Tool and Menu Reference

Tool and Menu Reference
Tool and Menu Reference
AliasStudio 2008
Reference
Copyright and trademarks
AliasStudio 2008
© Copyright 2002-2007 Autodesk, Inc. All rights reserved.
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Published By: Autodesk, Inc.
111 Mclnnis Parkway
San Rafael, CA 94903, USA
Documentation build date: April 9, 2007
Reference: Tools, Menus, and Control panels 1
Tool Palettes 3
Pick palette 4
Pick > Nothing 5
Pick > Object 6
Pick > Component 7
Pick > Template 8
Pick > Edit point 9
Pick > Point Types > CV 10
Pick > Point Types > Hull 11
Pick > Point Types > Blend point 12
Pick > Object types > Curve on surface 13
Pick > Object types > Cloud 14
Pick > Object types > Image plane 15
Pick > Object types > All objects/lights 16
Pick > Object types > Pick by Shader 17
Pick > Locator 18
Pick > Pick visible 19
Transform palette 21
Transform > Move 22
Transform > Rotate 24
Transform > Scale 26
Transform > Non-p scale 27
Transform > Modify > Proportional mod 28
Transform > Modify > Move CV normal 30
Transform > Modify > Rotational scale 31
Transform > Local > Set pivot 34
Transform > Local > Center pivot 35
Transform > Local > Set local axes 36
Transform > Drag keypoints 37
Transform > Zero transforms 38
Transform > Object Placement > Duplicate Place 39
Transform > Object Placement > Place 43
Paint palette 45
Paint > Pencil 46
Paint > Marker 52
Paint > Airbrush 57
Paint > Solidbrush 62
Paint > Eraser 67
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Paint > Eraser > Clear canvas layer 72
Paint > Effectbrush > Sharpen brush 73
Paint > Effectbrush > Blur brush 78
Paint > Effectbrush > Smear brush 82
Paint > Effectbrush > Clone brush 86
Paint > Effectbrush > Dodge brush 90
Paint > Effectbrush > Burn brush 94
Paint > FloodFill 98
Paint > Pick Layer by Color 99
Paint > Select > MagicWand 100
Paint > Select > Marquee 101
Paint > Select > Toggle marquee 102
Paint > Select > Invert marquee 103
Paint > Select > Clear Marquee 104
Paint > Select > Transform marquee 105
Paint > Shape > Make image shape outline 106
Paint > Shape > Make image shape fill 107
Paint > Shape > Make mask shape 108
Paint > Shape > Make invisibility mask shape 109
Paint > Text Image 110
Paint > PaintSymmetry > Modify canvas brush symmetry 111
Paint > PaintSymmetry > Toggle canvas brush symmetry 113
Paint > Color Editor 114
Paint Edit palette 115
Paint Edit > Modify layer > Transform layer 116
Paint Edit > Modify layer > Horizontal flip 118
Paint Edit > Modify layer > Vertical flip 119
Paint Edit > Deform image layer 120
Paint Edit > Make warp shape 121
Paint Edit > Color correction > Brightness & contrast 122
Paint Edit > Color correction > Saturation & value 123
Paint Edit > Color correction > Dodge 124
Paint Edit > Color correction > Burn 125
Paint Edit > Color correction > Color balance 126
Paint Edit > Color correction > Color replace (HSV) 127
Paint Edit > Color correction > Color replace (HSL) 129
Paint Edit > Layer effect > Sharpen layer 131
Paint Edit > Layer effect > Blur layer 132
Paint Edit > Layer operation 133
Paint Edit > Layer operation > Canvas image layer 134
Paint Edit > Layer operation > Canvas mask layer 135
Paint Edit > Layer operation > Canvas invisibility mask layer 136
Paint Edit > Layer operation > Canvas Layer Folder 137
Paint Edit > Layer operation > Duplicate canvas layer 138
Paint Edit > Layer operation > Merge below 139
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Paint Edit > Layer operation > Merge visible layers 140
Paint Edit > Layer operation > Merge all image layers 141
Curves palette 143
Curves > Primitives > Circle 144
Curves > Primitives > Circular arc 145
Curves > Primitives > Ellipse 146
Curves > Primitives > Rectangle 148
Curves > Primitives > Sweeps 149
Curves > New curves > New Curve by CVs 150
Curves > New curves > New Curve by Edit Points 151
Curves > New Curves > New Curve by Sketch 152
Curves > Blend curve toolbox 153
BlendCrv Tools > Blend curve create 154
BlendCrv Tools > Blend curve add points 155
BlendCrv Tools > Blend curve edit 156
BlendCrv Tools > Blend curve planarize 157
BlendCrv Tools > Blend constraint dissociate 158
BlendCrv Tools > Blend pt make master 159
BlendCrv Tools > Constraint Interpolation Direction 160
BlendCrv Tools > Constraint Direction Type 161
BlendCrv Tools > Constraint Continuity 162
BlendCrv Tools > Constraint Curvature Type 163
BlendCrv Tools > Curve Degree 164
BlendCrv Tools > Curve Knot Spacing 165
Curves > Curves > New curve on surface 166
Curves > Lines > Line 168
Curves > Lines > Polyline 169
Curves > Lines > Parallel line 170
Curves > Lines > Line at angle 171
Curves > Arcs > Arc (three point) 172
Curves > Arcs > Arc (two point) 173
Curves > Arcs > Arc tangent to curve 175
Curves > Arcs > Concentric arc 176
Curves > Lines (Tangent) > Line tangent to curve 178
Curves > Lines (Tangent) > Line tangent from/to curve 179
Curves > Lines (Tangent) > Line perpendicular to curve 180
Curves > Line-arc 181
Curves > Text 183
Curve Edit palette 185
Curve Edit > Create > Duplicate curve 186
Curve Edit > Create > Combine curves 187
Curve Edit > Create > Fillet curves 188
Curve Edit > Modify > Add points 192
Curve Edit > Modify > Transform curve 193
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Curve Edit > Modify > Stretch 197
Curve Edit > Cut > Break curve at keypoint 199
Curve Edit > Cut > Break curve at inflections 200
Curve Edit > Rebuild curve 201
Curve Edit > Project tangent 204
Curve Edit > Curve planarize 206
Curve Edit > Curve section 207
Curve Edit > Fit curve 208
Curve Edit > Sort sections 210
Curve Edit > Reverse Curve 211
Surfaces palette 213
Surfaces > Primitives > Sphere 214
Surfaces > Primitives > Torus 215
Surfaces > Primitives > Cylinder 217
Surfaces > Primitives > Cone 218
Surfaces > Primitives > Cube 219
Surfaces > Primitives > Plane 220
Surfaces > Planar surfaces > Set planar 221
Surfaces > Planar surfaces > Bevel 222
Surfaces > Revolve 223
Surfaces > Skin 224
Surfaces > Swept surfaces > Rail surface 226
Surfaces > Swept surfaces > Extrude 242
Surfaces > Swept surfaces > Anim sweep 245
Surfaces > Boundary Surfaces > Square 248
Surfaces > Boundary surfaces > N-sided 255
Surfaces > Surface fillet 260
Surfaces > Multi-Surface blend > Freeform blend 268
Surfaces > Multi-Surface blend > Profile blend 273
Surfaces > Rolled edge > Fillet flange 275
Surfaces > Rolled edge > Tube flange 281
Surfaces > Rolled edge > Tubular offset 287
Surfaces > Round 290
Surfaces > Draft surfaces > Multi-surface draft 292
Surfaces > Draft surfaces > Draft/flange 296
Surfaces > Curve networks 298
CrvNet Tools > Pick network 299
CrvNet Tools > New network 300
CrvNet Tools > Continuity 301
CrvNet Tools > Add curves to network 302
CrvNet Tools > Subtract curves from network 303
CrvNet Tools > Analyze network 304
CrvNet Tools > Reset sculpt curves mapping 305
CrvNet Tools > Add sculpt curve 306
CrvNet Tools > Delete sculpt curve 307
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CrvNet Tools > Pin edge 308
CrvNet Tools > Influence weights > Multi weight 309
CrvNet Tools > Influence weights > Unit weight 310
CrvNet Tools > Lock intersection 311
CrvNet Tools > Region of influence 312
Surfaces > Combine surfaces 313
Surfaces > Ball Corner 315
Surfaces > Tube Surface 318
Object Edit palette 319
Object edit > Attach > Attach 320
Object edit > Attach > Detach 322
Object edit > Insert 323
Object edit > Extend 324
Object Edit > Align > Align 326
Object edit > Align > Symmetry Plane Align 332
Object edit > Offset 333
Object Edit > Dynamic Shape Modeling > Transformer Rig 336
Object Edit > Dynamic Shape Modeling > Lattice Rig 348
Object Edit > Dynamic Shape Modeling > Twist Rig 356
Object Edit > Dynamic Shape Modeling > Bend Rig 361
Object Edit > Dynamic Shape Modeling > Conform Rig 368
Object edit > Object editor 376
Object edit > Close 377
Object edit > Edit comment 378
Object edit > Patch precision 379
Object edit > Query edit 380
Surface Edit palette 381
Surface Edit > Create CurvesOnSurface > Project 382
Surface Edit > Create CurvesOnSurface > Project normal 383
Surface Edit > Create CurvesOnSurface > Intersect 388
Surface Edit > Create CurvesOnSurface > Geometry mapping 389
Surface Edit > Trim > Trim surface 390
Surface Edit > Trim > Untrim 392
Surface Edit > Trim > Trim convert 393
Surface Edit > Stitch > Shell stitch 394
Surface Edit > Stitch > Shell unstitch 395
Surface Edit > Shells > Shell subtract 396
Surface Edit > Shells > Shell intersect 397
Surface Edit > Shells > Shell union 398
Surface Edit > Planarize hull 399
Surface Edit > Rebuild surface 401
Surface Edit > Claymate 402
Surface Edit > Fit scan 407
Surface Edit > Orientation > Set Surface Orientation 408
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Surface Edit > Orientation > Unify Surface Orientation 410
Surface Edit > Orientation > Reverse Surface Orientation 411
Surface Edit > Reverse Surface UV 412
Mesh palette 413
Mesh > Mesh Tessellation > Nurbs to mesh 414
Mesh > Mesh Tessellation > Cloud to mesh 416
Mesh > Mesh Tessellation > Displacement Map to mesh 417
Mesh > Mesh Partitioning > Mesh subset 418
Mesh > Mesh Partitioning > Mesh merge 419
Mesh > Mesh Partitioning > Mesh cut 420
Mesh > Mesh Curves > Mesh project curve 421
Mesh > Mesh Curves > Mesh project normal 423
Mesh > Mesh Curves > Mesh intersect 424
Mesh > Mesh Curves > Mesh Extract Theoretical Intersection 427
Mesh > Mesh Curves > Mesh Boundaries 428
Mesh > Mesh Cleanup > Mesh Smooth 430
Mesh > Mesh Cleanup > Mesh Reduce 431
Mesh > Mesh Cleanup > Mesh Hole Fill 432
Mesh > Mesh Cleanup > Mesh Bridge 433
Mesh > Mesh Cleanup > Mesh Weld Vertices 435
Mesh > Mesh Repair 436
Mesh > Mesh Collar 438
Mesh > Mesh Offset 440
Mesh > Mesh Stitch 441
Mesh > Reverse Mesh Orientation 442
Mesh > Mesh Positioning 444
Mesh > Mesh Edge Reconstruct 447
View palette 449
View > World Move camera > Tumble 450
View > World Move camera > Track 452
View > World Move camera > Dolly 454
View > World Move camera > Track/dolly/tumble 456
View > Local Move camera > Twist 457
View > Local Move camera > Azimuth/elevation 458
View > Local Move camera > Yaw/pitch 460
View > Zoom 462
View > Look at 464
View > Previous View 465
View > Reset view 466
View > Toggle Stereo 467
View > New Camera 468
View > Adjust clipping plane 469
View > View 1:1 > Calibrate 1:1 471
View > View 1:1 > Toggle 1:1 473
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Construction palette 475
Construction > Point 476
Construction > Vector 477
Construction > Plane 478
Construction > Set Construction Plane 484
Construction > Toggle Construction Plane 485
Construction > Grid preset 486
Locators palette 489
Locators > Move locator 490
Locators > Annotate 491
Locators > Measure > Distance 492
Locators > Measure > Angle 494
Locators > Measure > Radius 496
Locators > Measure > Diameter 498
Locators > Measure > Arc length 499
Locators > Deviation > Closest Point 500
Locators > Deviation > MinMax Curve-Curve deviation 501
Locators > Deviation > MinMax Surface-Surface deviation 502
Locators > Deviation > MinMax Curve-Surface deviation 503
Locators > Deviation > MinMax Mesh-Surface deviation 504
Locators > Deviation > MinMax Cloud-Surface deviation 505
Locators > Curve curvature 506
Evaluate palette 509
Evaluate > Continuity > Surface continuity 510
Evaluate > Continuity > Curve continuity 512
Evaluate > Surface Evaluate > Highlights 514
Evaluate > Surface Evaluate > Curvature 517
Evaluate > Surface Evaluate > Contour 519
Evaluate > Surface Evaluate > Horizon 521
Evaluate > Cross section 524
Evaluate > Dynamic Section 526
Evaluate > IsoAngle 527
Evaluate > Parting line 528
Evaluate > Min/max curvature 531
Evaluate > Mass properties 532
Evaluate > Check model 535
Evaluate > Deviation map 539
Evaluate > Contact analysis 541
Point Clouds palette 543
Point Clouds > Subset 544
Point Clouds > Project curve 545
Point Clouds > Surfaces > Gridded 546
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Point Clouds > Surfaces > Detailed 547
Point Clouds > Surfaces > Corners 548
Point Clouds > Merge 549
Menus 551
File menu 552
File > New 553
File > Open 554
File > Open Recent > Clear History 555
File > Open stage set 556
File > Save stageset as 557
File > Save 558
File > Save as 559
File > Checkpoint 560
File > File References > File references 562
File > File References > Extract file references 563
File > Import > File 564
Wire import options 565
IGES import options 566
VDAIS import options 566
JAMA-IS import options 567
C4 import options 568
VDAFS import options 568
Unigraphic import options 569
DES import options 570
CATIA V4 import options 570
CATIA V5 import options 570
OBJ import options 571
Encapsulated Postscript options 572
Illustrator options 572
Pro/ENGINEER Render import options 572
OpenInventor import options 574
STL import options 574
JT Open import options 575
File > Import > Cloud 576
File > Import > Anim 577
File > Import > Image plane 580
File > Import > Canvas image 582
File > Import > StudioPaint Canvas 583
File > Export > Active as 584
DWG export options 584
DXF export options 585
UNIGRAPHICS export options 585
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DBVIEW export options 586
CATIA V4 export options 586
CATIA V5 export options 587
STEP export options 588
OpenInventor export options 589
PTC Granite export options 589
OBJ export options 589
DXF export options 590
DES export options 591
VDAFS export options 591
C4 export options 593
JAMA-IS export options 594
VDAIS export options 595
IGES export options 598
WIRE export options 608
File > Export > SDL 609
File > Export > Anim 610
File > Export > STL 612
File > Export > SLC 613
File > Export > Screen 614
File > Export > Current window 615
File > Export > Canvas image/mask layer 616
File > Export > Make canvas picture 617
File > Export > VRML 2.0 618
File > Print setup 622
File > Print 627
File > Show image 630
File > Exit 631
Edit menu 633
Edit > Undo 634
Edit > Redo 635
Edit > Reinvoke last 636
Edit > Cut 637
Edit > Copy 638
Edit > Paste 639
Edit > Cut image 640
Edit > Copy image 641
Edit > Paste image 642
Edit > Duplicate > Object 643
Edit > Duplicate > Mirror 645
Edit > Ungroup 646
Edit > Group 648
Edit > Expand instances 649
Delete menu 651
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Delete > Delete active 652
Delete > Delete construction history 653
Delete > Delete all locators 654
Delete > Delete guidelines 655
Delete > Delete model 656
Delete > Painting > Delete canvases from construction plane 657
Delete > Painting > Delete Canvases 658
Delete > Painting > Delete active image layer 659
Delete > Painting > Delete all mask layers 660
Delete > Painting > Delete sketch projection 661
Delete > Delete image planes 662
Delete > Delete projective textures 663
Delete > Animation > Delete selection handles 664
Delete > Animation > Delete channels 665
Delete > Animation > Delete static actions 667
Delete > Animation > Delete constraints 668
Delete > Delete windows 669
Delete > Delete null nodes 670
Layouts menu 671
Layouts > All windows > All windows 672
Layouts > Perspective 673
Layouts > Front 674
Layouts > Back 675
Layouts > Right 676
Layouts > Left 677
Layouts > Top 678
Layouts > Bottom 679
Layouts > Paint 680
Layouts > New window 681
Layouts > FullScreen 682
Layouts > User windows > Save Current Layout 683
Layouts > User windows > Retrieve Layout 684
Object Display menu 685
ObjectDisplay > Control 686
ObjectDisplay > Invisible 688
ObjectDisplay > Visible 689
ObjectDisplay > Hide Unselected 690
ObjectDisplay > Template 691
ObjectDisplay > Draw precision 692
ObjectDisplay > Draw style 693
ObjectDisplay > Bounding box 695
ObjectDisplay > Diagnostic shading 696
WindowDisplay menu 703
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WindowDisplay > Window Title Bar 704
WindowDisplay > Window Sync 705
WindowDisplay > Hardware Shade 706
WindowDisplay > Hidden line 713
WindowDisplay > Smooth 714
WindowDisplay > Transparency 715
WindowDisplay > Show 716
WindowDisplay > Toggles > Model 718
WindowDisplay > Toggles > Pivots 719
WindowDisplay > Toggles > Grid 720
WindowDisplay > Toggles > Guidelines 721
WindowDisplay > Toggles > Locators 722
WindowDisplay > Toggles > Construction Objects 723
WindowDisplay > Toggles > Canvas Planes 724
WindowDisplay > Toggles > Lights 725
WindodwDisplay > Toggles > Textures 726
WindowDisplay > Toggles > Cameras 727
WindowDisplay > Toggles > Image Planes 728
WindowDisplay > Toggles > Clouds 729
Layers menu 731
Layers > New 732
Layers > Select > Objects on selected layers 733
Layers > Select > Layers by picked objects 734
Layers > Select > All layers 735
Layers > Select > Layer range 736
Layers > Set State > Pickable 737
Layers > Set State > Reference 738
Layers > Set State > Inactive 739
Layers > Delete > Selected Layers 740
Layers > Delete > Unused Layers 741
Layers > Delete > Merge duplicate layers 742
Layers > Visibility > Visible 743
Layers > Visibility > Invisible 744
Layers > Visibility > Toggle unused layers 745
Layers > Symmetry > On 746
Layers > Symmetry > Off 747
Layers > Symmetry > Set plane 748
Layers > Symmetry > Create geometry 749
Layers > Undo assign 750
Layers > Toggle Layers 751
Layers > Toggle Layer Bar 752
Canvas menu 753
Canvas > New canvas 754
Canvas > New canvas on construction plane 756
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Canvas > New overlay canvas 757
Canvas > Resize canvas 759
Canvas > Crop to marquee 762
Canvas > Project sketch 763
Render menu 765
Render > Globals 766
Render > Direct render 782
Render > Render 784
Render > Render to QuickTimeVR 786
Render > Convert Frames to Movie 791
Render > Ambient Occlusion > Compute 794
Render > Ambient Occlusion > Delete 797
Render > Ambient Occlusion > Toggle Display 798
Render > Multi-lister > Multi-list edit 799
Render > Editors > Render stats 800
Render > Editors > Light links 805
Render > Create Lights > Point 807
Render > Create Lights > Spot 811
Render > Create Lights > Directional 818
Render > Create Lights > Ambient 821
Render > Create Lights > Area 824
Render > Create Lights > Volume 828
Render > Create Lights > Linear 834
Render > Create Lights > Create defaults 838
Render > Create texture projections 839
Render > Place projection 842
Render > Pop Monitor Windows 843
Render > Multi-lister 845
Multi-lister interface 847
Environment parameters 876
Shader parameters 886
Textures 900
Environment texture parameters 905
Ball texture 906
Chrome Texture 908
Cube textures 910
Sky textures 911
Sphere texture 917
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Surface texture parameters 917
Bulge texture parameters 921
Checker texture parameters 922
Cloth texture parameters 923
File Texture Parameters 925
Fractal texture parameters 927
Grid texture parameters 929
Mountain texture parameters 930
Noise texture parameters 932
Ramp texture parameters 933
Stencil texture parameters 936
Water texture parameters 938
Solid texture parameters 942
Snow texture 948
sCloud texture 949
sFractal texture 951
sMarble texture 952
sRock texture 953
Leather texture 954
Granite texture 955
sWood texture 956
Volume texture 958
Light parameters 958
Point Light Parameters 969
Spot Light Parameters 970
Area Light Parameters 974
Volume Light Parameters 975
Linear Light Parameters 978
Animation menu 979
Animation > Keyframe > Set keyframe 980
Animation > Keyframe > Auto keyframe 985
Animation > Keyframe > Cut keyframe 986
Animation > Keyframe > Copy keyframe 988
Animation > Keyframe > Paste keyframe 989
Animation > Pick > Joint 991
Animation > Pick > IK handle 992
Animation > Pick > Selection handle 993
Animation > Pick > Cluster 994
Animation > IK > New skeleton 995
Animation > IK > Add IK handle 996
Animation > IK > Set rest pose 1002
Animation > IK > Assume rest pose 1003
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Animation > IK > Run IK 1004
Animation > IK > IK handles on/off 1008
Animation > Create > New selection handle 1010
Animation > Create > Cluster 1011
Animation > Create > New set 1012
Animation > Create > New time warp 1013
Animation > Create > New cycles warp 1015
Animation > Create > New scale warp 1017
Animation > Edit > Duplicate animation channels 1019
Animation > Edit > Overlay skeleton 1021
Animation > Edit > Constraints on/off 1022
Animation > Editors > Action window 1025
Animation > Editors > Playback options 1062
Animation > Editors > Param control 1069
Animation > Editors > Deformation control 1074
Animation > Editors > Expression control 1075
Animation > Editors > Skeletons 1076
Animation > Editors > Clusters 1084
Animation > Editors > Set lister 1085
Animation > Editors > Edit set 1088
Animation > Editors > Animation stats 1089
Animation > Editors > Scene info 1091
Animation > Tools > Set motion 1092
Animation > Tools > Set key shape 1099
Animation > Tools > Pose animation 1108
Animation > Tools > Autofly 1110
Animation > Tools > Constrain to 1113
Animation > Tools > Create constraint 1115
Animation > Tools > Edit uv constraint 1117
Animation > Tools > Jack 1118
Animation > Tools > Move selection handle 1119
Animation > Tools > Bone style 1120
Animation > Show > View frame 1121
Animation > Show > Playback 1122
Animation > Show > Toggle time slider 1123
Animation > Show > Skeletons 1126
Animation > Show > Selection handles 1127
Animation > Show > IK handles 1128
Animation > Show > Constraints 1129
Animation > Show > FCheck 1130
Animation > Turntable 1131
Windows menu 1133
Windows > Palette 1134
Windows > Shelves 1135
Windows > Control panel 1136
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Windows > Information > Information window 1137
Windows > Information > Layer stats 1138
Windows > Information > Layer Categories 1140
Windows > Information > Deviation table 1143
Windows > Information > History view 1144
Windows > Editors > Construction Plane editor 1146
Windows > Editors > Canvas Layer editor 1150
Windows > Editors > Stages 1159
Windows > Editors > Cameras 1167
Windows > Object Lister 1184
Windows > Bookmark Lister 1189
Preferences menu 1193
Preferences > Workflows > Default 1194
Preferences > Workflows > Paint 1195
Preferences > Workflows > Modeling 1196
Preferences > Workflows > Visualize 1197
Preferences > Menus > Short menus 1198
Preferences > Menus > Long menus 1199
Preferences > Interface > Toggle single hotkeys 1200
Preferences > Interface > Hotkeys/Menus 1201
Preferences > Interface > Marking menus 1202
Preferences > Interface > Palette/Shelves layout 1203
Preferences > Interface > Shelf Extras 1204
Preferences > Interface > User colors 1205
Preferences > General Preferences 1206
Preferences > Performance options 1214
Preferences > User options > Save options 1216
Preferences > User options > Retrieve options 1217
Preferences > Construction options 1218
Utilities menu 1223
Utilities > Image Studio 1224
Utilities > Spider 1225
Utilities > Scan 1226
Utilities > Plug-in Manager 1227
Utilities > SBD > Open SBD window 1228
Utilities > SBD > Compress SBD 1230
Utilities > SBD > Expand SBD 1231
Utilities > Command stepper 1232
Utilities > Mesh/Polyset > Polyset to mesh 1233
Utilities > Mesh/Polyset > Mesh to polyset 1234
Utilities > Errlog 1235
Utilities > Command Prompt 1236
Help menu 1237
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Help > AliasStudio Help 1238
Help > Modifier keys, marking menu keys, and hotkeys 1240
Help > Learning Movies 1246
Help > What’s New 1247
Help > Support Center 1248
Help > Report a Problem 1249
Help > Suggest a Feature 1250
Help > Alias DirectConnect Help 1251
Help > Alias Online Store 1252
Help > Try Other Alias Products 1253
Help > Tool locator 1254
Help > What’s This? 1255
Help > About AliasStudio 1256
Control Panels 1257
Modeling control panel 1259
Control Panel > Move CV 1283
Control Panel > Show deviations 1285
Control Panel > Curvature 1287
Paint control panel 1289
Control Panel > New canvas 1304
Control Panel > Canvas Layer Editor 1305
Control Panel > Pan 1306
Control Panel > Zoom 1307
Visualization control panel 1309
Control Panel > Toggle shade 1315
Control Panel > Toggle model 1316
Control Panel > MultiLister: List All 1317
Control Panel > Delete Unused Shaders 1318
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REFERENCE: TOOLS, MENUS,
CONTROL PANELS
AND
Describes the purpose and options of all tools, menu items, and control panels.
Reference: Tools, Menus, and Control panels
1
2
Reference: Tools, Menus, and Control panels
TOOL PALETTES
Describes the purpose and options of all tools in the palette.
Tool Palettes
3
Pick palette
Tools on this palette are used to select different types of objects or parts of
objects.
4
Tool Palettes
Pick > Nothing
Unpicks all objects.
See Pick or unpick all objects on page 70.
See Center the view on specific objects on page 104.
See General on page 3058.
Click Pick > Nothing to ensure that no objects or parts of objects in the scene are
selected. Pick > Nothing is a momentary tool, so your tool choice will revert to the
tool or menu item used immediately before Pick > Nothing after the action is
complete.
Tool Palettes
5
Pick > Object
Picks or unpicks one or more objects.
See Pick section data on page 436.
See Pick or unpick objects on page 69.
See Work with camera objects on page 110.
Pick according to layers
If this option is ON (indicated by a check mark), objects in inactive or
reference layers are not picked when they are grouped below the selected
object(s) in the DAG hierarchy.
If any of a node’s descendants are on an unpickable layer, the system deselects the original node(s) and selects all the pickable nodes on the level
below. It continues the process until all pickable descendants of all selected
nodes are found.
By default, Pick according to layers is OFF, and Pick > Object ignores layer
state attributes. This example shows how results can differ depending on this
option.
Pick according to layers affects only modeling windows. In the SBD
window, components are picked whether a layer is inactive layer or not.
6
Tool Palettes
Pick > Component
Picks or unpicks individual components from a group of objects.
See Pick section data on page 436.
See Pick or unpick objects on page 69.
See Pick special object types on page 70.
See Group and ungroup objects on page 237.
All
Click the On or Off options to turn all the checkboxes on or off.
Curves, Surfaces, Lights, Construction Objects, Shells, Meshes,
Sections, or Others
Types of objects that can be picked.
Construction Objects include Points, Vectors, and Canvases, and
Construction Planes.
Others include the camera and solid textures.
Choosing Pick > Component reveals the following section to the left of the
Prompt line:
Meshes
Construction objects
Others
Curves
Surfaces
Sections
These icons enable you to set the type of objects (the pick mask) that can be
picked without opening the option box. If the button is white, that type of object
can be picked. If it is the same color as the menu bar, that type of object can not
be picked. Change the status of what can be picked by clicking on the icon.
Tool Palettes
7
Pick > Template
Allows you to pick templated objects.
See Use objects as templates on page 178.
See Pick special object types on page 70.
You can use the ObjectDisplay > Template command to “template” picked
objects. When an object is templated, it is visible but cannot be picked with the
normal pick tools or snapped to.
This lets you get objects out of the way when you are working on other objects in
the same area.
The Pick > Template tool lets you pick templated objects so you can work on
them, or untemplate them.
8
Tool Palettes
Pick > Edit point
Picks and unpicks edit points on curves.
Use Lasso
Dragging the mouse draws a lasso around the edit points you want to pick,
instead of a box.
See Make curves intersect on page 283.
See Pick or unpick control points on page 70.
See Add to an existing curve on page 152.
Tool Palettes
9
Pick > Point Types > CV
Picks and unpicks CVs.
Use Lasso
Dragging the mouse draws a lasso around the CVs you want to pick, instead
of a box.
See Create clusters on page 1587.
See Edit the timing curve of a motion path on page 1531.
See Snap to curves, points, or the grid on page 173.
See Pick section data on page 436.
See Move CVs in world (XYZ) space on page 253.
See Move CVs relative to their curve or surface on page 254.
See Move multiple CVs toward or away from a point on
page 255.
See Pick or unpick control points on page 70.
See Add to an existing curve on page 152.
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Tool Palettes
Pick > Point Types > Hull
Allows you to pick an entire line of CVs by clicking the hull connecting them.
See Pick or unpick control points on page 70.
When you turn on the display of hulls (using ObjectDisplay > Control or the
Display section of the control panel), hull lines are drawn connecting the CVs on
curves, and the rows and columns of CVs on a surface.
To pick the CVs connected by a hull, choose Pick > Point Types > Hull and click
the hull.
Tool Palettes
11
Pick > Point Types > Blend point
Picks a blend curve constraint.
See Blend curves on page 10.
See Edit or reshape a blend curve on page 256.
See Attach or detach blend points on page 257.
See Pick or unpick control points on page 70.
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Tool Palettes
Pick > Object types > Curve on surface
Allows you to pick curves-on-surface.
See Pick special object types on page 70.
Curves-on-surface are special curves that exist on surfaces. They are used to
mark out which parts of a surface to trim.
Curves-on-surface are usually created by intersecting or projecting other
geometry onto a surface. You will not usually need to edit curves-on-surface by
hand.
To pick a curve-on-surface, choose Pick > Object types > Curve on surfaceace
and click the curve-on-surface.
Tool Palettes
13
Pick > Object types > Cloud
Allows you to pick point clouds.
The Pick > Object types > Cloud tool picks the entire point cloud object when you
click one of its constituent points.
See Edit point clouds on page 438.
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Tool Palettes
Pick > Object types > Image plane
Allows you to pick an image plane.
See Image planes on page 45.
To pick one or more image planes, import an image plane of a drawing and use it
as a guide for modeling.
To pick image planes
Some features are not available in SurfaceStudio.
The image plane floats behind other types of geometry and always remains flat to
the computer screen like a background.
1
Create an image plane in a window using File > Import > Image plane.
2
In the Tool Palette, select Pick > Object types > Image plane or click its icon.
3
Click on the image plane in the window.
Picked image planes are displayed in modeling windows with a highlight
around the border.
In the SBD window, picked image planes are displayed, with a highlighted
border, below their camera.
You can pick image planes in the SBD window using any of these object picking
modes:
●
Pick > Template
●
Pick > Component
●
Pick > Object types > Image plane
●
Pick > Object
Tool Palettes
15
Pick > Object types > All objects/lights
Picks all objects in the scene.
To pick all objects in the scene, choose Pick > Object types > All objects/
lights.
See Pick or unpick all objects on page 70.
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Tool Palettes
Pick > Object types > Pick by Shader
Selects all surfaces in a scene that have the same shader assigned to them.
To pick all surfaces using the same shader
1
Pick a surface with the shader of interest.
2
Choose Pick > Object types > Pick by Shader.
All surfaces to which that shader has been assigned are automatically
picked.
If more than one surface is active when the Pick by Shader tool is selected,
all surfaces with those shaders (in the case of more than one shader) are
selected.
You can also pick the surface(s) after invoking the tool.
Tool Palettes
17
Pick > Locator
Selects the locators for curves.
Everything created as a Locator (including annotations, deviations, and
measurements) is pickable as locators. You can assign the locators to layers.
After you have selected locators, you can delete them by using Delete > Delete
active.
To pick the locator
1
In the Tool Palette, select Pick > Locator or click its icon.
The pick tool now selects locators.
2
>
Click the locator or locators to make them active.
Options
Measurement
Picks locators created by the Locators > Measure tools.
Deviation
Picks locators created by the Locators > Deviation tools.
Others
Picks locators created by the Locators > Measure > Arc length and
Locators > Curve curvature tools.
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Tool Palettes
Pick > Pick visible
Selects / deselect surfaces and meshes that are visible in a given view, when the
model is hardware shaded.
The following workflow assumes that WindowDisplay > Hardware Shade or
Diagnostic Shading (in the Control Panel) has been used to shade your model.
To pick objects in shaded mode
1
Click in a view window to make it active.
2
Choose Pick > Pick visible.
3
Select or deselect shaded surfaces and meshes in the view, in the same
manner as with Pick > Object, i.e.
Click the left mouse button to pick an inactive object, and unpick an
active object.
◆
Click the middle mouse button to replace the content of the pick list with
the new selection.
◆
Click the right mouse button to unpick an object.
◆
Hold down the Shift key to add to the selection.
◆
Use a pick box by clicking and dragging.
Pick visible will only pick shaded (visible) surfaces and meshes, even when
using a pick box. You can adjust the view at any time.
◆
You can click anywhere on the object to pick it, not only on the wireframe.
Geometry that is visible through other geometry with transparent shaders will
also be selected.
Tool Palettes
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20
Tool Palettes
Transform palette
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Transform > Move
Moves picked items in the scene.
See Snap to curves, points, or the grid on page 173.
See Work with the construction plane on page 180.
See Move CVs in world (XYZ) space on page 253.
See Move CVs relative to their curve or surface on page 254.
See Move CVs along an arbitrary vector or plane on page 254.
See Move multiple CVs toward or away from a point on
page 255.
See Attach or detach blend points on page 257.
See Move items on page 240.
See Make curves intersect on page 283.
See Use local instead of global axes on page 244.
See Scale a canvas plane on page 51.
See Move, scale, or rotate an image layer on page 73.
See 2D best practices on page 8.
The type of item that can be moved depends on which Pick tool is selected.
For example, if Pick > Point Types > CV is selected, Transform > Move
moves only CVs. You can change an object’s shape by moving its CVs.
Move Options
>
Type
Global
Move objects in the global X, Y, Z coordinate system.
Local
Move each picked object along its own local axes (displayed at the object’s
pivot point).
Mouse Local mode
For Local and Universe modes:
22
Drag
To...
left mouse
button
Move along object’s local X axis
Drag
To...
middle
mouse
button
Move along object’s local Y axis
right mouse
button
Move along object’s local Z axis
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Transform > Rotate
Rotates picked items in the scene around a pivot point.
See Difference between meshes and polysets on page 44.
See Create clusters on page 1587.
See Create a constraint on an object on page 1578.
See Constrain one object to another object on page 1580.
See Add IK handles to your skeleton on page 1552.
See Rotate objects on page 242.
See Use local instead of global axes on page 244.
See Move, scale, or rotate an image layer on page 73.
The default local axes for an object are the same as the global axes. To
change the orientation of an object’s local axes, use Transform > Local >
Set local axes.
To permanently display the local axes of all picked objects,
chooseWindowDisplay > Toggles > Pivots ❒ an turn on Local Axes
Display.
Rotate Options
Global
Rotate objects by incrementing their Euler rotation angles.
This means that the rotation is done first to Z, then Y, then X. Consequently,
the X rotational axis depends on the Y and Z rotations already done.
Rotations done on DAG nodes above the current node also affect the
rotational axis.
Local
Rotate each picked object around its local X, Y and Z axes (displayed at
each object’s pivot point).
Universe
Rotate objects around the world X, Y, and Z axes.
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Mouse buttons in Local and Universe modes
Drag
To...
left mouse
button
Rotate around the X axis
middle
mouse
button
Rotate around the Y axis
right mouse
button
Rotate around the Z axis
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Transform > Scale
Allows you to scale the picked objects uniformly along all axes.
See Difference between meshes and polysets on page 44.
See Scale animation timing with a time warp on page 1628.
See Create clusters on page 1587.
See Change the form of original object in an animation on
page 1596.
See Create clusters with properties for deformation on
page 1603.
See Scale objects proportionally on page 241.
See Printing images fundamentals on page 238.
See Resize an object on a canvas on page 155.
See Move, scale, or rotate an image layer on page 73.
See Edit a shape on page 111.
Scaling changes the size of objects by changing their scale proportionally in all
three dimensions. You can also apply scaling to an image plane’s two
dimensions. You can type a value that applies to all dimensions equally or use
different mouse buttons to apply to different dimensions.
To scale in different amounts for different dimensions, use non-proportional
scaling by selecting Transform > Non-p scale.
You cannot scale curve-on-surface elements, as they are projections onto a
surface.
If you are transforming an image plane, a manipulator will be displayed.
See Move, scale, or rotate an image layer on page 73.
For information on scale pivot points, see See Change an object’s
pivot point on page 240.
The effect of a scale operation depends the location of the object’s scale pivot
point and the addressing mode, relative or absolute.
For information about using absolute and relative addressing, see
Absolute and relative addressing (page 23).
By default, all geometry has an initial scale factor of 1, meaning 100% of its size.
26
●
Relative scaling is based on the object’s current original size. For example, if
you scale to 1.5 and then scale again to 2.0, the object is now three times as
big as when you started.
●
Absolute scaling is based on the object’s original size. For example, if you
scale to 1.5 and then scale again to 2.0, the object is now twice as big as
when you started.
Transform > Non-p scale
Allows you to scale the picked objects by different amounts along each axis.
Changes the size of objects by scaling non-proportionally. That is, it changes the
dimensions of objects or image planes by different scale factors in different
directions. You can use non-proportional scaling in any dimension.
●
This tool is like Transform > Scale, except that you type a different scale
factor for each scale dimension. If you type in only one value, it is used for
the first dimension.
For information on scale pivot points, see Change an object’s pivot
point (page 240).
●
The effect of Nonp scale is based on the location of the object’s scale pivot
point.
●
By default, all geometry has an initial scale factor of 1 in all three dimensions,
so a value of 1 makes no change.
See Absolute and relative addressing on page 23..
●
For either direction, you can scale to an absolute size or relative to the
object’s current size (scale factor) in any dimension.
You cannot scale a curve-on-surface element, since it is a projection.
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Transform > Modify > Proportional mod
Move, rotate, or scale CVs relative to their proximity to a center “master” CV.
See Transform one CV and have surrounding CVs follow it on
page 255.
>
Operations
Operations
Choose whether to move, rotate, or non-proportionally scale the CVs.
Move Mode
Choose XYZ to move CVs in world space.
Choose NUV to move CVs relative to their curve or surface.
Smooth
Interpolates the amount of change based on the Falloff values for averaging
the CVs in the region of effect.
When Smooth is on, you select only the primary CV and the region of effect.
>
NURBS Surface Options
Falloff
Specifies the degree of effect in the U and V parametric directions. The range
for these fields is from -5.00 to 5.00.
The amount by which the CVs before and after the selected ones are
affected in relation to the primary CV is determined by the current Falloff
value and the distance of each CV from its neighbor. A Falloff value of 0
applies the transformation equally over the affected region.
◆
◆
If the Falloff value is positive, the effect of the transformation is
decreased for CVs that are further away from the primary CV: the greater
the value, the greater this damping effect.
The greater the number of CVs between the primary CV and the
boundary of the defined region, the less effect the transformation has on
each CV. The higher the number, the less effect movement has on the
surrounding CVs.
If the Falloff value is negative, the effect of the transformation is
increased for CVs that are further away from the primary CV.
The greater the number of CVs between the primary CV and the
boundary of the defined region, the greater the effect of the
transformation on each CV. Surrounding CVs move farther, because the
effect is multiplied, but in the opposite direction.
Preceding #
Specifies the number of CVs before the primary CV that you want to include
in the region definition along the U and V parametric directions.
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The range of CVs that can be affected by the operation ranges from 0 (the
default) to N, where N is the maximum possible number of CVs in that
direction for the object. Hence, to select all CVs in a direction, simply drag
the slider all the way to the right.
Succeeding #
Specifies the number of CVs after the primary CV that you want to include in
the region definition along the U and V parametric directions.
The range of CVs that can be affected by the operation ranges from 0 (the
default) to N, where N is the maximum possible number of CVs in that
direction for the object. Hence, to select all CVs in a direction, simply drag
the slider all the way to the right.
For a curve, only the U direction is used.
>
Revert button
Undoes all your modifications since you selected the currently active CVs.
29
Transform > Modify > Move CV normal
Deforms surfaces or trimmed surfaces by moving their CVs in a normal
(perpendicular) or tangential direction.
To move CV normals
1
In the Tool Palette, select Transform > Modify > Move CV normal or click
the Move CV normal icon. The system prompts you to select surface or polyset
CVs.
2
Click a CV to select it. To select several CVs, hold down the Shift key as well.
You can also click a hull line to select an entire row of CVs at once. The system
prompts you to use the mouse buttons to move CVs.
3
You can drag the active CVs using the mouse:
Moving CVs
left mouse button drags along the normal and back again
◆
middle mouse button drags along a U curve of the surface (the CV’s
height above the surface is maintained)
◆
right mouse button drags along a V curve of the surface (the CV’s height
above the surface is maintained)
You can type values for CV displacements in the N (normal), U, and V
directions (in ABS or REL mode).
◆
along U
along Normal
along V
>
Options
Mouse sensitivity
Controls how far you have to move the mouse to move the picked CVs. To
perform fine detailed work, increase the mouse sensitivity. To move CVs
quickly, decrease the mouse sensitivity.
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Transform > Modify > Rotational scale
Scales picked objects around a rotational point.
To modify the rotational scale
1
Select Transform > Modify > Rotational scale or click its icon.
You can pick and unpick geometry in the Object Lister by clicking the DAG
nodes.
2
The system prompts you to enter the first pivot point.
Define the pivot point for the deformation by typing an X, Y, Z location or by
using the mouse. A cross-hair, the pivot point, appears to mark the center of
the rotational scale.
The system calculates the best fit for the model according to the deformation
values you request. For the most accurate fit, enter values using the
keyboard rather than the mouse.
3
The system prompts you to enter another pivot point. The two pivot points
define the axis for deformation.
The geometry deforms about the pivot point and toward or away from this
second point.
Define the second point by typing an X, Y, Z location or using the mouse.
Another cross-hair appears. The selected curves and surfaces rotate around
this axis point.
4
If no objects are picked, the system prompts you to select geometry.
If you hold down Shift, you can select several objects. You can continue
selecting and deselecting geometry during the function.
5
The system tells you the current scale and prompts you to adjust the scale
factor.
Select more objects by holding down Shift and clicking with the left mouse
button.
6
Type a new scale value or use the left mouse button to adjust the scale by
moving the object.
This new value can be a new scale or a new number of divisions, depending
upon the Type of input mode that you chose in the Rotate Options window.
Example
To create an eight-spoked wheel by rotationally scaling a spoke of a five-spoked
wheel:
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1
Select the geometry for one of the spokes, and toggle the rest of the model
invisible or templated, or delete it. (You can use intersecting planes to "slice"
out a section of the wheel.)
2
Select Transform > Modify > Rotational scale ❒ or double-click its icon in
the tool palette.
3
In the option box, set the input mode to Number of divisions.
4
Place the pivot point at the center of the wheel and the second point along the
spoke. This sets the axis of rotation.
5
Now the system needs to know how many divisions were in the original model.
(Type 5 for this example.)
6
Enter the new number of divisions. (For this example, type in 8.) The element
is scaled to its new angle.
7
You are now finished deforming the model. To complete the new wheel, you
must create seven additional copies of this spoke, each rotated by the correct
amount.
To make these copies, use Edit > Duplicate > Object. In this example, the
wheel was in the X - Z plane, so the rotation is about the Y axis. Set the
following options in the Duplicate Object Options window:
◆
◆
◆
Rotation — Y 45
Number of duplicates — 7
Geometry type — instance
A new wheel is created, with eight spokes:
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To transform objects with construction history
Some functions, such as Surfaces > Revolve, create an object that has
construction history. The construction history of an object that is being
transformed cannot be maintained.
A confirmation box appears, asking if you wish to continue even though the
construction history will be removed:
◆
◆
If you select YES, the construction history is deleted and you can
proceed with the operation.
If you select NO, the operation is cancelled and the construction history
is kept.
Select Undo at any time to reset the geometry to its original values (without
construction history).
Any continuity present in the model is lost by this deformation and you will have
to rebuild the surface. If you keep the deformations relatively small, the resulting
continuity may work for presentation only.
Construction history enables curves or surfaces to adjust to changes in the
geometry of the objects that generate them. If construction history is lost, to
update the generated objects you must re-create them.
For more information about construction history, see Construction
history (page 22)
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Transform > Local > Set pivot
Positions the pivot point of the picked object.
See Add selection handles on page 1595.
See Move multiple CVs toward or away from a point on
page 255.
See Change an object’s pivot point on page 240.
See Create a curve from a library of pre-drawn curves (sweeps)
on page 150.
See Scale a canvas plane on page 51.
See Resize an object on a canvas on page 155.
See Move, scale, or rotate an image layer on page 73.
Pivots cannot be set for CVs or curve-on-surface elements.
Rotation
Display the Rotation Pivot as a circle with a dot at the center.
Scaling
Display the Scaling pivot as an asterisk.
Move Selection Handle
A selection handle moves with the rotation pivot. Turn this option off to allows
the selection handle and pivot to be moved independently.
This can be useful if you plan to use Toggle Shade on an object. You can put
the selection handle outside the object so that you can still click it, while at
the same time you want the object to go on rotating and scaling about its
center of mass.
>
Options
Scale
Stretch the object rotationally.
Number of Divisions
Change the number of rotational sections (such as the spokes on a wheel).
When this option is on, the tool prompts you to specify the number of
divisions that the model has now, and the number that you want it to have.
For example, for a wheel with eight spokes, you can type in a value of 8, then
reduce it to 4.
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Transform > Local > Center pivot
Automatically positions the pivot point at the center of the picked object.
See Change an object’s pivot point on page 240.
See Scale a canvas plane on page 51.
See Move, scale, or rotate an image layer on page 73.
Rotation
The Rotation Pivot is displayed as a circle with a dot at the center.
Scaling
The Rotation Pivot is displayed as a circle with a dot at the center, while the
Scaling pivot appears as an asterisk.
35
Transform > Local > Set local axes
Allows you to rotate the local axes of the picked object.
See Create clusters with properties for deformation on
page 1603.
See Constrain one object to another object on page 1580.
See Use local instead of global axes on page 244.
Interactive
Drag the mouse buttons to rotate the local axes relative to the world axes.
Object
Sets the local axes of all picked objects to match those of another object. The
tool will prompt you to select the example object.
After you use this option, you are returned to Interactive mode.
Reset
Resets the local axes of all picked objects to match the orientation of the
world co-ordinate system.
After you use this option, you are returned to Interactive mode.
Note that if a grouped object is affected by the rotations of its parents, its
local axes will not match the world axes.
36
Transform > Drag keypoints
Allows you to move keypoints on keypoint curves.
Keypoint curves are special line and arc objects with functionality similar to 2D
CAD packages. The Transform > Drag keypoints tool lets you select and move
the keypoints that control the endpoints and midpoints of keypoint curves.
See Draw a keypoint rectangle on page 155.
See Edit keypoint curves on page 159.
37
Transform > Zero transforms
Resets any scaling, translation (movement), and rotation applied to the picked
objects.
Each object and group stores its own transformation information (how much it is
moved, rotated, and scaled from its starting point).
These transformations are applied hierarchically, so the group can be
transformed separately from its parts.
Sometimes it is useful to make an object or group “forget” its transformation
information so its current position, rotation, and scale become the zero points.
To use the tool, pick the object, or use Utilities > SBD > Open SBD window to
pick the group, then choose Transform > Zero transforms.
Selecting Transform > Zero transforms for a light, camera, or 3D texture
placement object will cause the object to render incorrectly (for example,
incorrect lighting, view, or texture placement).
Do not select Transform > Zero transforms for a light, camera, or 3D
texture placement object. If you do, you must go through the affected portion
of the DAG, and ungroup and re-transform the light, camera, or 3D texture
placement object.
38
Transform > Object Placement > Duplicate Place
Duplicates and places copies of a set of target objects along curves or surface
locators.
The destination curves can be free curves, curves on surface, isoparms, trim
edges, or patch precision curves, as well as continuous sequences of curves.
Duplicate Place Tools
Choosing the tool opens up the following toolbox:
Duplicate Place
This is the main (and default) tool which performs the duplication and
positioning of the target object(s).
See Position multiple copies of an object along a
curve (page 248) for a description of the workflow.
Double-click or Shift-click this icon to open the option window. You can only
open the window after a target has been selected and accepted. Use the
settings in the window to:
Specify how many copies you want
Specify the spacing between the copies
◆
Keep the target’s orientation, or orient it according to the surface’s
normals.
For more information, see Duplicate Place Options Window.
◆
◆
Revert
Click this tool to delete the duplicated geometry (output) and remove the
construction history, returning you to your starting point.
Commit
Click this tool to remove the construction history. From this point on, you
cannot modify the duplicated geometry (output) by changing the options in
the option window, or modifying the input geometry.
39
Show Pick Mask
This tool helps when selecting targets or destination curves, because you
cannot use the Pick > Components tool while inside Duplicate Place. Note
that the edge of a trimmed surface is not a surface isoparm, it’s a surface trim
edge.
Click the check boxes to set the entity types that can be selected. Only the
applicable entity types are available at each step of the operation.
Click Mode Default to reset everything to the default pick masks.
Click Clear All to turn off all the pick masks at once.
Turn on Chain Select to select all tangent continuous curves at once.
Duplicate Place Options Window
This window opens when double-clicking or Shift-clicking the Duplicate Place
tool (after the targets have been selected).
Num duplicates per destination
The default is 1 on each destination. This value is the maximum number of
duplicates desired on each destination curve. Depending on the surface,
fewer copies may be placed. The field Max num duplicates placed
successfully shows the maximum number placed on any one particular
curve.
40
Specify spacing between duplicates
When this option is turned on, the tool attempts to place duplicates along the
curve while maintaining the Spacing between duplicates distance between
them.
If the curve is too short for the specified number of duplicates, given the
spacing specified, the extra duplicates are not placed. If the curve is too long,
the number of duplicates is respected, and the extra length of the curve
remains empty, as seen in the image below.
When this option is turned off (default), the tool takes each curve and places
the specified number of duplicates equidistant to each other. In this way, the
spacing is different for each curve, as shown below.
Spacing between duplicates
This option is only available when Specify spacing between duplicates is
turned on.
The spacing is measured as the arc length along each curve, between the
contact points of two consecutive target copies. The contact point of a target
is defined as the midpoint of the bottom face of its bounding box.
Max num duplicates placed successfully
This is a read-only field where the tool reports back on the maximum number
of duplicates that fit on any one of the destination curves.
41
Keep target orientation
If this option is on, the duplicates are not rotated to fit the surface normal (or
free curve tangent). Instead, they retain their original orientation. In the image
below, the top version is the default behavior (option turned off), where the
target cones are rotated to match the surface. The bottom version is with the
option turned on, and the cones retain their original orientation.
42
Transform > Object Placement > Place
Positions an object based on input points (or existing construction planes) on
both the source object and the target location.
See Position an object based on input points/planes on
page 244.
Options
From Origin, From Vector, From Plane
X, Y, Z coordinates of the three points selected on the source object (“from”
points). When these values are edited, the position of the corresponding
point updates in the modeling windows.
To Origin, To Vector, To Plane
X, Y, Z coordinates of the three points selected on the target location (“to”
points). When these values are edited, the position of the corresponding
point updates in the modeling windows.
If a point is tied to a curve or surface, and you edit its space coordinates
above, the point will become “free floating” and will lose its tie to the
geometry.
Delete Points when finished
If this option is turned on (default), the points are removed when you exit the
tool. If it is turned off, the points remain and can be edited at a later time.
43
44
Paint palette
45
Paint > Pencil
Applies pencil strokes to the active image layer.
Not all options are available in SurfaceStudio.
In most packages, the pencils provided include Pencil and Pencil Round. In
SurfaceStudio, the pencils provided are: Black Pencil, White Pencil, Red Pencil,
Blue Pencil, Green Pencil, Yellow Pencil.
To select a brush and sketch with it
1
Choose a brush tool (Paint > Brush type > Brush name).
You can also select a brush from the default Sketching or Annotate shelf.
The Pencil, Marker, Airbrush, and Solid tools let you drag the stylus to apply
strokes of paint to a sketch image plane.
The Eraser tool lets you drag the stylus to remove paint from a sketch image
plane in strokes.
When a brush tool is active, the cursor becomes a crosshair with the letter P
(for paint) or E (for eraser).
When you hold the cursor over a sketch image plane, the cursor also
displays a preview image of how the brush will apply paint to the sketch.
In the Paint Panel or Brush Options box, adjust the Min Radius and Max
Radius sliders or enter values in the Min Radius and Max Radius fields.
These values are measured in pixels (of the sketch image plane). The
maximum brush size is 255. Max Radius is displayed in a solid line and Min
Radius is displayed in a dotted line.
46
2
Drag the stylus on the sketch image plane to begin sketching.
Notes and tips
●
To erase, use the eraser on the stylus.
●
To make any brush erase paint, set the Brush Color to black and set the Color
Opacity to 0. (To keep these settings for the brush, turn on Preserve Color.)
●
To create a horizontal brush stroke in an orthographic window, drag the
middle mouse button (or the equivalent stylus button).
To create a vertical brush stroke in an orthographic window, drag the right
mouse button (or the equivalent stylus button).
●
To snap a brush to a curve, click the Crv button to the right of the prompt line
(or hold down the Ctrl and Alt keys).
Curve
Snapping
●
To draw a curve or straight line with more precision, use the predictive stroke
hotkeys. (See Sketch using predictive strokes (page 96))
●
Brushes are most responsive when you are viewing the sketch image plane
at its actual size (1:1).
Brush strokes may appear slow when you are zoomed out of a sketch image
plane; however, this is because the stroke is actually very large relative to the
sketch image plane.
Brush Options
Some of these options are also available in the Paint Panel when this tool is
active.
Reset
Resets all Brush Options to their default settings. If brushes have been
saved to the shelf, reset will reset to those settings at the time the brush was
saved to the shelf.
47
Minimum radius, if available
for this tool.
Maximum radius, if available
for this tool.
Maximum opacity, if available
for this tool.
Brush stroke
Minimum opacity, if available
for this tool.
Properties tab
Brush Mode
Controls whether the brush will:
apply paint as a brush (Paint) (see Paint and erase (page 81)
erase paint (Erase) (see Paint and erase (page 81)
◆
hide paint (Hide)
◆
show hidden paint (Show)
◆
smear paint (Smear) (see Smear paint (page 133)
◆
blur paint (Blur) (see Blur paint (page 131)
◆
sharpen paint (Sharpen) (see Sharpen paint (page 132)
◆
lighten paint (Dodge)
◆
darken paint (Burn)
See also Set brush mode to paint, erase, hide, or show (page 85).
◆
◆
Brush Color
The color of the brush’s paint. See Set brush paint color (page 86).
Color Opacity
Controls how see-through the paint applied by the brush is. If Color Opacity
is less than 1, and you sketch several times in the same spot, the paint will
not build up and become more opaque. The valid range is 0 (entirely clear
and invisible) to 1 (entirely opaque). See Set brush and paint
opacity (page 88).
Preserve Color
Check—When you save the brush to a shelf, its current color is saved with it.
When you later select the brush from the shelf, its color will be the same as
when you saved it to the shelf. When you save the brush to a palette, its
current color is not saved when exiting AliasStudio.
No check—When you save the brush to a shelf, its current color is not saved
with it. When you later select the brush from the shelf, its color will be the
current color.
See Set brush paint color (page 86).
48
Min Radius
The radius of the brush (measured in pixels) when you press the stylus lightly
against the tablet. The valid range is 0 to 255. See Set brush size, shape,
and profile (page 91).
Max Radius
The radius of the brush (measured in pixels) when you press the stylus
strongly against the tablet. The valid range is 0 to 255. See Set brush size,
shape, and profile (page 91).
Min Opacity
Controls how see-through the paint applied by the brush is when you press
the stylus very lightly against the tablet. If Min Opacity is less than 1, and you
sketch several times in the same spot, the paint will build up and become
more opaque. The valid range is 0 (fully transparent) to 1 (fully opaque). See
Set brush and paint opacity (page 88).
Max Opacity
Controls how see-through the paint applied by the brush is when you press
the stylus very strongly against the tablet. If Max Opacity is less than 1, and
you sketch several times in the same spot, the paint will build up and become
more opaque. The valid range is 0 (fully transparent) to 1 (fully opaque). See
Set brush and paint opacity (page 88).
Aspect
Controls how flat or circular the brush stamp is. The valid range is 0.01 (very
flat and thin) to 1 (circular). See Set brush size, shape, and profile (page 91).
Rotation
The angle (measured in degrees) of the brush stamp. If Aspect is less than
1, changing Rotation makes the brush stamp more horizontal (0) or more
vertical (90). The valid range is 0 to 360. See Set brush size, shape, and
profile (page 91).
Stamp tab
>
Texture and Shape
Capture Mode
Off — No capture will take place.
Shape — The next click of the mouse on the image will capture the Shape
(the alpha channel) directly beneath the brush as a snapshot to use for a
brush stamp.
Shape and Texture — The next click of the mouse on the image will capture
both the paint and the Shape directly beneath the brush as a snapshot to use
for a brush stamp. Any transparency on the image layer will be captured, as
will the colors.
49
Use Stamp
Off — Do not use any stamp. Use the regular brush.
Shape — Use the captured shape (alpha channel) for the brush.
Shape and Texture — Use the captured shape (alpha channel) and texture
(color) for the brush.
Profile
>
Brush Profile
Controls the softness or hardness of the brush stamp edges. See Set brush
size, shape, and profile (page 91). Select one of Regular, Solid, Hard Solid,
or Buzz from the pop-up menu to obtain the following brush profiles.
Regular
Solid
Hard Solid
Buzz
To use a brush profile you have customized, select the Custom menu item.
To create a custom brush profile, double-click any brush icon in the Sketch#2
shelf to open the brush editor.
Stroke tab
Changing these settings changes the appearance of a sequence of brush profiles
laid down by dragging the stylus or mouse across the image layer.
Spacing Bias
Controls the space between stamps in a stroke. Low values produce smooth
strokes with no spaces between stamps. Higher values produce strokes that
appear as a series of dots. The valid range is 0 to 255. See Set brush stroke
properties (page 93).
Spacing Noise
The amount of random variation in the space between stamps in a stroke.
The valid range is 0 (no random variation) to 25 (high random variation). See
Set brush stroke properties (page 93).
Rotate to Stroke
Check—The brush stamp rotates in the direction of the brush stroke as you
sketch.
No check—The brush stamp always remains in the same direction and does
not rotate in the direction of the brush stroke.
See Set brush stroke properties (page 93).
50
Rotation Jitter
The amount of random variation in the brush stamp direction. The valid range
is 0 (no random variation) to 255 (high random variation). See Set brush
stroke properties (page 93).
51
Paint > Marker
Applies marker strokes to the active image layer.
This feature is not available in SurfaceStudio.
The following markers are available: Marker Ink, Marker Fine, and Marker Broad.
To select a brush and sketch with it
Markers, airbrushes, and solid brushes are not available in SurfaceStudio. The
default pencils in SurfaceStudio are colored.
1
Choose a brush tool (Paint > Brush type > Brush name).
You can also select a brush from the default Sketching or Annotate shelf.
The Pencil, Marker, Airbrush, and Solid tools let you drag the stylus to apply
strokes of paint to a sketch image plane.
The Eraser tool lets you drag the stylus to remove paint from a sketch image
plane in strokes.
When a brush tool is active, the cursor becomes a crosshair with the letter P
(for paint) or E (for eraser).
When you hold the cursor over a sketch image plane, the cursor also
displays a preview image of how the brush will apply paint to the sketch.
52
2
Drag the stylus on the sketch image plane to begin sketching.
Notes and tips
●
To erase, use the eraser on the stylus.
●
To create a horizontal brush stroke in an orthographic window, drag the
middle mouse button (or the equivalent stylus button).
To create a vertical brush stroke in an orthographic window, drag the right
mouse button (or the equivalent stylus button).
●
To snap a brush to a curve, click the Crv button to the right of the prompt line
(or hold down the Ctrl and Alt keys).
Curve
Snapping
●
To draw a curve or straight line with more precision, use the predictive stroke
hotkeys. (See Sketch using predictive strokes (page 96))
●
Brushes are most responsive when you are viewing the sketch image plane
at its actual size (1:1).
Brush strokes may appear slow when you are zoomed out of a sketch image
plane; however, this is because the stroke is actually very large relative to the
sketch image plane.
Some of these options are also available in the Paint Panel when this tool is
active.
Brush Options
Reset
Resets all Brush Options to their default settings. If brushes have been
saved to the shelf, reset will reset to those settings at the time the brush was
saved to the shelf.
Minimum radius, if available
for this tool.
Maximum radius, if available
for this tool.
Maximum opacity, if available
for this tool.
Brush stroke
Minimum opacity, if available
for this tool.
Properties tab
Brush Color
The color of the brush’s paint. See Set brush paint color (page 86).
53
Color Opacity
Controls how see-through the paint applied by the brush is. If Color Opacity
is less than 1, and you sketch several times in the same spot, the paint will
not build up and become more opaque. The valid range is 0 (entirely clear
and invisible) to 1 (entirely opaque). See Set brush and paint
opacity (page 88).
Preserve Color
Check—When you save the brush to a shelf, its current color is saved with it.
When you later select the brush from the shelf, its color will be the same as
when you saved it to the shelf. When you save the brush to a palette, its
current color is not saved when exiting AliasStudio.
No check—When you save the brush to a shelf, its current color is not saved
with it. When you later select the brush from the shelf, its color will be the
current color.
See Set brush paint color (page 86).
Min Radius
The radius of the brush (measured in pixels) when you press the stylus lightly
against the tablet. The valid range is 0 to 255. See Set brush size, shape,
and profile (page 91).
Max Radius
The radius of the brush (measured in pixels) when you press the stylus
strongly against the tablet. The valid range is 0 to 255. See Set brush size,
shape, and profile (page 91).
Min Opacity
Controls how see-through the paint applied by the brush is when you press
the stylus very lightly against the tablet. If Min Opacity is less than 1, and you
sketch several times in the same spot, the paint will build up and become
more opaque. The valid range is 0 (fully transparent) to 1 (fully opaque). See
Set brush and paint opacity (page 88).
Max Opacity
Controls how see-through the paint applied by the brush is when you press
the stylus very strongly against the tablet. If Max Opacity is less than 1, and
you sketch several times in the same spot, the paint will build up and become
more opaque. The valid range is 0 (fully transparent) to 1 (fully opaque). See
Set brush and paint opacity (page 88).
Aspect
Controls how flat or circular the brush stamp is. The valid range is 0.01 (very
flat and thin) to 1 (circular). See Set brush size, shape, and profile (page 91).
54
Rotation
The angle (measured in degrees) of the brush stamp. If Aspect is less than
1, changing Rotation makes the brush stamp more horizontal (0) or more
vertical (90). The valid range is 0 to 360. See Set brush size, shape, and
profile (page 91).
Marker Properties
Wetness
The wetness or dryness of the marker. The valid range is 0 (very dry like a
very old marker) to 1 (very wet like a brand new marker). See Set marker
wetness (page 89).
Stamp tab
Profile
>
Brush Profile
Controls the softness or hardness of the brush stamp edges. See Set brush
size, shape, and profile (page 91). Select one of Regular, Solid, Hard Solid,
or Buzz from the pop-up menu to obtain the following brush profiles.
Regular
Solid
Hard Solid
Buzz
To use a brush profile you have customized, select the Custom menu item.
To create a custom brush profile, double-click any brush icon in the Sketch#2
shelf to open the brush editor.
Stroke tab
Changing these settings changes the appearance of a sequence of brush profiles
laid down by dragging the stylus or mouse across the image layer.
Spacing Bias
Controls the space between stamps in a stroke. Low values produce smooth
strokes with no spaces between stamps. Higher values produce strokes that
appear as a series of dots. The valid range is 0 to 255. See Set brush stroke
properties (page 93).
Spacing Noise
The amount of random variation in the space between stamps in a stroke.
The valid range is 0 (no random variation) to 25 (high random variation). See
Set brush stroke properties (page 93).
55
Rotate to Stroke
Check—The brush stamp rotates in the direction of the brush stroke as you
sketch.
No check—The brush stamp always remains in the same direction and does
not rotate in the direction of the brush stroke.
See Set brush stroke properties (page 93).
Rotation Jitter
The amount of random variation in the brush stamp direction. The valid range
is 0 (no random variation) to 255 (high random variation). See Set brush
stroke properties (page 93).
56
Paint > Airbrush
Applies airbrushed paint to the active image layer.
This feature is not available in SurfaceStudio.
The following airbrushes are provided: Airbrush Soft, and Airbrush Medium.
To select a brush and sketch with it
Markers, airbrushes, and solid brushes are not available in SurfaceStudio. The
default pencils in SurfaceStudio are colored.
1
Choose a brush tool (Paint > Brush type > Brush name).
You can also select a brush from the default Sketching or Annotate shelf.
The Pencil, Marker, Airbrush, and Solid tools let you drag the stylus to apply
strokes of paint to a sketch image plane.
The Eraser tool lets you drag the stylus to remove paint from a sketch image
plane in strokes.
When a brush tool is active, the cursor becomes a crosshair with the letter P
(for paint) or E (for eraser).
When you hold the cursor over a sketch image plane, the cursor also
displays a preview image of how the brush will apply paint to the sketch.
57
2
Drag the stylus on the sketch image plane to begin sketching.
Notes and tips
●
To erase, use the eraser on the stylus.
●
To create a horizontal brush stroke in an orthographic window, drag the
middle mouse button (or the equivalent stylus button).
To create a vertical brush stroke in an orthographic window, drag the right
mouse button (or the equivalent stylus button).
●
To snap a brush to a curve, click the Crv button to the right of the prompt line
(or hold down the Ctrl and Alt keys).
Curve
Snapping
●
To draw a curve or straight line with more precision, use the predictive stroke
hotkeys. (See Sketch using predictive strokes (page 96))
●
Brushes are most responsive when you are viewing the sketch image plane
at its actual size (1:1).
Brush strokes may appear slow when you are zoomed out of a sketch image
plane; however, this is because the stroke is actually very large relative to the
sketch image plane.
Brush Options
Some of these options are also available in the Paint Panel when this tool is
active.
Reset
Resets all Brush Options to their default settings. If brushes have been
saved to the shelf, reset will reset to those settings at the time the brush was
saved to the shelf.
Minimum radius, if available
for this tool.
Maximum radius, if available
for this tool.
Maximum opacity, if available
for this tool.
Brush stroke
58
Minimum opacity, if available
for this tool.
Properties tab
Brush Mode
Controls whether the brush will:
apply paint as a brush (Paint) (see Paint and erase (page 81)
erase paint (Erase) (see Paint and erase (page 81)
◆
hide paint (Hide)
◆
show hidden paint (Show)
◆
smear paint (Smear) (see Smear paint (page 133)
◆
blur paint (Blur) (see Blur paint (page 131)
◆
sharpen paint (Sharpen) (see Sharpen paint (page 132)
◆
lighten paint (Dodge)
◆
darken paint (Burn)
See also Set brush mode to paint, erase, hide, or show (page 85).
◆
◆
Brush Color
The color of the brush’s paint. See Set brush paint color (page 86).
Color Opacity
Controls how see-through the paint applied by the brush is. If Color Opacity
is less than 1, and you sketch several times in the same spot, the paint will
not build up and become more opaque. The valid range is 0 (entirely clear
and invisible) to 1 (entirely opaque). See Set brush and paint
opacity (page 88).
Preserve Color
Check—When you save the brush to a shelf, its current color is saved with it.
When you later select the brush from the shelf, its color will be the same as
when you saved it to the shelf. When you save the brush to a palette, its
current color is not saved when exiting AliasStudio.
No check—When you save the brush to a shelf, its current color is not saved
with it. When you later select the brush from the shelf, its color will be the
current color.
See Set brush paint color (page 86).
Min Radius
The radius of the brush (measured in pixels) when you press the stylus lightly
against the tablet. The valid range is 0 to 255. See Set brush size, shape,
and profile (page 91).
Max Radius
The radius of the brush (measured in pixels) when you press the stylus
strongly against the tablet. The valid range is 0 to 255. See Set brush size,
shape, and profile (page 91).
59
Min Opacity
Controls how see-through the paint applied by the brush is when you press
the stylus very lightly against the tablet. If Min Opacity is less than 1, and you
sketch several times in the same spot, the paint will build up and become
more opaque. The valid range is 0 (fully transparent) to 1 (fully opaque). See
Set brush and paint opacity (page 88).
Max Opacity
Controls how see-through the paint applied by the brush is when you press
the stylus very strongly against the tablet. If Max Opacity is less than 1, and
you sketch several times in the same spot, the paint will build up and become
more opaque. The valid range is 0 (fully transparent) to 1 (fully opaque). See
Set brush and paint opacity (page 88).
Aspect
Controls how flat or circular the brush stamp is. The valid range is 0.01 (very
flat and thin) to 1 (circular). See Set brush size, shape, and profile (page 91).
Rotation
The angle (measured in degrees) of the brush stamp. If Aspect is less than
1, changing Rotation makes the brush stamp more horizontal (0) or more
vertical (90). The valid range is 0 to 360. See Set brush size, shape, and
profile (page 91).
Stamp tab
Texture and Shape
Capture Mode
Off — No capture will take place.
Shape — The next click of the mouse on the image will capture the Shape
(the alpha channel) directly beneath the brush as a snapshot to use for a
brush stamp.
Shape and Texture — The next click of the mouse on the image will capture
both the paint and the Shape directly beneath the brush as a snapshot to use
for a brush stamp. Any transparency on the image layer will be captured, as
will the colors.
Use Stamp
Off — Do not use any stamp. Use the regular brush.
Shape — Use the captured shape (alpha channel) for the brush.
Shape and Texture — Use the captured shape (alpha channel) and texture
(color) for the brush.
60
Profile
>
Brush Profile
Controls the softness or hardness of the brush stamp edges. See Set brush
size, shape, and profile (page 91). Select one of Regular, Solid, Hard Solid,
or Buzz from the pop-up menu to obtain the following brush profiles.
Regular
Solid
Hard Solid
Buzz
To use a brush profile you have customized, select the Custom menu item.
To create a custom brush profile, double-click any brush icon in the Sketch#2
shelf to open the brush editor.
Stroke tab
Changing these settings changes the appearance of a sequence of brush profiles
laid down by dragging the stylus or mouse across the image layer.
Spacing Bias
Controls the space between stamps in a stroke. Low values produce smooth
strokes with no spaces between stamps. Higher values produce strokes that
appear as a series of dots. The valid range is 0 to 255. See Set brush stroke
properties (page 93).
Spacing Noise
The amount of random variation in the space between stamps in a stroke.
The valid range is 0 (no random variation) to 25 (high random variation). See
Set brush stroke properties (page 93).
Rotate to Stroke
Check—The brush stamp rotates in the direction of the brush stroke as you
sketch.
No check—The brush stamp always remains in the same direction and does
not rotate in the direction of the brush stroke.
See Set brush stroke properties (page 93).
Rotation Jitter
The amount of random variation in the brush stamp direction. The valid range
is 0 (no random variation) to 255 (high random variation). See Set brush
stroke properties (page 93).
61
Paint > Solidbrush
Applies solid strokes of paint to the active image layer.
This feature is not available in SurfaceStudio.
The following brushes are provided: Brush Felt, and Brush Solid.
To select a brush and sketch with it
Markers, airbrushes, and solid brushes are not available in SurfaceStudio. The
default pencils in SurfaceStudio are colored.
1
Choose a brush tool (Paint > Brush type > Brush name).
You can also select a brush from the default Sketching or Annotate shelf.
The Pencil, Marker, Airbrush, and Solid tools let you drag the stylus to apply
strokes of paint to a sketch image plane.
The Eraser tool lets you drag the stylus to remove paint from a sketch image
plane in strokes.
When a brush tool is active, the cursor becomes a crosshair with the letter P
(for paint) or E (for eraser).
When you hold the cursor over a sketch image plane, the cursor also
displays a preview image of how the brush will apply paint to the sketch.
62
2
Drag the stylus on the sketch image plane to begin sketching.
Notes and tips
●
To erase, use the eraser on the stylus.
●
To create a horizontal brush stroke in an orthographic window, drag the
middle mouse button (or the equivalent stylus button).
To create a vertical brush stroke in an orthographic window, drag the right
mouse button (or the equivalent stylus button).
●
To snap a brush to a curve, click the Crv button to the right of the prompt line
(or hold down the Ctrl and Alt keys).
Curve
Snapping
●
To draw a curve or straight line with more precision, use the predictive stroke
hotkeys. (See Sketch using predictive strokes (page 96))
●
Brushes are most responsive when you are viewing the sketch image plane
at its actual size (1:1).
Brush strokes may appear slow when you are zoomed out of a sketch image
plane; however, this is because the stroke is actually very large relative to the
sketch image plane.
Some of these options are also available in the Paint Panel when this tool is
active.
Brush Options
Reset
Resets all Brush Options to their default settings. If brushes have been
saved to the shelf, reset will reset to those settings at the time the brush was
saved to the shelf.
Minimum radius, if available
for this tool.
Maximum radius, if available
for this tool.
Maximum opacity, if available
for this tool.
Brush stroke
Minimum opacity, if available
for this tool.
