) mechanical
property and geometric parameters, including the volume content and
arrange style of carbon fiber. Additionally, the shape memory polymer’s
creep and stress relaxation phenomenon are also considered. This model
will serve as a modeling tool for the design of more complicated SMPCbased structures and devices.
The thermal shape memory effect in polymeric materials refers to the
ability of a sample to retain a deformed shape when cooled below Tg,
and then recover its initial shape when subsequently heated. Although
these properties are thought to be related to temperature-dependent
changes in network structure and polymer chain mobility, a consistent
picture of the molecular mechanisms which determine shape memory
behavior does not exist. This, along with large differences in the shape
memory cycling response for different materials, has made model
development and specific property optimization difficult. In this work
we use coarse-grained molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the
thermal shape memory effect to inform micro-macro relationships and
systematically identify the salient features. We first show that the simple
bead-spring polymer model is insufficient to capture property changes
across Tg. A more detailed microscopic picture is then used, featuring
an energy barrier to chain rotation. The simulated shape memory cycling
behavior from MD is compared to experimental results from similar
cycling tests on different materials. These results show the level of
detail required to capture the temperature and deformation-dependent
response; we show that the entropic restoring force above Tg may be
understood in terms of the simple bead-spring model, and that the
temperature-dependent behavior may be understood in terms of local
chemical structure. We discuss these results in relation to multiscale
modeling and material optimization for both passive and active shape
memory polymer applications.
8689-23, Session 7
Thermo-mechanical behavior and constitutive
modeling of epoxy-based SMPs and their
hybrid composites
Mohammad Souri, Spandana Pulla, Anil Erol, Haluk E. Karaca,
Charles Y. Lu, Univ. of Kentucky (United States)
8689-20, Session 6
In this study, the thermo-mechanical properties of epoxy-based Shape
memory polymer and metal powder (and wire) composites were
investigated. In some cases, composites were fabricated under magnetic
field to align the magnetic powders. The change in glass transition
temperature, mechanical and damping properties as functions of powder
content, temperature and magnetic field were revealed. Stress generation
capability of composites has also been determined. Their shape memory
effect has been modeled using Lagoudas model and compared with
experimental results.
A thermoviscoelastic constitutive model of
epoxy shape-memory polymers
Jianguo Chen, Liwu Liu, Yanju Liu, Jinsong Leng, Harbin Institute
of Technology (China)
A thermoviscoelastic constitutive equation was developed considering
the structure relaxation and viscoelasticity properties of Epoxy-Shape
Memory Polymers (SMP). By introducing the internal variable temperature
and Adam-Gibbs structure relaxation model, a new thermal expansion
model was proposed. The thermal expansion model could predict
nicely the influence of the temperature on thermal strain contribution
within the glass transition region. The deformation of Epoxy-SMP was
decomposed into the time-independent hyperelastic equilibrium term and
time-dependent viscoelastic nonequilibrium term. This paper model the
hyperelastic term with the Mooney-Rvilin model, and the Hencky elastic
model and Newton fluid model with the viscoelastic term. The material
parameters of the constitutive model were got through isothermal uniaxial
tensile, thermal expansion, and dynamic mechanical analysis test. The
process of isothermal uniaxial tensile, thermalmechanical cycle test were
also simulated in software ABAQUS by using the proposed constitutive
model. The results showed that the constitutive model could predict
nicely the static properties of Epoxy-SMP, such as the material hardening
phenomenon in the glass state of Epoxy-SMP, the strain-rate dependent
and the temperature dependent influence on the mechanical properties.
The proposed constitutive model could also predict nicely the complex
Return to Contents
8689-24, Session 7
The preparation and characterization of
nanocomposites based on polyhedral
oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) reinforced
shape-memory polymer
Zhongyu Liu, Fang Xie, Liwu Liu, Yanju Liu, Jinsong Leng, Harbin
Institute of Technology (China)
Shape memory polymer (SMP) is a kind of smart material which can
return from temporary shape to its permanent shape induced by an
external stimulus. However, the weak mechanical properties of SMP itself
usually cannot meet the actual requirements well. Researchers are trying
to improve its mechanical properties with various reinforced materials.
Polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) is a nanoscale particles
Conference 8689: Behavior and Mechanics of
Multifunctional Materials and Composites VII
used as reinforcement to improve mechanical properties and heat
resistance of polymer matrix. In order to integrate good shape memory
properties and excellent mechanical properties, we prepared two kinds
of shape memory composites with phenyl POSS particles and the shape
memory polymer matrix synthesized in our own group.
The higher thermal stability was achieved compared with pure shape
memory polystyrene. The glassy state property of the foam was
increased from 75°C to 85°C as the content of thickener increased from
0 to 30%.
First, shape memory composite POSS/SMEP were prepared by mixing
POSS particles and epoxy-based shape memory (SMEP). The study
found that the POSS particles could obviously improve the mechanical
properties of the epoxy-based shape memory polymer. When the content
of POSS is about 2.0wt%, tensile strength increases about 20%, and
elastic modulus approximately doubled. Moreover, POSS particles
could also increase the surface hardness of the composites. Due to the
presence of the POSS particles, the thermal decomposition temperature
of SMEP improved about 20°C, showing excellent thermal stability. The
shape memory recovery rate of the shape memory composite is more
than 96%, and shape memory response time is 10s less than pure SMEP.
8689-51, Session PTues
Comparative study of nanomaterials for
interlaminar reinforcement of fiber-composite
Karen R. Chiu, Terrisa Duenas, NextGen Aeronautics Inc. (United
States); Yuris A. Dzenis, Jase Kaser, Precision Nanotechnologies
LLC (United States); Charles E. Bakis, Pennsylvania State
Univ. (United States); Keith Roberts, Daniel Carter, U.S. Army
Research, Development and Engineering Command (United
Secondly, shape memory composite POSS/SMPU were prepared by
mixing POSS particles and polyurethane-based shape memory (SMPU).
Results show that the POSS particles and SMPU have a very good
compatibility. Although POSS particles have a slight influence on the
thermal properties of SMPU, with the increase of the POSS particles
content, it can obviously improve the mechanical properties. When
the POSS content is about 5wt%, the recovery time of shape memory
composite POSS/SMPU reduced 10s (about 25%) comparing to the pure
Carbon-fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites offer the benefits
of reduced weight and increased specific strength, however they can
have relatively weak interlaminar toughness. The first modes of damage
include delamination and micro-cracking, which can easily be initiated
by low-velocity impact and often remain undetected since failure is not
always visually apparent on the surface of composite materials. In this
study, several nano-sized materials and integration approaches are
investigated for their ability to improve Mode I interlaminar toughness.
The nanomaterials include 1) commercially available surface-modified
silica nanoparticles and 2) continuous polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers.
Test articles are manufactured using hand-layup vacuum bagging and
feature woven carbon-fiber material and an epoxy-based resin system.
The nanosilica particles are integrated into the fiber composite structure
by mixing with the resin system prior to layup. The PAN nanofibers are
produced by an electrospinning process; these fibers were integrated by
collecting the fibers of various areal densities as respective “nanomats”
on an interim substrate for subsequent transfer during layup. Test
articles are characterized according to ASTM D5528 for finding Mode I
strain energy release rates. Results are compared to baseline coupons
to determine fracture toughness performance. Preliminary results show
that the nanosilica-reinforced coupons increased an average of 22%
in strain energy release rate as compared to the baseline, whereas the
nanomat-reinforced composites decreased. Current studies will focus
on demonstrating improved strain energy release rate of composites
reinforced with PAN nanofibers directly-deposited on the ply surface.
8689-25, Session 7
In composition of few-layer grapheme and
carbon nanofiber in nanopaper for rlectrical
actuation of shape-memory polymer
Haibao Lu, Harbin Institute of Technology (China)
In order to improve the through-thickness conductivity of few-layer
graphene (FLG) in buckypaper, a unique synergistic effect of FLG and
carbon nanofiber (CNF) was explored for the buckypaper enabled
shape-memory polymer (SMP) composite. In the FLG/CNF buckypaper,
FLGs were used to significantly improve the electrical conductivity
along horizontal orientation, as well as CNFs were expected to bridge
the gap between FLGs and improve the through-thickness electrical
conductivity. Therefore, an entangled and continuous network of FLG
and CNF was expected to synergistically enhance electrical performance
of buckypaper. Furthermore, the ratio between FLG and CNF in the
buckypaper was varied to characterize the efficiency in determining the
electrical conductivity. Finally, the electrical actuation and optimization
in temperature distribution of SMP composite have been testified
experimentally by coating with the FLG/CNF buckypaper.
8689-52, Session PTues
Computational modeling of bio-mechanical
behavior of microtubules
8689-50, Session PTues
K. M. Liew, City Univ. of Hong Kong (Hong Kong, China)
Fabrication and characterization of shapememory polystyrene foams
This work proposed an atomistic-continuum computational model for
the simulation of micro-mechanical behaviors of microtubules. As a
typical kind of polyatomic bio-structures, a single long microtubule
contains up to billions of different types of atoms. In order to understand
the mechanical behavior of microtubules, conventional atomistic
simulation approaches has obvious size limitations, traditional
continuum mechanical models do not consider interatomic information
in small scales. In this research, we aim to develop a more practical
theory to consider this kind of polyatomic bio-structure with both
result accuracy and computing efficiency. This approach involves a
bridging-scales technique based on intrinsic interatomic potential and
a continuum description method. The microscopic energy between
proteins is evaluated using a homogenization technique. Without tracing
every single atom, a fictitious bond is proposed in this research to
represent the mutual interaction between proteins. By incorporating a
higher-order Cauchy-Born rule, an atomistic-continuum constitutive
relationship is established based on higher-order gradients continuum.
The evaluation of strain energy in higher-order gradients continuum
approach depends on both the first- and second-order deformation
Yong Tao Yao, Harbin Institute of Technology (China)
Shape-memory polymer is a new type of smart materials, having
attracted significant attention from researchers due to its excellent
properties, such as the molding process are simple, light weight, large
deformation, simple driving method, high reply rate, low manufacturing
cost, and greatly adjustable properties. In this project, shape memory
polystyrene foam was fabricated from shape memory polystyrene and
sodium bicarbonate as chemical foaming agent based on suspension
polymerization method. The foam of uniform pore structure with porosity
ranging from 36%?45% have been made successfully. Both shape
memory properties and physical properties were characterized. The
highest mechanical property of SMP foam has been obtained as adding
chemical foaming agent up to a maximum content of 8%wt. Shape
memory polystyrene foam exhibited good shape memory properties-completely recovery the initial undeformed shape after multiple cycles.
Return to Contents
Conference 8689: Behavior and Mechanics of
Multifunctional Materials and Composites VII
gradients and is determined by deformation of fictitious bonds. Further,
a mesh-free computational framework is specifically developed to fit
the higher-order scheme. The microscopic structure of microtubule and
its macroscopic continuum counterpart are considered simultaneously
by equalizing energy in both scales. With this attempt, different scales
have been schematically bridged to smooth away drawbacks. Some
practical applications, concerning elasticity, deformation and buckling of
microtubules, are numerically simulated based on this model. Results are
presented and discussed.
MFC (Micro Fibrillated Cellulose) on the fatigue life of plain-woven
CFRP (Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic) with the modified epoxy resin.
However, the test results were not explained with clear understanding
the damage process of the modified CFRP under fatigue loading. The
aim of this study is to investigate characteristics of fatigue damage of
CFRP modified with MFC by thermo-elastic damage analysis (TDA) under
tensile cyclic loading. CFRP plates were prepared by conventional hand
lay-up method with plain woven carbon fibers attaching the modified
resin with commercially available MFC after eliminating 90wt% of
contained water by ethanol substitution method.
Damage state of the specimen was observed in flat-wise direction of the
specimen under cyclic loading by TDA subtracting images of thermoelastic stress analysis (TSA). The results of micro droplet tests suggested
that the improvement of fatigue life of CFRP should be contributed
by the improvement of interfacial strength due to the modification.
Characteristic damage progressions were certainly detected by the
TDA method under cyclic loading. The result of TDA evaluation showed
characteristic stage of damage progression was shifted to the middle of
fatigue before fatal failure. This means that unstable damage progression
would be prevented in the modified specimen due to gradual progression
of fatigue damage. Fatigue life should be extended by the change of
damage progression when CFRP was modified with MFC. Eventually,
TDA was effective in evaluating the progress of fatigue damage of CFRP
modified with MFC.
8689-53, Session PTues
Laser pinning of shape-memory alloy for
controlling functional fatigue
Rajendra P. Prasath, Gopalkrishna M. Hegde, D. Roy Mahapatra,
Indian Institute of Science (India)
In this study we present experimental results on the functional fatigue
of NiTi thermal actuator wires modified by various conditions of laser
pinning. Published literature indicates strong influence of surface
annealing properties and oxide thickness on the defect nucleation
mechanisms and functional fatigue of NiTi SMA materials. Hence laser
pinning may be a useful way to alter defect nucleation and fatigue
degradation. With this idea, we perform experiments which show
interesting fatigue behavior. A pulsed laser with tunable wavelength and
pulse shaping is used. Laser spot size and intensity are varied. Change
in the hysteresis loop and the local critical temperatures are analyzed.
Stress-temperature phase diagram are constructed which indicates shift
in the transformation barriers as function of laser intensity and increasing
number of pinning spots. Preliminary results are analyzed considering the
possibility of using this technique to recover SMA actuation performance
and functional healing against fatigue degradation.
8689-56, Session PTues
Computational design of multifunctional
composites made of shape-memory alloys
and fibre-reinforced plastics
Björn Senf, Fraunhofer-Institut für Werkzeugmaschinen und
Umformtechnik (Germany); Iñaki Navarro y de Sosa, Technische
Univ. Chemnitz (Germany); Christoph Eppler, Holger Kunze,
Fraunhofer-Institut für Werkzeugmaschinen und Umformtechnik
8689-54, Session PTues
Nonlocal elasticity theory for lateral torsional
buckling of nanobeam
Shape memory alloys (SMA) like NiTi posses a very high mechanical
energy density in relation to conventional drives. Fibre reinforced plastics
(FRP) will be increasingly applied to create lightweight structures.
Combining both innovative materials will evolve synergy effects. Due
to functional integration of SMA plates into a base of FRP it is possible
to realize adaptive composites for resource-efficient constructions as
for instance flaps or spoilers on cars. For this purpose the interaction
between SMA as an actuator and FRP as a return spring need to
be designed in a suitable way. The computation of such structures
is complex because of its non-linear (SMA) and anisotropic (FRP)
mechanical behavior. Therefore, a structural simulation model based
on the finite element method was developed by means of the software
ANSYS. Based on that simulation model it is possible to determine
proper geometrical parameters for a composite made of SMA and FRP
to perform a certain mechanism. The material properties of SMA or
FRP could also be varied to investigate their influence. For exemplary
components it could be shown that the stress-strain behavior is
computable. Based on those results further and more sophisticated
devices shall be calculated, too. This paper presents results of a research
project that was supported by the “Sächsische Aufbaubank”. The project
was realized in collaboration with the Institute of Lightweight Engineering
and Polymer Technology (ILK) Dresden, Germany.
Md Z. Islam, City Univ. of Hong Kong (Hong Kong, China)
In this study, the lateral torsional buckling instability of nanobeam is
performed under the external bending moment, based on the nonlocal
elasticity theory and thin beam theory. The total strain energy and
work done for a nanobeam having doubly cross-sectional symmetry
are derived and the variational energy principle is applied to derive
the governing equation of equilibrium, equations of motion and the
corresponding boundary conditions. In order to investigate the effect
of nonlocal nanoscale, the derived equations of motion are solved for
exact solutions and the critical instability buckling moments for various
end constrains are presented and discussed in detail. It is observed from
the analytical solutions that the critical buckling moment decreases with
increasing nonlocal nanoscale. The conclusion is insightful with respect
to the solutions of transverse bending and vibration of nanobeams and
CNTs which insure that the stiffness of nanostructures softens in the
presence of nonlocal nanoscale.
8689-55, Session PTues
Fatigue damage evaluation of plain woven
carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP)
modified with MFC (micro-fibrillated
cellulose) by thermo-elastic damage analysis
8689-57, Session PTues
Effects of transformation temperature in SMA
wire-reinforced FRP composites
Ryohei Aoyama, Doshisha Univ. (Japan)
Shashishekarayya R. Hiremath, Rajendra P. Prasath, D. Roy
Mahapatra, Indian Institute of Science (India)
Previous study experimentally showed the effect of the addition of
Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) reinforced composite has been of interest
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Conference 8689: Behavior and Mechanics of
Multifunctional Materials and Composites VII
for quite some time, particularly in contexts morphing aircraft structures,
flexible actuators and enhancement of impact energy absorption
capacity in advanced composite structures. Embedding SMA wires in
polymer based composites can be done for tailoring some of its effective
properties such as to improve the impact strength. These composites
can also be used for actuation purpose. One of the important aspects
of using thermo-mechanically actuated SMA in polymer composites is
the effect of its transformation temperature on the effective functional
properties of the composite. This paper is aimed at understanding
this effect in NiTi SMA composite considering various different grades
of epoxy resin. Experiments are done by embedding the SMA wires
with glass and carbon fiber reinforced composites. SMA wires with
transformation temperature in the range of 70 to 120oC are used. Various
different fiber orientations with respect to SMA wires are used in the
specimens. These alter the polymer cure process and residual stress
in the composites. For superelastic SMA wires, only residual stress is
of importance when the cure temperature is below the austenite finish
temperature. Due to elevated temperature of curing in superelastic
wires, an annealing like condition reduces the original characteristics. On
the other hand, in thermal actuator wires, a strongly coupled regime is
analyzed where the curing temperature introduces a single cycle of spring
loaded partial thermal actuation leading to two way shape memory effect.
Various aspects of stress relief and performance issues are discussed.
absorption/isolation. At last we do experiment to verify the simulation
8689-60, Session PTues
A study of damping characteristics of
alumina-filled epoxy nano-composites
Anand Kumar, Anand Kumar, Anand Kumar, Harcourt Butler
Technological Institute (India); Priyanka Katiyar, Krishna Institute
of Technology (India)
Damping behaviour of polymeric composites with nano structured
phases is significantly different from usual polymer composites. Viscoelastic homo polymers exhibit high material damping over a relatively
narrow range of temperature and frequency. In many practical situations,
a polymeric structure is required to possess better strength and stiffness
properties together with a reasonable damping behaviour. Visco-elastic
polymers show higher loss factor beyond the glassy region which
comes with a significant drop in the specific modulus. Addition of nano
alumina particles to epoxy leads to improved strength and stiffness
properties with an increase in glass transition temperature while retaining
its damping capability. Experimental investigations are carried out on
composite beam specimens fabricated with different compositions of
alumina nano particles in epoxy to evaluate loss factor, tan ?. Impact
damping method is used for time response analysis. A single point
Laser is used to record the transverse displacement of a point on the
composite beam specimen. The experimental results are compared
with theoretical estimation of loss factor using Voigt estimation for
visco-elastic nano composites. The effect of inter phase is included in
theoretical estimation of loss factor. Passive vibration suppression may
be introduced in the polymeric structures along with improved structural
properties by tailored dynamic characteristics using nano alumina
particles filled epoxy composites.
8689-58, Session PTues
An effective theoretical approach to chemoresponsive shape-memory effect in polymers
Haibao Lu, Harbin Institute of Technology (China)
In this work we presented an effective theoretical approach to studying
the state transition and working mechanism of chemo-responsive shape
memory effect (SME) in polymers. The intrinsic plasticizing effect and
generalized plasticizing effect were separated and qualitatively identified
as the driving force for chemo-responsive SME in shape memory
polymers (SMPs), in combination of the Gordon-Taylor (GT) theory and
free-volume (FV) theory. Finally, the theoretical model had been testified
and demonstrated to be well agreement with Gibbs-DiMarzio (GD)
model and experimental results, respectively. With the estimated model
parameters, we constructed the state diagram, which could provide a
powerful tool for design and analysis of chemo-responsive SME in SMPs.
8689-61, Session PTues
Fundamental physics of IPMC transduction:
mechanoelectrical voltage relaxation
David Pugal, Viljar Palmre, Univ. of Nevada Reno (United States);
Kwang Jin Kim, Univ. of Nevada Las Vegas (United States)
8689-59, Session PTues
Simulation and experiment research on smart
metamaterial structures for wave isolation
A physics based model of IPMC electromechanical and
mechanoelectrical transduction was developed and validated. The
model is general and based on the underlying physics of the phenomena
– namely, the same set of equations and a common set of boundary
conditions describe both transduction types. This is possible due to the
fact that both electromechanical and mechanoelectrical transduction
of IPMC are related to the ionic current inside the material. The main
governing equations to describe the state of the ionic current are the
Poisson’s equation and the Nernst-Planck equation that are solved for
free cations in the IPMC polymer backbone. The model also includes
the electrodes of IPMC. Importance of the electrodes in the model is
discussed. It is shown that the electrode effect on the electromechanical
and mechanoelectrical transduction is different – they cause potential
gradients in the former case and dissipate induced voltage in the
latter case. A comprehensive mechanoelectrical transduction study is
presented. The experiments showed that when the tip of an IPMC is
subjected to a periodic or even ramp displacement, the induced voltage
at the clamp peaks before the displacement. This indicates underlying
voltage/charge relaxation. The developed IPMC transduction model
captures this phenomenon. It is shown that the only way to describe
it within the developed modeling framework is by considering anion
concentration changes due to volumetric effects. Validation of the
model is provided for different IPMC thicknesses and various applied
deformation frequencies
Yun Li, Jiangsu Automation Research Institute (China)
This paper presents modeling and analysis methods for design of a smart
metamaterial structure consisting of an isotropic beam and small springmass-damper subsystems for broadband absorption of transverse elastic
waves. Two models of a unit cell are derived and used to demonstrate
the existence of a stopband right to the high-frequency side of the local
resonance frequency of spring-mass absorbers. A linear finite element
method is used for detailed modeling and analysis of simply supported
finite beams with different designs of absorbers. We show that the
actual working mechanism is that, if the propagating elastic wave’s
frequency is within the absorbers’ stopband, the wave resonates the
integrated spring-mass absorbers to vibrate in their optical mode to
create shear forces and bending moments to stop the wave propagation.
We demonstrate that this unique phenomenon can be used to design
broadband absorbers that work for elastic waves of short and long
wavelengths. Numerical simulations validate the concept of broadband
absorbers and reveal the cause of stopbands. Results show that different
distributions of absorbers and their resonance frequencies result in
different vibration isolation characteristics. With appropriate design
optimization calculations, finite discrete spring-mass absorbers can be
used, and hence expensive micro- or nano-manufacturing techniques
are not needed for such metamaterial beams for broadband vibration
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Conference 8689: Behavior and Mechanics of
Multifunctional Materials and Composites VII
8689-62, Session PTues
memory thermal lag, the superelastic rate sensitivity, and effects of
honeycomb geometry on performance. A series of in-plane compression
experiments were performed on fabricated honeycombs and their
responses are compared to typical monolithic SMAs, such as NiTi
wire. It was found that NiTi honeycombs exhibit an order of magnitude
increase in recoverable deformation, both in the shape memory effect
and superelastic effect, in exchange for a reduced (homogenized)
compressive stress by two orders of magnitude. Due to their sparse
structure and enhanced heat transfer characteristics, SMA honeycombs
exhibited less superelastic rate sensitivity by two orders of magnitude
and a faster shape memory recovery by one order of magnitude than
comparable NiTi wire. The implications of these scaling results will be
discussed, including possible new regimes of application of SMAs for
reusable energy absorption devices and high stroke actuators.
Thermoelectric properties of Al and Y-doped
Kyeongsoon Park, C. M. Kim, J. W. Seo, Sejong Univ. (Korea,
Republic of)
Thermoelectric materials can be used to covert heat energy into
electrical energy directly via the Seebeck effect. The performance of
a thermoelectric material is evaluated by the figure-of-merit Z=sa2/k
where s, a, and k are the electrical conductivity, Seebeck coefficient,
and thermal conductivity, respectively. Comparing with conventional
thermoelectric materials such as metal chalcogenides, transition metal
disilicides, and Si–Ge alloys, metal oxides have been recognized as good
candidates for applications in thermoelectric power generation. The metal
oxides show high thermal and chemical stability at high temperature
in air, easy manufacture, and low manufacturing cost. In the present
study, Al and Y were added, in an effort to improve the thermoelectric
properties of CaMnO3. Doped CaMnO3 samples were fabricated by
the solid-state reaction method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning
electron microscope (SEM) were used to investigate the microstructure
and crystal structure, respectively. The fabricated samples formed the
perovskite structure with orthorhombic symmetry. The values of the
Seebeck coefficients were all negative, indicating n-type conduction. The
effect of the dopants was investigated by evaluating the microstructure
and thermoelectric properties. We found that the addition of Al and Ye
was effective for enhancing thermoelectric properties.
8689-27, Session 8
Fatigue properties of NiTi shape-memory
alloy thin plates
Hiroshi Yamamoto, Minoru Taya, Yuanchang Liang, Onur C.
Namli, Univ. of Washington (United States); Makoto Saito,
Nabtesco Corp. (Japan)
Our research group focuses on novel actuators, such as some of FSMA
actuators may use superelastic (SE) grade NiTi shape memory alloy
(SMA) thin plates. The advantages of using SE-grade NiTi thin plates
instead of general materials for actuators are its large strain capacity
of over several percent and its superelastic behavior caused by stressinduced martensitic transformation. However, using the advantage of
superelastic behavior of NiTi, the fatigue characteristics of NiTi plate
in the large strain area is indispensable to design the actuators, since
a significant reduction in fatigue life can be expected for large plastic
strain, as a common knowledge of engineering materials. Very limited
data exist in technical literatures on the fatigue strength and fatigue
fracture mechanisms of NiTi thin plates since most research focuses on
more common NiTi forms such as tubes or wires. This paper will present
the relationship between the maximum bending strain and the number of
cycles to failure as well as an analysis of the fatigue fracture surfaces of
NiTi thin plates. The fracture surfaces were observed using a scanning
electron microscope (SEM) to determine the fracture mechanisms and
crack origins. In addition to the above, NiTi thin plates have oxide layers
on the surfaces initially and the effect of these oxide layers on fatigue life
will also be discussed.
8689-63, Session PTues
Study on self-healing effect of concrete
cracks based on microbial technique
Chunxiang Qian, Hui Rong, Southeast Univ. (China)
The self-healing effect of concrete cracks based on microbial technique
were researched by the gauge for cracks width, scanning electron
microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis technology (TG)
in this paper. The experimental results indicated that the concrete
cracks could be fully filled by the microbial induced calcium carbonate
precipitation afer cuing of 40 days. The quantities of microbial induced
calcium carbonate reduced with the increasing of cracks depth. There
was no calcium carbonate formation in the concrete cracks when the
cracks depth is over 10 mm. In addition, the microorganisms could
induce a large number of calcium carbonate formation away from the
cracks surface of 1.5 mm. However, when the distance away from the
cracks surface was over 1.5 mm, it could be found that the quantities
of microbial induced calcium carbonate reduced with the incrasing of
distance away from the cracks surface.
8689-28, Session 8
Experiments on functional fatigue of
thermally activated shape-memory alloy
springs and correlations with driving force
8689-26, Session 8
Shape-memory thermal lag and superelastic
rate sensitivity of SMA cellular structures
Ashwin Rao, Arun R. Srinivasa, Texas A&M Univ. (United States)
With growing applications of shape memory alloy (SMA) components in
different engineering applications, the issue of material performance over
its designed life is of great concern to researchers lately. Researchers
have used traditional fatigue theories like S-N, e-N theories in analyzing
fatigue response of SMA components that primarily focus only the
mechanical loading with temperature being an external control parameter.
Such an effort is suitable for superelastic responses but not shape
memory responses. In this work, a concept of ``Driving force amplitude
v/s no of cycles” will be proposed to analyze functional fatigue of SMA
extension springs that can capture both mechanical and thermal loading
in a single framework. A custom designed thermomechanical test rig is
used to simulate shape memory effect by thermal cycling SMA springs
held under constant deformation. For every thermomechanical cycle,
load and temperature sensor readings are continually recorded as a
function of time using LabVIEW software. The sensor data is used as
inputs to the proposed functional fatigue model to capture ``Driving force
Ryan T. Watkins, John A. Shaw, Univ. of Michigan (United States);
David S. Grummon, Michigan State Univ. (United States)
The use of shape memory alloys (SMAs) in thin-walled honeycomb
structures is a relatively new approach to realize high performance,
adaptive structures. Honeycomb specimens with a relative density near
5% have been fabricated from commercially available NiTi ribbon using
a novel Nb-based brazing technique. Under in-plane compression,
honeycombs take advantage of bending-dominated kinematics while
shape memory alloys utilize a solid-to-solid state phase transformation,
both of which result in enhanced recoverable deformation.
An experimental characterization of the thermo-mechanical responses of
SMA honeycombs and corrugations is presented. Of particular interest
are the shape memory cycle, the superelastic response, the shape
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Conference 8689: Behavior and Mechanics of
Multifunctional Materials and Composites VII
amplitude” variation over the specimen lifetime. In addition, fractographic
analysis of the tested samples using SEM would provide deeper insights
for designers in analyzing fatigue behavior of SMA springs.
SR1 method and the Trust-Region-Reflective (TRR) method are used.
The hysteretic property in the EA model is described in an incremental
form which maintains its accuracy only for small input increments. The
SR1 method sometimes converges to a solution having large input
increments, but the TRR method is more appropriate because of its userdefined minimization bounds.
8689-30, Session 9
Semi-empirical modeling of hysteresis
compensation in magnetostrictive actuator
Simulation results are compared with minor loops measurements of
<100> oriented textured polycrystallineFe_18.4 Ga_81.6. To accelerate
the computations, the anhysteretic model first drives the model to the
bias position before the hysteretic simulation of minor loops starts.
Ki-Hyun Ji, STX (Korea, Republic of); Hae-Jung Park, Chungnam
National Univ. (Korea, Republic of); Young Woo Park, Univ. of
Maryland, College Park (United States) and Chungnam National
Univ. (Korea, Republic of); Norman M. Wereley, Univ. of Maryland,
College Park (United States)
8689-32, Session 9
Effects of low-magnetic field on the electrical
resistivity and piezoresistivity of Ni-CNT filled
epoxy-based composites
Hysteresis causes a delayed response to a given input in a
magnetostrictive actuator (MA). It becomes critical when the MA has
to be controlled in precise and real-time mode. An efficient way to
compensate hysteresis must be considered. The Jiles-Atherton and
Preisach models have been applied mostly in the literature, but these
models need complex mathematics that makes them difficult to be
applied in precise and real-time mode. Thus, this paper presents a
semiempirical modeling to compensate hysteresis in the MA.
Huigang Xiao, Jinbao Jiang, Hui Li, Harbin Institute of Technology
The effects of low magnetic field on the electrical properties of nickelcoated carbon nanotubes (Ni-CNTs) filled epoxy-based composites
were investigated in this paper. A set of Helmholtz coils was employed
to generate an uniform magnetic field for aligning the Ni-CNTs. The NiCNT dispersed epoxy resin, using Ni-CNTs in the amount of 2.0 vol.%,
was first prepared by combined high-speed stirring and sonication
methods. Then, the Ni-CNT dispersed epoxy resin was cast into an
aluminum mold to form specimens measuring 10?10?36 mm. During
the curing procedure of the epoxy resin, various magnetic fields (50Gs
and 150Gs) were applied along directions parallel and transverse to the
longitudinal axes of the specimens. After curing, DC electrical resistance
measurements were performed along the longitudinal axis using the
four-probe method, in which copper nets served as electrical contacts.
Experimental results show that the employed low magnetic fields can
effectively improve the electrical conductivity of the composites in the
direction of paralleling the magnetic field. The relationship between
the resistivity and the magnetic field strength was obtained as almost
a straight line in the low zone, indicating that such low magnetic
fields could induce an orientation of Ni-CNTs in the composites. The
piezoresisitivity of such Ni-CNT filled epoxy-based composites was also
studied. Compressive testing of these specimens was conducted using
a Materials Testing System. The experimental results showed the strain
gauge factor of the specimen increased upon the magnetic filed, i.e. the
piezoresistivity of the composite was improved by aligning the Ni-CNTs in
a preferred direction.
The idea comes from the similarity of the shapes between the hysteresiscompensated input voltage to the MA, and the output voltage of R-C
circuit. The respective hysteresis-compensated input voltage and R-C
circuit are expressed as polynomial and exponential equations, resulting
in two closed-form equations about capacitance. One set of capacitance
values is selected for each frequency by simulating the derived
equations. Experiments are performed to choose one capacitance value
among a set of capacitance values from simulation, based on trial-anderror. The concept of the hysteresis loss is introduced and defined as
the ratio of areas between the hysteretic and reference curves. From the
experimental results, it is observed that the percent change of hysteresis
loss increases as the frequency increases up to 400 Hz, but decreases
with further increase of the frequency up to 800 Hz.
It can be concluded that the proposed approach is effective to
compensate hysteresis in the MA. Also, it can be concluded that
hysteresis loss definition introduced by us can be used as a helpful
measure of hysteresis compensation.
8689-31, Session 9
Characterization and finite element modeling
of Galfenol minor magnetization loops
8689-33, Session 10
Zhangxian Deng, Marcelo J. Dapino, The Ohio State Univ. (United
A two species thermodynamic preisach
approach for superleastic shape-memory
alloys under tension, torsion, and bending
loading conditions
Magnetostrictive gallium-iron alloys, known as Galfenol, are a recent
class of smart materials that are promising for sensing and actuation
applications. To optimize Galfenol performance in applications, a system
level model combining constitutive Galfenol modeling and passive
components is essential.
Ashwin Rao, Arun R. Srinivasa, Texas A&M Univ. (United States)
Evans and Dapino proposed a high accuracy, computationally efficient
model which uses energy averaging (EA) considering local energies near
Galfenol’s six easy crystallographic directions, and incorporated this
model into a finite element framework applicable to 2-D static hysteretic
systems. Chakrabarti and Dapino extended this framework to 3-D static
and dynamic responses without hysteresis.
Modeling superelastic behavior of shape memory alloys under different
loading conditions has received considerable attention lately. In this
work, a simple mechanics of materials modeling approach for simulating
responses of superelastic shape memory alloys (SMA) components
under tension, torsion and bending loading conditions is developed.
Following Doraiswamy, Rao and Srinivasa’s approach (Smart Materials
and Structures, 2011), the key idea here would be in separating the
thermoelastic and the disspiative part of the hysteritic response with
a Gibbs potential based formulation which includes both thermal and
mechanical loading in the same framework. The dissipiative part is then
handled by a discrete Preisach model. The model is formulated based on
experimentally measurable quantities like tensile stress--strain, torque-angle of twist or bending Moment--curvature rather than solving for nonhomogeneous stress and strains across the specimen cross-sections
To overcome this limitation, a 3-D hysteretic FEA model is presented in
this study. For this geometry, the air gap between the flux return path and
Galfenol rod is taken into consideration to eliminate flux concentrations.
For the internal configuration of this set-up, the model will switch from
hysteretic to anhysteretic mode when the flux density reaches the
elbow of the magnetization versus field curve. In this study, both the
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Conference 8689: Behavior and Mechanics of
Multifunctional Materials and Composites VII
and then integrating the same especially for bending and torsion loading
conditions. The model is capable of simulating complex superelastic
responses with multiple internal loops and provides an improved
treatment for temperature dependence associated with superelastic
responses. The model results are verified with experimental results on
SMA components at different temperatures.
8689-36, Session 10
8689-34, Session 10
Peizhen Li, Haluk E. Karaca, Ali S. Turabi, Hirobomi Tobe, Univ. of
Kentucky (United States)
Magnetic field and stress-induced phased
transformation in single crystalline of
NiMnCoIn metamagnetic shape-memory
A three species thermodynamic preisach
approach for simulating complete torsional
response of shape-memory alloys
Magnetic shape memory alloys have attracted a great deal of attention
due to their high frequency response and high actuation strains for
sensors, actuators and energy harvester applications. NiMn-based
metamagnetic shape memory alloys have ferromagnetic austenite and
paramagnetic martensite phase and exhibit large magnetostress levels.
Ashwin Rao, Arun R. Srinivasa, Texas A&M Univ. (United States)
In this study, magneto-thermo-mechanical experimental results of NiMnbased metamagnetic shape memory alloys including shape memory
effect under constant stress and magnetic field and isothermal stress
cycling under magnetic field will be presented. It will be shown that
magnetostress levels are linearly dependent on applied field and NiMnbased alloys can be used as high temperature magnetic actuators.
The focus on understanding the torsional response of shape memory
alloy (SMA) components has been of keen interest as SMA springs
have found many engineering applications. In this work, a three species
model is proposed to capture the complete torsional response of SMA
components. The three species corresponds to volume fractions of
austenite and two martensite variants. Extending Doraiswamy, Rao and
Srinivasa’s approach (Smart Materials and Structures, 2011), a Gibbs
potential based formulation that combines both thermal and mechanical
loading for all the three species is developed. The model is formulated
directly in terms of experimentally measurable quantities torque--angle of
twist rather than solving for these using non-homogeneous shear stress
across the specimen (i.e generally by integrating stress resultants). The
key idea would be in separating the elastic and dissipiative parts of the
response and using a discrete Preisach model to capture the dissipiative
part of the response. Such an approach can simulate both superleastic
and shape memory response under clockwise and anticlockwise
torsional loading cases. The model can be used to estimate the strokes
at different temperatures. The model results are verified with the available
experimental data in the literature.
8689-37, Session 10
Thermal response of infinitely extended
layered Nickel-Titanium shape-memory alloy
thin films with variable material properties
Abhijit Bhattacharyya, Mehmet M. Ozturk, Univ. of Arkansas Little
Rock (United States)
A Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) thin film is an important candidate for
the fabrication of micro actuators. Its shape memory effect (SME) is
due to a solid–solid phase transformation between a high temperature
phase of austenite and a low temperature phase of austenite. The phase
transformation is also accompanied by a change in material properties.
Thus, for example, the thermal conductivity, electrical resistivity and heat
capacity areal change with temperature hysterically. Further, research
reported in the literature has shown that these films have a layered
structure – amorphous layer, non-transforming austenite layer and phase
transformation layer – with the amorphous layer being adjacent to the
substrate. While thermal studies of thin films have a rich history in the
literature, such studies for shape memory alloys with variable material
properties and layered structure are sparse and need to be carried out in
order to have an accurate understanding of the thermal response of SMA
thin films.
8689-35, Session 10
Modeling the magneto-mechanical behavior
of MSMAs subject to general 2D and 3D
Douglas H. LaMaster, Heidi Feigenbaum, Constantin Ciocanel,
Isaac Nelson, Northern Arizona Univ. (United States)
Magnetic Shape Memory Alloys (MSMAs) are a type of smart material
that exhibit a large amount of recoverable strain when subjected to an
applied compressive stress in the presence of a magnetic field or an
applied magnetic field in the presence of a compressive stress. These
macroscopic recoverable strains are the result of the reorientation of
martensite variants. Potential applications for MSMAs include power
harvesters, sensors, and actuators. For these applications, the stress is
assumed to be applied only in the axial direction, and the magnetic field
is assumed to be applied only in the transverse direction.
In this study, an infinitely extended, 3-layered NiTi SMA thin film is
modeled and analyzed with commercially available finite-element
software ANSYS. The temperature variation of the 3 layered thin film is
investigated under the following conditions: convective cooling on the
free surface, adiabatic boundary condition on the bottom surface (at
the interface with the substrate) and uniform heat source. The steady
state response is validated by comparison with analytical results. The
thermal response of the film during a cycle of heating and cooling is
also compared with the thermal response of a single layered phase
transforming SMA thin film.
To realize the full potential of MSMA and optimized designs, a
mathematical model that can predict the material response under all
potential loading conditions is needed. Keifer and Lagoudas developed
a phenomenological model that characterizes the response of the MSMA
to axial compressive stress and transversely applied magnetic field
from thermodynamic principles. In this paper, a similar thermodynamic
framework is used, however, a simpler hardening function is proposed
based on the idea that the reorientation phenomenon is the same in
both forward and reverse loading and in both magnetic and mechanical
loading. This simplified model is shown to adequately predict the
magneto-mechanical response of the MSMA in 2D loading, i.e. axial
compressive stress and transversely applied magnetic field. Furthermore,
based on the idea that the reorientation phenomenon should be the same
in any direction, this simpler hardening function provides a basis for a
rudimentary 3D model of MSMAs.
Return to Contents
8689-38, Session 11
Sensing of retained martensite during thermal
cycling of shape-memory alloy wires via
electrical resistance
Christopher B. Churchill, HRL Labs., LLC (United States)
Shape memory alloys (SMAs) remain one of the most viable active
materials, thanks to their high energy density and the wide availability
of high quality material. Still, significant challenges remain in predicting
Conference 8689: Behavior and Mechanics of
Multifunctional Materials and Composites VII
the degradation of SMA actuators during thermal cycling. One of the
challenges in both the motivation and verification of degradation models
is the measurement of retained martensite fraction during cycling. Direct
measurement via diffraction is both impossible for thin wires (<0.5mm)
and prohibitively difficult for long (10000+) cycle lives.
stains in a scaffold during heating taking advantage of synchrotron-based
micro computed tomography (SRµCT) and sophisticated software tools
for non-rigid registration.
Lattice-shaped scaffolds with 300 µm thin struts exhibiting the shape
memory effect were fabricated from pre-alloyed NiTi powder by selective
laser melting. During the SRµCT measurement, the deformed scaffold
was subjected to a temperature ramp inducing the shape memory
effect. By non-rigid registration of the three-dimensional µCT datasets at
different time and temperature points, respectively, the local deformations
generated during the shape recovery process were identified. The
scaffold exhibited tensile and compression strains of up to 4% in the
junction point of the struts, even if the scaffold was subjected to a
compressive deflection of 3.25% of its total height.
We investigate the use of electrical resistivity to indirectly measure
the evolution of retained martensite during thermal cycling of SMA
wires via joule heating. Heat transfer in the wire is carefully controlled
to enable temperature prediction without direct measurement. Two
different resistivity features, one absolute and one derivative-based, are
8689-39, Session 11
This permits a better estimation of strains acting on cells in a shape
memory scaffold. The data will support the search for optimized scaffold
and implant designs that mechanically stimulate bony cells.
Thermo-mechanical self-adaptive ball screw
drive using thermal shape-memory effect
8689-41, Session 11
Iñaki Navarro y de Sosa, Technische Univ. Chemnitz (Germany);
André Bucht, Tom Junker, Kenny Pagel, Welf-Guntram Drossel,
Fraunhofer-Institut für Werkzeugmaschinen und Umformtechnik
Lagoudas model for optomechanical
mountings: parametric study and
characterization campaign
Ball screw drives (BSD) are conceivably the most widespread type of
lead screw drives used in industrial machinery like machine tools or
measuring equipment. They convert rotatory into linear motion and
possess high efficiency, repeatability and life expectancy. In order to
remove the inherent axial backlash and to reduce the axial displacement
due to material elastic deformation, BSDs are preloaded. Depending on
the processing status, there are two preload-depending requirements:
high positioning accuracy high feed rate. However, both of them are not
simultaneously feasible because of their mutual dependence. In long
term, preloading likewise affects heat generation and thus varies the
Marco Riva, INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera (Italy);
Elena Villa, Francesca Passaretti, Daniela Rigamonti, CNR-IENI
(Italy); Francesco Zanetti, Politecnico di Milano (Italy); Filippo
Maria Zerbi, INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera (Italy)
This paper wants to show the work developed in the framework of Smart
structures for Astronomical Instrumentations. In particular it is focused
onto the modeling and characterization of Shape Memory Alloy (SMA)
as functional devices for opto mechanical mountings. In this activity the
pseudo elastic effect has been exploited. When mechanically loaded,
a pseudo-elastic alloy deforms reversibly to very high strains - up to
6-8% - by the creation of a stress-induced phase. When the load is
removed, the new phase becomes unstable and the material regains its
original shape. Thanks to this feature, these materials can be positively
exploited in opto mechanical mounts to provide enough mechanical
stability to the optical element by absorb the structure Vs glass CTE
mismatching. The flexure kinematic mounting configuration has been
studied by comparing traditional stainless steel flexure w.r.t. pseudo
elastic alloys. This paper mainly address the numerical work done with
the Lagoudas SMA constitutive model. A parametric study has been
conducted to understand in detail the real effect of each parameter to
the material performances (stress-strain temperature dependent curve).
A deep characterization campaign has been done in order to be able to
deploy a reasonably representative modeling technique. A dummy opto
mechanical mounting has been realized, thermally cycled and monitored
in order to validate the numerical results.
Shape memory alloys (SMA) directly transform thermal energy into
mechanical energy by generating work output with high power/weight
ratios. Using the heat generated by the process as thermal source,
enables to implement SMA actuators in BSDs to change the preload
during operation. In this case, the SMA actuator works as an energy
harvester and the system is self-sufficient.
In this paper we present a self-adaptive BSD based on SMAs that is able
to adjust the preload whilst processing. According to the temperature
of the surrounding material, the actuator either expands or contracts to
increase or decrease the preload. For this purpose, no external energy
and control is required. Using the investigated principles, adaptive
mechanisms to adjust the BSD´s preload has been developed and
compared. The preferred approach has been designed and investigated
to verify the system capabilities.
8689-40, Session 11
Assessing local strain in NiTi-scaffolds
prepared by selective laser melting
8689-42, Session 11
Thermo-mechanically coupled analysis of
shape-memory alloy plates
Therese Bormann, Univ. Basel (Switzerland) and Univ. of Applied
Sciences Northwestern Switzerland (Switzerland); Michael
de Wild, Univ. of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland
(Switzerland); Felix Beckmann, Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht
(Germany); Bert Müller, Univ. Basel (Switzerland)
Ashish Khandelwal, Indian Institute of Science (India);
Vidyashankar R. Buravalla, GE Global Research (India); D. Roy
Mahapatra, Indian Institute of Science (India)
Use of shape memory alloy (SMA) in bulk form like plate, films and
cables is finding increased attention for various industrial applications.
This motivates development of a finite element (FE) formulation which
suitably couples the multiple physics involved in SMA, viz. thermal and
mechanical boundary value problem with multi-axial loading. In the
present work a two-dimensional macroscopic thermo-mechanical FE
procedure for SMA plate is obtained by using plane stress assumption.
Square plate with and without hole is analyzed under uniaxial tensile
loading, biaxial tensile loading and shear loading. In case of plate
without hole under shear loading an inhomogeneous distribution of
The biocompatible NiTi is a promising material for bone implants as
it combines low stiffness with high strength. Furthermore, it exhibits
properties including pseudoelasticity, the one-way shape memory
effect and high damping capacities caused by a reversible crystalline
transformation between austenite and martensite. The mechanical
stimulation of bony tissues enhances re-modeling and therefore
osseointegration. In porous scaffolds both tensile and compressive
microstrains simultaneously occur when compression load is applied.
The cells might therefore behave in different fashions depending on their
location within the scaffold. As a consequence we evaluated the local
Return to Contents
Conference 8689: Behavior and Mechanics of
Multifunctional Materials and Composites VII
martensite fraction is obtained and their spatial and temporal variations
are discussed. The self heating effect due to exothermic release enthalpy
of phase transformation is shown. Coupled analysis shows a zone of
untransformed austenite in between two zones of completely detwinned
martensite which suitably brings out its efficacy. Next analysis of plate
with a notch is attempted which shows a qualitative distribution of strain
similar to as experimentally obtained by Daly et. al. (2007). This suggests
that the present multiphysics simulation of SMA can be very useful in
understanding the intricate mechanics and physics of this material.
8689-45, Session 12
8689-43, Session 12
Nanoreinforced epoxies as well as Carbon Fibre Reinforced Composites
with nanoreinforced matrix were studied in terms of their durability in
hydrothermal loading and thermal shock. For the purposes of this study,
dynamic mechanical analysis and mechanical testing were employed
in conjunction with the electrical resistance change method. 0.5 % by
weight Carbon Nanotubes was employed as nanoreinforcement. The
employed material properties were measured at specific intervals of the
hydrothermal loading and after cyclic thermal shock. The change in the
interlaminar shear strength of the CFRPs was also examined.
Environmental degradation of nano-enhanced
composite materials through durability and
electrical resistance measurements
Alkiviadis S. Paipetis, Giorgos Gkikas, Danai-Dimitra Douka,
Sotirios A. Grammatikos, Nektaria-Marianthi Barkoula, Univ. of
Ioannina (Greece)
The challenges of achieving good electrical
and mechanical properties when making
structural supercapacitors
Constantin Ciocanel, Cindy Browder, Chris Simpson, Ross
Colburn, Northern Arizona Univ. (United States)
The paper discusses the challenges associated with the development
of carbon fiber structural supercapacitors to exhibit, simultaneously,
good electrical and mechanical properties. The properties of interest
are capacitance per unit volume, leakage resistance, electrical series
resistance (ESR), tensile strength and flexural strength. Ideally, one would
aim for the highest possible capacitance, leakage resistance as well
as tensile and flexural strength, and the smallest possible (ideally zero)
ESR. The key constituent influencing these properties is the electrolyte.
A number of chemical compositions of the solid polymer electrolytes
used to date are discussed together with their impact on the overall
material properties. To this end, the results indicate that the solid nature
of the electrolyte used to fabricate the supercapacitor requires that a
compromise be made with respect to which electrical and mechanical
property to be maximized.
8689-46, Session 13
A finite element modeling of a multifunctional
hybrid composite beam with viscoelastic
Ya D. Wang, Daniel J. Inman, Univ. of Michigan (United States)
Functionally graded hybrid composites are emerging as a potential
solution to lightweight skins for aircraft that will operate in extreme
conditions and hence will need to combine the best attributes of
ceramics, metals and polymer composites. The multifunctional hybrid
composite structure studied here consists of a ceramic outer layer
capable of withstanding high temperatures, a functionally graded ceramic
layer combining shape memory alloy (SMA) properties of NiTi together
with Ti2AlC (called Graded Ceramic/Metal Composite, or GCMeC),
and a high temperature sensor patch, followed by a polymer matrix
composite laced with vascular cooling channels all held together with
various epoxies. The key effect to model this multifunctional hybrid
composite structure is the vibration properties. Due to the recoverable
nature of SMA and adhesive properties of Ti2AlC, the damping behavior
of the GCMeC is largely viscoelastic. This paper presents a finite element
formulation for this multifunctional hybrid structure with embedded
viscoelastic material. In order to implement the viscoelastic model into
the finite element formulation, a second order three parameter GollaHughes-McTavish (GHM) method is used to describe the viscoelastic
behavior. Considering the parameter identification, a strategy to estimate
the fractional order of the time derivative and the relaxation time is
outlined. Curve-fitting aspects are focused, showing good agreement
with experimental data. Numerical simulation is carried out to predict
its damping behavior and vibration property. Various effects such as
geometric and mechanical factors have on the dynamic response are
discussed for this multifunctional hybrid structure.
8689-44, Session 12
Aligned nanowire-graphene aerogel for
lithium-ion battery
Yirong Lin, MD Arif Ishiaque Shuvo, MD Ashiqur Rahaman Khan,
Miguel Mendoza, The Univ. of Texas at El Paso (United States)
Lithium ion battery (LIB) has been receiving extensive attention due to
its high specific energy density for wide applications such as electronic
vehicles, mobile electronics, and military applications. In LIB, graphite is
the most commonly used material as anode materials; however, graphite
has limited lithium ion intercalation property which hinders battery charge
rate and capacity. To overcome this obstacle, nanostructured carbon
anode assembly has been extensively studied to increase the lithium
ion diffusion rate. Among these approaches, high specific surface area
metal oxide nanowire connecting with nanostructured carbon based
material has shown propitious results for enhanced lithium intercalation.
More recently, nanowire/graphene hybrids have been developed for the
enhancement of LIB performance; however, all previous efforts employed
nanowires on graphene in a random fashion, which results in limited
lithium ion diffusion rate. Therefore, we demonstrate a new approach by
growing aligned nanowire on graphene aerogel to further improve the
LIB performance. This nanowire/graphene aerogel hybrid not only uses
the high surface area of the graphene aerogel but also increases the
specific surface area for electrode-electrolyte interaction. Therefore, this
new nanowire/graphene aerogel hybrid anode material could enhance
the specific capacity and charge-discharge rate. Scanning Electron
Microscopy (SEM), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Atomic Force Microscopy
(AFM) are used for materials characterization. Battery Analyzer and
Potentio-galvanostat are used for measuring electrical performance of
the battery. The testing results show that with vertically aligned metal
oxide nanowires, the LIB performance has been significantly improved
compared to those with random nanowires.
Return to Contents
8689-47, Session 13
Acoustic impedance matching using dynamic
Hossein Sadeghi, Ankit Srivastava, Siavouche Nemat-Nasser,
Univ. of California, San Diego (United States)
In this paper we present a new method for designing materials which
are acoustically impedance matched with homogeneous materials
at any desired frequency. We use dynamic homogenization of
periodic composites to calculate their effective dynamic acoustic
impedance (EDAI). We show that by using dynamic homogenization
the microstructure of a periodic composite can be designed so that its
EDAI matches the impedance of a desired homogeneous material at a
desired frequency. Consequently, the reflection at the interface of such
Conference 8689: Behavior and Mechanics of
Multifunctional Materials and Composites VII
8689-49, Session 13
a periodic composite with the homogeneous material is minimized. We
present transfer matrix calculation and finite element modeling of wave
propagation through a finite layered periodic composite made of steel
and PMMA in contact with homogenous semi-infinite Aluminum bars on
either ends of the composite. We show that the steel/PMMA composite
which has matched impedance with Aluminum at 300 kHz minimizes the
reflection at its interface with the homogeneous Aluminum bars. Also,
it is shown that not only does the designed composite minimize the
reflections at the interface, but it also attenuates the wave propagating
through it. This property suggests the potential application of this method
to design for materials which may be used for transducers backing.
Ultrasonic studies of fly ash/polyurea
Jing Qiao, Harbin Institute of Technology (China); Alireza V.
Amirkhizi, Siavouche Nemat-Nasser, Univ. of California, San
Diego (United States); Gaohui Wu, Harbin Institute of Technology
Due to the excellent thermo-mechanical properties, polyurea is attracting
more and more attention in blast-mitigating applications. In order to
enhance its capability of blast-induced stress-wave management, we
seek to develop polyurea-based composites in this work. Fly ash which
is a kind of hollow particles with porous shell and low density was chosen
as fillers and a series of fly ash/polyurea composites with various fly ash
volume fractions were fabricated. The dynamic mechanical behavior of
the composites was determined by a personal computer (PC) based
ultrasonic system in the 0.5-2MHz frequency range between -60ºC to
30ºC temperatures. Velocity and attenuation of both longitudinal and
shear ultrasonic waves were measured. The complex longitudinal and
shear moduli were then computed from these measurements. Combining
these results provided an estimate of the complex bulk and Young’s
moduli of the fly ash/polyurea composites at high frequencies. These
results will be presented and compared with those of pure polyurea
8689-48, Session 13
Modifying the acoustic impedance of
polyurea-based composites
Wiroj Nantasetphong, Alireza V. Amirkhizi, Zhanzhan Jia,
Siavouche Nemat-Nasser, Univ. of California, San Diego (United
Acoustic impedance is a material property that depends on mass density
and acoustic wave speed. An impedance mismatch between two media
leads to the partial reflection of an acoustic wave sent from one medium
to another. Active sonar is one example of a useful application of this
phenomenon, where reflected and scattered acoustic waves enable the
detection of objects. If the impedance of an object is matched to that
of the surrounding medium, however, the object may be hidden from
observation (at least directly) by sonar. In this study, polyurea composites
are developed to facilitate such impedance matching. Polyurea is used
due to its excellent blast-mitigating properties, easy casting, corrosion
protection, abrasion resistance, and various uses in current military
technology. Since pure polyurea has impedance higher than that of water
(the current medium of interest), low mass density phenolic microballoon
particles are added to create composite materials with reduced effective
impedances. The volume fraction of particles is varied to study the effect
of filler quantity on the acoustic impedance of the resulting composite.
The composites are experimentally characterized via ultrasonic
measurements. Computational models based on the method of diluterandomly-distributed inclusions are developed and compared with
the experimental results. These experiments and models will facilitate
the design of new elastomeric composites with desirable acoustic
Return to Contents
Conference 8690: Industrial and Commercial
Applications of Smart Structures Technologies VII
Sunday - Thursday 10–14 March 2013
Part of Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 8690 Industrial and Commercial Applications of Smart Structures Technologies 2013
8690-1, Session 1
therefore offers the unique opportunity to seamlessly embed a wide
range of temperature sensitive smart materials. The composites in this
study contain an aluminum matrix and an embedded Galfenol element.
