IT Essentials
IT Essentials:
PC Hardware and Software
Labs and Study Guide Third Edition
Patrick Regan
Cisco Press
800 East 96th Street
Indianapolis, Indiana 46240 USA
ii
IT Essentials: PC Hardware and Software Labs and Study Guide
IT Essentials: PC Hardware and Software
Labs and Study Guide, Third Edition Instructor’s Edition
Patrick Regan
Copyright© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc.
Publisher
Paul Boger
Associate Publisher
Dave Dusthimer
Cisco Representative
Anthony Wolfenden
Cisco Press logo is a trademark of Cisco Systems, Inc.
Published by:
Cisco Press
800 East 96th Street
Indianapolis, IN 46240 USA
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form
or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any
information storage and retrieval system, without written permission from the publisher,
except for the inclusion of brief quotations in a review.
Printed in the United States of America
First Printing January 2008
Cisco Press Program Manager
Jeff Brady
Executive Editor
Mary Beth Ray
Managing Editor
Patrick Kanouse
Development Editor
Andrew Cupp
Senior Project Editor
Tonya Simpson
Copy Editor
Barbara Hacha
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data:
ISBN-13: 978-1-58713-198-1
ISBN-10: 1-58713-198-6
Warning and Disclaimer
This book is designed to provide information about taking and passing the CompTIA A+
exam and about how to be a successful PC technician. Every effort has been made to
make this book as complete and as accurate as possible, but no warranty or fitness is
implied.
The information is provided on an “as is” basis. The authors, Cisco Press, and Cisco
Systems, Inc. shall have neither liability nor responsibility to any person or entity with
respect to any loss or damages arising from the information contained in this book or
from the use of the discs or programs that may accompany it.
The opinions expressed in this book belong to the author and are not necessarily those of
Cisco Systems, Inc.
Technical Editors
Mayfield Fayose
Matt Newell
Editorial Assistant
Vanessa Evans
Book and Cover Designer
Louisa Adair
Composition
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Proofreader
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Services
iii
Trademark Acknowledgments
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iv
IT Essentials: PC Hardware and Software Labs and Study Guide
About the Author
Patrick Regan has been a PC technician, network administrator/engineer, design architect, and security
analyst for the past 16 years after graduating with a bachelor’s degree in physics from the University of
Akron. He has taught many computer and network classes at Sacramento local colleges (Heald College
and MTI College) and has participated in and led many projects (Heald College, Intel Corporation,
Miles Consulting Corporation, and Pacific Coast Companies). For his teaching accomplishments, he
received the Teacher of the Year award from Heald College, and he has received several recognition
awards from Intel. Previously, he worked as a product support engineer for the Intel Corporation
Customer Service, a senior network engineer for Virtual Alert supporting the BioTerrorism Readiness
suite, and as a senior design architect/engineer and training coordinator for Miles Consulting Corp (MCC),
a premiere Microsoft Gold Certified Partner and consulting firm. He is currently a senior network
engineer at Pacific Coast Companies, supporting a large enterprise network. He holds many certifications,
including the Microsoft MCSE, MCSA, MCT; the CompTIA A+, Network+, Server+, Linux+, Security+,
and CTT+; the Cisco CCNA; and the Novell CNE and CWNP Certified Wireless Network Administrator
(CWNA).
Over the past several years, he has written several textbooks for Prentice Hall, including Troubleshooting
the PC, Networking with Windows 2000 and 2003, Linux, Local Area Networks, Wide Area Networks,
and the Acing series (Acing the A+, Acing the Network+, Acing the Security+, and Acing the Linux+).
He also coauthored Exam Cram 70-290 MCSA/MCSE Managing and Maintaining a Microsoft Windows
Server 2003 Environment, Second Edition.
v
About the Technical Reviewers
Mayfield Fayose has been teaching and working with computer technology since 1995 and has also
been a consultant for large international corporations. He is currently working as a systems administrator
and computer technology instructor. For the past eight years, Mayfield has been teaching A+ and Network+
certification programs, as well as MCP and CCNA classes. Mayfield has certifications in MCSE NT 4.0,
CCNA, and A+.
Matt Newell has been with the Ohio CATC (TRECA) since 2000, serving as an IT instructor and systems
administrator in its data center. At the Ohio CATC, Matt teaches instructor-level courses in IT Essentials,
CCNA, Wireless, and PNIE. He has extensive experience with LAN/WAN hardware, structured cabling,
and multiplatform server and desktop hardware. Over the years, Matt has gathered various IT certifications
from Cisco, Microsoft, and CompTIA, and he is TRECA’s technical contact for its Microsoft Certified
Partner Program.
vi
IT Essentials: PC Hardware and Software Labs and Study Guide
Dedications
To Jessica, my best friend and confidante. She is always there for me.
vii
Contents at a Glance
Chapter 1
Introduction to the Personal Computer
1
Chapter 2
Safe Lab Procedures and Tool Use
Chapter 3
Computer Assembly—Step by Step
Chapter 4
Basics of Preventive Maintenance and Troubleshooting
Chapter 5
Fundamental Operating Systems
Chapter 6
Fundamental Laptops and Portable Devices
Chapter 7
Fundamental Printers and Scanners
Chapter 8
Fundamental Networks
Chapter 9
Fundamental Security
175
Chapter 10
Communication Skills
187
Chapter 11
Advanced Personal Computers
Chapter 12
Advanced Operating Systems
Chapter 13
Advanced Laptops and Portable Devices
Chapter 14
Advanced Printers and Scanners
Chapter 15
Advanced Networks
Chapter 16
Advanced Security
23
37
63
131
143
155
381
421
195
253
359
347
57
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IT Essentials: PC Hardware and Software Labs and Study Guide
Contents
Chapter 1
Introduction to the Personal Computer
Defining a Computer
2
Vocabulary Exercise: Matching
Processors
3
4
Vocabulary Exercise: Completion
Motherboards
4
4
Concept Questions
RAM
6
7
Vocabulary Exercise: Completion
Ports
7
7
Identify Ports and Connectors
Expansion Slots and Boards
8
9
Vocabulary Exercise: Completion
Cases
1
10
10
Concept Questions
Power Supplies
Hard Drive
10
10
11
Concept Questions
11
Vocabulary Exercise: Completion 11
Video Systems
12
Vocabulary Exercise: Matching
13
Concept Questions 13
Study Questions
14
Worksheet 1.1.2: Job Opportunities
17
Worksheet 1.4.7: Research Computer Components
Chapter 2
Safe Lab Procedures and Tool Use
Electrostatic Discharge
Concept Questions
PC Maintenance
18
23
24
24
25
Concept Questions 25
Power Fluctuations
26
Vocabulary Exercise: Matching
26
Concept Questions 27
Fires and Fire Extinguishers
27
Concept Questions 27
Material Safety and Data Sheets and Component Disposal
Vocabulary Exercise: Completion
Concept Questions
28
28
27
ix
Maintenance Safety
28
Concept Questions
Tools of the Trade
29
Concept Questions
Study Questions
29
29
29
Worksheet 2.2.2: Diagnostic Software
Lab 2.3.4: Computer Disassembly
Chapter 3
Step 1
33
Step 2
33
Step 3
33
Step 4
34
Step 5
34
Step 6
34
Step 7
34
Step 8
34
Step 9
35
Step 10
35
Step 11
35
Step 12
35
Step 13
35
Step 14
36
Step 15
36
32
Computer Assembly—Step by Step
Installing a Processor
Concept Questions
Installing RAM
38
38
39
Concept Questions
39
39
Installing the Motherboard
Concept Questions 39
Installing a Power Supply
Concept Questions
Concept Questions
40
40
Installing Optical Drives
41
41
Installing Floppy Disk Drives
Concept Questions
Installing a Hard Drive
41
41
42
Vocabulary Exercise: Completion
BIOS and the BIOS Setup Program
Concept Questions
Study Questions
42
43
43
44
Lab 3.2.0: Install the Power Supply
32
47
37
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IT Essentials: PC Hardware and Software Labs and Study Guide
Step 1
47
Step 2
47
Step 3
47
Lab 3.3.3: Install the Motherboard
Step 1
48
Step 2
48
Step 3
48
Step 4
48
Step 5
49
Step 6
49
Step 7
49
Lab 3.5.2: Install the Drives
Step 1
50
Step 2
50
Step 3
50
49
Lab 3.6.3: Install Adapter Cards
Step 1
47
50
51
Step 2
51
Step 3
51
Lab 3.7.2: Install Internal Cables
Step 1
52
Step 2
52
Step 3
52
Step 4
52
Step 5
52
Step 6
52
Step 7
53
51
Lab 3.8.2: Complete the Computer Assembly
Step 1
53
Step 2
53
Step 3
53
Step 4 53
Step 5
54
Step 6
54
Step 7
54
Step 8
54
Step 9
54
Lab 3.9.2: Boot the Computer
Step 1
54
Step 2 54
Step 3
55
54
53
xi
Chapter 4
Step 4
55
Step 5
55
Step 6
55
Step 7
55
Step 8
56
Basics of Preventive Maintenance and Troubleshooting
Preventive Maintenance
Concept Questions
Troubleshooting
58
58
58
Concept Questions
58
Troubleshooting Example
Study Questions
Chapter 5
59
60
Fundamental Operating Systems
63
Introduction to Operating Systems
64
Concept Questions 64
Installing Windows
64
Vocabulary Exercise: Completion
Concept Questions
Vocabulary Exercise: Matching
Registry
64
65
66
66
Concept Questions 67
Windows 98 Boot Sequence
Concept Questions
67
67
Windows 2000/XP Boot Sequence
68
Concept Questions 68
Windows 2000 and Windows XP Advanced Boot Menu
Concept Questions
Windows File Systems
Concept Questions
File Management
69
69
70
Concept Questions
Control Panel
69
70
70
Concept Questions
Troubleshooting Tools
71
71
Concept Questions 71
Study Questions
72
Worksheet 5.2.2: Search NOS Jobs
76
Worksheet 5.3.2: Upgrade Hardware Components
77
69
57
xii
IT Essentials: PC Hardware and Software Labs and Study Guide
Lab 5.4.2: Install Windows XP
Step 1
78
Step 2
79
Step 3
79
Step 4
80
Step 5
80
Step 6
81
Step 7
82
Step 8
83
Step 9
84
Step 10
84
Step 11
85
Step 12
85
Step 13
85
Step 14
86
Step 15
86
Step 16
87
78
Step 17 87
Step 18
88
Step 19
89
Step 20
89
Step 21
90
Lab 5.4.5: Create Accounts and Check for Updates
Step 1
90
Step 2
91
Step 3
92
Step 4
92
Step 5
93
Step 6
93
Step 7
94
Step 8
94
Step 9
95
Worksheet 5.4.9: Answer NTFS and FAT32 Questions
Lab 5.5.1: Run Commands
Step 1
96
Step 2
97
Step 3
98
Step 4
99
96
Lab 5.5.4: Install Third-Party Software
Step 1
99
Step 2
100
Step 3
104
99
90
96
xiii
Lab 5.6.2: Restore Points
Step 1
107
Step 2
107
Step 3
108
Step 4
108
Step 5
109
Step 6
109
Step 7
110
Step 9
111
Step 10
111
Step 11
112
Step 12
112
Step 13
113
Step 14
113
Step 15
114
Step 16
115
Step 17
115
Step 18
115
107
Lab 5.6.3: Windows Registry Backup and Recovery
Step 1
116
Step 2
116
Step 3
117
Step 4
117
Step 5
118
Step 6
118
Step 7
119
Step 8
119
Step 9
120
Step 10
120
Step 11
121
Step 12
121
Step 13
122
Step 14
122
Step 15
123
Step 16
124
Step 17
125
Step 18
126
Step 19
126
Step 20
127
Step 21
127
Step 22
127
Step 23
128
116
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IT Essentials: PC Hardware and Software Labs and Study Guide
Chapter 6
Step 24
128
Step 25
129
Fundamental Laptops and Portable Devices
Laptop Fundamentals
132
Vocabulary Exercise: Completion
Identify the Parts of a Laptop
Power Management
Laptop Maintenance
Concept Questions
132
133
133
Vocabulary Exercise: Matching
Concept Questions
133
134
134
134
Troubleshooting Laptop Computers
Concept Questions
Study Questions
131
135
135
135
Worksheet 6.1.2: Research Laptops, Smart Phones, and PDAs
137
Worksheet 6.2.3: Complete Docking Stations True or False Questions
Worksheet 6.3.4: Answer Laptop Expansion Questions
Worksheet 6.4.1: Match ACPI Standards
140
Worksheet 6.7.2: Research Laptop Problems
Chapter 7
Fundamental Printers and Scanners
Printers
143
144
Vocabulary Exercise: Matching
Electrophoto (EP) Stages
Vocabulary Exercise: Completion
Printer Troubleshooting
144
145
Vocabulary Exercise: Matching
Scanners
140
145
145
146
147
Vocabulary Exercise: Completion
Study Questions
147
148
Lab 7.4.2: Install All-in-One Device and Software
Chapter 8
Step 1
150
Step 2
150
Step 3
152
Step 4
153
Step 5
153
Step 6
154
Fundamental Networks
Defining a Network
155
156
Vocabulary Exercise: Matching
157
150
139
139
xv
Network Devices
157
Vocabulary Exercise: Completion
Cable Types and Connectors
158
Vocabulary Exercise: Completion
Network Topologies
158
159
Vocabulary Exercise: Matching
Networking Technology
Concept Questions
160
160
160
Connecting to the Internet
161
Vocabulary Exercise: Matching
Network Troubleshooting Tools
Concept Questions
Study Questions
158
162
163
163
163
Worksheet 8.3.2: Identify IP Address Classes
167
Worksheet 8.9.1: Internet Search for NIC Drivers
167
Lab 8.9.2: Configure an Ethernet NIC to Use DHCP
Chapter 9
Step 1
168
Step 2
168
Step 3
169
Step 4
170
168
Worksheet 8.10.3: Answer Broadband Questions
172
Worksheet 8.12.2: Diagnose a Network Problem
173
Fundamental Security
Importance of Security
175
176
Vocabulary Exercise: Matching
Concept Questions
Wireless Security
178
178
Vocabulary Exercise: Completion
Viruses
177
178
179
Vocabulary Exercise: Completion
Denial of Service Attacks
179
Vocabulary Exercise: Matching
Study Questions
179
180
180
Worksheet 9.1.0: Security Attacks
183
Worksheet 9.2.1: Third-Party Antivirus Software
Worksheet 9.4.2: Operating System Updates
183
184
Remote Technician 9.5.2: Gather Information from the Customer
Chapter 10
Communication Skills
Dealing with the Customer
Concept Questions
189
187
188
185
xvi
IT Essentials: PC Hardware and Software Labs and Study Guide
Study Questions
189
Worksheet 10.1.0: Technician Resources
191
Class Discussion 10.2.2: Controlling the Call
191
Class Discussion 10.2.3: Identifying Difficult Customer Types
Class Discussion 10.3.0: Customer Privacy
Chapter 11
Advanced Personal Computers
Motherboards
195
196
Concept Questions
RAM
194
196
196
Concept Questions
Cooling the System
Concept Questions
Power Supply
197
197
198
Concept Questions
Hard Drive
197
198
198
Concept Questions
199
Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks (RAID)
199
Concept Questions 200
Video Systems
200
Concept Questions 200
Performance Bottlenecks
Concept Questions
Study Questions
201
201
201
Worksheet 11.1.0: Job Opportunities
205
Worksheet 11.3.7: Research Computer Components
Lab 11.4.1: Install a NIC
Step 1
210
Step 2
211
Step 3
213
Step 4
213
Step 5
213
Step 6
214
Step 7
214
Step 8
214
Step 9
218
Step 10 220
Step 11
222
Step 12
225
Step 13
226
Step 14
228
209
206
193
xvii
Lab 11.4.3: Install Additional RAM
Step 1
230
Step 2
231
Step 3
231
Step 4
232
Step 5
232
Lab 11.4.4: BIOS File Search
Step 1
233
Step 2
234
230
233
Lab 11.4.5: Install, Configure, and Partition a Second Hard Drive
Step 1
236
Step 2
238
Step 3
239
Step 4
239
Step 5
240
Step 6
243
Step 7
247
Step 8
247
Lab 11.6.3: Repair Boot Problem
248
Scenario 248
Step 1
248
Step 2
248
Step 3
248
Remote Technician 11.6.3: Repair Boot Problem
Chapter 12
Advanced Operating Systems
Using the Command Prompt
Concept Questions
253
254
254
Installing Windows 2000 and Windows XP
Concept Questions
255
Windows Folder Structure
Concept Questions
255
256
Control Panel and Administrative Tools
Concept Questions
Fonts
256
257
Concept Questions 258
Disk Management
258
Concept Questions 258
Windows Boot Options
259
Concept Questions 259
Troubleshooting Tools
255
259
Concept Questions 259
256
249
236
xviii
IT Essentials: PC Hardware and Software Labs and Study Guide
Study Questions
261
Lab 12.2.2: Advanced Installation of Windows XP
Step 1
264
Step 2
264
Step 3
266
Step 4
266
Step 5
274
Step 6
275
Step 7
276
Step 8
282
Step 9
285
Step 10
264
286
Curriculum Lab 12.2: Creating a Partition in Windows XP Pro (12.2.3)
Step 1
288
Step 2 289
Step 3
289
Step 4
290
Step 5
293
Step 6
294
Step 7
295
Step 8
296
Step 9
296
Step 10
297
Step 11
298
Step 12
298
Step 13
299
Step 14 300
Step 15
300
Step 16
301
Step 17
301
Step 18
303
Lab 12.2.4: Customize Virtual Memory Settings
Step 1
303
Step 2 304
Step 3
304
Step 4
306
Step 5
308
Step 6
311
Step 7
313
Step 8
314
Step 9
316
Step 10
316
303
288
xix
Step 11
321
Step 12
322
Step 13
324
Lab 12.2.5: Install an Alternate Browser (Optional)
Step 1
325
Step 2
326
Step 3
327
Step 4
329
Step 5
331
325
Lab 12.4.1: Schedule Task Using GUI and at Command
Step 1
333
Step 2
333
Step 3
334
Step 4
334
Step 5
335
Step 6
338
Step 7
338
Step 8
340
Step 9
341
Lab 12.5.3: Fix an Operating System Problem
Scenario
333
342
342
Step 1
342
Step 2
343
Step 3
343
Step 4
343
Remote Technician 12.5.3: Fix an Operating System Problem
Chapter 13
Advanced Laptops and Portable Devices
Processors and RAM
347
348
Concept Questions 348
Expansion Cards
348
Concept Questions
348
Mobile Wireless Devices
Concept Questions
Batteries
349
349
350
Vocabulary Exercise: Completion
Concept Questions
350
Mobile Video Systems
Concept Questions
Study Questions
350
351
351
352
Worksheet 13.2.0: Investigating Repair Centers
Worksheet 13.3.1: Laptop Batteries
354
354
343
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IT Essentials: PC Hardware and Software Labs and Study Guide
Worksheet 13.3.2: Docking Station
355
Worksheet 13.3.3: Research DVD Drive
Worksheet 13.3.4: Laptop RAM
356
357
Worksheet 13.5.3: Verify Work Order Information
Chapter 14
Advanced Printers and Scanners
Printer Technology and Interfaces
Concept Questions
Printing in Windows
Concept Questions
Scanners
359
360
360
Troubleshooting Printers
Concept Questions
358
360
361
362
362
362
Concept Questions
Study Questions
363
363
Lab 14.2.4: Install an All-in-One Printer/Scanner
Step 1
365
Step 2
366
365
Step 3 366
Step 4
367
Step 5
370
Lab 14.3.2: Share the All-in-One Printer/Scanner
370
Step 1 370
Step 2
371
Step 3
371
Step 4
373
Lab 14.4.2: Optimize Scanner Output
Step 1
374
Step 2
375
374
Step 3 375
Step 4
375
Step 5
375
Step 6
375
Worksheet 14.5.1: Search for Certified Printer Technician Jobs
Lab 14.6.3: Fix a Printer
Scenario
376
Step 1 376
Step 2
377
Step 3
377
Step 4
377
Step 5
377
376
376
xxi
Remote Technician 14.6.3: Fix a Printer Problem
Chapter 15
Advanced Networks
OSI Model
377
381
382
Identify the OSI Layers 382
TCP/IP Protocol Suite
382
Vocabulary Exercise: Matching
383
Vocabulary Exercise: Matching
383
Identify the TCP/IP Ports
IP Addressing
384
384
Concept Questions
384
Configuring Windows
Concept Questions
385
385
Troubleshooting Tools
386
Concept Questions 386
Study Questions
387
Worksheet 15.2.2: Protocols
390
Worksheet 15.3.2: ISP Connection Types
390
Lab 15.4.2a: Configure Browser Settings
391
Step 1
391
Step 2
392
Step 3
393
Step 4
394
Step 5
395
Lab 15.4.2b: Share a Folder, Share a Printer, and Set Share Permissions
397
Step 1
397
Step 2
397
Step 3
398
Step 4
398
Step 5
399
Step 6
399
Step 7
399
Step 8
403
Lab 15.5.1: Install a Wireless NIC
Step 1
404
Step 2
405
Step 3
407
Step 4
407
Step 5
408
404
xxii
IT Essentials: PC Hardware and Software Labs and Study Guide
Lab 15.5.2: Configure a Wireless Router
Step 1
409
Step 2
409
Step 3
409
Step 4
410
Step 5
412
Lab 15.5.3: Test the Wireless NIC
Step 1
413
Step 2
414
Step 3
415
Lab 15.8.3: Fix Network Problem
Scenario
409
412
416
417
Step 1
417
Step 2
417
Step 3 417
Step 4
417
Remote Technician 15.8.3: Fix Network Problem
Chapter 16
Advanced Security
Access Control
421
422
Concept Questions
422
NTFS and Share Permissions
Concept Questions
Auditing
417
423
423
424
Concept Questions
Wireless Security
424
424
Concept Questions
Social Engineering
424
425
Concept Questions
425
Denial of Services Attacks and Other Forms of Attacks
Concept Questions
Study Questions
426
427
Worksheet 16.1.1: Answer Security Policy Questions
Worksheet 16.2.3: Research Firewalls
430
Lab 16.3.2: Configure Windows XP Firewall
Step 1
431
Step 2 432
Step 3
433
Step 4
433
Step 5
434
425
431
429
xxiii
Lab 16.5.3: Fix a Security Problem
Scenario
435
435
Step 1
435
Step 2
435
Step 3
435
Step 4
436
Remote Technician 16.5.3: Fix a Security Problem
436
xxiv
IT Essentials: PC Hardware and Software Labs and Study Guide
Introduction
IT Essentials: PC Hardware and Software Labs and Study Guide is a supplemental book that helps the
students in the Cisco Networking Academy course prepare to take and pass the CompTIA A+ exams
(based on the 2006 objectives). The hands-on labs, worksheets, remote technician exercises, and class
discussions from the course are also included within this book to practice performing tasks that will help
you become a successful PC technician. By reading and completing this book, you have the opportunity
to review all key concepts that the CompTIA exams cover, reinforce those concepts with hands-on
exercises, and test that knowledge with review questions.
Who Should Read This Book?
This book is intended for students in the Cisco Networking Academy IT Essentials PC Hardware and
Software version 4 course. This student typically is pursing a career in information technology (IT) or
wants to have the working knowledge of how a computer works, how to assemble a computer, and
how to troubleshoot hardware and software issues.
How This Book Is Organized
This course is divided into two main units. The first unit, covered in Chapters 1 through 10, covers the
foundational knowledge that aligns with the CompTIA A+ Essentials exam (220-601). The second unit,
covered in Chapters 11 through 16, explores more advanced concepts in greater depth and provides
opportunities for practical application to prepare you for the specialized CompTIA A+ technician exams
(220-602 for IT Technician, 220-603 for Remote Support Technician, and 220-604 for Bench Technician).
You must pass both the A+ Essentials and one of the technician exams to earn the A+ certification.
The Labs and Study Guide is designed as a valuable teaching and learning tool for the Cisco Networking
Academy curriculum, incorporating new features to improve your hands-on skills and reinforce the key
topics of the course.
Each chapter includes a Study Guide portion and a Lab Exercises portion.
The Study Guide portion of each chapter focuses on certification exam preparation in context with the
course objectives and assessments. The Study Guide section is designed to provide additional exercises
and activities to reinforce your understanding of the course topics, preparing you for the course assessments
and focusing on preparing for the associated certification exams.
The Lab Exercises portion of each chapter features the complete collection of the hands-on labs, worksheets,
remote technician exercises, and class discussions specifically written for the IT Essentials course in
the Cisco Networking Academy curriculum, reviewed by instructors and formatted and edited by Cisco
Press. The labs are designed by Cisco to give students hands-on experience in a particular concept or
technology.
The chapters cover the following topics:
■
Chapter 1, “Introduction to the Personal Computer”: In this chapter you learn about IT
industry certifications and then jump into identifying components of a computer system, including
cases and power supplies, internal components, ports and cables, and input and output devices.
The chapter also goes into system resources and their purpose.
xxv
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
Chapter 2, “Safe Lab Procedures and Tool Use”: This chapter covers safe working conditions
and procedures along with the tools and software used with personal computer components.
You learn how to implement proper tool use.
Chapter 3, “Computer Assembly—Step by Step”: In this step-by-step chapter you learn how to
safely open the computer case, install the power supply, attach the components to the motherboard,
and install the motherboard, internal drives, drives in external bays, and adapter cards. You connect
all internal cables, reattach the side panels, and connect external cables to the computer. Then
you boot the computer for the first time.
Chapter 4, “Basics of Preventive Maintenance and Troubleshooting”: This chapter explains
the purpose of preventive maintenance and helps you identify the elements of the troubleshooting
process.
Chapter 5, “Fundamental Operating Systems”: Covering the fundamentals of operating
systems, this chapter explains the purpose of an operating system and compares the limitations
and compatibilities of different systems. You learn how to determine the operating system based
on customer needs, install an operating system, navigate a GUI, apply common preventive
maintenance techniques, and troubleshoot.
Chapter 6, “Fundamental Laptops and Portable Devices”: In this chapter, you learn how to
identify external laptop components, comparing and contrasting desktop and laptop components.
You also learn how to configure laptops, apply common preventive maintenance techniques and
troubleshoot laptop and portable devices.
Chapter 7, “Fundamental Printers and Scanners”: In this chapter you learn the types of
printers and scanners currently available and how to install and configure them. You also learn
how to apply common preventive maintenance techniques and troubleshoot.
Chapter 8, “Fundamental Networks”: The principles of networking are explained in this
chapter. You learn about the types of networks, basic networking concepts and technologies,
and the physical components of a network. After completing this chapter, you will understand
LAN topologies and architectures and can identify standards organizations and Ethernet standards.
The OSI and TCP/IP data models are reviewed, and you configure a NIC and a modem. Additionally,
you identify names, purposes, and characteristics of other technologies for establishing connectivity.
Finally, you apply common preventive maintenance techniques for networks and troubleshoot
the network.
Chapter 9, “Fundamental Security”: You’ll learn why security is so important in this chapter,
which describes security threats and identifies security procedures, and learn common preventive
maintenance techniques for security.
Chapter 10, “Communication Skills”: To be a good PC technician, it is very important that you
have good communication skills. This chapter thoroughly explains the relationship between
communication and troubleshooting and describes good communication skills and professional
behavior. You’ll also learn some ethics and legal aspects of working with computer technology.
The chapter provides a realistic description of the call-center environment and technician
responsibilities.
Chapter 11, “Advanced Personal Computers”: This chapter begins to move you into more
tangible features of the job skills needed in this field. It gives an overview of field, remote, and
bench technician jobs and underscores safe lab procedures and tool use. You’ll be introduced to
situations requiring replacement of computer components, upgrading and configuring personal
computer components and peripherals, additional preventive maintenance techniques, and troubleshooting for personal computer components.
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IT Essentials: PC Hardware and Software Labs and Study Guide
■
■
■
■
■
Chapter 12, “Advanced Operating Systems”: You learn how to select the appropriate operating
system based on customer needs, and then how to install, configure, and optimize that operating
system. The chapter describes how to upgrade operating systems and additional preventive
maintenance and troubleshooting procedures for operating systems.
Chapter 13, “Advanced Laptops and Portable Devices”: Here you learn about the wireless
communication methods for laptops and portable devices. You select laptop components and learn
common repairs for laptops and portable devices along with advanced preventive maintenance
and troubleshooting procedures for laptops.
Chapter 14, “Advanced Printers and Scanners”: This chapter describes potential safety hazards
and safety procedures associated with printers and scanners. You’ll cover more advanced topics
in installing and configuring a local printer and scanner and how to share a printer and a scanner
on a network. You’ll also learn how to upgrade and configure printers and scanners as well as
more preventive maintenance and troubleshooting techniques for printers and scanners.
Chapter 15, “Advanced Networks”: In this chapter you design a network based on the customer’s
needs, determining the components for your customer’s network; then you learn how to implement
and upgrade that network. The chapter also covers installation, configuration, and management
of a simple mail server.
Chapter 16, “Advanced Security”: Going into greater depth, this chapter outlines the security
requirements based on customer needs, and you can select security components to implement a
customer’s security plan.
Strategies for Exam Preparation
Although many websites offer information about what to study for a particular exam, few sites explain
how you should study for an exam. The study process can be broken into various stages. However, key
to all these stages is the ability to concentrate. Concentration, or the lack of, plays a big part in the study
process.
To be able to concentrate, you must remove all distractions. Although you should plan for study breaks,
it is the unplanned breaks caused by distractions that do not allow you to concentrate on what you need
to learn. Therefore, first you need to create an environment that’s conducive to studying or seek out an
existing environment that meets these criteria, such as a library.
Do not study with the TV on, and do not have other people in the room. It is too easy for something on
TV to grab your attention and break your concentration. Do not study with others in the room who
might not share your dedication to passing this exam. Opinions differ on whether it is better to study
with or without music playing. Some people need to have a little white noise in the background to
study; if you choose to have music, keep the volume on a low level and listen to music without vocals.
After you find a place to study, you must schedule the time to study. Don’t study on an empty stomach.
You should also not study on a full stomach; a full stomach tends to make people drowsy. You may
also consider having a glass of water nearby to sip. In addition, make sure that you are well rested so that
you don’t start dozing off. Find a position that is comfortable and use furniture that is also comfortable.
Finally, make sure that your study area is well lit. Natural light is best for fighting fatigue.
The first thing that you should do when you begin to study is to clear your mind of distractions. So, take
a minute or two, close your eyes, and empty your mind. When you prepare for an exam, the best place
to start is to take the list of exam objectives and study the list carefully for its scope. The objectives can
be downloaded from the CompTIA website (http://certification.comptia.org/a/). You can then organize
xxvii
your study with these objectives in mind, narrowing down your focus area to specific topics/subtopics.
In addition, you need to understand and visualize the process as a whole, to help prepare you to
address practical problems in a real environment and to deal with unexpected questions.
In a multiple-choice exam, you have one advantage: The answer or answers are already there, and
you just have to choose the correct one(s). Because the answers are there, you can start eliminating
the incorrect answers by using your knowledge and some logical thinking. One common mistake is
to select the first obvious-looking answer without checking the other options. Don’t fall into this trap.
Always review all the options, think about them, and then choose the right answer. Of course, with
multiple-choice questions, you have to be exact, and you should be able to differentiate among similar
answers. This is one reason you need a peaceful place of study without distractions, so that you can
read between the lines and don’t miss key points.
Taking the Exam
The CompTIA A+ exam is explained in detail, including a list of the objectives, by visiting the
following website:
http://certification.comptia.org/a/
When you are ready to take the exam, you must purchase and schedule your two A+ exams. The
necessary information to accomplish this can be found at the following website:
http://certification.comptia.org/resources/registration.aspx
Before you take an exam, eat something light, even if you have no appetite. If your stomach is actively
upset, try mild foods such as toast or crackers. Plain saltine crackers are great for settling a cranky stomach.
Keep your caffeine and nicotine consumption to a minimum; excessive stimulants aren’t exactly conducive
to reducing stress. Plan to take a bottle of water or some hard candies, such as lozenges or mints, with
you to combat dry mouth.
When you take the exam, dress comfortably and arrive at the testing center early. If you have never been
to the testing center before, make sure that you know where it is. You might even consider taking a
test drive. If you arrive between 15 and 30 minutes early for any certification exam, it gives you the
following:
■
Ample time for whatever relaxes you: prayer, meditation, or deep breathing.
■
Time to scan glossary terms and quickly access tables before taking the exam so that you can
get the intellectual juices flowing and build a little confidence.
■
Time to visit the washroom before you begin the exam.
However, don’t arrive too early.
When you are escorted into the testing chamber, you will usually be given two sheets of paper (or laminated
paper) with a pen (or wet-erase pen). As soon as you hear the door close behind you, immediately jot
down on the paper information that you might need to quickly recall. For example, some of the things
that you can jot down are the lengths for the various network cable types or speeds of the various wireless
technology. Then, throughout the exam, you can refer to this information and not have to think about
it. Instead, you can use this information as a reference and focus on answering the questions. Before
you actually start the exam, close your eyes and take a deep breath to clear your mind of distractions.
Then, throughout the test, you can jot down little notes that may be used in other questions or do some
simple math, such as when you need to figure out how much available memory you have when you
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IT Essentials: PC Hardware and Software Labs and Study Guide
have a system that uses part of the memory for video memory.
Typically, the testing room is furnished with anywhere from one to six computers, and each workstation
is separated from the others by dividers designed to keep anyone from seeing what’s happening on
someone else’s computer screen. Most testing rooms feature a wall with a large picture window. This
layout permits the exam coordinator to monitor the room, to prevent exam takers from talking to one
another, and to observe anything out of the ordinary that might go on. The exam coordinator will have
preloaded the appropriate CompTIA certification exam, and you are permitted to start as soon as
you’re seated in front of the computer.
All exams are completely closed book. In fact, you are not permitted to take anything with you into
the testing area, but you receive a blank sheet of paper and a pen or, in some cases, an erasable plastic
sheet and an erasable pen. Immediately write down on that sheet of paper all the information you’ve
memorized for the test. You are given some time to compose yourself, record this information, and
take a sample orientation exam before you begin the real thing. It’s a good idea to take the orientation
test before taking your first exam; but because all the certification exams are more or less identical in
layout, behavior, and controls, you probably don’t need to do so more than once.
All CompTIA certification exams allow a certain maximum amount of testing time (90 minutes). This
time is indicated on the exam by an onscreen timer clock, so you can check the time remaining whenever
you like. All CompTIA certification exams are computer generated, and the questions are multiple-choice
questions.
CHAPTER 1
Introduction to the Personal Computer
The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of matching, identification, short-answer, and
fill-in-the-blank questions to test your introductory knowledge of computers. This portion also includes
multiple-choice study questions to help prepare you to take the A+ certification exams and to test your
overall understanding of the material.
The Lab Exercises portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum worksheets to further reinforce
your mastery of the content.
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IT Essentials: PC Hardware and Software Labs and Study Guide
Study Guide
Defining a Computer
A computer is a machine composed of electronic devices used to process data. Data is the raw facts,
numbers, letters, or symbols that the computer processes into meaningful information. Examples of
data include a letter to a company or a client, a report for your boss, a budget proposal for a large
project, or an address book of your friends and business associates. After data is saved (or written to
disk), it can be retrieved anytime, printed on paper, or sent to someone else using the Internet.
Computers can be classified into four main groups: personal computers, minicomputers, mainframe
computers, and supercomputers. This book focuses on the personal computer, known as the PC. It is
based on the Intel (or Intel-compatible) microprocessor. The microprocessor is the “brain” of the
computer.
A personal computer is a computer that is meant to be used by one person at a time. It usually consists
of a case that contains the essential electronic and mechanical parts of the computer, a monitor so that
you can output (display) data, and a keyboard so that you can input (insert) data.
The case is the box that most of the computer components rest in, and it is designed to protect these
components. It contains the power supply, motherboard, processors, RAM, floppy drives, hard drives,
optical drives, and expansion cards.
Chapter 1: Introduction to the Personal Computer
Vocabulary Exercise: Matching
Match the definition on the left with a term on the right.
Definitions
a.
Provides a stable area to mount internal components
and provides an environment to keep the components
cool.
b. Converts AC (alternating current) power from the wall
outlet into the lower voltages of DC (direct current)
power required to power all components of the
computer.
c.
Main printed circuit board that connects all the major
components of a computer.
d. Long-term memory that retains instructions when
the computer is shut down and that provides basic
instructions to the computer.
Terms
_j_ adapter card
_q_ AGP
_a_ case
_f_ expansion slot
_i_ floppy disk drive
_h_ hard drive
_k_ modem
_n_ monitor
_c_ motherboard
_m_ optical drive
e. Temporary memory that is used for the operating sys-
tem, applications, and data.
_r_ PCI
Allows you to expand and customize the functionality
of your computer by adding controllers and ports.
_b_ power supply
g.
Brains of the computer where most calculations take
place.
_e_ RAM
h.
Main long-term storage device that holds the operating
system, programs, and data using magnetic disks.
f.
_o_ printer
_d_ ROM
i.
A storage device that stores files using removable
magnetic disks.
j. A printed circuit board that you can insert into a
computer to give it added capabilities.
k.
A device or program that enables a computer to transmit data over, for example, telephone or cable lines.
l.
An interface on a computer to which you can connect
a device.
m.
A storage device that stores files using removable
disks that reads and writes using a laser.
n. Primary output device.
o. A device that prints text or illustrations on paper.
p. A number of integrated circuits that allow the
processor to communicate with other components
within the computer.
q. A specialized interface for display adapters.
r.
Most common type of expansion slots.
_g_ CPU
_p_ chipset
_l_ port
3
4
IT Essentials: PC Hardware and Software Labs and Study Guide
Processors
The computer is built around an integrated circuit called the processor (also known as microprocessor
and central processing unit [CPU]). It is considered the “brain” of the computer because all the
instructions it performs are mathematical calculations and logical comparisons. The processor is the
central component of the computer. It is plugged into a large circuit board called the motherboard
(sometimes referred to as system board).
Vocabulary Exercise: Completion
Fill in the blanks with the appropriate terms about processors.
Pentium II and older Pentium III processors plug into a Slot 1.
Later Pentium III processors connect using a 370-pin connector.
Early Pentium 4 processors use a 423-pin connector. Newer Pentium 4 processors use a 478-pin
connector.
Socket T, also known as a LGA775, is Intel’s socket used by today’s modern Intel processors.
Socket A is used for AMD processors ranging from the AMD Athlon K7 to the AMD Athlon XP
3200+, and AMD budget processors. It uses a 462-pin connector.
Socket AM2, produced by AMD, has 940 contacts
MMX technology consists of 57 instructions that improve the performance of multimedia tasks.
Hyper-Threading Technology, used in newer Intel processors, allows the processor to act like two
processors (logical processors) so that it can utilize the processor resources more efficiently and
improve performance. Hyper-Threading can be enabled or disabled in the system BIOS program.
To keep a processor cool, it must use a heat sink (with thermal paste or tape) and fan or some other
cooling system.
Some motherboards with dual processor sockets require having a special terminator or voltage regulator
module (VRM) in the empty processor slot or socket when both processors are not installed.
Motherboards
The motherboard allows the processor to branch out and communicate with all the computer components. It can be considered the nervous system of the PC.
Motherboards are often described by their form factors (physical dimensions, sizes, and layout). Older
motherboards are based on the Baby AT. Newer form factors include ATX (including mini-ATX,
Micro-ATX, and Flex-ATX), NXL, and BTX. Different from the Baby AT form factor, the ATX motherboards have the expansion slots parallel to the short side of the board, which allows more space for
other components. The processor and RAM are next to the power supply so that heat generated by the
CPU and RAM are immediately drawn out of the casing to reduce the amount of heat trapped inside
the casing. In addition, the processor and memory modules can be replaced or upgraded without
removing any of the expansion cards.
The BTX form factor is designed to balance size, performance, features, and cost. To improve heat
dissipation and acoustics, the board has been redesigned to improve airflow through the system;
Chapter 1: Introduction to the Personal Computer
5
moving the processor to the “front” of the case allows it to be right next to the intake fan, giving it the
coolest air of any component in the system. The airflow is also channeled over the chipset, graphics
card, and memory chips.
Read-only memory (ROM) chips contain instructions and data that the processor accesses directly.
Unlike the contents of the RAM, the contents of the ROM are permanent. They cannot be changed or
erased by normal means and are maintained when power is off.
ROM chips (including flash memory) are used within the PC to provide instructions and data to the
processor. The chips and software (programs and data) that have been written onto these chips are
called firmware.
The ROM chip contains the basic input/output system (BIOS) that provides instructions and data to
the processor. BIOS is the built-in software that determines what a computer can do without accessing
programs from a disk. Therefore, you can think of these ROM chips as the instincts of the computer.
They contain all the code required to control the boot process, and they control many hardware
devices, including the keyboard, display, screen, disk drives, serial communications, and others.
The system BIOS, which is located on the motherboard, directs the boot up and allows basic control of
the majority of the hardware. The BIOS chips are typically made from flash memory, which is computer
memory that can be electrically erased and reprogrammed, typically by a flash program. Updating the
system ROM BIOS (also known as flashing the BIOS) can correct a wide range of problems and will
allow the system to work with components that did not exist at the time the motherboard was manufactured.
The motherboard configuration is stored in the complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS)
memory. Like normal RAM, if the CMOS memory loses power, the content of the CMOS memory is
lost. Therefore, the CMOS memory and a real-time clock (to keep track of the date and time) are powered
by a CMOS battery.
One essential, yet inexpensive, part of the PC is the motherboard chipset. A chipset consists of the
chips and other components on the motherboard that allow different PC components, including the
processor, to communicate with each other. It consists of the bus controllers, peripheral controllers,
memory controllers, cache controllers, clocks, and timers. The chipset used in a motherboard design
greatly influences the performance and limitations of the PC. It defines how much RAM a motherboard can use and what type of RAM chips it will accommodate, as well as cache size, processor
types and speed, and the types of expansion slots.
Most of Intel’s earlier chipsets and many non-Intel chipsets are broken into a multi-tiered architecture
incorporating North and South Bridge components.
Intel’s newer chipsets are based on the Intel Hub Architecture (IHA). Like the older chipsets, IHA has
two parts: the graphics and AGP memory controller hub (GMCH) and the I/O controller hub (ICH).
The GMCH communicates with the processor over the system bus and acts as a controller for memory
and AGP. It sometimes comes with integrated video. Unlike the North Bridge, the GMCH does not come
with a PCI controller. ICH provides a connection to a PCI bus, ATA disk interface, a USB controller,
and the firmware hub. The firmware hub stores system and video BIOS and includes a hardware-based
random number generator.
When working within a PC, you must be able to identify the different parts of the motherboard, including
the processor, expansion slots, drive connectors, and power connectors. You should also be able to look
at the layout to determine its form factor.
6
IT Essentials: PC Hardware and Software Labs and Study Guide
Concept Questions
Answer the following questions about motherboards:
Describe what the North Bridge component holds.
The North Bridge holds the high-speed components, including the memory controller, AGP controller,
and PCI controller.
Describe what the South Bridge component holds.
The South Bridge handles most other forms of I/O (low-speed components) including the PCI peripherals, the ISA bus, floppy drives, hard drives, USB, keyboard and IO devices (parallel port, and serial
port and PS/2 ports).
Identify the following in Figure 1-1:
■
CPU socket
■
Expansion slots
■
Memory sockets
■
Chipset
■
Ports
■
Battery
■
Drive connectors
■
Power connector
Figure 1-1
Motherboard Components
Ports
Chipset
Expansion slots
CPU socket
Memory sockets
Battery
Drive connectors
Power connector
Chapter 1: Introduction to the Personal Computer
7
RAM
RAM is the computer’s short-term memory. Program instructions and data are stored on the RAM
chips, which the processor accesses directly. The more RAM you have, the more instructions and data
you can load. The amount of RAM greatly affects the performance of the PC. However, if power is
discontinued to the RAM, as when you shut off your PC, the contents of the RAM disappear. This is
why disks are used for long-term storage.
Vocabulary Exercise: Completion
Fill in the blanks with the appropriate terms about RAM.
RAM stands for random-access memory.
Insufficient RAM can cause the computer to run slower.
RAM chips are volatile, meaning that they immediately lose their data when the computer is shut off.
PC100 SDRAM operates at 100 MHz and requires 10 ns DRAM chips, but requires 8 ns DRAM
chips that are capable of running at 125 MHz.
PC133 SDRAM operates at 133 MHz and requires 7.5 ns DRAM chips.
The DDR in DDR DRAM is short for double data rate. DDR chips that run at 400 MHz are known as
PC3200. DDR chips that run at 677 MHz are known as PC5300.
SIMM is short for single in-line memory module.
DIMM is short for dual in-line memory module.
RIMM is short for rambus in-line memory module.
72-pin SIMMs are 32 bits wide and can be installed singularly.
DIMM supports 64-bit pathways, whereas RIMM is the only memory module that is 16-bits wide.
DIMMs are available in 168-pin and 184-pin sticks.
DDR DIMMS use 184-pin connectors, whereas DDR2 DIMMS use 240-pin connectors.
RIMM is available in 184-pin version.
VRAM and SGRAM is a specialized memory used on video cards.
Ports
A port is an interface on a computer to which you can connect a device. Most ports are located at the
back of the computer. Some ports are physically part of the motherboard or are connected directly to
the motherboard, whereas other ports are physically part of or connected directly to expansion cards.
To identify the capabilities of the system and to identify an expansion card, you will need to identify
the port by sight.
PC 99 is a specification for PCs jointly developed by Microsoft and Intel in 1998. Its aim was to encourage
the standardization of PC hardware to aid Windows compatibility. The PC 99 specification set out the
color code for the various standard types of plugs and connectors used on PCs. Because many of the
connectors look very similar, particular to a novice PC user, the color scheme made it far easier for people
to connect peripherals to the correct ports on a PC. This color code was gradually adopted by almost
all PC, motherboard, and peripheral manufacturers.
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IT Essentials: PC Hardware and Software Labs and Study Guide
Serial ports and parallel ports are traditional ports found on PCs, and newer ports that offer more
functionality include USB and IEEE 1394 (FireWire). As a PC technician, you need to know the characteristics of these ports.
Identify Ports and Connectors
In the following table, identify the port, the type of connector, and its purpose.
Image
Port
Type of
Connector
Purpose
Parallel Port
Female DB-25 Used primarily to connect
printers to the computer.
Serial Port
Male DB-9
Used primarily to connect
external modems, mice, and
miscellaneous devices.
Game Port
Female DB-9
Used to connect joysticks to the
computer.
It can also be identified as a
MIDI port.
PS/2 Mouse
Port or PS/2
Keyboard Port
mini-DIN 6
Used to connect a mouse.
VGA Port
Female DB-15 Used to connect VGA and Super
VGA monitors to the computer.
S-Video Port
mini-DIN 4
Used for an analog video signal
that connects to TVs, VCRs and
video cameras.
SCSI Port
50-pin
Centronics
Used to connect SCSI printers,
CD ROMs, scanners, and hard
drives.
SCSI Port
VHDCI
connector
Used to connect external SCSI
printers, CD-ROMs, scanners,
and hard drives.
DVI Interface
DVI-I socket
Used to connect digital display
devices.
Ethernet Port
RJ-45
Connector
Typically used to connect to an
Ethernet network cable.
Phone Jack
Modem Port
RJ-11
Connector
Used to connect to the telephone
and the telephone cable.
Universal
Serial Bus
(USB) Port
Type A
USB port
Used to connect PC peripherals,
including mice, keyboards,
printers, modems, and external
disk drives.
Chapter 1: Introduction to the Personal Computer
9
Identify the colors typically used for the following ports:
■
Keyboard: Purple
■
PS/2 Mouse: Green
■
Parallel Port: Pink
■
VGA: Blue
■
Digital Monitor: White
■
Speakers (Main): Lime Green
■
Microphone (input): Pink
Identify the following as serial port or parallel port:
■
Also known as IEEE 1284: Parallel Port
■
Also known as RS-232: Serial Port
■
Connects external peripheral devices such as modems and mice: Serial Port
■
Maximum length of cable is 10 feet (3 m): Parallel Port
■
Maximum length of cable is 50 feet (15.2 m): Serial Port
■
Transmits data, multiple bits at a time: Parallel Port
■
Transmits data, one bit at a time: Serial Port
■
Used primarily to connect printers: Parallel Port
Identify the following as USB 1.1, USB 2.0, or IEEE 1394:
■
Also known as FireWire: IEEE 1394
■
The maximum data transfer rate speed is 12 Mbps: USB 1.1
■
The maximum data transfer rate speed of is 480 Mbps: USB 2.0
■
Has a data transfer rate of 400 Mbps and supports up to 63 devices: IEEE 1394
■
Supports up to 127 devices: USB 1.1/USB 2.0
Expansion Slots and Boards
The expansion slot, also known as the input/output (I/O) bus, extends the reach of the processor so it
can communicate with peripheral devices. Expansion slots are so named because they allow the system
to be expanded by the insertion of circuit boards, called expansion cards (also known as daughter
boards). They are essential to the computer because a basic system cannot satisfy everyone’s needs,
and they allow the system to use new technology as it becomes available. Expansion slots consist of
connectors and metal traces that carry signals from the expansion card to the rest of the computer,
specifically the RAM and processor. These connections are used for power, data, addressing, and
control lines.
Throughout the years, several types of expansion slots have been developed. The original IBM PC
used the 8-bit PC slot, and the IBM AT used the 16-bit ISA slot. Today’s desktop computers include
PCI slots and their derivatives (AGP, PCI-X, and PCI Express). As a PC technician, you will need to
know the commonly used expansion slots and their characteristics.
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IT Essentials: PC Hardware and Software Labs and Study Guide
Vocabulary Exercise: Completion
Fill in the blanks with the appropriate terms about expansion slots.
PCI is short for Peripheral Component Interconnect. PCI runs at either 33 MHz or 66 MHz.
AGP is short for Accelerated Graphics Port. AGP is made exclusively for video cards.
The original specification for AGP (AGPx1) has a clock speed of 66 MHz and has a maximum bandwidth of 266 Mbps.
AGPx2 has a clock speed of 133 MHz and has a maximum bandwidth of 533 Mbps.
AGPx4 has a clock speed of 266 MHz and has a maximum bandwidth of 1.07 Gbps.
AGPx8 has a clock speed of 533 MHz and has a maximum bandwidth of 2.1 Gbps.
PCI Express is a much faster interface to replace PCI, PCI-X, and AGP interfaces for computer expansion cards and graphics cards.
Whereas PCI, PCI-X, and AGP are based on a parallel interface, PCI Express is based on a serial
interface.
Cases
The case of the PC is a metal or plastic box designed to hold and protect the motherboard, the drives,
and the power supplies. Like motherboards and processors, cases come in many configurations, which
are characterized by the orientation of the box, the number of drives and expansion slots it can hold,
and the size of the expansion cards it can take. The computer case should be durable, easy to service,
and have enough room for expansion.
Concept Questions
Answer the following question about cases:
List and describe the factors in choosing the computer case:
■
Model type: Desktop (lays flat) versus tower (stands up).
■
Size: Case should have enough space for installed components.
■
Available space: Desktop cases allow space conservation in tight spaces whereas tower can be
located under desk.
■
Amount of devices: More devices need more power, which also requires a larger power supply.
■
Power supply: Must match the power rating and connection type.
■
Environment conditions: If you work in a dusty environment, you need to choose a case that
reduces the amount of dust that enters the system.
Power Supplies
Electricity is the blood of the computer and comes through the power supply. The power supply converts AC into clean DC power. Like cases and motherboards, power supplies come in many sizes and
shapes. The most common are the Baby AT power supplies and ATX power supplies.
Chapter 1: Introduction to the Personal Computer
11
Power supplies are rated in what unit?
Watts
In the United States, what voltage does the power supply run on?
120 volts
Hard Drive
Disks are half-electronic, half-mechanical devices that store magnetic fields on rotating platters. The
magnetic fields represent the data. They are considered long-term storage devices because they do not
“forget” their information when power is disconnected. They are also considered the primary mass
storage system because they hold all the programs and data files that are fed into RAM. Hard drives
are sometimes referred to as fixed disks because they are usually not removed from the PC easily, like
a floppy disk or optical disk. This term does not describe all hard drives because there are external
hard drives (disks that rest outside of the case) and removable hard drives.