63
Properties tab
Brush Mode
Controls whether the brush will:
apply paint as a brush (Paint) (see Paint and erase (page 81)
erase paint (Erase) (see Paint and erase (page 81)
◆
hide paint (Hide)
◆
show hidden paint (Show)
◆
smear paint (Smear) (see Smear paint (page 133)
◆
blur paint (Blur) (see Blur paint (page 131)
◆
sharpen paint (Sharpen) (see Sharpen paint (page 132)
◆
lighten paint (Dodge)
◆
darken paint (Burn)
See also Set brush mode to paint, erase, hide, or show (page 85).
◆
◆
Brush Color
The color of the brush’s paint. See Set brush paint color (page 86).
Color Opacity
Controls how see-through the paint applied by the brush is. If Color Opacity
is less than 1, and you sketch several times in the same spot, the paint will
not build up and become more opaque. The valid range is 0 (entirely clear
and invisible) to 1 (entirely opaque). See Set brush and paint
opacity (page 88).
Preserve Color
Check—When you save the brush to a shelf, its current color is saved with it.
When you later select the brush from the shelf, its color will be the same as
when you saved it to the shelf. When you save the brush to a palette, its
current color is not saved when exiting AliasStudio.
No check—When you save the brush to a shelf, its current color is not saved
with it. When you later select the brush from the shelf, its color will be the
current color.
See Set brush paint color (page 86).
Min Radius
The radius of the brush (measured in pixels) when you press the stylus lightly
against the tablet. The valid range is 0 to 255. See Set brush size, shape,
and profile (page 91).
Max Radius
The radius of the brush (measured in pixels) when you press the stylus
strongly against the tablet. The valid range is 0 to 255. See Set brush size,
shape, and profile (page 91).
64
Min Opacity
Controls how see-through the paint applied by the brush is when you press
the stylus very lightly against the tablet. If Min Opacity is less than 1, and you
sketch several times in the same spot, the paint will build up and become
more opaque. The valid range is 0 (fully transparent) to 1 (fully opaque). See
Set brush and paint opacity (page 88).
Max Opacity
Controls how see-through the paint applied by the brush is when you press
the stylus very strongly against the tablet. If Max Opacity is less than 1, and
you sketch several times in the same spot, the paint will build up and become
more opaque. The valid range is 0 (fully transparent) to 1 (fully opaque). See
Set brush and paint opacity (page 88).
Aspect
Controls how flat or circular the brush stamp is. The valid range is 0.01 (very
flat and thin) to 1 (circular). See Set brush size, shape, and profile (page 91).
Rotation
The angle (measured in degrees) of the brush stamp. If Aspect is less than
1, changing Rotation makes the brush stamp more horizontal (0) or more
vertical (90). The valid range is 0 to 360. See Set brush size, shape, and
profile (page 91).
Stamp tab
Texture and Shape
Capture Mode
Off — No capture will take place.
Shape — The next click of the mouse on the image will capture the Shape
(the alpha channel) directly beneath the brush as a snapshot to use for a
brush stamp.
Shape and Texture — The next click of the mouse on the image will capture
both the paint and the Shape directly beneath the brush as a snapshot to use
for a brush stamp. Any transparency on the image layer will be captured, as
will the colors.
Use Stamp
Off — Do not use any stamp. Use the regular brush.
Shape — Use the captured shape (alpha channel) for the brush.
Shape and Texture — Use the captured shape (alpha channel) and texture
(color) for the brush.
65
Profile
>
Brush Profile
Controls the softness or hardness of the brush stamp edges. See Set brush
size, shape, and profile (page 91). Select one of Regular, Solid, Hard Solid,
or Buzz from the pop-up menu to obtain the following brush profiles.
Regular
Solid
Hard Solid
Buzz
To use a brush profile you have customized, select the Custom menu item.
To create a custom brush profile, double-click any brush icon in the Sketch#2
shelf to open the brush editor.
Stroke tab
Changing these settings changes the appearance of a sequence of brush profiles
laid down by dragging the stylus or mouse across the image layer.
Spacing Bias
Controls the space between stamps in a stroke. Low values produce smooth
strokes with no spaces between stamps. Higher values produce strokes that
appear as a series of dots. The valid range is 0 to 255. See Set brush stroke
properties (page 93).
Spacing Noise
The amount of random variation in the space between stamps in a stroke.
The valid range is 0 (no random variation) to 25 (high random variation). See
Set brush stroke properties (page 93).
Rotate to Stroke
Check—The brush stamp rotates in the direction of the brush stroke as you
sketch.
No check—The brush stamp always remains in the same direction and does
not rotate in the direction of the brush stroke.
See Set brush stroke properties (page 93).
Rotation Jitter
The amount of random variation in the brush stamp direction. The valid range
is 0 (no random variation) to 255 (high random variation). See Set brush
stroke properties (page 93).
66
Paint > Eraser
Erases paint from the active image layer.
The following eraser tools are provided: Eraser Soft, and Eraser Hard.
To select a brush and sketch with it
Markers, airbrushes, and solid brushes are not available in SurfaceStudio. The
default pencils in SurfaceStudio are colored.
1
Choose a brush tool (Paint > Brush type > Brush name).
You can also select a brush from the default Sketching or Annotate shelf.
The Pencil, Marker, Airbrush, and Solid tools let you drag the stylus to apply
strokes of paint to a sketch image plane.
The Eraser tool lets you drag the stylus to remove paint from a sketch image
plane in strokes.
When a brush tool is active, the cursor becomes a crosshair with the letter P
(for paint) or E (for eraser).
When you hold the cursor over a sketch image plane, the cursor also
displays a preview image of how the brush will apply paint to the sketch.
2
Drag the stylus on the sketch image plane to begin sketching.
67
Notes and tips
●
To erase, use the eraser on the stylus.
●
To create a horizontal brush stroke in an orthographic window, drag the
middle mouse button (or the equivalent stylus button).
To create a vertical brush stroke in an orthographic window, drag the right
mouse button (or the equivalent stylus button).
●
To snap a brush to a curve, click the Crv button to the right of the prompt line
(or hold down the Ctrl and Alt keys).
Curve
Snapping
●
To draw a curve or straight line with more precision, use the predictive stroke
hotkeys. (See Sketch using predictive strokes (page 96))
●
Brushes are most responsive when you are viewing the sketch image plane
at its actual size (1:1).
Brush strokes may appear slow when you are zoomed out of a sketch image
plane; however, this is because the stroke is actually very large relative to the
sketch image plane.
Brush Options
Some of these options are also available in the Paint Panel when this tool is
active.
Reset
Resets all Brush Options to their default settings. If brushes have been
saved to the shelf, reset will reset to those settings at the time the brush was
saved to the shelf.
Minimum radius, if available
for this tool.
Maximum radius, if available
for this tool.
Maximum opacity, if available
for this tool.
Brush stroke
Minimum opacity, if available
for this tool.
Properties tab
Brush Mode
Controls whether the brush will:
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
68
apply paint as a brush (Paint) (see Paint and erase (page 81)
erase paint (Erase) (see Paint and erase (page 81)
hide paint (Hide)
show hidden paint (Show)
smear paint (Smear) (see Smear paint (page 133)
blur paint (Blur) (see Blur paint (page 131)
sharpen paint (Sharpen) (see Sharpen paint (page 132)
◆
lighten paint (Dodge)
◆
darken paint (Burn)
See also Set brush mode to paint, erase, hide, or show (page 85).
◆
◆
Min Radius
The radius of the brush (measured in pixels) when you press the stylus lightly
against the tablet. The valid range is 0 to 255. See Set brush size, shape,
and profile (page 91).
Max Radius
The radius of the brush (measured in pixels) when you press the stylus
strongly against the tablet. The valid range is 0 to 255. See Set brush size,
shape, and profile (page 91).
Min Opacity
Controls how see-through the paint applied by the brush is when you press
the stylus very lightly against the tablet. If Min Opacity is less than 1, and you
sketch several times in the same spot, the paint will build up and become
more opaque. The valid range is 0 (fully transparent) to 1 (fully opaque). See
Set brush and paint opacity (page 88).
Max Opacity
Controls how see-through the paint applied by the brush is when you press
the stylus very strongly against the tablet. If Max Opacity is less than 1, and
you sketch several times in the same spot, the paint will build up and become
more opaque. The valid range is 0 (fully transparent) to 1 (fully opaque). See
Set brush and paint opacity (page 88).
Aspect
Controls how flat or circular the brush stamp is. The valid range is 0.01 (very
flat and thin) to 1 (circular). See Set brush size, shape, and profile (page 91).
Rotation
The angle (measured in degrees) of the brush stamp. If Aspect is less than
1, changing Rotation makes the brush stamp more horizontal (0) or more
vertical (90). The valid range is 0 to 360. See Set brush size, shape, and
profile (page 91).
Stamp tab
Texture and Shape
Capture Mode
Off — No capture will take place.
Shape — The next click of the mouse on the image will capture the Shape
(the alpha channel) directly beneath the brush as a snapshot to use for a
brush stamp.
69
Shape and Texture — The next click of the mouse on the image will capture
both the paint and the Shape directly beneath the brush as a snapshot to use
for a brush stamp. Any transparency on the image layer will be captured, as
will the colors.
Use Stamp
Off — Do not use any stamp. Use the regular brush.
Shape — Use the captured shape (alpha channel) for the brush.
Shape and Texture — Use the captured shape (alpha channel) and texture
(color) for the brush.
Profile
>
Brush Profile
Controls the softness or hardness of the brush stamp edges. See Set brush
size, shape, and profile (page 91). Select one of Regular, Solid, Hard Solid,
or Buzz from the pop-up menu to obtain the following brush profiles.
Regular
Solid
Hard Solid
Buzz
To use a brush profile you have customized, select the Custom menu item.
To create a custom brush profile, double-click any brush icon in the Sketch#2
shelf to open the brush editor.
Stroke tab
Changing these settings changes the appearance of a sequence of brush profiles
laid down by dragging the stylus or mouse across the image layer.
Spacing Bias
Controls the space between stamps in a stroke. Low values produce smooth
strokes with no spaces between stamps. Higher values produce strokes that
appear as a series of dots. The valid range is 0 to 255. See Set brush stroke
properties (page 93).
Spacing Noise
The amount of random variation in the space between stamps in a stroke.
The valid range is 0 (no random variation) to 25 (high random variation). See
Set brush stroke properties (page 93).
Rotate to Stroke
Check—The brush stamp rotates in the direction of the brush stroke as you
sketch.
70
No check—The brush stamp always remains in the same direction and does
not rotate in the direction of the brush stroke.
See Set brush stroke properties (page 93).
71
Paint > Eraser > Clear canvas layer
Erases the whole content of the image layer at once.
Simply select the layer, then choose Paint > Eraser > Clear canvas layer. All the
paint is removed, but the image layer remains.
This tool is also found in the Edit menu of the Canvas Layer Editor.
See Select an image layer (page 72)
See Windows > Editors > Canvas Layer editor.
72
Paint > Effectbrush > Sharpen brush
Sharpens paint on the active image layer.
This feature is not available in SurfaceStudio.
The following sharpening brushes are provided: Small Sharpenbrush, Medium
Sharpenbrush, and Large Sharpenbrush.
To select a brush and sketch with it
Markers, airbrushes, and solid brushes are not available in SurfaceStudio. The
default pencils in SurfaceStudio are colored.
1
Choose a brush tool (Paint > Brush type > Brush name).
You can also select a brush from the default Sketching or Annotate shelf.
The Pencil, Marker, Airbrush, and Solid tools let you drag the stylus to apply
strokes of paint to a sketch image plane.
The Eraser tool lets you drag the stylus to remove paint from a sketch image
plane in strokes.
When a brush tool is active, the cursor becomes a crosshair with the letter P
(for paint) or E (for eraser).
When you hold the cursor over a sketch image plane, the cursor also
displays a preview image of how the brush will apply paint to the sketch.
73
2
Drag the stylus on the sketch image plane to begin sketching.
Notes and tips
●
To erase, use the eraser on the stylus.
●
To create a horizontal brush stroke in an orthographic window, drag the
middle mouse button (or the equivalent stylus button).
To create a vertical brush stroke in an orthographic window, drag the right
mouse button (or the equivalent stylus button).
●
To snap a brush to a curve, click the Crv button to the right of the prompt line
(or hold down the Ctrl and Alt keys).
Curve
Snapping
●
To draw a curve or straight line with more precision, use the predictive stroke
hotkeys. (See Sketch using predictive strokes (page 96))
●
Brushes are most responsive when you are viewing the sketch image plane
at its actual size (1:1).
Brush strokes may appear slow when you are zoomed out of a sketch image
plane; however, this is because the stroke is actually very large relative to the
sketch image plane.
Some of these options are also available in the Paint Panel when this tool is
active.
Brush Options
Reset
Resets all Brush Options to their default settings. If brushes have been
saved to the shelf, reset will reset to those settings at the time the brush was
saved to the shelf.
Minimum radius, if available
for this tool.
Maximum radius, if available
for this tool.
Maximum opacity, if available
for this tool.
Brush stroke
74
Minimum opacity, if available
for this tool.
Properties tab
Brush Mode
Controls whether the brush will:
apply paint as a brush (Paint) (see Paint and erase (page 81)
erase paint (Erase) (see Paint and erase (page 81)
◆
hide paint (Hide)
◆
show hidden paint (Show)
◆
smear paint (Smear) (see Smear paint (page 133)
◆
blur paint (Blur) (see Blur paint (page 131)
◆
sharpen paint (Sharpen) (see Sharpen paint (page 132)
◆
lighten paint (Dodge)
◆
darken paint (Burn)
See also Set brush mode to paint, erase, hide, or show (page 85).
◆
◆
Min Radius
The radius of the brush (measured in pixels) when you press the stylus lightly
against the tablet. The valid range is 0 to 255. See Set brush size, shape,
and profile (page 91).
Max Radius
The radius of the brush (measured in pixels) when you press the stylus
strongly against the tablet. The valid range is 0 to 255. See Set brush size,
shape, and profile (page 91).
Min Opacity
Controls how see-through the paint applied by the brush is when you press
the stylus very lightly against the tablet. If Min Opacity is less than 1, and you
sketch several times in the same spot, the paint will build up and become
more opaque. The valid range is 0 (fully transparent) to 1 (fully opaque). See
Set brush and paint opacity (page 88).
Max Opacity
Controls how see-through the paint applied by the brush is when you press
the stylus very strongly against the tablet. If Max Opacity is less than 1, and
you sketch several times in the same spot, the paint will build up and become
more opaque. The valid range is 0 (fully transparent) to 1 (fully opaque). See
Set brush and paint opacity (page 88).
Aspect
Controls how flat or circular the brush stamp is. The valid range is 0.01 (very
flat and thin) to 1 (circular). See Set brush size, shape, and profile (page 91).
Rotation
The angle (measured in degrees) of the brush stamp. If Aspect is less than
1, changing Rotation makes the brush stamp more horizontal (0) or more
vertical (90). The valid range is 0 to 360. See Set brush size, shape, and
profile (page 91).
75
Sharpen Properties
Sharpness
Controls how much the brush will sharpen paint on the active image layer.
The valid range is 0 (no sharpening) to 10 (strong sharpening). See Sharpen
paint (page 132).
Sharpen Strength
Controls the extent that the brush will sharpen paint on the active image
layer. Each pixel in the image layer is sharpened by comparing it with a
certain number of its surrounding pixels based on the Sharpen Strength
value. For example, if Sharpen Strength is set to 4, then each pixel is
sharpened by comparing it with all surrounding pixels within a 4 pixel radius.
The valid range is 0 to 4. See Sharpen paint (page 132).
Stamp tab
Profile
>
Brush Profile
Controls the softness or hardness of the brush stamp edges. See Set brush
size, shape, and profile (page 91). Select one of Regular, Solid, Hard Solid,
or Buzz from the pop-up menu to obtain the following brush profiles.
Regular
Solid
Hard Solid
Buzz
To use a brush profile you have customized, select the Custom menu item.
To create a custom brush profile, double-click any brush icon in the Sketch#2
shelf to open the brush editor.
Stroke tab
Changing these settings changes the appearance of a sequence of brush profiles
laid down by dragging the stylus or mouse across the image layer.
Spacing Bias
Controls the space between stamps in a stroke. Low values produce smooth
strokes with no spaces between stamps. Higher values produce strokes that
appear as a series of dots. The valid range is 0 to 255. See Set brush stroke
properties (page 93).
76
Spacing Noise
The amount of random variation in the space between stamps in a stroke.
The valid range is 0 (no random variation) to 25 (high random variation). See
Set brush stroke properties (page 93).
Rotate to Stroke
Check—The brush stamp rotates in the direction of the brush stroke as you
sketch.
No check—The brush stamp always remains in the same direction and does
not rotate in the direction of the brush stroke.
See Set brush stroke properties (page 93).
Rotation Jitter
The amount of random variation in the brush stamp direction. The valid range
is 0 (no random variation) to 255 (high random variation). See Set brush
stroke properties (page 93).
77
Paint > Effectbrush > Blur brush
Blurs paint on the active image layer.
This feature is not available in SurfaceStudio.
To select a brush and sketch with it
Markers, airbrushes, and solid brushes are not available in SurfaceStudio. The
default pencils in SurfaceStudio are colored.
1
Choose a brush tool (Paint > Brush type > Brush name).
You can also select a brush from the default Sketching or Annotate shelf.
The Pencil, Marker, Airbrush, and Solid tools let you drag the stylus to apply
strokes of paint to a sketch image plane.
The Eraser tool lets you drag the stylus to remove paint from a sketch image
plane in strokes.
When a brush tool is active, the cursor becomes a crosshair with the letter P
(for paint) or E (for eraser).
When you hold the cursor over a sketch image plane, the cursor also
displays a preview image of how the brush will apply paint to the sketch.
2
78
Drag the stylus on the sketch image plane to begin sketching.
Notes and tips
●
To erase, use the eraser on the stylus.
●
To create a horizontal brush stroke in an orthographic window, drag the
middle mouse button (or the equivalent stylus button).
To create a vertical brush stroke in an orthographic window, drag the right
mouse button (or the equivalent stylus button).
●
To snap a brush to a curve, click the Crv button to the right of the prompt line
(or hold down the Ctrl and Alt keys).
Curve
Snapping
●
To draw a curve or straight line with more precision, use the predictive stroke
hotkeys. (See Sketch using predictive strokes (page 96))
●
Brushes are most responsive when you are viewing the sketch image plane
at its actual size (1:1).
Brush strokes may appear slow when you are zoomed out of a sketch image
plane; however, this is because the stroke is actually very large relative to the
sketch image plane.
Brush Options
Some of these options are also available in the Paint Panel when this tool is
active.
Reset
Resets all Brush Options to their default settings. If brushes have been
saved to the shelf, reset will reset to those settings at the time the brush was
saved to the shelf.
Minimum radius, if available
for this tool.
Maximum radius, if available
for this tool.
Maximum opacity, if available
for this tool.
Brush stroke
Minimum opacity, if available
for this tool.
Properties tab
Brush Mode
Controls whether the brush will:
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
apply paint as a brush (Paint) (see Paint and erase (page 81)
erase paint (Erase) (see Paint and erase (page 81)
hide paint (Hide)
show hidden paint (Show)
smear paint (Smear) (see Smear paint (page 133)
79
blur paint (Blur) (see Blur paint (page 131)
sharpen paint (Sharpen) (see Sharpen paint (page 132)
◆
lighten paint (Dodge)
◆
darken paint (Burn)
See also Set brush mode to paint, erase, hide, or show (page 85).
◆
◆
Min Radius
The radius of the brush (measured in pixels) when you press the stylus lightly
against the tablet. The valid range is 0 to 255. See Set brush size, shape,
and profile (page 91).
Max Radius
The radius of the brush (measured in pixels) when you press the stylus
strongly against the tablet. The valid range is 0 to 255. See Set brush size,
shape, and profile (page 91).
Min Opacity
Controls how see-through the paint applied by the brush is when you press
the stylus very lightly against the tablet. If Min Opacity is less than 1, and you
sketch several times in the same spot, the paint will build up and become
more opaque. The valid range is 0 (fully transparent) to 1 (fully opaque). See
Set brush and paint opacity (page 88).
Max Opacity
Controls how see-through the paint applied by the brush is when you press
the stylus very strongly against the tablet. If Max Opacity is less than 1, and
you sketch several times in the same spot, the paint will build up and become
more opaque. The valid range is 0 (fully transparent) to 1 (fully opaque). See
Set brush and paint opacity (page 88).
Aspect
Controls how flat or circular the brush stamp is. The valid range is 0.01 (very
flat and thin) to 1 (circular). See Set brush size, shape, and profile (page 91).
Rotation
The angle (measured in degrees) of the brush stamp. If Aspect is less than
1, changing Rotation makes the brush stamp more horizontal (0) or more
vertical (90). The valid range is 0 to 360. See Set brush size, shape, and
profile (page 91).
Blur Properties
Blur Strength
Controls how much the brush will blur paint on the active image layer. The
valid range is 0 (no blurring) to 32 (strong blurring). See Blur
paint (page 131).
80
Stamp tab
Profile
>
Brush Profile
Controls the softness or hardness of the brush stamp edges. See Set brush
size, shape, and profile (page 91). Select one of Regular, Solid, Hard Solid,
or Buzz from the pop-up menu to obtain the following brush profiles.
Regular
Solid
Hard Solid
Buzz
To use a brush profile you have customized, select the Custom menu item.
To create a custom brush profile, double-click any brush icon in the Sketch#2
shelf to open the brush editor.
Stroke tab
Changing these settings changes the appearance of a sequence of brush profiles
laid down by dragging the stylus or mouse across the image layer.
Spacing Bias
Controls the space between stamps in a stroke. Low values produce smooth
strokes with no spaces between stamps. Higher values produce strokes that
appear as a series of dots. The valid range is 0 to 255. See Set brush stroke
properties (page 93).
Spacing Noise
The amount of random variation in the space between stamps in a stroke.
The valid range is 0 (no random variation) to 25 (high random variation). See
Set brush stroke properties (page 93).
Rotate to Stroke
Check—The brush stamp rotates in the direction of the brush stroke as you
sketch.
No check—The brush stamp always remains in the same direction and does
not rotate in the direction of the brush stroke.
See Set brush stroke properties (page 93).
Rotation Jitter
The amount of random variation in the brush stamp direction. The valid range
is 0 (no random variation) to 255 (high random variation). See Set brush
stroke properties (page 93).
81
Paint > Effectbrush > Smear brush
Smears paint on the active image layer.
This feature is not available in SurfaceStudio.
To select a brush and sketch with it
Markers, airbrushes, and solid brushes are not available in SurfaceStudio. The
default pencils in SurfaceStudio are colored.
1
Choose a brush tool (Paint > Brush type > Brush name).
You can also select a brush from the default Sketching or Annotate shelf.
The Pencil, Marker, Airbrush, and Solid tools let you drag the stylus to apply
strokes of paint to a sketch image plane.
The Eraser tool lets you drag the stylus to remove paint from a sketch image
plane in strokes.
When a brush tool is active, the cursor becomes a crosshair with the letter P
(for paint) or E (for eraser).
When you hold the cursor over a sketch image plane, the cursor also
displays a preview image of how the brush will apply paint to the sketch.
2
82
Drag the stylus on the sketch image plane to begin sketching.
Notes and tips
●
To erase, use the eraser on the stylus.
●
To create a horizontal brush stroke in an orthographic window, drag the
middle mouse button (or the equivalent stylus button).
To create a vertical brush stroke in an orthographic window, drag the right
mouse button (or the equivalent stylus button).
●
To snap a brush to a curve, click the Crv button to the right of the prompt line
(or hold down the Ctrl and Alt keys).
Curve
Snapping
●
To draw a curve or straight line with more precision, use the predictive stroke
hotkeys. (See Sketch using predictive strokes (page 96))
●
Brushes are most responsive when you are viewing the sketch image plane
at its actual size (1:1).
Brush strokes may appear slow when you are zoomed out of a sketch image
plane; however, this is because the stroke is actually very large relative to the
sketch image plane.
Brush Options
Some of these options are also available in the Paint Panel when this tool is
active.
Reset
Resets all Brush Options to their default settings. If brushes have been
saved to the shelf, reset will reset to those settings at the time the brush was
saved to the shelf.
Minimum radius, if available
for this tool.
Maximum radius, if available
for this tool.
Maximum opacity, if available
for this tool.
Brush stroke
Minimum opacity, if available
for this tool.
Properties tab
Brush Mode
Controls whether the brush will:
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
apply paint as a brush (Paint) (see Paint and erase (page 81)
erase paint (Erase) (see Paint and erase (page 81)
hide paint (Hide)
show hidden paint (Show)
smear paint (Smear) (see Smear paint (page 133)
83
blur paint (Blur) (see Blur paint (page 131)
sharpen paint (Sharpen) (see Sharpen paint (page 132)
◆
lighten paint (Dodge)
◆
darken paint (Burn)
See also Set brush mode to paint, erase, hide, or show (page 85).
◆
◆
Min Radius
The radius of the brush (measured in pixels) when you press the stylus lightly
against the tablet. The valid range is 0 to 255. See Set brush size, shape,
and profile (page 91).
Max Radius
The radius of the brush (measured in pixels) when you press the stylus
strongly against the tablet. The valid range is 0 to 255. See Set brush size,
shape, and profile (page 91).
Min Opacity
Controls how see-through the paint applied by the brush is when you press
the stylus very lightly against the tablet. If Min Opacity is less than 1, and you
sketch several times in the same spot, the paint will build up and become
more opaque. The valid range is 0 (fully transparent) to 1 (fully opaque). See
Set brush and paint opacity (page 88).
Max Opacity
Controls how see-through the paint applied by the brush is when you press
the stylus very strongly against the tablet. If Max Opacity is less than 1, and
you sketch several times in the same spot, the paint will build up and become
more opaque. The valid range is 0 (fully transparent) to 1 (fully opaque). See
Set brush and paint opacity (page 88).
Aspect
Controls how flat or circular the brush stamp is. The valid range is 0.01 (very
flat and thin) to 1 (circular). See Set brush size, shape, and profile (page 91).
Rotation
The angle (measured in degrees) of the brush stamp. If Aspect is less than
1, changing Rotation makes the brush stamp more horizontal (0) or more
vertical (90). The valid range is 0 to 360. See Set brush size, shape, and
profile (page 91).
Stamp tab
Profile
>
84
Brush Profile
Controls the softness or hardness of the brush stamp edges. See Set brush
size, shape, and profile (page 91). Select one of Regular, Solid, Hard Solid,
or Buzz from the pop-up menu to obtain the following brush profiles.
Regular
Solid
Hard Solid
Buzz
To use a brush profile you have customized, select the Custom menu item.
To create a custom brush profile, double-click any brush icon in the Sketch#2
shelf to open the brush editor.
Stroke tab
Changing these settings changes the appearance of a sequence of brush profiles
laid down by dragging the stylus or mouse across the image layer.
Spacing Bias
Controls the space between stamps in a stroke. Low values produce smooth
strokes with no spaces between stamps. Higher values produce strokes that
appear as a series of dots. The valid range is 0 to 255. See Set brush stroke
properties (page 93).
Spacing Noise
The amount of random variation in the space between stamps in a stroke.
The valid range is 0 (no random variation) to 25 (high random variation). See
Set brush stroke properties (page 93).
Rotate to Stroke
Check—The brush stamp rotates in the direction of the brush stroke as you
sketch.
No check—The brush stamp always remains in the same direction and does
not rotate in the direction of the brush stroke.
See Set brush stroke properties (page 93).
Rotation Jitter
The amount of random variation in the brush stamp direction. The valid range
is 0 (no random variation) to 255 (high random variation). See Set brush
stroke properties (page 93).
85
Paint > Effectbrush > Clone brush
Clones an area of paint on the active image layer.
This feature is not available in SurfaceStudio.
To select a brush and sketch with it
Markers, airbrushes, and solid brushes are not available in SurfaceStudio. The
default pencils in SurfaceStudio are colored.
1
Choose a brush tool (Paint > Brush type > Brush name).
You can also select a brush from the default Sketching or Annotate shelf.
The Pencil, Marker, Airbrush, and Solid tools let you drag the stylus to apply
strokes of paint to a sketch image plane.
The Eraser tool lets you drag the stylus to remove paint from a sketch image
plane in strokes.
When a brush tool is active, the cursor becomes a crosshair with the letter P
(for paint) or E (for eraser).
When you hold the cursor over a sketch image plane, the cursor also
displays a preview image of how the brush will apply paint to the sketch.
2
86
Drag the stylus on the sketch image plane to begin sketching.
Notes and tips
●
To erase, use the eraser on the stylus.
●
To create a horizontal brush stroke in an orthographic window, drag the
middle mouse button (or the equivalent stylus button).
To create a vertical brush stroke in an orthographic window, drag the right
mouse button (or the equivalent stylus button).
●
To snap a brush to a curve, click the Crv button to the right of the prompt line
(or hold down the Ctrl and Alt keys).
Curve
Snapping
●
Brushes are most responsive when you are viewing the sketch image plane
at its actual size (1:1).
Brush strokes may appear slow when you are zoomed out of a sketch image
plane; however, this is because the stroke is actually very large relative to the
sketch image plane.
Brush Options
Some of these options are also available in the Paint Panel when this tool is
active.
Reset
Resets all Brush Options to their default settings. If brushes have been
saved to the shelf, reset will reset to those settings at the time the brush was
saved to the shelf.
Minimum radius, if available
for this tool.
Maximum radius, if available
for this tool.
Maximum opacity, if available
for this tool.
Brush stroke
Minimum opacity, if available
for this tool.
Properties tab
Min Radius
The radius of the brush (measured in pixels) when you press the stylus lightly
against the tablet. The valid range is 0 to 255. See Set brush size, shape,
and profile (page 91).
Max Radius
The radius of the brush (measured in pixels) when you press the stylus
strongly against the tablet. The valid range is 0 to 255. See Set brush size,
shape, and profile (page 91).
87
Min Opacity
Controls how see-through the paint applied by the brush is when you press
the stylus very lightly against the tablet. If Min Opacity is less than 1, and you
sketch several times in the same spot, the paint will build up and become
more opaque. The valid range is 0 (fully transparent) to 1 (fully opaque). See
Set brush and paint opacity (page 88).
Max Opacity
Controls how see-through the paint applied by the brush is when you press
the stylus very strongly against the tablet. If Max Opacity is less than 1, and
you sketch several times in the same spot, the paint will build up and become
more opaque. The valid range is 0 (fully transparent) to 1 (fully opaque). See
Set brush and paint opacity (page 88).
Aspect
Controls how flat or circular the brush stamp is. The valid range is 0.01 (very
flat and thin) to 1 (circular). See Set brush size, shape, and profile (page 91).
Rotation
The angle (measured in degrees) of the brush stamp. If Aspect is less than
1, changing Rotation makes the brush stamp more horizontal (0) or more
vertical (90). The valid range is 0 to 360. See Set brush size, shape, and
profile (page 91).
Stamp tab
Profile
>
Brush Profile
Controls the softness or hardness of the brush stamp edges. See Set brush
size, shape, and profile (page 91). Select one of Regular, Solid, Hard Solid,
or Buzz from the pop-up menu to obtain the following brush profiles.
Regular
Solid
Hard Solid
Buzz
To use a brush profile you have customized, select the Custom menu item.
To create a custom brush profile, double-click any brush icon in the Sketch#2
shelf to open the brush editor.
Stroke tab
Changing these settings changes the appearance of a sequence of brush profiles
laid down by dragging the stylus or mouse across the image layer.
88
Spacing Bias
Controls the space between stamps in a stroke. Low values produce smooth
strokes with no spaces between stamps. Higher values produce strokes that
appear as a series of dots. The valid range is 0 to 255. See Set brush stroke
properties (page 93).
Spacing Noise
The amount of random variation in the space between stamps in a stroke.
The valid range is 0 (no random variation) to 25 (high random variation). See
Set brush stroke properties (page 93).
Rotate to Stroke
Check—The brush stamp rotates in the direction of the brush stroke as you
sketch.
No check—The brush stamp always remains in the same direction and does
not rotate in the direction of the brush stroke.
See Set brush stroke properties (page 93).
89
Paint > Effectbrush > Dodge brush
The Dodge brush lightens the color of the paint, on the active image layer, as if a
bright light of the selected brush color was projected on it.
.This feature is not available in SurfaceStudio.
To select a brush and sketch with it
Markers, airbrushes, and solid brushes are not available in SurfaceStudio. The
default pencils in SurfaceStudio are colored.
1
Choose a brush tool (Paint > Brush type > Brush name).
You can also select a brush from the default Sketching or Annotate shelf.
The Pencil, Marker, Airbrush, and Solid tools let you drag the stylus to apply
strokes of paint to a sketch image plane.
The Eraser tool lets you drag the stylus to remove paint from a sketch image
plane in strokes.
When a brush tool is active, the cursor becomes a crosshair with the letter P
(for paint) or E (for eraser).
When you hold the cursor over a sketch image plane, the cursor also
displays a preview image of how the brush will apply paint to the sketch.
90
2
Drag the stylus on the sketch image plane to begin sketching.
Notes and tips
●
To erase, use the eraser on the stylus.
●
To create a horizontal brush stroke in an orthographic window, drag the
middle mouse button (or the equivalent stylus button).
To create a vertical brush stroke in an orthographic window, drag the right
mouse button (or the equivalent stylus button).
●
To snap a brush to a curve, click the Crv button to the right of the prompt line
(or hold down the Ctrl and Alt keys).
Curve
Snapping
●
To draw a curve or straight line with more precision, use the predictive stroke
hotkeys. (See Sketch using predictive strokes (page 96))
●
Brushes are most responsive when you are viewing the sketch image plane
at its actual size (1:1).
Brush strokes may appear slow when you are zoomed out of a sketch image
plane; however, this is because the stroke is actually very large relative to the
sketch image plane.
Brush Options
Some of these options are also available in the Paint Panel when this tool is
active.
Reset
Resets all Brush Options to their default settings. If brushes have been
saved to the shelf, reset will reset to those settings at the time the brush was
saved to the shelf.
Minimum radius, if available
for this tool.
Maximum radius, if available
for this tool.
Maximum opacity, if available
for this tool.
Brush stroke
Minimum opacity, if available
for this tool.
Properties tab
Brush Mode
Controls whether the brush will:
◆
◆
◆
apply paint as a brush (Paint) (see Paint and erase (page 81)
erase paint (Erase) (see Paint and erase (page 81)
hide paint (Hide)
91
show hidden paint (Show)
smear paint (Smear) (see Smear paint (page 133)
◆
blur paint (Blur) (see Blur paint (page 131)
◆
sharpen paint (Sharpen) (see Sharpen paint (page 132)
◆
lighten paint (Dodge)
◆
darken paint (Burn)
See also Set brush mode to paint, erase, hide, or show (page 85).
◆
◆
Min Radius
The radius of the brush (measured in pixels) when you press the stylus lightly
against the tablet. The valid range is 0 to 255. See Set brush size, shape,
and profile (page 91).
Max Radius
The radius of the brush (measured in pixels) when you press the stylus
strongly against the tablet. The valid range is 0 to 255. See Set brush size,
shape, and profile (page 91).
Min Opacity
Controls how see-through the paint applied by the brush is when you press
the stylus very lightly against the tablet. If Min Opacity is less than 1, and you
sketch several times in the same spot, the paint will build up and become
more opaque. The valid range is 0 (fully transparent) to 1 (fully opaque). See
Set brush and paint opacity (page 88).
Max Opacity
Controls how see-through the paint applied by the brush is when you press
the stylus very strongly against the tablet. If Max Opacity is less than 1, and
you sketch several times in the same spot, the paint will build up and become
more opaque. The valid range is 0 (fully transparent) to 1 (fully opaque). See
Set brush and paint opacity (page 88).
Aspect
Controls how flat or circular the brush stamp is. The valid range is 0.01 (very
flat and thin) to 1 (circular). See Set brush size, shape, and profile (page 91).
Rotation
The angle (measured in degrees) of the brush stamp. If Aspect is less than
1, changing Rotation makes the brush stamp more horizontal (0) or more
vertical (90). The valid range is 0 to 360. See Set brush size, shape, and
profile (page 91).
92
Stamp tab
Profile
>
Brush Profile
Controls the softness or hardness of the brush stamp edges. See Set brush
size, shape, and profile (page 91). Select one of Regular, Solid, Hard Solid,
or Buzz from the pop-up menu to obtain the following brush profiles.
Regular
Solid
Hard Solid
Buzz
To use a brush profile you have customized, select the Custom menu item.
To create a custom brush profile, double-click any brush icon in the Sketch#2
shelf to open the brush editor.
Stroke tab
Changing these settings changes the appearance of a sequence of brush profiles
laid down by dragging the stylus or mouse across the image layer.
Spacing Bias
Controls the space between stamps in a stroke. Low values produce smooth
strokes with no spaces between stamps. Higher values produce strokes that
appear as a series of dots. The valid range is 0 to 255. See Set brush stroke
properties (page 93).
Spacing Noise
The amount of random variation in the space between stamps in a stroke.
The valid range is 0 (no random variation) to 25 (high random variation). See
Set brush stroke properties (page 93).
Rotate to Stroke
Check—The brush stamp rotates in the direction of the brush stroke as you
sketch.
No check—The brush stamp always remains in the same direction and does
not rotate in the direction of the brush stroke.
See Set brush stroke properties (page 93).
Rotation Jitter
The amount of random variation in the brush stamp direction. The valid range
is 0 (no random variation) to 255 (high random variation). See Set brush
stroke properties (page 93).
93
Paint > Effectbrush > Burn brush
The Burn brush darkens the color of the paint, on the active image layer, as if
paint of the selected brush color was added to it.
.This feature is not available in SurfaceStudio.
To select a brush and sketch with it
Markers, airbrushes, and solid brushes are not available in SurfaceStudio. The
default pencils in SurfaceStudio are colored.
1
Choose a brush tool (Paint > Brush type > Brush name).
You can also select a brush from the default Sketching or Annotate shelf.
The Pencil, Marker, Airbrush, and Solid tools let you drag the stylus to apply
strokes of paint to a sketch image plane.
The Eraser tool lets you drag the stylus to remove paint from a sketch image
plane in strokes.
When a brush tool is active, the cursor becomes a crosshair with the letter P
(for paint) or E (for eraser).
When you hold the cursor over a sketch image plane, the cursor also
displays a preview image of how the brush will apply paint to the sketch.
94
2
Drag the stylus on the sketch image plane to begin sketching.
Notes and tips
●
To erase, use the eraser on the stylus.
●
To create a horizontal brush stroke in an orthographic window, drag the
middle mouse button (or the equivalent stylus button).
To create a vertical brush stroke in an orthographic window, drag the right
mouse button (or the equivalent stylus button).
●
To snap a brush to a curve, click the Crv button to the right of the prompt line
(or hold down the Ctrl and Alt keys).
Curve
Snapping
●
To draw a curve or straight line with more precision, use the predictive stroke
hotkeys. (See Sketch using predictive strokes (page 96))
●
Brushes are most responsive when you are viewing the sketch image plane
at its actual size (1:1).
Brush strokes may appear slow when you are zoomed out of a sketch image
plane; however, this is because the stroke is actually very large relative to the
sketch image plane.
Brush Options
Some of these options are also available in the Paint Panel when this tool is
active.
Reset
Resets all Brush Options to their default settings. If brushes have been
saved to the shelf, reset will reset to those settings at the time the brush was
saved to the shelf.
Minimum radius, if available
for this tool.
Maximum radius, if available
for this tool.
Maximum opacity, if available
for this tool.
Brush stroke
Minimum opacity, if available
for this tool.
Properties tab
Brush Mode
Controls whether the brush will:
◆
◆
◆
apply paint as a brush (Paint) (see Paint and erase (page 81)
erase paint (Erase) (see Paint and erase (page 81)
hide paint (Hide)
95
show hidden paint (Show)
smear paint (Smear) (see Smear paint (page 133)
◆
blur paint (Blur) (see Blur paint (page 131)
◆
sharpen paint (Sharpen) (see Sharpen paint (page 132)
◆
lighten paint (Dodge)
◆
darken paint (Burn)
See also Set brush mode to paint, erase, hide, or show (page 85).
◆
◆
Min Radius
The radius of the brush (measured in pixels) when you press the stylus lightly
against the tablet. The valid range is 0 to 255. See Set brush size, shape,
and profile (page 91).
Max Radius
The radius of the brush (measured in pixels) when you press the stylus
strongly against the tablet. The valid range is 0 to 255. See Set brush size,
shape, and profile (page 91).
Min Opacity
Controls how see-through the paint applied by the brush is when you press
the stylus very lightly against the tablet. If Min Opacity is less than 1, and you
sketch several times in the same spot, the paint will build up and become
more opaque. The valid range is 0 (fully transparent) to 1 (fully opaque). See
Set brush and paint opacity (page 88).
Max Opacity
Controls how see-through the paint applied by the brush is when you press
the stylus very strongly against the tablet. If Max Opacity is less than 1, and
you sketch several times in the same spot, the paint will build up and become
more opaque. The valid range is 0 (fully transparent) to 1 (fully opaque). See
Set brush and paint opacity (page 88).
Aspect
Controls how flat or circular the brush stamp is. The valid range is 0.01 (very
flat and thin) to 1 (circular). See Set brush size, shape, and profile (page 91).
Rotation
The angle (measured in degrees) of the brush stamp. If Aspect is less than
1, changing Rotation makes the brush stamp more horizontal (0) or more
vertical (90). The valid range is 0 to 360. See Set brush size, shape, and
profile (page 91).
96
Stamp tab
Profile
>
Brush Profile
Controls the softness or hardness of the brush stamp edges. See Set brush
size, shape, and profile (page 91). Select one of Regular, Solid, Hard Solid,
or Buzz from the pop-up menu to obtain the following brush profiles.
Regular
Solid
Hard Solid
Buzz
To use a brush profile you have customized, select the Custom menu item.
To create a custom brush profile, double-click any brush icon in the Sketch#2
shelf to open the brush editor.
Stroke tab
Changing these settings changes the appearance of a sequence of brush profiles
laid down by dragging the stylus or mouse across the image layer.
Spacing Bias
Controls the space between stamps in a stroke. Low values produce smooth
strokes with no spaces between stamps. Higher values produce strokes that
appear as a series of dots. The valid range is 0 to 255. See Set brush stroke
properties (page 93).
Spacing Noise
The amount of random variation in the space between stamps in a stroke.
The valid range is 0 (no random variation) to 25 (high random variation). See
Set brush stroke properties (page 93).
Rotate to Stroke
Check—The brush stamp rotates in the direction of the brush stroke as you
sketch.
No check—The brush stamp always remains in the same direction and does
not rotate in the direction of the brush stroke.
See Set brush stroke properties (page 93).
Rotation Jitter
The amount of random variation in the brush stamp direction. The valid range
is 0 (no random variation) to 255 (high random variation). See Set brush
stroke properties (page 93).
97
Paint > FloodFill
Flood or fill a consistently colored area of an image layer with paint.
This feature is not available in SurfaceStudio.
Reset
Resets all Brush Options to their default settings. If brushes have been
saved to the shelf, reset will reset to those settings at the time the brush was
saved to the shelf.
Properties tab
These options are also available in the Paint Panel when this tool is active.
Flood fill properties
Brush Color
The color of paint that fills the area of the image layer you click.
Color Opacity
Controls how see-through the paint that fills the area of the image layer you
click is. Paint with a low Color Opacity is more transparent than paint with a
high Color Opacity. The valid range is 0 to 1.
Tolerance
Controls the range of colors that are filled. A low value fills pixels having a
color very similar to the color you click. A high value fills pixels having a
broader range of colors. The valid range is 0 to 255.
See Flood an area with paint on page 97.
98
Paint > Pick Layer by Color
Lets you select a layer by clicking on its paint.
To select a layer by clicking on its paint
1
Do one of the following:
◆
◆
2
With any brush active, press and hold the Z key.
Choose Paint > Pick Layer By Color.
Click the paint of the layer you want to select.
Pick Layer by Color Options
OpacityThreshold
The opacity that a pixel of paint must have in order for the Pick Layer By
Color to select its layer. The valid range is 0 to 1. The default value is 0.25.
Ignore Shape Layers
On—You can pick image layers. You cannot pick shape layers.
Off—You can pick image layers or shape layers.
99
Paint > Select > MagicWand
Select a consistently colored area of an image layer.
This feature is not available in SurfaceStudio.
See Replace background in an image with a texture on page 165.
See Create a mask by selecting a region on page 116.
Magic Wand Options
These options are also available in the Paint Panel when this tool is active.
Magic Wand Selection Mode
Allows you to create a new selection area (New), add to the selection area
(Add), or subtract from the selection area (Subtract).
Tolerance
Controls the range of colors that are selected. A low value selects pixels
having a color very similar to the color you click. A high value selects pixels
having a broader range of colors. The valid range is 0 to 255.
100
Paint > Select > Marquee
Select a rectangular, circular, or elliptical region of an image layer.
This feature is not available in SurfaceStudio.
The following selection tools are provided: Marquee (rectangle), Marquee
(circle), and Marquee (ellipse).
Marquee Options
These options are also available in the Paint Panel when this tool is active.
Marquee Selection Mode
Allows you to create a new selection area (New), add to the selection area
(Add), or subtract from the selection area (Subtract).
101
Paint > Select > Toggle marquee
Toggle a marquee on or off.
This feature is not available in SurfaceStudio.
This makes the marquee visible or invisible.
102
Paint > Select > Invert marquee
Invert the selection region defined by a marquee.
This feature is not available in SurfaceStudio.
The masked regions become unmasked, and the unmasked regions become
masked.
103
Paint > Select > Clear Marquee
Remove the marquee.
This feature is not available in SurfaceStudio.
The selection area defined by the marquee is cleared.
104
Paint > Select > Transform marquee
Move or scale the selection region defined by a marquee.
This feature is not available in SurfaceStudio.
Choosing this tool displays a manipulator on the marquee. The manipulator is
intially placed at the geometrical center of the marquee (pivot point).
The transformations are applied to the marquee as you click and drag on the
different handles.
Move only vertically
Rotate
Free move
Move only
horizontally
Resize
.
Move pivot point
105
Paint > Shape > Make image shape outline
Create a shape outline from a curve or set of curves.
This feature is not available in SurfaceStudio.
1
Choose Paint > Shape > Make image shape outline from the palette.
You are prompted to
Select a curve
2
Click on each curve to include in the shape. (Make sure you click the part of
the curve that you want to include in the shape boundary.)
Do not drag a pick box around complex curve structures, or the shape may
not appear as you expect.
The curves are highlighted. You are prompted to
Select another curve. If done, press ACCEPT button.
3
Click the Accept button.
The curves become a shape. Only the shape outline is visible.
To see the shape fill as well, turn on Visibility under Shape Fill Options in the
Paint Control Panel.
To create certain shapes, you may need to select the curves that define the
shape in more than one location. Simply select each curve segment that
forms a boundary of the shape region, even if this means selecting the same
curve more than once.
See Create a shape for more details.
106
Paint > Shape > Make image shape fill
Create a shape from a curve or set of curves.
This feature is not available in SurfaceStudio.
1
Choose Paint > Shape > Make image shape fill from the palette.
You are prompted to
Select a curve
2
Click on each curve to include in the shape. (Make sure you click the part of
the curve that you want to include in the shape boundary.)
Do not drag a pick box around complex curve structures, or the shape may
not appear as you expect.
The curves are highlighted. You are prompted to
Select another curve. If done, press ACCEPT button.
3
Click the Accept button.
The curves becomes a shape. Only the shape fill is visible.
To see the shape outline as well, turn on Visibility under Shape Outline
Options in the Paint Control Panel.
To create certain shapes, you may need to select the curves that define the
shape in more than one location. Simply select each curve segment that
forms a boundary of the shape region, even if this means selecting the same
curve more than once.
See Create a shape for more details.
107
Paint > Shape > Make mask shape
Create a mask from curves.
This feature is not available in SurfaceStudio.
See Create a mask shape from text on page 119.
Ensure you are working on a paint layer. Mask shapes cannot be created on
shape layers.
1
Choose Paint > Shape > Make mask shape from the palette.
You are prompted to
Select a curve
2
Click on each curve to include in the shape. (Make sure you click the part of
the curve that you want to include in the shape boundary.)
Do not drag a pick box around complex curve structures, or the shape may
not appear as you expect.
The curves are highlighted. You are prompted to
Select another curve. If done, press ACCEPT button.
3
Click the Accept button.
The curves becomes a mask.
To create certain shapes, you may need to select the curves that define the
shape in more than one location. Simply select each curve segment that
forms a boundary of the shape region, even if this means selecting the same
curve more than once.
See Create a shape for more details.
108
Paint > Shape > Make invisibility mask shape
Create an invisibility mask from curves.
This feature is not available in SurfaceStudio.
See Project a sketch for fast design label mapping on page 215.
Ensure you are working on a paint layer. Invisibility mask shapes cannot be
created on shape layers.
1
Choose Paint > Shape > Make invisibility mask shape from the palette.
You are prompted to
Select a curve
2
Click on each curve to include in the shape. (Make sure you click the part of
the curve that you want to include in the shape boundary.)
Do not drag a pick box around complex curve structures, or the shape may
not appear as you expect.
The curves are highlighted. You are prompted to
Select another curve. If done, press ACCEPT button.
3
Click the Accept button.
The curve becomes an invisibility mask.
To create certain shapes, you may need to select the curves that define the
shape in more than one location. Simply select each curve segment that
forms a boundary of the shape region, even if this means selecting the same
curve more than once.
See Create a shape for more details.
109
Paint > Text Image
Use text to annotate images or to develop concepts.
AliasStudio now has a text tool to use when painting. This text tool, Paint > Text
Image, uses your installed system fonts. When you create text, it is created on its
own layer of the canvas, giving you greater freedom to move and manipulate it
without destroying work on underlying layers.
Name of selected font
List of fonts (scroll
to see full list)
Color for text brush. Click to
open color editor.
Font attributes (Bold, Bold Italic, Italic,
Normal)
Font size
Tracking (average space
between letters)
Click to underline
text
Click for a horizontal line
through the text
●
To create a new text layer, click in a blank area on a canvas. The text cursor
is shown, ready for you to type some text. Each time you create a new text
string, it is placed on its own layer.
●
To change the color or font, click inside the text boundary to select and
highlight the text. The text cursor locates at the nearest character.
●
To create a new text layer, click in a blank area of the canvas and drag the
mouse. The text cursor follows the mouse.
●
To move text, drag it using the mouse button.
Please note that the text tool does not support multi-byte languages such as
Japanese, Korean, or Chinese.
110
Paint > PaintSymmetry > Modify canvas brush symmetry
Sketch and automatically have the strokes mirrored, either bilaterally or radially.
To use bilateral symmetry
1
In the option box, set Symmetry Type to Bilateral
The axis of symmetry appears as a dotted line.
2
Modify the axis in the following ways:
◆
◆
◆
◆
3
Drag the central red dot to move the axis.
Drag a red double-arrow to change the orientation of the axis. The axis
rotates around the other double-arrow.
Move the double-arrows along the axis to change the rotation pivots.
Click the Reset button at the bottom of the window to reset the axis to its
original position.
Select any brush and start sketching.
Everything you sketch on one side of the axis automatically gets drawn on
the other side, as a mirror image.
To use radial symmetry
1
In the option box, set Symmetry type to Radial, and Num Radial Sections to
the number of sections.
A number of axes of symmetry (equal to the value of Num Radial Sections)
appear as dotted lines radially emanating from a center point.
2
Modify the axes in the following ways:
◆
◆
◆
3
Drag the central red dot to move the center point.
Drag the red double-arrow to change the orientation of the axes (by
rotating them around the center point).
Click the Reset button at the bottom of the window to reset the axes to
their original position.
Select any brush and start sketching.
Everything you sketch within one of the sections automatically gets drawn in
all the other sections, creating a sort of kaleidoscopic effect.
To stop sketching symmetrically
Do one of the following to toggle off symmetry:
●
In the option box, turn off Symmetry Active.
●
Choose Paint > PaintSymmetry > Toggle canvas brush symmetry.
Options
111
Symmetry Active
Check/uncheck this option to turn symmetrical sketching on or off.
Symmetry Type
Bilateral: Defines an axis (straight line) on the canvas which acts as the
“mirror”.
Radial: Defines a number of lines emanating radially from a center point.
They divide the canvas into a number of sections, each mirroring everything
drawn in any of the other sections.
Num Radial Sections
Specifies the number of sections defined by the radial lines when Symmetry
Type is set to Radial.
112
Paint > PaintSymmetry > Toggle canvas brush symmetry
Toggle on or off the brush symmetry.
See also Paint > PaintSymmetry > Modify canvas brush symmetry.
113
Paint > Color Editor
Open up the Color Editor window.
This is another way to open the Color Editor window to change the color of the
paint brushes
See Set brush paint color (page 86).
114
Paint Edit palette
115
Paint Edit > Modify layer > Transform layer
Moves, resizes, and rotates the content of one or more image layers.
Choosing the tool displays a manipulator on the canvas layer. The manipulator
covers the entire layer and lets you apply the transformations illustrated below.
Rotate (all
edges)
Free move
Move rotate/scale
pivot
(anywhere
inside)
Scale
vertically
Scale
horizontally
Scale in both
directions
To move only horizontally or vertically, hold the Shift key and move the
mouse in the desired direction. You can also use the arrow keys to move by
small increments.
A context-sensitive cursor shows the current transform mode (move, scale,
rotate) as you move the mouse over the manipulator.
The effect of the transformations is shown on the layer as you click and drag on
the different handles. However, you must click the Accept button to apply the
transformations permanently.
To input precise numerical values, use the option box.
See also To move, scale, or rotate an image layer (page 73)
Options
Interactive Preview
Turn on this option if you want the sketch to update interactively as you
transform the layer with the manipulator.
When transforming several large layers simultaneoulsy, turning this option
off will speed up the interaction.
>
Transform
Translate (pixel)
Enter values for the horizontal and vertical translation amounts (in pixels).
Rotate (degree)
Enter a value for the rotation angle (in degrees). Positive values rotate
counter-clockwise around the rotation pivot.
116
Scale (%)
Enter a value for the scale factor, as a percentage of the original size (100%).
A negative value will mirror the image.
Buttons
Accept
Press this button once you are happy with the new position/orientation/size
of your image and want to bake the transformed image into your layer.
The transformation can still be undone afterwards by using Edit > Undo.
Reset Pivot
Press this button to re-position the pivot at the geometrical center of the
layer.
Reset All
Press this button to undo all the transformations applied to the layer either
through the manipulator or the option box.
This will not undo transformations that have already been applied by clicking
the Accept button.
117
Paint Edit > Modify layer > Horizontal flip
Flips the active image layer from right to left.
This feature is not available in SurfaceStudio.
118
Paint Edit > Modify layer > Vertical flip
Flips the active image layer from top to bottom.
This feature is not available in SurfaceStudio.
119
Paint Edit > Deform image layer
Warp and deform an image by moving the four corners and sides.
Choose from Free or Skew
Choose from Perspective or
Distort
When checked, changes are
visible while being made
Move sliders to adjust midpoint
of image horizontally or
vertically.
When checked, Guidelines
are used.
Choosing Perspective will change the midpoint of the image as you change the
control points, and changes the image so it looks like it has been tilted away.
Choosing Distort reshapes the image, but doesn’t attempt to force a perspective
view.
Selecting Skew for the constraint type mirrors the change on one side or corner
to the opposite side or corner.
Interactive Display gives you the choice of seeing the changes as you distort the
image, or speeding the action by only showing the result of the distortion when
you release the mouse button.
Guidelines are created based on the point’s position when you start to drag the
point. Using the guidelines can help you make changes that are controlled by the
borders of the image layer.
Image Deform operations can be undone using the standard Edit > Undo menu
item.
When Image Deform is selected, the options are added to the Paint panel.
All studio snap modes (grid, point, and curve) work with image deformation,
allowing the manipulator handles to be snapped to geometry.
Drag one or more of eight points
on the edge of the image plane
to reshape the image layer (the
drag points are circled in green
in this illustration).
Drag the center point to move
the layer on the image plane.
Click the Accept button to
confirm the reshaping.
120
Paint Edit > Make warp shape
Modify an image layer by changing the shape of an area of interest.
See Modify an object with curve warp shapes on page 209.
Use this tool to quickly modify an image layer to change the appearance of an
object without spending extensive time remodeling a speculative design change.
Using the ability to warp a shape on an image, you can quickly answer the
question, “What if it were taller/shorter/rounder/more square?”
To manipulate an image layer using Make warp shape:
1
Make the image layer current.
2
Ensure that you have a curve or curves that you want to serve as the shape
manipulators.
3
Choose Paint Edit > Make warp shape. Click the curve or curves you want to
be warp shapes.
4
A check mark appears next to each curve.
5
Click Accept to convert the curves to warp shapes.
6
Now that you have created warp shapes, drag CVs, scale curves, or perform
other actions upon the shape. You will interactively see the image warp, based
on the movement of the curve or CVs on the curve.
A new section appears in the Paint Control panel while you are warping an
image.
To adjust how much of the image warps, use
the Influence slider to change the number of
pixels that will be affected
To visually check how much of the image has
modified, click the Feedback check box. A
grid is shown on the model that demonstrates
where the warping has occurred.
Note the grid distortion where the roof line has been moved.
121
Paint Edit > Color correction > Brightness & contrast
Use the Brightness and Contrast window to easily adjust the appearance of an
image layer. Please note that these changes happen only on the current layer.
Use these buttons to change
the magnification of the image
layer in this editor
The Adjustment Type
determines the range of color values
that will be modified.
This image shows the
original state of your
image layer.
Drag in either of
these two
windows to pan
large images
Change these sliders to
increase or reduce the
amount of variation
between the original
image and the modified
images
This image shows the
current state of your
changes.
Clear reverts the image to its appearance on entering the editor.
Accept leaves the editor and has the changes applied to the image layer.
Cancel leaves the editor without saving any changes
Choose an Adjustment Type. The Adjustment type determines which range of
color values will be modified. You may choose to modify:
●
All color tones
●
Only highlight
●
Only midtones
●
Only shadows
Adjust the Brightness Factor and Contrast Factor sliders to update the image on
the bottom left, for comparison with the original image at the top. The slider
values can be negative. The defaults are 0.0.
The smaller the values (both positive and negative), the finer the adjustment.
122
Paint Edit > Color correction > Saturation & value
Use the Saturation and Value window to easily adjust the saturation and value of
an image layer. Please note that these changes happen only on the current layer.
Use these buttons to change the
magnification of the image layer in
this editor
The Adjustment Type
determines the range of color
values that will be modified.
This image shows the
original state of your
image layer.
Drag in either of
these two
windows to pan
large images
Change these sliders to
increase or reduce the
amount of variation
between the original
image and the modified
images
This image shows the
current state of your
changes.
Clear reverts the image to its appearance on entering the editor.
Accept leaves the editor and has the changes applied to the image layer.
Cancel leaves the editor without saving any changes
Choose an Adjustment Type. The Adjustment type determines which range of
color values will be modified. You may choose to modify:
●
All color tones
●
Only highlight
●
Only midtones
●
Only shadows
Adjust the Saturation Factor and Value Factor sliders to update the image on the
bottom left, for comparison with the original image at the top. The slider values
can be negative. The defaults are 0.0.
The smaller the values (both positive and negative), the finer the adjustment.
123
Paint Edit > Color correction > Dodge
Use the Dodge window to easily lighten an image layer. Please note that these
changes happen only to the current layer.
This tool is based on the traditional photography technique of holding back light
to lighten an area on the film.
Dodge lightens areas of an image (highlights, shadows, midtones or all tones) as
if a bright light of the selected color was projected on them.
Use these buttons to change the
magnification of the image layer in
this editor
The Adjustment Type
determines the range of color
values that will be modified.
Change these sliders to
increase or reduce the
amount of variation
between the original
image and the modified
images
Clear reverts the image to its appearance on entering the editor.
Accept leaves the editor and has the changes applied to the image layer.
Cancel leaves the editor without saving any changes
Choose an Adjustment Type. The Adjustment type determines which range of
color values will be modified. You may choose to modify:
●
All color tones
●
Only highlight
●
Only midtones
●
Only shadows
Adjust the Dodge Factor and Color sliders to update the image on the bottom, for
comparison with the original image at the top.The smaller the values, the finer the
adjustment.
To change the color of the “light”, click on the color swatch to open the color
editor.
124
Paint Edit > Color correction > Burn
Use the Burn window to easily darken an image layer. Please note that these
changes happen only to the current layer.
This tool is based on the traditional photography technique of increasing the
exposure to darken areas on the film.
Burn darkens areas of an image (highlights, shadows, midtones or all tones) as if
paint of the selected color was added to them.
Use these buttons to change the
magnification of the image layer in
this editor
The Adjustment Type
determines the range of color
values that will be modified.
Change these sliders to
increase or reduce the
amount of variation
between the original
image and the modified
images
Clear reverts the image to its appearance on entering the editor.
Accept leaves the editor and has the changes applied to the image layer.
Cancel leaves the editor without saving any changes
Choose an Adjustment Type. The Adjustment type determines which range of
color values will be modified. You may choose to modify:
●
All color tones
●
Only highlight
●
Only midtones
●
Only shadows
Adjust the Burn Factor and Color sliders to update the image on the bottom, for
comparison with the original image at the top.The smaller the values, the finer the
adjustment.
To change the color of the “paint”, click on the color swatch to open the color
editor.
125
Paint Edit > Color correction > Color balance
Use this window to easily adjust the color balance of an image layer. Please note
that these changes happen only to the current layer.
See Protect part of an image from color adjustment changes on
page 140.
See Modify an object with curve warp shapes on page 209.
See Adjust colors on page 138.
Use these buttons to
change the magnification
of the image layer in this
editor
The Adjustment Type
determines the range of
color values that will be
modified.
Normally, gray
areas remain
gray. This
check box
enables you to
colorize them
This image shows the
original state of your
image layer.
Drag in either of
these two
windows to pan
large images
This image shows the
current state of your
changes.
Undo changes on a step-by-step basis
Redo undone changes on a step-by-step basis
Clear reverts the image to its appearance on entering the
editor.
Accept leaves the editor and has the changes applied to the
image layer.
Cancel leaves the editor without saving any changes
126
Change this
slider to
increase or
reduce the
amount of
variation
between the
original
image and
the modified
images
Click one of these images to
modify the amount of that color
in your image. Note that clicking
on a square will not add color to
an area that is gray unless you
check Add Hue to
Grayscale Areas.
Paint Edit > Color correction > Color replace (HSV)
Select a color or range of colors, and replace it with another range.
Choose Paint Edit > Color correction > Color replace (HSV) to replace colors in
an image with new colors.
Use these buttons to
change the magnification
of the image layer in this
editor
Click on an eyedropper to
choose an initial color, to
add to the color range, or to
subtract from the color
range.
Move sliders to select a range. The
upper sliders affect the color range on
the original image. The lower sliders
select the target color range.
This image shows the
original state of your
image layer.
Drag in either of
these two
windows to pan
large images
Click one or
more check
boxes to
adjust Hue,
Saturation,
or Value.
Click the down arrow to
move the selected color
range to the target colors.
This image shows the
current state of your
changes.
Click the up arrow to
move the target color
range to the selected
colors.
Export Selection copies the selected parts of the image to
the mask layer
Undo changes on a step-by-step basis
Redo undone changes on a step-by-step basis
Clear cancels the changes made without leaving the editor
Accept leaves the editor and has the changes applied to the
image layer.
Cancel leaves the editor without saving any changes
Select a range on the original image using either the eyedroppers or by dragging
the sliders on one of the three bars (Hue, Saturation, or Value). The sliders offer
the ability to fine-tune the edges of the selection as well as the ability to move the
whole range without affecting the size of the range.
127
Selected colors
“fade” or “feather”
regions
Selected
color region
128
Use to
drag
whole
range
Target colors “fade” or
“feather” regions
Target
color
region
Paint Edit > Color correction > Color replace (HSL)
Select a color or range of colors, and replace it with another range.
Choose Paint Edit > Color correction > Color replace (HSL) to replace colors in
an image with new colors.
Use these buttons to
change the magnification
of the image layer in this
editor
Click on an eyedropper to
choose an initial color, to
add to the color range, or to
subtract from the color
range.
Move sliders to select a range. The
upper sliders affect the color range on
the original image. The lower sliders
select the target color range.
This image shows the
original state of your
image layer.
Drag in either of
these two
windows to pan
large images
Click one or
more check
boxes to
adjust Hue,
Saturation, or
Luminance.
Click the down arrow to
move the selected color
range to the target colors.
This image shows the
current state of your
changes.
Click the up arrow to
move the target color
range to the selected
colors.
Export Selection copies the selected parts of the image to
the mask layer
Undo changes on a step-by-step basis
Redo undone changes on a step-by-step basis
Clear cancels the changes made without leaving the editor
Accept leaves the editor and has the changes applied to the
image layer.
Cancel leaves the editor without saving any changes
Select a range on the original image using either the eyedroppers or by dragging
the sliders on one of the three bars (Hue, Saturation, or Value). The sliders offer
the ability to fine-tune the edges of the selection as well as the ability to move the
whole range without affecting the size of the range.
129
Selected colors
“fade” or “feather”
regions
Selected
color region
130
Use to
drag
whole
range
Target colors “fade” or
“feather” regions
Target
color
region
Paint Edit > Layer effect > Sharpen layer
Sharpens paint in all unmasked regions of the active image layer.
This feature is not available in SurfaceStudio.
See Sharpen paint on page 132.
Sharpen Layer Options
Sharpness
Controls the amount of sharpening. The valid range is 0 (no sharpening) to
10 (maximum sharpening).
Sharpen Strength
Each pixel in the image layer is sharpened by comparing it with a certain
number of its surrounding pixels based on the Sharpen Strength value. For
example, if Sharpen Strength is set to 4, then each pixel is sharpened by
comparing it with all surrounding pixels within a 4 pixel radius. The valid
range is 0 to 4.
131
Paint Edit > Layer effect > Blur layer
Blurs paint in all unmasked regions of the active image layer.
This feature is not available in SurfaceStudio.
See Replace background in an image with a texture on page 165.
See Blur paint on page 131.
Blur Layer Options
Blur Strength
Each pixel in the image layer is blurred with a certain number of its
surrounding pixels based on the Blur Strength value. For example, if Blur
Strength is set to 4, then each pixel is blurred with all surrounding pixels
within a 4 pixel radius. The valid range is 0 (no blur) to 32 (maximum blur).
132
Paint Edit > Layer operation
This menu contains the following tools, which are also available from the Canvas
Layer Editor:
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
Canvas image layer
Canvas mask layer
Canvas invisibility mask layer
Canvas layer folder
Duplicate canvas layer
Merge below
Merge visible layers
Merge all image layers
These tools are made available in the Palette so they can be assigned hotkeys to
speed up your workflow.
For an explanation of how to create hotkeys, see See Create and edit hotkeys on
page 136.
133
Paint Edit > Layer operation > Canvas image layer
Create a new image layer containing the image of the current window.
134
Paint Edit > Layer operation > Canvas mask layer
Create a new mask layer. The layer will appear in the bottom section of the
Canvas Layer Editor.
135
Paint Edit > Layer operation > Canvas invisibility mask layer
Create a new invisibility mask layer (previously called stencil). The layer will
appear in the bottom section of the Canvas Layer Editor.
136
Paint Edit > Layer operation > Canvas Layer Folder
Creates a new Folder to hold canvas layers, and places a new canvas inside
it.
137
Paint Edit > Layer operation > Duplicate canvas layer
Makes a duplicate of the currently selected image layer, shape layer, or mask
layer. The new layer is placed above the original layer. Duplicate layers are
named by adding -1, -2, -3, etc, to the layer name.
138
Paint Edit > Layer operation > Merge below
Merges the current paint layer and the paint layer directly beneath it, and
uses the name of the lower layer’s name.
139
Paint Edit > Layer operation > Merge visible layers
Merges all paint layers that are visible. To retain some layers, turn their
visibility off by clicking the eye icon before performing a merge.
140
Paint Edit > Layer operation > Merge all image layers
Merges all paint layers on the selected canvas or overlay plane and discards
layer masks.
141
142
Curves palette
143
Curves > Primitives > Circle
Creates a NURBS curve in the form of a planar circle.
See Create a 3D geometric primitive on page 161.
Circle options
Periodic
When this option is turned on (check mark) the circles are closed curves,
with the first and last span overlapping. (This corresponds to the circle
primitives created in previous versions of the software.)
When this option is turned off (no check mark), the circles are open curves,
with only the first and last CV touching. They can be opened by moving those
CVs apart. They also use an algorithm that produces better quality circles
and the ability to specify a range of degrees (see below).
The following options only appear when Periodic is turned on.
Object Degree
The degree of the NURBS curve, either 1 (polygonal) or 3 (cubic).
Sections
The number of subdivisions (spans) on the curve.
The default is 8. At least 4 subdivisions are usually needed to create a
workable primitive shape. It is not usually necessary to use more than 20
subdivisions.
The following options only appear when Periodic is turned off.
Sweep Angle
The degrees of rotation around the center of the circle.
For example, if you enter 180 degrees, AliasStudio will create a half circle.
Arc Degree
Specifies the degree of the circle. The values range from 2 to 7. The default
is 5.
Arc Spans
Specifies the number of spans in the circle. The values range from 1 to 14.
The default is 1.
The sum of the degree and number of spans cannot exceed 16.
When creating rational geometry, as set in Preferences > Construction
options, the Arc Spans option is not available.
144
Curves > Primitives > Circular arc
Creates basic shape using keypoint curves.
This tool enables you to specify a circle by first placing its centerpoint, and then
clicking to indicate a point that lies on the curve.
To draw a circular arc
1
Click the Arcs > Circular arc icon, or choose Arcs > Circular arc from the Curves
palette menu.
2
Click the centerpoint of the arc, or type a 3D coordinate to place the point
exactly.
3
Click a point that will lie on the arc, or type a 3D coordinate to place the point
exactly.
As you drag the circumference, the Circular arc tool displays the radius of the
circle in current linear units.
145
Curves > Primitives > Ellipse
Lets you create a keypoint ellipse by drawing the two major axis points, or by
drawing a center point and a major axis point.
Options
Ellipse Definition
Axis endpoints: Draw the ellipse by specifying both endpoints of the major
axis.
Center and end point: Draw the ellipse by specifying the center and one
endpoint of the major axis.
Axis length ratio
The ratio of the length of the minor axis to the major axis.
For example, a value of 0.5 will produce an ellipse half as tall as it is wide. A
value of 1.0 will produce a circle.
Sweep
The number of degrees of the ellipse that will be drawn.
For example, a value of 180 degrees will produce half of a full ellipse. A value
of 90 degrees will produce a quarter ellipse.
To draw a keypoint ellipse from the center
1
Double-click the Ellipse icon, or choose Ellipse ❒ from the Curves palette
menu.
2
Set Ellipse Definition to Center and end point. Click Go.
3
Click the center of the ellipse, or type a 3D coordinate to place the point
exactly.
4
Click the end of the ellipse, or type a 3D coordinate to place the point exactly.
As you drag the end point, the Ellipse tool displays the length of the two radii
in current linear units.
To draw a keypoint ellipse end-to-end
146
1
Double-click the Ellipse icon, or choose Ellipse ❒ from the Curves palette
menu.
2
Set Ellipse Definition to Axis endpoints. Click Go.
3
Click the first end of the ellipse, or type a 3D coordinate to place the point
exactly.
4
Click the opposite end of the ellipse, or type a 3D coordinate to place the point
exactly.
As you drag the end point, the Ellipse tool displays the length of the two axes
in current linear units.
147
Curves > Primitives > Rectangle
Create Degree 1 rectangular curves.
To create a rectangle, click in a modeling window on points to be opposing
corners.
148
Curves > Primitives > Sweeps
Lets you add and modify curves to the scene from a standard library of common
curves (sweeps).
See Create a curve from a library of pre-drawn curves (sweeps)
on page 150.
See Manage your sweeps library on page 151.
File menu
Save Sweeps
Saves your user-defined library of sweeps to a file. Other users can then
import the file into their own library.
Import Sweeps
Imports the contents of a saved sweeps file into your user-defined sweeps
library.
Edit menu
Add Sweeps
Adds any picked curves to your user-defined library as individual sweeps.
Delete Selected Sweep
Deletes the selected sweep from your user-defined library.
View menu
Show Sweep Names
Shows the name of the sweep (the name of the sweep is the name of the
original object that was added to the library).
149
Curves > New curves > New Curve by CVs
Creates new NURBS curves in the scene by placing CVs.
See Animate objects along a motion path on page 1528.
See Draw a curve by placing CVs or edit points on page 149.
Options
Knot Spacing
A “knot” is the parameter value at an edit point.
Chord: the new curve’s edit points will be parameterized by the chord length
of the curve in current units. The chord length is the cumulative straight line
distance between consecutive edit points.The starting point of the curve has
the parameter 0.0, and the ending point has the parameter equal to the total
chord length of the curve.
Uniform: the new curve’s edit points will have integral parameters: the first
edit point will be parameter 0.0, the second will be 1.0, and so on.
Curve Degree
The mathematical degree of the curve created, which control the number of
CVs per span: 1 (linear), 2 (quadratic), 3 (cubic), 5 or 7. The default is 3.
Progressive Degree
Turn on this option to see the curve immediately after two CVs have been
placed, regardless of the value of Curve Degree.
This is accomplished by gradually increasing the degree of the curve as CVs
are placed down, up to the final degree of the curve. After two CVs, the curve
will have degree 1, after three CVs, the curve will have degree 2, etc.
Create Guidelines
Create vertical and horizontal guidelines at each point you create.
150
Curves > New curves > New Curve by Edit Points
Creates new NURBS curves in the scene by placing edit points.
See Draw a curve by placing CVs or edit points on page 149.
See Create a curve connecting objects on page 152.
Options
Knot Spacing
A “knot” is the parameter value at an edit point.
Chord: the new curve’s edit points will be parameterized by the chord length
of the curve in current units. The chord length is the cumulative straight line
distance between consecutive edit points.The starting point of the curve has
the parameter 0.0, and the ending point has the parameter equal to the total
chord length of the curve.
Uniform: the new curve’s edit points will have integral parameters: the first
edit point will be parameter 0.0, the second will be 1.0, and so on.