Galfenol (Fe100-xGax) is a magnetostrictive material with structural
strength comparable to steel and a magnetic field and mechanical stressdependent stiffness. Modal analysis of the composite was conducted to
understand the effect of the variable Galfenol stiffness on the composite
behavior. Shifts in modal frequencies as a function of applied magnetic
field for a cantilevered, proof-of-concept composite were measured.
Natural frequency shifts up to 1.4% were measured for applied
magnetic fields up to 17.8 kA/m. To improve the stiffness tuning effect, a
parametric study on the effect of Galfenol volume fraction and composite
layup I conducted by modeling the composite in a multiphysics FE
simulation. An increase in the natural frequency shifts with increasing
Galfenol volume fraction is observed, and an optimal composite layup
I identified. The stiffness tuning effect is nonlinear, with dependence on
the excitation force amplitude and vibration mode considered. From the
simulation results, a composite optimized for active stiffness tuning was
manufactured using UAM. The optimized composite shows a threefold
increase in modal frequency shifts compared to the proof-of-concept.
Active structures to reduce torsional
Michael Matthias, Fraunhofer-Institut für Betriebsfestigkeit und
Systemzuverlässigkeit (Germany)
In the past years a lot of investigations were done to develop new
concepts for active measures to reduce the transmission of noise and
vibrations in engine mounts, dampers or coupling elements like eg.
bearing, fasteners and so on.
All these measures are based on the three physical principles vibration
compensation, vibration damping, or vibration isolation.
In general, vibration absorbers and vibration neutralizers are applied
for the purpose of vibration compensation. An example for a vibration
isolation device is an elastic mount.
Other concepts based on inertial mass actuators, are generating
additional forces at appropriate locations. Depending on the control
strategy an inertial mass actuator can be used for compensation or
vibration damping concepts. The additional forces are controlled with
respect to frequency, phase, and amplitude in such a way that they
counteract the unwanted excitation and, therefore, significantly reduce
the overall vibration.
8690-3, Session 1
Active damping for wind-tunnel aeroelastic
models of large civil structures
Most of these concepts can be implemented as passive (no additional
energy required), active (require additional energy, e.g., electric or
magnetic energy), or even adaptive (adapt automatically to varying
conditions) devices.
Gabriele Cazzulani, Francesco Ripamonti, Daniele Rocchi, Tullio
Balduzzi, Politecnico di Milano (Italy)
Some of them are based on innovative mechatronic add-on concepts;
others are directly integrated into the mechanical load path and thus are
based on adaptronic (i.e., smart structure) concepts. Both approaches
allow using smart materials or mechatronic devices as sensors and/or
actuators. Both, the potential level of noise and vibration reduction and
the resulting system complexity (e.g., development, component, and
system costs) depend, among other factors, strongly on the particular
vibration source (kind of the engine), its operational conditions and so on.
Structures aero-elastic models are reduced-scaled models designed
to reproduce the dynamic behavior of the real system under the wind
action. Typically the aim of these models is the evaluation of the
wind-structure coupling effects, which can generate high vibrations or
structural instability.
Structural damping is one of the most important parameters able to
affect these phenomena. In particular an increase of structural damping
strongly reduces (or even cancels out) the vibrations induced by these
coupling effects. For this reason wind tunnel tests on aero-elastic
models want to define the minimum structural damping so that windinduced vibrations are lower than an imposed limit. This value is then
used to design proper damping devices (such as TMDs) for the full-scale
The results of these investigations had shown the big potential of active
measures in noise and vibration reduction. Some products based on
these investigations are already available in commercial applications.
Another potential application for measures of active vibration reduction
is to reduce torsional vibrations eg. in the power train of cars, ships or in
tooling machines. Therefor the different concepts based on the physical
principals behind active mounts were transmitted into concepts for
rotational systems.
During the test stage the aero-elastic models damping increase is usually
obtained applying damping elements or connecting external passive
dampers to the structure. Anyway, these solutions make the tuning of
the structural damping difficult. Moreover, these elements can modify
the dynamic behavior of the structure in terms of natural frequencies and
modal shapes.
To show their mode of operation to influence the torsional vibrations
these concepts were implemented in numerical models of powertrains.
First experimental test with rotational absorbers and rotational inertial
mass actuators on a reduced power train were done to align the
numerical models.
For all these reasons, the present work proposes different solutions,
based on active control, to modify the damping of wind-tunnel aeroelastic models. These solutions, described in detail in the paper, are
experimentally tested on a 1:100 aero-elastic model of a bridge tower,
showing the possibility to tune the model damping with high precision
and repeatability. The results achieved with these active logics are
compared with those obtained considering the standard methods.
The paper shows results of numerical and experimental simulations using
different concepts to reduce torsional vibrations in power trains.
8690-2, Session 1
Magnetostrictive aluminum composite with
electrically tunable stiffness
8690-4, Session 1
Justin Scheidler, Marcelo J. Dapino, The Ohio State Univ. (United
Miniature multifunctional high-performance
three-axis positioning and scanning platform
This paper details the development of metal-matrix composites
containing active magnetostrictive elements manufactured by ultrasonic
additive manufacturing (UAM). UAM is an emerging solid-state welding
process that creates metallurgical bonds between metal foils at
temperatures that peak at less than 35% of the foil melting points. UAM
Dragan Avirovik, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ.
(United States); Digant Dave, The Univ. of Texas at Arlington
(United States); Shashank Priya, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and
State Univ. (United States)
Return to Contents
Conference 8690: Industrial and Commercial
Applications of Smart Structures Technologies VII
This study proposes a novel concept for a three-axis positioning and
scanning platform that overcomes the existing gap in technology
towards meeting the requirements for displacements, resolution, weight
carrying capacity and velocity at smaller dimensions. The novelty of
this work stems from the fact that our three-axis stage design utilizes
only two actuators. This system was developed to meet the specific
requirements needed for implementation of Multifunctional Image Guided
Surgical (MIGS) platform. Mathematical model accounting for the open
and closed loop operation of the stage was developed. The stage can
provide displacements between 10-20mm in each axis, resolution of
less than 10µm and scanning velocity in the range of 10-40mm/s. It can
carry weights up to 10grams while meeting the desired requirements.
Additionally, the stage has small footprint (50mm x 50mm x 34mm),
modular design and extremely cost-effective fabrication. Integration of
computer controlled three-axis stage with MIGS platform will provide the
opportunity for conducting intricate surgical procedures using remote
control or joystick. We demonstrate novel applications that became
possible due to the development of this stage.
products manufacturing facility. The fiber was then used to monitor the
structures during a VARTM manufacturing process, and subsequent
static and dynamic testing. Low cost telecommunications-grade optical
fiber acts as the sensor using a high resolution commercial Optical
Frequency Domain Reflectometer (OFDR) system providing distributed
strain measurement at spatial resolutions as low as 2mm. Strain
measurements using the optical fiber sensors are correlated to resistive
strain gauge measurements during static structural loading.
8690-7, Session 2
Powering embedded electronics for windturbine monitoring using multi-source energy
harvesting techniques
Steven R. Anton, Stuart G. Taylor, Eric Y. Raby, Los Alamos
National Lab. (United States); Kevin M. Farinholt, Commonwealth
Ctr. for Advanced Manufacturing (United States)
8690-5, Session 2
With a global interest in the development of clean, renewable energy,
wind energy has seen steady growth over the past several years.
Advances in wind turbine technology bring larger, more complex
turbines and wind farms. An important issue in the development of these
complex systems is the ability to monitor the state of each turbine in an
effort to improve the efficiency and power generation. Wireless sensor
nodes can be used to interrogate the current state and health of wind
turbine structures, however, a drawback of most current wireless sensor
technology is their reliance on batteries for power. Energy harvesting
solutions present the ability to create autonomous power sources for
small, low-power electronics through the scavenging of ambient energy,
however, most conventional energy harvesting systems employ a single
mode of energy conversion, and thus are highly susceptible to variations
in the ambient energy. In this work, a multi-source energy harvesting
system is developed to power embedded electronics for wind turbine
applications in which energy can be scavenged simultaneously from
several ambient energy sources. Field testing is performed on a full-size,
residential scale wind turbine where both vibration and solar energy
harvesting systems are utilized to power wireless sensing systems. Two
wireless sensors are investigated, including the wireless impedance
device (WID) sensor node, developed at the Los Alamos National
Laboratory, and an ultra-low power RF system-on-chip board that is the
basis for an embedded wireless accelerometer node currently under
development. Results indicate the ability of the multi-source harvester to
successfully power both sensors.
High-strain measurement using fiber Bragg
grating sensors
Gang Wang, Ken Zuo, William Roush, The Univ. of Alabama
in Huntsville (United States); Vahid Sotoudeh, Richard Blake,
Joey Costa, Fereydoun Faridian, Behzad Moslehi, Levy Oblea,
Intelligent Fiber Optic Systems Corp. (United States)
Fiber Bragg Grating-based (FBG) strain sensor has been widely used in
engineering application due to its small size, light weight, amenability
to multiplexing, and high sensitivity. It is capable of measuring as
low as submicrostrain and as high as 1% strain in tension and higher
under compression. In this paper, we will discuss the development of
FBG based real-time instrumentation system to conduct high strain
measurement during an impact. A high speed FBG interrogation system
is designed with streamlining FBG sensor data analysis capability for
efficient post processing. In order to capture high strain data during an
impact event, we need to increase strain measurement capability of an
FBG sensor and simultaneously maintain its survivability. A high strain
FBG fixture is designed accordingly using a lumped parameter model.
Our high strain fixture allows the FBG strain sensor to measure the actual
field strain with a reduction factor. A K-factor is defined to relate the FBG
strain measurement to the actual field strain value. Numerical simulation
results using finite element analysis (FEA) are used to validate the high
strain fixture design. Finally, a proof-of-concept FBG-based high strain
measurement system is developed. Both static and dynamic impact tests
are conducted to collect strain measurements. These strain data are used
to validate our fixture design as well and good correlation is achieved.
8690-8, Session 2
Multi-source energy harvesting for wireless
SHM systems
8690-6, Session 2
Mijin Choi, Chonbuk National Univ. (Korea, Republic of); Kevin
M. Farinholt, Commonwealth Ctr. for Advanced Manufacturing
(United States); Jung-Ryul Lee, Chonbuk National Univ. (Korea,
Republic of); Gyuhae Park, Chonnam National Univ. (Korea,
Republic of)
Three-axis distributed fiber optic strain
measurement in 3D woven composite
Matt Castellucci, Evan M. Lally, Sandra Klute, Luna Innovations
Inc. (United States); David Lowry, NASA Johnson Space Ctr.
(United States)
In wireless SHM systems, energy harvesting technology is essential for
a reliable long-term energy supply for wireless sensors. Conventional
wireless SHM systems using single source energy harvesting (vibration,
solar, and etc.) have limitations because it could not be operated
adequately without enough ambient energy present. To overcome this
obstacle, multi-source energy harvesting which utilizes several ambient
energy sources simultaneously is necessary to accumulate enough
electrical energy to power wireless embedded sensor nodes. This study
proposes a multi-source energy harvesting technique using a MISO
(Multiple Input, Single Output) circuit board developed and studied by
the authors. For multi-source energy harvesting, piezoelectric bimorph
and electro-magnetic energy harvesters are excited at the first natural
frequency of each harvester, 126.7 and 12.5 Hz, respectively. Then,
Recent advancements in composite materials technologies have broken
further from traditional designs and require advanced instrumentation
and analysis capabilities. Success or failure is highly dependent on
design analysis and manufacturing processes. By monitoring smart
structures throughout manufacturing and service life, residual and
operational stresses can be assessed and structural damage identified.
Composite smart structures can be manufactured by integrating fiber
optic sensors into existing composite materials processes such as layup,
filament winding and three-dimensional weaving. In this work optical fiber
was integrated into 3D woven composite parts at a commercial woven
Return to Contents
Conference 8690: Industrial and Commercial
Applications of Smart Structures Technologies VII
generated voltage from each energy harvester is combined using the
MISO circuit and then used to charge a 0.1 F capacitor. Combined energy
harvesting results demonstrated better performance than that of a single
energy source, demonstrating that this multi-source system could be a
promising energy harvesting solution for wireless sensing systems.
8690-11, Session 3
8690-9, Session 2
Jaya Prakash Koduru, Sepandarmaz Momeni, Miguel Gonzalez,
Obdulia Ley, Boris Zarate, Valery F. Godinez, MISTRAS Group,
Inc. (United States)
Online acoustic emission monitoring of
combustion turbines for compressor stator
vane crack detection
Piezoelectric wind turbine
Ravi A. Kishore, Shashank Priya, Virginia Polytechnic Institute
and State Univ. (United States)
The power industry primarily relies on combustion turbines to extract
electricity from a flow of combustion gas or oil. The turbines consist of
axial compressors with both static (stator) and rotating (rotor) air-foils.
Mid-compressor stator vane cracking is a well known problem in the
industry which leads to the liberation of the vanes in their later stages
and a resulting collapse of the compressor. Per insurance statistics the
losses from these failures is around $7 to $10 million not including the
revenue lost from the 55 day average forced outage for repair. Current
practices in the industry involves periodic inspection during outage using
traditional visual, borescope or UT inspection of the blades requiring
extensive downtime. Structural health monitoring (SHM) solutions that
permanently monitor these combustion turbines in real-time and provide
information about incipient failure can lead to significant savings and
increased productivity. Acoustic emission being a global, in-service
monitoring technique can be used to monitor the turbines permanently.
Using an array of sensors permanently installed on the turbines, acoustic
emission data continuously. Utilizing signal processing and pattern
recognition techniques it is possible to accurately locate the areas of
cracking in the stator vanes. The acoustic combustion turbine monitoring
system (ACTMS) consisting of sensors and associate electronics for data
acquisition is developed for permanent deployments. Early deployments
were able to detect the onset of cracks in S1 vanes in an F-class
combustion turbine at Next-Era Energy Resources.
There has been significant focus in past few years towards developing
small scale renewable energy based power sources for powering wireless
sensor nodes in remote locations such as highways and bridges to
conduct continuous health monitoring. These prior efforts have led
to the development of microscale solar modules, hydrogen fuel cells
and various vibration based energy harvesters. However, the cost
effectiveness, reliability, and practicality of these solutions remains a
concern. Harvesting the wind energy using micro-to-small scale wind
turbines can be an excellent solution in variety of outdoor scenarios
provided they can operate at few miles per hour of wind speed. The
conventional electromagnetic generator used in the wind mills always
has some cogging torque which restricts their operation above certain
cut-in wind speed. This study aims to develop a novel piezoelectric wind
turbine that utilizes bimorph actuators for electro-mechanical energy
conversion. This device contains a Savonius rotor which is connected
to a disk having magnets at the periphery. The piezoelectric actuators
arranged circumferentially around the disk also have magnets at the tip
which interacts with the magnetic field of the rotating disk and produces
cyclical deflection. The wind tunnel experiments were conducted
between 2-10 mph of wind speeds to characterize and optimize the
power output of the wind turbine. Further, testing was conducted in the
open environment to quantify the response to random wind gusts. An
attempt was made towards integration of the piezoelectric wind turbine
with the wireless sensor node.
8690-12, Session 3
Actuation needs for an adaptive trailing-edge
device aimed at reducing fuel comsumption
on regional aircraft
8690-10, Session 3
Adaptive magnetorheological seat
suspensions for adaptive shock mitigation
Gianluca Diodati, Italian Aerospace Research Ctr. (Italy); Antonio
Concilio, Ctr. Italiano Ricerche Aerospaziali (Italy)
Wei Hu, Univ. of Maryland, College Park (United States); Gregory
J. Hiemenz, Techno-Sciences Inc. (United States); Norman M.
Wereley, Univ. of Maryland, College Park (United States)
This paper deals with the definition of the actuation capabilities, needed
to implement an Adaptive Trailing Edge Device (ATED) for a medium-size
aircraft (3-hours flight range).
It is well known that the weight reduction during flight, consequence of
the burned fuel, moves the optimal aerodynamic configuration away from
the design working point. The aircraft then flies into a non-optimal pattern
for a great extension of its mission, leading to larger fuel consumption.
An ATED is able to compensate these effects, resulting in significant fuel
savings (more than 3%) or, alternatively, increasing range.
An adaptive magnetorheological seat suspension (AMSS) was developed
to protect occupants from shock loads, as well as to provide a measure
of vibration isolation. The AMSS system consists of an adaptive linear
stroke magnetorheological shock absorber (MRSA), and a rebound
spring set, and is integrated into the seat structure of a military vehicle.
The MRSA provides a large controllable yield force, as well as relatively
low viscous damping, to accommodate both shock attenuation and
vibration performance requirements. The MRSA can adapt its stroking
load to accomodate varying occupant weights (ranging from a 5th
percentile female up to a 95th percentile male) as well as varying shock
load severity. A control algorithm was developed that maximizes the
energy absorbed during a shock event in order to minimize the load
transmitted to the occupants by fully utilizing the available vertical
stroking distance of the suspension. Shock attenuation tests were
conducted using a shock effect simulator. The system was experimentally
proven to automatically adapt and provide approximately equal occupant
protection across the occupant weight range within a specified stroke
range. Failsafe capability was demonstrated by controlling lumbar loads
in a 50th percentile male occupant for a shock event in the event of
power failure. Moreover, the same system was also shown experimentally
to be capable of substantial vibration isolation performance. Via these
tests, the AMSS was shown to exceed all design objectives.
Return to Contents
Starting from preliminary aerodynamic calculation of the pressure field
over the wing profile and a model of the segmented structure able to
reproduce the targeted profile shapes during cruise, a multibody model
has been set up. The force levels on the actuator system have then been
computed. Based on this information and the reference geometry, the
main characteristics necessary actuation force and angular displacement
have been herein calculated. A kinematic chain able to amplify the
actuator torque has been also identified.
The presented activity is part of the larger research project SARISTU
(Smart Intelligent Aircraft Structures), funded inside the VII European
Framework Programme EU-FP7.
Conference 8690: Industrial and Commercial
Applications of Smart Structures Technologies VII
8690-13, Session 3
The work is organized as follows. A finite element model of the
uncontrolled, non-actuated structure is employed to obtain the multipleinput, multiple-output gain matrices for actuator-load and displacement
control. Both open-loop and closed-loop simulations are then carried
out. In the open-loop simulations, aerodynamic loads are not included in
the problem as the effects are not fed back to the control system. After
having characterized pure actuators behavior over the structure, selected
target wing shapes are achieved through closed-loop simulations,
including external loads.
The EU’s Green Rotorcraft programme will develop an Active Gurney
flap (AGF) for a full-scale helicopter main rotor blade as part of its
‘smart adaptive rotor blade’ technology demonstrators. AGFs can be
utilized to provide a localized lift increment on the rotor, enabling a
redistribution of loading on the rotor blade around the rotor azimuth.
Further advantages include the possibility of using AGFs to allow a
rotor speed reduction, which subsequently provides acoustic benefits.
Designed to be integrable into a commercial helicopter blade, and
thereby capable of withstanding real in-flight centrifugal loading, blade
vibrations and aerodynamic loads, the demonstrator is expected
to achieve a high technology readiness level (TRL). The AGF will be
validated initially by a constant blade section 2D wind tunnel test, and
latterly, by full blade 3D whirl tower testing. This paper presents first the
methodology adopted for the AGF concept topology selection, based
on a series of both qualitative and quantitative performance criteria. Two
different AGF candidate mechanisms are compared, both powered by a
small commercial electromagnetic actuator. In both topologies, the link
between the actuator and the control surface consists of two rotating
torque bars, pivoting on flexure bearings. This provides the required
reliability and precision, while making the design virtually frictionless. The
engineering analysis and static bench test results presented suggest that
both candidates would perform satisfactorily in a 2D wind tunnel test, but
that equally, both have design constraints which limit their potential to be
further taken into a whirl tower test. Future work will focus on assessing
other promising topologies, as well as on design optimization and design
for manufacture issues.
8690-14, Session 3
8690-16, Session 4
Estimated performance of an adaptive
trailing-edge device aimed at reducing fuel
consumption on a medium-size aircraft
Acoustic linear adaptable regression model
(ALARM) methodology for psycho-behavioral
sound quality quantification to improve
automotive door experience
An adaptive control system for wing TE shape
Ignazio Dimino, Antonio Concilio, Ctr. Italiano Ricerche
Aerospaziali (Italy)
This paper presents an approach to control the static shape of an
adaptive wing by employing internal, integrated actuators.
The adaptive-wing concept employs active ribs, driven by servo
actuators, controlled in turn by a dedicated algorithm aimed at shaping
the wing cross section, according to a pre-defined geometry. The
adaptive structural elements, working during aircraft cruise are modeled
via a standard FE code; a suitable control algorithm is then implemented
in a dedicated routine for real-time simulations.
Gianluca Diodati, Antonio Concilio, Italian Aerospace Research
Ctr. (Italy); Sergio Ricci, Alessandro De Gaspari, Polytechnic of
Milan (Italy); Cedric Liauzun, Jean-Luc Godard , ONERA (France)
Suhant Prajwal Reddy Ranga, Jonathan E. Luntz, Diann E.
Brei, Univ. of Michigan (United States); Alan W. Moyer, Paul W.
Alexander, Imad Bazzi, Nancy L. Johnson, General Motors Corp.
(United States)
This paper deals with the estimation of the performance of a mediumsize aircraft (3-hour flight range) equipped with an adaptive trailing edge
device (ATED) that runs span-wise from the wing root in the flap zone and
extends chord-wise for a limited percentage of the MAC. Computations
are calculated referring to the full wing and do not refer to the complete
aircraft configuration.
Sound quality during door closure is a key, forward-facing component of
the consumer’s non-driving vehicle experience that can influence their
purchasing decisions. For critical door components, such as seals and
latches, this heavily factors into relevant design tradeoffs and decisions.
Unfortunately, the sound quality as perceived by the consumer is
primarily qualitative and sensitive to the environment and user, making
it challenging to incorporate into typical engineering design methods.
This paper presents a rigorous method for converting consumer/expert
experimental sound ratings into a quantified model which can be used
to extract discrete rating contributions of various door components,
including those based on smart material technologies. In this method,
significant psycho-acoustic metrics are extracted from measured sound
data for a door closure event. The dimensionality of this metric set is
reduced using Principal Component Analysis to generate an orthogonal
principal component basis. An Acoustic Linear Adaptable Regression
Model (ALARM) is developed to correlate the sound bite projections with
existing subjective ratings given by an expert or consumer focus group.
Trained in this manner with data from vehicles spanning the sound quality
spectrum, the ALARM model was used to predict the expert ratings for
additional data outside of the model set. The ALARM models were able
to predict user ratings with absolute mean error of 9%, demonstrating its
capability as a useful predictive design tool for door closure events. The
validated ALARM model was then used in a study to assess and evaluate
the individual sound quality effects of conventional as well as novel,
smart material-based door components.
Aerodynamic computations, taking into account ideal shapes, have
been performed by using both Euler and Navier-Stokes method in
order to extract the wing polars for the reference and the optimal
wing, implementing an ATED, deflected upwards and downwards. A
comparison of the achieved results is discussed.
Considering the shape domain, a suitable interpolation procedure has
been set up to obtain the wing polar envelop of the adaptive wing,
intended as the set of “best” values, picked by each different polar.
At the end, the performances of the complete reference and adaptive
wing are computed and compared for a symmetric, centered, leveled
and steady cruise flight for a medium size aircraft. A significant fuel burn
reduction estimate or, alternatively, an increased range capability is
demonstrated, with margins of further improvements.
The herein presented activity is part of the research project SARISTU
(Smart Intelligent Aircraft Structures), funded inside the VII European
Framework Programme (EU-FP7).
8690-15, Session 3
Design and development of an active Gurney
flap for rotorcraft
Jon Freire Gómez, Julian D. Booker, Phil H. Mellor, Univ. of Bristol
(United Kingdom)
Return to Contents
Conference 8690: Industrial and Commercial
Applications of Smart Structures Technologies VII
8690-17, Session 4
8690-19, Session PTues
SMA-actuated vertical deploy air dam, part 2:
operation and test performance of prototype
Semi-active magnetorheological seat
suspension for vibration isolation of a
helicopter crew seat
Alan L. Browne, Nancy L. Jonson, General Motors Corp. (United
States); Jeffrey Brown, Dynalloy Inc. (United States)
Gregory J. Hiemenz, Pablo Sztein, Techno-Sciences Inc. (United
States); Wei Hu, Norman M. Wereley, Univ. of Maryland, College
Park (United States); William C. Glass, Naval Air Warfare Ctr.
Aircraft Div. (United States)
Airflow over/under/around a vehicle can affect many important aspects of
vehicle performance including vehicle drag (fuel economy) and cooling/
heat exchange for the vehicle powertrain and A/C systems. Devices in
current use to control airflow, with the exception of a few active spoilers,
are of fixed geometry, orientation, and stiffness. Such devices can thus
not be relocated, reoriented, etc. as driving conditions change and thus
vehicle airflow cannot be adjusted to better suit the changed driving
condition. Additionally, under-vehicle airflow control devices also reduce
ground clearance presenting a challenge to designers to provide the
needed control of airflow while maintaining sufficient ground clearance.
A magnetorheological (MR) seat suspension system was retrofitted to
the SH-60 Seahawk crew seat to provide semi-active control of harmful
cockpit vibrations. Current seating systems are designed primarily to
meet crashworthiness requirements rather than vibration isolation. They
employ crashworthy fixed or variable load energy absorbers (FLEAs or
VLEAs) to minimize the potential for occupant spinal and pelvic injuries
during harsh vertical or crash landings of these aircraft and increase
the chances of occupant survival during these events. These energy
absorbers, however, will not stroke until a tuned load threshold is reached
and therefore act as a stiff link between the seat and the floor during
normal rotorcraft vibration. Because of this, these systems provide no
isolation to cockpit vibration. The MR suspension was implemented in
series with the existing FLEAs in order to minimize added weight and
was designed such that crashworthiness capabilities of the seat were
not impaired. Experimental vibration testing results have shown that this
system reduces the dominant rotor-induced vertical vibration at the blade
passage frequency transmitted to the occupant by over 90%, which is
a 86% improvement over the original SH-60 crew seat. Furthermore,
full-scale dynamic crash testing performed on this retrofitted seat has
demonstrated that crash safety is preserved. Through this dynamic
testing in the laboratory, it has been shown that the MR suspension
reduces peak lumbar loading as compared to the original SH-60 crew
seat from 1,950 lb down to 1,250 lb. The results of a flight test are also
This collaborative study was successful in developing an SMA actuator
based approach to reversibly deploying an air dam through vertical
translation of its structure. Beyond feasibility, vehicle mounted prototype
fully functional units demonstrated that this approach would add little
weight to the existing stationary system, and could potentially perform
well in the harsh under vehicle environment due to a lack of exposed
bearings and pivots. This demonstration showed that actuation speed,
force, and cyclic stability all could meet the application requirements.
The solution, a dual point balanced actuation approach based on
shape memory alloy wires, uses straight linear actuation to produce a
reversible height change of 50 mm. On vehicle wind tunnel and on-road
tests verified the potential for a reversibly deployable air dam to meet
the otherwise conflicting goals of large ground clearance for off-road
performance and optimum lower ground clearance for optimum fuel
economy benefits.
8690-18, Session 4
8690-20, Session PTues
Nonlinear magnetostrictive modeling for
smart material electro-hydraulic actuator
Structural design and analysis of a kind of
improved pneumatic muscle fiber
John P. Larson, Marcelo J. Dapino, The Ohio State Univ. (United
Ning Feng, Shanbo Chen, Yanju Liu, Jinsong Leng, Harbin
Institute of Technology (China)
Smart material electro-hydraulic actuators use hydraulic rectification by
one-way check valves to amplify the motion of smart materials, such
as magnetostrictives and piezoelectrics, in order to create compact,
lightweight actuators for aerospace and automotive applications. A
piston pump driven by a smart material is combined with a hydraulic
cylinder to form a self-contained, power-by-wire actuator that can be
used in place of a conventional hydraulic system without the need
for hydraulic lines and a centralized pump. The actuator developed
in this paper uses Terfenol-D as the driver material. The response
of this magnetostrictive material is nonlinear, especially at the high
frequencies and drive levels at which peak performance occurs. A fully
coupled axisymmetric modeling framework is developed to understand
and optimize the magnetostrictive response; the framework includes
Maxwell’s equations for electromagnetics and Navier’s equation for
mechanical systems coupled with an energy-averaged constitutive law
for Terfenol-D. Additionally, the fluid-structure interaction between the
pumping piston driven by the magnetostrictive rod and the hydraulic
fluid circuit is considered, including the dynamics of the reed valves
used to rectify flow. The modeling framework is implemented using the
commercial finite element package COMSOL. The model is validated
through an experimental study of a test actuator with a peak performance
of 37 W. Additional tests are conducted to quantify the dynamic behavior
of the one-way reed valves used in the system. The model is then utilized
to identify the key parameters limiting the actuator performance at high
frequencies and to optimize the system for improved efficiency and
power-to-weight ratio.
In this paper, a kind of improved pneumatic muscle fiber is proposed
from the bionics perspective. Four kinds of commercial latex tubes of
different specifications are selected for pneumatic muscle fiber and the
output force and contraction of pneumatic muscle fiber are tested with
internal air pressure varying from 0 to 0.7 MPa. The experiment results
show that a kind of proper latex tube could be chosen from four kinds of
different latex tubes, so as to get greater output force and relatively larger
contraction. The elastic modulus of the improved pneumatic muscle fiber
utilizing the chosen latex tube is experimentally determined. And then the
effect of lengths of different pneumatic muscle fibers is considered in this
paper, so the pneumatic muscle fibers with four representative lengths
are made. The pneumatic muscle fibers with different lengths are tested
to get independent output force and contraction ratio. For analyzing the
properties of pneumatic muscle fibers the independent output force and
contraction ratio of pneumatic muscle fibers are compared. A new sealed
and interconnected joint which is used as connection parts of pneumatic
muscle fiber is also designed and analyzed in this paper to realize the
purpose of more convenient application. Moreover the properties of this
pneumatic muscle fiber with the new joint are tested. Finally it could be
realized that morphing skin, especially variable stiffness skins would
employ this kind of improved pneumatic muscle fiber to accomplish the
morphing target.
Return to Contents
Conference 8690: Industrial and Commercial
Applications of Smart Structures Technologies VII
8690-21, Session PTues
Proton exchange membrane based on
sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) and
sulfonated poly(1,4-Phenylene ether ether
sulfone) for vanadium redox flow battery
Suraluck Macksasitorn, Sairung Changkhamchom, Anuvat
Sirivat, Kitipat Siemanond, Chulalongkorn Univ. (Thailand)
The currently used proton exchange membrane (PEM) in vanadium redox
flow batteries (VRB) is Nafion, due to its excellent proton conductivity
in the fully hydrated condition, although it is very expensive. In order to
reduce the cost of the membrane used in VRB and to reduce vanadium
permeability across the membrane, sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone)
(PEEK), and poly(1,4-phenylene ether ether sulfone) (PPEES) membranes
are fabricated and studied for the effect of the sulfonation time. The
degree of sulfonation, which increases from 46% to 86%, induces the
water uptake, ion exchange capacity, proton conductivity, and vanadium
permeability enhancements. The vanadium permeabilities of S-PEEK
and S-PPEES membranes are in the range of 0 to 24.95?10-7 cm2 min1, which are significantly lower than that of Nafion 117 whose value is
30.84?10-7 cm2 min-1. The proton conductivity of S-PEEK is nine times
higher than that of sulfonated poly(arylene ether ketone) in a previous
work and more suitable for using in VRB.
Return to Contents
Conference 8691:
Nano-, Bio-, Info-Tech Sensors and Systems
Sunday - Thursday 10–14 March 2013
Part of Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 8691 Nanosensors, Biosensors, and Info-Tech Sensors and Systems 2013
8691-1, Session 1
8691-3, Session 2
Development of sensing techniques for
weaponry health monitoring (Keynote
Wireless health monitoring helmet for football
players to diagnose concussion and track
Ebonee A. Walker, Eugene Edwards, Paul B. Ruffin, Christina L.
Brantley, U.S. Army Research, Development and Engineering
Command (United States)
Sechang Oh, Prashanth S. Kumar, Hyeokjun Kwon, Pratyush Rai,
Vijay K. Varadan, Univ. of Arkansas (United States)
Football players are regularly exposed to violent impacts. Concussions
are mild traumatic brain injuries that are one of the most common
injuries experienced by football players. These concussions are often
overlooked by football players themselves and the clinical criteria used
to diagnose them. The cumulative effect of these mild traumatic brain
injuries can cause long-term residual brain dysfunctions. In addition, an
athlete’s fatigue level should be monitored to prevent any secondary
injuries due to over exertion. Nitric Oxide acts as a metabolic adjustment
factor that controls the flow of oxygen in blood and the contraction/
relaxation of muscles. Fatigue can be evaluated by measuring the
concentration change of nitric oxide in blood. However, measuring the
concentration of nitric oxide in blood is not feasible during exercise.
Nevertheless, the degree of fatigue can be measured with SpO2 during
exercise because the change of nitric oxide also influences the SpO2. In
this paper, we propose a wireless health monitoring helmet to diagnose
concussions and evaluate fatigue in real time and on the field. The
helmet is equipped with sensors and a transmitter module. As sensors,
textile based electrodes are used to sense EEG and oximeter sensors
are used to derive SpO2. The sensed physiological signals are amplified
and processed in the transmitter module. The processed signals are
transmitted to a server using Zigbee wireless communication. The EEG
signals are classified to diagnose concussion or any abnormality of
brain function. In conclusion, the system can monitor and diagnose
concussions and evaluate fatigue in football players in real time by
measuring their EEGs and SpO2.
Due to the costliness of destructive evaluation methods for assessing the
aging and shelf-life of missile and rocket components, the identification
of nondestructive evaluation methods has become increasingly important
to the Army. Verifying that there is a sufficient concentration of stabilizer
is a dependable indicator that the missile’s double-based solid propellant
is viable. The research outlined in this paper summarizes the Army
Aviation and Missile Research, Development, & Engineering Center’s
(AMRDEC’s) comparative use of nanoporous membranes, carbon
nanotubes, and optical spectroscopic configured sensing techniques
for detecting degradation in rocket motor propellant. The first sensing
technique utilizes a gas collecting chamber consisting of nanoporous
structures that trap the smaller solid propellant particles for measurement
by a gas analysis device. In collaboration with NASA-Ames, sensing
methods are developed that utilize functionalized single-walled carbon
nanotubes as the key sensing element. The optical spectroscopic
sensing method is based on a unique light collecting optical fiber
system designed to detect the concentration of the propellant stabilizer.
Experimental setups, laboratory results, and overall effectiveness of each
technique are presented in this paper. Expectations are for the three
sensing mechanisms to provide nondestructive evaluation methods that
will offer cost-savings and improved weaponry health monitoring.
8691-2, Session 2
Nano-particle coating based point-of-care
diagnostic system
8691-4, Session 2
E-bra for monitoring pericardial effusion: a
dancing heart
Xiao Qun Zhou, Institute for Infocomm Research (Singapore);
Weihua Hu, Chang Ming Li, Nanyang Technological Univ.
Vijay K. Varadan, Univ. of Arkansas (United States)
A major class of POC diagnostic tests is the lateral flow test, which
uses a membrane or paper strip to indicate the presence of protein
markers. On a membrane, addition of sample induces capillary action
without user intervention. As the sample flows across the membrane, it
gathers labeling reagents embedded in the membrane, and flows over
an area that contains capture molecules; the labeled captured analytes
are interpreted by eye to form a visible band. For targets present at low
native concentrations, the assay systems are not applicable.
No Abstract Available
8691-5, Session 3
200 years of electrical impedance
spectroscopy (EIS) in healthcare : progress
and challenges (Keynote Presentation)
Fluorescence based immunoassay technology is an excellent platform
for POC diagnostic applications [1, 2]. However, the most fluorescence
measurement systems suffer from the insufficient sensitivity, bulky,
complex and expensive. To solve these problems, we increase the
fluorescent signals by coating nano-particles on the substrate. [3,5]. Such
enhancement could significantly increase an assay’s detection sensitivity
and hence is very desirable in many situations such as early detection of
Ajit Khosla, Simon Fraser Univ. (Canada)
This paper focuses on progress made in the area of Electrical Impedance
Spectroscopy (EIS) over last 200 years in healthcare. Although Electrical
Impedance Spectroscopy was first Introduced by Oliver Heaviside in the
1880s, it has yet to play a major role in diagnostics. EIS has the potential
to be of every day clinical value and play an important role in diagnostics
and monitoring of a large number of disease such as detection of breast
cancer, skin cancer, body composition, bladder abnormalities, body
water and biological tissues. However, it has yet to be routinely used as
a tool in everyday clinical practice. Various state of the art EIS diagnostic
systems will be discussed such as SIM-technika’s - MEIK® Version
5.0, Siemen’s-T-scan and SciBase-SI-1 & 2. Also, discussed will be
challenges involved and innovation required in implementing EIS systems
as routinely used tools in everyday clinical practice.
We developed a microfluidic POC diagnosis system based on nanoparticles coated capillary tube. Such coating based tube immunoassay
device makes microfluidic system run simply, and overcome the
problems of blockage, leakage, and mixing problem. The system is in
a compact, portable and robust package, and furthermore, it does not
require extensive laboratory training or equipment. We use a disposable
capillary tube with dry reagents coating to avoid the need for refrigeration
and no manual sample processing is required.
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Conference 8691:
Nano-, Bio-, Info-Tech Sensors and Systems
8691-6, Session 4
than Holter monitor system. The critical concern in the system is that
the motion artifact (MA)by induced from body movement action has
a deleterious effect on distortion of pure ECG signal. In this paper,
ICA(independent component analysis) theory is suggested to remove
MA in the e-bra system. The basic assumption of ICA algorithm is that
components mixed in each signal are independent, and all signals can be
mixed with multiplying independent components and different weighed
vector. Basically, MA and ECG signal are independent because ECG and
MA are created from different physical processes. However, to adapt
ICA, we at least need two ECG measurement signals including pure
ECG component and MA component. E-bra system has implemented
with only one ECG measurement system. To solve the problem, the
two pseudo ECG signals are created by mixing with measured ECG
measurement signal in e-bra system, selected arbitrary weighed vectors,
and wandering baseline noise component. Finally, the two pseudo ECG
signals are adapted by ICA algorithm to extract pure ECG signal. Sitting,
walking, and running activities are performed for the suggested algorithm
performance evaluation.
Smart real-time cardiac diagnostic sensor
systems for football players and soldiers
under intense physical training
Prashanth S. Kumar, Sechang Oh, Pratyush Rai, Hyeokjun Kwon,
Vijay K. Varadan, Univ. of Arkansas (United States)
Sudden cardiac death (SCD) and acute myocardial infarctions (AMIs)
have been reported to be up to 7.6 times higher in rate of occurrence
during intense exercise as compared to sedentary activities. The risk is
high in individuals with both diagnosed as well as occult heart diseases.
Recently, SCDs have been reported with a high rate of occurrence
among young athletes and soldiers who routinely undergo vigorous
training. Pre-screening Electrocardiograms (ECG) and echocardiograms
have been suggested as potential means of detecting any cardiac
abnormalities prior to intense training to avoid the risk of SCDs, but the
benefits of this approach are widely debated. Moreover, the increased
risk of SCDs and AMIs during training or exercise suggests that ECGs
are of much greater value when acquired in real-time during the actual
training. The availability of immediate diagnostic data will greatly reduce
the time taken to administer the appropriate resuscitation. Important
factors to consider in the implementation of this solution are: - cost of
overall system, accuracy of signals acquired and unobtrusive design.
In this paper, we evaluate a system using printed sensors made of inks
with functional properties to acquire ECGs of athletes and soldiers during
physical training and basic military training respectively. Using Zigbee,
we show that a large number of athletes and soldiers can be monitored in
real time, simultaneously.
8691-9, Session 5
Flexible paper transistor made with ZnOcellulose hybrid nano-composite for
electronic applications
Hyun-u Ko, Inha Univ. (Korea, Republic of); Gwang-Hoon Kim,
Chosun Univ. (Korea, Republic of); Sang Yeol Yang, Jaehwan
Kim, Inha Univ. (Korea, Republic of); Joo-Hyung Kim, Chosun
Univ. (Korea, Republic of)
The brain cells inevitably interface with neural probes that are typically
much stiffer in comparison and are susceptible to mechanical damage
due to mechanical motion of the brain. A series of dynamic simulations
are conducted to better understand the design enhancements needed for
the neuron probe and how the brain tissue deformation near the interface
of the neuron probe will be affected by the relative micromotion of the
probe. The simulation uses a nonlinear transient explicit finite element
code, LS-DYNA. Results of a calibrated quasi-static three-dimensional
quarter-symmetry model with viscoelastic properties are employed
on the brain to capture the time dependent dynamic deformations
from the probe as a function of different analytical parameters such as
displacement frequency and interface friction.
Growth mechanism of semiconducting ZnO layer chemically grown on
regenerated cellulose and its flexible paper transistor were studied. ZnO
layer-cellulose composite was prepared by simple chemical reaction
including alkaline hydrolysis at room temperature and utilizing wet
state regenerated cellulose as a hydrophilic substrate. By increasing
the concentration of ZnO seeding layer, the number of ZnO cluster
also increases. Interestingly, the rod shape particles are also formed
on cellulose substrate. From our observation, in low concentration
from 25mM to 50mM, the size of ZnO rod increases as the seeding
concentration increases. However, in high concentration, flower shaped
ZnO structure is observed, which indicates that the flower shape is due
to clustering effect during the growth of ZnO rods. Crystalline nano-rod
based thin ZnO layer was analyzed by XRD and SEM measurements.
Nano-rod based thin ZnO layer was well grown on cellulose substrate
and the thickness of ZnO layer was well controlled by reaction time.
Structural data of as grown ZnO/cellulose provides the crystal orientation
limited growth mechanism of ZnO nano-rod by the reaction time of
chemical process. By lift off process, a source and a drain electrode was
fabricated transistor using sputtering process. Bottom gate electrode
was deposited on the cellulose which plays a role of gate dielectric layer.
More detailed ZnO-cellulose based transistor is also investigated and
8691-8, Session 4
8691-10, Session 5
Motion artifact removal algorithm by using
ICA for e-bra: women ECG measurement
High-k dielectrics in II-V semiconductors for
innovative electronics
Hyeokjun Kwon, Sechang Oh, Prashanth S. Shyamkumar, Vijay
K. Varadan, Univ. of Arkansas (United States)
Compound III-V semiconductors such as GaAs have the potential to
replace Si as the channel material in metal-oxide-semiconductor-fieldeffect-transistors (MOSFET) due to their extraordinary high electron
mobility. Some III–V compounds have unique optical, electronic and
chemical properties; their ability to efficiently emit and detect light
means they are often used in lasers, light-emitting diodes and detectors
for optical communications, instrumentation and sensing. In order to
enable low power and high-speed III-V (GaAs or InGaAs) metal oxide
semiconductor (MOS) logic device applications at 22 nm technology
nodes and beyond, a high quality high-k on III-V interface is important.
8691-7, Session 4
Micromotion-induced dynamic effects
between a neuron probe and brain tissue
Michael Polanco, Old Dominion Univ. (United States); Hargsoon
Yoon, Norfolk State Univ. (United States); Sebastian Bawab, Old
Dominion Univ. (United States)
Aswini K. Pradhan, Norfolk State Univ. (United States)
Wearable ECG(ElectroCardioGram) measurement systems have
increasingly developed for people suffering from CVD(CardioVascular
Disease) who have also very active lifestyle. Especially, in case women
CVD patients, several abnormal CVD symptoms are accompanied with
CVD. Therefore, periodic ECG monitoring is significant diagnostic method
to prevent from sudden heart attack. An E-bra ECG measurement
system in our previous work gives more convenient option for women
Return to Contents
Conference 8691:
Nano-, Bio-, Info-Tech Sensors and Systems
For instance, Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) surfaces were self-cleaned (SC)
through fast pulsing of the Trimethyl aluminum (TMA) precursor by
reducing and restraining the regrowth of native oxides on GaAs surface
using the atomic layer deposition (ALD). The thermal conversion of As-O
in to Ga-O reduction during the pulsing of TMA was evaluated by the
x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Metal oxide semiconductor
(MOS) capacitor was fabricated by ALD using ZrO2 as high-k gate
dielectric on SC n-GaAs substrates, and their superior performance has
been demonstrated. The amount of bulk and interface fixed charges
in ZrO2 is reduced by improving the ZrO2/GaAs interface through
restraining the oxidation of surface chemical species and controlled
thermal treatment. The MOS capacitor improvement is qualitatively
demonstrated. We will also discuss other II-V semiconductors, such
high-k on GaN. This strategy has remarkable significance for the
development of high-throughput innovative electronics.
a complete test with a minimum number of essential tests, none of which
can be eliminated, is presented. The theory and appliications of this
word-level circuit fault-detection method are completely general and are
illustrated by examples.
8691-13, Session 5
Logic design of word-level 3D, 2-dot QCA
Samuel C. Lee, The Univ. of Oklahoma (United States)
One of the promising emerging nanotechnologies is the molecular
quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA). A considerable amount of
attention has been give to the 2D 2-dot QCA circuit designs and
simulations at the bit level by Hook and Lee. The purpose of this paper
is two-fold: (1) to introduce a new 3D QCA lattice structure, formed by
2-dot QCA cells, and (2) to present a word-level QCA nanoIC design
using this 3D 2-dot QCA architecture which uses a slice of the lattice to
implement one bit of the word data. For example, for an 8-bit word, there
will be 8 slices of 2-dot QCA lattices embedded in the nanoIC.
8691-11, Session 5
CuIn0.81Al0.19Se2thin films preparation and
Al/p-CuInAlSe2 Schottky diode formation
Usha Parihar, Univ. of Jammu (India); Chetan J. Panchal, The
Maharaja Sayajirao Univ. of Baroda (India); Naresh Padha, Univ.
of Jammu (India)
Since for each Boolean function there are three general word-level
representations: the word-level arithmatic representation, the wordlevel sum-of-products representation and the word-level Red-Muller
representation, there will be three different 3D 2-dot QCA realizations.
These realizations offer three design candidates. Based on their circuit
complexity, manufacturing costs, non-invasive testability, etc., the final
design can be determined, which could be one of the three designs plus
a possible (hybrid) combination of the three designs.
Polycrystalline chalcopyrite compound CuIn1-xAlxSe2 (CIAS) with x
= 0.19 was synthesized by melt quenching technique, wherein, all the
elemental components, ie, copper, indium, aluminium and selenium in
stoichiometric proportions were reacted in an evacuated quartz ampoule.
Structural and compositional characterization of the synthesized
pulverized material confirms the polycrystalline nature of tetragonal
phase and stoichiometry. The synthesized compound material was
used as an evaporant material to deposit CuInAlSe2 thin films onto
organically cleaned soda lime glass substrates using flash evaporation
technique. The deposited thin films were then undertaken for structural,
electrical, optical measurements. The crystallinity in the films increases
with increasing substrate temperature up to 473 K, and subsequently
degrades at substrate temperatures higher to this; it also increases with
increase in layer thickness from 200nm to 700nm. P-type conductivity
of the deposited films was established by using Hall measurement
setup and provided optimized parameters at a layer thickness of
700nm at a substrate temperature of 473K. The current-voltage (I-V)
characteristics of Al/p-CuInAlSe2 Schottky diode has been measured
over a temperature range of 233 K to 353 K. The electronic parameters
such as ideality factor (?), barrier height (?bo) and series resistance
(Rs) were determined from the downward curvature of current-voltage
characteristics using Cheung’s method. The extracted parameters were
found to be strongly temperature dependent; BH increases, while Ideality
factor and Rs decreases with increasing temperature. The behavior of
BH and ideality factor with change in temperature has been explained
on the basis of barrier inhomogenities over the interface by assuming a
Gaussian distribution (GD) of the barrier heights at the M-S interface.
8691-14, Session 6
Molecular recognition using nanomechanical
Anja Boisen, Technical Univ. of Denmark (Denmark)
Small mechanical structures such as diving boards, bridges and lids can
be used as compact, sensitive and label free sensors. A biochemical
reaction at the surface of the structure can be monitored as a bending,
due to a change in surface stress. Minute temperature changes can be
registered by exploring the bimorph effect. Furthermore, mass detection
can be achieved by using resonating structures and monitor how the
resonant frequency changes as a function of the added mass. In order
to obtain high sensitivity the structures need to have micrometer and
sometimes nanometer dimensions. They are fabricated by cleanroom
processing using either silicon or polymer based materials.
Often cantilever-like structures are used as the sole mechanism
of sensing, either for fundamental studies of i.e. surface stress
generation or for specific sensor applications. We hypothesise that a
combination of sensing principles facilitates increased robustness and
reliability of generated data. In recently initiated projects we therefore
combine cantilever-based sensing with other sensing techniques
like electrochemistry, Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy, and
calorimetry. Either two sensor principles are integrated in a single chip or
several different sensors are used for independent analysis of the same
sample. In all projects the final aim is to achieve highly sensitive, reliable
and miniaturized sensors. By high throughput data collection, statistical
data treatment is possible. We will show examples from explosives
detection, diagnostics, water analysis and nano-particle monitoring.
8691-12, Session 5
Fault detection in word-level nano ICs using
vector Boolean derivatives
Samuel C. Lee, The Univ. of Oklahoma (United States)
This paper consists of four parts: (1) The word-level representations of
digital circuits which include (a) word-level arithmatic representation, (b)
word-level sum-of-products representation, and (c) word-level ReedMuller representation. (2) The three word-level nano IC circuit designs. (3)
The introduction of the vector Boolean derivative. (4) The fault detection
in word-level digital circuits using the vector Boolean derivative.
8691-15, Session 6
MEMS piezoelectric vector hydrophone
Yongrae Roh, Jinwook Kim, Jaeyoung Lee, Kyungpook National
Univ. (Korea, Republic of)
In this paper, both single and multiple faults are considered. The formulas
for deriving tests for detecting struck-at-0 (s-a-0) and struck-at-1 (s-a-1)
are given. For any given word-level digital circuit, presented in any of the
three representations, the derivation of a minimal, complete test set, i.e.,
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Typical underwater acoustic sensors making use of piezoelectric
Conference 8691:
Nano-, Bio-, Info-Tech Sensors and Systems
8691-18, Session 7
ceramics detect only the magnitude of an acoustic pressure, a scalar
quantity, and convert this pressure into a proportional output voltage.
The scalar sensor has no directional sensitivity. In this paper, we have
proposed a new underwater sensor based on MEMS structure, which
is sensitive to both the magnitude and the azimuthal direction of an
acoustic wave, thus the sensor is named as an underwater vector
hydrophone. The vector hydrophone consists of a bionic hair cylinder
connected to a piezoelectric cantilever structure so that the cylinder can
respond to the directional effects of in-coming acoustic wave pressures.
Validity of this new design has been confirmed with analytic equations
and finite element analyses. Further, effects of all the following structural
variables on the performance of the hydrophone have been analyzed
through finite element analyses: frame material, cylinder material and
length, detection element (piezoelectric cantilever) length and thickness,
kinds of the piezoelectric material, beam length and thickness, and whole
hydrophone size. Direction beam pattern as a function of the structural
variables has been thoroughly analyzed, which leads to the optimal
structure of the micro-hydrophone as an underwater vector sensor.
Fabrication of nanotemplates using anodized
aluminum oxidation for nanowire array
Ilwoo Seok, Jonathan Cole, Shivan Haran, Arkansas State Univ.
(United States)
In recent years, nanotechnology along with nano-manufacturing has
been an attractive topic for science and engineering research to employ
the micro and nano-scale study. The proposed technology takes the
advancements attained in micro electro-mechanical systems (MEMS)
to the nano-scale which has many potential applications such as solar
power conversion, or biosensors. Some of the main structures created
using nano-scale manufacturing include nanotubes and nanowires. This
project uses the principles of electro-chemistry to create non-porous film
using anodized aluminum oxidation (AAO) process and in turn utilizing
it to fabricate 3D nanowire structures. Studies have shown that these
films are effective in achieving uniformly porous structures, and will be
utilized as a template for the construction of nanotubes and nanowires.
In addition, the proposed project evaluates the effectiveness of using
the AAO templates for a nano-imprinting process which can be used as
a way to produce nano-patterned materials cheaply toward a large area
application. Nano-porous arrays in the Anodized Aluminum Oxide layers
have been successfully created in our laboratory with the intended use to
create nano-wire arrays using electo-deposition. The templates that are
created will be used for growing Ag/Au nano-wire arrays for the purpose
of bio-sensor applications, to begin with. Results from the outcome of
this study will be presented including some additional discussion.
8691-16, Session 7
Overcoming obstacles to creating
complex MEMS systems: parallels with
the semiconductor and computer design
Lesley Shannon, Simon Fraser Univ. (Canada)
The current status of MEMs is perhaps reminiscent of the early
semiconductor technology industry and the development of the
first computer systems. As a technology matures, a certain pattern
of evolution typically ensues. This path, however, is fraught with
challenges, such as efficient architectural exploration and the creation
of an efficient synthesis of a problem’s solution from an effective user
methodology/interface, which act as discontinuities in the advancement
of a technology. Overcoming these obstacles requires major innovations
and, generally, the establishment of infrastructure. This paper proposes
one vision for the future of MEMS technology, describing how the
techniques and methodologies employed in circuit and computing
system design can be adapted to MEMS system design to raise the level
of abstraction and facilitate the creation of more complex architectures,
thereby advancing the state-of-the art of MEMS research and industrial
8691-19, Session 7
Polymer-based MEMS devices with modified
organic electronics and thin film transistor
Vijay K. Varadan, Univ. of Arkansas (United States)
The advancement of silicon based micro electro mechanical systems
(MEMS) is intimately intertwined with developments in the silicon
semiconductor processing technology. Accordingly various processing
approaches have been established for the integration of Silicon based
MEMS with standard CMOS processing. For precision devices, and for
devices requiring integrated electronics, silicon is presently unrivaled.
However, it is not necessarily the best material for all applications. For
example, silicon is brittle; it is only available in specific shapes (wafers);
limited to 2-D or very limited 3-D structures; incompatible with many
chemical and biological substances; fabrication requires sophisticated,
expensive equipment operated in a clean-room environment. These
often limit the low-cost potential of silicon based MEMS. Polymer based
MEMS is gaining momentum rapidly due to its potential for conformability
and other special characteristics not available with silicon. Moreover
polymers are flexible, chemically and biologically compatible, available in
many varieties, and can be fabricated in truly 3-D shapes. Most of these
materials and their fabrication methods are inexpensive. In this talk we
present schemes for the integration of polymeric MEMS sensors with
organic TFTs to emulate similar approaches followed in Silicon micro
Specifically, the paper will focus on some of the key infrastructure
needed to develop and evaluate complex systems, potential limiting
factors in the advancement of a technology. For example, how does a
designer know if they have the best solution to a problem? Similarly, how
do they articulate the specific improvements their design has over the
previous best? Furthermore, how does a designer efficiently investigate
architectural trade-offs to decide what design(s) are likely to provide the
best performance with any confidence (without building them all)? In
discussing these questions and other similar concerns, this paper aims
to provide direction for facilitating the development of complex systems
design using MEMS technology.
8691-17, Session 7
Standoff sensing bioanalytes using MEMS
8691-20, Session 8
Thomas G. Thundat, X. Liu, S. Kim, Charles Van Neste, Univ. of
Alberta (Canada)
Establishing electrical characteristics of
DNA molecular wires in carbon-based
bionanoelectronics platform (Keynote
No Abstract Available
Sam Kassegne, San Diego State Univ. (United States)
Miniaturization of electronic devices into the nanometer range continues
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Conference 8691:
Nano-, Bio-, Info-Tech Sensors and Systems
to present a yet not-well-addressed fundamental technology challenge,
particularly for applications requiring mass-scalability. The most
promising approaches so far are largely based on bottom-up selfassembly concepts that entail constructing electronic components
from their atomic and molecular building blocks. Subsequently, DNAbased nanoelectronics involving metal electrodes has been recently
demonstrated with either bare DNA strands, or metalized DNA, or DNA as
a template or carrier for nanoparticles. However, research so far has been
limited to metal-based electrodes which have narrow electrochemical
window that limits the degree of freedom needed to manipulate nucleic
acid molecules such as DNA through scalable assembly processes such
as electrophoresis and dielectrophoresis. Our recent work has shown
that the electrochemical window of 3D carbon/graphite microelectrodes
micromachined using polymer precursor is much larger than conventional
2D metal electrodes. As electrokinetic transport scales directly with
electric field and time, this is a significant window and translates to much
faster electrokinetic transport of nucleic acid molecules compared to
parallel flow (diffusion and convection that scale with the square root of
efficient neural recording in the brain. In addition to the sensitivity,
biocompatibility and reliability are important factors for these devices in
in-vivo use. The immune response and neural cell degeneration caused
by probing these sensing devices in the brain can greatly affect the
recording capabilities of the probe with time. In this research, a flexible
polyimide neural probe is developed to reduce brain cell damage caused
by stiff structures of neural probes and to adjust the sensing position
even after implantation. We will present device designs, fabrication
methods and analysis results of the neural probing system.