Hard drives communicate with the rest of the computer by means of a cable connected to a controller
card or interface, which is either an expansion card or built in to the motherboard. All hard drives consist of the following components: rotating platters, read/write heads, and head actuators.
Today, the common hard drive types include integrated drive electronics (usually referred to as IDE)
and small computer system interface (usually referred to as SCSI; pronounced “skuzzy”). IDE hard
drives follow the AT attachment (ATA) specification, which has been expanded throughout the years.
The SCSI interface, typically found on high-end computers and servers, supports multiple devices in
and out of the computer.
Concept Questions
Answer the following question about hard drives:
Define the following hard drive terms:
■
Disk platters: Magnetic circular disks made of aluminum, glass, or ceramic material that rotate
around a spindle.
■
Read/write heads: Component that reads the data from a platter or writes the data to a platter.
■
Head actuators: The component that moves the read/write heads back and forth.
■
Spindle: The component that the disk platters rotate around.
Vocabulary Exercise: Completion
Fill in the blanks with the appropriate terms about hard drives.
The most popular hard drive interface is IDE. There are two main types of IDE interfaces. They are
parallel ATA and serial ATA. Of the two main types of IDE interfaces, serial ATA is faster than parallel
ATA. The parallel ATA interface uses a 40-pin ribbon cable. The serial ATA interface uses a two-cable
connector (a 7-pin data connector and a 15-pin power connector).
The transfer rate of parallel ATA is up to 133 Mbps. The transfer rate of serial ATA begin at 150 Mbps.
The SCSI interface is used for high-end computers.
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IT Essentials: PC Hardware and Software Labs and Study Guide
The older SCSI-1 interfaces supported up to seven SCSI devices (eight if you include the host
adapter), whereas newer SCSI interfaces, including Wide SCSI, support up to 15 devices (16 if you
include the host adapter).
Different from the IDE interface, the two ends of the SCSI chain must be terminated. Each SCSI
device, including the adapter/controller card, is numbered with a SCSI ID number from 0 to 7 or 0 to
15. Narrow SCSI cables use 50-pin connectors, whereas wide SCSI uses 68-pin connectors. Ultra
SCSI interfaces can have a maximum cable length of 12 meters. Although traditional SCSI interfaces
used a single-ended (SE) signaling method, most SCSI devices use the low voltage differential (LVD)
signaling method.
Video Systems
The video system includes the monitor and the video card/adapter. The monitor is a device similar to a
television, which is the computer’s main output device.
Video Graphics Array (VGA) is an analog computer display standard that has been technologically
outdated in the PC market for some time. However, VGA (with a resolution of 640×480 and 16 colors) was the most recent graphical standard that the majority of manufacturers conformed to, making
it the lowest common denominator that all PC graphics hardware supports before a device-specific
driver is loaded into the computer. For example, the Microsoft Windows splash screen appears while
the machine is still operating in VGA mode, which is the reason that this screen always appears in
reduced resolution and color depth. Today, computers use a higher resolution and more colors.
The number of pixels (colored dots) that can be displayed on the screen at one time is called the resolution of the screen. The resolution consists of two numbers, the number of pixels going from left to
right and the number of pixels going from top to bottom. When you use a higher resolution, you will
need additional video memory for the video system to store the additional pixels and more processing
by the computer.
Color depth, or bit depth, is the amount of information that determines the color of a pixel. The more
colors each pixel can show, the more colors the screen can show and the more shades of the same
color, which can produce a more realistic, detailed picture. However, the higher number of bits
required to give each pixel a higher color depth requires more video memory for the video system to
store the pixel’s information and more processing by the computer.
Chapter 1: Introduction to the Personal Computer
Vocabulary Exercise: Matching
Match the definition on the left with a term on the right.
Definitions
a.
Terms
Distance between the dots.
b. How often per second the image is
c.
__j__ CRT
rebuilt, measured in hertz.
__a__ dot pitch
High-definition multimedia interface.
__c__ HDMI
d. Made primarily for consumer market:
CAMCORDERS, VCRs, DVD.
e. Analog signal that offers excellent
__k__ LCD
__b__ refresh rate
__h__ pixel
__e__ RGB
quality.
f.
__g__ resolution
An analog computer display standard that
offers a resolution of 640×480 and 16
colors.
g.
The number of pixels that can be displayed on the screen at one time, usually
expressed as the number of dots going
across and down the screen.
h.
The dots used in a display to generate
text, lines, and pictures.
i.
The amount of information that determines the color of a pixel.
__d__ S-video
__i__ color depth
__f__ VGA
__l__ DVI
j. Older type of monitor that tends to be
heavy and bulky.
k.
l.
A thin, flat display device made up of any
number of color or monochrome pixels
arrayed in front of a light source or
reflector.
Connector/interface that usually passes
digital video signals.
Concept Questions
Answer the following question about video systems.
Complete the following table:
Common Name
Color Depth
Number of Displayed Colors
16 colors (VGA)
4 bits
16
256 colors
8 bits
256
High color
16 bits
65,536
True color
24 bits
16,777,216
13
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IT Essentials: PC Hardware and Software Labs and Study Guide
Study Questions
Choose the best answer for each of the questions that follow.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Which of the following SCSI interfaces allow up to 16 devices, including the adapter, to be
connected on a single shared cable? (Choose all that apply.)
A.
Ultra Wide SCSI
B.
Fast SCSI
C.
Ultra SCSI
D.
Fast Wide SCSI
E.
Ultra2 Wide SCSI
F.
Ultra 2 SCSI
The part that moves the read/write heads back and forth within a hard drive or optical drive is
called what?
A.
Stepper motor
B.
Spindle
C.
Head actuator
D.
Magnetic coupler
When you purchase a power supply, the output power supply is measured in which units?
A.
Ohms
B.
Watts
C.
Hertz
D.
Mbps
E.
Amps
Which of the following must be installed in pairs?
A.
72-pin SIMMs
B.
168-pin DIMMs
C.
184-pin DIMMs
D.
184-pin RIMMs
You have a 3-row, 15-pin female connector on an expansion card. What kind of expansion card
is it?
A.
EGA display adapter
B.
Serial port adapter
C.
VGA display adapter
D.
Game port adapter
E.
Modem adapter
Chapter 1: Introduction to the Personal Computer
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
15
What is the SCSI ID number commonly assigned to the boot device in a PC?
A.
0
B.
15
C.
7
D.
8
When you upgrade the BIOS, you are ________.
A.
Replacing the BIOS
B.
Flashing the BIOS
C.
Replacing the CMOS chip
D.
Resetting the CMOS settings
Which of the following has 184 pins and is 16 bits wide?
A.
SIMMs
B.
DIMMs
C.
RIMMs
D.
SODIMMs
Which two of the following describe the number of pins normally associated with dual in-line
memory modules (DIMMs)?
A.
30
B.
72
C.
144
D.
168
E.
184
Which of the following is 64 bits wide? (Select all that apply.)
A.
72-pin SIMM
B.
168-pin DIMM
C.
184-pin DIMM
D.
184-pin RIM
The size of the monitor is measured in _____________.
A.
Inches diagonally across the screen
B.
Square inches of the screen
C.
Dots going across and dots going down
D.
Pounds
Which of the following produces an image that has a resolution of 640×480 and 16 colors?
A.
EGA
B.
VGA
C.
Super VGA
D.
Ultra Super VGA
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IT Essentials: PC Hardware and Software Labs and Study Guide
13.
14.
If the display adapter is set to 8-bit color, how many colors can it show at one time?
A.
256 colors
B.
65,536 colors
C.
16 million colors
D.
4 billion colors
Which is the latest type of printer interface?
A.
Serial
B.
DVI
C.
USB
D.
Parallel
Chapter 1: Introduction to the Personal Computer
17
Lab Exercises
Worksheet 1.1.2: Job Opportunities
In this worksheet, you will use the Internet, magazines, or a local newspaper to gather information for
jobs in the computer service and repair field. Be prepared to discuss your research in class.
1.
Research three computer-related jobs. For each job, write the company name and the job title in
the column on the left. Write the job details that are most important to you as well as the job
qualifications in the column on the right. An example has been provided for you.
Company Name and Job Title
Details and Qualifications
Gentronics Flexible Solutions/
Field Service Representative
Company offers continuing education. Work with
hardware and software. Work directly with customers.
Local travel.
Answers may vary.
■
A+ certification preferred
■
One year installation or repair experience of computer hardware and software required
■
Requires a valid driver’s license
■
Must have reliable personal transportation
■
Mileage reimbursement
■
Ability to lift and carry up to 50 lbs
Answers may vary.
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IT Essentials: PC Hardware and Software Labs and Study Guide
2.
Based on your research, which job would you prefer? Be prepared to discuss your answer in
class.
Answers may vary.
Worksheet 1.4.7: Research Computer Components
In this worksheet, you will use the Internet, a newspaper, or a local store to gather information about
the components you will need to complete your customer’s computer. Be prepared to discuss your
selections.
Instructor Note: All the components a student chooses must be compatible with the components provided. (For
example, the selected CPU and RAM must work in the provided motherboard.) No budget has been given.
Answers may vary.
Your customer already owns the case described in the table that follows.
Brand and Model Number
Features
Cost
Cooler Master
ATX Mid Tower
CAC-T05-UW
ATX, Micro ATX compatible form factor
2 External 5.25” drive bays
2 External 3.5” drive bay
2 Internal 5.25” drive bays
7 expansion slots
USB, FireWire, audio ports
Search the Internet, a newspaper, or a local store to research a power supply compatible with the components that your customer owns. Enter the specifications in the table that follows:
Brand and Model Number
Features
Cost
SeaSonic
550 Watt
$129.99
SS-550HT
Dual +12V rails
SLI certified
Up to 88% efficiency
ATX12V/EPS12V form factor
Chapter 1: Introduction to the Personal Computer
19
Your customer already owns the motherboard described in the table that follows:
Brand and Model Number
Features
GIGABYTE
LGA 775
GA-965P-DS3
DDR2 800
Cost
PCI Express X16
SATA 3.0 Gbps interface
1.8V–2.4V RAM voltage
1066/800/533 MHz front side bus
4 memory slots
Dual-channel memory supported
ATA100 connector
RAID 0/1
4 USB 2.0 ports
ATX form factor
Search the Internet, a newspaper, or a local store to research a CPU compatible with the components
that your customer owns. Enter the specifications in the table that follows:
Brand and Model Number
Features
Cost
Example
Example
Example
Intel
LGA 775
$183.00
Core 2 Duo E6300
1.86 GHz operating frequency
BX80557E6300
1066 MHz front side bus
2M shared L2 cache
64 bit supported
Conroe core
Search the Internet, a newspaper, or a local store to research a cooling device compatible with the
components that your customer owns. Enter the specifications in the table that follows:
Brand and Model Number
Features
Cost
Example
Example
Example
Tuniq
LGA 775
$64.99
Tower 120
120mm fan
3 pin power
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IT Essentials: PC Hardware and Software Labs and Study Guide
Search the Internet, a newspaper, or a local store to research RAM compatible with the components
that your customer owns. Enter the specifications in the table that follows:
Brand and Model Number
Features
Cost
Example
Example
Example
Patriot
240-Pin DDR2 SDRAM
$194.99
PDC22G6400LLK
DDR2 800 (PC2 6400)
CAS Latency 4
Timing 4-4-4-12
Voltage 2.2V
Your customer already owns the hard disk drive described in the table that follows:
Brand and Model Number
Features
Cost
Seagate
400 GB
$119.99
ST3400620AS
7200 RPM
16 MB Cache
SATA 3.0 Gbps interface
Search the Internet, a newspaper, or a local store to research a video adapter card compatible with the
components that your customer owns. Enter the specifications in the table that follows:
Brand and Model Number
Features
Cost
Example
Example
Example
XFX
PCI Express X16
$189.99
PVT71PUDD3
600 MHz Core clock
256 MB GDDR3
1600 MHz Memory clock
256-bit memory interface
1.
List three components that must have the same or compatible form factor:
Case, power supply, motherboard
2.
List three components that must conform to the same socket type:
Motherboard, CPU, heat sink/fan
3.
List two components that must use the same front side bus speed:
Motherboard, CPU
Chapter 1: Introduction to the Personal Computer
4.
List three considerations when you choose memory:
Answers may vary.
Type, size, number of pins, speed, dual channel capability, CAS latency
5.
What component must be compatible with every other component of the computer?
Motherboard
21
CHAPTER 2
Safe Lab Procedures and Tool Use
The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of fill-in-the-blank, matching, and open-ended
questions to test your knowledge of safe lab procedures and tool use. This portion also includes multiple-choice
study questions to help prepare you to take the A+ certification exams and to test your overall understanding of
the material.
The Lab Exercises portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum labs and worksheets to further
reinforce your mastery of safe lab procedures and tool use.
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IT Essentials: PC Hardware and Software Labs and Study Guide
Study Guide
Electrostatic Discharge
While fixing a computer and handling electronic components, you must be careful that you do not
cause any damage to the computer and its components. Therefore, it is essential that you do not cause
damage from electrostatic discharge.
Concept Questions
Answer the following electrostatic discharge questions:
How is electrostatic electricity generated?
Electrostatic electricity is created by the friction and separation of attractive charges, such as when
you walk across a carpet on a cool, dry day.
How many volts must be built up before you feel the ESD?
3,000 volts
How many volts can damage an electronic component?
30 volts
What are the four ESD protection recommendations for preventing ESD?
1.
Keep all components in antistatic bags until you are ready to install them.
2.
Use grounded mats on workbenches.
3.
Use grounded floor mats in work areas.
4.
Use antistatic wrist straps when working on computers.
How does humidity affect ESD?
If the humidity level is too low, the chance of ESD increases.
To reduce further risk of ESD, what type of clothing should you not wear?
You should not wear clothing made of silk, polyester, or wool because these fabrics are more likely to
generate a static charge.
Why should the metal on the back of the wrist strap remain in contact with the skin at all times?
Because the wrist strap is grounding you and not your clothing.
What should you do with sleeves and neckties when working with electronic components?
Roll up your sleeves and secure your necktie.
Chapter 2: Safe Lab Procedures and Tool Use
25
PC Maintenance
To keep a computer running well and to extend its life, you need to perform regular maintenance. Part
of the maintenance is to keep the computer clean inside and outside.
Concept Questions
Answer the following PC maintenance questions:
What can happen if a computer has an excess buildup of dirt and dust?
Dirt can cause problems with the physical operation of fans, buttons, and other mechanical components. On electrical components, an excessive buildup of dust will act like an insulator and trap the
heat. This insulation will impair the ability of heatsinks and heatpipes to keep components cool,
causing chips and circuits to overheat and fail.
Describe the best method to clean the following components:
1.
Keyboard
Blow compressed air between the keys. Wipe the keyboard with a soft, lint-free cloth lightly
moistened with water or computer-screen cleaner.
2.
LCD monitor
Wipe display with a soft, lint-free cloth lightly moistened with water or LCD cleaner. You
should never use glass cleaner or any type of solvent.
3.
CRT monitor
To clean the screens of CRT monitors, dampen a soft, clean, lint-free cloth with distilled
water and wipe the screen from top to bottom. Do not spray the glass cleaner directly onto
the display.
4.
Mouse
Use glass cleaner and a soft cloth to clean the outside of the mouse. Do not spray glass cleaner directly on the mouse. If cleaning a ball mouse, the ball can be removed and cleaned with
glass cleaner and a soft cloth. Wipe the rollers clean inside the mouse with the same cloth.
Do not spray any liquids inside the mouse.
5.
Contacts on a PCI expansion card
Clean the contacts on components with isopropyl alcohol. Note that you should use the 90%
or higher solution of isopropyl alcohol because some solutions in the 70-80% range contain
too high a concentration of water to be effective. Do not use rubbing alcohol. Rubbing alcohol
contains impurities that can damage contacts. Make sure the contacts do not collect any lint from
the cloth or cotton swab. Blow any lint off the contacts with compressed air before reinstallation.
6.
Removing dust and dirt from inside the computer
Use compressed air or a non-electrostatic vacuum to clean out the dust from the vents, the
fan behind the vent and on the motherboard, and the heat sink and CPU heat sink. Use
tweezers to remove any debris.
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IT Essentials: PC Hardware and Software Labs and Study Guide
Power Fluctuations
Computers are designed to run off of clean DC power. Therefore, when your system experiences power
fluctuations, these power fluctuations can affect the reliability and functionality of your computer.
Vocabulary Exercise: Matching
Match the definition on the left with a term on the right.
Definitions
a.
b.
Terms
Complete loss of AC power. A
blown fuse, damaged transformer, or
downed power line can cause this.
Reduced voltage level of AC power
that lasts for a period of time. These
occur when the power line voltage
drops below 80% of the normal voltage level. Overloading electrical circuits can cause this.
c.
Interference from generators and
lightning. This results in unclean
power, which can cause errors in a
computer system.
d.
Sudden increase in voltage that lasts
for a very short period (less than a
second) and exceeds 100% of the
normal voltage on a line. These can
be caused by lightning strikes but
can also occur when the electrical
system comes back on after a
blackout.
e.
Dramatic increase in voltage above
110% of the normal voltage that
lasts for a few seconds.
__e Power surge
__c Noise
__a Blackout
__b Brownout
__d Spike
Chapter 2: Safe Lab Procedures and Tool Use
27
Concept Questions
Answer the following questions about power fluctuations.
Which type of computer protection device will protect against spikes and surges?
Surge suppressors and uninterruptible power supplies
Which type of computer protection device will protect against brownouts and blackouts?
Uninterruptible power supply and standby power supply
Fires and Fire Extinguishers
Computers are half mechanical, half electronic devices. As with any mechanical or electronic device,
there is always a chance that a computer can catch fire. Therefore, you need to know how to handle a
fire if it does occur.
Concept Questions
Answer the following questions about fires and fire extinguishers:
What are the four steps in using a fire extinguisher?
Step 1.
P—Pull the pin.
Step 2.
A—Aim at the base of the fire, not at the flames.
Step 3.
S—Squeeze the lever.
Step 4.
S—Sweep the nozzle from side to side.
Identify the usage of fire extinguisher classifications.
■
Class A
Paper, wood, plastics, cardboard
■
Class B
Gasoline, kerosene, organic solvents
■
Class C
Electrical equipment
■
Class D
Combustible metals
If your computer catches on fire, which classification of fire extinguisher should you use?
Class C or Class ABC
Material Safety and Data Sheets and Component
Disposal
Some components and the supplies that you use to maintain computers have or are considered
hazardous material. Therefore, special safety and environmental considerations exist for handling
and disposing of these components and materials.
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IT Essentials: PC Hardware and Software Labs and Study Guide
Vocabulary Exercise: Completion
Fill in the blanks with the appropriate terms about safety and disposal.
A Material Safety and Data Sheet (MSDS) is a fact sheet that summarizes information about material
identification, including hazardous ingredients that can affect personal health, fire hazards, and first
aid requirements. The MSDS sheet contains chemical reactivity and incompatibilities information that
includes spill, leak, and disposal procedures. It also includes protective measures for the safe handling
and storage of materials. To determine whether a material used in computer repairs or preventive
maintenance is classified as hazardous, consult the manufacturer MSDS.
Concept Questions
Answer the following questions about MSDS and component disposal:
What valuable information can be found within the MSDS?
■
The name of the material
■
The physical properties of the material
■
Any hazardous ingredients the material contains
■
Reactivity data such as fire and explosion data
■
Spill or leak procedures
■
Special precautions
■
Health hazards
■
Special protection requirements
Why do batteries need to be properly disposed of?
Batteries from portable computer systems may contain lead, cadmium, lithium, alkaline manganese,
and mercury. These metals do not decay and will remain in the environment for many years. Mercury,
commonly used in the manufacturing of batteries, is extremely toxic and harmful to humans.
Why do monitors need to be properly disposed of?
CRTs contain glass, metal, plastics, lead, barium, and rare earth metals. According to the U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), CRTs may contain approximately 4 pounds (1.8 kg) of lead.
What guidelines should you follow when you are disposing of batteries, monitors, and toner cartridges?
Comply with local environmental regulations.
Maintenance Safety
Because computers use electricity to operate, a danger always exists when you are fixing a computer.
Therefore, you need to take certain steps to make sure that you don’t get hurt and that you don’t damage
the computer and its components.
Chapter 2: Safe Lab Procedures and Tool Use
29
Concept Questions
Answer the following questions about safety:
What should you do before cleaning any device or repairing a computer?
Turn off the device and unplug it from the power source.
Which two devices contain such very high voltages that you should not wear antistatic wrist straps
when repairing them?
■
Monitor
■
Power supply
Tools of the Trade
Because computers are complicated devices that use ever-changing technology, you are not going to
know everything about computers. There will be times when you need help to fix a problem.
However, knowing where to get this help will greatly enhance your ability as a PC technician.
Concept Questions
Answer the following question about tools of the trade:
You just purchased a fax modem. Unfortunately, it does not include the CD or manuals. Where can
you go to find the drivers and manuals?
The manufacturer’s website
Study Questions
Choose the best answer for each of the questions that follow.
1.
2.
What is the correct procedure to dispose of a monitor?
A.
Incineration.
B.
Dispose in local landfill.
C.
Consult local guidelines for disposing of hazardous material.
D.
Dispose in a trash can or dumpster.
As a computer technician, you notice a leak in the server room. What should you do?
A.
Place a bucket under the leak.
B.
Call the local water department.
C.
Notify building maintenance and the system administrator who is responsible for the
servers.
D.
Phone the janitor to clean up the water.
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IT Essentials: PC Hardware and Software Labs and Study Guide
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Which of the following rating of fire extinguisher should you use on a PC on fire? (Choose all
that apply.)
A.
Class A
B.
Class B
C.
Class C
D.
Class ABC
You are going to replace faulty memory within a computer. You shut down the computer. What
should you not do to avoid ESD?
A.
Use an ESD mat.
B.
Use an ESD strap.
C.
Touch the ground of the workshop or building.
D.
Touch the metal case of the power supply that is plugged in to a properly grounded outlet.
Wrist straps will be useful only if
A.
They are plugged in to the wrist strap jack.
B.
They are clean and make good skin contact.
C.
The cord has not been damaged.
D.
All of the above.
Before opening a static-shielding container or bag that contains an electronic device, you
should
A.
Look inside to see whether it is really sensitive.
B.
Check for paperwork inside the container.
C.
Ground yourself in an ESD-protected area.
D.
Call the manufacturer for operating instructions.
Before transporting an ESD-sensitive device, it must be
A.
Enclosed in a static-shielding container or bag
B.
Put into a cardboard box
C.
Thoroughly cleaned
D.
Wrapped in newspaper
To prevent ESD, humidity should be kept to at least _______ when working on a computer.
A.
10%
B.
25%
C.
50%
D.
75%
How should you apply the cleaning solution to a CRT monitor?
A.
A soft brush
B.
A lint-free cloth
C.
A damp sponge
D.
A dripping wet cloth
Chapter 2: Safe Lab Procedures and Tool Use
10.
To remove dust from inside a laptop, which of the options should the technician use? (Select
two answers.)
A.
Use alcohol swabs.
B.
Use compressed air.
C.
Gently blow the dust out.
D.
Vacuum the dust out of the system with a special antistatic vacuum cleaner.
E.
Use a wet cloth.
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IT Essentials: PC Hardware and Software Labs and Study Guide
Lab Exercises
Worksheet 2.2.2: Diagnostic Software
In this activity, you will use the Internet, a newspaper, or a local store to gather information about a
manufacturer’s hard drive diagnostic program. Be prepared to discuss the diagnostic software you
researched.
Based on your research, list at least two different hard drive manufacturers.
Answers will vary. Examples include Western Digital, Seagate, and Hitachi.
Choose a hard drive manufacturer from question one. Does this manufacturer offer hard drive diagnostic software to go with its products? If so, list the name and the features of the diagnostic software.
The answers will vary. The answers given here are examples.
Manufacturer: Western Digital
Software Name: Data Lifeguard Diagnostic for Windows
File Name: WinDLG.zip
File Size: 4.25 MB
Version: Version 1.09.01
Publish Date: October, 2006
Description: This is a Windows version of the Data Lifeguard Diagnostics utility. The utility can perform drive identification, diagnostics, and repairs on a Western Digital FireWire, EIDE, or USB drive.
In addition, it can provide you with the drive’s serial and model numbers.
Lab 2.3.4: Computer Disassembly
In this lab you will disassemble a computer using safe lab procedures and the proper tools. Use
extreme care and follow all safety procedures. Familiarize yourself with the tools you will be using in
this lab.
Note: If you cannot locate or remove the correct component, ask your instructor for help.
Instructor note: It is necessary to complete this lab only if your lab computers are completely set up already.
The goal of this lab is to have the components separated and ready to assemble for Chapter 3, and for the students
to demonstrate proper tool use. The students can also apply proper tool use in the Chapter 3 labs, where they will
assemble a computer.
This lab does not include removing the motherboard, CPU, and cooling device from the computer because of the
replacement cost of these items. If possible, allow students to remove these components from broken computers
that are kept in the classroom for part identification and demonstration.
The following are the recommended tools for this lab:
■
Safety glasses or goggles
■
Antistatic wrist strap
Chapter 2: Safe Lab Procedures and Tool Use
■
Antistatic mat
■
Flat-head screwdrivers
■
Phillips-head screwdrivers
■
Torx screwdrivers
■
Hex driver
■
Wire cutters
■
Plastic
■
Part retriever (or tweezers or needle-nose pliers)
■
Thermal compound
■
Electronics cleaning solution
■
Can of compressed air
■
Cable ties
■
Parts organizer
■
Computer with hard drive installed
■
Plastic tub for storing computer parts
■
Antistatic bags for electronic parts
33
Step 1
Turn off and disconnect the power to your computer.
Step 2
Locate all the screws that secure the side panels to the back of the computer. Use the proper size and
type of screwdriver to remove the side panel screws. Do not remove the screws that secure the power
supply to the case. Put all these screws in one place, such as a cup or a compartment in a parts organizer. Label the cup or compartment with a piece of masking tape on which you have written “side
panel screws.” Remove the side panels from the case.
What type of screwdriver did you use to remove the screws?
A Phillips screwdriver or a hex driver are the most commonly used screwdrivers to remove case panels. Answers may vary.
How many screws secured the case cover to the chassis?
Answers may vary. Normally, there are two screws for each panel on a mid-tower case, but there can
be anywhere from one to six screws for the case.
Step 3
Put on an antistatic wrist strap. One end of the conductor should be connected to the wrist strap. Clip
the other end of the conductor to an unpainted metal part of the case.
If you have an antistatic mat, place it on the work surface and put the computer case on top of it.
Ground the antistatic mat to an unpainted metal part of the case.
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IT Essentials: PC Hardware and Software Labs and Study Guide
Step 4
Locate the hard drive. Carefully disconnect the power and data cable from the back of the hard drive.
Which type of data cable did you disconnect?
SATA or EIDE. Answers may vary.
Step 5
Locate all the screws that hold the hard drive in place. Use the proper size and type of screwdriver to
remove the hard drive screws. Put all these screws in one place and label them.
Caution: Do not remove the screws for the hard drive enclosure.
What type of screws secured the hard drive to the case?
Answers may vary. Normally, crosshead screws secure hard drives in place.
How many screws held the hard drive to the case?
Answers may vary. Most cases allow for up to four screws per hard drive.
Is the hard drive connected to a mounting bracket? If so, what type of screws secure the hard drive to
the mounting bracket?
Answers may vary. Most hard drive manufacturers use a flush, crosshead screw.
Step 6
Gently remove the hard drive (touching only the sides) from the case. Place the hard drive into an
antistatic bag.
Look at the jumper settings on the hard drive. Is a jumper installed?
Answers may vary.
Look for a jumper reference chart on the hard drive. If a jumper is installed on the hard drive, use the
jumper reference chart to see whether the hard drive is set for a Master, Slave, or Cable Select (CS)
drive.
Answers may vary.
Step 7
Locate the floppy disk drive. Carefully disconnect the power and data cable.
Step 8
Locate all the screws that secure the floppy drive to the case. Use the proper size and type of screwdriver to remove the floppy drive screws. Put all these screws in one place and label them.
Place the floppy drive into an antistatic bag.
How many screws secured the floppy drive to the case?
Answers may vary.
Chapter 2: Safe Lab Procedures and Tool Use
35
Step 9
Locate the optical drive (CD-ROM, DVD, and the like). Carefully disconnect the power and data
cable from the optical drive. Remove the audio cable from the optical drive.
What kind of data cable did you disconnect?
Answers may vary (EIDE, SATA).
Is there a jumper on the optical drive? What is the jumper setting?
Answers may vary: Master, Slave, or Cable Select (CS) drive.
Step 10
Locate all the screws that secure the optical drive to the case. Use the proper size and type of screwdriver to remove the optical drive screws. Put all these screws in one place and label them.
Place the optical drive into an antistatic bag.
How many screws secured the optical drive to the case?
Answers may vary.
Step 11
Locate the power supply. Find the power connection(s) to the motherboard.
Gently remove the power connection(s) from the motherboard. How many pins are in the motherboard
connector?
Answers may vary (20-pin, 24-pin).
Does the power supply provide power to a CPU fan or case fan? If so, disconnect the power cable.
Does the power supply provide auxiliary power to the video card in the PCI, AGP or PCI-E slot? If so,
disconnect the power cable.
Step 12
Locate all the screws that secure the power supply to the case. Use the proper size and type of screwdriver to remove the power supply screws. Put all these screws in one place and label them.
How many screws secure the power supply to the case?
Answers may vary.
Carefully remove the power supply from the case. Place the power supply with the other computer
components.
Step 13
Locate any adapter cards that are installed in the computer, such as a video card, NIC, or modem adapter.
Locate the screw that secures the adapter card to the case. Use the proper size and type of screwdriver
to remove the adapter card screw. Repeat this process for all adapter cards that are installed in the
computer. Put the adapter card screws in one place and label them.
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IT Essentials: PC Hardware and Software Labs and Study Guide
Carefully remove the adapter card from the slot. Be sure to hold the adapter card by the mounting
bracket or by the edges. Place the adapter card in an antistatic bag.
Repeat this process for all the adapter cards. Place each card in an antistatic bag.
List the adapter cards and the slot types in the following table.
Adapter Card
Slot Type
Answers may vary: Video, NIC, Modem
Answers may vary: PCI, PCI-E or ISA
Step 14
Locate the memory modules on the motherboard.
What type of memory modules are installed on the motherboard?
Answers may vary.
How many memory modules are installed on the motherboard?
Answers may vary.
Remove the memory modules from the motherboard. Be sure to release any locking tabs that may be
securing the memory module. Hold the memory module by the edges and gently lift it out of the slot.
Put the memory modules into an antistatic bag.
Step 15
Remove all data cables from the motherboard. Make sure to note the connection location of any cable
you unplug.
What types of cables were disconnected?
Answers may vary: SATA, Floppy, EIDE.
At this point, the computer case should contain the motherboard, the CPU, and any cooling devices.
Please ask your instructor for help in removing any additional components.
CHAPTER 3
Computer Assembly—Step by Step
The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of fill-in-the-blank and open-ended questions to
test your knowledge of computer assembly. This portion also includes multiple-choice study questions to help
prepare you to take the A+ certification exams and to test your overall understanding of the material.
The Lab Exercises portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum hands-on labs to further reinforce
your mastery of computer assembly.
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IT Essentials: PC Hardware and Software Labs and Study Guide
Study Guide
Installing a Processor
Now that you can identify the various parts of a computer, can follow ESD prevention procedures, and
are familiar with the safety issues, you are ready to learn the various steps to build a PC. Because the
processor is considered the brain of the computer, you will eventually need to install the processor and
its thermal solution onto the motherboard.
When installing a processor, the chip must be oriented properly on the motherboard. If a processor is
off by 90 degrees or inserted backward, it may damage the processor or the motherboard.
Pin A1 on the processor is often used to identify one corner of the processor and to help you properly
insert the processor into the motherboard. These are designated by a slightly clipped corner, a small
dot or triangle on one corner, or a missing pin on one or two of its corners.
Concept Questions
Answer the following questions about installing a processor:
Before installing a motherboard, processor, RAM, or expansion card, you should be wearing what?
Electrostatic wrist strap
When installing a processor, how do you know how to insert the processor so that is not off 90
degrees or inserted backward?
Processors are keyed so that they will go in only one way.
When you insert the processor, the processor does not slide into the socket. What should you do?
Before beginning, make sure the processor locking lever or arm is not locked in its down position. You
should then check to make sure that the processor is aligned properly. You should not push or force
the processor into the socket because this may damage the processor, including bending the pins. If
the processor is aligned properly, you should check for bent pins on the processor.
After the processor is installed onto the motherboard, what is the next component or components that
you should install?
You should install the heat sink and fan.
Before you install the heat sink, what should you apply directly on the processor?
Thermal compound
Chapter 3: Computer Assembly—Step by Step
39
Fill in the following table.
Socket Type
Number of Pins
Processors Used in Socket
Socket 370
370 pins
Pentium III and Celeron processors
Socket 423
423 pins
Pentium 4 processors
Socket 478
478 pins
Pentium 4 processors
Socket T
775 pins
Pentium 4, Pentium D, and Core 2 processors
Socket A
426 pins
Athlon and Duron
Socket 754
754 pins
Athlon 64
Socket 939
939 pins
Athlon 64 and Athlon64 FX
Socket 940
940 pins
Opteron, Athlon 64 FX
Installing RAM
After the processor is installed, you are ready to install RAM onto the motherboard. Much like the
processor, you must make sure that you follow the same ESD prevention and safety procedures that
you follow for the installation of the processor.
Concept Questions
Answer the following questions about installing RAM:
Describe the basic steps in inserting DIMMs or RIMMs onto the motherboard.
Line up the notches on the DIMM or RIMM with the plastic tabs located in the socket. When the
notches are lined up, apply pressure to the module by pushing it into the socket until it is firmly seated.
Describe the basic steps in removing a DIMM or RIMM.
Push down the ejector tabs gently and pull the DIMM or RIMM out of the socket.
Installing the Motherboard
After the processor and RAM are installed onto the motherboard, you are ready to slide the motherboard into the case. Again, be sure to follow basic ESD prevention and safety procedures.
Concept Questions
Answer the following questions about installing the motherboard:
What is used to physically separate the motherboard so that metal contacts do not make contact with
the metal case?
Standoffs
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IT Essentials: PC Hardware and Software Labs and Study Guide
What are the basic steps when installing a motherboard?
Step 1.
Install the standoff onto the motherboard. Only install standoffs that align with the holes in
the motherboard because extra standoffs may interfere with the seating of the motherboard
in the computer case.
Step 2.
Carefully place the motherboard inside the computer case.
Step 3.
Align the I/O connectors on the back of the motherboard with the holes in the I/O shield
on the back of the computer case. Use gentle pressure to compress the contacts of the
motherboard on the I/O shield.
Step 4.
When the motherboard is properly in place, align the screw holes of the motherboard with
the case.
Step 5.
Insert all the screws and align the motherboard.
Step 6.
After the motherboard is in place, tighten the screws. Never overtighten the screws,
because you can damage the motherboard.
What type of power connector does an ATX motherboard use, and how many pins does the main connector have?
It is known as the ATX power connector and it has 20 or 24 pins.
Installing a Power Supply
Because the power supply contains a fan to help cool the entire system, the power supply is a half
electronic, half mechanical component. Because it is partly mechanical, it is a high failure item.
(Mechanical components fail more often then electronic components.) If a power supply fails, it is best
to replace it because the power supply contains high voltage; a repair will take an electronics technician
instead of a PC technician, and the cost of labor will usually exceed the cost of the power supply.
Concept Questions
Answer the following power supply questions:
Is the power supply a high failure item in a computer? If it is, why is it considered a high failure item?
Yes, the power supply has a high failure rate because it is a half-mechanical device that consists of
fans to help keep the system cooler.
When you remove the power supply from the case, how many screws usually hold the power supply
in the case?
Four to eight screws
Chapter 3: Computer Assembly—Step by Step
41
Installing Optical Drives
Just about every system today has an optical drive. Therefore, you will eventually have to install or replace
one. Like other computer components, be sure to follow basic ESD prevention and safety procedures.
Concept Questions
Answer the following questions about installing optical drives:
What are the main steps in physically installing an optical drive?
Open the external bay. From the front, slide the optical drive until the face plate is in line with the
front of the computer. Use four screws, two on each side, to tightly secure the optical drive. If the
drive is not secured, it may vibrate during normal operation.
If the optical drive is using a parallel IDE interface, how should you configure the optical drive?
If you have only one drive on a ribbon, set the drive as the master. If you have the optical drive on the
same ribbon as the hard drive, set the optical drive as a slave and set the hard drive as the master.
Installing Floppy Disk Drives
Although many newer systems do not have a floppy disk drive, a large number of older systems do.
Therefore, you might need to install or replace one. Like other computer components, be sure to
follow basic ESD prevention and safety procedures.
Concept Questions
Answer the following questions about installing floppy disk drives:
What are the main steps in physically installing a floppy disk drive?
From the front, slide the floppy drive in so that the front plate is in line with the front of the computer.
Use four screws, two on each side, to tightly secure the floppy drive. Attach the floppy drive ribbon to
the drive and to the motherboard. For power to the floppy drive, insert a Berg power connector that is
provided with the computer power supply.
If you insert the floppy drive cable incorrectly, what would happen?
The drive activity light may come on and stay on. Depending on the BIOS, you may get a floppy
drive error message when you boot the computer.
To help you insert the ribbon cable properly, how do you know which pin on the cable is pin 1?
It is indicated with a red or blue stripe.
As a general rule concerning the power connector, where should the red line be when connecting the
floppy with the ribbon cable?
The red line should be closest to the power connection.
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IT Essentials: PC Hardware and Software Labs and Study Guide
Installing a Hard Drive
Today, every system has at least one hard drive. Therefore, you will eventually have to install or replace
one. Like other computer components, be sure to follow basic ESD prevention and safety procedures.
Vocabulary Exercise: Completion
Fill in the blanks with the appropriate terms about installing a hard drive.
IDE ribbon cables have a colored line on one side of the ribbon that indicates which edge of the cable
connects to pin 1 on the socket.
Modern IDE ribbons are notched so that they can be inserted only one way on the motherboard and
IDE drive.
Each IDE ribbon cable can support up to 2 devices.
An EIDE controller supports up to 4 devices.
When you have one device connected to the ribbon cable, it is configured as a standalone device or
master device if the standalone option is not available.
When you have two devices connected to the ribbon cable, one is configured as the master and the
other is configured as the slave.
To configure a drive to be a master, a slave, or a standalone drive, you use jumpers.
The original 40-pin conductor ribbon cable could not handle the faster data rates (66 MB/s or higher).
Therefore, starting with DMA/66, a 40-pin conductor with 80 wire ribbon cable was introduced.
The serial ATA data connector uses 7 pins.
The older SCSI interfaces (including SCSI-1) supported up to 8 SCSI devices (including the host
adapter) connected to the host adapter, whereas newer SCSI interfaces (including Wide SCSI) support
up to 16 devices (including the host adapter) connected to the host adapter.
Different from the IDE interface, the two ends of the SCSI chain must be terminated.
Each SCSI device, including the adapter/controller card, is numbered with a SCSI ID from 0 to 7
or 0 to 15.
Although SCSI devices can be configured to use any free SCSI ID number, ID #2 is usually set aside
for the floppy drive; it is recommended that optical drives such as CD and DVD drives are set to ID #3.
The SCSI adapter is usually set to ID #7, and the primary SCSI hard drive or any other boot device is
set to ID #0.
To configure the SCSI ID numbers for SCSI hard drives, you typically use jumpers.
Chapter 3: Computer Assembly—Step by Step
43
BIOS and the BIOS Setup Program
The BIOS setup program is stored in the system ROM chip. It varies greatly from computer to computer. Today’s BIOS setup programs include many options. To organize them, they are often grouped
together. Most BIOS setup programs are menu based, including standard CMOS setup, advanced
chipset setup, power management, PCI configuration, and peripheral configuration.
The standard CMOS setup includes the information for the date, time, floppy drives, hard drives, keyboard, and video card. The advanced chipset is used to fine-tune the hardware setup of the system,
such as fine-tuning the processor (including enabling or disabling Hyper-Threading), cache system,
memory system, or I/O system. The peripherals setup options include onboard floppy disk drives,
parallel ports, and serial ports that can be disabled or configured using the BIOS setup program.
Power management includes several options to extend the battery life of notebook computers and to
conserve power on desktop computers.
Concept Questions
Answer the following questions about BIOS and the BIOS setup:
What is POST short for?
Power On Self Test
Define what the POST does.
POST is a basic electronic test that ensures that the basic hardware in the computer is connected properly
and running correctly. When the BIOS detects a problem with any hardware in the computer, it sends
a warning to the technician. It is designed to emit a series of beeps that a technician can use to determine
which piece of hardware is faulty when the display system has not yet been activated during boot.
What is the problem when you hear a single beep?
If the display system has been activated and information is being displayed on the screen, a single
beep indicates that the POST completed with no problem. If nothing is displayed on the screen, you
will need to identify the manufacturer of the system ROM BIOS and look up the meaning of the beep
code. Most likely the problem is with the RAM or the video card.
How do you enter the BIOS setup program?
To configure BIOS settings, you need to enter the proper key sequence. The sequence can be read on
the screen while the computer is booting. The key sequence may be different on different computers,
depending on the manufacturer of the BIOS. Some BIOS chips require you to press the Delete key
within the first four or five seconds after booting the computer. Other BIOS chips require you to press
the F2 key within the same time period.
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IT Essentials: PC Hardware and Software Labs and Study Guide
Study Questions
Choose the best answer for each of the questions that follow.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
If an IDE ribbon cable is not keyed, how do you know how to connect the cable?
A.
Pin 1 of the cable will be indicated with a red or blue stripe. Connect the red or blue stripe
lining up to pin 1.
B.
Attach the cable any way that fits.
C.
Purchase a new cable.
D.
Purchase a new drive.
You have an IDE hard drive and an IDE DVD drive on the same ribbon cable. What do you
need to do so that both drives will function properly?
A.
Select the hard drive to be the master and the DVD drive to be the slave.
B.
Connect the hard drive at the end of the cable and the DVD drive into the middle connector.
Be sure that the ribbon cable has a twist in it.
C.
Select the hard drive and the DVD drive to be the master so that you can get the best
performance.
D.
Select the hard drive to IDE #1 and the DVD drive to IDE #2.
Which of the following determines master or slave on an IDE ribbon cable?
A.
A twist in the cable
B.
Which device was installed first
C.
The jumper settings
D.
The BIOS
If you connect a new IDE hard drive and the drive is not recognized, what should you check first?
A.
The cable
B.
The jumper settings
C.
The BIOS
D.
The drive
You just installed a second hard drive onto the ribbon cable that hosts the first hard drive. The
second hard drive is not being recognized. You therefore verify that the ribbon cable is connected
properly and that the jumper settings are configured properly. What else should you do?
A.
Make sure that the hard drive has been partitioned and formatted.
B.
Run the FDISK /MBR to repair the master boot record.
C.
Verify that the partition is active.
D.
Verify that the BIOS has been configured to detect a second hard drive.
Chapter 3: Computer Assembly—Step by Step
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
45
Which of the following is a task that you have to perform when installing SCSI devices?
(Choose two answers.)
A.
Set the jumpers for master/slave.
B.
Perform a low-level format on the SCSI drive.
C.
Assign each SCSI device a unique ID number.
D.
Set the drive type in the CMOS setup.
E.
Make sure that the two ends on the SCSI chain are terminated.
If a power supply fails, what should you do?
A.
Send it to an electrical technician.
B.
Try to fix it yourself.
C.
Replace the power supply.
D.
Replace the computer.
When installing a new processor, what should you apply directly to the processor?
A.
Cooling liquid
B.
Thermal compound
C.
A heat sink
D.
A fan
When connecting a floppy drive ribbon cable, how should the ribbon cable be connected?
A.
Attach cable any way that fits.
B.
Typically, the red or blue line should be farthest from the power connection.
C.
Typically, the red or blue line should be closest to the power connection.
D.
If the cable does not have a red or blue line, you are using the wrong cable, so it has
to be replaced.
On an AT power supply, how should you connect the P8 and P9 power connectors?
A.
The green wires have to be together.
B.
The white wires have to be together.
C.
The brown wires have to be together.
D.
The black wires have to be together.
How do I know if I have an ATX power supply instead of an AT power supply?
A.
An AT power supply will have two power connectors that connect to the motherboard. The
ATX power supply will have either a 20- or 24-pin power connector that connects to the
motherboard.
B.
An ATX power supply will have two power connectors that connect to the motherboard.
The AT power supply will have either a 20- or 24-pin power connector that connects to the
motherboard.
C.
The AT power supply will have eight power connectors for drives and other devices.
D.
The ATX power supply will have eight power connectors for drives and other devices.
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IT Essentials: PC Hardware and Software Labs and Study Guide
12.
13.
14.
Which of the following sockets are used for a 3.8 GHz Pentium 4 processor?
A.
Socket 423
B.
Socket 426
C.
Socket 478
D.
Socket 754
E.
Socket A
You are looking at a processor socket that has 462 pins. Which processors can be inserted into it?
A.
Intel Pentium 4 processor
B.
AMD Athlon processor
C.
AMD Athlon 64 processor
D.
Intel Core2 processor
If you wanted to disable Hyper-Threading on a 3.6 MHz Pentium 4 system, what would you use?
A.
Windows Device Manager.
B.
Jumpers on the motherboard.
C.
The BIOS setup program.
D.
The Pentium 4 running at 3.6 MHz does not support Hyper-Threading.
Chapter 3: Computer Assembly—Step by Step
47
Lab Exercises
Lab 3.2.0: Install the Power Supply
In this lab, you will install a power supply in a computer case.
The following is the recommended equipment for this lab:
■
Power supply with the same form factor as the computer case
■
Computer case
■
Tool kit
■
Power supply screws
Step 1
Remove the screws that hold the side panels in place.
Remove the side panels.
Step 2
Align the screw holes in the power supply with the screw holes in the case.
Secure the power supply to the case using the proper screws.
Step 3
If the power supply has a voltage selection switch, set this switch to match the voltage in your area.
What is the voltage in your area?
Answers may vary. Either 110/115v or 220/230v.
How many screws hold the power supply in place?
Answers may vary. Usually four.
What is the total wattage of the power supply?
Answers may vary.
Lab 3.3.3: Install the Motherboard
In this lab, you will install a CPU, a heat sink/fan assembly, and a RAM module on the motherboard.
You will then install the motherboard in the computer case.
The following is the recommended equipment for this lab:
■
Computer case with power supply installed
■
Motherboard
■
CPU
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IT Essentials: PC Hardware and Software Labs and Study Guide
■
Heat sink/fan assembly
■
Thermal compound
■
RAM module(s)
■
Motherboard standoffs and screws
■
Antistatic wrist strap and antistatic mat
■
Tool kit
■
Motherboard manual
Instructor Note: If you do not want to have your students install the components in this lab due to the expense
and fragility of these components, review the steps with a classroom demonstration.
Step 1
Place the motherboard, CPU, RAM, and the heat sink/fan assembly on the antistatic mat.
Step 2
Instructor Note: These are general instructions for an LGA775 socket. Your motherboard may be different.
Follow all instructions provided by your CPU and motherboard manufacturers.
Put on your antistatic wrist strap and attach the grounding cable to the antistatic mat.
Locate pin 1 on the CPU. Locate pin 1 on the socket.
Note: The CPU may be damaged if it is installed incorrectly.
Align pin 1 on the CPU with pin 1 on the socket.
Place the CPU into the CPU socket.
Close the CPU load plate and secure it in place by closing the load lever and moving it under the load
lever retention tab.
Step 3
Apply a small amount of thermal compound to the CPU, and then spread it evenly.
Note: Thermal compound is necessary only when not factory applied on the heat sink assembly. Follow all
instructions provided by the manufacturer for specific application details.
Step 4
Align the heat sink/fan assembly retainers with the holes on the motherboard around the CPU socket.
Place the heat sink/fan assembly onto the CPU and the retainers through the holes on the motherboard.
Tighten the heat sink/fan assembly retainers to secure it.
Plug the fan connector into the motherboard. Refer to the motherboard manual to determine which set
of fan header pins to use.
Chapter 3: Computer Assembly—Step by Step
49
Step 5
Locate the RAM slots on the motherboard.
In what type of slot(s) will the RAM module(s) be installed?
Answers may vary.
How many notches are found on the bottom edge of the RAM module?
Answers may vary.
Align the notch(es) on the bottom edge of the RAM module to the notches in the slot.
Press down until the side tabs secure the RAM module.
Ensure that none of the RAM module contacts are visible. Reseat the RAM module if necessary.
Check the latches to verify that the RAM module is secure.
Install any additional RAM modules using the same procedures.
Step 6
Install the motherboard standoffs.
Align the connectors on the back of the motherboard with the openings in the back of the computer case.
Place the motherboard into the case and align the holes for the screws and the standoffs. You may
need to adjust the motherboard to line up the holes for the screws.
Attach the motherboard to the case using the appropriate screws.
Step 7
Connect the wires from the case link lights and buttons to the motherboard connectors.
Lab 3.5.2: Install the Drives
In this lab, you will install the hard disk drive, the optical drive, and the floppy drive.
Instructor Note: Ensure that the optical and floppy drives are installed right side up so that the media can be
inserted into the drive with the label facing up.
The following is the recommended equipment for this lab:
■
Computer case with power supply and motherboard installed
■
Antistatic wrist strap and antistatic mat
■
Tool kit
■
Hard disk drive
■
Hard disk drive screws
■
Floppy drive
■
Floppy drive screws
■
Optical drive
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IT Essentials: PC Hardware and Software Labs and Study Guide
■
Optical drive screws
■
Motherboard manual
Step 1
Align the hard disk drive with the 3.5-inch drive bay.
Slide the hard disk drive into the bay from the inside of the case until the screw holes line up with the
holes in the 3.5-inch drive bay.
Secure the hard disk drive to the case using the proper screws.
Step 2
Note: Remove the 5.25-inch cover from one of the 5.25-inch external drive bays if necessary.
Align the optical drive with the 5.25-inch drive bay.
Insert the optical drive into the drive bay from the front of the case until the screw holes line up with
the holes in the 5.25-inch drive bay and the front of the optical drive is flush with the front of the case.
Secure the optical drive to the case using the proper screws.
Step 3
Note: Remove the 3.5-inch cover from one of the 3.5-inch external drive bays if necessary.
Align the floppy drive with the 3.5-inch drive bay.
Insert the floppy drive into the drive bay from the front of the case until the screw holes line up with
the holes in the 3.5-inch drive bay and the front of the floppy drive is flush with the front of the case.
Secure the floppy drive to the case using the proper screws.
Lab 3.6.3: Install Adapter Cards
In this lab, you will install a NIC, a wireless NIC, and a video adapter card.
The following is the recommended equipment for this lab:
■
Computer with power supply, motherboard, and drives installed
■
NIC
■
Wireless NIC
■
Video adapter card
■
Adapter card screws
■
Antistatic wrist strap and antistatic mat
■
Tool kit
■
Motherboard manual
Chapter 3: Computer Assembly—Step by Step
Step 1
What type of expansion slot is compatible with the NIC?
PCI or PCIe
Locate a compatible expansion slot for the NIC on the motherboard.
Remove the slot cover from the back of the case, if necessary.
Align the NIC to the expansion slot.
Press down gently on the NIC until the card is fully seated.
Secure the NIC by attaching the PC mounting bracket to the case with a screw.
Step 2
What type of expansion slot is compatible with the wireless NIC?
PCI or PCIe
Locate a compatible expansion slot for the wireless NIC on the motherboard.
Remove the slot cover from the back of the case, if necessary.
Align the wireless NIC to the expansion slot.
Press down gently on the wireless NIC until the card is fully seated.
Secure the wireless NIC by attaching the PC mounting bracket to the case with a screw.
Step 3
What type of expansion slot is compatible with the video adapter card?
PCI, AGP, or PCIe
Locate a compatible expansion slot for the video adapter card on the motherboard.
Remove the slot cover from the back of the case, if necessary.
Align the video adapter card to the expansion slot.