Curve Degree
The mathematical degree of the curve created, which control the number of
CVs per span: 1 (linear), 2 (quadratic), 3 (cubic), 5 or 7. The default is 3.
Create Guidelines
Create vertical and horizontal guidelines at each point you create.
151
Curves > New Curves > New Curve by Sketch
Creates a smooth curve by drawing its shape, rather than working with edit points
or CVs.
Options
Curve Degree
Choose from 1, 2, 3, 5 or 7.
Tolerance
Determines how closely the curve will try to mimic the cursor movement.
Maximum spans
Together with the curve degree, determines the number of points that will be
laid down for the curve.
152
Curves > Blend curve toolbox
Shows or hides an extra palette window containing tools for creating and editing
blend curves.
Blend curves are special free curves that you draw by placing constraints upon
their shape (such as points the curve must pass through, surfaces the curve must
be continuous with, and directions the curve must travel).
Choose to show an extra floating palette containing the BlendCrv Tools tab.
See Blend curves on page 10.
See Continuity on page 27.
See Difference between meshes and polysets on page 44.
See Edit or reshape a blend curve on page 256.
See Attach or detach blend points on page 257.
See Flatten a blend curve to a plane on page 259.
See Change the tangent direction at a blend point on page 264.
See Draw a blend curve on page 151.
See Create a curve connecting objects on page 152.
153
BlendCrv Tools > Blend curve create
Lets you create new blend curves in the scene by placing location constraints.
You can also use this tool to edit existing blend curves.
See Draw a blend curve on page 151.
See Create a curve connecting objects on page 152.
Use the Blend curve create tool to create the initial shape of the curve. Then you
can add, edit, or delete the initial constraints using the constraint tools.
Knot Spacing
“Knot” is another term for edit point.
Chord: the new curve’s edit points will be parameterized by the chord length
of the curve in current units. The chord length is the cumulative straight line
distance between consecutive edit points.The starting point of the curve has
the parameter 0.0, and the ending point has the parameter equal to the total
chord length of the curve.
Uniform: the new curve’s edit points will have integral parameters: the first
edit point will be parameter 0.0, the second will be 1.0, and so on.
Curve Degree
The mathematical degree of the curve created, which control the number of
CVs per span: 1 (linear), 2 (quadratic), 3 (cubic), 5 or 7. The default is 5. (For
some products the default may be 3.)
Degree 2, 5 and 7 curves are not available for all AliasStudio products.
154
BlendCrv Tools > Blend curve add points
Adds control points (constraints) to an existing blend curve.
See Edit or reshape a blend curve on page 256.
If an end point of a blend curve is active, using this tool will extend the blend
curve.
To add a point interior to a blend curve, choose Pick > Nothing and then click
and drag on the blend curve to place a new point.
155
BlendCrv Tools > Blend curve edit
Lets you edit the direction and continuity of a blend point.
See Change the tangent direction at a blend point on page 264.
The Blend Curve Edit tool has a manipulator function allowing you to move
individual Blend Points in your curve. This manipulator has a move handle, at the
center of the point, which can be dragged into a new position.
To move a blend point
1
Select the Blend Point.
2
Release the mouse button and click the handle to move the point.
Manipulator move handle.
The BlendCrv Tools > Constraint Interpolation Direction tool allows your
to move blend points. This can be invoked during curve creation. In this
instance, the point added last is highlighted and can be moved while a curve
is being created.
156
BlendCrv Tools > Blend curve planarize
Locks or unlocks a blend curve to a reference plane.
See Flatten a blend curve to a plane on page 259.
Pick a blend curve and a reference plane, then choose this tool to lock the blend
curve to the reference plane.
Pick the blend curve and choose the tool again to unlock the curve from the
plane.
Notes
●
If you don’t pick a reference plane, the tool will create one.
●
If the blend curve is attached at its ends, the plane is created from those two
points and the view direction.
●
If you pick blend points (constraints) instead of the entire blend curve, the
plane is created from the locations of the blend points.
157
BlendCrv Tools > Blend constraint dissociate
Frees the picked blend curve constraint from the geometry it is locked on to.
See Attach or detach blend points on page 257.
158
BlendCrv Tools > Blend pt make master
Changes the relationship between the picked blend curve constraint and any
constraints that it depends on. May reshape the curves.
See Attach or detach blend points on page 257.
159
BlendCrv Tools > Constraint Interpolation Direction
Changes the way the picked blend curve constraint controls the direction of the
curve as it passes through.
The following tools are available on the Contstraint Interpolation Direction pullout: Blend constraint interpolate location, Blend constraint interpolation direction,
and Blend constraint interpolate geometry.
Blend constraint interp location
Constrains the curve to pass through this blend point’s location.
Blend constraint interp direction
Constrains the curve to pass through this blend point in a certain direction
relative to world space. Set the direction with BlendCrv Tools > Blend
curve edit.
Blend constraint interp geometry
Constrains the curve to pass through this blend point in a certain direction
relative to the object to which it is attached. Set the direction with BlendCrv
Tools > Blend curve edit.
The BlendCrv Tools > Constraint Interpolation Direction tools enable you
to move blend points. They can be invoked during curve creation. For
example, the point added last is highlighted and can be moved while a curve
is being created.
160
BlendCrv Tools > Constraint Direction Type
Changes how the direction of the picked blend curve constraint is set.
Two tools are available on the Constraint Direction Type pull-out: Blend
constraint directed, and Blend constraint parallel.
Blend constraint directed
Constrains the curve to pass through the blend point in a certain direction.
Set the direction with BlendCrv Tools > Blend curve edit.
Blend constraint parallel
Constrains the curve to pass through the blend point along a certain line (in
either direction). Set the line with BlendCrv Tools > Blend curve edit.
161
BlendCrv Tools > Constraint Continuity
Changes the continuity required at the picked blend curve constraint.
Five tools are available on the Constraint Continuity pull-out, which support G0
through G4 continuity.
G0 is positional continuity. G1 is tangent continuity. G2 is curvature continuity.
G3 and G4 are higher levels of continuity that ensure even smoother transitions
between objects.
162
BlendCrv Tools > Constraint Curvature Type
Changes how curvature is calculated at the picked blend curve constraint.
Two tools are available on the Constraint Curvature Type pull-out: Blend
constraint geometric curvature, and Blend constraint parametric curvature.
●
Parametric curvature.
Align the curvature to an isoparametric direction of the surface.
This type of curvature is especially useful to achieve curvature continuity with
the edge of a surface.
Parametric
Blend curve
Surface
Curve aligned with
isoparametric line
●
Geometric curvature.
◆
◆
◆
Blend
curve
Construct a plane from the surface normal and the constraint direction
(or the normal and the tangent of the curve at the attach point for location
constraints).
Create a section curve by intersecting this plane with the surface.
Align the curvature to this section curve.
Geometric
Surface
normal
Plane
Curve
tangent
Curve aligned with
section curve
163
BlendCrv Tools > Curve Degree
Changes the degree of the picked blend curve(s).
Five tools are available on the Curve Degree pull-out: choose from degree 1, 2,
3, 5, or 7.
Pick the blend curve or curves you want to edit, then choose the tool
corresponding to the degree you want for the underlying curve.
164
BlendCrv Tools > Curve Knot Spacing
Changes the parameterization of the picked blend curve(s).
Two tools are available on the Curve Knot Spacing pull-out: Blend curve chord,
and Blend curve uniform.
Pick the blend curve or curves you want to edit, then choose the tool
corresponding to the parameterization you want for the underlying curve.
165
Curves > Curves > New curve on surface
Lets you create a curve-on-surface by drawing it manually.
See Curves-on-surface on page 14.
See Trimming on page 15.
See Split (divide) a surface into trimmed surfaces along curveson-surface on page 294.
See Trim a surface on page 299.
To create a curve on surface by drawing edit points
1
Double-click the New curve on surface icon, or choose Curves > New curve on
surface ❒ from the Curves palette menu.
2
Set Construction to Edit Point. Click Go.
3
Click the surface on which you will draw the new curve-on-surface.
4
Click to place the points of the new curve. You can move the new point while
the mouse button is down. When you release the mouse button, the new point
is added to the curve.
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
Click the left mouse button to place a point.
Click the middle mouse button to place a point with the same U
coordinate as the previous one.
Click the right mouse button to place a point with the same V
coordinate as the previous one.
Type a UV coordinate to place a point exactly.
Use grid snapping to snap to the nearest isoparametric curve
intersection.
Use magnet snapping to snap to the nearest edit point of a curve on
surface on that surface.
Use curve snapping to snap to another curve-on-surface, or to an
isoparametric curve.
If Curve Snap Intersections is turned on in Preferences > General
Preferences (Modeling section), curve snapping will automatically snap
a new curve-on-surface (CoS) to CoS-CoS intersections on the same
surface.
To create a curve on surface by drawing freehand
1
Double-click the New curve-on-surface icon, or choose Curves > New curve
on surface ❒ from the Curves palette menu.
2
Set Construction to Sketch. Click Go.
3
Click the surface on which you will draw the new curve on surface.
4
Drag the mouse to sketch a curve on the surface.
5
When you release the mouse button, the sketch tool fits a curve to the line you
sketched.
The surface being sketched on must be of degree 3 or less.
166
Options
Construction
The method by which curves on surface are created.
Edit Point: click points on the surface to add edit points to the new curve.
Sketch: sketch the new curve on the surface freehand.
Curve Degree
The mathematical degree of the curve created, which control the number of
CVs per span: 1 (linear) or 3 (cubic). The default is 3.
Knot Spacing
A “knot” is the parameter value of an edit point.Chord: the new curve’s edit
points will be parameterized by the chord length of the curve.
Uniform: the new curve’s edit points will have integral parameters: the first
edit point will be parameter 0.0, the second will be 1.0, and so on.
167
Curves > Lines > Line
Allows you to create a single keypoint line.
To draw a single key line
1
Click the Line icon, or choose Lines > Line from the Curves palette menu.
2
Click to place the starting point for the line, or type a 3D coordinate to place the
point exactly.
If you click the endpoint of an existing keypoint curve, the new line will attach
itself to the end of the existing curve. Dragging the common endpoint will
move both curves.
3
Click to place the end point for the line, or type a 3D coordinate to place the
point exactly.
Click the left mouse button to add the point freely.
◆
Click the middle mouse button to align the point horizontally to the first
point.
◆
Click the right mouse button to align the point vertically to the first point.
As you drag the end point, the Line tool displays the length of the line in
current linear units.
◆
168
Curves > Lines > Polyline
Allows you to create a keypoint line composed of several segments.
To draw a series of connected lines (polyline)
1
Click the Polyline icon, or choose Lines > Polyline from the Curves palette
menu.
2
Click to place the starting point for the polyline, or type a 3D coordinate to
place the point exactly.
If you click the endpoint of an existing keypoint curve, the new line will attach
itself to the end of the existing curve to create a composite curve.
3
Click to place the next point in the polyline, or type a 3D coordinate to place the
point exactly.
Click the left mouse button to add the point freely.
Click the middle mouse button to align the point horizontally to the first
point.
◆
Click the right mouse button to align the point vertically to the first point.
As you drag the end point, the Polyline tool displays the length of the line in
current linear units.
◆
◆
4
You can now:
◆
◆
◆
Repeat step 3 to add another line segment.
Click the Polyline tool to start another polyline.
Click any other tool to finish the polyline.
Tips and notes
●
You can use guidelines and curve snapping curve to quickly draw parallel
lines, tangent lines, perpendicular lines, and right angles.
●
You can use Edit > Undo to undo points in a polyline all the way back to the
start point.
169
Curves > Lines > Parallel line
Allows you to create a keypoint line parallel to another line or curve.
To draw a line parallel to a curve
1
Click the Parallel line icon, or choose Lines > Parallel line from the Curves
palette menu.
2
Click the curve to which the new line will be parallel.
◆
◆
3
Guidelines are added for the curve, allowing you to line up the start and/
or end points of the new line if needed.
If you click a curved line, the new line will be parallel to the tangent where
you click.
Click the start point of the parallel line, or type a 3D coordinate to place the
point exactly.
As you drag the start point, the Parallel Line tool displays the distance
between the lines in current linear units.
4
Click the end point of the parallel line, or type a 3D coordinate to place the
point exactly.
As you drag the end point, the Parallel Line tool displays the length of the line
in current linear units.
170
Curves > Lines > Line at angle
Allows you to create a keypoint line at an angle to another line or curve.
To draw a line at an angle to a curve
1
Click the Line at angle icon, or choose Lines > Line at angle from the Curves
palette menu.
2
Click the start point of the new line on the curve from which it will angle off.
If you click a curved line, the new line will be drawn at an angle to the line that
passes through the end point of the curve.
3
If you want to project the line at an exact angle, type the value of the angle and
press Enter. The Line at angle tool adds a new guideline at that angle.
4
Click the end point of the new line.
As you drag the end point, the Line at angle tool displays the angle in current
angular units (degrees by default).
Tips and notes
You can continue to change the offset distance (for parallel lines) or angle in
the Information window. (See the Interface section of the Basic Tools book.)
●
●
These special relationship attributes remain with the lines until you manually
modify one of the lines.
●
The relationship attribute for lines created with the Line at angle tool is called
Rel Angle (Relative angle). All lines have an attribute called Angle/Sweep,
which is the angle to the orthographic window’s horizontal axis, as well as a
Length attribute.
171
Curves > Arcs > Arc (three point)
Allows you to create a keypoint arc by putting down three points the arc must
interpolate.
To draw a three-point arc
1
Click the Arcs > Arc (three point) icon, or choose Arcs > Arc (three point)
from the Curves palette menu.
2
Click the start point of the arc, or type a 3D coordinate to place the point
exactly.
If you click the endpoint of an existing keypoint curve, the new arc will attach
itself to the end of that curve. Dragging the common endpoint will move both
curves.
3
Click a second point that will lie on the arc, or type a 3D coordinate to place the
point exactly.
◆
◆
◆
4
Click the left mouse button to add the point freely.
Click the middle mouse button to align the point horizontally to the first
point.
Click the right mouse button to align the point vertically to the first point.
Click the end point of the arc, or type a 3D coordinate to place the point
exactly.
Click the left mouse button to add the point freely.
Click the middle mouse button to align the point horizontally to the first
point.
◆
Click the right mouse button to align the point vertically to the first point.
As you drag the end point, the Arc (three point) tool displays the radius of the
arc in current linear units.
◆
◆
Options
Arc Degree
Specifies the degree of the curve. The values range from 2 to 7. The default
is 5.
Arc Spans
Specifies the number of spans in the curve. The values range from 1 to 14.
The default is 1.
The sum of the degree and number of spans cannot exceed 16.
When creating rational geometry, as set in Preferences > Construction
options, the Arc Spans option is not available.
172
Curves > Arcs > Arc (two point)
Allows you to create a keypoint arc by putting down the two end points and
specifying either the center or radius of the arc.
To draw a two-point arc
1
Click the Arcs > Arc (two point) icon, or choose Arcs > Arc (two point) from
the Curves palette menu.
2
Click the start point of the arc, or type a 3D coordinate to place the point
exactly.
If you click the endpoint of an existing keypoint curve, the new arc will attach
itself to the end of that curve. Dragging the common endpoint will move both
curves.
3
Click the end point of the arc, or type a 3D coordinate to place the point
exactly.
◆
◆
◆
4
Click the left mouse button to add the point freely.
Click the middle mouse button to align the point horizontally to the first
point.
Click the right mouse button to align the point vertically to the first point.
Click the centerpoint of the arc, or type the radius of the arc.
As you drag the center point, the Arc (two point) tool displays the radius of the
arc in current linear units.
To draw a keypoint circle
1
Click the Arcs > Circular arc icon, or choose Arcs > Circular arc from the
Curves palette menu.
2
Click the centerpoint of the arc, or type a 3D coordinate to place the point
exactly.
3
Click a point that will lie on the arc, or type a 3D coordinate to place the point
exactly.
As you drag the circumference, the Circular arc tool displays the radius of the
circle in current linear units.
173
Tips and notes
●
Key arcs are exported as IGES entity 100 (circular arc).
●
Key lines are exported as entity 110 (line).
●
Composite curves are exported as entity 102 (composite curve).
Options
Arc Degree
Specifies the degree of the curve. The values range from 2 to 7. The default
is 5.
Arc Spans
Specifies the number of spans in the curve. The values range from 1 to 14.
The default is 1.
The sum of the degree and number of spans cannot exceed 16.
When creating rational geometry, as set in Preferences > Construction
options, the Arc Spans option is not available.
174
Curves > Arcs > Arc tangent to curve
Allows you to create a keypoint arc tangent to a curve.
To draw an arc tangent to a curve
1
Click the Arcs > Arc tangent to curve icon, or choose Arcs > Arc tangent to
curve from the Curves palette menu.
2
Click the start point of the new arc on the curve it will be tangent to.
3
Click the end point of the arc, or type a 3D coordinate to place the point
exactly.
Click the left mouse button to add the point freely.
Click the middle mouse button to align the point horizontally to the first
point.
◆
Click the right mouse button to align the point vertically to the first point.
As you drag the end point, the Arc tangent to curve tool displays the radius of
the arc in current linear units.
◆
◆
Options
Arc Degree
Specifies the degree of the curve. The values range from 2 to 7. The default
is 5.
Arc Spans
Specifies the number of spans in the curve. The values range from 1 to 14.
The default is 1.
The sum of the degree and number of spans cannot exceed 16.
When creating rational geometry, as set in Preferences > Construction
options, the Arc Spans option is not available.
175
Curves > Arcs > Concentric arc
Allows you to create a keypoint arc concentric to another keypoint arc.
To draw an arc concentric to another arc
1
Click the Arcs > Concentric arc icon, or choose Arcs > Concentric arc from
the Curves palette menu.
2
Click the arc from which the new arc will be offset.
3
Click the start point of the arc, or type a 3D coordinate to place the point
exactly.
As you drag the start point, the Concentric arc tool displays the distance
between the two radii.
4
Click the end point of the arc, or type a 3D coordinate to place the point
exactly.
Tips and notes
●
Concentric arcs are always drawn in the direction that will create the smallest
sweep angle. If you want an arc of more than 180 degrees, open the
Information Window and click the Complement button under the Attributes
section.
●
To create a concentric circle, set the Angle/Sweep attribute to 360 degrees in
the Information Window.
Options
Arc Degree
Specifies the degree of the curve. The values range from 2 to 7. The default
is 5.
Arc Spans
Specifies the number of spans in the curve. The values range from 1 to 14.
The default is 1.
The sum of the degree and number of spans cannot exceed 16.
176
When creating rational geometry, as set in Preferences > Construction
options, the Arc Spans option is not available.
177
Curves > Lines (Tangent) > Line tangent to curve
Allows you to draw a keypoint line tangent to an existing curve.
To draw a line tangent to a curve
1
Click the Curves > Lines (Tangent) > Line tangent to curve icon, or choose
Lines (Tangent) > Line tangent to curve from the Curves palette menu.
2
Click the start point of the tangent line.
3
Click the curve you want the line to be tangent to.
The Line tangent to curve tool calculates the end point for the line to be
tangent to that curve.
◆
◆
178
If it cannot find a tangent, it prints a message in the prompt line.
If it finds more than one tangent, it uses the tangent closest to where you
clicked.
Curves > Lines (Tangent) > Line tangent from/to curve
Allows you to draw a keypoint line tangent to two curves.
To draw a tangent line between two curves
1
Click the Curves > Lines (Tangent) > Line tangent from/to curve icon, or
choose Lines (Tangent) > Line tangent from/to curve from the Curves palette
menu.
2
Click the first curve the tangent line will touch.
3
Click the second curve the tangent line will touch.
The Line tangent from/to curve tool calculates the line tangent to both curves.
◆
◆
If it cannot find a tangent, it prints a message in the prompt line.
If it finds more than one tangent, it uses the tangent closest to where you
clicked.
179
Curves > Lines (Tangent) > Line perpendicular to curve
Allows you to draw a keypoint line perpendicular to an existing curve.
To draw a line perpendicular to a curve
1
Click the Curves > Lines (Tangent) > Line perpendicular to curve icon, or
choose Lines (Tangent) > Line perpendicular to curve from the Curves
palette menu.
2
Click the start point of the perpendicular line.
3
Click the curve you want the line to be perpendicular to.
The Line perpendicular to curve tool calculates the end point for the line to be
perpendicular to the curve.
◆
◆
If it cannot find a perpendicular, it extends the ends of the curve.
If it finds more than one perpendicular, it uses the perpendicular closest
to where you clicked.
To get a true 3D tangent, use the Line tool with curve snapping curve to
place the first point on the curve, then snap to the tangent guideline.
The tangent lines are tangent in the current view. It is only a true 3D tangent
when the curve and start point are planar.
In an orthographic window, the perpendicular is relative to the view. In a
perspective window, it is a 3D perpendicular.
Do not use the tangent line tools in the perspective window.
180
Curves > Line-arc
Allows you to create a series of alternating keypoint lines and arcs.
See Draw keypoint lines and arcs on page 154.
To draw alternating lines and arcs
1
Click the Line-arc icon, or choose Line-arc from the Curves palette menu.
2
Click the first point of the composite curve, or type a 3D coordinate to place the
point exactly.
If you click the endpoint of an existing keypoint curve, the new line will attach
itself to the end of the existing curve. Dragging the common endpoint will
move both curves.
3
Click the endpoint of the first line segment, or type a 3D coordinate to place the
point exactly.
Click the left mouse button to add the point freely.
Click the middle mouse button to align the point horizontally to the
previous point.
◆
Click the right mouse button to align the point vertically to the previous
point.
As you drag the end point, the Line-arc tool displays the length of the line in
current linear units.
◆
◆
4
Click the endpoint of the arc segment, or type a 3D coordinate to place the
point exactly.
Click the left mouse button to add the point freely.
Click the middle mouse button to align the point horizontally to the
previous point.
◆
Click the right mouse button to align the point vertically to the previous
point.
As you drag the end point, the Line-arc tool displays the radius of the arc in
current linear units.
◆
◆
181
5
You can now:
◆
◆
◆
Repeat steps 3-4 to add more segments.
Click the Line-arc tool to start another composite curve.
Click any other tool to finish the curve.
Tips and notes
Convex
Concave (not possible with
Line-arc tool)
●
Arcs segments are always convex. That is, the arc always projects “forward”
from the previous line. You cannot create concave arcs with the Line-arc tool.
To get concave arcs, you must go back and edit the curve after creating it.
See Edit keypoint curves (page 159).
●
Click the endpoint of a segment twice to make the next segment the same
type.
For example, click the endpoint of a line segment twice to make the next
segment a line. Click the endpoint of an arc segment twice to make the next
segment an arc.
182
Curves > Text
The text tool uses your system fonts.
Text curves are represented in the scene block diagram (SBD) window as a
compressed hierarchy:
Use Utilities > SBD > Expand SBD to see the full hierarchy for text.
Double-clicking the tool opens the option window. A string of text is created as a
single object; however, characters can be made into individual objects by
choosing Edit > Ungroup. Each text character may be made of more than one
curve. Initially, these curves are grouped together, but they can be separated by
choosing Edit > Ungroup.
To create a surface from text curves, choose Surfaces > Planar surfaces > Set
planar and create a trimmed surface. Choose all the curves necessary to make a
region, or all the curves for a character. Curves may form separate groupings of
surfaces, but each set of curves must form a closed loop (a region) to create a
surface.
Please note that the text tool does not support multi-byte languages such as
Japanese, Korean, or Chinese.
Name of selected
font
List of fonts (scroll
to see full list)
Font attributes (Bold,
Bold Italic, Italic,
Normal)
Font size
183
184
Curve Edit palette
185
Curve Edit > Create > Duplicate curve
See Create a free curve from existing geometry on page 280.
Duplicate Type
No Rebuild
Do not rebuild the curve after duplicating it.
Curvature, Reduce Spans, Del Multi Knots, Uniform Knots, Match
Knots
Rebuild the curve after duplicating it.
See the discussion of the Rebuild Type option of the Rebuild curve tool for
information on the rebuild types and their options.
Control Options
Smoothing
After duplicating, automatically switch to the Smooth tool to allow you to
smooth the resulting curve.
Interactive
Allows you to specify an arbitrary surface isoparametric curve to duplicate,
rather than a visible one.
MixMax Display
Automatically create a Min-Max deviation comb between the original and
duplicated/rebuilt curves.
Auto Recalc.
Automatically update the new curve when the values in the Duplicate Curve
window change.
Buttons
Recalc
When Auto Recalc. is turned off, use this button to update the duplicated
curve with the current values.
Undo
Undo all the changes made by the Duplicate Curve tool and return to the
original curve.
Next
Finish duplicating the current curve and prompt for a new curve to duplicate.
186
Curve Edit > Create > Combine curves
Creates a 3D curve from two planar curves representing orthogonal projections.
Use this tool to create 3D curves from traditional “plan and elevation” type
drawings.
To create a 3D curve from two planar orthogonal curves
1
Make sure the curves are planar. You can use the Curve planarize tool to
flatten the curves.
2
Click the Combine curve icon, or choose Create > Combine curve from the
Curve Edit palette menu.
3
Click the first profile curve.
4
Click the second profile curve.
5
If Automatic Direction is off, or if Combine curve cannot figure out the projection
directions, it will prompt you to enter
◆
◆
6
the projection axis of the first curve (x, y or z), and
the projection axis of the second curve (x, y, or z).
Combine curve creates the curve by projecting the two planar curves into a 3D
curve.
In some cases more than one solution may be possible. In these cases,
Combine curve creates all the possible curves. When it is finished, delete the
curves you don’t want.
Tips and notes
If the Create History option is on, you can edit the profile curves and the 3D
curve will automatically update.
●
●
In most cases you will want to use the Rebuild curve tool to reduce the
complexity of the resulting curve.
Options
Automatic Direction
Try to figure out the projection axes for the two curves automatically. Leave
this option on unless Combine curve guesses wrong and you need to set the
axes manually.
In some cases the Combine curve tool cannot automatically figure out the
projection directions (for example, if the two curves are in the same plane). In
these cases, you must type the projection axes for the first and second
profile curves.
Create History
Save the Combine curve history for later editing. If you turn on Create
History, you can edit the profile curves and the combined curve will
automatically update.
187
Curve Edit > Create > Fillet curves
Creates a fillet curve between two existing curves.
To create a fillet with a specific radius
1
Double-click the Fillet curves icon, or choose Curve Edit > Create > Fillet
curves ❒ from the Palette.
2
Set Construction to Circular, then click Go.
3
Click the first curve approximately where you want the fillet to touch the curve.
If the two curves intersect, click the segment of the first curve that you want
to create a fillet for. If Trim Curves is on, click the segment of the first curve
that you want to keep.
4
Click the second curve approximately where you want the fillet to touch the
curve.
If the two curves intersect, click the segment of the second curve that you
want to create a fillet for. If Trim Curves is on, click the segment of the
second curve that you want to keep.
AliasStudio displays how the fillet will appear.
5
188
If you want a different radius from the default (displayed in the prompt line),
type the new radius, or drag the mouse to change the radius interactively.
Dragging the mouse left or down decreases the radius. Dragging the mouse
right or up increases the radius.
If the current radius is too small or too large to build a fillet near the point you
clicked, the Fillet curves tool reports an error. Type a new radius and try
again.
If you do not want to create the fillet, select Pick > Nothing.
6
Click Accept.
AliasStudio builds the fillet.
When the fillet is built, the original curves are trimmed to both ends of the
fillet. To keep the curves intact, turn off the Trim Curves option.
To create a fillet between two specific points on the curves
1
Double-click the Fillet curves icon, or choose Curve Edit > Create > Fillet
curves ❐ from the Palette.
2
Set Construction to Freeform, then click Go.
3
Click the first curve at the point you want the fillet to begin.
4
Click the second curve at the point you want the fillet to end.
5
Curve locators appear on the two curves where you clicked.
◆
◆
6
Drag the locators to move the contact points of the fillet on the curves.
Click Go to create the fillet.
If Blend Control is on, after the fillet is created you can click the Tangent and
Blend buttons in the bottom right corner of the view window to see the different
types of fillet. Click Go again to finish the fillet.
189
Tips and notes
●
If Create History is on in the options, you can edit the curves and the fillet will
be automatically updated.
Options
Construction
Circular: create a circular fillet with a true radius.
Freeform: create a fillet between two contact points.
Circular + Lead: create a circular fillet by specifying the radius where the fillet
blends with the original curves (Lead Radius) and the radius at the knee of
the fillet (Radius).
Freeform Type
Tangent: project the tangents at the two contact points, and create the fillet in
the direction of the tangent intersection.
Blend: average the positions of the two contact points to create the fillet.
Blend fillets sometimes have an inflection and tend to be shallower than
Tangent fillets.
Radius
The default radius of circular fillets. You can enter a new value at the prompt
line when you use the tool.
Calculate
Lead Radius: when you set the Radius value, AliasStudio automatically
updates the Lead Radius value.
Knee Ratio: when you set the Radius value, AliasStudio automatically
updates the Knee Ratio value.
Lead Radius
The radius of the fillet where the fillet blends with the original curves.
Knee ratio
Specify a radius at the center (or knee) of the fillet as a ratio (or multiple) of
the original radius.
The resulting fillet is not truly circular, but its endpoints correspond to those of
a circular fillet with the original radius.
Knee ratio = 2.0
Radius at center
is now 3.0
Circular fillet. Radius =1.5
190
Blend Control
Allows you to change the fillet type (Tangent or Blend) after it is created.
Trim Curves
Automatically trim the original curves back to the endpoints of the fillet.
Create History
Save the Fillet curves history for later editing. If you turn on Create History,
you can edit the original curves and the fillet will automatically update.
191
Curve Edit > Modify > Add points
Lets you add control points to the end of an existing curve, as if you were still
drawing it using the new curve tools.
See Extend the ends/edges of a curve or surface on page 257.
See Draw a curve by placing CVs or edit points on page 149.
See Add to an existing curve on page 152.
192
Curve Edit > Modify > Transform curve
Provides a direct way of positioning a curve so that it intersects two rail curves.
Positioning and intersecting a curve can be done in two ways:
●
By moving the curve so that it intersects the first rail, then “rocking” (rotating)
it so that it intersects the second rail.
●
By “dilating” (scaling) the curve, while preserving its shape characteristics, so
that it intersects both rails.
Method 1: Tanslating and Rotating a curve (rocking)
1
Choose Curve Edit > Modify > Transform curve
2
Select the curve.
Two control handles (circles) appear at the start and end points of the
selected curve.
You can move the control handles along the curve by clicking on them and
dragging the small purple arrow along the curve.
3
Click on the Translate button in the window.
4
Select the control handle closest to the first rail.
The selected handle turns white.
5
Turn on Curve snap mode by holding down the Ctrl and Alt keys (or Magnet
mode by holding down Ctrl only).
6
Click on the first rail curve. Drag to change the position of the intersection.
The input curve is translated so that the first control handle intersects the first
rail.
7
Click on the Rotate button in the window.
The second control handle turns white. A manipulator appears at the location
of the first control handle. This can be used to specify the plane of rotation:
XY, YZ, XZ. By default, the curve rotates in its own plane.
8
Turn on Curve snap mode by holding down the Ctrl and Alt keys.
9
Click on the second rail curve.
193
The input curve rotates in the specified plane of rotation, using the first
intersection as its rotation pivot, so that it now intersects the second rail.
The shape of the curve does not change.
Method 2: Rotating and Scaling a curve (dilating)
1
Choose Curve Edit > Modify > Transform curve.
2
Select the curve.
Two control handles (circles) appear at the start and end points of the
selected curve.
You can move the control handles along the curve by clicking on them and
dragging the small purple arrow along the curve.
194
3
Click on the Rotate & Scale button in the window.
4
Click on one control handle.
The selected handle turns white.
5
Turn on Curve snap mode by holding down the Ctrl and Alt keys (or Magnet
mode by holding down Ctrl only).
6
Click on the rail curve you want to snap the selected handle to.
7
Repeat steps 4 to 6 with the other control handle.
The input curve is scaled so that both control handles make contact with the
target points on the rail curves.
The curve is modified, but the general shape characteristics are maintained,
as can be verified by using a curvature comb on the curve (Locators >
Curve curvature).
The distance between the control handles on the input curve and the target
points on the rail curves is within the Maximum Gap Distance (in Construction
Options).
How do I use the rotation manipulator?
The rotation manipulator appears when you are in Rotate mode (Rotate button
depressed). It has three axes (X, Y and Z), and a circle along which the selected
handle on the curve rotates. By default, this circle is drawn in the plane of the
curve.
●
Click on one of the three axes to change the plane of rotation to the plane
perpendicular to that axis.
The circle is redrawn in that plane.
195
Currently, the only way to go back to using the plane of the curve as plane of
rotation is to re-enter the tool, click the curve and then click the Rotate button
again.
Options
Transform type
Determines what mode the tool starts in. Choices are Translate, Rotate,
Rotate & Scale. The default is Translate.
196
Curve Edit > Modify > Stretch
Lets you stretch or reshape a curve by moving handles attached to the curve.
See also Make curves intersect.
To stretch or modify the shape of a curve
1
Choose Curve Edit > Modify > Stretch
2
Select the curve to stretch
Two control handles appear at the ends of the curve.
3
Press the + Handles or - Handles buttons in the modeling window, to
increase or decrease the number of control handles.
The minimum number of handles is 2, and the maximum number is equal to
the curve’s degree+1.
4
Click on a handle, and use the small triangle manipulator to move it along the
curve.
5
Press the Tangent On button to bring up the manipulator on the active handle.
6
Use the manipulator to modify the position or tangent of the curve at that point.
197
Options
Parameter
Locked: the handles stay at the same parameter on the curve as they move
(default).
Floating: the handles can slide along the curve as you drag them. This
option minimizes the changes to the curve from using Stretch.
The first and last handles always stay locked to their parameters while
dragging, even when the Parameter option is set to Floating.
198
Curve Edit > Cut > Break curve at keypoint
Detaches a keypoint curve when you click a keypoint.
See Edit keypoint curves on page 159.
199
Curve Edit > Cut > Break curve at inflections
Automatically splits a curve into multiple curves at inflection points (where the
curvature changes direction).
See Split a curve at its inflection points on page 294.
200
Curve Edit > Rebuild curve
Recreates a curve with the same shape but different mathematical properties.
See Simplify objects on page 271.
See Convert rational to non-rational geometry on page 272.
See Automatically add spans to a curve with high curvature on
page 276.
See Convert a curve to uniform parameterization on page 277.
See Create a free curve from existing geometry on page 280.
See Match the edit point locations of objects on page 292.
Rebuild Curve option window
>
Rebuild Type
Curvature
Increase curve definition by inserting edit points in segments with high
curvature.
Reduce Spans
Simplify the curve by removing extraneous edit points.
Del Multi Knots
Remove multi-knots from the curve.
Uniform Knots
Convert the curve to uniform parameterization.
Match Knots
Convert the curve to match the parameterization and degree of another
curve.
These settings appear
when Rebuild Type is
Curvature.
>
Curvature settings
Tolerance
The amount of deviation from the original curve permitted during the rebuild
(in current linear units).
A low number matches the original more exactly, and inserts more points. A
high number does not match the original as well, and inserts fewer points.
Max Spans Type
Absolute: the maximum number of spans in the new curve is equal to Max
Spans.
Relative: the maximum number of spans in the new curve is equal to the
current number of spans times the Max Spans Factor.
201
This option appears when
Max Spans Type is
Absolute.
Max Spans
This option appears when
Max Spans Type is
Relative.
Max Spans Factor
Specify the maximum number of spans allowed in the new curve, when Max
Spans Type is Absolute.
Specify a multiplicative factor. When Max Spans Type is Relative, the
maximum number of spans allowed in the new curve is the current number of
spans times this factor.
Change Degree
On: Change the degree of the curve as it is rebuilt. A slider appears allowing
you to set the degree of the rebuilt curve. Curves on surface, trim curves, and
isoparametric curves can only be rebuilt as degree 1 or 3.
Off: Do not change the curve degree.
These settings appear
when Rebuild Type is
Reduce Spans.
>
Reduce Spans settings
Tolerance
The amount of deviation from the original curve permitted during the rebuild
(in current linear units).
A low number matches the original more exactly, but does not simplify the
curve as much. A high number does not match the original as well, but
simplifies more.
These settings appear
when Rebuild Type is
Uniform Knots.
>
Uniform Knots settings
Change Number of CVs
On: Change the number of CVs (and hence of spans) in the rebuilt curve. A
slider appears allowing you to set the number of spans.
Off: The number of CVs in the rebuilt curve is equal to the number of CVs in
the original.
Change Degree
On: Change the degree of the curve as it is rebuilt. A slider appears allowing
you to set the degree of the rebuilt curve. Curves on surface, trim curves, and
isoparametric curves can only be rebuilt as degree 1 or 3.
Off: Do not change the curve degree.
>
Control Options
Smoothing
After rebuilding, automatically switch to the Smooth tool to allow you to
smooth the resulting curve.
Interactive
Specify an arbitrary surface isoparametric curve to rebuild, rather than a
visible one.
202
MixMax Display
Automatically create a Min-Max deviation comb between the original and
rebuilt curves.
Auto Recalc.
Automatically update the new curve when the values in the Rebuild Curve
window change.
Keep Originals
Keep the original curve after creating the rebuilt curve.
>
Buttons
Recalc
When Auto Recalc. is turned off, use this button to update the rebuilt curve
with the current values.
Undo
Undo all the changes made by the Rebuild curve tool and return to the
original curve.
Next
Finish rebuilding the current curve and prompt for a new curve to rebuild.
203
Curve Edit > Project tangent
Allows for the modification of a curve or surface edge to achieve tangency or
curvature continuity with a surface, or tangency with a curve intersection.
See Make a curve tangent or curvature continuous with a surface on page 290.
Project tangent allows align construction history on the same curve provided that
the two are modifying a different end of the curve.
It does not, however, allow other types of history to be modifying the same curve.
For example, if blend curve or symmetry plane align history already exist on the
curve you want to modify, you will see a confirmation box asking whether history
can be deleted.
Adjustment Control window
>
Tangent Adjustment parameters
Scale
This scale factor adjusts the length of the tangent vector, without modifying
its direction.
Rotation
The degree of rotation in the tangent plane. A rotation of 0 gives the default
projection heading.Use positive and negative numbers to rotate in different
directions.
This option is only
available when Transform
Control is set to Tangent.
Tangent Angle
This option is only
available when Transform
Control is set to
Curvature.
Curvature
The degree of rotation out of the tangent plane. An angle of 0 gives the
default projection pitch (i.e. tangent continuity). Use positive and negative
numbers to rotate in different directions. Changing this value will remove
tangent continuity.
The magnitude of the curvature modification. Modify the shape of the curve
without changing the curvature at the join with the surface.
>
Transform Control menu
Tangent
Create tangent continuity between the surface/intersection and the curve.
This option is not
available when you
project from a curve
intersection, or when
Tangent Align is set to
Normal.
204
Curvature
Create curvature continuity between the surface and the curve.
>
Region Control menu
This menu has no functionality. It contains only one item, indicating the number of
CVs that are modified by the tool (equal to the curve degree plus one).
If the curve is modified at its endpoint, only two CVs are affected for tangent
continuity and only three for curvature (and this menu value is ignored).
>
Tangent Align menu
U/V
Project the tangent onto the U or V direction of the surface.
This option disables
Curvature in the
Transform Control menu.
Normal
Project the tangent onto the surface’s normal at the edge. This makes the
curve perpendicular to the surface, instead of tangent. It is equivalent to a
Tangent Angle of 90.0 degrees.
Reverse
Reverse the direction of the current tangent vector.
The U, V, and Normal commands set the type of alignment. The Reverse
command reverses the current tangent direction, but does not change the
type of alignment.
>
This option is exactly the
same as using Edit >
Undo.
Control Tools menu
Undo
Reverses all changes to the curve by the Project tangent tool.
Next Crv
Keep changes to the current curve and pick another curve to modify.
Done
Keep changes to the current curve and close the Adjustment control window.
205
Curve Edit > Curve planarize
Modifies a curve or surface edge so all its points lie on the same plane. Often
used to prepare curves for use as profile curves, or for the Set planar tool.
See Flatten a basic curve onto a plane on page 259.
Options
Default Projection Plane
Best: calculate the plane that best fits the existing curve. That is, the plane
which forces the least modification to the curve.
Axis: flatten the curve onto an axis plane (XY, YZ, or XZ).
User Defined Plane: flatten the curve onto an existing construction plane.
This option appears when
the Default Projection
Plane is Best.
Lock Ends
This option appears when
the Default Projection
Plane is Axis.
Principal Plane
Do not move the endpoints while flattening. This allows you to maintain
existing intersections.
Choose a plane (XY, YZ or XZ) to flatten the curve onto.
Keep Originals
Keep the old curve(s) after flattening.
206
Curve Edit > Curve section
Cuts, trims, or creates new geometry along a number of curves based on some
criterion.
See Slice (section) a group of curves on page 269.
With this tool you can:
●
Define points on a group of curves at:
Intersections with a free curve, surface, reference plane or construction
plane.
◆
Specific parameters.
◆
Specific distances from their endpoints.
Then use these points to do any of the following:
◆
●
◆
◆
◆
◆
Trim the curves.
Detach the curves.
Insert edit points.
Create a curve that passes through the intersections.
Options
Sectioning Mode
Trim: trim back curves by deleting the part of the curve beyond the
intersection point. The part of the curve you clicked on is retained.
Segment: detach the curves at the intersections.
Slice: has different effect depending on the Slice Creation Mode.
This option is available
when Sectioning Mode is
Slice.
Slice Creation Mode
Create Curve: create a curve that passes through the intersections.
Insert Edit Points: insert new edit points at the intersections.
Insert Points: insert reference points at the intersections.
Sectioning Criterion
Geometry: perform sectioning operation at the intersections with a free
curve, surface, or construction plane.
Parameter: perform sectioning operation at a specified parameter on each
curve.
Distance: perform sectioning operation at a specified distance from the start
point of each curve.
207
Curve Edit > Fit curve
Creates quality curves from cross-section line data.
See Fit a curve to a section line.
Fit Curve options
Use the options in the Fit Curve Control window to adjust the fit and the type of
curve created:
Curve Name
Enter a name for the new curve.
Fitting Method
Choose a curve fitting algorithm: Least Squares or Hull Fit. Try both methods
to see which gives a better fit for your curve.
Curvature
Show a curvature comb locator on the new surface.
Deviation
Show a deviation comb locator between the new and original curves.
Degree
Set the degree of the new curve. Increasing the degree allows a better fit,
however curve degrees higher than 3 are not supported by all CAD systems.
Max Spans
Set the maximum number of spans allowed in the new curve. Increasing the
number of spans gives a better fit, but also increases the complexity of the
model.
Stiffness, Elasticity
These sliders control the new curve’s resistance to bending and tendency to
stretch. Try moving the sliders to see how they affect the new curve, then use
them to improve the fit.
Curvature Constancy
This slider controls the rate of change in curvature along the curve.
Increasing the value enforces more constant curvature, but will probably
increase the deviation from the original curve.
>
Start Point, End Point
Position
The XYZ coordinates of the curve’s start point and end point. These values
only appear after you have created the fit curve.
208
Tangent to Fit Curve
The XYZ coordinates of the curve’s start point and end point tangent vectors.
These values only appear after you have created a constrained fit curve.
209
Curve Edit > Sort sections
Sorts section lines into layers based on their axis orientation.
To sort section lines
1
Pick the section data.
2
Choose Curve Edit > Sort sections.
If they do not already exist, the tool creates X_sections, Y_sections,
Z_sections, and Other_sections layers.
Section lines are a type of degree 1 NURBS produced from scan data in
Spider and some CAD packages.
210
Curve Edit > Reverse Curve
Reverses the parametric (U) direction of a curve, causing the start of the curve to
become the end, and vice-versa.
This tool also lets you examine the tangent direction on the curve.
To reverse the direction of a curve
1
Choose Curve Edit > Reverse Curve.
2
Click the first curve you want to reverse.
The tangent of the curve is shown at the point where you clicked.
3
Do any of the following:
◆
◆
◆
4
Click the left mouse button and drag along the curve to examine the
tangent direction.
Click the middle mouse button or the Reverse Active button in the
window to reverse the curve you clicked.
Click the right mouse button or the Reverse All button in the window to
reverse all selected curves.
Click on another curve to add to the selection and repeat step 3.
You can also select all the curves you want to reverse before entering the
tool.
211
212
Surfaces palette
213
Surfaces > Primitives > Sphere
Creates a NURBS sphere.
See Create a 3D geometric primitive on page 161.
Sphere Options
Sweep
The degrees of rotation around the center of radial primitives.
For example, if you enter 180 degrees in the sphere tool, AliasStudio will
create a hemisphere.
Sections
The number of subdivisions (spans) on the surface.
The default is 8. At least 4 subdivisions are usually needed to create a
workable primitive shape. It is not usually necessary to use more than 20
subdivisions.
Type
Surface: create sphere from a single NURBS surface.
Shell Tennis Ball: create a sphere from two interlocking surfaces stitched into
a shell like a tennis ball.
Shell No-Pole: create a sphere from eight surfaces stitched into a shell.
214
Surfaces > Primitives > Torus
Creates a NURBS torus (donut shape).
See Create a 3D geometric primitive on page 161.
Torus Options
Sweep
The degrees of rotation around the center of radial primitives.
For example, if you enter 180 degrees in the sphere tool, AliasStudio will
create a hemisphere.
Sections
The number of subdivisions (spans) on the surface.
The default is 8. At least 4 subdivisions are usually needed to create a
workable primitive shape. It is not usually necessary to use more than 20
subdivisions.
Size
This can be either Absolute or Relative, and determines which of the
parameters below can be set.
Major radius
The distance between the center of the ring and the center of the tube. This
option is only available if Size is set to Absolute.
Minor radius
The radius of the tube. This option is only available if Size is set to Absolute.
Minor radius Major radius
Ring Thickness
The diameter of the ring relative to the diameter of the entire torus. This
option is only available if Size is set to Relative.
As the ring thickness approaches 0.5, the hole gets smaller. At 0.5 the torus
has no hole. See figure below.
215
216
Surfaces > Primitives > Cylinder
Creates a NURBS cylinder (tube), with an option for capping the ends with extra
trimmed surfaces.
See Create a 3D geometric primitive on page 161.
Cylinder options
Sweep
The degrees of rotation around the center of radial primitives.
For example, if you enter 180 degrees in the sphere tool, AliasStudio will
create a hemisphere.
Sections
The number of subdivisions (spans) on the surface.
The default is 8. At least 4 subdivisions are usually needed to create a
workable primitive shape. It is not usually necessary to use more than 20
subdivisions.
Caps
Creates trimmed surfaces to close the ends of the cylinder. Choose 0 (no
caps), 1 (a cap at one end), or 2 (caps at both ends).
217
Surfaces > Primitives > Cone
Creates a NURBS cone, with an option for capping the end with an extra trimmed
surface.
See Create a 3D geometric primitive on page 161.
Cone options
Sweep
The degrees of rotation around the center of radial primitives.
For example, if you enter 180 degrees in the sphere tool, AliasStudio will
create a hemisphere.
Sections
The number of subdivisions (spans) on the surface.
The default is 8. At least 4 subdivisions are usually needed to create a
workable primitive shape. It is not usually necessary to use more than 20
subdivisions.
Caps
Creates a trimmed surface to close the open end of the cone.
218
Surfaces > Primitives > Cube
Creates a cube composed of six grouped NURBS planes.
See Create a 3D geometric primitive on page 161.
Common options
Object Degree
The degree of the curves or surfaces used to create the object. Choose 1
(linear) or 3 (cubic).
219
Surfaces > Primitives > Plane
Creates a square, planar NURBS surface.
Common options
Object Degree
The degree of the curves or surfaces used to create the object. Choose 1
(linear) or 3 (cubic).
See Create a 3D geometric primitive on page 161.
220
Surfaces > Planar surfaces > Set planar
Creates a trimmed NURBS surface from a set of planar boundary curves.
See Create a flat surface inside a curve on page 162.
To create a planar surface
1
Pick individual curves, or draw a pick box around all curves to be made into
planar surfaces.
2
Choose Surfaces > Planar surfaces > Set planar.
3
Check that all curves are picked, and click Go.
The curves are turned into flat trimmed surfaces.
Create History
Save the history of the new planar surface for later editing. If you turn Create
History on, you can modify the curves that were used to create the surface,
and the surface will update.
221
Surfaces > Planar surfaces > Bevel
Creates an extruded surface with a beveled edge based on a curve of any
degree.
See Add a beveled edge to a curve or surface on page 169.
Options
Sides
Single: only bevel one side of the extrusion.
Double: bevel both sides of the extrusion.
Corner Type
Arc: circular rounded bevel.
Line: straight line bevel.
Front Cap, Back Cap
Create a face to cap the front/back side of the extrusion.
Bevel Width, Bevel Depth, Bevel Extrusion Depth
Enter initial values for the bevel parameters. You can change them when you
use the Bevel tool.
Keep Originals
Do not delete the original curves used to create the new surface.
222
Surfaces > Revolve
Creates a new surface by sweeping a curve around an axis, creating an effect
similar to that of a lathe.
See Sweep a curve around an axis on page 163.
Options
Revolution Axis
The initial axis around which to revolve the surface (X, Y, or Z). After creating
the surface, you can move and rotate this axis using the manipulator
handles.
Axes
Local: revolve around the object’s (or group’s) pivot point and local axes.
Global: revolve around the global (world) or current construction plane’s
origin and axes.
Surface Degree
The degree of the new surface’s V direction: 1 (linear), or 3 (cubic, the
default).
Sweep Angle
The angle of revolution (in the current angular units). After creating the
surface, you can change this angle by using the manipulator handles.
Sections
The number of spans in the revolved surface.
For sweeps of 360 degrees, 6 to 8 sections is usually sufficient. Using more
than 12 section is not recommended and generally will not improve the
surface.
Create History
Save the history of the new surface for later editing. If you turn Create
History on, you can modify the curve that was revolved to create a surface,
and the surface will update. You can also bring back the manipulator handles
for further editing.
223
Surfaces > Skin
Lets you create a surface by “skinning” a NURBS surface across cross-section
curves.
See Create a surface connecting profile curves on page 162.
Options
Skinning Mode
This option controls the V parameterization of the new surface.
Interpolate
Place V isoparametric curves at the locations of the original curves. This is
the default.
This option cannot be
used when creating a
degree 1 surface.
Cubic Fit
Place V isoparametric curves according to a fitting algorithm. In some cases
this option can eliminate unwanted variations in the skinned surface.
>
Topology
Open
Leave the resulting surface open.
Closed
Connect the first curve to the last curve to create a closed (periodic) surface.
>
U Knot Spacing
The U direction of the surface runs along the original construction curves. This
option controls how the U parameters relate to the actual surface.
Uniform
The isoparametric curves corresponding to edit points on the original
construction curves will have integral parameters: the first edit point will be
parameter 0.0, the second will be 1.0, and so on.
Arc Length
The new curve’s edit points will be parameterized by the average length
along the original construction curves at those points.
The starting edge of the surface has the parameter 0.0, and the opposite
edge has the parameter equal to the average total length of the original
construction curves.
>
V Knot Spacing
The V direction of the surface runs between the original construction curves. This
option controls how the V parameters relate to the actual surface.
224
Uniform
The isoparametric curves corresponding to the original construction curves
will have integral parameters: the first edit point will be parameter 0.0, the
second will be 1.0, and so on. This option only applies to Interpolate skinning
mode.
Chord Length
The new curve’s edit points will be parameterized by the length of the
surface.
The starting edge of the surface has the parameter 0.0, and the opposite
edge has the parameter equal to the length of the surface.
>
Surface Degree
The degree of the new surface’s V direction: 1 (linear), or 3 (cubic, the default).
This option is only available when Skinning Mode is Interpolate.
>
Other Options
Number of Spans
This option controls the number of spans between the original isoparametric
curves of the skin surface (as determined by the Skinning Mode).
◆
◆
◆
A value of 1 creates no additional isoparametric curves, besides the
original ones.
A value of 2 creates two spans between the original isoparametric
curves, so one additional isoparametric curve is created between each
pair of original isoparametric curves.
A value of 3 creates three spans, and two additional isoparametric
curves between each pair of original isoparametric curves, and so on.
Rebuild
Before building the surface, rebuild the other construction curves to match
the parameterization of the first curve.
When using this option, make sure the first curve you click has the
parameterization you want for the new surface.
If Rebuild is on, the U knot spacing will be affected.
Auto Recalc
Automatically update the surface as curves are added.
This option changes the procedure for using the tool. When Auto Recalc is
on, you must hold down Shift when you click more curves to add to the
surface.
Create History
Save the history of the new surface for later editing. If you turn Create
History on, you can modify the curves that were used to create the surface,
and the surface will update.
225
Surfaces > Swept surfaces > Rail surface
Creates a surface by sweeping one or more profile curves along one or two rail
curves.
See Set up the Rail surface tool.
See Sweep generation curves along rail curves (Rail)
To sweep a curve along one or two paths
Create a new surface by sweeping or blending one or more generation curves
along one or two path curves (rails).
The Rail Surface tool takes its name from its use of one or two “rail” curves. The
generation curves maintain contact with the rails at the same points through the
sweep, like a train traveling on a track.
The Rail Surface tool is somewhat similar to the Extrude tool, but has many more
options and much more power.
The appearance of the Rail Surface icon depends on the Generation Curves and
Rail Curves settings in the Rail Surface Options window.
Icon
Generation Curves
1
1
2/2+
2
2+
Rail Curves
1
2
1
2
2
To sweep one generation curve along one rail curve
The procedure for using the Rail Surface tool has several optional steps,
depending on the settings in the Rail Surface Control window.
1
Double-click the Rail Surface icon, or choose Surfaces > Swept surfaces >
Rail surface ❐ from the Palette.
The Rail Surface Control window appears.
2
Make sure Create History is checked.
You will almost always want construction history on. This allows you to
change the settings after you sweep the curves.
This example uses the following Advanced Tab settings.
226
When you are satisfied with the new surface, you can delete the history
information with Delete > Delete construction history.
3
Click the generation curve. This is the curve that will be swept along the rail
curve to create the new surface.
The generation curve can be a free curve, isopam curve, curve on surface, or
trim edge.
drag locators to
set end points
generation curve
4
If Curve Segments is on, use the locators to place the start and end edit points
of the generation curve.
5
If Sweep Pivot is On Curve or Off Curve, use the locator to set the pivot point of
the generation curve.
◆
◆
◆
6
Click the locator and drag to move the locator along the curve (On Curve)
or in space (Off Curve).
Type a parameter (On Curve) or 3D coordinate (Off Curve) to set the pivot
exactly.
Click Go to continue.
Click the rail curve. This is the path along which the generation curve will
travel.
227
The rail curve can be a free curve, isoparametric curve, curve on surface, or
trim edge.
rail curve
7
If Curve Segments is on, use the locators to set the start and end edit points of
the rail curve.
8
If Sweep Pivot is On Curve or Off Curve, use the locator to set the pivot point on
the rail curve.
◆
◆
◆
9
Click the locator and drag to move the locator along the curve.
Type a parameter to set the pivot exactly
Click Go to continue.
If the Sweep Mode is Spine, click the spine curve. This curve controls the
orientation of the generation curve as it travels along the rail curve.
Rail surface
To sweep one or more generation curves along two rail curves
1
Double-click the Rail Surface icon, or choose Surfaces > Swept surfaces
> Rail surface ❒ from the Palette.
The Rail Surface Control window appears.
2
Make sure Create History is checked.
You will almost always want construction history on. This allows you to
change the settings after you sweep the curves.
When you are satisfied with the new surface, you can delete the history
information with Delete > Delete construction history.
3
In the Rail Surface Control window, set Rail Curves to 2.
Set Generation Curves to the number of generation curves to use:
◆
◆
◆
4
Choose 1 to sweep one curve along the rails.
Choose 2 to blend from one generation curve to another along the rails.
Choose 2+ to blend a series of generation curves along the rails.
Click the first generation curve.
The generation curve(s) can be a free curve, isoparametric curve, curve on
surface, or trim edge.
228
5
If Generation Curves is 2, choose the second generation curve.
If Generation Curves is 2+, pick all the generation curves in order, then click
Go.
Example with 4 gen. curves
1
rail 2
3
2
4
rail 1
6
Click the first rail curve, then click the second rail curve.
The generation curve(s) must intersect both rail curves.
The rail curves can be free curves, isoparametric curves, curves on surface,
or trim edges.
To create a helical shape
1
Create a generation curve and a rail curve. The distance between the
generation curve and rail curve will be the radius of the helix.
2
Double-click the Rail Surface icon, or choose Surfaces > Swept surfaces
> Rail surface ❒ from the Palette menu.
3
In the Rail Surface Control window:
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
Set Generation Curves to 1.
Set Rail Curves to 1.
Set Sweep Mode to View.
Set the Sweep Projection to the plane to which the generation curve is
parallel.
Set the Sweep Pivot to Off Curve.
Turn on Auto. Recalc.
4
Click the generation curve.
5
A 3D locator appears and you are prompted for the generation curve pivot.
Use magnet snapping to move it to the starting point of the rail curve. Then
click Go.
6
Click the rail curve.
7
A curve locator appears for the rail curve pivot. Move the locator to the starting
point of the rail curve, then click Go.
229
The generation curve’s pivot point moves along the rail curve. Since the pivot
is offset from the actual generation curve, the generation curve sweeps the
new surface at an offset from the rail curve.
8
In the Rotate Transform field, enter the degrees of rotation you want as the
generation curve travels around the rail curve.
For example, if you enter 360, the generation curve will make one full
revolution as it travels the length of the rail curve.
helix curves
helix curves active
To create a funnel shape
1
Create a generation curve and a rail curve.
2
Double-click the Rail Surface icon, or choose Surfaces > Swept surfaces >
Rail surface ❒ from the Palette menu.
3
In the Rail Surface Control window:
◆
◆
◆
◆
230
Set Generation Curves to 1.
Set Rail Curves to 1.
Set the Sweep Pivot to Off Curve.
Turn on Auto. Recalc.
4
Click the generation curve.
5
A 3D locator appears and you are prompted for the generation curve pivot.
Use magnet snapping to move it to the center of the generation curve. Then
click Go.
6
Click the rail curve.
7
A curve locator appears for the rail curve pivot. Move the locator to the starting
point of the rail curve. Then click Go.
8
In the Scale Transform field, enter the factor by which you want the generation
curve to grow as it travels along the rail curve.
For example, if you enter 2, the generation curve will grow twice as large as it
travels the length of the rail curve. If you enter 0.5, it will shrink by half.
Rail surface with scale = 0.2
To edit the construction history of a Rail surface
1
Pick the surface you want to edit.
2
Click the Rail Surface icon, or choose Swept surfaces > Rail surface from the
Surfaces palette menu.
The Rail Surface Control window appears.
3
Use the curve modification tools (in the Transform, Curve Edit, and Object Edit
palettes) to reshape the curves used to create the surface, and use the Rail
Surface Control window to change the surface creation options.
Tips and notes
●
The Spine sweep mode can be very tricky. If you have trouble with it, try the
following:
Create a copy of the rail curve to use as the spine curve.
◆
Turn on Create History and Auto Recalc in the Rail Surface Control
window.
◆
Reshape the spine curve in small steps and observe the effect on the
surface.
After you start a surface in Natural, Parallel, or View mode, you cannot
convert it to Spine mode.
◆
●
●
You cannot create a rail surface along a rail curve with multi-knots or
weighted CVs.
Turn on the Rebuild option for all rail curves to remove multi-knots and set the
weight of all CVs to 1 before creating the surface.
●
It is the generation curve pivot that travels along the rail curve. If the pivot is
not on the generation curve, the new surface will be offset.
●
Changing the settings after you have clicked the generation curve does not
affect the rest of the procedure for using the Rail Surface tool.
For example, if you turn on the Curve Segments option after you have already
picked the generation curve, you will not be asked to define curve segments.
However, after the surface is built, text boxes will appear in the Rail Surface
Control window where you can change the start and end parameters for the
curve segments. You can also click the Next button and start again.
●
The Rail Surface tool does not support rail curves with sharp corners (cusps).
●
Use curve snapping to make sure the generation curves intersect the rail
curves.
231
●
The Rail Surface tool tests whether the curves intersect using the Curve Fit
Distance value in Construction Options. The default tolerance depends on
your AliasStudio product. If the curves are within the default tolerance of
each other, they are seen as intersecting.
To change the Curve Fit Distance option, choose Construction Options from
the Preferences menu.
●
When using two or more generation curves, after you pick the first generation
curve you can unpick it by clicking it. You can then pick a different first
generation curve.
●
The Rail Surface tool can produce poor surfaces with long generation curves.
In these cases, try reversing the choice of generation and rail curves, and
choose the shorter, simpler curves for the generation curves and long,
winding curves as the rails.
Rail Control window
232
>
Generation Curves
1
Sweep one generation curve along the rail curves.
2
Blend between a start and end generation curve along the rail curves. Use
the Gen. Blend Value slider to control the midpoint of the blend.
2+
Blend between a series of generation curves along the rail curves.
Rail Curves
The number of paths to sweep the generation curve(s) along: either 1 or 2.
The default setting is 2.
Setting Rail Curves to 1 is similar to using the original Swept tool (in
AliasStudio 9.5). Setting Rail Curves to 2 is similar to using the original Birail
tool.
>
Continuity table
Use this menu to set rebuild on or off for all curves
Use this menu to set continuity for all curves
Curve
labels
Curve names
Use these menus to set the continuity
wanted across each boundary
Click a box to set rebuild
on or off for a curve
The Continuity Table displays one row for each boundary curve involved in the rail
operation.
●
Use the pop-up menu next to each curve to set the level of continuity you
want across that curve.
●
Use the Continuity pop-up menu above the table to set the continuity you
want for all of the curves at once.
●
Click the checkboxes at the end of each row to rebuild the curves to reduce
data and improve parameterization.
●
Use the Rebuild pop-up menu to set rebuild on or off for all the curves at
once.
For example, before creating the surface, rebuild the first rail curve, second
rail curve, first generation curve, and/or last generation curve. (To rebuild
interior generation curves, use the Rebuild Interior Gen. Curves option below.)
This can improve the parameterization and reduce the complexity of the new
surface when the curves are complex.
233
Rebuilding curves can also remove multi-knots and reset the weight of all
CVs in the rail curve(s) to 1. This is necessary for rail curves with multi-knots
or CV weights.
Position
Only keep positional continuity. This is the default.
Implied Tangent
Try to keep tangency with an implied surface that shares this edge. The
implied surface is the surface that would be created by mirroring the new
surface.
Tangent
Rail
surface
Implied
surface
Reflection
line
This is a powerful feature. It lets you model one half of a symmetrical surface
(such as a car body), and maintain continuity at the seam. When you
duplicate the surface to create the other half, the seam will already be
continuous. For this to work across a symmetry plane, you must make sure
the ends of the curves are tangent across the symmetry plane (that is, the
tangents are perpendicular to the symmetry plane).
Tangent Angle
Try to keep tangency at an angle with a surface that shares this edge.
The Rail Surface tool calculates the tangent angle at both ends of the
common edge. If the two angles are different, Rail Surface blends between
them to determine the angle to keep at every point along the edge.
A tangent angle of 0.0 (or 180, -180, 360) is equivalent to Tangent continuity.
Tangent
Try to keep tangency with a surface that shares this edge.
tangent continuity across rail 2
Curvature
Try to keep curvature continuity with a surface that shares this edge.
234
>
Rebuild Interior Gen. Curves
Rebuilds all interior generation curves. This option is only available when
Generation Curves is 2+.
This option is only available either when Rail Curves is 1 or when Rail Curves
is 2 and at least one rail curve is being rebuilt.
>
Sweep Mode
Proportional
Rebuild the rail curves to create a surface with proportionally spaced spans
and smooth parameterization based on the first rail curve.
This option is only available when Rail Curves is 2 and at least one rail curve
is being rebuilt.
Natural
As the generation curve sweeps along the rail, it pivots to maintain the same
angle relative to the rail curve.
This option is only available when Rail Curves is 1. It has the same effect as
the Tube option in the Extrude tool..
Parallel
As the generation curve sweeps along the rail, it maintains its original
orientation.
This option is only available when Rail Curves is 1. It has the same effect as
the Flat option in the Extrude tool.
View
As the generation curve sweeps along the rail, it only rotates in one plane
(choose the plane with the Sweep Projection pop-up menu). This maintains
the visual angle between the generation and rail curves.
Spine
Use a spine curve to control the orientation of the generation curve as it
sweeps along the rail.
>
Sweep Projection
This option controls the plane in which the generation curve is allowed to rotate
when the Sweep Mode is View.
This option appears when Sweep Mode is View.
Active
Take the rotation plane from the current view window.
XY
XZ
YZ
Use a global plane (XY, XZ, or YZ) as the rotation plane.
235
User
Type a 3D vector in the View Plane text boxes to define a plane.
>
Sweep Pivot
This option is only available when Rail Curves is 1.
Sweeping involves two pivot points:
●
The point on or off the generation curve (the Generation Pivot) that stays on
the rail curve as the generation curve sweeps.
The generation curve rotates around and scales from this point.
●
The point on the rail curve (the rail pivot) that corresponds to the generation
curve before it is swept.
In other words, the part of the surface corresponding to this point on the rail
curve will have the exact cross section of the generation curve.
You can have Rail Surface set the pivot points automatically (as in Extrude), or set
them manually for the generation and rail curves.
Closest
Set the pivots to the closest points on the two curves.
This option is the default. It works best when the generation curve is close to
the start or end points of the rail curve.
On Curve
Set the pivots to specific parameters on the two curves.
◆
Use the Gen. Pivot Parameter and Rail Pivot Parameter sliders to set the
parameters for each curve.
Off Curve
Set the pivots to a specific parameter on the rail curve and a 3D point in
space for the generation curve.
◆
◆
236
Use the Rail Pivot Parameter slider to set the parameter for the rail curve.
Use the Gen. Space Pivot text boxes to set the 3D pivot point for the
generation curve.
>
Transform Control
This option controls how the Rail Surface tool modifies the generation curves to
stay on the rail curves during the sweep. It is only available when Rail Curves is 2.
Scale
Scale the generation curve proportionally, to the size necessary for the curve
to stay on both rails.
Non-Prop Scale
Scale the generation curve non-proportionally, along the vector connecting
the rail curves.
Rotate & Trim
Rotate the generation curve around the intersection with the first rail curve,
so that the generation curve stays on both rails. Trim away any part of the
new surface that goes beyond either rail curve. The generation curve is not
scaled.
This option only applies when Generation Curves is 1.
Rotate No Trim
Rotate the generation curve around the intersection with the first rail curve,
so that the generation curve stays on both rails. The generation curve is not
scaled.
This option only applies when Generation Curves is 1.
Blend Control
Enable the Gen. Blend Value slider to control the midpoint of the blend
between the two generation curves.
This option appears when Generation Curves is 2.
Gen. Blend Value
The percentage of the distance (from 0 to 1) along the rails where the
influence of both generation curves is equal.
For example, a value of 0.5 (the default) blends the two curves equally, so
that the halfway point of the blend occurs at the midpoint of the rails.
237
A value of 0.25 places the halfway point of the blend 25% of the distance
along the rail curves, hence giving more influence to the second generation
curve. Conversely, a value of 0.75 would give more influence to the first
generation curve.
The values 0.0 and 1.0 still blend the two curves a minimum amount.
Gen. Blend Value
0.0
0.5
1.0
>
Fixed Curve
This option determines which of the curves will be moved in order to make the
two pivot points coincide before the sweep. This in turn controls where the new
surface will be created.
This option is only available when Rail Curves and Generation Curves are both 1.
GEN.
Keep the generation curve fixed and move the rail. The new surface is built
beginning at the generation curve.
RAIL
Keep the rail fixed and move the generation curve. The new surface is built
along the rail curve.
>
Transform Options
These options are only available when Rail Curves and Generation Curves are
both 1.
Rotate Xform
The degree of rotation as the generation curve sweeps along the rail curve.
For example, if Rotate Transform is 45, the generation curve will rotate 45
degrees as it sweeps along the length of the rail curve. Use negative
numbers to rotate in the opposite direction.
Scale Xform
The scale factor as the generation curve sweeps along the rail curve.
238
For example, if Scale Transform is 2, the generation curve will double in size
as it sweeps along the length of the rail curve. If Scale Transform is 0.5, the
generation curve will shrink by half as it sweeps.
>
Curve Segments
This option only applies when Generation Curves is 1.
Specify sections of the generation and rail curves to use in the sweep.
When this option is on, you will be prompted during the sweep procedure to click
start and end edit points on the first rail curve and possibly (depending on the
other settings) on the second rail and/or the generation curve.
After the surface is built:
●
Use the locators (in each corner of the surface) to change the start and end
parameters of the generation and rail curves.
Locator
or
●
Use the Gen. 1 Segment and/or Gen 2. Segment text boxes to change the
start and end parameters of the generation curve(s).
Use the Rail 1 Segment and Rail 2 Segment text boxes to change the start and
end parameters of the rail curves.
>
Explicit Control
Turn on this option to open the Explicit Control Options section that allows you
to explicitly specify the degree and number of spans of the rail surface in both the
U and V direction.
This control is not available in DesignStudio.
>
Explicit Control Options
These options are available only when Explicit Control is on.
239
Rail Degree (U)
Degree of the rail surface in the U direction (along the rail curves).
Gen. Degree (V)
Degree of the rail surface in the V direction (along the generation curves).
Rail Spans (U)
Number of spans of the rail surface in the U direction.
Gen. Spans (V)
Number of spans of the rail surface in the V direction.
>
Continuity Options
Max. New Spans
Specify the maximum number of spans that can be added to the surface (in
both the U and V direction) when attempting to maintain the requested levels
of continuity.
If this number is too small, continuity may fail along some of the edges.
Max. New Spans is not available when Explicit Control is turned on.
Insert at Midpoint
On—Insert extra edit points at the midpoint of the span with the largest
continuity deviation. This is the default, and results in a better distribution of
the isoparametric curves.
Off—Insert extra edit points at the location of the largest continuity deviation.
Insert at Midpoint is not available when Explicit Control is turned on.
>
Colinear Options
Gen.1/Gen.2/Rail 1/Rail 2
Check the boundaries across which you want the isoparametric curves of the
new surface to line up with adjacent surfaces.
This is similar to turning off Skews in the Align tool.
>
Control Options
Create History
Save the history of the new surface for later editing. If you turn Create History
on, you can modify the curves that were used to create the surface, and the
surface will update.
Auto Recalc
Update the new surface automatically as you change the values in the Rail
Surface Control window.
240
Boundary Labels
Label the generation, rail, and spine curves in the view windows. The labels
also show
◆
◆
◆
the kind of continuity wanted,
whether the continuity failed, and
which tangents are implied.
Continuity Check
Display the surface continuity locator at the boundaries between the rail
surface and adjacent surfaces. The locator is persistent and will remain after
you exit from the Rail Surface tool. To remove it, use Pick > Locator to pick
the locator, then select Del > active, or toggle the checkmark off when
entering Rail Surface tool again.
>
Buttons
Recalc
Recalculate the surface with the current values in the Rail Surface Control
window.
Next
Finish the current surface and prompt for new curves.
241
Surfaces > Swept surfaces > Extrude
Creates a new surface by extruding a generation curve along a path curve.
Normally used to make tubular objects with symmetrical cross sections.
See Sweep generation curves along a path curve on page 164.
Extruding a curve
Create a new surface by extruding a generation curve along a path curve.
Normally used to make tubular objects with symmetrical cross sections.
To extrude a profile curve along a path curve
Path curve
Profile curve
1
Create the curves you will use for the profile and path.
2
Click the Extrude icon, or choose Swept surfaces > Extrude from the Surfaces
menu.
3
Pick the curve or curves you want to extrude.
You can select free curves, curves on surface, isoparametric curves, trim
edges or even faces.
4
Click Go.
5
Pick the path curve to extrude along.
You can select a free curve, a curve on surface, an isoparametric curve, or a
trim edge.
The Extrude tool creates the new surface starting at the position of the
generation curve and following the shape of the path curve.
Tips and notes
The generation curve does not have to be near or intersect the path curve.
However, placing it as near as possible will help you visualize the result.
●
242
●
If you need more control over how the surface is created, use the Rail Surface
tool.
●
This tool works best for closed and/or symmetrical profile curves. If you need
to control the twist of the profile, use the Rail Surface tool.
●
To extrude a face made of multiple curves (for example, Text) as a single
object, select it before choosing the Extrude tool.
●
In most cases, you will want the profile curve to be perpendicular to the
starting point of the path.
To accomplish this, use the Plane tool to create a construction plane at the
start of the path curve, perpendicular to the tangent. Then create the profile
curve on the new construction plane.
●
If the path curve has severe bends or corners, the extruded surface may
have unwanted twists.
To correct this problem, use the Insert tool to increase the number of edit
points/CVs on the path curve in the problem areas, so that transitions
between CVs are more gradual.
Options
Create History
Save the history of the new surface for later editing. If you turn Create
History on, you can modify the curves that were used to create the surface,
and the surface will update.
If you have an extrude history command built from a face (created prior to
AliasStudio 13) the caps will be lost if you update the history.
>
Style
Tube
Profile rotates
Tube
As the profile curve sweeps along the path, it pivots to maintain the same
angle to the path curve.
Flat
Does not rotate
243
Flat
As the profile curve sweeps along the path, it maintains its original
orientation.
>
Create caps
Caps can be created at the ends of the surfaces if the extruded objects are
closed planar curves.
Off
Do not create caps at the ends of the extruded surface.
Cap Start
Create a trimmed surface to cap the first end of the extruded surface.
Cap Both
Create trimmed surfaces to cap both ends of the extruded surface.
>
Extrude Pivot
This option controls which pivot point to use when you are extruding more than
one profile curve.
This option appears when Style is Tube.
Closest
Pivot the profile curves around the endpoint of the path curve closest to the
bounding box of all the profile curves.
This option is the default. It works best when you have a profile curve near
the start or end points of the path curve.
Component
Pivot each curve around its own individual pivot point.
This option works best when you want to extrude text.
244
Surfaces > Swept surfaces > Anim sweep
Creates a surface by sweeping out the movements of an animated curve through
time, as if the animated curve was leaving a surface or construction curve “trail”
as it moved.