8691-23, Session 9
Development of magneto-impedance
microsensors for the detection of buried
defects using Eddy current
Johan Moulin, Institut d’Électronique Fondamentale (France)
In this talk, we present a new carbon-based bionanoelectronics platform
comprising of DNA molecular wires and interconnects attached to carbon
microelectrodes where the 3D structure enables suspension of DNA wires
away from the substrate eliminating its effect. Key results in the electrical
characterization of this 3D carbon electrode-based bionanoelectronics
architecture and accelerated testing for exploring long-term viability and
stability of this platform are presented.
The detection of buried defects in conductive sheets using Eddy current
injection involves the measurement of a low frequency magnetic field
in the range of 10-1000nT. In this frame, ultrasensitive magnetic field
microsensors based on the magneto-impedance effect have been
developed. Their sandwich structure consists in a conductive track
surrounded by two ferromagnetic layers. By injection of a high frequency
current in the conductive track, its impedance varies with the skin effect,
thus with the external magnetic field through the transverse permeability
of the ferromagnetic material. The sensors have been patterned using
lift-off technique and both the conductive (copper) and ferromagnetic
(Finemet) materials have been sputtered.
8691-21, Session 9
Bio-inspired design: nonlinear digital pixels
for multiple-tier processes
First the properties of the Finemet film have been optimized in terms
of magnetoelastic properties. In this way, sputtering and annealing
conditions have been studied using magnetometer, MOKE and internal
stress measurement. Coercive fields as low as 10A m-1 have been
obtained for a 500 nm thick film. Then a double layer lift-off technique
has been developed in order to overcome the thickness and stress
related to the sputtering of the Finemet film.
Orit Skorka, Alireza Mahmoodi, Jing Li, Dileepan Joseph, Univ. of
Alberta (Canada)
The CCD or CMOS active pixel sensor array in a conventional image
sensor performs worse than the human retina mainly in two ways:
dynamic range and dark limit. Dynamic range measures the span of
intensities simultaneously perceivable in a scene, from bright highlights
to dark shadows. Dark limit is the lowest intensity at which image quality
remains meaningful. These limitations may be overcome by introducing
others, but biology overcomes them without trade-off. Inspired by
the human retina, we design nonlinear digital pixels for multiple-tier
processes, while conventional image sensors use linear analog pixels
in a single-tier process. As nonlinear analog pixels exhibit low image
quality, linearity is preferred. However, a wide dynamic range is easily
achieved with nonlinearity and image quality is improved by giving each
pixel its own analog-to-digital converter (ADC). Normally, the analog
signal of each pixel’s detector is converted to a digital signal outside
the pixel array. With digital pixels, however, signals are protected from
noise immediately upon detection. Digital pixels enjoy a synergy with
multiple-tier processes. These fabrication methods enable small pixels
for optical imaging and non-CMOS detectors for non-optical imaging,
which tolerates large pixels. With a two-tier process, for example, CMOS
or non-CMOS detectors may be stacked upon CMOS ADCs. This raises
the fill factor of both detection and signal processing, and permits a
leading-edge CMOS process, unsuitable for optical detection, to be used
for the complex ADCs. Biological inspiration continues. The human retina
is composed of multiple-tiers of cells for detection and signal processing.
Microsensors have been realized with different film sizes and thicknesses.
Their sensitivity has been measured from DC to 10 kHz with varying
excitation frequencies. The value is constant in this frequency range
and close to 1000V/T/A for a 4 mm x 200 µm sensor. Measurements
in AC magnetic field have been realized using a double demodulation
8691-24, Session 10
Conformal printing of sensors on 3D and
flexible surfaces using direct-write aerosol jet
Tyler J. Blumenthal, Vincent Fratello, Giovanni F. Nino, Keith E.
Ritala, Quest Integrated, Inc. (United States)
Emerging applications for sensing and monitoring technology can no
longer rely entirely on conventional sensor configurations, particularly
where planar, rigid, and often fragile devices cannot meet demanding
system sensing requirements. Direct-write Aerosol Jet (AJ) printing is
establishing itself as an enabling technology for fabrication of sensors
and circuit components on three dimensional (3D), flexible surfaces for
applications ranging from structural health monitoring to human factors
and performance measurement.
8691-22, Session 9
The AJ process is a non-contact procedure with deposition occurring
at a standoff distance up to 5 mm, enabling features to be printed over
steps, curved surfaces, and 3D objects. AJ printing utilizes an innovative
methods to aerosolize inks and focus the dense aerosol of material-laden
micro-droplets aerodynamically into a tightly controlled beam of material
that can produce features as small as 10 microns (or as large as several
centimeters). Though there are numerous commercial inks well-suited to
AJ printing, custom inks are readily synthesized for fabrication of sensors
and other components requiring specific materials; pneumatic creation
Polyimide neural probe for chronic sensing of
neural activity and micropositioning
Darryl W. Scott, Min H. Kim, Norfolk State Univ. (United States);
Larry D. Sanford, Eastern Virginia Medical School (United States);
Kyo D. Song, Hargsoon Yoon, Norfolk State Univ. (United States)
Several types of neural sensing devices have been developed to perform
Return to Contents
Conference 8691:
Nano-, Bio-, Info-Tech Sensors and Systems
of); Jaehwan Kim, Inha Univ. (Korea, Republic of); Joo-Hyung
Kim, Chosun Univ. (Korea, Republic of)
of the aerosol permits use of viscous inks to 2500 cP well outside the
bounds of many other printing methods. The technique lends itself well
to rapid prototyping and additive manufacturing of expensive or scarce
materials. Examples will describe the versatility of AJ printing as a viable
method for creating sensors that are conformally matched to the surface
topology of a wide variety of substrates, as well as the accompanying
process development that was required to optimize the printing of each
The general class of organic-inorganic hybrid nano-composites materials
is a fast growing area of research. The significant effort is focused on
the ability to control the nanoscale structures via organic functional
synthetic approaches with inorganic metal oxides. The properties of
nano-composites material depends on the properties of their individual
components but also their morphological and interfacial characteristics.
This rapidly expanding field is generating many exciting new materials
with novel properties. Mainly, cellulose is considered as the richest
renewable materials are presently among the most promising candidates
for use in photonics due to their versatility, flexibility, light weight, low
cost and ease of modification. Cellulose-metal oxide nano-materials
were developed the technologies to manipulate self-assembly and
multi-functionallity, of new technologies to the point where industry
can produce advanced and cost-competitive cellulose metal oxide
hybrid materials. Therefore, the present study is focused on cellulose–
functionalized -4, 4’-(propane-2, 2’-diyl) diphenol-SiO2/TiO2 hybrid
nano-composites materials by in-situ sol-gel process. The chemical and
morphological properties of cellulose-functionalized SiO2/TiO2 materials
via covalent crosslinking hybrids were characterized by FTIR, XRD, TGA,
DSC, SEM, TEM and optical properties.
8691-25, Session 10
Particle-based conductive silver ink
customized for ink jet printing on cellulose
electroactive paper
Mohammad A. H. Khondoker, Seongcheol Mun, Jaehwan Kim,
Inha Univ. (Korea, Republic of)
Silver nanoparticles having diameter less than 50 nm were synthesized
from metal precursor-silver nitrate, stabilizer-polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)
and reducing agent-ethylene. Then, a conductive silver ink was prepared
with suitable solvent. Additionally, appropriate surfactant and viscosifier
were added to adjust surface tension and viscosity to make it useful for
ink-jet printer. In this work, the influences of PVP molecular weight and
reaction temperature on the size of silver nanoparticle were analyzed
also. The final ink was coated on a cellulose film by spin coating and the
effects of solvent, sintering temperature and solid content on its electrical
resistivity were examined. It was found that 50% co-solvent of Deionized
water & Di-ethylene glycol and solid content of around 50% exhibited
the lowest resistivity of silver ink. Customization issues of the developed
silver ink for ink jet printing on the cellulose film will be discussed.
8691-28, Session 10
Printed tandem photovoltaic/thermoelectric
Hyun Jung Kim, National Institute of Aerospace (United States);
Jungmin Lee, Vijay K. Varadan, Univ. of Arkansas (United States);
Sang H. Choi, NASA Langley Research Ctr. (United States)
Thermalization during the photovoltaic process results in efficiency losses
that could be recovered by a hybrid photovoltaic (PV) /thermoelectric (TE)
device. The photovoltaic portion converts the solar energy into electricity
using the photovoltaic process. Traditional PV systems ignore the thermal
portion of the solar energy, but a hybrid PV/TE device can convert also
the thermal portion of solar energy into electricity. A PV/TE tandem
system typically consists of a PV module attached to an absorber
plate. Not only does the absorber plate cool the PV module to improve
its electrical performance, it also serves to collect the thermal energy
produced, which would have otherwise been rejected to the environment
as heat.
8691-26, Session 10
Synthesis and characterization of polymeric
binders for printing inks
Jungmin Lee, Linfeng Chen, Vijay K. Varadan, Univ. of Arkansas
(United States)
Printing is one of the most cost-effective production techniques for
electronic devices, such as sensors, flexible circuits, displays and smart
labels. Though this technology has been widely used in military, industry
and civilian life, several key technical challenges should be solved to
meet up with the requirements for the fabrication of ever emerging new
devices. The printing ink, which is composed of filler, binder, solvent
and additives, is among the most important elements in the printing
process. To obtain good dispersity of filler and control the ink’s viscosity,
many factors should be taken into consideration, such as curing
temperature, viscosity, wetting and adhesion, mechanical stability and
shrinkage. In this research, various types of polymers are synthesized
and characterized for their application as binders in printing inks. The
molecular weights and conversion of the polymers are optimized to
achieve desirable characteristics for binders. To increase the electrical
conductivities of printing inks, conductive polymers such as polyaniline
and PEDOT: PSS are also studied for their applications as binders. In this
work, the electrical conductivities of the synthesized polymeric binders
are characterized by a four point probe automatic resistivity meter.
We highlight the advancement and progress in the field of flexible solar
PV/TE modules. Our research is focused on developing a thermoelectric
ink to improve the efficiency of the flexible PF/TE device at a low
cost. The ink prepared for a roll-to-roll printing process should have
low viscosity for easy application to the substrates. Drying time and
temperature also need to be controlled for proper formation of the TE
patch with acceptable adherence to the substrate. Bi2Te3-based alloy
is a promising candidate for the tandem photovoltaic/thermoelectric
generator since the Bi2Te3-based alloys show high thermoelectric
performance around room temperature. Nano-scale powder of Bi2Te3 is
added to epoxy resin and polystyrene to create the ink for the roll-to-roll
printing process. Initial composite material properties show the proposed
method as a promising low-cost, scalable method for manufacturing of
photovoltaic/thermoelectric energy generators.
8691-53, Session PTues
8691-27, Session 10
Analysis of nano-indentation test for
polycrystalline materials by modified strain
gradient theory
Synthesis and properties of cellulose
functionalized -4, 4’-(propane-2, 2’-diyl)
diphenol-SiO2/TiO2 hybrid nanocomposites
materials for high-performance applications
Bong-Bu Jung M.D., Pohang Univ. of Science and Technology
(Korea, Republic of)
Sivalingam Ramesh, Gwang-Hoon Kim, Chosun Univ. (Korea,
Republic of); Heung Soo Kim, Dongguk Univ. (Korea, Republic
Indentation tests have been used to measuring the strength and
hardness of materials. Moreover, micro and nano indentation have
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Conference 8691:
Nano-, Bio-, Info-Tech Sensors and Systems
become major tools for investigating the micromechanical properties
of small scale volumes. However, it is well-known that the micro and
nanoindentation hardness of materials shows the strong size effect. But
the classical continuum plasticity can’t predict these size effects in micro/
nano scale, since the constitutive equation of the classical mechanics
doesn’t include the internal length as a parameter for the deformation.
II filter. Analytic signals are derived using Hilbert Transform to allow
phase extraction. Phase synchronization is calculated from the mean of
the phase-differences using an overlapping sliding-window technique
with threshold-based classification. Preliminary results for one subject
(Chb1) with 7 seizure episodes correlate with the phase-locking method
and show an average prediction time of 7.52 minutes with a standard
deviation of 6.33 minutes with accurate prediction of each episode.
The minimum prediction time is 53 seconds that would be sufficient
to engage an automated treatment mechanism like VNS. The phasedifference method is 2.35 times faster than phase-locking, and yields
lower hardware requirement and reduces computational complexity.
The mechanism based strain gradient (MSG) plasticity is one of the
methods to analyze non-uniform deformation behavior in micro/nano
scale. The MSG plasticity is the multi-scale analysis connecting the
micro-scale notion of the statistically stored dislocations (SSDs) and the
geometrically necessary dislocation (GNDs) to meso-scale deformation
using the strain gradient.
In this paper, modified strain gradient theory is proposed based on the
nonhomogeneity of polycrystalline metallic materials. When the grains
of crystalline metals deform, overlaps and voids appear at the grain
boundary. These overlaps and voids can be corrected by the GNDs. By
taking into account the nonhomogeneity of polycrystalline materials, the
density of the GNDs due to the deformation is calculated. Consideration
of the GNDs on the grain boundary give a relationship between the size
effect and the hardness. This relationship can explain the indentation
size effects in micro/nano scale. Using the proposed model, analysis of
the effect of indent size and grain size under the nanoindentation test of
polycrystalline materials is carried out.
8691-56, Session PTues
The model of random signals generated by
optical particle counter and the instrument
Zhengang Yan, Baomin Bian, Nanjing Univ. of Science and
Technology (China); Keding Yan, School of Electronic Information
Engineering,Technological University, Xi’an (China); Chunyong
Wang, zhenhua li, Nanjing Univ. of Science and Technology
8691-54, Session PTues
In order to study and improve atmospheric and air pollution monitoring
sensor, a new mathematical model of random signal is established based
on random process of light scattering signals analyzed by laser particle
counter which combines the high-speed data acquisition card PCI-9812
and optical particles counting sensor. The measured random signals can
be divided into stability constant part and random fluctuation part.
Film-type haptic array actuator made with
cellulose acetate
Ki-Baek Kim, Byung-Woo Kang, Inha Univ. (Korea, Republic
of); Sang-Youn Kim, Korea Univ. of Technology and Education
(Korea, Republic of); Jaehwan Kim, Inha Univ. (Korea, Republic
Theoretical analysis shows statistical distributions of random fluctuation
part which reflects the randomness of measuring process obey the
relationship of nonlinear transform. Statistical distributions of different
characteristics such as, the signal amplitude, the signal width, the
amplitude of extreme, the interval between extreme points, the
subtraction of adjacent amplitudes, the product value of the quantities
and the quotient value of the quantities of this part in the same random
process are studied by experiments and results show statistical
distributions match well with lognormal distribution with a natural number
as an independent variable. The lognormal distribution plays an important
role in describing the random fluctuation characteristics of random
process in both theories and experiments.
This paper reports a film type haptic actuator made with cellulose
acetate. To make users more concentrated on mobile devices, film type
tactile haptic actuator is essential. This film type haptic actuator can
surpass the technology barriers of eccentric motor type haptic actuators
in terms of transparency, broad frequency band, and positioning of haptic
feeling. An element of haptic actuator is made by using cellulose acetate
film, which is transparent, flexible with high dielectric constant. The
haptic actuator elements arrayed to 3 x 3 to comprise a haptic device.
To evaluate the performance of 3x3 array haptic actuator, its output
acceleration and displacement depending on the actuation frequency
and voltage are investigated. For the design of the actuator, a simple
lumped parameter model is made and the model is verified by comparing
the analysis results with experimental ones.
Hardware efficient seizure prediction
Applying both model and analytical methods, a semiconductor laser
particle counter based on optical sensor with mass flux, high signal-tonoise ratio, particle size resolution and counting efficiency is designed.
The new optical sensor has great improvement compared to other
proposed devices before since its flow rate is 28.3L/min with more than
90% counting efficiency and particle size resolution (the 0.4um, 0.6um
standard particles from Duke Scientific Corporation are measured by
0.3um and 0.5um channels). The signal to noise ratio at minimum particle
size could be more than 4:1. We believe this improved optical sensor
could play an important role in real-time monitoring of environmental
particulate pollution and other fields.
Sergi Consul, Bashir I. Morshed, Robert Kozma, Univ. of
Memphis (United States)
8691-29, Session 11
8691-55, Session PTues
Epilepsy affects 2.5 million people in the USA, 20% of which cannot be
treated with traditional methods. Effective treatments require reliable
prediction of seizures to increase their efficacy and quality-of-life. Phase
synchronization phenomenon of two distant neuron populations for a
short period of time just prior to a seizure is utilized for such prediction.
This paper presents a hardware efficient prediction algorithm using
phase-difference method instead of the commonly used phase-locking
method. The dataset has been collected from publicly available “CHBMIT Scalp EEG Database” and consists of scalp EEG recordings from
22 pediatric subjects with intractable seizures. The seizure channel
is selected based on the maximum value of the standard deviation
during seizure, while the reference channel has the minimum value of
the standard deviation. Data from these two channels are conditioned
with a band-pass (flc = 10Hz, fhc = 12.5Hz) 6th order Chebyshev Type
Return to Contents
Microwave syntheses of graphene-based 3D
hybrid nanostructures and their applications
to energy storage systems
Seok-Hu Bae, Il-Kwon Oh, KAIST (Korea, Republic of)
In this study, two microwave syntheses for graphene-carbon nanotubeNickel three-dimensional nanostructures have been developed for anode
materials for lithium ion battery. These fabrication methods provide
efficient solutions to the time consuming problem of the chemical vapor
deposition which has been used for 3D hybrid nanostructures. The
graphene-based 3D nanostructures show that the carbon nanotubes
are grown on the graphene sheets and Ni nanoparticles are inducing
Conference 8691:
Nano-, Bio-, Info-Tech Sensors and Systems
8691-32, Session 12
the growth of carbon nanotubes. The morphologies of 3D hybrid
nanostructures are characterized by scanning electron microscopy and
transmission electron microscopy. Furthermore, graphene-based 3D
hybrid nanostructures are characterized by Raman spectroscopy, X-ray
photoelectron spectroscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy. The
incorporation of graphene and CNT contributes not only to enhancing
the high surface to volume ratio, but also to minimize restacking and
aggregation of graphene sheets. Thus, it helps larger active sites as an
anode electrode for lithium ion battery. These exceptional characteristics
of graphene-based 3D hybrid structures decorated with NiO
nanoparticles have high specific capacity and cycle stability and are also
expected to make favorable effects for electrical devices.
Nano-materials for chemical and mechanical
testing applications
Behraad Bahreyni, Simon Fraser Univ. (Canada)
Synthesis, characterization, and applications of nanomaterials and
nanocomposites are discussed in this talk. In the first part of the talk,
application of nanomaterials for development of chemical sensors
is covered. Special emphasis will be placed on the synthesis and
deposition techniques as well as suitable techniques to take advantage
of the opportunities offered by nanomaterials for chemical sensing. The
second part of the talk overviews the application of nanocomposite
materials for chemical sensing applications. The resistivity of an
electrically insulating polymer can be reduced through addition
conductive nanoparticles beyond a certain concentration limit, known as
the percolation threshold. Conduction through the network of dispersed
nanoparticles in a host material is a result of electrons hopping from
adjacent conductive nanoparticles as imposed by the direction of the
applied electric field. Resistors made from nano-composite polymers
are sensitive to strain variations and can be used as piezoresistors. We
have recently applied similar techniques to develop functionalized layers
of paint. The functionalized paint can be used to measure local stresses
and strains across a structure, provide information about dynamic loads,
or monitor fatigue within the structure. The functionalized paint can be
applied to the surface through a variety of scalable techniques. We will
present experimental results obtained from various samples as well as
methods to collect and process the data from a structure coated with
functionalized paint.
8691-30, Session 11
3D rf integration at VTT
Tauno Vaha-Heikkila, VTT Technical Research Ctr. of Finland
Integration of multiple chips and functions to the same radio module
is a key issue when the size of radio front-end is tried to minimize.
VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland has developed both Low
Temperature Co-fired Ceramics (LTCC) and Integrated Passive Devices
(IPD) integration platforms for radio frequency (RF) integrated modules.
Three dimensional (3D) integration technologies are enablers for realizing
compact multi-chip modules with several different technologies in the
same module.
VTT has developed its LTCC technology especially for high performance
and demanding applications. In RF domain this means that the focus has
been in microwave and millimeter wave components and modules. Full
length paper describes latest achievements especially in millimeter wave
8691-33, Session 12
Tailoring material properties with shaped
femtosecond-laser pulses
To meet high integration density, fine pitch and low cost needs, VTT
has developed IPD integration platform focusing to consumer market
segments. Commercial module technologies have typical pitch between
two interconnects in the range of 200-300 um. On the other hand, CMOS,
GaAs and other semiconductor chips are pad limited in size and would
greatly benefit if fine pitch flip-chip could be used in modules. VTT’s IPD
can use pitch less than 100 um in chip to module integration. Full length
paper shows example results on high Q inductors and capacitors as well
as results on integration aspects.
Stefan Kontermann, Anna Lena Baumann, Thomas Gimpel,
Fraunhofer-Institut für Nachrichtentechnik Heinrich-Hertz-Institut
(Germany); Kay M. Guenther, Clausthal Univ. of Technology
(Germany); Augustinas Ruibys, Andreas Gabler, FraunhoferInstitut für Nachrichtentechnik Heinrich-Hertz-Institut (Germany);
Wolfgang Schade, Fraunhofer-Institut für Nachrichtentechnik
Heinrich-Hertz-Institut (Germany) and Clausthal Univ. of
Technology (Germany)
8691-31, Session 11
Magnetic resonance coupling of power
transmission for biomedical applications
For further driving the development of smart materials, new
manufacturing technologies are necessary to obtain functionalized
materials with characteristics tailored to the specific application
requirements. In this work we present results from irradiating silicon,
nickel, platinum, and zinc with different femtosecond laser pulses. We
show first how the material surface properties can be adjusted depending
on the laser pulse parameters. On all materials variable surface structure
features are realized down to the nanometer range. The structural
properties of the material surfaces are examined for different laser pulse
parameters and investigated by Scanning Electron Microscopy. These
structures find application in photovoltaics in form of homogenous
surface textures of multi crystalline silicon for a very low reflectance. In
the case of metals, the structrures supply a perfect surface for use as
electrode material in fuel cells and new battery concepts like the air metal
battery. Second, we demonstrate how the optical porperties of silicon
can be changed by this laser process, resulting in absorption of light at
infrared wavelengths with smaller energies than the corresponding band
gap of silicon. We clarify that the origin is an intermediate band of energy
states within the band gap of silicon. The absorption properties of this
laser structured silicon enables the absorption of infrared light contained
in the sun spectra od other sources of heat and can be used as substrate
for infrared sensors. Third, for suppling a dopant in the atmosphere of the
silicon laser process, silicon can be doped beyond the thermal solubility
of the dopant. Further we show superhydrophobic behavior of all
structured material by repelled water drops. In conclusion, we show that
the femstosecond laser pulse process is a powerfull tool to synthesize
Kyo D. Song, Hargsoon Yoon, Norfolk State Univ. (United States);
Larry D. Sanford, Eastern Virginia Medical School (United States);
Hyunjung Kim, National Insitute of Aerospace (United States);
Sang H. Choi, NASA Langley Research Ctr. (United States);
Eugene J. Song, National Insitute of Aerospace (United States)
This paper investigates magnetic resonance coupling (MRC) as a wireless
power transmission source for bio-medical applications. Miniaturized
coupled coil sets have been developed for implantable biomedical
sensors using radio frequency waves. In this presentation, several
MRC designs are tested for high efficiency of power transmission and
experiment results from in vitro studies are analyzed. Their bio-safety
features are also discussed and compared with microwave power
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Conference 8691:
Nano-, Bio-, Info-Tech Sensors and Systems
8691-36, Session 12
smart materials featuring adjustable characterisitcs with a variety of
applications in energy conversion and sensors.
Atomic layer deposited Al-doped ZnO films
for optoelectronic applicatins
8691-34, Session 12
Aswini K. Pradhan, Rajeh Mundle, Norfolk State Univ. (United
Electromagnetic characteristics of
Polyaniline/SWCNT composites
Electromagnetic field interactions with the composites made up of
polyaniline (PANI) and single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) are
simulated using the discrete dipole approximation. Recent observations
on polymer nano-composites explain the interface interactions between
the PANI host and the carbon nanostructures. These types of composite
have potential applications in organic solar cell, gas sensor, bio-sensor
and electro-chromic devices. Various nanostructures of PANI in the form
of nanowires, nanodisks, nanofibers and nanotubes have been reported.
In the present study, we considered the nanotube type structure of PANI.
These nanotubes are modeled using coarse grained model of conducting
PANI emeraldine salt form. We use first principle method to calculate
the frequency dependent dielectric constant of the PANI nanotubes.
Absorption spectra of PANI nanotubes are studied by illuminating a wide
range of electromagnetic energy spectrum. From the absorption spectra,
we observe plasmon excitation in near-infrared region similar to that in
SWCNTs studied recently. Composite structures like CNT surrounded by
PANI nanotubes and CNTs wrapped by pristine PANI are also simulated
and their electromagnetic properties like excitation of Plasmon resonance
modes, electric filed distributions etc. will be reported in the paper.
Al-doped ZnO (AZO) films were deposited by the atomic layer deposition
(ALD) on both glass and sapphire (0001) substrates. The Al composition
of the films was varied by controlling the Zn:Al pulse cycle ratios. The
films were characterized by the atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray
photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and optical
measurements. The Film resistivity was measured as a function of Zn:Al
cycle ratios as well as temperature for films grown at various substrate
temperature used for ALD deposition. The resistivity of the ALD grown
films decreases significantly, and so as the increase in the carrier
concentration as the cycle ratio increases. The systematic measurements
of temperature dependence of resistivity of films at various cycle ratios
clearly demonstrate the crossover of the metal-semiconductor-insulator
phase with the function of temperature as well as the cycle ratios. The
average transmission of all films is greater than 85% and the optical
absorption increases significantly in the visible region as the cycle ratio
increases. We observed a remarkable dependence of photo-resistance
on electrical conductivity for ALD-grown films with varying cycle ratios,
which control the Al content in the film. Our results suggest that Al3+ ions
are incorporated as substitutional or interstitial sites of the ZnO matrix.
However, an addition of an excessive amount of Al content causes
the formation of Al2O3 and related clusters as carrier traps opposed
to electron donors, resulting in an increase in the resistivity and other
associated phenomena.
8691-35, Session 12
8691-37, Session 13
Strain measurements on scattered, highly
oriented CNTs
Moving technology from test tube to
commercial product: a case study of three
inventions (Keynote Presentation)
Brahmanandam Javvaji, D. Roy Mahapatra, S. Raha, Indian
Institute of Science (India)
Sebastian M. Geier, Thorsten Mahrholz, Johannes
Riemenschneider, Peter Wierach, Deutsches Zentrum für Luftund Raumfahrt e.V. (Germany); Michael Sinapius, Technical Univ.
of Braunschweig (Germany)
Robert G. Bryant, NASA Langley Research Ctr. (United States)
No Abstract Available
Since carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are public discovered 1991, worldwide
scientific research reveals excellent properties. Most of the found
properties refer to almost defect-free, single-walled carbon nanotubes
(SWCNTs) with nano-scale dimensions. However, scientists try to
incorporate CNTs into applications to transfer their properties in order to
push a specific performance. Typically the results are comparably lower
than expected because of the varying quality of produced CNTs.
8691-38, Session 14
New highly-magnetic binary phase system
Leisha M. Armijo, The Univ. of New Mexico (United States)
A new phase in the binary iron nitrogen system having high magnetic
moments was predicted previously with density-functional electronic
structure calculations. We have engineered and characterized highly
magnetic a’’-Fe16N2 colloidal nanocrystals at low temperatures while
incorporating a green-chemistry method for their production. Fe16N2
nanocrystals with different morphologies may also be synthesized
via our novel procedure. The metastable iron nitrides are elusive and
previous work in this area has resulted in a low yield of the highly
magnetic polymorph a’’-Fe16N2. As a response to the lower size limit
that neodymium magnets may be formed (>200 microns), the difficulty in
synthesizing large homogeneous quantities of a’’-Fe16N2 is elusive and
the two methods may cover a broader range of magnetic materials on the
nanometer and micrometer size range. Additionally, this material is more
magnetic than iron-cobalt with an anticipated lower toxicity for biological
applications. Also, this element will reduce our dependence on costly
rare-earth magnets. In order to impart optical properties we have coated
the Fe16N2 nanocrystals with phosphine, cadmium, and arsenic-free
semiconductor quantum dot (QD) shells. These particles are of interest
for magnetic recording devices, MRI contrast agents, magnetic gradientguided drug or gene transport, and biolabeling.
This paper presents results of research using CNTs as actuators. While
published research analysed architectures of entangled CNTs as active
component, like papers or yarns, to measure their bulk-strain this paper
focuses on scattered, highly aligned CNTs. This approach promises to
clarify the effect of actuation, whether it is a quantum-mechanically, or
rather an electro-static effect or even caused by volume-transfer.
Two experimental set-ups are presented. The first experiment is carried
out using highly aligned multi-walled CNTs (MWCNT-arrays) as substrate.
The CNT-array is optically analysed along the longitudinal geometry
of the vertically aligned MWCNTs. The interfaces of the set-up, which
may influence the measurement, have been analysed in order to avoid
second-order effects like thermal swelling or chemical degradation.
The results reveal comparable high deflections starting at an activationvoltage of ±1,75V. The ionic liquid is tested within a voltage-range of ±2V
due to time-staple performance.
The second test-campaign is carried out using Raman-spectroscopy to
analyse single SWCNTs. Results in terms of shifting peaks according to
the intensity and wave number can be directly attributed to a geometrychange.
The two presented experiments intend to find correlating results in order
to identify the main effects of the measured free strain.
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Conference 8691:
Nano-, Bio-, Info-Tech Sensors and Systems
8691-39, Session 14
made from iron oxide nanoparticles with carbon black as the conducting
material and PVDF as the binding material (iron oxide : carbon black
: PVDF = 70 : 15 : 15). Prototype lithium ion batteries (CR2032 button
cells) were assembled with the composite electrodes as cathodes, metal
lithium as anodes, and Celgard 2400 porous membrane as separators.
The impedance and discharge/charge behaviors were characterized
by a Solartron electrochemical workstation and an Arbin battery tester,
Preparation and electrochemical properties
of spinel lithium manganese oxide
Gaojun Wang, Shaoxing Univ. (China); Linfeng Chen, Gyanesh N.
Mathur, Vijay K. Varadan, Univ. of Arkansas (United States)
Spinel lithium manganese oxide (LiMn2O4) is a favorable cathode
material for lithium secondary batteries due to its low cost and
environmental suitability. Further, because of its high electrochemical
potential, LiMn2O4 has been considered as a promising cathode material
for high power lithium ion batteries, such as the high power batteries for
electric vehicles. However, the electrochemical properties of LiMn2O4 are
strongly influenced by the synthesis conditions. In addition, the cycling
stability and structural stability of LiMn2O4 at high temperatures should
be further improved before this material can be practically used in high
power lithium ion batteries. In the present paper, the electrochemical
properties of spinel LiMn2O4 synthesized via a solid state reaction were
studied. The influence of the synthesis conditions, such as sintering time
and temperature, on the electrochemical properties of spinel LiMn2O4
was investigated.
8691-42, Session 15
Review of Sn and Se based binary/turnery
semiconductors and schottky diodes:
material aspects and current transport
Naresh Padha, Univ. of Jammu (India)
No Abstract Available
8691-43, Session 15
Visualization of interior substructures with
nanoscale resolution using ultrasonic-atomic
force microscopy
8691-40, Session 14
Electrical and electromechanical behaviors of
ZnO-cellulose hybrid nanocomposites
Dongryul Kwak, Taesung Park, Ikkeun Park, Chiaki Miyasaka,
Seoul National Univ. (Korea, Republic of)
Seongcheol Mun, Hyun-U Ko, Inha Univ. (Korea, Republic of);
Byung-Woo Kang, Samsung Electro-Mechanics (Korea, Republic
of); Jaehwan Kim, Inha Univ. (Korea, Republic of)
Nondestructively visualizing interior structures of a material is an
important task for an application in the field of material science. As the
increase the reliability and repeatability of the nano structured material,
many advanced techniques have been developed to obtain subsurface
images with nano-scale resolution. In this study, Ultrasonic-Atomic
Force Microscopy (U-AFM) has applied to visualize the interior structures
of an ultra-thin film system. The cantilever of U-AFM is vibrated, and
the tip of cantilever is in contact with sample surface. The cantilever
vibration includes information about local tip-sample contact stiffness.
The stiffness may be able to measured by using cantilever contact
resonances. The amplitude and the phase of the cantilever resonance
frequency may be changed by the contact stiffness between the
cantilever tip and the condition of the sample surface. Therefore, the
U-AFM can obtain the topographic and the elastic images (i.e., amplitude
and phase images) of surface/subsurface. We have manufactured a
specimen including a nano-structured resolution patterns deposited on
the surface of the silicon (100). The surface is covered by a polymer (i.e.,
SU-8) by spin coating method. We clearly visualized the pattern via the
SU-8 by using the U-AFM. Therefore, we have proved the U-AFM can
visualize the nano-scale interior structures within the specimen.
Cellulose films coated with ZnO nanoparticles constitute an important
material for practical applications ranging from the film paint industry
to the technologically appealing area of optoelectronic paper. ZnOcellulose hybrid nanocomposite was fabricated by growing ZnO on
regenerated cellulose directly. This organic-inorganic nanocomposite
exhibits excellent piezoelectric behavior. This paper reports electrical and
electromechanical behaviors of the ZnO-cellulose hybrid nanocomposite.
The fabrication process is briefly introduced, and induced voltage,
remnant polarization as well as piezoelectricity between cellulose
substrate and ZnO-layers are investigated. Also its charging and
discharging behaviors are studied, and its application possibility for super
capacitor, paper battery, field effect transistor will be discussed.
8691-41, Session 14
Study of the electrochemical properties
of hematite, magnetite, and maghemite
nanoparticles for their applications in lithium
ion batteries
8691-44, Session 15
Hybrid nanocomposites made with cellulose
and ZnO nanoparticles and its biosensing
Linfeng Chen, Univ. of Arkansas (United States); Gaojun Wang,
Shaoxing Univ. (China); Jungmin Lee, Pratyush Rai, Gyanesh N.
Mathur, Vijay K. Varadan, Univ. of Arkansas (United States)
Mohammad Maniruzzaman, Ulo Kersen, Mohammad A. H.
Khondoker, Jaehwan Kim, Inha Univ. (Korea, Republic of)
Iron oxide nanoparticles, including hematite, magnetite and maghemite,
are promising electrode active materials for lithium ion batteries due to
their low cost, high specific capacity and environmental friendliness.
Though the electrochemical properties of each type of iron oxide
nanoparticles have been studied by many researchers, systematic
comparison of the three types of iron oxides is hardly reported. This
paper reports the study and comparison of the electrochemical properties
of hematite, magnetite and maghemite nanoparticles with the same
shape and size. In this work, hematite and maghemite nanoparticles were
obtained from commercial magnetite nanoparticles by thermal treatments
at different conditions. Their crystalline structures were characterized
by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and their particle morphologies were analyzed
by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Composite electrodes were
This paper reports an inexpensive, flexible and disposable cellulose-ZnO
hybrid nanocomposite (CZHN) and its feasibility for a conductometric
glucose biosensor. CZHN was fabricated by simply blending ZnO
nanoparticles with cellulose solution prepared by dissolving cotton pulp
with lithium chloride/N, N-dimethylacetamide solvent. In this process,
sodium dodecyl sulphate was used as a dispersing agent of ZnO. CZHN
was cured in isopropyl alcohol and water mixture and free standing
film was obtained. CZHN was characterized by taking its morphology
and elemental analysis. For biosensor application, the enzyme glucose
oxidase was immobilized into this CZHN by physical adsorption method.
Return to Contents
Conference 8691:
Nano-, Bio-, Info-Tech Sensors and Systems
8691-47, Session 15
The enzyme activity of the glucose biosensor increases as the ZnO
weight ratio increases. The linear response of the glucose biosensor is
obtained in the range of 1-12mM. This study demonstrates that celluloseZnO nanohybrid film can be a disposable type glucose biosensor.
Detection and control of sigma-3 twin defects
in semiconductor ingot and epitaxy growth
Yeonjoon Park, Hyunjung Kim, National Institute of Aerospace
(United States); Jonathan R. Skuza, NASA Langley Research Ctr.
(United States); Kunik Lee, Turner-Fairbank Highway Research
Ctr. (United States); Sang H. Choi, NASA Langley Research Ctr.
(United States)
8691-45, Session 15
1D ZnO nanoarray using electron-beam
Aswini K. Pradhan, Norfolk State Univ. (United States)
No Abstract Available
We have prepared Al: doped ZnO (AZO) seed layers of ~280 nm thick
on the glass substrate using RF magnetron sputter at an ambient of
3500C. The samples were patterned using Electron beam lithography at
different beam energies of 20, 10, 5, and 2 keV. Patterned samples were
processed for growth of ZnO nanorods using hydrothermal technique in a
solution of using Zn (NO3)2 and hexamethylenetetramine (HMT) at 900C
for 4 hrs. After successive ZnO growth, it was coated with PMMA and
the unexposed PMMA were lifted-off. At higher beam energy (~ 20 keV),
the incident electron beam decelerates due to the accumulated negative
charges that already built on the surface in due course of irradiation.
This causes a negative shielding potential close to the surface at micron
level, and completely unfavorable for the attachment of the negative
ZnO carriers. However, at a comparatively lower beam energy (~ 5 keV
or less), the secondary electrons (SE) are responsible for the pattern with
the irradiation zone centered by the local positive field. Therefore, the
negatively charged ZnO NRs can be controlled at lower voltages and put
site selective attachments at increasing the dose.
8691-48, Session 16
Nanoscale imaging of mesh size distribution
in gel engineering materials with visual
scanning microscopic light scattering
Yosuke Watanabe, M. Hasnat Kabir, Jin Gong, Hidemitsu
Furukawa, Yamagata Univ. (Japan)
Gels have unique properties such as low frictional properties, externalfield responses, high water content like soft tissues in the human
body. By using these superior properties, gels have been tried to apply
to medical devices. In the scene of developing medical devices and
materials, the importance of characterizing the structure and mechanical
properties of gels is rising. However, the static inhomogeneities in gels
prevented people from observing the structure of gels by scattering
method. To solve this problem, scanning microscopic light scattering
(SMILS) was originally developed. In this system, the resulting data
are the relaxation-time distribution corresponding to the mesh size
distribution of gels, which are very important in characterizing physical
properties of soft matters. Here we show the new system named
Visual-SMILS that can output the 2-dimentional data of the distribution.
We tried to develop a new apparatus and implement original software
to the system. On the hardware side, the new apparatus differs from
SMILS in that it use three laser sources, inverted microscope and the
galvanometer mirror that can scan the laser in 2D field in order to get
the 2D data at fixed scattered angle. On the software side, the mapping
data is represented in Visual-SMILS. To confirm whether it measures
the size accurately, polystyrene particles were used as the samples. In
addition, poly-N,N-Dimethylacrylamide (DMAAm) gels were analyzed for
comparing the results from diverse systems. In both cases, the results of
the Visual-SMILS are close to another one. We believe the Visual-SMILS
will provide user-friendly interface and promote research in gels.
8691-46, Session 15
Fabrication of CZTS-based thin film solar
cells using all-solution processing and pulsed
light crystallization
Ilwoo Seok, Carson Munn, Shivan Haran, Arkansas State Univ.
(United States)
Solar cells are a viable solution for the production of environmentally
friendly energy. In this research, a thin film based photovoltaic material
is being developed, which will be highly efficient when it comes to its
optical properties and manufacturing cost. The thin film solar cell is
composed of Copper, Zinc, Tin, and Sulfide or ‘CZTS’ and contains
chemicals which are both earth-abundant and non-toxic. All-solution
process is based on a single-step electro-chemistry deposition that
provides all constituents from the same electrolyte. This was investigated
earlier by our group with a high degree of success. This is followed by a
photo-thermal energy driven sintering process to form a CZTS material
from as-deposited chemicals. This enables as-deposited chemicals to be
covalently bonded and crystallized without using costly vacuum process.
In post-heat treatment, a home-made intense pulsed lighting (IPL) system
was utilized for rapid thermal annealing. The successful deposition of the
CZTS thin film was then evaluated and analyzed using cyclic voltammetry
(CV), SEM/EDAX, and XRD. It has been concluded that this method of
photovoltaic thin film fabrication is truly comparable to the conventional
deposition and annealing methods in terms of photovoltaic efficiency and
Return to Contents
8691-49, Session 16
Characterization of shape-memory gels using
scanning microscopic light scattering
M. Hasnat Kabir, Yosuke Watanabe, Jin Gong, Hidemitsu
Furukawa, Yamagata Univ. (Japan)
Soft and Wet material explore the new area of application as an industrial
material especially for medical applications. Shape memory gels are
one kind of unique soft and wet material bearing a shape recovery
property which is suitable for medical application such as bandage for
broken bone or making optical lens and so on. Several fundamental
characteristics of gels, for instant, softness, water absorbance,
transparence, extremely low friction, and biocompatibility, are promising
as a next generation of industrial materials. In the present study, we
characterize internal structure of shape memory gels by scanning
microscopic light scattering (SMILS), which is a dynamic light scattering
system specialized for analyzing the microscopic structure in gels. SMILS
is our own laboratory equipment. It has scanning as well as multi-angle
facilities. Photo multiplier tube is used as a photon detector whereas
He-Ne laser of 532 nm wavelength is used as a light source. A computer
Conference 8691:
Nano-, Bio-, Info-Tech Sensors and Systems
8691-52, Session 17
GUI environment can acquire data and able to analysis. The mesh size of
internal structure of shape memory gels is determined by SMILS and it
is found in several nm in size. The density of elastically effective chain is
possibly calculated from the mesh size of internal structure. The relation
between the internal network structure and mechanical properties of the
gels is discussed.
A novel nanoscaled force sensor based on
silicon photonic crystal
Tianlong Li, Longqiu Li, Wenping Song, Guangyu Zhang, Yao Li,
Harbin Institute of Technology (China)
8691-50, Session 16
With advantages of ultracompact size, high resolution, and easy
integration, nano-scaled force sensors based on photonic crystal
are widely used in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and
nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS). The performances of these
nano-scaled force sensors are mainly determined by nanocavity and
line defect. The principle of the sensor is that the output wavelength of
the force sensor using photonic crystal varies as a function of force and
pressure. In this work, a novel nano-scaled force sensor based on silicon
photonic crystal, in which a nanocavity is embedded in an S-shaped
elastic body, is developed and studied numerically and experimentally.
The relationship between the force and the output wavelength is
determineded using finite element method and finite difference timedomain method. The effect of the nanocavity geometry, length of the line
defect and material properties of photonic crystal are investigated. In
addition, the nano-scaled force sensor is developed by deep reactive ion
etching (DRIE). A comparison between the numerical and experimental
results is provided.
Modelling of the structure-property
relationships in the a-quartz structures
Yong Tao Yao, Harbin Institute of Technology (China)
An auxetic material is one which gets fatter when it is stretched. Thus,
unlike most materials, it has a negative Poisson’s ratio. Materials with
a negative Poisson’s ratio can have enhancements in other physical
properties, including increased indentation resistance, increased plane
strain fracture toughness and an ability to form synclastic doubly curved
surfaces. In order to develop this area further, a detailed understanding of
the mechanisms and geometries necessary to realise auxetic behaviour
at the nanoscale is required. In this project, the Cerius2 molecular
modelling software (Accelrys Inc) is used to model structure-property
relationships of auxetic materials (such as quartz and cristobalite) at
the atomistic and molecular level. Such materials subject to hydrostatic
and uniaxial stress loading in each of the 3 principal directions will be
investigated. The strain-dependent structure and mechanical properties
will be predicted from the simulations, including the transformation from
positive-to-negative Poisson’s ratio behaviour and vice versa.
8691-51, Session 17
Design and development of nanostructured
artificial materials for radar and ladar
Vijay K. Varadan, Univ. of Arkansas (United States); Paul B.
Ruffin, Eugene Edwards, Christina L. Brantley, U.S. Army
Research, Development and Engineering Command (United
In this paper, a new generation of nanostructured artificial materials
incorporating negative refractive index using nano-and micro-coils,
periodic arrangement of plasmonic conductors, Frequency Selective
Surface (FSS), is designed, implemented and characterized for their
potential application in the development of RADAR and LADAR
applications. Microstereo Lithography and Electron Beam Lithography
are used to fabricate these micro-and nano-structures. Potential
applications of these materials for broad band EM absorbers, military
remote sensing, spectroscopic identification of explosives or chemicals,
battlefield medical diagnosis, etc will be presented in the talk.
Return to Contents
Conference 8692: Sensors and Smart Structures
Technologies for Civil, Mechanical, and
Aerospace Systems
Sunday - Thursday 10–14 March 2013
Part of Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 8692 Sensors and Smart Structures Technologies for Civil, Mechanical, and Aerospace
Systems 2013
8692-1, Session 1
assessment can be made of the continuing reliability of a structure. In
this talk, we will discuss two types of sensing platforms that can provide
valuable information about the state of a structure: 1D fiber-optic sensors
and 2D thin-film sensors. Both fiber-optic and thin film sensors are easily
integrated with structures, and can provide local and/or distributed
sensing capabilities. Parameters that can be sensed include: static
and dynamic strains, acoustic emission, vibration, corrosion products,
moisture ingression etc.
Structural health monitoring of large-scale
structures: from diagnostics to prognostics
Y. Q. Ni, The Hong Kong Polytechnic Univ. (Hong Kong, China)
The development of structural health monitoring (SHM) technology has
evolved for over fifteen years in Hong Kong since the implementation
of the “Wind And Structural Health Monitoring System (WASHMS)” on
the suspension Tsing Ma Bridge in 1997. Five cable-supported bridges
in Hong Kong, namely the Tsing Ma (suspension) Bridge, the Kap Shui
Mun (cable-stayed) Bridge, the Ting Kau (cable-stayed) Bridge, the
Western Corridor (cable-stayed) Bridge, and the Stonecutters (cablestayed) Bridge, have been instrumented with sophisticated long-term
SHM systems. Recently, an integrated structural health monitoring and
maintenance management system (SHM&MMS) has been designed
and will be implemented on twenty-one sea-crossing viaduct bridges
with a total length of 9,283 km in the Hong Kong Link Road of the Hong
Kong – Zhuhai – Macao Bridge of which the construction commenced
in mid-2012. The successful implementation and operation of SHM
systems for the bridges and experiences gained by practice and research
in the past two decades have also promoted extended applications
of this technology from long-span bridges to high-rise structures. The
instrumented Canton Tower of 600 m high is such an engineering
paradigm of the application of SHM technology to high-rise structures.
We will first describe some recent developments in dynamic strain
sensing using optical Fiber Bragg Grating sensors. Applications to
detection of acoustic emission and impact will be described. In the
area of chemical sensing, we will describe a Nanofilm-coated Photonic
Crystal Fiber (PCF) long-period grating (LPG) sensing platform. PCFLPG sensors can be designed to provide greater interaction between
the analyte of interest and the light propagating in the fiber, thereby
increasing the sensitivity of detection. Applications to humidity sensing
will be described. Finally, 2D thin-film sensors on polymer substrates will
be discussed. One type of sensor we have been fabricating is based on
reduced graphene-oxide for large-area chemical sensing applications.
It is expected that these 1D and 2D sensing platforms will form part of a
suite of sensors that can provide diagnostic structural health information.
8692-3, Session 2
An analysis of fabrication methods for
embedding particles sensors into a
composite structure
Over the past fifteen years, the SHM system deployed on the Tsing Ma
Bridge has acquired the monitoring data of the environmental effects
on and structural responses of the bridge during 47 typhoons (gales,
storms and hurricanes). The instrumentation system for the Canton
Tower has monitored the structural responses during nine typhoons
and over ten earthquakes in the past five years. The long-term data
continuously acquired under normal and extreme loading conditions are
forming important assets that are greatly beneficial to offering solutions
to a number of ‘grand challenge’ problems in the SHM field: How did
the SHM system provide economic and technical benefits to the lifecycle structural maintenance and management? How about the survival
rate of the deployed sensors and the performance deterioration of the
sensors, data acquisition and transmission units after long periods
of time? Can the cumulated monitoring data be used for predictive
structural assessment or damage prognosis? Is the SHM useful when the
service life of the sensors is shorter than the service life of the structure?
Is the target of structural health assessment and damage detection
still achievable when the deployed sensors are partially damaged/
malfunctioning after a time period? In this presentation, the author tries
to get answers to some of the above issues through exploring a selfevolutionary framework for structural health/condition diagnosis and
prognosis intended to progressively track and predict the evolution of
structural performance with the help of long-term monitoring data.
Dustin L. Spayde, Oliver J. Myers, Mississippi State Univ. (United
The properties of highly magnetostictive materials, such as Terfenol-D,
have opened the door to a wide variety of application possibilities. One
such developing application is embedding magnetostictive particles
(MSP) as sensors for determining the structural integrity of composite
materials over the course of the operating life. The process of embedding
these particles during the fabrication of the composite structure presents
many challenges. This paper will briefly discuss and show the relationship
between particle density and the output of a uni-axial induction based
sensor. This relationship is critical for defining the goal of embedding
process in this paper, to create a uniform uni-axial distribution of
particles within the composite structure. Multiple methods of embedding
magnetostrictive particles into a composite structure are detailed and
then compared to determine their relative effectiveness. Methods
included are: a simple by-hand spread of particles onto uncured prepreg
composite, using the controlled adhesiveness of the prepreg to separate
particles, applying the particles using a unidirectional application tool,
introducing the particles into the epoxy mix to create a slurry during a
VARTM layup, and spraying the particles onto a tacky composite surface
during layup. Each method is used to embed particles into a composite
beam or analog beam. That beam is then scanned with the uni-axial
induction sensor to determine the effectiveness of the method. Results
show promise for the unidirectional application tool, and spray methods
while the remaining processes show critical flaws.
8692-2, Session 1
Sensing platforms for structural health
Shijie Zheng, Northwestern Univ. (United States); Gautam Naik,
Northwestern Univ. Ctr. for Quality Engineering (United States);
Zhongbi Chen, Northwestern Univ. (United States); Yinian Zhu,
Northwestern Univ. Ctr. for Quality Engineering (United States);
Sridhar Krishnaswamy, Northwestern Univ. (United States)
8692-4, Session 2
Integrated strain sensor for damage detection
using shape-memory polymer and carbon
The emerging concept of structural health management relies on
extensive onboard diagnostic sensors that can provide near real-time
information about the state of a structure so that informed prognostic
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Yingtao Liu, Arizona State Univ. (United States); Abhishek
Conference 8692: Sensors and Smart Structures
Technologies for Civil, Mechanical, and
Aerospace Systems
Rajadas, McClintock High School (United States) and Peggy
Payne Academy (United States); Aditi Chattopadhyay, Arizona
State Univ. (United States)
for the metal coated optical fiber sensors (OFSs), which achieve longterm stability, since the coating materials such as aluminum, indium,
tin, zinc, copper, nickel, etc., show the elasto-plastic behavior when
they transfer the load. Thus, considering elasto-plastic characteristics
is required to evaluate accurate measurement. In this study, we focused
on the aluminum coated OFSs bonded on composite structures. The
theoretical model was proposed to derive the strain transfer solution for
the elastic behavior. In addition, the numerical technique considering
the elasto-plastic properties of the metal coating was developed for
investigating the strain distribution of the OFS. The results of the present
method were validated with those of finite element analysis (FEA) using
commercial software ABAQUS, and they showed good agreement.
Finally, the experimental verification was performed by using one of
the OFSs, fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors with the different coating
thickness. They were bonded on the surface of the unidirectional carbon
fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite specimens. As a result, the
tendencies of strain transmission indicate that the strain transmission
from the composites to the sensor core increase as the thickness of
coating increase.
Sensor development is critical for the damage detection, localization, and
prognosis of composite structures. The ideal sensors should be robust
to environmental effects, sensitive to damage initiation, and reliable
during the service life. A novel strain sensor which can be integrated
within carbon fiber reinforced composites will be developed in this paper
using aliphatic urethane shape memory polymers (SMP) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). The SMP will be synthesized using
two monomers: N,N,N’,N’-tetrakis (hydroxypropyl) ethylenediamine
(HPED) and hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI). MWCNTs will first be
treated using a mixed solvent of nitric acid and sulfuric acid, and then
uniformly dispersed within monomers during the fabrication of SMP. The
developed SMP reinforced by MWCNTs will be fabricated into fibers. The
piezoresistance capability will be characterized and used as the sensing
function for the strain measurement. The novel strain sensors will be
integrated within carbon fiber reinforced composites and used for the
damage detection under complex loading conditions.
8692-7, Session 2
8692-5, Session 2
Graphene oxide nanosmart paint for
structural health monitoring of composite
Simultaneously monitoring of electrical
resistance and optical absorbance signals of
an polyaniline membrane coated on an gold
jacketed optical fiber for gas sensing
Inpil Kang, Pukyong National Univ. (Korea, Republic of)
This paper presents graphene oxide (GO) based nano smart paint which
can monitor impact and structural deterioration of composite. The nano
smart paint can monitor composite structure in real time for electrical
impedance and piezoresistive signals indicating structural deterioration
and impact which may be sufficient to cause damage. The smart nano
paint can be easily installed on composite structures using a spray-on
technique, making the sensor low cost and practical.
Shiquan Tao, Shuai Shao, Yu Huang, West Texas A&M Univ.
(United States)
Abstract: Electrical conductivity sensors and optical sensors are the
mostly reported gas sensors. The transducer of an electrical conductivity
gas sensor is usually a semiconductor membrane or a conductive
polymer membrane. When exposed to a gas sample containing the target
analyte, the resistance of the membrane changes, which is detected with
an electrical device as a sensing signal. In an optical gas sensor using
a membrane coating, the adsorption of analyte gas molecules to the
membrane or the reaction of analyte gas molecules with sensing reagents
in the membrane changes the optical properties of the membrane. In
almost all the reported gas sensors, only an electrical signal or an optical
signal was monitored as a sensing signal. However, the adsorption of
analyte molecules onto the sensing membrane or the reaction of analyte
with sensing reagents in the membrane can cause the change of both
electrical and optical properties. This paper reports a new method in
designing a special optical-electrical sensor, which measures both
electrical resistance and optical absorption spectrum as sensing signals.
A gold-jacketed optical fiber was used in sensor design. The gold jacket
of a short part of the fiber was removed, and a polyaniline membrane
was coated on the surface of the optical fiber core. The electrical
resistance and optical responses of such a coated optical fiber probe
to ammonia and moisture in nitrogen gas samples were monitored as
examples to demonstrate usefulness of the reported technique in sensor
An impact applied to the composite structure can be detected by the
highly sensitive nano smart paint. The impact makes deformation of
the structure and it brings change of piezoresistivity of the paint and
those converts into voltage output consequently by means of simple
signal processing system. Deterioration due to cross-sectional damage
or a crack can be detected using the dynamic strain response and
electrical impedance changing patterns of the smart nano paint. Under
crack propagation, the resistance of the smart paint is increased and
the capacitance is decreased which can be converted into a voltage
response change using a bridge electrical circuit. The increased
resistance due to damage causes a higher amplitude voltage and the
reduced capacitance induces a phase shift of the dynamic response
The nano smart paint is lightweight and easily applied to the structural
surface, and there is no stress concentration. The nano smart paint is
expected to be a cost effective and sensitive multi-functional sensor for
composites and other damage monitoring applications in the field of
structural health monitoring.