Press down gently on the video adapter card until the card is fully seated.
Secure the video adapter card by attaching the PC mounting bracket to the case with a screw.
Lab 3.7.2: Install Internal Cables
In this lab, install the internal power and data cables in the computer.
Instructor Note: Data cables should be aligned correctly before inserting. The pins on these connectors are
easily bent or broken. If Pin 1 alignment is not correct, the drive will not operate.
The following is the recommended equipment for this lab:
■
Computer with power supply, motherboard, drives, and adapter cards installed
■
Hard disk drive data cable
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■
Optical drive data cable
■
Floppy drive data cable
■
Antistatic wrist strap and antistatic mat
■
Tool kit
■
Motherboard manual
Step 1
Align the motherboard power supply connector to the socket on the motherboard.
Gently press down on the connector until the clip clicks into place.
Step 2
Note: This step is necessary only if your computer has an auxiliary power connector.
Align the auxiliary power connector to the auxiliary power socket on the motherboard.
Gently press down on the connector until the clip clicks into place.
Step 3
Plug a power connector into the hard disk drive, optical drive, and floppy drive. Ensure that the floppy
drive power connector is inserted right side up.
Step 4
Note: This step is necessary only if your computer has a fan power connector.
Connect the fan power connector into the appropriate fan header on the motherboard.
Step 5
Note: Pin 1 on a PATA cable must align with Pin 1 on the motherboard connector and the hard disk drive
connector.
Align and plug the hard disk drive data cable into the motherboard connector.
Align and plug the other end of the hard disk drive data cable into the hard disk drive connector.
Step 6
Note: Pin 1 on a PATA cable must align with Pin 1 on the motherboard connector and the optical drive
connector.
Align and plug the optical drive data cable into the motherboard connector.
Align and plug the other end of the optical drive data cable into the optical drive connector.
Chapter 3: Computer Assembly—Step by Step
Step 7
Note: Pin 1 on a floppy drive cable must align with Pin 1 on the motherboard connector and the floppy drive
connector.
Align and plug the floppy drive data cable into the motherboard connector.
Align and plug the other end of the floppy drive data cable into the floppy drive connector.
Lab 3.8.2: Complete the Computer Assembly
In this lab, you will install the side panels and the external cables on the computer.
The following is the recommended equipment for this lab:
■
Computer with power supply, motherboard, drives, and adapter cards installed and internal
cables connected
■
Monitor cable (DVI or VGA)
■
Keyboard
■
Mouse
■
USB cable for the USB hub
■
USB cable for the USB printer
■
Network cable
■
Wireless antenna
■
Power cable
■
Tool kit
■
Motherboard manual
Step 1
Attach the side panels to the computer case.
Secure the side panels to the computer using the panel screws.
Step 2
Attach the monitor cable to the video port.
Secure the cable by tightening the screws on the connector.
Step 3
Plug the keyboard cable into the PS/2 keyboard port.
Step 4
Plug the mouse cable into the PS/2 mouse port.
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Step 5
Plug the hub USB cable into any USB port.
Step 6
Plug the printer USB cable into a USB port in the hub.
Step 7
Plug the Ethernet cable into the Ethernet port.
Step 8
Connect the wireless antenna to the antenna connector.
Step 9
Plug the power cable into the power socket of the power supply.
Lab 3.9.2: Boot the Computer
In this lab, you will boot the computer for the first time, explore the BIOS setup program, and change
the boot order sequence.
The following is the recommended equipment for this lab:
■
Assembled computer without an operating system installed
■
Motherboard manual
Instructor: Before allowing a student to power on a computer, verify that all components are installed
correctly.
If students are unable to find the key(s) to enter the BIOS setup program, you can try the following
popular keys: F1, F2, F8, ESC, DEL, F10, Ctrl-Alt-Esc, or Ctrl-Alt-Enter. Older motherboards may
require additional research to determine the key(s) necessary to enter the BIOS setup program.
Step 1
Plug the power supply cable into an AC wall outlet.
Turn on the computer.
Note: If the computer beeps more than once, or if the power does not come on, notify your instructor.
Step 2
During POST, press the BIOS setup key or key combination.
The BIOS setup program screen will appear.
Chapter 3: Computer Assembly—Step by Step
What is the key or combination of keys used to enter the BIOS setup program?
Answers may vary.
Who manufactures the BIOS for your computer?
Answers may vary.
What is the BIOS version?
Answers may vary.
What menu options are available?
Answers may vary.
Step 3
Navigate through each screen to find the boot order sequence.
What is the first boot device in the boot order sequence?
Answers may vary.
How many additional devices can be assigned in the boot order sequence?
Answers may vary.
Step 4
Ensure that the first boot order device is the optical drive.
Ensure that the second boot order device is the hard disk drive.
Why would you change the first boot device to the optical drive?
To boot the computer from the optical drive
What happens when the computer boots and the optical drive does not contain bootable media?
The computer will boot from the hard drive.
Step 5
Navigate through each screen to find the power management setup screen, or ACPI screen.
What power management settings are available?
Answers may vary.
Step 6
Navigate through each screen to find the PnP settings.
What PnP settings are available?
Answers may vary.
Step 7
Save the new BIOS settings and exit the BIOS setup program.
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Step 8
The computer will restart.
Instructor Note: An error message stating that an OS cannot be found (or a similar error) will appear on the
screen after the computer boots. An operating system must now be installed to remove this error. It is safe to turn
off the computer at this time.
An operating system can be installed at this time.
CHAPTER 4
Basics of Preventive Maintenance and
Troubleshooting
The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of multiple-choice and open-ended questions to
test your knowledge of maintaining and troubleshooting computers. This portion also includes multiple-choice
study questions to help prepare you to take the A+ certification exams and to test your overall understanding of
the material.
There are no online curriculum items for this chapter.
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Study Guide
Preventive Maintenance
You might have heard the old saying, “An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure.” In computers,
this expression is very true because a little preventive maintenance can prevent some major problems
down the road. However, no matter how much preventive maintenance you perform, problems will
eventually occur if you wait long enough. Therefore, you will need to know how to troubleshoot these
problems using a systematic approach.
Concept Questions
Answer the following preventive maintenance question:
Why is it important to perform periodic maintenance?
Preventive maintenance helps to prevent parts, materials, and systems failure by ensuring that parts,
materials, and systems are in good working order. When you have a good preventive maintenance program in place, you will have less troubleshooting to do in the future, thus saving an organization time
and money.
Troubleshooting
When encountering a computer problem, you should follow certain guidelines. First, you must be
clear and rested. You must be able to concentrate on the problem. You must not panic. Don’t get frustrated, and be sure to allow enough time to do the job correctly. And you must keep an open mind
because the problems can be caused by hardware failure, compatibility problems, an improper configuration, a software glitch, an environmental factor, or a user error. Finally, you need to be systematic
when trying to isolate the problem.
Concept Questions
Answer the following troubleshooting questions:
Why is it important to follow a troubleshooting model?
A troubleshooting model outlines a systematic approach to locating the cause of a fault in an electronic circuit or system in a timely manner. If you don’t follow a systematic approach, you will often
overlook the problem and find yourself going around in circles.
What are the six main steps in troubleshooting a PC?
Step 1.
Gather data from the customer.
Step 2.
Verify the obvious issues.
Step 3.
Try quick solutions first.
Step 4.
Gather data from the computer.
Step 5.
Evaluate the problem and implement the solution.
Step 6.
Close with the customer.
Chapter 4: Basics of Preventive Maintenance and Troubleshooting
59
What should you do before you do any type of repair or modification?
You need to make sure that the data has been properly backed up. If you have backups, you need to
verify that the backups are usable. If backups are not possible or have not been done, you need to
communicate with the customer to let the customer know the risks involved with not having proper
backups.
Why is it important to check the obvious when troubleshooting?
It will greatly reduce the amount of time you spend troubleshooting problems, thus saving time and
money.
Explain the importance of closing with the customer.
As part of excellent customer service, closing with the customer will demonstrate to you and to the
customer that the problem has been fixed. It will also give the customer a better understanding of the
problem and possibly how to avoid the problem in the future.
Troubleshooting Example
Follow through this troubleshooting example to gain a better understanding of the details involved in
the troubleshooting process.
Problem: You get a call saying that a computer will not boot.
Step 1.
Gather data from the customer.
When you get to the office, you confirm that the computer has not booted. So you
ask the customer the following:
Has it ever worked?
When was the last time it worked?
Have any changes been done to the system?
Has any maintenance been done on the system?
Are there any lights on or is the fan running?
If lights are on or the fans are on, it is most likely not a power problem.
Steps 2 and 3.
Verify the obvious issues and try quick solutions first.
To check the obvious first, you decide to make sure that the computer is turned on
and is plugged in. You make sure that you do have power from the AC outlet.
Make sure that the AC outlet is not connected to an on-off switch on the wall with
the switch off. If the computer is connected to a surge protector, make sure that the
surge protector is on. Also check for any damaged power cables. If any item has
been changed or if maintenance has been recently done, check to see what was
done and verify that the work was done properly.
Step 4.
Gather data from the computer.
Make sure that there are no lights and the fans are not running. If lights are on or
the fans are on, it is most likely not a power problem. If the computer does not
turn on, there is not much more data that you can gather from the computer itself.
Step 5.
Evaluate the problem and implement the solution.
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Try the following to evaluate and isolate the problem:
■
Verify that the AC outlet is supplying the correct power.
■
Make sure that the power connections are properly connected to the motherboard.
■
Make sure all other cables are connected properly.
■
Make sure the processor and RAM are installed properly.
After checking the easy items, you may have to dig deeper because you suspect a faulty
component. Faulty components that would cause a system not to boot and not to have any
lights or fans include the following:
■
Processor
■
Motherboard
■
Power supply
■
Power cord
To figure out which item is faulty, you will need to swap each of these items one by one
until you find the faulty component. You can also test each component in a known-good
system to see whether the component is working or faulty.
Step 6.
Close with the customer.
After the problem has been solved, close with the customer to show that the computer is
fixed and is working properly. Also verify with the customer that no other problems exist
with the system. You also need to make sure that you document the steps that you took in
identifying the problem and implementing the solution.
Study Questions
Choose the best answer for each of the questions that follow.
1.
2.
You need to add a second hard drive and add more memory to a computer. What should you do
first?
A.
Back up all the data.
B.
Determine the amount of RAM that is in the system.
C.
Run scandisk on the current hard drive.
D.
Flash the BIOS with the newest version.
You decide to do some preventive maintenance on a computer system, including blowing out
dust and dirt. When you perform the preventive maintenance, what should you also be doing?
(Choose all that apply.)
A.
Make sure the system has the newest security patches.
B.
Replace all the cables.
C.
Check for visual defects.
D.
Replace the CMOS battery.
E.
Check the conditions of the environment, such as space around the case for air flow and
dripping water.
Chapter 4: Basics of Preventive Maintenance and Troubleshooting
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
61
When the memory test is completed onscreen, you get one short beep. What is the problem?
A.
There is a memory failure.
B.
There is a video card failure.
C.
There is a loose cable.
D.
There is no problem.
You have a system that has one short beep with nothing on the screen. What is most likely the
problem?
A.
There is a faulty processor.
B.
There is a video card failure.
C.
There is a loose cable.
D.
There is no problem.
You have been called to an office where a computer is not functioning properly. After they tell
you the problem, what is the first thing you should do in troubleshooting the problem?
A.
Gather data from the customer.
B.
Verify the obvious issues.
C.
Isolate the problem.
D.
Eliminate possibilities.
E.
Document your findings and solutions.
When you gather information, what are some of the best questions to ask? (Choose all that
apply.)
A.
Can you show me the problem?
B.
Is the computer still under warranty?
C.
Has any new software been installed recently?
D.
Where did you buy your computer?
E.
Have any other changes been made to the computer recently?
F.
Was the system running fine before?
After you gather information from the customer, what are the next two things you should try?
A.
Verify the obvious issues.
B.
Gather information from the computer.
C.
Evaluate the problem and implement the solution.
D.
Test the solution.
E.
Try quick solutions.
What should you use to gather information from the computer? (Choose all that apply.)
A.
Windows Event Viewer.
B.
Device Manager.
C.
Listen for beep codes or look for error messages on the screen.
D.
Run diagnostic software.
E.
Connect to the Internet and look for problems concerning the make and model of the computer in question.
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9.
You are troubleshooting a computer problem but cannot figure out the cause. How can you
reduce the possibility of redundant effort by another technician?
A.
Isolate the problem.
B.
Verify the problem and solution.
C.
Document activities and outcomes of the repair steps.
D.
Verify the obvious issues.
10. You are called into an office where the user complains that the monitor is blank. Of these
answers, which of the following will you not do?
11.
12.
13.
14.
A.
Determine whether the monitor is on.
B.
Determine whether the computer is on.
C.
Determine whether the contrast and brightness is turned down.
D.
Determine the type of computer it is.
E.
Determine whether there is a light on the monitor to indicate if it is on.
You have a computer that has been turned on, but the monitor is blank and none of the fans are
spinning. What is the most likely cause of the problem?
A.
The computer is unplugged.
B.
The monitor is off.
C.
The power supply is bad.
D.
The processor is bad.
Which of the following can cause a computer to reboot often? (Choose all that apply.)
A.
An overheating processor
B.
A power outage
C.
Bad AC power
D.
A software upgrade
E.
A RAM upgrade
You have a client that often shows the incorrect date and time when the computer is first turned
on. Which of the following should fix the problem?
A.
Replace the BIOS chip.
B.
Replace the CMOS battery.
C.
Replace the hard drive.
D.
Reinstall Windows.
You connected to a Cisco device using a cable that connects to your serial port. When you go
into Windows Device Manager, you do not see the serial port. What is most likely the problem?
A.
You have a faulty serial cable.
B.
You need to enable the serial port in the BIOS setup program.
C.
You need to reboot the Cisco device.
D.
You need to detect hardware devices in Windows.
E.
You need to reinstall Windows.
CHAPTER 5
Fundamental Operating Systems
The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of matching, fill-in-the-blank, and open-ended
questions to test your knowledge of operating systems. This portion also includes multiple-choice study questions
to help prepare you to take the A+ certification exams and to test your overall understanding of the material.
The Lab Exercises portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum hands-on labs and worksheets to
further reinforce your mastery of operating systems.
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Study Guide
Introduction to Operating Systems
The operating system (OS) is the computer’s most important software. It coordinates the actions of the
hardware, the software, and the user so that they can work as one. During bootup, the operating system is loaded from the boot disk (typically the hard disk) to RAM. It provides an interface to the user
so that he or she can start other programs by entering a command at the keyboard or by using the
mouse to perform an action. Then, depending on the actions of the user and instructions specified in
the software, the operating system directs the computer’s hardware. When the user saves a file to disk,
the OS automatically records the location so that the user can find and access the file in the future and
so that the operating system will not accidentally write over it with another file.
Concept Questions
Answer the following questions about operating systems:
What are the four main roles of an operating system?
1.
Manage hardware
2.
Run applications
3.
Provide a user interface
4.
Manage files
List and describe the two types of operating system interfaces:
Command Line Interface (CLI)—User types commands at a prompt.
Graphical User Interface (GUI)—User interacts with menus and icons.
List at least two command-line operating systems:
DOS, UNIX, Linux
List at least four GUI operating systems made by Microsoft:
Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows Millennium, Windows NT, Windows 2000, Windows XP, and
Windows Vista
Installing Windows
As a desktop technician, you need to know how to install the various Windows operating systems. You
also need to make sure that you know the minimum requirements to install the operating system and
what resources the operating system can utilize.
Vocabulary Exercise: Completion
Fill in the blanks with the appropriate terms about installing Windows.
Windows 2000 Professional and Windows XP support up to 4 GB of memory.
Chapter 5: Fundamental Operating Systems
65
Windows XP Home Edition supports up to one processor(s), whereas Windows 2000 Professional and
Windows XP Professional support up to two processor(s).
Concept Questions
Answer the following questions about installing Windows.
Fill in the blanks in the following table.
Windows 2000 Professional
Windows XP Professional
Processor
Pentium processor running at 133 MHz
Processor running at 233 MHz or higher
RAM
64 MB
64 MB
Free Disk Space
650 MB
1.5 GB
What is the importance of using hardware that is on the hardware compatibility list (HCL)?
The HCL provides a detailed inventory of hardware that has been tested and is known to work with
the operating system. Although other hardware components may work, they have not been thoroughly
tested by the manufacturer of the software.
If you are trying to boot from a Windows installation CD, such as a Windows 2000 or Windows XP
installation CD, and the system appears not to boot from the CD, what do you need to do?
You need to enter the BIOS setup program and configure the boot sequence to boot from the
CD-ROM.
When installing Windows 95, Windows 98, or Windows Millennium, what is the executable that starts
the installation process, and where can it be found?
SETUP.EXE is located in the root directory of Disk 1 of the installation floppies and installation CD.
When you install Windows 98, list and describe the four types of Windows setups.
Typical—All the components that are usually installed.
Portable—Installation options generally required for portable computers.
Compact—The smallest possible installation that installs minimum components.
Custom—Allows you to choose which optional components to install.
Windows 2000 and Windows XP can use one of two executable files to install Windows. What are the
names of the two executable files?
WINNT.EXE and WINNT32.EXE
If you wanted to upgrade Windows 2000 Professional to Windows XP, which executable would you
use to perform the upgrade?
WINNT32.EXE
After Windows is installed, you should visit the Microsoft update website and install what?
Service packs and patches
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Vocabulary Exercise: Matching
Match the definition on the left with a term on the right.
Definitions
a.
b.
c.
Terms
The process of assigning part or all of the
drive for use by the computer.
__e__ Active partition
A central information database for
Windows 2000 and Windows XP
organized into a structured hierarchical
database to hold hardware, operating
system, and application settings and
configuration.
__f__ Formatting
Allows a user to manage files and directories from a single graphical interface.
__h__ Service pack
__g__ File system
__i__ Initialization files
__d__ Network Operating System (NOS)
__a__ Partitioning
__b__ Registry
__c__ Windows Explorer
d. Normally installed on a server, it has much
of the same functionality as a desktop
operating system but contains additional
components and features that enable the
computer to control network functions
such as sharing resources.
e. The partition used by the operating
system to boot the computer.
f.
Prepares a file system in a partition for
files to be stored.
g.
A method for storing and organizing
computer files and the data they contain
to make it easy to find and access them.
h.
A collection of fixes and patches bundled
as a single upgrade.
i.
A configuration file that contains configuration data (that is, idiom terms) for
Microsoft Windows-based applications.
Registry
The Registry is a central, secure database in which Windows 2000 and Windows XP stores all hardware
configuration information, software configuration information, and system security policies. Components
that use the Registry include the Windows kernel, device drivers, setup programs, NTDETECT.COM,
hardware profiles, and user profiles.
The Registry is organized in a hierarchical structure. The Registry is first divided into five subtrees.
Subtrees have names that begin with the string HKEY, which stands for Handle to a Key, often
referred to as hive key. A subtree is similar to a root directory of a disk.
Chapter 5: Fundamental Operating Systems
67
The Registry stores most of its information in sets of files called hives. A hive is a discrete body of
keys, subkeys, and values. Each hive has a corresponding Registry file and LOG file located in the
%systemroot%\SYSTEM32\CONFIG folder. When you back up and restore the Registry, you are
working with hives.
Concept Questions
Answer the following questions about registries:
Identify the following Windows Registry subtrees:
■
HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT: Contains software configuration information such as the file extension associations
■
HKEY_CURRENT_USER: Contains the user profile information for the person currently
logged in to Windows
■
HKEY_USERS: Contains the default user profile and individual user profile for users on the
system
■
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE: Contains the settings and information for the hardware that is
installed in the computer
■
HKEY_CURRENT_CONFIG: Contains all the information of the active configuration
What utility do you use to make changes directly to the Registry?
Registry Editor (regedit.exe)
Windows 98 Boot Sequence
You need to be familiar with the Windows 98 boot sequence. It is different from other versions of
Windows.
Concept Questions
Answer the following questions about the Windows 98 boot sequence.
Which system boot files are required for Windows 98 to boot?
IO.SYS, MSDOS.SYS, and WIN.COM
Which boot files initiate the Windows 9x protected load phase and read the file system?
IO.SYS
What is the first configuration file processed by the IO.SYS file?
MSDOS.SYS
Which system files are required for boot for Windows 95, Windows 98, and Windows Millennium?
IO.SYS, MSDOS.SYS, and WIN.COM
Which files initiate the Windows 9x protected load phase?
WIN.COM
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Windows 2000/XP Boot Sequence
You also need to be familiar with the Windows 2000/XP boot sequence.
Concept Questions
Answer the following questions about the Windows 2000/XP boot sequence.
Which file is the first file read when booting Windows 2000 or Windows XP?
NT Loader (NTLDR)
Which file reads the Registry files, chooses a hardware profile, and loads device drivers?
NT Loader (NTLDR)
Which file gets information about installed hardware?
Ntdetect.com
Which file contains the Boot Loader Operating System Selection menu and specifies the path to find
the boot partition?
Boot.ini
Which two files make up the core of Windows 2000 and Windows XP?
Ntoskrnl.exe and Hal.dll
Which file is used for SCSI devices during bootup?
NTBOOTDD.SYS
What file is used in a dual-boot configuration to keep a copy of the DOS-based operating system’s boot
sector so that the DOS-based operating system environment can be restored and loaded as needed?
BOOTSEC.DOS NB. DOS-based operating systems include the Windows 9x operating system family.
Which core file provides and handles the interaction between software and hardware via the Hardware
Abstraction Layer and is necessary for the Windows NT-based operating system to boot and function?
HAL.DLL
If you get the Kernel File Is Missing from the Disk error message, what is the cause of the problem
and how would you correct the problem?
NTLDR.COM file is missing. To fix the problem, copy the NTLDR.COM from a bootable floppy
disk.
What generates a Non-System Disk or Disk Error?
When the computer cannot find a boot sector with the appropriate operating system files to boot from.
If you get a Non-System Disk or Disk Error, what is the first thing you should check?
Make sure you did not leave a nonbootable floppy disk in the floppy drive.
Chapter 5: Fundamental Operating Systems
69
Windows 2000 and Windows XP Advanced Boot Menu
When you have problems with Windows starting, you have several tools available to help troubleshoot
and fix these problems. Most of these tools are available under the Advanced boot menu.
Concept Questions
Answer the following questions about the boot menu:
Which key do you press while the Windows boot menu is listed to display the Advanced boot menu?
F8
Which mode starts the computer using only the basic drivers and files needed including the mouse,
VGA monitor, keyboard, hard drive, and default system services?
Safe mode
If you have a faulty driver that does not allow Windows to boot properly, what would you use to
remove the faulty driver or roll back a driver that has been upgraded?
Boot the computer into safe mode and use Device Manager to remove or rollback the driver.
Which mode loads the basic VGA driver (with a resolution of 640×480 and 16 colors) instead of any
other video driver?
Enable VGA mode
Which mode starts the computer by using the configuration that was saved the last time the computer
started properly?
Last known good configuration mode
Which mode would you use to start basic drivers and files needed to boot with network connections?
Safe mode with networking option
Windows File Systems
To become a successful computer technician, you must be familiar with the various file systems available
to the various versions of Windows. You also need to know the characteristics of each of the file systems
and the advantages and disadvantages of each.
Concept Questions
Answer the following questions about Windows file systems.
Which file system is used by DOS and can be accessed by all Microsoft Windows versions?
FAT
Which file system is used by Windows 95B, Windows 98 and Windows Millennium, Windows 2000,
and Windows XP?
FAT32
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Which file system is the most secure and reliable file system used by Windows 2000 and Windows XP
and supports disk quotas, disk compression, and encryption?
NTFS
In Windows XP, which file system supports only up to 32 GB volumes?
FAT32
Which file system supports up to 2 TB?
NTFS
File Management
When you work with Windows, you will have to work with files. In Windows, file management is
done with Windows Explorer, which allows you to copy, move, and delete files. Therefore, as a computer technician, you will need to know how to manage these files.
Concept Questions
Answer the following questions about file management:
At the command prompt, how do you copy multiple files and folders?
Xcopy.exe
When using Windows Explorer, how do you select several files at the same time so that you can copy
them to the D: drive?
You can use the Ctrl key to select any file or folder within the same drive or folder. You can use the
Shift key to select two files or folders, and everything listed between those two files or folders will be
automatically selected.
How do you create a folder using Windows Explorer?
To create a new folder, navigate to the location where you want to create the folder and then rightclick in the right pane. In the context menu that appears, select New and then choose the object you
want to create, such as Folder.
How do you display the directory listing at the command prompt?
Use the dir command.
Control Panel
The Control Panel is a graphical tool used to configure the Windows environment and hardware devices.
The most commonly used applets are the System applet, the Display applet, the Add/Remove Programs
applet, and the Add New Hardware applet.
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Concept Questions
Answer the following questions about the Control Panel:
How do you open the Device Manager in Windows?
You can open it by right-clicking My Computer, choosing Properties, the Hardware tab, and then
clicking the Device Manager button. You can also right-click My Computer, choose Manage to open
the Computer Management Console, and select Device Manager from the list in the console tree (left
pane).
If you want to add hardware drivers for a new device, which Control Panel applet would you use?
The Add Hardware applet
To keep your system loaded exclusively with drivers from the compatibility list so that there is less
chance for system instability, Microsoft introduced what?
Driver signing
To specify which screen saver your system uses, which Control Panel applet would you use?
The Display applet
How do you create a bootable system disk using Windows 95/98?
Use the Add/Remove programs applet in the Control Panel and select the Startup Disk tab.
What utility would you use to roll back a driver?
The Device Manager
Troubleshooting Tools
You need to be able to troubleshoot operating systems to be a successful computer technician.
Concept Questions
Answer the following questions about troubleshooting:
Which utility will allow you to see which applications are using too much system resources?
Task Manager
Which utility scans the Registry and checks for errors and allows you to back up the Registry files?
SCANREG.EXE
What utility looks for corrupt file problems and disk errors such as cross-linked files?
SCANDISK or CHKDSK, depending on which version of Windows you are using.
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Study Questions
Choose the best answer for each of the questions that follow.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
To make a startup disk using a Windows 98 machine, you would do what?
A.
Open a command prompt and execute the SYS A: command.
B.
In the Add/Remove Program applet, click the Windows Setup tab and click the System
disk button.
C.
In the Add/Remove Program applet, click the Startup Disk and create the disk.
D.
Create the disk using the System Disk applet.
Which of the following support NTFS? (Choose all that apply.)
A.
Windows 98
B.
Windows Millennium
C.
Windows 2000
D.
Windows XP
Which of the Registry subtrees specifies which file extensions are associated with which programs?
A.
HKEY_CURRENT_USER
B.
HKEY_USERS
C.
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE
D.
HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT
Which files are needed to boot Windows 98?
A.
IO.SYS
B.
MSDOS.SYS
C.
Command.com
D.
WIN.Com
E.
BOOT.INI
In Windows XP, how do you lock the computer?
A.
Windows key-L shortcut
B.
Ctrl key-L shortcut
C.
Windows key-K shortcut
D.
Ctrl key-K shortcut
For the Windows operating system, where is the primary configuration information stored?
A.
System Registry
B.
NTLDR
C.
SYSTEM RESTORE
D.
NTDETECT.COM
Chapter 5: Fundamental Operating Systems
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
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What command do you use to copy multiple files and directories?
A.
Copy
B.
Xcopy.exe
C.
Diskcopy.exe
D.
Smartdrv.exe
Which of the following is a characteristic of the NTFS file system? (Choose all that apply.)
A.
Supports compression, encryption, disk quotas, and file ownership.
B.
Allows for file-level security to protect system resources.
C.
Can be accessed by DOS and Windows 9x operating systems.
D.
Can be easily converted back to FAT.
Which utility allows you to manage files and folders using a graphical interface in Windows
2000/XP?
A.
Command prompt
B.
Windows Explorer
C.
Internet Explorer
D.
Computer Management
When you install Windows 98, what does the Compact installation install?
A.
Components generally needed for a compact or mobile computer.
B.
Selected components and options.
C.
General set of components that are used by most users.
D.
A minimum set of components and options.
Which file is used to display the boot menu in Windows XP?
A.
SYSTEM.INI
B.
BOOT.INI
C.
NTDETECT.COM
D.
NTOSKRNL.EXE
E.
BOOTSECT.DOS
12. A user has Windows 2000, which needs to be upgraded to Windows XP. Which of the following
should you do?
13.
A.
Boot the system with the Windows XP CD.
B.
Start the Windows XP program from within the operating system.
C.
Copy Windows XP to the C: drive and restart the computer.
D.
Format the C: drive and copy the Windows XP to the C: drive.
Which program is used to install Windows 98?
A.
WINNT.EXE
B.
WINNT32.EXE
C.
SETUP.EXE
D.
INSTALL.EXE
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14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
Which programs are used to install Windows XP? (Choose two.)
A.
WINNT.EXE
B.
WINNT32.EXE
C.
SETUP.EXE
D.
INSTALL.EXE
What is the minimum recommended free disk space to install Windows XP Professional edition?
A.
320 MB
B.
1 GB
C.
2 GB
D.
1.5 GB
Which of the following drivers are most likely compatible with Windows 2000?
A.
Windows NT drivers
B.
Windows 95 drivers
C.
Windows 98 drivers
D.
Windows XP drivers
Windows XP Professional supports up to _____ processors and _____ GB of RAM.
A.
1, 1
B.
1, 2
C.
1, 4
D.
2, 2
E.
2, 4
To make sure that drivers are tested, you should install only what kind of drivers on a Windows
XP machine?
A.
Unsigned drivers
B.
Signed drivers
C.
Windows 2000 drivers
D.
Drivers from the manufacturer’s website
You upgraded a driver in Windows XP. Unfortunately, your machine does not boot. How do
you fix it?
A.
Boot with a Windows XP CD, access the Device Manager, and find out more about the
issue.
B.
Boot to safe mode, access the Device Manager, and roll back the driver.
C.
Start Windows in safe mode and remove the problematic driver.
D.
Boot into VGA mode and roll back the driver.
Which two utilities can you use to identify problems in Windows XP?
A.
Task Manager
B.
Control Panel
C.
Event Viewer
D.
System Restore
Chapter 5: Fundamental Operating Systems
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
You installed a program and now Windows will not boot. What should you do?
A.
Try booting to VGA mode.
B.
Boot to the last known good configuration.
C.
Boot to safe mode with networking.
D.
Boot to debugging mode.
Which startup mode loads only the basic files and drivers needed to boot Windows?
A.
VGA mode.
B.
Boot to the last known good configuration.
C.
Safe mode with networking.
D.
Safe mode.
How do you determine whether a program is using too much memory?
A.
Use the Task Manager.
B.
Use the Computer Management Console.
C.
Use the MEM /C command.
D.
Use the Device Manager.
What is the first file loaded when Windows XP starts?
A.
NTLDR
B.
BOOT.INI
C.
NTBOOTDD.SYS
D.
NTDETECT.COM
What do you use to check the integrity of the hard drive file system in Windows XP and to
attempt to repair the problems found?
A.
SCANREG
B.
SCANDISK
C.
CHKDSK
D.
DISKSCAN
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Lab Exercises
Worksheet 5.2.2: Search NOS Jobs
In this worksheet, you will use the Internet, a newspaper, or magazines to gather information about
network operating system certifications and jobs that require these certifications.
Instructor Note: Research network jobs in your local area.
Use the Internet to research three different network operating system certifications. Based on your
research, complete the table that follows:
Microsoft
Network Operating
System(s) Covered
Certification(s)
Title
Courses/Training
Required for
Certification
Windows 2000 and
Windows 2003
MSCE, Microsoft
Certified Systems
Engineer
Series of five or more
Microsoft
admin courses
Answers may vary.
Use the Internet, a newspaper, or a magazine to find at least two network jobs available in your area.
Describe the network jobs and the required certifications needed for the position.
The Microsoft Certified System Engineer is responsible for designing, building, and managing the
company’s network and infrastructure, tying manufacturing in China with inventory and quality control, warehousing in Phoenix, and distribution to major retailers nationwide. Challenging management
position for a team player experienced in developing and implementing supply chain solutions using
VPN and Citrix, bar coding, and interfacing with specialized accounting software. Requires MCSE
certification.
The Linux Systems Administrator is responsible for building, documenting, maintaining, and monitoring
all production Linux Servers and Development Linux Workstations. This position entails analyzing
problems that are occurring in the network, monitoring basic server functions, and performing normal
day-to-day monitoring. The Linux Systems Administrator is also responsible for preparing weekly status
reports for management. This position requires a minimum of two years network administration experience
and the LPI certification.
Answers may vary.
Which job would you prefer? List reasons for your selection.
The Microsoft Certified System Engineer. I am currently working toward my A+ certification and
expect to continue my training with Microsoft products.
Answers may vary.
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Worksheet 5.3.2: Upgrade Hardware Components
In this worksheet, you will use the Internet, a newspaper, or a local store to gather information about
hardware components. Your customer’s computer currently has 1 module of 256 MB of RAM, a 40GB hard disk drive, and an AGP video adapter card with 32 MB of RAM. Your customer wants to be
able to play advanced video games.
Instructor Note: Check to make sure students have chosen parts that are compatible with the current configuration and meet the needs of the customer.
Shop around, and in the following table list the brand, model number, features, and cost for two different 1 GB modules of DDR400 (PC3200).
Brand and Model Number
Features
Cost
Crucial CT12864Z40B
1 GB
184-Pin DDR SDRAM
CAS Latency 3
Voltage 2.6 V
$74.99
Based on your research, which RAM would you select? Be prepared to discuss your decisions regarding the RAM you select.
Instructor: Answers may vary.
Shop around, and in the following table list the brand, model number, features, and cost for two different 500 GB 5400 rpm IDE hard disk drives.
Brand and Model Number
Features
Cost
Seagate ST3500630A
500 GB
7200 RPM
16 MB Cache
IDE Ultra ATA100
3.5"
$144.99
Based on your research, which hard disk drive would you select? Be prepared to discuss your decisions regarding the hard disk drive you select.
Instructor: Answers may vary.
Shop around, and in the following table list the brand, model number, features, and cost for two different
8x AGP video adapter cards with 256 MB RAM.
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Brand and Model Number
Features
Cost
eVGA 256-A8-N506-AX
AGP 4X/8X
256 MB GDDR3
1300 MHz
256-bit Interface
DVI and VGA ports
$194.99
Based on your research, which video adapter card would you select? Be prepared to discuss your
decisions regarding the video adapter card you select.
Instructor: Answers may vary.
Lab 5.4.2: Install Windows XP
In this lab, you will install the Windows XP Professional operating system.
The following is the recommended equipment for this lab:
■
A computer with a blank hard disk drive
■
Windows XP Professional installation CD
Instructor Note: Complete an installation before class to ensure that the process goes smoothly. Check each
student computer to make sure that the BIOS boot sequence is set to boot from the CD first. To set the BIOS boot
sequence, enter the BIOS using the Del key while POST is running. Your computer may use a different key to
enter the BIOS. Check the manufacturer’s documentation. Find the screen that displays the boot sequence. If the
CD-ROM drive is not listed as the first boot device, add it to the list as the first device or move it to the top of the
list. Press F10 to save and exit the BIOS.
Step 1
Insert the Windows XP installation CD into the CD-ROM drive.
When the system starts up, watch for the message Press Any Key to Boot from CD (see Figure 5-1).
Instructor Note: The computer may boot the CD without this message.
If the message appears, press any key on the keyboard to boot the system from the CD. The system
will now begin inspecting the hardware configuration. If the message does not appear, the hard drive
is empty and the system will now begin inspecting the hardware configuration.
Chapter 5: Fundamental Operating Systems
Figure 5-1
Booting from a Computer with a Bootable CD
Step 2
The Windows XP Professional Setup screen appears (see Figure 5-2). During this part of setup, the
mouse will not work, so you must use the keyboard. On the Welcome to Setup page, press Enter to
continue.
Figure 5-2
Welcome Screen During the Windows XP Installation
Step 3
The Windows XP Licensing Agreement page appears (see Figure 5-3). Press the Page Down key to
scroll to the bottom of the license agreement. Press the F8 key to agree to the license.
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Figure 5-3
The Windows XP Licensing Agreement
Step 4
Select the hard drive or partition on which Windows XP will be installed.
Press Enter to select Unpartitioned Space, which is the default setting (see Figure 5-4).
Figure 5-4
Specifying the Partition on Which to Install Windows XP
Step 5
Press Enter again to select Format the Partition Using the NTFS File System, which is the default setting (see Figure 5-5).
Chapter 5: Fundamental Operating Systems
Figure 5-5
81
Choosing to Format the Partition Before You Install Windows XP
Windows XP Professional Setup erases the hard disk drive, formats the hard disk drive (see Figure 5-6),
and copies the setup files from the installation CD to the hard disk drive. This process should take
between 20 and 30 minutes to complete.
Figure 5-6
Formatting of the Partition During the Windows XP Installation
Step 6
After the formatting and copying processes, Windows XP restarts and continues with the installation
process. At this point, the mouse can be used to make selections. The Regional and Language Options
page appears. Click Next to accept the default settings. Regional and language options can be configured
after setup is complete.
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Instructor Note: You will need to tell your students what name and organization name they should use on the
Personalize Your Software page.
The Personalize Your Software page appears. Type the name and the organization name provided by
your instructor. Click Next (see Figure 5-7).
Figure 5-7
Specifying the Name and Organization During Windows XP Installation
Step 7
The Your Product Key page appears. On this page, type your product key as it appears on your
Windows XP CD case. Click Next (see Figure 5-8).
Figure 5-8
Entering the Product Key During the Windows XP Installation
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83
Instructor Note: You will need to provide the students with computer names and Administrator passwords. The
computer name should uniquely identify your computer in the home or office, such as ROOM101 or HOMEOFFICE.
No spaces or punctuation can be used in the Computer Name.
On the Computer Name and Administrator Password screen, type the computer name provided by
your instructor. Type the Administrator password provided by your instructor, and retype it in the
Confirm Password section. Click Next (see Figure 5-9).
Figure 5-9
Specifying the Computer Name and Administrator Password
Step 8
On the Date and Time Settings screen, configure the computer clock to match your local date, time,
and time zone. Click Next (see Figure 5-10).
Figure 5-10
Specifying the Date and Time During the Windows XP Installation
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Step 9
On the Networking Settings page, click Next to accept Typical Settings. Custom Settings can be configured after setup is complete (see Figure 5-11).
Figure 5-11
Selecting a Typical or Custom Installation
Step 10
On the Workgroup or Computer Domain page, accept the default settings and click Next (see Figure 5-12).
Figure 5-12
Specifying a Workgroup or Joining the System to a Domain
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85
Step 11
Windows XP Professional Setup may take about 25 minutes to configure your computer. Your computer will automatically restart when the setup program is complete. When the Display Settings dialog
box appears, click OK (see Figure 5-13).
Figure 5-13
Automatic Improvement of Display
Step 12
When the Monitor Settings dialog box appears, click OK (see Figure 5-14).
Figure 5-14
Monitor Adjustment Check
Step 13
The final phase of Windows XP Professional Setup begins. On the Welcome to Microsoft Windows
page, click Next (see Figure 5-15).
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Figure 5-15
Windows XP Welcome Screen
Step 14
On the Help Protect Your PC screen, select Help Protect My PC by Turning On Automatic Updates
Now. Click Next (see Figure 5-16).
Figure 5-16
Configuring Automatic Updates for Windows XP
Step 15
Windows XP will now check to make sure that you are connected to the Internet. If you are already
connected to the Internet, select the choice that represents your network connection. If you are unsure
of the connection type, accept the default selection and click Next (see Figure 5-17).
Chapter 5: Fundamental Operating Systems
Figure 5-17
87
Configuring Your Internet Connection
Step 16
If you use dial-up Internet access, or if Windows XP Professional Setup cannot connect to the Internet,
you can connect to the Internet after setup is complete. Click Skip to continue (see Figure 5-18).
Figure 5-18
Selecting a DSL/Cable Connection or Specifying a Network Connection
Step 17
Windows XP Professional Setup displays the Ready to Activate Windows? screen (see Figure 5-19).
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Figure 5-19
Activating Windows XP
If you are already connected to the Internet, click Yes, and then click Next.
If you are not yet connected to the Internet, click No, and then click Next.
After setup is complete, the Windows XP setup program will remind you to activate and register your
copy of Windows XP.
Step 18
If you have an Internet connection, click Yes, I’d Like to Register with Microsoft Now.
If you do not have an Internet connection, click No, Not at This Time.
Click Next (see Figure 5-20).
Figure 5-20 Registering Windows XP
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89
Step 19
Instructor Note: You will need to provide your students with registration information.
On the Collecting Registration Information screen, fill in the fields using the information provided by
your instructor and then click Next (see Figure 5-21).
Figure 5-21 Specifying the Registration Information
Step 20
Instructor Note: You will need to provide the information for students to fill in the Who Will Use This
Computer? screen.
On the Who Will Use This Computer? screen, enter the information provided by your instructor. Click
Next (see Figure 5-22).
Figure 5-22 Specifying the Computer Users
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Step 21
On the Thank You screen, click Finish to complete the installation (see Figure 5-23).
Figure 5-23 Thank You Screen
Lab 5.4.5: Create Accounts and Check for Updates
In this lab, you will create user accounts and configure the operating system for automatic updates
after the Windows XP Professional installation process.
The recommended equipment for this lab is a computer with a new installation of Windows XP
Professional.
Instructor Note: This lab assumes that Windows XP Professional was properly installed on the lab computers.
Step 1
Boot the computer. Navigate to the Control Panel window by clicking Start, Control Panel (see Figure 5-24).
Chapter 5: Fundamental Operating Systems
Figure 5-24 Windows XP Control Panel
Step 2
Double-click the User Accounts icon. The User Accounts window appears (see Figure 5-25). Click
Create a New Account.
Figure 5-25 Configuring Windows XP User Accounts
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Step 3
At Name the New Account, type your name into the field and then click Next (see Figure 5-26).
Figure 5-26 Specifying the Username for a New Account
Step 4
At Pick an Account Type, leave the default setting of Computer Administrator and click Create
Account (see Figure 5-27).
Figure 5-27 Selecting the Account Type
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You have now finished creating a new account. Log off the computer and log back on as yourself.
Leave the password field blank.
Step 5
Return to the User Accounts window of the Control Panel.
Click your account.
Click Create a Password (see Figure 5-28).
Figure 5-28 Modifying User Accounts
Step 6
On the Create a Password for Your Account page, type your first initial and your last name in the Type
a New Password field. Example: jsmith
Type the same password into the Type the New Password Again to Confirm field.
Type your first initial and last name into the Type a Word or Phrase to Use as a Password Hint field.
Click Create Password (see Figure 5-29).
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Figure 5-29 Changing a User Account’s Password
Step 7
Click the red X in the upper-right corner of the User Accounts window to close the window (see
Figure 5-30).
Figure 5-30 Modifying User Accounts
Step 8
Click Start, Control Panel (see Figure 5-31).
Double-click the Automatic Updates icon.
Chapter 5: Fundamental Operating Systems
Figure 5-31 Windows XP Control Panel
Step 9
The Automatic Updates dialog box appears.
Click the Automatic (recommended) option button.
Click OK to accept the change and close the dialog box (see Figure 5-32).
Figure 5-32 Configuring Automatic Updates
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Worksheet 5.4.9: Answer NTFS and FAT32 Questions
Hard disk drives can be formatted using different file systems. NTFS and FAT32 are file systems used
by the Windows XP operating system and provide different file system features.
Answer the following questions about the NTFS and FAT32 file systems:
What is the default cluster size setting when formatting a Windows NTFS partition on a hard disk
drive larger than 2 GB?
4 KB
What is the command used to change a FAT32 partition to an NTFS partition?
convert
What is the Master File Table (MFT) and what does it contain?
The MFT is a file on an NTFS volume that contains the name, size, permissions, and the creation and
modification date of every file stored on the volume.
What is NTFS journaling?
Journaling is when the operating system keeps a record of all changes to the hard disk drive directory
structure in a separate file.
How does journaling help an operating system recover from system failures?
When a power or system failure occurs, the information in the NTFS journal is used to roll back
changes to when the system was working properly.
Why is an NTFS partition more secure than FAT32?
NTFS uses permission settings to specify which users can read, write, list, or change files, whereas
FAT32 partitions do not.
Lab 5.5.1: Run Commands
In this lab, you will open the same program by using the Windows Explorer and the run command.
The recommended equipment for this lab is a computer system running Windows XP.
Step 1
Boot the computer and log on as yourself.
Right-click the Start button, and then click Explore (see Figure 5-33).
Chapter 5: Fundamental Operating Systems
Figure 5-33 Windows Explorer Window
Step 2
Right-click the Local Disk (C:) hard disk drive.
Click Properties, and then click the Disk Cleanup button (see Figure 5-34).
Figure 5-34 Drive Properties
The Disk Cleanup for (C:) window appears (see Figure 5-35).
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Figure 5-35 Disk Cleanup
Windows calculates the amount of space used by unnecessary files.
Instructor Note: The computer may take some time to display this window if it has not had a disk cleanup performed recently.
Click Cancel.
Step 3
Open the Run dialog box by clicking Start, Run.
Type cleanmgr into the Open field (see Figure 5-36). Click OK.
Figure 5-36 Using the Run Option to Run the cleanmgr Command
The Disk Cleanup for (C:) window opens (see Figure 5-37).
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Figure 5-37 Disk Cleanup Utility
Step 4
Click the OK button.
Why should disk cleanup be performed regularly?
Answers may vary.
When you regularly perform disk cleanup, you are freeing up hard drive space that may make your
computer operate more efficiently.
Lab 5.5.4: Install Third-Party Software
In this lab, you will install and remove a third-party software application by using the Microsoft
Windows XP Professional Installation CD. The student will install the CITRIX ICA 32-bit Windows
Client application.
The following is the recommended equipment for this lab:
■
A computer system that is using Windows XP
■
A Microsoft Windows XP installation CD
Step 1
Log on to the computer with the Administrator account.
Place the Windows XP Professional installation CD into the CD drive. Use Windows Explorer to navigate
to the following folder:
D:\VALUEADD\3RDPARTY\MGMT\CITRIX
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Locate the ICA32.exe application in the folder (see Figure 5-38). Click the ICA32 icon to start the
installation process of the Citrix application. You might need to double-click the icon to start the
installation.
Figure 5-38 Using Windows Explorer to Start the ICA32 Program
Step 2
Click Next when the InstallShield Wizard window opens (see Figure 5-39).
Figure 5-39 Welcome Screen for the Citrix ICA 32-bit Windows Client Software
A window opens displaying the file extraction progress (see Figure 5-40).
Chapter 5: Fundamental Operating Systems
Figure 5-40 Citrix ICA 32-bit Windows Client Software Extracting Files
After the files have been extracted, the ICA Client Setup program begins. Click Next to begin the
installation (see Figure 5-41).
Figure 5-41 Second Welcome Screen for the Citrix ICA 32-bit Windows Client Software
Click Yes on the License Agreement (see Figure 5-42).
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Figure 5-42 Citrix License Agreement
In the Choose Destination Location dialog box, use the default location, and then click Next (see
Figure 5-43).
Figure 5-43 Choosing the Destination Location for the Citrix ICA 32-bit Windows Client
Software
In the Select Program Folder dialog box, use the default location, and then click Next (see Figure 5-44).
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Figure 5-44 Selecting the Program Folder for the Citrix ICA 32-bit Windows Client Software
Enter student as the ClientName. Click Next (see Figure 5-45).
Figure 5-45 Specifying the ICA ClientName
In the Select Desired Features window, leave the default choice of No. Click Next (see Figure 5-46).
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Figure 5-46 Specifying the Automatic Use of Your Windows User Account for the Citrix
Client Software
You have successfully installed the Citrix program (see Figure 5-47).
Figure 5-47 Completing the Installation of the Citrix ICA Client Software
Step 3
To uninstall a program, choose Start, Control Panel, Add or Remove Programs. Click the Citrix ICA
Client in the list. Click Change/Remove (see Figure 5-48).
Chapter 5: Fundamental Operating Systems
Figure 5-48 Removing the Citrix ICA Client Software
Click Yes to confirm the removal (see Figure 5-49).
Figure 5-49 Confirming the Deleting of Files
The screen in Figure 5-50 will appear, displaying the removal progress.
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Figure 5-50 When the Program Is Removed, Click OK
After the application removal process, the Add or Remove Programs window no longer shows the
Citrix ICA Client in the list (see Figure 5-51).
Figure 5-51 Add/Remove Programs in the Control Panel
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Why does Microsoft recommend using Add/Remove Programs to remove an installed application?
Sometimes, the uninstall program provided by the software does not fully remove all the files and settings created by the application during installation. The Microsoft Windows Add or Remove Programs
utility removes the application completely.
Lab 5.6.2: Restore Points
In this lab, you will create a restore point and return your computer back to that point in time.
The following is the recommended equipment for this lab:
■
A computer system running Windows XP
■
The Windows XP installation CD
Step 1
Click Start, All Programs, Accessories, System Tools, System Restore.
Click the Create a Restore Point option button.
Click Next (see Figure 5-52).
Figure 5-52 Welcome Screen for the System Restore
Step 2
In the Restore Point Description field, type Application Installed.
Click Create (see Figure 5-53).
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Figure 5-53 Creating a Restore Point
Step 3
The Restore Point Created window appears.
Click Close (see Figure 5-54).
Figure 5-54 Completing the Creation of a Restore Point
Step 4
Click Start, Control Panel, Add or Remove Programs.
Click the Add or Remove Programs icon (see Figure 5-55).
Chapter 5: Fundamental Operating Systems
Figure 5-55 Control Panel in Category View
Step 5
Click Add/Remove Windows Components (see Figure 5-56).
Figure 5-56 Add or Remove Windows Components
Step 6
Click the Internet Information Services (IIS) check box.
Click Next (see Figure 5-57).
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Figure 5-57 Windows Components Wizard
Step 7
The Insert Disk dialog box appears. Place the Windows XP installation CD into the optical drive (see
Figure 5-58). Click OK.
Figure 5-58 Insert Disk Window
Step 8
The Files Needed window appears (see Figure 5-59). Click OK.
Figure 5-59 Files Needed Window
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The Configuring Components progress window appears (see Figure 5-60).
Figure 5-60 Copying Files for the New Windows Components
Step 9
The Completing the Windows Components Wizard window appears.
Click Finish (see Figure 5-61).
Figure 5-61 Adding Windows Components Is Finished
Step 10
The System Settings Change dialog box appears. Remove the Windows XP installation disk from the
optical drive.
Click Yes (see Figure 5-62).
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Figure 5-62 Restart Windows
Step 11
Log on to Windows as yourself.
Open the Notepad application by clicking Start, All Programs, Accessories, Notepad.
Type This Is a Test of the Restore Points in the Notepad Application.
Click File, Save As.
Click My Documents on the left side of the Save As dialog box.
Type Restore Point Test File into the File Name field.
Click Save (see Figure 5-63).
Click File, Exit.
Figure 5-63 Using Notepad to Open a Text File
Step 12
Open IIS to confirm that you have successfully installed this service.
Click Start, All Programs, Administrative Tools, Internet Information Services (see Figure 5-64).
Click File, Exit.
Chapter 5: Fundamental Operating Systems
Figure 5-64 Internet Information Services Management Console
Step 13
Click Start, All Programs, Accessories, System Tools, System Restore.
Select the Restore My Computer to an Earlier Time option button.
Click Next (see Figure 5-65).
Figure 5-65 Restoring to a System Restore Point
Step 14
In the Select a Restore Point window, select today’s date from the calendar on the left.
Select Application Installed from the list on the right.
Click Next (see Figure 5-66).
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Figure 5-66 Selecting Which Restore Point to Restore
Step 15
The Confirm Restore Point Selection window appears.
Note: When you click Next, Windows will restart the computer. Close all applications before you click Next.
Click Next (see Figure 5-67).
Figure 5-67 Confirming Details Before Restoring to a Restore Point
The operating system restores to the point before the IIS application was installed.
Chapter 5: Fundamental Operating Systems
Step 16
The Restoration Complete window appears. Click OK (see Figure 5-68).
Figure 5-68 Restore Point Has Been Restored
Step 17
Click Start, All Programs, Administrative Tools.
Is the Internet Information Services application listed?