Options
>
Sweep
Snapshots
Create new curves from the “snapshots” of the animated curve. You can use
these curves as construction curves for tools such as Skin, Extrude, and Rail
Surface.
Connect Snapshots
Create a new skinned surface from the snapshots of the animated curve.
This option is has no
effect when Sweep is set
to Connect Snapshots.
>
Snapshots
Individual
Do not group the resulting “snapshot” curves.
Grouped
Group the resulting “snapshot” curves, as if you had picked them and chosen
Group from the Edit menu.
>
Parameters
Set global and local animation parameters using Param Control in the
Animation menu.
All
Animate all parameters of the animated curve.
Global
Animate only the global parameters of the animated curve.
Local
Animate only the local parameters of the animated curve.
>
Hierarchy
This option controls whether extra objects are animated in addition to the curve.
None
Only animate the picked curve.
245
Below
When Sweep mode is Snapshots, animate the picked curve and any
geometry below it in the DAG.
When Sweep mode is Connect Snapshots, animate the picked curve and
associated CVs.
Above
Animate the picked curve and any geometry above it in the DAG.
Both
Animate the picked curve, associated CVs, and any geometry above and/or
below it in the DAG.
>
Frame Range
All
Animate the picked curve over the entire range of available frames of
animation.
Use the By Frame slider to set the interval between snapshots.
Prompt
Prompt for the start frame, end frame, and frame interval every time you use
the tool.
Option Window
Set the start frame, end frame, and frame interval once in the option window,
for every subsequent use of the Anim sweep tool.
These options appears
when Frame Range is
Option Window.
Start/End Frame
This option appears when
Frame Range is All or
Option Window.
By Frame
The start and end frames of the curve’s animation to create snapshots from.
The number of frames in each step between snapshots.
For example, a value of 1 takes every frame, 2 takes every other frame, 3
takes every third frame, and so on.
Sweeping an animated curve
This feature is not available in SurfaceStudio.Create a surface by sweeping out the movements of an animated curve through time, as if the animated curve was leaving a “trail” of
construction curves as it moved.
If you are proficient using the animation tools, you can use Anim sweep to easily
accomplish complex or unusual effects that are difficult or impossible using
Extrude or Swept. Instead of using options to change the sweep, you have total
control over the cross-section of the new surface at every point.
The Anim sweep tool can sweep curves animated by:
●
246
Set keyframe.
●
Set motion.
●
Set key shape.
You can animate the whole curve, and/or the CVs of the curve.
To sweep an animated curve
1
Animate the curve. (See the Animating book for more information on using the
animation tools.)
2
Pick the animated curve.
3
Click the Anim sweep icon, or choose Swept surfaces > Anim sweep from the
Surfaces palette menu.
4
If the Frame Range option is set to Prompt, type the start frame, end frame, and
frame increment, separated by spaces, on the prompt line.
The frame increment is the number of frames to step through between each
snapshot. For example, an increment of 1 takes every frame, 2 takes every
other frame, 3 takes every third frame, and so on.
5
The Anim sweep tool takes a snapshot of the curve at each step of the
animation, creating a series of construction curves.
◆
◆
If the Sweep option is set to Snapshots, the Anim sweep tool asks you
whether you want to keep the curves. If the snapshot curves look wrong
and you want to change the animation and try again, click No.
If the Sweep option is set to Connect Snapshots, the Anim sweep tool
automatically skins a new surface along the snapshots of the animated
curve.
Tips and notes
●
When the Sweep option is set to Connect Snapshots and you pick the curve in
the SBD window, you must pick the node directly above the curve.
●
To use CV animation, set the Hierarchy option to Below or Both.
Limitations
In Surfaces > Swept surfaces > Anim sweep, the ABOVE option does not
work.
●
If an object is animated hierarchically, a non-root node is selected, and Anim
sweep is invoked with hierarchy set to ABOVE, animations above the picked
node are ignored. Similarly, if the option is BOTH and there is animation
above, it will not be recognized.
Copy the geometry, delete the other branches, and anim sweep from around
the root node with hierarchy set to BELOW.
247
Surfaces > Boundary Surfaces > Square
To build from four boundary curves with continuity
See Create a surface inside four boundary curves or corners
(Square) on page 190.
Create surfaces by blending four boundary curves (or curve segments), while
maintaining continuity with adjacent surfaces.
To create a new surface by blending four boundary curves (or
curve segments)
1
Double click the Square icon, or choose Boundary surfaces > Square ❒ from
the Surfaces palette menu.
The Square Control window appears.
select a boundary
2
Click the first boundary curve
or
Click a point on the curve (to use as a corner) by holding down either the Ctrl
key or the Ctrl and Alt keys.
◆
◆
select a corner
◆
You can use free curves, curves on surface, isoparametric curves, and/or
trim edges.
To maintain continuity with another surface, you must pick an
isoparametric curve or trim edge on that surface, not a construction
curve used to create that surface.
You can use a segment of a longer curve. The Square tool will use the
section of the curve bounded by the other curves you click.
or
Click a grid point (to use as a corner) by holding down the Alt key.
select a second corner
3
Click the remaining curves and/or points (corners) in clockwise or counterclockwise order.
◆
◆
◆
◆
move a corner locator
248
You can select either four curves, four corners, one corner and two
curves, or two corners and one curve.
If you select both curves and corners, you must select the curves first.
You can only use a snapping mode to select the first corner.
If two adjacent boundary curves do not intersect, the Square tool displays
an error in the prompt line. Otherwise, the surface is built.
4
Move the corner locators (if any) by clicking them and dragging to change the
position of the corners.
5
Use the options in the Square Control window to set the continuity you want at
each edge (see below).
To use the tangent angle manipulator
Click an axis line
to set the tangent
angle to 0, 90, 180,
or 270 degrees.
Long arrow indicates
projection angle.
Click the arc to
change the angle.
This manipulator appears when you set an edge to Tangent Angle in the Square
Control window (see below).
●
Click an axis line to set the tangent angle to 0, 90, 180, or 270 degrees.
●
Click an arc, then drag the mouse left and right to change the angle value, or
type a number to set the value exactly.
●
When you are finished, click the Go button.
To edit the construction history of a Square surface
1
Pick the surface you want to edit.
2
Click the Square icon, or choose Boundary surfaces > Square from the
Surfaces palette menu.
The Square Control window appears.
3
Use the curve modification tools (in the Transform, Curve Edit, and Object Edit
palettes) to reshape the curves used to create the surface, and use the Square
Control window to change the surface creation options.
Tips and notes
●
To make sure the boundary curves intersect, use:
Curve snapping
Use the Project tangent tool to make sure the curves are already continuous
before creating the surface. This will ensure the Square tool can achieve
continuity and decrease calculation time.
◆
●
●
The first curve you click defines the U direction of the new surface. The
second curve defines the V direction.
●
You can select several boundary curves at a time by dragging a pick box
around them, but you cannot control in what order they will be picked.
249
Ambiguous curve segments
?
●
?
Curve segments can be ambiguous. In the example at left, it is not clear
which part of the U-shaped boundary curve should be used as the left edge
of the new surface.
In these cases, the Square tool will guess which segment to use. If it guesses
incorrectly, detach the ambiguous curve to create two separate, nonambiguous curves.
●
If you know the boundary curves already have matching parameterization
and minimum spans, you should turn the Rebuild checkboxes off. Rebuilding
can sometimes inhibit continuity.
●
For the continuity options to work for some edges, the adjacent edges (for
example, edges 2 and 4 are adjacent to edge 1) must usually be free.
Detach curve
If you have continuity constraints on all edges, the constraints may
sometimes conflict and fail.
●
If your surface has a bulge or dent, try reducing the Influence slider for the
edges whose continuity is Fixed or Free.
The Influence sliders are found in the Square Control window when Blend
Type is Cubic.
When you specify the four corners of a Square surface, you must specify the
first corner using a snap mode (that is, holding down either the Alt key, the
Ctrl key, or the Ctrl and Alt keys). However, you can specify the remaining
corners with or without using a snap mode.
●
There are several techniques to try when Square does not produce the
intended results:
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◆
◆
◆
◆
Turn Rebld on for all boundaries with trimmed surfaces or curves on
surface, and have the system recalculate the surface.
Adjust the influence sliders to adjust the shape of the resulting surface.
Set the Blend Type to LINEAR instead of CUBIC.
If trying to maintain continuity with trim edges or curves on surface, it
may be necessary to decrease the curve fit tolerance in the Preferences
> Construction options settings.
Verify that the square surface doesn’t have a corner where the U and V
edges are colinear.
Options
>
Continuity table
The Continuity Table displays one row for each boundary curve involved in the
Square operation.
250
Use this menu to set rebuild on or off for all curves
Use this menu to set continuity for all curves
Curve
labels
Curve names
Use these menus to set the continuity
wanted across each boundary
Click a box to set rebuild
on or off for a curve
●
Use the pop-up menu next to each curve to set the level of continuity you
want across that curve.
●
Use the Continuity pop-up menu above the table to set the continuity you
want for all of the curves at once.
●
Click the checkboxes at the end of each row to rebuild the curves to reduce
data and improve parameterization.
●
Use the Rebuild pop-up menu to set rebuild on or off for all the curves at
once.
Free Boundary
This edge is free to move if required by another edge’s continuity or by the
Influence sliders (see below). This is the default.
Fixed Boundary
Keep this edge exactly like the boundary curve that created it. In other words,
do not let the edge move as with the Free option. This is equivalent to
positional continuity.
Implied Tangent
Try to keep tangency with an implied surface that shares this edge. The
implied surface is the surface that would be created by mirroring the new
surface. (The way the Square tool tries to keep tangency with an implied
surface is by blending the slopes of the boundary curves.)
This is a powerful feature. It lets you model one half of a symmetrical surface
(such as a car body), and maintain continuity at the seam. When you
duplicate the surface to create the other half, the seam will already be
continuous. For this to work across a symmetry plane, you must make sure
the ends of the curves are tangent across the symmetry plane (that is, the
tangents are perpendicular to the symmetry plane).
Tangent Angle
Try to keep tangency at an angle with a surface that shares this edge.
◆
When you set this continuity type for an edge, a manipulator appears on
the edge. Use the manipulator to set the tangent angle.
251
◆
◆
◆
The two adjacent edges of the new surface should be Free to allow the
Tangent Angle edge to move.
Setting the Tangent Angle manipulator to 0 or 180 degrees is the same
as using Tangent continuity.
This continuity type can be very slow to calculate.
Tangent
Try to keep tangency with a surface that shares this edge.
Curvature
Try to keep curvature continuity with a surface that shares this edge.
>
Blend Type
Linear
Create the new surface by blending the free CVs (CVs not controlled by the
continuity options) of the four boundary curves.
Cubic
Create the new surface by interpolating the boundaries (as in Linear), plus
the tangent and curvature ribbons. The interpolation is cubic (if only tangent
continuity is needed) or quintic (if curvature continuity is needed).
Depending on how much the tangent and curvature ribbons change, Cubic
blends can be much wavier than Linear blends.
1-3/2-4 Boundary Blend
These sliders control the point of equal influence of opposite boundaries (in
other words, the midpoint of the blend between opposite boundaries): that is,
between 1 and 3, and between 2 and 4. Values can effectively range from
0.17 to 0.83.
Changing the surface using the Boundary Blend sliders is slow, because
continuity must be recalculated. For very complex surfaces, or when using
Curvature or Tangent Angle continuity, you may want to turn off the Auto
Recalc option.
1-3/2-4 Influence
These sliders control how much each set of boundary curves influences the
new surface.
They only appear when Blend Type is Cubic.
For example, if you set the 2-4 Influence slider to 0.0, the new surface will
mostly blend between edges 1 and 3, and will have little of the shape of
edges 2 and 4.
Changing the surface using the Influence sliders is much faster than with the
Boundary Blend sliders, because continuity is not affected.
252
Explicit Control is only
available in Studio,
AutoStudio and
SurfaceStudio.
Explicit Control
Turn on this option to open the Explicit Control Options section that allows
you to explicitly specify the degree and number of spans of the surface in
both the U and V direction.
>
Explicit Control Options
These controls are displayed only when Explicit Control is turned on.
U Degree / V Degree
Degree of the square surface in the U and V direction respectively.
U Spans / V Spans
Number of spans on the square surface in the U and V direction respectively.
>
Continuity Options
The following two options only appear if Explicit Control is turned off.
Max. New Spans
Maximum number of spans the Square tool can insert on each edge of the
new surface as it tries to achieve continuity.
If the Square tool cannot achieve tangency without inserting more than the
allowed number of spans, it displays an error in the prompt line.
Max. New Spans is not available when Explicit Control is turned on.
Insert at Midpoint
On: Insert extra edit points at the midpoint of the span with the largest
continuity deviation. This is the default, and results in a better distribution of
the isoparametric curves.
Off: Insert extra edit points at the location of the largest continuity deviation.
Insert at Midpoint is not available when Explicit Control is turned on.
>
Colinear Options
Boundary 1,2,3,4
Check the boundaries across which you want the isoparametric curves of the
new surface to line up with adjacent surfaces.
This is similar to turning off Skews in the Align tool.
253
>
Control Options
Create History
Save the history of the new surface for later editing. If you turn Create
History on, you can modify the curves that were used to create the surface,
and the surface will update.
Auto Recalc
Update the new surface automatically as you change the values in the
Square Control window.
Boundary Labels
Label the boundary curves in the view windows. The labels also show
◆
◆
◆
◆
the kind of continuity wanted,
whether the continuity failed,
which tangents are implied or averaged, and
the angle on edges with Tangent Angle continuity.
Continuity Check
Display the surface continuity locator at the boundaries between the square
surface and adjacent surfaces. The locator is persistent and will remain after
you exit the Square tool. To remove it, use Pick > Locator to pick the locator,
then select Delete > Delete active, or toggle the checkmark off when
entering Square again.
See Check the deviation and continuity on surface edges on
page 347.
>
Buttons
Recalc
Recalculate the surface with the current values in the Square Control
window.
Next
Finish the current surface and prompt for new curves.
254
Surfaces > Boundary surfaces > N-sided
Creates a new surface from up to 8 boundary curves.
The N-sided tool does the following:
1
Creates a normal (four-sided) NURBS surface that simulates a blend between
the boundary curves.
2
Trims the surface using the boundary curves to create the appearance of a
surface with up to 8 sides.
Trimmed
Untrimmed
Unlike the Boundary tool, triangular surfaces created by N-sided are not
degenerate (that is, they do not have a zero-length side). The surface is only
trimmed to appear triangular.
To build an N-sided surface
To create a surface with up to 8 sides
1
Double click the N-sided icon, or choose Boundary surfaces > N-sided ❒ from
the Surfaces palette menu.
The N-sided Control window appears.
2
Click the first boundary curve.
◆
1
3
◆
2
3
You can use free curves, isoparametric curves, curves on surface and/or
trim edges.
To maintain continuity with another surface, you must pick an
isoparametric curve or trim edge on that surface, not a construction
curve used to create that surface.
Click each remaining curve (up to a total of 8) in clockwise or counterclockwise order.
◆
◆
◆
If two adjacent boundary curves do not intersect, the N-sided tool
averages their endpoints.
If a curve intersects the first curve, N-sided creates the surface.
Otherwise it displays the Go button and allows you to continue selecting
curves.
If you have selected all the boundary curves, click Go.
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4
Use the options in the N-sided Control window to set the continuity you want at
each edge (see below).
To edit the construction history of an N-sided surface
1
Pick the surface you want to edit.
2
Click the N-sided icon, or choose Boundary surfaces > N-sided from the
Surfaces palette menu.
The N-sided Control window appears.
3
Use the curve modification tools (in the Transform, Curve Edit, and Object Edit
palettes) to reshape the curves used to create the surface, and use the N-sided
Control window to change the surface creation options.
Tips and notes
●
For best results, use the snapping tools to make sure the curves intersect at
their endpoints. This is not required, but it makes the resulting surface more
predictable.
●
If you want to see only the effects of the Center Adjust options, set all the
edges to Free continuity, since free edges have the fastest interaction.
●
The N-sided tool does not use labels to show whether the desired continuity
was achieved. Instead you must look in the Surface Continuity Feedback
section of the N-sided Control window.
Click an edge named in the N-sided Control window to view the continuity
feedback for that edge.
Lines of text indicate whether continuity was achieved. If it was not achieved,
text boxes show how far out of tolerance the current edge is for each type of
continuity.
Options
Surface Name
Enter a name for the new surface. The default name is “nsided” followed by a
number.
>
Continuity table
The Continuity Table displays one row for each boundary curve involved in the Nsided operation.
●
Use the pop-up menu next to each curve to set the level of continuity across
that boundary.
●
Use the Continuity pop-up menu above the table to set the level of continuity
across all curves at once.
If the number of sides is not four, all boundary curves are automatically rebuilt to
create N-sided trimmed surfaces. In this case, the Rebuild checkboxes are
disabled.
The Rebuild controls can only be used on four-sided (i.e. non-trimmed) surfaces:
●
256
Click the checkboxes at the end of each row to rebuild the curves to reduce
data and improve parameterization.
●
Use the Rebuild pop-up menu to set rebuild on or off for all the curves at
once.
Free
This edge is free to move if required by another edge’s continuity.
Position
Only keep positional continuity. This is the default.
Tangent
Try to keep tangency with a surface that shares this edge.
Curvature
Try to keep curvature continuity with a surface that shares this edge.
>
Curve on Surf. Type
This option controls the degree of the curve on surface used to trim the new
surface. Note that Linear is much faster than Cubic.
Linear
The trim edges will be linear curves (degree 1).
Cubic
The trim edges will be cubic curves (degree 3).
>
Surface Degree
This slider controls the degree of the new surface (from 1 to 7). The default is 3.
>
Center Adjust Options
These options let you push or pull the surface toward or away from a center
point. Center Height and Center Weight only appear when Center Adjust is on.
Center Adjust
Display the center adjustment sliders and a distance locator on the model.
Center Height
Increase or decrease the distance of the locator along the surface normal.
This has the effect of pulling on or pushing in the center of the surface.
Center Weight
Increase or decrease the influence of the locator on the surface. Decreasing
this value increases the distance between the center point you specify and
the actual center point on the surface. The locator displays this distance.
257
>
Continuity Options/Feedback
Max. New Spans
Maximum number of spans the N-sided tool can insert in both U and V (on
the initial untrimmed surface), as it tries to achieve continuity.
If the N-sided tool cannot achieve tangency without inserting more than the
allowed number of spans, it displays an error in the prompt line.
Smoothing Weight
Use this slider to adjust the amount of smoothing to correct bumps and
bulges. A higher weight smooths more.
Continuity Feedback Text
Click an edge name in the N-sided Control window to view the continuity
feedback for that edge.
Lines of text indicate whether continuity was achieved. If continuity was not
achieved, text boxes show how far out of tolerance the current edge is for
each type of continuity.
For example, if an edge is 1 degree from tangency, and the tangency
tolerance is 0.1 degrees, the tangent continuity feedback line shows 0.9
degrees.
>
Control Options
Create History
Save the history of the new surface for later editing. If you turn Create
History on, you can modify the curves that were used to create the surface,
and the surface will update.
Auto Recalc
Update the new surface automatically as you change the values in the Nsided Control window.
>
Surface Evaluation
These options are not available in SurfaceStudio.
Off
Do not perform any surface evaluation on the surface.
Curvature
Highlight
Quick Render
Display a curvature render, highlight render, or Quick Render of the new
surface.
Cross Section
Calculate and display cross-section lines on the new surface. Choosing this
option displays the Show Previous Xsect option.
258
This option appears when
the Surface Evaluation
type is Cross Section.
Show Previous Xsect
Display the previous cross-section lines along with the current cross-section
lines.
This lets you make changes to the surface creation options and observe the
effect on the cross-sections.
>
Buttons
Recalc
Recalculate the surface with the current values in the N-sided Control
window.
Next
Finish the current surface and prompt for new curves.
259
Surfaces > Surface fillet
Creates a transition surface between two surfaces or sets of surfaces
See Create a fillet surface.
See Choose the type of a fillet surface.
See Control the radius along the length of a Variable fillet surface.
See Manipulate fillet surface cross section and continuity.
See Create a blend surface by specifying profiles.
See Create rounded edges and corners.
The Surface fillet tool offers two tabs of options: Simple and Advanced.
The Simple tab restricts the options displayed to Construction Type, Section
Type, Radius (or Default Profile Radius) and Extend. The control options are also
reduced, to Auto Recalc. and Continuity Check. All options are available under
the Advanced tab.
Construction Type
This pop-up menu controls the type of fillet.
Constant
Maintains a constant radius along the entire surface.
Variable
Allows you to set the radius at different points along the length of the fillet.
Chordal
Maintains a constant distance between the two edges of the fillet. Use the
Chordal Distance option to set the distance to maintain.
Section Type
This pop-up menu controls the shape of the fillet’s cross-section.
Bias
Creates a fillet with a center radius and tangent offset, the center of which is
biased toward (closer to) one set of surfaces.
Curvature
This option is not available in DesignStudio.
Maintains curvature continuity with both sets of surfaces.
If Curvature is selected, Use Peak Curvature options can be set:
The peak radius parameter is only visible if Construction Type is Constant. If
it is visible, you can specify either a radius or a ratio.
260
The ratio is the ratio of the peak radius to the tangent offset, i.e.
Peak Radius Ratio = Peak Radius / Tangent Offset
It can be used for any Construction Type setting (Constant, Variable or
Chordal).
The following illustration shows the difference peak curvature can make to a
fillet.
Standard fillet
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Fillet with peak curvature radius set
Circular
Creates a fillet with circular cross-section, tangent to both sets of surfaces.
This type maintains tangent continuity with the surfaces on either side.
Lead
Creates a fillet with a center radius and tangent offset that define the point of
contact with the input surfaces. This type maintains tangent continuity with
the surfaces on either side.
Span Placement
This pop-up menu controls how the new fillet surface is divided into spans.
Free: Inserts the minimum number of spans needed to meet tangent or
curvature requirements.
One Per Boundary: Inserts a span corresponding to boundaries between the
original surfaces, plus the minimum number of spans needed to meet
tangent or curvature requirements.
Curvature
This option is only available when the Section Type option is set to Bias or
Curvature.
None: Do not maintain curvature continuity.
Side 1, Side 2: Make the fillet surface curvature continuous with the first or
second set of surfaces.
Both: Make the fillet surface curvature continuous with both sets of surfaces.
262
Radius, distance, and surface controls
Radius/Center Radius/Default Profile Radius/Peak Radius
◆
◆
◆
◆
When Construction Type is Variable, this is the radius of a constant
radius fillet surface that AliasStudio uses as a basis for you to specify the
various radii for the final fillet. You will set the final fillet’s radii at different
points along the surface.
When Section Type is Circular, this is the radius of the fillet.
When Section Type is Lead, this is the radius around the centerline of
the fillet.
When Section Type is Curvature, this is the radius the tool will attempt to
achieve while maintaining curvature continuity.
Bias Factor
Moves the center rail of the fillet surface closer to one side. A value of 0 is
centered. Negative values bias toward the first set of surfaces. Positive
values bias toward the second set of surfaces.
Tangent Offset
The distance between the intersection line of the two sets of surfaces and the
contact lines (the lines along which the new fillet surface touches the
surfaces on either side).
This option is only available when Construction Type is Constant.
Specify
Chooses whether you want to specify the Peak Radius (or Tangent Offset) or
the Knee Ratio (or Peak Ratio). Since those numbers offer different ways of
measuring the same lead distance, it does not matter which way you prefer
to specify it.
Knee Ratio
The ratio between the center radius and the tangent offset distance.
knee ratio = center radius divided by tangent offset.
Use Peak Radius
When Section Type is Curvature, turn on this option to give you access to
the Peak Radius or Peak Radius Ratio.
Peak Radius Ratio
This is the ratio between Peak Radius and Tangent Offset. It is only available
when Section Type is Curvature.
Chordal Distance
The distance to maintain between the two sides of the fillet when
Construction Type is Chordal.
263
Controls for the U direction of the fillet
Short Edge Tolerance
In the case of cross-knot insertion, the system will not allow spans of a linear
distance less than the Short Edge Tolerance.
This option is only available when the Span Placement option is set to One
Per Boundary.
A segment that is shorter than the Short Edge Tolerance...
...is ignored when building the new geometry.
Single Surface
This option is only available when the Span Placement option is set to One
Per Boundary.
Turn this option on to create a single fillet surface.
Turn this option off to create multiple surfaces corresponding to the
boundaries between the original surfaces. This gives you much lighter fillet
surfaces and better continuity with the original surfaces.
Explicit Control
Gives you controls of the surface degree and maximum number of spans in
the new fillet surface.
This option is not available in DesignStudio.
Explicit Control Options
These options are only available when Explicit Control is turned on.
U Degree
The degree of the new fillet surface. Enter a whole number from 2 to 9.
Max. Spans
The maximum number of spans in the entire fillet surface.
This option is only available when Span Placement is Free.
264
Max. Spans per Piece
The maximum number of spans each piece of the new fillet can have.
This option is only available when Span Placement is One Per Boundary and
Single Surface is off.
Max. Inter-boundary Spans
The maximum number of fillet spans allowed inside the boundaries between
the original surfaces.
This option is only available when Single Surface is turned on.
Flow Control
Start/Interior/End
Controls how the fillet surface(s) edges (in the V direction) meet up with the
edges of the boundary surfaces.
EDGE ALIGN: The tool tries to colinearly align the fillet surfaces’ edges or
isoparms (for single surface) to the edges of the boundary surfaces in the V
direction.
EXTEND: The fillet is extended so that it reaches to the end of the longest
boundary surface, at its start and/or end.
DEFAULT or FREE: The edges (in the V direction) of the fillet meet the
boundaries at a 90 degree angle.
265
Start set to Edge Align
Start set to Default
Start set to Extend
Interior set to Free
Interior set to Edge Align
Control options
Trim Type
Off: does not trim the original surfaces.
266
Curves-on-surface: creates curves on surface along the contact lines,
allowing you to trim manually.
Automatic: automatically trims the original surfaces back to the contact line.
Curvature Comb
Displays a curvature comb plot across the resulting surface.
Continuity Check
Displays a manipulator indicating continuity achieved with the existing
surfaces along the fillet edges.
This option is only available when Trim Type is Curves-on-surface or
Automatic.
Auto-Recalc
Automatically updates the fillet surface as you change options.
If your surface is very complex and takes a long time to update, turn this
option off and click the Recalc button when you want to update the surface.
The Esc key can be used to interrupt lengthy surface fillet computations.
Buttons
Recalc
Updates the surface with the current settings when Auto Recalc is off.
Undo All
Reverses any effects of the tool.
Next
Resets the tool to begin a new surface.
267
Surfaces > Multi-Surface blend > Freeform blend
Previously called Freeform fillet, Freeform blend enables you to create a
transitional surface based on two input contact lines.
See Create a fillet surface on page 194.
See Choose the type of a fillet surface on page 196.
See Create a blend surface by specifying profiles.
The Freeform blend tool offers two tabs of options: Simple and Advanced.
The Simple tab restricts the options displayed to Continuity and Shape, as well
as the Control Options. All options are available under the Advanced tab.
Continuity
This pop-up menu determines the type of continuity that will be used to
create the blend surface.
Tangent: End points plus the end tangents match at the common endpoint.
Curvature: End points, plus the end tangents, plus the curvature of the two
curves all match at the common end point.
Span Placement
This pop-up menu controls how the new blend surface is divided into spans.
One-Per-Boundary: Inserts a span corresponding to boundaries between the
original surfaces, plus the minimum number of spans needed to meet
tangent or curvature requirements.
Free: Inserts the minimum number of spans needed to meet tangent or
curvature requirements.
268
Short Edge Tolerance
In the case of cross-knot insertion, the system will not allow spans of a linear
distance less than the Short Edge Tolerance.
A segment that is shorter than the Short Edge Tolerance...
...is ignored when building the new geometry.
Single Surface
This option is only available when the Span Placement option is set to OnePer-Boundary.
Turn this option on to create a single blend surface.
Turn this option off to create multiple surfaces corresponding to the
boundaries between the original surfaces. This gives you much lighter blend
surfaces and better continuity with the original surfaces.
Shape
Provides control over the “looseness” or “tightness” of the blend surface. If
the value is greater than 1.0, the result is a blend that fits tighter to the corner
of the input surfaces; if the value is less than 1.0, the result is a rounder blend
that fits closer to the edges of the surface.
269
Input surfaces
Surface tangents
Blend surface
Shape value > 1
Shape value = 1
Shape value < 1
Explicit Control
Gives you controls of the surface degree and maximum number of spans in
the new blend surface.
Explicit Control Options
These options are only available when Explicit Control is checked.
U Degree
The degree of the new blend surface. Enter a whole number from 2 to 9.
Max. Spans
The maximum number of spans in the entire blend surface, or per piece if
Span Placement is set to One-Per-Boundary and Single Surface is not
checked.
Flow Control
Start/Interior/End
Controls how the blend surface(s) edges (in the V direction) meet up with the
edges of the boundary surfaces.
EDGE ALIGN: The tool tries to colinearly align the blend surfaces’ edges or
isoparms (for single surface) to the edges of the boundary surfaces in the V
direction.
CONNECT ENDS: The edges of the blend surfaces meet the start and/or end
points of the boundaries exactly.
DEFAULT or FREE: The edges of the blend surface(s) (in the V direction)
meet the boundaries at a 90 degree angle.
270
Start set to Default
Start set to Edge Align
Start set to Connect Ends
Interior set to Free
Interior set to Edge Align
Control Options
Chain Select
If this box is checked, selecting a boundary input curve also selects all other
boundary curves that are tangent continuous with it.
271
Continuity Check
Displays a manipulator indicating continuity achieved with the existing
surfaces along the blend surface edges.
Auto Recalc.
Automatically updates the blend surface as you change options. If the
surface to be built is very complex and takes a long time to update, turn this
option off and click the Recalc button when you want to update the surface.
272
Surfaces > Multi-Surface blend > Profile blend
Lets you create one or many transitional surface(s) between multiple continuous
surface boundaries, by specifying any number of cross-sections (profile curves)
between the primary surfaces.
The primary surfaces’ edges may be trimmed, untrimmed, curves on surface, or
isoparms.
You can place any number of profile curves (cross-sections) at any point between
the primary surfaces’ boundaries. Profiles can be any type of curves, including
blend curves and surface boundaries.
See Create a blend surface by specifying profiles (page 199).
Continuity
Choose Position, Tangent or Curvature to determine the level of continuity
between the blend surfaces and primary surfaces.
If more than one blend surface is created, we do not guaranteed curvature
continuity between them, even if the primary surfaces are curvature
continuous. We guarantee (at most) tangent continuity.
Span Placement
ONE-PER-BOUNDARY: if a single blend surface is built, it will have isoparms
that line up with the boundaries of the primary surfaces, on both sides. If
multiple blend surfaces are built, they will break at the boundaries between
the primary surfaces, as long as their edge in the U direction is longer than
the Short Edge Tolerance.
FREE: a single blend surface is built and its isoparms can be located
anywhere along the surface.
Short Edge Tolerance
This tolerance controls the minimum length of a blend surface (in the U
direction), or the minimum distance between isoparms for a single surface.
273
This option only appears when Span Placement is set to ONE-PERBOUNDARY. Blend surfaces will only break at boundaries if their U-length is
larger than this tolerance. The distance between the isoparms of a single
blend surface will be larger than this tolerance.
Single Surface
If this box is checked, a single blend surface is calculated. This option only
appears when Span Placement is set to ONE-PER-BOUNDARY. If Span
Placement is set to FREE, a single surface is always built.
Interior Edge Align
If this box is checked, the tool tries to colinearly align the blend surfaces’
edges or isoparms (for single surface) to the edges of the boundary surfaces
in the V direction. The level of continuity (position, tangent or curvature),
depends on the Continuity setting.
If the box is unchecked, the interior edges (in the V direction) meet the
boundaries at a 90 degree angle.
Explicit Control
If this box is checked, you can specify the degree and maximum number of
spans for the blend surfaces in the U direction.
>
Explicit Control Options
U Degree
Controls the degree of the blend surfaces in the U direction. This option only
appears if Explicit Control is turned on.
Max. Span
Controls the maximum number of spans allowed on the blend surfaces in the
U direction. This option only appears if Explicit Control is turned on.
>
Control Options
Chain Select
If this box is checked, selecting a boundary input curve also selects all other
boundary curves that are tangent continuous with it.
Continuity Check
If this box is checked, continuity locators appear along the boundaries
between primary surfaces and blend surfaces indicating the level of
continuity.
Auto Recalc.
If this box is checked, blend surfaces are recalculated automatically when an
option is changed, or when input curves are modified, added, or removed.
274
Surfaces > Rolled edge > Fillet flange
Creates a fillet and a flange to refine the edges of a surface model.
See Building primary and transition surfaces using the fillet
flange and tube flange tool (page 223).
The Fillet flange tool provides you with automatic functionality that creates a
finish on the edges of a surface model. By using one or more of the following:
edge, curve-on-surface, boundary edge, or iso-parametric line, the tool creates a
temporary, imagined wall used for construction only on the selected geometry.
This wall can be based on a pull direction vector or on the surface normal at the
selected geometry. Using this wall and the input geometry, the tool creates a
surface fillet. Additionally, the Fillet-flange tool creates a linear extension called a
Flange on the fillet. This extension can be defined by a sweep angle or a vector
plus a draft angle.
Wall
Type
Set to either Draft or Normal. In Draft mode, the wall is defined by a pull
direction vector plus a draft angle. Wall (for both Draft and Normal) defines
the configuration of the fillet tangent. For Draft, a pull direction vector must be
picked. The vector is highlighted in light blue (the same color is used for
showing the wall). Normal builds a normal-based wall.
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Angle
The angle to the input surface normal at each point of the input curves, or the
Draft angle if Draft has been selected.
Flip
Enables you to put the wall on top of or underneath the surfaces.
Fillet
Continuity
Choose either Tangent or Curvature continuous to the base surfaces.
If Curvature is selected, Use Peak Curvature options can be set:
The peak radius parameter is only visible if the fillet/tube radius/tangent
offset is not variable. If it is visible you can specify either a radius or a ratio.
The ratio is the ratio of the radius/tangent offset to the peak radius, and can
be used for either variable or fixed radius fillet.
The following illustration shows the difference peak curvature can make to a
fillet.
276
Standard fillet
Fillet with peak curvature radius set
Radius
Defines the radius of the fillet. You can create a variable radius interactively
by adding more radius manipulators along the curve.
Flip
Enables you to flip the fillet on the other side of the wall. This option is grayed
out if at least one of the input curves is an edge, and thus, it’s possible to
build a fillet only on one side of the wall.
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Single Surface
If checked on, a single fillet surface is created, otherwise the fillet is split at
curve boundaries, which also include surface boundaries, since a curve
cannot span more than one surface.
Explicit Control
Gives you controls of the surface degree and maximum number of spans in
the fillet surface.
U Degree
The degree of the fillet surface. Enter a whole number from 2 to 9. This
option is only available when Explicit Control is checked.
Max. Spans
The maximum number of spans in the entire fillet surface, or per piece if
Span Placement is set to One-Per-Boundary and Single Surface is not
checked. This option is only available when Explicit Control is checked.
Flange
Type
Set to either Sweep Angle or Parting Line. Sweep Angle defines where along
the fillet the flange will be tangent to the fillet. Parting Line uses a vector and
draft angle that determines the direction of the flange. If you select Parting
Line, you must pick a vector, unless Wall Type is set to Draft, in which case
the draft vector (shown in blue) will be used as the parting line pull direction
by default. To specify a different vector for the parting line, Shift-pick it.
Sweep Angle or Draft Angle
Provides a slider to control the angle. The default is 90 degrees for Sweep,
and 0 for Draft angle. Either angle can be variable.
Flip
Enables you to flip the direction of the flange. This option is grayed out if at
least one of the input curves is an edge, and thus, there’s only one valid
orientation of the flange.
Create Flange
Determines whether or not a flange will be built off the edge of the fillet. Note
that the fillet will be trimmed according to the Sweep Angle or Parting Line
settings, even if Create Flange is off.
Length
Determines the length of the flange that will be built, if Create Flange is on.
Length can be variable.
Explicit Control
Gives you controls of the surface degree and maximum number of spans in
the flange surface.
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U Degree
The degree of the flange surface. Enter a whole number from 2 to 9. This
option is only available when Explicit Control is checked.
Max. Spans
The maximum number of spans in the entire flange surface, or per piece if
Span Placement is set to One-Per-Boundary and Single Surface is not
checked. This option is only available when Explicit Control is checked.
Control Options
Note that only one of the three parameters can be variable. For example, it is not
possible to create a variable radius fillet with a variable length flange.
Variable
Gives you the ability to interactively modify the Flange Length, Flange Angle,
or Radius.
Short Edge Tolerance
In the case of cross-knot insertion, the system will not allow spans of a linear
distance less than the Short Edge Tolerance.
Auto Trim
Choose whether to have the surfaces automatically trimmed, or just to place
the curves-on-surface.
Continuity Check
Choose whether to get visual feedback about continuity (set in the Fillet
section). Green indicates success; yellow indicates that the continuity
condition has not been met.
Chain Select
If this box is checked, selecting a surface curve also selects all other surface
curves that are tangent continuous with it.
Show Wall
Displays the imaginary wall that is used in the calculation of the fillet.
Auto Recalc
Choose between updating changes by selecting the Recalc button, or
automatically updating changes.
If Auto Recalc is set off, use the spacebar to press the Recalc button.
To extend a Fillet flange
You can specify whether a fillet surface needs to be extended along the rail
to reach the boundary of the input surface at each end of the rail. To toggle
an extension at a rail end, click on the green arrow appearing at that end.
279
The arrow is shown in light green when extension is on. If the rail is closed,
that is, its endpoints coincide, extension is not useful, and, therefore, the
arrows are not shown.
To control the variable parameter in Fillet flange
The variable parameter (radius, flange angle, or flange length — as specified by
Variable in the control window) is controlled using a set of manipulators in the
modeling window. Only one of the parameters can be varied: the other two are
held constant.
Each manipulator consists of two handles — the rail slider and the value handle
— only one of which can be active at a given time. The active handle is shown in
light blue. The rail slider, a "ball" sliding along the rail, indicates the position on
the rail where the value applies. The value handle, an approximate cross section
of the future surface, controls the value of the parameter at this point.
The value of the active handle is shown on the prompt line.
For all of the following operations, use the left mouse button, unless stated
otherwise.
To activate a handle, click on it.
To de-activate the currently active handle and switch back to the picking mode,
click anywhere on the screen (without dragging the mouse).
To add a new manipulator, click on the desired point on the rail.
To move a manipulator, drag the slider using the left mouse button.
Alternatively, activate the slider and type in the position (in the range from 0 to 1)
along the rail.
To adjust the parameter value, click and drag the value handle. Once the
handle is active, the mouse can be dragged anywhere on the screen.
Alternatively, activate the handle and type in the value in current units.
To delete a manipulator, Shift-right click on it.
If a single manipulator is used, the parameter is constant, and its value can also
be adjusted in the control box. As soon as another manipulator is added, the
value in the control box is grayed out.
280
Surfaces > Rolled edge > Tube flange
See Building primary and transition surfaces using the fillet flange and tube
flange tool on page 223.
The Tube Flange tool provides you with an automatic functionality to create a
finish on the edges of a surface model. By using one or more of the following:
edge, curve-on-surface, boundary edge, or iso-parametric line, the tool creates a
tube that touches the selected geometry. The tool also creates a linear extension
-- a flange -- on the tube. This extension can be defined by a sweep angle or a
vector plus a draft angle.
Feature curve for
gasoline intake
Tube and flange
added without
modifying or
affecting the feature
curve
281
Tube
Continuity
Choose either Tangent or Curvature continuous to the
base surfaces.
If Curvature is selected, Use Peak Curvature options can
be set:
The peak radius parameter is only visible if the fillet/tube
radius/tangent offset is not variable. If is visible you can
specify either a radius or a ratio.
The ratio is the ratio of the radius/tangent offset to the
peak radius, and can be used for either variable or fixed
radius fillet.
282
The following illustration shows the difference peak curvature can make to a
fillet.
Standard fillet
Fillet with peak curvature radius set
Radius
Defines the radius of the tube. This option is grayed out if Variable is set to
Radius and more than one manipulator is used. You must define the radius
interactively on the model by dragging the manipulator in that case.
283
Flip
Enables you to put the tube on top of or underneath the surfaces.
Single Surface
If checked on, a single tube surface is created, otherwise the tube is split at
curve boundaries, which also include surface boundaries, since a curve
cannot span more than one surface.
Explicit Control
Gives you controls of the surface degree and maximum number of spans in
the tube surface.
U Degree
The degree of the tube surface. Enter a whole number from 2 to 9. This
option is only available when Explicit Control is checked.
Max. Spans
The maximum number of spans in the entire tube surface, or per piece if
Span Placement is set to One-Per-Boundary and Single Surface is not
checked. This option is only available when Explicit Control is checked.
Explicit control applies to Tube only: a separate control is provided for
Flange.
Flange
Type
Set to either Sweep Angle or Parting Line. Sweep Angle defines where along
the tube the flange will be tangent to the tube. Parting Line uses a vector and
draft angle that determines the direction of the flange. If you select Parting
Line, you must pick a vector.
Sweep Angle or Draft Angle
Provides a slider to control the angle. The default is 90 degrees for Sweep,
and 0 for Draft angle. Either angle can be variable.
Flip
Enables you to flip the direction of the flange. This option is grayed out if at
least one of the input curves is an edge, and thus, there’s only one valid
orientation of the flange.
Create Flange
Determines whether or not a flange will be built off the edge of the tube. To
create a full tube, use a Sweep Angle of 360 degrees. Note that the tube will
be trimmed according to the Sweep Angle or Parting Line settings, even if
Create Flange is off.
Length
Determines the length of the flange that will be built, if Create Flange is on.
Length can be variable.
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Explicit Control
Gives you controls of the surface degree and maximum number of spans in
the flange surface.
This controls the flange only.
U Degree
The degree of the flange surface. Enter a whole number from 2 to 9. This
option is only available when Explicit Control is checked.
Max. Spans
The maximum number of spans in the entire flange surface, or per piece if
Span Placement is set to One-Per-Boundary and Single Surface is not
checked. This option is only available when Explicit Control is checked.
Control Options
Note that only one of the three parameters can be variable. For example, it is not
possible to create a variable radius tube with a variable length flange.
Variable
Gives you the ability to interactively modify the Flange Length, Flange Angle,
or Radius.
Short Edge Tolerance
In the case of cross-knot insertion, the system will not allow spans of a linear
distance less than the Short Edge Tolerance.
A segment that is shorter than the Short Edge Tolerance...
...is ignored when building the new geometry.
Chain Select
If this box is checked, selecting a surface curve also selects all other surface
curves that are tangent continuous with it.
285
Continuity Check
Choose whether to get visual feedback about continuity (set in the Tube
section). Green indicates success; yellow indicates that the continuity
condition has not been met.
Auto Recalc
Choose between updating changes by selecting the Recalc button, or
automatically updating changes.
If Auto Recalc is set off, use the spacebar to press the Recalc button.
Variable controls for this tool are provided in the modeling window.
Controlling the variable parameter in Tube flange
The variable parameter (radius, flange angle, or flange length — as specified by
Variable in the control window) is controlled using a set of manipulators in the
modeling window. Only one of the parameters can be varied: the other two are
held constant.
Each manipulator consists of two handles — the rail slider and the value handle
— only one of which can be active at a given time. The active handle is shown in
light blue. The rail slider, a "ball" sliding along the rail, indicates the position on
the rail where the value applies. The value handle, an approximate cross section
of the future surface, controls the value of the parameter at this point.
The value of the active handle is shown on the prompt line.
For all of the following operations, use the left mouse button, unless stated
otherwise.
To activate a handle, click on it.
To de-activate the currently active handle and switch back to the picking mode,
click anywhere on the screen (without dragging the mouse).
To add a new manipulator, click on the desired point on the rail.
To move a manipulator, drag the slider using the left mouse button.
Alternatively, activate the slider and type in the position (in the range from 0 to 1)
along the rail.
To adjust the parameter value, click and drag the value handle. Once the
handle is active, the mouse can be dragged anywhere on the screen.
Alternatively, activate the handle and type in the value in current units.
To delete a manipulator, Shift-right click on it.
If a single manipulator is used, the parameter is constant, and its value can also
be adjusted in the control box. As soon as another manipulator is added, the
value in the control box is grayed out.
286
Surfaces > Rolled edge > Tubular offset
Create a tube and intersect the tube with input surfaces to generate offset
curves.
See Create curves-on-surface offset from a curve on page 296.
Use this tool to create a tube that may traverse many tangent-continuous
surfaces, and optionally intersect the tube with the input surfaces to generate
offset curves. For input, use a curve or series of tangent continuous curves: it
may be curves-on-surface, isoparametric curves, or boundary edges.
Surface
With the Tube option, the resulting geometry can be a full tube. Using the
Groove option results in the part of the tube on either side of the surfaces
which the tube intersects. Choose None to create no geometry.
Single Surface
If checked on, a single tube surface is created, otherwise the tube is split at
curve boundaries, which also include surface boundaries, since a curve
cannot span more than one surface.
Flip
The Flip option (only available if you have chosen the Groove option)
enables you to flip the groove onto the other side of the input surfaces to
create a bump. On-screen manipulators indicate which side the tube will be
built on.
287
This image shows a surface created by using the Tubular Offset tool with Groove option. Notice the
top surface can be trimmed to reveal the groove. This option is useful for representing parting or cut
lines.
Tangent Offset, Normal Offset
The tube can be offset from the original input data along the tangent from the
input data, or normal to the surface from the input data. On-screen
manipulators update interactively to show the position of the tube.
Trim Type
The options in Trim Type enable you to select between the creation of
curves-on-surface where the tube surface intersects the base surfaces, or to
automatically trim away the area of the input surfaces that is contained within
the tube. If the Trim Type is set to OFF, the input surfaces are left untouched.
Radius
Defines the radius of the tube. Create a variable radius interactively by
adding more radius manipulators along the curve. Adjust the radius of the
tube interactively by dragging its manipulator.
Controlling manipulators in Tubular offset
Each manipulator consists of two handles — the rail slider and the radius handle
— only one of which can be active at a given time. The active handle is shown in
light blue. The rail slider, a "ball" sliding along the rail, indicates the position on
the rail where the radius applies. The radius handle, an approximate cross
section of the future surface, controls the radius at this point.
The value of the active handle is shown on the status line.
288
For all of the following operations, use the left mouse button, unless stated
otherwise.
To activate a handle, click on it.
To de-activate the currently active handle and switch back to the picking mode,
click anywhere on the screen (without dragging the mouse).
To add a new manipulator, click on the desired point on the rail.
To move a manipulator, drag the slider using the left mouse button.
Alternatively, activate the slider and type in the position (in the range from 0 to 1)
along the rail.
To adjust the radius value, click and drag the radius handle. Once the handle is
active, the mouse can be dragged anywhere on the screen. Alternatively, activate
the handle and type in the radius in current units.
To delete a manipulator, Shift-right click on it.
If a single manipulator is used, the radius is constant, and its value can also be
adjusted in the control box. As soon as another manipulator is added, the value
in the control box is grayed out.
289
Surfaces > Round
Creates rounded surfaces along edges and at corners, where existing surfaces
meet.
About the tool
This new version of the Round tool replaces both Round and 9.0 Round from
version 13.0. Like its predecessors, the tool creates rounded surfaces along
edges (fillets) and at corners, where existing surfaces meet. Its functionality has
also been expanded to:
●
provide a choice of different geometries at corners (single surface, three
surfaces, triangular surface, and six surfaces “with setbacks”).
●
handle “mitred” corners (when one of the edges has a filleting radius of 0.0)
●
provide improved UI and manipulators
Workflows exist to create fillets only, along multiple surface edges, as well as
fillets and rounded corner surfaces (regular or mitred). The fillets can have a
variable radius.
See Create rounded edges and corners (page 213)
Like other surface tools, the new Round tool also maintains construction history
on the new surfaces.
Options
Trim Type
Automatic: trims the surfaces to the edges of the fillets
Curves on Surface: creates curves-on-surfaces at the edges of the fillets but
does not trim the surfaces.
Off: does not produce curves-on-surface
>
Default Corner Types
Equal Radius Corner
Specifies the initial type of geometry to be built at a corner when the radii
specified along all three edges are the same.
Three surfaces: three regular surfaces.
Triangular surface: a single surface with one side of zero length.
With setbacks: six surfaces, with their edges extending into neighboring
fillets.
290
Three surfaces
Triangular surface
With setbacks
Unequal Radius Corner
Specifies the initial type of geometry to be built at a corner when the radii
specified along all three edges are different.
SIngle Surface: one regular surface.
With Setbacks: six surfaces, with their edges extending into neighboring
fillets.
SIngle surface
With setbacks
Mitred Corner
Specifies how the outer edges of the two surfaces (away from the zero-radius
edge) meet at a mitred corner (see picture below).
Blended: the edges meet in a smooth blended fashion
Sharp: the edges form a sharp corner
Blended corner
Sharp corner
Buttons
Build
Press this button to build the fillets and corner surfaces after all your edges
and radii have been specified. You can still add or modifiy the radii
afterwards, and press Build again to modify the surfaces.
Revert
Press this button to remove the newly built surfaces. The radius manipulators
are still present and can be modified. You can also add new edges, or delete
edges by holding the Shift key.
291
Surfaces > Draft surfaces > Multi-surface draft
Creates a single ruled surface from a group of tangent-continuous surface curves
by pulling a surface at an angle to the normal of the original surface(s), or at an
angle to a pull vector.
About the tool
The Multi-surface draft tool uses surface edges, curves on surface or
isoparametric curves, to create a ruled surface that extends away at an angle to
the original surface(s).
A ruled surface is flat at every point in a given direction.
You can build a single surface across all of the input surface curves, provided
that they are tangent continuous.
Other related tools are Surfaces > Rolled edge > Fillet flange and
Surfaces > Draft surfaces > Draft/flange.
Options
Type
NORMAL: Creates a surface that extends away at a given angle from the
normal of the underlying surface(s). By default, the new surface is normal to
the underlying surface(s).
DRAFT: Creates a surface that extends away at a given angle from a
specified pull direction vector. By default, the surface is parallel to the pull
vector.
Use Construction > Vector to create a vector object.
292
pull vector
Type = Draft Draft
Angle = 0.0
Type = Normal
Angle = 0.0
Angle/Draft Angle
The initial angle between the new surface and the normal of the original
surface (Normal type), or pull vector (Draft type). The default is 0.0. You can
also change this value using the angle/height manipulator when you use the
tool. (See Variable option below).
Height
The initial height of the surface from the original curves. You can also change
this value using the angle/height manipulator when you use the tool. (See
Variable option below).
Flip
Reverses the direction of the new surface(s).
Single surface
If this option is checked on, a single surface is built. Otherwise, a separate
surface is created for each of the input curves you selected, and the surfaces
are grouped.
Creating a single surface might add additional spans.
Explicit Control
Turn on this option if you want to specify the exact degree and maximum
number of spans in the new surface.
>
Explicit Control Options
U Degree
Degree of the new surface in the U direction. (The surface is always of
degree 1 in the V direction.) Enter a whole number from 2 to 9. This option
only appears if Explicit Control is checked.
Max. Spans
Maximum number of spans allowed on the entire surface in the U direction.
(The surface always has a single span in the V direction.) This option only
appears if Explicit Control is checked.
293
>
Control Options
Variable
Gives you the ability to interactively modify the angle or height of the new
surface by clicking and dragging the manipulators.
ANGLE: Allows you to adjust the angle of the surface. You can create any
number of manipulators by clicking along the input curves, and then adjust
the angle individually at those points.
HEIGHT: Allows you to adjust the height of the surface. You can create any
number of manipulators by clicking along the input curves, and then adjust
the height individually at those points.
Note that only one of the two parameters can be variable (Angle or Height).
For example, it is not possible to create a variable angle draft surface with a
variable height.
Chain Select
If this box is checked, selecting a surface curve also selects all other surface
curves that are tangent continuous with it.
Auto Recalc.
Turn on this option to have the new surface automatically re-calculated and
displayed as you modify the option values or make adjustments to the
manipulators.
If it is off, you must press the Recalc button in the lower right corner of the
window to update the surface(s).
If Auto Recalc is turned off, you can also use the spacebar to press the
Recalc button.
Continuity Check
Turn on this option to see the level of continuity between the newly created
surface(s) and the original surface(s):
P: Positional continuity
T: Tangent continuity
C: Curvature continuity
Using the manipulators to control angle and height
The variable parameter (Angle or Height — as specified by Variable in the option
window) is controlled using a set of manipulators in the modeling window. Only
one of the parameters can be varied: the other one is held constant.
Each manipulator consists of two handles — the curve slider and the value
handle — only one of which can be active at a given time. The active handle is
shown in light blue. The curve slider, a "ball" sliding along the input curve,
indicates the position on the curve where the value applies. The value handle, a
straight “spike”, controls the value of the parameter(angle or height) at this point.
294
The value of the active handle is shown on the prompt line.
Variable height
surface with two
manipulators
For all of the following operations, use the left mouse button, unless stated
otherwise.
To activate a handle, click on it.
To de-activate the currently active handle and switch back to the picking mode,
click anywhere on the screen (without dragging the mouse).
To add a new manipulator, click on the desired point on the curve.
To move a manipulator, drag the curve slider ball using the left mouse button.
Alternatively, activate the slider ball and type in the position (in the range from 0
to 1) along the curve.
To adjust the parameter value, click and drag the value handle. Once the
handle is active, the mouse can be dragged anywhere on the screen.
Alternatively, activate the handle and type in the value in current units.
To delete a manipulator, Shift-right click on it.
If a single manipulator is used, the parameter is constant, and its value can also
be adjusted in the option box. As soon as another manipulator is added, the
value in the option box is grayed out.
See Pull surfaces from curves of an existing surface on
page 167.
295
Surfaces > Draft surfaces > Draft/flange
Creates ruled surfaces (surfaces that are flat in some direction at every point) by
pulling a surface from a curve or surface curve in a given direction, or by pulling a
surface curve at an angle to the surface normal.
About the tool
The Draft/flange tool has two distinct uses and effects based on the Mode
setting:
●
Draft surfaces start from a set of curves and extend away from the curves at
an angle to a pull direction.
Use Draft when you want to make sure a surface can be extracted from an
injection mold.
●
Flange surfaces start from a set of isoparametric curves, surface edges or
curves on surface, and extend away at an angle to the original surface.
For example, you can use Flange mode to build a “skirt” surface around the
edge of another surface.
Options
>
Common Options
Mode
Set the type of surface created by the tool: Draft or Flange. See the overview
above for descriptions of the different modes.
Angle
The initial angle of the surface from the pull direction/normal. You can
change this value using the draft angle/surface depth manipulator when you
use the tool.
Surface Depth
The initial depth of the surface from the original curves. You can change this
value using the draft angle/surface distance manipulator when you use the
tool.
Explicit Control
Turn this option on if you want to specify the exact degree and number of
spans of the Draft or Flange surface.
The Degree and Spans
options only appear if
Explicit Control is turned
on.
296
Degree
Degree of the draft or flange surface in the U direction. (The surface is
always of degree 1 in the V direction.)
Spans
Number of spans of the draft or flange surface in the U direction. (The
surface always has a single span in the V direction.)
Create History
Save the Draft history for later editing. If you turn on Create History, you can
edit the original curves and the draft/flange surface will automatically update.
These options appear
when Mode is Draft.
>
Draft Options
Pull Direction
User Defined: you will explicitly set the initial pull direction.
Automatic: the Draft tool will automatically figure out the best initial pull
direction each time you use the tool.
This option appears when
Pull Direction is User
Defined.
This option appears when
Pull Direction is User
Defined.
Presets
Click X, Y, or Z to set the “Up” Rotation option to one of the cardinal axes.
“Up” Rotation
Enter three values (X, Y, and Z rotation) to define the initial pull direction. You
can change this value using the pull direction manipulator when you use the
tool.
Vector
The name of the reference vector that represents the pull direction. To use a
reference vector to set the pull direction, either click the vector or enter its
name in the Vector field.
See Pull a surface from a set of curves on page 165.
See Pull surfaces from curves of an existing surface on
page 167.
See Surfaces > Draft surfaces > Multi-surface draft on page 292.
297
Surfaces > Curve networks
Curve networks let you build surfaces very quickly from a network of intersecting
curves.
Default Continuity
The default level of continuity between the different surfaces in the curve
network. The curves in a new network, and any curves you add later will
initially maintain this level of continuity.
See Constructing quality curves on page 9.
See Blend curves on page 10.
See Understand curve networks on page 222.
See Work with curve networks on page 224.
See Create a curve network on page 224.
See Add or subtract curves in a curve network on page 225.
See Change the continuity along network curves on page 225.
See Edit network curves while maintaining intersections on
page 226.
See Lock curve network edges on page 228.
See Add or remove a sculpt curve in a curve network on
page 228.
See Change the influence of sculpt curves on page 229.
See Analyze problems with a curve network on page 229.
298
CrvNet Tools > Pick network
Lets you pick a curve network.
See Work with curve networks on page 224.
299
CrvNet Tools > New network
Creates a new curve network.
See Create a curve network on page 224.
300
CrvNet Tools > Continuity
Sets the type of continuity in a curve network.
The following two tools are available on the Continuity pull-out: Positional
continuity and Tangent continuity.
301
CrvNet Tools > Add curves to network
Adds curves to a curve network.
302
CrvNet Tools > Subtract curves from network
Removes curves from a curve network.
303
CrvNet Tools > Analyze network
Shows statistics and diagnostics about a curve network.
See Create a curve network on page 224.
See Analyze problems with a curve network on page 229.
304
CrvNet Tools > Reset sculpt curves mapping
Resets the relationship between sculpt curves and the curve network to the
beginning state.
See Change the influence of sculpt curves on page 229.
305
CrvNet Tools > Add sculpt curve
Adds a sculpt curve to a curve network. A sculpt curve pulls the curves of the
curve network as you reshape it.
See Add or remove a sculpt curve in a curve network on
page 228.
306
CrvNet Tools > Delete sculpt curve
Removes a sculpt curve from a curve network. A sculpt curve pulls the curves of
the curve network as you reshape it.
See Add or remove a sculpt curve in a curve network on
page 228.
307
CrvNet Tools > Pin edge
Locks the position of an edge in a curve network.
See Lock curve network edges on page 228.
308
CrvNet Tools > Influence weights > Multi weight
Different amounts of influence (weights) affect the length of the curve.
See Change the influence of sculpt curves on page 229.
309
CrvNet Tools > Influence weights > Unit weight
The entire sculpt curve exerts the same amount of influence on the surface.
See Change the influence of sculpt curves on page 229.
310
CrvNet Tools > Lock intersection
Locks the position of an intersection between curves in a curve network.
See Edit network curves while maintaining intersections on
page 226.
311
CrvNet Tools > Region of influence
Sets how far-reaching the influence of a sculpt curve is on the surrounding curve
network.
You can choose from: Large region, Medium region, or Small region.
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Surfaces > Combine surfaces
Creates a single new surface from several separate surfaces.
Overview
Often it is easier to model a complex shape with several surfaces, rather than
one large surface.
However, these kinds of composite surfaces cannot be used in some
circumstances. You may want to use a tool that only works on single surfaces, or
your manufacturing system may require a single surface.
The Combine surfaces tool allows you to combine several surfaces into one
surface. It has the following limitations:
●
The combined outer boundary of all the surfaces must have exactly four
sides.
●
Combine surfaces does not work on trimmed surfaces.
To combine several surfaces into one new surface
1
Click the Combine surfaces icon, or choose Surfaces > Combine surfaces
from the palette.
2
Pick the surfaces you want to combine.
◆
◆
As you add surfaces, the surface boundaries change color. Green
means the current group of surfaces has a four-sided boundary and can
be combined. Yellow means they cannot be combined.
When the surfaces can be combined, an arrow appears showing the
normal of the new surface. Click the arrow to reverse the normal of the
new surface.
3
When you have picked all the surfaces you want to combine and the boundary
is green, click Go.
4
The system prompts you to click the edges that must be continuous with
adjacent surfaces.
◆
◆
5
Click a green boundary line to mark it for tangency with adjacent
surfaces. A label appears on the boundary.
Click the label to change the continuity type. Each click cycles through
positional (pos), tangent (tan), and curvature (cur).
Click Go.
How the function works
1
Combine surfaces fits four curves to each of the four outer boundaries of the
set of surfaces you selected.
2
Then, it places a simple surface, of the degree you selected in the option box,
within those four curves.
3
The function samples the interior of all the selected surfaces and modifies the
surface to match those samples.
4
If the surface doesn’t match well enough, Combine surfaces inserts knot
isoparametric curves into the simple surface to allow for finer adjustments to
the shape.
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5
If you selected continuity with boundary surfaces, Combine surfaces samples
those surfaces as well, and increases the samples along the outer boundaries
of the original surfaces.
Tips and notes
●
Using very tight tolerances does not guarantee that the resulting surface will
match the original surfaces with higher accuracy.
Combine surfaces tries to achieve tighter tolerances by:
increasing sampling, and
inserting more knot isoparametric curves for finer control.
The result is often a surface with more complexity than you need.
◆
◆
●
This tool can often achieve good fits with relatively loose tolerances. If you
relax the tolerances, it also reduces the time it takes to create the new
surface.
Try using loose tolerances to begin with, and increase them if you are not
achieving the accuracy you need.
Options
Tolerance
Controls the fit distance of the combined surface to the original surfaces.
Angle Tolerance
Controls the fit angle of the surface normals at sample points.
Iterate to Tolerance
Increases samples and insert more isoparametric curves until the tolerances
are reached.
Explicit Control Options
U Degree/ V Degree
Specifies the degree of the resulting surface in U and V directions.
U Max Spans/ V Max Spans
These sliders only appear when Iterate to Tolerance is off.
Does not create a combined surface with more than the given number of
spans in the U and V direction, even if the tolerances are not reached.
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Surfaces > Ball Corner
Creates a ball corner surface between three fillets and a primary surface.
See Create ball corner surfaces (page 219) for detailed workflow.
Option Window
Pivot Curve Length Ratio
Specifies the ratio between the chord length of the pivot curve (top of the ball
corner) and the chord length of the opposite edge on the ball corner. A ratio
of 1.0 means both chord lengths are equal.
Both end points of the pivot curve are moved the same distance from the
apex (intersection point between the two top fillets). Use this control to make
the pivot curve symmetric.
Start Length Ratio
Modifies the length of the first half of the pivot curve only, in the manner
described for Pivot Curve Length Ratio.
End Length Ratio
Modifies the length of the last half of the pivot curve only, in the manner
described for Pivot Curve Length Ratio.
Build Surface
If checked, any changes in any field in the option window leads to an
automatic update of the ball corner surface. This is the default.
If this is not checked, the ball corner surface, if any, is deleted, and only the
hole is constructed.
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Build Surface Options
Continuity
Controls the level of continuity between the ball corner and four input
surfaces. The possible choices are POSITION, TANGENT, and
CURVATURE. The default is POSITION.
Center Adjust
If this option is checked, you can use the Center Height slider to adjust the
center (peak) of the ball corner.
Center Height
Moves the center point of the ball corner (in parametric uv-space) along the
surface normal by the specified distance (in current linear units).
This slider is designed for minute adjustments to the center point.
Explicit Control
Turn on this option to open the Explicit Control Options section that allows
you to explicitly specify the degree and number of spans of the ball corner in
both the U and V direction.
Max. New Spans
Maximum number of spans that can be added to the ball corner in any
direction while attempting to achieve the requested level of continuity
(tangent or curvature).
This option is only available if Explicit Control is turned off, and Continuity is
set to TANGENT or CURVATURE.
Explicit Control Options
Side Degree (U)
Specifies the degree of the ball corner in the U direction. The default is 3.
Pivot Degree (V)
Specifies the degree of the ball corner in the V direction. The default is 3.
Side Spans (U)
Specifies the number of spans for the ball corner in the U direction. The
default is 1.
Pivot Spans (V)
Specifies the number of spans for the ball corner in the V direction. The
default is 1.
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Control Options
Show Helper Curves
If this option is checked, special helper curves used to build the ball corner
are displayed.
Continuity Check
If this box is checked, continuity locators appear along the boundaries
between the ball corner surface and input surfaces, indicating the level of
continuity.
P: Positional continuity
T: Tangent continuity
C: Curvature continuity
Green means “achieved”; yellow means “not achieved”.
Trim Primary
if checked, the primary surface is trimmed to the intersection with the
transitional surfaces (i.e. to the pivot curve of the ball corner).
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Surfaces > Tube Surface
Creates a tube surface using free curves as a path.The tube surface can have a
variable radius.
See Build a tube surface from free curves on page 170.
Radius
Determines the initial radius value of the manipulators. If there is only one
manipulator, its radius can also be adjusted through this slider.
Chain Select
If this box is checked, selecting a curve also selects all other curves that are
tangent continuous with it.
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Object Edit palette
319
Object edit > Attach > Attach
Joins curves by connecting their endpoints, joins surfaces by connecting the
edges, or closes a surface by connecting its opposite edges.
See Make an object open or closed on page 276.
See Join (attach) two curves or surfaces together on page 293.
See Cracks appear between surfaces on page 137.
Options
Before attach operation
>
Type
Blend
Modify both objects by blending their endpoints/edges to attach them. You
can control the weighting of how much each object will be modified with the
Blend Bias option (see below).
Connect
Create a single, straight span between the objects to attach them. If the
endpoints of both objects already coincide, they are simply joined together
with a multi-knot.This option does not modify the shapes of the original
objects.
The new span is connected to the original objects with multi-knots. Attempts
to edit the resulting object at the attachment point(s) may result in cusps. The
Knot Insertion option has no effect with the Connect type.
>
Other Controls
Position
Percentage distance (0 to 1), along the last span of the objects being
attached, where new edit points are inserted when Knot Insertion is on. The
default is 0.1000.
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Blend Bias
(This option is only used by the Blend type).
The percentage preference (weighting), from 0 (first object only) to 1 (second
object only), between the two original objects when blending.
◆
◆
◆
A value of 0 moves the end of the first object to the end of the second
object.
A value of 0.5 modifies both objects equally so their ends meet halfway.
A value of 1 moves the end of the second object to the end of the first
object.
0.0
0.5
1.0
Insert Spans
Insert additional edit points near the ends of the curves to create smoother
attachments (decrease the probability of Attach having to modify the shape
of the original objects).
Keep Originals
On: keep the original objects in addition to the new, combined object.
Off: delete the original objects after the Attach operation is complete.
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Object edit > Attach > Detach
Separates a curve or surface into two or more objects at any point.
See Split (detach) an object into separate objects on page 293.
Options
Keep Originals
On: keep the original object in addition to the new, detached objects.
Off: delete the original object after the Detach operation is complete.
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Object edit > Insert
Adds an edit point to a curve, or an edit point isoparametric curve to a surface.
See Insert additional edit points/isoparametric curves into a
curve or surface on page 268.
See Align curves and surfaces with continuity on page 288.
The Insert tool shows in green what the new hull shape will be, enabling users to
insert CVs with greater visual control over the shape of the curve.
Ensure that display of CVs and hulls are turned on to benefit from this feature.
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Object edit > Extend
Extends a curve or surface beyond its current endpoint or edge by adding new
geometry.
See Extend the ends/edges of a curve or surface on page 257.
Tips and notes
●
The three types of extension can produce very different results.
●
The Merge option creates a multi-knot at the connection point for Linear and
Circular extensions. Curves with multi-knots may not be usable as
construction curves, and CAD packages cannot import them.
Options
Linear
Extend the curve or surface in a straight line.
Because this extension is linear and has no curvature, there is usually a
curvature discontinuity at the point or edge where the geometry was
extended.
Circular
Extend the curve or surface along an arc.
This extension has have a constant curvature, equal to the curvature at the
point or edge where the geometry was extended.
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Extrapolate
Extend the curve or surface with the same rate of change in curvature as at
the endpoint or edge.
This option produces the smoothest and most seamless extension without
adding any edit points to the original surface.
To fix rough rendering that may result, increase the subdivisions in Render
> Editors > Render stats.
Merge
Merge the extended part with the original surface to form one object. It is
turned on by default.
Chain Select
If this option is checked, you can select a series of tangent continuous
surface edges by clicking on any one of them.
Distance
Default length or angle of the extension when it is first created.
For Linear and Extrapolate extensions, Distance is expressed in the current
linear unit. For Circular extensions, it is expressed in the current angular unit.
This option is originally set to 0.0.
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Object Edit > Align > Align
Aligns the endpoints/edges of curves and/or surfaces, or interior isoparametric
curves.
See Align curves and surfaces with continuity on page 288.
See Pull surfaces from curves of an existing surface on
page 167.
See Create a curve connecting objects on page 152.
Modify
Which objects the tool will reshape to achieve continuity: First (the first object
you clicked), Second, or Both.
Continuity
Position: Align the objects so they touch (occupy the same position in
space).
Tangent: Align the objects so they are tangent continuous.
Curvature: Align the objects so they are curvature continuous.
How is tangent continuity calculated?
For curves, the tangent vector goes from the common endpoint to the next CV on
the second curve. The Align tool moves the next CV of the first curve onto the
tangent vector where the end tangent magnitude of the first curve is preserved.
For surfaces, the Align tool uses the same procedure as for curves, for each
corresponding column of CVs across the common edge. The Alignment Type
option controls how the tool modifies the CVs.
If the first curve selected has one end point touching another curve (or surface
isoparm), then the Align tool will align the curve at the location of the intersection,
rather than at the end point.
The Max. Gap Distance tolerance is used to determine whether or not the
curves intersect.
Intersection
This option is only available when Continuity is Tangent or Curvature and
Modify is set to Both.
Fixed: keeps the endpoints fixed and moves the tangent CVs to achieve
continuity.
Free: keeps the tangent CVs fixed and moves the endpoints to achieve
continuity.
Alignment Type
When aligning two curves, or when Continuity is Position, all alignment
types are the same except Directional.
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DEFAULT: Moves the CVs of the surface so they have the same proportional
layout as the CVs of the target object.
This is the “standard” alignment, and gives the most mathematically correct
geometric alignment.
Default may show the effect of the alignment more than other alignment
types.
ALIGN BY PROJECT: Projects the tangents of the modified surface onto the
tangent ribbon of the target surface along the common edge.
COLINEAR: Aligns the hulls of the modified object with the hulls of the target
object.
This alignment allows you to “impose” the CV/hull layout of one object on
another, by forcing the aligned object’s hulls to be parallel.
DIRECTIONAL: Only allows the CVs to move along one direction. The Align
tool attempts the best alignment given this constraint.
This is useful for creating the proper visual alignment in one view, saving the
alignment with the Accept button, and then aligning again in another view.
When Alignment Type is Directional, you can click a vector reference object
to define the direction along which CVs can move, or type vector values in
the Directional Align Vector boxes.
Remember that this alignment type only allows the CVs to move along a
single direction. Some of the controls in the Align window (such as skew)
may behave counter-intuitively because the CVs are so constrained.
PERPENDICULAR TO EDGE: Align the hulls of the modified object at 90
degrees to the edge of the target object.
This alignment allows you to maintain smooth hull placement in the common
case of aligning a radial surface to a curved trim edge.
Lock Position CV Row
Locks the position of the aligned edge CVs to prevent them from moving as
you change options.
Lock Tangent CV Row
Locks the position of the tangent CVs (the next CV row back from the aligned
surface edge, or the next CV back from the aligned curve end) to prevent
them from moving as you change options.
This option is only available when Continuity is Curvature. When this option
is on, the tool will attempt to achieve continuity by moving the curvature CV
row.
Explicit Control
Gives you controls (in the Explicit Control Options section) for the degree
and number of spans in the first object.
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Explicit Control Options
These options allow you to control the degree and spans of the first surface when
Explicit Control is turned on. These options are only available when the first
object is a surface.
These controls always affect the first surface, regardless of the Modify setting.
U degree, V degree
Rebuild the first surface to have this degree in U and V.
U spans, V spans
Rebuild the first surface to have this many spans in U and V.
Partial Align options
Partial joins
Off: Aligns the entire edge of the first surface to the entire edge of the second
surface.
T-Join: Aligns the entire edge of one surface to part of the edge of the other
surface.
General: Aligns part of one surface to part of the other surface.
When Partial Joins is set to T-Join or General, small manipulators appear on
the common edge. You can drag them to control what portion of the edge is
aligned, or you can manually set the Partial Start and Partial End options.
This option is only available when the align is modifying a surface.
Modify Interior Allowed
Modify interior allowed means to reshape the surface to connect an outside
edge’s original position and the interior join point. If an outside edge does not
have modify interior allowed, the entire edge is reshaped to meet the interior
join.
This option controls which outside edges have modify interior allowed: both
the start and end, only at the start, or only at the end.
This options is only available when Partial Joins is General.
Attach hardness
Soft: reshapes the aligned surface outside the aligned portion to meet the
partial join.
Hard: inserts multi-knots to create a much more abrupt join. This limits the
effect of the alignment to the aligned portion and preserves the shape of the
non-aligned portion.
This option is only available when Partial Joins is General.
Partial Start, Partial End
The start and end parameters of the alignment. These values reflect the
positions of the start and end manipulators on the surface.
This options is only available when Partial Joins is T-Join or General.
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Directional Alignment Options
Directional Align Vector Name
The name of the vector reference object that defines how the CVs can move
when the Alignment Type is Directional. Click a vector reference object to
use it. You can also manually type the name of a vector object.
Directional Align Vector
A manual vector value that defines how the CVs can move when the
Alignment Type is Directional.
Blending (Curve/Surface 1, Curve/Surface 2)
Extra CV Rows
Allows the Align tool to take control of this many extra rows of CVs to achieve
a smoother transition to tangency in the interior of the surface.
The CVs controlled by the Align tool and its construction history cannot be
affected by other tools.
Decay degree
The degree to which the influence of the alignment falls off as it moves out to
the extra CV rows. Higher numbers gives less influence on the extra CV
rows.
The decay degree is on an exponential scale, so the influence drops very
quickly as you increase this value by small amounts.
This option is only available if Extra CV Rows is greater than zero.