8692-8, Session 3
Vibration-based damage identification of
reinforced concrete member using optical
sensor array data
8692-6, Session 2
Effects of coating thickness of metal-coated
optical fiber sensors on strain transfer
Chin-Hsiung Loh, Chi-Hang Li, National Taiwan Univ. (Taiwan);
Chi-Hang Li, National Taiwan Univ (Taiwan)
Sang-Woo Kim, Min-Soo Jeong, Eun-Ho Kim, In Lee, KAIST
(Korea, Republic of); Il-Bum Kwon, Korea Research Institute of
Standards and Science (Korea, Republic of); Tae-Kyung Hwang,
Agency for Defense Development (Korea, Republic of)
The objective of this paper is to develop damage identification algorithm
by suing the vibration data (displacement) from a dense optical sensing
array data. The spatial dynamic displacement data is collected from
an optical sensing system which consists of two major devices. One is
the Target-based Photogrammetry that provides the ability to conduct
dynamic measurement functions and full three dimensional tracking. The
other device is OPTOTRAK® Certus which is the optical tracker. It will
The optical fiber sensors (OFSs) have been widely used for various
applications. To predict the exact straining condition of the structures,
much research on strain transfer analysis considering shear deformation
has been undertaken. However, they cannot exactly measure the strain
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Conference 8692: Sensors and Smart Structures
Technologies for Civil, Mechanical, and
Aerospace Systems
track the optical laser flashed by the target system that marks on the
specific points of the structure. The tracker has the ability to track how
these three dimensional measurements change over time for dynamic
motion measurement with RMS accuracy up to 0.1 mm. Data from a
series of shaking table test of a reinforced concrete frame is used in this
study. To analyze the recorded displacement data, first, the 3-D Affine
transformation is used. Then the Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA)
is applied to the dense array data in order to construct the geometry
deformation of each local element. The displacement non-continuity of
each concrete block during the series of excitations is examined. Since
the measured spatial locations can be treated as the nodes in each
discrete element (or block), the concept of 2-D finite element model in
which a four nodes quadrilateral (Q4) element is applied to each concrete
block to generate the strain field. Finally, the correlation of damage
identification among the local deformation, the reconstructed element
strain and the dynamic features extracted from global information data
(using both PCA and SSI) is discussed. It demonstrated that the strain
values generated using optical sensor data can extract the features of
local damage information.
The theoretical communication range of Wi-Fi is 100m. However, inside
the concrete girder, the peer to peer wireless communication cannot
exceed about 20m, which is further decreased by the installed locations.
However, the wired daisy-chained connection between sensing nodes
is useful because the data aggregation unit can be placed in the optimal
location. To overcome the limitation of the wireless communication range,
we adopt a high-gain antenna that extends the wireless communication
distance to 50m. Additional help is given by the multi-hopping data
communication protocol. The 4G modem, which allows remote access to
the system, is the only component exposed to the external environment.
8692-11, Session 3
A dual-mode imaging array for damage
detection in concrete structures
Lingyu Yu, Zhenhua Tian, Liuxian Zhao, Univ. of South Carolina
(United States)
Concrete structures have been widely used in civil engineering.
Monitoring of defect in concrete structures is one of the important
objectives of structure health monitoring. This paper presents a dual
mode sensing methodology by using the Rayleigh surface waves
with permanently installed piezoelectric sensors (PES). The PES are
capable of exciting and receiving surface Rayleigh wave. When a crack
is developing, acoustic emission (AE) occurs and the disturbance can
propagate outwards along the surface as Rayleigh wave. A novel AE
source imaging algorithm has been developed to detect and locate the
AE source by back propagating the received AE signals which adapts
beamforming tools developed for passive sonar and seismological
applications. Once the AE source is located, the sensor array switches to
its active mode. The active ultrasonic array imaging algorithm is similar
but slightly different from the passive algorithm. One sensor in the array
is used to excite Rayleigh wave for the ultrasonic interrogation, while all
the others are used as the wave receivers. The data collection happens
in a round robin pattern and all the sensory data are processed by the
active ultrasonic array imaging algorithm. Through the dual mode imaging
approach, a surface crack in the subject concrete can be ascertained.
This method uses relatively high frequency Rayleigh waves and requires
only a small array of 4 to 8 sensors. The imaging method is promising
and economically beneficial for solving a key source localization problem
in damage detection on large concrete structures.
8692-9, Session 3
Structural health monitoring of reinforced
concrete shear walls by acoustic emission
Alireza Farhidzadeh, Ehsan Dehghan-Niri, Salvatore Salamone,
Univ. at Buffalo (United States)
Reinforced Concrete (RC) shear walls are widely used in conventional
building and safety-related nuclear structures. They provide much or all
of a structure’s lateral strength and stiffness to resist earthquake and
wind loadings. The cracking behavior of these critical structural elements
is crucial due to its harmful effects on structural performance such as
serviceability and durability requirements. Currently the vast majority of
inspections are visual, and unfortunately, even with the recent advances
in automated ground-based nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods,
there is a potential that indications of structural degradation could be
missed. In the past two decades, significant efforts have been made
toward the development of structural health monitoring (SHM) systems in
order to reduce life-cycle costs and improve safety of civil infrastructures.
A technique that shows promises for monitoring RC structures is the
acoustic emission (AE). This paper presents an experimental investigation
of fracture processes of two large scale RC shear walls using AE
parameters based on novel probabilistic algorithms
8692-12, Session 3
A novel vehicle weigh-in-motion method by
using smart aggregate array
8692-10, Session 3
Hybrid networking sensing system for
structural health monitoring of a concrete
cable-stayed bridge
Shuang Hou, Lei Jinfang, Dalian Univ. of Technology (China)
Vehicle overloading is the main cause for the damages of road pavement
and bridges, and vehicle weigh-in-motion (WIM) technology is essential
for solving this problem. In this paper, a novel WIM technology based
on the PZT-based smart aggregates (SA) array, which are embedded on
the bottom of wearing layer of the asphalt concrete (AC) pavement, is
proposed. Firstly, the finite element(FE) model of a single SA embedded
in the center of the bottom surface of a AC block(300mm by 300mm
by 50 mm) was established for obtaining the ratio of the stress on SA
surface to the local average stress. Then, the single SA and the AC block
with designed detail of FE model is applied with cyclic compressive load
through a servo-hydraulic machine, and the ratio of stress measured
by SA to local average stress is compared with the FEA results. It is
found that test results agree well with the FEA results, implying that the
established FE model of SA and AC block is reliable; finally, the SA layout
of AC under standard tire pressure was optimized through the finite
element analysis and the accuracy of the sensing system is discussed in
sense of probability. It can be concluded from the preliminary study that
the proposed technique based on the SA array is suitable for vehicle WIM
with low cost and considerate accuracy.
Marco Torbol, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology
(Korea, Republic of); Sehwan Kim, Ting-Chou Chien, Masanobu
Shinozuka, Univ. of California, Irvine (United States)
The purpose of this study is the remote structural health monitoring to
identify the torsional natural frequencies and mode shapes of a concrete
cable-stayed bridge using a hybrid networking sensing system. The
system consists of one data aggregation unit, which is daisy-chained
to one or more sensing nodes. A wireless interface is used between the
data aggregation units, whereas a wired interface is used between a data
aggregation unit and the sensing nodes. Each sensing node is equipped
with high-precision MEMS accelerometers with adjustable sampling
frequency from 0.2 Hz to 1.2 kHz. The entire system was installed inside
the reinforced concrete box-girder deck of Hwamyung Bridge, which is
a cable stayed bridge in Busan, South Korea, to protect the system from
the harsh environmental conditions. This deployment makes wireless
communication a challenge due to the signal losses and the high levels
of attenuation. To address these issues, the concept of hybrid networking
system is introduced with the efficient local power distribution technique.
Return to Contents
Conference 8692: Sensors and Smart Structures
Technologies for Civil, Mechanical, and
Aerospace Systems
8692-13, Session 4
8692-15, Session 4
PVDF piezo-film as dynamic strain sensing
for local damage detection of steel frame
Development of an adaptive seismic isolator
for ultimate seismic protection of civil
Masahiro Kurata, Xiaohua Li, Kohei Fujita, Liusheng He, Mayako
Yamaguchi, Masayoshi Nakashima, Kyoto Univ. (Japan)
Jianchun Li, Yancheng Li, Univ. of Technology, Sydney (Australia);
Weihua Li, Univ. of Wollongong (Australia); Bijan Samali, Univ. of
Technology, Sydney (Australia)
To develop prompt and effective seismic damage detection techniques
for mid-to-high-rise buildings is an urgent issue in earthquake-prone
areas as the local damage in structural elements that exert critical
influence on the normal operation of buildings are difficult to detect by
visual inspection due to building finishing. While acceleration has been
a primary measure utilized in most current structural health monitoring
systems, a technique to pragmatically and accurately capture strain
information of structural elements has been demonstrated much more
efficacious for detecting local damage. This paper presents the use of
polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) piezo films as dynamic strain sensors for
detecting local damage in a steel frame building. The major advantages
of PVDF piezo films are their high sensitivity, excellent flexibility,
and wide-range frequency. Unlike the conventional piezoceramic
PZT sensors, PVDF piezo films allow direct attachment to structural
surface, and thus are well suited to strain sensing in structural vibration
applications. The results of shaking table testing using a 1/3.75-scale
steel frame testbed constructed in the laboratory of DPRI, Kyoto
University showed that the normalized standard deviation of signals
measured from piezo film sensors can be used as a damage-related
feature to detect the existence, location and severity of local damage
such as fracture around beam-to-column connections simulated in
the steel frame testbed under any levels of loadings including minor
earthquakes and ambient excitations. The characteristics of a dynamic
strain sensing network with piezo films and the comparison between
experimental results and numerical simulations are also discussed.
Base isolation is the most widely used seismic protection technique
for civil structures. However, research has revealed that the traditional
base isolation system is vulnerable to two kinds of earthquakes, i.e. the
near-source and far-source earthquakes, due to its passive nature. A
great deal of effort has been dedicated to improve the performance of the
traditional base isolation system for these earthquakes but without much
success. This paper summarizes the recent research and development
on a smart seismic isolation system by authors. The research focuses
on utilizing the field-dependent property of the magnetorheological
(MR) elastomer for development of an adaptive seismic isolator that
forms the key element of the smart seismic isolation system. This novel
isolator retains laminated structure of traditional seismic isolators with
steel and MR elastomer layers, which enable applications for largescale structures. It integrates an innovative magnetic circuit to provide
required magnetic field for energizing the MR elastomer for changing
its properties. With the controllable shear modulus/damping of the
MR elastomer, the proposed smart seismic isolator has shown ability
in altering shear stiffness while maintaining adequate vertical loading
carrying capacity. An experimental investigation was conducted to
examine its behaviour under various cycling loadings when it is applied
with various current inputs. To further demonstrate the effectiveness of
the smart seismic isolation system, a simplified building model is built
with such device. Extensive experimental testing shows that building with
such device can withstand any type of earthquakes, including the most
dangerous near-source earthquake and far-source earthquake.
8692-14, Session 4
8692-16, Session 4
A resetting semi-passive stiffness damper for
response mitigation of civil infrastructure
Real-time seismic monitoring of hospital
buildings in the United States
Kenneth K. Walsh, Ohio Univ. (United States)
Hasan S. Ulusoy, Erol Kalkan, U.S. Geological Survey (United
Earthquakes have the potential to cause large-scale destruction of civil
infrastructure often leading to significant economic losses or even the
loss of human life. Therefore, it is vital to protect civil infrastructure during
these events. Structural vibration control provides a method for mitigating
the damage to civil infrastructure during earthquakes by absorbing
seismic energy from the structure. Semi-active control has emerged as
an attractive form of structural control due to its effectiveness, inherent
stability, and reliability. One semi-active control device particularly
effective in reducing the response of civil structures subject to near-field
earthquakes is the resetting semi-active stiffness damper (RSASD).
Substantial research has been conducted to develop the RSASD and
demonstrate its control performance. However, like other semi-active
control technologies, the RSASD relies on a multi-component feedback
control system that is subject to reliability issues. The purpose of the
proposed research is to develop a novel resettable stiffness system that
is capable of achieving a similar control performance to the RSASD, but
with fewer feedback components. The resulting device, the resetting
semi-passive stiffness damper (RSPSD), will offer increased reliability
without compromising effectiveness. The objective of the present work
is to present the concept for the RSPSD, develop a mathematical model
describing its output force, identify critical design parameters, and then
evaluate its control performance for single-degree-of-freedom structures
subject to an earthquake ground motion. Numerical results indicate that
the RSPSD is capable of comparable control performance to the RSASD
for the structures and earthquake ground motion considered.
This paper describes the recent efforts made by the US Geological
Survey National Strong Motion Project (NSMP) in real-time seismic
monitoring of hospital buildings. In collaboration with the US department
of Veterans Affairs, the NSMP has been instrumenting twenty-nine
hospital buildings located in seismically active regions in the US. The
instrumentation in each building includes accelerometers deployed on
all floor levels, multi-channel digitizers, and a local server to measure,
record, and store the building’s response to evaluate the structural
integrity of the buildings immediately after severe earthquakes. To this
end, the instrumentation is complemented by developing an open source
structural health monitoring software (OpenSHM). OpenSHM consists of
several data processing and analysis modules running in near real-time.
Four different algorithms are implemented in four separate modules to
compute shear wave travel time, modal parameters, base shear force,
and inter-story drift ratio from measured vibration data. The algorithms
then track the time variations in the computed parameters and compare
them with predetermined threshold values to detect and locate any
possible damage in the buildings. The information extracted from
measured vibration data can be used to support decisions regarding the
structural safety of the hospital buildings, and to guide further inspections
and necessary repairs and replacements.
Return to Contents
Conference 8692: Sensors and Smart Structures
Technologies for Civil, Mechanical, and
Aerospace Systems
8692-17, Session 4
electrical impedance is directly related to the host structure’s mechanical
impedance. Therefore, the change of electrical impedance before
and after damage occurrence can be used as the damage indicator.
Since there is no direct contact between the magnetic transducer
and the host structure, it is believed that the magnetic transducer has
advantages in online healthy monitoring of structures with complicated
geometries and boundaries. One key issue, however, is that the
coupling between the magnetic transducer and the host structure is
significantly influenced by the lift-off distance (i.e. the distance from the
transducer to the host structure) which may be subject to variations due
to environmental disturbances and operation condition changes. In this
research, we propose a new detection algorithm that can explicitly take
into consideration of the lift-off distance change to facilitate efficient
and robust decision making. This algorithm is incorporated into an
enhanced magnetic sensor with circuitry integration of properly chosen
capacitance, and it is identified that the algorithm can further improve
the sensor performance. Comprehensive analytical and experimental
studies are carried out to demonstrate the new algorithm and sensor
A framework for rapid post-earthquake
assessment of bridges and restoration of
transportation network functionality using
structural health monitoring
Shahab Ramhormozian, Piotr Omenzetter, The Univ. of Auckland
(New Zealand)
Quick and reliable assessment of bridge condition after an earthquake
can greatly assist immediate post-disaster response and long-term
recovery. However, experience shows that available resources, such as
qualified inspectors and engineers, will typically be stretched for such
tasks. Structural health monitoring (SHM) systems can therefore make
a real difference. SHM, however, needs to be deployed in a strategic
manner to maximise its benefits. This study presents a framework of how
this can be achieved.
Since it will not be feasible, or indeed necessary, to use SHM on every
bridge, it is required to prioritise entire networks and bridges within
individual networks for SHM deployment. A methodology for such
prioritisation based on structural and geotechnical seismic risks affecting
bridges and their importance or criticality within a network is proposed.
An example using the methodology application to a medium-sized
transportation network is provided. The second part of the framework
is concerned with using monitoring data for quick assessment of bridge
condition and damage after an earthquake. Depending on the bridge
risk and criticality profile, it is envisaged the data here will be obtained
from either wide-range local or national seismic monitoring arrays or
an SHM system installed on the bridge. Finally the framework includes
recommendations on how the quick, SHM-assisted bridge condition
assessment can be integrated into emergency response planning and
procedures of the responsible authorities.
8692-20, Session 5
Damage classification using support vector
machines in guided-wave structural health
Xiang Li, Daewon Kim, Yi Zhao, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical Univ.
(United States)
A methodology to multi-classify crack and corrosion damages using
time-frequency representations and support vector machines is
investigated. Different damage features, such as types, locations, and
extent of damage, are artificially created on aluminum beam coupons
to examine the developed evaluation algorithm. Piezoceramic actuators
and sensors are used to generate the guided waves and to detect the
reflected signals from damage. Among the time-frequency methods
tested, spectrogram based on short-time Fourier transform is used with
support vector machines for damage classification.
8692-18, Session 5
Fatigue crack localization with near-field
acoustic emission signals
A finite element analysis tool is utilized to simulate various damage
samples and obtain measured signals for training of support vector
machines. The testing samples are obtained from both experimental
beam tests and finite element results. The machine learning
classification is carried out using eight-bit color depth information of
the spectrograms and rearranging them to create feature vectors. The
frequency information stored in each pixel of the spectrogram is also
used as additional feature in the feature vectors to improve classification
accuracies. The algorithm developed cannot only classify two metallic
damages, crack and corrosion, but is also able to distinguish the severity
of damage by classifying damages of different sizes.
Yunfeng Zhang, Changjiang Zhou, Univ. of Maryland, College
Park (United States)
This paper presents a fatigue crack localization technique using nearfield acoustic emission (AE) signals induced by fatigue crack initiation
and growth. Experimental data from real bridge monitoring and fatigue
testing of welded steel tubular joints are compared with analytical results
from moment tensor analysis. Stress wave-induced surface strain due
to a nearby surface pulse can be used as the basis for calibration of
broadband AE strain sensors in near-field monitoring use. The aperture
effect of AE strain sensor is also investigated to provide insight of AE
strain signal characteristics for practical use. Piezoelectric film AE sensor
has a potential to monitor the growth of fatigue crack, which can be used
for fatigue remaining useful life prognosis.
8692-21, Session 5
Design of a curvature sensor using
Ba0.64Sr0.36TiO3 (BST) flexoelectric material
An application of the near-field AE film sensor is demonstrated in a field
test of a steel I-girder bridge located at Maryland, which has active
fatigue cracks. A bridge prognosis procedure that involves statistical data
analysis based on piezoelectric film AE sensor is described in this paper
to show its potential use in bridge health management.
Xiang Yan, Wenbin Huang, Xiaoning Jiang, Fuh-Gwo Yuan, North
Carolina State Univ. (United States)
In this paper, a new sensor to measure curvature directly is proposed
using flexoelectric (FE) sensing material Ba0.64Sr0.36TiO3 (BST). The
measurement is made by attaching a FE sensor on the side face of an
aluminum beam under four point bending. The curvature relates the
charge output to the strain gradient (i.e., curvature) from BST. Since
the strain gradient in the host material (aluminum beam) cannot be
perfectly transferred to BST caused by bonding layer with low shear
stiffness, the calculation of strain gradient transfer coefficient from host
material to BST is necessary. Theoretical calculation for strain gradient
transfer coefficient using four point bending shear lag model is studied
and FEM result for strain gradient transfer coefficient agrees well with
the theoretical result. The curvature that is tested is from 0.0095m-1 to
8692-19, Session 5
Noncontact structural damage detection
using electromagnetic impedance sensing
Jiong Tang, Qi Shuai, Univ. of Connecticut (United States)
Magnetic transducers have been explored for impedance-based damage
detection recently. Due to its electromagnetic interaction, a magnetic
transducer can excite the host structure by the Lorenz force, and its
Return to Contents
Conference 8692: Sensors and Smart Structures
Technologies for Civil, Mechanical, and
Aerospace Systems
8692-23, Session 6
0.024m-1 .Experimental results show that the charge outputs of the BST
micro-bars showed good linearity with the average strain gradients, with
sensitivity of 192 pCm, which is in good agreement with the theoretical
estimation by assuming a 30 µm bonding thickness. In addition, the
bandwidth of this curvature sensor is investigated as well. This design
has good potential application in structural health monitoring for its
unique capability for curvature sensing.
An iterative convex optimization procedure
for system identification of a space frame
Dapeng Zhu, Georgia Institute of Technology (United States);
Xinjun Dong, Georgia Intitute of Technology (United States); Yang
Wang, Georgia Institute of Technology (United States)
8692-22, Session 5
Nondestructive detection of steel rebar
corrosion damage using ultrasonic guided
Structural behavior predicted by finite element models built according
to the design drawings is usually different from the behavior of an actual
structure in the field, owing to the high complexity of civil structures. To
improve the prediction accuracy, finite element (FE) model updating can
be conducted base on sensor measurement from the actual structure.
The process is known as FE model updating. Numerous algorithms have
been developed in the past few decades. However, most of existing
algorithms suffer computational challenges. The difficulty comes from
the fact that existing algorithms usually attempt to solve non-convex
optimization problems. The optimization method suffers convergence
difficulty and cannot guarantee global optimum. To address the issue,
this paper proposes an iterative convex optimization algorithm for FE
model updating. The convex attribute of the optimization problem makes
the solution process tractable and highly efficient. For validation of
the proposed algorithm, field testing is conducted with a space frame
pedestrian bridge on Georgia Tech campus using wireless sensors. The
entire bridge is divided into four substructures. Up to 32 channels of
dense wireless acceleration data are obtained on one substructure at a
time, resulting in over 120 channels of acceleration data collected for the
entire bridge. Using the wireless acceleration data, modal characteristics
for each substructure are first extracted, and then assembled to obtain
the modal characteristics of the entire bridge. Finally, an FE model for the
bridge is successfully updated through the iterative convex optimization
approach using the experimental modal results.
Dongsheng Li, Dalian Univ. of Technology (China)
In order to test the corrosion damage of reinforced concrete, the
propagation properties of ultrasonic guided waves (UGW) are explored.
Numerical methods are employed to calculate the disperse curves.
Optimal excitation signal and frequency are selected. According to the
reinforced concrete corrosion experiments, stress wave propagation
in different conditions is simulated using finite element analysis. The
testing result was analyzed through two-dimensional Fourier transform
to demonstrate the effect of waveguide dispersion. At last, time domain
and frequency domain analysis were used to process received signals.
Different corrosion degree UGW energy attenuation was analyzed and
a relationship was obtained. This study successful proved that UGW
was an effective tool in the nondestructive test the reinforced concrete
corrosion damage.
8692-174, Session 5
Acoustic mechanical feedthroughs
Stewart Sherrit, Phil Walkemeyer, Xiaoqi Bao, Yoseph Bar-Cohen,
Mircea Badescu, Jet Propulsion Lab. (United States)
8692-24, Session 6
Extension of the rotation algorithm for
earthquake damage estimation of complex
Electromagnetic motors can have problems when operating in extreme
environments. In addition, if one needs to do mechanical work outside
a structure, electrical feedthroughs are required to transport the electric
power to drive the motor. In this paper, we will present designs for
driving rotary and linear motors by pumping stress waves across a
structure or barrier. We accomplish this by designing a piezoelectric
actuator on one side of the structure a resonance structure that is
matched to the piezoelectric resonance of the actuator on the other
side. Typically, piezoelectric motors can be designed with high torques
and lower speeds without the need for gears. One can also use other
actuation materials such as electrostrictive, or magnetostrictive materials
in a benign environment and transmit the power in acoustic form as a
stress wave and actuate mechanisms that are external to the benign
environment. This technology removes the need to perforate a structure
and allows work to be done directly on the other side of a structure
without the use of electrical feedthroughs, which can weaken the
structure, pipe, or vessel. Acoustic energy is pumped as a stress wave at
a set frequency or range of frequencies to produce rotary or linear motion
in a structure.
Konstantinos Balafas, Anne S. Kiremidjian, Stanford Univ. (United
In a previous paper an algorithm was developed for estimating the slope
at locations of ambient vibration measurements along a single column
subjected to strong earthquake motion. These slope estimates were used
in obtaining permanent drift values for the single column and those were
correlated to various levels of damage. The algorithm was illustrated
with applications to single column tests performed at the University of
Nevada, Reno and the University of California, Berkeley. In this paper,
the same columns are first used to simulate slope values along the
deformed shape of the columns in order to determine the best estimate
of the displacement distribution. This information can then be used to
determine the optimal number of sensors needed to provide a reliable
permanent drift in a single column. Sensitivity studies are also performed
to evaluate the effect of plastic hinge length over or underestimate
as this value is usually inferred from empirical equations. The rotation
algorithm is then extended to multi-story structures where the slope of
both beams and columns is estimated from acceleration measurements.
These slope values are then used in the evaluation of interstory drifts in
order to correlate them to structural damage. The resulting drift values
can then be related to various damage states and can be used for rapid
damage assessment immediately following a major earthquake. The main
advantage of the proposed approach is that low-cost accelerometers can
be used to obtain the information needed for rapid damage assessment.
This method of transferring useful mechanical work across solid barriers
by pumping acoustic energy through a resonant structure features the
ability to transfer work (rotary or linear motion) across pressure or thermal
barriers, or in a sterile environment, without generating contaminants.
Reflectors in the wall of barriers can be designed to enhance the
efficiency of the energy/power transmission. The method features the
ability to produce a bi-directional driving mechanism using higher-mode
resonances. There are a variety of applications where the presence of a
motor is complicated by thermal or chemical environments that would be
hostile to the motor components and reduce life and, in some instances,
not be feasible. A variety of designs that have been designed, fabricated
and tested will be presented.
Return to Contents
Conference 8692: Sensors and Smart Structures
Technologies for Civil, Mechanical, and
Aerospace Systems
8692-25, Session 6
Wireless sensing technologies have recently emerged as a costeffective and robust method for data collection on a variety of structural
monitoring applications. In comparison with their traditional tethered
counterparts, wireless sensor systems are low-cost and low-power,
allowing for the deployment of dense networks. Additionally, such
sensors possess data processing capabilities, thus enabling on-board
computations and thereby increasing overall network efficiency by
eliminating transmission of raw data. Wireless sensors, however, have
unique challenges, such as limited computational capacity and overall
energy constraints, which must be considered in the development of
monitoring systems. As such, embedded algorithms for wireless sensing
networks must be designed to optimize computational efficiency, while
minimizing the overall energy consumption across the network. In this
study, multiple linear classifier algorithms are embedded on a network
of sensors. The computationally intensive tasks of the algorithms are
distributed across various sensors, thus maximizing the computational
capacity of the network and reducing the overall execution time. Once
deployed on a network of sensors, the decomposed algorithms are used
to classify damage on a structural system.
Forecasting algorithm for building energy
management system
Hae Young Noh, Stanford Univ. (United States) and Carnegie
Mellon Univ. (United States); Ram Rajagopal, Stanford Univ.
(United States)
This paper introduces a forecasting method for building energy
monitoring and management systems that use the measurements
from smart meters. Nowadays, more buildings become instrumented
with smart meters generating massive data every day, and there is
a great need for efficient and reliable analysis methods to extract
useful information from them. It is important for utility companies to
accurately predict the aggregate energy consumption profile to reliably
plan for future energy supply and prevent any crisis. The proposed
method involves forecasting individual load profiles on the basis of
their measurement history and weather data. It uses a nonparametric
Gaussian process to predict the load profiles and their uncertainty
bounds with weather information. This method is applied to a set of
building energy consumption data collected from the Jerry Yang and
Akiko Yamazaki Environment and Energy Building (Y2E2) at Stanford
University. It is a three-story building with several laboratories in the
basement, a cafe on the first floor, individual offices, lecture rooms,
and conference rooms on all three floors and equipped with over 2370
sensors collecting data every one minute. The analysis results show that
the measurements are mostly within 95% credible intervals. In addition
to using the consumption forecasting for planning future energy supply,
it can be combined with other methods to control consumption patterns
and diagnose system malfunctioning.
8692-28, Session 6
Statistical learning for sensor networks: NPL
footbridge case study
Elena N. Barton, National Physical Lab. (United Kingdom)
Sensor networks involve multiple sensors using wireless or wired
communications and internet services to provide raw data that is
converted to information-based products, e.g monitoring parameters
related to the condition of the structure leading to a life-cycle
maintenance plan. The interpretation of data obtained from installed
or embedded sensors in outdoor structures present new challenges.
While traditional measurement systems achieve traceability through the
minimisation of environmental influences in controlled laboratories, smart
monitoring of assets has to address the issue of environmental changes
in situ. This has led to research in development of new statistical learning
and data assimilation approaches that combine data and models to
provide reliable information about the structure under study.
8692-26, Session 6
Sequential detection of progressive damage
Mark Mollineaux, Ram Rajagopal, Stanford Univ. (United States)
Development of a damage diagnosis algorithm, applied to a multi-state
progressive damage model, applied to SHM. As a sequential test, it
continuously takes in new data samples, and reports a decision (damage
has occurred/damage has not occurred) for any subset of damage
states, as selected. Multiple definitions for the ``damaged’’ subset can be
processed in parallel.
This paper presents some examples relevant to civil engineering,
particularly for structural health monitoring (SHM) applications. The
case studies are part of our four year project focused on a footbridge
located at National Physical Laboratory (NPL), UK. During this project
the 1960s reinforced concrete footbridge was converted to a full-scale
SHM demonstrator subjected to damage and repairs. The experimental
part of the project will be completed at the end of 2012. We have already
considered various statistical methods for analysis of our data and
the results of some, such as Gaussian processes, are included here.
Although the results are preliminary, we believe that lack of full scale trails
in civil engineering makes them useful for wider audience.
The efficiency of this algorithm far outstrips the brute-force approach,
processing all paths. The gained efficiency in this algorithm is reached
by exploiting the Markov structure of the HMM, and also the particular
structure of progressive damage. (That is, that a structure cannot become
un-damaged without explicit and knowable intervention.) The efficency
is improved even further due to the simplification of ``windowing’’-- a
series of caching probabilities utilized in the algorithm that are unlikely
to change when new values come in from a sufficiently removed time
step. The algorithm is also generalizable into a case that allows for a less
restrictive depiction of what transitions are permissible.
8692-29, Session 6
Monitoring of bridge scour using one-class
support vector machines
Validation of this algorithm was performed by the application of
experimental data of damage states. Many test runs were performed, and
used to track the success of this algorithm. It is shown to outperform the
naive application (only looking at the last sample, and ignored past data).
The simplifications that were introduced were shown to be justifiable, in
that the extra data that was excluded through careful caching has almost
no effect on the success and failure rate of the algorithm at even modest
windowing values.
Inho Kim, Rajesh Kumar Neerukatti, Masoud Fard, Aditi
Chattopadhyay, Arizona State Univ. (United States)
Bridge scour has been recognized as a major threat of the safety of
bridge structures. In the U.S. there are about 3,000 major interstate
highway bridges that have been deemed structurally deficient due to
scour-triggered deterioration and other damage. Bridge scour happens
when soils surrounding bridge piers and abutments are washed out by
the flash stream during floods, and accumulation of this process causes
collapse of bridges in extreme cases due to the loss of support for bridge
foundations. Thus the development of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM)
tools is extremely critical for timely surveillance of scour condition. . The
scope of this study is to diagnose scour level based on the time-series
data from dedicated on-site sensors and communication systems using a
kernel based method. An anomaly detection tool will be employed using
8692-27, Session 6
Embedded linear classifiers for damage
detection in civil infrastructure
Jerome P. Lynch, Courtney Peckens, Univ. of Michigan (United
Return to Contents
Conference 8692: Sensors and Smart Structures
Technologies for Civil, Mechanical, and
Aerospace Systems
one-class Support Vector Machines (SVMs) which utilize the nominal
state of the present condition to compare the different conditions that
might occur during bridge operation. Various types of pattern recognition
algorithms will be utilized to classify different indicators or signatures
from the datasets. Field test results will be used to further develop
supervised learning models for SVMs for different types of sediment
modes. Results will be presented on monitoring of scour for different river
bed conditions.
Dispersion curves for composite laminates can be derived from 3D
elasticity theory. By evaluating dispersion curves at every possible
propagation direction, characteristic curves can be derived, namely
velocity, slowness and wave curves, which are no longer simple circular
shapes as in isotropic materials. The amplitude variation with propagation
direction can be obtained by evaluating displacements obtained from
3D elasticity. Using amplitude variation and wave curves, the wave front
due to a single excitation can be described as a function of the angle
of propagation and distance from origin. Using this approach, a generic
delay and sum beamforming algorithm for composite laminates can be
developed for any desired wave mode.
8692-30, Session 7
On the detection of closing delaminations
in laminated composite plates using the
structural intensity method
8692-32, Session 7
Analytically modeling the piezoresistivity of
CNT composites with low-filler aggregation
Alfredo Lamberti, Fabio Semperlotti, Univ. of Notre Dame (United
Tyler Tallman, Kon-Well Wang, Univ. of Michigan (United States)
In recent years, the concept of Nonlinear Structural Intensity (NSI)
has been applied to detect fatigue cracks and loose joints in isotropic
structures. This paper extends the NSI concept to non-isotropic materials
and investigates the possibility to use NSI for the localization of a
closing delamination in both orthotropic and anisotropic thin laminated
plates. When the delamination is properly excited by a high frequency
interrogation signal, the nonlinear contact occurring between the
delaminated plies produces nonlinear contact acoustic effects (CAN)
associated with the generation of both higher order and fractional
harmonics. The closing delamination acts as a mechanism of energy
redistribution from the driving frequency to the nonlinear harmonics
which clearly appear in the frequency spectrum of the structural
response. The intensity associated with the nonlinear harmonics is
evaluated using a hybrid approach based on a Finite Element (FE)
model and a 13 point finite differencing scheme. The FE model is used
to simulate the structural dynamic response while the finite differencing
scheme allows estimating the stress distribution from acceleration
data. First, the proposed approach is used to investigate the effect of
the material orthotropy on the propagation of vibration energy in a thin
orthotropic laminated plate. Particular attention is given to analyze the
impact that preferential directions of energy propagation have on the
ability to interrogate the structure and sense the damage. Successively,
the approach is extended to a symmetric anisotropic laminated plate.
Numerical simulations are performed to analyze the effect of the stacking
sequence on the damage sensitivity.
Distributed networks of carbon nanotubes (CNT) impart piezoresistive
properties to otherwise insulating polymer based composites, and these
networks can be exploited as integrated sensors for structural damage
detection. However, accurately relating changes in resistance to the
mechanical damage state remains a challenge. A common method of
modeling high aspect ratio networks of rod like fillers involves placing the
fillers within a domain via Monte Carlo techniques and treating the fillers
as rigid inclusions within a compliant matrix. Equivalent resistor networks
are then formed through and between the fillers to assess the resistance
before and after deformation. This method, while physically insightful,
is computationally unpalatable on all but the smallest domains due to
the extreme number of fillers needed to form a percolated network. In
this research, we circumvent this limitation by developing an analytical
model of predicting resistance change due to strain which accounts for
changes to filler volume fraction, inter-filler spacing, and filler percolation
probability as a function of the strain state and the filler constituents. The
accuracy of the model is verified by comparison to the experimental and
analytical results in existing literatures.
8692-33, Session 8
Numerical and experimental characterizations
of low-frequency MEMS AE sensors
Hossain Saboonchi, Didem Ozevin, Univ. of Illinois at Chicago
(United States)
8692-31, Session 7
In this paper, new MEMS Acoustic Emission (AE) sensors are introduced.
The transduction principle of the sensors is capacitance due to
gap change. The sensors are numerically modeled using COMSOL
Multiphysics software in order to estimate the resonant frequencies and
capacitance values, and manufactured using MetalMUMPS process.
The process includes thick metal layer (20 um) made of nickel for freely
vibration layer and polysilicon layer as the stationary layer. The metal
layer provides a relatively heavy mass so that the spring constant
can be designed high for low frequency sensor designs in order to
increase the collapse voltage level (proportional to the stiffness), which
increases the sensor sensitivity. An insulator layer is deposited between
stationary layer and freely vibration layer, which significantly reduces
the potential of stiction as a failure mode. As conventional AE sensors
made of piezoelectric materials cannot be designed for low frequencies
(<300 kHz) with miniature size, the MEMS sensor frequencies are tuned
to 50 kHz and 200 kHz. The each sensor contained several parallelconnected cells with an overall size of approximately 250 um x 500
um. The electromechanical characterizations are performed using high
precision impedance analyzer and compared with the numerical results,
which indicate a good fit. The initial mechanical characterization tests in
atmospheric pressure are conducted using pencil lead break simulations.
The proper sensor design reduces the squeeze film damping so that it
does not require any vacuum packaging. The MEMS sensor responses
are compared with similar frequency piezoelectric AE sensors.
Phased-array beamsteering in composite
laminates for guide-wave structural health
Peter Osterc, Daewon Kim, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical Univ.
(United States); Byungseok Yoo, Techno-Sciences Inc. (United
With ever more extensive use of composites in various industry fields,
especially mechanical and aerospace structures, damage detection
and evaluation is becoming increasingly important. There is a lack of
structural health monitoring (SHM) systems currently applicable to
composites. Guided Lamb waves are a promising area of research due
to their ability to propagate large distances with little loss of amplitude.
In this study, a guided wave phased array beamsteering approach is
applied to composite laminates. Standard beamforming delay and
sum algorithms developed for isotropic structures generally assume
omnidirectional point sources. This assumption makes them not
directly applicable to composite laminates due to variations in guided
wave properties with angle of propagation which results from inherent
anisotropy. As a consequence, dispersion curves vary with propagation
direction and standard wave modes do not exist, but are often coupled.
Furthermore, the amplitude of guided waves in composites varies with
direction as well.
Return to Contents
Conference 8692: Sensors and Smart Structures
Technologies for Civil, Mechanical, and
Aerospace Systems
8692-34, Session 8
8692-36, Session 8
Active stiffness modulation of fins using
macrofiber composite
On the sensing of magnetorheological
Ashok K. Kancharala, Michael K. Philen, Virginia Polytechnic
Institute and State Univ. (United States)
Nima Ghafoorianfar , Faramarz Gordaninejad, Xiaojie Wang, Univ.
of Nevada, Reno (United States)
A review of the recent studies on the role of body flexibility in propulsion
show that fish have a remarkable ability to control or modulate the
stiffness of the fin for optimized propulsive performance. The Self–
propelled speed (SPS) generated by the fish greatly depends on the
stiffness of the fin along with the other parameters. The optimized
stiffness for efficiency varies with operating parameters. For example,
the optimized stiffness for a fin operating at 1Hz is different than the fin
operating at 2Hz. The fins with a particular stiffness might be efficient
for a certain range of parameters but they work inefficiently for other
parameters. This necessitates the active stiffness modulation for
optimized propulsive efficiency based on various operating parameters.
Theoretical and experimental studies are performed to understand the
behavior of magnetorheological elastomers (MREs) by establishing
relationships between the mechanical deformation and electrical
property changes under applied magnetic fields. The strain and electrical
resistivity of aligned MRE samples with a controlled constant temperature
are measured, simultaneously for different magnetic fields. A theoretical
study is carried out using a finite element analysis to understand MRE’s
deformation subjected to a magnetic field. The coupled magnetic
and elastic fields’ equations are employed to determine the magnetic
attraction force between the particles. In this work, combined sensing
of magnetic fields and mechanical compression loads have been
studied through the electrical resistivity behavior of MREs. In addition,
magnetostriction is used along with magnetoresistance to determine the
piezoresistivity effect of MREs under such combined conditions.
In this work, the active stiffness modulation is implemented using
Macro Fiber Composite (MFC’s) which uses d33 effect. The advantage
of MFC’s is their high performance and flexibility over the conventional
PZT patches. Two MFC’s attached on either side of the fin actively
control the stiffness of the fin. A detailed investigation would be required
on how active stiffness modulation changes or controls the thrust and
efficiency. For this investigation, a coupled computational model which
incorporates the piezoelectric constitutive model with fluid structure
interaction will be developed. Fluid structure interaction of the fin will
be modeled considering unsteady slender wing theory coupled with the
nonlinear Euler-Bernoulli beam theory. The developed computational
model will be used to predict the SPS and efficiency with parameters
such as heaving and pitching amplitude, oscillation frequency, flexibility
of the fin and the voltage applied to the MFC’s. Based on the simulations,
the advantages of active stiffness modulation will be reported. An
experimental comparison will be made to validate the results produced
by the computational model.
8692-37, Session 9
Simulation analysis and experimental
performance of a radar sensor network for
distributed bridge monitoring
Shanyue Guan, Jennifer A. Rice, Univ. of Florida (United States);
Changzhi Li, Changzhan Gu, Texas Tech Univ. (United States)
Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are a promising structural health
monitoring (SHM) technology for the evaluation of infrastructure,
especially bridges. WSNs are more convenient to install and much
cheaper than traditional structural measurement and monitoring
methods. Commonly used sensors for vibration-based SHM, such as
accelerometers, work well for higher-frequency measurements; however,
it is often difficult to acquire satisfactory results when they are applied
on long-span bridges with very low modal frequencies. In this paper
we will present a multiple input multiple output (MIMO) wireless radar
sensor network capable of measuring lower-frequency vibration and
static deflection. An integrated simulation model that combines a multi
degree-of-freedom structural model with a realistic model of the radar
sensor network is introduced and used to characterize and predict the
network’s functionality in different measurement conditions. In addition,
a series of laboratory experiments, including on a seven-story steel
building model and a scaled steel truss bridge, have also been performed
for comparison with the simulation model. Finally, challenges associated
with achieving accurate measurements from the radar network in a range
of testing environments are discussed.
8692-35, Session 8
Tunable fiber ring laser absorption
spectroscopic sensors for gas detection
Shijie Zheng, Yinian Zhu, Sridhar Krishnaswamy, Northwestern
Univ. Ctr. for Quality Engineering (United States)
Fiber-optic gas sensing techniques are commonly based on the
recognition of a wide range of chemical species from characteristic
absorption, fluorescence or Raman-scattering spectra. By tuning over
the vibrational absorption lines of species in the path of laser beam,
tunable diode laser gas sensors measure signal spectroscopic intensity,
gas concentration and other properties. However they have limitations
of bulk architecture, small change of signal on top of large background,
and low sensitivity of direct absorption. Here we report the fabrication
and optical measurements of tunable Er-doped fiber ring laser absorption
spectroscopic sensor featuring a gas cell that is a segment of photonic
crystal fiber (PCF) with long-period grating (LPG) inscribed. The laser
beam is coupled into cladding of PCF by the LPG where the gas in
air holes absorbs light. Light travels along the PCF and reflects at the
end of the fiber where a silver mirror is coated at the facet end. Light
propagates back within cladding, passes through the gas one more time
thus increasing the interaction length, and is finally recoupled into fiber
core for intensity measurement. The proposed fiber gas sensors show
excellent sensitivity and selectivity, and are not affected by temperature
or humidity changes. The sensors using a PCF-LPG gas cell are simple to
fabricate, cost-effective, and are deployed for a variety applications not
possible in conventional optical fiber, such as environmental monitoring
and structural health monitoring.
Return to Contents
8692-38, Session 9
Significance of sensor quality on structural
health monitoring results
Siavash Dorvash, Shamim N. Pakzad, Lehigh Univ. (United
Advancements in sensing technology have improved the practice of
structural health monitoring in different aspects. One of the distinguished
developments, introduced to the monitoring systems, is deployment of
wireless technology for data communication in a sensing network. While
researchers have shown the effective role of wireless sensor networks in
improving the affordability of structural monitoring systems, their possible
impact on the reliability and accuracy of the results is still a research
question. Some challenges in the design of wireless sensor units, such
as the trade-off between the functionality and the power consumption,
and also attempts for minimizing the cost, have caused limitations in
Conference 8692: Sensors and Smart Structures
Technologies for Civil, Mechanical, and
Aerospace Systems
8692-179, Session 9
their architecture which do not necessarily exist in the design of wired
systems. On the other hand, depending on the subsequent application
of the results achieved from the sensing and monitoring, the accuracy of
measurements and the uncertainty in the results can be very important.
Therefore, it is necessary to carefully investigate the impact of sensor
quality on monitoring results. As an effort towards understanding the
significance of sensor quality on the results of structural monitoring,
this paper presents and validates parameters which can be used to
investigate the influence of measurement noise on modal parameter
Design and initial validation of a wireless
control system based on WSNs in civil
Yan Yu, Xu Wang, Luyu Li, Jinping Ou, Dalian Univ. of Technology
At present, cantilever structure used widely in civil structures, will
produce continuous vibration by external force due to their low
damping characteristic, which leads to a serious impact on the working
performance and service time. Therefore, it is very important to control
the vibration of these structures. The active vibration control is the
primary means of controlling the vibration with high precision and
strong adaptive ability. Nowadays, there are many researches about
using piezoelectric materials in the structural vibration control. They can
achieve so cheap, reliable braking and sensing method which is lossless
of the structure, that they have a broad application space. They are
used for structural vibration control in a lot of civil engineering research
currently. In traditional sensor applications, information exchange with
the monitoring center or a computer system through wires. If wireless
sensor network technology is used, cabling links is not needed, thus the
cost are greatly reduced, the civil structures are not damaged whenever it
is installed or maintained.
8692-39, Session 9
Smart sensor nodes for vibration
measurement of large civil infrastructure
Jong-Jae Lee, Yong-Soo Park, Sejong Univ. (Korea, Republic
of); Ung-Jin Na, Ministry of Land, Transport and Maritime Affairs
(Korea, Republic of); Won-Tae Lee, Chang-Geun Lee, Korea
Expressway Corp. (Korea, Republic of)
Dynamic characteristics of large civil infrastructures have been monitored
for safe operation and efficnent maintenance of the structures. To
measure vibration data, the conventional system uses cables which
cause very expensive costs and inconvenience for installation. Therefore,
various wireless sensor nodes have been developed to replace the
conventional wired system. However, there remain lots of issues to
be resolved such as power supply, package loss, data security, etc.
In this study, smart distributed sensor node (SDSN) was developed to
measure vibration data. The SDSN is basically timely synchronized onechannel data acquisition system. It consists of its local time clock with
high accuracy and SD memory card for local data storage. To ensure
time syronization between each SDSN, the Kalman filter algorithm was
utilized. Laboratoy tests were carried to verify the performance of the
developed SDSN compared with conventional wired sensors. Several
application examples for large civil infrastructure were also suggested.
Based on the above advantages, a wireless control system proposal
is proposed and validated through preliminary tests. The system
includes cantilever, PVDF as sensors, signal conditioning circuit, an A/D
acquisition board, control arithmetic unit, a D/A output board, a power
amplifier, piezoelectric bimorph as actuators. Use a PC as the control
arithmetic unit and compile PD control algorithm. PVDF collects the
parameters of vibration, sends them to the PC after A/D conversion,
PC calculates and outputs the control values according to the control
algorithm, power amplifier amplifies the output signals to drive the
piezoelectric bimorph for the purpose of vibration control. Experimental
result proves that the structural vibration duration reduces to 1/6 of
the uncontrolled, it verifies the feasibility of the system. Next plan is to
replace the PC with a DSP as the core control unit of the system, and
add wireless modules to realize the wireless control of system.
8692-40, Session 9
Full-scale monitoring of in-service highway
bridge using wireless hybrid sensor
8692-41, Session 10
Gen-2 RFID compatible, zero down-time,
programmable mechanical strain-monitors
and mechanical impact detectors
Shinae Jang, Sushil Daha, Jingcheng Li, Univ. of Connecticut
(United States)
With the rapid development of electrical circuits, Micro electromechanical
system (MEMS) and network technology, wireless smart sensor
networks (WSSN) have shown significant potential for replacing existing
wired SHM systems due to their cost effectiveness and versatility. A
few structural systems have been monitored using WSSN measuring
acceleration, temperature, wind speed, humidity; however, a multi-scale
sensing device which has the capability to measure the displacement
has not been yet developed. In the previous paper, a new high-accuracy
displacement sensing system was developed combining a high resolution
analog displacement sensor and MEMS-based wireless microprocessor
platform. Also, the wireless sensor was calibrated in the laboratory to
get the high precision displacement data from analog sensor, and its
performance was validated to measure simulated thermal expansion of
a laboratory bridge structure. This paper expands the validation of the
developed system on full-scale experiments to measure both static and
dynamic displacement of expansion joints, temperature, and vibration
of an in-service highway bridge. A brief visual investigation of bridges,
comparison between theoretical and measured thermal expansion are
also provided. The developed system showed the capability to measure
the displacement with accuracy of 0.00027 inch.
Shantanu Chakrabartty, Kenji Aono, Tao Feng, Michigan State
Univ. (United States)
A key challenge for structural health monitoring (SHM) sensors
embedded inside civil structures is that the electronics need to operate
continuously such that mechanical events of interest can be detected
and appropriately analyzed. Continuous operation however requires
a continuous source of energy which cannot be guaranteed using
conventional energy scavenging techniques. The paper describes
a hybrid energy scavenging SHM sensor which experiences zero
down-time in monitoring mechanical events of interest. At the core the
proposed sensor is an analog flash memory technology that can be
precisely programmed at nano-watt and pico-watt power levels. This
facilitates self-powered, non-volatile data logging of the mechanical
events of interest by scavenging energy directly from the mechanical
events itself. Remote retrieval of the stored data is achieved using a
commercial off-the-shelf Gen-2 radio-frequency identification (RFID)
reader which periodically reads an electronic product code (EPC) that
encapsulates the sensor data. The Gen-2 interface also facilitates in
simultaneous remote access to multiple sensors and also facilitates in
determining the range and orientation of the sensor. The architecture of
the sensor is based on a token-ring topology which enables the sensor
channels to be dynamically added or deleted through software control.
Return to Contents
Conference 8692: Sensors and Smart Structures
Technologies for Civil, Mechanical, and
Aerospace Systems
8692-42, Session 10
significance. We describe the design, fabrication, testing, and analysis
of lithium niobate SAW devices and microfluidic channels with which we
have studied microparticle movement.
Micro-aerial vehicle type wall-climbing robot
mechanism for structural health monitoring
We present results obtained with lithium niobate SAW devices operating
at 6.7, 10, and 20 MHz, corresponding to wavelengths of roughly 600,
400, and 200 micrometers. Whereas earlier work used two interdigital
transducers (IDTs) opposing one another to generate the standing
waves, we show that a single IDT can generate standing waves with
reflections from a parallel boundary, an approach that simplifies the
electromechanical design.
Jae-Uk Shin, Donghoon Kim, Jong-Heon Kim, Hyun Myung,
KAIST (Korea, Republic of)
The inspection and maintenance of large structures is labor-intensive and
costly due to its high risk. To solve the problem, the use of wall-climbing
robot is widely considered. Infrastructure-based wall-climbing robots
to maintain a facade or outer wall of building have high payload and
safety. However, the infrastructure for the robot should be installed on the
target structure and the maintenance infrastructure isn’t preferred by the
architects since it can injure the exterior of the structure. These are the
reasons of why the infra-based wall-climbing robot is not preferred. To
overcome the aforementioned problems, the wall-climbing robot which
does not utilize additional infrastructure is gaining attention. However,
most of the technologies are in the laboratory level since the payload,
safety, and maneuverability are not satisfactory. For this reason, micro
aerial vehicle type wall-climbing robot is considered in this paper. It is
a flyable wall-climbing robot based on a quadrotor. The basic platform
is a widely used aerial vehicle robot using four rotors to make a thrust
for flying. This wall-climbing robot can stick to a vertical wall using the
thrust. After sticking to the wall, it can move with four wheels installed
on the robot. As a result, it has high maneuverability and safety since it
can restore the position to the wall even if it is detached from the wall
by unexpected disturbance while climbing the wall. The feasibility of the
main concept was verified through simulations and experiments using a
Microfluidic channels are fabricated from polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS,
silicone). The wave field in the fluid depends on PDMS material
properties, especially damping, but the pertinent literature suggests
considerable uncertainty in those properties. We report measurements
of system response in the presence and absence of the microfluidic
channel, which we combine with finite element simulation modeling
to extract estimates of the damping. We report our experimental
observations and measurements of microparticle movement, involving
particles ranging from 5 to 35 micrometers in diameter, and discuss
comparisons to available predictions. We conclude with a discussion of
possible secondary separation mechanisms to direct particles of interest
to intended trajectories.
8692-45, Session 10
Cochlea-inspired sensing node for structural
control applications
Courtney Peckens, Jerome P. Lynch, Univ. of Michigan (United
8692-43, Session 10
While sensing technologies for structural monitoring and control have
made significant advances over the last several decades, there is still
room for improvement in terms of computational efficiency, as well as
overall energy consumption. The biological nervous system can offer
a potential solution to address theses current deficiencies found in
such engineered systems. The nervous system is capable of sensing
and aggregating information about the external environment through
very crude processing units, or neurons. These neurons effectively
communicate in an extremely condensed format by encoding information
into binary electrical spike trains, thereby reducing the amount of raw
information flow throughout the network. As such, the overall network
is capable of making complex decisions instantaneously, thus enabling
real-time sensing and actuation. Due to its unique signal processing
capabilities, the mammalian cochlea, and its interaction with the
biological nervous system, is of particular interest for civil infrastructure
systems. The cochlea uses a novel method of place theory and frequency
decomposition, thereby allowing for rapid signal processing within the
nervous system. In this study, a low-power sensing node is proposed
that draws inspiration from the mechanisms used by the cochlea and
biological nervous system. As such, the sensor is able to perceive and
transmit a compressed representation of the external stimulus with
minimal distortion. Each sensor represents a basic building block, with
function similar to the neuron, and can form a network with other sensors
for sophisticated decision-making. The proposed sensor is validated
through the control of a single degree of freedom structure.
Large-area graphene-based thin films
and their application as strain sensors for
structural health monitoring
Gautam Naik, Northwestern Univ. (United States); Adarsh
Kaniyoor, Sundara Ramaprabhu, Indian Institute of Technology
Madras (India); Sridhar Krishnaswamy, Northwestern Univ.
(United States)
In the present study, we propose a novel method to fabricate largearea graphene-based thin films, and their implementation as strain
sensors for structural health monitoring. Large area (~12.5 sq.in)
graphene oxide (GO) thin films were fabricated by vacuum filtration of
GO solution synthesized by the modified Hummers’ method. A device
similar to a laminator was manufactured, with heating elements to reach
temperatures of 300 °C. The GO thin film was “laminated” between
polymer sheets, resulting in the reduction of GO, thereby increasing its
conductivity by almost 5 orders of magnitude. The fabricated reduced
GO thin films were characterized using powder x-ray diffraction, scanning
electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared
spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. This method offers
a new way of fabricating conductive large-area graphene thin films. The
use of fabricated thin films for strain sensing is also demonstrated.
8692-46, Session 11
8692-44, Session 10
An electromagnetic energy harvester using
asynchronously vibrating cantilevers with
phase shift
Microparticle transport and concentration
with surface acoustic waves
Irving J. Oppenheim, Erin R. Dauson, David W. Greve, Kelvin B.
Gregory, Carnegie Mellon Univ. (United States)
Jinkyoo Park, Kincho H. Law, Stanford Univ. (United States)
In most vibration-based energy harvesters, the natural frequency of
the vibrating component is matched to the most probable excitation
frequency of the target inertial frame to maximize power generation.
This reliance on the resonance inevitably induces a robustness issue.
For example, power production significantly drops when the excitation
Surface acoustic waves generated on SAW devices can move
microparticles, suspended in a fluid to nodes or antinodes. That behavior
is of interest because the transport, concentration, and separation
of microparticles (including bacteria) has scientific and industrial
Return to Contents
Conference 8692: Sensors and Smart Structures
Technologies for Civil, Mechanical, and
Aerospace Systems
frequency is even slightly off from the tuned natural frequency of the
harvester. To overcome this limitation, this paper proposes a novel
concept of a vibration-based electromagnetic energy harvester in which
both the magnet and the coil are attached to vibrating cantilevers whose
natural frequencies are separated with the optimal chosen frequency
band. When the excitation frequency is outside of the frequency band,
only either the magnet or the coil cantilever vibrates while the other
functions as an inertial frame. When the excitation frequency falls in the
middle of the frequency band, the power level remains almost constant
since the two cantilevers vibrate with a phase difference. In addition,
the new harvester generates much higher power than a conventional
inertial-frame-based harvester, especially when the electrical damping is
high. The improvements in both robustness and power level are validated
by both numerical simulations and prototype experiments. Finally, a field
test on an actual bridge was conducted and showed that robustness and
power level improved on a real target civil structure.
configurations and a full-scale 9-m research wind turbine blade.
Numerical simulations of the wind turbine blade are used to study the
optimal placement of the transducers on the blade skin. Both traditional
finite element and advanced isogeometric models that have been built
are used for numerical simulations. In some of the numerical simulations,
the shunt circuit is additionally studied by taking into account the
electrical-mechanical interface within the simulation. The combination
of the experimental and numerical results provide a new look at the
feasibility of vibration control in wind turbine blades using piezoelectric
8692-49, Session 12
Modified ERA analysis for modeling
nonstationary rotational structural dynamics
in wind turbines
8692-47, Session 11
Antonio Velazquez, R. Andrew Swartz, Michigan Technological
Univ. (United States)
Uncertainty quantification of a corrosionenabled energy harvester for low-power
sensing applications
Wind energy is becoming increasingly important worldwide as an
alternative renewable energy source and wind turbines have become
a particularly vital component in the world’s mixed energy portfolio.