No
Step 18
Navigate to the My Documents folder.
Open the Restore Point Test file.txt file (see Figure 5-69).
Are the contents the same?
Yes
Figure 5-69 Opening a Text File with Notepad
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Lab 5.6.3: Windows Registry Backup and Recovery
In this lab, you will back up a computer registry. You will also perform a recovery of a computer registry. The registry is also called System State data.
The required equipment for this lab is a computer system running Windows XP.
Step 1
Log on to the computer as yourself.
Click Start, Run.
Type ntbackup, and then click OK. The Backup or Restore Wizard window appears.
Click Advanced Mode (see Figure 5-70).
Figure 5-70
Starting the Windows Backup Program
Step 2
The Backup Utility window appears (see Figure 5-71).
Click Backup Wizard.
Chapter 5: Fundamental Operating Systems
Figure 5-71
Advanced Mode for the Windows Backup Program
Step 3
The Welcome to the Backup Wizard window appears (see Figure 5-72).
Click Next.
Figure 5-72
Welcome Screen for the Microsoft Backup Program
Step 4
Click the Only Back Up the System State Data option button (see Figure 5-73).
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Figure 5-73
Backing Up the System State Using Windows Backup Program
Step 5
Click Next.
The Backup Type, Destination, and Name window appears (see Figure 5-74).
Figure 5-74
Specifying the Backup Location and Name
Step 6
Click Browse.
If you are asked to insert a disk into the floppy disk drive, click Cancel. The Save As dialog box
appears (see Figure 5-75).
Chapter 5: Fundamental Operating Systems
Figure 5-75
Specifying the Filename and Location of the Backup
Step 7
Click the My Documents icon on the left side of the Save As dialog box.
Click Save. The Backup Type, Destination, and Name window reappears (see Figure 5-76).
Figure 5-76
Specifying the Backup Location and Name
Step 8
Click Next. The Completing the Backup Wizard window appears (see Figure 5-77).
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Figure 5-77
Completing the Backup Wizard
Step 9
Click Advanced. The Type of Backup window appears (see Figure 5-78).
Figure 5-78
Specifying the Type of Backup
The default backup type is Normal. If available, make sure that Backup Migrated Remote Storage
Data is not checked.
Step 10
Click Next. The How To Backup window appears (see Figure 5-79).
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Figure 5-79
121
Verification of Backup Options
Step 11
Click the Verify Data After Backup check box, and then click Next. The Backup Options window
appears (see Figure 5-80).
Figure 5-80 Choosing to Append or Replace a Backup with the Same Name
Step 12
Click Replace the Existing Backups, and then click Next. The When to Back Up window appears (see
Figure 5-81).
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Figure 5-81 Scheduling the Backup
Step 13
At the When to Back Up window, click Now, and then click Next. The Completing the Backup
Wizard window appears (see Figure 5-82).
Figure 5-82 Completing the Backup Wizard
Step 14
Click Finish. The Backup Progress window appears (see Figure 5-83).
Chapter 5: Fundamental Operating Systems
Figure 5-83 Progress of the Backup
The Backup Progress window indicates that the backup is complete (see Figure 5-84).
Figure 5-84 Backup Is Complete
Step 15
Click Report. The Notepad application window appears, containing the report (see Figure 5-85).
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Figure 5-85 Viewing the Backup Logs Using Notepad
Close Notepad.
In the Backup Progress dialog box, click Close.
Close the Backup Utility.
Step 16
Click Start, Run.
Type regedit into the Open field. The Registry Editor window appears (see Figure 5-86).
Chapter 5: Fundamental Operating Systems
Figure 5-86 The Registry Editor
Step 17
Expand the HKEY_CURRENT_USER Registry key.
Expand the Control Panel Registry key.
Expand the PowerCfg Registry key.
Right-click the Screen Saver.Stars Registry key.
Click Delete.
Click File, Exit in the Registry Editor window.
Browse to the My Documents folder and locate the backup.bkf file.
Double-click the backup file to bring up the Backup Utility Wizard.
Click Next (see Figure 5-87).
Figure 5-87 Running the Backup/Restore Wizard
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Step 18
Click the Restore Files and Settings option button, and then click Next. The What to Restore window
appears (see Figure 5-88).
Figure 5-88 Selecting Which Backup to Restore
Step 19
Expand the file.
Expand the backup.bkf file.
Click the System State check box (see Figure 5-89).
Figure 5-89 Selecting the System State to Restore
Chapter 5: Fundamental Operating Systems
Step 20
Click Next. The Completing the Backup or Restore Wizard window appears (see Figure 5-90).
Figure 5-90 Completing the Restore Wizard
Step 21
Click Advanced. The Where to Restore window appears (see Figure 5-91).
Figure 5-91 Selecting Where to Restore To
Step 22
The default restoration location is Original Location. Click Next.
The Restoring System State Will Always Overwrite Current System State Unless Restoring to an
Alternate Location warning window appears (see Figure 5-92). Click OK.
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Figure 5-92 Warning That the System State Can Only Be Restored to Its Original State
Step 23
Click the Replace Existing Files if They Are Older Than the Backup Files option button (see Figure 5-93).
Figure 5-93 Options to Replace Existing Files
Step 24
Click Next. The Advanced Restore Options window appears (see Figure 5-94).
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Figure 5-94 Advanced Restore Options
Be sure that all three check boxes are selected, and then click Next.
Click Finish. The system recovery begins by copying the files back to the computer. When prompted
to restart the computer, click Yes. The computer will restart.
Step 25
Click Start, Run.
Type regedit into the Open field.
Click OK. You should see the Screen Saver.Stars Registry key in the Registry Editor application
window.
Click File, Exit.
How does backing up the system state files save time?
Answers may vary.
If there is ever a problem with the system Registry, such as a bad driver or Registry file corruption,
the system can be restored quickly from a previously known-good registry. This process is much
faster than having to reinstall the entire operating system and losing all hardware and software settings.
CHAPTER 6
Fundamental Laptops and Portable Devices
The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of multiple-choice, matching, fill-in-the-blank, and
open-ended questions to test your knowledge of laptop computers, including maintaining and troubleshooting
laptop computers. This portion also includes multiple-choice study questions to help prepare you to take the
A+ certification exams and to test your overall understanding of the material.
The Lab Exercises portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum worksheets to further reinforce
your mastery of the laptop and portable devices content.
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Study Guide
Laptop Fundamentals
Over the past several years, laptop computers have become very popular. Although laptops are essential compact computers, configuring or troubleshooting a laptop computer brings different challenges
than configuring and troubleshooting a desktop computer. Therefore, as a well-rounded technician,
you need to know those differences and be prepared to work on both desktop and laptop computers.
Vocabulary Exercise: Completion
Fill in the blanks with the appropriate terms about these laptop components:
■
Processors: Although desktop processors can be used in laptop computers, mobile processors
make a better choice because they have less power consumption and produce less heat. Mobile
processors also have the capability to throttle so that they run at lower speeds to consume less
power.
■
Motherboard: Laptop motherboards vary by manufacturer and are proprietary.
■
RAM: The most common RAM that you will find in a laptop is SODIMM. These memory
chips have 144 pins/contacts or 200 pins/contacts and are 64-bits wide.
■
Video Card: The video card will usually be built in to the motherboard. The type of video RAM
is typically DDR SDRAM.
■
Hard Drive: Hard drives are 2.5 inches wide, and they include the parallel ATA interface or the
serial ATA interface.
■
Expansion Slots: The standard expansion slots found on laptop computers are PC cards. Type I
cards are used for SDRAM Flash; type II cards are used for modems, LAN adapters, and wireless cards; and type III cards are used for hard drives. If you have two stacked card slots, it will
support 2 type II card(s) or 1 type III card(s). Internal expansion cards include mini-PCI cards.
■
Power: Laptops run on AC power or a rechargeable battery. Of the types of batteries, the nickel
cadmium (NiCD) has the shortest battery life.
■
Keyboard and Pointing Devices: The keyboard and pointing device are integrated into the base
of the laptop. Pointing devices found on a laptop are trackballs, track pads, and pointing sticks.
If you want to connect a wireless mouse and keyboard to a laptop, you should use Bluetooth
technology.
■
Monitor: The type of monitor found on laptop computers are LCD monitors.
■
Ports: Laptops use many of the same type of ports that a desktop computer uses. To connect a
printer or an external keyboard or mouse, you can use the USB port. Other common ports
include serial ports, parallel ports, and VGA ports.
■
External Expandability: To expand a laptop system even further, laptops can connect to a
docking station, which will provide AC power and access to attached peripherals.
Chapter 6: Fundamental Laptops and Portable Devices
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Identify the Parts of a Laptop
Fill in the blanks for the parts of a laptop pictured in the following table.
Parallel port
USB port
VGA/Super VGA port
Serial port
PC Card slot
PC Card
Power Management
Because mobile computers can run on battery power, users like to take advantage of the mobility this
affords for as long as possible without plugging into an AC outlet or replacing batteries. Therefore, it
is important that you understand the features that mobile computers offer so that you can conserve power.
Vocabulary Exercise: Matching
Match the definition on the left with a term on the right.
Definitions
a. Creates a bridge between the hardware and
OS and allows technicians to create power
management schemes in the operating system
to get the best performance from the computer.
b. Collection of settings that manage the
power usage of the computer.
c. Documents and applications are saved in
RAM, allowing the computer to power on
quickly.
d. Documents and applications are saved to a
temporary file on the hard drive, and will
take a little longer than standby to power on.
e. Allows for power management in the BIOS.
Terms
__a Advanced Configuration and Power
Interface (ACPI)
__e Advanced Power Management
__d Hibernate
__b Power Schemes
__c Standby
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Concept Questions
Answer the following power-management questions.
Describe the best method to keep the laptop computer cool.
By placing on a flat surface where vents are unobstructed. Also keep the vents clean.
What is the advantage of running a laptop on a hard surface over setting it on a loose blanket or comforter?
Because the vents are often on the bottom and/or sides of the laptop, it is best to have it on a flat surface for proper airflow. Loose blankets and comforters would obstruct airflow.
Laptop Maintenance
Similar to desktop computers, you also need to perform preventive maintenance on laptop and notebook
computers. Because these devices are designed to be portable and consume less power, laptop and
notebook computers require preventive maintenance that is a little different.
Concept Questions
Answer the following laptop maintenance question:
Describe the best method to clean the following components:
■
Laptop keyboard:
Blow compressed air between the keys. Wipe laptop and keyboard with a soft, lint-free cloth
lightly moistened with water or computer-screen cleaner.
■
Ventilation:
Use compressed air or a non-electrostatic vacuum to clean out the dust from the vents and the
fan behind the vent. Use tweezers to remove any debris.
■
LCD:
Wipe display with a soft, lint-free cloth lightly moistened with water or LCD cleaner.
■
Touch pad:
Wipe surface of touch pad gently with a soft, lint-free cloth moistened with an approved cleaner.
Never use a wet cloth.
■
Floppy drive:
Insert the cleaning disk and let it spin for the suggested amount of time.
■
Optical drive:
Use a commercially available CD or DVD drive cleaning disk. Insert the cleaning disk and let it
spin for the suggested amount of time to clean all contact areas.
■
CD:
Hold the disk by the outer edge of the disc or by the inside edge of the center hole. Gently wipe
the disc with a lint-free cotton cloth. Never use paper or any material that may scratch the disc
or leave streaks. Wipe from the center of the disc outward. Never use a circular motion. Apply a
commercial CD or DVD cleaning solution to the lint-free cotton cloth and wipe again if any
contaminates remain on the disc. Allow the disc to dry before it is inserted into the drive.
Chapter 6: Fundamental Laptops and Portable Devices
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Troubleshooting Laptop Computers
Although laptop and desktop computers have different designs, troubleshooting laptop computers follows a systematic troubleshooting model similar to troubleshooting desktop computers. When troubleshooting laptop and notebook computers, you must keep in mind the features and characteristics of
technology used in mobile computers compared to desktop computers.
Concept Questions
Answer the following troubleshooting laptop computers question:
In the list that follows, fill in the basic steps in troubleshooting:
Step 1.
Gather data from the customer.
Step 2.
Verify the obvious issues.
Step 3.
Try quick solutions first.
Step 4.
Gather data from the computer.
Step 5.
Evaluate the problem and implement the solution.
Step 6.
Close with the customer.
Study Questions
Choose the best answer for each of the questions that follow.
1.
2.
3.
What is the best method for connecting multiple external peripheral devices such as printer,
keyboard, and mouse to a laptop computer using wireless technology?
A.
Bluetooth
B.
Microwave
C.
IrDA
D.
802.11b
After you replace a touchpad, you find out that the keyboard is not functioning. What do you
think the problem is?
A.
The touchpad is not seated properly.
B.
The keyboard needs to be replaced.
C.
The keyboard connector is not seated properly.
D.
The computer needs to be rebooted.
Where would you enable hibernation on a laptop running Windows XP?
A.
In the BIOS setup program
B.
In the power schemes
C.
In the power management applet in the Control Panel
D.
In the power hibernation applet in the Control Panel
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4.
5.
6.
A laptop has Windows XP up and running. How do you remove a PC card?
A.
Disable the device in the Device Manager.
B.
Use the Safely Remove Hardware icon to eject the device.
C.
Use the Add/Remove Hardware applet in the Control Panel.
D.
Nothing needs to be done. Just pull the PC card out.
What is the range of IrDA?
A.
1 meter
B.
3 meters
C.
10 meters
D.
100 feet
What is the best place to use the laptop?
A.
On a hard surface so that the air can flow underneath the laptop to keep it cooler
B.
30 inches from any wall to allow good air flow
C.
In front of a fan
D.
In the carrying case
Chapter 6: Fundamental Laptops and Portable Devices
137
Lab Exercises
Worksheet 6.1.2: Research Laptops, Smart Phones,
and PDAs
Use the Internet, a newspaper, or a local store to gather information, and then enter the specifications
for a laptop, smart phone, and PDA onto this worksheet. What type of equipment do you want? What
features are important to you?
For example, you may want a laptop that has an 80 GB hard drive and plays DVDs or has built-in
wireless capability. You may need a smart phone with Internet access or a PDA that takes pictures.
Shop around, and in the table that follows, list the features and cost for a laptop, smart phone, and
PDA. Be prepared to discuss your decisions regarding the features you select.
Answers will vary.
Equipment
Features
Cost
Laptop Computer
Example:
2053.00 USD
Lenovo ThinkPad X60 Tablet
12.1" UltraView + EasyTouch XGA TFT and Intel
Core Duo L2500 LV (1.83GHz, 2 MB L2, 667
MHz FSB)
Total memory: 512 MB PC2-5300 SDRAM DDR2
667 MHz SODIMM Memory (1 DIMM)
Hard drive: 60 GB Hard Disk Drive, 5400rpm
Serial ATA (2.5")
Wireless cards: ThinkPad 11a/b/g/n Wi-Fi wireless
LAN Mini-PCIe
Battery: ThinkPad X60 Tablet Series 4 cell Slim
Line Battery
1 Year Limited Warranty
continues
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Equipment
Features
Cost
Smart Phone
Example:
$449.99 USD
Samsung BlackJack
Microsoft Windows Mobile 5.0 Edition
$299.00 USD with
two-year contract
Cingular Music, Cingular Video and Media
Net capable
With mail-in rebate
$199.00 USD
Mobile versions of Microsoft Office applications
Windows Media Player 10 Mobile
Bluetooth 2.0 wireless connectivity
Simultaneous voice and data capabilities
Quad-band world phone with dual-band UMTS/HSDPA
Slim design PDA with full QWERTY keyboard
1.3 MP camera with 2x zoom and video
Microsoft Direct Push for real-time email delivery
Mobile Outlook, Word, Excel, PowerPoint, and PDF support
Email: Xpress Mail, Good Mobile Messaging, ActiveSync, and more
Synchronize your desktop and calendar wirelessly
Hands-free loudspeaker and microphone
Instant messaging capabilities
Fast-loading full HTML web browser
PDA
Example:
$399 USD
Palm LifeDrive mobile manager
Memory: 4 GB (3.85 GB actual storage capacity)
Program memory: 64 MB (55.1 MB available to user)
for Palm OS applications and data
Processor: Intel 416 MHz XScale processor
Screen display: 320×480 Transflective TFT color display
supports more than 65,000 colors
Internet access: Built-in Bluetooth technology, built-in Wi-Fi
(802.11b)
Connector: USB sync cable and AC adapter
Battery support: Rechargeable lithium ion
Supported desktop systems: Windows 2000 or XP or
Mac OS X v10.2.6 to 10.3 (Windows 2000, XP and
Mac OS X require admin rights to install). One available
USB port. Outlook sync requires Microsoft Outlook 2000,
2002, or 2003 (Windows version only).
Included with purchase: LifeDrive mobile manager, protective
sleeve, USB sync cable with palmOne, multiconnector, AC
power adapter, desktop installation and software, Essentials
CD with tutorial and Getting Started Guide in PDF format.
Chapter 6: Fundamental Laptops and Portable Devices
139
Worksheet 6.2.3: Complete Docking Stations True or
False Questions
Enter T for true or F for false in the space provided to correctly identify the statements that follow.
__F Docking stations are usually smaller than port replicators and do not have speakers or PCI
slots.
__T The exhaust vent is an outlet through which the fan expels hot air from the interior of the
docking station.
__T A laptop can be secured to a docking station with a key lock.
__F The RJ-11 modem port connects a laptop to a cabled local area network.
__F The Ethernet port uses an RJ-45 socket to connect a laptop to a standard telephone line.
__F The DVI port is a 15-pin socket that allows output to external displays and projectors.
__T The Line In connector is a socket used to attach an audio source.
__F The Eject button releases the peripherals from the docking station.
__T The parallel port is a socket used to connect a device such as a printer or a scanner.
Worksheet 6.3.4: Answer Laptop Expansion
Questions
1.
2.
List three types of PC Cards and the thickness of each.
Type
Thickness
I
3.3 mm
II
5.5 mm
III
10.5 mm
Are PC ExpressCards interchangeable with PC cards?
No
3.
What does APM use to control power management?
BIOS
4.
What does ACPI use to control power management?
Operating system
5.
Can you add desktop RAM to a laptop motherboard?
No
6.
Does a desktop processor use more or less power than a laptop processor of the same speed?
More power
7.
Does a laptop processor generate more or less heat than a desktop processor?
Less heat
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Worksheet 6.4.1: Match ACPI Standards
Enter the appropriate ACPI standard (S0, S1, S2, S3, S4, S5) next to the correct power management
state description:
ACPI Standard
Power Management States
S2
The CPU is off, but the RAM is refreshed to maintain the contents.
S4
The CPU and RAM are off. The contents of RAM have been saved to a
temporary file on the hard disk. This state is also called Suspend to Disk. In
Windows XP, this state is known as Hibernate.
S1
The CPU is not executing instructions; however, the CPU and RAM are still
receiving power.
S3
The CPU is off, and the RAM is set to a slow refresh rate. This state is called
Suspend to RAM. In Windows XP, this state is known as Standby.
S5
The computer is off and any content that has not been saved will be lost.
S0
The computer is on and all devices are operating at full power.
Worksheet 6.7.2: Research Laptop Problems
Laptops often use proprietary parts. To find information about the replacement parts, you may have to
research the website of the laptop manufacturer.
Before you begin this activity, you need to know some information about the laptop.
Instructor Note: This activity is designed to help the students find information on laptops. Provide students
with the required information so that they can work individually or in small groups. To prevent lost lab time,
instructors are encouraged to send students to sites that are known by the instructor. Instructors may want to prescreen websites to reflect equipment that is present on campus.
Your instructor will provide you with the following information:
■
Laptop manufacturer: ____________________
■
Laptop model number: _________________________
■
Amount of RAM: ____________________________
■
Size of the hard drive: ___________________________
Use the Internet to locate the website for the laptop manufacturer. What is the URL for the website?
Chapter 6: Fundamental Laptops and Portable Devices
141
Locate the service section of the website and look for links that focus on your laptop. It is common
for a website to allow you to search by the model number. The list that follows shows common links
that you might find:
■
FAQs
■
WIKIs
■
Service notices
■
White papers
■
Blogs
List the links you found specific to the laptop and include a brief description of the information in that
link.
Briefly describe any service notices you found on the website. A service notice example is a driver
update, a hardware issue, or a recall notice for a laptop component.
Open forums may exist for your laptop. Use an Internet search engine to locate any open forums that
focus on your laptop by typing in the name and model of the laptop. Briefly describe the websites
(other than the manufacturer website) that you located.
CHAPTER 7
Fundamental Printers and Scanners
The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of matching, fill-in-the-blank, and open-ended
questions to test your knowledge of printers and scanners, including maintenance and troubleshooting. This
portion also includes multiple-choice study questions to help prepare you to take the A+ certification exams
and to test your overall understanding of the material.
The Lab Exercises portion of this chapter includes the online curriculum lab to further reinforce your mastery
of the printers and scanners content.
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Study Guide
Printers
A printer is a commonly used output device that prints text or pictures on paper. Today, most printers
are connected through the USB or parallel ports; a few older printers are connected through the serial
port. Some printers can be connected directly to the network and accessed through a network adapter.
Printers can also be connected through SCSI, IEEE 1394, infrared, or wireless connections.
Vocabulary Exercise: Matching
Match the definition on the left with a term on the right.
Definitions
a.
A printer that works by spraying small
droplets of ionized ink onto a sheet of
paper.
b. Similar to copy machines, this uses an
electrophoto (EP) process to form images
on paper with toner instead of ink.
c.
An impact printer that prints little dots
by pressing against or striking against a
ribbon to form text and images.
d. A printer that prints by pressing heated
pins onto a special heat-sensitive paper.
These printers are often used on older
fax machines.
e. Today’s most common printer interface.
f.
Common interface used on older printers.
g.
Older interface that sent one bit at a time
on cables that could be up to 50 feet long.
h.
Wireless technology that offers up to 3
Mbps and range that varies from 3 to 328
feet, depending on the class of the device.
i.
Wireless technology that offers 11 Mbps
or 54 Mbps.
Terms
__i 802.11
__h Bluetooth
__c Dot-matrix printer
__a Inkjet printer
__b Laser printer
__f Parallel port
__g Serial port
__d Thermal printer
__e USB port
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145
Electrophoto (EP) Stages
Identity the six EP steps or stages to transfer the image onto a paper using a laser printer:
Step 1.
Cleaning
Step 2.
Conditioning
Step 3.
Writing
Step 4.
Developing
Step 5.
Transferring
Step 6.
Fusing
Vocabulary Exercise: Matching
Match the EP stage description on the left with a term on the right.
Descriptions
a.
Terms
Laser light aimed by mirrors sweeps
through the drum line by line, reducing
the charge on the area of the drum where
the light hits.
b. The main corona wire or primary charge
c.
__c Cleaning
__b Conditioning
__d Developing
__e Fusing
roller is charged.
__f Transferring
The photosensitive drum is cleaned to
remove any residual toner and residual
charge.
__a Writing
d. Toner is applied to the charged drum.
e.
Toner is melted onto the paper.
f.
Toner is transferred from the drum to the
paper.
Vocabulary Exercise: Completion
Fill in the blanks with the appropriate terms about printer basics.
All printers can be divided into impact and nonimpact printers.
Laser scanners and toner cartridges are found on laser printers.
Toner, used in laser printers, is made of a fine powder of polyester resin and iron particles. The iron
particles are used to hold a charge so that the toner can be placed on the drum and eventually onto the
paper. The polyester resin allows the toner to flow easily while providing a sufficient melting point so
that it can be fused onto the paper.
The high-voltage power supply provides the proper voltage to charge the corona wire or primary
charge roller.
In laser printers, paper registration rollers move the paper into the proper transfer position.
The toner in laser printers is stored in the developer.
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A static-charge eliminator strip is used to drain the charge from the paper.
Inkjet printers use a printhead and ink supply to print.
Bubble jet is a Canon trade name for its inkjet printers.
The printer that can be used in multipart forms is a dot-matrix printer.
After physically connecting a printer to a computer, you will need to load the proper driver before you
can start using the printer.
The printer driver is a software program that enables the computer and printer to communicate and to
provide an interface for the user to configure the printer options.
Every printer model has a unique driver program.
Increasing the amount of printer memory is the easiest way to improve the efficiency of a printer and
allow it to handle more complex print jobs.
Print a test page after installing a printer to verify that the printer is operating properly.
Most printers have a front panel with controls to allow you to generate test pages. This method of
printing enables you to verify the printer operation separately from the network or computer.
If you get a numeric error code on the front panel of a printer, you need to consult the printer’s service
manual to get its meaning.
Printer Troubleshooting
Identify a potential cause for each printer problem in the following table.
Problem
Cause
Printed page is blank from a
laser printer.
Toner is empty.
Transfer corona assembly is malfunctioning.
The high voltage power supply that powers the charging and
corona assemblies is malfunctioning.
Printed page is completely black
on a laser printer.
Charging corona wire is malfunctioning.
Recurring marks on page on a
laser printer.
Damage to the drum.
Vertical black lines on page on a
laser printer.
Damage to the drum.
Vertical white lines on the page on
a laser printer.
Spilled toner on the charging corona wire.
Smudging of image or toner rubs
off on a laser printer.
Fuser is malfunctioning.
Toner spilled on one of the rollers.
Dirty charging corona wire.
Chapter 7: Fundamental Printers and Scanners
Problem
Cause
Ghosting of image (light images
of previously printed pages) on
a laser printer.
Damaged cleaning scraper/blade.
Bad erasure lamp.
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Unintelligible text on a laser printer. Printer driver is malfunctioning.
Formatter board is malfunctioning.
Printer not printing full color
correctly on a laser or inkjet printer.
Printer needs to be calibrated.
A horizontal line is missing in
the middle of each letter on an
inkjet printer.
The printhead needs to be cleaned or replaced.
Documents appear to be blurred
on an inkjet printer.
Printer needs to be calibrated.
Documents in the print queue
will not print.
Print spooler is frozen. Restart the print spooler.
Scanners
A scanner (sometimes known as an optical scanner) is a device that can scan or digitize images on
paper (much like a copy machine does) and convert them to data that the computer can use. They can
then be stored in a file, displayed on the screen, added to documents, or manipulated.
Scanners are connected to the computer using a SCSI interface, parallel port, USB interface, FireWire
interface, or proprietary interface. After the scanner is installed and configured, the scanner software
that controls the scanner must be installed. The software allows you to choose when to scan, which
areas to scan, brightness and other control settings, and saves the data into a bitmap (picture made of
dots) graphic file.
A scanned page of text is treated as an image made of dots. Optical character recognition (OCR) software converts the image of the text to actual text by analyzing the shape of each character and comparing its features against a set of rules that distinguishes each character and font. Most OCR software
packages will then save the text into a Word, WordPerfect, rich text format (RTF), or ASCII text file.
Vocabulary Exercise: Completion
Fill in the blanks with the appropriate terms about scanners.
The de facto standard for scanners is TWAIN.
Files with the .jpg, .bmp, and .gif filename extensions are examples of bitmap graphic formats.
If a scanner is not responding to the scanner software, make sure it is properly connected and has
power.
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Study Questions
Choose the best answer for each of the questions that follow.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Which of the following will you find on an impact printer?
A.
It has an ink ribbon.
B.
It has an ink cartridge.
C.
It has a printhead.
D.
It uses toner powder.
Which of the following will you find on an inkjet printer?
A.
It has an ink ribbon.
B.
It has an ink cartridge.
C.
It has a high voltage power supply.
D.
It uses toner powder.
What is used to drain the charge in the paper when printing with a laser printer?
A.
Static-charge eliminator strip or roller.
B.
The rubber cleaning blade.
C.
The laser light.
D.
None of the above.
Which is the fastest interface used for printers?
A.
Serial
B.
USB 1.0
C.
USB 2.0
D.
Parallel
E.
IEEE 802.11g
After connecting a new printer to a Windows XP Professional computer via a parallel cable, the
computer will not print to the printer. What is most likely the problem?
A.
The printer is connected to the wrong port.
B.
The device drivers are not installed.
C.
The computer must be rebooted.
D.
The printer is not compatible with Windows XP.
Multipart forms can be printed on ______.
A.
A laser jet printer
B.
An ink jet printer
C.
A dot matrix printer
D.
Thermal printers
Chapter 7: Fundamental Printers and Scanners
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
149
If you can print a test page from the printer itself, but cannot print from the computer, what is
the first thing that the technician should check?
A.
The device drivers
B.
The cable
C.
The toner cartridge
D.
The paper tray
When you have ghosting (light images of previously printed pages) on the current page on your
laser printer, what is most likely the problem?
A.
A bad erasure lamp or broken cleaning blade
B.
The wrong type of paper
C.
Fuser is malfunctioning
D.
Power fluctuations
What is usually the problem if the print on the paper from a laser printer smears when you
rub it?
A.
The toner is running low.
B.
The cartridge must be changed.
C.
The printer is using the wrong type of toner.
D.
The fuser is not getting hot enough.
When you print with a Windows system and the print jobs and documents do not print when
they are in the print queue, what do you do?
A.
Restart the print spooler.
B.
Clear the print queue.
C.
Reboot the user’s computer.
D.
Reboot the printer.
When you try to scan a picture, the lamp does not move, yet the computer is still communicating with the scanner. What is the problem?
A.
The USB port is faulty.
B.
The USB cable needs to be replaced.
C.
The user needs another lamp.
D.
The lamp is locked in place.
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Lab Exercise
Lab 7.4.2: Install All-in-One Device and Software
In this lab, you will install an all-in-one device. You will find, download, and update the driver and the
software for the all-in-one device.
The recommended equipment for this lab is:
■
A computer running Windows XP Professional
■
An Internet connection
■
An all-in-one device
Step 1
If you are installing an all-in-one device that connects to a parallel port, shut down the computer and
connect the cable to the all-in-one device and computer using a parallel cable. Plug the all-in-one device
power cord into an AC outlet and unlock the all-in-one device if necessary. Restart your computer.
If you are installing a USB all-in-one device, plug the all-in-one device into the computer using a
USB cable. Plug the all-in-one device power cord into an AC outlet if necessary. Unlock the all-in-one
device if it is locked.
Step 2
Windows detects the new hardware.
The Found New Hardware Wizard window appears.
Click the Yes, This Time Only option button, and then click Next. Figure 7-1 shows these options.
Figure 7-1
Found New Hardware Wizard
Chapter 7: Fundamental Printers and Scanners
The second screen of the Found New Hardware Wizard appears as shown in Figure 7-2.
Figure 7-2
Found New Hardware Wizard Installation Options
The default is Install the Software Automatically (Recommended).
Click Next.
The Please Wait While the Wizard Searches window appears as shown in Figure 7-3.
Figure 7-3
Wizard Searching Window
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The Cannot Install This Hardware window may appear as shown in Figure 7-4.
Figure 7-4
If the Device Driver Cannot Be Found, Cannot Install This Hardware Message
Will Appear
If this happens, click Finish.
If it does detect the hardware, follow the wizard to install the proper drivers.
Step 3
If the computer does not detect the all-in-one device, right-click My Computer, then choose Manage,
Device Manager.
Under Other Devices, double-click the all-in-one device you are trying to install as shown in Figure 7-5.
Figure 7-5
Device Manager
Chapter 7: Fundamental Printers and Scanners
153
Step 4
The Properties window for the all-in-one device appears as shown in Figure 7-6.
Figure 7-6
All-in-One Device Properties Window
The Device status area shows The Drivers for This Device Are Not Installed. (Code 28).
Do not click Reinstall Driver at this time.
Click Cancel.
Step 5
Find the manufacturer and the model number of the all-in-one device.
Visit the manufacturer’s website and navigate to the product downloads or support page. Download
the most recent drivers and software for the model of all-in-one device that you have installed. The
software and drivers must be compatible with your operating system.
Download the drivers to a temporary folder on your desktop.
Double-click the installation file that you downloaded and go through the driver installation process,
as shown in Figure 7-7.
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Figure 7-7
All-in-One Device Set Up
Step 6
Unplug the all-in-one device and plug it back in. Note that some parallel port devices might need a
system restart to be redetected by Windows.
Because the drivers are now located on the computer, the Windows XP operating system will detect
the new device every time it is reconnected.
To verify, right-click My Computer and then choose Manage, Device Manager. You should now see
the all-in-one device installed under Imaging Devices on the right side of the window as shown in
Figure 7-8.
Figure 7-8
Device Manager Recognizes the All-in-One Device
CHAPTER 8
Fundamental Networks
The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of matching, short-answer, and fill-in-the-blank
questions to test your introductory knowledge of computer networks. This portion also includes multiple-choice
study questions to help prepare you to take the A+ certification exams and to test your overall understanding of
the material.
The Lab Exercises portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum labs and worksheets to further
reinforce your mastery of the computer network content.
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Study Guide
Defining a Network
A network is two or more computers connected together to share resources. Many computers
communicate with the network by a cable attached to the computer’s network interface card (NIC),
whereas other computers use some form of wireless technology (infrared, microwaves, or radio
waves). Computers are networked according to certain protocols, such as TCP/IP, which are the rules
or standards that allow computers on the network to communicate with one another. Currently, the
benefits of a network include the following:
■
Sharing data or access to a program loaded on the network (file sharing)
■
Sharing printers (print sharing)
■
Sending messages back and forth (electronic mail or e-mail)
■
Sending and receiving faxes
■
Accessing a modem or accessing the Internet directly
■
Accessing a centralized database
■
Scheduling appointments
■
Providing security for the network services and resources
■
Allowing for a central location of data files so that it is easier to perform a backup of essential
files
Chapter 8: Fundamental Networks
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Vocabulary Exercise: Matching
Match the definition on the left with a term on the right.
Definitions
a.
Made up of computers within a close
geographical area, such as a building or a
campus, that are connected.
b. Uses long-range telecommunication links
to connect networks over long distances
and often consists of two or more smaller
LANs.
c.
A hardware address that identifies itself
on the network, usually burned within or
hard-coded onto a network card.
d. A networked computer where the individual
Terms
__e client/server model
__h full-duplex
__g half-duplex
__a LAN
__c MAC address
__d peer-to-peer model
__f simplex
__b WAN
__i Voice over IP (VoIP)
users are responsible for their own resources
and can decide which data and devices to
share. There is no central point of control
or administration in the network.
e. A model where the client requests infor-
mation or services from the server. The
server provides the requested information
or service to the client. This model is
designed for medium to large networks or
networks that require enhanced security.
f.
A single, one-way transmission.
g.
When data flows in one direction at a time.
h.
When data flows in both directions at the
same time.
i.
A method to transmit ordinary telephone
calls over the Internet using packetswitched technology. It can also use an
existing IP network to provide access to
the public switched telephone network
(PSTN).
Network Devices
As a computer technician, you will eventually have to connect a computer to a network. Therefore,
you need to first learn the various components that make up a network and how to install and configure these components.
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Vocabulary Exercise: Completion
Fill in the blanks with the appropriate terms about network devices.
A hub is a traditional multiported connection point used to connect network devices via a cable
segment. Different from switches, only one device can communicate through this device at a time.
A bridge is a device that connects two LANs and makes them appear as one, or that is used to connect
two segments of the same LAN. Different from a gateway, it keeps traffic separated on both sides of
the bridge by analyzing MAC addresses of the communicating devices to remember where each
device is located. These Layer 2 devices forward or block Ethernet frames based upon destination
MAC address information.
A switch, also known as a switching hub, is a fast, multiported bridge that actually reads the destination
MAC address of each frame and then forwards the frame to the correct port. Switches, Layer 2 devices,
use MAC addresses to determine which frames to forward within a single network.
A router is a device that connects entire logical networks to each other. Routers use IP addresses to
forward packets to other networks.
A gateway is any hardware and software combination that connects dissimilar network environments.
Wireless Access Points provide network access to wireless devices such as laptops and PDAs.
A network interface card, abbreviated NIC, is the physical interface, or connection, between the computer
and the network cable. The role of this device is to prepare and send data to another computer, receive
data from another computer, and control the flow of data between the computer and the cabling system.
Cable Types and Connectors
Network devices are often connected with cables. Therefore, you will need to identify the common
cables used in today’s networks, know their characteristics, and understand how to install them.
Vocabulary Exercise: Completion
Fill in the blanks with the appropriate terms about cable types and connectors.
Twisted-pair is a type of copper cabling that is used for telephone communications and most localarea networks. A pair of wires forms a circuit that can transmit data. The pair is twisted to provide
protection against crosstalk, which is the noise generated by adjacent pairs of wires in the cable.
Unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) is a type of twisted cable that has two or four pairs of wires. This type
of cable relies solely on the cancellation effect produced by the twisted wire pairs that limits signal
degradation caused by electromagnetic interface (EMI) and radio frequency interference (RFI). It is
the most commonly used cabling in Ethernet networks. UTP cables have a range of 328 feet (100 meters).
UTP comes in several categories that are based on the number of wires in the cable and the number of
twists per foot in those wires.
Category 3 is the wiring used for telephone connections. It has four pairs of wires and a maximum
data transmission rate of up to 16 Mbps.
Category 5 and Category 5e have four pairs of wires with a maximum data transmission rate of up to
1000 Mbps. Category 5 and 5e are the most common Ethernet network cables used. Category 5e has
more twists per foot than Category 5 wiring. These extra twists further prevent interference from outside
sources and the other wires within the cable.
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159
Category 6 cable often uses a plastic divider to separate the pairs of wires to prevent crosstalk interference.
The pairs also have more twists than Category 5e cable.
Shielded twisted-pair (STP) is a type of twisted-pair cable in which each pair of wires is wrapped in
metallic foil to better shield the wires from noise. Four pairs of wires are then wrapped in an overall
metallic braid or foil. It reduces electrical noise, or crosstalk, from within the cable. It also reduces
electrical noise, EMI, and RFI from outside the cable.
Coaxial cable is a copper-cored cable surrounded by a heavy shielding. This cable used to be used to
connect computers in a network but today is usually found only as part of a home broadband (such as
cable TV) system.
Thick net or 10Base5 is a traditional Ethernet network implementation that uses coaxial cables and
operates at 10 megabits per second with a maximum length of 500 meters.
Thin net or 10Base2 is also a traditional Ethernet network implementation that uses coaxial cables and
operates at 10 megabits per second with a maximum length of 185 meters.
RG-59 and RG-6 coaxial cable is most commonly used for cable TV in the U.S.
A fiber optic is a glass or plastic conductor that transmits information using light. A fiber-optic cable is
one or more optical fibers enclosed together in a sheath or jacket. Because it is made of glass, fiber-optic
cable is not affected by electromagnetic interference or radio frequency interference. Fiber-optic cable
can reach distances of several miles or kilometers before the signal needs to be regenerated. However,
fiber-optic cabling is usually more expensive to use than copper cabling. The connectors are more costly
and harder to assemble. And all signals have to be converted to light pulses to enter the cable and back
into electrical signals when they leave it.
Multimode fiber-optic cable has a thicker core than single-mode cable and is easier to make, can use
simpler light sources (LED), and works well over distances of a few kilometers or less.
Single-mode fiber-optic cable has a very thin core. It is harder to make, uses lasers as a light source,
and can transmit signals dozens of kilometers with ease.
Plenum is the space above the ceiling and below the floors used to circulate air throughout the workplace.
A plenum cable is a special cable that gives off little or no toxic fumes when burned.
A UTP cable uses RJ-45 connectors.
Modems that connect to an analog phone system use RJ-11 connectors.
The RJ-11 connector has four connectors, whereas the RJ-45 has eight connectors.
A 10Base2 uses a RG-58 coaxial cable with 50 ohm terminating resistors and a 10Base5 uses RG-8
with 50 ohm terminating resistors. RG-6 cables use a 75 ohm terminating resistor.
A 10Base2 cable uses BNC and T-connectors to connect computers to the network.
Two traditional fiber-optic connectors are straight-tip (ST) and subscriber connectors (SC). A new
connector called the MT-RJ is similar to an RJ-45 connector.
Network Topologies
Network topologies give a computer technician an idea how network traffic flows over a cable system.
If a device is not functioning properly or a cable is broken, understanding the topology will help you
figure out where the problem is.
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Vocabulary Exercise: Matching
Match the definition on the left with a term on the right.
Definitions
a.
Terms
Describes the layout of the cabling and
devices, as well as the paths used by data
transmissions.
b. The topology that has no beginning or end,
c.
__c bus topology
__f mesh topology
__a network topology
so the cable does not need to be terminated.
__b ring topology
The topology that is the simplest network
arrangement, in which a single cable
(called a backbone, trunk, or segment)
connects all the computers in series.
__e star topology
__d terminating resistor
d. Used in bus topology to prevent signals
from bouncing back when they reach the
end of a backbone.
e. The most common network configuration
in which all the computers in the network
are connected to a central device known
as a hub or switch.
f.
The topology that connects all devices to
each other.
Networking Technology
After understanding the basics of how a network works, you are now ready to look at the various technologies and standards used in networking. By understanding these, you can make educated decisions
on which technology and standards to use and how to troubleshoot them.
Concept Questions
Answer the following networking technology questions:
What IEEE standard is the Ethernet architecture?
IEEE 802.3
What access method (rules defining how a computer puts data onto the network cable and takes data
from the cable) does Ethernet use?
Carrier-sense multiple access/collision detection (CSMA/CD)
Which access method is used in IEEE 802.11 networks?
Carrier-sense multiple access/collision avoidance (CSMA/CA)
10BaseT is based on what topology?
Star topology
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161
What is the maximum length of a 10BaseT cable?
100 meters
Fast Ethernet runs at what speed?
100 Mbps
What type of cable does 100BaseFX use?
Fiber optic
What is the central hub used for Token Ring?
Multistation access unit (MSAU)
At what speed does FDDI run?
100 Mbps
What uses a special authorizing packet (token) of information to inform devices that they can transmit data?
Token passing
What mode do wireless devices use to connect to an access point to communicate on a wireless network?
Infrastructure mode
What is the maximum speed that 802.11g can run?
54 Mbps
How fast does 802.11a run?
54 Mbps
802.1g is backward compatible with which standard?
802.11b
At what radio frequency does an IEEE 802.11g wireless network operate?
2.4 GHz
At what radio frequency does an IEEE 802.11a wireless network operate?
5.0 GHz
What is the maximum transmission speed supported by Bluetooth?
2 Mbps
What is the speed of a T-1 line?
1.544 Mbps
Connecting to the Internet
The Internet is the largest network used today. Most computers that you connect to a network will
most likely need to connect to the Internet. Therefore, you need to know the options that are available
as well as how to install and configure these options.
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Vocabulary Exercise: Matching
Match the definition on the left with a term on the right.
Definitions
a.
A standard for sending voice, video, and
data over digital telephone lines.
b.
An ISDN connection that offers a dedicated
128 Kbps connection using two 64 Kbps
B channels.
c.
ISDN that offers up to 1.544 Mbps over
23 B channels in North America and Japan
or 2.048 Mbps over 30 B channels in Europe
and Australia.
d. An “always-on” technology that uses the
existing copper telephone lines to provide
high speed data communication.
e. An electronic device that transfers data
between one computer and another using
analog signals over a telephone line.
f.
The address used on a TCP/IP network
that logically identifies the computer.
g.
A protocol and service that automatically
hands out IP addresses to client computers.
h.
The address of the nearest router or gateway
so that you can communicate with other
networks.
i.
A set of numbers that resemble an IP
address to determine which bits of an IP
address make up a local host address and
which bits make up the network address
(subnet).
j. The protocol and service that translates
from hostnames to IP addresses.
k.
Technology that uses multiple
signals/multiple frequencies over one
cable.
Terms
__k broadband
__h default gateway
__d digital subscriber lines (DSL)
__j Domain Name System (DNS)
__g Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
(DHCP)
__f IP address
__a ISDN
__b ISDN Basic Rate Interface (BRI)
__c ISDN Primary Rate Interface (PRI)
__e modem
__i subnet mask
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163
Network Troubleshooting Tools
When network problems occur, you have some tools available to help you troubleshoot these problems.
Most of these tools are available within Windows, and you will need to know how and when to use
these tools.
Concept Questions
Answer the following network troubleshooting questions:
What command can you use to see the current IP address in Windows XP?
Ipconfig
What command can you use to see all IP configuration information, including DNS server information?
Ipconfig /all
What command can you use to test connectivity with another host?
Ping
How do you know if a cable is not connected properly or if a NIC is improperly installed or configured?
The LED link lights on the NIC will not light up.
Study Questions
Choose the best answer for each of the questions that follow:
1.
2.
3.
Which of the following IP blocks are reserved for private networks?
A.
192.0.x.x
B.
244.0.x.x
C.
127.0.x.x
D.
192.168.x.x
Which of the following describes a transmission technology on which data can be transmitted
in both directions on a signal carrier at the same time?
A.
Bidirectional
B.
Half duplex
C.
Full duplex
D.
Multidirectional
Which of the following is used to automate the IP configuration of network clients?
A.
DHCP
B.
WINS
C.
ARP
D.
DNS
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4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Which of the following provides name resolution on the Internet, including translating from
hostnames to IP addresses?
A.
DHCP
B.
DNS
C.
WINS
D.
ARP
Which access method is used in Ethernet?
A.
Token passing
B.
Full duplex
C.
CSMA/CA (Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Avoidance)
D.
CSMA/CD (Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Detection)
Which of the following Ethernet cable standards supports transmission speeds of more than
200 Mbps?
A.
CAT3
B.
CAT4
C.
CAT5
D.
CAT6
Which of the following supports the longest transmission distance?
A.
Coaxial cable
B.
UTP cable
C.
STP cable
D.
Fiber-optic cable
What is the minimum cable rating required for a 1000BASE-TX network?
A.
CAT3
B.
CAT5
C.
CAT5e
D.
CAT6
If you need to connect two computers directly to each other using FastEthernet without going
through a hub or switch, what would you need?
A.
CAT3 crossover
B.
CAT5 crossover
C.
CAT3 straight
D.
CAT5 straight
Which media type is not susceptible to electromagnetic interference (EMI)?
A.
Unshielded twisted pair cable
B.
Shielded twisted pair cable
C.
Coaxial cable
D.
Fiber-optic cable
Chapter 8: Fundamental Networks
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
165
What is the maximum segment length of a 100BASE-TX cable?
A.
50 meters
B.
75 meters
C.
100 meters
D.
182 meters
E.
550 meters
Which of the following is the connector used for 100BASE-T Ethernet cables?
A.
RJ-11
B.
RJ-45
C.
RJ-66
D.
BNC
How many pairs of wires are used in an RJ-45 connector?
A.
2
B.
3
C.
4
D.
5
Which of the following devices can be used to connect two similar network segments but keeps
network traffic separate on the two segments?
A.
CSU/DSU
B.
Switch
C.
Gateway
D.
Bridge
At what radio frequency does an IEEE 802.11g wireless network operate?
A.
2.4 GHz
B.
5.0 GHz
C.
5.4 GHz
D.
10 GHz
What is the maximum transmission speed supported by IEEE 802.11g?
A.
2 Mbps
B.
11 Mbps
C.
54 Mbps
D.
248 Kbps
Which of the following can be used to connect a WLAN to a wired LAN?
A.
An access point
B.
A bridge
C.
A gateway
D.
A CSU/DSU
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18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
What can you replace a hub with that will also increase network performance?
A.
Switches
B.
Routers
C.
Bridges
D.
Gateways
How can you determine the connection speed and signal strength of a wireless network connection on a Windows XP computer?
A.
A wireless access point utility
B.
A wireless network adapter
C.
Wireless NIC properties
D.
Windows Device Manager
What command do you use to view the IP configuration of a Windows XP?
A.
ping
B.
arp -a
C.
ipconfig /all
D.
winipcfg /all
What command do you use to view the IP configuration of a Windows 98 computer?
A.
netstat
B.
arp /all
C.
ipconfig /all
D.
winipcfg /all
What command can be used to identify which computers are having an IP conflict?
A.
ping
B.
arp -a
C.
ipconfig /all
D.
winipcfg /all
You notice that a NIC card amber LED is continuously flashing very quickly. What is the
problem?
A.
Data transmission is taking place.
B.
Transmission collisions are occurring.
C.
There is a faulty cable.
D.
The hub or switch is faulty.
If you can ping a website by address, but not by name, what is the problem?
A.
The web server is down.
B.
The DHCP server is down.
C.
The DNS server is down.
D.
The domain controller is down.
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Lab Exercises
Worksheet 8.3.2: Identify IP Address Classes
In this worksheet, write which IP address class is appropriate in the IP Address Class column in the
following table. An example has been provided for you.
IP Address
Subnet Mask
IP Address Class
10.0.0.0
255.0.0.0
A
201.18.0.0
255.255.255.0
C
99.0.0.0
255.0.0.0
A
130.130.0.0
255.255.0.0
B
80.0.0.0
255.0.0.0
A
189.12.0.0
255.255.0.0
B
Worksheet 8.9.1: Internet Search for NIC Drivers
In this worksheet, you will search the Internet for the latest NIC drivers for a network card.
Instructor Note: There are many Internet sites where driver downloads may be found. It is likely there will not
be one correct answer. If your students do not have Internet access, perform this lab as a demonstration.
Complete the following table. An example has been provided for you. Drivers are routinely updated.
Manufacturers often move driver files to different areas of their websites. Version numbers change frequently. The driver in the example was found by visiting the manufacturer’s (www.intel.com) website.
A search for the full name of the NIC was used to find the driver download file.
NIC
URL Driver Location and Latest Version Number
Intel
http://downloadcenter.intel.com/scripts-df-external/confirm.aspx?httpDown=
PRO/1000 PT
http://downloadmirror.intel.com/df-support/4275/eng/PRO2KXP.exe&agr=&
Desktop Adapter ProductID=2247&DwnldId=4275&strOSs=&OSFullName=&lang=eng
Ver. # 12.0
3COM
Answers may vary.
905CX-TXM
Linksys
WMP54GX4
Answers may vary.
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Lab 8.9.2: Configure an Ethernet NIC to Use DHCP
In this lab, you will configure an Ethernet NIC to use DHCP to obtain an IP address.
The following is the recommended equipment for this lab:
■
Linksys 300N router
■
A computer running Windows XP Professional
■
Ethernet patch cable
Instructor Note: Complete the NIC configuration before class to make sure that the NIC acquires an IP address.
Step 1
Plug in one end of the Ethernet patch cable to Port 1 on the back of the router.
Plug in the other end of the Ethernet patch cable to the network port on the NIC in your computer.
Plug in the power cable of the router if it is not already plugged in.
Turn on your computer and log on to Windows as an administrator.
Click Start.
Right-click My Network Places, and then choose Properties. The Network Connections window
appears as shown in Figure 8-1.
Figure 8-1
Network Connections Window
Step 2
Right-click Local Area Connection, and then choose Properties. The Local Area Connection
Properties window appears as shown in Figure 8-2.
Chapter 8: Fundamental Networks
Figure 8-2
169
Local Area Connection Properties Window
What is the name and model number of the NIC in the Connect Using field?
Answers may vary.
What are the items listed in the This Connection Uses the Following Items field?
Answers may vary but must include Internet Protocol (TCP/IP).
Step 3
Choose Internet Protocol (TCP/IP).
Click Properties. The Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties window appears as shown in Figure 8-3.
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Figure 8-3
Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties Window
What is the IP Address, Subnet Mask, and Default Gateway listed in the fields of the Use the
Following IP Address area?
Answers may vary. If the computer is configured to Obtain an IP Address Automatically, there will be
no information in the fields.
Click the Obtain an IP Address Automatically option button.
Click OK. The Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties window closes, which takes you back to the
Local Area Connection Properties window.
Click OK. Restart your computer.
Step 4
Log on to Windows as an administrator.
Check the lights on the back of the NIC. These lights will blink when there is network activity.
Choose Start, Run.
Type cmd and click OK, as shown in Figure 8-4.
Chapter 8: Fundamental Networks
Figure 8-4
Entering cmd
Type ipconfig/all, and then press the Enter key as shown in Figure 8-5.
Figure 8-5
Sample Output of the ipconfig /all Command
What is the IP address and subnet mask of the Ethernet Adapter Local Area Network Connection?
Answers may vary.
What is the IP address of the DHCP server?
Answers may vary.
On what date was the lease obtained?
Answers may vary.
On what date does the lease expire?
Answers may vary.
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Worksheet 8.10.3: Answer Broadband Questions
1.
Which types of signals are carried over a DSL cable?
Voice and data
2.