Tangent Scale, Curvature Scale
Controls the distance of the tangent/curvature CV rows from the aligned
edge.
Start skew, End skew
Rotates the tangent at the start/end of the aligned edge.
This option is only available when Continuity is Tangent or Curvature, and
Alignment Type is Align by Project, Directional or Perpendicular to Edge.
Blend Interior From Ends
Moves the interior CVs of the aligned surface to form a smooth transition
between CVs of the outer edges when Continuity is set to Tangent or
Curvature.
Show Manipulators
Displays manipulators for tangent/curvature scale and skew on the aligned
edge.
Manipulators are only available when you are aligning two surfaces, and
Continuity is Tangent or Curvature.
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Manipulators
The number of manipulators displayed along the aligned edge.
The manipulators allow you to manually control tangent/curvature scale and
skew on the aligned edge.
Slide Surface Edge On Reference
Surface 1/2 Join parameter
The parameter on the target surface at which the aligned surface will contact.
Insert At Param.
Create a new edit point or isoparametric curve at the point on the target
object where the align makes contact.
This is useful in combination with the Join Parameter option to insert an edit
point or edit point isoparametric curve at the interior alignment point for use
with Object edit > Attach > Detach.
Control options
Create history
Saves the construction history of the alignment so you can edit the objects
aligned or the tool options and the alignment will automatically update.
Auto recalc.
Automatically recalculates the alignment as you change controls in the
window.
Continuity check
Adds a surface continuity locator to the aligned edge, giving a pass/fail
indication on continuity and showing any discontinuities.
See Check the deviation and continuity on surface edges on
page 347.
Specify continuity check, Continuity check type
Turn Specify Contin. Check on to show the Continuity Check Type option,
which allows you to check for a specific level of continuity.
When Specify Contin. Check is off, the tool checks for the continuity you
specified for the alignment (with the Continuity option).
These options appear when Continuity check is on.
Buttons
Recalc.
Updates the surface to match the current options when Auto recalc. is off.
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Revert
Reverts to the last time you saved the alignment by pressing Accept. If you
have not pressed Accept, this button will revert to the unaligned state or to
the state at which the file was opened.
Accept
Saves the current state of the alignment, locking in the current shapes of the
objects. Further editing takes place “on top of” this state, and pressing Revert
will return to this state.
331
Object edit > Align > Symmetry Plane Align
Aligns an object with its mirrored half across the symmetry plane.
See Align curves or surfaces across the symmetry plane on
page 290.
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Object edit > Offset
Creates a new object offset a specific distance from an original.
See Create an offset copy on page 281.
Options
Curve Break Connection
Controls how the offset curve will connect breaks caused by corners in the
original curve. This option does not apply to surface offsets.
Off: Do not connect the break. Note that this option can create two or more
separate new curves.
Linear: Connect the break with tangental lines.
Circular: Connect the break with an arc.
Curve Break Connection
Off
Linear
Circular
Curve break connection is not used for curves created with the Curves >
Lines > Line > Polyline tool or degree 1 curves. In both of these cases, the
result is like linear.
Curve Offset Plane
Active View: the copy is offset in the plane of the active view. For example, in
Z-up environment, the Top view would offset in the XY plane.
Geometry Average: the copy is offset in the average plane of the curve.
Planar curves will be offset in the curve’s plane, 3D curves will be offset in
3D.
Distance
The distance between the original and the offset copy.
Curve Loop Cutting
Remove loops caused by concave angles in the original curve.
Curve Loop Cutting creates multi-knots, which can cause problems for some
surface creation tools such as Rail Surface.
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Original
Loop
Offset
copy
When Curve Loop Cutting is on, you can drag the middle mouse button
to change the curve cutting radius while using the tool.
Curve Cutting Radius
Set this value greater than 0 to create a smooth arc with the given radius
where the Offset tool cuts loops, instead of a corner.
Curve Cutting Radius
0.0
0.5
Max Spans Factor
The maximum number of times the offset geometry will be subdivided for
more accurate approximation of the original. The default is 5 (each span of
the original can be represented by up to 5 spans on the offset copy).
If you do not mind extra edit points (a more complex curve), you can increase
this number for a more accurate offset copy of complex geometry.
This option is only available when Explicit control is on.
Auto Recalc
Automatically updates the object as you change options in the window.
Explicit control
Gives you control over the number of extra spans the tool will insert in the
offset surface.
Create History
Link the offset object to the original through construction history, so changes
to the original affect the offset object.
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Copy Curves on Surface
Create curves-on-surface on the offset surface to match any curves on
surface on the original.
When Create History is on, the curves-on-surface on the offset surface are
linked to the curves-on-surface on the original.
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Object Edit > Dynamic Shape Modeling > Transformer Rig
The Transformer Rig sets up construction history; the actual modification of the
model happens “outside” of the shape modeling tool, and is performed by moving
and modifying CVs of the modifiers.
The modifiers are specific to each model, and need to be created specifically for
the model. You are free to do anything you want to the modifier to express the
shape change you want. Slide CV, scale, add spans, or change degree of the
geometry. The only limitation is that you must not detach or merge geometries.
Clampers are
shown in pink
Red dots show where
a surface is clamped.
Red highlights show
constraints.
Yellow dots show
where a surface is
free to move.
Yellow highlights show
flexible targets.
Blue highlights
show modifier
surfaces.
For background information, see Dynamic Shape Modeling (page 37).
Transformer Rig general workflow
336
1
Open the Transformer Rig toolbox by clicking the Transformer Rig tool in the
Object Edit palette.
2
Select the target geometry, then click Accept Targets.
3
Choose either the Add Free Modifiers or Add Predefined Modifiers tool.
Select the modifier geometry, then click Accept Modifiers.
For further information about adding modifiers, see the individual tool
descriptions.
Optionally
4
Select constraints
5
Select clampers if the clamp visualization still shows problems. For more
information, see Add clampers.
6
Click Go in the lower right corner of the screen. Leave the tool by choosing a
continuous tool.
Now you can modify the targets using common AliasStudio tools like
transform or move CV on the modifier geometry.
7
When you have finished modifying the geometry, Commit to the modification,
or Revert to start over. For more information, see Commit and Revert.
Diagnostic shading is lost for deformed objects with the transformer rig.
When using the transformer rig tools (Object Edit > Dynamic Shape
Modeling > Transformer Rig), any objects you request to be deformed will
lose their diagnostic shading.
The software creates new surfaces for these objects. Whenever a tool
creates new surfaces, these surfaces do not display diagnostic shading
Click on diagnostic shading in the Control Panel to reapply it to the objects.
The geometry tagged as targets in the rig now shows up in dark green, which
shows it has construction history. To modify the rig (such as adding or removing
modifier geometry, targets, and constraints), query edit any target geometry to reenter the tool.
If the transformer rig setup has any problems, the output geometry is shown with
dashed lines to indicate that it has errors that need to be corrected. For tips on
how to correct problems, see Trouble Shooting.
Understanding a chain of curves
In several tools in AliasStudio, a series of curves can be treated and considered
as a single curve, if they are positionally continuous: that is, one curve ends, and
the next one starts at the same point. In the Transformer Rig, you can select a
chain of curves to serve as a single modifier. This chain of curves can serve as a
constraint, predefined modifier, or free modifier.
Transformer Rig toolbox
The Transformer Rig toolbox contains tools to build and modify a rig to be used
for Dynamic Shape Modeling.
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Transformer Rig
This is the first tool to choose when adding a rig to a model. It enables you to
choose what will be modified. See Transformer Rig general workflow for
information about how to create a rig.
Double-click or shift-click this icon to open the option window. You can only
open the window after a target has been chosen. Use the settings in the
window to:
Change the visibility of the original and target geometry
Choose the fitting method for global NURBS shaping
For more information, see Transformer Rig options window.
◆
◆
Add Flexible Targets
Flexible targets are surfaces, curves, or meshes that can have their shapes
changed by applying transformations to the rig.
To add flexible targets, click on this icon and select the geometry to assign as
targets, then click Accept Targets. To remove targets, choose the Remove
from Rig tool in the toolbox.
Add Rigid Targets
Rigid targets are surfaces, meshes, or curves. They transform (translate and/
or rotate) along with the modification, but keep their shape; that is, the targets
do not scale or shear.
To add rigid targets, click on the icon and select the geometry, then click
Accept Targets. To remove targets, choose the Remove from Rig tool in the
toolbox.
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Top surface
constrained
All lower surfaces defined as
flexible targets
Recessed detail defined as rigid
targets. The rest of the side surfaces
are defined as flexible targets.
Use the right mouse button on a target to open a pop-up menu that enables
you to lock the movement direction for the rigid targets.
If Rigid is selected, the target is free to rotate and translate in all directions.
Rigid Translate only allows translation to occur: the target will not be rotated.
Further restrictions can be used with the X, Y, and Z constraints, which allow
translation to occur in only one specific world-space axis direction (note: this
does not respect construction planes). You can also change the type of target
from Rigid to Flexible, or vice-versa.
Add free modifiers
A free modifier is a surface or curve used for shaping all the selected targets
at one time. Use this tool to designate geometry as free modifiers, and then
manipulate this geometry using regular AliasStudio functionality to effect
changes to the target geometry.
Add Predefined modifiers
A predefined modifier is a pair of similarly parameterized geometries.
●
The modifier selected first is the current status of the targets;
339
●
The modifier selected second indicates the shape the targets should have
after the modification.
●
To use predefined modifiers,
◆
◆
◆
First select the geometry that is the origin, and click Accept Origin.
Then click the geometry that represents the final shape, and click Accept
Destination.
If there are several pairs of predefined modifiers, perform the sequence
of defining the original geometry and the destination geometry for a pair,
and choose the Add Predefined Modifiers tool again to add a
subsequent predefined modifier. You cannot select several different
origin curves (or several chains of curves) followed by several
destination curves (or chains of curves).
Add constraints
Constraints define a region of the model that shouldn’t be modified, and also
delimit the range of modification. The continuity along the constraint can be
fixed as positional or tangential. Using the right mouse button to click on a
constraint opens a pop-up menu to change the continuity quality of the
constraints. The default is for the constraints to be tangentially continuous.
Add clampers
Clampers can help the software recognize regions of the model that should
not be modified. These regions are usually defined by the constraints, but in
some cases, the help of a clamper or clampers is needed. These regions can
be identified with the help of the green and red dots that appear when setting
constraints. These dots appear when Clamp Visualization is checked in the
option box.
340
The region with green points is the region that is free to be modified. The
region with red points is fixed, and will not change. To improve the
visualization temporarily, pick a dot with the middle mouse button to make
the colors more vivid.
Notice how vivid the points are on the right
image when compared to the left.
Remove from Rig
Choose this tool to remove targets, modifiers, constraints or clampers from
the rig. You can pick constraints, modifiers, or targets, and clampers. The
geometry picked for removal is highlighted in yellow. To confirm the removal,
click the Remove Selected button in the lower right corner of the view. To
cancel the operation, click Cancel.
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Revert
When targets are added to the rig, they are duplicated. The shape
modifications are performed with this duplicated geometry. To restore the
original geometry and to delete the modified geometry and history, click
Revert. Notice that the manipulated modifiers do not return to their status
prior to the dynamic modeling.
Commit
Click Commit to confirm the dynamic shape modification and delete the
original geometry and the history.
Show pick mask
This tool helps when selecting items for use in the rig, because you cannot
use the Pick > Components tool inside the Transformer Rig. Notice that the
edge of a trimmed surface is not a surface isoparm, it’s a surface trim edge.
Click the check boxes to set an entity type.
Transformer Rig options window
To see the Options window while in the tool (you must have some geometry
already accepted as a target), hold the Shift key and click the Transformer
Rig tool icon in the toolbox, or double-click the tool icon.
To see the Options window while outside the tool, first re-enter the tool by
selecting Object edit > Query edit, then select an object that has dynamic
shape modeling history. Hold the Shift key and click the Transformer Rig
tool icon in the toolbox.
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Show Original Geometry
If checked, this box enables the display of geometry as it was before the
Transformer Rig tool was applied. If unchecked, the current version of
modified geometry is displayed. Use this feature to flip and compare “before”
and “after” geometry.
Show All Geometry
If checked, this box enables the display of both the original and deformed
geometry.
>
NURBS Control
The fields in this section control the way NURBS target surfaces are modified by
the Transformer Rig tool. Settings in this window have no effect on meshes that
were selected as targets. If all targets are meshes, or if Mesh Output is set, this
section of the control window is hidden.
>
Fitting Objective
The available methods are:
Hull Shape (Explicit)
Optimizes fitting for hull shape. This option allows for explicit control of
minimum degree and spans. If the boundary field is checked, the fitting is
optimized for patch boundaries.
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Accurate (Adaptive)
Optimizes fitting for accuracy. This determines the minimum number of
spans necessary for an accurate representation of the modified shape.
The Fitting Effort option has been reorganized to a pull-down menu with
Low, Medium, High, and Custom values. If Custom is selected, a slider can
be used to set the value precisely.
Minimum Degree (u,v)
Specifies the minimum degree of resulting patches. If a patch target has
degree less than the specified degree, its degree is raised to the specified
degree. This has the result of making the math heavier, but in general the
results of the shape modification are more accurate.
Minimum Spans (u,v)
Specifies the minimum number of spans in the U and V directions. If
necessary, existing spans are subdivided. This has the result of making the
math heavier, but in general the results of the shape deformation are more
accurate.
Fitting Effort
While it’s not possible to give a true tolerance for gap continuity, the fitting
effort is a number that points to the gap quality. The larger the number, the
tighter the gap will be between surfaces, and the longer a modification will
take to execute. To influence the final maximum gap distance after the
modification, increase or decrease the fitting effort. The Transformer Rig
inserts more spans to achieve tighter gaps between surfaces, up to the
maximum set in Max Surf Spans in Construction options.
The Fitting Effort option has a pull-down menu with Low, Medium, High, and
Custom values. If Custom is selected, a slider can be used to set the value
precisely.
>
Warp Control
The controls in this section can be used to adjust how the modifier and the
constraints influence the target geometry.
Scale Tangent
Scales the length of the tangency at constraints. A value of zero gives
tangent continuity, and as you increase this number, the “length” of the
tangency increases. This value can be adjusted to non-integer values as
well.
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>
Sampling and Diagnostics
The overall intent of the controls in this section is to help control the quality and
performance of Transformer Rig modifications.
Some error conditions stop the deformation from proceeding. When a
deformation cannot be applied, the outlines of target geometry are drawn with
dotted lines.
Stress Exceeds Threshold: This error condition is triggered if there is too
much stress in the shape modification, typically due to conflicting modifiers and
constraints simultaneously forcing the surface to move and stay put. Red arrows
point to the samples with too much stress. The condition can be corrected by
rearranging modifiers and constraints so that they do not conflict.
Too many samples. This error condition is triggered when the Sampling
Density creates too many sample points. Sample points can be viewed by
turning on the Draw Modifier Sampling check box. To correct the error, either
increase the Maximum Number of Samples field, or reduce the number of
samples by decreasing the Sampling Density field or eliminating unnecessary
modifiers and constraints.
Draw Modifier Sampling
If this box is checked, this value enables you to visualize the sampling of the
modifiers and constraints.
You will also see eight tangent constraint points at the corners of a box twice
the size of the rig's bounding box. These widely-spaced tangent constraints
help prevent exaggerated deformations for cases where there are few or no
constraints.
Draw Clamp Visualization
If this box is checked, the Transformer Rig tool draws a visualization to
improve understanding of the clamp regions.
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Sampling Density
Determines the number of samples on the modifier and constraint geometry.
These sample points guide the shape modeling process. As the number of
sample points increases, so does the accuracy of the warp — the time it
takes to perform the modification also increases.
Number of Samples
Shows the number of samples used to compute a shape modification.
Maximum Number of Samples
Allows control of the maximum number of samples used to compute a shape
modification. You can increase this number if you need to, but remember that
this can make shape modifications take longer.
Status
Indicates the status of shape modification, including failure modes.
>
Control Options
Auto Recalc
If checked, any changes in any field in the control box lead to an automatic
update of the model display. If this is not checked, click on the Go button in
the active window to update the display after any changes. Normally, you
should leave the Auto Recalc box unchecked if you have a very large model
that takes a long time to update.
Go button
If Auto Recalc. is on, the Go button is not shown. Any changes to the rig
(parameters or constructors) cause the history to reevaluate automatically
and immediately.
If Auto Recalc. is off, the Go button is displayed. Any changes to the rig
cause the Go button to be enabled, and when you click Go, the reevaluation
occurs. History itself exists the moment you enter the tool — not pressing the
Go button does not change this, and you will not lose history by prematurely
leaving the tool.
While a recalculation is occurring, a progress bar is shown on-screen. If you
feel the evaluation is taking longer than you care to wait, you can cancel it by
pressing the Esc key.
Mesh Output
If checked, NURBS targets are tessellated and output as mesh surfaces.
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Apply Trim-Shrink to Output
When checked, the associated output surfaces are trim-shrunk prior to any
shape change. This option changes only the output surfaces, not the inputs.
You may find a performance improvement and better results using this
option.
See Set up a Transformer Rig on page 305.
See Use Transformer Rigs on page 306.
See Change Transformer Rigs on page 307.
See Add a clamp to surfaces in Transformer Rigs on page 307.
See Use predefined modifiers with Transformer Rigs on
page 308.
See Use rigid targets with Transformer Rigs on page 308.
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Object Edit > Dynamic Shape Modeling > Lattice Rig
Studio provides a box-shaped manipulator called a lattice to enable global
modifications to the model.
The lattice box always starts in disengaged mode, and is initialized as a bounding
box enclosing the selected geometry.
The lattice can be modified and refined from its initial box shape without affecting
the underlying targets (surfaces or meshes) as long as the lattice is disengaged.
After developing a lattice that provides the shape and detail required, engage the
lattice. Subsequent changes to the lattice will modify the targets.
The lattice can be repeatedly engaged and disengaged for cumulative shaping
modifications.
The points on the lattice are not CVs — they are manipulator handles. They can
be moved by using only the functions offered by the lattice rig tool.
If there is an active construction plane, a new lattice respects the construction
plane and will be aligned to it. Also, the manipulators of the lattice points will
independently respect the construction plane. That means that, no matter where
or how the lattice is created, the manipulators will respect the current active
construction plane.
The geometry being modified is represented by a proxy. A proxy is a lightweight
wireframe representation of the targets being deformed by an engaged lattice.
The proxy interactively updates while you modify the engaged lattice to show
what the targets look like after deformation (see the following image). Meanwhile,
the targets remain unchanged until you release the mouse button (when autorecalc option is ON) or when you click GO (when auto-recalc is OFF).
For background information, see Dynamic Shape Modeling (page 37).
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How to use the Lattice Rig
1
Open the Lattice Rig toolbox.
2
Select the target geometry, then click Accept Targets.
3
A basic lattice box appears around the geometry in disengaged mode.
4
Adjust the lattice box to the shape of your targets by splitting the box (which
adds more points) and transforming lattice points using their handles.
5
When the lattice has the right shape, click the Toggle lattice engage state tool.
The lattice box changes to solid lines in this mode.
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All modifications made to the engaged lattice will influence the shape of the
targets enclosed by the lattice.
All the geometry not enclosed by the lattice will be constrained. To show that
these areas have been constrained, the lattice points and edges that
intersect the geometry are shown in red.
6
Modify the lattice using the scale and translate manipulators.
Diagnostic shading is lost for deformed objects with the lattice rig.
When using the lattice rig tools (Object Edit > Dynamic Shape Modeling >
Lattice Rig), any objects you request to be deformed will lose their
diagnostic shading.
The software creates new surfaces for these objects. Whenever a tool
creates new surfaces, these surfaces do not display diagnostic shading.
Click on diagnostic shading in the Control Panel to reapply it to the objects.
Picking lattice points
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To do this...
Use this mouse button
Toggle pick
left mouse button
Exclusive pick
middle mouse button
●
To do this...
Use this mouse button
Remove pick
right mouse button
To unpick all lattice points, use
the middle mouse button and draw a pick box outside the lattice.
◆
the Clear Selection tool
rather than using Pick > Nothing from the tool palette, which will cause you to
leave the Lattice Rig tool.
◆
Lattice Rig toolbox
Lattice Rig option window
To open the option window, double-click or shift-click on the icon. For
descriptions of the options, see Lattice Rig option window.
Toggle lattice engage state
When the lattice is in disengaged mode, its lines are drawn as dashed lines,
and changing the lattice does not change the target geometry. To engage the
lattice, click on the tool; to disengage, click on the tool again. The tool works
as a toggle between the two modes.
Split lattice edge
The split tool adds new lattice segments like a belt wrapped around the
lattice box. The split tool is only accessible while in disengaged mode. To
split an edge of the lattice, click on this tool, and then click on the edge that
you want to split. The split will be perpendicular to the edge you have
selected.
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To split the lattice right in the middle between two lattice points, press Ctrl
while dragging the new split along the lattice. To confirm the location of the
split, click Accept Split. When you’ve finished splitting the box, click the
DONE button.
Delete lattice edge
This tool deletes the “belts” from the lattice box that were inserted.
Center lattice pivot
This tool allows you to center the lattice pivot. This pivot is the point about
which the lattice points are scaled.
Lattice clear selection
This tool clears the selection for the lattice points.
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Revert
When targets are added to the rig, they are duplicated. The shape
modifications are performed with these duplicated geometry. To restore the
original geometry and to delete the modified geometry and history, click
Revert. Notice that the manipulated modifiers do not return to their status
prior to the dynamic modeling.
Commit
Click Commit to confirm the dynamic shape modification and delete the
original geometry and the history.
Show Pick Mask
This tool helps when selecting targets for use in the rig. It is only usable when
you first enter the Lattice Rig.
Lattice Rig option window
Show Original Geometry
If checked, this box enables the display of geometry as it was before the
Lattice Rig tool was applied. If unchecked, the current version of modified
geometry is displayed. Use this feature to flip and compare “before” and
“after” geometry.
Show All Geometry
If checked, this box enables the display of both the original and modified
geometry.
>
NURBS Control
The fields in this section control the way NURBS target surfaces are modified by
the Lattice Rig tool. Settings in this window have no effect on meshes that were
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selected as targets. If all targets are meshes, or if Mesh Output is set, this section
of the option window is hidden.
>
Fitting Objective
The available methods are:
Hull Shape (Explicit)
Optimizes fitting for hull shape. This option allows for explicit control of
minimum degree and spans. If the Boundary field is checked, the fitting is
optimized for patch boundaries.
Accurate (Adaptive)
Optimizes fitting for accuracy. This determines the minimum number of
spans necessary for an accurate representation of the modified shape.
The Fitting Effort option has been reorganized to a pull-down menu with
Low, Medium, High, and Custom values. If Custom is selected, a slider can
be used to set the value precisely.
Minimum Degree (u,v)
Specifies the minimum degree of resulting patches. If a patch target has
degree less than the specified degree, its degree is raised to the specified
degree. This has the result of making the math heavier, but in general the
results of the shape modification are more accurate.
Minimum Spans (u,v)
Specifies the minimum number of spans in the U and V directions. If
necessary, existing spans are subdivided. This has the result of making the
math heavier, but in general the results of the shape deformation are more
accurate.
>
Warp Control
The controls in this section can be used to adjust how the modifier and the
constraints influence the target geometry.
Scale Tangent
Scales the length of the tangency at regions where the targets cross from
outside to inside the lattice. A value of zero gives tangent continuity, and as
you increase this number, the “length” of the tangency increases. This value
can be adjusted to non-integer values as well.
354
Auto Recalc
If checked, any changes in any field in the control box lead to an automatic
update of the model display. If this is not checked, click on the Go button in
the active window to update the display after any changes. Normally, you
should leave the Auto Recalc box unchecked if you have a very large model
that takes a long time to update. Auto Recalc is checked on by default.
Go button
If Auto Recalc. is ON, the Go button is not shown. Any changes to the rig
(options or constructors) causes the history to reevaluate.
If Auto Recalc. is OFF, the Go button is displayed. Any changes to the rig
cause the Go button to be enabled, and when you click Go the re-evaluation
occurs. History itself exists the moment you enter the tool -- not pressing the
Go button does not change this, and you won’t lose history by prematurely
leaving the tool.
Mesh Output
If checked, NURBS are tessellated and output as mesh surfaces.
Apply Trim-Shrink to Output
Turn this option on for trimmed surfaces if you want the associated output
surfaces to be trim-shrunk prior to any shape change. This option changes
only the output surfaces, not the inputs. You may find a performance
improvement and better results using this option.
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Object Edit > Dynamic Shape Modeling > Twist Rig
Use the twist rig to twist a surface or collection of surfaces about a single axis
curve.
To twist a collection of surfaces
1
Select the geometry to be twisted. These are Targets and can be NURBS
surfaces, meshes, and/or curves.
2
Choose Object Edit > Dynamic Shape Modeling > Twist Rig from the tool
palette.
The target geometry is accepted and highlighted in pale green.
3
Select a single curve as the twist axis. This is the curve about which the targets
will be twisted. Click Accept Axis Curve.
The twist axis curve can be a free curve, a surface boundary or isoparametric
curve (isoparm), a trim curve, a curve-on-surface, or a part of a trim-mesh
(isoparms that have been truncated by trimming). You can even use curves
that are created by increasing patch precision. The tool prevents you from
using a curve that is related to any target surfaces. If you have a curve on a
target surface that you would like to use as a twist axis, you must duplicate
the curve first.
How to use the Twist Rig:
After you have applied the Twist Rig, you will see something similar to the
following screen shot (In this example the target is an elongated cube):
Initially, the Twist Rig inserts four Twist Handles along various points of the axis.
Also, notice that the Twist Rig has highlighted the axis curve in bright green.
Twist handles are visual representations of the Twist Profile, a set of value pairs
showing the position and angle of twist, called the Twist Angle. A twist profile
can have one or more twist angles. If there is a single twist angle, the twist is
equivalent to a rotation about the twist axis.
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1
Select one or more twist angles by clicking the twist handle. Click any selected
twist handle to deselect it.
When a twist handle is selected, it turns white. The angle and position
represented by the handle are displayed numerically, as shown in the next
image. T90.000 is the angle of rotation for the twist handle, and 0.90 within
the red box is the relative position of the handle along the axis curve, which is
parameterized between 0 and 1.
For selected twist angles, you can:
◆
◆
◆
change the angle of twist by click-dragging the left mouse button
horizontally, or type the twist angle in the prompt.
Following AliasStudio convention, you can type in a for absolute angle,
or r for relative angle change. If you have multiple twist handles
selected, absolute angle input will assign the input angle to all selected
twist angles; otherwise in relative mode the input angle will be added to
the current value of each twist angle. The Twist Rig respects the current
angular units.
change the position of twist handles by click-dragging the middle mouse
button vertically.
You can select multiple twist handles and all modifications will be applied to
all selected handles.
Twist Rig Toolbox
Twist
Choose the object to be twisted. After a target object has been chosen,
double-clicking (or Shift-clicking) this tool opens the option box.
Add Twist Handles
Add more twist handles by using the add twist angle tool. All selected twist
handles are deselected in favor of the new handle. The new handle is
positioned between the pair of existing twist handles with the largest
separation.
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Remove Twist Handles
To remove twist handles, select one or more twist handles to be deleted, then
click the Remove Twist Angle tool to remove them. The twist tool prevents
you from removing the last handle, because the rig must have at least one
handle.
Revert
When targets are added to the rig, they are duplicated. The shape
modifications are performed with these duplicated geometry. To restore the
original geometry and to delete the modified geometry and history, click
Revert. Notice that the manipulated modifiers do not return to their status
prior to the dynamic modeling.
Commit
Click Commit to confirm the dynamic shape modification and delete the
original geometry and the history.
Show Pick Mask
This tool helps when selecting targets for use in the rig. It is only available
when you are selecting either targets or the twist axis.
Twist option box
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Show Original Geometry
If checked, this box enables the display of geometry as it was before the
Twist Rig tool was applied. If unchecked, the current version of modified
geometry is displayed. Use this feature to flip and compare “before” and
“after” geometry.
Show All Geometry
If checked, this box enables the display of both the original and modified
geometry.
>
NURBS Control
The fields in this section control the way NURBS target surfaces are modified by
the Twist Rig tool. Settings in this window have no effect on meshes that were
selected as targets. If all targets are meshes, or if Mesh Output is set, this section
of the option window is hidden.
Minimum Degree (u,v)
Specifies the minimum degree of resulting patches. If a patch target has
degree less than the specified degree, its degree is raised to the specified
degree. This has the result of making the math heavier, but in general the
results of the shape modification are more accurate.
Minimum Spans (u,v)
Specifies the minimum number of spans in the U and V directions. If
necessary, existing spans are subdivided. This has the result of making the
math heavier, but in general the results of the shape deformation are more
accurate.
>
Control options
The controls in this section can be used to adjust the output geometry.
Auto Recalc
If checked, any changes in any field in the control box or to the twist profile
lead to an automatic update of the model display. If this is not checked, click
on the Go button in the active window to update the display after any
changes. Normally, you should leave the Auto Recalc box unchecked if you
have a very large model that takes a long time to update. Auto Recalc is
checked on by default.
Go button
If Auto Recalc. is ON, the Go button is not shown. Any changes to the rig
(options or constructors) causes the history to reevaluate.
If Auto Recalc. is OFF, the Go button is displayed. Any changes to the rig
cause the Go button to be enabled, and when you click Go the re-evaluation
occurs. History itself exists the moment you enter the tool -- not pressing the
Go button does not change this, and you won’t lose history by prematurely
leaving the tool.
359
Mesh Output
If checked, NURBS are tessellated and output as mesh surfaces.
Apply Trim-Shrink to Output
When checked, the associated output surfaces are trim-shrunk prior to any
shape change. This option changes only the output surfaces, not the inputs.
You may find a performance improvement and better results using this
option.
>
What you can do outside the tool afterwards
If you are outside the tool after the twist rig history is set up, you can modify the
twist axis curve in any way you normally would in AliasStudio, and the twisted
targets will update because of history. For example, you may translate the axis
curve and create an off-centered twist. You can also modify the input target
geometry, and the twisted targets will update as well.
If you move the axis curve far away from the targets, the twisted target will
seem to have been sheared when it is twisting. This is the expected
behavior: you cannot create a coil with the twist tool alone.
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Object Edit > Dynamic Shape Modeling > Bend Rig
Use this tool to bend selected geometry to conform to a user-created curve; or a
continuous sequence of curves.
To bend an object or group of objects
1
Select the geometry you want to bend. These are Targets and can be NURBS
surfaces, meshes, and curves.
2
Choose Object Edit > Dynamic Shape Modeling > Bend Rig from the tool
palette. The target geometry is accepted and highlighted in pale green.
3
Select a single curve or a continuous sequence of curves as the bend axis.
This is the curve onto which the targets will be mapped. Click Accept Axis
Curve.
The types of curves that can define a bend axis curve are:
free curves,
surface boundaries or isoparametric curves (isoparms)
◆
trim curves-on-surface, or
◆
parts of a trim-mesh (isoparms that have been truncated as part of a
trim).
You can even use curves that are created by increasing patch precision.
◆
◆
Furthermore, you can use a sequence of curves that are continuous to define
a single bend axis. The only requirement is that the curves form a sequence:
each curve in the sequence should be positionally continuous to the previous
one and the next one in the sequence. The curves need not be of the same
type. As an example, the following image shows the combination of curveson-surface and a free curve together to form a valid bend axis.
After the targets have been selected, the tool examines the bounding box of the
targets to see which (X, Y, or Z) axis will be used to map to the bend axis.
Typically, the longest axis of the bounding box is used. Also, we refer to the
midpoint of the bottom face of the bounding box as the contact point. The contact
point is the point-of-reference when you change the placement of the bent target
with respect to the bend axis.
How to use the Bend Rig:
In the Bend Rig, you will see something similar to the following screen shot. (In
this example the target is a cube elongated along the z-axis direction, shown
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inside the tool with a pale green highlight, and the bend axis is a free curve with a
cyan highlight):
Notice that by default, the Bend rig preserves the size and length of your targets.
In this example, the bend axis is longer than the length of the target, so the bent
cube only takes up part of the bend axis in the middle.
Inside the Bend Rig tool, you can adjust how the targets are mapped to the bend
axis.
Using the GO buttons at the bottom of the modeling window, you can choose to
be in translate, rotate, or scale mode.
In Translate mode, you can translate the bent targets along the bend axis. The
translation is defined at the contact point, which can be positioned at any point
along the curve. In the Bend rig, the contact point is defined as the midpoint of
the target.
If there are parts of the target that extend beyond one or both ends of the bend
axis, the tool extrapolates tangentially with respect to the bend axis.
To translate, click the Translate button and click-drag along the bend axis — the
target follows. While dragging, a bright green outline can be seen: that is the
proxy and is a lightweight approximation of your target. The proxy allows for realtime interactive update. The targets update for real when you release the mouse
button. You can also type in the translation in the current linear working units in
either REL (relative) or ABS (absolute) mode. This will be the absolute position of
the contact point of the target on the curve.
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In rotate mode, rotate the target about the bend axis. Click-drag any mouse
button to the left or right to adjust the angle. You can also type in the angle in
relative (REL) or absolute (ABS) forms.
In scale mode you can adjust the size of the targets relative to the bend axis.
Again, if you managed to scale your target such that it extends beyond the bend
axis, the tool extrapolates tangentially. If you use the left mouse button to scale
(click-drag left or right), you scale the targets proportionally. If you use the middle
mouse you will scale only along the curve direction (making the target longer or
shorter) and with the right mouse you can scale how “fat” the targets are.
Related to the scale mode is the option to Scale target to full axis length. If this
option is on, the target is non-proportionally scaled so that its length matches that
of the axis, while its girth is untouched.
Scale
target to
full length
axis on
Original
cylinder
Scale target
to full length
axis off
You can also change which initial axis along the middle of the bounding box of
targets are used for the mapping. Using the Axis Line tool you can choose the X,
Y, or Z axis through the middle of the bounding box of the input targets.
If you used as a bend curve a curve related to a surface, the Respect surface
normal option may be of interest. When this option is On, in addition to the target
following the shape of the curve after the tool is executed, the target also is
twisted so that it follows the surface normals that are found along the specified
bend axis. This option is not aplicable if the bend axis is a free curve — an
arbitrary orientation frame is chosen to minimize twisting of the target along the
bend axis. If the option is off when using a surface-related curve as a bend axis,
the tool treats the surface curve the same as a free curve.
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Don’t
respect
Respect
If the bend axis is a mixed-type, continuous sequence of curves, turning on the
Respect surface normal option will cause the targets to twist such that it
interpolates the different surface normals in the sequence of curves in the axis,
as shown here:
On the left, you can see that original set-up for the bend axis — two surface
boundaries with a blend curve between. The two surfaces have very different
normal directions. On the right, you see that an elongated cube bent onto this
axis twists to accommodate the surface normal direction when the Respect
surface normal option is turned on.
Bend Rig Toolbox
Bend
Use this tool to select the target objects to be bent.
Axis Line
Choose the X, Y, or Z axis through the middle of the bounding box of the
input targets.
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Revert
When targets are added to the rig, they are duplicated. The shape
modifications are performed with these duplicated geometry. To restore the
original geometry and to delete the modified geometry and history, click
Revert. Notice that the manipulated modifiers do not return to their status
prior to the dynamic modeling.
Commit
Click Commit to confirm the dynamic shape modification and delete the
original geometry and the history.
Show Pick Mask
This tool helps when selecting targets for use in the rig. It is only available
when you are picking the targets or the bend axis.
Bend rig options
>
NURBS Control
The fields in this section control the way NURBS target surfaces are modified by
the Bend Rig tool. Settings in this window have no effect on meshes that were
selected as targets. If all targets are meshes, or if Mesh Output is set, this section
of the option window is hidden.
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Minimum Degree (u,v)
Specifies the minimum degree of resulting patches. If a patch target has
degree less than the specified degree, its degree is raised to the specified
degree. This has the result of making the math heavier, but in general the
results of the shape modification are more accurate.
Minimum Spans (u,v)
Specifies the minimum number of spans in the U and V directions. If
necessary, existing spans are subdivided. This has the result of making the
math heavier, but in general the results of the shape deformation are more
accurate.
>
Bend Control options
Axis respects surface normals
If the curve chosen for the axis is on a surface instead of a free curve,
choosing this option may introduce a twist to the bend, as the surface
normals associated with the axis are applied to the target object.
Scale target to full axis length
Generally, an appropriate length of the axis is chosen to reflect the length of
the target; this option stretches or compresses the length of the target to be
the same length as the axis.
>
Control options
The controls in this section can be used to adjust the output geometry.
Auto Recalc
If checked, any changes in any field in the control box or any modifiable
parameters (translate, rotate, or scale) lead to an automatic update of the
model display. If this is not checked, click on the Go button in the active
window to update the display after any changes. Normally, you should leave
the Auto Recalc box unchecked if you have a very large model that takes a
long time to update. Auto Recalc is checked on by default.
Go button
If Auto Recalc. is ON, the Go button is not shown. Any changes to the rig
(options or constructors) causes the history to reevaluate.
If Auto Recalc. is OFF, the Go button is displayed. Any changes to the rig
cause the Go button to be enabled, and when you click Go the re-evaluation
occurs. History itself exists the moment you enter the tool -- not pressing the
Go button does not change this, and you won’t lose history by prematurely
leaving the tool.
Mesh Output
If checked, NURBS are tessellated and output as mesh surfaces.
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Apply Trim-Shrink to Output
When checked, the associated output surfaces are trim-shrunk prior to any
shape change. This option changes only the output surfaces, not the inputs.
You may find a performance improvement and better results using this
option.
>
What you can do outside the tool afterwards:
If you are outside the tool after bend rig history is set up, you can modify the bend
axis in any way, and the bent targets will update because of history. You can also
modify the input target geometry and the bent targets update as well.
Commit and Revert tools work the same as they do in the Transformer Rig and
Lattice Rig.
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Object Edit > Dynamic Shape Modeling > Conform Rig
This rig enables you to perform modeling operations that are similar to “badging,”
or deforming an otherwise flat feature onto a curved surface so that the output
conforms to the shape of the curved surface.
This tool is a 3D texture mapping tool, where the idea of texture mapping is used
to map a texture with thickness.
To place an object on another object
1
Select the geometry to be modified, or conformed. These are Targets and can
be NURBS surfaces, meshes, and curves.
2
Choose Object Edit > Dynamic Shape Modeling > Conform Rig. The
target geometry is accepted and given a pale green highlight.
3
Select one or more surfaces, or a single mesh, or a single curve on any
surface (isoparms, trim boundaries, curves-on-surface, trim mesh, patch
precision lines), or a locator point on a surface as the Destination. This is the
geometry onto which the targets are to be mapped. Click on Accept Conform
Destination to finalize. In the case of the destination being a surface curve or a
surface point, the target will still be mapped onto the surface to which these
entities belong. The curve or point merely acts as a constraint on the
placement of the target.
The Conform operation takes the target geometry and, as if it was a thick stamp,
applies it onto the destination surface. Initially, the targets are assumed to lie on
the X-Y plane. This can be changed later after the rig has been set up.
How to use the Conform Rig:
After you have finished setting up the Conform Rig, you will see something
similar to the following screen shot (in this example, the target is the round
feature on the right. The destination is the half-cylinder surface on the left). The
conformed target is shown applied on the destination, and had been deformed in
order to fit the shape of the destination.
A gray plane is drawn immediately below the original input target, which
represents the reference plane. In the center of the reference plane an X marks
the contact point with respect to the reference plane. On the destination surface,
a green point represents the location of the same contact point after the conform
has been applied. A gray curve shows how the contact point from the reference
plane is placed onto the destination.
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By default, the Conform Rig preserves the size and length of your targets, and
also the shape of your targets. The Conform Rig is designed to retain the shape
of the footprint. You can see in the previous screen shot that the top of the target
has been stretched. Later we will discuss the option to change that.
Inside the Conform Rig tool, you can adjust how the targets are mapped to the
destination.
Using the GO buttons at the bottom of the modeling window, you can choose to
be in translate, rotate, scale, or elevate mode.
Use the Translate mode to choose the position of the target with respect to the
destination. Each set of targets defines a point called the contact point. When the
rig is first set up, the contact point is positioned at the midpoint of the base of the
bounding box of the targets. The translation is based on the contact point of your
target. When the destination is an entire surface or a mesh or a set of stitchable
surfaces, this contact point can be positioned at any point on the destination.
Otherwise, if the destination is a surface curve, the contact point is constrained to
move along the curve. If the destination is a single surface point, the target
cannot be moved at all; however, if you move the surface point itself, the target
will follow.
Furthermore, if the destination is a surface curve, regular snapping (using one of
the three tools) is available. You can snap the contact point to the associated
curve division, curve intersection, and so on. Using the surface curve as the
conform destination allows for precise placement of the target on the destination.
If there are parts of the target that extend beyond the ends of the destination, the
tool extrapolates tangentially with respect to the destination:
To translate, click Translate button and click-drag along the destination surface
— the target follows. While dragging, a bright green outline can be seen: that is
the proxy and is a lightweight approximation of your target. The proxy allows for
real-time interactive update. The targets update for real when you release the
mouse button. The green display for the contact point on the destination and the
gray curve updates when you click-drag.
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Use the Rotate mode to rotate the target about the contact point on the
destination. Click-drag any mouse button to the left or right to adjust the angle.
You can also type in the angle in relative (REL) or absolute (ABS) forms.
Use the Scale mode to adjust the size of the targets relative to the destination,
using the contact point as the scale pivot. Again, if the target is scaled to extend
beyond the destination, the tool extrapolates tangentially. Use the left mouse
button to scale (click-drag to the left or right) the targets proportionally. Use the
middle mouse to scale along the destination surface (making the target bigger
but not thicker); use the right mouse button to scale how thick the target
becomes.
Before
Middle-mouse
button scale
Right-mouse
button scale
The surface on the right shows a really tall version of the target, and also shows
how conform works: by default, it uses the local surface normal to determine how
to map the higher parts of the target, and for destinations that are very curved,
this will introduce distortions by stretching the top of the target because the
normal directions diverge.
The Conform Control option window has a Parallel normal mode slider. If the
value is 0.0, (as in the left objects of the next screenshot) you use 100% of the
local normal of the destination. A value of 1.0 (onn the right of the screenshot)
means the normal of the destination found at the center of the target will be used
universally. The result is that the sides of the target appear parallel — hence the
name. The default for this slider is 1.0. You can also use the slider to blend
between the two effects (the middle objects in the screenshot use 0.5):
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100% local surface
normal
50/50
100% universal
normal
Use Elevate mode to choose to lift the targets up and away from the destination,
or lower and sink the target into the surface. You can do so by click-dragging up
and down in Elevate mode. You can also type in the elevation value in either
absolute mode or relative mode, using the current linear unit.
Before
Elevate 20mm
Sink 10mm
The Conform tool respects the orientation of the destination surface. Initially, the
target is conformed to the outward facing side of the surface (the side that shows
as blue in the Orient Normals tool). If the target needs to be on the reverse side
of the surface, click the Flip button, or click Revert and reverse the orientation of
the surface before reapplying the Conform tool. Conform history does not react to
changes in orientation made with the Orient Normals tool after the conform
operation has been applied.
>
Moving the contact point
As mentioned before, the contact point serves as the pivot for the scale and
rotate operations. It also defines the placement of the targets after conform. By
default. the Conform tool puts the contact point at the center of the bottom of the
targets.
You can move the contact point. In the Conform Rig tool box, choose the Change
Contact Point tool. After choosing this tool, you’ll see something similar to the
following:
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Using the manipulator, you can move the contact point relative to the targets in
their original position. As soon as you change the position of the contact point,
the conformed targets update to show the effects of the change. You can also
use the manipulator to snap the contact point to a particular point of the original
target — click the light blue point at the center of the manipulator. After it turns
white, you can use normal curve-snapping techniques to snap the contact point
onto any part of the original targets, as shown here:
After you have moved the contact point, further rotation or scale operations within
the Conform Rig tool will use the new position of the contact point as the pivot for
the targets.
You can also change the orientation of the reference plane. The reference plane
is iniitalized parallel to the XY plane. If your targets have a different orientation,
the results of the conform operation may not make sense. Using the rotational
handle of the manipulator allows you to rotate the reference plane to make a
better fit with the original surface.
In the following screenshot, the target has been rotated so that the bottom no
longer lies on the XY plane. If the rotated target is used in the Conform Rig tool
as-is, the result of the conform operation is not what is expected. Using the
Change Contact Point tool to rotate the reference plane fixes the problem without
having to change the original target.
372
Conform toolbox
Conform
Use this tool to select the target objects to be applied to another object.
Contact
the contact point serves as the pivot for the scale and rotate operations. It
also defines the placement of the targets after conform. By default. the
Conform tool puts the contact point at the center of the bottom of the targets..
Revert
When targets are added to the rig, they are duplicated. The shape
modifications are performed with these duplicated geometry. To restore the
original geometry and to delete the modified geometry and history, click
Revert. Notice that the manipulated modifiers do not return to their status
prior to the dynamic modeling.
Commit
Click Commit to confirm the dynamic shape modification and delete the
original geometry and the history.
Show Pick Mask
This tool helps when selecting targets for use in the rig. It is only usable when
you pick targets or select Conform destinations.
373
Conform options
>
NURBS Control
The fields in this section control the way NURBS target surfaces are modified by
the Conform Rig tool. Settings in this window have no effect on meshes that were
selected as targets. If all targets are meshes, or if Mesh Output is set, this section
of the option window is hidden.
Minimum Degree (u,v)
Specifies the minimum degree of resulting patches. If a patch target has
degree less than the specified degree, its degree is raised to the specified
degree. This has the result of making the math heavier, but in general the
results of the shape modification are more accurate.
Minimum Spans (u,v)
Specifies the minimum number of spans in the U and V directions. If
necessary, existing spans are subdivided. This has the result of making the
math heavier, but in general the results of the shape deformation are more
accurate.
>
Conform Control options
Parallel normals mode
Choosing this mode enables you to determine how the edges of the target
will map to the destination. If the value is 0.0, 100% of the local normal of the
destination is used. A value of 1.0 means the normal of the destination found
at the center of the target will be used universally. The result is that the sides
of the target appear parallel — hence the name. The default for this slider is
1.0. You can also use the slider to blend between the two effects.
>
Control options
The controls in this section can be used to adjust the output geometry.
374
Auto Recalc
If checked, any changes in any field in the control box or any tool operations
lead to an automatic update of the model display. If this is not checked, click
on the Go button in the active window to update the display after any
changes. Normally, you should leave the Auto Recalc box unchecked if you
have a very large model that takes a long time to update. Auto Recalc is
checked on by default.
Go button
If Auto Recalc. is ON, the Go button is not shown. Any changes to the rig
(options or constructors) causes the history to reevaluate.
If Auto Recalc. is OFF, the Go button is displayed. Any changes to the rig
cause the Go button to be enabled, and when you click Go the re-evaluation
occurs. History itself exists the moment you enter the tool -- not pressing the
Go button does not change this, and you won’t lose history by prematurely
leaving the tool.
Mesh Output
If checked, NURBS are tessellated and output as mesh surfaces.
Apply Trim-Shrink to Output
When checked, the associated output surfaces are trim-shrunk prior to any
shape change. This option changes only the output surfaces, not the inputs.
You may find a performance improvement and better results using this
option.
>
What you can do outside the tool afterwards:
If you are outside the tool after Conform Rig history is set up, you can modify the
destination surface in any way, and the conformed targets update because of
construction history. You can also modify the input target geometry and the
conformed targets will update accordingly.
Commit and Revert tools work the same as in the Transformer Rig and Lattice
Rig.
375
Object edit > Object editor
Allows you to reshape curves and surfaces by dragging handles attached to the
object.
See Reshape a curve or surface using the object editor on
page 251.
Initial boundary constraints
Controls whether the ends/edges of the object are locked in their current
position and shape.
Free: the endpoints/edges are free to move.
Position: the endpoints/edges are locked in their current position.
Position and tangent: the endpoints/edges as well as the first (tangent) row
of CVs are locked in their current position.
Create history
Saves construction history for later editing.
376
Object edit > Close
Converts an open curve or surface to closed, or a closed curve or surface to
open.
See Make an object open or closed on page 276.
Options
Preserve Shape
On: add or delete edit points to preserve the object’s shape.
Off: close without adding edit points.
377
Object edit > Edit comment
Allows you to edit text associated with an object.
To change the program used to edit the text, choose Preferences > General
Preferences and in the General section, provide the path and name to the text
editor of your choice.
See Create or edit text comments on an object on page 384.
378
Object edit > Patch precision
Increases or decreases the number of descriptive isoparametric curves drawn on
the picked surface.
To change the number of descriptive isoparametric curves Studio draws on the
picked object, choose Object edit > Patch precision, then drag left to decrease
or right to increase the number.
See IGES export options on page 598.
See Align curves and surfaces with continuity on page 288.
See Increase the number of descriptive isoparametric curves on
page 118.
See Simplify the display of objects on page 127.
379
Object edit > Query edit
Click an object to open the options for its construction history, or press the right
mouse button on an object to show information about its geometry and highlight
construction history dependencies.
See Shells on page 15.
See Difference between meshes and polysets on page 44.
See Check for gaps before exporting to a solid model on
page 1673.
See View and edit the construction history of an object on
page 175.
See View or change the properties of objects and locators on
page 183.
See Use boolean operations on shells on page 278.
See Create or edit text comments on an object on page 384.
See Sweep generation curves along rail curves (Rail) on
page 188.
See Create a surface inside four boundary curves or corners
(Square) on page 190.
See Specify continuity on a Square or Rail surface on page 192.
See Create a fillet flange finish on page 208.
This tool has two uses:
●
Press the left mouse button to edit an object’s construction history. For
example, click a surface created with the Rail surface tool to open the
options window for that surface.
●
Press the right mouse button to show statistics on an object in a floating
window and highlight construction history dependencies:
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
380
The object you clicked is drawn in yellow.
Curves and surfaces used to construct the object are drawn in green.
Curves and surfaces built from the object are drawn in blue.
Multi-knots are highlighted with a red arrow.
Open edges in shells are marked by a red arrow.
Surface Edit palette
381
Surface Edit > Create CurvesOnSurface > Project
Create curves-on-surface from existing curves and surfaces by intersecting
surfaces, projecting curves onto surfaces, and mapping curves onto surfaces.
See Create curves-on-surface by projecting curves onto surfaces on page 298.
See Project a sketch for fast design label mapping on page 215.
Create
Curves-on-surface: The result of the projection are curves-on-surface.
Curves:The result of the projection are free curves.
Match Original
This option is only available if Create is set to Curves.
If this option is checked, the edit points from the original curves will be
projected on the surface(s), and the projected curves will interpolate them,
resulting in a similar number of spans.
If this option is not checked, the resulting curves will be better
approximations of the projected sections from the original curves, but will
likely contain more spans.
Create History
Save the history of the projection for later editing. If you turn Create History
on, you can modify the curves and surfaces that were used to create the
projected curves, and the projected curves will update. See Troubleshooting
trimmed surfaces on page 211.
382
Surface Edit > Create CurvesOnSurface > Project normal
Instead of projecting along a single vector, the curve is projected onto each point
on the surface along the normal at that point
Create curves-on-surface from geometry
Create curves-on-surface from existing curves and surfaces by intersecting
surfaces, projecting curves onto surfaces, and mapping curves onto surfaces.
Overview
There are four basic tools for creating curves-on-surface from existing curves:
●
Intersect. This tool creates curves-on-surface where two surfaces intersect
(See page 384).
This allows you to trim the surfaces back to the intersection.
curve on
surface
●
Project. This tool creates curves-on-surface by projecting a curve along a
vector onto surfaces (see page 385).
This is like shining a flashlight at the curve, and turning the shadows on the
target surfaces into curves-on-surface. The line between the flashlight, the
curve, and the shadow is the projection vector.
projected
curve
curve on
surface
●
Project normal. This tool is like Project, but instead of projecting along a single
vector, the curve is projected onto each point on the surface along the normal
at that point (see page 385)
This tool is very useful for projecting curves that are parallel to or surround
the target surface.
383
projected
curve
curve on
surface
●
Geometry mapping. This tool maps world-space curves onto the target
surface.
Geometry mapping can produce curves-on-surface that are impossible with
projection or intersection. For example, you can wrap text curves around a
cylinder, rather than simply projecting them onto the sides.
mapped
curves
curves on
surface
To create curves-on-surface at the intersection between two
surfaces
1
Pick the surfaces on which you want to create curves-on-surface (the target
surfaces).
Alternately, you can select the Intersect tool before selecting the surface
on which you want to create curves-on-surface, and then click the Go
button.
2
Click the Intersect icon, or choose Create CurvesOnSurface > Intersect from
the Surface Edit palette menu.
3
Click the surface you want to intersect with the picked surfaces. This
intersecting surface can not be one of the picked surfaces.
4
If a surface was picked in step 3, the Intersect tool creates curves-on-surface.
◆
◆
5
384
If the Create Curves on Surface option is set to On First Surface, the
Intersect tool creates curves-on-surface on the target surfaces, but not
on the intersecting surface you clicked in step 3.
If the Create Curves on Surface option is set to On Both Surfaces, the
Intersect tool creates curves-on-surface on both the target and the
intersecting surfaces.
Repeat step 3 for another intersecting surface if necessary.
To project a curve or surface outline to create a curve-on-surface
1
Pick the surfaces on which you want to create curves-on-surface.
Alternately, you can select the Project tool before the surface on which
you want to create curves-on-surface, and then click the Go button.
2
If you want to project a curve or surface outline along a view vector of a
window, select that window.
Otherwise, create a reference vector to represent the projection direction.
3
Click the Project icon, or choose Create CurvesOnSurface > Project from the
Surface Edit palette menu.
An indicator appears showing the projection vector.
4
Do one of the following:
Click the curve, isoparametric curve, or curve-on-surface you want to
project onto the surface(s). The curve is projected along the view vector
of the active window.
◆
Click the reference vector (that you have previously created that
represents the projection direction. The curve is projected along the
vector direction.
This operation can take some time depending on the complexity of the
geometry. Press Esc to cancel the operation.
◆
5
You can now:
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
Continue to click curves to project.
Click another vector to change the projection direction.
Shift-click on the selected vector to project the curve or surface along the
view vector of the active window.
Select new surfaces using a Pick tool and click the Project icon again.
Choose another tool.
To project a curve along the surface normals to create a curveon-surface
1
Pick the surfaces on which you want to create curves-on-surface.
Alternately, you can select the Project normal tool before selecting the
surface on which you want to create curves-on-surface, and then click
the Go button.
2
Click the Project normal icon, or choose Create CurvesOnSurface > Project
normal from the Surface Edit palette menu.
3
Click the curve, isoparametric curve, or curve-on-surface you want to project.
The curve is projected onto all picked surfaces along the surfaces’s normals.
This operation can take some time depending on the complexity of the
geometry. Press Esc to cancel the operation.
4
You can now:
◆
Continue to click curves to project.
385
◆
◆
Select new surfaces using a Pick tool and click the Project normal icon
again.
Choose another tool.
To map a curve onto a surface to create a curve-on-surface
1
Figure out how you want the curve to map:
◆
Check the parametric directions of the surface. Use the Reverse
direction tool to display and reverse the surface direction if necessary.
◆
Note which world space axes correspond to the U and V axes of the
surface.
2
Set up the options.
3
Pick the surface on which to create curves-on-surface.
4
Click the Geometry mapping icon, or choose Create CurvesOnSurface
> Geometry mapping from the Surface Edit palette menu.
5
Click the curve, isoparametric curve, or curve-on-surface you want to map.
The curve is mapped onto the picked surface using the settings in the
Geometry mapping option window.
6
You can now:
◆
◆
◆
Continue to click curves to map.
Select a new surface using a Pick tool and click the Geometry mapping
tool again.
Choose another tool.
Tips and notes
●
Surfaces that have curves-on-surface are drawn with a dotted outline.
●
You cannot intersect faces, but you can project and map them onto surfaces.
●
If you are not using a vector with the Project tool and you are always using
the same window, try creating a vector in the view direction of the window.
That way, you won’t have to worry about which window is active.
●
To minimize distortion when mapping, the size of the mapped area in world
space should be proportional to the size of the surface.
●
To insert edit points on curves where they intersect a surface or another
curve, use the Curve Section tool.
Limitations
The following limitations apply to the Surface Edit > Create CurvesOnSurface
> Project, Surface Edit > Create CurvesOnSurface > Intersect, and Evaluate
> Cross section tools:
386
●
Generally, intersection does not work if the intersecting surface passes
exactly through ‘degenerate’ points, such as the pole of a sphere, where
many CVs are placed on top of each other, or where a surface wraps back on
itself. If this situation occurs, move one of the surfaces a bit (a minuscule
amount will do), do the intersection, and move the surface back.
●
Complex saddle point regions may cause problems for the intersection code.
●
Occasionally, the order in which intersecting objects are picked can make a
difference. To guarantee the simplest curve of intersection (the one with the
fewest knots), pick the simplest object first. Usually, the order of picking does
not make a difference.
●
The curve-on-surface resulting from an intersection has multiple knots. This
means that they are not as easily editable as other curves on surface might
be.
See Troubleshooting trimmed surfaces on page 211.
Options
Create
Curves-on-surface: The result of the projection are curves-on-surface.
Curves: The result of the projection are free curves.
Tolerance
The accuracy of the match between the original curve and the curve-onsurface. The smaller the value, the more accurate the projection, but the
longer the calculation time required.
For example, if the Tolerance is 0.01, the curve-on-surface must match the
original curve within 0.01 units at each point that Project normal checks.
Curve data factor
Number of times that each surface patch is subdivided to get an accurate
result.
The default is 1, which is sufficient for most surfaces. Larger values increase
calculation time. Only increase the value for very simple surfaces.
Match Original
This option is only available if Create is set to Curves.
If this option is checked, the edit points from the original curves will be
projected on the surface(s), and the projected curves will interpolate them,
resulting in a similar number of spans.
If this option is not checked, the resulting curves will be better
approximations of the projected sections from the original curves, but will
likely contain more spans.
Create History
Save the history of the projection for later editing. If you turn Create History
on, you can modify the curves and surfaces that were used to create the
projected curves, and the projected curves will update.
387
Surface Edit > Create CurvesOnSurface > Intersect
Allows you to trim the surfaces back to the intersection
See Create curves-on-surface where a surface intersects other
surfaces or a plane on page 297.
Create Curves on Surface
On First Surface: create curves-on-surface on the target surfaces, but not on
the intersecting surface you selected.
On Both Surfaces: create curves-on-surface on the target and the
intersecting surfaces.
Create History
Save the history of the projection for later editing. If you turn Create History
on, you can modify the surfaces that were used to create the projected
curves, and the projected curves will update.
388
Surface Edit > Create CurvesOnSurface > Geometry mapping
Maps world-space curves onto the target surface, similar to mapping a texture
onto a surface during rendering.
Surface U/V
Set the world space axes (X, Y or Z) that correspond to the U and V
directions of the surface.
Mapping Type
Parameter Base: proportionally map the defined area of world space to the
parameter space of the surface. If the surface has irregular placement of edit
points, as in the following example, the mapped geometry is distorted.
Arc Length Base: proportionally map the defined area of world space to the
arc length of the surface.
Map Min/Max U/V Axis
These values define the area of world space that corresponds to the U and V
parameter space of the surface.
For example:
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
You are mapping a curve in the XY plane, and you want the curve to fill
the mapped surface.
You are mapping world X to surface U, and world Y to surface V.
The curve’s bounding box is (-4, -2) to (5, 3).
Enter -4 and 5 as the minimum and maximum U axis values.
Enter -2 and 3 as the minimum and maximum V axis values.
389
Surface Edit > Trim > Trim surface
Trims or splits surfaces using curves-on-surface.
See Trim a surface on page 299.
See Project a sketch for fast design label mapping on page 215.
See Troubleshooting trimmed surfaces on page 211.
3D Trimming
If this box is checked, you can select curves to project onto the surface while
within the tool. If it is unchecked (default), this capability is removed.
Projection History
If this box is checked, the projected curves will have construction history.
Editing or transforming the curves and surfaces will cause the projection and
trim operations to be re-executed.
This option is only available if 3D Trimming is turned on.
Project Normal
If this box is checked, the curve is projected onto each point on the surface
along the normal at that point. If unchecked (default), the curve is projected
along the view vector (in both the orthographic and perspective windows).
This option is only available if 3D Trimming is turned on.
Chain Select
If this box is checked, selecting a curve to project also selects all other
curves that are tangent continuous with it.
>
Display Options
Show Intersections
If this box is checked, green locators indicate the intersections between the
trim curves, and between the trim curves and trim surfaces. Yellow locators
indicate trim curve endpoints that do not intersect any other curve-on-surface
or trim surface edge.
Region Selector U Size/V Size
The relative size of the trim region selectors in the U and V parametric
directions on the surface. Adjust these sliders if the selectors (crosses)
appear too small or too large on your model. The values range from 0.01 to
2.0.
390
Trim region locators (in white) before and after being resized.
The Shrink Surface option has been replaced by a plug-in called
shrinkToTrim which can be loaded through Utilities > Plug-in Manager.
shrinkToTrim shrinks the underlying surface's UV parameters to cover only
the visible (non-trimmed) parts of the surface. This functionality is useful
when applying label-style textures to the surface.
391
Surface Edit > Trim > Untrim
Easily recovers the trimmed part of a surface.
See Reverse the sequence of trims performed on a surface on
page 303.
Untrim Stages
Last: undo the last trim operation on the surface.
All: undo all trims on the surface.
392
Surface Edit > Trim > Trim convert
Converts a four-sided trimmed surface into an untrimmed (natural) surface.
See Convert a trimmed surface into an untrimmed surface with
the same shape on page 303.
U Degree, V Degree
The degree of the new untrimmed surface in the U and V directions.
U Spans, V Spans
The number of spans of the new untrimmed surface in the U and V
directions.
Switch U/V
Turn on this option to change the orientation of the U and V axes on the new
trim converted surface.
U
V
U
V
Switch U/V off
Switch U/V on
Show Surface Deviation
Displays the maximum deviation between the original trimmed surface and
the new untrimmed surface.
Show Edge Deviations
Displays the maximum deviation between each edge of the original trimmed
surface and the new untrimmed surface.
Keep Originals
Keep the original trimmed surface after creating the new untrimmed surface.
AutoRecalc
Automatically updates the surface when you adjust the Trim Convert
Settings.
393
Surface Edit > Stitch > Shell stitch
Creates a special object called a shell from a group of surfaces, in preparation for
Boolean operations or export to a CAD package.
See Check for gaps before exporting to a solid model on
page 1673.
See Export STEP/IGES/PTC Granite to Pro/ENGINEER on
page 1675.
See Convert surfaces to and from shells (stitch/unstitch) on
page 277.
Use construction options
Turn on this option to use the Maximum Gap Distance from the Preferences
> Construction options as the stitching tolerance. Turn it off to set the
tolerance using the Tolerance slider below.
Tolerance
This slider only appears when Use construction options is turned off. If the
gap between two edges is within this tolerance, the edges are joined. The
range is 0.0001 to 1.0000
Detach periodic surfaces
Detach the seam of periodic surfaces (that is, closed surfaces such as
cylinders and surfaces created with the Revolve tool) before stitching them
into a shell.
This option is sometimes necessary when the stitch function does not notice
that a surface edge is attached to another edge on the same surface. This is
a common problem in CAD systems.
Detach single curve boundaries
Detach trim edges made from single curves on surface (such as a round hole
in the middle of a plane).
Some CAD systems have problems with these kinds of trims. Turn this option
on to allow export to those systems.
Keep originals
Keep the original surfaces after the shell is created.
Depending on how you set the options, a shell may not match the original
surfaces exactly. In this case, unstitching will not produce surfaces that
match the originals exactly either; it is a good idea to keep originals. The
default is to keep the original surfaces.
394
Surface Edit > Stitch > Shell unstitch
Converts a shell object back to normal surfaces.
See Convert surfaces to and from shells (stitch/unstitch) on
page 277.
Keep Originals
Keep the original shell after it is unstitched into surfaces.
395
Surface Edit > Shells > Shell subtract
Subtracts the volume of one shell from another.
See Use boolean operations on shells on page 278.
Keep Originals
On: template the original shells after the Boolean operation.
Off: delete the original shells.
396
Surface Edit > Shells > Shell intersect
Keeps the intersecting volume of two shells and discard the rest.
See Use boolean operations on shells on page 278.
Keep Originals
On: template the original shells after the Boolean operation.
Off: delete the original shells.
397
Surface Edit > Shells > Shell union
Combines the volumes of two shells into one new shell.
See Use boolean operations on shells on page 278.
Keep Originals
On: template the original shells after the Boolean operation.
Off: delete the original shells.
398
Surface Edit > Planarize hull
Planarizes surface hulls.
See Flatten hull lines onto planes.
Type
Single: affects a single CV row.
All U: affects all CV rows in U direction (except possibly the first and last).
All V: affects all CV rows in V direction (except possibly the first and last).
U and V: affects all CV rows in both U and V directions (except possibly the
first and last).
For the last three settings, the first and last rows of CVs will only be
planarized if Include Edges is turned on.
Plane
VIEW BASED: The plane is calculated from the view vector (perpendicular to
the active window) and the vector joining the end CVs of the row.
BEST FIT: The plane is chosen as the one that best fits the set of CVs
(similar to a least-square fitting) while going through both end CVs.
Iterations
This option appears only when Type is set to U and V. It controls the number
of times the position of the CVs is recalculated in both the U and V direction.
Because the position of the CVs already planarized in U will be affected
when planarizing in V, increasing the number of iterations will normally make
those positions converge toward some optimal values.
Include Edges
If this option is checked, the first and last row of CVs (in U and/or V) are also
planarized. The corresponding surface edges appear as straight lines on the
planes of projection.
This option is not available when Type is set to Single.
Project Vector
This option determines the direction of projection for each CV.
ADAPTIVE: The direction of projection will be along the hull line that’s closest
to the plane’s perpendicular.
CLOSEST POINT: The direction of projection will be perpendicular to the
plane.
CLOSEST BOUNDARY: The direction of projection will be along the hull line
toward the closest surface boundary.
399
ADAPTIVE
CLOSEST POINT
CLOSEST
BOUNDARY
Surface boundary
In the diagrams above, the red cross represents the CV
being moved, the dashed line is the plane of projection, and
the thick blue line shows the direction of projection.
Check Deviation
If this option is checked, the maximum deviation between any CV’s original
position and its new position is displayed on the prompt line.
400
Surface Edit > Rebuild surface
Allows you to simplify or modify a surface. The same tool as Curve Edit >
Rebuild curve.
See Simplify objects on page 271.
See Use surface textures on page 80.
401
Surface Edit > Claymate
Lets you integrate digitized clay model data with modeled surfaces, or offset a
group of surface while maintaining continuity between them.
See Integrate digitized clay model data with modeled surfaces
on page 262.
See Offset multiple surfaces while maintaining continuity on
page 282.
Options
Claymate Offset
Change the tool’s function to create offset copies of the surfaces you pick,
and maintain the continuity between them.
When you turn this option on and click Go, the parameters available in the
Claymate Control window change.
Keep Originals
Turn this option on to keep the original surfaces in addition to the new
surfaces created by the Claymate tool.
Turn this option off to delete the original surfaces after the Claymate tool
creates the new surfaces.
Control Window
When Claymate Offset if off, the following control window appears.
402
Auto Recalculate
Turn this option on to automatically update the surfaces whenever you
change an option in the Claymate Control window.
Surface Evaluation
Off—Do not perform any surface evaluation on the surface.
Cross Section—Calculate and display cross-section lines on the new
surface. For more information, see Create or view cross sections (page 350).
Subdivision Density
The maximum number of edit points the Claymate tool is allowed to add to
each span of the modified surface.
For example, if you set Subdivision Density to 3, the new surface can have
up to 3 times as many edit points as the original surface.
Enter a value from 0 to 1000. The default is 0 (do not insert any new edit
points).
>
Sampling On Surfaces To Modify
Number of Samples
The number of samples per span or per surface (depending on the setting of
the Sampling Type option) to take on the surfaces that need to be modified.
The time required increases with the square of the number of samples on the
surfaces to be modified.
Sampling Type
Per Span—the number of samples is taken for every span.
Per Obj—the number of samples is taken for every surface.
>
Curve Modifier Sampling
Number of Samples
The number of samples per span or per object (depending on the setting of
the Sampling Type option) to take on the modifier curves or surfaces.
The time required increases linearly with the number of samples on the
modifier objects.
Sampling Type
Per Span—the number of samples is taken for every span.
Per Obj—the number of samples is taken for every object.
>
Modification Parameters
Region Cutoff
Every point on a surface is affected by a number of CVs. For example, on a
bicubic surface (a surface which is degree 3 in both U and V directions), each
point is controlled by up to 16 CVs.
403
Each of those CVs exerts a certain amount of influence over the point on the
surface, measured between 0 and 1. The CVs closest to the selected point
on the surface have the greatest effect on that point. For example, if a CV’s
influence on a point is 0.5, then moving that CV 5 units will move the surface
point 2.5 units. If the influence is 1.0, then moving the CV 5 units will move
the surface point 5 units.
This value controls which CVs are moved by the Claymate tool. For each
sampled point on the surface, the Claymate tool will only move CVs whose
influence is greater than this value.
Enter a value from 0.000 to 1.000. The default is 0.000. You can set the value
to less than 0.001, but it is not recommended.
If the value you enter cuts off all CVs affecting a point, a value of 0.001 is
used instead.
Min. Mod. Dist.
Max Mod. Dist.
The minimum and maximum distance between a point on the surfaces to be
modified and the corresponding point on the modifier curves.
If the distance is less than the minimum or greater than the maximum at a
point, the modifier is ignored at that point.
Enter values greater or equal to 0 for the Min, greater than 0 for the Max.
>
Modification Control
Boundary Mod Type
Default—modify surface boundaries and internals. Do not modify tangents.
This is the recommended option for closed (periodic) surfaces.
Exclusive—modify surface boundaries only. Do not modify internals or
tangents.
Fix Position—keep position of surface boundaries locked.
Fix Tangent—keep position and tangents of surface boundaries locked.
The Fix Position and Fix Tangent options only work on actual surface
boundaries, and do not affect trim edges. We do not recommend using Fix
Position or Fix Tangent when you have more than one surface to modify.
Modif. Resistance
The amount of resistance to modification, from 0.0 to 1.0. At 0.0, the surfaces
are free to change shape to fit the modifier curves. At 1.0, the shape of the
original surfaces is maintained.
Use this option to “dampen” the modification of the original surfaces if the
changes caused by the modifier curves are too radical.
>
Modification Direction
Use Spec. Direction
Turn this option on to use the Specified Direction vector.
If turned off, the direction reverts to the previous Specified Direction settings.
404
Specified Direction
Enter a vector for the direction in which to apply the changes.
>
Buttons
Recalculate
Update the surfaces after changing options.
If the Auto Recalculate option at the top of the window is on, the surfaces are
updated automatically whenever you change an option.
Undo
Undo the most recent changes made by the Claymate tool.
Next
Finish with the current surfaces and prompt for new surfaces.
When Claymate Offset is on, the following control window appears.
Auto Recalculate
Turn this option on to automatically update the surfaces whenever you
change an option in the Claymate Control window.
Subdivision Density
The maximum number of edit points the Claymate tool is allowed to add to
each span of the modified surface.
For example, if you set Subdivision Density to 3, the new surface can have
up to 3 times as many edit points as the original surface.
Enter a value from 0 to 1000. The default is 0 (do not insert any new edit
points).
>
Claymate Offset Parameters
Offset Distance
Modify the surfaces using a set of points at this distance from the surface
along the surface normals.
405
Number of Samples
The number of samples per span or per surface (depending on the setting of
the Sampling Type option) to take on the surfaces that need to be offset.
The time required increases with the square of the number of samples on the
surfaces to be offset.
Sampling Type
Per Span—the number of samples is taken for every span.
Per Obj—the number of samples is taken for every surface.
406
Surface Edit > Fit scan
Creates a surface based on sections or polygons.
See Fit a surface to scan data on page 438.
U Degree, V Degree
The degree of the new surface in the U and V directions.
U Spans, V Spans
The number of spans of the new surface in the U and V directions.
Projection Direction
Z Axis, Y Axis, X Axis: sets the axis along which you want to fit your surface
to scan or polygonal data.
Surface Normal: fits the surface to scan or polygonal data along the normal
of the surface.
Window Normal: fits the surface to scan or polygonal data along the normal
of your current window.
Show Deviations
Displays the maximum deviation between the new surface and the original
section/polygonal data.
Keep Originals
Keep the original surface after creating the new fitted surface.
Auto Recalc
Automatically updates the surface when you adjust the Fit Scan Settings.
407
Surface Edit > Orientation > Set Surface Orientation
Orients surface normals so they point toward or away from the camera.
To change the direction normals face
1
Select Surface Edit > Orientation > Set Surface Orientation.
All surfaces in the scene are shaded in blue and yellow.
Normals that point toward the camera result in blue surfaces; normals
pointing away from the camera produce yellow surfaces.
2
To change the direction of the normal on a surface:
◆
◆
click the surface with the left mouse button to orient the normal toward
the camera.
click the surface with the middle mouse button (or Shift + left mouse
button) to orient the normal away from the camera.
You can click anywhere on the surface (not only the wireframe).
The color of the surface changes immediately.
3
408
If there are several surfaces to change, draw a pick-box around them (using
the appropriate mouse button).
After orienting all the normals to face toward the camera, all the surfaces in
the scene should be blue.
409
Surface Edit > Orientation > Unify Surface Orientation
Forces all surface normals to point in one direction.
See Make all normals consistent on page 275.
See Prepare a model for import into CAD systems on page 372.
Modifies a collection of patches so that all normals across a set of adjacent
surfaces point in the same direction. This helps to ensure that lighting is correct
in renderings, and is also useful when modeling, and offsetting surfaces.
Construction history is preserved during this operation.
To unify the normal direction on a number of surfaces
1
Choose Surface Edit > Orientation > Unify Surface Orientation.
You are prompted to:
Select input surfaces. When finished, click ‘Classify’.
2
Pick all the surfaces to be unified, and then click the Classify button in the
lower right corner of the active window.