Economical, maintenance, and operative factors are critical issues when
dealing with such large slender structures, especially in the case of
remote offshore wind farms. Health monitoring systems are today very
promising technologies to assure reliability and good performance of
the overall structure, typically supported by identification techniques
constructed through data-driven analysis in either the frequency or
time domains. In many cases, frequency response functions have
proven to be difficult to calculate repeatable in an autonomous fashion
when dealing with models of higher order or those having overlapped
frequency content. Instead, time-domain techniques have shown
powerful advantages from a practical point of view and are more suitable
to differentiate closely-related modes. Often, time-varying effects are
often neglected or dismissed when dealing with the stochastic dynamics
of wind turbines, spinning multi-body type structures. A more complex
scenario is constituted when dealing with a periodic mechanism
responsible for the vibration draft of the rotor-blade system from one
side, and the wind tower substructure from the other. Transformations of
the cyclic effects on the vibration data can be applied to decouple inertia
effects from rotating-generated forces that are non-stationary in nature.
After applying transformations, structural identification can be carried out
by stationary techniques via data-correlated eigensystem realizations. A
periodic non-stationary subspace identification technique is presented in
this paper adopting a modified Eigensystem Realization Algorithm (ERA)
via cyclo-stationary principles, phenomena produced by periodicalmotion systems embedded in stochastic wind fields such as wind-turbine
rotor blades. Structural response is assumed under non-stationary
ambient excitation and white (broad band) noise computed in an
operative range bandwidth. ERA analysis is driven by correlation-function
matrices from the stationary ambient response aiming to reduce noise
effects. Singular value decomposition (SVD) and eigenvalue analysis
are computed in a last stage to get frequencies and mode shapes.
The proposed methodology is compared against two well established
non-stationary models: (1) NExT (natural excitation technique), and (2)
extended Ibrahim time-domain methods. Proposed assumptions are
carefully weighted to account for the uncertainty of the environment the
wind turbines are subjected to. Finally, comments and observations are
thrown on how this subspace realization technique can be extended for
modal-parameter identification using ambient vibration data exclusively.
Scott A. Ouellette, Michael D. Todd, Univ. of California, San
Diego (United States)
New developments in novel energy harvesting schemes for structural
health monitoring sensor networks have progressed in concert with
advancements in low-power electronic devices and components.
Energy harvesting from galvanic corrosion is one such scheme that has
shown to be a viable solution for powering sensing platforms for marine
infrastructure. However, as is the case with this energy harvester, the
power output is current limited as a result of a high terminal resistance
that increases with time. In addition, the output voltage is nonstationary, and is a function of several environmental parameters and the
applied resistive load. Variability in the power source requires a robust
conditioning circuit design to produce a regulated power supply to the
sensing and computing electronics.
This paper experimentally investigates the non-stationary power
characteristics of a galvanic corrosion energy harvester; and uncertainty
quantification (UQ) is performed on the measured power characteristics
for two experimental specimens subject to resistive load sweeps. The
effects on designing a low-power sensor node are considered, and the
uncertainty characteristics are applied to a low-power boost converter
by means of a Monte Carlo simulation. Lastly, the total energy harvester
capacity (measured in mA-Hr) is approximated from the data and is
compared to a conventional battery.
8692-48, Session 12
Vibration control simulations and experiments
using piezoelectric transducers on wind
turbine blades at UC San Diego
Jeffery D. Tippmann, Francesco Lanza di Scalea, Univ. of
California, San Diego (United States)
The extension of vibration control to wind turbine blade structures using
piezoelectric transducers and periodic structures is investigated through
experimental tests and numerical simulations. Both vibration and guided
wave theory are used for studying the performance of the piezoelectric
transducers on the wind turbine blade structure. The Macro Fiber
Composite (MFC) transducer is specifically used in experimental tests
because of its wide application range to flexible composite structures.
The transducers are connected to a shunt circuit for suppressing certain
frequency bands of vibration. The theory of periodic structures is also
taken into account with regard to the placement of the transducers on
the structure.
8692-50, Session 12
Propagation error minimization method for
multiple structural displacement monitoring
Haemin Jeon, Jae-Uk Shin, Hyun Myung, KAIST (Korea, Republic
The experimental tests utilize both simple cantilevered beam
Return to Contents
Conference 8692: Sensors and Smart Structures
Technologies for Civil, Mechanical, and
Aerospace Systems
In the previous study, visually servoed paired structured light system
(ViSP) which is composed of two sides facing with each other, each
with one or two lasers, a 2-DOF manipulator, a camera, and a screen
has been proposed. The system estimates 6-DOF relative displacement
between two sides by calculating the positions of the projected laser
beams on the screens and rotation angles of the manipulators. To apply
the system to massive civil structures such as long-span bridges or
high-rise buildings, the whole area is divided into multiple partitions
and each ViSP module is placed in each partition in a cascaded
manner. In other words, the movement of the entire structure can be
monitored by multiplying the estimated displacements from multiple
ViSP modules. In the multiplication, however, there is a major problem
that the displacement estimation error is propagated throughout the
multiple modules. To solve the problem, propagation error minimization
method (PEMM) which uses the Newton-Raphson formulation inspired
by the error back-propagation algorithm is proposed. In this method, the
propagation error at the last module is calculated and then the estimated
displacement from ViSP at each partition is updated in reverse order
by using the proposed PEMM method. To verify the performance of
the proposed method, various simulations and experimental tests have
been performed. The results show that the propagation error is reduced
8692-121, Session PTues
8692-119, Session PTues
8692-122, Session PTues
Identification of structural parameters
based on symbolic time series analysis and
differential evolution strategy
Large-band seismic characterization of the
INFN Gran Sasso National Laboratory
Low-frequency/high-sensitivity triaxial
monolithic sensor
Fabrizio Barone, Fausto Acernese, Rosangela Canonico, Univ.
degli Studi di Salerno (Italy); Rosario De Rosa, Univ. degli Studi
di Napoli Federico II (Italy); Gerardo Giordano, Rocco Romano,
Univ. degli Studi di Salerno (Italy)
This paper describes a new mechanical implementation of a monolithic
triaxial inertial sensor, configurable as seismometer and as accelerometer.
The sensor is compact, light, scalable, tunable (horizontal frequency
< 100 mHz; vertical frequency < 1 Hz), with large band (10^-7 Hz - 10
Hz), high quality factor (Q > 1500 in air) instrument and good immunity
to environmental noises, guaranteed by an integrated laser optical
readout. The measured sensitivity curve is in very good agreement with
the theoretical ones (10^-12 m/sqrt(Hz) in the band (0.1 - 10 Hz). Typical
applications are in the field of earthquake engineering, geophysics, and in
all applications requiring large band-low frequency performances coupled
with high sensitivities.
Fabrizio Barone, Fausto Acernese, Rosangela Canonico, Univ.
degli Studi di Salerno (Italy); Rosario De Rosa, Univ. degli Studi
di Napoli Federico II (Italy); Gerardo Giordano, Rocco Romano,
Univ. degli Studi di Salerno (Italy)
Rongshuai Li, Akira Mita, Jin Zhou, Keio Univ. (Japan)
This new method of identifying structural parameters, called
“Symbolization-based Differential Evolution Strategy” (SDES), merges
the advantages of Symbolic Time Series Analysis (STSA) and Differential
Evolution (DE). Data symbolization in SDES alleviates the effects of
harmful noise. SDES was numerically compared with Particle Swarm
Optimization (PSO) and DE on raw acceleration data. These simulations
revealed that SDES provided better estimates of structural parameters
when the data was contaminated by noise. We applied SDES to
experimental data to assess its feasibility in realistic problems. SDES
performed much better than PSO and DE on raw acceleration data.
The simulations and experiments show that SDES is a powerful tool for
identifying unknown parameters of structural systems even when the
data is contaminated with relatively large amounts of noise.
In this paper we present and discuss the scientific data recorded by
the mechanical monolithic horizontal seismic sensors installed in the
Gran Sasso National Laboratory of the INFN. These sensors, developed
at the University of Salerno, are placed, within thermally insulating
enclosures, onto concrete slabs connected to the bedrock, and behind
a sound-proofing wall. The main goal of this experiment is the seismic
characterization of the site in the frequency band 10^-7 - 10 Hz.
8692-123, Session PTues
8692-120, Session PTues
Mechanical monolithic tiltmeter for lowfrequency measurements
Multi-objective differential evolution
strategy for structural system identification
considering parametric uncertainties
Fabrizio Barone, Fausto Acernese, Rosangela Canonico, Univ.
degli Studi di Salerno (Italy); Rosario De Rosa, Univ. degli Studi
di Napoli Federico II (Italy); Gerardo Giordano, Rocco Romano,
Univ. degli Studi di Salerno (Italy)
Jin Zhou, Akira Mita, Rongshuai Li, Keio Univ. (Japan)
The paper describes a tilt meter sensor for geophysical applications,
based on Folded Pendulum (FP) mechanical sensor. Both the theoretical
model and the experimental results of a tunable mechanical monolithic
FP tilt meter prototype are presented and discussed. Some of the most
important characteristics, like the measured resolution of about 0.1 nrad
at 100 mHz, are detailed. Among the scientific results, earth tilt tides have
been already observed with this monolithic FP tilt meter prototype.
The proposed method merges the advantages of multi-objective
differential evolution optimization algorithm for non-domination selection
strategy and probability density evolution method for considering
parametric uncertainty. The primary superiority of the proposed method
lies in that it can deal with uncertainty parameter estimation problems.
Simulation results for identifying the parameters of a multiple degree
of freedom (MDOF) linear structural system under conditions including
limited output signals, noise-polluted measurement data and no prior
knowledge of damping or stiffness, are presented to demonstrate the
feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method.
8692-124, Session PTues
Beat phenomenon analysis of concrete beam
with piezoelectric sensors
Lin-Sheng Huo, Xu Li, Hongnan Li, Dalian Univ. of Technology
The free vibration of undercritically-damped system would be decayed
Return to Contents
Conference 8692: Sensors and Smart Structures
Technologies for Civil, Mechanical, and
Aerospace Systems
exponentially. However, when conducting the free vibration test
with piezoelectric ceramic sensors, instead of an exponential decay,
the vibration tends to decrease or increase periodically, which is
characterized as the classical beat phenomenon. The focus of this
paper is to give a better understanding of beat phenomenon in the free
vibration test of a concrete beam with piezoelectric ceramic sensors
from the view of mathematics. The cause of beat phenomenon from
piezoelectric ceramic sensors embedded in the concrete beam is
illustrated and the influence factors of beat phenomenon are discussed.
The results show that the beat phenomenon from piezoelectric ceramic
sensors in the column is caused by the coupled responses with similar
model frequencies in different directions. The influence factors of beat
phenomenon due to damping effect, impact direction, sensor position
and sectional dimension are discussed. As the damping ratios increase,
the amplitude of beat signal will die out in an exponential decay. The
system response with unequal damping ratios in different modes will
be decayed into the single mode with lower undercritical damping.
Meanwhile, the damping has a tiny influence on the beat frequency of
system response. With the variation of impact direction, the amplitudes
of beat signal both in the time and frequency domain are changed,
which makes it difficult to evaluate the structural frequency and can
be characterized as a principle to determine the impact direction. In
addition, the amplitude of beat signal will be also changed as the position
of sensors altered. The beat frequency will get more with the greater
difference of sectional dimension.
damage detection methods are developed. However most of them
require complete information of the structure to achieve reasonable
accuracy of the damage detection, which means too many sensors are
required to be installed into a building. For most of buildings, expensive
and complicated SHM system is not a good application. To overcome
these problems, a method using the support vector machine to detect
local damages and their extent in a building with limited number of
sensors was proposed by Akira Mita and Hiromi Hagiwara. As the
method does not require modal shapes, typically only two vibration
sensors are enough for detecting input and output signals to obtain the
modals frequencies. This paper will propose the using of the squared
modal frequencies, which were achieved by reviewing the above
method. The proposed damage assessment method will be checked
with numerical simulation examples of five-story shear structures and
five-story steel model through shake-table tests. The damage of structure
can be assumed by reducing of stiffness on each floor. The purpose of
this study is to identify, localize and evaluate the magnitude of the real
damage in multi-story structure by the shifts of natural frequencies.
8692-125, Session PTues
Shumei Zhou, Yuequan Bao, Hui Li, Harbin Institute of
Technology (China)
8692-127, Session PTues
Structural damage identification based
on substructure sensitivity and l1 sparse
Semi-active control of stay cables using
nonlinear friction damper
Sparsity constraints are now very popular to regularize inverse problems
in the field of applied mathematics. Structural damage identification is
a typical inverse problem of structural dynamics and structural damage
also is a spatial sparse phenomenon, i.e., structural damage occurs,
only part of elements or substructures are damaged. In this paper, a
structural damage identification method based on the substructurebased sensitivity analysis and the sparse regularization is proposed.
By substructure sensitivity analysis, the relation between structural
damage stiffness parameter variation and change of modal parameters
are established as linear equations. Considering the structural damage
sparsity conditions, to identify the location and extent of damages by
minimize the l1 norm optimization problem. The numerical example of
the truss structure with considering measurement noise, incomplete
of measurements and multi-damage cases are carried out. The effects
of number of sensor and layout to the identification results are also
investigated. The results indicated that the damage locations and extents
can be effectively identified by the proposed method. Additionally,
the sensor location can be random arrangement, which has great
significance to the sensor placement of the actual structural health
monitoring because robust structural damage identification also can be
obtained even a few of sensor are failure.
Huiping WANG, Limin SUN, Tongji Univ. (China)
Stay cables of long span cable-stayed bridges are easy to vibrate under
wind or wind/rain loads owning to their very low inherent damping. To
install cable dampers near to the anchorages of cable has become a
common practice for cable vibration control of cable-stayed bridge
structures. The performance of passive linear viscous dampers has been
widely studied. However, even the optimal passive device can only add
a small amount of damping to the cable when attached a reasonable
distance from the cable anchorage. This paper investigates the potential
for improved damping using semi-active devices based on nonlinear
frictional type of dampers. The equations of motion of a cable with a
friction damper were derived using an assumed modes approach and
the analytical solution for the motion equations was obtained. The results
show that the friction damper evokes linearly decaying of free vibrations
of the cable as long as the damper does not lock the cable. The modal
damping ratio of cable with the friction damper is strongly amplitude
dependent. Based on the characteristics of friction damper, the authors
proposed a semi-active control strategy for cable control with dampers.
The damper force has to be adjusted in proportion to the cable amplitude
at damper position. The response of a cable with passive and semi-active
dampers is studied. The response with a semi-active damper is found to
be dramatically reduced compared to the optimal passive linear viscous
damper, thus demonstrating the potential benefits using a semi-active
damper for absorbing cable vibratory energy.
8692-128, Session PTues
Automated detection and classification of
cracks on concrete bridge decks
Prateek Prasanna, Kristin J. Dana, Nenad Gucunski, Basily
Basily, Rutgers, The State Univ. of New Jersey (United States)
8692-126, Session PTues
Assessment and evaluation of damage
detection methods based on modal frequency
The reliability of structural health monitoring of concrete bridges is highly
dependent on the efficiency of detection of surface cracks. Frequent
tests are conducted in order to determine the degree of deterioration.
Moreover, assessment of surface condition of bridge decks is exteremly
crucial for reasons of safety. Over the years, visual inspection has been
the primary mode of such testing . These methods , apart from being
cost and time-ineffiecient, are very labor-intensive as well when the
bridges span a longer length. Such methods heavily depend on the
experience of the specialist. It can also tend to be inaccurate. Failure of
detection of these initial cracks might lead to decrease in longevity of
bridge and sometimes collapse. This paper presents the use of image
procesing and pattern recognition techniques in assessment of cracks
Hien HoThu, Akira Mita, Keio Univ. (Japan)
Research and development of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) has
been regarded as a very important research field for evaluating and
maintaining structural integrity of a building. The main parts of SHM
in civil engineering are damage detection and localization, which are
essential monitoring zones for structures after major events such as
earthquake or strong winds. In many previous researches, various
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Conference 8692: Sensors and Smart Structures
Technologies for Civil, Mechanical, and
Aerospace Systems
on a concrete bridge deck. Special emphasis is laid on the classification
system developed using Histogram of Oriented Gradients.
between strain and modal parameters are simulated by Support Vector
Machine (SVM). The results show that PCA is an effective data deduce
tool; with appropriate inputs for SVM, modal properties are predicted
accurately and effectively.
This project concentrates on building a crack-detection system that can
take into account the irregularity and randomness of cracks and can
be successfully integrated with a robot in order to reduce the currently
pursued manual process. This paper also discusses the designing of
a ‘mobile vision cart’ for deck-imaging purpose and the subsequent
path-planning for the entire process to ensure complete coverage. The
obtained results are compared against the ground truth and the accuracy
of the proposed system is determined.
8692-131, Session PTues
Multigas optical fiber sensing system
Weiqi Wang, Tianyu Zhang, Jilin Univ. (China); David Y. Li, L.C.
Pegasus Corp. (United States)
8692-129, Session PTues
Methane, carbon monoxide, and ammonia are three harmful gases that
frequently lead to fatal accidents. Much attention has focused on how to
detect these gases at the simultaneously. Absorption of light radiation in
the near-infrared spectra is widely used to detect the existence and the
concentration of gaseous specimen for its simplicity and high sensitivity
to the environmental conditions of the absorbing species.
Application of hall element as multimodal
sensing device for artificial skin
Jun-ichiro Yuji, Kumamoto National College of Technology
This paper introduces a multi-gas optical fiber sensing system, which
can detect the concentration of multiple gases (including CH4, CO,
NH3? in one system rapidly. The system is composed by four parts.
The self-designed laser light source section can output light of different
wavelengths depending on the specific gas to be measured. Another
important part is the gas cell. In order to enable accurate determination
of the concentration of different gases, we designed a unique white cell
which could make the laser pass different length of the optical path in
different gases. The processing circuit and data processing software are
the other two parts in this system. This system has achieved relatively
high sensitivity (better than about 100 ppm for three gases). The
response time of the system is less than 6 seconds.
In order to identify features of the touched object, realizing the
artificial skin senses like the human fingertip is required. Many kinds
of multimodal tactile sensors have been developed for robotic fingers
and hands in recent years. However, since the most multimodal tactile
sensors consist of some individual sensing elements for each purpose,
the kinds of sensor increase with the number of the skin sensation.
In this paper, we reports on tactile sensing methods to apply Hall effect
elements, which are generally used as magnetic sensors, to the artificial
skin as multimodal sensing devices of contact force and temperature.
This tactile sensor consists of Hall elements and magnets that are
embedded in an elastic silicone rubber as the artificial skin. Here, contact
force is detected by distance change of a Hall element and a magnet,
and temperature is also detected using the temperature dependency of a
Hall element.
Extensive tests have been carried out. It is shown that the performance
of the optical fiber sensor system is generally superior to the conventional
system. The Multi-gas Optical Fiber Sensing System will be used for gas
safety monitoring in the many areas.
The temperature dependency of a Hall element changes with the Hall
material and the drive circuit to detect the Hall output voltage. Therefore,
we show three kinds of tactile sensors fabricated by the combination of
two Hall elements, that is, GaAs Hall element and InSb Hall element, and
two drive circuits, that is, constant voltage drive and constant current
drive. Since it is possible to detect contact force and temperature by
obtaining two kinds of Hall output voltage, these methods are effective
for fabrication of a multimodal tactile sensor.
8692-132, Session PTues
Femtosecond laser irradiation enhanced
room temperature tin oxide nanostructure
gas sensor
Haizhou Ren, Haibin Huo, Mengyan Shen, Marina Ruths,
Hongwei Sun, Univ. of Massachusetts Lowell (United States)
8692-130, Session PTues
Data analysis for long-term structural health
monitoring on a continuous rigid frame bridge
Tin oxide (SnO2) thin film gas sensors that function at room temperature
have been fabricated on nanostructured substrates. After femtosecond
laser irradiation of the sensing surface of the SnO2, the sensitivity to
gases, for example, ammonia, increased noticeably. The dependence
of the sensitivity on the number of laser pulses has been investigated. It
is believed that the femtosecond laser pulses generate defects in a thin
layer on the SnO2 sensor surface. These defects may result in a potential
energy well creating surface bound states for electrons to move on the
surface, which could increase the sensitivity to gases.
Lei Wang, Harbin Institute of Technology (China)
A series of bridges collapsed in china in recent years in earthquakes,
floods or ship accidents. Also bridges are faced with fatigue problems
caused by increased traffic demand, continued materials aging and
deterioration, but are lack of maintenance. Sustainability of bridges is
affected by environmental conditions such as traffic load, temperature,
humidity, wind and so on. Long-term structural health monitoring (SHM)
system has been developed to monitor the operational process of bridge
structures, to estimate the bridge structural safety and serviceability
by damage diagnosis, safety assessment and service life evaluation.
Fiber brag grating (FBG) sensors are widely used in SHM to monitor
environmental conditions, static and dynamic properties because of
their high-durability. A mass of data is collected during the long-time
monitoring; therefore methods for reducing data and prediction for future
modal properties are main concerns in data analysis of SHM.
8692-133, Session PTues
Simulation and experiment for large-scale
space structure
Hongbo Sun, Zuoliang Zha, Jian Zhou, Wuxi Jincheng Curtian
Wall Engineering Co. Ltd. (China)
Dongying Yellow River Bridge is a continuous rigid frame concrete
bridge with main span of 220 meter, which is implemented with 180
FBG sensors for temperature, 1688 for stain and 32 for acceleration.
This paper analyses 5 months continuous monitoring data in year 2006.
Because of abundant amounts of data, principle components analysis
(PCA) method is utilized to reduce excessive information from raw
data. The correlations between temperature and modal parameters and
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The future space structures are relatively large, flimsy, and lightweight.
As a result, they are more easily affected or distortion by space
environments compared to other space structures. This study
examines the structural integrity of a large scale space structure, To
maintain the required accuracy of the space structure under orbital
temperature changes, the space structures will utilize an active control
Conference 8692: Sensors and Smart Structures
Technologies for Civil, Mechanical, and
Aerospace Systems
system, consisting of boundary control actuators and an electrostatic
figure control system with a real time closed loop feedback. An
experimental system is established to verify the control mechanism
with photogrammetric measurement technique and Bragg fiber grating
(FBG) sensor technique. The shape control experiments are finished
by measuring and analyzing small amplitude distortion of the structure
based on the active components made of shape memory alloy (SMA) and
shape memory polymer composite (SMPC) material. Then, simulations
are finished by NASTRAN finite element software with active effect
which is considered to be deformation applied on the analytical model.
The amplitude of distortion is obtained by the simulations. Both the
experimental and numerical solution show that the amplitude of accuracy
are developed which proves the feasibility of shape control using shape
memory materials and this investigation explores the feasibility of utilizing
an active cable based control system of shape memory materials to
reduce global distortion due to thermal loading. It is found that through
proper assemble of cable lengths and attachment points, significant
thermal distortion reduction is achieved. Specifically, radial distortion due
to on-orbit thermal loading .
Idealized window performance has traditionally been defined as the
dynamic control of transmittance, glare, solar gain and daylighting
at any time to manage energy, comfort and view. However, emerging
material systems point towards other physical phenomena for achieving
transparency modulation, demanding a broader reinterpretation of
advanced glazing end goals. Building upon the already complex set
of requirements for high-performance glazing, we prescribe additional
system functions ranging from nano-structural behaviors to an ecological
scale, introducing aspects of aesthetic variability, interactivity, sun
tracking, spectral selectivity, energy collection, variable solar heat gain
coefficients, material lifecycle and glass-integrated sensing. In order to
develop new material possibilities for next generation dynamic glazing,
a set of prescriptive performance criteria is presented to satisfy an
idealized architectural behavior.
8692-134, Session PTues
Thomas J. Matarazzo, Shamim N. Pakzad, Lehigh Univ. (United
8692-136, Session PTues
Structural modal identification using data
sets with missing observations
Depth-sensor design and fabrication process
using silver-paste printing method
System identification algorithms currently require a full data set, i.e. no
missing observations, to estimate the natural vibration properties of
a structural system. These algorithms are often based on parameters
estimated from a state space or ARMA model. There are circumstances
in which a Missing Data Problem can arise during data collection;
therefore, it is important to adjust these algorithms to facilitate Structural
Modal Identification. Despite having missing observations, ARMA
parameters can be estimated from a time series; subsequently, structural
modal properties can be identified. This paper will focus on the search
for a missingness threshold which can be used to assess the probability
of extracting useful structural modal properties from a given data set with
missing observations. This assessment will be based on the accuracy of
modal estimates for data sets with varying magnitudes and patterns of
missingness. It is clear that missingness can only reduce the accuracy
of modal estimates however, it is important to establish the associated
scale and behavior of the reduction. An example is presented to illustrate
the main concepts of this approach.
Hyeunseok Choi, Korea Institute of Industrial Technology (Korea,
Republic of)
We carried out acid treatment on SWCNT to make homogeneous
dispersion in silver-CNT mixed paste ink for the screen-printing process.
Mixing ratio and Dispersion condition make different sensor performance
in total resistance, joule heating ratio, pressure sensitive, life time and
printing quality. Because SWCNTs make network bridges between the
silver nano particles, the resistance of pattern can be decreased. Also
sensitivity is increased because SWCNT network structure changed by
applied mechanical pressure and electrical resistance is changed. The
synthesized ink was measured by 4point probe method.
We finally fabricated the pressure sensor with 1.5% wt SWCNT to silver
paste. The sensor pattern printed on PI(Polyimide) film. PI film has been
used widely in printed electronics product by flexible PCB and flat cable,
because PI film known thermal stability, good chemical resistance, and
excellent mechanical properties. The patterned PI film with silver-CNT is
encapsulated in waterproof part.
8692-137, Session PTues
Experimental investigation of annealed ionic
polymer transducers in sensing
The developed pressure sensor was verified by measuring resistance
under various pressure conditions. We used a pressure controlled water
tank to test waterproof performance of the sensor and characteristic as
depth sensor for the underwater robot.
Bilge Kocer, Ursula Zangrilli, Lisa D. Mauck Weiland, Univ. of
Pittsburgh (United States)
8692-135, Session PTues
Ionic polymer transducers (IPTs) are fabricated from ionomers
sandwiched between conductive electrodes. IPTs act as actuators
by deforming in response to an input voltage. They also exhibit
sensing behavior yielding a current when exposed to various forms of
deformation. IPT performance depends on many variables including the
stiffness of the polymer which evolves with the level of semicrystallinity
within the polymer. It is observed via tension tests that annealing
influences the stiffness of the polymer. In this paper, the goal is to
determine the effects of annealing on ionic polymer sensors. For this
purpose, several IPTs are created via the Direct Assembly Process
from both annealed and as-received Nafion samples and tested in
bending. For both types of IPTS, generated currents due to step
displacement are measured through an amplifying electric circuit and
compared. In this work, high surface area RuO2 is used as the metallic
powder in the electrode while the transducers used in the experiments
are Li+ exchanged and solvated with 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium
trifluoromethanesulfonate (EmI-Tf) ionic liquid.
Performance criteria for dynamic window
systems utilizing nanostructured behaviors
for energy harvesting and environmental
Peter R. H. Stark, Anna H. Dyson, Brandon C. Andow, Bess
Krietemeyer, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (United States)
Contemporary buildings continue to utilize predominantly glazed
envelope systems, despite difficulties with thermal regulation, energy
use and visual comfort. The need for window systems to respond
to changes in the environment while meeting variable demands for
building energy use and occupant comfort has led to considerable
investment in advancing dynamic window technologies. Although these
technologies demonstrate cost warranting improvements in building
energy performance, they face challenges with visible clarity, color
variability and response time. The material dependent limitations of
advanced glazing technologies have initiated a search for new thin film
solutions, with new device possibilities emerging across many fields.
Return to Contents
Conference 8692: Sensors and Smart Structures
Technologies for Civil, Mechanical, and
Aerospace Systems
8692-138, Session PTues
8692-140, Session PTues
The Community Seismic Network and QuakeCatcher Network: enabling structural health
monitoring through instrumentation by
community participants
Active mass damper system employing
time delay control algorithm for vibration
mitigation of building structure
Dong Doo Jang, Hyung-Jo Jung, KAIST (Korea, Republic of)
Monica D. Kohler, Thomas H. Heaton, Ming Hei Cheng, California
Institute of Technology (United States)
The feasibility of an active mass damper (AMD) system employing
the time delay control (TDC) algorithm, which is one of the robust and
adaptive control algorithms, for effectively suppressing the wind-induced
vibration of a building structure is investigated. The TDC algorithm
has several attractive features such as the simplicity and the excellent
robustness to unknown system dynamics and disturbance. Based on
the characteristics of the algorithm, it has the potential to be an effective
control system for mitigating excessive vibration of civil engineering
structures such as buildings, bridges and towers. However, it has not
been used for structural response reduction yet. In order to verify the
effectiveness of the proposed active control method combining an AMD
system with the TDC algorithm, its stability analysis is first performed.
And then, numerical simulations and lab-scale tests are carried out.
A new type of seismic network is in development that takes advantage
of community volunteers to install low-cost accelerometers in houses
and buildings. The Community Seismic Network and Quake-Catcher
Network are examples of this, in which observational-based structural
monitoring is carried out using records from one to tens of stations in a
single building. We have deployed about one hundred accelerometers
in a number of buildings ranging between five and 22 stories in the Los
Angeles region. In addition to a USB-connected device which connects
to the host’s computer, we have developed a stand-alone sensor-plugcomputer device that directly connects to the internet via Ethernet
or wifi. In the case of the Community Seismic Network, the sensors
report both continuous data and anomalies in local acceleration to a
Cloud computing service consisting of data centers geographically
distributed across the continent. Visualization models of the instrumented
buildings’ dynamic linear response have been constructed using Google
SketchUp and an associated plug-in to matlab with recorded shaking
data. When data are available from only one to a very limited number
of accelerometers in high rises, the buildings are represented as simple
shear beam or prismatic Timoshenko beam models with soil-structure
interaction. Small-magnitude earthquake records are used to identify
the first set of horizontal vibrational frequencies. These frequencies
are then used to compute the response on every floor of the building,
constrained by the observed data. These tools are resulting in networking
standards that will enable data sharing among entire communities, facility
managers, and emergency response groups.
8692-141, Session PTues
Dynamic strain measurement for early
damage detection of structures via long-gage
optical fibers
Huang Huang, Ibaraki Univ. (Japan)
The performance of modal macro strain-based damage detection
using dynamic measurement with long-gage strain sensors in low-level
vibrations is limited by its deficiency in accurately analyzing of low
signal-to-noise-ratio signals and inability in high frequency information
identification of non-stationary signals. Recent advances in PulsePre-Pump Brillouin Optical Time Domain Analysis (PPP-BOTDA)
based fiber optic sensing techniques have improved the global and
local performances of large scale structures in damage detecting and
strain monitoring. However, the PPP-BOTDA based sensing technique
requires a low sampling rate to ensure the measuring accuracy. This
low sampling rate limited the application of PPP-BOTDA based sensing
technique in dynamic strain measurements. This paper introduces an
improvement of PPP-BOTDA based high sampling rate measurement,
and proposed a wavelet-based signal analysis method to reduce the
influence of noises and measuring errors in short and long time scale.
The validation of the proposed method of real-time measured low level
dynamic strains through optical fiber sensors shows the denoised signals
achieve the requirement of early damage detections. The high frequency
modal information of a low level dynamic signal is easily influenced by
stochastic noises, the wavelet-based de-noising method are suitable to
deal with the real-time measured signals and can reliably detect damage
through noised continuous dynamic signals via distributed long-gage
optical fiber sensors. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed method
on a high sampling rate PPP-BOTDA measured train-induced vibration of
an excited bridge is verified.
8692-139, Session PTues
Automated computer vision-based detection
of exposed transverse reinforcement for
post-earthquake safety assessments
Stephanie A. German, Georgia Institute of Technology (United
States); Ioannis Brilakis, Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom);
Reginald DesRoches, Georgia Institute of Technology (United
Current procedures in post-earthquake safety and structural assessment
are performed by a triage team of structural engineers or certified
inspectors. These procedures are inherently time-consuming and
qualitative. Spalling has been accepted as an important indicator of
significant damage to structural elements during an earthquake, and
thus provides a sound springboard for a model in computer vision-based
automated assessment procedures as is proposed in this research.
Thus, a novel method that automatically detects regions of spalling on
reinforced concrete columns and measures their properties in image data
is desired. With respect to these efforts, the properties of spalled regions
are determined based largely on the extent of exposure of reinforcement.
Thus, this work focuses primarily on the efforts to detect the exposure
of transverse reinforcement on reinforced concrete frame members.
According to this method, the region of spalling is first isolated by way of
a local entropy-based thresholding algorithm. Following this, the regions
of exposed reinforcement (transverse and longitudinal) are identified by
thresholding in the CMYK channels. Then the Hough Transform is used to
detect horizontal edges within the regions contained in each of respective
CMYK channel thresholded images. Then, all of the edges are combined,
near-collinear lines are merged and the result is output as a region of
transverse reinforcement exposed on the element surface. The method
was tested on a database of damaged RC column images collected after
the 2010 Haiti Earthquake, and comparison of the results with manual
detection indicate the validity of the method.
Return to Contents
8692-142, Session PTues
Fault detection using magneto-inductive
waves with WVD-based time-frequency
Ye Chen, Praveen Pasupathy, Dean P. Neikirk, The Univ. of Texas
at Austin (United States)
Time-frequency representations (TFRs) have been demonstrated effective
for characterizing dispersive waves. Multiple time and frequency analysis
methods are developed for identifying the time-varying characteristics of
dispersive waves. The Wigner-Ville distribution (WVD) method satisfies
Conference 8692: Sensors and Smart Structures
Technologies for Civil, Mechanical, and
Aerospace Systems
many desirable time-frequency properties such as better temporal
and frequency resolution, and free of smearing effect by a windowing
function. This paper investigates the use of Wigner-Ville distribution in
interpreting magneto-inductive waves and the application of passive
magneto-inductive waveguide to monitor defect in infrastructure
This study intends to model a Cold-Formed Steel (CFS) building using
Finite Element Method (FEM) in which material properties of the model
are defined according to results of performed laboratory test. Then
accelerograph record of a standard blast was applied to the model.
Furthermore, various Optimal Sensor Placement (OSP) algorithms were
used and Genetic Algorithm (GA) was selected to act as the solution of
the optimization formulation in the selection of the best sensor placement
according to the blast loading response of the system. In this research
a novel numerical algorithm was proposed for OSP procedure which
utilizes the exact value of the structural response under blast excitation.
Results show that with a proper OSP method for Structural Health
Monitoring (SHM) can detect weak points of CFS structures in different
parts efficiently.
The Wigner-Ville distribution method is applied on reflected MI waves
to locate where the reflection occurs. A simulated onset of corrosion
in concrete is studied using this technique. A passive MI waveguide
is built with an array of capacitively loaded metallic rectangular spiral
loops printed on PCB board and characterized by dispersion relationship
and group velocity of MI waves. The onset of corrosion increases the
impedance of a resonator circuit along the MI waveguide and makes
reflected waves take place at the point. With WVD-based time-frequency
representation of received reflected waves, the propagation distance
is estimated by multiplying arrival time and group velocity of MI waves.
This is then used to determine the location of defect. The one-port timedomain experimental results show WVD method can effectively provide
the frequency content as a function of time for MI waves and estimate
the travel distance. The onset of defect is correctly located along the
passive MI waveguide. This implies great potential of MI waves for fault
detection in structural health monitoring.
8692-145, Session PTues
Real-time health monitoring on impact
identification of composite structures with
distributed built-in sensor network
Liang Si, Technische Univ. München (Germany) and China
Univ. of Mining and Technology (China); Zhonghui Chen, China
Univ. of Mining and Technology, Beijing (China); Horst J. Baier,
Technische Univ. München (Germany)
8692-143, Session PTues
Operational modal identification of a long
span cable-stayed bridge with wireless
Wear and tear resulting from certain mechanical impact events threats to
the safety and reliability of aerospace structures, and affects aerospace
structures’ integrity over the course of their operational lifetime.
Especially for composite structures, damage due to impact events may
not be visible to surface inspection but still can cause significant loss
of structural integrity. Therefore, special techniques and equipment are
required to inspect this kind of damage, such as x-ray, radiography,
or ultrasonic scan, all of which are costly, labor-intensive, and timeconsuming for a large aerospace structure.
Quansheng Yan, Xijun Ye, Xiaolin E. Yu, Buyu Jia, South China
Univ. of Technology (China)
For health monitoring of a long span cable-stayed bridge, modal
parameters and tensions of cable stays are the most important
parameters to assess the condition of bridge structure under operation.
Yamen cable stay bridge with main span of 328m , which located in
Jiangmen city cross Pearl River, was open to traffic in 2002. A modal test
and cable vibration test of the bridge was performed based on Imote2
wireless smart sensors under ambient excitation and a three dimensional
FEM of Yamen bridge was established. The modal parameters of the
bridge and the cable tensions of selected cable stays were identified
using a improved multiple reference DOFs stabilization diagram algorithm
based on ERA. By setting different reference DOFs in each group of
data, NExT-ERA was used to identify modal parameters. Damping
ratio, Consistent Mode Indicator from Observability (CMI_O) and Modal
Assurance Criterion (MAC) was used as threshold to identify the most
accuracy modal parameters. Lower order frequencies and modes of
the bridge were estimated by quadratic fit method, and cable tension
was estimated by two different methods. The measured results showed
that there are no significant differences for the identified frequencies of
the bridge and the cable tensions compared with those of the bridge at
the completion. Based on the analysis of deck and cable vibration, it is
evident that the vertical vibration of the bridge deck is tightly coupled
with the cable vibrations within the frequency range of 0~3Hz.
Therefore, an investigation was performed to develop a real-time health
monitoring system for the identification and prediction of the location
and force history of foreign object impact on composite structures with
distributed built-in piezoceramic sensors. The smart health monitoring
system is composed of the two main subsystems: a measurement
subsystem and an identification subsystem. The measurement
subsystem with distributed built-in sensor network was used to collect
and preprocess sensor data, and then the identification subsystem was
implemented to reconstruct the force history and determine impact
locations with the acquired prefiltered sensor data. The identification
subsystem consists of a system model & model structure and an inverse
model operator (IMO) and a response comparator. The identification
subsystem was created to identify the impact locations and force
history reconstruction on composite structures without the need for
the information about actual mechanical properties, geometries and
boundary conditions of a structure, and without building a specific neural
network with exhaustive training such as neural-network techniques,
also without the need of constructing a full-scale accurate structural
model. A novel dynamic mechanical model based time-series model
structure approach (the combination of Wavelet based SFE and ARXMs)
is used into the identification subsystem, which the entire impact
identification procedure is much faster than that of the classical modelbased techniques. The smart health monitoring system was tested with
more various impact situations, for all of the cases considered, good
agreement was found between predicted and actual force history and
location, and the estimation errors fell well within the prespecified limit.
8692-144, Session PTues
Optimal placement of smart sensors in CFS
structures under blast loading using hybrid
FEM-GA technique
8692-146, Session PTues
Hamid R. Vosoughifar, Seyed Kazem Sadat Shokouhi, Azam
Dolatshah, Islamic Azad Univ. (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hassan
Atapour, California State Univ., Fresno (United States)
Semi-active vibration control with
harmonically varying damping (application
to serial TDOF system and filtering using the
Stuart-Landau Equation)
Blasts can produce, in a very short time, an overload much greater
than the design load of a building. The blast explosion nearby or within
structures causes catastrophic damage to the building both externally
and internally. Hence, they have to be protected from the blast effects.
Satoshi Hirohata, Daisuke Iba, Kyoto Institute of Technology
Return to Contents
Conference 8692: Sensors and Smart Structures
Technologies for Civil, Mechanical, and
Aerospace Systems
8692-148, Session PTues
This paper demonstrates a new semi-active vibration control method
with harmonically varying damping on a serial two-degree-of freedom
system. We applied the method to vibration mitigation of a single-degreeof-freedom structure and a parallel-coupled structure with sinusoidal
base excitation having two frequencies, before. In these studies, an ideal
variable damper was used in conjunction with the secondary sinusoidal
disturbance vibration to reduce the response due to the primary vibration.
In other words, another resonance can be generated by the modulated
component caused by the variable damping device and the secondary
base excitation. The additional resonance was adjusted to be out of
phase with the primary response, and the response of the structure was
effectively reduced as a result of the generated damping force. However,
no such study considering the serial multi-degree-of-freedom system has
been conducted. In this paper, the proposed semi-active control law is
applied to the serial multi-degree-of-freedom system, i.e. the structures
with the seismic isolation layer. To more specifically, the primary mode
response of the structure is controlled by the effect between harmonically
varying damping and the higher-order mode response of the structure.
In addition, because the proposed control law requires the phase of
the each mode response of the structure, a new filter using nonlinear
oscillators, Stuart-Landau equation, is also proposed. The filter is taken
advantage of the synchronization properties of the nonlinear oscillators.
As a result of the advantage, the oscillators can separate each vibration
mode of the structure, and estimate the each phase.
A piezoelectric-wafer-stack vibration energy
harvester for wireless sensor networks
Xuezheng Jiang, Yancheng Li, Jianchun Li, Univ. of Technology,
Sydney (Australia)
Over the past few decades, wireless sensor networks have been widely
used in civil structure health monitoring application. Currently, most
wireless sensor networks are battery-powered and it is very costly
for maintenance because of the requirement for continuous battery
replacements. In order to solve this problem, this paper presents a novel
piezoelectric vibration energy harvester to convert the structural vibration
into usable electrical energy for powering the wireless sensor networks.
Unlike the normal cantilever beam structure, the piezoelectric harvester
shown in this paper is based on the wafer-stack configuration which is
appropriated for large force vibration conditions, and can be embedded
in civil structures and convert the large structural vibration force directly
into electrical energy. The longitudinal mode of the piezoelectric-waferstack was developed firstly to illustrate the force-to-voltage relationship
of piezoelectric materials and to find the inter-medium force that
will be used to convert vibration energy into electrical energy. Then,
two electromechanical models (without and with a rectified circuit),
considering both the mechanical and electrical factors of the harvester,
were built to characterize the harvested electrical power across the
external load. Exact closed-form expressions of the electromechanical
models have been given to analyze the maximum harvested power and
the optimal resistance. Finally, a shake table experimental testing was
conducted to evaluate the feasibility of the presented piezoelectricwafer-stack harvester under standard sinusoidal loadings. Test results
show that the harvester can generate a maximum 45mW AC and 16mW
DC electrical power for sinusoidal loading with amplitude of 40mm and
frequency of 2Hz, and the harvested electrical power is proportional to
the exciting vibration strength.
8692-147, Session PTues
Design and development of piezo based on
board alignment hexapod system
Chirag P. Dewan, Naimesh Patel, Dinavahi Subrahmanyam,
Neeraj Mathur, Anup Vora, Space Applications Ctr. (India)
High resolution Camera systems consist of large size high definition
telescope. In general the telescope systems consist of large size primary
mirror along with other mirrors called secondary mirror and tertiary mirror
located at a long distance from the primary mirror. The dimensional
stability requirement for relative positioning amongst each other is of the
order or 1 micron between mirrors in terms of linear displacement and
1 arc second in terms of tilts amongst the mirrors. With finest possible
material properties of metering structure like co-efficient of thermal
expansion, it is very difficult to ensure the required dimensional stability.
This is mainly due to thermal, structural and zero gravity environmental
impacts on the structure.
8692-150, Session PTues
Nonlinear behavior of coupling beams with
novel shape-memory alloy dampers under
lateral loads
Chenxi Mao, China Earthquake Administration (China) and
Harbin Institute of Technology (China); Zhenying Wang, Northeast
Forestry Univ. (China); Hui Li, Harbin Institute of Technology
(China); Jinping Ou, Dalian Univ. of Technology (China)
This can be overcome satisfactorily by keeping provision of onboard
alignment capability. To correct the misalignment of the relative positions
of critical optical components, active positioning system based on
actuators is required which can be commanded onboard for achieving
optimum performance of camera systems.
For the conventional frame-shear wall system, severely damage in
coupling beams results in high repair cost post earthquake and even in
some cases it is difficult to repair the coupling beams. In order to solve
this problem, a novel passive SMA damper exploiting pseudoelasticity
of austenite SMA material was proposed in this study. The dampers are
installed in the middle of coupling beams. Three key design parameters
of SMA dampers are defined: (1) the ratio of dampers’ yielding force to
coupling beam’s ultimate shear force (YFR); (2) the ratio of dampers’
yielding deformation to net span of coupling beam (YDR); (3) the ratio of
nominal stiffness of SMA dampers to flexural stiffness factor of coupling
beam (SR). To get rational values of these parameters, numerical
simulation was conducted investigating nonlinear behavior of floor-level
coupling beam subassemblies with SMA dampers under monotonic and
cyclic loading. Three conclusions can be obtained: (1) for cases of the
same YFR, the maximum deformation and damage of coupling beams
are slightly magnified with YDR increasing; (2) for cases of the same YDR,
coupling beam’s deformation is concentrated in dampers, and residual
deformation and the damage of coupling beams are reduced with YFR
decreasing; (3) when YFR are in the range of 0.6 to 0.8, the dampers
almost simultaneously yield with yielding of longitudinal rebar in coupling
beams, and the coupling beams have good self-centering ability. The
damage of coupling beams is relatively small.
Smart material like piezoelectric material whose physical properties
can be changed in a controlled manner by changing electric fields is a
suitable choice for this application. Piezoelectric material is one of the
smart materials which experiences increase in size when applied with an
electrical field.
A miniaturize Hexapod is designed and developed using the piezo
actuators. It provides submicron level accuracy, high stiffness and
backlash free operation which is most essential for onboard telescope
alignment. The work involves design and analysis of virtual ball joint,
derivation of hysteresis loop and voltage-displacement transfer function
for piezoelectric actuator, realization of hexapod, development of
algorithm to drive actuator for achieving desired DOF, characterization of
a hexapod system for all 6 DOF, derivation of error function of each DOF
and implementation of it to the computer algorithm to achieve desired
Work is also done to identify the ways to obtain the values for each
degrees of freedom, so that accordingly by forward integration the
actuators can be given command.
Return to Contents
Conference 8692: Sensors and Smart Structures
Technologies for Civil, Mechanical, and
Aerospace Systems
8692-151, Session PTues
8692-153, Session PTues
High-temperature measurement using Cuplating fiber Bragg grating for metal smart
structure applications
Brush wear and dust accumulation fiberoptic sensor system for synchronous
compensators online monitoring
Tianying Chang, Jilin Univ. (China); Lei Jia, Qingmei Sui,
Shandong Univ. (China); Hong-Liang Cui, Jilin Univ. (China) and
Polytechnic Institute of New York Univ. (China)
Claudio Florídia, Livia R. Alves, Fábio R. Bassan, Antonio A.
Juriollo, Flávio Borin, CpqD Foundation (Brazil); Afonso R. C.
Souza, ELETRONORTE (Brazil)
The commonly used coating for fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs), with
Acrylate as its main component, is not able to endure high temperature
and is used only under 100°C. With polyimide coating it can measure
temperature up to 300°C. However, the relationship between the
FBG’s central wavelength shift and temperature variation is not linear
by quadratic, once the measured temperature is above 100°C, which
restricts FBG’s application in measuring high temperature. To improve
FBG’s temperature characteristics, we covered FBG’s surface with
copper uniformly by way of electroless Cu-plating, and carried out high
temperature experiments to validate the feasibility of high temperature
measurement and obtained good results.
An electro-optical sensor system for monitoring synchronous
compensators in the electrical distribution network is presented. The
fiber-optic sensor system is based on two main technologies: optical
bend loss sensors for monitoring the brush wear and free-space optics
to determine the dust accumulation from brush wear. Both techniques
are characterized to monitor the parameters by means of simple optical
power readings. In order to avoid optical power fluctuations in the fiber
optics link from interrogation system to the synchronous compensators,
bend-loss insensitive fibers are used. The low-cost interrogation
system consists on one laser, optical splitters and 80 photodetectors to
independently monitor each one of the synchronous compensators’ s
brushes. This set up ensure an ease installation and avoid cascaded fault
that a serial configuration could originates, thus increasing reliability of
the sensor system.
Our high-temperature experiments for electroless Cu-plating FBG
indicate that Cu-plating FBG can measure high-temperature up to (even
beyond) 300°C, and it has high linearity, accuracy and repeatability. In
a certain range, FBG’s thermal expansion coefficient increases with
increase in the Cu-plating thickness, so we can obtain specific Cu-plating
FBG’s temperature sensitivity by controlling the plating layer’s thickness.
The temperature sensitivity of FBG with Cu-plating can be improved
by more than three times with no less than 300 um thick coating by
electroless and electrical Cu-plating. Such Cu-plating FBG can be
soldered onto metal structures to get good bonding with the structure. As
a result, the Cu-plating FBG sensors soldered with metal structure can
get good protection, and can be bonded with metal structure perfectly to
constitute metal smart structure with high-temperature monitoring. It will
pave a new way for fiber smart metal structures and materials.
The technique of optical fiber bending loss principle can also be used
in other situations, such as structural heath monitoring of large building
and complex structures. The low cost displacement sensor proposed
can be easily adapted to respond to several situations, including larger
displacements, by a properly packaging fitting. The sensor is said a lowcost one when compared with FBG displacement sensor counterparts
for low precision application, were no micrometric or submicrometric
measurement is required.
In fact, in these cases, FBG displacement sensors have a cost of
hundreds of dollars in contrast with a few dollars cost of the proposed
8692-152, Session PTues
8692-154, Session PTues
Monitoring the deformation of the SMP-based
active morphing structure using fiber Bragg
Design of self-contained sensor for
monitoring of deep-sea offshore platform
Yan Yu, Yang Song, Dalian Univ. of Technology (China); Chunwei
Zhang, Univ. of Western Sydney (Australia); Jinping Ou, Dalian
Univ. of Technology (China)
Peng Li, Harbin Institute of Technology (China); Zhijun Yan, Lin
Zhang, Aston Univ. (United Kingdom); Jinsong Leng, Harbin
Institute of Technology (China)
Offshore platform, which is the base of the production and living in
the sea, is the most important infrastructure for developing oil and gas
resources. At present, there are almost 6500 offshore platforms servicing
in the 53 countries’ sea areas around the world, creating great wealth for
the world. In general, offshore platforms may work for 20 years, however,
offshore platforms are expensive, complex, bulky, and so many of them
are on extended active duty. Because of offshore platforms servicing
in the harsh marine environment for a long time, changes in the marine
environment have a great impact on the offshore platforms. Besides,
with the impact and erosion of seawater, and material aging, the offshore
platform is possible to be in unexpected situations when a badly sudden
situation happens. Therefore, it is of great significance to monitor the
marine environment and offshore platforms. The self-contained sensor
for deep-sea offshore platform with its unique design, can not only
effectively extend the working time of the sensor with the capability of
converting vibration energy to electrical energy, but also simultaneously
collect the data of acceleration, inclination, temperature and humidity of
the deep sea, so that we can achieve the purpose of monitoring offshore
platforms through analyzing the collected data, this design plays an
important role in monitoring the offshore platforms.
We theoretically and experimentally demonstrate a technique monitoring
the deformation process of the active morphing shape-memory polymers
(SMPs) structure by using the embedded fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs)
as the vector bending sensors. The finite element model (FEM) was
developed to model the strain distribution induced by deployable
deformation and optimize the design of experiment. In the experiment, a
SMP plate as a simply model was fabricated to validate experimentally
using the thermal-responsive epoxy based SMP materials. Two FBGs
sensors which were place in orthogonal were embedded at the upper and
lower surfaces of the SMP plate separately. The sample was tested under
various static conditions to determine the response characteristics of the
proposed embedded sensors. When the SMP model undergoes different
degree bending deformity or different bending radius, the resonance
wavelength of the FBG will has red-shift according to the tensile stress
gradient along the FBG. Static six angles bending tests showed good
agreement between values measured by embedded strain grating and
those predicted by FEM. Such a sensing system can effectively reduce
the cross-sensitivity between strain and temperature during the curing
and deformation process through temperature compensate.
The self-contained sensor for monitoring of deep-sea offshore platform
includes sensing unit, data collecting and storage unit, the energy supply
unit. The sensing unit with multi-variables, consists of an accelerometer
LIS344ALH, an inclinometer SCA103T and a temperature and humidity
sensor STH11; the data collecting and storage unit includes the
Return to Contents
Conference 8692: Sensors and Smart Structures
Technologies for Civil, Mechanical, and
Aerospace Systems
MSP430 low-power MCU, large capacity memory, clock circuit and the
communication interface, the communication interface includes USB
interface, serial ports and wireless interface; in addition, the energy
supply unit, converting vibration to electrical energy to power the overall
system, includes the electromagnetic generator, voltage multiplier circuit
and a super capacitor which can withstand virtually unlimited number
of charge-discharge cycles. When the seawater impacts on offshore
platforms to produce vibration, electromagnetic generator converts
vibration to electrical energy, its output(~ 1 V 50 Hz AC) is stepped up
and rectified by a voltage multiplier circuit, and the energy is stored in a
super capacitor. It is controlled by the MSP430 that monitors the voltage
level on the super capacitor. The super capacitor charges the Li-ion
battery when the voltage on the super capacitor reaches a threshold,
then the whole process of energy supply is completed. The selfcontained sensor for deep-sea offshore platform has good application
prospects and practical value with small size, low power, being easy to
install, converting vibration energy to supply power and high detection
to optimize energy capture and decrease fatigue loads. Instead, the
computational cost and the effort invested to reproduce dependable
aerodynamics of the complex-shape beams, using traditional FE
methods, can be prohibitive. A condensed spinning finite element
method (SFE) is presented in this study aimed to alleviate this issue
by means of modeling wind-turbine rotor blades with tapered-swept
cross-section variations of “nt” order all along the span. This study
focuses on the case of yaw effects expressed within the described skewsymmetric gyroscopic matrix to achieve modal analysis with complexnumber eigenfrequencies. By means of dynamic mass, gyroscopic,
and stiffness matrix condensation (order reduction), numerical analysis
is carried out for several prototypes with different tapered, swept, and
twisted intensities, and for a practical range of spinning velocities at
different rotational angles. Time-varying modal analysis and its collateral
effects for, either amplification or reduction of the structural response,
such as tip displacements, overturning moments and base shears, is
investigated. Numerical examples are provided for wind turbines of order
low orders. Simultaneously, execution times are computed as a function
of number of nodes and number modes required to satisfy convergence.
Condensed SFE approach is benchmarked with standard computeraided wind-turbine FE model formulated for rotational dynamics via
ANSYS commercial software. The proposed framework is projected to
be particularly suitable for the characterization of large systems at low
computation cost. In the same way, results demonstrate that condensed
SFE is adequate for model updating and validation using experimental
data via “online” search algorithms (e.g. Simulated Annealing). The
proposed method offers therefore the potential to be implemented in
embedded wireless sensors with intense operational throughputs and
high data sampling rates.
8692-155, Session PTues
Battery-less wireless acoustic emission
sensor based on piezoelectric wafer active
Haiying Huang, Mazharul Islam, The Univ. of Texas at Arlington
(United States)
The sensing of Acoustic Emission signals usually requires specially
design piezoelectric transducer and complicate signal preconditioning.
Moreover, the large bandwidth of AE signal makes wireless AE
transmission using conventional wireless sensor nodes extremely
difficult. This paper presents a battery-less wireless AE sensing system
based on a low cost and low profile piezoelectric wafer active sensor
(PWAS). A low power amplifier is designed to amplify the AE signal
as well as matching the high impedance of the PWAS to the 50 ohm
input impedance of the wireless transponder. A solar harvesting unit
consisting of a Schmitt trigger and a voltage booster is designed to
power the low-power amplifier. A wireless transponder is constructed
from a dual polarization antenna and a frequency mixer. One polarization
of the antenna receives the interrogation AE sensor, which serves as the
carrier signal that converts the analog AE signal to a radio frequency
signal using the passive frequency mixer. A sensor interrogation
unit implemented on a printed circuit board was used to recover the
wirelessly transmitted signal using homodyne receiver configuration. The
battery-less wireless AE sensing system is characterized using pencil
lead break experiment. The design, implementation, and characterization
of the wireless AE sensing system are discussed.
8692-157, Session PTues
Development of cyber-based autonomous
structural integrity assessment system for
building structures
Masahiro Kurata, Kohei Fujita, Xiaohua Li, Tomoya Yamazaki,
Kyoto Univ. (Japan)
When large-scale building structures are subjected to a severe
earthquake, making a judgment call on whether to continue normal
activities in buildings or to evacuate involves many uncertain factors
and subjectivity in decision-making processes. For the use of postearthquake damage screening, a practical structural health monitoring
(SHM) system must be designed to automatically identify the degree
of damage in primary structural components in a prompt manner.