What is the typical upload speed of a satellite broadband connection?
50 Kbps to 1 Mbps
3.
Which type of broadband technology is referred to as CATV?
Cable TV
4.
Which cable type is used by a CATV broadband connection?
RG-59 Coaxial cable
5.
ISDN uses existing telephone copper wires to send and receive which types of signals?
Voice, video, data
6.
Which technology is usually an alternative when cable or DSL is not available?
Satellite
7.
What is the 16 Kbps digital line used for in an ISDN connection?
Call setup, control, and teardown
8.
What is the typical download speed of a satellite broadband connection?
Up to 1.5 Mbps
9.
What is the maximum data rate for ISDN BRI?
128 Kbps
10.
Which device on a DSL connection requires a filter?
The telephone
Chapter 8: Fundamental Networks
Worksheet 8.12.2: Diagnose a Network Problem
(Student Technician Sheet)
Gather data from the customer to begin the troubleshooting process. Document the customer’s
problem and a solution in the following work order. (See the Student Customer Sheet later in the
lab for more information.)
Company Name: Handford Insurance
Contact: J. Halle
Company Address: 1672 N. 52nd Ave.
Company Phone: 555-9991
Work Order
Generating a New Ticket
Category Network
Closure Code
Status Open
Type
Escalated
Pending
Item
Pending
Until Date
Business Impacting?
X Yes
No
Summary The customer is unable to connect to the network. Customer is not able to send or
receive email.
Case ID#
Priority
User Platform Windows XP
Connection Type
Environment
Problem Description: Customer cannot access network folders. Customer cannot send or receive
email. Customer was able to access the network yesterday. All cables are securely connected.
Link lights are not flashing. Customer does not have an IP Address. Status of NIC is disabled.
Problem Solution: Enabled NIC.
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(Student Customer Sheet)
Use the contact information and problem description that follows to report the following information
to a level-one technician:
Contact Information
Company Name: Handford Insurance
Contact: J. Halle
Company Address: 1672 N. 52nd Ave.
Company Phone: 555-9991
Problem Description
I am not able to connect to the network. I can log on to Windows, but I cannot get to my folders on
the network. I cannot get to the Internet, either. Everything was fine yesterday because Johnny was
using my computer while I was at home sick, but now it does not work. In fact, my e-mail does not
work either. I tried to send e-mail, but it did not go anywhere. It just sits in my Outbox. My friend
said she sent me some e-mail this morning, but I do not have it. It just is not there. What am I going to
do? I have to get started on my work. My boss is going to be very upset. Can you help me get to the
network? And my files? And my e-mail?
Note: After you have given the level-one tech the problem description, use the Additional Information to answer
any follow-up questions the technician may ask.
Additional Information
■
I am using Windows XP Pro.
■
Cable connects me to the Internet.
■
I am using a desktop computer.
■
Everybody else in the office can access their files.
■
Everybody else in the office can use e-mail.
CHAPTER 9
Fundamental Security
The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of matching, short-answer, and fill-in-the-blank
questions to test your introductory knowledge of security in information technology. This portion also includes
multiple-choice study questions to help prepare you to take the A+ certification exams and to test your overall
understanding of the material.
The Lab Exercises portion of this chapter includes all the online worksheets and remote technician exercises to
further reinforce your mastery of the fundamental security content.
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Study Guide
Importance of Security
Security is a high concern and a major responsibility for network administrators. Security should also
be a concern for anyone who uses a computer to connect to a network—including the Internet—or a
computer that holds confidential information.
Computer security refers to the process and techniques by which digital information and related assets
are protected. The goals of computer security are the following:
■
Maintain integrity
■
Protect confidentiality
■
Assure availability
Integrity refers to the assurance that data is not altered or destroyed in an unauthorized manner.
Confidentiality is the protection of data from unauthorized disclosure to a third party. Availability is
defined as the continuous operation of computer systems.
A threat is a person, place, or thing that has the potential to access resources and cause harm. A vulnerability is a point where a resource is susceptible to attack. It can be thought of as a weakness. An
exploit is a type of attack on a resource that involves a threat that takes advantage of a vulnerability in
an environment. The exploitation of resources can be performed in many ways. When a threat takes
advantage of a vulnerability to attack a resource, severe consequences can result.
For example, a virus is a major threat to a computer system. First, it can disrupt the operation of the
computer (availability) by deleting or corrupting key files or corrupting the file system. It can also
corrupt or delete data files (integrity). It can also capture information such as personal files and passwords that you type on a website (confidentiality).
Some of the tools and methods used to secure a computer are the following:
■
Physical security
■
Authentication
■
Encryption
■
Perimeter security, including firewalls and routers
■
Access control, including rights and permissions
Because security is a constantly changing process and technology, to properly protect a computer you
must always be on guard and adapt to the changing processes and technology. This includes adding
patches to the operating system and applications, keeping the virus checker up-to-date, and being educated on the techniques and methods of possible attacks.
Chapter 9: Fundamental Security
177
Vocabulary Exercise: Matching
Match the definition on the left with a term on the right.
Definitions
Terms
a. The ability to verify the identity of a user, system, or system element.
a__Authentication
b. The process of disguising a message or data in what appears to
g__Demilitarized zone (DMZ)
be meaningless data to hide and protect the sensitive data from
unauthorized access.
c. A system that uses two authentication methods, such as smart cards
and a password.
d. The use of protocols on a public or shared network (such as the
Internet) to create a secure, private network connection between a
client and a server.
e. A protocol developed for transmitting private documents via the
Internet/web pages; it uses a public key to encrypt data that is
transferred over the connection.
f. A hardware device with software that is used to detect unauthorized
n__Denial of Service (DoS)
b__Encryption
h__Firewall
f__Intrusion Detection System (IDS)
l__Password
o__Phishing attack
e__Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)
i__Social engineering
k__Spyware
activity on your network.
m__Trojan horse
g. An area that is used by a company that wants to host its own Internet
services without sacrificing unauthorized access to its private network.
h. A system designed to prevent unauthorized access to or from a private
network.
i. A term used to describe the process of circumventing security barriers
by persuading authorized users to provide passwords or other sensitive
information.
j. A program designed to replicate and spread, generally without the
knowledge or permission of the user.
k. Any software that covertly gathers user information through the
user’s Internet connection without his or her knowledge, usually
for advertising purposes.
l. A combination of text used to validate the person’s identity when that
person logs on.
m. A seemingly useful or benign program that when activated performs
malicious or illicit action, such as destroying files.
n. A type of attack on a network that is designed to make a system or
network perform poorly or not at all.
o. The act of sending an e-mail to a user, falsely claiming to be an
established legitimate enterprise in an attempt to scam the user into
surrendering private information that will be used for identity theft.
p. A type of server that makes a single Internet connection and services
request on behalf of many users to filter requests and to increase
performance.
c__Two-factor authentication
d__Virtual Private Network (VPN)
j__Virus
p__Proxy server
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Concept Questions
Answer the following questions about security:
You are visiting a website to purchase several books. What do you need to use to make sure that your
transactions are secure?
SSL
Passwords are the most common form of authentication. Can you think of any other methods for
authentication?
Smart cards
Biometrics
Digital certificates
What restricts traffic onto a network or onto an individual system?
Firewall
How do you combat social engineering?
By establishing security procedures and education
If you have a workstation at work, what should you do when you walk away from your computer?
Lock your computer.
If you configure a VPN through a firewall, why can’t the firewall inspect the traffic going through the
VPN tunnel?
Because the packets are encrypted and cannot be read by the firewall
Wireless Security
Because wireless technology typically sends out network traffic using a broadcast wireless signal,
these wireless signals can be easily captured by anyone who has a wireless card. Therefore, you have
to take extra steps to make sure that your wireless network is secure by using encryption and other
forms of wireless security.
Vocabulary Exercise: Completion
Fill in the blanks for the items that follow:
The service set identifier (SSID) is a 32-character unique identifier attached to the header of packets
sent over a WLAN that acts as a password when a mobile device tries to connect to an access point.
The most basic wireless encryption scheme that provides encryption over IEEE 802.11x networks is
Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP). To access the network, you would provide a key. If you provide the
wrong key, you will not be able to access the network. Unfortunately, it is easy for someone with a little knowledge or experience to break the shared key because it doesn’t change automatically over
time. Therefore, it is recommended to use a higher form of wireless encryption.
Today, it is recommended to use Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) or Wi-Fi Protected Access 2 (WPA2).
To help prevent someone from hacking the key, this encryption rotates the keys and changes the way
keys are derived.
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179
802.1x is the wireless protocol that provides an authentication framework for wireless LANs, allowing
a user to be authenticated by a central authority.
There are two ways to prevent unauthorized computers from connecting to a wireless network. One
way is to configure MAC address filtering on the wireless access point so that you can specify which
computers (identified by the computer’s MAC address) can connect to the wireless network. Another
way is to disable the SSID broadcast so that users who want to connect to the wireless network must
also know the unique identifier to connect.
Some wireless switches include an integrated Wireless Intrusion Prevention System (WIPS), which is
used to prevent unauthorized wireless access to local area networks and other information assets.
These systems can be used to troubleshoot security breaches and other wireless problems.
Anytime you install a new wireless switch, you should always change the default SSID name and
change the default username and password. You should also keep the firmware updated on the system
so that it has the best security available for the switch.
When implementing a wireless solution, you should perform a thorough site survey first.
Viruses
Computer viruses have been around almost as long as the modern computer has been around, and
viruses are not going away anytime soon. Therefore, to protect your computer and the data that the
computer is holding, you need to protect yourself against viruses.
Vocabulary Exercise: Completion
Fill in the blanks for the items that follow:
A virus is a program designed to replicate and spread, generally without the knowledge or permission
of the user. Therefore, they are a huge security concern.
To help keep your system protected from viruses, you must keep your operating system updated, and
you must use an updated antivirus software package.
A threat to computers that can cause similar problems is spyware, which can monitor user activity on
the Internet and transmit that information without the user’s knowledge. Spyware can also generate
annoying pop-ups and make your system unreliable.
Denial of Service Attacks
Denial of Service (DoS) is a form of attack that prevents users from accessing normal services, such
as e-mail and web services, because the system is busy responding to an abnormally large amount of
requests. Common DoS attacks work by sending enough requests for a system resource that the
requested service is overloaded and ceases to operate. Simpler forms of DoS attacks include cutting a
cable or shutting off the power.
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Vocabulary Exercise: Matching
Match the definition on the left with a term on the right
Definitions
a.
Terms
An abnormally large ping packet is sent
in the hope of causing a buffer overflow
that will crash the receiving computer.
b. A large quantity of bulk e-mail sent to
c.
__h Distributed DoS (DDoS)
__g DNS poisoning
__b E-mail bomb
individuals, lists, or domains, intending
to prevent users from accessing e-mail.
__d Man-in-the-middle
Randomly opens TCP ports, tying up the
network equipment or computer with a
large amount of false requests, causing
sessions to be denied to others.
__f Replay
__a Ping of death
__e Spoofing
__c SYN flood
d. Intercepts or inserts false information in
traffic between two hosts.
e. Gains access to resources on devices by
pretending to be a trusted computer.
f.
Uses network sniffers to extract
usernames and passwords to be used
at a later date to gain access.
g.
Changes the DNS records on a system to
point to false servers where the data is
recorded.
h.
Another form of attack that uses many
infected computers, called zombies, to
launch an attack. This makes it difficult
to trace the origin of the attack.
Study Questions
Choose the best answer for each of the questions that follow:
1.
You have multiple users who work for your company that need to connect to your network
servers when they are on the road. What would you suggest as a solution?
A.
Configure a company server to accept incoming VPN connections from authorized remote
users.
B.
Configure an ISDN line to your network servers.
C.
Configure a web server to use SSL.
D.
Install digital certificates on the servers and the workstations.
Chapter 9: Fundamental Security
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
181
What should you do if you want to prevent unauthorized computers from connecting to your
wireless network?
A.
Install an IDS on your wireless network.
B.
Configure MAC address filtering on the wireless access point.
C.
Enable SSID broadcast.
D.
Use WEP encryption.
What is the most basic encryption used in today’s wireless network?
A.
WEP
B.
VPN
C.
WPA2
D.
SSL
If you specify the wrong WEP key, what would happen?
A.
Data that you see on the screen would be garbled.
B.
You would not be able to access the wireless network.
C.
You would attach to the next available wireless network.
D.
You could only send data but not receive data.
You have a laptop that you use while you are on the road. Which of the following would be the
best to protect your system while you are on the road?
A.
Use HTTPS on your laptop.
B.
Use digital certificates on your laptop.
C.
Use WEP.
D.
Use a personal firewall.
What is a recommended method of wireless encryption?
A.
WPA
B.
WEP
C.
PAP
D.
SSL
You are monitoring a server and you find several incidents of unauthorized access to certain
key data files. What should you do?
A.
Reboot the server.
B.
Shut down the server.
C.
Report the incident as a security violation by following company procedures or policies.
D.
Change the administrator password.
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8.
9.
10.
While you are at the front desk, you notice that the security guard had let an unidentified
person into the server room, which is protected by a locked door and code. The unidentified
person said he was sent by the president of the company, but was not. What type of attack
would this be?
A.
A man-in-the-middle attack
B.
IP spoofing
C.
Halloween attack
D.
Social engineering
What do you do if an SSL certificate is no longer valid in Internet Explorer and you need to
access a website that uses SSL?
A.
Create a new SSL certificate.
B.
Clear the SSL cache.
C.
Allow SSL with revoked or expired certificates.
D.
Delete temporary Internet files.
If you are configuring two-factor authentication to be implemented when users are accessing
your corporate network, what else can they use besides passwords?
A.
Smart cards
B.
DNA scan
C.
IP address
D.
Username
Chapter 9: Fundamental Security
183
Lab Exercises
Worksheet 9.1.0: Security Attacks
In this activity, you will use the Internet, a newspaper, or magazines to gather information to help you
become familiar with computer crime and security attacks in your area. Be prepared to discuss your
research with the class.
Instructor Note: Try to research security attacks that affect your local area. If none are available, use national
or global security incidents of high interest.
1.
Briefly describe one article dealing with computer crime or a security attack.
Answers vary. For example, thieves have stolen or damaged almost $350,000 in computers and
other equipment in Fort Worth schools in the past year.
2.
Based on your research, could this incident have been prevented? List the precautions that
might have prevented this attack.
Answers vary. For example, increase security patrols, add more security cameras, and use software that would let police track a stolen computer’s location.
Worksheet 9.2.1: Third-Party Antivirus Software
In this activity, you will use the Internet, a newspaper, or a local store to gather information about
third-party antivirus software.
1.
Using the Internet, a newspaper, or a local store, research two antivirus software applications.
Based on your research, complete the following table:
Company/Software Name
Website URL
Software Features
Subscription Length (Month/Year/Lifetime)
Cost
Symantec Norton AntiVirus
http://www.symantec.com/index.htm
Automatically detect and block viruses, spyware,
and worms.
Rootkit Protection finds and removes hidden threats in
the operating system.
Internet Worm Protection blocks viruses, spyware, and
worms without specific signatures.
One Year
$39.99
Answers will vary.
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2.
Which antivirus software would you purchase? List reasons for your selection.
Answers will vary. For example, Norton AntiVirus. Price and features for this software package
made Norton AntiVirus the best software selection for my needs.
Worksheet 9.4.2: Operating System Updates
In this activity, you will use the Internet to research operating system updates. Be prepared to discuss
your research with the class.
Instructor Note: OS configuration options are located at Start, Control Panel, System, Automatic
Updates tab.
1.
Which operating system (OS) is installed on your computer?
Answers may vary. For example, Windows XP Professional.
2.
List the configuration options available for updating the OS.
Answers may vary. For example:
Automatic download and installation of updates.
Automatic download and prompt for installation of updates.
Notification of updates, but no download or installation.
Turn off Automatic Updates.
3.
Which configuration option would you use to update the OS? List the reason for choosing a
particular option.
Answers may vary. For example: Automatic—every day at 3 a.m.
Reason: The computer is not used at this time.
4.
If the instructor gives you permission, begin the update process for the OS. List all security
updates available.
Items will vary.
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Remote Technician 9.5.2: Gather Information from
the Customer
(Student Technician Sheet)
Gather data from the customer to begin the troubleshooting process. (See the Student Customer Sheet
later in the lab for customer information.) Document the customer’s problem in the following work order.
Company Name: Organization of Associated Chartered Federations, Inc.
Contact: Henry Jones
Company Address: 123 E. Main St.
Company Phone: 480-555-1234
Work Order
Generating a New Ticket
Category Security
Closure Code
Status Open
Type
Escalated
Pending
Item
Pending Until Date
Business Impacting?
Yes
No
Summary
Case ID#
Priority
User Platform Windows XP Pro
Connection Type
Environment
Problem Description: The user cannot log in on multiple computers on the network.
The user’s password has probably expired.
Problem Solution:
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(Student Customer Sheet)
Use the contact information and problem description here to report the following information to a
level-one technician:
Contact Information
Company Name: Organization of Associated Chartered Federations, Inc.
Contact: Henry Jones
Company Address: 123 E. Main Street
Company Phone: 480-555-1234
Category: Security
Problem Description
I am not able to log in. I was able to log in yesterday and all days previously. I tried to log in with a
different computer but was unsuccessful there also. I received an e-mail last week about changing my
password, but I have not changed my password yet.
Note: After you have given the level-one tech the problem description, use the Computer Configuration to
answer any follow-up questions the technician may ask.
Computer Configuration
Windows XP Pro
I do not know when it was last updated.
There is some kind of antivirus program that used to run when I started the computer, but I haven’t
seen it recently.
CHAPTER 10
Communication Skills
The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses short-answer questions to test your knowledge of communication
skills. This portion also includes multiple-choice study questions to help prepare you to take the A+ certification
exams and to test your overall understanding of the material.
The Lab Exercise portion of this chapter includes the online curriculum worksheets and class discussions to
further reinforce your mastery of communication skills.
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Study Guide
Dealing with the Customer
When repairing computers, you may be repairing the computer for someone who works within the same
company as you or for a customer who contacted you. One of the main responsibilities is to satisfy the
customer or client. Your job or business depends on the customer, so you must be skilled at dealing
with people.
You will find a range of computer users and customers. Some of these people will be very knowledgeable
about computers, and other people can barely turn them on. Some people will be easy to work with, and
others will be more difficult. Although you can show some people how to use the computer properly,
you will find it is sometimes harder to fix people’s attitudes than it is to fix a hardware or software problem.
When dealing with customers, you should follow certain guidelines:
■
Always be courteous. Try to smile and say positive things to the customer whenever you can.
■
Focus on the customer and don’t get distracted.
■
Be concerned with the customer’s need.
■
Don’t belittle a customer, a customer’s knowledge, or a customer’s choice of hardware or software.
■
Don’t complain to the customer and don’t make excuses.
■
Stay calm. Don’t get angry.
■
If you give a customer a component that appears to be defective or faulty, offer an immediate
replacement.
■
Be professional. Dress appropriately for the environment. Don’t take over a person’s workspace
without asking.
■
Follow proper personal hygiene.
■
Be dependable and follow up on the service. If you will miss an appointment or will be late,
call the customer to let him or her know.
■
Allow the customer to complain.
■
Allow the customer to explain the problem, and listen carefully.
■
Don’t do anything until you have interviewed the user.
■
Always ask permission first.
■
Keep things neat, tidy, and out of the client’s way.
■
Explain how to prevent future problems without condescension and disrespect.
■
Try not to use industry jargon or acronyms when explaining the problem and solution to the
customer.
■
If a customer is unhappy with you, your company, or a product, an apology can go a long way.
If it is not your fault, you can still apologize for the situation. In addition, find out how you can
make things better.
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Concept Questions
Answer the following questions about dealing with a customer:
When you are communicating with a customer, what kind of statements should you use?
Answers will vary, but should reflect the use of clear, concise, courteous, and direct statements.
As mentioned before, you should allow the customer to explain the problem while you listen carefully.
Why is this important?
This makes sure that you fully understand the problem before you start to troubleshoot it. It also gives
the customer a chance to express any concerns that he or she has.
If you are totally clear on the problem or situation, you should always do what first?
Clarify customer statements by restating the problem or situation.
When you get a call from the customer, you should always remain in control of the call. What else
should you do?
Gather relevant information from the customer.
When you are listening for meaning to what a customer is saying, you are checking with the customer
to see that you correctly heard and understood the statement. What is this known as?
Active listening.
Study Questions
Choose the best answer for each of the questions that follow:
1.
A customer calls and complains that the computer you just repaired is still not working properly.
What should you do?
A.
Apologize and explain that is a different problem than the one you repaired.
B.
Explain that the customer did something wrong.
C. Refer the customer to another repair facility.
D.
2.
Offer to replace any new components you installed or reservice the computer.
What is the last thing you should do to complete a service call?
A.
Hand the customer the bill.
B.
Thank the customer for his or her business.
C. Explain why the repair took so long.
D.
3.
Tell the customer how he or she could have repaired the problem.
A customer complains because she has been on hold for a long time and has been transferred
several times. What should you do?
A.
Apologize for the inconvenience and offer to help her now.
B.
Give her your home phone number or cellular phone number.
C. Tell her the best time to call back.
D.
Explain how busy you are.
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4.
Which of the following techniques are not recommended when explaining the problem?
(Choose two.)
A.
Use pictures, graphs, and charts.
B. Use analogies and examples.
C. Use industry jargon and acronyms.
D.
5.
Give information explaining every detail.
You are troubleshooting a computer that will not boot. Unfortunately, you determined that you
will need to reinstall the operating system. What should you tell the customer?
A.
You will need to rebuild the system from scratch.
B.
You need to reinstall the operating system and data loss may occur.
C. You will need to format the hard drive and reinstall all software.
D.
6.
You will need to upgrade the operating system.
You have been asked by your customer to install an application that the customer does not have
a license for. What should you do?
A.
Notify law enforcement.
B.
Notify the customer that he or she will need to install the software.
C.
Do not install the software. Notify the customer of the legal ramifications if the
application is installed.
D.
Take the initiative by ordering a software license for the customer.
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Lab Exercise
Worksheet 10.1.0: Technician Resources
In this worksheet, you will use the Internet to find online resources for a specific computer component.
Search online for resources that can help you troubleshoot the component. In the following table list at
least one website for each of the following types of resources: online FAQs, online manuals, online
troubleshooting site, blogs, and online help sites. Give a brief description of the content on the site. Be
prepared to discuss the usefulness of the resources you found.
Instructor note: Choose a component or components for your students to research. Alternatively, you may
divide your class into small groups and give each group a different component to research. The sample answers
here are for the ATI Radeon 8500 64MB video card.
Component to research:
ATI Radeon 8500 64MB video
Type of resources
Website address
FAQ
http://ati.amd.com/products/radeon8500/radeon8500/faq.html
A list of questions asked and answered by ATI support
Manual
http://support.ati.com/ics/support/default.asp?deptID=894
Owner’s manual
Online troubleshooting site
http://support.ati.com/ics/support/default.asp?deptID=894
Online guided troubleshooting search engine
http://www.blackpawn.com/blog/?p=69
Blog
Discussions about the Radeon 8500
Online help site
http://www.driverheaven.net/linux-operating-systems/3597ati-radeon-8500-help.html
Suggested solutions to problems from Radeon 8500 owners
Class Discussion 10.2.2: Controlling the Call
In this activity, discuss positive ways to tell customers negative things. There are four scenarios.
Instructor Note: You can read these scenarios to the class to begin the discussion. The answers provided here
are merely examples of correct ways to control the call. There will be many other correct answers.
1.
Demonstrate a positive way to tell a customer that you cannot fix the component and that the
customer will have to purchase a new component. The customer’s name is Fred. You have been
helping him conduct a variety of tests on his computer. After attempting several solutions, it has
become apparent that his hard drive is beyond repair.
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Instructor: Correct answers will have the following:
■
The technician calls the customer by name.
■
The technician explains why the component must be replaced.
■
The technician asks about any possible warranty for the hard drive.
■
The technician explains details about a new part purchase, such as the cost, the availability,
the installation costs, and the like.
■
The technician asks for permission to proceed with the sale and installation of the new
component.
■
The technician explains the details of the procedures to follow to either ship or drop off the
customer’s computer.
■
The technician thanks the customer and ends the call.
2.
Demonstrate a positive way to tell a customer that you cannot fix a computer component
because it falls outside the scope of that customer’s SLA with your company. The customer’s
name is Barney.
Instructor: Correct answers will have the following:
■
The technician calls the customer by name.
■
The technician explains what the SLA covers for the customer.
■
The technician asks if he can give the customer any websites or phone numbers for the major
manufacturers for warranty claims or other technical assistance.
■
The technician apologizes for any inconvenience and ends the call.
3.
Demonstrate how you would put a customer on hold. You have forgotten one of the steps for
setting up a user account for Windows XP and need to ask a fellow worker the instructions for
that step. The customer’s name is Wilma.
Instructor: Correct answers will have the following:
■
The technician calls the customer by name.
■
The technician explains why he must put the customer on hold.
■
The technician asks the customer if it is all right to put her on hold.
■
The technician will wait for the customer’s consent to be put on hold.
■
The technician thanks the customer and gives an estimated time that the customer will be
placed on hold.
4.
Demonstrate how you would transfer a customer to another technician. You have not learned
how to configure the security feature on the wireless router used by the customer (Betty) and
need to transfer the call to a knowledgeable technician.
Instructor: Correct answers will have the following:
■
The technician calls the customer by name.
■
The technician explains why he must transfer the customer.
■
The technician asks the customer if it is all right to transfer her.
■
The technician will wait for the customer’s consent to be put on hold.
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■
The technician gives the customer the name of the new technician and the extension number
she is being transferred to.
■
The technician thanks the customer and begins the transfer.
Class Discussion 10.2.3: Identifying Difficult
Customer Types
In this activity, identify difficult customer types.
Instructor Note: You can read these scenarios to the class to begin the discussion. If time permits, discuss how
to handle each type of customer so that the technician controls the call. It can be hard to distinguish between a
rude customer and an angry customer. The important difference between these two types of customers is that the
rude customer will verbally attack the technician or the product. An angry customer will not usually abuse the
technician taking the call.
Try to choose only one customer type for each scenario:
■
Rude Customer
■
Very Knowledgeable Customer
■
Inexperienced Customer
■
Angry Customer
■
Talkative Customer
Scenario 1: The customer asks you to repeat the last three steps you just gave. When you do, the customer says that you did not say the same thing and asks if you know how to fix the problem. The customer then goes into an explanation of what he thinks you should know and asks if you have ever
done this before.
Customer Type: Rude Customer
Scenario 2: When you ask the customer to explain the problem, the customer starts by telling you how
the computer is acting up and that it happened after their grandson was over for a visit last weekend.
The customer explains that their grandson is taking computer courses and knows a lot about computers. The customer asks what computer courses you have taken and from where. When asked a closeended question, the customer gives a quick yes and goes on to explain how wet and cold the weather
is where he or she lives.
Customer Type: Talkative Customer
Scenario 3: The customer tells you how frustrated he is about the Internet not working. When the customer is asked if the computer is on, he replies with “Nothing shows when I click on the little picture
on the TV.” The technician restates the question, “Is the computer plugged in to the wall?” The customer’s reply is “Not all of the cables. There are too many for me to know where they all go.” The
customer then informs you that a friend set everything up.
Customer Type: Inexperienced Customer
Scenario 4: The customer tells you how frustrated he is about the new color printer not working. He
explains that he was told that he only needed to plug in two different cords and that everything would
work. You ask the customer to check some obvious issues with the printer. He responds by asking how
long this will take and tells you that the only reason he bought the printer was because he was told it
was the easiest printer on the market to install.
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Customer Type: Angry Customer
Scenario 5: When the customer is asked to explain the problem, the customer goes into great technical
detail about how the new external hard drive is not showing up in the Device Manager. You ask him to
click Start, My Computer to see if it is showing up there. Instead of doing as you ask, the customer
provides details of all the different settings and configurations and updates he has tried.
Customer Type: Very Knowledgeable Customer
Class Discussion 10.3.0: Customer Privacy
In this activity, discuss the importance of respecting customer privacy.
Instructor Note: A class discussion may help students better comprehend the importance of customer privacy.
1.
You are working on a customer’s computer, and you need to log off as the administrator and
log on as the customer. You have not talked with the customer about her own access to the computer. You see a note with the customer’s access information. Do you log on as the customer to
test the system and log off? Why or why not?
No. You have not been given permission. It is best to ask the customer (in person, over the phone, or
through text messaging) to log on herself, or ask for permission to log on as the customer. Logging on
as the customer without explicit permission could be illegal.
2.
You are out on an office call. When you leave the customer’s office, which is in an open public
area, you leave your briefcase behind. It contains work order forms from all the customers you
serviced that day. When you contact the office where you left the briefcase, you are told that no
one has seen it. What should you do to protect your customers, and why?
Call your office to inform your boss, and then call all the customers to inform them of all personal
information that was on the work order forms that have disappeared. Your customers will then be able
to change their usernames and passwords, and cancel credit cards, if necessary.
3.
A new customer calls you with concerns about privacy regarding using a computer and the
Internet. List several security concerns you should discuss.
Internet cookies, monitoring in the job, surveillance, biometrics, password policy, virus protection,
and firewall security.
CHAPTER 11
Advanced Personal Computers
The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of fill-in-the-blank and open-ended questions to
test your advanced knowledge of personal computers. This portion also includes multiple-choice study questions
to help prepare you to take the A+ certification exams and to test your overall understanding of the material.
The Lab Exercises portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum hands-on labs, worksheets, and
remote technician exercises to further reinforce your mastery of the personal computers content.
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Study Guide
Motherboards
In previous chapters, you have learned about the basics of a motherboard. In this chapter, we take a
closer look at the motherboard, including configuring the BIOS and looking at the function of the
chipset.
Concept Questions
Answer the following questions about motherboards:
What is the function of the BIOS?
The basic input/output system (BIOS) is stored on ROM chips to provide instructions and data for the
processor. BIOS is the built-in software that determines what a computer can do without accessing
programs from a disk. The ROM chips contain all the code required to control the boot process and
control many hardware devices, including the keyboard, display, screen, disk drives, serial communications, and others.
If a hardware problem is found during bootup, how does the system notify you of the problem?
Through a series of beeps or a visual text message
I have a system that has AMI BIOS. What do three beeps and eight beeps mean during bootup?
■
Three beeps: Memory error
■
Eight beeps: Display memory on the video card
Describe what the North Bridge component holds:
The North Bridge holds the high-speed components, including the memory controller, AGP controller,
and PCI controller.
Describe what the South Bridge component holds:
The South Bridge handles most other forms of I/O (low-speed components) including the PCI peripherals, the ISA bus, floppy drives, hard drives, USB, keyboard and IO devices (parallel port, serial port,
and PS/2 ports).
If you want to change the boot sequence so that every time your system boots, it tries to boot from the
CD drive, what do you need to do?
Enter the BIOS setup program and configure the boot order so that the CD drive is first.
RAM
In previous chapters, you looked at the different technology and packages for RAM and how to install
RAM. In this chapter, you need to understand how the motherboard affects and limits the RAM.
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Concept Questions
Answer the following questions about RAM:
When installing RAM, how do you know how much more the system will accommodate?
You need to open the system and look to see how many slots are available and how many of those
slots are being used. You also need to determine the maximum amount that the motherboard supports
and the type of RAM it supports.
What would happen if the RAM is not physically installed correctly?
Your system will not boot, your system will generate beep codes, your system will not recognize all of
its RAM.
Cooling the System
Heat is an enemy of any computer system. Therefore, you need to make sure that the computer and its
components stay cool enough to operate properly. This includes looking at the fan that comes with the
case, additional fans, and the processor thermal solution.
Concept Questions
Answer the following questions about cooling the system:
What is the primary component within a PC that keeps it cool?
The fan within the power supply
Newer motherboards and cases have been redesigned to keep the PC cooler. How do these designs
accomplish this?
The newer motherboards and cases have been redesigned for better air flow over key electronic components that produce heat.
Because the processor is one of the hottest running components within the PC, what is used to keep
the processor cool besides the power supply?
The processor needs a heat sink and fan.
To provide a good thermal connectivity between the processor and cooling devices, you must apply
what?
Thermal grease or other thermal conductive material
What would happen if the processor overheats?
The system will halt, shut down, or reboot. Also, the system may generate strange errors, or the system will not boot.
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Power Supply
By now, you understand that the power supply supplies electricity to the computer. Of course, if you
use your computer in various countries, you may need to know how the electricity varies. You also
need to understand that your system often has to deal with power fluctuations. Therefore, you need to
know the problems that these power fluctuations can cause and how to combat these problems.
Concept Questions
Answer the following power supply questions:
What is the primary function of the PC power supply?
To convert AC into clean DC power
What voltage does the power supply use when in the United States, and what voltage does the power
supply use when it is in Europe?
United States uses 110 volts.
Europe uses 220 volts.
If the power supply voltage is configured incorrectly, what would happen?
If a 220-volt power supply is plugged into 110 volts, the system will not boot.
If a 110-volt power supply is plugged into 220 volts, the system will be damaged.
Four types of devices can protect a PC against power fluctuations. Describe each one that is listed:
■
Surge Protector: Devices that are designed to prevent most short-duration, high-intensity spikes
and surges from reaching the PC.
■
Line Conditioner: A device that filters out noise and fills in brownouts. It also usually contains
a surge protector to protect against spikes and surges.
■
Standby Power Supply (SPS): A battery connected in parallel to the PC. When the SPS detects
a power problem, the system switches to the battery for power.
■
Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS): A battery connected in series with the PC. The AC power
is connected directly to the battery. Because the battery always provides clean DC power, the
PC is protected against over-voltages and under-voltages.
Hard Drive
The hard drive holds most of the data that people work with and often contains the user’s programs.
Therefore, it is important that you know how to install and configure hard drives.
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Concept Questions
Answer the following hard drive questions:
When connecting a parallel IDE drive to a cable, how is it determined which drive is the master drive
and which drive is the slave drive?
The master and slave drives are determined by jumper settings on the drive. Some systems also use a
cable select mode that will automatically determine the master or slave. Cable select is set by the
jumper.
What is the difference between two different parallel IDE cables that each have 40-pin connectors, but
one cable has 40 conductors and the other has 80 conductors?
The 40-conductor cable is the traditional IDE cable that does not support the faster IDE drive transfer
rates. The 80-conductor cable supports the faster IDE drive transfer rates.
How many IDE drives can you connect on a parallel IDE cable?
Two
When you configure SCSI drives, what unique settings must each drive have?
SCSI ID numbers
When you connect SCSI drives on a SCSI cable, explain how termination is used.
When you have a SCSI cable or chain, the two SCSI devices on both ends of the chain must be terminated, and the other devices are not terminated. The termination is done with jumpers on the drive or
it is autoconfigured.
If you are using wide SCSI, how many devices can you connect to a SCSI cable or chain?
15
How many pins does a narrow SCSI cable have, and how many pins does a wide SCSI cable have?
Narrow SCSI cables have 50 pins.
Wide SCSI cables have 68 pins.
What SCSI IDE number is normally assigned to the CD-ROM drive?
SCSI ID 3
What must you do to make sure that hard drives operate properly?
Make sure the hard drive air flow is not obstructed.
Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks (RAID)
To help with data protection, there is redundant array of inexpensive disks (RAID)—two or more
drives used in combination to create a fault-tolerance system to protect against physical hard drive
failure and to increase the hard drive performance. A RAID configuration can be accomplished with
either hardware or software and is usually used in network servers. Note that RAID does not replace
a good backup, because it does not protect against data corruption or viruses.
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Concept Questions
Answer the following questions about RAID:
Fill in the following table:
Common
Raid Level
Common Name
Minimum
Number of
Disks
0
Striping
2
Fastest form of RAID that spreads the
data among multiple disks.
1
Disk mirroring/
disk duplexing
2
Duplicates data between two drives. If
one drive fails, you keep on working.
5
Striping with parity
3
Uses striping that spreads the data
among multiple disks but also includes
byte error correction so that if one drive
fails, the system can still function and
the data can be rebuilt on the replaced
drive.
Description
What happens if one of the drives fails in a RAID 0 configuration?
RAID 0 configurations do not provide fault tolerance because if one of the drives fail, you lose all
information on that configuration.
Video Systems
The last major component of a computer is the video system, which consists of the video card (which
is sometimes built in to the motherboard) and the monitor. Because the monitor is the primary output
device, it is often the most visible part of the computer. You need to know how to install, configure,
and troubleshoot video systems.
Concept Questions
Answer the following questions about video systems:
If you turn on your computer and nothing shows up on the monitor, what do you check first?
You should always check the obvious first. So in this case, make sure that the monitor is turned on
and that it is plugged in.
Magnetic fields, such as those generated by speakers, may distort the images and cause discoloration
on isolated areas on a CRT monitor screen. What can you do to restore the image and remove the
discoloration?
You can degausse the screen by using a degausser. Some CRT monitors have a built-in degaussing circuit, which can be activated automatically or by pressing a button or switch on the CRT monitor.
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What would happen if the video card that you are using in a computer system has faulty memory?
Your system will notify you with a series of beeps or will not boot.
Performance Bottlenecks
Besides looking at each component that makes up the PC, you sometimes have to look at all the components working together to determine the power of the PC and to determine a system bottleneck.
Concept Questions
Answer the following questions about performance bottlenecks:
What are the four general components or subsystems that can have performance bottlenecks within a PC?
Processor
Memory
Disk
Network
If your hard drive was running fine but has gotten slower over several months, what should you try
first to make the hard drive fast again?
Defrag the hard drive.
For some games, your video system must perform well enough to enjoy the full effects of the game. If
your video game appears choppy, what can you do to increase video performance?
Replace your video card with a faster adapter.
Study Questions
Choose the best answer for each of the questions that follow:
1.
2.
Which of the following has the fastest throughput?
A.
Floppy drive
B.
RAM
C.
An IDE hard disk drive
D.
A SCSI hard disk drive
Which of the following are fault tolerant?
A.
RAID 0
B.
RAID 1
C.
RAID 5
D.
RAID 1 and 5
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3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
How do you determine which drive is the master drive in a parallel IDE system?
A.
The device that was installed first
B.
A twist in the cable
C.
The jumper settings
D.
The newer drive
If a system has a dual controller for parallel IDE drives, how many drives can it support?
A.
1
B.
2
C.
4
D.
6
Which of the following components on the motherboard usually house the IDE connectors?
A.
RTC
B.
ROM BIOS
C.
North Bridge
D.
South Bridge
What is the minimum number of hard drives required for RAID level 0?
A.
1
B.
2
C.
3
D.
4
Which RAID provides disk mirroring?
A.
RAID 0
B.
RAID 1
C.
RAID 2
D.
RAID 5
Which of the following is the SCSI ID number generally recommended for the CD-ROM?
A.
ID 0
B.
ID 1
C.
ID 2
D.
ID 3
E.
ID 7
What is the maximum data transfer rate that USB 2.0 offers?
A.
11 Mbps
B.
128 Mbps
C.
100 Mbps
D.
480 Mbps
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10. If you have a large drive consisting of 275 GB of data, what should you use to back it up regularly?
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
A.
CD-RW
B.
Dual-layer DVD-R
C.
An external hard drive
D.
A digital linear tape (DLT)
When installing an IDE CD-ROM on a computer that already has a single IDE hard drive configured as the master drive on the primary controller, what would you configure the CD-ROM
drive for?
A.
Master on the primary IDE controller
B.
Master on the secondary IDE controller
C.
Slave on the primary IDE controller
D.
Slave on the secondary IDE controller
The maximum number of IDE devices that can be installed in an ATX computer is ______.
A.
1
B.
2
C.
3
D.
4
Your system has become sluggish after you’ve owned it for nine months. What is the first thing
you should do to improve performance?
A.
Add more RAM.
B.
Upgrade the CPU.
C.
Add a larger hard drive.
D.
Defragment the hard drive.
You are installing four SCSI drives on a computer. When troubleshooting hard drive problems,
what should you check?
A.
All hard drives must be terminated, and the SCSI IDs must be numbered consecutively
starting with 0 (0, 1, 2 and 3).
B.
You must terminate all drives, and all drives must have the same ID as the controller card.
C.
You must terminate the two ends of the SCSI chain, and each drive must have a unique
ID.
D.
You must terminate the host adapter and make sure it has a unique ID.
After upgrading the processor, your system shuts down automatically after 10–15 minutes of
use. Why is this happening?
A.
The processor has been overclocked to the point where it runs faster than what it was
designed for.
B.
The processor is overheating.
C.
The processor is not using the correct voltage.
D.
The pin on the processor is bent and not seated properly.
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16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
A user reports that nothing shows up on the monitor. When you look at the system, you notice
that there are lights on the computer. What should you check first?
A.
Make sure the voltage is set correctly on the power supply.
B.
Make sure the monitor is turned on.
C.
Make sure that the video cable is connected to the computer and monitor.
D.
Make sure that the power cable is connected to the computer.
What kind of device protects your computer from sudden spikes in power?
A.
Power conditioner
B.
Generator
C.
Surge protector
D.
Resistor pack
What kind of device protects your computer from brownouts?
A.
Line conditioner
B.
Surge protector
C.
Resistor pack
D.
Standby power supply
When you need to degauss a CRT monitor because the two corners are discolored because of
some speakers you had near your monitor, what should you do?
A.
Run the degauss utility in Windows.
B.
Temporarily move the speakers to the front of the monitor so that it can realign itself.
C.
Turn the monitor off for a minimum of one hour.
D.
Use the controls on the monitor and run the degauss routine.
You live in the United States and you accepted a six-month contract in France. What should
you do to prevent damage to your computer?
A.
Purchase the correct power adapter for France.
B.
Change the voltage selector on the power supply to 220 voltage.
C.
Use a surge protector while overseas.
D.
Use a line conditioner.
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Lab Exercises
Worksheet 11.1.0: Job Opportunities
In this activity, you will use the Internet, magazines, or a local newspaper to gather information for
jobs in the computer service and repair field. Try to find jobs that require the same types of courses
that you are presently taking. Be prepared to discuss your research in class.
Research three computer-related jobs. For each job, write the company name and the job title in the
column on the left. Write the job details that are most important to you, as well as the job qualifications in the column on the right. An example has been provided for you.
Company Name and Job Title
Details and Qualifications
Gentronics Flexible Solutions/
Field Service Representative
Company offers continuing education. Work with hardware and software. Work directly with customers. Local
travel.
A+ certification preferred.
Installation or repair experience of computer hardware
and software not required.
Requires a valid driver license.
Reliable personal transportation.
Mileage reimbursement.
Ability to lift and carry up to 50 lbs.
Installation of NIC cards.
Experience with POS equipment (preferred).
Answers may vary.
Answers may vary.
Which of the jobs that you found in your research would you like to have? Explain why you are interested in this job. An example has been provided for you.
Answers may vary.
Gentronics Flexible Solutions Field Service Representative—I am not able to travel far away from my
family and this job allows me to travel locally. Also, this job offers educational opportunities so that I
can advance further in the IT field.
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Worksheet 11.3.7: Research Computer Components
In this activity, you will use the Internet, a newspaper, or a local store to gather information about the
components you will need to upgrade your customer’s computer. Be prepared to discuss your selections.
Instructor Note: All the components a student chooses must be compatible with the components provided.
(For example, the selected CPU and RAM must work in the provided motherboard.) All the components a student
chooses must have improved performance or additional capabilities. The answers provided are examples. Student
answers may vary.
Your customer already owns the case described in the following table. You will not need to research a
new case.
Brand and Model Number
Features
Cooler Master
ATX Mid Tower
CAC-T05-UW
ATX, Micro ATX compatible form factor
Cost
5X External 5.25” drive bays
1X External 3.5” drive bay
4X Internal 5.25” drive bays
7 expansion slots
USB, FireWire, audio front ports
Research a power supply that is compatible with the components that your customer owns. The new
component must have improved performance or additional capabilities. Enter the specifications in the
following table:
Brand and Model Number
Features
Cost
Antec
450 Watt
$60.99
SP-450
Dual +12V rails
> 70% Efficiency
ATX12V form factor
SeaSonic
550 Watt
SS-550HT
Dual +12V rails
$129.99
SLI Certified
Up to 88% Efficiency
ATX12V/EPS12V form factor
Research a motherboard that is compatible with the components that your customer owns. The new
component must have improved performance or additional capabilities. Enter the specifications in the
following table:
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Brand and Model Number
Features
GIGABYTE
GA-965P-DS3
LGA 775
DDR2 800
PCI Express x16
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Cost
SATA 3.0 Gbps interface
1.8 V-2.4 V RAM voltage
1066/800/533 MHz Front Side Bus
Four Memory Slots
Dual Channel Memory Supported
1XATA100 connector
RAID 0/1
4X USB 2.0
ATX Form Factor
ASUS
P5B Deluxe
LGA 775
DDR2 800
PCI Express x16
$178.99
SATA 4.0 Gbps interface
1.8 V-2.4 V RAM voltage
1066/800 MHz Front Side Bus
Four Memory Slots
Dual Channel Memory Supported
1XATA100 connector
RAID 0/1
4X USB 2.0
ATX Form Factor
Dual10/100/1000 LAN ports
Research a CPU that is compatible with the components that your customer owns. The new component
must have improved performance or additional capabilities. Enter the specifications in the following table:
Brand and Model Number
Features
Cost
Intel
Core 2 Duo E6300
LGA 775
1.86 GHz Operating Frequency
1066 MHz Front Side Bus
$183.00
BX80557E6300
2M shared L2 Cache
64 bit supported
Conroe Core
Intel
Core 2 Quad Q6600
BX80562Q6600
LGA 775
2.4 GHz Operating Frequency
1066 MHz Front Side Bus
2×4MB L2 Cache
64 bit supported
Kentsfield Core
$835.00
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Research a heat sink/fan assembly that is compatible with the components that your customer owns. The
new component must have improved performance or additional capabilities. Enter the specifications in
the following table:
Brand and Model Number
Features
Intel
LGA 775
Stock heat sink/fan80 mm fan
2 pin power
Cost
Under recommended socket weight
Included with CPU
Tuniq
LGA 775
Tower 120
120 mm fan
$64.99
3 pin power
798g (without fan)
Research RAM that is compatible with the components that your customer owns. The new component
must have improved performance or additional capabilities. Enter the specifications in the following table:
Brand and Model Number
Features
Cost
Patriot
240-Pin DDR2 SDRAM
$194.99
PDC22G6400LLK
DDR2 800 (PC2 6400)
Cas Latency 4
Timing 4-4-4-12
Voltage 2.2 V
Corsair
240-Pin DDR2 SDRAM
TWIN2X2048-6400C3DF
DDR2 800 (PC2 6400)
$463.00
Cas Latency 3
Timing 3-3-3-9
Voltage 2.4 V
Research a hard disk drive that is compatible with the components that your customer owns. The new
component must have improved performance or additional capabilities. Enter the specifications in the
following table:
Brand and Model Number
Features
Cost
Western Digital
40 GB
$37.99
WD400BB
7200 RPM
2 MB Cache
Seagate
400 GB
ST3400620AS
7200 RPM
16 MB Cache
SATA 3.0 Gbps interface
$119.99
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Research a video adapter card that is compatible with the components that your customer owns. The
new component must have improved performance or additional capabilities. Enter the specifications in
the following table:
Brand and Model Number
Features
Cost
XFX
PCI Express X16
$189.99
PVT71PUDD3
600 MHz Core clock
256 MB GDDR3
1600 MHz memory clock
256-bit memory interface
EVGA
PCI Express X16
768-P2-N831-AR
575 MHz Core clock
$569.99
768 MB GDDR3
1800 MHz memory clock
384-bit memory interface
List three components that must have the same or compatible form factor:
Case, power supply, motherboard
List three components that must conform to the same socket type:
Motherboard, CPU, heat sink/fan
List two components that must utilize the same front side bus speed:
Motherboard, CPU
List three considerations when you choose memory:
Answers may vary.
Type, size, number of pins, speed, dual-channel capability, CAS latency
What component must be compatible with every other component of the computer?
Motherboard
What determines compatibility between a motherboard and a video card?
Slot type
Lab 11.4.1: Install a NIC
In this lab, you will install a NIC, verify NIC operation, and manually configure an IP address.
The following is the recommended equipment for this lab:
■
Computer running Windows XP Professional
■
PCI NIC
■
Driver files for PCI NIC on CD or floppy disk
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■
Antistatic wrist strap
■
Tool kit
Instructor Note: Complete a NIC installation before class to make sure that the hardware you are using in your
classroom installs easily. This lab is written with the assumption that the existing NIC is integrated into the motherboard. If you do not have CDs or floppy disks with drivers for the new NIC, you will need to create them prior
to performing this lab.
Step 1
Log on to the computer as an administrator.
Click the Start button. Right-click My Computer, and then choose Properties (see Figure 11-1).
Figure 11-1
Opening the Computer Properties
The System Properties window appears (see Figure 11-2).
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Figure 11-2
211
System Properties
Choose the Hardware tab, and then click the Device Manager button. The Device Manager window appears.
Step 2
Expand Network Adapters.
Right-click the NIC installed in your computer, and then choose Disable (see Figure 11-3).
Figure 11-3
Disabling a Device in Device Manager
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The Disabling This Device Will Cause It to Stop Functioning confirmation window appears (see
Figure 11-4).
Click Yes.
Figure 11-4
Confirmation Box Before Disabling a Device
A red X appears over the icon of the NIC installed in your computer (see Figure 11-5).
Figure 11-5
A Disabled Device in Device Manager
Close the Device Manager window (see Figure 11-6).
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Figure 11-6
213
System Properties
Close the System Properties window, and turn off your computer.
Step 3
Who is the manufacturer of the new NIC?
Answers may vary.
What is the model number of the new NIC?
Answers may vary.
What slot type is used to connect the new NIC to the motherboard?
Answers may vary.
Step 4
If a switch is present on the power supply, set the switch to 0 or Off.
Unplug the computer from the AC outlet.
Unplug the network cable from the computer.
Remove the side panels from the case.
Step 5
Instructor Note: If there is no available slot for the new NIC, you will need to instruct your students to remove
the existing NIC before installing the new NIC.
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Choose an appropriate slot on the motherboard to install the new NIC. You might need to remove the
metal cover near the slot on the back of the case.
Make sure the NIC is properly lined up with the slot. Push down gently on the NIC. Secure the NIC
mounting bracket to the case with a screw.
Step 6
Replace the case panels.
Plug in the network cable to the new NIC.
Plug in the power cable to an AC outlet.
If a switch is present on the power supply, set the switch to 1 or On.
Step 7
Boot your computer, and then log on as an administrator.
Choose Start. Right-click My Computer, and then choose Properties.
The System Properties window appears. Choose the Hardware tab, and then click the Device Manager
button.
Step 8
The Device Manager window appears. Expand Network Adapters (see Figure 11-7).
Figure 11-7
Network Devices Within the Device Manager
How many Network adapters are present (enabled and disabled) in the list?
Answers may vary.
If the new card icon has a red X over it, right-click that icon and then click Enable (see Figure 11-8).
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Figure 11-8
215
Second NIC Enabled
Right-click the new NIC icon, and then choose Properties.
Choose the Driver tab. Click the Update Driver button (see Figure 11-9).
Figure 11-9
Driver Properties of a Device
The Hardware Update Wizard appears. If you are prompted to connect to Windows Update, click the
No, Not This Time option button, and then click Next (see Figure 11-10).
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Figure 11-10
Starting the Hardware Update Wizard
Choose the Install from a List or Specific Location (Advanced) option button, and then click Next
(see Figure 11-11).
Instructor Note: If you do not have driver disks for your students, download from the Internet.
Figure 11-11
Specifying What You Want the Wizard to Do
Insert the CD or floppy disk with the new NIC drivers, and then click Next (see Figure 11-12).
Chapter 11: Advanced Personal Computers
Figure 11-12
Specifying Where to Load the Drivers From
The Please Wait While the Wizard Searches window appears (see Figure 11-13).
Figure 11-13
Wizard Searching for the Appropriate Driver
Click Finish after Windows installs the new driver. The Hardware Update Wizard window closes.
Click Close (see Figure 11-14).
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Figure 11-14
Driver Properties
The NIC Properties window closes. Close the Device Manager (see Figure 11-15).
Figure 11-15
System Properties
Step 9
Choose Start, Run (see Figure 11-16).