Based on the Topology Distance tolerance value (set in Preferences >
Construction options, under the Tolerances: Topology sub-tab), the
surfaces are grouped into sets of adjacent patches. Each set consists of
those surface patches that are within the Topology Distance tolerance. The
sets are drawn in different colors to help differentiate them.
An arrow shows the direction of the unified surface normal on each set. To
change the direction of the surface normal, click on it.
3
When all surface normals are pointing in the correct direction, click the Unify
button.
You can continue changing normal directions, then clicking Unify again, until
you select another tool.
Unify Surface Orientation is a continuous function. To finish using this tool, select
another tool.
410
Surface Edit > Orientation > Reverse Surface Orientation
Reverses the direction of surface normals without affecting the U or V parametric
directions.
See Reverse the direction of a curve or surface on page 272.
See Prepare a model for import into CAD systems on page 372.
Reversing the direction of the normal with this tool does not affect the direction of
the U or V parameters.
Construction history is also preserved.
Options
Display normal(s)
All intersecting: display the normals of all surfaces under the cursor.
Closest to eye: display the normal of the nearest surface under the cursor.
411
Surface Edit > Reverse Surface UV
Reverses the parametric direction of a surface (U or V), or swaps the U and V
parameters of a surface.
See Map a texture on page 80.
Reversing the U or V parameterization, or swapping the U and V parameters for
a surface does not affect the direction of the normal.
Options
Display direction(s)
All intersecting: display the U and/or V direction of all surfaces under the
cursor.
Closest to eye: display the U and/or V direction of the nearest surface under
the cursor.
>
Surface Reversal Mode
Reverse U
Reverse the direction of the U isoparametric curves.
Reverse V
Reverse the direction of the V isoparametric curves.
Swap U and V
Swap the isoparametric curves so that the U direction becomes the V
direction and vice versa.
412
Mesh palette
413
Mesh > Mesh Tessellation > Nurbs to mesh
Converts NURBS surfaces to mesh objects.
See Difference between meshes and polysets on page 44.
See Create meshes from NURBS surfaces or shells on
page 388.
See Merge meshes on page 417.
Use existing tessellation
If this option is ON and the surface has already been tessellated through
WindowDisplay > Hardware Shade or the Diagnostic Shading panel, that
tessellation is used, and does not need to be recalculated. Otherwise the
tessellation parameters from the Control Panel are used.
If this option is OFF, the tessellation is recalculated based on the values of
the other options below.
Tessellator
Fast: Tessellates more quickly and less accurately.
Accurate: Tessellates more accurately and more slowly.
The same option is used in the option window of WindowDisplay >
Hardware Shade.
Tolerance
Controls how accurately surfaces are tessellated. The slider range is 0.0001
to 1.0. The default value is 0.1.
The same tolerance value is found in the option window of WindowDisplay
> Hardware Shade.
Limit edge length
This option only appears if Tessellator is set to Accurate.
If checked, a Max edge length slider appears, to control how large the
triangles can get. If unchecked, there is no limit on the size of the triangles.
Max edge length
Specifies the maximum length of any triangle edge (in current linear units).
Tessellate shells
When checked, this option ensures that shells are converted to meshes that
contain no gaps or T-edges, hence producing better results for visualization
and conversion to STL format.
Merge Type
This option is only available when Tessellate shells is turned on.
Modeling: Coincident vertices are merged and normals are averaged at the
merged vertices. This is the recommended option for modeling purposes. It
will also reduce file size.
414
Visualize: Normals are preserved. Hence, coincident vertices are only
merged if they also have coincident normals. This is the default, as it is the
recommended option to use on shells that have been converted to meshes
for visualization purposes.
415
Mesh > Mesh Tessellation > Cloud to mesh
Converts cloud data to a mesh for processing and editing with AliasStudio’s mesh
tools.
See Create meshes from clouds on page 389.
Vertex Tolerance
Controls how closely the mesh must match the original cloud data. Lower
values give a more accurate but denser mesh. A value of 0 means every
point becomes the vertex of a polygon.
Grouping Tolerance
Controls how far apart points can be and still be considered part of the same
cloud. Lower this value if you find the mesh is trying to merge two distinct
clouds.
Estimate Tolerances
When you click this box, the program looks at the distances between the
points in the cloud and estimates values for the Vertex Tolerance and
Grouping Tolerance.
Use this selection to find a starting point for the tolerance values. If you find
problems with the mesh, adjust the tolerances and recalculate the mesh
again.
A check mark does not appear when you click the box.
Unify Normals
Check this box if you want the mesh to have consistent normals.
Limit edge length
Check this box to prevent creation of large triangles, then enter the maximum
side length in the Max edge length box.
Max edge length
Enter the maximum allowable edge length for the mesh you want to create.
Max hole edges
Holes in the mesh are automatically filled if they have no more boundary
edges than the value in this field.
416
Mesh > Mesh Tessellation > Displacement Map to mesh
Converts a displacement map on a NURBS surface into mesh geometry.
See Create meshes from displacement maps (page 389)
See also Displacement (page 892)
A displacement map, when placed on a surface and rendered, gives the object
the appearance of highly-modeled geometry, as the surface modulates based on
the gray values of the displacement map.
By converting the displacement map to mesh geometry, you create real geometry
that can be modified, rendered, or used in prototyping.
Options
Use values from Render Globals
If this option is checked, the tessellation values set in Render > Globals are
used. If it is not checked (default), you can enter your own values for the
Mesh Tolerance and Displacement Detail (see below).
The V9 tessellator option in Render > Globals is not supported in the
Displacement Map to mesh tool.
Mesh Tolerance (cm)
The maximum allowable distance (measured in centimeters) between a
NURBS surface and its tessellated version, before the displacement map is
applied. The Mesh Tolerance value controls how smoothly surfaces are
tessellated for rendering.
A smoother tessellated surface results in a smoother final mesh. However,
this may increase rendering time.
The slider range is 0.001 cm to 0.10 cm. The default value is 0.05 cm for
medium quality.
Displacement Detail
Controls how finely surface areas with displacement maps are tessellated.
The higher the Displacement Detail value, the finer the appearance of
surface displacements. However, rendering times may also increase. The
slider range is 10 to 512. The default value is 40.
417
Mesh > Mesh Partitioning > Mesh subset
Selects portions of meshes and split them off as separate pieces
See Cut meshes on page 414.
See Divide up meshes on page 415.
Sub-setting a mesh allows you to delete or toggle invisible part of the mesh, or to
shade the pieces independently, thereby increasing processing speed.
Make subsets invisible
When this is checked, the new DAG nodes containing the subset mesh
become invisible.
Choose ObjectDisplay > Visible to make them visible again.
Triangle selection
When putting down points to select a region, this option specifies which
triangles will be selected when more than one side of the mesh lies under the
selection polygon.
Visible Only:Only the front-facing triangles are selected. This is the default.
Include hidden: Both the front and back-facing triangles are selected.
418
Mesh > Mesh Partitioning > Mesh merge
Combines smaller meshes into one large mesh.
See Difference between meshes and polysets (page 44).
See Cut meshes (page 414).
See Merge meshes (page 417).
To merge meshes
1
Choose Mesh > Mesh Partitioning > Mesh merge from the tool palette.
2
Pick two or more meshes.
3
Press the Merge button in the lower right corner of the window.
The selected meshes are combined into a single mesh object.
You can continue to select meshes then press Merge until you choose
another continuous tool.
The normals are preserved. This is the recommended behavior for visualization
purposes as it ensures a more accurate shading of the model.
To merge all coincident vertices, use Mesh > Mesh Cleanup > Mesh Weld
Vertices.
419
Mesh > Mesh Partitioning > Mesh cut
Splits a mesh into components
See Cut meshes on page 414.
See Divide up meshes on page 415.
Keep intersection history
If this is checked, construction history is retained when a mesh is intersected
(with either a surface or another mesh), cut and subset. Moving any of the
constructor objects will update the intersection.
420
Mesh > Mesh Curves > Mesh project curve
Projects a curve onto a mesh.
See Difference between meshes and polysets on page 44.
See Project curves on meshes on page 394.
Project a curve onto a mesh
1
Do one of the following:
●
Select one or more meshes, then choose Mesh > Mesh Curves > Mesh
project curve from the tool palette.
●
Choose Mesh > Mesh Curves > Mesh project curve from the tool palette,
then select one or more meshes, and press the Go button.
2
Select:
◆
◆
the curve(s) you want to project, in the view window that is perpendicular
to the projection direction OR
a projection vector, then the curve(s) you want to project.
See Create or edit a reference vector
Project curve
Go button
3
Press the Go button in the lower right hand corner.
Degree 1 NURBS curves are created on the mesh(es). They update if the
input curve is modified.
421
Degree 1 NURBS curves after
projection
422
Mesh > Mesh Curves > Mesh project normal
Projects a curve normal to a mesh.
See Difference between meshes and polysets on page 44.
See Project curves normal to meshes on page 395.
Project a curve normal to a mesh
1
Do one of the following:
●
Select one or more meshes, then choose Mesh > Mesh Curves > Mesh
project normal from the tool palette.
●
Choose Mesh > Mesh Curves > Mesh project normal from the tool palette,
then select one or more meshes, and press the Go button.
2
Select one or more curves to project, then press the Go button.
The curves are projected onto the mesh(es) and degree 1 NURBS appear on
the mesh.
3
Modify the input curves if necessary.
The projected curves on the mesh(es) update.
423
Mesh > Mesh Curves > Mesh intersect
Creates curves at the intersections between two sets of meshes, or between a
set of meshes and a set of surfaces.
You select two sets of meshes, or one set of meshes and one set of NURBS
surfaces, and the tool creates curves at the intersections between them. You can
later use the curves-on-mesh to cut the meshes, and the curves-on-surface to
trim the surfaces.
See Create curves at mesh intersections on page 395.
See Cut meshes on page 414.
See Trim a surface on page 299.
Intersect two sets of meshes
1
Choose Mesh > Mesh Curves > Mesh intersect.
2
Select one or more meshes to intersect.
3
Press the Go button.
4
Select one or more meshes that intersect the first set of meshes.
5
Press the Go button when finished.
Intersection curves
Degree 1 NURBS curves are created at the intersections between pairs of
meshes (on both meshes).
These curves have history, so modifications to the meshes will cause them to
update.
The intersection curves can then be used by the Mesh cut tool to cut the
meshes.
Intersect a set of meshes with a set of surfaces
424
1
Choose Mesh > Mesh Curves > Mesh intersect
2
Select one or more meshes to intersect.
3
Press the Go button.
4
Select one or more surfaces to intersect with the meshes.
Alternatively, you can select the surfaces first and the meshes second.
5
Press the Go button when finished.
Degree 1 NURBS curves are created on the meshes where they intersect the
surfaces. Curves-on-surfaces are created on the surfaces where they
intersect the meshes.
All these curves have history, so modifications to the meshes or surfaces will
cause them to update.
The curves on mesh can then be used by the Mesh cut tool to cut the
meshes.The curves-on-surface can be used to trim the surfaces using the
Trim surface tool.
425
Results of cutting the mesh and trimming the surfaces.
426
Mesh > Mesh Curves > Mesh Extract Theoretical Intersection
Creates theoretical intersection curves on a mesh that can later be used for
surface development. Can also create feature curves approximations.
See Create theoretical intersection curve along feature on
page 399.
Theoretical Intersection Curve
Turn on this option to calculate the theoretical intersection curve.
If using the curve method, this option must be on, as this will be the only
curve calculated.
See To extract a theoretical curve from a mesh (curve method)
on page 400.
Feature Curve Approximation
Turn on this option to create the approximation feature curve. It will be visible
as a degree 1 curve when you exit the tool.
This only applies when using the points method.
See To extract a theoretical curve and feature curve approximation from a mesh (point method) on page 401.
Show Curvature Evaluation
Turn on this option (default) to shade the mesh with Curvature Diagnostic
Shading when it’s selected.
Tangent line distance
Radius of the tube that defines the region where the curve(s) will be built.
Tangent lines are displayed at the intersection of the tube with the mesh after
the theoretical intersection curve is first calculated.
Sampling factor over tangent line
This value multiplies the Tangent line distance to specify the maximum
distance from the outside of the tube that will be included in the calculations.
Ensure that this distance covers mostly flat regions, and doesn’t include
other sharp features.
Control Options
Auto Recalc.
When this option is turned on, the curves are recalculated automatically
when a value is changed in the option window, without the need to press the
Recalc button.
427
Mesh > Mesh Curves > Mesh Boundaries
Creates degree 1 NURBS curves from selected mesh boundaries.
Create degree 1 curves from mesh boundaries
1
Choose Mesh > Mesh Curves > Mesh Boundaries
2
Select a mesh
All the mesh boundaries are highlighted in green.
Click here
3
Do one of the following:
●
Click on the boundary or boundaries you want to extract (they turn yellow),
then press the Extract button at the bottom of the window.
●
Press the Extract All button at the bottom of the window to extract all
boundaries.
One or more degree 1 NURBS curves are created and overlap the
boundaries of the mesh.
428
In this image, the NURBS curves have been selected
and their control points turned on.
429
Mesh > Mesh Cleanup > Mesh Smooth
Lets you smooth out regions of a mesh.
See Smooth a mesh on page 418.
Preserve Features
When this option is checked (default), the tool attempts to smooth the mesh
while preserving the local features within the selected region. If the box is
unchecked, the smoothing effect tends toward an overall “flattening” of the
region.
Radius
Defines a radius value around each vertex. All vertices located within that
radius and connected to the center vertex will affect the movement of the
center vertex.
We recommend that you use a small radius for better results. You can use
Edit > Undo and change the radius later, if the results are not satisfactory.
Fix Boundaries
If this option is checked, the edges of the mesh remain fixed while the mesh
is smoothed.
This option is turned on by default.
Number of Iterations
This slider has a range of 1 to 10 and specifies how many smoothing
iterations occur every time you press the Smooth button. The default is 4.
>
Vertex Movement
Greatest
Non-editable field displaying the maximum vertex deviation.
Restrict
If this option is checked, the smoothing process stops when the maximum
vertex deviation between the original mesh and the smoothed mesh reaches
the value of Maximum Permitted.
Maximum Permitted
Maximum vertex deviation allowed between the original and smoothed
mesh.
This option only appears when Restrict is turned on.
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Mesh > Mesh Cleanup > Mesh Reduce
Reduces the number of triangles in a mesh while attempting to preserve its
shape.
See Reduce the complexity of meshes on page 420.
Sometimes, a mesh might contain more triangles than are necessary to
accurately represent its shape. The Mesh Reduce tool lets you reduce the
number of triangles in a mesh (while attempting to preserve its shape) according
to two different methods:
●
Based on chordal deviation, given a maximum deviation value.
●
Down to a given percentage (fraction) of the original number.
Num Triangles/Num Vertices/Deviation
Non-editable fields displaying the number of triangles, number of vertices
and deviation from the original mesh (in linear units) after each reduction
step.
Mode
CHORDAL DEVIATION: The number of triangles is reduced so that chordal
deviation from the original mesh does not exceed a given maximum
deviation value.
FRACTION: The number of triangles is reduced down to a given percentage
(fraction) of the original number.
Max Deviation
Specifies the maximum chordal deviation distance allowed during the retessellation.
This option is only available if Mode is CHORDAL DEVIATION.
Reduction %
Specifies the percentage of the orginal number of triangles to keep in the
mesh.
This option is only available if Mode is FRACTION.
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Mesh > Mesh Cleanup > Mesh Hole Fill
Lets you fill up holes in a mesh.
See Fill holes in a mesh on page 422.
Quality
Taut: The size of the triangles used to fill the hole matches the size of the
neighboring triangles.
Faired: As above, but we attempt to maintain curvature properties across all
of the triangles that fill the hole. This is the default.
Maximum Hole Size
Maximum number of edges a hole may have in order for it to be filled. The
default is 150.
Buttons
Fill All
Attempts to fill all the holes that have a number of edges smaller than
Maximum Hole Size.
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Mesh > Mesh Cleanup > Mesh Bridge
Lets you build small “bridges” across gaps within a mesh.
After building two or more bridges across a gap, the remaining holes can then be
patched using Mesh > Mesh Cleanup > Mesh Hole Fill.
Single mesh with a gap.
Build a bridge across a gap in a mesh
1
Choose Mesh > Mesh Cleanup > Mesh Bridge.
2
Select a mesh.
The mesh boundaries are highlighted in green.
The tool works only within a single mesh, not between two separate meshes.
If you have two meshes, use Mesh > Mesh Partitioning > Mesh merge
first to combine them.
3
Click on a boundary to select the first endpoint for the bridge.
4
Click on the opposite boundary to select the second endpoint for the bridge.
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Locators indicate the location of the endpoints.
5
Select the locators and move them along the boundaries to fine tune the
position of the endpoints.
6
Press Go.
A “bridge” made up of two triangles is built between the endpoints.
bridge
If you also build a bridge at the other end of the gap, you produce a hole
which can then be filled with Mesh > Mesh Cleanup > Mesh Hole Fill.
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Mesh > Mesh Cleanup > Mesh Weld Vertices
Merges all coincident vertices in a mesh.
Coincident vertices are merged and normals are averaged at the merged
vertices.
This tool is only needed in rare cases. For example, a file imported from a
different system, in a format other than STL, could have all its shared vertices
stored twice. This could be detected within the Mesh Repair tool by the presence
of a red boundary surrounding each triangle. In that case, the vertices would
need to be merged with Mesh Weld Vertices before using any other Mesh tool.
To merge vertices
1
Choose Mesh > Mesh Cleanup > Mesh Weld Vertices.
2
Select one or more meshes.
3
Press the Weld Vertices button in the lower right corner of the window.
Coincident vertices are merged and normals are averaged at the merged
vertices.
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Mesh > Mesh Repair
Lets you identify meshes that are degenerate, non-manifold, non-oriented, selfintersecting, or that contain folded edges, and repair these problems by deleting
triangles.
See Repair defects in meshes on page 425.
Many tools that act on meshes such as Mesh cut, Mesh offset and Mesh collar
will fail on meshes that are non-manifold, non-oriented or self-intersecting. You
will be asked to “repair” the meshes first.
The tests are executed sequentially, and feedback is provided through the option
window and prompt line after each repair step. Meshes are repaired by removing
the troublesome triangles.
A few definitions
degenerate: contains duplicate triangles (i.e. the same three vertices describe
two triangles) , or triangles with two or three overlapping vertices.
manifold: no vertex is adjacent to more than two boundary edges, and no edge is
shared by more than two triangles.
Manifold
Non-Manifold
Non-Manifold
oriented: the winding of the vertices around the triangles is such that all normals
have the same orientation.
self-intersecting: the mesh intersects itself.
folded edges: the angle between any pair of adjacent triangles is less than a
given angle.
Mesh Repair Control Window
>
Mesh Information
Number of triangles/Number of vertices/Number of boundaries/
Number of components
Non-editable fields that display information about the selected mesh.
A mesh with one component and zero boundaries represents a single closed
volume, as required for export to STL format.
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>
Sequential Diagnostic Tests
Non-degenerate triangles/Manifold/Consistent triangle
orientation/No self-intersecting triangles/No folded edges
Non-editable fields that display the result of the sequential tests as pass or
fail.
Non-degenerate triangles: test passes if there are no duplicate or
degenerate triangles. Also tests presence of duplicate and overlapping
triangles. This happens when the same three vertices describe two triangles.
This condition can be identified during test by an arrow pointing to the center
of the triangles.
Manifold: test passes if there are no non-manifold vertices.
Consistent triangle orientation: test passes if the normals of all the triangles
have the same orientation.
No self-intersecting triangles: test passes if the mesh doesn’t intersect itself.
No folded edges: test passes if the angle between any pair of triangles is
more than the Minimum edge angle value.
>
Options
The following tests are optional since no tool requires a mesh to pass these tests.
Check self-intersecting triangles
If this is checked, the self-intersecting triangles test is executed.
Check folded edges
If this is checked, the folded edges test is executed.
Minimum edge angle
Specifies the minimum angle allowed between the planes of two triangles
sharing an edge. If the angle is smaller than this value, the triangle will be
considered as having “folded over”. The default is 15.0 degrees.
This option is only available when Check folded edges is turned on.
Show problems
If this option is checked, arrows point to the troublesome triangles in the
mesh.
Show boundaries with arrows
If this option is checked, it displays an arrow next to each boundary at the
end of the repair process. This helps to identify small and hard to detect
boundaries.
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Mesh > Mesh Collar
Lets you create a collar NURBS surface along any boundary of a mesh, or curve
on mesh.
See Create collar surfaces from meshes on page 409.
Fit Type
Ribbon:This is the basic colllar mode. It uses the Tolerance you provide to
determine the number of spans in the collar. It only fits the collar surface to
the mesh along the boundary or curve that you selected, not necessarily over
its entire width.
Surface:This mode gives you greater control on the resulting collar, by letting
you put down more points, and specify the number of spans for each of the
segments. It also creates collar surfaces that fit the underlying mesh at all
points. This is the default.
Surface options
Ribbon options
Continuity
Specifies the level of continuity possible at the edge of the collar surface,
either Tangent or Curvature. Other surfaces can then be built from the collar
and maintain this level of continuity with the mesh.
This option is only displayed if Fit Type is set to Ribbon.
Degree
Specifies the degree of the collar surface in the U direction. It can be either 3
or 5.
Auto Sample
If checked, the tool automatically determines the optimal number of sample
points to use for the fit. This is the recommended setting.
If unchecked, you have to specify a value for the number of samples in Num
Samples.
This option is only displayed if Fit Type is set to Ribbon.
Num Samples
Specifies the number of sample points to use for the fit.
This option is only displayed if Auto Sample is turned off.
Width
Specifies the width (in current linear units) of the collar surface.
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Tolerance
Specifies a curve fit tolerance for the fit of the collar surface to the mesh. A
larger tolerance usually means less spans on the collar surface.
This option is only displayed if Fit Type is set to Ribbon.
Spans Per segment
Specifies the number of spans for each segment you defined by clicking
extra points on the boundary. The number of segments is equal to the
number of points minus 1.
This option is only displayed if Fit Type is set to Surface.
Periodic
If checked, the tool builds a periodic (closed) collar surface.
This option is only displayed if Fit Type is set to Surface.
439
Mesh > Mesh Offset
Offsets meshes to produce STL-ready mesh objects.
This tool takes a mesh and produces a watertight STL mesh from it.
First it duplicates the original mesh, then creates a mesh offset, removes any
problem vertices, and finally joins the mesh offset to the original mesh’s duplicate
to produce an STL-ready mesh.
See Ofsetting meshes to produce STL-ready objects on
page 412.
Distance
Specifies the distance between the original mesh and the offsetted copy.
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Mesh > Mesh Stitch
Seals gaps between the boundaries of components in a mesh.
See Stitch seams between mesh components on page 427.
This tool works best to eliminate narrow gaps between boundaries. To fill larger
openings, use Mesh > Mesh Cleanup > Mesh Hole Fill.
Tolerance
This tolerance is used to determine which boundaries should be stitched
together. If two boundaries are further apart than this value at some point,
they will not get stitched together at that point.
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Mesh > Reverse Mesh Orientation
Reverses the direction of the normals on mesh components, or on the whole
mesh.
Some tools such as Mesh > Mesh Offset, require that all components of a mesh
have their normals pointing in the same direction.
To show mismatched normal directions
1
Click the Multi Color icon.
2
Click the small arrowhead to open the options section.
3
Turn on the Show Orientation option.
Check this box
Meshes’ components that have reversed normals will be shaded in yellow.
To reverse the direction of normals on a component
1
Choose Mesh > Reverse Mesh Orientation.
All meshes are shaded in blue and/or yellow. Blue indicates components that
have a normal pointing toward the camera, and yellow, away from the
camera.
Component to reverse normals on
2
Select the component that you wish to reverse.
3
Press the Reverse Component button.
The direction of the normals is reversed on the component. The shading
color changes.
442
4
Press Reverse Component again to undo the operation, or select another
component to reverse normals on.
To reverse the normal direction on the whole mesh, press the Reverse Mesh
button.
When reversing a component, we reverse the winding (that is the order) of
the vertices to cause the normal to change direction. When reversing the
whole mesh, we simply change the value of a flag (boolean value) and no
reverse winding is done.
443
Mesh > Mesh Positioning
Aligns a scanned source mesh (from some area of an object) to a destination
mesh (or surface) by specifying regions where the data matches on both.
See Align a source mesh to a destination mesh on page 431.
This is useful for updating a digital model based on scan data, after the physical
objects have been modified in some areas, and re-scanned.
Deviation Average/Standard Deviation/Deviation Maximum
Display fields showing deviation values between the source mesh and target
objects after alignment.
Transform Mode
Translate and Rotate: the source mesh can be both translated and rotated
during alignment.
Translate Only: the source mesh can be translated only.
Rotate Only: the source mesh can be rotated only.
Translate Direction
The source mesh is translated along the selected axes: X, Y and/or Z.
Rotational Axis
The source mesh is rotated along the selected axis (X, Y or Z), or along all
three axes (Free).
Show Deviation Map
Turn on this option to show the color-coded deviation map.
Calculate map over selected region
The color-coded deviation map is only calculated over the selected region(s)
on the mesh. The rest of the mesh is shaded in a uniform color.
Ramp Distance
Maximum distance between source mesh and targets shown on the color
ramp. Areas on the source mesh where the deviation is larger than this value
will be displayed in a solid color (red or purple).
Acceptable Distance
Upper limit for the acceptable deviation between source mesh and target(s).
Regions of the source mesh where the deviation is smaller than this value
will be colored in green.
Where the value of the deviation is between the Acceptable Distance and
the Ramp Distance, the surfaces display intermediate colors as shown on
the ramp.
The Acceptable Distance also affects the stopping criteria when matching
the source mesh to the destination.
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The Ramp Distance must be kept larger than the Acceptable Distance.
Absolute Value Ramp
Turn on this option if you are not concerned with the direction of the deviation
and simply want to view absolute deviation values.
Use Bands
Turn on this option if you want the ramp to display solid bands of color
instead of slowly varying colors.
Regular Ramp
Absolute Value
Ramp
Bands
Advanced Controls
Sample density
Choose how many sample points are used from the selected regions of the
source mesh.
Automatic: uses an internal number of samples.
By percentage: uses the Percentage of vertices value (below) to calculate
the number of samples.
Percentage of vertices
Percentage of the vertices from the selected regions of the source mesh that
are used in the calculation.
A smaller value will make the calculations faster.
This option only appears if Sample density is set to By percentage.
445
Increase overlap by sliding mesh
Choose High, Medium, or Low to specify the degree to which overhangs,
(that is, regions of the source mesh that extend past the destination) will be
included in the calculations.
If you select Do not change, only the overlapping surface regions are
sampled; overhangs are excluded.
In summary, High includes the most overhangs, while Do not change
includes the least.
Consider local features(+/-)
Choose High, Medium, or Low to specify the degree to which local features
(for example dips, or bumps) will be taken into account in the calculations
when positioning the source mesh.
A value of Low will help discard regions where the source mesh or
destination presents some dips or bumps that don’t have an equivalent on
the other.
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Mesh > Mesh Edge Reconstruct
Creates clean sharp edges over areas of high curvature in a mesh, or
reconstructs the edge where two meshes meet, or the edge where a mesh meet
one or more surfaces.
The edges on the mesh(es) are rebuilt as NURBS skin surfaces.
See Reconstruct edges on meshes on page 403.
Surface edge distance
Radius of the tube that defines the region where the surfaces will be built.
Sampling factor
This value multiplies the Sample edge distance to specify the maximum
distance from the outside of the tube that will be included in the calculations.
Ensure that this distance covers mostly flat regions, and doesn’t include
other sharp features.
Create Fillet
Turn on this option to build a fillet between the NURBS surfaces that meet
along the reconstructed edge.
Fillet Type
Constant Radius: builds a circular fillet of constant radius.
Chordal: builds a fillet with a constant distance between the two edges of the
fillet.
Fillet Radius
This option appears when Fillet Type is set to Constant Radius and lets you
set the radius of the fillet. This value must be smaller than the Surface Edge
Distance value.
Fillet Chordal Distance
This option appears when Fillet Type is set to Chordal and lets you set the
distance.
447
448
View palette
449
View > World Move camera > Tumble
Revolves the view. In general, it is more convenient to use the camera move
keys (Shift + Alt), however this tool lets you set certain options more precisely.
Tumble can be used only in a Perspective window. It does not apply to
orthographic views.
Tracking, dollying, and tumbling
The Track/dolly/tumble function combines all the World move camera functions into
one tool.
To use the Track/dolly/tumble tool, select it from the View > World move camera
cascading menu in the Tool Palette or click its icon.
Avoid clicking any objects or you will change the camera’s point of interest. If
you do not want to do so, it might be easier to select a point of interest
instead.
After selecting the tool, you can use modifier keys with the mouse. The following
list shows the modifier keys and related actions.
Modifier key
Action
none
Track
Ctrl
Tumble
Alt
Dolly
Shift
Pick
Ctrl-Alt
Look at
Ctrl-Shift-Alt
Reset view
When you are working on a large model, screen updates are faster if you
decrease Motion Precision in the Preferences > Performance options
window.
Options
Tumble Center
These options rotate the camera about the viewpoint of the perspective
camera or about any given world point.
View Center: to rotate the perspective camera about its viewpoint.
World Point: causes the view to rotate around the point in world space
specified by the World Point sliders (for example, 0, 0, 0).
450
Eye/View/Up
These sliders let you define a view by positioning the camera. The view is
determined by the Eye position, View point position and Up vector end point.
The nine fields that define these positions contain decimal numbers. They
represent, from left to right, the X, Y, and Z coordinates for each of the three
camera parameters. To see the camera as you modify it, use
WindowDisplay > Toggles > Cameras.
For orthographic windows, two of the three Eye and View values must be the
same, and two of the three Eye and Up values must be the same. If they are
all different or all the same, the results are unpredictable. This is because
viewing operations on orthographic windows are done on the window rather
than the camera.
Zoom
The Zoom slider also takes a decimal number which defines the extent of the
camera’s field of view. Values must be positive in the range of 0.2 to 179.
World Point
These sliders specify the position of the tumble center in world space.
451
View > World Move camera > Track
Slides the view horizontally or vertically. In general, it is more convenient to use
the camera move keys (Shift + Alt), however this tool lets you set certain options
more precisely.
Tracking, dollying, and tumbling
The Track/dolly/tumble function combines all the World move camera functions into
one tool.
To use the Track/dolly/tumble tool, select it from the View > World move camera
cascading menu in the Tool Palette or click its icon.
Avoid clicking any objects or you will change the camera’s point of interest. If
you do not want to do so, it might be easier to select a point of interest
instead.
After selecting the tool, you can use modifier keys with the mouse. The following
list shows the modifier keys and related actions.
Modifier key
Action
none
Track
Ctrl
Tumble
Alt
Dolly
Shift
Pick
Ctrl-Alt
Look at
Ctrl-Shift-Alt
Reset view
When you are working on a large model, screen updates are faster if you
decrease Motion Precision in the Preferences > Performance options
window.
Options
Eye/View/Up
These sliders let you define a view by positioning the camera. The view is
determined by the Eye position, View point position, and Up vector end point.
The nine fields for these options contain decimal numbers. They represent,
from left to right, the X, Y, and Z coordinates for each of the three camera
parameters. To see the camera as you modify it, use WindowDisplay >
Toggles > Cameras.
Zoom
The Zoom slider also takes a decimal number which defines the extent of the
camera’s field of view. Values must be positive in the range of 0.2 to 179.
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For orthographic windows, two of the three Eye and View values must be the
same, and two of the three Eye and Up values must be the same. If they are
all different or all the same, the results are unpredictable. This is because
viewing operations on orthographic windows are done on the window rather
than the camera of the window.
453
View > World Move camera > Dolly
Moves the view forward or backward. In general, it is more convenient to use the
camera move keys (Shift + Alt), however this tool lets you set certain options
more precisely.
The viewing parameters that are displayed are for the active (most recently
used) window.
Tracking, dollying, and tumbling
The Track/dolly/tumble function combines all the World move camera functions into
one tool.
To use the Track/dolly/tumble tool, select it from the View > World move camera
cascading menu in the Tool Palette or click its icon.
Avoid clicking any objects or you will change the camera’s point of interest. If
you do not want to do so, it might be easier to select a point of interest
instead.
After selecting the tool, you can use modifier keys with the mouse. The following
list shows the modifier keys and related actions.
Modifier key
Action
none
Track
Ctrl
Tumble
Alt
Dolly
Shift
Pick
Ctrl-Alt
Look at
Ctrl-Shift-Alt
Reset view
When you are working on a large model, screen updates are faster if you
decrease Motion Precision in the Preferences > Performance options
window.
Options
Eye/View/Up
These sliders let you define a view by moving the camera. The view is
determined by the Eye position, View point position and Up vector end point.
The nine fields that define these positions contain decimal numbers. They
represent, from left to right, the X, Y, and Z coordinates for each of the three
camera parameters. To see the camera as you modify it, use
WindowDisplay > Toggles > Cameras.
454
Zoom
The Zoom slider takes a decimal number which defines the extent of the
camera's field of view. Values must be positive in the range of 0.2 to 179.
For orthographic window, two of the three Eye and View values must be the
same, and two of the three Eye and Up values must be the same. If they are
all different or all the same, the results are unpredictable. This is because
viewing operations on orthographic windows are done on the window rather
than the camera of the window.
Perspective Gain
To increase or decrease the rate of dollying or tracking when working with a
very large or very small view.
Perspective Gain and Zoom values are used only in perspective views.
Zoom gives a zoom effect by changing the field of view of the camera.
This option can be useful
to help detect curvature
variations that are not
noticeable at normal
scale.
Scaling
Proportional: corresponds to the conventional dolly operations (the default).
Non Proportional: to scale the Top, , and window views independently along
the horizontal and vertical axes, in orthographic windows only.
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View > World Move camera > Track/dolly/tumble
Lets you track, dolly, and tumble using different mouse buttons. We recommend
you use the camera move keys (Shift + Alt) instead of this tool.
See Tumble, track, dolly, and tilt the view on page 103.
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View > Local Move camera > Twist
Turns the perspective view in the viewing plane as if you were watching the
scene while tilting your head to the side.
See Tumble, track, dolly, and tilt the view on page 103.
Twist can be used only in a Perspective window. It is always relative to the
current position.
Eye/View/Up
These sliders let you define a view by moving the camera.
The view is determined by the Eye position, View point position and Up
vector end point. The nine fields that define these positions contain decimal
numbers. They represent, from left to right, the X, Y, and Z coordinates for
each of the three camera parameters.
To see the camera as you modify it, use WindowDisplay > Toggles >
Cameras.
For orthographic windows, two of the three Eye and View values must be the
same, and two of the three Eye and Up values must be the same. If they are
all different or all the same, the results are unpredictable. This is because
viewing in orthographic windows is done on the window rather than on a
camera.
Zoom
The Zoom slider also takes a decimal number that defines the extent of the
camera’s field of view in degrees. Values must be positive in the range of 0.2
to 179.
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View > Local Move camera > Azimuth/elevation
Revolves the camera about the center of interest in the perspective view.
Azimuth/elevation can be used only in a Perspective window.
To revolve the view around a center of interest
Revolves the camera about the center of interest in the perspective view.
Azimuth refers to a horizontal angle from a reference point, while elevation refers
to a vertical angle. The reference point for this tool is the current aim of the
camera.
1
2
Azimuth/elevation can be used only in a Perspective window.
Place the cursor in the perspective window and click a mouse button to make
the window active.
In the Tool Palette, select Azimuth/elevation from the View > Local move
camera cascading menu or click its icon.
As the cursor moves, the view rotates about the center of interest (initially the
origin).
>
●
Use the mouse
To rotate horizontally, click and drag the middle mouse button.
●
To rotate vertically, click and drag the right mouse button.
●
To rotate the view both horizontally and vertically, click and drag the left
mouse button.
Release the mouse button when the desired angle is reached.
The view rotates about the center of interest, which is the viewpoint of the
perspective camera. To set the camera’s viewpoint select WindowDisplay >
Toggles > Cameras to display the perspective window camera. When you can
see the camera, the viewpoint can be picked using Pick > Component, and then
positioned by selecting Transform > Move.
To identify a particular point as the center of interest, move the camera’s view
icon so that the target end is at that point of interest. Subsequent manipulation of
the camera with Azimuth/elevation now keeps that point in the center of the view.
With a large model, screen updates caused by moving the camera are faster
if you decrease Motion Precision in the Preferences > Performance
options window.
>
Use cursor keys
You can use the four cursor keys (arrows pointing up, down, left, and right on the
keyboard) to rotate incrementally. The amount moved depends on the Arrow key
step size set in the Input section of the General Preferences option box
(Preferences > General Preferences ❒).
458
Pressing an arrow key once
moves the cursor one pixel
in the corresponding
direction, by default.
●
To rotate the view horizontally about the up point of the camera (azimuth),
press either the left or right arrows.
●
To rotate the view vertically (elevation), press either the up or down arrow.
>
Use the keyboard
You can type the azimuth and elevation angles from the keyboard when the
system prompts:
Enter azimuth and elevation angles (REL):
Type the angle and press Enter.
●
A positive azimuth moves the camera around to the left.
●
A positive elevation moves the camera up under the scene.
Options
Eye/View/Up
These sliders let you define a view by moving the camera.
The view is determined by the Eye position, View point position and Up
vector end point. The nine fields that define these positions contain decimal
numbers. They represent, from left to right, the X, Y, and Z coordinates for
each of the three camera parameters.
To see the camera as you modify it, use WindowDisplay > Toggles >
Cameras.
For orthographic windows, two of the three Eye and View values must be the
same, and two of the three Eye and Up values must be the same. If they are
all different or all the same, the results are unpredictable. This is because
viewing in orthographic windows is done on the window rather than on a
camera.
Zoom
●
The Zoom slider takes a decimal number which defines the extent of the
camera's field of view. Values must be positive in the range of 0.2 to 179
degrees.
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View > Local Move camera > Yaw/pitch
Changes yaw (horizontal rotation) and pitch (vertical rotation) of the camera.
Yaw/pitch can be used only in a Perspective window. It does not apply to
orthographic windows. Yaw/pitch is always relative to the current position.
Change the viewpoint of the camera
Changes the viewpoint of the camera (i.e. what the camera is looking at) in a
perspective view. To yaw is to rotate horizontally, that is to the left or right. To
pitch is to rotate vertically, that is to plunge or rise.
Yaw/pitch can be used only in a Perspective window. It does not apply to
orthographic windows. Yaw/pitch is always relative to the current position.
1
Place the cursor in the perspective window and click a mouse button to make
the window active.
2
In the Tool Palette, select Yaw/pitch from the View > Local move camera
cascading menu or click its icon.
3
Click the left mouse button and drag. As the cursor is moved, the camera’s
view changes, that is the view and up points change, while the eyepoint
remains fixed.
>
Use the mouse
To rotate the view...
Click and drag this
mouse button...
horizontally
middle
vertically
right
horizontally and vertically
left
With a large model, screen updates caused by moving the camera are faster
if you decrease Motion Precision in the Preferences > Performance
options window.
>
Use cursor keys
You can use the four arrow cursor keys (arrows pointing up, down, left, and right
on the keyboard) to rotate the viewpoint incrementally. The amount moved
depends on the Arrow key step size set in the Input section of Preferences >
General Preferences ❑. The default is one pixel.
●
To rotate the viewpoint left or right (yaw), press the left or right arrow key.
●
To rotate the view and up points (pitch), press the up or down arrow key.
Be careful to keep the cursor in the window when using the cursor keys.
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>
Use the keyboard
You can type the yaw and pitch angles from the keyboard when the system
prompts:
Enter yaw and pitch angles (REL):
Type the angles separated by a space or comma, and press Enter.
Options
Eye/View/Up
These sliders let you define a view by moving the camera.
The view is determined by the Eye position, View point position and Up
vector end point. The nine fields that define these positions contain decimal
numbers. They represent, from left to right, the X, Y, and Z coordinates for
each of the three camera parameters.
To see the camera as you modify it, use WindowDisplay > Toggles >
Cameras.
For orthographic windows, two of the three Eye and View values must be the
same, and two of the three Eye and Up values must be the same. If they are
all different or all the same, the results are unpredictable. This is because
viewing in orthographic windows is done on the window rather than on a
camera.
Zoom
The Zoom slider also takes a decimal number which defines the extent of the
camera’s field of view. Values must be positive in the range of 0.2 to 179
degrees.
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View > Zoom
To zoom in or out in the perspective view by changing the camera field of view.
Zoom operates like changing the lens on a camera. A value smaller than the
default is like using a telephoto lens, whereas a value larger than the default
provides a wide angle lens effect.
Zoom does not apply to an orthographic view.
To zoom in or out
1
Click in the Perspective window to make it active.
2
In the Tool Palette, select Zoom from the View menu or click its icon.
3
Click a mouse button.
To use the mouse
●
To create a smaller field of view, click and drag the left mouse button to
zoom in.
●
To create a larger field of view, click and drag the right mouse button to
zoom out.
●
To increase or decrease the angle of view, click the middle mouse button.
Dragging up or to the right increases it, and dragging down or to the left
decreases it.
When working with a large model, the speed at which the screen is redrawn
during a Zoom operation can be increased by decreasing the Motion
Precision in the Preferences > Performance options window.
To use the keyboard
You can type the angle of view from the keyboard when the system prompts:
Enter angle of view (ABS):
The values are between 0.2 and 179. Type the angle (preceded by the letter r if
you want a relative angle) and press Enter.
Options
Eye/View/Up
You can use these sliders to define a view by positioning the camera. The
view is determined by the eye position, view point position and up vector end
point. These nine fields contain decimal numbers. They represent, from left
to right, the X, Y, and Z coordinates for each of the three camera parameters.
To see the camera as you modify it, use WindowDisplay > Toggles >
Cameras.
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Zoom
The Zoom slider also takes a decimal number which defines the angle of the
camera’s field of view.Values must be positive in the range of 0.2 to 179.
For windows other than the Perspective window (orthographic), two of the
three Eye and View values must be the same, and two of the three Eye and
Up values must be the same. If they are all different, or are all the same, the
results are unpredictable. This is because viewing operations on
orthographic windows affect the window rather than the window’s camera.
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View > Look at
Automatically centers the view on the picked objects, including construction
planes.
See Center the view on specific objects on page 104.
Fit to View
If Fit to View is ON, using Look at also dollies in on the object as it is
centered in the window. By default, Fit to View is ON.
◆
◆
When Fit to View is ON, using Look at in the Perspective window moves
the perspective camera.
When Fit to View is OFF, using Look at changes the view point but not
the eye point.
Exclude Lights
If you use Look at when nothing is picked, the camera includes all objects in
the view. If Exclude Lights is ON, lights and textures are excluded.
Include Symmetric Objects
If this option is ON (default), Look at takes into account the symmetric
instances of objects (on layers with symmetry planes) when determining a
new camera position.
When a construction plane is selected in the Perspective window, the Look at
tool orients the view flush to the plane (i.e. the view vector becomes
perpendicular to the plane).
464
View > Previous View
Changes to the previous camera position (undoes the last camera move). Click
this tool again to return to the current view.
See Change your view of a canvas plane on page 47.
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View > Reset view
Resets a window to its default view.
See Tumble, track, dolly, and tilt the view on page 103.
See Change your view of a canvas plane on page 47.
In AliasStudio for Windows, you can specify the resolution of the display as well;
this is useful for sketching.
To reset your view
1
Change the view in all or any window using one of the View functions, or use
the icons in the title bar.
2
In the Tool Palette, select Reset view from the View menu or click its icon.
3
Position the cursor in the desired window and click a mouse button.
The view is reset, including the clipping planes.
Resetting a window does not change the physical size of the window, but
resets the view inside that window.
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View > Toggle Stereo
Enables stereo viewing in AliasStudio.
When used in conjunction with a graphics card that supports stereo viewing and
Stereo View set ON in the Digital Properties section of the Camera Editor,
Toggle Stereo turns the stereo display on and off.
Stereo viewing capability must be turned on through the graphics card in
order to make this tool available.
467
View > New Camera
Creates a new camera in the scene.
A new copy of the camera is made, which can be modified independently of the
original camera.
See Work with camera objects on page 110.
See Open the Camera Editor on page 115.
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View > Adjust clipping plane
Lets you change how close and how far away objects are drawn.
To improve performance and visibility as you work, AliasStudio does not draw
objects that are very far away or very close in the view windows. This tool lets
you adjust these distances.
Do any of the following:
●
Drag the left mouse button to adjust the near clipping plane.
●
In a perspective window, you can drag the middle mouse button to adjust
the focus
●
Drag the right mouse button to adjust the far clipping plane.
●
Type two (in orthographic windows) or three (in a perspective window)
numbers to set the distances exactly.
●
Sets the positions of the clipping planes and adjusts the focal plane for the
camera associated with a modeling window.
Clipping planes are used to cut off display of the scene at a certain distance from
the camera. Objects are not visible outside the volume defined by the near plane
and the far plane.
.The focal plane is the plane where objects are in focus when the scene is
rendered. The focal plane can be adjusted only for a perspective camera.
Clipping planes are not used in RayTracing.
To set the clipping planes for a camera
From the Tool Palette, select View > Adjust clipping plane or click its icon.
To set the clipping planes for a camera, the camera’s window must be active
(indicated by a white border).
One of these prompts is displayed, depending on which window is active:
Enter TOP window clipping plane positions (near [LEFT BUTTON], far
[RIGHT BUTTON]): (99.8, -100.0)
Enter [FRONT|SIDE] window clipping plane positions (near [LEFT
BUTTON], far [RIGHT BUTTON]): (-99.8, 100.0)
Enter [RIGHT|BACK] window clipping plane positions (near [LEFT
BUTTON], far [RIGHT BUTTON]): (99.8, -100.0)
Enter PERSP plane positions (near [LEFT], focus [MIDDLE], far
[RIGHT]): (0.2, 18.4, 200.0)
>
For an orthographic window
When setting planes for an orthographic window, you must specify where you
want the near and far planes by clicking in a different orthographic window:
1
Click one of the mouse buttons and move to the new position that you selected
for the plane.
The position of the clipping plane is indicated by a line. When you click and
drag the mouse button, the line is labeled either NEAR or FAR. The line for
the NEAR plane is solid and the line for the FAR plane is dashed.
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2
>
To turn off the display of clipping planes, select another menu item.
For the perspective window
You can set the perspective clipping planes by typing the values for the NEAR,
FAR, or FOCAL positions. (FOCAL is the focal length of the camera in the
perspective window.) Alternatively, you can set the clipping and focal planes by
clicking the appropriate button in any window and dragging.
To see how this looks:
470
1
From the menus, select WindowDisplay > Toggles > Cameras ❒.
2
Set the Frustum Display option to Full.
3
Dolly in or out in any orthographic window to see the perspective camera’s
near, focal, and far frustum planes.
View > View 1:1 > Calibrate 1:1
Lets you set an orthographic view so that your model shows up at true scale
(1:1).
True scale (or 1:1 scale) means that a 10 centimeter long object will appear as 10
centimeters long when measured on the screen with a measuring tape.
See View > View 1:1 > Toggle 1:1
See also View models at a 1:1 scale.
To calibrate the view to be 1:1
1
Choose View > View 1:1 > Calibrate 1:1 - ❑
The option box opens, and a distance measurement (red line) appears in the
current orthographic window.
This will also work in the Perspective window if Perspective is turned off in
the Viewing Panel, and one of the preset orthographic views (horizontal or
vertical arrows) is clicked in the Viewing Panel. (See Use the view
panel (page 106)).
2
Dolly in/out if necessary to have the distance measurement fill up most of your
window.
3
Use a real ruler or measuring tape to measure the true length of the distance
measurement on the screen.
4
Enter this value as the Displayed Length in the option box.
5
Press the Calibrate button in the option box.
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Options
Reference Length
The world space length (in current linear units) of the distance measurement
as it first appears on your screen. Choose between 1, 10, 100 or User
defined, to adjust this value.
User Defined Length
If Reference Length is set to User defined, this field allows you to enter any
value for the length of the initial distance measurement.
Displayed Length
True length of the distance measurement as measured on the screen with a
measuring tape or ruler.
472
View > View 1:1 > Toggle 1:1
Let’s you view your model at true scale (1:1) in an orthographic window, after
calibrating the view.
See View > View 1:1 > Calibrate 1:1
See also View models at a 1:1 scale.
To switch to the 1:1 view
1
Choose View > View 1:1 > Toggle 1:1 to set and lock your view to true scale.
A 1:1 label appears in the window title bar to indicate that you are in true
scale mode.
Dollying in or out of the view is not be possible while in a true scale view.
2
Choose View > View 1:1 > Toggle 1:1 again to toggle back to regular viewing
mode.
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474
Construction palette
475
Construction > Point
Lets you create reference points for convenient snapping to 3D points, or for use
as input to tools that require a point.
Reference points mark a 3D point in the scene. They are useful as placeholders
for coordinates you want to remember or snap to, and as input to tools that
require a 3D point.
Options
Show Name
Show the name of the point next to it in the view window. This options is off
by default.
476
Construction > Vector
Lets you create reference vectors for use as input to tools that require a point or
vector.
See Align curves and surfaces with continuity on page 288.
See Pull surfaces from curves of an existing surface on
page 167.
See Create or edit a reference vector on page 178.
See Shade a surface with its draft angles on page 364.
Reference vectors mark a starting point and direction. They are useful as input to
tools that require a direction (such as the pull direction in tools measuring draft
angles).
Options
Show Name
Show the name of the vector next to it in the view window. This options is off
by default.
477
Construction > Plane
Creates a reference plane. You can set the construction plane from reference
planes, or use them as input to tools that require a plane.
See See Create or edit a reference plane on page 179.
Reference planes and construction planes
The following tools are used to create a general-purpose plane which can be
used as a reference plane or a construction plane:
◆
◆
◆
Construction > Plane
Construction > Set Construction Plane
Construction > Toggle Construction Plane
A reference plane can be used with certain tools, including the Curve Edit >
Curve planarize tool, Curve Edit > Curve section tool, and the Cross-Sections
button in the Control Panel.
A construction plane allows you to temporarily use a separate coordinate system
that can be arbitrarily oriented with respect to the world space coordinate system.
You can easily convert a reference plane to a construction plane and vice versa.
>
Overview of construction planes
Tools in AliasStudio place objects in an XYZ coordinate system. Normally this is
the world space coordinate system, the absolute frame of reference for the
universe of your scene.
However, there will be times when you need to align objects in a specific context,
where the orientation, position and rotation are different from those of the world
space axes and origin.
In these cases, construction planes let you create and work in an alternative
coordinate system that can be displaced and rotated from the world space
coordinate system.
You can create construction planes that you position and rotate in relation to the
world space coordinate system. These are useful when you are modeling objects
that must have an absolute orientation that is not aligned with a major axis.
You can also create construction planes that you position and rotate in relation to
a curve or surface. These are very powerful tools, and are useful in a wide variety
of modeling contexts.
There can only be one construction plane in a scene (that is, the current
construction plane). All other planes are referred to as reference planes. You can
convert a reference plane to a construction plane (and vice versa) at any time.
You can also use reference planes with certain tools (Curve Planarize tool, Curve
Section tool, and the Cross-Sections button in the Control Panel).
>
Example
For example, consider the curve below. We want to create a surface
perpendicular to the curve at its end.
478
In world space this would be difficult: we would have to draw construction curves
for the new surface, then try to rotate the construction curves to be perpendicular
to the tangent at the end of the curve.
With construction planes, the task is much easier. With curve snapping curve on,
we snap the new construction plane to the curve and slide it to the end.
Now we can draw the curves for the new surface much more easily. The grid is
perpendicular to the end of the original curve, and the origin of the new
coordinate system is the original curve’s endpoint.
Finally we use the Toggle Construction Plane tool to return to the world space
coordinate system. The new construction curve is exactly perpendicular to the
endpoint of the original curve. Now we can use Set planar or other surface
building tool.
>
Construction planes and the Perspective window
When a construction plane is active, placement in the perspective window is
constrained to the construction plane. This includes:
●
Drawing curves.
●
Creating primitive objects.
●
Moving objects.
To create a reference plane or construction plane
1
Click the Plane icon, or choose Construction > Plane from the Palette.
2
Click in a view window to place the origin of the plane.
◆
◆
Click in empty space or type a 3D coordinate to place the plane origin
exactly.
Click a curve to constrain the plane origin to the curve.
479
◆
◆
◆
3
To set the orientation of the plane do one of the following:
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
4
Click an isoparametric curve on a surface to constrain the plane origin to
the surface.
Click a reference point to use it as the plane origin.
Click a reference vector to align the plane with it.
Click in a view window or type a 3D coordinate to set the plane’s Z-axis
direction, and then click again in a view window to set another point on
the plane.
Click Accept Points and use the manipulator handles to move, rotate,
and size the plane.
Click a reference point to set the plane’s Z-axis direction, and then click
in a view window to set another point on the plane.
Click a curve to constrain the plane’s Z-axis to the curve, and then click
in a view window to set another point on the plane.
Click an isoparametric curve on a surface to constrain the plane’s Z-axis
to the surface, and then click in a view window to set another point on the
plane.
If you constrained the plane origin to a curve or surface, the plane will be
tangent to the curve/surface.
If you constrained the plane origin to a curve or surface, you can click
Surf./Free to toggle the manipulator orientation from worldspace (Free) to
curve/surface parameter space (Surf.).
To accept the current orientation of the plane, click Accept Points.
To create a reference plane, click Next Plane.
To create a construction plane, click Set Construction Plane.
There can only be one construction plane in a scene. If you create a
construction plane and there is already a construction plane in the scene, the
existing construction plane will become a reference plane.
To use the plane manipulator
Click an arrow to move
the plane along an axis
Click a sphere or an arc to
rotate the plane around an axis
Click a square to scale
the plane
Click the center handle
to move or rotate the
plane freely
Click a dotted axis line
to reflect the plane
480
Click a box to flip
the plane
Click a handle to select it (the handle becomes white), then either:
◆
◆
◆
>
●
Drag the handle to move/rotate/scale the plane. (See details below.)
Type exact values on the keyboard.
Click on geometry or the grid, while using a snap mode, to snap the
manipulator’s axes to a specific position or orientation.
Interactive manipulation
Drag an arrow handle to move the plane along an axis.
●
Drag a dotted arc to rotate the plane around the axis with the same color (the
axis perpendicular to the arc).
●
Drag a square handle to scale the plane along the axis that has the same
color as the square.
●
Click an arrow handle to change the center handle to the free move handle.
Then drag the center handle to move the plane freely.
●
Click a sphere or arc handle to change the center handle to the free rotate
handle. Then drag the center handle to rotate the plane freely around all
three axes (or around the normal for a plane constrained to a surface).
●
Click one of the rectangular boxes to flip the plane to one of the two
perpendicular orientations.
●
Click a dotted axis line to reflect the plane across the X, Y, or Z axes.
481
●
Use Edit > Undo to undo changes to the manipulator.
To edit the current reference/construction plane
1
Select a reference/construction plane.
2
Click the Construction > Plane tool.
If you created the plane by specifying three points, then the three points are
displayed for the selected plane. You can adjust the position of each point by
dragging it.
If you created the plane using the manipulator, then the manipulator
reappears on the selected plane. The coordinate system is toggled back to
world space.
You can also select the Plane tool first, then select the plane you want to
edit.
Open the Information window (Windows > Information > Information
window) to see detailed information as you manipulate the plane.
To choose a construction plane
●
To toggle between a construction plane and the world space coordinate
system, choose Construction > Toggle Construction Plane.
●
To set a construction plane, pick a reference plane, then choose
Construction > Set Construction Plane.
To hide or show reference/construction planes
●
Select WindowDisplay > Toggles > Construction Objects.
To delete a reference/construction plane
1
Pick only the reference/construction plane.
2
Press the Delete key, or choose Delete > Delete active from the menus.
Mouse buttons in construction planes
You can choose between the following mouse behaviors when using Transform
> Move in a perspective window with an active construction plane:
●
Three dimensional (default):
◆
◆
◆
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left mouse button moves along plane’s X
middle mouse button moves along plane’s Y
right mouse button moves along plane’s Z
or
●
Planar:
◆
◆
◆
left mouse button moves freely across plane’s X and Y
middle mouse button moves along plane’s X
right mouse button moves along plane’s Y
To change between the two control schemes, choose Preferences > General
Preferences ❒, go to the Input section, and set the Mouse mapping for
perspective move: On construction plane option.
Tips
You can easily snap to a curve that intersects a construction plane, and position
the snap point either anywhere along the curve, or precisely at the point where
the curve and plane intersect. When you drag the snap point close to the
construction plane, a yellow cross appears on the plane indicating that the snap
point is precisely at the intersection point.
Options
Show Name
Show the name of the plane next to it in the view window. This option is on by
default.
483
Construction > Set Construction Plane
Makes the picked reference plane the construction plane.
See Construction > Plane.
See Create or edit a reference plane (page 179).
484
Construction > Toggle Construction Plane
Switches between the construction plane and the world axes.
See Construction > Plane.
See Create or edit a reference plane (page 179).
485
Construction > Grid preset
Controls the preset (startup) grid size and options.
See Show, hide, or change the grid on page 123.
See Show or hide the grid in display windows on page 123.
Grid preset Options
Windows
Choose whether the grid spacing will change in All windows or only the
Current window.
Grid Spacing
The distance, in the current linear units, between grid lines.
Subdivisions
The number of subdivisions between grid lines. The subdivision lines are
lighter than the normal grid lines, but you can still snap to them using grid
snapping.
For example, if you set the grid spacing to 1.0, and the number of
subdivisions to 4, AliasStudio will show grid subdivisions at 0.25, 0.5, 0.75,
1.25, and so on.
Labels
Label the grid and subdivision lines with their unit values.
The labels only appear in the orthographic windows.
1.0 2.0 3.0
Perspective Grid Extent
The size of the grid in the perspective window, in current linear units. Type a
value from 1 to 1000000.
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Corner Perspective Gnomon
Show the gnomon in the corner of the perspective window.
The gnomon is the small indicator which floats in the corner of view windows.
It has colored arrows to show the orientation of the axes and a grey arrow
pointing to the origin.
487
488
Locators palette
489
Locators > Move locator
Lets you pick and edit locators (label and measurement objects).
See Difference between meshes and polysets on page 44.
See Create a label on page 381.
See Create linear or angular measurements on page 381.
See Create radial measurements on page 382.
See Edit a label or measurement object on page 383.
490
Locators > Annotate
Adds a label with a leader to a point.
See Difference between meshes and polysets on page 44.
See Create a label on page 381.
491
Locators > Measure > Distance
Adds a locator that show the distance between two points.
See Difference between meshes and polysets on page 44.
See Create linear or angular measurements on page 381.
See Printing images fundamentals on page 238.
Add linear measurements
Add locators that show the distance between two points.
To measure the distance between two points or locators
1
Click the Distance icon, or chooseMeasure > Distance from the Locators
palette menu.
2
Click a locator for the start point, or
◆
◆
◆
◆
3
Click in empty space to add a world space locator, or type 3D
coordinates to place the locator exactly.
Click a curve to add a curve locator.
Click an isoparametric curve on a surface to add a surface locator.
Click a mesh to add a space locator attached to the mesh.
Click a locator for the end point, or click to create a new locator as in step 2.
If you are using an existing locator:
Click the left mouse button to measure the diagonal distance between
the locators.
◆
Click the middle mouse button to measure the horizontal distance
between the locators.
◆
Click the right mouse button to measure the vertical distance between
the locators.
If you are creating a new locator:
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
4
Click the left mouse button to place the end locator freely.
Click the middle mouse button to place the end locator horizontal to the
start point
Click the right mouse button to place the end locator vertical to the start
point.
If you want to measure horizontal or vertical distance on an existing
distance locator, change the Display parameter in the Information
window.
You can edit the parameters of the locator in the Information Window.
The points of a distance locator are displayed as crosses only when the
Distance tool or the Move locator tool is active.
492
To edit a linear locator
1
Choose Windows > Information > Information window to open the
Information Window.
2
Click the Move locator icon, or choose Move locator from the Locator palette
menu.
3
Click the locator you want to edit.
◆
◆
Drag the label to change the length of the measurement leaders.
Use the options in the Information Window to edit the object.
Tips and notes
●
The measurements are updated when you move or modify the objects or
locators that the measurements are attached to.
Options
True
The true measurement in 3D world space (such as seen in the Perspective
window).
Projected
The measurement reports the distance/angle as it appears in the window in
which the measurement was created.
493
Locators > Measure > Angle
Adds a locator that show the angle between three points.
See Difference between meshes and polysets on page 44.
See Create linear or angular measurements on page 381.
Add angular measurements
Add locators that show the angle between three points.
To measure the angle between three points or locators
1
Click the Angle icon, or choose Measure > Angle from the Locators palette
menu.
2
Click a locator for the endpoint of the first arm, or:
◆
◆
◆
◆
3
Click a locator for the vertex of the angle, or click to create a new locator as in
step 2.
◆
◆
4
Click the middle mouse button to place the end point horizontal to the
start point
Click the right mouse button to place the end point vertical to the start
point.
Click an existing locator for the end point of the second arm, or click to create a
new locator as in step 2.
◆
◆
5
Click in empty space to add a world space locator, or type 3D
coordinates to place the locator exactly.
Click a curve to add a curve locator.
Click an isoparametric curve on a surface to add a surface locator.
Click a mesh to add a space locator attached to the mesh.
Click the middle mouse button to place the end point horizontal to the
start point
Click the right mouse button to place the end point vertical to the start
point.
The new locator appears. Pick and drag the label to change the length of the
measurement leaders (see below).
The points of an angle locator are displayed as crosses only when the Angle
tool or the Move locator tool is active.
To edit an angular locator
1
Choose Windows > Information > Information window to open the
Information Window.
2
Click the Move locator icon, or choose Move locator from the Locator palette
menu.
3
Click the locator you want to edit.
◆
494
Drag the label to change the length of the measurement leaders.
◆
Use the options in the Information Window to edit the object.
Tips and notes
●
The measurements are updated when you move or modify the objects or
locators that the measurements are attached to.
●
You can extend an angle measurement beyond the locators. The
measurement draws extension lines connecting itself to the original locators.
Options
True
The true measurement in 3D world space (such as seen in the Perspective
window).
Projected
The measurement reports the distance/angle as it appears in the window in
which the measurement was created.
495
Locators > Measure > Radius
Adds a radius or diameter measurement to a curve.
See Create radial measurements on page 382.
Add radial measurements
To measure the radius of a curve or arc
1
Click the Radius icon, or choose Measure > Radius from the Locators palette
menu.
2
Click the curve you want to measure. You can move the new measurement
while the mouse button is down. When you release the mouse button, the
measurement is attached to the curve.
3
The new locator appears.
A point (cross) indicates the center of the radius (that is, the center of a circle
having the same radius as the curve at the position of the locator).
◆
◆
◆
Drag the arrow head to move the measurement along the curve.
Drag the text or leader line to change the length of the leader.
Hold Shift and click off the measurement with the middle mouse button
to toggle display of the center of the circle/center of curvature.
To measure the diameter of a circle
1
Click the Diameter icon, or choose Measure > Diameter from the Locators
palette menu.
2
Click the circle you want to measure. You can move the new measurement
while the mouse button is down. When you release the mouse button, the
measurement is attached to the circle.
3
The new locator appears.
◆
◆
◆
◆
Drag the arrow head to move the measurement along the curve.
Click the middle mouse button to align the measurement horizontally.
Click the right mouse button to align the measurement vertically.
Click and drag the text or dimension line to change the length of the
leader.
Hold Shift and click off the measurement with the middle mouse button
to toggle to a different display that shows the center of the circle.
To edit a radial locator
1
Choose Windows > Information > Information window to open the
Information window.
2
Click the Move locator icon, or choose Move locator from the Locator palette
menu.
3
Click the locator you want to edit.
◆
◆
◆
496
Drag the arrow head to move the measurement along the curve.
Drag the text or leader line to change the length of the leader.
Hold Shift and click off the measurement with the middle mouse button
to toggle display of the center of the circle (or center of curvature).
◆
Use the options in the Information Window to edit the object.
Tips and notes
The measurements automatically update when you move or modify the
objects/locators the measurements are attached to.
●
●
You cannot add a radius measure to a straight line.
●
You can add more than one radius locator to a curve or arc.
●
When the “center of curvature” of a measurement is displayed (Shift-click off
the measurement with the middle mouse button), you can snap to the
centerpoint using Magnet snapping.
●
Using the Radius or Diameter tools on a non-rational circle will show that the
circle is not perfectly round. For perfectly round circles, you must use rational
geometry.
●
You can get a continuous comb of radius values along a curve using the Plot
Value > Radius option of the Curve curvature tool.
497
Locators > Measure > Diameter
Adds a radius or diameter measurement to a curve.
See Create radial measurements on page 382.
Determine the diameter measurements
To measure the diameter of a circle
1
Click the Diameter icon, or choose Measure > Diameter from the Locators
palette menu.
2
Click the circle you want to measure. You can move the new measurement
while the mouse button is down. When you release the mouse button, the
measurement is attached to the circle.
3
The new locator appears.
◆
◆
◆
◆
Drag the arrow head to move the measurement along the curve.
Click the middle mouse button to align the measurement horizontally.
Click the right mouse button to align the measurement vertically.
Click and drag the text or dimension line to change the length of the
leader.
Hold Shift and click off the measurement with the middle mouse button
to toggle to a different display that shows the center of the circle.
To edit a radial locator
1
Choose Windows > Information > Information window to open the
Information window.
2
Click the Move locator icon, or choose Move locator from the Locator palette
menu.
3
Click the locator you want to edit.
◆
◆
◆
◆
Drag the arrow head to move the measurement along the curve.
Drag the text or leader line to change the length of the leader.
Hold Shift and click off the measurement with the middle mouse button
to toggle display of the center of the circle (or center of curvature).
Use the options in the Information Window to edit the object.
Tips and notes
The measurements automatically update when you move or modify the
objects/locators the measurements are attached to.
●
498
●
You cannot add a radius measure to a straight line.
●
You can add more than one radius locator to a curve or arc.
●
When the “center of curvature” of a measurement is displayed (Shift-click off
the measurement with the middle mouse button), you can snap to the
centerpoint using Magnet snapping.
●
Using the Radius or Diameter tools on a non-rational circle will show that the
circle is not perfectly round. For perfectly round circles, you must use rational
geometry.
●
You can get a continuous comb of radius values along a curve using the Plot
Value > Radius option of the Curve curvature tool.
Locators > Measure > Arc length
Measures the true length of a curve.
See Measure the length of a curve on page 383.
499
Locators > Deviation > Closest Point
Adds a locator showing the true distance between the locator and the closest
point on a curve, surface, or mesh.
See Difference between meshes and polysets on page 44.
See Create linear or angular measurements on page 381.
Length
True: the locator indicates the true distance from the locator to the closest
point on a 3D curve, surface, or mesh in all windows.
Projected: the locator indicates the true distance from the locator to the
closest point on a 3D curve, surface, or mesh in perspective windows and
the distance from the locator to the closest point on the planar version of the
curve, surface, or mesh in each orthographic window.
500
Locators > Deviation > MinMax Curve-Curve deviation
Adds a measurement showing the minimum and maximum deviation between
two curves.
This tool creates a locator showing the deviation between the two objects,
labeling the minimum, maximum, mean, and displaying a deviation comb
indicating the deviation across the length of the objects.
Objects in reference layers can be selected from within this tool.
To add a deviation comb between two curves
1
Click the MinMax Curve-Curve deviation icon from the Locators tool palette,
or choose Deviation > MinMax Curve-Curve deviation from the Locators
palette menu.
2
Click the first curve, then click the second curve.
The curves can be free curves, isoparametric curves, trim edges, or curves
on surface.
3
The new deviation comb appears.
◆
◆
◆
Drag the comb with the left mouse button to change the scale of the
quills.
Drag the comb with the middle mouse button to change the sampling
density of the quills.
Click and drag a label to move it.
Options
True
The true measurement in 3D world space (such as seen in the Perspective
window).
Projected
The measurement reports the deviation as it appears in the window in which
the measurement was created.
Show Min. / Show Max. / Show Mean / Show Comb
Check/uncheck the boxes to turn the different labels and comb on or off.
The labels can also be toggled on/off from the Information Window.
501
Locators > Deviation > MinMax Surface-Surface deviation
Adds a measurement showing the minimum and maximum deviation between
two surfaces.
This tool creates a locator showing the deviation between the two objects,
labeling the minimum, maximum, mean, and displaying a deviation comb
indicating the deviation across the length of the objects.
Objects in reference layers can be selected from within this tool.
To add a deviation comb between two surfaces
1
Click the MinMax Surface-Surface deviation icon, or choose Deviation
> MinMax Surface-Surface deviation from the Locators palette menu.
2
Click the first surface, then click the second surface.
3
The new deviation comb appears.
◆
◆
◆
Drag the comb with the left mouse button to change the scale of the
quills.
Drag the comb with the middle mouse button to change the sampling
density of the quills.
Click and drag a label to move it.
Options
Show Min. / Show Max. / Show Mean / Show Comb
Check/uncheck the boxes to turn the different labels and comb on or off.
The labels can also be toggled on/off from the Information Window.
502
Locators > Deviation > MinMax Curve-Surface deviation
Adds a measurement showing the minimum and maximum deviation between a
curve and a surface.
This tool creates a locator showing the deviation between the two objects,
labeling the minimum, maximum, mean, and displaying a deviation comb
indicating the deviation across the length of the objects.
Objects in reference layers can be selected from within this tool.
To add a deviation comb between a curve and a surface
1
Click the MinMax Curve-Surface deviation icon, or choose Deviation
> MinMax Curve-Surface deviation from the Locators palette menu.
2
Click the curve, then click the surface.
The curve can be a free curve, isoparametric curve, trim edge, or curve on
surface.
3
The new deviation comb appears.
◆
◆
◆
Drag the comb with the left mouse button to change the scale of the
quills.
Drag the comb with the middle mouse button to change the sampling
density of the quills.
Click and drag a label to move it.
Options
Show Min. / Show Max. / Show Mean / Show Comb
Check/uncheck the boxes to turn the different labels and comb on or off.
The labels can also be toggled on/off from the Information Window.
503
Locators > Deviation > MinMax Mesh-Surface deviation
Adds a measurement showing the minimum and maximum deviation between
two a mesh and a surface.
This tool creates a locator showing the deviation between the two objects,
labeling the minimum and maximum.
Objects in reference layers can be selected from within this tool.
To add a deviation comb between a mesh and a surface
1
Click the MinMax Mesh-Surface deviation icon, or choose Deviation > MinMax
Mesh-Surface deviation from the Locators palette menu.
2
Click the mesh, then click the surface.
3
The minimum and maximum deviation locators appear.
◆
Click and drag a label to move it.
Options
Show Min. / Show Max.
Check/uncheck the boxes to turn the labels on or off.
The labels can also be toggled on/off from the Information Window.
504
Locators > Deviation > MinMax Cloud-Surface deviation
Adds a measurement showing the minimum and maximum deviation between a
point cloud and a surface.
This tool creates a locator showing the deviation between the two objects,
labeling the minimum, maximum, mean, and displaying a deviation comb
indicating the deviation across the length of the objects.
Objects in reference layers can be selected from within this tool.
To add a deviation comb between a surface and a point cloud
1
Click the MinMax Cloud-Surface deviation icon, or choose Deviation
> MinMax Cloud-Surface deviation from the Locators palette menu.
2
Click the cloud, then click the surface.
3
The new deviation comb appears.
◆
◆
◆
Drag the comb with the left mouse button to change the scale of the
quills.
Drag the comb with the middle mouse button to change the sampling
density of the quills.
CLick and drag a label to move it.
Tips and notes
●
The MinMax Cloud-Surface deviation tool is especially useful since you can
check the fit between raw cloud data and surfaces created to fit the data.
505
Locators > Curve curvature
Adds a locator that shows the curvature or radius comb of a curve.
See Curvature on page 24.
See Create radial measurements on page 382.
See Show curve curvature on page 344.
Options
Plot Value
Curvature: the quill lengths indicate the curvature at that point on the curve
(default).
Radius: the quill lengths indicate the radius at that point on the curve.
Unit Normal: the quill length is constant, so the quills only indicate the
direction of the normal at that point on the curve.
Surf Relative
Display the curvature quills, for surface curves, in the direction of the surface
normals.
This option has no effect on free curves.
Auto Scale
If this is checked, the scale of the curvature comb is automatically calculated
to be proportional to the size of the object.
When this option is unchecked, a Scale Value slider appears, allowing you to
set the comb’s scale at the time of creation.
Scale Value
The scale applied to the comb quills.
The Scale Value option uses a logarithmic scale.
Samples
The initial sampling density per curve. Change this value after creating the
comb by dragging the middle mouse button.
Display
Comb: Show the comb quills only.
Outline: Show the comb outline (the line connecting the endpoints of the
comb quills) only.
Comb + Outline: Shows both the comb quills and the comb outline.
The comb and outline are drawn in different colors.
Torsion
Show torsion quills on the curve
506
Inflection Points
Show the inflection points on the curve with small blue arrows.
To speed up display, the arrows are only close approximations. To see the
true inflection point, look for the point where the comb outline crosses the
curve.
Show Radius Limit
Display regions of the curvature locator using different colors based on the
radius value and the Min. Radius Limit and Max. Radius Limit values.
Min Max Radius
Indicates the points of maximum and minimum radius of curvature.
Min. Radius Limit, Max. Radius Limit
Regions of the curvature locator between the Min. Radius Limit and the Max.
Radius Limit are drawn in with green quills. Regions of the curvature locator
less than the Min. Radius Limit or greater than the Max. Radius Limit are
drawn in with rose quills.
These options are only available when Show Radius Limit is on.
Enable Comb Cutoff
Limits the length of quills by the Cutoff Value.
Cutoff Value
Limit quills to this length.
This option is necessary because some plot values, such as the radius of a
straight line, are infinite, or very large.
These options are also found in the Information Window when a Curve
Curvature locator is selected. The Information Window has the following
additional controls:
Window
Choose whether the annotation appears in all windows or only the current
window.
Font Properties
Choose whether the text in the annotation uses a Default or Custom font.
Font Size
Adjust the size of the text when Font Properties is set to Custom.
507
508
Evaluate palette
509
Evaluate > Continuity > Surface continuity
Checks the positional, tangent plane, and curvature continuity between and
inside surfaces.