Nevertheless, the scheme of conventional SHM systems monitoring
the global behavior of buildings is not well designed for this type of
application. This paper presents a cyber-based SHM system specifically
designed for autonomous structural integrity assessment of building
structures that is based on the detection of local structural damage. In
the system, a dense array of multiple-type sensors installed to building
structures (i.e., dynamic stain sensors, accelerometers and gyro sensors)
is networked using Narada wireless modules. The large amount of data
acquired by the sensing network are stored and automatically processed
to extract damage feature using an associated cyberinfrastructure.
The cyberinfrastructure is structured by a relational database and local
damage detection applications, and presents structure’s status in a webviewer. The developed system is evaluated through a series of exercises
for detecting damage in a 1/3.75-scaled 5-story steel testbed frame,
which can replicate damage (i.e., yielding and fractures) in beams and
columns. In exercises, shake table tests are conducted for the testbed
frame using ambient loading and minor earthquakes, and an damage
detection algorithm based on the changes in internal force distribution is
8692-156, Session PTues
Incorporating gyroscopic effects in low-order
spinning finite element models for windturbine structural dynamics
Antonio Velazquez, R. Andrew Swartz, Michigan Technological
Univ. (United States)
Renewable energy sources have been the fastest growing installed
production technologies developed in the past decade to replace
fossil-fuel sources. Capturing wind energy in a more efficient manner
has resulted in the development of more sophisticated technologies,
especially for horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWTs). To promote
efficiency, traditional finite element methods have been used extensively
in the past to characterize the aerodynamics of these multi-body
systems. Nevertheless, the modeling of complex geometries, moving
components, and wind-structure interactions has demanded huge
computational resources while still desiring faster computation times at
lower cost and avoiding tradeoffs in reliability and numerical accuracy.
Given their aero-elastic behavior, tapered-swept blades offer the potential
Return to Contents
Conference 8692: Sensors and Smart Structures
Technologies for Civil, Mechanical, and
Aerospace Systems
8692-158, Session PTues
building structures. Due to the complexity of Soil-Structural Interaction
(SSI), it is difficult to accurately determine the rotational stiffness of
foundations. Therefore, the monitoring of rotation stiffness of foundations
under earthquake is very important for exploring the mechanism of
foundation rotation. This paper puts forward a novel monitoring method
of the rotational stiffness of foundations of RC building structures, by
using MEMS inclinometer to measure the rotation process and using
distributed piezoelectric smart aggregate(SA) array to measure the
sectional bending moment. Firstly, the selected MEMS inclinometer
is calibrated and its frequency response range is determined. Then, a
one-story frame model shake table test was conducted to verify the
feasibility of this monitoring method. The frame model is supported by
four spring bearings with rotational stiffness predetermined to simulate
the building foundations. The frame model is subjected to one-direction
horizontal cyclic excitation and earthquake records exerted by shake
table. During the excitation the strains at the bottom of the column of
the frame are measured for calculating the sectional bending moment
and the rotation of the spring bearing are measured through MEMS
inclinometer. The rotational stiffness determined from the monitoring
signal is compared with the designed value with excitation of different
frequency characteristics. From the preliminary test, it can be concluded
that proposed monitoring method is heavily influenced by the frequency
range of the MEMS inclinometer, and under the low-frequency dominant
excitations the monitoring method shows considerate accuracy.
Strength gain pattern analysis for real-time
concrete curing process monitoring using an
embedded PZT-steel plate probe
Ju-Won Kim, Changgil Lee, Eun-Seok Shin, Seunghee Park,
Sungkyunkwan Univ. (Korea, Republic of)
In recent years, it is strongly required to evaluate the strength
development during the curing process of concrete structures to ensure
the good quality of high performance concrete during the construction.
Especially, monitoring the pattern of the curing strength gain at early-age
concrete structures is very important to reduce the construction time
and cost because it can provide the exact information for the decision
to progress to the next phase safely. In this context, this research
proposes an embedded PZT-steel plate probe-based nondestructive
curing strength gain monitoring method that can be utilized even for
the early-age concrete structures. This approach used an embedded
steel plate-type sensor probe, fabricated by bonding PZT sensors onto
a steel plate. To measure the high frequency dynamic response of the
steel plate-type sensor probe from the early-age concrete, the proposed
sensor probe was inserted at the same time with concrete placement.
While the concrete is cured, the high frequency response signals from the
PZT-steel plate probe were measured continuously at a regular interval,
and it was observed that both the resonant frequencies’ component
and/or the guided waves’ velocity are varied according to the concrete
curing process. Finally, specific equations to estimate the strength of the
concrete were derived using regression analysis based on some specific
pattern analysis.
8692-161, Session PTues
A novel partial correlation noise model for
damage identification
Dongsheng Li, Dalian Univ. of Technology (China)
8692-159, Session PTues
The sources and mechanism of various noises are discussed in details
and the physical significance and application scope of traditional
uncorrelated noise model are analyzed in the paper. Based on these
discussions, various noises are further classified into two groups: system
fundamental noise and environmental noise. The first group of noises
is independent of measured signal and the second is closely correlated
to the amplitude and phase of measured signal through interacting with
environmental interferences. A partial correlation noise model is thus
proposed to account for the uncorrelated system fundamental noise
and correlated environmental noise, which is the major contribution
of the paper. Variation ratios and signal to noise ratios of simulated
accelerations with traditional uncorrelated noise model and the
partial correlation noise model developed in the paper are compared.
Furthermore, the influences of both models on the identification of
mode shapes and damages of a beam are analyzed. It is found that the
proposed partial correlation noise model agrees well with engineering
practice while the traditional uncorrelated noise model could not
effectively simulate system and environmental noises.
Percussive augmenter of rotary drills (PARoD)
Mircea Badescu, Jennifer Hasenoehrl, Yoseph Bar-Cohen,
Stewart Sherrit, Xiaoqi Bao, Patrick N. Ostlund, Jack B. Aldrich,
Jet Propulsion Lab. (United States)
Increasingly, NASA exploration mission objectives include sample
acquisition tasks for in-situ analysis or for potential sample return to
Earth. To address the requirements for samplers that could be operated
at the conditions of the various bodies in the solar system, a piezoelectric
actuated percussive sampling device was developed that requires low
preload (as low as 10N) which is important for operation at low gravity.
This device can be made as light as 400g, can be operated using
low average power, and can drill rocks as hard as basalt. Significant
improvement of the penetration rate was achieved by augmenting the
hammering action by rotation and use of a fluted bit to provide effective
cuttings removal. Generally, hammering is effective in fracturing drilled
media while rotation of fluted bits is effective in cuttings removal. To
benefit from these two actions, a novel configuration of a percussive
mechanism was developed to produce an augmenter of rotary drills.
The device was called Percussive Augmenter of Rotary Drills (PARoD). A
breadboard PARoD was developed with a 6.4 mm (0.25 in) diameter bit
and was demonstrated to increase the drilling rate of rotation alone by
1.5 to over 10 times. The test results of this configuration were published
in a previous configuration. Further, a large PARoD breadboard with
a 50.8 mm (2.0in) diameter bit was developed and tested. This paper
presents the design, analysis and test results of the large diameter bit
percussive augmenter.
8692-162, Session PTues
Shear-mode piezoelectric acoustic emission
sensor with a particular geometry design
Didem Ozevin, Hazim Yalcinkaya, Univ. of Illinois at Chicago
(United States)
The turbulent flow at the leakage points of pressurized pipelines
generates continuous acoustic emissions (AE). If pipeline transports
fluid in gas state, the elastic waves propagate through pipe structure.
The leakage point can be detected and located with the passive sensors
mounted on the surface of the pipelines with spacing determined
from the attenuation curves and the sensor sensitivity. The discrete
sensor spacing can be increased further if the sensors are sensitive to
longitudinal waves which are less dispersive than other cylindrical waves.
In this paper, a new piezoelectric sensor with a particular geometry,
specifically designed for leak detection in pipelines, is introduced. The
sensor is polarized in thickness direction; however, through particular cut
geometry, the sensor sensitive axis is placed parallel to the pipe structure
8692-160, Session PTues
A novel rotational stiffness monitoring
method of structure foundation
Shuang Hou, Yu Tianjing, Dalian Univ. of Technology (China)
The foundation rotation under earthquake will affect the failure modes of
Return to Contents
Conference 8692: Sensors and Smart Structures
Technologies for Civil, Mechanical, and
Aerospace Systems
to detect in-plane motion. The sensor is designed to have a resonance
at 60 kHz. PZT 5A is the material chosen because it has the highest g33
coefficient among the soft piezoelectric materials. Numerical models of
the sensor geometry for eigenfrequency and frequency domain analyses
are performed using COMSOL multiphysics software. The paper shows
the excellent fit of numerical frequency response and experimental
impedance measurement of the sensor. The sensor response to detect
and locate leak is compared with conventional 60 kHz sensors on a
152 cm long, 11.43 cm diameter steel pipeline built at the laboratory.
The sensors’ responses are studied for different leak rates. The
required sensor spacing using the new sensor design is reported using
numerically obtained attenuation curves.
interaction effect between the stay cable and the MR damper. The
proposed coupling model is validated by the numerical simulations
using the experimental results. For the purpose of some investigations
on semi-active vibration control of the stay cable incorporated with
the MR damper, a model of MR damper with fluctuating current input
coupled with stay cable is developed. Utilizing the proposed model
of the MR damper with fluctuating current input coupled with the stay
cable, experiments on the semi-active vibration control of the stay cable
model incorporated with the MR damper are conducted to investigate
the control efficacy and dynamic properties of the semi-active MR
dampers attached to the stay cable model. Moreover, the semi-active MR
damper can achieve much better mitigation efficacy than the passive MR
dampers with different constant current inputs due to negative stiffness
provided by the semi-active MR damper.
8692-163, Session PTues
An acceleration transducer based on optical
fiber Bragg grating with temperature selfcompensating function
8692-165, Session PTues
Prediction of scour depth around bridge piers
using Gaussian process
Chuan Wang, Lu Qiyu, Harbin Institute of Technology (China)
Rajesh Kumar Neerukatti, Inho Kim, Masoud Yekani Fard, Aditi
Chattopadhyay, Arizona State Univ. (United States)
Abstract—Along with the maturity and development of Optical Fiber
Bragg Grating (OFBG) sensing technology, OFBG sensors with different
functions have been widely used in civil engineering. In this paper, a
novel OFBG acceleration transducer with a characteristic of temperature
self-compensation is developed, which aims at meeting the needs of
acceleration measurement in Structure Health Monitoring Systems,
especially those based on optical fiber sensing technologies. Considering
the environment temperature change which would lead to influences on
the test results especially for the long-term structure health monitoring,
the structure of novel transducer is designed first, which contains a
cantilever structure model with equal strength beam, and a fixed mass
at the end of the beam, a pasted two OFBGs array on upper and lower
surface axis of beam at the corresponding place. Because of the two
OFBG are in the same temperature field, the wavelength variations in
both OFBG caused by temperature change is equal. According to the
temperature self-compensating principle and acceleration measurement
principle discussed in this article, we can achieve the temperature
self-compensating function of real acceleration measurement by simply
calculating the test results. Besides, it can eliminate the influence of
temperature change and get the real wavelength variation only caused
by stress. Then the calibration tests are carried, and the results show
that, this type of acceleration transducer has high sensitivity and stability
and its measuring range can also be changed according to the practical
requirements, 10G and 100G are discussed in this paper, which appear
high accuracy and sensitivity both. From the research work, we can
see that this novel type of acceleration transducer meet the needs
of engineering structure acceleration measurement well in different
environment conditions.
A reliable prognostics framework is essential to prevent catastrophic
failure of bridges due to scour, which accounts for almost 60% of
bridge failures in the U.S. It is estimated that the annual cost for the
maintenance of bridges due to scour is approximately $30 million.
Currently available techniques for predicting scour are mostly based on
laboratory experiments and do not account for complexities such as the
unsteadiness in flow, presence of horseshoe vortices and the remixing of
sediment. Also, the methods that are most commonly used for Residual
Useful Life (RUL) estimation such as neural network regression are
deterministic and do not provide confidence intervals for the prediction.
In this paper, we discuss a probabilistic framework for the prediction of
scour evolution around bridge piers. We conduct field experiments to
account for all the complexities and uncertainties in the data. Support
Vector Machine(SVM) classification is used to classify the signals from
different kinds of sensors and extract the features that affect the scour
depth. The Gaussian process (GP) based prognosis algorithm uses the
real-time scour data to predict the future scour depths and thus the RUL
of the structure.
8692-166, Session PTues
A piezoelectric-electromagnetic-based
energy harvester for railway health
Jingcheng Li, Shinae Jang, Jiong Tang, Univ. of Connecticut
(United States)
8692-164, Session PTues
Recently, wireless smart sensor network (WSSN) has drawn such
attention for railway health monitoring due to the long-term operation and
low-maintenance performances. With WSSN, the real-time performance
of railway track including the information of displacement, acceleration,
temperature, humidity, etc., can be monitored. However, how to supply
power to wireless sensor nodes is a big issue. The idea of converting
ambient kinetic energy from vibration of railway track induced by
passing train to electric energy has made it a possible way for powering
the wireless smart sensors. Energy harvester with piezoelectric patch
with and without tip mass has been investigated, and compared to
mathematical model in our previous research. However, less than 1 mW
power was generated by the piezoelectric based energy harvester which
is far less than most of the wireless smart sensors need. In this paper, a
piezoelectric-electromagnetic based energy harvester was designed and
investigated. Here the energy harvesting device consists of a primary
piezoelectric patch and an electromagnetic component is added to
amplify the power generation from ambient vibration. Field test was also
performed to test the feasibility of the device for powering Imote2 which
is one the most commonly used wireless smart sensors nowadays.
Experimental investigation on the interaction
between magnetorheological fluid damper
and stay cable
Min Liu, Harbin Institute of Technology (China)
Control-structure interaction (CSI) during structural vibration control
system has been investigated in some current literatures. However,
the interaction between MR damper and flexible stay cable has not
been reported. In this paper, experimental investigation on vibration
control is carried out on a stay cable model incorporated with one small
size magneto-rheological (MR) fluid damper taking into account the
interaction effect of the stay cable and the MR damper. Experiments
on the vibration control of the stay cable model attached with the MR
damper with different constant current input indicates the obvious
interaction between the stay cable and the MR damper. A novel model
of MR damper with constant current input coupled with stay cable is
proposed to better predict the MR damper’s behavior considering the
Return to Contents
Conference 8692: Sensors and Smart Structures
Technologies for Civil, Mechanical, and
Aerospace Systems
8692-169, Session PTues
The experimental results show the capacity of the energy harvester for
supplying enough power to Imote2.
An operational power management method
for the grid containing renewable power
systems utilizing short-term weather and load
8692-167, Session PTues
Online structural health monitoring under
operational conditions using wireless smart
Fadhil Aula, Samuel C. Lee, The Univ. of Oklahoma (United
Shinae Jang, Univ. of Connecticut (United States); Priscilla O.
Mensah-Bonsu, Univ. of Connecticut (United States) and Arup
(United States); Sushil Dahal, Jingcheng Li, Univ. of Connecticut
(United States)
This paper addresses the problems associated with power management
of the grid containing renewable power systems and proposes a method
for enhancing its operational power management. Due to the nature
of the renewable energy which provides uncertain and uncontrollable
resources, the renewable power systems can only generate irregular
power. This irregularity will create problems affecting the grid power
management process as well as impacting the parallel operations
of conventional power plants of the grid. To demonstrate this power
management method for this type of grid, the weather-dependent wind
and photovoltaic power systems are chosen to use as an example. This
study also deals with another uncertain quantity which is the system load.
In this example, the management method is based on adapting shortterm weather and load forecastings. The forecasting data give the ability
for estimating the load values as well as for knowing all load regions in
advance. Furthermore, by setting the loads for baseload power plants
and knowing when other plants are needed to increase or decrease their
supplies to the grid. This will decrease the irregularity behavior effects
of the renewable power systems and at the same time will enhance the
smoothing of the power management for the grid. Hence, the purpose of
this paper is to demonstrate the use of the weather and load forecastings
to achieve the optimum operational power management for the grid
containing renewable power systems. An illustrative example of such a
power system is presented and verified by simulation.
Structural health monitoring has such a great attention during past
three decades due to its vast potential to provide sustainability and
resilience of our infrastructure. Many researchers have developed
numerous algorithms, laboratory-scale consideration, as well as fullscale experiments. Still, monitoring our infrastructure under operational
conditions is challenging and the gap between the theoretical
development and practical perspectives is considerable. For practical
structural health monitoring, a wireless smart sensor network (WSSN)
has been a hot issue lately, due to its low cost, easy installation, and
versatile usage. Though hardware and basic software framework are
well prepared, the online health monitoring strategy using wireless smart
sensors are still lacking. In this paper, a user-friendly graphical interface
based on Matlab has been developed for Imote2-based wireless hybrid
sensor, which combines wireless sensor board and conventional analog
sensor channel for multi-scale sensing. This software enables the
visualization of measured data as well as safety alarm based on modal
property fluctuation. Two laboratory validation on a truss bridge and a
building structures are demonstrated using Imote2-based wireless hybrid
sensor. Full-scale demonstration of the software and hardware framework
is underway.
8692-171, Session PTues
Housing and Development Board (Singapore)
structural-health monitoring system for public
housing in Singapore: An informed sense of
health for building structures
8692-168, Session PTues
Optimal sensor placement of base-isolated
structure subjected to near-field earthquakes
using novel TTFD approach
Chor Cheong Fong, Housing & Development Board (Singapore);
Joo Ming Lau, Housing & Development Board (Singapore)
Seyed Kazem Sadat Shokouhi, Azam Dolatshah, Hamid R.
Vosoughifar, Islamic Azad Univ. (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bijan
Dowlatshahi, Univ. of Minnesota (United States)
Engineers and developers understand the importance of having their
buildings in a good health, but how often are the buildings monitored.
Structural monitoring of the buildings help to find out if there is
underlying conditions even if they look satisfactory. In the pursuit of
in-depth knowledge for the long term behaviour of high-rise buildings
during their life span from construction to service condition, a building
health monitoring system using long-gage fibre optic sensors has been
progressively implemented for Singapore’s public housing. These sensors
were embedded in the ground level columns during the construction to
enable the monitoring of the building behaviour since the birth of the
As a consequence of the ground motions during the near-field
earthquakes, stronger design and controlling damages of vital structures
should be significantly paid attention. Seismic base isolation system
is an effective approach for passive protection of structure when an
earthquake occurs, because it modifies the structural global response
and improves seismic performance. The Base-Isolated (BI) structures
against near field earthquakes, due to the vertical component have not
proper seismic response. As a conservator; Health Monitoring of BI
structures can monitor different elements exposed to stress and strain.
In this research, a BI structure was modeled using Finite Element Method
(FEM) in which Modal and Nonlinear Time-history Analyses (NTA) were
utilized considering the effects of three scaled near-field earthquakes.
Furthermore, three various Optimal Sensor Placement (OSP) algorithms
were used and Genetic Algorithm (GA) was selected to act as the solution
of the optimization formulation. A novel approach was proposed by
authors for OSP which was adopted TTFD algorithm. The TTFD method
uses time-history analysis results as an exact seismic response despite
the common OSP algorithms which utilize modal analysis results. Results
show that with a proper OSP method for Structural Health Monitoring
(SHM) can detect weak points of BI structures.
This paper will share the success of Housing & Development Board
(HDB), Singapore, large scale structural monitoring of high-rise buildings.
To-date, close to 4000 sensors had been installed and another 4000
sensors are due to be completed next year. The HDB experience
will include the pilot project in year 2001, and the journey over the
subsequent 10 years in structural health monitoring of HDB high-rise
buildings. The monitoring system for the international awarded winner
project, Pinnacle @ Duxton, will also be shared.
The HDB experience will encompass HDB strategy in developing a
monitoring system with an outcome of a reliable data integrated analysis
and structural control, which provide a good and informed sense of
health for the building structures. It will include key monitoring criteria
designed into the structural monitoring system.
Return to Contents
Conference 8692: Sensors and Smart Structures
Technologies for Civil, Mechanical, and
Aerospace Systems
8692-172, Session PTues
Engineering and Forming Machines (Germany)
Dynamic calibration of pressure transducers
with an improved shock tube system
Metal carrying structures often fulfill safety critical functions. A
continuous monitoring of these structures lends additional safety, may
reduce maintenance costs and can process operational scenarios.
David Wisniewiski, Endevco Corp. (United States)
The novel approach presented in this paper is a carrying structure with
integrated sensor, which is inserted during the forming of the component.
The result is a smart component with a sensor in the main power flow of
the structure. Since the assembly basically consists only of a structural
material and a sensor and requires no additional joining elements or
additional steps, these components can be manufactured economically.
The sensor can also be substituted by a smart material with actuator or
sensor abilities. The undercuts generated during the forming process and
the integration inside the structure lead to a protected installation of the
The need for reliable dynamic calibration of pressure transducers is
becoming increasingly more important, especially with growing demands
for improved performance, increased reliability and efficient energy
generation from the aerospace, defense and energy sectors - all while
being mindful of low lifecycle cost, minimizing maintenance downtime
and reducing any negative impact to the environment.
State of the are piezoelectric (PE) and piezoresistive (PR) silicon MEMS
pressure transducers specifically designed for harsh environments
are answering the call to provide the necessary measurements for
applications such as high temperature gas turbine engine health
monitoring (both in-flight and land / marine based aero-derivative), high
pressure blast studies / ordnance explosion optimization, low profile wind
tunnel testing / flight testing, etc. However, these pressure transducers
are only as valuable as the dynamic calibration they possess so that
more understanding of the physical measurement can be ascertained by
the end-user.
Using the example of a sensory connecting element, the forming process
for the carrying structure is shown. Within this scope, it is discussed how
the sensor is joined under prestress during the forming process. The
focus lies on the basic mechanism of the prestress, which enables the
integrated sensor to take loads in multiple directions. Subsequently the
calibration of the smart component takes place.
Operating scenarios are discussed with reference to measurements.
Of particular importance for fasteners in mechanical engineering is the
remaining prestress within the connection, which can be detected by
the sensory ability of the introduced connecting element. In Addition,
the influence of dynamic operating loads on the measured signals
is investigated. The experimental studies are accompanied by Finite
Element simulations to design the joining task and to explicate the
interactions between external loads and the sensor in the main power
flow within the carrying structure.
The Shock Tube is an established laboratory tool capable of imparting
near instananeous pressure stimulus for the purpose of providing
quantifiable dynamic calibration of pressure transducers.
From a performance perspective, a vast amount of empirical data has
been collected over fifteen years and used to model more accurately the
one-dimensional gas dynamics occurring within a Shock Tube so that
the time interval of the reflected shock - the most critical parameter in
determining the transfer function for the pressure transducer under test can be optimized for the largest frequency bandwidth over varying shock
8692-176, Session PTues
Accordingly, an introduction of an improved Shock Tube system offering
both increased performance and ease of user operation is presented.
Surface characteristics and mechanical
properties of high-strength steel wires in
corrosive conditions
8692-173, Session PTues
Shunlong Li, Yang Xu, Hui LI, Harbin Institute of Technology
Capacitance sensors for nondestructive
moisture determination in bio-fuel materials
Cables are always a critical and vulnerable type of structural components
in a long-span cable-stayed bridge in normal operation conditions. This
paper presents the surface characteristics and mechanical performance
of high-strength steel wires in simulated corrosive conditions. Four stress
level (0MPa, 300MPa, 400MPa & 500MPa) steel wires were placed under
nine different corrosive media erosion periods based on the Salt Spray
Test Standards ISO 9227:1990. The geometric feathers of the corroded
steel wire surface were illustrated by using fractal dimension analysis.
The mechanical performance index including yielding strength, ultimate
strength and elastic modulus at different periods and stress levels were
tested in detail. The uniform and pitting corrosion depth prediction
model, strength degradation prediction model as well as the relationship
between strength degradation probability distribution and corrosion crack
depth would be established in this study.
Chari V. Kandala, Agricultural Research Service (United States);
Naveen Puppala, New Mexico State Univ. (United States)
Moisture content of wood chips, pellets, switch grass powders, and
similar organic bio-fuel materials is an important property to be known
to determine their utility and energy efficiency at various stages of their
processing and storage. Several moisture measuring instruments are
available in the market but for most of these instruments some sort of
sample preparation is needed that involves sizing, grinding and weighing.
The samples in this process are usually destroyed, and the measurement
involves considerable time and labor. The standard methods of oven
drying and Karl-Fisher also fall in the destructive and laborious category.
In this presentation, estimating moisture content (MC) of various biofuel materials, from the measurement of capacitance, phase angle,
and impedance of a parallel-plate capacitor, holding samples of these
materials between them, at frequencies 1 and 5 MHz, is described. The
applicability of the method to determine MC of these products in their
powder form was also presented. The results obtained with a prototype
instrument working on these principles, as shown, indicate the possibility
of developing a commercial instrument useful for the bio-fuel industry.
8692-177, Session PTues
Design, modeling, and testing of a
piezoelectric impact compressive kinetic
(PICK) tool for crack-stop hole treatment
Gary Simmons, Ronald M. Barrett, Caroline Bennett, Adolfo
Matamoros, Stanley Rolfe, The Univ. of Kansas (United States)
8692-175, Session PTues
Behavior of prestressed sensor-metal
plastic joints under static and dynamic load
This paper outlines the design, modeling and testing of a new class of
tool which is specifically intended for the treatment of crack-stop holes.
By integrating a high power stack of piezoelectric elements in a very
stiff compression caliper, this Piezoelectric Impact Compressive Kinetic
(PICK) tool was used to clamp very tightly on either side of an aluminum
Matthias Brenneis, Peter Groche, Institute for Production
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Conference 8692: Sensors and Smart Structures
Technologies for Civil, Mechanical, and
Aerospace Systems
plug which was inserted in a crack-stop hole. Ultrasonic vibrations at
high clamping loads applied by the piezoelectric stack dynamically cold
worked both the aluminum plug and the inside of the crack stop hole.
This paper shows the overall design of the tool, how it is clamped, the
layout of the plug, plug expansion and shaping with dynamic impacts
and time and how dynamic vibrations were applied. Additionally, finite
element modeling of the natural frequencies shows good correlation with
experimentally measured values, which were important as the system
was driven at various resonance modes during the cold-working process.
Several 1/8” steel specimens with 1/8” crack-stop holes were treated
ultrasonically with the PICK tool to prove the concept. Dynamic fatigue
testing showed that fatigue lives of the specimens could be increased
substantially. Micro-Hardness and neutron bombardment testing
confirmed high levels of cold working at the edge of the hole, increase in
grain density with a regular decay as a function of distance from the hole
edge. The paper concludes with power-size trends, design sketches of
field equipment and an overall assessment of the significant safety and
cost enhancements which can be realized by such a tool.
618 & 669 cm-1 (l4), can be identified, which were in agreement with
the bench-mounted Raman results and those reported in the literature.
For ettringite, the l1 band (995cm-1), l2 mode (457cm-1) and l4 band
(638cm-1) were also identified. Therefore, based on these preliminary
results, there is a good potential of developing an optical fibre Raman
spectroscopy-based system for monitoring the deterioration mechanisms
of concrete subjected to the sulfate attack.
8692-178, Session PTues
Corrosion of reinforced bar (rebar) in concrete structures represents a
major issue in civil engineering works, being its detection and evolution
a challenge for the applied research. In terms of mechanical changes
on the rebar surface, corrosion attack depends on several chemical and
electrochemical parameters (pH, carbonation, presence of chlorides,
presence of microbes, etc.), but mainly appears in two forms. In the first
one, the metal oxidation forms rust that increases the internal pressure
yielding to the crack of the concrete upper layer (general corrosion).
In another typical scenario, corrosion agents locally attack the rebar
(pitting corrosion), and iron ions generated are evacuated out of the
structure, with no impact on internal strains. In this work, we present a
new methodology to corrosion detection in reinforced concrete structures
able to detect both kinds of corrosion evolution, based on the direct
interface measurement by optical fiber sensor. By combining Fiber Bragg
Grating (FBG) sensors with the electrochemical and physical properties
of rebar in a simplified pre-strained assembly, a corrosion detector is
conceived. Tests in electrolytic solutions and concrete were performed
for pitting and general corrosion. The evolution of the FBG wavelength
during corrosion tests indicates the feasibility of this technique as
solution for remote monitoring, with low cost implementation. The
proposed Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) methodology constitutes a
direct corrosion measurement potentially useful to implement or improve
Condition-Based Maintenance (CBM) program for civil engineering
concrete structures.
8692-181, Session PTues
Corrosion detection and evolution monitoring
in Reinforced Concrete Structures by the use
of Fiber Bragg Grating sensor
Shamyr S. Ali Alvarez, Pierre G. P. Ferdinand, Sylvain Magne,
Commissariat à l’Énergie Atomique (France); Ricardo Nogueira,
LEPMI UMR 5279 CNRS - Grenoble INP (France)
FE simulation of SMA seal for Mars sample
Xiaoqi Bao, Paulo J. Younse, Pradeep Bhandari, Jet Propulsion
Lab. (United States)
Several NASA’s rovers and lander have been on Mars and performed
successful in-situ exploration. Returning Martian samples to Earth for
extensive analysis is in great interest of planetary science community.
Current Mars sample return architecture requires leaving the acquired
samples on Mars for a couple of years before being retrieved by
subsequent mission. Each sample would be sealed securely to keep its
integrity. A reliable seal technique that does not affect the integrity of the
samples and uses simple low-mass tool is required. The shape memory
alloy (SMA) seal technique is a promising candidate. A study of the
performances of several primary designs of SMA seal for sample tubes
by finite element (FE) simulation will be presented and the measures to
reduce temperature rising of the samples will be discussed.
8692-180, Session PTues
Preliminary research on monitoring the
durability of concrete structures subjected
to sulfate attack with optical fibre Raman
8692-51, Session 13
Laser lock-in thermography for fatigue crack
detection in an uncoated metallic structure
Yun Bai, Univ. College London (United Kingdom); Jing Jing
Wang, Trinity College Dublin (Ireland); Yanfei Yue, Univ. College
London (United Kingdom); P. A. Muhammed Basheer, Queen’s
Univ. Belfast (United Kingdom); John J. Boland, Trinity College
Dublin (Ireland)
Yunkyu An, Ji Min Kim, Hoon Sohn, KAIST (Korea, Republic of)
This paper presents a noncontact laser lock-in thermography (LLT)
technique for surface-breaking fatigue crack detection. LLT utilizes a
modulated continuous wave (CW) laser as a heat source for lock-in
thermography instead of commonly used flash and halogen lamps. LLT
has following merits compared to conventional thermography techniques:
(1) the laser heat source can be positioned at a long distance from a
target structure thank to its directionality and low energy loss, (2) no
special surface coating is necessary to measure thermal waves and (3)
a large target structure can be inspected using a scanning laser heat
source. The LLT system is developed by integrating and synchronizing a
modulated CW laser, galvanometer and infrared camera. Then, a holder
exponent-based crack detection algorithm is proposed. A surfacebreaking fatigue crack with 5 µm or smaller width on a steel plate is
successfully detected using the proposed technique without any special
surface treatment.
The formation of ettringite and gypsum under sulfate attack together with
the carbonation attack and the ingress of chloride have been considered
as the most serious deterioration mechanisms of concrete structures.
Although Electrical Resistance Sensors and Fibre Optic Chemical
Sensors could be used to monitoring the latter two mechanisms in situ,
they cannot be used to identify the sulfate attack mechanisms and hence
systems for monitoring the sulfate attack is still to be developed. In this
paper, a preliminary study was carried out to investigate the feasibility
of monitoring the sulfate attack with optical fibre Raman spectroscopy
through characterising the ettringite and gypsum formed in cementitious
materials under an “optical fibre excitation + spectroscopy objective
collection” configuration. Bench-mounted Raman spectroscopy and
X-Ray diffraction (XRD) analysis were also used to validate the results
obtained from the fibre-objective configuration. The results showed
that the four fingerprint bands of gypsum, i.e., two peaks at 1006cm-1
(l1) and 1135cm-1 (l3) and two doublets at 414 & 491cm-1 (l2) and
Return to Contents
Conference 8692: Sensors and Smart Structures
Technologies for Civil, Mechanical, and
Aerospace Systems
8692-53, Session 13
in manufacturing environments. However, these demonstrations have all
utilized very sensitive thermal cameras and imagers with cryogenically
cooled detectors. Such instruments are considered too fragile and too
expensive to be routinely used for the bridge inspection task. A novel
approach, utilizing an uncooled microbolometer based imager, has been
demonstrated to capture and provide images of stress concentrations
in a laboratory setting. This successful proof of concept has led to a
new project supported by the Virginia Department of Transportation to
develop an inspection device suitable for field inspections of fatigue
prone details of highway bridges.
High-speed noncontact air-coupled to aircoupled ultrasonic system for internal defects
and surface characterization of rails
Stefano Mariani, Thompson V. Nguyen, Robert R. Phillips,
Francesco Lanza di Scalea, Univ. of California, San Diego (United
As rail freight companies continue to increase the tonnage moved on
their rail system, the cost of combating the effects of rolling contact
fatigue (RCF) also grows. RCF is the major cause to the formation of
head checks, shelling and flaking on the surface of the rail that can
potentially lead to internal transverse defects. At the same time, internal
defects in rail remain the cause of several derailments.
8692-55, Session 13
Noncontact measurement of guided
ultrasonic-wave scattering for fatigue crack
The University of California at San Diego (UCSD), under a Federal
Railroad Administration (FRA) Office of Research and Development
(R&D) grant, is developing a system for high-speed and non-contact rail
integrity evaluation system. A prototype using an ultrasonic air-coupled
signal generation to air-coupled signal detection probing system is under
development. In addition to a real-time statistical analysis algorithm, this
system requires a specialized filtering approach due to the poor signalto-noise ratio.
Paul Fromme, Univ. College London (United Kingdom)
Fatigue cracks can develop in aerospace structures at locations of
stress concentration such as fasteners. For the safe operation of the
aircraft fatigue cracks need to be detected before reaching a critical
length. Guided ultrasonic waves offer an efficient method for the
detection and characterization of fatigue cracks in large aerospace
structures. Noncontact excitation of guided waves was achieved using
electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMAT). The transducers were
developed for the specific excitation of the A0 Lamb mode. Based on
the induced eddy currents in the plate a simple theoretical model was
developed and reasonably good agreement with the measurements
was achieved. However, the detection sensitivity for fatigue cracks
depends on the location and orientation of the crack relative to the
measurement locations. Crack-like defects have a directionality pattern
of the scattered field depending on the angle of the incident wave relative
to the defect orientation and on the ratio of the characteristic defect size
to wavelength. The detailed angular dependency of the guided wave field
scattered at crack-like defects in plate structures has been measured
using a noncontact laser interferometer. Good agreement with 3D Finite
Element simulation predictions was achieved for machined part-through
and through-thickness notches. The amplitude of the scattered wave
was quantified for a variation of angle of the incident wave relative to the
defect orientation, the defect depth, and the ratio of the characteristic
defect size to wavelength. These results provide the basis for the defect
characterization in aerospace structures using guided wave sensors.
The goals of this project are to develop a rail monitoring system that
provides: reliable and high-speed internal rail defect detection, and rail
surface characterization.
Results from small scale laboratory tests and large scale tests at the
UCSD/FRA Rail Defect Farm using the full non-contact flaw detection
system will be presented.
8692-54, Session 13
Thermoelastic stress analysis of fatigue
prone details on highway bridges
Steven B. Chase, Univ. of Virginia (United States)
Fatigue cracks in highway bridges continue to be a problem for the
aging civil infrastructure in the United States. The situation is likely to
become more serious due to ever-increasing numbers and magnitude
truck loads combined with insufficient funding for civil infrastructure
maintenance and renewal. The primary method employed by bridge
inspectors to manage the very large number of steel highway bridges
in the United States is visual inspection. This approach has many
shortcomings. First, the number of steel highway bridges requiring
inspections is very large, 168,000. Second, the number of locations
where a fatigue crack might form on a single bridge is also quite large
(often in the hundreds). Third, fatigue cracks are difficult to detect by
visual inspection alone. The inspector must be within a few feet of the
detail and finally, steel bridges represent only a portion of the overall
bridge population requiring inspection. There are close to 600,000
bridges requiring biannual inspections. Given the enormity of this
inspection task, bridges have been categorized into fracture critical and
not fracture critical, with a requirement of a so called fracture critical
inspection on fracture critical bridges. Even with this prioritization of
bridges for a hands-on inspection, the task remains very difficult. There
are still over 18,000 bridges classified as fracture critical. Fatigue cracks
can and have formed on bridge that are not fracture critical. There is a
pressing need for an inspection method that can improve the reliability
of detection of fatigue cracks once they have formed. There is also,
perhaps an even more pressing need for a nondestructive inspection
method that can help evaluated the potential for fatigue cracks.
Additionally, there is a need for a method to assess whether a fatigue
retrofit, such as hole drilling, has been effective. Visual inspection alone
is not able to meet these needs. One nondestructive evaluation method
capable of detecting and assessing fatigue prone details on highway
bridges is thermoelastic stress analysis (TSA). This method has been
demonstrated to reliably detect fatigue cracks and provide full field
information about localized principal stress fields in the laboratory and
Return to Contents
8692-56, Session 13
Visualization of thermally-induced
delamination by means of guided-waves
Maciej Radzienski, Polish Academy of Sciences (Poland) and
Gdansk Univ. of Technology (Poland); Wieslaw Ostachowicz,
Gdansk Univ. of Technology (Poland); Pawel Kudela, Polish
Academy of Sciences (Poland)
Laser vibrometer allows to register full wavefield in elements of a
structure instead of single point measurements acquired by e.g.
piezoelectric sensor. In this way new possibilities for Non-destructive
Evaluation emerge. This enabled precise registration and visualization of
guided waves interacting with various types of damage.
The aim of this paper is to present overview of methods for visualization
thermally induced delamination in composite material based on guided
wave propagation phenomenon. Investigated methods utilize processing
of full wavefield acquired by the Scanning Doppler Laser Vibrometer.
Tested specimens were submitted to short time period high temperature
source, which generated thermal degradation. In particular, delamination
in material occurred. This procedure simulates some real case scenarios
like atmospheric discharge in wind turbine blade.
Various damage visualization techniques were applied to experimental
Conference 8692: Sensors and Smart Structures
Technologies for Civil, Mechanical, and
Aerospace Systems
data to compare its effectiveness in thermally induced delamination
these conditions, the presence of a grease-coupled scatterer on the
pipe cannot be detected by conventional methods because the change
produced by the scatterer is too small compared to the other changes.
Root mean squared (RMS) value is recently most popular tool for damage
localization. Obtained results constitute RMS map, regarded also as
damage index, which forms the basis for damage localization.
In this paper, we use Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) to identify
the change of interest from the ultrasonic signals. We show that SVD is
able to separate the changes caused by different sources. The trends
over slow time are captured in the left singular vector matrix, while the
corresponding right singular vectors are the physical difference signals
caused by the changes. We also develop robust novelty detection
schema to automatically identify the sudden changes caused by the
Another procedure utilizes Three-dimensional Fourier Transform to
operate in frequency-wavenumber domain, where the guided waves
generated by the transducer are removed. Therefore, only reflected
waves remain. The residual wavefield analysis can be used for baselinefree detection and characterization of defects.
Finally, waveimage filtering method proposed by the authors is applied.
This technique is based on elimination of wave propagation pattern.
This produce signal comprising only information about changes in wave
propagation phenomenon and may be used for damage visualization.
8692-59, Session 14
Thermomechanical simulation of guided
waves in pipes excited by laser pulses
8692-57, Session 13
Jung-Wuk Hong, Hyeong Uk Lim, KAIST (Korea, Republic of)
Identification of impurities and strains in
granular chains using acoustic solitons
Ultrasonic guided waves have been widely utilized for the structural
health monitoring (SHM) of structural components that have thin
members such as plates and pipes. In particular, the noncontact
excitation of the pipe surfaces using laser pulses has shown several
advantages in experiments by eliminating the bonding process of the
dielectric patches on the curved surfaces and complicated interpretation
of the temperature effect on the bonding layers. However, the numerical
simulation of the methodology requires thermomechanical coupling and
large-scale computation. The laser excitation on the surface is modeled
in the form of heat flux, and the generated wave forms are investigated.
The numerical efficiency of the spatial partitioning by deploying
thermomechanical elements and mechanical elements is investigated,
and the formation and propagation of the guided waves are studied
Jinkyu Yang, Feng Li, Zhenhua Tian, Liuxian Zhao, Lingyu Yu,
Univ. of South Carolina (United States)
In this study we show the feasibility of acoustic solitons as a novel
information carrier to discern impurities and to assess strains in granular
media. For experiments, we assemble a one-dimensional granular chain
that is in various levels of compression and includes a heavy impurity
in different masses and locations. To investigate the transmission and
reflection behavior of acoustic solitons in the region of impurities, we
conduct full-field measurements of granular particles’ velocities using
a laser Doppler vibrometer. Additionally, the temporal force profiles of
soliton propagation are recorded by an instrumented sensor particle
embedded in the chain. As a result, we find that the travelling time and
attenuation of backscattered solitons are highly sensitive to the location
and mass of an inserted impurity. We also show that the strain fields in
the granular chain can be efficiently measured by calculating the travel
time of acoustic solitons reflected from strategically positioned impurities.
In principle, this mechanism is similar to the strain sensing method by
optical fiber Bragg grating sensors. We also obtain numerical results via
a discrete element model and theoretical predictions based on nonlinear
wave dynamics and classical contact theory. We find that these numerical
and theoretical results are in excellent agreement with the experimental
results. This study suggests that highly nonlinear acoustic solitons can be
used as an efficient, nondestructive probing tool to identify impurities and
localized strain fields in granular architectures.
8692-60, Session 14
Monitoring of hot pipes at the power plant
Neurath using guided waves
Bianca Weihnacht, Thomas Klesse, Robert Neubeck, Lars
Schubert, Fraunhofer-Institut für Zerstörungsfreie Prüfverfahren
In order to reduce the CO2-emissions and to increase the energy
efficiency, the operating temperatures of power plants will be increased
up to 720°C. This demands for novel high-performance steels in the
piping systems. Higher temperatures lead to a higher risk of damage
and have a direct impact on the structure stability and the deposition
structure. Adequately trusted results for the prediction of the residual
service life of those high strength steels are not available so far. To
overcome these problems the implementation of a online monitoring
system in addition to periodic testing is needed.
8692-58, Session 14
Singular value decomposition for novelty
detection in ultrasonic pipe monitoring
Chang Liu, Joel B. Harley, Yujie Ying, Mario Bergés, James
H. Garrett Jr., David W. Greve, Irving J. Oppenheim, Carnegie
Mellon Univ. (United States)
RWE operates the lignite power plant Neurath. All test and research
activities have to be checked regarding their safety and have to
be coordinated with the business operation of the plant. An extra
bypass was established for this research and made the investigations
independent from the power plant operating. In order to protect the
actuators and sensors from the heat radiated from the pipe, waveguides
were welded to the bypass.
Pipes carrying fluids under pressure are critical components in
infrastructure and industry. Piezoelectric transducers bonded to the pipe
produce guided waves that propagate long distances and illuminate
the whole pipe, but it is difficult to recognize the change produced by
a scatterer because of the many wave modes. Moreover, in realistic
conditions the ultrasonic signals are dramatically affected by the
environmental and operational variations. In order to detect a change of
interest, it is necessary to first differentiate events caused by damage
from those change caused by benign variations.
The data was evaluated regarding their dependencies on the
environmental influences like temperature and correction algorithms were
developed. Furthermore, damages were introduced into the pipe with
diameters of 2 mm to 10 mm and successfully detected by the acoustic
We conducted field experiments on an industrial-scale pressurized
hot water piping system. We collected over 1,000 hours of pitch-catch
signals from permanent mounted PZT transducers 16 diameters away.
We observed dramatic variations in the ultrasonic signal produced by the
operation of the piping system and noise from the environment. Under
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Conference 8692: Sensors and Smart Structures
Technologies for Civil, Mechanical, and
Aerospace Systems
8692-61, Session 15
8692-63, Session 15
Theoretical and experimental study of a
time-domain-reflectometry (TDR) probe used
for water content measurement of clayrock
through their electromagnetic properties
Assembly-rree embeddable fiber-optic strain
and temperature sensor for structural health
Amardeep Kaur, Sriram Nagarajan, Sudharshan Anandan, K.
Chandrashekhara, Steve E. Watkins, Hai Xiao, Missouri Univ. of
Science and Technology (United States); Nam Phan, Naval Air
Systems Command (United States)
Thierry Bore, Dominique Placko, Ecole Normale Supérieure de
Cachan (France); Sylvie Delepine-Lesoille, ANDRA (France);
Frederick Taillade, IFSTTAR (France)
In this paper, a hybrid assembly-free fiber optic sensor comprising a
femto-second (fs) laser fabricated cavity based External Fabry-Perot
Interferometer (EFPI) and a CO2 laser fabricated long-period fiber
grating (LPFG) is presented for simultaneous measurement of strain
and temperature. The EFPI sensor is fabricated by micromachining a
cavity on the tip of a standard single mode fiber (SMF). This cavity is
then self-enclosed by fusion splicing another piece of single mode fiber
to it creating a fabry-perot interferometer. The LPFG is fabricated using
point-by-point CO2 laser irradiations. The fs-laser and CO2 laser based
fabrication makes the sensors thermally stable to sustain temperatures
as high as 650ºC. The EFPI and the LPFG are spliced together to form
the hybrid strain and temperature sensor. The sensor can be embedded
in Bismaleimide (BMI) composite for simultaneous temperature and strain
monitoring, and curing process optimization. The sensor is capable of
obtaining precise strain measurements at high temperature thus making
it useful for various structural health monitoring applications.
In this paper, we will discuss some experimental and theoretical results
obtained with Time Domain Reflectometry probe. The purpose consists
in water content estimation of clayrock, for monitoring of nuclear wastes
Firstly, we will present some electromagnetic characterization of clayrock.
In this context, a coaxial transmission line fixture with a cm size was
developed to measure the dielectric properties over the 10 MHz – 1
GHz frequency range. The use of coaxial line requires that the material
under test is carefully drilled and machined: a special sample preparation
procedure was developed. The effect of water content and saturation
degree will be examined throughout the entire working frequency range.
A second step concerns the TDR probe modeling. Theoretical results are
obtained through a semi-analytical approach, based on both classical
RF lines results and DPSM (Distributed Point Source Method) modeling.
A validation of our model has been obtained through a comparison with
experimental results in the case of simple material (tap water, distilled
water and sand).
8692-64, Session 15
In the last part of this paper, theoretical results of the probe response will
be obtained including the material properties of clayrock deduced from
the first part of the study. The effect of air gap between the TDR probe
and clayrock will be examined.
Vibration control of shell-like structures with
optical strain gauges
Simone Cinquemani, Francesco Braghin, Lorenzo Comolli,
Gabriele Cazzulani, Ferruccio Resta, Politecnico di Milano (Italy)
8692-62, Session 15
Micromachined fiber tip pressure sensor with
corrugated diaphragm
Carbon fiber structures are claimed to offer several advantages such
as contained mass and high stiffness. However, these structures are
characterized by a very low mechanical damping and, therefore, they are
easily subjected to potentially dangerous vibratory phenomenon. Active
control techniques have been widely developed to suppress vibration and
great progresses have been achieved. On the other hand the research on
sensors and actuators to be used is still a research field of interest. The
paper discusses the opportunity to use piezoelectric actuators (PZT) and
Fiber Bragg Grating sensors (FBGs) to realize a smart structure including
in itself both the sensing and the actuating devices. Fiber optic strain
sensors, such as Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBG), have a great potential in
the use in smart structures thanks to their small transversal size and the
possibility to make an array of many sensors. They can be embedded
in carbon fiber structures and their effect on the structure is nearly
negligible. Such a structure is able to measure its state of excitation and
to reduce the amplitude of vibration using the embedded actuators.
Yinan Zhang, Amardeep Kaur, Lei Yuan, Hai Xiao, Missouri Univ.
of Science and Technology (United States)
Pressure sensors are demanded in various industrial applications,
including extremely harsh environments such as turbine engines, power
plants and material processing systems. Fiber optic pressure sensors
have been developed for years and show reliable performance in such
harsh environments. Especially, corrugated diaphragm based pressure
sensors have the advantages of high sensitivity, wide bandwidth, high
operation temperature, immunity to EMI, etc.
In this paper, a miniature fiber-tip pressure sensor with corrugated
diaphragm was designed, fabricated and measured. Finite-element
method was used for optimal design of diaphragm structure. Both
static and dynamic behaviors of square corrugated diaphragms are
analyzed. The simulations show that high performance (i.e., high
pressure sensitivity and high resonant frequency) of the diaphragms
can be achieved with this structure. The sensor was built by splicing
and cutting a small length of hollow core silica tube to lead-in SMF as
a sealed Fabry-Perot microcavity, and then splice to a very thin silica
diaphragm micro-machined and thinned using femtosecond laser and
chemical etching technique. The measurements have shown reasonable
agreement with the simulation. The sensor could be potentially used for
engine field test, hydrophone and partial discharge detection, etc.
Different control strategies have been implemented on a test rig
consisting on a plate made of carbon fiber using two chains with 15
FBG sensors each and 6 PZT actuators. Control forces are designed to
increase the damping of the structures, allowing to increase of damping
of the first modes of vibration of about 10 times.
8692-65, Session 16
Damage detection and characterization using
fiber optic sensors
Branko Glisic, Yao Yao, Dorotea Sigurdardottir, Princeton Univ.
(United States); David L. K. Hubbell, Univ. of Toronto (Canada)
Fiber optic sensors (FOS) have significantly evolved and have reached
their market maturity during the last decade. Their widely recognized
advantages are high precision, long-term stability, and durability. But
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Conference 8692: Sensors and Smart Structures
Technologies for Civil, Mechanical, and
Aerospace Systems
in addition to these advantageous performances, FOS technologies
allow for affordable instrumentation of large areas of structure enabling
global large-scale monitoring based on long-gauge sensors and integrity
monitoring based on distributed sensors. These two approaches are
particularly suitable for damage detection and characterization, i.e.,
damage localization and to certain extent quantification and propagation,
as illustrated by two applications presented in detail in this paper: posttensioned concrete bridge and segmented concrete pipeline. Early age
cracking was detected, localized and quantified in the concrete deck of a
pedestrian bridge using embedded long-gauge FOS. Post-tensioning of
deck closed the cracks; however, permanent weakening in a bridge joint
occurred due to cracking and it was identified and quantified. Additional
cracking due formwork removal was also detected and characterized.
The damage was confirmed using embedded distributed FOS and a
separate load test of the bridge. Real-size concrete pipeline specimens
and surrounding soil were equipped with distributed FOS and exposed to
permanent ground displacement in a large-scale testing facility. Two tests
were performed on different pipeline specimens. The sensors bonded
on the pipeline specimens successfully detected and localized rupture
of pipeline joints, while the sensors embedded in the soil were able to
detect and localize the failure plane. Comparison with strain-gauges
installed on the pipeline and visual inspection after the test confirmed
accurate damage detection and characterization.
spectrum of the FBG sensor with a delay of ~1ms. Thus, only higher
frequency dynamic strains will produce a change in the overall reflected
light intensity. The presence of a gain grating is proven by measuring the
change in the percentage of light reflected from the EDF as the intensity
of incident light is increased for both the pumped and unpumped cases.
Dynamic strain signals were then detected and the frequency response
and cut-off frequency determined. The insensitivity to both static strain
and temperature was measured and the wavelength multiplexing ability
of the technique proven.
8692-68, Session 16
Fiber Bragg grating sensor system network
for an adaptive trailing-edge shape
monitoring: preliminary finite element
Monica Ciminello, Antonio Concilio, Ctr. Italiano Ricerche
Aerospaziali (Italy)
It is the aim of this paper to present the design of a sensor system
network based on fiber Bragg gratings (FBG) for the shape monitoring
of an adaptive trailing edge (ATE) device. This research is part of a the
project SARISTU (EU-FP7), funded by the European Union inside the
VII Framework Programme and focused on smart aircraft structures; in
detail, both fuselage and wing elements are dealt with.
8692-66, Session 16
Multiple impacts identification techniques in
composite structures using FBG sensors
The authors were involved with the detection and process of data
concerning the in-flight ATE local deformation, necessary to reconstruct
the shape produced by the action of a dedicated actuation system.
Because the TE is immerged into 3D structural and aerodynamic fields,
the sensor system network should have chord- and span-wise features.
Mijia Yang, Tao Ruan, North Dakota State Univ. (United States)
Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors are widely used in the field of
structural health monitoring for its high sensitivity, EM radiation immunity,
fatigue resistance, multiplexing process, and long distance measurement
capacity. In this paper, a novel algorithm for impact identification was
then proposed. Transfer matrix between impact and sensor responses
was obtained via experiments. By inversing the transfer matrix, impacts
can be located and force history can be reconstructed, precise results
were obtained through optimization. Based on the developed model, a
4x4 FBG sensor network was implemented on a composite laminate,
and FBG sensors were employed to capture the responses. Besides the
single impact, multiple impacts can also recognized by further utilizing
superposition technique. Finally, the predicted impact and its locations
were compared with the theoretical values. Close match results proved
the effectiveness of the proposed method.
The ATE device will be equipped with a shape monitoring system using
a widely distributed sensors based on fiber optic (FO) elements. FO
elements are herein referred to, mainly with the aim of reducing the
number of channels (then expense, complexity, etc.). The simplest
thing to think about is in fact to place a single fiber running all over the
demonstrator, multiplexed with the necessary number of FBG.
In what follows, a numerical evaluation of the shape reconstruction
capabilities is presented. The main challenge is to attain a 3D
displacement field, moving from strain info. A FEM of the TE is used for
this preliminary evaluation. The shape reconstruction algorithm output,
opportunely processed, is preliminarily compared and validated with
numerical results.
8692-67, Session 16
8692-69, Session 16
Dynamic signal recovery from fibre Bragg
grating sensors using two-wave mixing
Strain and damage monitoring in solarpowered aircraft composite wing using fiber
Bragg grating sensors
Ryan N. John, Heriot-Watt Univ. (United Kingdom) and BAE
Systems (United Kingdom); Ian J. Read, BAE Systems (United
Kingdom); William N. MacPherson, Heriot-Watt Univ. (United
Dae Hyun Kim, Kun-Ho Lee, Byung-Jun Ahn, Jin-Hyuk Lee,
Seong-Kyun Cheong, Seoul National Univ. of Technology (Korea,
Republic of); Ik-Hyeon Choi, Korea Aerospace Research Institute
(Korea, Republic of)
Several methods exist to detect impacts on composite structures
by using a fibre Bragg grating (FBG) to measure dynamic strain. A
significant challenge for such systems is due to cross-sensitivity with
both temperature and static strain. In an aerospace application sensors
must be able to detect and distinguish dynamic strain whilst experiencing
a temperature range of -60 to 100oC and a static strain range of
±3500microstrain. For a multiplexed sensor array in such an environment
strain isolated reference gratings for temperature compensation are not
a sufficient solution. This work attempts to address this problem using
two wave mixing in erbium doped fibre (EDF) to create a dynamic gain
grating insensitive to low bandwidth temperature and strain effects. Light
returning from a FBG sensor reflects off the end face of a short piece of
EDF forming an interference pattern inside the fibre which generates a
temporary gain grating. This temporary grating will readjust to the shifting
A solar powered aircraft is operated by converting solar energy into
electrical energy. The wing of the solar powered aircraft requires a wide
area to attach a number of solar cells in order to collect a large amount
of solar energy. But the structural deformation and damage of the aircraft
wing may occur because of bending and torsional loads induced by
aerodynamic force during the operation. Therefore, the structural health
monitoring of the wing is needed for increasing the operating time of
the aircraft. In this study, the strain and damage of a composite wing
of a solar powered aircraft were monitored by using fiber optic sensors
until failure occurrence. In detail, a static loading test was performed
on the composite wing with a length of 3.465m under a solar simulation
environment, and the strain and acoustic emission (AE) of fracture signal
were monitored by using fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors. In the results
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Conference 8692: Sensors and Smart Structures
Technologies for Civil, Mechanical, and
Aerospace Systems
of the structural test, the damage occurred at a stringer when 4.5G load
was applied to the composite wing, and the strain variations and AE
signals were successfully measured by using FBG sensors. As a result, it
is verified that the damage occurrence and location could be estimated
by analyzing the strain variations and AE signals, and the fiber optic
sensor would be a good transducer to monitor the structural status of a
solar powered aircraft.
of the parts, microstructure and the assembly system statistical tolerance
distributions have been calculated by numerical simulations. An
assembly yield of > 95% is expected for future scaled up high-volume
assembly of piezo-metal composites.