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Figure 11-16
219
Selecting the Run Option to Run a Command or Program
Type cmd into the Open field, and then click OK (see Figure 11-17).
Figure 11-17
Typing cmd to Open a DOS Window
The C:\WINDOWS\System32\cmd.exe window appears. Type ipconfig and press Enter. The settings
of the new NIC are displayed (see Figure 11-18).
Figure 11-18
Executing the ipconfig Command at a Command Window
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What is the IP address?
Answers may vary.
What is the subnet mask?
Answers may vary.
What is the default gateway?
Answers may vary.
Step 10
Choose Start, Control Panel (see Figure 11-19).
Figure 11-19
Opening the Control Panel
Click Network and Internet Connections (see Figure 11-20).
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Figure 11-20
221
Control Panel
The Network and Internet Connections window appears. Click Network Connections (see Figure 11-21).
Figure 11-21
Control Panel Network and Internet Connections
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The Network Connections window appears (see Figure 11-22).
Figure 11-22
Network Connections
Step 11
Right-click the connected Local Area Connection and choose Properties (see Figure 11-23).
Figure 11-23
Opening the Properties of the Local Area Connection
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223
The Local Area Connection Properties window appears. Choose Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) and click
Properties (see Figure 11-24).
Figure 11-24
Local Area Connection Properties
Click the Use the Following IP address option button.
Note: Use the IP address, subnet mask, and default gateway you wrote down earlier in the lab to fill in the
following three fields:
Type the IP address assigned to your computer into the IP Address field.
Type the subnet mask assigned to your network into the Subnet Mask field.
Type the default gateway assigned to your network into the Default Gateway field (see Figure 11-25).
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Figure 11-25
Internet TCP/IP Properties
Click OK. The Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties window closes.
Click Close (see Figure 11-26).
Figure 11-26
Local Area Connection Properties
The Local Area Connection Properties window closes.
Chapter 11: Advanced Personal Computers
Step 12
The C:\WINDOWS\System32\cmd.exe window is revealed.
Type ipconfig /all, and then press Enter (see Figure 11-27).
Figure 11-27
ipconfig /all Command
Does the NIC have DHCP enabled?
No.
Type ping and your IP address. For example, ping 172.10.1.103 (see Figure 11-28).
Figure 11-28
Using the ping Command to Test Network Connectivity
Write one of the replies of your ping command.
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Type exit, and then press Enter (see Figure 11-29).
Figure 11-29
Using the exit Command to Close the Command Window
Step 13
Choose Start, Control Panel (see Figure 11-30).
Figure 11-30
Opening the Control Panel
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Click Network and Internet Connections (see Figure 11-31).
Figure 11-31
Control Panel
The Network and Internet Connections window appears. Click Network Connections (see Figure 11-32).
Figure 11-32
Control Panel Network and Internet Connections
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The Network Connections window appears (see Figure 11-33).
Figure 11-33
Network Connections
Step 14
Right-click the connected Local Area Connection and choose Properties (see Figure 11-34).
Figure 11-34
Opening the Properties of the Local Area Connection
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229
The Local Area Connection Properties window appears.
Choose Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) and click Properties (see Figure 11-35).
Figure 11-35
Local Area Connection Properties with the Client for Microsoft Networks Highlighted
Click the Obtain an IP Address Automatically option button.
Click OK. The Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties window closes.
Click Close (see Figure 11-36).
Figure 11-36
Local Area Connection Properties with the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Highlighted
The Local Area Connection Properties window closes.
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Lab 11.4.3: Install Additional RAM
In this lab, you will install additional RAM.
The following is the recommended equipment for this lab:
■
Computer running Windows XP Professional
■
Available RAM slot on motherboard
■
Additional RAM module(s)
■
Tool kit
■
Antistatic wrist strap
■
Antistatic mat
Instructor Note: Complete this installation before class to make sure that the RAM you are using installs
correctly. Make sure that you have enough RAM for each computer.
Step 1
Log on to the computer as an administrator.
Click the Start button. Right-click My Computer and then choose Properties (see Figure 11-37).
Figure 11-37
Selecting the My Computer Properties
The System Properties window appears (see Figure 11-38).
Chapter 11: Advanced Personal Computers
Figure 11-38
System Properties
How much RAM is installed in your computer?
Answers may vary.
Close the System Properties window.
Step 2
Shut down your computer.
If a switch is present on the power supply, set the switch to 0 or Off.
Unplug the computer from the AC outlet, and remove the side panels from the case.
Put on the antistatic wrist strap, and then clip it to the case.
Step 3
Press down on the retainer tabs at each end of a slot. The memory module will be lifted out of the
memory slot. Remove the memory module (see Figure 11-39).
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Figure 11-39
RAM DIMM Slots
What type of memory is the module that you removed?
Answers may vary.
What is the speed of the memory in MHz?
Answers may vary.
Step 4
Caution: If, during reinstallation of the RAM module, the module does not fit correctly or does not install easily,
carefully remove the module and start the installation again.
Align the notch(es) at the bottom of the RAM module with the key(s) in the RAM slot. Place the
RAM module in the slot, and then push down firmly on the RAM module until the module is fully
seated in the slot and the retainer tabs hold the module in place.
Press each retainer tab in toward the memory module to make sure that the RAM is held in place by
the retainer tabs.
Instructor Note: You will need to provide each student or student team with additional RAM modules.
Install the RAM modules provided by your instructor.
Step 5
Remove the antistatic wrist strap from the case and from your wrist, and then replace the case panels.
Plug the power cable into an AC outlet.
If a switch is present on the power supply, set the switch to 1 or On.
Boot your computer (see Figure 11-40), and then log on as an administrator.
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Figure 11-40
233
The POST Showing the Amount of RAM a System Has
Open the System Properties window.
How much RAM is installed in your computer?
Answers may vary.
Lab 11.4.4: BIOS File Search
In this lab, you will identify the current BIOS version and then search for BIOS update files.
The following is the recommended equipment for this lab:
■
Computer running Windows XP Professional
■
Internet access
Step 1
Boot your computer.
During POST, BIOS information is displayed onscreen for a short period of time (see Figure 11-41).
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Figure 11-41
POST Showing the Amount of RAM and the Number of IDE Drives and
Optical Drives
Do not log on to Windows.
Instructor Note: You may need to provide your students with the correct method for entering Setup on the lab
computers.
What key or combination of keys is used to run Setup on your computer?
Answers may vary.
Restart your computer and enter Setup.
Step 2
The BIOS Setup Utility screen appears (see Figure 11-42).
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Figure 11-42
235
BIOS Setup Program
Who is the manufacturer of the BIOS?
Answers may vary.
Which BIOS version is installed in your computer?
Answers may vary.
Instructor Note: As a class, choose a motherboard model from the lab computers. Search the Internet to find
the most current version of BIOS available for the motherboard. The following screen is an example of the type
of information you would look for to answer the following questions:
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Caution: Do not update your BIOS.
What is the current BIOS version available for the motherboard?
Answers may vary.
What features, if any, have been added to the new BIOS version?
Answers may vary.
What changes, if any, have been made to the new BIOS version to fix problems?
Answers may vary.
What are the instructions to update the new BIOS version?
Answers may vary.
Lab 11.4.5: Install, Configure, and Partition a Second
Hard Drive
In this lab, you will change the boot order, install a second hard drive, create partitions, and map drive
letters to partitions.
Instructor Note: The BIOS screens provided in this lab are examples. Your screens may be different.
Familiarize yourself with the BIOS screens on your lab computers before performing this lab.
This lab assumes a specific hardware configuration. Note the Recommended Equipment for this lab. If you do not
have the recommended equipment, you will need to make adjustments to the lab for the lab to work with your
equipment. If you do not have spare hard disk drives, use the hard disk drives from other computers in the lab.
The following is the recommended equipment for this lab:
■
Computer running Windows XP Professional
■
Unpartitioned IDE hard disk drive
■
IDE cable with a free connection
■
Antistatic wrist strap
■
Tool kit
Step 1
Boot your computer, and then enter the BIOS setup (see Figure 11-43).
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Figure 11-43
237
BIOS Setup Program
Instructor Note: Instruct your students on where to find the boot order configuration settings for each computer used in this lab.
Use the left-arrow and right-arrow keys to move between tabs in the BIOS. Use the up-arrow and
down-arrow keys to move between items in each tab.
Navigate the BIOS setup program screens to the boot order configuration settings screen (see
Figure 11-44).
Figure 11-44
Boot Menu Within the BIOS Setup Program
Select the Boot Device Priority. The Boot Device Priority may also be called the Boot Options or the
Boot Order.
Press the Enter key (see Figure 11-45).
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Figure 11-45
Boot Device Priority Screen
Instructor Note: Instruct your students as to how to change the order of the boot devices.
Change the order of the boot devices to the following:
1. CD-ROM
2. Hard Drive
3. Floppy Drive
4. Any other boot option available
On which screen was the boot device order found?
Answers may vary.
Instructor Note: The F10 key is often used to save changes to the BIOS and exit the utility at the same time.
Instruct your students on how to save changes and exit if F10 is not the correct key in your BIOS.
Save the changes to the BIOS and exit the BIOS utility by pressing the F10 key.
Step 2
Confirm the change to the BIOS settings if you are prompted. The computer will restart.
Do not log on to Windows.
Shut down your computer.
If a switch is present on the power supply, set the switch to 0 or Off.
Unplug the computer from the AC outlet.
Remove the side panels from the case.
Put on the antistatic wrist strap, and then clip it to the case.
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Step 3
Many hard drives will have the jumper settings indicated in a diagram on the drive. Follow the diagram to determine where the jumper will be installed (see Figure 11-46).
Figure 11-46
Jumper Settings for a Hard Drive
Move the Master/Slave jumper on the installed hard disk drive to the Master position if it is in any
other position.
Move the Master/Slave jumper on the second hard disk drive to the Slave position if it is in any other
position.
Insert the second hard disk drive into the computer and attach it with the proper screws.
Plug the middle connector of the IDE cable into the second hard disk drive.
Plug a four-pin Molex power connector into the second hard disk drive.
Check the jumper settings and cable connections on both hard disk drives to make sure the settings are
correct and the cables are secured.
Remove the antistatic wrist strap from the case and from your wrist, and then replace the case panels.
Plug the power cable into an AC outlet.
If a switch is present on the power supply, set the switch to 1 or On.
Boot your computer.
Step 4
The new hard disk drive will be detected by the computer during the POST routine (see Figure 11-47).
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Figure 11-47
POST Screen
Instructor Note: If the computer beeps, this may indicate a problem with the hard disk drive installation. If
there are any beeps or error messages, shut down the computer and inspect the hard disk drive installation.
A message to accept configuration changes often prompts the user to press the F1 key. This may be different on
your computer.
If you are prompted to accept changes to the computer, Press the F1 key.
Log on to Windows as an administrator.
Step 5
Click the Start button, and then right-click My Computer.
Choose Manage. The Computer Management window appears.
Click Disk Management (see Figure 11-48).
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Figure 11-48
241
Selecting Disk Management in the Computer Management Console
The Initialize and Convert Disk Wizard window appears. Click Next (see Figure 11-49).
Figure 11-49
Starting the Initialize and Convert Disk Wizard
The Select Disks to Initialize window appears. Check the Disk 1 check box, and then click Next (see
Figure 11-50).
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Figure 11-50
Initializing a Disk
The Select Disks to Convert window appears. Uncheck the Disk 1 check box if it is already checked,
and then click Next (see Figure 11-51).
Figure 11-51
Deselecting a Disk to Be Converted to a Dynamic Disk
The Completing the Initialize and Convert Disk Wizard window appears.
Verify that you will Initialize: Disk 1 and Convert: None, and then click Finish (see Figure 11-52).
Chapter 11: Advanced Personal Computers
Figure 11-52
Completing the Initialize and Convert Disk Wizard
Step 6
The Disk Management area of Computer Management appears (see Figure 11-53).
Figure 11-53
Disk Management Console
Note: If the hard disk drive is shown as offline or missing, the hard disk drive may be corrupted.
Right-click the Unallocated space of Disk 1 and choose New Partition (see Figure 11-54).
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Figure 11-54
Creating a New Partition from Unallocated Space
The New Partition Wizard window appears (see Figure 11-55). Click Next.
Figure 11-55
Starting the New Partition Wizard
The Specify Partition Size window appears.
Type 5000 into the Partition Size in MB field, and then click Next (see Figure 11-56).
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Figure 11-56
245
Specifying the Size of the Partition
The Assign Drive Letter or Path window appears.
Click the Assign the Following Drive Letter option button.
Choose M from the Assign the Following Drive Letter drop-down box, and click Next (see Figure 11-57).
Figure 11-57
Assigning the Driver Letter for a New Partition
The Format Partition window appears (see Figure 11-58). Click Next.
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Figure 11-58
Options to Format a Partition
The Completing the New Partition Wizard window appears.
Verify that the settings you have chosen match the settings shown in the Completing the New Partition
Wizard window, and then click Finish (see Figure 11-59).
Figure 11-59
Completing the New Partition Wizard
Windows formats the new partition and the status of the Volume changes to Healthy (see Figure 11-60).
Chapter 11: Advanced Personal Computers
Figure 11-60
Computer Management Console
Step 7
Create a second partition in the unallocated space of Disk 1 with the drive label N:.
Step 8
Choose Start, My Computer.
The Hard Disk Drives section of My Computer now shows the two new volumes, M: and N: (see
Figure 11-61).
Figure 11-61
My Computer Window
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Lab 11.6.3: Repair Boot Problem
In this lab, you will troubleshoot and repair a computer that does not boot.
The following is the recommended equipment for this lab:
■
A computer running Windows XP Professional
■
Antistatic wrist strap
■
Tool kit
Instructor to set up prior to class:
■
Switch the mouse and keyboard connections (PS2).
■
Unplug the power cable from the optical drive.
■
Switch the jumper on the hard drive(s) to slave.
■
Unplug the IDE cable for the hard drive from the motherboard.
■
Eject the memory completely from the memory bank(s) and place at the bottom of the case.
Scenario
The computer will not start up. The computer beeps constantly.
Step 1
Unplug the power cable from the computer. Check the other external cables. Make sure all other
external cables are in the correct position and the connections are secure. Make sure any power
switches are set to Off or 0.
Step 2
Open the case and check all internal data and power cable connections. Check the adapter cards and
RAM modules to make sure they are seated completely.
Instructor Note: Before students start the computer, check each computer to make sure that all problems
were fixed.
Step 3
Remove your antistatic wrist strap. If there is a power switch on the power supply, turn it to On or 1.
Turn on the computer.
What steps did you perform to fix the computer?
Answers may vary but must include fixing the five problems created by the instructor.
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Remote Technician 11.6.3: Repair Boot Problem
(Student Technician Sheet)
In this lab, you will gather data from the customer, and then instruct the customer on how to fix a
computer that does not boot. Document the customer’s problem in the following work order:
Instructor: The hardware changes in this lab are the same as the troubleshooting lab that the students
have already completed in this chapter. In this lab, the goal is to demonstrate the special skills needed
to help a customer fix a computer remotely. Begin this lab with a demonstration:
1.
Select two students who are willing to participate and have good troubleshooting skills.
2.
Position the students back to back so that the student customer cannot see the student technician and the student technician cannot see the student customer’s computer.
3.
The student playing the role of the customer must behave as an inexperienced user.
4.
At five minute intervals, stop the demonstration and ask questions of the class. For example, “Is
there a better way to phrase that question?” or “Is the student technician skipping any steps?”
or “What would you do differently?”
5.
If at any time the students are unable to proceed, allow the student customer to make suggestions for the student technician.
6.
After successful demonstration of the process, send each team of students to their pod to complete the lab. After the lab has been completed once, switch the roles of the students in each
team. Have each team perform the lab again the next day of class. You will need to make the
hardware changes to the computers again, or you will need to have extra computers available.
Instructor: Make these hardware changes to each lab computer prior to class:
■
Switch the mouse and keyboard connections (PS2).
■
Unplug the power cable from the optical drive.
■
Switch the jumper on the hard drive(s) to slave.
■
Unplug the IDE cable for the hard drive from the motherboard.
■
Eject the memory completely from the memory bank(s) and place at the bottom of the case.
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Company Name: JH Travel, Inc.
Contact: Dan Handy
Company Address: 204 N. Main Street
Company Phone: 1-866-555-0998
Work Order
Generating a New Ticket
Category Hardware
Closure Code
Status Open
Type
Escalated Yes
Pending
Item
Pending Until Date
Business Impacting?
X Yes
No
Summary The computer will not start up. The computer beeps constantly.
Case ID#
Priority 2
User Platform Windows XP Pro
Connection Type
Environment
Problem Description: Computer will not boot. Customer does not know the manufacturer of the
BIOS. Cannot identify error from beep sequence. Customer did not hear any strange sounds
from the computer. Customer does not smell smoke or burning electronics.
Verified external cable connections. Mouse and keyboard connections were
reversed. Connections were corrected. Internal hardware and cable connections were verified. RAM
was not installed. Customer installed RAM. Optical drive power cable was disconnected. Optical drive
power cable was reconnected. Hard drive data cable was disconnected from the motherboard. Hard
drive data cable was reconnected to the motherboard. Computer displayed “Non-system disk or disk
error” upon reboot. Hard drive jumper was set to Slave. Jumper was set back to Master. Computer
was shut down and rebooted to confirm the solution.
Problem Solution:
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(Student Customer Sheet)
Use the contact information and problem description to report the following information to a level-two
technician:
Contact Information
Company Name: JH Travel, Inc.
Contact: Dan Handy
Company Address: 204 N. Main Street
Company Phone: 1-866-555-0998
Problem Description
Okay, so I work with cars all the time and I know how they work, but I do not know how my computer works. This morning was pretty slow because I guess more and more people are using those
Internet travel sites. So, after my morning coffee, I decided to figure out what makes my computer
work. I opened up the case and just started looking at the different things inside. When I put everything back together, everything seemed to fit and I didn’t see any leftover parts. Now it does not work
at all. It beeps at me all the time.
Note: After you have given the level-two tech the problem description, use the Additional Information to answer
any follow up questions the technician may ask.
Additional Information
Windows XP Pro.
Computer has no new hardware.
Computer has not been moved recently.
Except for the beeping, I did not hear any other strange sounds from the computer.
I do not smell any electronics burning or smoke.
Computer looks the same as it did yesterday.
CHAPTER 12
Advanced Operating Systems
The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses open-ended questions to test your knowledge of
operating systems. This portion also includes multiple-choice study questions to help prepare
you to take the A+ certification exams and to test your overall understanding of the material.
The Lab Exercises portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum hands-on labs and
remote technician exercises to further reinforce your mastery of the operating systems content.
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Study Guide
Using the Command Prompt
Although DOS has been a dead operating system for many years, executing DOS commands at the
command prompt/DOS window still comes in handy. Therefore, you should know the various DOS
commands and how to use them.
Concept Questions
Answer the following questions about commands.
Identify what the following commands do:
■
CLS: Clears the screen.
■
DIR: Displays a list of the files and subdirectories that are in the directory specified.
■
CD: Changes directory.
■
MD: Creates a directory.
■
RD: Removes or deletes an empty directory.
■
DEL: Deletes or removes a file.
■
COPY: Copies one or more files to the location the user specifies.
■
XCOPY: Copies one or more files to the location the user specifies. It also has the capability to
copy a directory and its subdirectories.
■
DISKCOPY: Copies the entire contents of a floppy disk to another floppy disk.
■
DISKCOMP: Compares the entire contents of a floppy disk with another floppy disk.
■
FORMAT: Formats or prepares a disk by creating a new root directory and file allocation table
for the disk.
■
REN: Renames or moves a file.
■
ATTRIB: Displays or changes file and directory attributes.
For most commands, how can you display what options it has available to it?
Use the /? switch with the command.
If you are in Windows XP, what are the two ways you can open a command prompt window?
Select the Start button, click Programs, select Accessories, and select Command Prompt.
In the Run option, execute the CMD command.
If you want to edit a text file, what programs can you use at the command prompt, and what program
can you use in the Windows GUI interface?
At the command prompt, you can use EDIT.
At the Windows GUI interface, you can use NotePad.
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What command would you use at the command prompt to format the D: drive?
format d:
What command would you use at the command prompt to copy the report.doc file from its current
folder to the D drive?
copy report.doc d:
Installing Windows 2000 and Windows XP
As a computer technician, you will need to know how to install Windows, particularly Windows XP.
Therefore, you need to be familiar with the keys to press to get special options and basic steps in
installation. When the installation is finished, you then need to complete postinstallation tasks.
Concept Questions
Answer the following questions about installing Windows.
What is the executable command that you would use to perform a clean installation of Windows XP?
Winnt.exe
What is the executable command that you would use to upgrade Windows 2000 to Windows XP?
Winnt32.exe
What key do you press to specify a SCSI or RAID controller driver during installation of Windows
2000 or Windows XP?
F6
If you create a disk image of a Windows XP box and you want to copy the disk image to another
computer, you must run a utility so that the computer has a unique computer name and other identifiers on the network. What is this utility?
sysprep.exe
What do you use the Windows update website for?
To easily find, locate, and install critical updates for Windows
In Windows XP, how do you install the new Windows firewall and Windows Security Center?
Install Windows XP Service Pack (SP2)
How do you configure Windows XP to automatically download and install updates?
Open the System applet in the Control Panel. You can also open Automatic Updates on the Start
menu.
Windows Folder Structure
When troubleshooting many Windows problems and when trying to recover data files, you need to
understand the Windows folder structure. By knowing the folder structure, you will be able to locate
start-up files, programs that automatically start during boot, program files, and user data and configuration programs.
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Concept Questions
Answer the following questions about the Windows folder structure.
What is the default folder that holds the Windows files for Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows
Millennium, and Windows XP?
C:\WINDOWS
What is the default folder that holds the Windows files for Windows 2000?
C:\WINNT
If you have a user with a login name of Pat on Windows XP, where would you find the folder on the
C: drive for the user’s desktop?
C:\Documents and Settings\Pat\Desktop
If you have a user with a login name of Pat on Windows XP, where would you find the folder on the
C: drive for the user’s My Documents?
C:\Documents and Settings\Pat\Pat’s Documents
If you are logged in as Pat, it will be C:\Documents and Settings\Pat\My Documents.
In Windows XP, where do the majority of your program files reside?
C:\Program Files
What would you do if you want a program to automatically start up every time you turn on your computer and a user logs on?
Place a shortcut to the program that you want to start in the Startup folder. The default location of the
Startup folder is C:\Documents and Settings\All Users\Start Menu\Programs\Startup.
You are logged in to a computer as Pat. When you install a program and the program needs to create
temporary files that are needed for an installation, where are the temporary installation files stored? In
addition, how does Windows know how to store the files in this folder?
C:\Documents and Settings\Local Settings\Temp
The temporary directory is defined as the TEMP and TMP user variable. User and system variables
can be viewed and defined by opening System Properties, clicking the Advanced tab, and clicking the
Environment Variables button.
Control Panel and Administrative Tools
As you work with Windows, you will need to be able to configure the different parts of Windows. In
this section, you will look at the most common tools that allow you to configure Windows.
Concept Questions
Answer the following questions about the Control Panel and administrative tools.
What is the main system configuration utility used in Windows?
Control Panel
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What utility would you use to verify that the proper device driver is loaded?
Device Manager
If you want to change the resolution that your video system is using, what applet would you use in the
Control Panel?
Display
If you want to install Internet Information Server (IIS) in Windows XP, what applet would you use?
Add/remove programs
What does a yellow exclamation point in Device Manager indicate?
There is a problem with the device.
What does a red X in Device Manager mean?
The device is disabled.
Which applet do you use in the Control Panel to roll back a driver in Windows XP?
Device Manager
What is the paging file in Windows 2000 or Windows XP or the swap file used in Windows 95,
Windows 98, and Windows Millennium?
It is the virtual memory, which is hard disk space acting or pretending to be RAM.
What is the name of the paging file in Windows 2000?
Pagefile.sys
What the name of the paging file in Windows 98?
Win386.swp
How do you manage or configure the virtual memory in Windows XP?
Open the System applet in the Control Panel. Then select the Advanced tab and select the Settings
button under Performance.
What administrative tool do you use to view your system and application logs and manage your disks?
Computer management
If you wanted to stop the server service, what program would you use?
The services program located in Administrative tools. The services program is also included in the
Computer Management Console.
The Registry is a central database Windows uses to hold most of the configuration of Windows and its
applications. What utilities would you use to make changes in the Registry?
Regedit.exe and regedt32.exe, depending on the version of Windows that you are using and the
changes that you need to make.
Fonts
American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII), generally pronounced, “ASK-ee,” is a
character encoding based on the English alphabet and is used to represent text in computers, communications equipment, and other devices that work with text. The original ASCSII standard defined
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codes for 128 characters; 95 are printable characters (including uppercase and lowercase characters,
digits, and punctuation characters) and 33 nonprinting characters, used as control characters that affect
how text is processed. Text files consist of ASCII characters.
Extended ASCII extends the 128-character set to 256 characters that include the original seven-bit
ASCII characters, characters to accommodate some European languages, and special characters to be
used in line drawing. An Extended ASCII character takes up one byte (eight bits) of data.
Today, Windows uses Unicode for its text. Unicode employs a 16-bit coding scheme that allows for
65,536 distinct characters. Unicode supports all modern languages and includes representations for
punctuation marks, mathematical symbols, and dingbats/wingdings (special characters or symbols).
Because they establishe a unique code for each character in each script, Windows NT-based operating
systems can ensure that the character translation from one language to another is accurate.
Concept Questions
Answer the following questions about fonts.
How would you add a font to your computer?
Open the Control Panel and use the font applet.
What utility can you use to view your fonts and the Unicode characters?
Character Map, which can be found under Programs, Accessories, System Tools.
Disk Management
Because every computer has one or more hard drives, you will need to learn how to manage those
disks, including how to create, delete, and format partitions. One of the primary tools is the Disk
Management Console, which can be found as part of the Computer Management Console.
Concept Questions
Answer the following questions about disk management.
List the advantages of using NTFS over FAT32:
Improved support for much larger hard disks.
Because NTFS is a journaling file system that keeps track of its transactions to make sure that the
entire transaction is completed before being recognized, it can recover from some disk-related errors
automatically.
Better security because you can use permissions and encryption to restrict access to specific files to
approved users.
Support of quotas so that you can specify the amount of disk space a user can use on a NTFS volume.
What is the maximum size of a FAT32 volume that Windows XP supports?
32 GB
If you need to convert the FAT32 volume (Drive D:) to an NTFS volume, what command do you need
to execute?
convert d: /fs:ntfs
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Windows Boot Options
One of the troubleshooting tools that you have in Windows is the advanced boot menu, which allows
you to select different modes with certain features enabled or disabled. Therefore, you need to know
how to access the advanced boot options and which mode to select.
Concept Questions
Answer the following questions about Windows boot options.
When you have multiple versions of Windows 2000 and XP on a computer, what file holds the configuration information that displays the boot menu so that you can choose which operating system to
load during startup?
Boot.ini
During boot, what key do you press to access the Advanced Boot options?
F8
If you want to start the computer with only basic drivers and files needed including loading VGA driers and with no network components, what mode would you start?
Safe mode
If you have a faulty video driver or you loaded the incorrect video driver, what mode can you use so
that you fix this problem?
Enable VGA mode
If you load a driver or load a program and now your computer does not boot properly, what mode can
you load?
Last known-good configuration
Troubleshooting Tools
Besides the advanced boot options, you also have other troubleshooting tools available in Windows,
including the Signature Verification tool, the System Configuration utility, System File Checker, Windows
Registry Checker and various disk tools. You also need to know how to run the backup utility so that
you can back up and restore files.
Concept Questions
Answer the following questions about troubleshooting.
Microsoft recommends using only signed drivers because poorly written drivers can cause a wide
range of problems. What tool can you use to verify that all drivers are digitally signed?
Signature Verification tool
What tool can you use to view all programs and services that start during boot and that allows you to
stop any program and service from starting during boot?
System Configuration utility (msconfig.exe)
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What utility scans and verifies the versions of all protected system files after you restart your computer?
System File Checker (sfc.exe)
If your computer doesn’t boot at all for Windows 2000 or Windows XP, even in safe mode, the best
thing is to use the Recovery Console. The Recovery Console provides a command-line interface that
will let you repair system problems using a limited set of command-line commands, including
enabling or disabling services, repairing a corrupted master boot record, or reading and writing data
on a local drive. There are two ways to start the Recovery Console. What are they?
You can load the Recovery Console from the Windows installation CD and choose the Repair option.
You can load the Recovery Option onto the system so that it appears on the advanced boot menu.
What command do you use in the Recovery Console that can repair or replace a partition boot sector
on the system partition?
fixboot
What command do you use in the Recovery Console that will fix the master boot record (MBR)?
fixmbr
What tool can you use in Windows 98 that will scan the system Registry for invalid entries and other
problems?
Windows Registry Checker tool (Scanreg.exe and scanregw.exe)
What can you use to recover from a system crash (in Windows 98 and Windows XP) that will restore
key files and the Registry for problems where safe mode and last known configuration mode does not
work?
■
Windows 98: Emergency Recovery Disk
■
Windows XP: Automated System Recovery (ASR)
If your system crashes and you cannot figure out the problem, you can send a physical memory dump
to Microsoft or another software company. Where do you configure the type of dump that is saved
when a system crash occurs?
System applet in the Control Panel
You are ready to install a new application. However, when you load it, Windows XP experiences several problems. Therefore, you would like to roll it back to the same configuration before you installed
the application. What should you do?
You should use the System Restore program located in System tools.
What tool should you use to protect your e-mails and data documents?
The Microsoft backup utility
You discover that your C drive is filling up. What tool can you use to free some disk space?
The Disk Cleanup utility
What tool in Windows 98 do you use to check for disk errors?
Scandisk
What tool in Windows XP do you use to check for disk errors?
Chkdsk
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What parameter do you need to add to chkdsk to actually fix the errors that it finds?
/f
Describe the Nonsystem Disk or Disk Error and list some of the methods to fix it.
The BIOS looked for an operating system to boot from and could not find any boot files to boot. It is
usually caused by a damaged or missing boot sector or master boot record of the boot drive. For
Windows XP, you would need to run the recovery console fixboot or fixmbr to install, copy, or restore
the boot files. You can also use the ASR disk.
What are some of the causes of the No Operating System Found error message?
No operating system was installed.
There are corrupt boot files.
The boot sector is corrupt.
For Windows XP, you would need to run the Recovery Console fixboot or fixmbr to install, copy, or
restore the boot files. You can also use the ASR disk.
Study Questions
Choose the best answer for each of the questions that follow:
1.
2.
3.
4.
When using characters in Windows, what code does Windows use?
A.
ASCII
B.
UNICODE
C.
IDBC
D.
Morse
What command do you use to clear the screen at the command prompt?
A.
ECHO OFF
B.
CLS
C.
REM
D.
CD
What command would you use from the command prompt on a Windows XP computer to
defragment your D drive?
A.
SCANDISK D:
B.
DEFRAG D:
C.
DF D:
D.
FRAG D: /U
Which utility in Windows would you use to select and copy characters from any installed font?
A.
System utility
B.
Font utility
C.
Font Map
D.
Character Map
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5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
What command do you use to convert the D: drive from a FAT partition to a NTFS partition
without losing data?
A.
format d: /fs:ntfs
B.
convert d:
C.
convert d: /fs:ntfs
D.
upgrade d:
When installing Windows XP, which key do you press to load SCSI or RAID drivers that are
not included with the Windows XP installation CD?
A.
F4
B.
F6
C.
F8
D.
F10
Which of the following does the NTFS not support or is not an advantage of NTFS?
A.
Recovers from some disk-related errors automatically
B.
Security using directory and file permissions
C.
Utilizes disk space more efficiently than FAT and FAT32
D.
Security using encryption
E.
Support of quotas to specify the amount of disk space a user can use
Which of the following can you use to find and fix disk errors on a Windows 98 machine?
A.
Defrag
B.
Scandisk
C.
Fdisk
D.
Convert
Which of the following files is used for virtual memory in a Windows XP machine?
A.
PAGEFILE.SYS
B.
WIN386.SWP
C.
NTLDR
D.
BOOT.SYS
In Windows XP, where do you configure the virtual memory settings?
A.
Open the Control Panel, double-click the System applet, and select the Advanced tab.
B.
Open the Control Panel, double-click the System applet, and click the Device Manager
button.
C.
Open the Control Panel, double-click the System applet, and select the Performance tab.
D.
Open the Control Panel and double-click the Paging applet.
Chapter 12: Advanced Operating Systems
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
263
What utility can you use to troubleshoot startup problems by allowing you to disable startup
programs and services?
A.
Msconfig.exe
B.
Regedit.exe
C.
Device Manager
D.
Add/Remove Programs
When using the Recovery Console in Windows XP, which command is used to fix the Windows
volume boot sector?
A.
Fixmbr
B.
Footfix
C.
Diskpart
D.
Fixboot
What feature is installed with Service Pack 2 on Windows XP that would prevent a program
from communicating over the network?
A.
An improved firewall
B.
An antivirus program
C.
User Account Control
D.
Enhanced NTFS permissions
How do you back up the Registry in Windows? (Choose all that apply.)
A.
Windows Registry Checker
B.
System Restore
C.
System File Checker
D.
Microsoft Backup utility
You are ready to make some system changes to a Windows XP computer. You want to create a
restore point so that if there is a problem, you can go back to the restore option before the changes.
What do you need to do?
A.
Run the Microsoft backup program.
B.
Run the System Restore application.
C.
Run the Registry Checker and specify the backup option.
D.
Run the Last Known-Good Configuration option.
Why is it important to keep Windows updated using the Windows update website or automatic
updates?
A.
To keep your system secure and to install critical updates
B.
To keep your system fast
C.
To keep your system optimized for the newest games
D.
To keep your system from overheating
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Lab Exercises
Lab 12.2.2: Advanced Installation of Windows XP
In this lab, you will install a Windows XP Professional operating system by using an answer file for
automation. You will customize partition settings and create an administrative user and limited users.
The following is the recommended equipment for this lab:
■
A computer with a new installation of Windows XP Professional
■
Windows XP Professional installation CD
■
A blank, formatted floppy disk
Step 1
Log on to the computer.
Insert the Windows XP Professional CD into the CD-ROM drive.
Click Perform Additional Tasks (see Figure 12-1).
Figure 12-1
Welcome to Windows XP Screen
Step 2
Click Browse This CD (see Figure 12-2).
Chapter 12: Advanced Operating Systems
Figure 12-2
Options Available When You Click Perform Additional Tasks
Double-click the Support folder.
Double-click the Tools folder.
Double-click Deploy.CAB.
Highlight all the files by clicking Edit, Select All.
Right-click setupmgr.exe, and then click Extract.
Click Make New Folder to create a folder on the C: drive.
Name the folder Deploy.
Click Extract to extract the files from the CD to C:\Deploy.
Browse to C:\Deploy (see Figure 12-3).
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Figure 12-3
Deploy Folder
Step 3
Double-click setupmgr.exe.
Step 4
The Setup Manager window appears (see Figure 12-4).
Figure 12-4
Welcome to Setup Manager Wizard
Chapter 12: Advanced Operating Systems
Click Next.
The Create New button should be checked by default. Click Next (see Figure 12-5).
Figure 12-5
Creating a New Answer File
Click the Unattended Setup option button (see Figure 12-6).
Figure 12-6
Selecting the Type of Setup
Note that a CD-based answer file name must be Winnt.sif.
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Click the Windows XP Professional option button, and then click Next (see Figure 12-7).
Figure 12-7
Specifying Which Version of Windows the Answer File Is Made For
Click the Fully Automated option button, and then click Next (see Figure 12-8).
Figure 12-8
Selecting the Amount of User Interaction
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269
Click the Set Up from a CD option button, and then click Next (see Figure 12-9).
Figure 12-9
Specify Where the Distribution Share Is Located
Click the I Accept the Terms of the License Agreement check box, and then click Next (see Figure 12-10).
Figure 12-10
License Agreement
Click Name and Organization in the list on the left.
Instructor Note: You will need to provide your students with the name and organization name they should use
on the Name and Organization window.
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Type the name and the organization name provided by your instructor (see Figure 12-11).
Figure 12-11
Specifying the Name and Organization for the Windows Installation
Click Next.
Click Time Zone in the list on the left.
Click the time zone for your location from the Time Zone drop-down box, and then click Next
(see Figure 12-12).
Figure 12-12
Selecting the Time Zone
Highlight Product Key in the list on the left.
Instructor Note: You will need to provide your students with the Windows XP Professional product key.
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Type the Windows XP Professional product key supplied by your instructor in the Product Key fields
(see Figure 12-13).
Click Next.
Figure 12-13
Specifying the Product Key
Click Computer Names in the list on the left.
Instructor Note: You will need to provide a computer name for each lab computer.
Type the computer name provided by your instructor in the Computer Name field, and then click Add.
The computer name will then display in the Computers to Be Installed field. Click Next (see Figure 12-14).
Figure 12-14
Specifying Computer Names
Click Administrator Password in the list on the left.
Type the first initial of your first name and your complete last name into the Password and Confirm
Password fields (for example, jsmith).
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Click Next (see Figure 12-15).
Figure 12-15
Specifying the Administrator Password
Click Workgroup or Domain in the list on the left.
Click the Workgroup option button.
Type the Workgroup name LabGroup1 into the Workgroup field, and then click Next (see Figure 12-16).
Figure 12-16
Specifying the Name of the Workgroup
Click Additional Commands in the list on the left, and then click Finish (see Figure 12-17).
Chapter 12: Advanced Operating Systems
Figure 12-17
Specify Additional Commands During the Setup Manager
Type C:\Deploy\unattend.txt into the Path and Filename field if it is not already displayed
(see Figure 12-18).
Click OK.
Figure 12-18
Specifying the Location of the Answer File
Click File, Exit (see Figure 12-19).
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Figure 12-19
Completing Setup Manager
Step 5
Browse to C:\Deploy.
Right-click unattend.txt, and then click Copy.
Browse to A:\.
Click File, Paste.
Right-click unattend.txt, and then click Rename.
Instructor: If your students do not see the .txt part of unattend.txt, the automated setup will fail. To fix
this, follow these instructions:
1.
Open My Computer
2.
Choose Tools, Folder Options.
3.
Click the View tab.
4.
Uncheck Hide Extensions for Known Types.
5.
Click OK to close the dialog box.
Type Winnt.sif as the new filename, and press Enter.
Remove the floppy disk from the floppy drive.
Click Start, Turn Off Computer.
Click Restart.
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Step 6
When the Press Any Key to Boot from CD message appears, press any key on the keyboard. Insert the
floppy disk. The system will inspect the hardware configuration (see Figure 12-20).
Figure 12-20
Inspecting Your Computer for Installation
The Windows XP Setup screen appears while the program loads the necessary files (see Figure 12-21).
Figure 12-21
The Beginning of Windows Installation
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Step 7
The Welcome to Setup screen appears. Press Enter (see Figure 12-22).
Figure 12-22
Windows XP Installation Welcome Screen
The Windows XP Licensing Agreement screen appears. Press F8 (see Figure 12-23).
Figure 12-23
Windows XP License Screen
Windows XP Professional Setup will search to determine whether another operating system already
exists on the hard drive (see Figure 12-24).
Chapter 12: Advanced Operating Systems
Figure 12-24
Searching for Previous Versions of Windows
Press Esc (see Figure 12-25).
Figure 12-25
Specifying Whether to Repair or Replace a Previous Version of Windows
Press the D key (see Figure 12-26).
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Figure 12-26
Deleting a Previous Partition
Press Enter (see Figure 12-27).
Figure 12-27
Warning Screen Specifying That If You Press the D Key, It Will Delete a
System Partition
Press the L key (see Figure 12-28).
Chapter 12: Advanced Operating Systems
Figure 12-28
Screen to Delete a Partition
Press the C key (see Figure 12-29).
Figure 12-29
Screen to Create a New Partition
Type 5000 into the Create Partition of Size (in MB) field.
Press the Enter key (see Figure 12-30).
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Figure 12-30
Specifying the Size of the New Partition
Press the down-arrow key to select Unpartitioned Space.
Press the C key (see Figure 12-31).
Create another partition of 5000 MB.
Repeat this process one more time. You will have three partitions of 5000 MB each.
Figure 12-31
Screen to Create Additional Partitions
Select C: Partition1 and press the Enter key (see Figure 12-32).
Chapter 12: Advanced Operating Systems
Figure 12-32
Specifying Which Partition to Install Windows Into
Select Format the Partition Using the NTFS File System (see Figure 12-33).
Figure 12-33
Selecting to Format the New Partition
Do not select Format the Partition Using the NTFS File System <Quick>.
Press the Enter key.
The Please Wait While Setup Formats the Partition screen appears (see Figure 12-34).
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Figure 12-34
Formatting the New Partition
The system will restart automatically.
After the system restarts, the message Press Any Key to Boot from CD appears. Do not press any keys.
The installation should continue without prompting you for any settings.
Instructor Note: If your students are prompted for information during the installation, the winnt.sif file is not
being used properly. Make sure the data in the file is correct and the file is located on the floppy disk. Make sure
the floppy disk is inserted into the floppy drive.
The system will restart automatically.
After the system restarts, the message Press Any Key to Boot from CD appears. Do not press any keys.
Step 8
The Welcome to Microsoft Windows screen appears (see Figure 12-35).
Figure 12-35
Welcome to Microsoft Windows Screen
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Click Next.
Click the Help Protect My PC by Turning On Automatic Updates Now option button (see Figure 12-36).
Figure 12-36
Help Protect Your System By Turning on Automatic Updates
Click Next.
Click the Yes, This Computer Will Connect Through the Local Area Network or Home Network
option button (see Figure 12-37).
Figure 12-37
Specifying How Your Computer Will Connect to the Internet
Click Next.
Click the No, Not at This Time option button, and then click Next (see Figure 12-38).
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Figure 12-38
Registering Windows with Microsoft
Type the name provided by your instructor into the Your Name field (see Figure 12-39).
Figure 12-39
Specifying Which Users Will Use the Windows XP Computer
Click Next. The Thank you screen appears (see Figure 12-40).
Chapter 12: Advanced Operating Systems
Figure 12-40
Installation Is Complete
Click Finish.
Step 9
The Windows XP Professional desktop appears. Click Start, Control Panel (see Figure 12-41).
Figure 12-41
Opening the Control Panel from the Start Button
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Step 10
Click User Accounts (see Figure 12-42).
Figure 12-42
Control Panel
Click Create a New Account from the Pick a Task list (see Figure 12-43).
Figure 12-43
Managing User Accounts
Instructor Note: You will need to provide students with names to use for this account.
Chapter 12: Advanced Operating Systems
Type the name provided by your instructor into the Type a Name for the New Account field
(see Figure 12-44).
Figure 12-44
Specifying the Name of the New Account
Click Next.
Click the Limited option button (see Figure 12-45).
Figure 12-45
Specifying the Type of Account
Click Create Account. The User Accounts window appears (see Figure 12-46).
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Figure 12-46
Managing User Accounts Within the Control Panel
Instructor Note: You will need to provide students with names to use for this account.
Create a second limited user. Your instructor will provide the name of the user.
What was the name of the file used to automate the installation located on the floppy disk?
winnt.sif
How do you think automating the installation will help the IT Department if they have to repeat the
procedure on 100 computers?
Answers may vary but must include mention of time savings and consistent system settings.
Curriculum Lab 12.2: Creating a Partition in
Windows XP Pro (12.2.3)
In this lab, you will create a FAT32 formatted partition on a disk. You will convert the partition to
NTFS. You will identify the differences between the FAT32 format and the NTFS format.
The following is the recommended equipment for this lab:
■
Computer running Windows XP Professional
■
Unpartitioned space of at least 1 GB on the hard disk drive
Step 1
Log on to Windows as an administrator (see Figure 12-47).
Chapter 12: Advanced Operating Systems
Figure 12-47
Windows XP Login Screen
Step 2
Click Start.
Right-click My Computer, and then click Manage (see Figure 12-48).
Figure 12-48
Opening Computer Management By Selecting the Manage Option
Step 3
The Computer Management window appears (see Figure 12-49).
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Figure 12-49
Computer Management Console
Click Disk Management on the left side of the screen.
Right-click the green-outlined block of Free Space.
Click New Logical Drive (see Figure 12-50).
Figure 12-50
Creating a New Logical Drive Using the Disk Management Console
Step 4
The New Partition Wizard window appears (see Figure 12-51). Click Next.
Chapter 12: Advanced Operating Systems
Figure 12-51
Starting the New Partition Wizard
Click the Logical Drive option button, and then click Next (see Figure 12-52).
Figure 12-52
Selecting the Type of Partition
Type 500 into the Partition Size in MB field (see Figure 12-53).
Figure 12-53
Specifying the Size of the New Partition
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Click the Assign the Following Drive Letter option button.
Select G from the drop-down menu (see Figure 12-54).
Figure 12-54
Specifying the Drive Letter
Click Next.
Click the Format This Partition with the Following Settings option button (see Figure 12-55).
Figure 12-55
Formatting the Partition
Click Next.
Click Finish (see Figure 12-56).
Chapter 12: Advanced Operating Systems
Figure 12-56
293
Completing the New Partition Wizard
Step 5
The Computer Management window reappears while the new volume is formatted (see Figure 12-57).
Figure 12-57
New Partition Is Formatting
The Computer Management window shows the new Healthy volume (see Figure 12-58).
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Figure 12-58
The Disk Management Console Showing the Status of Each Partition
Step 6
Open My Computer. Click the Local Disk (G:) drive (see Figure 12-59).
Figure 12-59
My Computer Showing the New Drive
The Details area on the left of the My Computer window displays information about the G: drive.
What is the File System?
FAT32
Chapter 12: Advanced Operating Systems
How much free space is shown?
Answers may vary.
Right-click the Local Disk (G:) drive, and choose Properties (see Figure 12-60).
Figure 12-60
Opening the Drive Properties
Step 7
The Local Disk (G:) Properties window appears (see Figure 12-61).
Figure 12-61
Drive Properties
What is the file system of the G: drive?
FAT32
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List the tabs found in the Local Disk (G:) Properties window?
General, Tools, Hardware, Sharing
Click OK.
Double-click the Local Disk (G:) drive.
Step 8
Right-click anywhere in the whitespace of the window.
Choose New, Text Document (see Figure 12-62).
Figure 12-62
Creating a New File
Type Test and press Return.
Step 9
Right-click the Test document in the window and choose Properties (see Figure 12-63).
Chapter 12: Advanced Operating Systems
Figure 12-63
297
Properties of a Text File
The Test Properties window appears. Notice that there is a tab in the Test Properties window called
General.
Click OK.
Step 10
Choose Start, Run.
In the Open field, type cmd, and then click OK (see Figure 12-64).
Figure 12-64
Using the Run Option to Open a Command Prompt Window
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Step 11
The C:\WINDOWS\system32\cmd.exe window appears. Type convert G: /fs:NTFS (see Figure 12-65).
Figure 12-65
Converting a FAT32 Volume to a NTFS Volume Using the convert Command
The convert command changes the file system of a volume without losing data.
Press the Enter key (see Figure 12-66).
Figure 12-66
Results Displayed Onscreen After a Drive Is Converted to NTFS
Type exit, and then press Return.
Step 12
The C:\WINDOWS\System32\cmd.exe window closes (see Figure 12-67).
Chapter 12: Advanced Operating Systems
Figure 12-67
Partition Now Has an NTFS File System
What is the file system of the G: drive?
NTFS
Step 13
Open My Computer.
Right-click the G: drive, and then click Properties (see Figure 12-68).
Figure 12-68
Opening the Drive Properties
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Step 14
The Local Disk (G:) Properties window appears (see Figure 12-69).
Figure 12-69
Drive Properties
What are the tabs in the Local Disk (G:) Properties window?
General, Tools, Hardware, Sharing, Quota
When the volume was FAT32, there were four tabs. What is the name of the new tab that was added
after the volume was converted to NTFS?
Quota
Click Cancel, and then double-click the G: drive.
Step 15
Right-click the Test document, and then click Properties (see Figure 12-70).
Chapter 12: Advanced Operating Systems
Figure 12-70
Properties of Text File
What are the tabs in the Test Properties window?
General, Summary
When the volume was FAT32, there was one tab. What is the name of the new tab that was added
after the volume was converted to NTFS?
Summary
Click OK.
Step 16
Choose Tools, Folder Options (see Figure 12-71).
Figure 12-71
Opening Folder Options
Step 17
The Folder Options window appears. Click the View tab.
Scroll to the bottom of the Advanced Settings area, and then uncheck Use Simple File Sharing
(Recommended) (see Figure 12-72).
Click OK.
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Figure 12-72
Use Simple File Sharing Is Unchecked
The Folder Options window closes (see Figure 12-73).
Figure 12-73
Properties of a Text File
What are the tabs in the Test Properties window?
General, Security, Summary
When Simple File Sharing was enabled, there were two tabs. What is the name of the new tab that
was added after Simple File Sharing was turned off?
Security
Chapter 12: Advanced Operating Systems
Step 18
Right-click the G: drive, and then choose Properties (see Figure 12-74).
Figure 12-74
Drive Properties
What are the tabs in the Local Disk (G:) Properties window?
General, Tools, Hardware, Sharing, Security, Quota
When Simple File Sharing was enabled, there were five tabs. What is the name of the new tab that
was added after Simple File Sharing was turned off?
Security
Lab 12.2.4: Customize Virtual Memory Settings
In this lab, you will customize Virtual Memory settings. You will customize the Startup folder and
RunOnce Key in the Registry. You will change the default Windows Update option.
The following is the recommended equipment for this lab:
■
A computer running Windows XP Professional
■
Internet access
Step 1
Log on to Windows as an administrator.
Choose Start. Double-click My Computer. The My Computer window appears (see Figure 12-75).
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Figure 12-75
My Computer Window
Step 2
Click the D: drive. The Disk Is Not Formatted window appears (see Figure 12-76).
Figure 12-76
Formatting an Unformatted Disk
Click Yes.
Step 3
The Format Local Disk (D:) window appears. Choose NTFS in the File System drop-down menu, and
then click Start (see Figure 12-77).
Chapter 12: Advanced Operating Systems
Figure 12-77
Formatting a Partition
A warning window appears (see Figure 12-78).
Figure 12-78
Warning Specifying That All Data Will Be Erased if You Format a Partition
Click OK. The warning window closes, and Windows formats the drive.
When the Format Complete message appears, click OK (see Figure 12-79).
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Figure 12-79
Format Complete
The Format Local Disk (D:) window reappears (see Figure 12-80). Click Close.
Figure 12-80
Format Program
Step 4
Choose Start.
Right-click My Computer, and then click Properties (see Figure 12-81).
Chapter 12: Advanced Operating Systems
Figure 12-81
Opening the System Properties
The System Properties window appears (see Figure 12-82). Click the Advanced tab.
Figure 12-82
System Properties
Click Settings in the Performance area (see Figure 12-83).
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Figure 12-83
System Properties Advanced Tab
Step 5
The Performance Options window appears. Click the Advanced tab (see Figure 12-84).
Figure 12-84
Performance Options
What is the current size of the Virtual Memory (paging file)?
Answers may vary.
Click Change in the Virtual Memory area (see Figure 12-85).
Chapter 12: Advanced Operating Systems
Figure 12-85
Configuring Virtual Memory
The Virtual Memory window appears (see Figure 12-86).
Figure 12-86
Configuring the Virtual Memory
What Drive [Volume Label] contains the paging file?
C:
Choose the D: drive.
Click the Custom Size option button (see Figure 12-87).
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Figure 12-87
Specifying the Custom Size
Look at the recommended size in the Total Paging File Size for All Drives section of the Virtual
Memory window.
Type the recommended file size into the Initial Size (MB) field.
Type the recommended file size again into the Maximum Size (MB) field.
Click Set (see Figure 12-88).
Figure 12-88
Clicking the Set Button
Choose the C: drive.
Click the No Paging File option button, and then click Set (see Figure 12-89).
Chapter 12: Advanced Operating Systems
Figure 12-89
311
Changing Virtual Memory Settings
The System Control Panel Applet message window appears (see Figure 12-90).
Figure 12-90
Rebooting Windows After Virtual Memory Changes
Click OK.