See Check the deviation and continuity on surface edges on
page 347.
>
Find
Positional Continuity
Only check for gaps between surfaces (labeled with “O” symbols).
Tangent Continuity
Check for gaps and tangent discontinuities (labeled with “T” symbols).
Curvature Continuity
Check for gaps, tangent, and curvature discontinuities (labeled with “C”
symbols).
>
Check Spacing By
Arc Length
Check the continuity at equally spaced points along the surface, determined
by the Distance Between Checks option.
# Per Span
Check the continuity at a number of points in each span equal to the value of
the Fitting > Curve Fit Checkpoints option of the Preferences >
Construction options window.
This option only appears
when Check Spacing By
is Arc Length.
Distance Between Checks
The arc-length distance between continuity checks when using the Arc
Length option.
>
Display Options
Locator Persistence
If this option is toggled on, the surface continuity indicators have the ability to
become a persistent locator which will update with changes to the geometry.
Note that Locator Persistence only takes effect if boundaries are explicitly
selected by clicking them (not by selecting surfaces with a pick box or prior to
selecting the tool).
Check Interior
If this option is toggled on, continuity is checked and displayed along
multiple-knot isoparametric curves in the surface’s interior.
510
Show Max Labels
If this option is toggled on, points of maximum positional, tangency angle and
curvature deviation are shown. Note however that these labels will only
appear if part of the boundary has discontinuities (gaps, tangent or curvature
breaks) that are out of tolerance.
Show Edge Labels
If this option is toggled on, indicators showing areas of discontinuities (“O”,
“C” and “T” labels) are initially displayed along the boundaries. Red symbols
indicate areas of maximum discontinuity. Blue symbols indicate areas of
minimum discontinuity.
Show Comb
This option only appears if Show Edge Labels is on. Toggle it on to see the
comb lines for gaps, tangency breaks and curvature breaks.
Auto Scale
This option only appears if Show Combs is on. When Auto Scale is checked
(default), the scale of the deviation combs is automatically calculated to be
proportional to the size of the object.
When this option is unchecked, three Scale number fields appear (for
Positional, Tangent, and Curvature deviation), allowing you to set the comb’s
scales at the time of creation.
Scale
Three values (for Positional, Tangent, and Curvature deviation respectively)
that allow you to adjust the scale of the combs at the time of creation. These
values are only available if Auto Scale is turned on.
511
Evaluate > Continuity > Curve continuity
Checks the position, tangent and curvature continuity between curves.
See Check continuity between curves on page 357.
See Pull surfaces from curves of an existing surface on
page 167.
Messages
The Curve curvature tool prints messages in the prompt line about the continuity
at the intersection you clicked:
●
Curves are curvature continuous within tolerance - curvature
deviation is (1/cm) <deviation>
The curves are not exactly curvature continuous, but are still within the
tolerance set in Preferences > Construction options. <deviation> is the
difference in curvatures at the intersection.
●
Curvature deviation between curves is (1/cm) <deviation>
The curves are not curvature continuous. <deviation> is the difference in
curvatures at the intersection.
●
Curves are tangent vector continuous within tolerance angle is (degrees) <angle>.
The curves are not exactly tangent continuous, but are still within the
tolerance set in Preferences > Construction options. <angle> is the angle
between the curves tangents at the intersection.
●
Angle between the curves at their intersection is (deg)
<angle>.
The curves are not tangent continuous. <angle> is the angle between the
curves tangents at the intersection.
●
Select curve intersection.
You did not click a point where two curves (and only two curves) intersect.
Options
Tangency Scale
The initial scale of the lines which show the tangents of the two curves. The
actual length of the lines is proportional to the angle times this scaling value.
You can change this value when you use the tool by holding Shift and
dragging the left mouse button.
Curvature Scale
The initial scale of the lines which show the curvature of the two curves. The
actual length of the lines is proportional to the angle times this scaling value.
You can change this value when you use the tool by holding Shift and
dragging the middle mouse button.
512
Locator Persistence
Creates a persistent locator that displays the continuity between curves (that
is, the locator remains even after the Curve Continuity tool is no longer
active). This allows you to monitor curve continuity as you edit curves.
Simple Display
The locator appears only as a green circle (the curves are continuous) or a
red circle (the curves are not continuous).
Display
The locator indicates whether the curves’ position, tangents, or curvature are
continuous.
513
Evaluate > Surface Evaluate > Highlights
Create curves-on-surface corresponding to highlight lines produced by light
sources.
See Create curves on surface from evaluation data on page 358.
Light Origin
The 3D coordinates of the first light’s origin (center point).
You can set this with the highlight manipulator when you use the tool.
Direction Type
Select either Rotation or Vector.
Light Direction
The direction in which the light sources point.
You can set this vector with the highlight manipulator when you use the tool.
Number of Lights
The number of lights from which to create curves-on-surface highlights.
If you use more than one light, the multiple lights are always parallel to each
other.
Light Width
The width of the single light source. This option is only available if Number of
Lights is 1.
Set the width to 0 to create a single curve-on-surface. Set the width greater
than 0 to create two curves-on-surface corresponding to the edges of a wide
highlight.
This option has no effect if Visual is turned on.
Light Spacing
The spacing between multiple light sources. This option appears when Number
of Lights is greater than 1.
514
Subdivision
The quality of the curve-on-surface projection, from 1 to 6. The higher the
value, the more precise the result. Use low values for draft quality, use higher
values for final results.
Visual
Draw fast polylines instead of curves-on-surface.
These lines are mainly for display purposes. Although you can pick them (to
delete them, for example), you cannot use them to create geometry.
Vector/Plane/Point
Enter the name of a point/vector/plane to position/align the Surface Evaluate
manipulator with it. (You can also click a point/vector/plane to align the
Surface Evaluate manipulator with it. Or you can select the point/vector/plane
and the surface before selecting the tool.)
>
Control Options
Create History
Save the history of the new curves-on-surface for later editing. If you turn
Create History on, you can modify the surfaces and the curves-on-surface
will update.
Auto Recalc.
Update the curves-on-surface as you change the values in the window.
>
Buttons
Recalc
When Auto Recalc. is off, use this button to update the curves on surface to
correspond to the current options.
Undo All
Undo all the changes made by the tool and return to the original surface.
Next
Finish creating curves-on-surface on the current surface and prompt for a
new surface to evaluate.
To create curves-on-surface from highlights
1
Pick the surfaces on which you want to create curves-on-surface.
2
Choose Surface Evaluate > Highlights ❑ from the Evaluate palette menu.
The Highlights control window opens and the highlight manipulator appears.
3
Set the following options:
◆
◆
◆
The number of lights you want to create highlights from.
The spacing between the lights (if there is more than one)
The width of the light (if there is only one).
515
Set the Subdivision option from 1 to 6. The higher the value, the more
precise the result. Use low values for draft quality, use higher values for
final results.
The manipulator reflects the changes.
◆
4
Drag different handles on the manipulator to orient the light(s), or type exact
values into the Light Origin, Light Direction, and Vector/Plane/Point fields of
the Highlights window.
5
If Auto Recalc. is off, click Recalc. to create the curves-on-surface.
You can click the Undo All button in the control window to remove the curves
on surface, or change the manipulator and click Recalc.
516
Evaluate > Surface Evaluate > Curvature
Create curves-on-surface along lines of constant curvature.
See Create curves on surface from evaluation data on page 358.
Curvature Type
Choose the method of calculating curvature on the surface:
Mean—average the two principal curvatures at each point on the surface.
Gaussian—multiply the two principal curvatures at each point on the surface.
Principal Min/Principal Max—use the minimum or maximum curvature
values (that is, the curvature of the steepest or flattest curves that pass
through each point).
Mean or Gaussian curvature is most useful for detecting surface
irregularities. Principal Min or Max curvature is most useful for detecting
inflection points.
Curvature Value
Enter the curvature value for the iso-curvature lines you want to create.
The Curvature tool creates curves-on-surface along these lines of constant
curvature.
Subdivision
The quality of the curve-on-surface projection, from 1 to 6. The higher the
value, the more precise the result. Use low values for draft quality, use higher
values for final results.
>
Control Options
Create History
Save the history of the new curves-on-surface for later editing. If you turn
Create History on, you can modify the surfaces and the curves-on-surface
will update.
517
Auto Recalc.
Update the curves-on-surface as you change the values in the Curvature
window.
>
Buttons
Recalc
When Auto Recalc. is off, use this button to update the curves on surface to
correspond to the current options.
Undo All
Undo all the changes made by the tool and return to the original surface.
Next
Finish creating curves-on-surface on the current surface and prompt for a
new surface to evaluate.
To create curves on surface along lines of constant curvature
1
Pick the surfaces on which you want to create curves-on-surface.
2
Choose Surface Evaluate > Curvature ❒ from the Evaluate palette menu.
The Curvature control window opens.
3
Set the following options:
◆
◆
◆
4
The Curvature Type.
The Curvature Value at which you want to create curves on surface. For
example, enter 0 to create curves-on-surface along inflection lines.
Set the Subdivision option from 1 to 6. The higher the value, the more
precise the result. Use low values for draft quality, use higher values for
final results.
If Auto Recalc. is off, click Recalc. to create the curves-on-surface.
You can click the Undo All button in the control window to remove the curves
on surface, or change the manipulator and click Recalc.
CoS at
curvature
0.0
518
Evaluate > Surface Evaluate > Contour
Create curves-on-surface from a single-plane cross-section.
See Create curves on surface from evaluation data on page 358.
Plane Origin
The 3D coordinates of the origin of the plane which will intersect the surfaces
to create curves-on-surface.
You can set this with the contour manipulator when you use the tool.
Direction Type
Select either Rotation or Vector.
Plane Normal
The vector perpendicular to the plane.
You can set this vector with the contour manipulator when you use the tool.
Vector/Plane/Point
Enter the name of a point/vector/plane to position/align the Contour
manipulator with it. (You can also click a point/vector/plane to align the
Contour manipulator with it. Or you can select the point/vector/plane and the
surface before selecting the tool.)
>
Control Options
Create History
Save the history of the new curves-on-surface for later editing. If you turn
Create History on, you can modify the surfaces and the curves-on-surface
will update.
Auto Recalc.
Update the curves-on-surface as you change the values in the Surface
Evaluate window.
519
>
Buttons
Recalc
When Auto Recalc. is off, use this button to update the curves on surface to
correspond to the current options.
Undo All
Undo all the changes made by the tool and return to the original surface.
Next
Finish creating curves-on-surface on the current surface and prompt for a
new surface to evaluate.
To create curves-on-surface along a contour line
1
Pick the surfaces on which you want to create curves-on-surface.
2
Choose Surface Evaluate > Contour ❒ from the Evaluate palette menu.
The Contour control window opens.
The contour manipulator appears.
3
Drag different handles on the manipulator to orient the cross-section plane, or
type exact values in the Plane Origin and Plane Normal fields of the Surface
Evaluate window.
4
If Auto Recalc. is off, click Recalc. to create the curves-on-surface.
You can click the Undo All button in the control window to remove the curves
on surface, or change the manipulator and click Recalc.
contour
CoS
520
Evaluate > Surface Evaluate > Horizon
Produce curves-on-surface from horizon lines as seen from a point in space or
from a direction.
See Create curves on surface from evaluation data on page 358.
Horizon Type
Choose how to project the horizon line onto the surfaces.
Perspective—use the horizon as seen from a certain point in space.
Orthogonal—view the horizon from a certain direction. With this technique,
the “sightlines” are parallel and the viewpoint is infinity.
Note that if the horizon does not cross the surfaces when viewed from this
point or direction, the Surface evaluate tool will not create any curves on
surface.
View Point
The point in space from which to look at the picked surfaces and the horizon.
You can set this with the viewpoint locator when you use the tool.
This option appears when Horizon Type is Perspective.
Point
Enter the name of a point to position/align the Horizon manipulator with it.
(You can also click a point to align the manipulator with it. Or you can select
the point and the surface before selecting the tool.)
This option appears when Horizon Type is Perspective.
View Direction
The view direction from which to look at the picked surfaces and the horizon.
This option appears when Horizon Type is Orthogonal.
521
Vector
Enter the name of a vector to position/align the Horizon manipulator with it.
(You can also click a vector to align the manipulator with it. Or you can select
the vector and the surface before selecting the tool.)
This option appears when Horizon Type is Orthogonal.
>
Control Options
Create History
Save the history of the new curves-on-surface for later editing. If you turn
Create History on, you can modify the surfaces and the curves-on-surface
will update.
Auto Recalc.
Update the curves-on-surface as you change the values in the Horizon
window.
>
Buttons
Recalc
When Auto Recalc. is off, use this button to update the curves on surface to
correspond to the current options.
Undo All
Undo all the changes made by the tool and return to the original surface.
Next
Finish creating curves-on-surface on the current surface and prompt for a
new surface to evaluate.
To create curves on surface along the horizon line
1
Pick the surfaces on which you want to create curves-on-surface.
2
Choose Surface evaluate > Horizon ❒ from the Evaluate palette menu.
The Horizon control window opens.
3
Set the Horizon Type.
If the Horizon Type is Perspective, a viewpoint locator appears. Drag this
locator to move the viewpoint, or type exact coordinates in the View Point
fields in the window.
If the Horizon Type is Orthogonal, type a direction in the View Direction
fields in the window.
4
If Auto Recalc. is off, click Recalc. to create the curves-on-surface.
You can click the Undo All button in the control window to remove the curves
on surface, or change the manipulator and click Recalc.
522
When using the Horizon evaluation type, note that if the horizon does not
cross the surfaces when viewed from the point or direction you set, the tool
will not create any curves on surface.
perspective
horizon line
view point
523
Evaluate > Cross section
Creates cross section geometry on selected surfaces or meshes.
See Create or view cross sections on page 350.
Options
Configuration of the option window when Section
Type is Axis Aligned.
Section Type
Axis Aligned: The cross sections are perpendicular to the X, Y, and Z axes
and are evenly spaced.
Picked Reference: The cross sections are created at the intersection
between the geometry and selected section data or construction planes.
Radial: The cross-sections are created based on a driving curve you specify.
Points, equally spaced by arc length, are placed on the curve to correspond
to a given number of sections. A plane is then defined perpendicular to the
curve’s tangent at each of these points. The cross-sections are created
where the planes intersect the geometry.
The driving curve can be a free curve, a curve-on-surface, or a surface edge
or isoparm. More than one driving curve can be selected if all curves are
tangent continuous.
Construction History
Turn this option on to save the construction history of the cross sections. This
way, the cross sections will update when you modify the underlying
geometry.
Create Section Data
If this option is not checked, NURBS cross sections are created. If it is
checked, the NURBS are rebuilt as section data, according to the Tolerance
value.
524
Tolerance
Fitting tolerance used to rebuild NURBS curves as section data.
>
Axis Aligned Options
These options appear only when Section Type is Axis Aligned.
>
X/Y/Z
Turn on or off to view various combinations of cross sections perpendicular to
the X, Y and Z axes.
Auto Range
If this option is checked, we use the bounding box of the picked objects to
determine where to compute the cross sections, independently of the
object’s position in space.
Start/End
These options only appears when Auto Range is off.
Enter the 3D coordinates of two corners of a bounding box. The cross
sections will be calculated for the region of the selected object(s) that
intersect this box.
If Start equals End, a single cross section line is created.
Step
The spacing between cross section lines along the X, Y, and Z axes.
>
Radial Options
These options appear only when Section Type is Radial.
Number of Planes
Number of planes to define along the driving curve(s). The cross-sections
are created where the planes intersect the geometry.
Chain Select
If this option is checked, selecting a driving curve also selects all other
curves that are tangent continuous with it.
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Evaluate > Dynamic Section
Lets you view a cross section of surfaces or meshes by dragging a plane through
the model.
See Drag dynamic cross sections through surfaces on page 355.
Unlike the regular Cross section tool, this tool can produce cross-sections in an
arbitrary orientation by using a series of parallel planes with a distance between
them specified by Step Size.
>
Sections
Number of Planes
The number of cross-section lines to create.
Step Size
The distance between cross-section lines (when Mode is Parallel and
Number of Planes is greater than 1).
Curvature Scale
Controls the size of the curvature combs on the cross-section lines.
Persistent sections
This flag determines whether the sections will remain after exiting the tool.
>
Visual Clip
These options let you visually clip the wireframe and shaded model, leaving the
sections visible.
Visual Clip
Check this option to display only the part of the model with the sections (on
one side of the sectioning plane).
Flip
Check this option to only display the part of the model that doesn’t have
sections. The sections on the invisible part are still displayed.
Visual Clip turned off
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Visual Clip turned on
Flip turned on.
Evaluate > IsoAngle
Displays iso-angle lines on surfaces. This lets you visually evaluate continuity
across surface boundaries. You can also use this tool to create iso-angle curveson-surface.
See Show iso-angle lines on a surface on page 363.
Type of Bands
Controls whether iso-angle lines are white (Single) or colored (Multiple).
Shaded surface
Controls whether iso-angle lines are displayed as shaded lines (ON) or not
(OFF).
Visual Curves
Controls whether iso-angle lines are displayed as curves-on-surface (ON) or
not (OFF).
Width of Single Band
The width of white band iso-angle lines. This option is only available if Type
of Bands is Single.
Repeat Multiple Bands
The number of times colored band iso-angle lines are repeated on each
surface. This option is only available if Type of Bands is Multiple.
Blur
The blurriness of iso-angle line edges. This option is only available if Shaded
surface is on.
Vector
The position of the vector represented by the arrow icon (light source).
Transparency
The transparency of surfaces with iso-angle lines.
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Evaluate > Parting line
Creates curves-on-surface at the boundaries of out-of-draft areas.
See Create curves on surface from evaluation data on page 358.
Some manufacturing processes, such as injection molding, impose restrictions
on the shape of an object. To avoid problems you should understand the
following concepts:
Pull
Vector
Object
Undercut
●
The mold parts are pulled away from the object in a straight line, the pull
vector.
●
If the sides of the mold are too steep, the object cannot leave the mold. As
well, the object cannot leave the mold if the mold undercuts itself.
●
The minimum allowable angle between the sides of the mold and the pull
vector is the draft angle.
●
If part of a surface has an angle less than the draft angle, it is said to be outof-draft.
Direction Type
Select either Rotation or Vector.
Pull Direction
Enter 3D coordinates to define a direction in which the object would be
removed from its mold.
For example, if you want the pull vector to run along the Z axis, enter 0, 0, 1.
Draft Angle
Enter the draft angle.
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If the angle between a surface point and the pull vector is less than this
value, the surface point is out-of-draft, and is colored pink.
If the angle between a surface point and the pull vector is more than this
value, the surface point is in-draft, and is colored green.
Subdivision
The quality of the curve-on-surface projection, from 1 to 6. The higher the
value, the more precise the result. Use low values for draft quality, use higher
values for final results.
Vector/Plane
Enter the name of a vector/plane to position/align the manipulator with it.
(You can also click a vector/plane to align the manipulator with it. Or you can
select the vector/plane and the surface before selecting the tool.)
Visual
Draw fast polylines instead of curves-on-surface.
These lines are mainly for display purposes. Although you can pick them (to
delete them, for example), you cannot use them to create geometry.
>
Control Options
Create History
Save the history of the new curves-on-surface for later editing. If you turn
Create History on, you can modify the surfaces and the curves-on-surface
will update.
Auto Recalc.
Update the curves-on-surface as you change the values in the window.
>
Buttons
Recalc
When Auto Recalc. is off, use this button to update the curves on surface to
correspond to the current options.
Undo All
Undo all the changes made by the tool and return to the original surface.
Next
Finish creating curves-on-surface on the current surface and prompt for a
new surface to evaluate.
To create curves on surface along the parting line
1
Pick the surfaces on which you want to create curves-on-surface.
2
Choose Parting line ❒ from the Evaluate palette menu.
The Parting line control window opens.
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The parting line manipulator appears.
3
Set the following options:
◆
◆
◆
◆
The Direction Type
The Pull Direction
The Draft Angle
Set the Subdivision option from 1 to 6. The higher the value, the more
precise the result. Use low values for draft quality, use higher values for
final results.
4
Drag different handles on the manipulator to orient the pull vector or type exact
values into the Pull Direction fields of the window.
5
If Auto Recalc. is off, click Recalc. to create the curves-on-surface.
You can click the Undo All button in the control window to remove the curves
on surface, or change the manipulator and click Recalc.
Part lines
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Evaluate > Min/max curvature
Displays the points with minimum and maximum curvature on a surface or a set
of surfaces.
See Show the minimum and maximum curvature on a surface on
page 346.
Mode
Choose whether to compute the curvatures on only Active (picked) objects,
or All objects. All is the default.
Curvature Type
Choose how to calculate the curvature values:
Mean: use the average of the two principal curvatures to approximate the
average curvature through each point.
Gaussian: use the product of the two principal curvatures.
Principle Minimum/Principle Maximum: use the minimum or maximum
curvature values (that is, the curvature of the steepest or flattest curves that
pass through each point).
The Mean and Gaussian options are most useful for detecting surface
irregularities. The Princ Min/Max options are most useful for finding inflection
points.
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Evaluate > Mass properties
Displays the mass properties (volume, surface area, centroid) of the model.
To display mass properties
Display mass properties (volume, surface area, centroid) of a model.
The Mass properties tool provides two ways of specifying the object to measure:
Solid
Shell Interior
●
Solid: the surfaces you pick represent the boundaries of a closed, solid
object.
●
Shell Interior: the surfaces you pick represent the outside of a thin shell
enclosing a hollow space (e.g. modeling a bottle with a single surface of
revolution). You specify the thickness of the shell.
>
Restrictions
To get accurate statistics on an object, the following conditions must be met:
●
The surfaces must completely enclose a volume. The edges of surfaces
must meet within the tolerance value set in the Mass properties option
window.
●
The normals on all NURBS surfaces must point out of the solid, and, when
moving along a face boundary in the increasing U direction, the face area
must be to the left when viewed from outside the solid.
or
The normals on all NURBS surfaces must point into the solid, and, when
moving along a face boundary in the increasing U direction, the face area
must be to the right when viewed from outside the solid.
You can check the seam between two surfaces by placing a Deviation
measurement on the seam. You can check the orientation of normals using the
Reverse direction tool.
>
Display
The Mass properties window displays the following information:
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Label
Description
Units
Current unit of
measurement (default
is either centimeters or
millimeters, depending
on which product you
are using).
Area
Area of the picked
surfaces.
∫ ∫ dA
volume
Volume enclosed by
the picked surfaces,
or volume occupied by
shell surface with given
thickness.
∫ ∫ ∫ dV
centroid X, Y, Z coordinates of
the center of the object
Formula
( ∫ ∫ ∫ x dV ), ( ∫ ∫ ∫ y dV ), ( ∫ ∫ ∫ z dV )
∫ ∫ ∫ dV
∫ ∫ ∫ dV
∫ ∫ ∫ dV
If you are using a construction plane when you click the tool, the calculations
use the X, Y, and Z axes of the current construction plane.
To show the mass properties of a model
1
Pick all the surfaces that make up the model. Make sure the surfaces
completely enclose the volume of the object.
2
Click the Mass properties icon, or choose Mass properties from the Evaluate
palette menu.
When the Mass properties tool completes its calculations, the Mass
properties window appears, containing statistics about the object.
If you change the options of the Mass properties tool, the window will
update.
Tips and notes
●
Using the Mass properties tool with the Solid option on a group of surfaces
with gaps will not produce an error.
In fact, the results are still meaningful if the gaps between surfaces are not
too large.
●
If the volume value is negative, some of the surfaces probably have normals
pointing inward. Use the Surface Edit > Orientation > Reverse Surface
Orientation tool or Surface Edit > Orientation > Set Surface Orientation
to find and reverse the surfaces so they have normals pointing out.
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Options
Volume, Surface Area, Centroid
Check the values you want to display in the Mass properties window.
Type
Describe the way the selected surfaces or faces define the solid.
Solid: the surfaces you pick represent the boundaries of a closed, solid
object.
Shell Interior: the surfaces you pick represent the exterior of a thin shell
enclosing a hollow space (e.g. modeling a bottle with a single surface of
revolution). The Thickness option (below) specifies the thickness of that
shell.
Tolerance
The maximum distance allowed between adjacent surfaces for them to form
a closed volume
Thickness
The uniform thickness of the shell when using the Shell Interior option
(above). In this case, the Volume corresponds to the volume of the shell,
rather than that of the enclosed space. The Surface Area corresponds to the
sum of the interior and exterior surface areas.
This option appears only when Shell Interior is turned on.
Buttons
Extract to File
Click this button to save the mass properties data to a text file.
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Evaluate > Check model
Checks all, visible, or picked objects for common problems that may prevent data
transfer.
See Check objects for modeling problems on page 366.
See Prepare a model for import into CAD systems on page 372.
Check
Check only surfaces, only curves, or both. The default is Surfaces.
Objects
Check all objects, all visible objects, or picked (active) objects. The default is
Visible.
Report
Errors: only show objects that failed one of the checks.
All: show all objects even if they pass the checks.
The default is Errors.
Check Model Parameters
Rationals
Check for rational geometry.
Periodics
Check for periodic (closed) objects.
Multiple trim regions
Use this check to find instances where trims have made a single surface look
like separate surfaces, which can confuse some CAD software packages.
Multiple knots
Check for multi-knots (multiple edit points at the same point in space that
may create a sharp corner in a curve or surface).
Internal Tangent discontinuity
Report objects with internal tangent discontinuities due to multi-knots.
Non-Planar Curves
Check for curves that are not planar. This option only appears when Check is
set to Curves or Both.
Product Data Quality Recommended Checks
Duplicate Geometry
Report curves and surfaces that are duplicates of, or embedded into other
curves and surfaces, within the tolerance given in the text field.
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Short edges
Check for edges (including trimmed edges) shorter than the distance
specified in the text field.
Tiny Spans
Check for curves and surfaces whose interior span/isoparm configuration
results inthe length of a span (or the length of both opposing patch segments
for surfaces) being smaller than the distance tolerance specified in the text
field.
Indistinct Knots
Check for curves and surfaces whose interior span/isoparm configuration
results in knots being closer in parameter value than the tolerance specified in
the text field.
This check does not report multiple knots for which a separate check already
exists (see Multiple Knots above).
Minimum Radius of Curvature
Report surfaces that have a radius of curvature smaller than a user-defined
value. The smallest radius found on those surfaces will be reported.
Curve or Surf-Boundary Self-Intersect
Report curves, surface boundaries, or trimmed surface boundaries that
contain interior self-intersections. A self-intersection refers to the curve or
surface boundary intersecting itself at one or more locations that are not both
endpoints.
Trimmed-Surf Boundary Intersect
Report trimmed surfaces containing boundaries that intersect other
boundaries on the same surface, within the tolerance supplied in the text
field.
Maximum Degree
Check for objects with a degree higher than the number specified in the text
field.
Maximum Spans
Report curves and surfaces that contain a number of spans exceeding the
value specified in the text field.
Surface or Planar Curve Waviness
Report surfaces or planar curves that have more than a user-defined number
of inflections (change in curvature sign) over their entire length (or width for
surfaces). The maximum number of inflections allowed is entered in the text
field (default is 3).
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Allowed Inflections Per Span
This field only appears when Surface Curvature Waviness is ON. When
turned on, it controls the maximum number of inflections per span allowed for
a surface to pass the waviness test, in addition to the overall number of
inflection permitted (see previous option). The default is 1.
Normal Consistency
Check for surfaces whose normal’s direction is inconsistent with the normal’s
direction of adjacent surfaces.
Max. Gap Distance - G0
Report objects that exceed a user-defined tolerance for positional continuity
between adjacent curves or surfaces.
The tolerance value is given by Maximum Gap Distance in the Tolerances
Continuity section of Preferences > Construction options.
The Topology Distance tolerance (in Preferences > Construction
options) must be larger than the Maximum Gap Distance for this check to
find gaps.
See Maximum Gap Distance on page 1221.
Tangent/Norm Angle - G1
Report objects that exceed a user-defined tolerance for tangent continuity
between adjacent curves or surfaces.
The tolerance value is given by Continuity Angle in the Tolerances Continuity
section of Preferences > Construction options.
See Continuity Angle on page 1221.
Curvature - G2
Report objects that exceed a user-defined tolerance for curvature continuity
between adjacent curves or surfaces.
1- – ----1- .
The curvature deviation is calculated as ----R2
R1
The tolerance value is given by Continuity Curvature in the Tolerances
Continuity section of Preferences > Construction options.
See Continuity Curvature on page 1221.
Report Parameters
Tangent/Norm Angle Limit
Maximum angle allowed between the tangents (or normals) of objects for
them to be included in the G1 continuity test.
Curvature Limit
Maximum curvature deviation allowed between objects for them to be
included in the G2 continuity test.
537
G0, G1, G2, and Normal Consistency checks are only performed if the
maximum distance between the objects is less than the Topology Distance
found in Preferences > Construction options.
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Evaluate > Deviation map
Shows the deviation (distance) between a set of meshes and a set of NURBS
surfaces as a colored error map on the surfaces. Can also show the deviation
between two sets of surfaces, or two sets of meshes.
See Difference between meshes and polysets (page 44).
See Visualize the deviation between mesh-surface, surface-surface or mesh-mesh (page 377).
Ramp Distance
Maximum distance between surfaces and meshes shown on the color ramp.
Areas on surfaces where the deviation is larger than this value will be
displayed in a solid color (red or purple). The default is 10.0.
Acceptable Distance
Upper limit for the acceptable deviation between meshes and surfaces.
Regions of the surfaces where the deviation is smaller than this value will be
colored in green. The default is 1.0.
Where the value of the deviation is between the Acceptable Distance and the
Ramp Distance, the surfaces display intermediate colors as shown on the ramp.
The Ramp Distance must be kept larger than the Acceptable Distance.
Absolute Value Ramp
Turn on this option if you are not concerned with the direction of the deviation
and simply want to view absolute deviation values.
Use Bands
Turn on this option if you want the ramp to display solid bands of color
instead of slowly varying colors.
539
Regular
Ramp
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Absolute
Value
Ramp
Bands
Evaluate > Contact analysis
Provides the ability to analyse a model’s safety. This tool is especially useful with
car interior surface design work to avoid accidents where the head of the driver
touches a sharp interior surface.
Equally capable of working with meshes and NURBS surfaces, this tool enables
you to examine a collection of surfaces for potential impact points with a head
(represented by a sphere).
The tool internally creates a sphere to use to judge where the head could contact
the surface model. For example, some spaces, like between the steering wheel
and the dash board, are too small for the head to fit into. Only the areas where a
head can actually fit in the case of an accident are examined for sharpness and
safety issues.
Before analyzing the model, ensure that normals are unified. If they point in
different directions, results will be unreliable.
What are the risky spots on the dash?
In the background, the tool is triangulating a mesh, and performing the collision
analysis on the mesh; this mesh approximates the NURBS surface based on the
Triangle angle tolerance.
Blue areas are untouched; green areas are touched,
but OK; red areas are sharp.
541
Options
All values are in current units.
Sphere radius
Size, in current units, of the “head” that will be used to check for sharp areas.
The sphere radius is used to check for areas where a sphere of the specified
radius can touch the surface without intersecting any other part of the
surface. In other words, areas where the sphere can fit (shaded green) and
areas where the sphere can not fit (shaded blue-gray).
Radius
The radius of curvature of the surfaces being examined. Any part of a
surface with radius of curvature equal to or smaller than the specified value is
highlighted in red. This radius is used to check for sharp areas.
Triangulation angle tolerance
Triangulation angle tolerance is the size of the angle formed between the
normals of 2 disjoint surfaces lying close to one another. If this angle is
greater than the triangulation angle tolerance, those boundary vertices of the
two disjoint surfaces that lie close to one another are shaded red, indicating a
sharp edge.
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Point Clouds palette
543
Point Clouds > Subset
Discards unwanted points from a cloud, or divides a large cloud into smaller
clouds.
See Edit point clouds on page 438.
Keep which region
Points inside region: keep the points you select, delete the rest of the cloud.
Points outside region: delete the points you select, keep the rest of the
cloud.
Both: create a new point cloud with the points you select, while keeping the
unselected points in the original cloud.
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Point Clouds > Project curve
Creates a new curve by projecting an existing curve onto a point cloud.
See Build a surface on a point cloud on page 439.
See Project a curve onto a point cloud on page 439.
Project Curve Onto
Front: Project the curve onto the front of the point cloud (that is, the first part
of the cloud it “hits” along the projection direction).
Front and Back: Project the curve onto both the front and back of the cloud.
Initial Projection
Same Number Spans: the projected curve has the same number of spans as
the original curve.
To Tolerance: the projected curve fits the point cloud within the tolerance you
set.
Point Location Method
Approximate: quicker but less accurate projection. Use this option with
cross-sectioned data, or when you don’t require high precision.
Surface Intersection: slower but more accurate projection.
Maximum Iterations
The maximum number of iterations to try when fitting within a tolerance. More
iterations is slower but may give a better fit.
You will usually not need to change this option.
Create History
Save the construction history of the projected curve for later editing. If you
turn Create History on, you can modify the curve that was used to create the
projected curve, and the projected curve will update.
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Point Clouds > Surfaces > Gridded
Takes four boundary curves and fits a surface to the points of a cloud between
them.
See Build a surface on a point cloud on page 439.
Spans Between U/V Isoparms
The number of spans (the distance between two edit points) between each of
the original boundary or isoparametric curves used to create the surface.
Set the values for the U and the V directions. You can adjust these values
when using the tool.
Continuity to Adjacent Surface(s)
The kind of influence neighboring surfaces have on the new surfaces. This
option only works when you use isoparametric curves or edges of another
surface as construction curves for the new surface.
project boundary to cloud: this creates a better fit to the point cloud, but may
cause the edges of the new surface to pull away from neighboring surfaces.
Do not use this option if you have already projected the curves onto the point
cloud.
hold position: this option keeps the edges of the new surface on the
boundary curves, and so keeps positional continuity with neighboring
surfaces.
hold position and tangent: this option keeps the edges of the new surface on
the boundary curves, and also tries to maintain tangency with neighboring
surfaces.
Fit Surface To
Choose the type of data you are fitting the surface to.
For cross-sectioned data, enter the spacing between cross-section slices in
the Spacing Between Cross sections field. This allows the Gridded tool to
calculate a much better fit.
546
Point Clouds > Surfaces > Detailed
Takes any number of boundary curves and fits a trimmed surface to the points in
the bounded area of a cloud.
See Build a surface on a point cloud on page 439.
Tolerance
The maximum distance allowed between the new surface and the point
cloud.
Percent of Points Within Tolerance
The percentage of points that must be within the tolerance range for the
surface to build.
This accounts for “stray” points in the cloud that might otherwise keep the
surface from building.
Continuity
The degree of continuity with neighboring surfaces (Positional, Tangent, or
Curvature).
This option only works when you use isoparametric curves or edges of
another surface as construction curves for the new surface.
This option only affects
surfaces with four
boundary curves. All
other surfaces are
trimmed automatically.
Create Trimmed Surface
Make surfaces created from four boundary curves be trimmed surfaces.
547
Point Clouds > Surfaces > Corners
Takes four points from a cloud and fits a surface to the cloud with those points at
the corners.
See Build a surface on a point cloud on page 439.
Tolerance
The maximum distance allowed between the new surface and the point
cloud.
Percent of Points Within Tolerance
The percentage of points that must be within the tolerance range for the
surface to build.
This accounts for “stray” points in the cloud that might otherwise keep the
surface from building.
548
Point Clouds > Merge
Merges the picked clouds into one new cloud.
Divide and merge point clouds
>
Purpose
• Discard unwanted points from a cloud.
• Divide a large cloud into smaller clouds.
• Merge smaller clouds into a new, larger cloud.
>
Overview
When working with very large point clouds, you will want to divide the cloud into
more manageable pieces. This allows you to work on one area without running
into the rest of the cloud. Use the Subset tool to divide the cloud into smaller subclouds.
On the other hand, you may need to merge these divided clouds back into a large
cloud. Or, you may want to merge several small clouds gathered from different
sources. Use the Merge tool to merge clouds into a larger combined cloud.
To take a subset of a cloud
1
Use the Pick > Object types > Cloud tool to pick the cloud you want to
divide.
2
Double-click the Subset icon, or choose Subset from the Point Clouds palette
menu.
◆
The Point Cloud Subset Options window appears.
3
Choose whether you want to:
●
keep only the points you select (choose Points inside region).
●
discard the points you select (choose Points outside region).
●
create a new cloud containing the points you select (choose Both).
4
Click Go to close the option window.
5
Use the mouse to select/deselect the points for the subset. You can drag a pick
box to select/deselect many points at once.
6
Click Go.
◆
The Subset tool either creates a subset of the cloud containing the points
you selected, deletes the subset you selected and keeps the remaining
points, or makes a new cloud from the subset, depending on the option
you chose.
To merge point clouds
1
Use the Pick > Object types > Cloud tool to pick the clouds you want to
merge.
2
Click the Merge icon, or choose Merge from the Point Clouds palette menu.
3
Click Go.
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550
MENUS
Describes the purpose and options of all menu items.
File menu
File > New
Starts a new, empty wire file. The current wire file is deleted after you are given
the option of saving any changes.
See Create a new file on page 75 in .
In Paint mode, File > New behaves like Canvas > New canvas and opens a
dialog window allowing you to create a new canvas in its own Paint window.
In all other modes, it behaves like Layouts > All windows > All windows, and
displays the four standard modeling windows.
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File > Open
Retrieves previously saved files, including wireframe models and foreign data
formats from client machines.
To add the data from a file to the current scene, use File > Import > File.
As Reference
Check this box to automatically create a reference layer and place all
geometry from the file in it.
Note that some file formats have no options.
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Wire import options
IGES import options
VDAIS import options
JAMA-IS import options
C4 import options
VDAFS import options
Unigraphic import options
DES import options
CATIA V4 import options
CATIA V5 import options
OBJ import options
Encapsulated Postscript options
Illustrator options
Pro/ENGINEER Render import options
OpenInventor import options
STL import options
JT Open import options
See Difference between meshes and polysets on page 44.
See Import a data file on page 1665.
See Open a Binary STL file on page 1666.
See Import a PTC Granite or a Pro/ENGINEER part file on
page 1666.
See Open a file on page 75.
See Create a mesh on page 388.
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Menus
File > Open Recent > Clear History
Choose this menu item to empty the list of files that shows under File > Open
Recent >.
This list contains files that were recently opened or saved.
File > Open Recent > only keeps track of certain types of files. Shader files,
textures, light files, and environment files will not be listed. However, any file
that can be opened through File > Open should be of a valid type.
Menus
555
File > Open stage set
Opens sets of related wire files that can be displayed and worked on together in
separate stages.
556
Menus
File > Save stageset as
Saves sets of related wire files with a new name.
Menus
557
File > Save
Stores the scene data in a file.
If this is the first time the file is saved, the File Browser appears, prompting you to
enter a file name.
To export only the picked objects to a file, use File > Export > Active as.
The window displays different options based on the file format you choose. Note
that some file formats have no options.This tool has the same options as File >
Export > Active as.
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Menus
UNIGRAPHICS export options
DBVIEW export options
CATIA V5 export options
CATIA V4 export options
STEP export options
OpenInventor export options
PTC Granite export options
OBJ export options
DXF export options
DES export options
VDAFS export options
C4 export options
JAMA-IS export options
VDAIS export options
IGES export options
WIRE export options
File > Save as
File > Save as performs the same function as File > Save, but prompts for a new
file name.
Menus
559
File > Checkpoint
Lets you save and load versions of the current wire file.
See Save checkpoints on page 78.
Auto Save
Turn this option on to save a checkpoint automatically at set intervals
(controlled by the Frequency option).
Frequency
The number of actions between auto-saves (when the Auto Save option is
turned on).
Maximum Files
The maximum number of checkpoints to maintain on disk. After this number
is reached, older checkpoints are deleted to make room for new ones.
Auto Save Checkpoints
Lists the automatically saved checkpoints. Click a checkpoint and click
Retrieve to go back to the checkpointed state.
Manual Checkpoints
Lists the time and size of checkpoints you have saved. Click a checkpoint
and click Retrieve to go back to the checkpointed state.
Disk Usage
The current amount of space used on disk for all checkpoint files (in
megabytes).
Max
The maximum amount of space that will be used on disk for all checkpointed
files.
Verify on Save
Checks the integrity of every checkpoint after it is saved. This guarantees the
checkpoint files were written safely, but slows down auto save.
Clear on Exit
Deletes all checkpoint files when you exit AliasStudio.
List
Changes the list to show checkpoints from the Current Stage or all Stages
With Checkpoints.
Clear
Deletes the selected checkpoint.
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Retrieve
Loads the selected checkpoint as the current wire file.
Chkpnt
Saves a manual checkpoint of the current wire file.
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File > File References > File references
Shows a list of all external files used by the current wire file, such as image
planes.
See Fix image plane problems on page 83.
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File > File References > Extract file references
Use to extract shaders and textures from an Alias wire file.
Choose this function to extract shaders and files from an Alias wire file that have
previously been embedded in the file.
Files are extracted to the current AliasStudio Project Location.
You must have space available in your local Temp or /tmp directory in order for
the shaders and textures to be extracted; during the process, temporary files are
created.
If you are planning to use the command line to render an SDL file that has
embedded textures, you must extract them before writing out the SDL file.
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File > Import > File
Allows you to transfer data from different file formats into the current scene.
To replace the current scene with the contents of a file, use File > Open.
As Reference
Check this box to automatically create a reference layer and place all
geometry from the file in it.
Note that some file formats have no options.
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Wire import options
IGES import options
VDAFS import options
VDAIS import options
C4 import options
Unigraphic import options
JAMA-IS import options
DES import options
CATIA V4 import options
CATIA V5 import options
PTC Granite export options
OBJ import options
Encapsulated Postscript options
Illustrator options
Pro/ENGINEER Render import options
OpenInventor import options
STL import options
See Difference between meshes and polysets on page 44.
See Illustrator format on page 1722.
See Import a Unigraphics file into AliasStudio on page 1671.
See Import a data file on page 1665.
See Import Illustrator files on page 1665.
See Import CATIA V4 into AliasStudio on page 1668.
See Import a CATIA V5 file into AliasStudio on page 1668.
See Create a new file on page 75.
See Import data into the current file on page 76.
See Create a mesh on page 388.
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Wire import options
Keep Windows
Controls whether windows are retrieved. ON retrieves them—OFF does not.
The default is ON.
Keep Cameras
Controls whether cameras are retrieved. ON retrieves them—OFF does not.
The default is ON.
Keep Lights
Controls whether lights are retrieved. ON retrieves them—OFF does not. The
default is OFF.
Keep Shaders
Controls whether shaders are retrieved. ON retrieves them—OFF does not.
The default is OFF.
Keep Animation
Determines whether to retrieve animations or only models. The default is ON.
OFF retrieves only models; ON retrieves both models and animation. If this
option is ON, a window that contains an animated camera is retrieved.
Keep Background
If ON, retrieves backgrounds contained in a wire file. The initial default is ON.
Keep Construction Options
If ON, a prompt will appear asking the user if they would like to Accept the
construction options contained in wire file. The initial default is ON.
Keep Render Globals
If ON, brings in the render globals set for the wire file into the system,
overriding the current settings.
To set render globals, use Render > Globals (see the Rendering book).
Keep Layers
If ON, brings the layers you set in the wire file into the system, overriding the
current settings.
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IGES import options
Default Trim Curves
Specifies the trim curves that the processor will use. You can select
parameter space curves, model space curves, or use the flag that is present
in the.IGES file. If for any reason the trimming fails, the translator will try and
trim with the alternative curves.
Shrink Surface
When ON, AliasStudio detects trimmed surfaces whose trim boundaries are
the same as, or iso-parametric to, the natural boundaries of the untrimmed
surface. It then converts these surfaces into AliasStudio surfaces by
shrinking the untrimmed surface to the trim boundaries.
When OFF, AliasStudio converts all trimmed surfaces of this type to
AliasStudio trimmed surfaces.
VDAIS import options
Group
Determines how files stored in VDAIS file format will be retrieved. When ON,
objects are retrieved as a single group for easier manipulation.
Annotation
Enables (ON) or disables (OFF) the processing of supported VDAIS entities
that have been flagged for use as annotation.
Coalesce Params
Enables (ON) or disables (OFF) multiple knot removal in curve or surface
geometry read from VDAIS files containing parametric spline curves or
surfaces.
The default is OFF.
If for any reason the trimming fails, the translator will try to trim with the
alternative curves.
Default Trim Curves
Selects the trim curves that the processor will use. You can select parameter
space curves, model space curves, or use the flag that is present in
the.VDAIS file.
Scale Factor
Changes the size of models stored in VDAIS file formats as you retrieve the
file.
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Level Mapping
Determines how the level (layer) information associated with an VDAIS entity
is mapped to Alias Set and Alias Layer information.
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Trimmed Surface Optimization Option
Shrink Surface
When ON, AliasStudio detects trimmed surfaces whose trim boundaries are
the same as, or iso-parametric to, the natural boundaries of the untrimmed
surface. It then converts these surfaces into AliasStudio surfaces by
shrinking the untrimmed surface to the trim boundaries.
When OFF, AliasStudio converts all trimmed surfaces of this type to
AliasStudio trimmed surfaces.
JAMA-IS import options
Group
Determines how files stored in JAMA-IS file format are retrieved. When ON,
objects are retrieved as a single group for easier manipulation.
Annotation
Enables (ON) or disables (OFF) the processing of supported JAMA-IS
entities that have been flagged for use as annotation.
Coalesce Params
Enables (ON) or disables (OFF) multiple knot removal in curve or surface
geometry read from JAMA-IS files containing parametric spline curves or
surfaces. The default is OFF.
If for any reason the trimming fails, the translator will try to trim with the
alternative curves.
Default Trim Curves
Lets you specify the trim curves the processor will use. You can select
parameter space curves, model space curves, or use the flag that is present
in the.JAMA-IS file.
Scale Factor
Changes the size of models stored in JAMA-IS file format while you retrieve
the file.
Level Mapping
Determines how the level (layer) information associated with an JAMA-IS
entity is mapped to Alias Set and Alias Layer information.
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Trimmed Surface Optimization Option
Shrink Surface
When ON, AliasStudio detects trimmed surfaces whose trim boundaries are
the same as, or iso-parametric to, the natural boundaries of the untrimmed
surface. It then converts these surfaces into AliasStudio surfaces by
shrinking the untrimmed surface to the trim boundaries.
When OFF, AliasStudio converts all trimmed surfaces of this type to
AliasStudio trimmed surfaces.
C4 import options
Group
Determines how files stored in C4 file format are retrieved. When ON, objects
are retrieved as a single group for easier manipulation.
Annotation
Enables (ON) or disables (OFF) the processing of supported C4 entities that
have been flagged for use as annotation.
Default Trim Curves
Selects the trim curves that the processor will use. You can select parameter
space curves, model space curves, or use the flag that is present in
the.VDAIS file. If for any reason the trimming fails, the translator will try to
trim with the alternative curves.
Scale Factor
Changes the size of models stored in C4 file format as you retrieve the file.
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Trimmed Surface Optimization Option
Shrink Surface
When ON, AliasStudio detects trimmed surfaces whose trim boundaries are
the same as, or iso-parametric to, the natural boundaries of the untrimmed
surface. It then converts these surfaces into AliasStudio surfaces by
shrinking the untrimmed surface to the trim boundaries.
When OFF, AliasStudio converts all trimmed surfaces of this type to
AliasStudio trimmed surfaces.
VDAFS import options
Items in VDAFS files that were grouped using BEGINSET/ENDSET are grouped in
a hierarchy in AliasStudio after retrieval. Entity names are preserved.
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Create Section Data
If Create Section Data is ON, curves are imported as section data (see the
NURBS Modeling book) converting the linear segments to section data
entities within AliasStudio
Group
Determines how files stored in VDAFS file format are retrieved. When ON,
objects are retrieved as a single group for easier manipulation.
Coalesce Params
Enables (when ON) or disables multiple knot removal in curve or surface
geometry read from VDAFS files containing parametric spline curves or
surfaces. The default is OFF.
Map Groups as Layers
When ON, VDAFS groups are mapped to Alias Layers. All items in the group
are assigned to the created layer. The name of the group becomes the name
of the layer.
Default Trim Curves
Selects the curves that the processor will use to trim surfaces. You can select
parameter space or model space curves. If for any reason the trimming fails,
the translator will try to trim with the alternative curves.
Scale Factor
Changes the size of models stored in VDAFS file format when you retrieve the
file.
Unigraphic import options
AutoStitch
Selects and stitches all surfaces together. The Default position of this option
is ON.
If AutoStitch is OFF it will leave surfaces as they were in the original part file.
Convert Categories
Converts Unigraphics categories and layers into StudioTools categories and
layers.
Logfile Output
If chosen a report containing a list of path names of imported files, a list of
warning and/or error messages, a detailed entity mapping report and a table
that documents the number of each type of entity processed during the
import, will be produced
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DES import options
Create Section Data
If Create Section Data is on, curves are imported as section data (see the
NURBS Modeling book) converting the linear segments to section data
entities within AliasStudio.
Group
Determines how files stored in DES file format are retrieved. When ON,
objects are retrieved as a single group for easier manipulation.
Scale Factor
Changes the size of models stored in DES file formats as you retrieve the
file.
CATIA V4 import options
Extended Log File
If ON and the model is a.CAI file, then the model will be imported with the
capacity to view the extended log file. If OFF, the model is imported without
the ability to view the extended log file.
CATIA V5 import options
Auto Stitch
Auto Stitch is ON by default.
By default, surfaces of solid bodies (MechanicalTool features) are stitched
together to create Alias shells.
If this option is OFF (-s option specified for C5ToAl), the surfaces of solid
bodies are left unstitched.
Import invisible
By default this option is ON.
By default, CATIA invisible (not datum) entities are converted to Alias
invisible entities.
When OFF (-v option specified for C5ToAl), CATIA invisible (hidden) entities
are ignored and are not converted.
Import infinite
By default this option is ON.
CATIA entities which are considered as having an infinite geometry (e.g.
lines, planes) are converted by default.
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When OFF (-x option specified for C5ToAl), CATIA infinite entities are
ignored and are not converted.
Import By Layer
When turned on, this will convert the geometrical sets to layers. The default if
off.
OBJ import options
Keep Normals
Specifies whether to preserve vertex normals when files are retrieved. When
this option is on ON (the default), vertex normals are retrieved from the file
and used by the renderer. When this option is on OFF, vertex normals are
ignored, which means that they are recalculated during rendering.
Warning: If vertex normals are retrieved, they are “frozen” and are not
updated. Vertex level editing, such as moving one vertex in relation to its
neighbors, can make the frozen normals invalid, so subsequent renderings
will not be correct. However, object-level editing (such as translation,
rotation, proportional scaling, or deleting entire polysets) does not cause
these problems.
Input Units
Specifies the major linear unit for the incoming file.
Scale Factor
Specifies the scaling factor for this save. The default is 1.0.
Merge Vertices
Specifies whether vertices are considered for merging.
ON (the default)—vertices are merged if they are within the position
tolerance.
OFF (the default)—vertices are not merged.
Position/Normal
POSITION—consider vertexes for merging based only on their positions. This
is a less restrictive merge.
POSITION + NORMAL—consider vertexes for merging based on their
positions and the angles of their normals. This is a more restrictive merge.
Position Tol. (units)
Specifies how close vertexes must be to be merged, in the current major
linear units. The default is 0.0001 unit.
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Normal Tol. (degrees)
Specifies how close normals must be to be merged, in degrees. The default
is 1 degree.
Encapsulated Postscript options
Group
Determines how files stored in Postscript file format are retrieved. When ON,
objects are retrieved as a single group for easier manipulation.
Scale Factor
Changes the size of models stored in Postscript file format as you retrieve
the file Group
Illustrator options
Group
Determines how files stored in Adobe Illustrator file format are retrieved.
When ON, objects are retrieved as a single group for easier manipulation.
When OFF, each of the curves in our model are displayed in the SBD window
as separate nodes.
Scale Factor
Changes the size of models stored in Illustrator file format as you retrieve the
file.
Pro/ENGINEER Render import options
Pro/ENGINEER Render Format files can be imported into AliasStudio. The
translator converts the triangle data of the Pro/ENGINEER Render format into
AliasStudio Polysets. It is important that the Pro/ENGINEER designer assign each
part of an assembly a different color, so that each part will become a separate
Polyset in AliasStudio. The colors are also translated into simple AliasStudio
shaders and these shaders are assigned to the appropriate objects.
Group
Determines how files stored in the Pro/ENGINEER Render file format are
retrieved. When ON, objects are retrieved as a single group for easier
manipulation.
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Input Units
If the units of the Pro/ENGINEER Render coordinate data is known, it can be
set using one of the options in this popup menu so that the data is properly
converted to the linear units set in AliasStudio. The default is INCHES.
Scale Factor
Changes the size of models stored in the Pro/ENGINEER Render file format as
you retrieve the file.
Keep Normals
Vertex normals in Pro/ENGINEER Render files all point towards the inside of
objects. For rendering purposes in AliasStudio, these normals must point
towards the outside of objects. Consequently, the translator flips all vertex
normals during the translation.
The vertex normals of polysets are usually recalculated by the AliasStudio
renderer before it renders polysets. By default, the normals assigned to
vertices in the Pro/ENGINEER Render file are “frozen” so that they are used by
the renderer rather than discarded and recalculated. This allows the renderer
to produce a better quality rendering.
To suppress this behavior, set Keep Normals OFF so that the renderer will
discard the Pro/ENGINEER assigned normals and recalculate them.
Warning: If vertex normals are retrieved, they are considered “frozen” and
they cannot be changed, so vertex level editing, such as moving one vertex
in relation to its neighbors, may invalidate the vertex normal since it will not
be updated, and subsequent renderings will not be correct.
Object level editing, such as translation, rotation, proportional scaling, and
deleting entire polysets are still valid operations on frozen normals.
Merge Vertices
By default, the translator may merge the vertices of triangles along apparent
shared edges. If two vertices have the same x,y,z position within a tolerance
and have the same normal within angular tolerance, they are merged into
one vertex. This allows AliasStudio to do smooth shading across the edges.
If two vertices have the same x,y,z position, but have different normals, then
these vertices are not merged to maintain the hard edge.
If set to OFF, no vertex merging occurs and all edges are rendered “hard”.
If set to ON, the POSITION/NORMAL menu becomes available.
POSITION/NORMAL
Determines how vertices and normals are merged.
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List Item
Description
POSITION + NORMAL
vertices and normals are merged
based on their x, y, z position.
POSITION
vertices only are merged based on
their x, y, z position. Normals are
not merged.
Position Tol. (units)
The tolerance used for comparing vertex positions can be specified using the
Input Units option selected. The value specified is in the same units as the
data. For example, if you specified 0.01 MILLIMETERS from the Input Units
menu, the tolerance for comparing vertex positions is 0.01 millimeters.
If you change the units from the default inches, then the default tolerance of
0.0001 may have to be changed to make sense for the units specified.
Normal Tol. (degrees)
The tolerance used for normal comparisons can be specified in degrees and
is the angle between the normals of two vertices. The default is that two
vertices will be merged if their positions are equal within tolerance and the
angle between the normals is less than 1 degree.
OpenInventor import options
The Inventor/VRML translator does not support annotation information.
Optimize ON/OFF
Optimizes the inventor file for improved retrieval and model performance
within AliasStudio. If model structure is important, switch this option OFF.
Default Units
The popup menu has options for millimeters, centimeters, meters,
kilometers, inches, feet and miles.
If an OpenInventor file has a length unit defined, the translation will use that
unit. If no unit is claimed in the file, the Default Unit set in this option is used.
STL import options
The triangle data from STL files is imported into AliasStudio as meshes (not
polysets).
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See Meshes for more information on mesh objects.
Merge vertices
If ON, vertices within the given tolerance (see below) are merged when the
file is retrieved.
This option ensures that triangle data created and manipulated in other
applications that use a different internal representation are retrieved properly
into AliasStudio.
Tolerance (units)
This option is only visible if Merge Vertices has been checked. The value is
the tolerance within which vertices of the tessellated mesh are considered to
be coincident and will be merged. By raising this value, the distance within
which vertices will be considered coincident is broadened.
The slider range is 0.0001 to 10. The default value is 0.0001.
JT Open import options
Import JT Open (.jt) files into Studio. Supported items are assembly, instances,
materials, curves, XT-Brep, JT-brep, LODS.
Options
BREP
Import breps. By default, they are imported.
Meshes
Import levels of detail. By default, they are imported.
Curves
Import curves. By default, they are imported.
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File > Import > Cloud
Allows you to read in very large cloud files.
See Import Cloud data on page 1666.
Sample every nth pt.
Only read in one out of a number of points you set. For example, set the
option to 2 to only read every other point. Set the option to 3 to only read
every 3rd point.
Use this option as a last resort to import enormous point cloud files that are
too large to load otherwise.
Default is set to 1. Range up to 100.
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File > Import > Anim
Import a library of animation actions.
See Import animation on page 1547.
Import Anim Options
Match Method
Determines how to match up the objects in the SDL file with those in the
picked hierarchy.
Hierarchy —all objects in the retrieved animation are matched to their
corresponding objects in the picked hierarchy, based on their position within
the hierarchy.
Name — DAG node objects in the SDL file are matched to those DAG node
objects in the picked hierarchy that have the same name. Non-DAG objects
are still matched according to their position relative to their nearest DAG
ancestor.
Retrieve Method
Determines how the picked objects are affected by the animation being read
in from the SDL file:
Replace Part — replaces a portion of the existing animation, if any, on the
affected parameters. The portion replaced begins at the point specified by
the Placement option, and extends for the number of frames implied by the
selection in the Frame Range option.
Replace All — replaces all of the existing animation on the affected
parameters, regardless of frame number.
Insert — inserts animation from the SDL file into the existing animation, at
the point specified by the Placement option. Any existing animation after this
point is moved ahead in time to make room for the inserted animation, unless
a placement of Before or After was specified; in which case, existing
animation remains where it is.
Parameters
Indicates which parameters should be retrieved from the SDL file:
All — all parameters in the file are retrieved.
Global — retrieves only those parameters that are selected in the Global
section of the Animation > Editors > Param control window.
Local — retrieves only those parameters that are selected in the Local
section of the Animation > Editors > Param control window for the
currently picked object(s).
If the SDL file contains no animation for a parameter in the frame range
being retrieved, then that parameter will not be affected, regardless of the
setting of the Parameters option.
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Frame Range
Specifies which frames are to be retrieved from the SDL file:
All — selects all animation in the file, from the first to the last keyframes for
all affected parameters in the file.
Option Window — pops up Start and End sliders that can be used to
explicitly specify the range of frames to retrieve from the SDL file.
If the start or end of the frame range does not fall precisely on a keyframe for
any of the affected parameters, then a keyframe will be inserted at that point.
If the animation on an affected parameter does not span the full range
selected, then it may be extended to the edges of the range using linear
tangents. This is only done if the Replace Part or Insert operations have
been selected and the retrieved animation joins up with existing animation.
Placement
Specifies where the animation from the SDL file should be placed:
The Before and After options are only available when using the Insert retrieval
method.
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Before — causes the SDL animation to be inserted before the first
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After — causes the SDL animation to be inserted after the last keyframe
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From File — causes all of the keyframes from the SDL animation to be
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Option Window — pops up the Start Time slider which you can use to
keyframe of animation on the currently picked object(s).
of animation on the currently picked object(s).
placed at the same times as they occupy in the SDL file.
specify the time at which the first keyframe from the SDL file should be
placed.
Spacing
Allows you to specify a time gap to be left between the start and end of an
inserted segment of animation, and between subsequent copies of an
inserted or replaced segment of animation.
If the spacing is set to 0, it is possible (even likely) that the keyframes at
either end of the inserted animation will fall on the same time as one of the
keyframes in the existing animation. Since only one keyframe is allowed at
any given time, the time of the leftmost of the two keyframes is set back by
0.01 frames to distinguish it from the other and the two are joined with linear
tangents. An exception to this is if both keyframes also have the same value;
in which case, they are merged into a single keyframe.
By explicitly setting Spacing to a value greater than 0, you can avoid the
default behavior and better fine-tune the transition between the existing and
inserted animations.
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Copies
Specifies the number of copies of the retrieved animation to place into the
existing animation. The first keyframe of each copy immediately follows the
last keyframe of the previous one by the gap specified in the Spacing option.
Retrieve Joint IK
If this option is selected, the IK handle information is retrieved for the
corresponding sections of a skeleton. This information is saved with the
animation in the SDL file.
Overwrite Names
If this option is selected, the names of the affected existing animation curves
will be overwritten by the names of the curves retrieved from the SDL file. If
the new name conflicts with that of some other curve in the existing
animation, then a default curve name will be created.
If Overwrite Names is not selected, then the names of the existing animation
curves will be retained. Note that it is not always be possible to retain curve
names, specifically in the case where multiple-instance actions are involved.
If a curve’s existing name cannot be retained, then it will be given a new,
default name.
The Overwrite Names option is only available for a Replace All operation.
Replace Part and Insert always try to retain existing curve names.
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File > Import > Image plane
Imports a two-dimensional image into a camera.
See Add or delete an image plane on page 119.
See Annotate a model or cloud data on page 32.
You can use image planes for the following:
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Rotoscoping — using live action footage in the background to which you can
match your models.
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Model Guides—you can set up three orthographic drawings as matte planes
to use for model building guides.
For example, in scenes with many objects, you can pre-render the objects
that you are not working on and use these renders as matte planes.
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Sprite Animation—you can animate matte planes as you do 3D models.
An image plane is associated with the camera.
Import an image plane
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Choose File > Import > Image plane.
2
Find the PIX or TIFF image you want to open.
3
Click Load Image.
The image plane is attached to the camera in the current window.
Change image plane settings
Click the window with the matte plane and choose Windows > Editors >
Cameras.
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Notes
All of the above options can be changed or refined using the camera editor,
once the image plane has been loaded.
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To remove an image plane from the model, use Delete > Delete image
planes.
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You cannot load image planes that have alphabetic characters in their
numeric extension (for example, an animated sequence having numeric
extensions). Make sure the extension only contains numbers. If the image
sequence consists of fields, use the filace utility to first interlace the fields into
frames.
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You cannot use pix images that have extensions of five or more characters.
Options
Size
Fit window—Fits the image plane into the modeling window.
Specified—Imports the image plane at a specified size.
Horizontal
If you select a Size of Specified, the Horizontal option appears below it so that
you can specify the horizontal width of the image plane in centimeters.
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Display Mode
RGB shows a color preview of the image. Box shows only an outline for faster
display.
Depth Type
Determines which image planes appear in front of each other or the
wireframe model. This setting is Off or Priority.
When it is Priority, a slider is also displayed, which determines which image
planes appear in front of each other or the wireframe model.
Image planes and the model are drawn in this order, from back to front:
Image planes with Depth Type set to Off
Image planes with Depth Type set to Priority and Depth of 0 or less, from lowest
to highest depth
The wireframe model
Image planes with Depth Type set to Priority and Depth greater than 0.0, from
lowest to highest depth
An image plane with depth greater than 0.0 appears in front of the model,
whereas other image planes appear behind the model. Depth drawing is in
sorted order so an image plane with a depth of 2.0 appears behind an image
plane with a depth of 3.0, and an image plane of depth -3.0 appears behind
an image plane of depth -2.0.
Crop to Window
If Crop to Window is ON, the image plane is cropped to fit in the selected
window. By default, this toggle is turned OFF.
Dim Image
If Dim Image is ON, the image plane is greyed somewhat to create an
inconspicuous background. By default, this toggle is turned OFF.
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File > Import > Canvas image
Imports an image file as a new image layer or mask layer, on an existing canvas,
or on a new canvas.
This feature is not available in SurfaceStudio.
See Import an image as a new canvas on page 45.
See Create a mask from an image file (page 118)
Sketchbook Pro layer information is retained when importing Sketchbook Pro
TIFF files.
Import Image Layer Options
Image Layer Type
Best Guess—Imports the image either as an image layer (if the image
contains three channels of color) or as a mask layer (if the image contains a
single channel).
Color—Imports the image as an image layer.
Mask—Imports the image as a mask layer.
Color to Mask Conversion Method
This option is only available if Image Layer Type is set to Mask.
Luminance—Uses the image’s luminance values as a mask.
Transparency—Uses the image’s transparency (that is, its alpha channel) as
a mask.
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File > Import > StudioPaint Canvas
Imports a StudioPaint Canvas file as an image plane with layers.
This is a plug-in that you can load by selecting canvasFileImport from the plug-in
manager (Utilities > Plug-in Manager).
Its purpose is to import 2D StudioPaint canvas files when the StudioPaint project
directory has been copied from UNIX on to your Windows machine.
All 2D image & mask layers will be imported into the active window.
No StudioPaint 3D paint textures or geometry will be imported. No
StudioPaint shelves will be imported. Multiple masks will be imported as
Studio layers masks.
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File > Export > Active as
Allows you to translate the AliasStudio data into appropriate CAD file format.
Stores the picked objects in a file.
To save the entire scene (not just the picked objects), use File > Save or
File > Save as.
The window displays different options based on the file format you choose. Note
that some file formats have no options.This tool has the same options as File >
Export > Active as.
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DWG export options
DXF export options
UNIGRAPHICS export options
DBVIEW export options
CATIA V4 export options
CATIA V5 export options
STEP export options
OpenInventor export options
PTC Granite export options
OBJ export options
DXF export options
DES export options
VDAFS export options
C4 export options
JAMA-IS export options
VDAIS export options
IGES export options
WIRE export options
See Export a data file on page 1673.
See Export STEP/IGES/PTC Granite to Pro/ENGINEER on
page 1675.
See Export picked objects on page 78.
DWG export options
Want curves
If this option is ON, the curves are exported, otherwise they are ignored.
Split surface at internal discontinuity
If Split Surfaces at internal discontinuities is ON and a surface has G1
discontinuities, it will be divided at each G1 discontinuity break.
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DXF export options
Want curves
If this option is ON, the curves are exported, otherwise they are ignored.
Split surface at internal discontinuity
If Split Surfaces at internal discontinuities is ON and a surface has G1
discontinuities, it will be divided at each G1 discontinuity break.
UNIGRAPHICS export options
When saving a file with the same name you will be prompted with:
File already exists. Do you want to replace it?
Thicken sheet
If checked, the sheet will be thickened to a solid with the thickness specified
by the Thicken Amount.
Thicken Amount
Amount by which the sheet will be thickened. The slider range is from 0.01 to
100, although larger values can be entered.
Output Units
Export in inches or millimeters.
Keep MultiKnots
A multi-knot consists of multiple edit points at the same location in space.
Multi-knots are usually the result of curve or surface editing operations that
require a sharp turn in a curve. Note: many CAD packages will not accept
models with multi-knots. Default is ON.
Parameterize planes
Check for planes to be parameterized. Default is OFF.
By default, the planes will be NURBS planes. If this option is ON, the plane
surfaces (trimmed or not trimmed) will be converted to UG bounded planes.
Convert Categories
Convert categories default is OFF.
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Logfile output
If chosen a report containing a list of path names of imported files, a list of
warnings and/or error messages, a detailed entity mapping report and a table
that documents the number of each type of entity processed during the
import, will be produced
Export UG Distance Value
When ON the user can select the UG distance tolerance that will be set in the
UG part file. When OFF the length distance is calculated from the AliasStudio
curve fit distance.
Unigraphics Attribute Information
Click Edit Attribute Data to modify file sender and receiver information.
DBVIEW export options
Output format
Available in either BINARY or ASCII formats.
Surface Tessellation options - Tessellate
This value specifies the amount the polygonal surface can deviate from the
original NURBS surface.
The default setting is OFF. If set to ON, the following option appears.
Tessellation Tolerance
This option is only visible if Tessellate has been turned on. The default value
is 0.1.
CATIA V4 export options
Extended Log File
If ON and the model is a.CAI file, then the model will be imported with the
capacity to view the extended log file. If OFF, the model is imported without
the ability to view the extended log file.
Include Comments
If ON the log file will contain your comment information.
CAI File Header Information - Edit File Header
When you click this field, a File Header Information menu is displayed with
fields specific to the file format you’ve chosen. Use these fields to
communicate information about the model being exported and the sender
and receiver of the data. This information is exported in the file header of the
file.
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These fields are optional.
CAI File Header Information -Edit File Comments
When you click in this field, an editor window is displayed where you can type
comments specific to the file you are saving. This editor window can be
specified in the General section of Preferences > General Preferences.
CATIA V5 export options
Keep Topology
Keeps the topology (open, closed) of all geometry.
Export By Layer
Convert layers to open body/geometrical sets. The default is off (no
conversion).
Export invisible
By default this option is ON.
By default, Alias invisible geometric entities are converted to CATIA invisible
(hidden) entities. When OFF (-v option specified for AlToC5), Alias invisible
geometric entities are ignored and are not converted.
Export symmetry
By default this option is OFF.
When ON (-b option specified for AlToC5), if an AliasStudio layer has
symmetry ON, this information is processed and the geometric objects
resulting from the layer's symmetry are converted.
Divide multiknots
By default this option is OFF.
When ON (-d option specified for AlToC5), a surface with multiknots is
divided (split) into multiple surfaces.
Divide periodic
By default this option is OFF.
When ON (-c option specified for AlToC5), a periodic surface is divided (split)
into multiple surfaces.
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Logfile output
By default this option is OFF (option -l0 specified for AlToC5)
Choose one of
◆
◆
◆
No logfile: no logfile is generated.
Logfile: a logfile is generated (option -l1 specified for AlToC5).
Extended logfile: more detailed information about the conversion is
output to the logfile. (option -l2 specified for AlToC5)
STEP export options
ISO10303 is a standard for exchange of product information. The standard is
organized into a set of Application Protocols (AP). There are two APs that are
supported in this release these being ISO10303-203 (Configuration Controlled
Design) conformance classes 1-4, and ISO10303-214 (Core Data for Automotive
Mechanical Design Process) conformance classes 1-2. The import and export of
this data is supported via ISO10303-21 Physical file exchange.
Application Protocol
Choose either AP214 or AP203 to output the desired STEP file. The default
is AP214.
Model Type
Wireframe models -- A collection of curves written out as a Wireframe model.
Surface models -- A collection of surfaces written out as a surface model.
Manifold Shells -- A collection of stitched surfaces that do not describe a
volume is saved out as a G3 Manifold Shell.
Brep Solids -- Stitched geometry that describes a closed volume is written
out as a G5 Brep Solid.
Hybrid models -- A combination of wireframe, surface, manifold shells and
BREP solids.
The user can save the model and all the geometry in a AliasStudio Stage, into a
STEP product. This is performed by choosing the Hybrid Models option (the
default).
If, because of contractual or system limitations on the receiving side, a Hybrid
model cannot be used, you can select single model representations, as
explained in the following table.
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Any AliasStudio
Geometry
Hybrid Models
Alias Shells (Closed)
G5 BREP Solids
Alias Shells (Closed/Open)
G3 Manifold Shells
Alias Surface
G2 Surface Models
Alias Curves
G2 Wireframe Models
There is an inherent loss of information outputting an Alias Shell as a
wireframe.
When you do not have any shells, you can not get anything from manifold
shells option. You can get the unstitched surfaces transferred by using
hybrid option.
The other options are selective to shells (only), surfaces (only) or wires
(only).
If the AliasStudio model is a set of trimmed surfaces; the model cannot be
output as a BREP Solid.
When you choose Model Type option > Manifold Shells or Hybrid Models,
two Surface Geometry options are made available.
Surface Geometry
As Is only outputs existing shells
Add Topology converts all surfaces into shells and outputs the shells.
Trim Curves
Valid when outputting Hybrid Models and G2 Surface Models, this option
allows you to output either 2D (parameter space) or 3D (model space)
trimming curves.
The default is Parameter Space Trimming.
STEP Header Information
Allows you to attach configuration data to your STEP file.
OpenInventor export options
For more information on Inventor data transfer, see AlToIV in the Utilities online
documentation.
PTC Granite export options
Writes a GraniteOne V2 file.
OBJ export options
Object Groups
Default is ON.
Output Units
Specifies the major linear units for exporting the file.
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Scale Factor
Specifies the scaling factor for this export. The default is 1.00000.
Surface Tesselation
Tesselate
Default is OFF.
DXF export options
You can control what to save in a Drawing Exchange Format file. This format is
useful for exchanging data with many kinds of CAD and modeling systems.
These options appear in the Save As File Options window.
Alias POLYSETs are written out as DXF 3DFACE entities (for triangles or quads),
or closed POLYLINE entities (for polygons with greater than 4 points). All DXF
entities that result from the translation of a single Alias object are assigned to a
layer named after the Alias objects node name.
Output Style
When storing a DXF file, you can store three-dimensional output (3D DATA)
or a flat orthographic view (2D VIEWS).
DXF does not support high degree or rational geometry. Therefore, when
you save in this format, any high degree and/or rational geometry is rebuilt to
be non-rational and at most cubic.
Rebuild Tolerance
Lets you adjust tolerances so that the rebuilt curves and surfaces are
guaranteed to be within the specified tolerance distance from the original
curve or surface.
Scale Factor
Lets you save the wire model at a scale other than it was constructed. 1.0 is
the default value.
Significant Digits
Specifies the number of significant digits for coordinate data in the exported
file (1 to 15, inclusive).
Output Units
Lets you choose a linear data unit, such as miles, feet, inches, mils,
microinches, kilometers, meters, centimeters, millimeters, or microns.
The exported coordinate data is converted from the current linear units in
AliasStudio to the unit you select. A comment is written at the top of the DXF
file stating the unit.
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Filename Extension
Some receiving systems require CAD files to have a specific filename
extension before they can be recognized. The filename extension you
specify here is appended to the filename of the exported file. The default is
.dxf
DES export options
Output Units
Lets you store a DES file with either METRIC or IMPERIAL (miles, feet,
inches) units of measure.
Scale Factor
Lets you save the wire model at a scale other than the scale at which it was
constructed. The default is 1.0.
Filename Extension
Some receiving systems require that CAD files have a specific filename
extension before they can be recognized. This filename extension specified
is automatically appended to the filename of the exported file. The default is
.des.
VDAFS export options
AliasStudio supports VDAFS version 2.0.