8692-72, Session 17
Guided-wave generation and sensing using
d36 piezoelectric elements
8692-70, Session 17
Unpowered wireless generation and sensing
of ultrasound
Fuh-Gwo Yuan, North Carolina State Univ. (United States);
Wensong Zhou, Harbin Institute of Technology (China)
Haiying Huang, The Univ. of Texas at Arlington (United States)
This work presents guided wave generation and sensing in isotropic
plates by using d36 type piezoelectric transducers. The d31 mode
of conventional Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) has been widely used
to excite guided wave in plates, pipes or thin-walled structures, and
receive wave signals propagating in the structures. Especially in the
thin plate-like structures, different types of plate waves, such as Lamb
waves with symmetric modes and antisymmetric modes, and shear
horizontal waves, are generated by the excitation of PZT actuators. In
some cases, after reflection or scattering, combination of different types
of waves requires more complex signal processing techniques. The d36
mode of piezoelectric transducers however induces shear deformation
in the plane normal to its polarization direction. In the plate, this results
in more significant shear horizontal waves whose amplitudes are much
more significant than those from Lamb waves. In this paper, mechanical
model of the transducers and analysis of shear horizontal waves’
generation are presented at first. Finite element analysis is employed to
explore displacement response of the plate. Moreover, for the d36-based
actuator, voltage responses of both conventional and d36 sensors are
obtained. Different transducers size and shape, and input frequencies are
also investigated. Results indicate this type of transducers has potential
for providing quantitative estimation of damage in structural health
Ultrasound inspection is a popular Structural Health Monitoring
technique. Even though wireless ultrasound sensing has been published
before, wireless ultrasound generation has not been achieved. In this
paper, we will present a wireless ultrasound pitch-catch system that
demonstrates the wireless generation of ultrasound based on the
principle of frequency conversion. For wireless ultrasound generation,
the ultrasound generation signal is first mixed with a RF carrier signal to
generate an ultrasound-modulated RF signal, which is then transmitted
to the ultrasound actuator using an antenna. The ultrasound actuator is
equipped with a wireless transponder that receives both the carrier signal
and the modulated RF signal and recovers the ultrasound excitation
signal using a passive mixer. For wireless sensing, the frequency
conversion process is reversed. The ultrasound sensing signal is upconverted to a radio frequency signal by the wireless transponder and
recovered at the wireless interrogation unit using a homodyne receiver.
To differentiate the ultrasound actuator from the ultrasound sensor,
each ultrasound transducer is equipped with a narrowband microwave
filter so that it only responds to the carrier frequency that matches the
filter’s operation band. Detailed description of the wireless system will be
presented. The interrogation distance of the wireless system is calculated
from a power transmission model that is validated by experiment
measurement. A signal processing algorithm is developed to recover the
ultrasound sensing signal. The wirelessly acquired ultrasound signal is
compared with those acquired using wired connection in both time and
frequency domain.
8692-73, Session 17
Design of alternative sensors for NDE/
SHM applications based on highly nonlinear
solitary waves
8692-71, Session 17
Assembly of smart adaptronic piezometal
composites by use of prefabricated batches
of piezoceramic microparts
Luyao Cai, Xianglei Ni, Piervincenzo Rizzo, Univ. of Pittsburgh
(United States)
In this paper, we describe the designs and the relative experiments of
novel transducers utilized for the generation and detection of highly
nonlinear solitary waves (HNSWs). In recent years these waves have
been proposed for the NDE/SHM of structural materials and structural
elements such as concrete and aluminum lap-joints bonded by highstrength epoxy. Conventionally these transducers contain a chain
of spherical particles and the waves are measured by means of thin
piezoelectric material embedded in between two half-particles. The final
product is usually identified as a sensor bead. Although sensor beads
can measure the propagation of HNSWs effectively, their manufacturing
may require high level of precision. In this paper we propose two
alternative designs. In the first, we investigated the use of cylindrical
piezoelectric material in lieu of the sensor bead. In the second design we
propose to exploit the magnetostrictive phenomenon to detect HNSWs.
For both transducers’ designs a series of experiments were conducted
and the results were compared to the results obtained by a conventional
HNSW transducer. As the results in good agreement, this study may pave
the road to broader applications of HNSWs for NDE and SHM.
Michael Mueller, Reimund Neugebauer, Volker Wittstock,
Technische Univ. Chemnitz (Germany)
Current technologies for smart sheet metal part production base upon
adhesive bonding of piezo-patches to the surface. A novel concept
and process chain is the assembly of piezoceramic micro parts into
local microstructures of metal sheets and subsequent joining by
forming. This results in a full functional integration of the piezoceramic
in the metal for sensor and actuator purposes. Mechanical coupling is
non-positive without elastic interlayers and the electrical coupling is
characterized by the metal being the ground electrode of the sensor.
The paper describes the design, methods and tolerance management to
overcome the challenges for reliable parallel microassembly and joining
of prefabricated batches of 20 piezoceramic fibres with dimensions of
0.135 x 0.235 x 11.5 mm3 and nominal assembly clearances of 0.015
mm. The prefabrication of the batches is achieved by stacking and
dicing of piezoceramic plates. Both the principles of sorting and elastic
averaging have to be applied for reliable production and joining of the
batches. In experiments, tolerances < 0.008 mm where achieved for the
position of the piezoceramic fibres within the batch. FE simulations have
been performed for dimensioning of the batches in terms of compliance
for reliable assembly. Prototypes were assembled and joined by forming
achieving functional piezo-metal composites. With the given tolerances
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Conference 8692: Sensors and Smart Structures
Technologies for Civil, Mechanical, and
Aerospace Systems
8692-74, Session 17
Univ. (United States); Ming L. Wang, Northeastern Univ. (United
States); Riccardo Zandonini, Univ. degli Studi di Trento (Italy);
Daniele Inaudi, Daniele Posenato, Smartec S.A. (Switzerland);
Yang Zhao, Intelligent Instrument System, Inc. (United States)
Analytical assessment of in-plane and outof-plane electromechanical impedance
spectroscopy (EMIS) of piezoelectric wafer
active sensor
Here we illustrate an application of Bayesian logic to monitoring data
analysis and structural condition state inference. The case study is a 260
m long cable-stayed bridge spanning the Adige River 10 km north of the
town of Trento, Italy. This is a statically indeterminate structure, having a
composite steel-concrete deck, supported by 12 stay cables. Structural
redundancy, possible relaxation losses and an as-built condition differing
from design, suggest that long-term load redistribution between cables
can be expected. To monitor load redistribution, the owner decided to
install a monitoring system which combines built-on-site elastomagnetic
and fiber-optic sensors. Fiber-optic strain gauges are FBG-based and
allow measurement of changes in deformation with accuracy of the
order of a few microstrains with respect to the value at installation. The
elastomagnetic sensors detect changes in magnetic permeability of the
cable which are in turn directly correlated to the cable stress. In this note,
we illustrate the calibration procedure for the sensing systems and the
outcome of the first year of continuous monitoring. We use a multi-sensor
data fusion approach to identify the cable stress redistribution with the
required accuracy and for probabilistic inference of any cable relaxation.
The data processing algorithm uses Bayesian logic to combine prior
knowledge with information from the various sensing systems and with
the results of visual inspection. With real-life examples, we highlight how
the extent of prior knowledge can alter the final engineering perception of
the current state of the bridge.
Tuncay Kamas, Bin Lin, Victor Giurgiutiu, Univ. of South Carolina
(United States)
This paper discusses theoretical analysis of electro-mechanical
impedance spectroscopy (EMIS) of piezoelectric wafer active sensor
(PWAS). Both free and constrained PWAS EMIS models are developed
for in-plane (lengthwise) and out-of plane (thickness wise) mode. The
paper starts with the general piezoelectric constitutive equations that
express the linear relation between stress, strain, electric field and
electric displacement. This is followed by the PWAS EMIS models with
two assumptions: 1) constant electric displacement in thickness direction
(D3); 2) constant electric field in thickness direction (E3). The effects of
these assumptions on the free PWAS in-plane and out-of-plane EMIS
models are studied and compared. For a constrained PWAS bonded to
a structure, the same assumptions are applied to determine the EMIS.
The effects of internal damping of PWAS and structure are considered
in the analytical EMIS models. The analytical EMIS models are verified
by Coupled Field Finite Element Method (CF-FEM) simulations and by
experimental measurements. The extent of the agreement between the
analytical and experimental EMIS results is discussed. The paper ends
with summary, conclusions, and suggestions for future work.
8692-77, Session 18
8692-75, Session 18
Real-time bridge scour monitoring with
magneto-inductive field coupling
Development of smart seismic bridge bearing
using fiber optic Bragg grating sensors
Andriy Radchenko, David Pommerenke, Genda Chen, Pratik
Maheshwari, Satyajeet Shinde, Viswa Pilla, Yahong R. Zheng,
Missouri Univ. of Science and Technology (United States)
Sung-Jin Chang, Nam-Sik Kim, Pusan National Univ. (Korea,
Republic of)
After a bridge was completed, a faulting at supporting point may occur
because of the un-expected loads to bridge bearing. Serviceability of
bridges could be impaired by the faulting which had caused structural
damage. Therefore, it is needed for a smart bridge bearing which
can observe the supporting points continuously. Some of bridge
bearings have been developed for measuring vertical load and vertical
displacement by installing sensors in the bearing. However in those
systems, it is not easy to be replaced with new sensors when repairs are
needed. In this study, the smart bridge bearing of which sensors can be
replaced has been de-veloped to overcome such a problem.
Scour was responsible for most of the U.S. bridges that collapsed
during the past 40 years. The maximum scour depth is the most critical
parameter in bridge design and maintenance. Due to scouring and
refilling of river-bed deposits, existing technologies face a challenge
in measuring the maximum scour depth during a strong flood. In this
study, a new methodology is proposed for real time scour monitoring of
bridges. Smart rocks with embedded electronics are deployed around
the foundation of a bridge as field agents. With wireless communications,
these sensors can send their position change information to a nearby
mobile station. This paper will be focused on the design, characterization,
and performance validation of active sensors. The active sensors use
3-axis accelerometers/ magnetometers with a magneto-inductive
communication system. In addition, each sensor includes an ID, a timer,
and a battery level indicator. A smart rock system enables the monitoring
of the most critical scour condition and time by logging and analyzing
sliding, rolling, tilting, and heading of the spatially distributed sensors.
In this study, strain signals were used for measuring both vertical
displacements and loads. FBG sensors(fiber optic Bragg-grating sensors)
preventing electronic noise due to mediating light, which enable the
simplification of the measuring cable due to multiple measurements
and are easy to place due to lightweight and small, has been used for
measurement of the strain signals.
Smart bridge bearings based on FBG sensors consist of EQS(Eradi
Quake System) which has been commercially used for seismic bridge
bearings. Experiments and dead load test were carried out to prove
applicability of the smart bridge bearing based on FBG sensors that can
measure vertical displacements and loads. B-WIM system by using smart
bridge bearings based on FBG sensors is supposed to be developed as
further work of this study.
These on-board sensors provide the smart rock capability of sensing
scour related conditions such as depth, location, and orientation of
the rock. In order to transmit the sensed data to the base station, all
the active components of the smart rock are mounted on a printed
circuit board (PCB) in addition to the required wireless modules such
as a transmitter/receiver antenna, battery, real-time clock and calendar
module, sleep/wake-up module, on-board receiver and transmitter circuit.
The comprehensive embodiments enable the active smart rock to be
recognized, commanded, and communicated wirelessly and specifically,
regarding the ID, battery status, orientation, acceleration, pressure, and/
or other scour related data. In addition, with the on-board timer, a smart
rock is in low power consumption sleep mode and can be woken up and
the communication between the smart rock and base station/center can
be operated at select times as demanded (for example, every hour, day,
month, or year). The smart rock PCB can be enclosed into a water-proof
(sealed) shell for the purpose of underwater protection. An example of
embodiment inside a 2.5 in. diameter spherical shell was used in various
8692-76, Session 18
Analysis of monitoring data from cablestayed bridge using sensor fusion techniques
Daniele Zonta, Univ. degli Studi di Trento (Italy); Matteo Pozzi,
Carnegie Mellon Univ. (United States); Branko Glisic, Princeton
Return to Contents
Conference 8692: Sensors and Smart Structures
Technologies for Civil, Mechanical, and
Aerospace Systems
small-scale laboratory tests to demonstrate the active sensor concept.
For practical application of bridge scour monitoring, the protected
or sealed smart rock PCB can be further embedded into the artificial
rocks to integrate with the scour mitigation. The on-bridge base station
includes large antenna, power amplifier, controller board, and a computer
with Matlab graphical user interface (GUI).
damage detection of the steel stringer bridge. Both field test data and
finite element simulation data of the benchmark bridge are used to verify
the effectiveness of the MMS based damage index for structural damage
8692-78, Session 18
Visualization technique for fatigue cracks at
steel structures integrating a scanning laser
source with piezoelectric sensors
8692-80, Session 19
Automated wireless monitoring system for
cable tension using smart sensors
Changgil Lee, Ju-Won Kim, Hyun Uk Kim, Seunghee Park,
Sungkyunkwan Univ. (Korea, Republic of)
Sung-Han Sim, Ulsan National Institute of Science and
Technology (Korea, Republic of); Jian V. Li, Hongki Jo, Univ. of
Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (United States); JongWoong Park,
KAIST (Korea, Republic of); Soojin Cho, Billie F. Spencer, Jr, Univ.
of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (United States); Chung-Bang
Yun, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (Korea,
Republic of)
In this research, a noncontact nondestructive testing (NDT) method
is proposed to detect the fatigue crack and to identify the location of
the damage. To achieve this goal, Lamb wave propagation of a platelike structure is analyzed, which is induced by scanning laser source
actuation system. A ND: YAG pulsed laser system is used to generate
Lamb wave exerted at the multiple points of the plate and a piezoelectric
sensor is installed to measure the structural responses. Multiple time
signals measured by the piezoelectric sensor are aligned along the
vertical and horizontal axes corresponding to laser impinging points so
that 3 dimensional data can be constructed. Then, the 3 dimensional
data is sliced along the time axis to visualize the wave propagation. The
scattering of Lamb wave due to the damage can be described in the
wave propagation image and hence the damage can be localized and
quantified. Damage-sensitive features, which are reflected wave from the
damage, are clearly extracted by wave-number filtering based on the 3
dimensional Fourier transform of the visualized data. Additional features
are extracted by observing different scales of wavelet coefficients
so that the time of flight (TOF) of Lamb wave modes can be clearly
separated. Steel plates with fatigue cracks are investigated to verify the
effectiveness and the robustness of the proposed NDT approach.
Cables are critical load carrying members of cable-stayed bridges;
monitoring tension forces of the cables provides valuable information
for SHM of the cable-stayed bridges. Monitoring systems for the cable
tension can be efficiently realized using wireless smart sensors in
conjunction with vibration-based cable tension estimation approaches.
This study develops an automated cable tension monitoring system using
MEMSIC’s Imote2 smart sensors. An embedded data processing strategy
is implemented on the Imote2-based wireless sensor network to calculate
cable tensions using a vibration-based method, significantly reducing
the wireless data transmission and associated power consumption.
The autonomous operation of the monitoring system is achieved by
AutoMonitor, a high-level coordinator application provided by the Illinois
SHM Project Services Toolsuite. The monitoring system also features
power harvesting enabled by solar panels attached to each sensor node
and AutoMonitor for charging control. The proposed wireless system has
been deployed on the Jindo Bridge, a cable-stayed bridge located in
South Korea. Tension forces are autonomously monitored for 12 cables in
the east, land side of the bridge, proving the validity and potential of the
presented tension monitoring system for real-world applications.
8692-81, Session 19
Implementation of a wireless image motion
estimation method for two-dimensional crack
8692-79, Session 18
Sin Hang Man, Hong Kong Univ. of Science and Technology
(Hong Kong, China)
Structural health monitoring of a steel
stringer bridge with long-gauge FBG sensors
Deterioration of concrete structures is usually accompanied by the
formation and propagation of cracks. Excessively wide and deep
cracking can lead to corrosion of reinforcement and inevitably affect the
durability of the structures. There are currently a few sensors for crack
monitoring application. They however cannot be applied extensively in
civil engineering infrastructures due to labor-intensiveness for cabling.
They are also limited in one dimensional crack monitoring.
Jian Zhang, W. Hong, Y. S. Tang, Caiqian Yang, Gang Wu,
Zhishen Wu, Southeast Univ. (China)
The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) Long-term Bridge
Performance (LTBP) Program initiated an International Bridge Study
(IBS) by selecting a steel stringer bridge in northern New Jersey as
a benchmark structure to formulate and demonstrate best practice
guidelines for health monitoring of bridges. As a part of this program,
the authors applied the LG-FBG (Long Gauge Fiber Bragg Grating)
sensors as area sensors to monitor this benchmark bridge. This papers
aims at illustrating the LG-FBG related state-of-the-art technologies
by taking the benchmark bridge as the test bed. (1) The concept of the
LG-FBG sensors for area sensing is first presented. Most fiber optic
sensors measure point strain, which only suit for local monitoring. In
contrast, the developed LG-FBG area sensor has a long gauge (e.g.,
1~2 meters) and can be connected each other to make a sensor array,
which makes it possible to measure not only local strain but also
distributed strain throughout the full at least the most important areas
of a structure. (2) Spectral analyses of the macro strain time histories
from the developed area sensors are performed to identify structural
frequencies, and the results are compared with those from recorded
accelerations. (3) Neutral axis positions of the girders of the investigated
bridge are determinated from the recorded macro strain time histories,
and the results are compared with those from static truck tests. (4) An
innovative modal macro-strain (MMS) based damage index is applied for
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In this paper, a wireless image-based sensor for two-dimensional (2D)
crack propagation monitoring is reported. This sensor contains an optical
navigation sensor board (ADNS-9500) which is incorporated into the
Imote2 IPR2400 platform. To monitor crack propagation, the Imote2
sends a signal to the ADNS-9500 to switch on the built-in laser and
camera collecting images reflected from a surface. The captured images
are processed by some image motion estimation methods to obtain
the 2D relative displacement between images. Four motion estimation
methods have been studied: Lucas & Kanade Optical flow [1], Thomas
Brox Optical flow [2], Normalized cross correlation and Phase correlation
A series of numerical simulation and experimental tests are being
conducted to study the tracking performance under different surfaces
and motion estimation methods. Temporarily the results show that
Thomas Brox method is the most effective method. Under Thomas Brox
method, the crack sensor shows excellent results to track the crack
motion up to 0.001mm accuracy under a certain propagation speed
range and a particular surface.
Conference 8692: Sensors and Smart Structures
Technologies for Civil, Mechanical, and
Aerospace Systems
[1] Lucas, B. D. and Kanade, T. (1981). “An iterative image registration
technique with an application to stereo vision.”7th Int. Joint Conf. On
Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI), 674-679.
[3] Zitaova, B. and Flusser, J. (2003). “Image registration methods: a
survey, Image and Vision Computing, 11, 977-1000
The measured data from the mesh of LEDs applied to this specimen
directly correlates to six degree-of-freedom displacements, strains and
curvatures over the structural dimensions. The same data can also
be used to indirectly assess stresses at the local level of resolution
dependent on the size of the mesh, as well as overall global behavior
of the structure. Detailed discussion is provided on the proposed
methods used to analyze the data for a hybrid simulation of a four-span
curved bridge. Results provided by the analysis using these methods
are compared to photos and traditional instrumentation applied to the
8692-82, Session 19
8692-84, Session 19
Accurate and fast in-plane displacement
measurement method for large-scale
structures by utilizing repeated pattern
The use of digital image correlation for
nondestructive and multiscale damage
Shien Ri, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and
Technology (Japan); Satoshi Hayashi, Shinji Ogihara, Tokyo Univ.
of Science (Japan); Hiroshi Tsuda, National Institute of Advanced
Industrial Science and Technology (Japan)
Eric Schwartz, Raghavendra Saralaya, Trilion Quality Systems
(United States); Jefferson Cuadra, Drexel Univ. (United States);
Kavan Hazeli, Drexel Univ. (United States) and Drexel Univ.
(United States); Prashanth A. Vanniamparambil, Ivan Bartoli,
Antonios Kontsos, Drexel Univ. (United States)
[2] Brox, T., Bruhn, A., Papenberg, N. and Weickert J. (2004). “High
accuracy optical flow based on a theory for warping.” Proceedings of the
8th European Conference on Computer Vision, Czech Repub-lic, May
2004, Vol. 4, 25-36
Imaging based nondestructive monitoring systems are critical for
evaluation of large-scale infrastructures. In this study, an accurate
and fast in-plane displacement measurement method based imaging
technique is developed for the purpose of health monitoring of largescale infrastructures such as high building, long bridge, etc. The build-in
repeated patterns on infrastructure facade, such as tile, checker, and
brick wall pattern is proposed to measure the in-plane displacement
distribution accurately. By performing the down-sampling and intensity
interpolation image processing to the captured single image before
and after deformations, multiple phase-shifted moiré fringe can be
obtained simultaneously. The phase distribution of the moiré fringe
is calculated using the phase shifting method and discrete Fourier
transform technique. In this method, both the fundamental and high
frequency components are considered to analyze the repeated patterns.
The in-plane displacement distribution can be obtained from the
phase differences of the moiré fringe before and after deformations.
Compared with conventional displacement methods and sensors, the
main advantages of the developed method are high-resolution, accurate,
fast, low-cost, and easy to implement. The principle of the proposed inplane displacement measurement is presented. The effectiveness of our
method is confirmed by computer simulation and primary experimental
results. Experimental results showed that a sub-millimeter displacement
could be successfully detected against the field of view with meter-scale.
This talk validates the use of Digital Image Correlation (DIC) as a
noncontact nondestructive testing and evaluation (NDT&E) technique by
presenting results pertinent to damage of several material systems at
different length scales of interest. At the microstructural level compact
tension aluminum alloy specimens were tested under Mode I loading
conditions with a field of view small enough to observe the onset of crack
growth of the fatigue pre-crack, while observing directly the material’s
grain structure. The results permitted the quantification of the strain
accumulation around the tip of the pre-crack and the prediction of crack
initiation, while the monitoring strategy allowed the computation of the
relevant crack opening displacement as a function of crack growth. At
the mesoscale level, damage quantification in fiber reinforced composites
subject to both tensile and fatigue loading conditions was achieved by
using the DIC as part of a novel integrated NDT approach combining
both acoustic and thermal methods. DIC in these experiments provided
spatially resolved and high accuracy strain measurements capable to
track the formation of damage “hot spots” that corresponded to the
sites of visible final fracture, while it further allowed the correlation of
mechanical parameters to thermal and acoustic features. Finally, at
the macrostructural level DIC measurements were also performed and
compared to traditional displacement gages mounted on a steel deck
model subject to both static and dynamic loads, as well as on masonry
structures to evaluate the strength of hollow and grouted concrete walls.
8692-83, Session 19
8692-85, Session 20
Use of advanced noncontact instrumentation
for exploring structural behavior
Estimation of defect parameters in
transversally anisotropic materials using
infrared thermography
Chia-Ming Chang, Thomas M. Frankie, Daniel A. Kuchma, Billie F
Spencer Jr., Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (United States)
Arun Manohar, Jeffery D. Tippmann, Francesco Lanza di Scalea,
Univ. of California, San Diego (United States)
As experimental capabilities at large-scale structural labs develop,
there is a growing need for advancement in instrumentation that yields
data which can be readily processed and analyzed to reveal actual
complex structural responses. A wide array of conventional displacement
sensors can be used in combination in order to achieve a relatively
comprehensive set of data for analysis of behavior. Non-contact
instrumentation allows for a different methodology for obtaining local and
global responses of experimental specimens. The use of non-contact
methods, namely the application of the Krypton measurement system,
is introduced in this paper. This system is capable of measuring threedimensional displacements based on specimen coordinates. Through a
large array of Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) installed on a specimen, both
local displacements and global behavior can be measured by the Krypton
Estimation of defect size and depth in composite structures is a relevant
problem as the aerospace and wind energy industries are increasingly
using composites. The determination of defect depth and size is
important in order to perform repairs and assess the integrity of the
structure. The problem has been previously studied using simple 1D heat
conduction models. Unfortunately, 1D heat conduction based models are
generally inadequate in predicting heat flow around defects, especially
in composites. In this study, a novel heat conduction model is proposed
to model heat flow around defects accounting for 2D heat conduction
in transversally anisotropic materials. The proposed approach is used
to quantitatively determine the defect depth and size. The validity of the
model is established using experiments performed on a CFRP specimen
with simulated delaminations present at different depths.
An example is provided utilizing data obtained on the complex response
of reinforced concrete bridge piers subjected to combined loading.
Return to Contents
Conference 8692: Sensors and Smart Structures
Technologies for Civil, Mechanical, and
Aerospace Systems
8692-86, Session 20
8692-88, Session 20
Entangled CNTs active layer for noncontact
nondestructive evaluation in composite
laminates and enhanced impact properties
Development of a stereo camera system for
road surface assessment
Di Su, Tomonori Nagayama, Yozo Fujino, The Univ. of Tokyo
Fulvio Pinto, J. O’Byrne, Davide Mattia, Michele Meo, Univ. of
Bath (United Kingdom)
Currently pavement condition assessment mainly relies on the manual
approaches. Trained investigators survey the condition of the road
surface and detect the deficiency by visual inspection. Obviously this
procedure is very time consuming and inefficient. Furthermore, the
reliability of results is limited since it is determined by the subjective
judgment of investigators Special pavement condition survey vehicle
could obtain the precise condition of the road surface. However its
inspection cost is too high to let it be a routine monitoring means.
Consequently, the development of efficient and accurate assessment
techniques for road surface is an urgent need to diagnose the condition
of the deteriorating road surface.
During the past decade there has been an increasing use of composite
materials in aerospace applications due to their low density and high
mechanical properties. As a result, complex parts are nowadays
manufactured using composite materials, reducing the total weight of the
structures and therefore lowering fuel consumption and CO2 emissions.
However, even though carbon fibre-reinforced composites (CFRP)
structures are able to withstand high stresses, they are characterised by
weak interfacial strength between laminas and can be seriously damaged
from impact of foreign objects. This kind of loads can lead to various
types of damages such as microcracks, delamination and barely visible
impact damages (BVID) that can compromise the structural integrity of
the entire composite part.
In recent year, stereo vision is a widely researched and implemented
monitoring approach in object recognition field. This paper introduces the
development of a stereo camera system for road surface assessment.
In this study, first the static photos taken by a calibrated stereo camera
system are utilized to reconstruct the three-dimensional coordinates of
targets in the pavement. Subsequently to align the various coordinates
obtained from different view meshes, one modified Iterative Closet Point
method is proposed by affording the appropriate initial conditions and
image correlation method. Several field tests have been carried out to
evaluate the capabilities of this system. After succeeding to align all
the measured coordinates, this system can offer not only the accurate
information of local deficiency such as the patching, crack or pothole, but
also global fluctuation in a long distance range of the road surface.
This work investigates experimentally the possibility to increase the
composite impact properties by embedding a sponge-like structure
made with carbon nanotubes (CNT) between the composite plies.
CNTs are grown by a chemical vapour deposition (CVD) process, via
thermal catalytic decomposition of hydrocarbons (e.g. toluene or xylene)
in the presence of a metal catalyst obtained by the decomposition
of an organometallic compound, such as ferrocene. Using a novel
manufacturing technique it is possible to create the CNTs sponge directly
on a pre-impregnated CFRP ply, characterised by very long entangled
nanotubes uniformly distributed all over the structure. The presence of
the entangled CNTs sponge increases the energy absorption rate of the
material resulting in enhanced impact properties.
8692-89, Session 20
Moreover, the electrical conductivity of the CNTs sponge layer can be
exploited as an active layer for in situ non-destructive damage evaluation.
Indeed, transmitting low amperage current in the active layer, an ohmic
thermal flow is induced within the material and diffuses through the
thickness towards the external surface. Analysing the emitted thermal
waves from the sample with an IR Camera, the presence of internal
damages can be detected monitoring the potential variation in the
apparent temperature.
Excitation of stress waves in concrete using a
focused electric spark source
Jinying Zhu, Xiaowei Dai, Michael R. Haberman, The Univ. of
Texas at Austin (United States)
The recently developed air-coupled sensing methods have greatly
improved NDT test speed of concrete structures. A microphone has been
used to measure leaky surface wave and impact-echo signals radiated
from concrete surface. However, an air-coupled source is needed to
enable a fully non-contact test system. Because of large thickness
(typically > 100 mm) of concrete structural members and high acoustic
impedance mismatch between concrete and air, the commercially
available air-coupled transducers cannot be directly used for NDT of
8692-87, Session 20
A vision-based approach for obtaining the
time-varying displacement field of vibrating
Mohammad Reza Jahanshahi, Yulu Chen, Sami F. Masri, The
Univ. of Southern California (United States)
In this study, we propose a simple spark source system by combining
an electrical spark generator with an ellipsoidal reflector to generate
elastic waves in concrete. The sparks source located at the inner focus
of the reflector will be reflected and converged to the outer focus of the
reflector, which is be aligned on the testing surface. The system is able
to provide consistent excitation with broad bandwidth. Rayleigh wave
and impact-echo modes have been successfully generated in a concrete
specimen by the air-coupled spark source in the lab experiment. A fully
non-contact air-coupled system has also been validated by combining
the spark source and air-coupled sensors.
This study presents the results of an extensive analytical and
experimental investigation to develop, calibrate, implement, and evaluate
the feasibility of a novel vision-based approach for measuring the
absolute displacement time history at numerous locations of vibrating
dynamic systems that leads to the extraction of the associated timevarying displacement field. The measurements were obtained using a
combination of a camera and a cost-effective depth sensor. Calibration
of the vision system was conducted to match the RGB pixels with the
corresponding depth values, and to compensate for the lens distortion.
It is shown that the proposed approach can potentially be used as an
economical and robust solution for obtaining the evolving displacement
field in realistic civil, mechanical, and aerospace structural systems
undergoing time-varying complex three-dimensional deformations.
8692-90, Session 20
Evaluation of vision-based corrosion
detection algorithms for noncontact condition
assessment of structures
Mohammad Reza Jahanshahi, Sami F. Masri, The Univ. of
Southern California (United States)
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Conference 8692: Sensors and Smart Structures
Technologies for Civil, Mechanical, and
Aerospace Systems
8692-93, Session 21
Corrosion is an important phenomenon that can lead to catastrophic
consequences if neglected. This study evaluates the effects of several
parameters that can influence the performance of color wavelet-based
texture analysis algorithms for detecting corrosion in structural systems.
In addition, an approach is proposed that utilizes the depth perception
for corrosion detection. This novel approach enhances the reliability of
the corrosion detection algorithm. The incorporation of depth perception
with the texture classification algorithms is part of the contribution of
this study. Several parametric studies are presented to evaluate the
performance and reliability of the investigated approaches.
Temperature-compensated strain
measurement of full-scale small aircraft wing
structure using low-cost FBG interrogator
Jin-Hyuk Kim, Yeongwan Lee, Yoon-Young Kim, Chun-Gon Kim,
KAIST (Korea, Republic of)
Recently, health and usage monitoring systems(HUMS) are being studied
to monitor a real-time condition of aircrafts during flight. HUMSs can
prevent aircraft accidents and reduce inspection time and cost. A fiber
Bragg grating(FBG) sensor is widely used for aircraft HUMSs with many
advantages such as light weight, small size, easy-multiplexing, and EMI
immunity. However, commercial FBG interrogators are too expensive
to apply for small aircrafts. Generally the cost of conventional FBG
interrogators is over $20,000. Therefore, cost-effective FBG interrogation
systems need to be developed for small aircraft HUMSs. In this study,
cost-effective low speed FBG interrogator was applied to full-scale small
aircraft wing structure to examine the operational applicability of the low
speed FBG interrogator to the monitoring of small aircrafts. The cost of
the developed low speed FBG interrogator was about $10,000, which is
an affordable price for a small aircraft. 10 FBG strain sensors and 1 FBG
temperature sensor were installed on the surface of the full-scale wing
structure. The load was applied to the tip of the wing structure, and the
low speed interrogator detected the change in the center wavelength of
the FBG sensors at the sampling rate of 5Hz. To assess the applicability
of low-cost FBG interrogator to full-scale small aircraft wing structure,
a temperature-compensated strain measurement algorithm was verified
experimentally under various loading conditions of the wing structure
with temperature variations.
8692-91, Session 20
Identification of source location by using
compressive approach
Wentao Wang, Yuequan Bao, Hui Li, Harbin Institute of
Technology (China)
In this paper, a new approach to identify the source location is proposed
by exploiting the compressive sensing theory, which indicates that sparse
or compressible signals can be recovered using just a few measurement.
A square grid configuration plate with some piezoelectric actuator and
sensor is used to verify the proposed approach. The grid is used to
sweep across the plate to identify the location of source. Piezoelectric
actuator placed on the plate is used to excite waves, and the signals
of waves received at some sensors. The sensor locations are known,
however, the source location need not be known. The candidate source
locations are suitably chosen grid on the surface of plate. Sensing matrix
which is related to the locations of source and sensor can be calculated
at each sensor. Then, the proposed approach used the received
signal strengths to locate the source by minimizing the ?1-norm of the
sparse matrix in the discrete spatial domain based on the concept of
compressive sensing (CS). The simulations and experimental studies
show the proposed method achieves a high level of localization accuracy.
8692-94, Session 21
Fiber-optic system for deflection and damage
detection in morphing wing structures
8692-92, Session 21
Michael Scheerer, Aerospace & Advanced Composites GmbH
(Austria); Zoran V. Djinovic, Integrated Microsystems Austria
GmbH (Austria); Martin Schüller, Fraunhofer ENAS (Germany)
Integration of structural health monitoring in
the design-cycle and reduction of weight
The motivation behind the development of morphing wings is biologically
inspired by the flight capabilities of birds that are able to achieve a
wide dynamic range missions through large shape changes to their
wings. There are several examples in aircraft industry where morphing
wing approach is already tested with good results in terms of tuneable aerodynamic properties. The basic platforms are morphing wings
equipped with active elements such as piezoelectric transducers. Within
the EC Clean Sky - Smart Fixed Wing Aircraft initiative concepts for
actuating morphing wing structures are under development.
Mulugeta A. Haile, Anindya Ghoshal, U.S. Army Research Lab.
(United States)
Many aerospace structures are designed and built much stronger than
needed to allow for uncertainty. Uncertainty is ubiquitous in materials
and loads data, and the operational environment of a component is not
fully predictable. The conventional way of dealing with uncertainty is to
use conservative design parameters in the design stage and to apply
a safety factor. Such design, however, entails a high weight penalty.
Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) sensor systems such as ultrasonic,
eddy current, and acoustic emission, have gained much interest in the
aerospace community as potentially enabling technologies for reducing
inspection and maintenance costs while maintaining flight safety of aging
structures. Many of these systems have the potential to provide on-board
damage detection, state awareness of structural health, and usage
monitoring. Currently, SHM is primarily viewed as a means for detecting
damage to support inspection and maintenance activities. While such
use has a great potential to reduce maintenance cost and downtime,
SHM can also be incorporated in the design cycle to reduce the overall
weight of critical aerospace structures. The goal of this research is to
develop a design framework where SHM is integrated in the design stage
so that the final structure has a lower weight. By continuously monitoring
the condition of a load carrying member via integrated SHM sensors,
we show that one can significantly reduce usage uncertainty and safety
factors without affecting the design life. To validate the weight saving
advantage of the SHM-based approach, we compare our result with a
standard reliability-based design.
For a complete integrated system including the actuation and the closed
loop control unit a concept of a hybrid deflection and damage monitoring
system based on fiber optic sensors was developed. The used sensors
are based on the low coherence interferometry performed by an “allin-fibre” configuration of Michelson type. The fibre optic sensors are
used to capture the slow varying strain caused by the deflection due to
actuation and the quick varying strain caused by the emission of acoustic
signals from the onset and growth of damages. The optical signal will be
converted to electrical by means of an optoelectronic device and split
by different filters to discriminate between the signal part containing the
information about the deflection and the transient signals arising from
the acoustic emission event. The filtered signal will be acquired and
post processed using a commercially AE system. Within this paper the
authors present the concept, analyses and first experimental results of
the mentioned system.
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Conference 8692: Sensors and Smart Structures
Technologies for Civil, Mechanical, and
Aerospace Systems
8692-95, Session 22
systems. When quality control is performed by non-destructive testing
techniques after curing, these flaws are already irreversibly embedded
in the laminate. This paper presents the laser displacement sensor
technique applied during the layup process of prepreg laminates to
detect flaws. The aim of this research is to apply the laser displacement
technique to detect typical flaws during the layup process with a high
accuracy and to design a laser displacement technique as part of an
industrial in-situ layup process monitoring system.
A regenerative damper with MR fluids
working between gear transmissions
Yan Chan, The Univ. of Hong Kong (Hong Kong, China); Chao
Chen, Wei-Hsin Liao, The Chinese Univ. of Hong Kong (Hong
Kong, China)
Foil or other enclosures between the layers, incorrect number of layers,
the orientation of the fibres, fibre wrinkling and incorrect overlap are
dominant flaws during the process of layup. These flaws have been
modelled to assess the performance of in-situ monitoring during the
layup process of prepreg laminates. In the experimental phase a 2D laser
displacement sensor is used for flaw detection with a resolution of 1
µm in Z-axis and 20 µm in X-axis, with a maximum interrogation speed
of 62.5 kHz. These specifications result in a design for a monitoring
system, which is able to scan prepreg laminates specimens with 3.8
m^2 per minute and is able to detect a minimal flaw size of 0.4 mm^2.
Therefore this research builds upon previous research in detecting not
only numbers of prepreg layers, but all dominant flaws in composite
production, including the successful detection of 50 µm thick foil
remaining between the layers.
Magnetorheological (MR) dampers are used for semi-active vibration
control of various dynamic systems. Existing MR dampers are usually
cylinder-piston based design, which may limit the shapes and imply
constraints to the implementation of related parts and devices. In this
paper, we propose a novel MR damper design with MR fluids working
between gear transmissions to provide required damping force. A
prototype of the regenerative damper with MR fluids working between
gear transmissions was designed, fabricated, and tested. This MR
damper has the capability of power generation and velocity sensing. It
combines the advantages of energy harvesting - reusing wasted energy,
MR damping - controllable damping force, and sensing - providing
dynamic information for controlling system dynamics. This multifunctional
integration would bring great benefits such as energy saving, flexible
shape as well as possibility of size and weight reduction. In this paper,
experimental studies on damping force and power generation were
performed. The velocity-sensing capability was also experimentally
8692-98, Session 22
Self-powered wireless vibration-sensing
module for machining monitoring
8692-96, Session 22
Tien-Kan Chung, Hao-Tien D. Lee, Chia-Yung Tseng, Wen-Tuan
Lo, National Chiao Tung Univ. (Taiwan); Wen-Chin Wang, Chi-Jen
Tu, Pei-Yuan Tasi, Jui-Wen Chang, Precision Machinery Research
Development Ctr. (Taiwan)
Auto-Gopher: a wireline deep sampler driven
by piezoelectric percussive actuator and EM
rotary motor
We report an attachable kinetic-energy-harvesters powered wireless
vibration-sensing module for milling monitoring. The module consists of
a kinetic energy harvester, MEMS accelerometer, and wireless sensing
module. The harvester is a coil-less magnetic-actuated piezoelectricbeams energy harvester. Several small permanent magnets are attached
to the end of the piezoelectric beams fixed on the frame attached on
the machine while few big permanent magnets are attached on the
spindle of the machine. During machining, the big magnets rotate with
the spindle and subsequently generate a periodic magnetic-repulsive
force between the big and small magnets. The periodic magnetic force
actuates/deforms the piezoelectric beams accordingly. This generates
an electrical output due to the piezoelectric effect. Through utilizing an
energy-storage/rectification circuit, the harvested energy is capable of
steadily powering both the MEMS accelerometer and wireless sensing
module. Through integrating the energy harvester, MEMS accelerometer,
and wireless sensing module, a self-powered wireless vibration-sensing
module is achieved. The test result of the module used to monitor the
milling process shows the module successfully senses the vibration
during milling. Through analyzing the vibration data, a criterion is
established for simulating the milling process and operating sequence.
For more details, please see the uploaded file (two-page abstract).
Mircea Badescu, Aaron Ressa, Yoseph Bar-Cohen, Stewart
Sherrit, Jet Propulsion Lab. (United States); Kris Zacny, Gale L.
Paulsen, Honeybee Robotics (United States); Luther W. Beegle,
Xiaoqi Bao, Jet Propulsion Lab. (United States)
The ability to penetrate subsurfaces and perform sample acquisition at
depth of meters is critical for future NASA in-situ exploration missions
to bodies in the solar system, including Mars and Europa. A corer/
sampler was developed with the goal of acquiring pristine samples by
reaching depths on Mars beyond the oxidized and sterilized zone. To
developed rotary-hammering coring drill, called Auto-Gopher, employs
a piezoelectric actuated percussive mechanism for breaking formations
and an electric motor rotates the bit to remove the powdered cuttings.
This sampler is a wireline mechanism that can be fed into and retrieved
from the drilled hole using a winch and a cable. It includes an inchworm
anchoring mechanism allowing the drill advancement and weight on bit
control without twisting the reeling and power cables. The penetration
rate is being optimized by simultaneously activating the percussive and
rotary motions of the Auto-Gopher. The percussive mechanism is based
on the Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) mechanism that is driven
by piezoelectric stack and that was demonstrated to require low axial
preload. The design and fabrication of this device were presented in
previous publications. This paper presents the results of laboratory and
field tests and lessons learned from this development.
8692-99, Session 23
Decoupling of multiple-input systems and
time-domain system identification of civil
engineering structures
8692-97, Session 22
Laser displacement sensor to monitor
the layup process of composite laminate
Jian V. Li, Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (United States);
Manuel Ruiz-Sandoval, Univ. Autónoma Metropolitana (Mexico);
Billie F. Spencer Jr., Amr S. Elnashai, Univ. of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign (United States)
Nick Miesen, Roger M. Groves, Jos Sinke, Rinze Benedictus,
Technische Univ. Delft (Netherlands)
Civil engineering structures are often subjected to multi-directional
loadings such as earthquakes, which induce complex structural
responses in which the contributions from the multiple inputs are
Flaws still occur during the layup process of prepreg laminates due to
human errors, failing equipment, faulty materials and failing detection
Return to Contents
Conference 8692: Sensors and Smart Structures
Technologies for Civil, Mechanical, and
Aerospace Systems
highly coupled, leading to Multiple Input, Multiple Output (MIMO)
system identification problems. Compared with Single Input, Multiple
Output (SIMO) system identification, MIMO problems are more
computationally complex and error-prone. To convert a MIMO problem
into SIMO problems, the outputs need to be decoupled by extracting
the contribution from desired input signals to the outputs. In this paper,
a QR Decomposition-based decoupling method is adopted and its
performance is examined. Three factors which affect the accuracy of the
decoupling result, including the memory length, the input correlation,
and the system damping, are investigated. This method is then applied
to the seismic measurements of the Meloland Road Overcrossing (MRO)
Bridge to decouple the outputs in the vertical direction. Meanwhile, a
system identification method which combines the ARX and ERA methods
is proposed, which utilizes the noise mode indicators in ERA to identify
genuine modes from the fitted ARX model. The ARX-ERA method is then
applied in SIMO system identifications to identify the modal properties of
the MRO Bridge with the decoupled output signals.
active shape control, health monitoring, and condition assessment. The
availability of advanced strain sensors such as Fiber Optic Strain Sensors
(FOSS) makes the estimation of the curvature shapes from the strain data
relatively straightforward. However, in many practical engineering cases
the strain data is not available and the curvature information should be
obtained from the displacement measurements. This study investigates
the viability of using the measured deformation to estimate the
corresponding curvature shape, particularly for damage detection and
quantification purposes. A computational model of a swept aluminum
plate of span (L) is created using FEMAP. Several induced artificial
damage cases are created and analyzed using the finite element analysis
(FEA) package NASTRAN. Various mesh sizes are considered and
nodes (sensors) are placed at resolutions ranging from (L/50) to (L/400)
along the span of the plate. Artificial noise is added to the FEA output
to simulate a realistic experimental condition. The displacement data is
then used to obtain the corresponding curvature shapes using numerical
differentiation tools available in MATLAB. The results are then compared
to the curvature output obtained from the finite element models (FEM).
Based on the performed analyses, an error bound is established that
defines the minimum sensor spacing (sensor resolution) required to
accurately estimate the curvature from the displacement data, as well as
to detect, locate, and quantify structural damages using the estimated
curvature values.
8692-100, Session 23
A novel model-free data processing
technique for ad hoc analysis in monitoring
for heterogeneous infrastructure networks
8692-102, Session 23
Hae-Bum A. Yun, Ganesh Sundaresan, Univ. of Central Florida
(United States); Jong-Woo Kim, Hanwha Chemical Corp. (Korea,
Republic of); Ki-Tae Park, Korea Institute of Construction
Technology (Korea, Republic of)
Health assessment of structures in presence
of nonlinearity: novel approaches
Achintya Haldar, Abdullah Al-Hussein, Ajoy Kumar Das, The Univ.
of Arizona (United States)
The development of data processing algorithms that enhance pattern
detectability for civil infrastructure systems exposed to the environment
is critical in various monitoring applications for construction, operation,
maintenance, and hazard detection. For example, precise detection
of snow/ ice forming on road pavement surface is essential for
transportation safety. Another example is monitoring for precipitation
effects on structural safety of retaining walls. Ad hoc analysis of streamed
data involves processing complicated non-stationary nonlinear multiphysics behaviors of coupled interactions between civil systems and
various surrounding factors. Therefore, the modeling of these coupled
interactions is usually very difficult. In addition, monitoring cost can
be too expensive and sometimes impossible to measure all significant
Two time-domain system identification (SI)-based structural health
assessment (SHA) procedures using Extended Kalman Filter (EKF)
and Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF) will be presented and compared.
Structures will be represented by finite elements. Both methods assess
structural health by tracking changes in the stiffness properties of the
elements as they degrade. The unique properties of them are that they
are capable of assessing structural health using only limited number of
noise-contaminated acceleration time histories measured only at small
part of a structure completely ignoring the information on excitation. Both
methods can identify a structure in the presence of nonlinearity in the
response information. However, the authors believe that there may be a
limitation of level of nonlinearities EKF-based method can handle. If this
threshold, unknown at this stage, is exceeded, then UKF-based method
must be used. Both procedures need to be implemented in two stages.
In the first stage, based on the response measurements, substructure(s)
are identified. Using the information from the first stage, the whole
structure is identified in the second stage. Although acceleration time
histories will be measured, they need to be successively integrated
to obtain the corresponding velocity and displacement time histories.
Since acceleration time histories, even measured by smart sensors,
are expected to be noise-contaminated, the generations of velocity
and displacement time histories are not trivial. An Advanced Digital
Integration Technique will be proposed for this purpose. The paper will
summarized some of the related works completed by the research team
at the University of Arizona.
Auto Modulating Pattern Detection Algorithm (AMP) is a novel data
processing algorithm to enhance the standard EMD-HHT methods to
detect a “small” but important intermittent event of interest that is usually
masked by “dominant” environmental disturbances in various monitoring
applications. With the AMP, higher detectability can be achieved by:
(1) amplifying the frequency amplitude of the pattern-changing event
in time-frequency plot, (2) reducing the baseline frequency fluctuation
in the time-frequency plot, and (3) increasing the temporal resolution
of the energy-time-frequency domain signal. This study shows AMP
is applicable to various monitoring applications in operation and
maintenance, such as monitoring structural safety for retaining walls and
monitoring meteorological hazards on road pavement surface under field
8692-101, Session 23
8692-103, Session 23
Error bounds for curvature-based structural
damage-detection approaches
Adaptive structural damage identification
using residual error analysis
Armen Derkevorkian, The Univ. of Southern California (United
States); Francisco Pena, Jessica Alvarenga, California State
Univ., Los Angeles (United States); Sami F. Masri, The Univ. of
Southern California (United States); Helen Boussalis, California
State Univ., Los Angeles (United States)
Qiang Yin, Nanjing Univ. of Science and Technology (China)
An objective of a structural health monitoring system is to identify the
state of the structure and to detect the damage when it occurs. When
a structural element is damaged, such as cracking, the stiffness of the
damaged element is reduced. Hence it is important to develop data
analysis techniques capable of detecting the parametric changes of
structural elements during a severe event.
Estimating accurate curvature information is very important in many
structural systems. The estimated curvature shapes can be used for
Return to Contents
Conference 8692: Sensors and Smart Structures
Technologies for Civil, Mechanical, and
Aerospace Systems
In this paper, a residual error analysis based online adaptive tracking
technique is proposed to identify the changes of parametric values of
the damaged element online. The presented technique is based on a
newly proposed data analysis method referred to as the quadratic sum
squares error (QSSE) combined by using a residual error analysis based
online adaptive tracking technique which utilizes the statistic distributing
of the outlier, i.e., the damage index, to track the structural damage
online. The capability and accuracy of the proposed approach in tracking
the variations of structural parameters due to the structural damages
will be demonstrated by: (i) numerical simulations using both linear and
nonlinear structures, and (ii) available experimental data obtained form
experimental tests using a small-scale three-story building model. To
simulate structural damage during the test, a stiffness element device is
used to reduce the stiffness of some stories. Different damage scenarios
have been simulated and tested. Both the simulation results and
experimental data indicate that the proposed approach is capable of: (i)
identifying structural parameters, (ii) tracking the changes of parameters
leading to the detection of structural damages.
amplitude. This approach combines the positive sides of decentralized
control techniques as the control forces applied to the system are
independent of one another, while, as for the centralized controls it has
the possibility to exploit the information from all the sensors.
The ability to easily manage this information allows to synthesize an
efficient modal controller. Furthermore it enables to easily evaluate
the stability of the control, the effects of spillover and the consequent
effectiveness in reducing vibration. Theoretical aspects are supported by
experimental applications on a large flexible system composed of a thin
cantilever beam with 30 longitudinal FBG sensors and 6 piezoelectric
actuators (PZT).
Control forces are designed to increase the damping of the structures,
allowing to increase of damping of the first modes of vibration of about
10 times.
8692-106, Session 24
Low-frequency control strategy for seismic
attenuation of inertial platforms and
mechanical suspensions
8692-104, Session 24
Evaluation method for a controller of active
mass damper using central pattern generator
Fabrizio Barone, Fausto Acernese, Rosangela Canonico, Univ.
degli Studi di Salerno (Italy); Rosario De Rosa, Fabio Garufi, Univ.
degli Studi di Napoli Federico II (Italy); Gerardo Giordano, Rocco
Romano, Univ. degli Studi di Salerno (Italy)
Junichi Hongu, Daisuke Iba, Morimasa Nakamura, Ichiro
Moriwaki, Kyoto Institute of Technology (Japan)
This paper shows an evaluation method for a CPG controller designed
for an active mass damper. Neural oscillators composing the CPG
have nonlinear and entrainment properties. Therefore, the proposed
controller has possibility to exhibit the characteristic of robustness,
when the structural parameters, i.e. stiffness or damping, are changed
by earthquakes and the like. Our earlier studies have proposed the new
controller and ascertained the efficacy of vibration suppression. The
designed controller has the CPG part and a PD controller part. The ideal
desired phase relation between the structure and the AMD is clarified
from the energetically viewpoint. The CPG part generates the phase
relation by using the outputs from the structure and the AMD, and the
AMD is positioned by the PD controller which uses the output from the
CPG. However, there has been no study to evaluate the controller’s
above-mentioned properties. For tuning into practical application, the
reliability and robustness along with the controller’s performance must
be analyzed. Last year, the phase reduction theory was tried to appraise
the synchronization between the structure and the CPG and it gave us
the synchronization region. But, because the CPG has a phase difference
called a phase rocking “point” between the structure and the CPG
during the synchronization, the information from the synchronization
region providing the phase rocking “area” was insufficient to evaluate the
systems. In this paper, focusing on the phase rocking “point” within the
region to have the active mass damper’s system dissipate energy of the
In this paper we present the results of a theoretical and experimental
study aimed to demonstrate both the feasibility and the advantages of
a large band low frequency control strategy based on the application
of open loop monolithic folded pendula with optical readout as very
low noise/ high sensitive sensors in the control of inertial platforms and
multistage suspensions (seismic attenuators). In fact, the characteristics
of compactness and robustness of this class of sensors, together with
high sensitivity (< 10^-10 m/sqrt(Hz)), large measurement band (10^-7
- 100 Hz), resonance frequency tunability (70 mHz - 1 Hz, high sensitive
integrated laser optical readout (e.g. optical lever, laser interferometer)
and very good immunity to environmental noises make them very
effective for the improvement of the performances of these devices.
The experimental results, obtained in the band 0.01 – 10 Hz, demonstrate
both that open loop monolithic pendulum sensors are enough sensitive
and have a sufficient dynamics to be very effective within the control
system. Moreover, their full scalability allows an easy integration and
positioning on the different stages of multistage mechanical suspensions
(seismic attenuators) and inertial platforms.
These results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed new control
strategy in the low frequency region, that minimizes the use of control
electronics, priviledging the use of optical and mechanical devices
instead, and a reduced sensitivity to environmental noises.
8692-105, Session 24
Finally, other possible and direct applications are presented and
discussed (platforms and mechanical structure control and stabilization,
buildings controls, etc.) together with the planned further developments
and improvements of this control strategy.
Averaging sensors technique for active
vibration control applications
8692-107, Session 24
Simone Cinquemani, Francesco Braghin, Gabriele Cazzulani,
Ferruccio Resta, Politecnico di Milano (Italy)
Effect of in-structure damping uncertainty on
semi-active control performance: a modeling
Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBG) sensors have a great potential in active
vibration control of smart structures thanks to their small transversal
size and the possibility to make an array of many sensors. They can be
embedded in carbon fiber structures and their effect is nearly negligible.
Arun Puthanpurayil, Paul Reynold, Donald S. Nyawako, The Univ.
of Sheffield (United Kingdom)
The paper deals with the opportunity to reduce vibration in structures by
using distributed sensors embedded in carbon fiber structures through
the so called sensors-averaging technique.
System parameters in the mathematical model of a vibrating structure
include mass, damping and stiffness; out of which mass and stiffness
could be defined as a function of the system geometry, whereas
damping involves more of an observed phenomenon. Despite having a
large literature on the subject, the underlying physics is only known in a
phenomenological ad-hoc manner, making damping an overall mystery
This method provides a properly weighted average of the outputs of a
distributed array of sensors generating spatial filters on a broad range
of undesired resonance modes without adversely affecting phase and
Return to Contents
Conference 8692: Sensors and Smart Structures
Technologies for Civil, Mechanical, and
Aerospace Systems
8692-109, Session 25
in the general dynamic analysis of structures. A major reason of this
could be the fact that there is no single universally accepted model for
damping. Common practice is to use the classical viscous damping
model originated by Rayleigh, through his famous ‘Rayleigh dissipation
function’,with a preconceived damping ratio, irrespective of the purpose
or type of analysis involved.
A study of re-usable electromechanical
impedance methods for structural health
monitoring of concrete structures
In this paper an investigation is initiated into the effect of this uncertainty
on the modeling and application of Magneto-Rheological (MR) dampers
to control the human induced vibration in structures. Global classical
viscous and non-viscous damping models along with enhanced
elemental damping models (Spatial hysteresis and Time hysteresis)
are studied. Finite element implementation of the damper incorporated
structure is developed with damper specific hysteresis loops. Nonlinear
time integration simulations are carried out using revised Newmark
constant average acceleration method for a pre-conceived control
law. Real time physical testing of the prototype is carried out and
the responses are compared. The comparisons outline the effect of
the choice of in-structure damping models on the realistic analytical
predictions of the optimized performance of MR damper incorporated
Sam Na, Haeng-Ki Lee, KAIST (Korea, Republic of)
Up to date, various studies have been conducted using electromechanical impedance (EMI) method on concrete, including monitoring
the strength development or to find damage in the structure. Since
EMI method utilizes a single piezoelectric material to be used as an
actuator and a sensor simultaneously, the method has major advantages
compared to other non-destructive testing methods. However the
method requires a piezoelectric material to be permanently attached or
embedded into a structure. Thus when monitoring multiple structures,
the method may become quite expensive. In this study, various re-usable
EMI methods conducted by several researchers are overviewed. The idea
of re-usable EMI method is still relatively new, resulting in the reduction of
monitoring costs since the same piezoelectric material is used as many
times as possible, while ensuring better repeatability and reliability in
8692-108, Session 24
Vibration control of piezoelectric FGM plate
using finite element method
8692-110, Session 25
Characterization of in-situ triboluminescent
optical Fiber (ITOF) sensor for real-time
damage monitoring in cementitious
Priyanka A. Jadhav, Kamal Bajoria, Indian Institute of Technology
Bombay, India (India)
The advances in composite technology have lead to the increasing
application of piezolaminated structure due to their sensing and
actuating property also these structures have self-diagnostic and selfcontrolling capability. These structures can be able to control the shape,
size, vibration and stability of the structural systems because of their
direct and converse piezoelectric effects. Particularly the distributed
piezoelectric sensor layer monitors the structural shape deformation
due to the direct effect and the distributed actuator layer controls the
deflection through the converse piezoelectric effect. Research on smart
composite structures with integrated piezoelectric sensors and actuators
have been investigated extensively. The laminated composite structures
are faces major delamination problem because of abrupt change in
material properties, extreme environmental conditions, weakness of
interfaces of layers placed between two adjacent laminates of composite
structures. Such problems are overcome by using the FGM’s. Because
functionally graded materials are the microscopically inhomogeneous
composite materials which exhibit smooth and continuous change of
material properties along the thickness direction.