The System Settings Change window appears. Click Yes to restart your computer now (see Figure 12-91).
Figure 12-91
Last Warning That the System Has to Be Restarted for the Changes to Take Effect
Step 6
Log on to Windows as an administrator.
Open the Virtual Memory window.
What Drive [Volume Label] contains the paging file?
D:
Click Cancel (see Figure 12-92).
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Figure 12-92
Closing Virtual Memory Without Changes
The Virtual Memory window closes (see Figure 12-93).
Figure 12-93
Performance Options
Click Cancel. The Performance Options window closes (see Figure 12-94).
Chapter 12: Advanced Operating Systems
Figure 12-94
System Properties
Click Cancel.
Step 7
Choose Start, All Programs, Games.
Right-click FreeCell (see Figure 12-95).
Figure 12-95
FreeCell Is Under the Games Programs
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Choose Send To.
Choose Desktop (Create Shortcut) (see Figure 12-96).
Figure 12-96
Creating a Shortcut on the Desktop
Step 8
Click and drag the Freecell to the Start button (see Figure 12-97).
Figure 12-97
The Desktop with the New FreeCell Shortcut
Chapter 12: Advanced Operating Systems
The Start Menu appears.
Do not release the shortcut icon. Drag the icon to All Programs.
The All Programs menu appears (see Figure 12-98).
Figure 12-98
The All Programs Menu
Drag the icon to Startup.
The Startup menu appears. Drag the icon to the Startup menu (see Figure 12-99).
Release the icon.
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Figure 12-99
Adding a Program to the Startup Folder
Step 9
Log off Windows (see Figure 12-100).
Figure 12-100
Logging Off Windows XP
Log on to Windows as an administrator.
What happens when you log in?
Freecell starts automatically.
Close the Freecell application.
Step 10
Choose Start, Run.
Type regedit into the Open field (see Figure 12-101).
Chapter 12: Advanced Operating Systems
Figure 12-101
Using the Run Option to Start the Registry Editor
Caution: Incorrect changes to the Registry can cause system errors and/or system instability.
The Registry Editor window appears (see Figure 12-102).
Figure 12-102
Registry Editor
Expand the HKEY_CURRENT_USER key (see Figure 12-103).
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Figure 12-103
HKEY_CURRENT_USER Key
Expand the Software key.
Expand the Microsoft key.
Expand the Windows key.
Expand the CurrentVersion key.
Expand the RunOnce key (see Figure 12-104).
Instructor: If students do not have a RunOnce key, you will need to create it. To create a RunOnce
key, follow these instructions:
1.
Right-click the CurrentVersion key.
2.
Click New.
3.
Click Key.
4.
Type RunOnce.
5.
Press the Enter key.
Chapter 12: Advanced Operating Systems
Figure 12-104
The RunOnce Key
Right-click anywhere in the whitespace of the window.
Hover over New, and then select String Value (see Figure 12-105).
Figure 12-105
Creating a New String Value
Right-click New Value #1, and then choose Rename.
Type Solitaire, and then press Enter (see Figure 12-106).
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Figure 12-106
Creating a String Key Called Solitaire
Right-click Solitaire, and then choose Modify (see Figure 12-107).
Figure 12-107
Modifying the Solitaire Key
Type C:\Windows\system32\sol.exe into the Value Data field (see Figure 12-108).
Click OK.
Chapter 12: Advanced Operating Systems
Figure 12-108
Editing the String of a String Key
Close the Registry Editor window (see Figure 12-109).
Figure 12-109
Registry Editor
Step 11
Log off the computer (see Figure 12-110).
Figure 12-110
Logging Off Windows XP
Log on to Windows as an administrator (see Figure 12-111).
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Figure 12-111
Logging On to Windows XP
The FreeCell and Solitaire windows appear (see Figure 12-112).
Figure 12-112
FreeCell and Solitaire Automatically Started Because of the Startup Folder
and Registry Keys
Close the Solitaire and Freecell windows.
Step 12
Instructor Note: Internet access is necessary for this step. If your students are not allowed to access the
Internet, demonstrate this section of the lab.
Choose Start, All Programs.
Right-click My Computer, and then choose Properties (see Figure 12-113).
Chapter 12: Advanced Operating Systems
Figure 12-113
Opening System Properties
Click the Automatic Updates tab.
Click the Download Updates for me, but Let Me Choose When to Install Them option button (see
Figure 12-114).
Figure 12-114
Configuring Automatic Updates
Click Apply, and then click OK (see Figure 12-115).
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Figure 12-115
To Save the Changes, Click Apply
Step 13
Windows checks for updates.
The Updates Are Ready for Your Computer balloon appears. Double-click the shield icon in the system tray (see Figure 12-116).
Figure 12-116
Shield Indicating the Status of Updates
Click Custom Install (Advanced), and then click Next (see Figure 12-117).
Figure 12-117
Specifying How to Install the Updates
The Choose Updates to Install window appears. Click Install (see Figure 12-118).
Chapter 12: Advanced Operating Systems
Figure 12-118
325
Choosing Which Updates to Install
The Installing Updates balloon appears (see Figure 12-119).
Figure 12-119
Updates Are Installing
Lab 12.2.5: Install an Alternate Browser (Optional)
In this lab, you will install the Mozilla Firefox Web Browser.
The following is the recommended equipment for this lab:
■
A computer running Windows XP Professional
■
Internet access
Instructor Note: Depending on your Internet connection speed, you may require extra time for all students to
download the application. If your students are not permitted to connect to the Internet, perform this lab for your
classes as a demonstration. Do not allow the students to set Mozilla Firefox as the default browser.
Step 1
Choose Start, All Programs, Internet Explorer.
In the Address field, type www.mozilla.com.
Press Enter (see Figure 12-120).
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Figure 12-120
www.mozilla.com Website
Step 2
Click the Download Firefox—Free link.
The File Download—Security Warning window appears (see Figure 12-121). Click Run.
Figure 12-121
Security Warning Verifying That You Want to Run or Download a Remote File
The Internet Explorer download window appears (see Figure 12-122).
Chapter 12: Advanced Operating Systems
Figure 12-122
Firefox Setup File Downloading
The Internet Explorer—Security Warning window may appear (see Figure 12-123). Click Run.
Figure 12-123
Security Warning Verifying That You Want to Run a Remote File
Step 3
The Mozilla Firefox Setup window appears (see Figure 12-124). Click Next.
Figure 12-124
Starting the Mozilla Firefox Setup Wizard
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The License Agreement window appears. Click the I Accept the Terms in the License Agreement
option button (see Figure 12-125).
Figure 12-125
Mozilla Firefox License Agreement
Click Next. The Setup Type window appears. The default is Standard (see Figure 12-126).
Figure 12-126
Mozilla Firefox Setup Type
Click Next. The Installing window appears (see Figure 12-127).
Chapter 12: Advanced Operating Systems
Figure 12-127
329
Mozilla Firefox Installing
The Completing the Mozilla Firefox Setup Wizard window appears. The default is Launch Mozilla
Firefox Now (see Figure 12-128). Click Finish.
Figure 12-128
Completing the Mozilla Firefox Setup Wizard
Step 4
The Import Wizard window appears. The default is Microsoft Internet Explorer (see Figure 12-129).
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Figure 12-129
Importing Settings from Internet Explorer
Click Next.
The Home Page Selection window appears. The default is Firefox Start, a Fast Search Page with
Search Results by Google (see Figure 12-130).
Figure 12-130
Specifying the Home Page
Click Next. The Import Wizard window appears (see Figure 12-131).
Chapter 12: Advanced Operating Systems
Figure 12-131
Importing IE Settings
Step 5
The Welcome to Firefox—Mozilla Firefox window appears.
The Default Browser window appears. The default is Always Perform This Check When Starting
Firefox (see Figure 12-132). Click No.
Figure 12-132
Specifying Whether You Want Firefox to Be the Default Browser
The Options window appears (see Figure 12-133). Click Browse.
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Figure 12-133
Mozilla Firefox Options
The Browse for Folder window appears (see Figure 12-134).
Figure 12-134
Specifying Default Download Folder
Choose My Documents, and then click OK.
The Browse For Folder window closes. Click OK. Note the Mozilla Firefox icon on your desktop.
Chapter 12: Advanced Operating Systems
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Lab 12.4.1: Schedule Task Using GUI and at
Command
In this lab, you will schedule a task using the Windows XP GUI. You will schedule a task in a cmd
window using the at command.
The recommended equipment is a computer running Windows XP Professional.
Step 1
Log on to Windows as an administrator.
Choose Start, Control Panel (see Figure 12-135).
Figure 12-135
Opening the Control Panel
Step 2
The Control Panel window appears. Click Performance and Maintenance (see Figure 12-136).
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Figure 12-136
Control Panel
Step 3
The Performance and Maintenance window appears. Click Scheduled Tasks (see Figure 12-137).
Figure 12-137
Performance and Maintenance Window
Step 4
The Scheduled Tasks window appears. Double-click Add Scheduled Task (see Figure 12-138).
Chapter 12: Advanced Operating Systems
Figure 12-138
Scheduled Tasks
Step 5
The Scheduled Task Wizard appears (see Figure 12-139). Click Next.
Figure 12-139
Starting the Scheduled Task Wizard
Scroll down the Application window, and then select Disk Cleanup (see Figure 12-140).
Click Next.
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Figure 12-140
Selecting the Program to Schedule
Type Disk Cleanup into the Type a Name for This Task field.
Click the Weekly option button, and then click Next (see Figure 12-141).
Figure 12-141
Specifying How Often to Run the Task
Use the scroll buttons in the Start Time field to select 6:00 PM.
Use the scroll buttons in the Every _ Weeks field to select 1.
Check the Wednesday check box, and then click Next (see Figure 12-142).
Chapter 12: Advanced Operating Systems
Figure 12-142
Specifying When to Run the Task
Enter your username and password into the appropriate fields (see Figure 12-143).
Figure 12-143
User Account and Password to Run the Task Under
Click Next. The You Have Successfully Scheduled the Following Task window appears
(see Figure 12-144).
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Figure 12-144
Finishing the Scheduled Task Wizard
Click Finish.
Step 6
The scheduled task that you created appears in the Scheduled Tasks window (see Figure 12-145).
Figure 12-145
New Scheduled Task Has Been Created
Step 7
Choose Start, Run.
Type cmd, and then click OK. The C:\WINDOWS\System32\cmd.exe window appears (see Figure 12-146).
Chapter 12: Advanced Operating Systems
Figure 12-146
339
Opening a Command Prompt Using the Run Option
Type at/?, and then press Enter. The options for the at command are displayed (see Figure 12-147).
Figure 12-147
Looking at the at Command Options
Type at 20:00 /every:W backup. Note that the time must be military time.
Added a New Job with Job ID = 1 is displayed (see Figure 12-148).
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Figure 12-148
Running the at Command
Instructor Note: You will need to provide your students with the NetBIOS name of each computer.
Type at \\computername; for example, at \\labcomputer. The scheduled job appears (see Figure 12-149).
Figure 12-149
Displaying the at Commands on a Network Computer
Which command would you enter to get the backup to run every Tuesday and Wednesday at 3:00 PM?
at 15:00 /every:T,W backup
Type exit, and then press the Return key.
Step 8
Open the Scheduled Tasks window. The task created using the at command is listed in the window
(see Figure 12-150).
Chapter 12: Advanced Operating Systems
Figure 12-150
341
Scheduled Task
Step 9
Right-click your scheduled task.
Choose File, Delete. The Confirm File Delete window appears (see Figure 12-151).
Figure 12-151
Confirming to Delete a File
Click Yes. The task created using the at command is removed from the Scheduled Tasks window (see
Figure 12-152).
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Figure 12-152
New Scheduled Task Deleted
Lab 12.5.3: Fix an Operating System Problem
In this lab, you will troubleshoot and fix a computer that does not connect to the network.
The following is the recommended equipment for this lab:
■
A computer running Windows XP Professional
■
Linksys 300N wireless router
■
Ethernet patch cable
Instructor to set up prior to class:
■
Boot the computers in each student group into safe mode.
■
Use the Control Panel to find the name and location of the driver files used by the NIC.
■
Delete the files from C:\Windows\System32\Drivers.
■
Restart the computer normally and cancel driver installation for the NICs.
■
Turn off the wireless routers in the classroom.
Scenario
The computer will not connect to the Internet, network shares, nor network printers.
Step 1
Open a command line and use command-line tools to determine the IP address, subnet mask, and
default gateway of the computer.
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Step 2
Use Windows tools to determine the status of the Ethernet NIC.
Step 3
Repair the Ethernet connection by restoring the computer.
Step 4
What steps did you perform to fix the network?
Answers may vary but must include restoring the computer to a previous restore point.
Remote Technician 12.5.3: Fix an Operating System
Problem
(Student Technician Sheet)
In this lab, you will gather data from the customer, and then instruct the customer on how to fix a
computer that does not connect to the network. Document the customer’s problem in the work order
that follows.
Instructor: In this lab, the goal is to demonstrate the special skills needed to help a customer fix a
computer remotely. Begin this lab with a demonstration:
1.
Select two students who are willing to participate and have good troubleshooting skills.
2.
Position the students back-to-back so that the student customer cannot see the student technician, and the student technician cannot see the student customer’s computer.
3.
The student playing the role of the customer must behave as an inexperienced user.
4.
At five-minute intervals, stop the demonstration and ask questions of the class. For example,
“Is there a better way to phrase that question?” or “Is the student technician skipping any
steps?” or “What would you do differently?”
5.
If at any time the students are unable to proceed, allow the student customer to make suggestions for the student technician.
6.
After successful demonstration of the process, send each team of students to their pod to complete the lab. After the lab has been completed once, switch the roles of the students in each
team. Have each team perform the lab again the next day of class. You will need to make the
hardware changes to the computers again, or you will need to have extra computers available.
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Instructor to set up prior to class:
■
Boot one of the computers in each student group into safe mode.
■
Use the control panel to find the name and location of the driver files used by the NIC.
■
Delete the files from C:\Windows\System32\Drivers.
■
Restart the computer normally and cancel driver installation for NIC.
■
Turn off the wireless routers in the classroom.
Chapter 12: Advanced Operating Systems
Company Name: Main Street Stoneworks
Contact: Karin Jones
Company Address: 4252 W. Main St.
Company Phone: 1-888-555-7744
Work Order
Generating a New Ticket
Category Operating System
Closure Code
Status Open
Type
Escalated Yes
Pending
Item
Pending Until Date
Business Impacting?
X Yes
No
Summary Customer cannot connect to the network or the Internet.
Case ID#
Priority 2
User Platform Windows XP Pro
Connection Type Ethernet
Environment
Problem Description: Computer boots correctly. Network cable connected. Link lights
not working. Network icon not visible in tray.
Problem Solution: No network connections shown with ipconfig. No network connections shown in
Control Panel Network Connections section. Device manager shows only a wireless NIC. Scanned
computer for hardware changes. NIC detected. Drivers not available. Used system restore to return
computer to the last restore point before today. Restarted user’s computer. Network functioning
normally. Shut down user’s computer and restarted user’s computer. User now able to connect
to the Internet and send/receive email.
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(Student Customer Sheet)
Use the contact information and problem description to report the following information to a level-two
technician:
Contact Information
Company Name: Main Street Stoneworks
Contact: Karin Jones
Company Address: 4252 W. Main St.
Company Phone: 1-888-555-7744
Problem Description
When I came into the office today, I could not get my e-mail. The Internet does not work either. I tried
to restart my computer, but that did not help. None of the files that I need are available to me, either. It
is like someone pulled the plug, but the plug is still there. I need to get some files from my folder that
I was working on yesterday. It is very important for me to get my files so that I can send them to my
client. I do not know how to get the files or send them because my computer cannot find them. What
do I do?
Note: After you have given the level-two tech the problem description, use the Additional Information to answer
any follow-up questions the technician may ask.
Additional Information
Windows XP Pro.
Computer has not had any new hardware installed recently.
There is no wireless network available at work.
Computer detected new hardware at boot.
Computer could not install new hardware.
CHAPTER 13
Advanced Laptops and Portable Devices
The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of fill-in-the-blank and open-ended questions to
test your introductory knowledge of laptops and portable devices. This portion also includes multiple-choice
study questions to help prepare you to take the A+ certification exams and to test your overall understanding of
the material.
The Lab Exercises portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum worksheets to further reinforce
your mastery of the laptop and portable devices content.
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Study Guide
Processors and RAM
To select the right laptop or notebook computer, you generally will choose the appropriate processor
and RAM. Of course, you need to know the differences between processors and RAM that you find in
desktop computers and laptop/notebook computers.
Concept Questions
Answer the following questions about processors and RAM:
How do mobile processors conserve power over desktop processors?
They run at a lesser voltage.
What technology do mobile processors use to balance power consumption and performance?
Mobile processors have the capability to throttle the voltage and clock speed. Intel refers to this technology as SpeedStep technology.
What type of memory do laptops and notebook computers use?
Small Outline Dual Inline Memory Module (SO-DIMM).
Expansion Cards
Much like processors and RAM, the expansion cards used in laptop and notebook computers are different from what you will typically find in desktop computers. Therefore, you need to easily identify
them, know the characteristics of these cards, and know how to operate them.
Concept Questions
Answer the following questions about expansion cards:
Today, what are PCMCIA cards called?
PC Cards
Complete the following table with the correct information about PC Cards.
Form Factor
Width
(in)
Depth
(in)
Height
(in)
PC Card Type I
2.13
3.37
0.13
Typically used for memory devices such as
RAM, flash memory, OTP, and SRAM cards
PC Card Type II
2.13
3.37
0.20
An array of peripherals including modem,
network cards, and TV cards
PC Card Type III
2.13
3.37
0.41
Hard drives
Application
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What is CardBus?
CardBus is 32-bit, 33 MHz PCI bus in the PC Card form factor. CardBus also supports Bus
Mastering, which allows communications without using the processor.
Mobile Wireless Devices
Over the past few years, wireless technology has become standard in just about every laptop and notebook computer. As the technology matures and new technology is introduced, you will often have to
install and configure mobile wireless devices.
Concept Questions
Answer the following questions about mobile wireless devices:
Complete the following table with the correct information about wireless devices.
Class
Maximum Permitted
Power (milliwatt mW)
Distance
(feet)
Distance
(meters)
Class 1
100 mW
~330 feet
~100 m
Class 2
2.5 mW
~33 feet
~10 m
Class 3
1 mW
~3 feet
~1 m
What class are most wireless Bluetooth network devices?
Class 2
When connecting to a Bluetooth device, what do you need to authenticate?
A personal identification number (PIN), also referred to as passkey or shared passkey.
On what wireless frequency do Bluetooth devices operate?
2.4 to 2.485 GHZ
What are some of the limitations of using infrared wireless devices?
■
Infrared light cannot penetrate ceilings or walls.
■
Infrared signals are susceptible to interference and dilution by strong light sources, such as fluorescent lighting.
■
Scatter infrared devices are able to connect without the line of sight, but data transfer rates are
lower and distances are shorter.
On what IEEE standard is Wi-Fi based?
802.11
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Complete the following table with the correct information about wireless technology standards.
Standard
Data Rate (Max)
Range (in feet)
Range (in meters)
802.11a
54 Mbps
~100 feet
30 meters
802.11b
11 Mbps
~100 feet
30 meters
802.11g
54 Mbps
~100 feet
30 meters
802.11n
540 Mbps
~165 feet
50 meters
What popular standards are used to actually secure Wi-Fi networks?
Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA)
Wi-Fi Protected Access 2 (WPA2)
If your wireless device is configured to operate at 2.4 GHz and your wireless phone operates at 2.4
GHz, what would happen?
Both devices could not consistently operate at the same time.
Batteries
Because laptop and notebook computers are meant to be portable, you often need to use batteries to
power them. Therefore, you need to understand how batteries are being used in a laptop or notebook
computer and know how to differentiate between the types of batteries.
Vocabulary Exercise: Completion
Fill in the blanks with the appropriate terms about batteries:
Nickel-Cadmium (NiCad) batteries suffer from memory effect; if they are partially drained and then
recharged, they lose about 40% of their charge.
Nickel Metal-Hydride (NiMh) batteries store about 50% more power than NiCd batteries.
Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) batteries offer the highest electrochemical potential.
Lithium-Ion Polymer (Li-Poly) batteries are usually found in cell phones and PDAs.
Concept Questions
Answer the following questions about batteries.
What should you occasionally do with NiCad and NiMH rechargeable batteries to maintain the best
charge?
You should occasionally discharge completely to remove the charge memory. Then, after the battery is
completely discharged, it should be charged to maximum capacity.
What could happen if you mishandle batteries, including inserting Li-Ion batteries into a system
designed for a NiCad or NiMH battery?
It could result in explosion, fire, or physical damage to the computer.
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If the battery does not fully charge, what are the steps to overcome the problem?
Make sure that the AC adapter supplies power to the laptop.
First, try to charge it completely. Then remove it from the laptop for an hour. Then put it back and
allow the battery to completely discharge before trying to charge the battery again.
If the problem still occurs, try replacing the battery.
If the problem still occurs, try replacing the DC/charge board.
Mobile Video Systems
Like other mobile components found in laptop and notebook computers, the video systems are different from their desktop counterparts. Therefore, you need to understand these differences to successfully configure and troubleshoot mobile video systems.
Concept Questions
Answer the following questions about mobile video systems:
If you have a laptop computer that has 1 GB of RAM, and you are using 64 MB of shared video
memory, how much memory is available for Windows?
960 MB
If nothing is displayed on a notebook computer LCD monitor, what are some of the things you should
check to troubleshoot the problem?
■
Make sure you have power to the system (AC and/or DC power).
■
Verify that the computer is turned on.
■
Make sure that the LCD cutoff switch is not pressed in.
■
Verify brightness settings.
■
Toggle the Fn keys that switch between LCD, external monitor, and both.
■
Plug in the external monitor to make sure that the rest of your system is running properly.
If the image on your LCD panel is very dim, what should you do to troubleshoot this problem?
■
Verify your brightness settings.
■
Replace the inverter board that distributes power to the backlit light.
■
Replace the LCD panel.
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Study Questions
Choose the best answer for each of the questions that follow.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
What technology will users most likely use on today’s laptop or notebook computer if they
want to directly print to a printer, assuming that the mobile computer and printer have such
equipment?
A.
SCSI
B.
802.11b
C.
IEEE 1396
D.
Bluetooth
What is used to connect a wireless keyboard and mouse to a laptop computer?
A.
Bluetooth
B.
802.11b
C.
IEEE 1396
D.
Microwaves
How would a user check to make sure that the AC power pack is supplying the correct DC
voltage?
A.
Use a multimeter to measure the voltage.
B.
Use the LED lights on the AC adapter.
C.
Use the LED lights on the DC adapter.
D.
You cannot tell.
Which of the following batteries are not recommended for mobile computers because of short
battery life and memory effect?
A.
Nickel Metal-Hydride (NiMH)
B.
Nickel Cadmium (NiCD)
C.
Nickel-Lithium (Ni-Li)
D.
Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion)
Which two devices are considered hot swappable on a mobile computer?
A.
A hard drive.
B.
Processor
C.
Memory.
D.
USB device
E.
A modular DVD drive.
What is the thickness of a Type II PC card?
A.
0.13 inches (3.3 millimeters)
B.
0.40 inches (10 millimeters)
C.
0.20 inches (5 millimeters)
D.
0.50 inches (12 millimeters)
Chapter 13: Advanced Laptops and Portable Devices
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
353
Today, PCMCIA cards are known as ________.
A.
PC cards
B.
Smart cards
C.
Mini-PCI cards
D.
Mini-PCX cards
If you are to perform hardware maintenance on a mobile computer, what should you do before
opening the system?
A.
Remove the keyboard.
B.
Remove the power supply cable and battery pack.
C.
Close the LCD panel.
D.
Remove the CMOS battery.
If you install 768 MB of RAM and you have 64 MB of shared video memory, how much memory is available for the operating system?
A.
256 MB
B.
448 MB
C.
512 MB
D.
704 MB
How do you toggle between your LCD panel and an external monitor?
A.
Device Manager.
B.
Use the Fn keys on the keyboard.
C.
Press the Ctrl+Tab keys.
D.
Use the Mobile Management console.
What is the problem when the images on the LCD panel are so dim that you can barely see that
they are there?
A.
The power adapter is faulty.
B.
The inverter board is faulty.
C.
The video adapter is faulty.
D.
The laptop has overheated.
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Lab Exercises
Worksheet 13.2.0: Investigating Repair Centers
Instructor Note: The information for this exercise should be obtained from a national computer repair center
site such as http://www.sparepartswarehouse.com/laptop-repair.asp.
You can use other websites or local repair centers to complete this activity. Your answers may vary from the
sample answers given here.
For this worksheet, you will investigate the services provided by a computer repair center. Use the
Internet or a local phone directory to locate a repair center. After you have found a repair center, use
the center’s website to obtain information and answer the following questions. If a website is not
available, contact the local repair center.
1.
What laptop and desktop computers can be repaired at this repair center?
Toshiba, IBM, HP, Compaq, and Sony
2.
What type of warranty is offered at this repair center?
They are an authorized service and warranty repair center for Toshiba, IBM, HP, Compaq, and
Sony. As an authorized service and warranty repair center, they repair in-warranty laptops or
notebooks. There are no parts or labor charges for in-warranty work. They also provide extended-warranty repairs for these brands.
3.
Does the staff have industry certifications? If so, what are the certifications?
They maintain a staff of A+ certified and manufacturer certified technicians who receive service
updates from the manufacturers.
4.
Is there a guaranteed completion time for repairs? If so, what are the details?
Yes, a 24-hour completion time if the parts are in stock. If the part must be ordered, they offer a
3-business-day completion guarantee.
5.
Does the repair center offer remote technical services?
Yes. There is a minimum fee for all remote technical services.
Worksheet 13.3.1: Laptop Batteries
In this activity, you will use the Internet, a newspaper, or a local store to gather information and then
enter the specifications for a laptop battery onto this worksheet.
Instructor Note: You may choose another laptop battery to research. The answers here are specific to the
IBM T-43.
1.
List the specifications for a(n) IBM T-43 laptop battery. (Please ask your instructor for the
laptop model to research.)
The battery included with the T-43 is a standard 6-Cell Lithium Ion rechargeable battery.
Li-Ion 6-Cell Battery Pack (10.8V / 4.8AH) P/N: 92P1089
Chapter 13: Advanced Laptops and Portable Devices
355
Manufacturer: Panasonic
Depending on usage, the IBM 6-Cell battery will operate approximately 4 hours. If you need
more battery life you can buy an extended life 9-Cell battery.
2.
Shop around, and in the following table list the features and cost for a generic and a(n) IBM T43 laptop battery.
Battery Specifications
Generic
IBM T-43
Voltage requirements
10.8
10.8
Battery cell configuration
For example: 6-Cell, 9-Cell
9-Cell
6-Cell
Compatibility
5 Position Connector
5 Position Connector
Dimensions
225.70 × 80.21× 20.30 mm
225.70 × 80.21× 20.30 mm
Hours of life
6 with normal usage
4 with normal usage
Approximate cost
$130
$115
3.
Based on your research, which battery would you select? Be prepared to discuss your decisions
regarding the battery you select.
The student may choose an extended life battery, but should be prepared to explain that decision.
Worksheet 13.3.2: Docking Station
In this activity, you will use the Internet, a newspaper, or a local store to gather information and then
enter the specifications for a laptop docking station onto this worksheet. Be prepared to discuss your
decisions regarding the docking station you select.
Instructor Note: You may choose another laptop docking station to research. The answers here are specific to
the IBM T-43. Most laptops will use manufacturer proprietary docking stations.
1.
Research a docking station compatible with a(n) IBM T-43 laptop. (Please ask your instructor
for the laptop model to research.) What is the model number of the docking station?
IBM docking station part number 54G0441
2.
What is the approximate cost?
$140
3.
What are the dimensions of the docking station?
Height: 0.89 inches, 22.6 mm
Width: 10.6 inches, 269 mm
Depth: 8.3 inches, 210.5 mm
4.
How does the laptop connect to the docking station?
The laptop has a docking station connector on the underside of the laptop, which attaches to a
connector on the docking station.
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5.
List the features available with this docking station.
Key lock security features and security key hole
Hot/warm docking support
Built-in stereo speakers
Parallel, serial, USB, RJ-11, RJ-45, VGA, one PS/2
Keyboard/mouse port
Second battery support (for optional ThinkPad Ultrabay Slim Li-Polymer Battery)
Ultrabay Slim device support
3 USB 2.0 ports
6.
Is this docking station compatible with other laptop models?
Yes, this docking station works with the entire IBM T series.
Worksheet 13.3.3: Research DVD Drive
In this activity, you will use the Internet, a newspaper, or a local store to gather information about
DVD rewritable (DVD/RW) drives for a(n) IBM T-43 laptop. (Please ask your instructor for the laptop
model to research.)
Instructor Note: You may choose another laptop to research. The answers here are specific to the IBM T-43.
Shop around, and in the following table list the features and costs for an internal DVD/RW drive and
an external DVD/RW drive.
Internal DVD/RW Drive
External DVD/RW Drive
Connection Type
Ultrabay
External USB
Write Speed
8X
8X
Cost
$115
$70
1.
List the advantages of an internal drive.
The internal DVD drive will install in an internal drive bay, reducing the number of external
cables and components needed for the laptop.
2.
List the advantages of an external drive.
The external DVD allows the drive to be used with a user’s laptop and desktop computer.
3.
Which DVD drive would you purchase based on your research? Write a brief explanation
supporting your answer.
Answers will vary based on price, warranty, and preference.
Chapter 13: Advanced Laptops and Portable Devices
357
Worksheet 13.3.4: Laptop RAM
In this activity, you will use the Internet, a newspaper, or a local store to gather information about
expansion memory for a(n) IBM T-43 laptop. (Please ask your instructor for the laptop model to
research.)
Instructor Note: You may choose any laptop to research. The answers here are specific to the IBM T-43.
1.
Research the manufacturer specifications for the memory in the IBM T-43 laptop. List the specifications in the following table:
Memory Specifications
Laptop Expansion Memory
Form Factor
SODIMM
Type
DDR2
Size (MB)
512 MB
Manufacturer
IBM
Speed
533 MHz
Slots
2
2.
Shop around, and in the following table list the features and costs for expansion memory for
a(n) IBM T-43 laptop.
Memory Specifications
Expansion Memory
Form Factor
SODIMM
Type
DDR2
Size (MB)
1 GB
Manufacturer
IBM
Speed
667 MHz
Retail Cost
$159
3.
In your research, did you find any reason to select a particular type of expansion memory over
another?
Answers will vary based on price, warranty, and preference.
4.
Is the new expansion memory compatible with the existing memory installed in the laptop?
Why is this important?
Yes. If the expansion memory speed is less than the manufacturer’s specifications, the laptop
may not work at its optimal performance and may crash the system.
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Worksheet 13.5.3: Verify Work Order Information
In this worksheet, a level-two call center technician will find creative ways to verify information that
the level-one tech has documented in the work order.
A customer complains that the network connection on the laptop is intermittent. The customer states
that he is using a wireless PC card for network connectivity. The customer believes that the laptop
may be too far from the wireless access point; however, he does not know where the wireless access
point is located.
As a level-two technician, you need to be able to verify information from the work order without
repeating the same questions previously asked by the level-one technician. In the following table,
reword the level-one technician’s question with a new question or direction for the customer.
Level-One Tech
Level-Two Tech
What are the problems that you are
experiencing with the laptop?
How long has the _______ been malfunctioning?
What is the manufacturer and model
of the laptop?
Go to BIOS, read me what it says at the top of the
screen.
Which operating system is installed on
the laptop?
Go to System Properties, click the General tab
and read me the system information.
How is the laptop getting power?
Please connect your AC power connector directly
into a wall outlet.
What were you doing when the problem
occurred?
Can you reproduce the problem or error for me now?
Were there any system changes on the
laptop recently?
Have you installed any new drivers or updates
recently?
Does your laptop have a wireless
network connection?
Please open your wireless network connection status
window and tell me the connection information.
Is your PC Card installed securely?
Remove the PC Card from the laptop and reinstall it.
How much RAM does your laptop have?
Go to System Properties, click the General tab and
read me the memory information.
CHAPTER 14
Advanced Printers and Scanners
The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses short-answer questions to test your knowledge of printers and
scanners. This portion also includes multiple-choice study questions to help prepare you to take the A+ certification exams and to test your overall understanding of the material.
The Lab Exercises portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum hands-on labs, worksheets, and
remote technician exercises to further reinforce your mastery of the advanced printer and scanner content.
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Study Guide
Printer Technology and Interfaces
Before you can learn how to install, configure, and troubleshoot printers, you must understand the different types of printers and how they work. You also need to understand the interfaces that you use to
connect printers to a local PC or network and their limitations.
Concept Questions
Answer the following printer questions:
Which interface is the slowest interface used by older printers?
Serial interface
What is the maximum length of an IEEE 1284 parallel cable?
15 feet (3 meters)
What is the most common interface used in today’s modern small office/home office printers?
USB
Which type of printers use a print head?
Dot-matrix and inkjet printers
What is the central part of the laser printer?
Drum
For which printer do you need special paper to print?
Thermal printers
Page Description Languages (PDL) are the languages that printers use to format and print text and
graphics. What are the three primary PDLs used?
Printer Command Language (PCL)
PostScript (PS)
Graphics Device Interface (GDI)
How can you increase the performance of a color laser printer?
Add more memory to the color laser printer.
Troubleshooting Printers
Although printers are easy to install, they can cause all sorts of headaches. Any problem that occurs
with a printer has one of four sources: the printer, the print cable, the interface, or the software
(including drivers).
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361
Concept Questions
Answer the following questions about troubleshooting printers.
What are the different ways that you can print a test page?
Use the Print Test Page option from the printer.
Use the Print Test Page option from Windows.
Use the print function of an application.
Send a file directly to a parallel port printer through the command line.
A paper jam is a sheet of paper catching or refusing to pass through the printer mechanism. What are
the causes of a paper jam?
Incorrect paper (the paper is too heavy or too light), damp paper, a worn-out roller, or a buildup of
paper fragments, toner or other debris.
When turning knobs and wheels within the printer, what do you need to do?
Make sure that you are turning the knobs and wheels the right way.
If you print and nothing happens, what should you do?
First check the obvious:
■
Check to see if printer is plugged in.
■
Check to see if the printer is on.
■
Check to see if the printer is online.
■
Check to see if the printer cable is connected properly.
Then isolate the problem to the printer, printer cable, and port that the cable is connected to and the
software that is trying to print and the software driver. To isolate the printer, printer cable, or printer
ports, you can swap out those devices. To isolate a program, you can try to print from another program. You can also verify that you have the correct, updated printer driver.
What do you do if the printer prints garbage (strange characters or many pages of what appears to be
programming code)?
The most common cause of the printer printing garbage is the wrong driver being loaded or selected.
It could also be a software problem. Try printing from another application. Then verify the printer
driver. If the software is fine and the printer driver is fine, you then need to check the cables and printer
ports, which would be done by swapping. Last, you could have electromagnetic interference (EMI).
What do you do if you print and the document print is light?
First, check the toner cartridge. If the toner cartridge appears to have toner, try swapping out to see if
the problem goes away. If the problem still exists, check the transfer corona wire and transfer rollers,
the high-voltage power supply assembly, and the drum ground contacts.
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Printing in Windows
So far, the emphasis has been on the three sources of problems: the printer, the printer cable, and the
interface. This section deals with the software that provides an interface to interact with and as a
translator between the documents you create on the computer and the language that the printer understands.
Concept Questions
Answer the following questions about printing in Windows.
What technology automatically loads the driver when a printer is connected to a Windows XP computer?
Plug and Play (PnP)
When connecting to a network printer, where can Windows 2000 or Windows XP get the driver?
From the network server or PC that is hosting the networking printer
If documents become stuck in the print queue, what should you do?
Restart the print spooler. Also make sure that you have enough disk space for the print spooler.
What command do you use to restart the print spooler service for Windows 2000 and Windows XP
computers?
net stop spooler
net start spooler
What is the process to install print drivers in Windows XP?
1.
Determine the version of the installed printer driver. Remember to select a newer version to
increase functionality.
2.
Search the Internet to locate the most recent version of the driver. Before you download the
driver, make sure that it is compatible with your device.
3.
Download the driver. Follow the instructions on the website.
4.
Install the driver. When activated, most driver installation programs automatically install the
new driver.
5.
Test the driver. To test the driver click Start, Control Panel, Printers and Faxes, and then rightclick the printer, select Properties, and click Print Test Page. If the printer does not work, turn
off and restart the computer. Run the tests again.
Scanners
Earlier in this book, you looked at what a scanner is and how you connect a scanner to the computer.
Because scanners are not as popular as printers, there is a little bit more mystery when troubleshooting scanners. Yet, if you understand how they work, you will apply a lot of the same troubleshooting
techniques that you used in other devices that you connect to a computer.
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Concept Questions
Answer the following questions about scanners.
What is the most common standard for scanners?
TWAIN
If a scanner is not being detected, what should you check?
Make sure that the scanner is plugged in and turned on. Make sure that the scanner is connected with
the appropriate cable. Make sure that the proper driver is loaded and the correct scanning software is
loaded.
What happens if the glass on the scanner becomes dirty or scratched?
The dirt and scratches may show up on the scan.
Study Questions
Choose the best answer for each of the questions that follow:
1.
2.
3.
4.
What type of printer uses a toner and drum?
A.
Laser printers
B.
Inkjet printers
C.
Thermal printers
D.
Dot-matrix printers
What is the most common standard for scanners?
A.
RAW
B.
JPG
C.
TWAIN
D.
PNG
What type of cable is used in parallel ports?
A.
RS-232c
B.
IEEE 1284
C.
IEEE 1394
D.
IEEE 802.11g
What do you need to do if documents seemed to be stuck in the Windows print queue?
A.
Restart the print spooler service.
B.
Delete the oldest print job.
C.
Delete files on the C drive.
D.
Reboot the computer.
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IT Essentials: PC Hardware and Software Labs and Study Guide
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
What are ECP and EPP printers associated with?
A.
Parallel ports
B.
Serial ports
C.
FireWire
D.
802.11b
What will adding memory to your laser printer do?
A.
It will usually increase performance.
B.
It will allow you to print graphics.
C.
It will allow you to print color.
D.
It will allow you to print PostScript documents.
If the images on a freshly printed document seem to rub off or flake off, what do you need to
check?
A.
The pickup rollers
B.
The fuser assembly
C.
The paper that is being used
D.
The corona wire
E.
The toner cartridge
You install a second printer on a user’s Windows XP computer. However, every time the user
prints, it prints to the first printer. What do you need to do to make it print to the second printer?
A.
Remove the old printer.
B.
Set the new printer as the default printer.
C.
Reinstall the new print driver.
D.
Remove and reinstall the new printer. When you run the wizard, select the printer as the
default printer.
When troubleshooting a scanner problem, what should you do first?
A.
Check to see whether the scanner has ever worked.
B.
Check all cables to the scanner.
C.
Make sure that the scanner is turned on.
D.
Make sure that the drivers are loaded.
When you print a document, you get a lot of strange characters. What do you need to check
first?
A.
Check for a loose cable.
B.
Check to see if the printer is running in the right mode.
C.
Make sure that the correct printer driver is loaded.
D.
Make sure that the toner cartridge is full.
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Lab Exercises
Lab 14.2.4: Install an All-in-One Printer/Scanner
In this lab, you will check the Windows XP Hardware Compatibility List (HCL) for the Epson Stylus
CX7800, install the all-in-one printer/scanner, upgrade the driver and any associated software, and test
the printer and scanner.
The following is the recommended equipment for this lab:
■
A computer with the Windows XP Professional operating system
■
An available USB port on the computer
■
An Epson Stylus CX7800 printer/scanner
■
Printer/scanner installation CD
■
An Internet connection
Step 1
Open Internet Explorer.
Search the Microsoft website for “windows xp professional hcl.”
Instructor Note: These instructions follow the current Microsoft website. This website may change over time.
Choose Windows XP.
Choose Devices.
Choose the processor type used by the computer.
Select Printers & Scanners.
Choose Start.
Search the HCL for Epson Stylus CX7800.
What company manufactures this component?
Seiko Epson Corporation
For what operating system(s) was this component designed?
Windows XP—x86
For what operating system(s) has this component been certified?
Answers may vary, but must include
Windows Vista—x86
Windows Vista—x64
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Step 2
Carefully unpack and assemble the printer/scanner if necessary. Follow the manufacturer’s instructions.
Plug in the printer/scanner to a grounded wall outlet and turn on the unit. Do not attach the USB cable
to the computer until instructed to do so.
Step 3
Insert the manufacturer’s software CD into the optical drive. If the installation program does not start
automatically, select Start, My Computer, and then double-click the Epson CD-ROM icon.
The Install Menu window appears (see Figure 14-1).
Figure 14-1
Epson Stylus CX7800 Series Install Menu
Click Install.
Connect the USB cable when instructed (see Figure 14-2).
Figure 14-2
Prompting to Connect the USB Cable to the Computer
Chapter 14: Advanced Printers and Scanners
The License Agreement window appears (see Figure 14-3).
Figure 14-3
ArcSoft License Agreement
Click Yes. The Epson Product Registration window appears (see Figure 14-4).
Click Cancel.
Figure 14-4
Epson Product Registration
Step 4
Go to the Epson website and download the newest drivers for the Epson Stylus CX 7800.
Click Start, and then right-click My Computer. Choose Manage, Device Manager. The Device
Manager appears in the right column (see Figure 14-5).
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Figure 14-5
Device Manager Tree
Double-click the Epson Stylus CX, and then select the Driver tab (see Figure 14-6).
Figure 14-6
Driver Tab for the Epson Stylus CX Found in Device Manager
Choose Update Driver.
Follow the instructions to install the driver that was downloaded.
Chapter 14: Advanced Printers and Scanners
Choose Start, Printers and Faxes (see Figure 14-7).
Figure 14-7
Printer and Faxes Window Showing the Available Configured Printers
Right-click Epson Stylus and then click Properties (see Figure 14-8).
Figure 14-8
Epson Stylus CX7800 Series Properties
Click the Print Test Page button.
Instructor Note: You will need to supply each student with a document to scan and print.
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Step 5
Place a picture or document face down in the upper-left corner of the scanner.
Double-click the Epson Scan icon on the desktop or open the Epson SmartPanel using the Start menu.
Scan the image.
Print the scanned image.
Lab 14.3.2: Share the All-in-One Printer/Scanner
In this lab, you will share the Epson printer/scanner, configure the printer on a networked computer,
and print a test page from the remote computer.
The following is the recommended equipment for this lab:
■
Two computers directly connected or connected through a hub or switch
■
Windows XP Professional installed on both computers
■
An Epson CX7800 installed on one of the computers
Step 1
Click My Computer, Tools, Folder Options, View, and then uncheck Use Simple File Sharing
(Recommended) (see Figure 14-9).
Click OK.
Figure 14-9
Folder Options
Chapter 14: Advanced Printers and Scanners
Step 2
Choose Start, Printers and Faxes.
Right-click Epson CX7800, and then choose Properties.
Click the Sharing tab (see Figure 14-10).
Figure 14-10
Printer Sharing Tab
Choose Share This Printer. Name the new share Example, and then click Apply.
Click OK.
Step 3
Log on to the computer without the printer/scanner connected, and then choose Start, Printers and
Faxes (see Figure 14-11).
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Figure 14-11
Empty Printers and Faxes Folder
Click Add a Printer. The Add Printer Wizard window appears (see Figure 14-12).
Figure 14-12
Welcome to the Add Printer Wizard
Click Next. The Local or Network Printer window appears (see Figure 14-13).
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Figure 14-13
373
Specifying Whether the Printer Is a Local Printer or a Network Printer
Click the A Network Printer, or a Printer Attached to Another Computer option button, and then click
Next.
Type \\computername\printer into the Connect to This Printer (or to Browse for a Printer, Select This
Option and click Next) option button, where computername is the name of the computer with the connected printer/scanner and printer is the name of the printer/scanner (see Figure 14-14).
Figure 14-14
Connecting to a Networked Shared Printer
Step 4
Choose Start, Printers and Faxes.
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Right-click Epson Stylus, and then choose Properties (see Figure 14-15).
Click the Print Test Page button.
Figure 14-15
Epson CX7800 Series Properties
Lab 14.4.2: Optimize Scanner Output
In this lab, you will scan a picture at two levels of DPI. The results will be displayed and compared
on your monitor, as two saved files, and as two printed images.
The following is the recommended equipment for this lab:
■
A computer with Windows XP Professional installed
■
Epson CX7800 printer/scanner installed
Step 1
Instructor Note: You will need to supply each student with a picture to scan.
Scan the image supplied by your instructor at 300 DPI, and then save it as a file named SCAN1.
Right-click the SCAN1 file, and then select Properties.
What is the size of the image?
Answers may vary.
Print the image.
Chapter 14: Advanced Printers and Scanners
Step 2
Scan the same image at 72 DPI, and then save it as a file named SCAN2.
Right-click the SCAN2 file, and then select Properties.
What is the size of the image?
Answers may vary.
Print the image.
Step 3
Did it take longer to scan SCAN2 than it did to scan SCAN1?
No
Why?
It takes longer to acquire images at higher resolutions.
Step 4
Is there a difference between the sizes of the image files?
Yes
Why?
Higher-resolution images contain more pixels, which results in a larger file.
Step 5
Open both image files.
Which image, in your opinion, looks better?
SCAN1
Which of the printed images, in your opinion, looks better?
SCAN1
Step 6
What DPI setting would work best when scanning an image to be used on a website?
72 DPI
Why did you choose this DPI setting?
Answers may vary. The image can be downloaded faster than the 300 DPI image.
Which DPI setting would work best when printing an image?
300 DPI
Why did you choose this DPI setting?
Answers may vary. The image is of higher quality than the 72 DPI image.
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Worksheet 14.5.1: Search for Certified Printer
Technician Jobs
In this activity, you will use the Internet to gather information about becoming a certified printer technician.
In the following table, list the name of three printer manufacturers, any certification programs available, the required skills of the certification, and the make and model of the printers that require a certified technician. An example has been provided for you. Be prepared to discuss your answers.
Instructor Note: Search words such as “printer certification” and “certification programs” in the printer company’s site search engine.
Printer
Manufacturer
Certification
Programs
Required
Skills
Printer
Make/Model
HP
Accredited Platform
Specialist (APS):
HP LaserJet Solutions
HP Designjet Solutions
Fundamental architectures and
All
technologies of electro photographic
printers.
Troubleshooting of LaserJet products
and solutions.
Drivers.
LaserJet components fundamentals.
Lab 14.6.3: Fix a Printer
In this lab, you will troubleshoot and fix a printer that does not print documents for a user.
The following is the recommended equipment for this lab:
■
At least two computers running Windows XP Professional
■
All-in-one printer connected and installed on one of the computers
■
All-in-one printer installed as a network printer on other computer(s)
■
Computers networked using switch, hub, or wireless router
Instructor Note: To set up prior to class, remove all permissions to use the printer from the computer that is
directly connected to the printer.
Scenario
The printer will not print documents for a user.
Step 1
Verify printer hardware.
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Step 2
Verify network printer installation on client computer(s).
Step 3
Verify network connectivity for computer that will not print.
Step 4
Verify installation of printer on directly connected computer.
Step 5
What steps did you perform to fix the printer?
Answers may vary.
Remote Technician 14.6.3: Fix a Printer Problem
(Student Technician Sheet)
In this lab, you will gather data from the customer and then instruct the customer on how to fix a
printer that does not print documents for a user. Document the customer’s problem in the work order
that follows:
Instructor: In this lab, the goal is to demonstrate the special skills needed to help a customer fix a
computer remotely. Begin this lab with a demonstration:
Step 1.
Select two students who are willing to participate and have good troubleshooting skills.
Step 2.
Position the students back to back so that the student customer cannot see the student technician and the student technician cannot see the student customer’s computer.
Step 3.
The student playing the role of the customer must behave as an inexperienced user.
Step 4.
At five-minute intervals, stop the demonstration and ask questions of the class. For example, “Is there a better way to phrase that question?” or “Is the student technician skipping
any steps?” or “What would you do differently?”
Step 5.
If at any time the students are unable to proceed, allow the student customer to make suggestions for the student technician.
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Step 6.
After successful demonstration of the process, send each team of students to their pod to
complete the lab. After the lab has been completed once, switch the roles of the students in
each team. Have each team perform the lab again the next day of class. You will need to
make the configuration changes to the computer again, or you will need to have extra
computers available.
To set up prior to class, remove all permissions to use the printer from the computer that is directly
connected to the printer.
Company Name: Don’s Delivery
Contact: Don Marley
Company Address: 11 E. Main Street
Company Phone: 1-866-555-0032
Work Order
Generating a New Ticket
Category Printer
Closure Code
Status Open
Type
Escalated Yes
Pending
Item
Pending Until Date
Business Impacting?
X Yes
No
Summary
Case ID#
Priority 2
User Platform Windows XP Pro
Connection Type Ethernet
Environment
Problem Description: Printer is powered on. Cables are securely connected. Printer has
ink and paper. Printer is installed as network printer on all client computers. Other users are able
to print to the printer.
Problem Solution: Verified installation of network printer on the client computer. Verified that the user
had a valid IP address on the network. Uninstalled the printer and reinstalled the printer. Found that
after attempting to print, the document was not available in the printer queue. Verified proper installation
of the printer on the host computer. Host computer does not list the user as authorized to print. Added
user to the authorized users list in the security panel of the shared printer. Printed a test page from the
user’s computer. Restarted user’s computer. Printed user’s document from user’s computer.
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(Student Customer Sheet)
Use the contact information and problem description to report the following information to a level-two
technician:
Contact Information
Company Name: Don’s Delivery
Contact: Don Marley
Company Address: 11 E. Main Street
Company Phone: 1-800-555-0032
Problem Description
I am not able to print documents on our printer. I tried turning the printer off and then back on, but I
am still unable to print. The printer worked fine yesterday, but now, no documents print. Nobody has
touched the printer since yesterday, and I do not understand why it will not print. What can I do to
make my documents print?
Note: After you have given the level-two tech the problem description, use the Additional Information section to
answer any follow-up questions the technician may ask.
Additional Information
Printer is hosted by dedicated computer on the network.
Printer is an all-in-one device.
Tech support fixed a similar problem for a user yesterday.
CHAPTER 15
Advanced Networks
The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of matching, fill-in-the-blank, and open-ended
questions to test your knowledge of computer networks. This portion also includes multiple-choice study questions
to help prepare you to take the A+ certification exams and to test your overall understanding of the material.
The Lab Exercises portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum hands-on labs, worksheets, and
remote technician exercises to further reinforce your mastery of the computer networks content.
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Study Guide
OSI Model
With the goal of standardizing the network world, the International Organization for Standardization
(ISO) began development of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) reference model. Today, the OSI
reference model is the world’s prominent networking architecture model. It is a popular tool for learning about networks.
Identify the OSI Layers
Complete the following table with the correct OSI layer names:
OSI Layer
Devices and Addresses
Protocols
7.
Application
Host/Domain names
HTTP, Telnet, SMTP, POP3,
DNS, DHCP, SMB
6.
Presentation
5.
Session
4.
Transport
Port numbers
TCP, UDP
3.
Network
Routers, IP addresses
IP, RIP, OSPF, ARP, ICMP
2.
Data Link
Bridges, switches, MAC addresses
Ethernet
1.
Physical
Cables, repeaters, hubs
TCP/IP Protocol Suite
By far, the most popular protocol suite in use today is the TCP/IP protocol suite, which is the same
protocol suite that is used by the Internet. Because most PCs need to connect to the Internet, you will
need to be familiar with the TCP/IP protocol.
Chapter 15: Advanced Networks
Vocabulary Exercise: Matching
Match the definition on the left with a term on the right.
Definitions
a.
A connectionless protocol primarily responsible
for addressing and routing packets between hosts.
b.
Used to obtain hardware addresses (MAC addresses) of hosts located on the same physical network.
c.
Sends messages and reports errors regarding the
delivery of a packet.
d. Used by IP hosts to report host group membership
Terms
b Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)
c Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)
d Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP)
a Internet Protocol (IP)
e Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
f User Datagram Protocol (UDP)
to local multicast routers.
e. Provides connection-oriented, reliable communica-
tions for applications that typically transfer large
amounts of data at one time or that require an
acknowledgement for data received.
f.