David O. Olawale, Tarik J. Dickens, The Florida State Univ.
(United States); Annuli Okoye, Univ. of Massachusetts Amherst
(United States); Mohammed J. Uddin, Florida State Univ. (United
States); Okenwa O. Okoli, The Florida State Univ. (United States)
The in-situ triboluminescent optical fiber (ITOF) sensor is designed to
mimic the sensory neurons of the human nervous system and to provide
real time damage (crack) monitoring in engineering structures such as
concrete bridges. The sensor has potential to provide wireless, in-situ,
real time and distributed damage monitoring in aging and overloaded civil
infrastructure systems. For enhanced sensor performance, 3 point bend
tests were performed on the sensor to gain insights into its behavior
under flexural loading. Our result shows that the Triboluminescent (TL)
responses from the sensor increased with increase in the failure stress.
The sensor also demonstrated capability to monitor hidden and internal
cracks that that may not be perceived with conventional surfacemounted SHM systems. Dynamic mechanical analysis result indicates
that the sensor has a strain limit that exceeds 0.6%. Consequently,
the sensor coating can remain undamaged when a concrete structure
cracks at a strain limit of about 0.015%. Raman spectroscopy indicates
that the triboluminescent crystals retain their chemical properties and
structure after fabrication. Triboluminescent multifunctional cementitious
composite (TMCC) incorporating the ITOF sensor were fabricated and the
damage sensing behavior also characterized under flexural loading. Field
Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM), Energy Dispersive
Spectroscopy (EDS), Dynamic Mechanical Analyzer (DMA) and Raman
Spectroscopy were applied to characterize the smart structures.
This paper investigates the vibration control analysis of functionally
graded (FG) plate integrated with piezoelectric actuator and sensor at top
and bottom face. The material properties of the FG plates are assumed to
be graded along the thickness direction according to simple power-law
distribution in terms of the volume fraction of the constituents, while the
poison’s ratio is assumed to be constant. The plate is simply supported
at all edges. The finite element model is based on higher order shear
deformation theory and degenerated shell element. The displacement
component of the present model is expanded in Taylor’s series in terms
of thickness co-ordinate. The Hamilton principle is used to derive the
equation of the motion for the piezolaminated FGM plate. The vibration
control analysis of simply supported piezoelectric FG plate is carried out
to present the effect of power law index and gain values. The present
analysis is carried out on newly introduced FGM material which is mixture
of aluminum and stainless steel. Stainless steel is high strength material
but it can rust in extreme cases and Aluminum doesn’t rust but it is low
strength material.This new FGM will definitely help to construction as well
as metal industry.
8692-111, Session 25
Identification of impact force using
embedded PZT sensors: experimental
verification of identification accuracy
Y. Q. Ni, Z.G. Guo, Y. Chen, The Hong Kong Polytechnic Univ.
(Hong Kong, China); Xiaowei Ye, The Hong Kong Polytechnic
Univ. Shenzhen Research Institute (Hong Kong, China)
Return to Contents
Conference 8692: Sensors and Smart Structures
Technologies for Civil, Mechanical, and
Aerospace Systems
This paper describes an experimental verification on the identification
accuracy of impact force and impact position during ship-bridge
collision making use of embedded PZT sensors. A 1:10 reinforced
concrete model of bridge pier with a total of 22 embedded PZT sensors
is fabricated for this study. The ship-collided-to-bridge impact force is
simulated by dragging a hammer with adjustable weight and hanging
height and swinging the hung hammer to strike the structure. Based
on the measured impact force from a force sensor deployed at the
head of the hammer and the measured voltage outputs of the PZT
sensors embedded into the tested structure under various impact
scenarios (different impact positions, impact amplitudes and attack
angles), relationships between the impact force and the output voltage
of embedded PZT sensors at different locations are established. Then a
method for identifying the impact force and impact position is proposed
based on the mean and variance analyses of the estimated impact forces
using the established relationships. The identification of impact force
and impact position is carried out by using the proposed method and
experimental data, the identification accuracy is verified by comparing
the identified impact force and the directly measured impact force by
the force sensor. The experimental verification results show that the
proposed method is competent to satisfactorily identify the impact force
and impact position when an appropriate number of PZT sensors are
embedded to provide voltage outputs.
the electrical conductivity mechanism were studied . The effect of the
alignment of CNTs induced by external magnetic field (generated by a set
of Helmholtz coils) during curing procedure on the electrical properties
of the composite was then studied in this paper. The experimental
results showed that the electrical properties of the composites became
to anisotropic because of the alignment of CNT under magnetic field.
Second, the effect of moisture on the electrical performance of the
composite was studied. A increase of resistivity upon measuring time
because of polarization was observed, and the polarization effect
increased upon moisture. To eliminate the adverse effect of polarization
on the resistivity measurement, a self-compensation method was
proposed in this paper by using separated electrode. Finally, The
quantitative relationship between the scouring depth and the resistance
were established and tested under aridity and saturated condition. By
comparison of the sensitivity of the composite with different scouring
electrode arrangements, the stability of the reference electrode and
system errors, the optimal scheme of the electrode arrangement was
8692-114, Session 26
Road condition evaluation using the
vibration response of ordinary vehicles and
synchronously recorded movies
8692-112, Session 25
Tomonori Nagayama, The Univ. of Tokyo (Japan); Yuuki Shimada,
Univ. of Tokyo (Japan); Yozo Fujino, The Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)
Smart multifunctional cement mortar
containing graphite nanoplatelet
Frequent and quantitative assessment of road condition is important
as the maintenance of the road infrastructure needs to be performed
with a limited budget. Vehicle Intelligent Monitoring System (VIMS) has
been developed to estimate an index of road ride comfort (International
Roughness Index; IRI) by obtaining the acceleration responses of
ordinary vehicles together with GPS position data. VIMS converts the
vertical acceleration of the measurement vehicle to acceleration RMS
of the sprung mass of the standard Quarter Car model, and then to IRI
using an approximate expression. By driving over a hump of a known
profile and comparing the responses with Quarter Car simulation
responses, a variety of vehicles can be calibrated. By driving a course
with multiple driving speeds, the difference in driving speed can also be
calibrated. Furthermore, by interpolating vehicle characteristics obtained
at several driving speeds, VIMS has been extended to variable drive
speed conditions. The measurement results can be exported to the
google earth to comprehend road condition in a geographical view and
to other data base systems. In addition, smartphones which can record
motions, GPS data, and movies synchronously are utilized to further
analyze the road surface condition. Road sections with large IRI values
are extracted and corresponding smartphone data sets are analyzed.
The movie file and 6-DOF motion records reveal the detail of rough road
Hongjian Du, Sze Dai Pang, Ser-Tong Quek, National Univ. of
Singapore (Singapore)
The piezoresistivity-based strain sensing ability of cementitious
composites containing graphite nanoplatelet (GNP), which is a nanoscale
carbon-based material, is being investigated. GNP offers the advantages
of excellent mechanical and electrical properties at a very low cost.
Cement mortar with 10, 15 and 20% of GNP (by mass of cement) were
cyclically loaded in compression at 5 strain levels with an interval of 200
micro-strains between them. The electrical resistance of the specimens
was measured by both the two-probe and four-probe methods using
direct current during the cyclic loading. At the same strain level, the
electrical resistance of specimens containing higher amount of GNP
is lower due to the higher electrical conductivity of GNP compared to
the constituents in the mortar matrix including water. The percolation
threshold was found to be between 10 and 15% of GNP. At the same
GNP content, the resistance decreased with increasing compressive
strain amplitude due to the shortened distance and overlaying between
conductive GNP. Two-probe method produced much higher gage factor
due to the influence of contact resistance between electrode and cement
mortar which contributes to a larger drop in resistance due to better
contact under compression. Gage factor, an indication of the sensitivity
of electrical resistance to its strain, increased with higher GNP content
(up to 10 for mortar with 20% GNP with 4-probe method) but decreased
with higher strain amplitude.
8692-115, Session 26
Compressive sampling based approach for
identification of moving loads distribution on
cable-stayed bridges
8692-113, Session 25
A scouring sensor by using the electrical
properties of carbon nanotube-filled cementbased composite
Yuequan Bao, Hui Li, Fujian Zhang, Harbin Institute of
Technology (China); Jinping Ou, Dalian Univ. of Technology
(China) and Harbin Institute of Technology (China)
Huigang Xiao, Guanjin Wang, Harbin Institute of Technology
In the paper, a moving loads distribution identification method for
cable-stayed bridges based on compressive sampling (CS) technique is
proposed. CS is a technique for obtaining sparse signal representations
to underdetermined linear measurement equations. In this paper, CS
is employed to localize moving loads of cable-stayed bridges by limit
cable force measurements. First, a vehicle-bridge model for cable-stayed
bridges is presented. Then the relationship between the cable force
and moving loads is constructed based on the influence lines. With the
hypothesis of sparsity distribution of vehicles on bridge deck (which
A cement based scouring sensor filled with CNTs is studied in this
paper for monitoring the scouring state of the hydraulic structures.
First, CNT filled cement-based composites were prepared by using the
CNTs in the amount of 0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, 2% and 2.5% to the weight
of cement. To investigate the electrical properties of the material filled
with different amount of CNTs, the resistivity of the composite and
Return to Contents
Conference 8692: Sensors and Smart Structures
Technologies for Civil, Mechanical, and
Aerospace Systems
8692-118, Session 26
is practical for long-span bridges), the moving loads are identified by
minimizing the ‘l2-norm of the difference between the observed and
simulated cable forces caused by moving vehicles penalized by the
‘l1-norm’ of the moving load vector. The resultant minimization problem
is convex and can be solved efficiently. A numerical example of a real
cable-stayed bridge is carried out to verify the proposed method. The
robustness and accuracy of the identification approach with limit cable
force measurement for multi-vehicle spatial localization are validated.
Time-frequency methods for structural health
monitoring of deepwater risers subjected to
vortex-induced vibrations
Satish Nagarajaiah, Rice Univ. (United States); Srinivasan
Gopalakrishnan, Indian Institute of Science (India); Chaojun
Huang, Peng Sung, Rice Univ. (United States)
8692-116, Session 26
In this paper, a new approach, based on wave propagation and wavelet
techniques, for monitoring the structural health of risers used for
production in deep-water floating platforms, in depths in excess of
3000m, is presented. PZT patches are used as single transmitter and
multi-receiver. Lamb waves are generated by the single transmitter, and
received by multi-receivers along the wave propagation path along the
riser/pipe longitudinal direction (with and without damage). Spectral
analysis of the wave propagation test data using wavelets is performed;
the results show that in the range different time-frequency characteristics
are captured effectively by wavelet algorithms. The influences of multiple
cracks in the riser/pipe on the wave propagation are studied. A damage
detection method for riser/pipe is proposed and tested. The damage
detection method developed provides information about the estimated
crack location(s) and the possible extent of crack. Wavelet based signal
analysis can be combined with existing localized damage detection
techniques—such as magnetic flux leakage (MFL)—for enhanced study
and detection of cracks/damage in deepwater risers.
Road profile estimation of city roads using
Qi Wang, Northeastern Univ. (United States); Gregory J.
McDaniel, Boston Univ. (United States); Ming L. Wang,
Northeastern Univ. (United States)
This work presents a non-destructive and non-contact acoustic sensing
approach for measuring road profile/vertical road height with vehicles
running at normal speed without stopping traffic. This approach
uses an instantaneous dynamic tire pressure sensor (DTPS) that can
measure dynamic response of the tire-road interaction and increases
the efficiency of currently used road profile measuring systems with
vehicle body-mounted profilers and axle-mounted accelerometers. A
data analysis algorithm developed in our previous work was used to
remove axle motion and to find the transfer function between dynamic
tire pressure change and the road profile. Field tests in the city of
Brockton, Massachusetts have been performed to compute road profile
and test the real time road height algorithm. Numerical and experimental
studies of the Brockton test show that road profiles can be computed
with a vertical resolution of 0.01inch for most road features, and with a
horizontal special resolution of 5 inches along the line of travel direction,
which is only restricted by the contact length of the tire. Comparisons
between road profiles and the Pavement Condition Index (PCI) for the
city of Brockton have been investigated. The average road height found
using this approach aligns closely with known PCI values and agree
qualitatively with images taken by an onboard high speed camera for
different road conditions.
8692-117, Session 26
Structural health monitoring of bridges in
Issam E. Harik, Abheetha Peiris, Univ. of Kentucky (United
Structural Health Monitoring of a number of bridges in Kentucky has
proven to be an economical and effective method for extending the life of
bridges and for providing the tools for immediate response and decision
making. Three bridges are highlighted in this paper. The first bridge is on
I?65 in Louisville where instrumentation that continuously monitors the
bridge, permitted the design of an economical retrofit. The second bridge
is on I?64 over US 60 where instrumentation continuously monitors the
bridge for possible impact on the girders resulting from over the height
limit trucks. The third bridge is on US 41 North over the Ohio River where
instrumentation has been placed on the bridge piers to monitor for barge
impact. For the I?64 and US 41 bridges, and in the case of an incident,
selected personnel are notified via text messages on their cell phones
along with e?mail messages. The messages identify the type of incident
and its severity, and list the web site where the incident can be viewed
along with data from the instrumentation on the bridge. Decisions can be
made in minutes in regard to the course of action.
Return to Contents
Conference 8693: Smart Sensor Phenomena,
Technology, Networks, and Systems Integration VI
Sunday - Thursday 10–14 March 2013
Part of Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 8693 Smart Sensor Phenomena, Technology, Networks, and Systems Integration 2013
8693-1, Session 1
Zerstörungsfreie Prüfverfahren (Germany)
A locally-exact strain-to-displacement
approach for shape reconstruction of slender
objects using fiber Bragg gratings (Invited
Optical sensors which detect parameters on the basis of wavelength
shifts with high precision are promising candidates for applications in
many fields of non-destructive evaluation. Examples for the latter range
from structural health monitoring to biomedicine involving for instance
fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs), surface plasmon resonance sensors,
photonic crystals, or ring resonators. These types of sensors are small,
robust, electrically passive, and integration into sensor systems can
be achieved with reasonable effort. However, the applicability of these
optical sensors is limited by the size and costs of the interrogation
unit. Conventional interrogators such as grating spectrometers or
interferometers can hardly be miniaturized without loss of spectral
resolution. Hence, to provide the necessary spectral resolution in the
pm regime they are bulky, demand special operation conditions such
as air-conditioning or vibration-damped supports, and last but not least
are expensive. Furthermore, they often need ambitious data processing
techniques to resolve small wavelength shifts, which causes long
integration time. The way around these problems is to use an optical filter
with a spectral transmission gradient as the dispersive element. In this
case and in contrast to a grating-based spectrometer, device dimensions
and spectral resolution of the interrogator are decoupled. In the
contribution we provide a brief overview over advantages and drawbacks
of this sensor interrogation approach and present the development of an
interrogator designed for the read-out of fiber Bragg gratings.
Michael D. Todd, Univ. of California, San Diego (United States);
Christopher J. Stull, Los Alamos National Lab. (United States)
This paper presents a new approach for determining three-dimensional
global displacement (for arbitrarily-sized deformation) of thin rod- or
tether-like structures from a limited set of scalar strain measurements.
The approach is rooted in Cosserat rod theory with a material-adapted
reference frame and a localized linearization approach that facilitates an
exact local basis function set for the displacement as well as the material
frame. The solution set is shown to be robust to potential singularities
from vanishing bending and twisting angle derivatives and from vanishing
measured strain. Validation of the approach is performed through
comparison with both finite element simulations and an experiment on
a tube-like structure using limited fiber Bragg gratings. The average root
mean square reconstruction error of 0.01%-1% of the total length, for
reasonable sensor counts. Analysis of error due to extraneous noise
sources and boundary condition uncertainty shows how error scales
with those effects. The algorithm involves relatively simple operations,
the most complex of which is square matrix inversion, lending itself to
potential low-power embeddable solutions for applications requiring
shape reconstruction.
8693-4, Session 1
Plasmonic gradient structures of nanoparticle
arrays for optical sensing applications
8693-2, Session 1
Susan Derenko, Roland Wuchrer, Christiane Schuster, Thomas
Härtling, Fraunhofer-Institut für Zerstörungsfreie Prüfverfahren
Dynamic shape sensing using a fiber Bragg
grating mesh
Driven by a demand for integrated optical sensors in nondestructive
evaluation and structural health monitoring, we present a method to
enable the sensing of optical wavelength shifts. Therefore, nanoparticle
arrays of gold are fabricated by interference lithography, which exhibit
localized surface plasmons (LSPs). The plasmonic properties of such
nanoparticles can be tuned by altering their size. In our approach, an
additional photochemical growth by exposure to gold salt solution
and light is used to manufacture gradients of nanoparticle sizes within
the array. These gradients in turn induce different spectral responses
depending on the illuminated region of the array gradient.
Douglas C. Bailey, Daniel T. Perry, Nikola Stan, Spencer
Chadderdon, Stephen Schultz, Richard Selfridge, Brigham Young
Univ. (United States)
Fiber Bragg gratings are capable of accurately determining the strain
placed on an object. Imbedding a mesh of gratings into a substrate
allows strain to be determined over a larger area. Using a high speed
interrogator the incremental steps of the deformation are detectable. The
high speed interrogator that is used can detect a 27.2 nm region at 100
kHz. The wavelength range can be increased by lowering the speed of
To enable sensing applications, such plasmonic gradient structures
are placed as a filter in front of a photodetector to allow detection of
transmitted optical signals from different locations of the array. The
spatial shift of the maximum photocurrent generated in the detector
determines the wavelength shift of the illuminating light, e.g. stemming
from an optical sensor. The potential of this sensing scheme lies in the
miniaturization of such spectral analyzers. Applications in SHM, e.g. in
connection with fiber bragg gratings can therefore be envisioned, where
the integration of such analyzers into sensor networks is desired.
Increasing the number of gratings in the mesh increases the resolution
of the reconstruction but also causes the reflection peaks to overlap
resulting in lost data. This possibility is minimized the closer together
two peaks can be detected. Using an amplitude detection algorithm the
peaks were identifiable when separated by 170 pm or more. When the
amplitudes of the peaks are similar the peak detection algorithm is able
to detect peaks as close as 20 pm apart. The ability to still determine
where the individual peaks are after overlap allows more gratings to be
used increasing the resolution of the mesh.
The strain data taken from the fiber Bragg grating mesh is then used to
reconstruct the deformation of the substrate in the incremental steps at
which it occurred. Using the cantilever equation the deflection between
each set of gratings is determined and the deformation is tracked.
8693-5, Session 2
A combination of novel thermographic and
electrical techniques for low-velocity impact
damage identification in multifunctional
composites (Invited Paper)
8693-3, Session 1
Filter-based interrogation unit for optical
wavelength shift sensors
Alkiviades S. Paipetis, Sotirios A. Grammatikos, Evangelos Z.
Kordatos, Theodoros E. Matikas, Univ. of Ioannina (Greece)
Thomas Härtling, Roland Wuchrer, Fraunhofer-Institut für
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Low-velocity impact damage is frequently encountered in aerostructures.
Conference 8693: Smart Sensor Phenomena,
Technology, Networks, and Systems Integration VI
It is usually imposed during operation as well as its scheduled repair.
An inexpensive and efficient damage inspection during the service
life of these structures is essential for its safe function. A combined
thermographic and electrical study is presented in this paper. Low
velocity impact damage at different energy levels is applied on Carbon
Fibre Reinforced Polymers (CFRPs). Pulsed phase thermography along
with an electrical potential mapping technique was developed to pinpoint the induced damage upon the employed materials. The results
of both thermographic and electrical techniques were validated using
away from the heat source.
In addition, since FBGs respond to strain as well as to temperature, any
strain in the composite is coupled into the embedded fiber and is also
detected by the FBG sensors. Initial measurements demonstrate the
simultaneous response of FBG sensors to both temperature and strain.
The various components of strain that are observed in the composite will
be discussed, and possible methods to isolate these components and
mitigate their response will be considered.
8693-8, Session 2
8693-6, Session 2
Fabrication and thermal characteristics of
metal-coated regenerated grating sensors for
high-temperature sensing
Hybrid imaging of damage progress in
composites through thermal imaging and
embedded sensing
Yun Tu, Tung Shan Tu, Yi-Hua Qi, East China Univ. of Science
and Technology (China)
Sachin S. Pawar, Kara J. Peters, North Carolina State Univ.
(United States)
In this paper, we investigate the fusion of imaging data obtained via
pulsed phase thermography (PPT) with local temperature data obtained
from embedded fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors for non-destructive
evaluation of composite structures. In order to calibrate the FBG data
to a known loading condition, we use the square pulse heating applied
for the PPT imaging as the input thermal wave. Interpretation of the
FBG response to the thermal load during both the heating and cooling
transients are analyzed. In addition, the role of the local microstructure
surrounding the FBG on the measured wavelength shift as a function
of temperature is derived analytically. As this role changes with the
progression of the composite damage condition at the location of the
embedded FBG sensor, the local temperature cannot be obtained from
only the peak wavelength shift. Fusing the FBG wavelength response
with the PPT data at the corresponding pixel and depth is shown to
provide a unique characterization of the local material condition. In
addition, the FBG is shown to be more sensitive to damage in the early
stages, whereas the PPT imaging can provide more information in the
later phases of damage progression. Fusing the data from the two
sources therefore provides a powerful technique for the detection and
characterization of both damage initiation and damage progression in
laminated composite structures.
We have successfully fabricated regenerated gratings (RGs) with
titanium-silver-nickel multiplayer coating in standard telecommunication
fibers by magnetron sputtering and electroplating process. Optical testing
shows that the optical properties of the metal coated RG are slightly
affected by metallization process. We performed thermal tests to evaluate
the characteristics with respect to the Ti-Ag-Ni coated RG sensor within
the temperature of up to 600 oC. Results from experiments demonstrate
that the titanium coating achieved good adhesion to fiber and that
silver can be used as a conductive layer for electroplating process. The
experimental results proved that the Ti-Ag-Ni coated RG sensor exhibited
a satisfactory performance for its sensitivity, repeatability, and stability. In
addition, compared with those of bare RGs, the temperature sensitivity
of Ti-Ag-Ni coated RG sensors can be well enhanced by near two times
with a value of 20.8 pm oC-1 below 250 oC and by more than two times
with a value of 32.86 pm oC-1 up to 250-600 oC, compared to the bare
RG. The theoretical results quite coincide with the experimental results
below 250 oC. Whereas the disagreement above 250 oC between the
theoretical and experimental results could be primarily attributed to the
increment of the CTE and the reduction of the Young’s modulus of the
nickel above 250 oC, and the assumptions of fixed fiber core size and
thermo-optic coefficient in the theoretical calculations. The metal coated
RG sensors provide a potential possibility for temperature sensing or
temperature compensation at high temperatures.
8693-7, Session 2
8693-9, Session 3
Highly-localized thermal response
measurements in composites using
embedded fiber Bragg grating temperature
Improved distributed fiber optic sensing
system based on single-ended double-pulse
input Brillouin scattering
Tianying Chang, Ruijuan Yang, Jilin Univ. (China); Yongliang
Wang, David Y. Li, L.C. Pegasus Corp. (United States); HongLiang Cui, Jilin Univ. (China) and Polytechnic Institute of New
York Univ. (United States)
R. Brian Jenkins, Peter Joyce, Deborah M. Mechtel, Kyle Milden,
Kyle Elam, Richard J. Watkins, U.S. Naval Academy (United
In this research, fiber Bragg grating (FBG) temperature sensors are
embedded in composites in order to detect highly localized temperature
gradients in the composite structures. The ultimate goal is to rapidly
detect high energy electromagnetic radiation incident on the surface
of a composite structure. A secondary goal is to use the sensors
as a diagnostic tool to determine the optimal composite materials,
architectures, or structures that are the least susceptible to high energy
radiation damage.
Distributed fiber optics sensing system based on Brillouin backscattered
light can measure temperature and strain simultaneously, which
generally has two types in structure. One is Brillouin optical time domain
reflectometry (BOTDR), and the other is Brillouin optical time domain
analysis (BOTDA). The former is single-ended input which is convenient
for applications, but its spatial resolution is limited and the signal is week.
The latter is double-ended input, which has opposite characteristics.
For BOTDR, input light’s pulsewidth is one of the restraining factors
for spatial resolution. Brillouin backscattered light is usually too weak
to be detected if input light’s pulsewidth is very narrow (less than
10ns). Therefore, spatial resolution of BOTDR is low (more than 1 m),
because its input light’s pulsewidth cannot be less than 10 ns. Based
on the principle of Brillouin scattered light generation, single-ended
double-pulse input is used to strengthen Brillouin backscattered light
by increasing the population of acoustic phonons, which can be called
improved BODTR. The first pulse which can be called the pump pulse,
Initial results will be discussed for a test matrix of various composite
materials using a single sensor to measure temperature variations. The
tests include measurements of the temporal and spatial response of
the composite resulting either from an applied heat source or to high
energy radiation incident on the surface. Additional tests demonstrate
the response using a 3x2 array of sensors to simultaneously detect the
response at varying depths in the composite, using three FBGs in line
with the heat source, and three FBGs located a short distance (3cm)
Return to Contents
Conference 8693: Smart Sensor Phenomena,
Technology, Networks, and Systems Integration VI
has a wide pulsewidth (tens or hundreds of us) and is used to generate a
nonlinear population of acoustic phonons in the sensing fiber. Whereas
the second pulse which can be called the probe pulse, has a different
central wavelength and a much narrower pulsewidth (several ns), and
is emitted into the sensing fiber with a controlled time delay to absorb
the generated abundant acoustic phonons, so that strong Anti-Stokes
light can be generated. By detecting the intense Anti-Stoke light, whose
frequency is related to the frequency of the probe pulse, Brillouin
backscattered light in BOTDR can be detected easily, leading to high
signal to noise ratio and better spatial resolution (less than 1 m), as well
as good temperature and strain resolution, and longer sensing distance.
environmental attacks).
In order to estimate the changes in the sensor characteristics or to proof
the stability of the sensor function, experimental investigations and
validation is needed. Important aspects how to come to reliable strain
measurements and how to validate strain measurements of applied
sensors are considered. Experimental procedures will be presented
which reveal weaknesses in the sensor use. New methods for validation
of integrated sensors will be discussed. Special focus is set on the
optimization of the strain transfer zone of embedded fiber Bragg grating
sensors. Test method and results will be presented.
8693-13, Session 4
8693-11, Session 3
A comparative analysis of FBG and lowcoherence fiber-optic sensors for SHM of
composite structures
Intelligent fiber-optic statistical mode sensors
using novel features and artificial neural
Zoran V. Djinovic, Integrated Microsystems Austria GmbH
(Austria); Milos C. Tomic, Univ. of Belgrade (Serbia); Marijana
Stojkovic, Integrated Microsystems Austria GmbH (Austria)
Hasan S. Efendioglu, Fatih Univ. (Turkey); Tulay Yildirim, Yildiz
Teknik Univ. (Turkey); Onur Toker, Kemal Fidanboylu, Fatih Univ.
Composite materials, such as carbon fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP),
finding nowadays a broad application in different industrial fields. The
most challenge area is aerospace industry due to specific environmental
conditions, characterized by rather extensive span of thermal and
mechanical load, under which an aircraft operates. Despite of high
specific strength and toughness of composite materials, various on
board occasions (bird-strike, hail-storm, cyclic loading) could induce
some kind of material failure, e.g. cracks or delamination. Usage of
fiber-optic Bragg gratings (FBG) for strain measurement is well-known
technique in structural health monitoring (SHM). However, this technique
based on shift of spectral peak, suffers from different spurious signals,
particularly caused by thermal effect. Within this paper the authors will
perform a comparative analysis of FBG and fiber-optic low-coherence
interferometry based on experimental results of strain and deformation
measurements of CFRP composite probe made of PEEK. Both sensors
and thermocouple are firmly bonded onto PEEK probe simultaneously
exposed to external stress by applying the three-point loading test
according to ASTM D790. We used a sensing configuration where an
Optical Spectrum Analyzer was interrogated with one FBG sensor with
central wavelength at 1530,02nm and SLD light source at 1540nm. The
interferometric configuration is basically of Michelson type, made of
3x3 singlemode fiber optic coupler. The interferometric 2π ambiguity is
overcome using a low coherence light source at 1310nm. We tested the
sensing technique exposing the sensing fiber tightly glued to the PEEK
probe nearby the FBG, to an external force generated by a tensile test
Fiber optic statistical mode sensors are based on different intensity
distributions of the output that result from inter-modal interference
between all guided modes in the fiber. Analysing the changes of the
output pattern images, statistical mode sensors can be designed. In
this work, novel statistical features were proposed for the design of
statistical mode sensors. Experiments were conducted to measure force
using statistical mode sensors but different features were extracted from
the captured images and analyses were implemented using proposed
statistical features. These new features were compared with the known
statistical features in literature. Using the results, statistical features were
compared in terms of different performance parameters such as linearity,
precision, hysteresis and repeability. While certain features are better
compared to the others in terms of certain performance parameters,
they turn out to be worse compared to other aspects. Depending on
the nature of the application, a statistical feature should be selected
based on which performance parameter(s) are most important for the
application. After that, Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) with sensor
fusion, intelligent sensor architecture was proposed to predict the force
values measured by statistical mode sensors. It was seen that using
the statistical features with sensor fusion provides better prediction of
force values. Different ANN models were used in sensor fusion. Using
sensor fusion with ANNs, statistical mode sensors can be calibrated and
fault tolerance of the sensor can be decreased, hence more reliable and
intelligent sensors can be designed.
8693-12, Session 4
8693-14, Session 5
The role of experimental validation in
achieving reliable measurement data with
applied FBG strain sensors (Invited Paper)
A chirped long-period grating sensor for
monitoring flow direction and cure of a resin
Rebecca Y. N. Wong, Edmond Chehura, Stephen W. James,
Ralph P. Tatam, Cranfield Univ. (United Kingdom)
Wolfgang R. Habel, Vivien G. Schukar, Nadine Kusche,
Constanze Schilder, Viktoriya Tkachenko, Bundesanstalt für
Materialforschung und -prüfung (Germany)
A chirped long period grating (CLPG) was used to perform both
directional flow sensing and monitoring the extent of a chemical cure
reaction of a UV-cured epoxy resin via the measurement of the change
in refractive index of the resin during cure. The response of the CLPG in
sensing liquid refractive indices lower and greater than that of the fibre
cladding, 1.424 and 1.544 respectively, was demonstrated using known
refractive index oils (Cargille oils). The former has an index close to the
UV-cured epoxy resin used in the experiment and is normally applied
to micro-moulding lenses for LCD projection and the latter is similar to
the typical refractive indices of resin often used in composite material
fabrication employed by the aerospace industry. The asymmetric nature
of the CLPG led to the change in the shape of the attenuation bands of
the transmission spectrum to be dependent on the direction of flow of
the resin. The wavelength shift for the attenuation bands of the CLPG
Fibre optic strain sensors are increasingly used in very different
technical fields. Sensors are provided with more or less comprehensive
specifications and must sometimes be modified to meet measurement
requirement. Even if the performance of sensor products is well specified,
the strain characteristics of the sensor, the strain transfer factor,
mechanical stability under thermal influences, the performance of applied
strain sensors can seriously differ from the virgin sensor’s performance.
Sensor application can change the specific parameters of the sensing
element, or at least influence the signal characteristics. The contribution
will therefore focus on issues that can deteriorate the sensor function
or reduce the reliability of measurement results (e. g. attachment and/or
embedment procedures, materials combinations, aging processes due to
Return to Contents
Conference 8693: Smart Sensor Phenomena,
Technology, Networks, and Systems Integration VI
and for a uniform period LPG were measured simultaneously during the
resin cure. The largest measured wavelength shifts were comparable
at 2.4 ± 0.1 nm and 2.8 ± 0.1 nm respectively. This implies sensitivity
remains unaffected when a CLPG is used for cure monitoring. The
change in the refractive index of the resin during cure was determined
in the same experiment using a fibre optic Fresnel based refractometer,
and correlated well (correlation coefficient greater than 85 %) with the
wavelength shift profiles from the LPGs.
and propagation along interfaces is needed to maximize the energy
dissipation capabilities of layered ceramics. These durability
considerations are being addressed by introducing highly specialized
form of environmental barrier coating (EBC) that is being developed and
explored in particular for high temperature applications that is greater
than 1100 °C [1, 3]. The EBCs are typically a multilayer of coatings
and are in the order of hundreds of microns thick. Thus, evaluating
components and subcomponents made out of CMCs under gas turbine
engine conditions is suggested to demonstrate that these material will
perform as expected and required under these aggressive environmental
circumstances. Progressive failure analysis (PFA) is being performed to
assess the crack growth of the coating under combined thermal and
mechanical loading conditions. The PFA evaluation is carried out with
the Genoa [4] software using a full-scale finite element model to account
for the average material failure at the microscopic level. The roadmap
for the analysis involves the following steps: (1) Reverse engineering
of fiber and matrix properties from lamina properties, (2) Determination
of residual stresses as a result of thermal cycling, (3) Assessment of
degradation of material strength during cycling, and (4) Damage tracking
and fracture using physics based failure criteria to determine life of the
specimen under service load. Results related to crack growth; behavior
and life assessment of the coating at the interface of the EBC/CMC will
be presented and discussed.
8693-15, Session 5
Multiplexed fibre-optic sensors for monitoring
resin infusion, flow, and cure in composite
material processing
Edmon Chehura, Renata Jarzebinska, Elisabete F. Reia Da Costa,
Alexandros A. Skordos, Stephen W. James, Ivana K. Partridge,
Ralph P. Tatam, Cranfield Univ. (United Kingdom)
The infusion, flow and cure of RTM6 resin in carbon fibre reinforced
preform have been monitored using a variety of multiplexed fibre optic
sensors. The sensors were embedded in the middle and top of an 8-layer
preform. The hot plate and vacuum bag process was employed for the
infusion and cure. The resin and preform are typical materials used in
the manufacture of aerospace components. The infusion of resin was
performed with the hot plate at a temperature of 120oC, with the cure
subsequently performed at an isotherm of 160oC for 2 hours. Fibre
optic Fresnel sensors and tilted fibre Bragg grating (TFBG) sensors of
relatively high tilt angle (3o) were configured to monitor resin infusion,
flow and degree of cure via measurement of the refractive index of the
resin. Temperature was measured using TFBG sensors of relatively
small tilt angle (1.5o) and also using an embedded thermocouple. Fibre
Bragg grating (FBG) sensors fabricated in highly linearly birefringent
(HiBi) fibre were used to monitor the development of transverse strain
during the cure process. The results obtained from the various sensors
in monitoring the resin infusion and flow were comparable, and were in
good agreement with visual observations. The cure data from the Fresnel
sensors was converted to degree of cure using calibrations obtained
from Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) experiments. An alternative
approach to infusion monitoring, based on an array of multiplexed
tapered optical fibre sensors interrogated using optical frequency domain
reflectometry, was also investigated in a separate carbon fibre preform.
8693-17, Session 5
Enzyme-linked monoclonal antibody
microstructured optical fiber monitor
Rosalind M. Wynne, Julie DellAntonio, Francis Anuszewski, Elias
Panagiotakis, William Kelly, Villanova Univ. (United States)
A solid-core photonic crystal fiber (SC-PCF) with a microstructured
all-silica steering wheel lattice containing a 3 µm diameter core is used
to identify dye-free monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) of very small volumes
<0.1uL for concentrations ranging from 0.1mg/mL to [(1x10)]^(-12) mg/
mL. The samples used in this study are mAbs, which are useful in
detecting the presence of the botulism toxin. Human IgG antibodies
(Southern Biotech Inc.) served as the “coating” antibody to detect an
enzyme-linked mAb (Southern Biotech Inc.) - the “antigen”. The spectra
for mAb samples linked with enzymes were compared to control samples
without enzymes and conventional ELISA measurements.
The SC-PCF at lengths 1m and 0.5m were filled with ~ 0.008 µL of each
sample was coupled with a broadband LED light source with emission
peaks in the 1280-1700 nm range. Absorption characteristics associated
with these mAbs were measured using a standard optical spectrum
analyzer. Spectra were collected for control antibody samples, enzyme
linked antibody and a third sample of a mixture of both antibodies. The
measured spectra for the samples with varied concentrations were
consistent with conventional ELISA measurements. Attenuation due to
bend loss was also investigated. A compact, real-time sensor based
on this dye-free technology has the potential to benefit water quality
monitoring, drug manufacturing and food quality control.
8693-16, Session 5
Environmental barrier coating (EBC) durability
modeling using a progressive failure analysis
approach, part II
Ali Abdul-Aziz, NASA Glenn Research Ctr. (United States); Galib
Abumeri, AlphaSTAR Corp. (United States); Ramakrishna T.
Bhatt, Joseph E. Grady, Dongming Zhu, NASA Glenn Research
Ctr. (United States)
8693-18, Session 6
The need for a protecting guard for the popular Ceramic Matrix
Composites (CMCs) is getting
Multi-element, high-temperature integrated
ultrasonic transducers for structural health
A lot of attention from most engine manufacturers and aerospace
companies. This because the CMC has a weight advantages over
standard metallic materials and more performance benefits. They are also
commonly porous material and this feature is somewhat beneficial since
it allows some desirable infiltration. They further undergo degradation
that typically includes coating interface oxidation as opposed to moisture
induced matrix which is generally seen at a higher temperature. Variety of
factors such as residual stresses, coating process related flaws, casting
conditions, may influence the strength of degradation. The cause of such
defects which cause cracking and other damage is that not much energy
is absorbed during fracture of these materials.
Alain Blouin, Jocelyn Veilleux, Silvio E. Kruger, Kuo-Ting Wu,
National Research Council Canada (Canada)
This paper reports recent developments on high-temperature, multielement integrated ultrasonic transducers (IUTs). The multi-element
IUTs are fabricated from a sol-gel route, where piezoelectric films are
deposited, poled and machined into an array of 16 elements. Electrical
wiring and insulation are also integrated into a practical, simple hightemperature assembly. These multi-element IUTs show a high potential
for structural health monitoring at high temperatures (in the 200-500°C
Therefore, an understanding of the issues that control crack deflection
Return to Contents
Conference 8693: Smart Sensor Phenomena,
Technology, Networks, and Systems Integration VI
8693-22, Session 6
range): they can withstand thermal cycling and shocks, they can be
integrated to complex geometries, and they have broadband and suitable
operating frequency characteristics with a minimal footprint (no backing
needed). The specifics of multi-element transducers, including the
phased array approach, for structural health monitoring are discussed.
Large-area piezoceramic coating with IDT
electrodes for ultrasonic sensing applications
Vivek T. Rathod, D. Roy Mahapatra, Indian Institute of Science
(India); A. Antony Jeyaseelan, Soma Dutta, National Aerospace
Labs. (India)
8693-20, Session 6
Acoustic emission for fatigue damage
monitoring in cross-welded aluminum plates
In the present work, the ultrasonic strain sensing performance of a large
area piezoceramic coating with inter digitated (IDT) electrodes is studied.
The piezoceramic coating is prepared using slurry coating technique
and the piezoelectric phase has been achieved by poling under DC field.
To study the guided wave induced strain sensing performance of the
piezoceramic coating with IDT electrodes, the coating is deposited on
the surface of a thin beam specimen as the substrate at one end and
ultrasonic guided wave is launched with another piezoelectric wafer
bonded on another end. Often a wide frequency band of operation is
needed for the effective implementation of the sensors in context of
Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) for various different types and sizes
of damages and in several other applications. Such a wide frequency
band of operation is achieved by varying the number of IDT electrodes.
This alters the contribution of induced dynamic strain wave packet
shape. Piezoelectric coefficient is estimated using an analytical model
and experimental data. Strain magnitude of the launched guided
wave is varied by the input voltage applied to the actuator of known
characteristics. Its sensitivity is studied for various combinations with
different numbers of IDT electrodes. Present investigation provides
a methodology to use the piezoceramic coating in structural health
monitoring application as an example that requires a wide frequency
range of operation.
Dimitrios G. Aggelis, Univ. of Ioannina (Greece)
Acoustic emission (AE) technique is commonly applied in different
materials in order to evaluate their internal fracturing condition in real
time. Apart from the number of acquired signals, which are correlated
to the number of active cracking sources, qualitative features of the
acoustic waveforms shed light in the dominant fracturing mode. This
is due to the fact that the emitted waves depend on the relative motion
of the crack sides at each incident. The fracture process of most
engineering materials includes shift between modes and therefore, non
invasive and real time characterization of the dominant mode supplies
information on the current condition as well as poses an early warning
before final failure. Although a lot of work has been done on acoustic
emission characterization of fatigue damage, the work on welded
components is scarse. In the present study aluminum plates are crosswelded and loaded until fracture in tension-tension fatigue experiments
at different load levels. Their full acoustic activity is recorded by four
sensors along with all mechanical parameters. It is shown that study of
the acoustic emission rate relatively to the applied load, and qualitative
waveform parameters like the frequency content and duration can be
used to study the evolution of the crack under the different modes.
8693-23, Session 7
8693-21, Session 6
Optical strain measurements on a rotating
Monitoring of glass-ceramic composites
under static and dynamic loading by
combined NDE methods
Mark R. Woike, Ali Abdul-Aziz, Michelle Clem, Gustave C. Fralick,
NASA Glenn Research Ctr. (United States)
Evangelos Z. Kordatos, Dimitrios G. Aggelis, Konstantinos G.
Dassios, Theodoros E. Matikas, Univ. of Ioannina (Greece)
The development of techniques for the health monitoring of the rotating
components in gas turbine engines is of major interest to the NASA’s
Aviation Safety Program. As part of this on-going effort an experiment
utilizing a novel optical Moiré based concept is being planned on a
subscale turbine engine disk as a means of demonstrating a potential
strain measurement and crack detection technique. Moiré patterns result
from the overlap of two repetitive patterns with slightly different spacing.
When this technique is applied to a rotating disk, it has the potential to
allow the detection of very small changes in spacing and hence radial
growth in a rotating disk due to a flaw such as a crack. This investigation
is a continuation of previous efforts undertaken in 2011-2012 for the
demonstration of this concept. The initial demonstration was attempted
on a subscale turbine engine disk and was inconclusive due to the
lack of radial growth experienced by the disk during operation. For this
next phase of testing a new subscale turbine engine disk made out of
Aluminum has been fabricated and improvements are being made to
better demonstrate the concept. The experiment will involve laser etching
a circular reference pattern onto the subscale engine disk and operating
it at speeds up to 12 000 rpm as a means of optically monitoring the
Moiré created by the shift in patterns created by the radial growth of
the disk due to defects such as a crack. Testing will first be done on a
clean defect free disk as a means of acquiring baseline reference data.
A notch will then be machined on to the disk to simulate a crack and
the testing will be repeated for the purposes of investigating the Moiré
optical detection concept. Displacement data will be acquired using
external blade tip clearance and shaft displacement sensors as a means
of confirming the optical data and validating other sensor based crack
detection techniques. In addition, a novel technique to measure strain
using a cross-correlation imaging technique will also be attempted during
this experiment. The results from this technique will be analyzed and
compared to the data yielded from the Moiré experiment.
This work deals with the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of the fracture
behavior of ceramic matrix composite (CMCs) materials combining
infrared (IR) thermographic and acoustic emission (AE) characterization.
IR thermography as a non-destructive, real-time and non-contact
technique, allows the detection of heat waves which are generated by the
thermo-mechanical coupling and the intrinsic energy dissipated during
mechanical cyclic loading of the sample. Three different thermographic
methodologies, based on measuring the surface temperature, the sum
of the principal stresses and the intrinsic dissipated energy respectively,
were applied in order to monitor the crack initiation and propagation, the
crack growth rate (Da/DN) and to assess rapidly the fatigue limit of crossply SiC/BMAS composites. The thermographic results on crack growth
rate were found to be in agreement with measurements obtained by the
conventional compliance method. Simultaneously, AE monitoring was
taking place recording any type of cracking event from matrix cracking to
fiber fracture and pull-out. AE event rate, as well as qualitative indices like
the rise time and peak frequency reveal crucial information allowing the
characterization of the severity of fracture in relation to the applied load.
Additionally, rapid assessment of the fatigue limit of CMCs composites
was also attempted by the AE. Testing a specimen at different load levels
for predetermined blocks of cycles shows that the AE acquisition rate
keeps low for loads below the fatigue limit, while it increases abruptly
for higher levels. The thermographic assesment of fatigue limit is in total
agreement with the AE results enabling the reliable evaluation of the
fatigue limit of the material by testing just one specimen. The application
of combined NDE techniques is proved very valuable for benchmarking
purposes while the sensitivities of the methods act complementarily to
each other providing a very detailed assessment of the damage status of
the material in real time.
Return to Contents
Conference 8693: Smart Sensor Phenomena,
Technology, Networks, and Systems Integration VI
8693-24, Session 7
disk to simulate a crack; the disk will be studied under static conditions
at 0 rpm (unloaded condition) and at 12 000 rpm (loaded condition).
Spinning the cracked disk at high speeds induces a load, resulting in
a radial growth of the disk in the flawed region and hence, a localized
strain field. Similar to BOS, two data images will be acquired: a reference
image of the cracked disk will be acquired at the unloaded condition,
while a secondary image will be acquired of the flawed disk at the loaded
condition. When imaging the cracked disk under static conditions, it is
thought that the disk will appear undistorted. However, during rotation
the cracked region will grow radially, thus causing the high-contrast
random background adhered to the disk to appear deflected. Due to
the small amount of deflection during rotation, it will be necessary to
work towards the development of an optimal background that will be
sensitive enough to detect the fault of the subscale turbine engine.
Therefore, different background, sizes, shapes, and densities will be
investigated in an effort to reach the desired crack detection sensitivity.
The corresponding image displacements between the two acquired disk
images will be calculated using existing PIV cross-correlation algorithms,
as is the case with BOS. It will also be attempted to map the observed
deflection into a strain field, which will be compared to finite element
analysis and external sensor data.
Turbine-engine rotor health monitoring and
durability evaluation using spin tests data
Ali Abdul-Aziz, Mark R. Woike, George Y. Baaklini, NASA Glenn
Research Ctr. (United States)
Safety and maintenance cost are among the major features that engine
manufacturers strive for in their design approach to produce efficient
and successful products. However, this design success is subject to
manufacturing highly reliable rotating components that typically undergo
high rotational loading conditions that subject them to various types of
failure initiation mechanisms. To counter such design concerns; health
monitoring of these components is becoming a necessity, yet, this
attribute remains somewhat challenging to implement. This is mostly due
to the fact that presence of scattered loading conditions, crack sizes,
component geometry and material property hinders the simplicity of
imposing such applications. Therefore, exploitation of suitable techniques
to monitor the health of these rotating components is ongoing and
its being invoked via other means such as nondestructive techniques
to pre-detect hidden flaws and mini cracks before any catastrophic
event occurs. These approaches or techniques extend more to assess
materials’ discontinuities and other defects that have matured to the level
where a failure is likely.
1. Venkatakrishnan, L., and Meier, G. E. A, “Density measurements using
the Background Oriented Schlieren Technique,” Experiments in Fluids,
Vol. 37, 2004, pp., 237-247.
2. Richard, H., and Raffle, M., “Principle and applications of the
background oriented schlieren (BOS) method,” Measurement Science
and Technology, Vol. 12, 2001, pp., 1576-1585.
This paper is pertained to presenting data collected from a spin
experiment of a turbine like rotor disk tested at a range of rotational
speeds up to 12000 rpm. It further includes an analytical modeling of the
rotor vibration response that is characterized a combination of numerical
and experimental data. The data include blade tip clearance, tip timing
measurements and shaft displacements. The tests are conducted at
the NASA Glenn Research Center’s Rotordynamics Laboratory, a high
precision spin rig. The results are evaluated and scrutinized to explore
their relevance towards the development of a crack detection system and
a supplemental physics based fault prediction analytical model.
3. Hargather, M. J., Settles, G. S., “Recent Developments in Schlieren
and Shadowgraph,” AIAA Paper 2010-4206, 2010.
4. M. Woike, A. Abdul-Aziz, G. Fralick, and J. Wrbanek, “Investigation
of a Moiré Based Crack Detection Technique for Propulsion Health
Monitoring”, NASA/TM—2012-217622, 2012.
5. A. Abdul-Aziz, M. Woike, J. Lekki, and G. Baaklini, “Health Monitoring
of a Rotating Disk Using a Combined Analytical-Experimental Approach,”
NASA TM-2009-215675, 2009.
6. M. Woike, A. Abdul-Aziz, “Crack-Detection Experiments on Simulated
Turbine Engine Disks in NASA Glenn Research Center’s Rotordynamics
Laboratory”, NASA TM-2010-216239, 2010.
1. Ali Abdul-Aziz, Mark R. Woike, John D. Lekki and George Y. Baaklini;”
Development of a Flaw Detection/Health Monitoring Scheme for Turbine
Engine Rotating Components”; Proceedings Smart Structures and
Materials & Nondestructive Evaluation and Health Monitoring; SPIE2-12, March 11-15, San Diego, California. 2012.
7. A. Abdul-Aziz, M. Woike, et al., “Propulsion Health Monitoring of a
Turbine Engine Disk Using Spin Test Data”, NASA TM-2010-216743,
2. Abdul-Aziz, A., G. Abumeri, Mark Woike and George Baakilini ,”NDE
Using Sensor Based Approach to Propulsion Health Monitoring Of A
Turbine Engine Disk” , submitted for presentation at the SPIE Smart
Structure/NDE, 8-12 March 2009, San Diego, California.
8693-32, Session PTues
3. Wayne C. Hass and Michael j. Drumm;”Detection, Discrimination and
Real-Time Tracking of Cracks in Rotating Disks”, IEEE, 2002
Axle weights identification with moving force
identification theory
4. Sonnichsen, H. E., “Real-time Detection of Developing Cracks in Jet
Engine Rotors”, www.testdevices.com, 0-7803-5846-5/00, IEEE, 2000.
Hua Zhao, Hunan Univ. (China); Shiyong He, Guilin Economic
Construction Investment Corp. (China)
5. Bently, D.E, Detecting Cracked Shafts at Earlier Levels, Orbit
Magazine, Bently Nevada, Vol. 3, No. 2, (1982).
When evaluating existing bridges, information based on the actual
resistance and traffic load expected over the structure will result in
more accurate and reliable evaluation of the safety of existing bridges.
An innovative bridge weigh-in-motion (BWIM) technique can provide
accurate traffic load effect. BWIM system uses instrumented bridge as a
large sensor, and the transducers are mounted on the bottom flange of
each girder to identify axle weight of heavy trucks, and the transducers
mounted right under the slab are to acquire the silhouette of the passing
vehicles, such as speed and axle space. This paper proposes an
algorithm to identify axle weights of moving vehicles varying with time
with the application of two-dimensional moving force identification (MFI)
theory associated with dynamic programming method together with
first-order Tikhonov regularization technique. An eigenvalue reduction
technique is applied to reduce the dimension of the system. Minimization
of least-squares of the difference between measured strains and
theoretical ones are applied for the inverse problem. Hansen’s L-Curve
method is employed to optimally estimate the smoothing parameter
and the first-order Tikhonov regularization technique is also applied
to obtain smoother result. The dynamic programming method is then
used to provide an efficient solution to the recursive least squares
8693-25, Session 7
Optical method of measuring strain on
a rotating disk using a cross-correlation
imaging technique
Michelle Clem, Mark R. Woike, Ali Abdul-Aziz, Gustave C. Fralick,
NASA Glenn Research Ctr. (United States)
The NASA Aviation Safety Program has a high interest in the
development of fault detection techniques for gas turbine engines in
an effort to detect flaws in key engine components before failure. A
cross-correlation imaging technique, which builds off of the principles of
Background Oriented Schlieren (BOS)1-3, is investigated as a possible
technique to optically measure a localized strain field resulting from
an induced crack on a subscale turbine engine disk. As performed in
previous crack detection studies4-7, a notch will be machined on to the
Return to Contents
Conference 8693: Smart Sensor Phenomena,
Technology, Networks, and Systems Integration VI
Zerstörungsfreie Prüfverfahren (Germany) and Technische
Univ. Dresden (Germany); Bernd Köhler, Fraunhofer-Institut
für Zerstörungsfreie Prüfverfahren (Germany); Jörg L. Opitz,
Fraunhofer-Institut für Zerstörungsfreie Prüfverfahren (Germany)
and Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany); Lukas M. Eng,
Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany); Thomas Härtling,
Fraunhofer-Institut für Zerstörungsfreie Prüfverfahren (Germany)
formulation. Field testing of the bridge on highway 78 in Alabama in the
U.S. is applied to verify the proposed MFI algorithm by comparing the
equivalently static measured axle loads with the predicted ones. The
proposed MFI algorithm illustrates considerable potential to be the basis
for a highly accurate BWIM system.
8693-33, Session PTues
Diagnostic on acceleration and information
recovering using data fusion
The nondestructive evaluation of an increasing number of novel
nanoscale devices and nanostructured materials requires feasible
and reliable methods for material characterization with high spatial
resolution and a maximum of physical information. To achieve both at
once, we combine Raman spectroscopy and transmission near-field
optical microscopy. The light polarization in the fiber optical probe plays
a major role for this task and needs to be carefully controlled. Specific
polarization modes, e.g. radial polarization, can be excited by means of
long period gratings (LPGs) and if index-tailored fibers are used, these
modes can be transmitted without distortion to a fiber optic near-field
probe [1]. The LPG can thus be used as a fiber polarization controller for
complex polarization states.
Wei Lu, Harbin Institute of Technology (China)
The acceleration information is significant for the structural health
monitoring, which is the basic measurement to identify structural
dynamic characteristics and structural vibration. The efficiency of the
accelerometers is subsequently important for the structural health
monitoring. In this paper, the distance measure matrix and the support
level matrix are constructed first and the synthesized support level and
the fusion method are given subsequently. Furthermore, the synthesized
support level can be served as the determination for diagnostic on
accelerometers, while the consistent data fusion method can be used
to recover the acceleration information in frequency domain. The
acceleration acquisition measurements from the accelerometers located
on the real structure National Aquatics Center are used to be the basic
simulation data here. By calculating two groups of accelerometers, the
validation and stability of diagnostics and recovering on acceleration
based on the data fusion are proofed in the paper.
This fiber polarization controller is implemented into our scanning
near-field optical microscope (SNOM). The main advantage of using
radially polarized light (as input for the SNOM probe) is that transmission
through an apertureless probe becomes more efficient, since the electric
field is perpendicular to the metal coating of the fiber tip and excites
corresponding surface plasmon polaritons. With the resulting plasmon
mode, the typical trade-off between resolution and signal strength, due
to mode cutoff for small probe diameters, can be overcome [2]. The
main advantages of this technique are 1) that these transmission probes
provide a pure near-field illumination of the specimen without background
signals and 2) the fabrication is significantly simplified compared to
aperture probes.
8693-26, Session 8
Large field optical tomography system
[1] C. Zeh, et. al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 103108 (2010).
Björn Fischer, Christian Wolf, Thomas Härtling, FraunhoferInstitut für Zerstörungsfreie Prüfverfahren (Germany)
[2] A. Bouhelier, et. al., Journal Microsc. 210, 220-4 (2003).
Optical measurement technologies become more and more import in
many fields of nondestructive testing. One of these technologies is the
optical coherence tomography (OCT). By now mostly used in medical
applications, such as ophthalmology and dermatology, the relevance
of OCT for testing non biological probes in manuf