Provides connectionless communications and does
not guarantee that packets will be delivered.
Applications that use this typically transfer small
amounts of data as one packet.
Vocabulary Exercise: Matching
Match the definition on the left with a term on the right.
Definitions
a.
Allows a user to transfer files between local and
remote host computers.
b. A virtual terminal protocol (terminal emulation)
allowing a user to log on to another TCP/IP host to
access network resources.
c.
The standard protocol for the exchange of electronic
mail over the Internet.
d. A simple interface between a user’s mail client
software and e-mail user, used to download mail
from the server to the client; it allows users to
manage their mailboxes.
e. The basis for exchange over the World Wide Web
(WWW) pages.
f.
Defines the structure of Internet names and their
association with IP addresses.
g.
Used to automatically assign TCP/IP addresses and
other related information to clients.
h.
Allows users to share a file or printer.
Terms
f Domain Name System (DNS)
g Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)
a File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
e Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)
d Post Office Protocol (POP)
c Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)
b Telecommunication Network (Telnet)
h Server Message Block (SMB)
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Identify the TCP/IP Ports
TCP/IP ports are used to identify the upper-layer protocols and act as a switchboard to make sure that
packets find their way to the right process. Therefore, it is important that you identify common application layer protocols and the well-known port numbers they use.
Identify the following TCP/IP ports:
Domain Name System (DNS): 53
File Transfer Protocol (FTP): 20/21
Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP): 80
Secure Socket Layer (SSL): 443
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP): 25
Telecommunication Network (Telnet): 23
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP): 67
IP Addressing
The traditional version of the IP protocol is version 4: IPv4. Each connection on a TCP/IP network is
assigned a unique IP address (logical address).
Concept Questions
Answer the following IP addressing questions.
How many bits is each IPv4 address?
32
What is the format of each IP address?
The format of the IP address is four 8-bit numbers (octet) separated by periods (.). Each number can
be 0 to 255. For example, a TCP/IP address could be 131.107.3.1 or 2.0.0.1.
How are addresses assigned to a host?
They are assigned or configured manually (static IP addresses) or dynamically assigned by a DHCP
server (dynamic IP address).
What if two host are assigned the same address?
Because the address is used to identify the computer, no two connections can use the same IP address.
Otherwise, one or both of the computers would not be able to communicate and will usually see a
message stating IP Address Conflict.
What is the function of the subnet mask?
Subnet mask is used to define which address bits describe the network number and which address bits
describe the host address.
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What is the format of the subnet mask?
Similar to the IP address, the format of the subnet mask is four 8-bit numbers (octet) separated by
periods (.). Each number can be 0 to 255. For example, a subnet mask could be 255.0.0.0,
255.255.255.0 or 255.255.240.0.
If you want a computer to communicate with another computer on another network, what must you
also specify?
The default gateway
In traditional IPv4 addresses, the first octet will define which class the address is in. What are the
ranges of the first octet that define each class, and what is the default subnet mask for each class?
Class A: 1-126, 255.0.0.0
Class B: 128-191, 255.255.0.0
Class C: 192-223, 255.255.255.0
Because TCP/IP addresses are scarce for the Internet (based on the IPv4 and its 32-bit addressing
structure), a series of addresses have been reserved to be used by the private networks. These addresses can be used by many organizations because these addresses are not seen from outside the local network. What are the ranges of these private addresses?
10.x.x.x (1 Class A address range)
172.16.x.x to 172.31.x.x (16 Class B address ranges)
192.168.0.x to 192.168.255.x (256 Class C address ranges)
How does a private address communicate over the Internet?
Because the private address cannot be seen on the Internet, technology such as network address translation will convert from internal addresses to one or more external (real or public) addresses.
What is the limitation of NAT working with IPsec?
The two do not work together.
Besides the IP address, subnet mask, and default gateway, what do you need to configure for an IP
host to translate hostnames or domain names to IP addresses?
The address of a DNS server
Configuring Windows
Because Windows is the most popular operating system, it will not be long before you will have to
configure Windows so that it can communicate with a network and to communicate over the Internet.
Concept Questions
Answer the following questions about configuring Windows.
Where can you enable or disable a network interface?
All network interfaces can be configured using the Network Connections in the Windows Control
Panel.
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How do you share a folder in Windows XP?
Right-click the folder and select Sharing and Security.
What is simple file sharing in Windows XP?
A shared folder that everyone on the network can access with no user permissions and no passwords.
How can you specify which users can access a shared folder on a newly installed computer running
Windows XP?
Disable simple file sharing.
How do you map a network shared folder to a network drive letter that you can see under My
Computer?
In a folder window, open the Tools menu and select Map Network Drive.
Troubleshooting Tools
Eventually, when connecting to a computer, you are going to encounter certain problems. Therefore,
you will need to be familiar with the tools that are available.
Concept Questions
Answer the following questions about troubleshooting networks.
What command would you use to display all the IP address information, including the DNS servers
being used and the MAC address on a Windows-based TCP/IP host?
ipconfig /all
What command would you use to release the IPv4 address assigned to a client by a DHCP server?
ipconfig /release
What command would you use to purge the DNS information that has already been cached by a
Windows computer?
ipconfig /flushdns
What command can you use to test connectivity to PC.ACME.COM?
ping PC.ACME.COM
If you suspect a bad cable, what can you do to test the cable? (Name three devices.)
Use a cable tester or a voltmeter to perform a continuity check. You can also use a time-domain
reflectometer.
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Study Questions
Choose the best answer for each of the following questions:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Which protocol provides name resolution for host and domain names for a TCP/IP network?
A.
HTTP
B.
SNMP
C.
DNS
D.
Telnet
What protocol do you use to remotely connect to a TCP/IP host to execute commands at a command prompt?
A.
HTTP
B.
SNMP
C.
Telnet
D.
SNMP
What protocol in a TCP/IP network is used to send e-mail to another e-mail server?
A.
POP3
B.
SMTP
C.
SNMP
D.
IMAP
Which protocol is used to display web pages?
A.
HTTP
B.
SNMP
C.
SMPT
D.
Telnet
Which protocol is used to identify hosts using IP addresses?
A.
TCP
B.
SMTP
C.
IP
D.
DNS
What protocol allows you to share a folder or printer in Windows and other operating systems?
A.
ICMP
B.
TCP
C.
SMB
D.
RIP
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7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
What physical address that is assigned to a network interface is used to identify a PC with a
48-bit address?
A.
IPv4 address
B.
MAC address
C.
Host address
D.
Network address
What protocol is used to translate the IP address to the MAC address?
A.
ICMP
B.
IP
C.
TCP
D.
ARP
What is the default subnet mask of the IP address 199.160.3.250?
A.
255.0.0.0
B.
255.255.0.0
C.
255.255.255.0
D.
255.255.255.255
How many bits does an IPv4 address consist of?
A.
24 bits
B.
32 bits
C.
48 bits
D.
64 bits
Which address is referred to as loopback?
A.
192.168.1.1
B.
169.254.1.1
C.
255.255.255.0
D.
127.0.0.1
What feature simplifies the sharing of a folder that makes it available for everyone?
A.
ICMP
B.
Simple File Sharing
C.
NetBIOS
D.
Network Browser Service
What protocol assigns IP addresses as a host comes online and may give different addresses as
the host goes online each time?
A.
DHCP
B.
Static
C.
DNS
D.
WINS
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14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
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What tool is used to attach a RJ-45 connector to a UTP cable?
A.
UTP wire crimper
B.
Punch down tool
C.
Wire attachment kit
D.
DMM
What tool can you use to check for a break in a wire or cable?
A.
Punch down tool
B.
Optical tester
C.
Flashback analyzer
D.
Multimeter
What OSI layer does the IP address belong to?
A.
Physical
B.
Data link
C.
Network
D.
Transport
How fast is Fast Ethernet?
A.
10 Mbps
B.
100 Mbps
C.
1 Gbps
D.
10 Gbps
How fast is the 802.11g wireless solution?
A.
10 Mbps
B.
11 Mbps
C.
54 Mbps
D.
280 Mbps
You have a network card with an amber lighting continually flashing. What does the continually
flashing amber light indicate?
A.
Data is being received by the computer.
B.
Transmission collisions are occurring.
C.
There is no network connection.
D.
The computer is communicating at 10 Mbps
What should you first check if a computer cannot connect to the network?
A.
Check for a link light on the network adapter.
B.
Check the TCP/IP settings on the computer.
C.
Verify that the network cable is good.
D.
Make sure that the switch is turned on and the PC is connected to the switch.
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Lab Exercises
Worksheet 15.2.2: Protocols
In this activity, you will write the name of the protocol and the default port(s) for each protocol definition in the table.
Be prepared to discuss your answers.
Protocol Definition
Protocol
Default Port(s)
Provides connections to computers over a TCP/IP network
SSH/Telnet
22/23
Sends e-mail over a TCP/IP network
SMTP
25
Translates URLs to IP address
DNS
53
Transports web pages over a TCP/IP network
HTTP
80
Automates assignment of IP address on a network
DHCP
67
Securely transports web pages over a TCP/IP network
HTTPS/SSL
443
Transports files over a TCP/IP network
FTP
20 or 21
Worksheet 15.3.2: ISP Connection Types
In this activity, you will determine the best ISP type for your customer.
Be prepared to discuss your answers.
Scenario 1
The customer lives in a remote area deep in a valley and cannot afford broadband.
Dial-up
Scenario 2
The customer can receive television only using satellite but lives in an area where high-speed Internet
access is available.
DSL
Scenario 3
The customer is a salesperson who travels most of the time. A connection to the main office is
required almost 24 hours a day.
Cellular
Scenario 4
The customer works from home, needs the fastest possible upload and download speeds to access the
company’s FTP server, and lives in a very remote area where DSL and cable are not available.
Satellite
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Scenario 5
The customer wants to bundle television, Internet access and phone all through the same company, but
the local phone company does not offer all the services.
Cable
Lab 15.4.2a: Configure Browser Settings
In this lab, you will configure browser settings in Microsoft Internet Explorer. You will select Internet
Explorer as the default browser.
The following is the recommended equipment for this lab:
■
A computer with Windows XP Professional installed
■
An Internet connection
■
Mozilla Firefox browser installed (from lab in Chapter 12)
Instructor Note: This lab contains configuration examples from Microsoft Internet Explorer version 6. You will
need to make the necessary changes if you are using a different version or browser in your classroom. If you do
not allow students to access the Internet directly, perform this lab as a demonstration for the class.
Step 1
Choose Start, Run. Type www.cisco.com and press Return (see Figure 15-1).
Figure 15-1
Using the Run Option to Open the www.cisco.com Website
Which browser was used to open the web page?
Internet Explorer or Firefox
If you answered Internet Explorer:
Choose Start, All Programs, Mozilla Firefox, Mozilla Firefox.
Choose Tools, Options, and click the Main tab.
Click the Always Check to See if Firefox Is the Default Browser on Startup check box, and then click OK.
Restart your computer.
Choose Start, All Programs, Mozilla Firefox, Mozilla Firefox.
Click Yes to make Firefox the new default browser.
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If you answered Firefox:
Choose Start, All Programs, Internet Explorer.
Choose Tools, Internet Options, and then click the Programs tab.
Click Internet Explorer Should Check to See Whether It Is the Default Browser, and then click OK.
Restart your computer.
Choose Start, All Programs, Internet Explorer.
Click Yes to make Internet Explorer the new default browser.
Step 2
Choose Start, Run. Type www.cisco.com and press Enter (see Figure 15-2).
Figure 15-2
Using the Run Option to Open the www.cisco.com Website
Which browser was used to open the web page this time?
If the student answer in step 1 is Internet Explorer, the answer here should be Firefox. If the student
answer in step 1 is Firefox, the answer here should be Internet Explorer.
Make Internet Explorer your default browser.
Open Internet Explorer, and then choose Help, About Internet Explorer (see Figure 15-3).
Figure 15-3
Opening the About Internet Explorer Window
Which version of Internet Explorer is installed on your computer?
Answers may vary.
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Step 3
Choose Tools, Internet Options. The Internet Options window appears (see Figure 15-4).
Figure 15-4
The Internet Options Dialog Box
Click the Settings button, and then click the View Files button (see Figure 15-5).
Figure 15-5
Modifying the Temporary File Settings
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How many temporary Internet files were listed?
Answers may vary.
Close the Temporary Internet Files window.
Close the Settings window.
Choose Delete Files.
A confirmation window appears. Click the OK button.
Click the Settings button, and then click the View Files button.
How many temporary Internet files were listed?
None.
Step 4
Click the down arrow at the right end of the Address field to view previously visited sites (see Figure 15-6).
Figure 15-6
Viewing Previously Visited Sites
How many sites are listed in the drop-down box?
Answers may vary.
To clear the browser history, choose Tools, Internet Options, and then click the Clear History button
(see Figure 15-7).
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Figure 15-7
Clearing Browser History
A confirmation window appears. Click Yes.
Click the down arrow at the right end of the Address field to view previously visited sites.
How many sites are now found in the drop-down box?
None.
Step 5
Use this path to change Security settings:
Choose Tools, Internet Options, and then click the Security tab (see Figure 15-8).
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Figure 15-8
Security Tab in Internet Explorer Options
Click the Custom Level button. The Security Settings window appears (see Figure 15-9).
Figure 15-9
Security Options in Internet Explorer
Select the options in the list that you want to change, and then click OK.
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Lab 15.4.2b: Share a Folder, Share a Printer, and Set
Share Permissions
In this lab, you will create and share a folder, share a printer, and set permissions for the shares.
The following is the recommended equipment for this lab:
■
Two computers running Windows XP Professional that are directly connected to each other or
through a switch or hub.
■
A printer installed on one of the two computers.
Step 1
Choose My Computer, Tools, Folder Options.
Click the View tab (see Figure 15-10).
Figure 15-10
Folder Options in Windows Explorer
Uncheck the Use Simple File Sharing (Recommended) check box, and then click OK.
Step 2
Right-click the desktop, and then choose New, Folder.
Type Example, and then press Enter.
Open WordPad. Type This Is an Example Document.
Save the file in the Example folder with the name Brief.doc, and then close WordPad.
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Step 3
Right-click the Example folder, and then choose Sharing and Security (see Figure 15-11).
Figure 15-11
The Sharing Tab in Internet Explorer Options
Click the Share This Folder option button, and then click OK.
What is the icon of the Example folder?
A hand under a folder
On the computer with the shared folder, right-click My Computer, and then click the Computer Name tab.
What is the name of the computer?
Answers may vary.
Step 4
On the other computer, choose Start, Run.
Type \\computername\Example, where computername is the name of the computer with the Example
folder, and then press the Enter key.
Open the Brief.doc file.
Delete the text in the Brief.doc file and then choose File, Save.
What happens?
An Access to \\computername\Example\Brief.doc Was Denied window appears.
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Click OK.
Close WordPad, and then choose No when prompted to save changes to the file.
Step 5
Return to the computer with the shared folder.
Right-click Example folder, Sharing and Security, and then click Permissions.
What are the default permissions?
Everyone has Read permissions.
Step 6
Open the Control Panel on the computer with the attached printer.
Choose Printers and Other Hardware, Printers and Faxes.
Right-click the icon of the installed printer, and then choose Sharing (see Figure 15-12).
Figure 15-12
Sharing a Printer
Click the Share This Printer option button, and then click OK.
Step 7
Return to the computer that is not directly connected to a printer.
Open the Control Panel. Choose Printers and Other Hardware, Printers and Faxes (see Figure 15-13).
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Figure 15-13
Printer and Faxes Dialog Box with a Shared Printer as Marked by the Check Mark
Choose File, Add Printer. The Add Printer Wizard window appears (see Figure 15-14).
Figure 15-14
Add Printer Wizard
Click Next.
The Local or Network Printer of the Add Printer Wizard window appears. Click the A Network Printer,
or a Printer Attached to Another Computer option button, and then click Next (see Figure 15-15).
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Figure 15-15
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Select Local or Network Printer in the Add Network Printer Wizard
The Specify a Printer window appears. Click the Connect to This Printer option button, and then click
Next (see Figure 15-16).
Figure 15-16
Connecting to a Shared Printer Using the Add Printer Wizard
The Browse for a Printer window appears (see Figure 15-17).
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Figure 15-17
Browsing to a Shared Printer in the Add Printer Wizard
Expand Shared printers.
Choose the printer from the list, and then click Next. The Default Printer screen of the Add Printer
Wizard appears (see Figure 15-18).
Figure 15-18
Making the Printer the Default Printer Using the Add Printer Wizard
Click Next. The Completing the Add Printer Wizard window appears.
Click Finish (see Figure 15-19).
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Figure 15-19
403
Finishing the Add Printer Wizard
Step 8
Choose Start, Printers and Faxes.
Right-click the printer you installed, and then choose Properties. The Printer Properties window
appears (see Figure 15-20).
Figure 15-20 Printer Options
Choose the General tab, and then click Print Test Page.
Click OK in the confirmation dialog box, and then click OK to close the printer properties window.
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Lab 15.5.1: Install a Wireless NIC
In this lab, you will install and configure a wireless NIC.
The following is the recommended equipment for this lab:
■
A computer with Windows XP Professional installed
■
Empty PCI slot on the motherboard
■
A wireless access point or router
■
A wireless PCI NIC
Instructor Note: Complete an installation before class to make sure your hardware works correctly in the lab
computers.
Step 1
Turn off your computer. If a switch is present on the power supply, set the switch to 0 or Off. Unplug
the computer from the AC outlet. Remove the side panels from the case. Put on the antistatic wrist
strap and clip it to the case.
Choose an appropriate slot on the motherboard to install the new wireless NIC.
You might need to remove the metal cover near the slot on the back of the case (see Figure 15-21).
Figure 15-21 Removing the Metal Cover Near the Slot on the Back of the Case
Make sure the wireless NIC is properly lined up with the slot. Push down gently on the wireless NIC
(see Figure 15-22).
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Figure 15-22 Inserting the Wireless Network Card into the Slot
Secure the wireless NIC mounting bracket to the case with a screw (see Figure 15-23).
Figure 15-23 Securing the Wireless NIC
Attach the antenna to the antenna connector on the back of the computer.
Disconnect the antistatic wrist strap. Replace the case panels. Plug the power cable into an AC outlet.
If a switch is present on the power supply, set the switch to 1 or On.
Step 2
Boot your computer, and then log on as an administrator.
The wireless NIC will be detected by Windows. The Found New Hardware Wizard window will
appear (see Figure 15-24).
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Figure 15-24 Starting the New Hardware Wizard
Click the Yes, This Time Only option button, and then click Next.
Insert the manufacturer’s CD.
Click the Install the Software Automatically (Recommended) option button, and then click Next (see
Figure 15-25).
Figure 15-25 Installing Software Automatically for a New Hardware Device
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Step 3
Right-click My Computer and choose Manage.
Choose Device Manager, and then expand Network Adapters (see Figure 15-26).
Figure 15-26 Device Manager in Computer Management Console
What network adapters are installed in the computer?
Answers may vary.
Close the Computer Management window.
Step 4
Choose Start.
Right-click My Network Places, and then choose Properties.
Double-click the wireless NIC, and then click the Properties button.
Choose Internet Protocol (TCP/IP), and then click the Properties button (see Figure 15-27).
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Figure 15-27 TCP/IP Properties
Click the Obtain an IP Address Automatically option button.
Click the Obtain DNS server address automatically option button.
Step 5
Choose Start, Run.
Type cmd, and then press the Enter key.
Type ipconfig /all, and then press the Enter key.
What is the IP address of the computer?
Answers may vary.
What is the subnet mask of the computer?
Answers may vary.
What is the default gateway of the computer?
Answers may vary.
What are the DNS servers for the computer?
Answers may vary.
What is the MAC address of the computer?
Answers will vary
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Is DHCP Enabled?
Yes
What is the IP address of the DHCP server?
Answers will vary.
Lab 15.5.2: Configure a Wireless Router
In this lab, you will configure and test the wireless settings on the Linksys WRT300N.
The following is the recommended equipment for this lab:
■
A computer with Windows XP Professional
■
A Wireless NIC installed
■
An Ethernet NIC installed
■
Linksys WRT300N Wireless Router
■
Ethernet patch cable
Step 1
Connect the computer to one of the Ethernet ports on the wireless router with an Ethernet patch cable.
Plug in the power of the wireless router. Boot the computer and log in as an administrator.
Step 2
Choose Start, Run, and type cmd. Press the Enter key.
Type ipconfig.
What is the default gateway for the computer?
192.168.1.1
Step 3
Open Internet Explorer. Type 192.168.1.1 into the Address field, and then press Enter (see Figure 15-28).
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Figure 15-28 Opening a URL Using Internet Explorer
The Connect to 192.168.1.1 window appears (see Figure 15-29).
Figure 15-29 Login Screen to a Wireless Switch
Type admin into the Password field.
The Setup screen appears.
Step 4
Click the Wireless tab.
Choose Mixed in the Network Mode drop-down box (see Figure 15-30).
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Figure 15-30 Selecting the Network Mode for a Wireless Switch
What is the default SSID for the wireless router?
linksys
Instructor Note: You will need to provide each router in your classroom with a number so that multiple wireless networks are created when more than one router is being used.
Type cisco# into the Network Name (SSID) field, where # is the number assigned by your instructor.
Click Save Settings. The Settings Are Successful screen appears (see Figure 15-31).
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Figure 15-31 Settings Are Successfully Saved Screen
Click Continue, and then close the browser window.
Step 5
Unplug the Ethernet patch cable from the rear of the computer.
Choose Start, and then right-click My Network Places. Choose Properties.
Double-click the wireless adapter, and then select View Wireless Networks.
What wireless network(s) are available?
Answers may vary; all wireless networks in the class should be available.
Choose cisco#, and then click the Connect button.
Open Internet Explorer, and then connect to the wireless router.
Log in to the wireless router.
Close Internet Explorer.
Lab 15.5.3: Test the Wireless NIC
In this lab, you will check the status of your wireless connection, investigate the availability of wireless networks, and test connectivity.
The following is the recommended equipment for this lab:
■
A computer with Windows XP Professional installed
■
A wireless NIC installed
■
An Ethernet NIC installed
Chapter 15: Advanced Networks
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Linksys WRT300N Wireless Router
■
Internet connectivity
Step 1
Disconnect the Ethernet patch cable from your computer. A red X appears over the Local Area
Connection icon (see Figure 15-32).
Figure 15-32 Disconnected Network Connection
Hover over the Wireless Network Connection icon in the tray (see Figure 15-33).
Figure 15-33 Pop-up Box Specifying the Speed of the Wireless Connection
What is the speed and signal strength?
Answers may vary.
Open a command window. Ping 127.0.0.1 (see Figure 15-34).
Figure 15-34 Using the Ping Command to Test Network Connectivity
How many replies did you receive?
Four
Use the ipconfig command (see Figure 15-35).
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Figure 15-35 Using the ipconfig command to display the TCP/IP configuration.
What is the IP address of the default gateway?
Answers may vary: 192.168.1.1
Ping the default gateway (see Figure 15-36).
Figure 15-36 Using the ping Command to Ping the Default Gateway Address
A successful ping indicates that there is a connection between the computer and the default gateway.
Step 2
Open a web browser.
Type www.cisco.com into the Address field, and then press Enter (see Figure 15-37).
Chapter 15: Advanced Networks
Figure 15-37 Opening the www.cisco.com Website
Step 3
Open the Network Connections window (see Figure 15-38).
Figure 15-38 The Network Connections Window
Right-click the wireless connection and choose Properties.
Click the Wireless Networks tab (see Figure 15-39).
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Figure 15-39 Wireless Network Connection Properties Dialog Box
Click the View Wireless Networks button.
What are the names of the wireless networks that are available?
Answers may vary.
Lab 15.8.3: Fix Network Problem
In this lab, you will troubleshoot and fix a computer that does not connect to the network.
The following is the recommended equipment for this lab:
■
A computer running Windows XP Professional
■
Linksys 300N wireless router
■
Ethernet patch cable
Instructor to set up prior to class:
On the wireless router, set the Wireless Network Mode to Disabled. This setting can be found on the
Wireless, Basic Wireless Settings screen.
On the wireless router, set the Maximum Number of Users setting for DHCP to one less than the
number of computers connected to the wireless router with Ethernet patch cables.
Example: if you connect four student computers to each wireless router with Ethernet patch cables, set
the Maximum Number of DHCP Users to 3. This setting is found under Setup, Basic Setup on the
wireless router.
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Delete all the computers from the DHCP Active IP Table window. This window is found under Status,
Local Network, DHCP Clients Table.
Renew the IP addresses of all the computers connected to the wireless router, and then validate that
the IP addresses fall into the DHCP range of the wireless router.
Make sure one of the computers connected to the wireless router has a 169.254.x.x address.
Scenario
The computer will not connect to the Internet, network shares, or network printers.
Step 1
Open a command line and use command-line tools to determine the IP address, subnet mask, and
default gateway of the computer.
Step 2
Use command-line tools to attempt to fix the network connection problem.
Step 3
Verify the settings in the wireless router configuration screens.
Step 4
What steps did you perform to fix the network?
Answers may vary but must include increasing the number of DHCP addresses available.
Remote Technician 15.8.3: Fix Network Problem
(Student Technician Sheet)
In this lab, you will gather data from the customer and then instruct the customer on how to fix a
computer that does not connect to the network. Document the customer’s problem in the work order
that follows.
Instructor: In this lab, the goal is to demonstrate the special skills needed to help a customer fix a
computer remotely. Begin this lab with a demonstration:
Step 1.
Select two students who are willing to participate and have good troubleshooting skills.
Step 2.
Position the students back to back so that the student customer cannot see the student technician and the student technician cannot see the student customer’s computer.
Step 3.
The student playing the role of the customer must behave as an inexperienced user.
Step 4.
At five-minute intervals, stop the demonstration and ask questions of the class. For example, “Is there a better way to phrase that question?” or “Is the student technician skipping
any steps?” or “What would you do differently?”
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Step 5.
If at any time the students are unable to proceed, allow the student customer to make suggestions for the student technician.
Step 6.
After successful demonstration of the process, send each team of students to their pod to
complete the lab. After the lab has been completed once, switch the roles of the students in
each team. Have each team perform the lab again the next day of class. You will need to
make the hardware changes to the computers again, or you will need to have extra computers available.
Instructor to set up prior to class:
■
On the wireless router, set the Wireless Network Mode to Disabled. This setting can be found
on the Wireless, Basic Wireless Settings screen.
■
On the wireless router, set the Maximum Number of Users setting for DHCP to one less than
the number of computers connected to the wireless router with Ethernet patch cables.
Example: if you connect four student computers to each wireless router with Ethernet patch
cables, set the Maximum Number of DHCP Users to 3. This setting is found under Setup, Basic
Setup on the wireless router.
■
Delete all the computers from the DHCP Active IP Table window. This window is found under
Status, Local Network, DHCP Clients Table.
■
Renew the IP addresses of all the computers connected to the wireless router, and then validate
that the IP addresses fall into the DHCP range of the wireless router.
■
Make sure one of the computers connected to the wireless router has a 169.254.x.x address.
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Company Name: JH Paint Supply
Contact: Jill Henderson
Company Address: 114 W. Main Street
Company Phone: 1-866-555-2143
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Work Order
Generating a New Ticket
Category Network
Closure Code
Status Open
Type
Escalated Yes
Pending
Item
Pending Until Date
Business Impacting?
X Yes
No
Summary One computer cannot connect to the Internet, network shares, or network printers.
Case ID#
Priority 2
User Platform Windows XP Pro
Connection Type Wireless
Environment
Problem Description: All computers boot up properly. Computer does not connect to shares or the
Internet. Computer has not been moved. Cables are securely connected. Link lights are blinking.
Problem Solution: Verified IP addresses on all computers. Renewed IP address on problem
computer. Computer receives a 169.254.x.x IP address. Restarted computer. Restarted wireless router.
Verified wireless router settings. Wireless router did not have enough IP addresses allocated to
the wireless network in the DHCP scope to accommodate all clients. Changed the DHCP setting on the
router back to the default of 50 IP addresses. Computer was shut down and rebooted. Confirmed IP
address was in range. Verified connection to shares and Internet.
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(Student Customer Sheet)
Use the following contact information and problem description to report the following information to
a level-two technician:
Contact Information
Company Name: JH Paint Supply
Contact: Jill Henderson
Company Address: 114 W. Main Street
Company Phone: 1-866-555-2143
Problem Description
Well, the problem does not always seem to be there. Typically, not all computers on the network are
used all of the time, so everything seems to be fine. On some busy days, every computer is being used
and there is always one computer that cannot connect. I cannot figure out what the problem is because
it is not usually on the same computer. When a computer cannot make connectivity, I check to make
sure all cables and connections are fine.
Note: After you have given the level-two tech the problem description, use the Additional Information to answer
any follow-up questions the technician may ask.
Additional Information
Windows XP Pro.
Computer has no new hardware.
Computer has not been moved recently.
An extra computer was added to the network recently.
Computer looks the same as it did yesterday.
CHAPTER 16
Advanced Security
The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses short-answer questions to test your knowledge of advanced
computer security. This portion also includes multiple-choice study questions to help prepare you to take the
A+ certification exams and to test your overall understanding of the material.
The Lab Exercises portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum hands-on labs, worksheets, remote
technician exercises, and class discussions to further reinforce your mastery of advanced computer security.
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Study Guide
Access Control
Access control is the process by which you restrict access to computing resources. It is a combination
of authentication (proving who you claim to be) and authorization (what are you allowed to see, presuming
you are whom you claim you are). It defines how users and systems communicate and in what manner.
Access control allows you to enforce the security principle of least privilege, which states that individuals
authorized to access resources are permitted access to them. In other words, access control protects
information from unauthorized access.
The following are the three basic models for access control:
■
Discretionary access control (DAC): Owners of objects (such as programs, processes, files, or
folders) manage access control at their own discretion.
■
Mandatory access control (MAC): Access to an object is restricted based on the sensitivity of
the object (defined by the label or level that is assigned) and granted through authorization
(clearance) to access that level of data.
■
Role-based access control (RBAC): Access is based on the role a user plays in the organization.
Concept Questions
Answer the following access control questions.
Which of the basic models does Microsoft Windows 2000 and XP use?
Discretionary access control (DAC)
In Windows, what is used to enable a user to log on to a computer and domain with an identity that
can be authenticated and authorized for access to domain resources?
A user account
What is a collection of user accounts that can simplify administration by assigning rights and permissions to a set of users?
Group
The default installation of Windows 2000 has two user accounts. What are the two accounts?
Administrator
Guest
Of the two accounts, what can you say about the initial availability of the guest account?
The guest account is disabled by default.
What are the two types of user accounts available on your computer?
Computer administrator
Limited
Explain the capability of the computer administrator account.
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The computer administrator account is intended for someone who can make systemwide changes to
the computer, install software, and access all nonprivate files on the computer. They can also create
and delete user accounts on the computer
Explain the capabilities of the Windows XP limited account.
The limited account is intended for someone who should be prohibited from changing most computer
settings and deleting important files. A user with a limited account cannot install software or hardware.
NTFS and Share Permissions
A primary advantage of NTFS over FAT and FAT32 is that NTFS volumes have the capability to
apply NTFS permissions to secure folders and files, no matter whether the files and folders are
accessed directly or through a share.
Concept Questions
Answer the following questions about NTFS and share permissions.
List the standard NTFS folder permissions and describe what they can do.
■
Read: Allows the user to display the file’s data, attributes, owner, and permissions.
■
Write: Allows a user to create new files and subfolders within the folder, write to the file,
append to the file, read and change folder attributes, and view ownership.
■
List Folder Contents: Allows the user to see the names of the files and subfolders in the folder.
■
Read and Execute: Allows the user to display the folder’s content and display the data, attributes, owner, and permissions for files within the folder, and execute files within the folder.
■
Modify: Allows the user to read the files, execute files, write and modify files, create folders
and subfolders, delete subfolders and files, and change attributes of subfolders and files.
■
Full Control: Allows the user to read the files, execute files, write and modify files, create folders and subfolders, delete subfolders and files, change attributes of subfolders and files, change
permissions, and take ownership of the file.
Share permissions apply only when the folder is accessed as a shared folder. What are the shares permissions available in Windows and describe what they can do?
■
Read: Allows the user to view folder names and filenames, open and view subfolders and their
attributes, and navigate the tree structure.
■
Change: Allows all permissions granted by the Read permission, and it also allows the user to
create folders, add files to folders, change data in files, append data to files, change file attributes, and delete folders and files.
■
Full control: Allows all permission granted by the Change permission, and it also allows the
user to change file permissions and take ownership of files.
When you share a folder, Microsoft recommends that you give everyone Full Control permission and
then use the NTFS permissions to specify who can access the folders and files and what can be done
with the files and folders.
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Auditing
Trying to detect intruders can be a very daunting task; it often requires a lot of hard work and a thorough knowledge of the operating system and the network. To detect these intruders, you have to establish auditing, which is the process that tracks the activities of users by recording selected types of
events in the security log of a server or workstation.
Concept Questions
Answer the following questions about auditing.
If you enable auditing, where do you view the security logs in Windows?
Event Viewer
In Windows XP, how do you enable auditing?
You use local security policies for events such as login successes and failures. You use Explorer (rightclick the file or folder) to audit files or folders.
Depending on how the logs in the Event Viewer are configured, you may fill up the logs. How do you
clear the logs?
Open the Event Viewer. Right-click the security logs and select Clear All Events.
Wireless Security
Wireless technologies bring with them special security concerns. You should be familiar with how to
secure wireless devices.
Concept Questions
Answer the following questions about wireless security.
What is required to set up a secure wireless connection?
The SSID of the wireless access point and the encryption standard being used
If you are implementing WEP, what do you need to connect to an access point?
The correct WEP key
Why are WPA and WPA2 recommended over WEP?
The WEP key is not very strong, and WPA and WPA2 rotate the keys.
What is the difference between WPA and WPA2?
WPA provides strong data encryption via Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP), whereas WPA2
provides enhanced data encryption via Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), which meets the
Federal Information Standard (FIPS) 140-2 requirement of some government agencies.
What is the difference between Personal and Enterprise modes?
Personal mode provides authentication via a preshared key or password, whereas Enterprise mode
provides authentication using IEEE 802.1X and EAP.
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How do you prevent a wireless network from being displayed when you view wireless networks in
Windows?
Disable SSID broadcasts.
Social Engineering
When it comes to your organization, you will find that people and knowledge are the organization’s
greatest assets. However, they can also be the greatest risks, often making them the weakest link when
it comes to security. Even at their best, people make mistakes. They fail to see the issues or do not
appreciate the consequences. Sometimes, bad judgment or failure to communicate clearly can be the
root of the problem.
To minimize the problems caused by people, established systems procedures and rules can be accepted by the user without causing too much hindrance. You must establish a security awareness program.
Security must be sold to your users; they must understand and accept the need for security. In addition, you have to train your users about security and give them constant reminders.
One of the simplest, yet often the most effective, attacks is social engineering. Social engineering is
the process whereby an attacker attempts to acquire information about your network and system by
talking to people in the organization. A social engineering attack may occur over the phone, by e-mail,
or by a visit. The intent is to acquire access information, such as user IDs and passwords, or physical
access to a secure area. These types of attacks are relatively low tech, very similar to a con done by a
con artist, and the hardest attacks to defend against.
Concept Questions
Answer the following question about social engineering.
What are preventive measures in dealing with social engineering attacks?
Educate your users and staff to never give out user IDs or passwords over the phone or e-mail to anyone who is not positively verified as being who they say they are. In addition, you should have procedures established for destroying confidential documents such as organizational charts, phone numbers,
and addresses so that they cannot be retrieved by dumpster diving.
Denial of Services Attacks and Other Forms of Attacks
An attacker does not necessarily have to gain access to cause significant problems. Denial of Services
(DoS) is a type of attack on a network that is designed to bring the network to its knees either by
disabling or crippling a server or by flooding it with useless traffic. Many DoS attacks, such as the
Ping of Death and Teardrop attacks, exploit limitations in the TCP/IP protocols. Other attacks are
application specific, which strike at specific flaws within the program.
A Denial of Service attack can also destroy programming and files in a computer. Although usually
intentional and malicious, a Denial of Service attack can sometimes happen accidentally. For all
known DoS attacks, system administrators can install software fixes to limit the damage caused by
the attacks. But, like viruses, new DoS attacks are constantly being dreamed up by hackers.
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Distributed Denial of Services (DDoS) attacks involve installing programs known as zombies on various computers in advance of the attack. A command is issued to these zombies, which then launch the
attack on behalf of the attacker, thus hiding their tracks. The zombies themselves are often installed
using worms. The real danger from a DDoS attack is that the attacker uses many victim computers as
host computers to control other zombies that initiate the attack, which results in overwhelming the
attacked system.
Concept Questions
Answer the following questions about attacks.
Define the following forms of attacks:
■
Hijacking: A type of network security attack in which the attacker takes control of a communication between two entities and masquerades as one of them.
■
Man-in-the-middle attack: An attack in which an attacker is able to read, insert, and modify at
will, messages between two parties without either party knowing that the link between them
has been compromised. The attacker must be able to observe and intercept messages going
between the two victims.
■
Replay attack: A replay attack is a form of network attack in which a valid data transmission is
maliciously or fraudulently repeated or delayed. This is usually carried out by someone who
intercepts the data and retransmits it, possibly as part of a masquerade attack by IP packet
substitution.
■
Spoofing attack: A situation in which one person or program successfully masquerades as
another by falsifying data so that you cannot tell where the packets are coming from or to make
the packets look as if they are coming from some other place.
To crack passwords and keys, some people will try different combinations of characters until the password or key is found. What is this type of attack called?
Brute force
Another common form of attack is malicious software. Describe the following:
■
Virus: A program designed to replicate and spread, generally without the knowledge or permissions of the user. Most viruses are harmful, causing the system not to operate properly, reduce
performance, or bypass security.
■
Trojan horse: A program that appears to be legitimate software, such as a game or useful utility.
Unfortunately, when you run the Trojan horse and the trigger event occurs, the program will do
its damage or steal sensitive information.
How do you protect your system against DoS attacks and malicious software?
■
Use up-to-date antivirus software.
■
Keep your operating system up-to-date with service packs, security fixes and patches.
■
Use a personal firewall or other forms of firewall.
■
Educate yourself and fellow users.
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Study Questions
Choose the best answer for each of the questions that follow:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Which file system allows the user to assign permissions to files and folders?
A.
FAT
B.
FAT32
C.
NTFS
D.
CDFS
What is a task that limited accounts cannot perform in Windows XP?
A.
Cannot connect to the Internet
B.
Cannot install software
C.
Cannot run programs
D.
Cannot access their e-mail
Where would you find the security logs for a Windows 2000 or Windows XP machine?
A.
In the security logs in the Event Viewer
B.
In the security.log file found in the C:\WINDOWS folder
C.
In the security.log file found in the C:\ folder
D.
In the Login.log file found in the C:\WINNT folder
When connecting to a wireless access point that is using WEP, what do you need to connect to
the access point?
A.
The WEP key and the SSID
B.
The IP address of the access point
C.
The Admin password of the access point
D.
The encrypted key
If you want to connect to a wireless access point, what two items do you need to know?
A.
The brand and model of the access point
B.
The frequency of the access point
C.
The SSID and encryption standard being used
D.
The wireless technology being used
When you get an e-mail that says it came from a different domain than it really came from, this
is known as ____________.
A.
A brute force attack
B.
A DDoS attack
C.
A man-in-the-middle attack
D.
A spoofing attack
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7.
8.
9.
10.
What type of attack is it when an attacker takes over a session between a server and client?
A.
A DoS attack
B.
A DDoS attack
C.
A session hijacking
D.
A spoofing attack
What is the type of attack that works by getting other people to trust the attacker?
A.
Spoofing
B.
Man-in-the-middle
C.
Social engineering
D.
DoS
What is the best way to protect against viruses?
A.
Use NTFS permissions.
B.
Use an up-to-date antivirus software.
C.
Be sure to use strong passwords.
D.
Do not use e-mail on a system.
Which of the following uses TKIP and a preshared key?
A.
WPA-Personal mode
B.
WPA-Enterprise mode
C.
WPA2-Personal mode
D.
WPA2-Enterprise mode
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Lab Exercises
Worksheet 16.1.1: Answer Security Policy Questions
In this activity, you will answer security questions regarding the IT Essentials classroom.
Instructor Note: These questions are designed to help the students understand some of the issues they need to
address when creating a security policy.
1.
List the person(s) responsible for each piece of network equipment that is used in your
classroom (for example, routers, switches, and wireless access points).
The school administrators. The operators or owners of the school. The instructor.
2.
List the person(s) responsible for the computers that are used in your classroom.
The school administrators. The operators or owners of the school. Possibly the students or the instructor.
3.
List the person(s) responsible for assigning permissions to use the network resources.
The school network administrator.
4.
Which Internet websites do you have permission to access?
Sites for operating system updates (Microsoft.com). Sites for downloading utilities or (various)
antivirus applications. News media research sites to learn of security break-ins (various). Job opportunities sites (various), and so on.
5.
What type of Internet websites are not permitted to be accessed in the classroom?
Any material that is illegal or that is viewed as offensive by any member of the class. Any site that
displays content that conflicts with the mission or philosophy of the school or sponsoring organization.
6.
List activities that could damage the network or the computers attached to the network with
malware.
Opening e-mails from unknown persons or downloading anything from unapproved websites.
7.
Should anyone, other than the network administrator, be allowed to attach modems or wireless
access points to the network? Please explain why or why not.
No. It is never permissible to attach unknown or outside modems or wireless access points to the
network because they could introduce unauthorized access to the network.
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Worksheet 16.2.3: Research Firewalls
In this activity, you will use the Internet, a newspaper, or a local store to gather information about
hardware and software firewalls.
1.
Company/
Hardware Name
SonicWall/Pro1260
Using the Internet, research two hardware firewalls. Based on your research, complete the table
that follows:
Website URL
Cost
http://www.sonicwall.
com/us/PRO_1260.html
$1100–$3,000
depending on
features
Subscription Length
(Month/Year/Lifetime)
Hardware Features
Bundled:
Gateway Anti-Virus,
Anti-Spyware and Intrusion
Prevention Service (30 days)
Network Anti-Virus (10-user
license, 30 days)
Content Filtering Service—
Premium Edition (30 days)
8x5/International Support
(90 days)
Packet Inspection
Three Unique Security
zones
DMZ port available
Integrated gateway
antivirus, antispyware,
and intrusion prevention
support
IPsec VPN
24-port Layer2 Switch
ISP failover
WAN redundancy
Load balancing
Object-based
management
Policy-based NAT
90 Mbps SPI
30+ Mbps 3DES and
AES VPN throughput
Wizards—Setup,
Firewall policies, VPN
Real-time Blacklist
Spam filtering
Many add-ons available
at additional costs
2.
Which hardware firewall would you purchase? List reasons for your selection.
Answers will vary.
SonicWall Pro1260
Supports enough users for my small business and also provides a DMZ where I can place my web
server to prevent Internet users from accessing my internal network. Also, the hardware is very
expandable, so when my business grows, this hardware will be able to support it.
Chapter 16: Advanced Security
3.
Company/
Software Name
Checkpoint/Zone
Alarm Pro
Using the Internet, research two different software firewalls. Based on your research, complete
the table that follows:
Website URL
Cost
http://www.zonealarm.com $39.95
/store/content/catalog/products/
sku_list_zap.jsp?dc=12bms
&ctry=US&lang=en
4.
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Subscription Length
(Month/Year/Lifetime)
Software
Features
1 Year
Inbound protection
Outbound protection
Full stealth mode
Kill control
Stop suspicious program
activity
Prevent rootkit attacks
Spy site blocking
Spyware removal
Identity protection
Credit card monitoring
Identity theft victim
assistance
Optional fraud protection
Privacy protection
Wireless PC protection
E-mail security
Antiphishing
Game mode
Free upgrades and
customer support for 1
year
Which software firewall would you purchase? List reasons for your selection.
Answers will vary.
Zone Alarm Pro
The software is cheap and offers a lot of features. My family also uses my computer for online gaming, paying bills, and e-mail. This software offers protection for all of these activities.
Lab 16.3.2: Configure Windows XP Firewall
In this lab you will explore the Windows XP Firewall and configure some advanced settings.
Step 1
Navigate to the Windows XP Firewall:
Start, Control Panel, Security Center
The Firewall indicator shows the status of the firewall. The normal setting is On (see Figure 16-1).
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IT Essentials: PC Hardware and Software Labs and Study Guide
Figure 16-1
Windows Security Center
Step 2
Access the controller for the firewall by clicking Windows Firewall at the bottom of the window (see
Figure 16-2).
Figure 16-2 Windows Firewall Options
In the following space, state why turning off the Windows Firewall is not advised.
Turning off Windows Firewall may make the computer more vulnerable to viruses, worms, and malware.
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Step 3
From the Windows Firewall control menu, select the Exceptions tab (see Figure 16-3). Programs and
services that Windows Firewall is not blocking will be listed with a check mark.
Figure 16-3 Windows Firewall Exceptions
You can add applications to this list. This may be necessary if your customer has an application that
requires outside communications but for some reason the Windows Firewall cannot perform the configuration automatically. You must be logged on to this computer as an administrator to complete this
procedure.
Creating too many exceptions in your Programs and Services file can have negative consequences.
Describe a negative consequence to having too many exceptions:
Answers may vary. Exceptions for a program to communicate through the Windows Firewall is like
opening a hole in the firewall. Attackers use software that scans the Internet looking for computers
with many exceptions and open ports.
Step 4
From the Windows Firewall control menu select the Advanced tab to view the Network Connection
Settings (see Figure 16-4). Network Connection Settings displays the different connections configured
for your computer.
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IT Essentials: PC Hardware and Software Labs and Study Guide
Figure 16-4 Windows Firewall Options
Click the Settings button in the Network Connection Settings area. The Advanced Settings window
has two tabs: Services and ICMP. Click the Services tab.
In the following space, list the services that are available.
FTP Server, IMAP3, Remote Desktop, and so on
Step 5
Many applications that users do not normally see also need to get through the Windows Firewall to
access your computer. These are the network-level commands that direct traffic on the network and
the Internet.
Under the ICMP heading, click the Settings button. You will see the menu where ICMP exceptions
are configured (see Figure 16-5).
Figure 16-5 Windows Firewall ICMP Options
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In this example, allowing incoming echo requests is what allows network users to “ping” your computer to determine if it is present on the network and how fast information travels to and from it.
In the following space, list the requests for information that your computer will respond to.
Incoming echo requests, incoming timestamp request, outgoing source quench, and so on
Lab 16.5.3: Fix a Security Problem
In this lab, you will gather data from the customer and then instruct the customer on how to fix a
computer that does not connect to the wireless network. Document the customer’s problem in the following work order:
The following is the recommended equipment for this lab:
■
A computer running Windows XP Professional
■
Linksys 300N wireless router
■
Ethernet patch cable
Instructor to set up prior to class:
■
On the wireless router, remove the MAC address of one of the student computers connected to
the wireless network.
■
Release the IP address of the computer that will be the broken computer.
■
Renew the IP addresses of all the computers connected to the wireless router, and then validate
that the IP addresses fall within the DHCP range of the wireless router.
■
Make sure one of the computers connected to the wireless router has a 169.254.x.x address.
Scenario
The computer will not connect to the Internet.
Step 1
Open a command line and use command-line tools to determine the IP address, subnet mask, and
default gateway of the computer.
Step 2
Use command-line tools to attempt to fix the network connection problem.
Step 3
Verify the settings in the wireless router configuration screens.
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IT Essentials: PC Hardware and Software Labs and Study Guide
Step 4
What steps did you perform to fix the network?
Answers may vary but must include adding the computer’s MAC address to the MAC address filter list.
Remote Technician 16.5.3: Fix a Security Problem
(Student Technician Sheet)
Instructor: You must prepare the Linksys 300N for this activity by modifying a MAC address in the
MAC address filter table and then saving the misconfiguration. The instructions for modifying a MAC
address in the filter table follow:
Step 1.
Ensure that all computers are able to connect to the Linksys 300N wireless router with
basic security and with MAC address filtering engaged.
Step 2.
Connect an Ethernet cable from an Ethernet port on the Linksys 300N wireless router to
the computer that manages the router (known as the management computer for the purposes of this lab).
Step 3.
On the management computer, open Internet Explorer and connect to http://192.168.1.1
(or the administration address of the wireless router, if it has been reconfigured). The
Linksys 300N management menu should appear.
Step 4.
In the Linksys 300N management window, select Wireless.
Step 5.
Select the Wireless MAC Filter tab. Select the Enabled option button and the Permit
PCs Listed Below to Access the Wireless Network button. A table of 50 allowed MAC
addresses will be displayed.
Step 6.
Locate in the table the MAC address of the computers you want to deny access to.
Remove the MAC address from the filter list for all lab computers. This will prevent the
lab computer from connecting to the Linksys 300N wireless router.
Step 7.
Click the Save Settings button on the bottom of the page.
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Gather data from the customer to begin the troubleshooting process. Document the customer’s problem
in the work order that follows:
Company Name: Smith Lumber Supply
Contact: James Smith
Company Address: 1234 S. Main St.
Company Phone: 801-555-1212
Work Order
Generating a New Ticket
Category Security
Closure Code
Status Open
Type
Escalated
Pending
Item
Pending Until Date
Business Impacting?
X Yes
No
Summary Customer cannot use laptop wireless connection at work.
Case ID#
Priority
User Platform Windows XP Pro
Connection Type Wireless
Environment
Problem Description: Customer’s wireless connection does not work in any location at the workplace.
The customer can use wireless connection at home and other places.
Problem Solution: The access point is working correctly. The customer’s network login is working
correctly. The customer’s wireless card is operating properly. The configuration of the new wireless
router must be verified. The MAC address of the customer’s computer is verified with the command
“ipconfig/all.” The MAC address filter has incorrect settings for the customer’s computer. To correct
the MAC address in the filter list, the following steps were completed:
1. Ask the customer to attach a cable from the router to the customer’s computer.
2. Ask the customer to open Internet Explorer and type the IP address 192.168.1.1 into the address bar.
3. Ask the customer to click Start > Run.
4. Ask the customer to type “cmd” to open a command window.
5. Ask the customer to use the command “ipconfig/all.”
6. Ask the customer to write down the information that follows “Physical Address” under the “Ethernet
adapter Wireless Network Connection” section of the window.
7. Ask the customer to close the cmd window.
8. Ask the customer to click the Wireless tab in the Internet Explorer window.
9. Ask the customer to click the Wireless MAC filter tab in the Internet Explorer window.
10. Ask the customer to open the MAC address list.
11. Ask the customer to verify that their MAC address is listed in the MAC address list.
12. Ask the customer to add the computer’s MAC address to the filter list, replacing the dashes with colons.
13. Click the Save Settings button on the bottom of the page.
14. Ask the customer to close the Internet Explorer window.
15. Ask the customer to remove the Ethernet cable from the computer.
16. Ask the customer to try to connect to the wireless network as usual.
17. Close with the customer.
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IT Essentials: PC Hardware and Software Labs and Study Guide
(Student Customer Sheet)
Use the contact information and problem description to report the following information to your lab
partner, who will be acting as a level-two technician. Your lab partner will guide you through the
process of troubleshooting and fixing your wireless connection remotely. You must perform the tasks
your lab partner recommends.
Contact Information
Company Name: Smith Lumber Supply
Contact: James Smith
Company Address: 1234 S. Main Street
Company Phone: 801-555-1212
Category: Security
Problem Description
You are unable to use your laptop’s wireless connection while at work. The wireless connection works
fine at home and at the coffee shop downstairs, but for some reason, it will not connect to the wireless
anywhere in the office. Because you are unable to access the wireless connection, you have been using
the Ethernet cable connection instead. The cable connection is working fine.
Note: After you have given the problem description, use the Additional Information to answer any follow-up
questions your lab partner may ask.
Additional Information
Windows XP Pro.
XP Wireless Client.
Wireless client can see the wireless network.
My wireless connection worked yesterday at work.
I can connect using an Ethernet cable.
My wireless account is in good standing.
Wireless connection works for other employees.
I have not made any changes to my wireless security settings.
A new wireless router was installed on the network yesterday.
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