Include Comments
Determines whether or not comments entered in the Edit File Comments
section (found in the VDAFS File Header Information window) are included in
the exported file. The default is OFF.
Export Layers
Determines whether or not AliasStudio Layers map to VDAFS groups. The
AliasStudio Layer Number is mapped to the group name. The default is OFF.
For example, a layer number of 1 would map to a group name of Layer 001.
Rebuild Geometry
Modifies your models so that all curves and surfaces are compatible with
CAD systems or neutral file formats that cannot fully support NURBS
geometry by:
reducing high degree curves and surfaces to degree 3
◆
making non rational curves and surfaces where rational ones existed
before
When Rebuild Surface is set ON, the resulting curve or surface is forced to be
at most degree three, with the weight of all CVs equal to a value of 1.
◆
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591
For example, if your model contains curves or surfaces that are rational (with
some weights that are not equal to 1.0) or high degree (higher than cubic or
bi-cubic), then it is sampled at a number of checkpoints and the data is fit
with a cubic or bi-cubic, non-rational curve or surface. Knots are inserted until
the fit is within the specified tolerance.
When Rebuild Geometry is set OFF, rational geometry is automatically
rebuilt to be non-rational because the VDAFS format supports high degree
geometry but not rational geometry.
Scale Factor
Lets you save the wire model at a scale other than it was constructed. 1.0 is
the default value.
Filename Extension
Some receiving systems require that CAD files have a specific filename
extension before they can be recognized. The filename extension specified
here is automatically appended to the filename of the exported file.
The default is.vda.
There is no Output Units option for VDAFS because coordinate data
exported to VDAFS files is always in millimeters, regardless of the linear
units set in AliasStudio. This is a requirement of the VDAFS standard.
>
File Header Information
If you choose the VDAFS file format, the Save Options window expands to display
the following:
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Edit File Header
When you click this field, a File Header Information menu is displayed with
fields specific to the file format you’ve chosen. Use these fields to
communicate information about the model being exported and the sender
and receiver of the data. This information is exported in the file header of the
file.
These fields are optional.
Review IGES/VDAIS output environment variables option definitions for
more information.
C4 export options
Output Style
Choose to preserve surfaces or (depending on your drafting packages)
convert them to curves.
If you choose to convert surfaces to curves and have set the patch precision
to a number greater than the default, all isoparametric curves are stored in
the file.
The default is PRESERVE SURFACES.
Include Comments
Determines whether or not comments entered in the Edit File Comments
section (found in the C4 File Header Information window) are included in the
exported file. The default is OFF.
Rebuild Geometry
When set OFF (default is OFF) the degree of the resulting surface and the
weights on the CVs do not change.
When set ON, your models are modified so that all curves and surfaces are
compatible with CAD systems or neutral file formats that cannot fully support
NURBS and/or high degree geometry by:
Reducing high degree curves and surfaces to degree 3.
Making non rational curves and surfaces where rational ones existed
before.
When set ON, the resulting curve or surface is forced to be at most degree 3,
with the weight of all control vertices equal to a value of 1.0.
◆
◆
For example, if your model contains curves or surfaces that are rational (with
some weights that are not equal to 1.0) or high degree (higher than cubic or
bi-cubic), then it is sampled at a number of checkpoints and the data is fit
with a cubic or bi-cubic, non-rational curve or surface. Knots are inserted until
the fit is within the specified tolerance.
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Scale Factor
Lets you save the wire model at a scale other than it was constructed. 1.0 is
the default value.
Significant Digits
The number of significant digits for coordinate data in the exported file can be
specified in this field. The minimum number is 1 and the maximum number is
15.
Output Units
Lets you choose either millimeters or inches as the data units used for
exported coordinate data. The exported coordinate data is converted from
the current linear units set in AliasStudio to the selected units. MILLIMETERS
is the default.
The C4 standard allows only inches and millimeters, so these are the only
two choices available.
The C4 standard requires the file extension of a C4 conforming file to be
.c4x. This file extension is automatically appended to the filename of the
exported file
>
File header information
If you choose the C4 file format, the Save Options window expands to display the
following:
Edit File Header
When you click this field, a File Header Information menu is displayed with
fields specific to the file format you’ve chosen. Use these fields to
communicate information about the model being exported and the sender
and receiver of the data. This information is exported in the file header of the
file.
These fields are optional.
Edit File Comments
When you click in this field, an editor window is displayed where you can type
comments specific to the file you are saving. This editor window can be
specified in the General section of Preferences > General Preferences.
JAMA-IS export options
See IGES options for details on the JAMA-IS options.
>
File header information
If you choose the JAMA-IS file format, the Save Options window expands to
display the following:
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Edit File Header
When you click this field, a File Header Information menu is displayed with
fields specific to the file format you’ve chosen. Use these fields to
communicate information about the model being exported and the sender
and receiver of the data. This information is exported in the file header of the
file.
These fields are optional.
JAMA-IS
Edit File Comments
When you click in this field, an editor window is displayed where you can type
comments specific to the file you are saving. This editor window can be
specified in the General section of Preferences > General Preferences.
VDAIS export options
VDAIS format is a subset
of the IGES standard.
Spline Type, Output Style, Surface Type and Rebuild Geometry are
automatically set to the appropriate values when you select a specific vendor
from the vendor list. See Common File Format Descriptions page 44 for
more information on the By Vendor window.
Spline Type
Lets you choose between B-spline or parametric forms of curves and
surfaces to be created in the VDAIS file.
For B-SPLINE, curves are written as NURBS curves (entity 126) in VDAIS
and surfaces as NURBS surfaces (entity 128). This is the default.
◆
For PARAMETRIC, curves are written as parametric curves (entity 112)
and surfaces as parametric surfaces (entity 114).
The PARAMETRIC option does not support high degree or rational geometry.
When using this option, any high degree and/or rational geometry is
automatically rebuilt to be, at most, cubic and non-rational.
◆
Output Style
Converts surfaces to curves for some drafting packages. If you choose to
convert surfaces to curves and have set the patch precision to a number
greater than the default, all isoparametric curves are stored in the file.
The default is PRESERVE SURFACES.
Surface Type
Determines whether trimmed surfaces are written as trimmed or bounded.
The default is TRIMMED SURFACES.
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For TRIMMED SURFACES, trimmed surfaces in the modeler are written as
trimmed surface entities (entity 144) and (trim) surface curves are written as
curve on surface entities (entity 142) in the VDAIS file.
Level Mapping
Determines the type of AliasStudio information exported as VDAIS Level
information.
For LAYER, AliasStudio Layer number information associated to each entity is
exported as IGES Level information in the Directory Entry of this VDAIS entity
in (field number 5). In this case, AliasStudio SET information is ignored and not
exported to VDAIS.
For SET, AliasStudio Set information is exported as IGES Level information. If
an AliasStudio Set is given a name of the form LEVEL<n>, where <n> is an
IGES level number and greater than 0, then the corresponding VDAIS entity
for each member of the AliasStudio Set is assigned to level<n> in the VDAIS
file.
For example, the VDAIS entities corresponding to each member of the set
LEVEL42 are assigned to level 42 in the VDAIS file. AliasStudio Multi-sets
information is exported as VDAIS (type 406, form 1) Property entity definition
levels. If an AliasStudio object is a member of several multi-sets that conform
to this naming convention, then the VDAIS file contains a Property Entity 406
form 1 (Definition Levels) listing the VDAIS levels to which the corresponding
entity belongs. In this case, AliasStudio Layer information is ignored and not
exported to VDAIS.
Include Comments
Determines whether or not comments entered in the Edit File Comments
section (found in the VDAIS File Header Information window) are included in the
exported file. The default is OFF. See File Header Information page 46 for
details.
Rebuild Geometry
When set OFF (the default), the degree of the resulting surface and the
weights on the CVs do not change.
When set ON, models are updated so that all curves and surfaces are
compatible with CAD systems or neutral file formats that cannot fully support
NURBS geometry by:
◆
◆
Reducing high degree curves and surfaces to degree 3.
Making non rational curves and surfaces where rational ones existed
before.
The resulting curve or surface is forced to be at most degree 3, with the
weight of all CVs equal to a value of 1.0.
For example, if your model contains curves or surfaces that are rational (with
some weights that are not equal to 1.0) or high degree (higher than cubic or
bi-cubic), then it is sampled at a number of checkpoints and the data is fit
with a cubic or bi-cubic, non-rational curve or surface. Knots are inserted until
the fit is within the specified tolerance.
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Scale Factor
Lets you save the wire model at a scale other than it was constructed. 1.0 is
the default value.
Significant Digits
Lets you specify the number of significant digits for coordinate data in the
exported file. The minimum number is 1 and the maximum number is 15.
Filename Extension
Some receiving systems require that CAD files have a specific filename
extension before they can be recognized. This filename extension specified
is automatically appended to the filename of the exported file. The default
is.iges.
There is no Output Units option for VDAIS because coordinate data
exported to VDAIS files are always in millimeters, regardless of the linear
units set in AliasStudio. This is a requirement of the VDAIS standard.
>
File header information
If you choose the VDAIS file format, the Save Options window expands to display
the following:
Edit File Header
When you click this field, a File Header Information menu is displayed with
fields specific to the file format you’ve chosen. Use these fields to
communicate information about the model being exported and the sender
and receiver of the data. This information is exported in the file header of the
file.
These fields are optional.
Edit File Comments
When you click in this field, an editor window is displayed where you can type
comments specific to the file you are saving. This editor window can be
specified in the General section of Preferences > General Preferences.
>
Common file format descriptions- By Vendor window
To choose the specific software product to which you are transferring your model,
first choose the file format (either IGES or VDAIS), then click and hold on the
arrow beside “format” By Vendor. The By Vendor window is displayed.
When you choose a specific vendor, your output file is customized to optimize
data exchange for the target system. The data exchange parameters (output
environment variables) are modified. The active vendor is highlighted.
You can create new vendor files or remove files (except the default) and the By
Vendor window is updated accordingly.
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597
The system does not recognize a vendor file without an appropriate header.
Create a new vendor file by copying, renaming, and modifying an existing
one.
An appropriate header has the text “Vendor Configuration File” followed by a
number sign (#) and the vendor’s name. It is important to note that the
placement of the vendor’s name must follow the space after the number sign
(#) on the first line.
IGES export options
IGES (Initial Graphics
Exchange Specification)
is a data exchange format
between CAD/CAM
systems.
When storing an IGES file, the following options are available:
>
●
Tips
Spline Type, Output Style, Surface Type, and Rebuild Geometry are
automatically set to the appropriate values when you select a specific vendor
from the vendor list.
To temporarily override any or all three settings for a vendor, select the
vendor first and then set the options. See Common File Format Descriptions
page 44 for more information on the By Vendor window.
●
Storing an IGES file containing many trimmed surfaces takes considerably
longer if the Spline Type option is set to PARAMETRIC, instead of BSPLINE.
AliasStudio spline trim curves are rational B-splines. The IGES Parametric
Spline Curve and Surface entities (types 112 and 114, respectively) do not
support rational B-splines directly. To represent AliasStudio trim curves using
these IGES entities, the trim curves are automatically rebuilt to remove the
rational component.
This rebuild operation is the extra step that takes time. This operation is not
necessary when the Spline Type is set to B-SPLINE, since the IGES Rational
B-Spline Curve entity (type 126) fully supports AliasStudio trim curves.
Spline Type
Determines the types of curves and surfaces to be created in the IGES file:
either B-spline or parametric.
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◆
◆
If you choose B-SPLINE, curves are written as NURBS curves (entity
126) and surfaces as NURBS surfaces (entity 128).
If you choose PARAMETRIC, curves are written as parametric curves
(entity 112) and surfaces as parametric surfaces (entity 114). The default
is B-SPLINE.
Note that the PARAMETRIC options for IGES do not support high degree
or rational geometry. When using this option, any high degree and/or
rational geometry is automatically rebuilt to be at most cubic and nonrational.
Output Style
Lets you preserve surfaces or convert them to curves for some drafting
packages. If you choose CONVERT TO CURVES to convert surfaces to
curves and have set the patch precision to a number greater than the default,
all isoparametric curves are stored in the file. The default is PRESERVE
SURFACES.
Surface Type
Determines whether trimmed surfaces are written as trimmed or bounded.
The default is TRIMMED SURFACES.
◆
◆
If you choose TRIMMED SURFACES, trimmed surfaces are written as
trimmed surface entities (entity 144) and trim curves are written as curve
on surface entities (entity 142) in the IGES file.
If you choose BOUNDED SURFACES, trimmed surfaces are written as
bounded surface entities (entity 143) and trim curves as boundary
entities (entity 141) in the IGES file.
Level Mapping
Determines whether AliasStudio layer or set information is exported as IGES
Level information and can be recognized by each IGES entity.
◆
◆
If you choose LAYERS, AliasStudio Layers Number information is exported.
AliasStudio SET information is ignored (that is, it is not exported).
If you choose SET, AliasStudio Set information is exported. AliasStudio
Multi-sets information are exported as IGES (type 406, form 1) Property
entity definition levels. AliasStudio Layer information is ignored (that is, it is
not exported).
Include Comments
Determines whether or not comments entered in the Edit File Comments
section (found in the IGES File Header Information window) are included in the
exported file. The default is OFF.
See IGES File header information for details.
Rebuild Geometry
Modifies your models so that all curves and surfaces are compatible with
CAD systems or neutral file formats that cannot fully support NURBS
geometry by:
◆
reducing high degree curves and surfaces to degree 3
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599
making non rational curves and surfaces where rational ones existed
before
When set OFF (the default), the degree of the resulting curve on surface does
not change, nor do the weights on the CVs.
◆
When set ON, the resulting curve or surface is forced to be at most degree
three, with the weight of all CVs equal to a value of 1.
For example, if your model contains curves or surfaces that are rational (with
some weights that are not equal to 1.0) or high degree (higher than cubic or
bi-cubic), then it is sampled at a number of checkpoints and the data is fit
with a cubic or bi-cubic, non-rational curve or surface. Knots are inserted until
the fit is within the specified tolerance.
Scale Factor
Lets you save the wire model at a scale other than it was constructed. 1.0 is
the default value.
Significant Digits
The number of significant digits for coordinate data in the exported file can be
specified in this field. The minimum number is 1 and the maximum number is
15.
Output Units
Lets you choose any of the data unit types supported by the IGES standard,
including miles, feet, inches, mils, microinches, kilometers, meters,
centimeters, millimeters, and microns. The exported coordinate data is
converted from the current linear units set in AliasStudio to the units selected
here.
An additional choice is available called MODEL, which keeps the output units
in the exported file the same as the linear units in AliasStudio (IGES option
only).
Filename Extension
Some receiving systems require that CAD files have a specific filename
extension before they can be recognized. The filename extension specified
here is automatically appended to the filename of the exported file. The
default is.iges.
IGES Version
Use the items in this menu to set the IGES version number in the exported
IGES file to 5.0 for systems that require it. The default is IGES version 5.3.
Some receiving systems may not yet support the IGES 5.3 format.
>
IGES File header information
If you choose the IGES file format, the Save Options window expands to display
the following:
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Edit File Header
When you click this field, a File Header Information menu is displayed with
fields specific to the file format you’ve chosen. Use these fields to
communicate information about the model being exported and the sender
and receiver of the data. This information is exported in the file header of the
file.
These fields are optional.
Edit File Comments
When you click in this field, an editor window is displayed where you can type
comments specific to the file you are saving. This editor window can be
specified in the General section of Preferences > General Preferences.
>
Common file format descriptions - By Vendor window
To choose the specific software product to which you are transferring your model,
first choose the file format (either IGES or VDAIS), then click and hold on the
arrow beside “format” By Vendor. The By Vendor window is displayed.
When you choose a specific vendor, your output file is customized to optimize
data exchange for the target system. The data exchange parameters (output
environment variables) are modified. The active vendor is highlighted.
WARNING
If you create in AliasStudio a surface of revolution with negative angle sweep
(the starting angle or/and angle negative) this surface of revolution will be
exported to IGES format as a Rational B-Spline Surface (IGES entity type
128) or a Parametric Spline Surface (IGES entity type 144) based on the
value of the IGES Spline Type Option and not an IGES Surface of Revolution
(IGES entity type 120).
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601
You can also change the values of the environment variables for a specific
vendor by bringing up the $ALIAS_LOCATION/IGES.config directory and
editing the desired ASCII file.
The following shows an example of a vendor file.
Vendor Configuration File
# AutoCAD Release 12
# 0-1
polyline or b-spline trim curve output.
setenv IGES_OUT_BS_TRIM
0
# 0-1
polyline or parametric trim curve output.
setenv IGES_OUT_PAR_TRIM
0
# 1-15 the number of digits of precision.
setenv IGES_OUT_PRECISION
10
# 0-999 surface patch limit.
setenv IGES_OUT_MAX_SPANS
0
# 0-999 trimmed surface patch limit.
setenv IGES_OUT_MAX_TRIM
0
# 0-2 For Trimmed Parametric Surface (144/142) output:
#
0 = output both model space and 2D parametric trim curves.
#
1 = output 2D parametric trim curves only.
#
2 = output model space trim curves only.
setenv IGES_OUT_2D_TRIM
0
# 0-1 For Bounded Surface (143/141) output:
#
0 = output model space curves only.
#
1 = output both model space and 2D parametric trim curves.
setenv IGES_OUT_2D_BOUNDARY
1
# 0-1 convert splines to polygonal geometry.
setenv IGES_OUT_POLY
1
# 0-1 output all surfaces as trimmed surfaces.
setenv IGES_OUT_SURF_AS_TRIM
0
# 0-1 output Alias instances as duplicated and transformed
geometry.
setenv IGES_OUT_INSTANCE_COPIES
1
# 0-1 Spline entity type:
#
0 = Rational B-Spline Curve/Surface (126/128).
#
1 = Parametric Spline Curve/Surface (112/114).
setenv IGES_OUT_SPLINE_TYPE
1
# 0-1 Output multi-span linear spline curve (polyline) as:
#
0 = Copious Data (106).
#
1 = Rational B-Spline curve (126) or Parametric Spline curve
(112).
setenv IGES_OUT_POLYLINE_TYPE
0
# 0-1 Surface output style: 0 (PRESERVE SURFACES) or 1 (CONVERT TO
CURVES).
setenv IGES_OUT_OUTPUT_STYLE
0
# 0-1 Trimmed surface entity type:
#
0 = output Trimmed Parametric Surface (144).
#
1 = output Bounded Surface (143).
setenv IGES_OUT_SURFACE_TYPE
0
# 0-1 Rebuild Geometry option: 0 (OFF) or 1 (ON).
setenv IGES_OUT_REBUILD_GEOMETRY 0
# 0-1 Output montone 2D trim curves: 0 (OFF) or 1 (ON).
setenv IGES_OUT_MONOTONE_2D_TRIM 0
# 0-1 Degree raise all 2D trim curves to cubic (1) or not (0).
setenv IGES_OUT_CUBIC_2D_TRIM
0
# 0-1 Output linear 2D trim curves that lie on surface boundaries
as:
#
0 = Line Entity (110).
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#
1 = Rational B-Spline curve (126) or Parametric Spline curve
(112).
setenv IGES_OUT_LINEAR_2D_TRIM
0
# 0-3 Preferred Curve on Surface representation (PREF flag of IGES
entity 142):
#
(0 = Unspecified; 1 = S o B (2D); 2 = C (3D); 3 = 2D and 3D
are equally
#
preferred).
setenv IGES_OUT_CONS_PREF
1
# 0-1 Output Analytic IGES entities if possible. These entities
include
#
Circular Arc Entity 100, Conic Arc Entity 104,Unbounded Plane
Entity 108,
#
Line Entity 110, Surface of Revolution Entity 120,
Transformation Matrix
#
Entity 124.
#
(0 = OFF; 1 = ON)
setenv IGES_OUT_ANALYTICS
1
# 0-3 Output degenerate model space trim curves.
#
(0 = None; 1 = Poles only; 2 = Seams only; 3 Poles and
Seams).
setenv IGES_OUT_DEGEN_TRIM
2
# 6 or 8 IGES Version to output.
#
(6 = IGES V4.0; 11 = IGES V5.3) No other values are
supported.
setenv IGES_OUT_VERSION
8
# Output Units.
#
1 = INCHES
6 = METERS
11 = MICROINCHES
#
2 = MILLIMETERS
7 = KILOMETERS
#
3 = MODEL
8 = MILS
#
4 = FEET
9 = MICRONS
#
5 = MILES
10 = CENTIMETERS
#
#
No other units supported.
#
If set to 3 (i.e. MODEL) then the linear units set in the
Alias Modeler
#
will be used.
#
setenv IGES_OUT_UNITS
1
# File extension used for output file.
# First character of specified extension must be '.'.
setenv IGES_OUT_FILE_EXT
.igs
You can create new vendor files or remove files (except the default) and the By
Vendor window is updated accordingly.
The system does not recognize a vendor file without an appropriate header.
Create a new vendor file by copying, renaming, and modifying an existing
one.
An appropriate header has the text “Vendor Configuration File” followed by a
number sign (#) and the vendor’s name. It is important to note that the
placement of the vendor’s name must follow the space after the number sign
(#) on the first line.
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>
IGES/VDAIS output environment variables option definitions
IGES_OUT_BS_TRIM – Linear Trim Curve Output
When the Spline Type option is set to B-SPLINE, this variable controls the
type of IGES entity used for multi-span linear (that is, polyline) trim curves.
When set to 1, linear trim curves are output as IGES entity type 106 form 12
Copious Data. When set to 0, linear trim curves are output as IGES entity
type 126 Rational B-spline Curves.
IGES_OUT_PAR_TRIM – Linear Trim Curve Output
When the Spline Type option is set to Parametric, this variable controls the
type of IGES entity used for multi-span linear (that is, polyline) trim curves.
When set to 1, linear trim curves are output as IGES entity type 106 form 12
Copious Data. When set to 0, linear trim curves are output as IGES entity
type 114 Parametric Spline Curves.
IGES_OUT_PRECISION - Double Precision Significant Digits
Changes the number of digits of double precision stored in IGES or VDAIS
files produced by AliasStudio. The default is 12 digits of precision, but can be
changed to any number between 1 and 15.
IGES_OUT_2D_TRIM
Setting this variable to 1 specifies the output of 2D parametric trim curves
only. The default of 0 outputs both 2D and 3D trim curves. Setting this value
to 2 specifies the output of model space trim curves only.
IGES_OUT_2D_BOUNDARY
When set to 1, both 3D model space and 2D parametric space boundary
curves are output if the Surface Type option has been set to BOUNDED
SURFACE. When set to 0, only model space boundary curves are saved in
the IGES or VDAIS file.
IGES_OUT_MAX_SPANS
This variable specifies the limit for the maximum number of patches for a
single surface. The number of patches in U multiplied by the number of
patches in V must be less than or equal to the defined value n for any
surface. Surfaces that exceed this limit are stored, but reported in the logfile
in the following format:
WARNING! The object <object name> contains <n > patches.
Maximum allowable patches is defined as <m >.
To keep surfaces within the patch limit, return to the modeler, pick the entity
by name and detach it to produce an acceptable object. The default of 0
outputs no message.
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IGES_OUT_MAX_TRIM
This variable specifies the limit for the maximum number of trimmed patches
for a single surface. The number of patches in U multiplied by the number of
patches in V must be less than or equal to the defined value n for any
surface.
The surface is stored “as is” and a warning message appears in the logfile.
WARNING! The trimmed object <object name> contains <n >
trimmed patches.
Maximum allowable trimmed patches is defined as <m >.
To solve this problem, return to the modeler, pick the entity by name and
detach it to produce an acceptable object. The default 0 outputs no message.
IGES_OUT_POLY
This variable produces polygon data from arbitrary degree curves and
surfaces for the IGES or VDAIS format.
When set to 1 and used in conjunction with the CONVERT TO CURVES option:
All curves and surface isoparametric curves higher than degree 1 are
converted to linear curves and output as IGES entities 106, copious data
form 12.
When set to 1 and used in conjunction with the PRESERVE SURFACE option:
◆
◆
◆
All curves higher than degree 1 are converted to linear curves and output
as IGES entities 106, copious data form 12.
Surfaces higher than degree 1 are converted to linear b-spline surfaces
and output to IGES entities 128, b-spline surface or 114 parametric
surface. The linear mesh is defined by the surface isoparametric curves,
and the density of the mesh is controlled using Object edit > Patch
precision.
IGES_OUT_SURF_AS_TRIM
Setting this variable to 1 causes all untrimmed surfaces to be output as
trimmed surfaces. The default of 0 produces no change in surface output.
IGES_OUT_INSTANCE_COPIES
With the default of 1, Alias instances are output as transformed copies of the
geometry that they instance. When set to 0, Alias instances are not stored.
IGES_OUT_SPLINE_TYPE
With the default of 0, Alias spline curves are output as IGES entity 126 and
all spline surfaces are output as IGES entity 128. When set to 1, spline
curves and surfaces are output as IGES Parametric entities, 112 and 114
respectively. The value of this variable is reflected in the IGES or VDAIS
Spline Type option. Setting IGES_OUT_BS_TRIM=1 overrides this variable for
trim curves, and setting IGES_OUT_POLY=1 overrides this variable for all
curves.
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IGES_OUT_POLYLINE_TYPE
With the default of 0, multi-span linear spline curves (polylines) are output as
copious data IGES entities (106), and when set to 1, as IGES entity Rational
B-spline curve (126), or parametric spline curve (112), according to the value
of the IGES_OUT_SPLINE_TYPE or the IGES/VDAIS Output Style option.
IGES_OUT_OUTPUT_STYLE
When set to 1, surfaces are converted to curves. With the default of 0,
surfaces are preserved in the IGES or VDAIS file. The value of this variable
is reflected in the IGES or VDAIS Output Style option.
IGES_OUT_SURFACE_TYPE
With the default of 0, Alias trimmed surfaces are written as IGES entity 144
and curves on surface are written as IGES entity 142.
When set to 1, trimmed surfaces are written as IGES Bounded Surface
entities (143), and curves on surface are written as IGES Boundary entities
(141). The value of this variable is reflected in the IGES or VDAIS Surface
Type option.
IGES_OUT_REBUILD_GEOMETRY
When set to 1, high degree or rational geometry is rebuilt to be of degree 3
and non-rational.
With the default of 0, no rebuild is done. The value of this variable is reflected
in the IGES or VDAIS Rebuild Geometry option.
IGES_OUT_MONOTONE_2D_TRIM
This variable controls the output of 2D parametric space trim curves. When
set to 1, 2D parametric space trim curves are output in monotone increasing/
decreasing pieces. When set to 0, these trim curves are output whole.
IGES_OUT_CUBIC_2D_TRIM
When set to 1, all 2D parametric space trim curves are degree raised to cubic
if necessary. When set to 0, these trim curves may be of degree 1, 2 or 3.
IGES_OUT_LINEAR_2D_TRIM
When set to 0, linear 2D parametric space trim curves that lie on a natural
surface boundary are output as IGES entity type 110 Line. When set to 1,
these curves are output as linear b-splines in the form of IGES entity type
126 Rational B-Spline Curve, or IGES entity type 112 parametric spline
curve, according to the value of the IGES_OUT_SPLINE_TYPE or the IGES/
VDAIS Spline Type option.
IGES_OUT_CONS_PREF
Controls the value of the “PREF” flag (preferred representation in sending
system) of IGES entity type 142 Curve on a Parametric Surface. Some
receiving systems require a specific value for this field. The set of values for
this variable correspond to the valid range of values for the “PREF” flag.
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The values are: 0 = Unspecified; 1 = 2D parameter space curve; 2 = Model
Space Curve; 3 = Both 3D and 2D curves equally preferred.
IGES_OUT_ANALYTICS
Controls the output of IGES analytic type entities: 100 Circular Arc, 104 Conic
Arc, 102 unbounded, 108 Plane, 110 Line, and 120 Surface of Revolution.
When set to 1, lines, arcs, and unbounded line-arcs constructed using some
of the Curve functions, or lines, arcs, and unbounded curves previously
retrieved via IGES, are output as IGES entity 110 Line, 100 Circular Arc, 124
transformation matrix, and 102 Composite Curve respectively. Conic arcs
previously retrieved via IGES and represented in AliasStudio as B-splines
are output as IGES entity 104 Conic Arc if unmodified in AliasStudio.
Planes and surfaces of revolution previously retrieved via IGES or created by
using the Exact option in the Revolve Options box (Surfaces > Revolve ❒)
and unmodified in AliasStudio, are output as IGES entity 108 unbounded
Plane and entity 120 Surface of Revolution, respectively.
When set to 0, all lines, arcs, and unbounded line-arcs and surfaces are
output based on the Spline Type option setting.
IGES_OUT_DEGEN_TRIM
When set to 0, degenerate 3D model space trim curves (that occur at the
poles and seams of periodic geometry) are removed from trim boundaries
before these boundaries are output to IGES or VDAIS.
When set to 1, degenerate 3D model space trim curves are not removed
(0=none, 1=poles, 2=seams, 3=poles and seams).
IGES_OUT_VERSION
This variable controls the version of IGES used for the output file. When set
to “6,” the output file conforms to IGES V4.0. When set to 8, the output file
conforms to IGES V5.0. When set to 11, the output file conforms to IGES
v5.3. No other versions of IGES are supported on output (this parameter is
not applicable for VDAIS). For VDAIS files, this variable always has a value
of 6.
IGES_OUT_UNITS
This variable controls the units of measure used for the model in the output
file.The valid ranges of values for units are:
Value
Unit
Value
Unit
1
Inches
7
Kilometers
2
Millimeters
8
Mils
3
Model
9
Microns
4
Feet
10
Centimeters
5
Miles
11
Microinches
6
Meters
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No other units are supported. If set to 3, then the linear units set in the
AliasStudio modeler are used. For VDAIS compatibility, this parameter is
ignored since the units must be millimeters.
IGES_OUT_FILE_EXT
This variable specifies what the file extension of the output file will be. It can
be set as anything valid for UNIX, but the value must begin with a '.'. For
example, some systems require “.igs”. If the value is invalid or not present,
the default “.iges” is used.
WIRE export options
The default format for the Save option is WIRE, which is the normal
AliasStudiobinary file format. The Wire Options section is displayed by
default. The compressed proprietary file format used by Autodesk
AliasStudio products. Programmers can access wire file via the AliasStudio
OpenModel library. From within AliasStudio you may open an older wire
version. By renaming older wire file you will keep the older file format version
and begin working in the latest version of AliasStudio. Supported entities
include surfaces, curves, and poly(gon) sets.
Embed File References
If toggled ON, all file textures used in a scene are embedded into the wire file.
This improves your ability to move files around without losing textures required to
render the scene.
Extract embedded textures using File > File References > Extract file
references.
You can use a stand-alone utility called EmbedTextures.exe if you want to
convert a number of files all at once.
StudioViewer
If toggled ON, the wire file is optimized for viewing in the StudioViewer™
application.
As well, a large icon file (with extension .ICON) is created automatically for
viewing in PortfolioWall™.
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File > Export > SDL
Saves SDL files which contains information necessary to render a scene.
See Export SDL files on page 1679.
See Rendering tools and menus on page 3.
See Render a scene from the UNIX command line on page 159.
SDL is the Scene Description Language used by AliasStudio. An SDL file is a
binary file that contains all the information necessary to render a scene, including
models, shaders, lights, and animation. To convert an SDL file into editable text,
use the stand-alone utility bsdl. Because they can be converted to simple text
files, you can edit an SDL file "by hand". That is, you can create or edit a scene
using a text editor and SDL commands. Usually, however, you will not need to
directly edit SDL files. Instead, the interactive modeling program will
automatically generate the SDL file for a scene and output it to the renderer. If
you do convert an SDL file to text to edit it, remember to convert it back to a
binary when you’re done, using bsdl.
There are, however, some cases where you may want to edit an SDL file:
●
for absolute, mathematical control over scene elements such as models,
animation paths, and shaders.
●
to modify a generated SDL file manually, or with another program.
●
to create new procedural effects using the general programming features of
SDL.
By applying basic programming constructs to scene descriptions you can create
useful and spectacular effects that would be tedious or impossible to create with
the interactive modeler alone. You can also augment the dynamics and particle
systems of the interactive modeler with the flexibility of the SDL programming
language.
Once you have an SDL file describing a scene, you can then render it either
within the interactive modeler, or using one of the stand-alone renderers.
If you are planning to use the command line to render an SDL file that has
embedded textures, you must extract them before writing out the SDL file.
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File > Export > Anim
Create a library of animation actions to be used in another model or scene.
See Export animation channels on page 1547.
Export Anim Options
Store
You can choose to store just the Curves (or actions) that are used by the
selected items to create animation curve libraries, or the Hierarchy as well,
which stores the channels of each selected object and a description of which
curves (or actions) they use. If Hierarchy is selected, the Animation SDL file
can be retrieved onto picked objects using File > Import > Anim.
Parameters
You can store curves for All parameters, or just those chosen in the Global or
Local parameter control window (see Animation > Editors > Param control
for details).
This option also lets you store parts of a hierarchy. For example, if CV
animation is disabled in the param control window, and you choose
Hierarchy, everything in the hierarchy is stored except CV animations. This
option also lets you avoid storing animations for animated shaders.
Hierarchy
You can choose to write out the channels for just the object (None), the
object and its ancestors (Above), the object and its descendants (Below), or
the object and its ancestors and descendants (Both).
Save Joint IK
If this option is toggled ON when you save an animation for a skeleton, the IK
handle information is saved for each joint of the skeleton. Additional
hierarchy information associated with the handles of the skeleton is also
saved.
Data Per Frame
If toggled ON, each channel is written out as linked to a single parameter
curve action that is sampled in frame increments specified by the By option.
This is similar to replacing the channel and possibly all its timewarp actions
with a single action, as in CurveTools > Use result in the Action Window
(Animation > Editors > Action window).
Time Range
If Data Per Frame is toggled ON, the following Time Range options are
displayed. You can write out the animation on a channel for its complete
range, or only within the specified time.
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All
Each channel is written out as a parameter curve action defined over the
complete range of the channel using the By slider.
Option Window
The channel is sampled only between the specified Start and End values,
with an interval determined by the By value.
Limitations
Retrieve Anim may cause an expression to reference an existing curve
rather than a new curve if in the Anim SDL file the expression refers to a
Parameter curve that has the same name as a different curve already
present in the scene.
●
Either rename the existing curve before retrieving the animation, or edit the
Anim SDL file and rename both the curve and the expression’s reference to
it.
●
Retrieve Anim with Overwrite Names OFF may result in expressions
referring to non-existent parameter curves and give a syntax error with no
further explanation of the problem.
Use Overwrite Names ON in the retrieve operation, or rename the existing
curve or the curve in the Anim SDL file before retrieving.
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File > Export > STL
Mainly used to create a valid watertight solid model for Stereo Lithography. It can
also be used to export meshes to other applications.
See Difference between meshes and polysets on page 44.
See Export STL files on page 1678.
See Save meshes on page 392.
STL files do not store units. AliasStudio always stores STL files in the current
units.
When AliasStudio reads STL files, it assumes they are in the current units. If
the units have changed, or if you are importing an STL file into another
application, the geometry may need to be scaled.
The tool warns you if your shell has any boundaries before tessellating it. Further
checks will reveal problems in the tessellation and attempt to repair them.
The tests are the same as in the Mesh > Mesh Repair tool. We check that the
triangles are non-degenerate, that the mesh is manifold, and has consistent
triangle orientation. Boundaries in the tessellation are indicated with arrows.
STL options
Format
The format of the output STL file (ASCII or Binary). The default setting is
Binary.
Tolerance
This tolerance is used for exporting shells (not meshes).
The Tolerance value controls the number of triangles on the tessellated shell.
It describes the maximum difference (in current units) between the original
shell and the tessellated shell output to the STL file. The lower the tolerance
value, the greater the number of triangles. The tolerance value will be
reflected in the resolution of the physical model produced by the
stereolithography machine.
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File > Export > SLC
Used to translate NURBS into the SLC format to create a valid solid watertight
model for Solid Imaging.
Output Units
Indicates in which units you want to output the SLC data. This choice
(millimeters or inches) will be reflected in the output .slc file’s header’s
keyword “-UNIT”. By default the value will be inches.
Model Type
Specifies the StereoLithography model type.
◆
◆
Part or Support—must be closed contours (polylines). By default, the
model type is Part.
Web type—can be open polylines or line segments.Typically used to
support cantilever regions on parts.
The choice will be reflected in the output .slc file’s header’s keyword “TYPE”.
Auto Range
If toggled ON (default) this option uses the bounding box of the object to
determine where to compute the slices (contour data). The slices will be
produced for the entire object, no matter what its position is in space, If
toggled OFF, two extra sliders are displayed.
Thickness
Specifies the spacing (in mm) of the slices (contoured layers). By default the
value is 0.01 mm.
The Header Section
The header section of the .slc file is an ASCII character string (up to 2048 bytes)
containing global information about the model.
The output in the header provides the following information:
●
SLC file format version number (-SLCVER2.0)
●
Output units (-UNITS<INCH/MM>
●
Type of model (-TYPE<PART/SUPPORT/WEB>)
●
Vender package and version number (which produce the SLC file (PACKAGE ALIAS STUDIO V10.0)
●
Calculations and sets from SLC output x,y,z extends of the model (EXTENTS mx,Mx,my,My, mz,Mz)
●
Header keywords (CHORDDEV, ARCRES, SURFTOL, GAPTOL,
MAXGAPFOUNS, EXTLWC, STHICK, STARD and ENDD) are set to 0.0.
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File > Export > Screen
Saves screenshots of the entire screen.
Save Screen Options
The following image formats are available:
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●
ALS (Alias run-length-encoded image format)
●
JPEG
●
TIFF
●
BMP (both as 24 and 32 bits)
File > Export > Current window
Saves screenshots of the current window.
Save Current Window Options
File Type
The following image formats are available:
◆
◆
◆
◆
ALS (Alias run-length-encoded image format)
JPEG
TIFF
BMP (both as 24 and 32 bits)
Specify Image Size
If checked, two sliders enable you to set (in pixels) the dimensions of the
output image.
Maintain Aspect Ratio
If this option is checked, the Vertical Size value is first adjusted so that the
aspect ratio corresponds to that of the current window. Changing the
horizontal or vertical size will then automatically adjust the other slider so that
the aspect ratio of the image is preserved.
This option only appears when Specify Image Size in on.
Horizontal / Vertical Size
Size (in pixels) of the output image.
These options only appear when Specify Image Size in on.
Quality Level
This option only appears when the File Type is jpeg.
Use the pull-down menu (Maximum, High, Medium or Low) or the slider
(values from 1 to 100) to adjust the quality of the jpeg image. A higher quality
will result in a larger file size.
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File > Export > Canvas image/mask layer
Exports the active image layer as an image file.
This feature is not available in SurfaceStudio.
See Export sketch images on page 78.
Exporting an image or mask layer exports a file of the same pixel dimensions as
the image plane. To see the image plane’s dimensions, choose Edit > Sketch
Properties from the Paint Layer Editor.
Export Image/Mask Layer Options
File Type
The file format to save the exported image as: Alias (.als), JPEG, TIFF, 24 bit
BMP, or 32 bit BMP.
Resize Image Layer
By default, set to true, which shrinks the layer bound to the smallest size
before exporting; otherwise, the exported image size is the same as the
canvas size.
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File > Export > Make canvas picture
Exports the sketch image plane in the active view as an image file.
See Export sketch images on page 78.
See Export a canvas plane on page 56.
See Create a conceptual design sketch on page 32.
See Annotate a model or cloud data on page 32.
Exporting a picture exports a file of the same pixel dimensions as the image
plane. To see the image plane’s dimensions, choose Edit > Sketch Properties
from the Paint Layer Editor.
Make Picture Options
File Type
The file format to save the exported image as: Alias (.als), JPEG, TIFF, 24 bit
BMP, or 32 bit BMP.
Limit image size
When this option is checked, two sliders appear to adjust the Horizontal and
Vertical size of the image in pixels. The sliders initially represent the
maximum dimensions of the image. If the image exceeds either the
horizontal of vertical maximum, it is scaled down, while preserving the aspect
ratio, to fit within the specified dimensions.
Images cannot be enlarged, only reduced in size.
Horizontal size
Maximum width of the image in pixels.
Vertical size
Maximum height of the image in pixels.
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File > Export > VRML 2.0
To view and interact with 3D models on the Web.
GUI
ON—Use the VRML 2 translator’s user interface.
OFF—Use settings previously saved in this window (do not open the user
interface).
Reload DSO
ON—unload the translator after each use.
OFF—keep the translator in memory for multiple runs.
Options
Do not use this text box. Set options for the VRML 2 translator in the
translator itself.
Export Dir
The directory in which to put converted VRML files.
>
VRML2.0 translator additional options
This window appears when you select Go from the options window described
above. Alternatively, you can access it directly by selecting File > Export >
VRML2.0 ❒.
After you have used this window to set translation options, click its Go button to
start converting.
The translator creates a file (<scene>.wrl) containing VRML code describing
the scene.
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>
Push buttons
Save
Saves the current settings in the window.
Go
Starts the conversion.
During conversion, this button changes to Abort. Click it again to stop the
conversion.
Exit
Closes the translator window.
>
Text section
This section appears at the top of the window. Type a comment for saving with
the scene. To clear its contents, click Clear text.
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>
Animation section
The text at the top of this section indicates the animation frames available for
export. If you add frames while this window is open, this number will no longer be
accurate. (Click Update to update the frame count.)
Start Frame and End Frame
Specify the start frame and end frame of the animation you want to convert.
Frame step
Defines the number of animated frames between exported frames.
Frames per sec
Specifies the playback speed of the converted animation.
Animate
Lets you choose what to animate. Select one or more of transformations,
vertices, shaders, and lights.
View frames
When checked, lets you view animation frames in the AliasStudio view
windows while you export them.
>
Hierarchy section
Hierarchy
World—do not export hierarchy (all vertices use world space)
Flat—one level of hierarchy: transformations use world space, vertices use
local space
Full—export the full DAG tree hierarchy: transformations and vertices use
local space
Export
All—export everything visible in the scene
Picked—export everything picked in the scene (items lower in the DAG tree
from the DAG nodes of picked objects are not included).
Active—export everything picked in the scene (items lower in the DAG tree
from their DAG nodes of picked objects are also included).
>
Navigation section
These settings control the initial set-up of the VRML browser when it opens the
.wrl file:
Viewer
The initial type of navigation.
Headlight
When ON, the viewer will cast light on the scene.
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Menus
Travel speed
The initial speed of the viewer.
>
Other options
Textures
Export textures.
Normals
Export normals.
Color per vertex
ON — calculate color for each vertex.
OFF — calculate color for each polygon.
Long Lines
ON — save the VRML text file with long lines.
OFF — break the VRML text file into short lines (each value on a separate
line).
Turn this option OFF if you want to edit the output file with a text editor that
does not handle lines longer than 80 characters well (such as vi). This will
increase the size of the output file.
Auto launch viewer
When ON, opens the new VRML file in Netscape Navigator after export.
To view VRML files in Netscape Navigator, you must have the Navigator
VRML plug-in installed.
Sample Textures
Converts procedural textures to image files.
Textures
Imbedded —includes texture image data in the .wrl file (not currently
supported).
SGI image file — converts texture images to SGI format and reference.
Use texture path in URL
Includes the texture path in the URL of the .wrl file.
Texture path
Save textures to this directory.
>
Output section
Scene name
Base name for the scene, to which the translator will add the suffix .wrl.
Menus
621
File > Print setup
Controls the look and layout of printouts.
See Illustrator format on page 1722.
See Export an Illustrator file on page 1674.
See Print part of a large model on a single sheet of paper on
page 89.
See Print to a non-PostScript/HPGL2 printer on page 89.
See Set up the printer on page 85.
See Choose the scale and layout type of the drawing on page 85.
See Change the layout of view boxes in the drawing on page 86.
See Change the scale of objects in the drawing on page 87.
See Give layers individual print attributes on page 88.
See Change the look of the grid, locators, and information box on
page 88.
See Preview images in RGB or CMYK on page 88.
See Print the current file on page 88.
See Print a canvas plane on page 57.
See Create digital tape drawings on page 187.
Print setup window
>
Output tab
Printer
The printer to output to. This pop-up menu shows all the printers available to
your local system.
On Windows, this is all the printers in your Printers folder (Start >
Settings > Printers).
Output Style
The page description language used by your printer.
If you are printing to a PostScript printer, choose PostScript.
If you are printing to an HP/GL printer, choose one of the HP/GL options. If
your printer supports color, choose HP/GL2. Otherwise, check your printer
manual to find out which protocol your printer uses.
To output sketching curves to an Adobe Illustrator format file, choose
Illustrator. Note that only sketch “shapes” are output to Illustrator: no NURBS
curves or surfaces will be output.
Output to
Output to a printer, or redirect the output to a file.
Appearance
Print in Color or Black and White.
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Menus
Print Range
Choose which pages of all the possible pages to print (for layouts that spread
over multiple pages).
All: prints all pages.
Page placement: Allows you to choose which part of the drawing will appear
on the page by dragging a representation of the page around the print
preview with the middle mouse button. This only works when Viewing type
is Scale.
Range: Choose a start and end page to print.
Selection: Print only the pages currently selected in the print preview window
(File > Print).
Number of Copies
The number of copies to print to the printer. Not available when output is
directed to a file.
PostScript features
Click to show a dialog box for setting low-level PostScript-specific options.
>
Paper tab
Paper Type
The type of paper used by your printer.
For printers fed by a continuous roll of paper, set the paper type to Rollfeed.
For “normal” printers fed by a tray with sheets of paper, set the paper type to
Pre-cut.
Standard
Controls which international paper-size naming standard is used to choose a
paper size.
Size
The paper size to output to.
Orientation
Portrait (top of the output is at the top of the page) or Landscape (top of the
output is at the right edge of the page).
Margins
The amount of space between the edge of the printer’s printable area and
the output.
>
Info tab
Draw Titlebox
Whether to show the information box on the output.
Menus
623
Information fields
The information that will appear in the information box.
Drawing Scale
This value is automatically calculated based on the current settings in the
Viewing tab. You cannot edit it directly.
Units
This value is taken from the units used in your model (Preferences >
Construction options). You cannot edit it directly.
Titlebox Font Size
The font size of the text in the information box.
>
Viewing tab
Objects
Output only picked (Active) or All objects in the model.
Viewing Type
Scale: manually control the Layout Style and Scale.
Scale To Fit: automatically scale to accommodate a manually controlled
Layout Style.
Screen: match the layout and scale to the program’s view windows.
Screen scale: match the layout of the program’s view windows with manual
control over Scale in orthographic views.
Layout Style
The layout of orthographic and perspective windows in the output.
Scale Type
Controls how you specify the scaling factor.
Ratio: enter the ratio between the output and the model, separated by a
colon (:).
Percent: enter the percentage of the model’s size to output.
Scale
The scaling ratio or percentage (as specified in Scale Type).
Sync Viewing Axis
Locks the axes of the orthographic views together, so moving one view
automatically moves the other views.
Match Paper Border
Automatically fit the views to fill the available area on the page.
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Menus
Image
Controls what color space is displayed in the print preview.
The colors in most images are specified using RGB values. The RGB color
space cannot be completely reproduced on a CMYK printer. This option lets
you preview what the images will look like when printed on a CMYK printer.
>
Drawing tab
Draw Grid
Shows the grid in the output.
Draw Rulers
Shows unit rulers along the edges of the views.
Crop Marks
Shows crop marks around the edges of the output to allow for easier
registration.
Draw Border
Shows borders around the views.
Border Thickness
The width of the lines used to create the borders.
Grid Thickness
The width of the lines used to draw the grid.
Ruler Font Properties
Overrides the default font size for ruler text.
Ruler Font Size
The font size of ruler text labels.
Edit Layer Print Attributes
Click to show a dialog box allowing you to set print attributes by layer.
Line Thickness
The width of the lines used to draw the model.
Locator Color
The color used for drawing locators, on color printers.
Filled Arrow
Fills arrowheads with color.
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625
Arrow Width
The width of arrowheads in the output.
Arrow Length
The length of arrowheads in the output.
Font Properties
Overrides the default font size for locator text.
Locator Font Size
The font size of locator text labels.
Hidden Line Tab
The hidden line algorithm uses a tessellation in its processing. You can specify to
use the existing tessellation (like in the NURBS to Mesh tool), or uncheck that
option and use your preferred tessellation settings.
If you have surfaces behind other surfaces that you want to be plotted (for
example, dials behind a transparent plastic shield), make the transparent
surface’s wireframe invisible before choosing Print; because hidden line plotting
doesn’t recognize shader transparency.
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Menus
File > Print
Previews the print output and sends the output to the printer.
See Print part of a large model on a single sheet of paper on
page 89.
See Print to a non-PostScript/HPGL2 printer on page 89.
See Choose the scale and layout type of the drawing on page 85.
See Change the layout of view boxes in the drawing on page 86.
See Change the scale of objects in the drawing on page 87.
See Give layers individual print attributes on page 88.
See Change the look of the grid, locators, and information box on
page 88.
See Preview images in RGB or CMYK on page 88.
See Print the current file on page 88.See Print a canvas plane on
page 57.
See Create a conceptual design sketch on page 32.
See Annotate a model or cloud data on page 32.
Preview area
Page count display
Edge handles
Center handle
View
Information box
Page Display menu
To track around the preview, drag the middle mouse button.
To dolly in and out on the preview, drag the right mouse button.
To export a curve to Illustrator using File > Print, shape attributes must be
assigned to the 2D curve. 3D NURBS curves, isoparametric curves, curves
on surface, or boundary curves will not be exported.
Page count display
Shows the total number of columns and rows of pages in the output.
Menus
627
Edge handles
Drag these handles to change the size of a row or column of views in the
output.
Center handle
Drag this handle to change the relative sizes of views.
View
Move the mouse over a view and hold Shift + Alt to show the view panel,
then choose the view direction by clicking an arrow or car icon, or click
Perspective.
Information box
Shows the information you enter in the Info tab of the Print Setup window.
Control the display of this box using the settings on the Drawing tab of the
Print Setup window.
Page Display menu
Controls how to display a multiple page layout:
Show multiple pages: show the pages disconnected, allowing you to see
exactly what will show up on each page.
Show page by page: show one page at a time individually. Use the Prev Page
and Next Page buttons at the bottom of the window to show different pages.
Show all pages: show the pages connected, as one large display, with lines
showing the page divisions.
Bookmarks menu
Controls which bookmarked view you are currently showing.
Buttons
Print
Send the output to the printer/file.
Setup
Show the Print Setup window.
Prev Page
Show the previous page in page by page mode.
Next Page
Show the next page in page by page mode.
Reset view
Reset any tracking or dollying to show the default view of the page.
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Menus
Bookmark
Use the items in this pop-up menu to set, edit, or delete bookmarked views of
the output.
Menus
629
File > Show image
Opens an Alias PIX file in a viewer window.
Image Type
Lets you choose what to view:
Mask, to choose images from the mask directory
Pix, to choose images from the pix directory
Header, to view the header of a file. Header information contains the image
resolution, offset, and number of bitplanes (8 or 24).
Automatic Scale
Check this option ON to scale the image to a resolution greater or smaller
than the screen.
The default is OFF.
OFF — the outline of a window appears that you can move anywhere on the
screen by moving the mouse. Pressing a mouse button places the PIX or
MASK file on screen in the window.
ON — the PIX or MASK file fills the screen. You can scale up to the maximum
size that can be represented on the screen.
Offset View
Lets you specify where the lower left corner of the image is placed, measured
in pixels. You can offset the image placement by entering numerical values
for the X and Y coordinates.
The default values are 0, 0.
Images are represented at actual resolution unless the image is larger than
the screen. Then the lower left corner of the image is shown if Automatic
Scale is set to OFF.
The Offset View coordinates must be smaller than the image size.
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Menus
File > Exit
Quits AliasStudio.
Menus
631
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Menus
Edit menu
633
Edit > Undo
Reverses the effects of the previous command.
The two checkboxes control how (or whether) AliasStudio limits the amount of
memory it uses to remember undoable events. You turn on one, both, or neither
limit.
In general, using the memory limit is better at conserving memory. However, if
you sometimes perform commands on large data sets and you want to make
sure you will always be able to undo them no matter how much memory they use,
use the command limit instead.
In the long run, it is always preferable to increase the amount of memory in
your computer, if possible, than to lose the ability to undo.
Limit number of undo commands
Limits the number of steps you can undo. Set the Maximum number of undo
commands option to control the maximum number of steps AliasStudio will
remember.
Limit memory used by undo
Limits the amount of memory that undoable steps can take up. Set the
Maximum memory used by undo option to control the maximum number of
megabytes AliasStudio will devote to remembering undo steps.
Maximum number of undo commands
The maximum number of steps you can undo.
Maximum memory used by undo
The maximum number of megabytes of memory AliasStudio will devote to
remembering undoable steps.
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Edit > Redo
Re-applies the last command you reversed.
635
Edit > Reinvoke last
Repeats the last command you chose.
For example, if the last command you used was Duplicate, choosing Edit >
Reinvoke last is the same as choosing Duplicate again.
Note that this is different from Edit > Redo, which reverses the effect of an undo.
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Edit > Cut
Removes the picked objects from the scene and puts them on the AliasStudio
clipboard.
637
Edit > Copy
Copies the picked objects to the AliasStudio clipboard.
638
Edit > Paste
Pastes the contents of the AliasStudio clipboard back into the scene.
See Organize objects on layers on page 235.
See Operate on all the objects in a layer on page 236.
>
Layers options
Same layers
Pastes objects into the layers they were cut or copied from. If the layer does
not exist, it is created.
Creation layer
Pastes objects into the current creation layer. This is the layer whose name
appears with a yellow background in the Layer Bar.
Always ask
When this option is checked, a menu always appears when the tool is
invoked, letting you choose where to paste the objects.
same layers: Pastes objects into the layers they were cut or copied from. If
the layer does not exist, it is created.
duplicate layers: If objects from a layer with a name identical to an existing
layer are pasted (for example when copying and pasting between stages),
the layer is duplicated and a number appended to its name. For example, if
the original layer is called curves, the duplicated layer will be called
curves#2.
To merge the contents of all duplicate layers into the original (and delete the
duplicate layers) use Layers > Delete > Merge duplicate layers. In the
example above, the contents of layer curves#2 will be added to layer
curves, and layer curves#2 will be deleted.
new layer: Pastes objects into a new layer. A confirm box appears where you
can type the name of the new layer.
DefaultLayer: Pastes objects into the DefaultLayer.
You can also paste into any of the existing layers by selecting it from the list
(e.g. L1, L2, etc)
639
Edit > Cut image
Cut selected regions of the active canvas layer and place them in the Windows
clipboard.
This feature is not available in SurfaceStudio.
See Cut, copy, and paste regions of a sketch on page 131.
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Edit > Copy image
Copy selected regions of the active canvas layer and place them in the Windows
clipboard.
This feature is not available in SurfaceStudio.
See Resize an object on a canvas on page 155.
See Cut, copy, and paste regions of a sketch on page 131.
See Create a mask by selecting a region on page 116.
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Edit > Paste image
Paste the contents of the Windows clipboard into AliasStudio either as a new
canvas plane (if the active view doesn’t contain a canvas plane) or as a new
canvas layer (if the active view contains a sketch image plane).
This feature is not available in SurfaceStudio.
The contents of the clipboard are pasted into an existing canvas plane either
into the center of the selection mask (if there is one) or into the center of the
sketch image plane (if there is no selection mask).
AliasStudio will automatically clear the selection mask when you choose Edit
> Paste image.
See Import an image as a new canvas on page 45.
See Resize an object on a canvas on page 155.
See Cut, copy, and paste regions of a sketch on page 131.
See Introduction to masks on page 115.
See Create a mask by selecting a region on page 116.
Display Mode
RGB:
Box:
Depth Type
Off:
Priority:
Crop to Window
Crop the image to fit in the current window.
Dim Image
Wash-out the image to create a low-contrast background. This is useful for
tracing from the image or using the image as a reference.
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Edit > Duplicate > Object
Creates one or more copies of the picked objects, with optional transformations
applied to each copy.
The default options create an exact copy of the original at the same location.
You will have to move the copy to see the original.
See Create clusters on page 1587.
See Duplicate objects on page 280.
See Create linked instances of objects on page 282.
See Flip (reflect) objects on page 243.
See 2D best practices on page 8.
Duplicate objects options
Number
The number of copies you want to create.
If you specify multiple copies, each copy is moved, rotated, and scaled
relative to the previous copy.
Transform in
Choose XYZ space to transform copies using world space measurements.
Choose Geometry space to transform copies relative to the measurements
of the original.
XYZ space options
Translation, Rotation, Scaling
Move, rotate, and/or scale the geometry as it is copied.
Note that negative scaling values reflect the object across its pivot point.
Group
Specifies whether the copied geometry should be a child of the same parent
as the original geometry from which it was copied.
Geometry Type
Choose Copy to create real geometry.
Choose Instance to create a lightweight reference to the original. When the
original is change, the instance is automatically updated.
Geometry space options
Distance on geometry
Choose Equal to space copies equally along the entire length of the curve or
surface.
643
Choose Fixed Arc length to space copies at intervals controlled by the Arc
Length Distance option.
Arc Length Distance
The spacing between copies along the curve or surface when Distance on
geometry is set to Fixed Arc Length.
Positive U, Positive V, Negative U, Negative V
The axis direction along which the object is duplicated.
Automatic
Duplicate the object in either the positive U direction or the negative U
direction, whichever is greater.
Animation
Copy Animation
Copy animation applied to the object.
To duplicate an animated light, use Edit > Copy in the Multi-lister.
Parameters
Use these check boxes to copy channels for All, Global, or Local parameters.
To find out how to turn animation parameter controls on or off, see
Animation > Editors > Param control.
Hierarchy
None: Copies only the animation for the picked object.
Above: Copies the animation from picked nodes and the nodes above them.
Below: Copies the animation from the picked nodes and the nodes below
them.
Both: Copies all animation from the picked nodes, the nodes above them,
and the nodes below them.
Time Offset
Change the start time of the animation of the object being copied. This
setting is applied to all nodes of the chosen hierarchy, not just the picked
node.
>
●
●
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Animation notes
If the object being copied has time warps applied to its channels, all the time
warps for each parameter are also copied. In this case, time offsets are
achieved by adding a time shift warp, not by moving the animation curve.
Time offsets are ignored for any expression that is copied.
Edit > Duplicate > Mirror
Enables you to create a symmetrical copy of hierarchies according to an axis
plane.
See Create a human-like character on page 1566.
See Draw a skeleton on page 1551.
Mirror options
>
Mirror Type
Duplicate
Lets you pick a branch as the source branch. The tool duplicates the
branch and mirrors its nodes on the new branch.
Reshape
Lets you pick an existing branch as the destination (rather than have
the tool create it). Geometries are not mirrored for this option.
>
Mirror Across
Mirror provides three mirroring planes under world space. This option
specifies the plane to use for later mirror operations.
xy mirroring
planes
yz mirroring planes
xz mirroring planes
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Edit > Ungroup
Separates the components of a group into individually pickable objects.
See Group and ungroup objects on page 237.
>
Ungroup Method
This option controls how ungrouping the geometry affects the DAG.
Delete Node
The picked node and all its descendants are ungrouped from its parent DAG
node.
If the node picked is a root node, the node is deleted and all its children are
now root nodes.
◆
◆
If the node is an only child, the parent is deleted.
If the node has siblings, the node gets adopted by its grandparent (that
is, it moves up one level in the hierarchy).
Copy Node
The picked node and all its descendants are ungrouped from its parent DAG
node.
The parent DAG node and all its transformations are copied, and the copy
becomes the new parent DAG node for the picked node.
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
The picked node must have a sibling for this method to work.
If the node is an instance, an error message will appear on the
information line.
If the parent node is an instance, nothing happens.
Copy Node makes the current node have its own parent, if it doesn’t
have one already.
Transformations are copied.
A new parent is grouped under the parent’s parent.
If the parent has no parent, a new group is formed.
Collapse
Simplifies complicated hierarchies of curves or surfaces by collapsing all the
nodes below a given DAG node into a single level.
Collapse is especially useful for ungrouping objects while keeping
transformations on. You can also use it to apply a set of transformations
directly from a DAG node to the CVs that make up the geometry underneath.
◆
◆
◆
646
If the picked node is an instance, an error message is displayed on the
information line.
If there is an instance in the group, the collapse is only performed below
the lowest instance.
All nodes from the picked node to, but not including, the leaf nodes are
deleted. The accumulated transformations are then applied to the
geometry of the leaf node. The transformations of the leaf nodes are
reset and the pivots are set to zero. The leaf nodes are then grouped
under the picked node’s parent. If there is no parent, the leaf nodes
become root nodes.
◆
◆
◆
◆
Depending on the node that you picked, there may be some collapsing,
but no ungrouping. When collapse occurs, all the branches under the
picked nodes, including the picked node itself, are collapsed.
If an instance is picked, the following message appears: Cannot
ungroup INSTANCE nodes with DELETE NODE or COLLAPSE.
If a node with geometry right below it but nothing above it (root
component) is picked, nothing can be ungrouped but collapsing still
occurs. The following message appears: Root component collapsed
but not ungrouped; node transformations were applied to
CVs.
If CVs or edit points are picked, no collapsing occurs. To warn you that
this is happening, the following message appears: No DAG
compression was done.
Extract
The picked nodes and all their descendants are ungrouped from the parent
DAG node. The picked nodes become root nodes.
>
Preserve Position
These check boxes are valid only when the Method is either Delete Node or
Extract.
Yes
The world space positions of all objects are preserved after ungrouping. A
transformation is applied to the CVs of the objects being ungrouped.
You cannot ungroup hierarchies that contain instances if you have Preserve
Position set to Yes.
No
The ungrouped objects lose the transformations of their old parent hierarchy.
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Edit > Group
Groups the picked objects into a single object, allowing you to pick and apply
transformations to all the components at once.
See Group and ungroup objects on page 237.
When an object is part of a group, it retains its own transformations (position,
rotation and scale) but is further affected by any transformations made to the
group.
Null Node Grouping
Controls how null nodes (objects without geometry, such as construction
planes) are grouped:
Under: the grouped node will be grouped under the null node as a child node.
Beside: the grouped node will be grouped beside the null node as a sibling
node.
Preserve Position
Apply any transformations necessary to keep the current position of the
geometry, despite any transformations applied to it by its new parents.
Turn this option off to allow geometry to adopt the transformations of any
parents when it is added to a group.
You cannot group nodes containing instances if Preserve Position is ON.
648
Edit > Expand instances
Creates real geometry in place of instanced objects.
See Create linked instances of objects on page 282.
AliasStudio lets you use placeholder objects that are linked to an original object.
This lets you have many transformed copies of an original without using up
memory and disk space to store real geometry.
This menu item transformed instanced objects into real geometry that is no
longer linked to the original.
To use it, pick the instance or instances and choose Edit > Expand instances.
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650
Delete menu
651
Delete > Delete active
Deletes the picked objects.
See Difference between meshes and polysets on page 44.
See Delete objects on page 264.
See Delete a canvas plane on page 58.
652
Delete > Delete construction history
Deletes construction history from the picked objects.
See Delete construction history on page 177.
See Work with curve networks on page 224.
653
Delete > Delete all locators
Deletes all locators (measurement, evaluation, and labeling objects) in the
scene.
See Delete objects on page 264.
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Delete > Delete guidelines
Deletes all guidelines in the scene. With an option to limit the number of
guidelines allowed in the scene at once.
Total Guidelines Allowed
The total number of guidelines allowed in the scene at one time. As new
guidelines are created, older guidelines are deleted to maintain this number.
See Delete objects on page 264.
See Work with, limit, or delete guidelines on page 160.
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Delete > Delete model
Delete > Delete model deletes all objects from the scene, while retaining the
rendering setup (lights, cameras, shaders, environments) so that you can import
a new model into the same rendering setup and shade it immediately.
For more information, see Utilities > SBD > Open SBD window.
Delete Model Options
Delete Shaders
Turn this on (default) if you are importing a wire file with materials already
assigned to the geometry. Turn it off if you are importing a neutral file format
(e.g. IGES) so that you can use the materials already in your session.
Delete Lights
Turn this on to remove all the lights in your session. Turn if off to retain the
same illumination.
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Delete > Painting > Delete canvases from construction plane
Deletes the canvas information from a canvas (construction) plane.
1
Select the canvas plane in one of two ways:
◆
◆
2
Use Pick > Object and click on the canvas plane in the window.
Click he small pick icon pick canvas to the left of the canvas plane’s
name in the Construction Plane Editor (Windows > Editors >
Construction Plane editor).
Choose Delete > Painting > Delete canvases from construction plane.
All the paint information (brush strokes, masks, background color, opacity,
etc) is removed from the canvas plane, but the plane itself remains in the
scene and can be used as a regular construction plane. (See Create or edit a
reference plane (page 179) and Work with the construction
plane (page 180)).
To delete the canvas plane as well as the paint, pick it, then either press the
Delete key, or choose Delete > Delete active.
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Delete > Painting > Delete Canvases
Deletes all canvases of the selected type in the scene.
See Delete a canvas plane on page 58.
To delete one canvas in a scene, pick the canvas in the Construction Plane
Editor or by choosing Pick > Object, and either press the Delete key or choose
Delete > Delete active.
To delete all canvases of a particular type, use the Delete Canvases tool. It offers
the following choice of canvases for deletion:
All canvases and overlays
Choosing this option removes all canvas planes and overlay planes (planes
visible only from specific view points)
All overlays
Choosing this option removes all overlay planes only.
All canvases
Choosing this option removes all canvas planes only.
Unbookmarked overlays
Choosing this option will only remove overlay planes that do not have
bookmarks associated with them.
Use this tool carefully, as it does not offer an “Undo” capability.
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Delete > Painting > Delete active image layer
Deletes the active image layer.
659
Delete > Painting > Delete all mask layers
Deletes all mask layers on the active canvas.
This feature is not available in SurfaceStudio.
See Delete masks on page 123.
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Delete > Painting > Delete sketch projection
Removes a projection shader created from an image plane from an object or
group of objects.
Delete sketch projection
Select Delete > Painting > Delete sketch projection to remove a projected
image plane from an object or group of objects. Selecting this function also
removes the projection shader from the multi-lister.
The option box gives you the choice of deleting sketch projections in all
windows or the active window only.
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Delete > Delete image planes
Deletes all image planes or only the image planes in the current window.
See Add or delete an image plane on page 119.
See Delete a canvas plane on page 58.
All windows
Deletes all image planes in the model.
Current Window
Deletes any image planes in the current window. Invisible image planes are
also deleted.
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Delete > Delete projective textures
Deletes all or picked projection objects, which represent the placement of
projective textures in the scene.
All
Deletes all projection objects in the scene.
Active
Deletes only those projection objects currently picked.
Delete Parent Shader
Every projection object is part of a texture map. (The projection object
controls the texture’s placement.) When this box is checked, deleting a
projection object also deletes the corresponding shader and texture map
from the Multi-lister.
If the shader is in use (assigned to geometry), only the texture map is
deleted, unless Delete Shaders with Connections is also checked.
Delete Shaders with Connections
When checked, the tool will delete shaders even if they are in use.
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Delete > Animation > Delete selection handles
Deletes all or picked selection handles (does not delete the objects or nodes the
selection handles are attached to).
See Add selection handles on page 1595.
See Delete objects on page 264.
>
Objects
All
This option deletes selection handles from all objects.
Active
This option deletes selection handles from active objects only.
>
Hierarchy
None
If Active is specified, then this option deletes selection handles only from the
active objects themselves. If All is specified, this option has no effect.
Below
If Active is specified, then this option deletes selection handles from active
objects and their descendants in the hierarchy. If All is specified, this option
has no effect.
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Delete > Animation > Delete channels
Delete channel types, objects, parameters or hierarchy.
See Delete the animation for the object on page 1538.
Delete Channels Options
From this option box you can choose to delete channel types, objects,
parameters or hierarchy. When you are finished, click the Go button.
Channel Types
You can choose to delete Animation, Expressions, or Both animation and
expressions of the selected object.
Objects
◆
◆
◆
All — animation is deleted from every animated object in the universe.
Active — animation is deleted only from picked objects. You can pick a
DAG node, CV or camera using the Pick menu items. This is the default.
Sets — animation is deleted from all objects in the selected sets in the
Set Lister. Choose Animation > Editors > Set lister to display the Set
Lister .
A shader, texture, light or the background is considered active if it is picked in
the Multi-lister.
There is always at least one active shader, texture, light or background.
If you have keyed channels on shaders, lights, etc. directly with the Key
button, these channels may not correspond with the objects’ Local or Global
parameter settings, and you will have to use All to delete them.
Parameters
◆
◆
All — all channels of the object are deleted.
Global/Local — animation channels are deleted only from objects whose
animation parameters are selected in the Global or Local parameter
control windows.
Choose Animation > Editors > Param control to select different global or
local animation parameters.
Hierarchy
◆
◆
None — animation is deleted only from the selected objects.
Below — animation is deleted from the selected objects and all objects
below them.
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For DAG nodes, CVs and cameras, the hierarchy refers to the hierarchy as
represented in the SBD window. For shaders, textures, and lights, it refers to
the implicit hierarchy in the Multi-lister (see Render > Multi-lister > List
all). If a light DAG node is picked and hierarchy is set at Below, then
animation on the light parameters is deleted as well.
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Delete > Animation > Delete static actions
Delete static actions from objects, parameters,and heirarchy.
Delete Static Actions Options
Objects
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
All — deletes static actions from all objects.
Active — deletes static actions from active objects only.
Sets — deletes static actions from sets only.
A shader, texture, light, or the background is considered active if it is
picked in the Multi-lister.
There is always at least one active shader, texture, light or background.
For information about the multi-lister, see the Rendering book.
Parameters
◆
◆
◆
All — deletes static actions from All parameters.
Global — deletes static actions only from those parameters specified in
the Global Parameter Control window.
Local — deletes static actions only from those parameters specified in
the Local Parameter Control window.
To set different global or local parameters, use Animation > Editors >
Param control.
Hierarchy
◆
◆
None — deletes static actions only from the picked objects themselves.
Below — deletes static actions from the picked objects and their
descendants in the hierarchy.
For DAG nodes, CVs and cameras, the hierarchy refers to the hierarchy as
represented in the SBD window. For shaders, textures, and lights, it refers to
the implicit hierarchy in the Multi-lister.
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Delete > Animation > Delete constraints
Delete animation constraints by hierarchy, target or type.
See Delete constraints on page 1585.
Delete Constraint Options
>
Hierarchy
None
Deletes constraints on selected nodes.
Below
Deletes constraints on selected nodes and the lower nodes below them in
the hierarchy.
>
Target
Object
Deletes constraints whose targets are objects.
UV
Deletes constraints whose targets are UV points.
Both
Deletes constraints for both types of targets.
>
Type
All
Deletes all types of constraints.
Point
Deletes only point constraints.
Orientation
Deletes only orientation constraints.
Aim
Deletes only aim constraints.
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Delete > Delete windows
Closes the current window, and all open modeling windows.
Current Window
Only the active window is deleted.
Modeling Windows
All modeling windows are deleted.
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Delete > Delete null nodes
Deletes any nodes with no objects under them.
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●
In the SBD window, empty nodes are brown rectangles with nothing
underneath.
●
In the Information window (Windows > Information > Information
window), they have no Geometry section.
●
Null nodes are not deleted if they are animated nodes, skeleton joint nodes,
or construction plane nodes.
Layouts menu
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Layouts > All windows > All windows
The items in the Layouts > All windows sub-menu set up the perspective and
orthographic windows in various standard configurations.
These menu items arrange various view windows in standard layouts, including
User windows, All windows, All (Top + Persp), All (Side + Persp), All (Back +
Persp), All (SketchPad), All (Horizontal/Persp), and All (Vertical/Persp).
When you resize the AliasStudio window, the Modeling and Paint windows resize
to fill the new frame size.
Creating other window arrangements
When setting up a custom layout by resizing or moving Modeling or Paint
windows, a magnetic region along all windows’ edges helps you to align the
windows and snap them into place. The edges around the perimeter of the
AliasStudio work space can also be used as snapping points.
In the example above, the blue dotted lines show locations where window edges
will snap.
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Layouts > Perspective
Lets you fill the screen with a Perspective view window.
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Layouts > Front
Lets you fill the screen with a single Front view window.
This window looks at the X, Z plane.
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Layouts > Back
Lets you fill the screen with a single Back view window.
This window looks at the -X, Z plane.
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Layouts > Right
Lets you fill the screen with a single Right view window.
This window looks at the Y, Z plane.
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Layouts > Left
Lets you fill the screen with a single Left view window.
This window looks at the -Y, Z plane.
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Layouts > Top
Lets you fill the screen with a single Top view window.
This window looks at the X, Y plane.
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Layouts > Bottom
Lets you fill the screen with a single Bottom view window.
This window looks at the X, -Y plane.
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Layouts > Paint
Opens a Paint window.
A paint window shows a full screen and head-on view of the currently active
canvas. This allows you to more easily focus on the task of sketching, without
being distracted by the 3D modeling world.
See The Paint window (page 24) for more information.
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Layouts > New window
Creates new view windows.
Type
Controls the type of window that is created. The default is Front (or Side).
>
●
Tips
You can create several different views of the same window using this option.
For example, to create three perspective windows, each with a different view,
select the Perspective option, click Go, then select New window two more
times. Adjust each view using the camera tools.
To create several cameras in the same window, use the View > New Camera
tool from the Tool Palette.
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Layouts > FullScreen
Display the model and background over the entire screen without any interface
elements.
Marking menus, hotkeys and camera manipulations (through Alt-Shift) can still
be used in borderless display mode.
Press the Esc key to return to the conventional display.
The option box allows you to turn on or off selected parts of the interface. The
options are:
Hide Main Menu UI
This option is ON by default. Menus, title bar, prompt line and layer bar are
hidden.
Hide Title Bar
This option is ON by default. The Windows title bar is hidden, as are the
individual view window title bars.
Hide Palette/Shelf
This option is ON by default. The tool palette, shelves, control panel and title
bar are hidden.
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Layouts > User windows > Save Current Layout
Saves the current layout to a file, or as the default user layout.
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Layouts > User windows > Retrieve Layout
Loads a saved layout from a file.
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Object Display menu
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ObjectDisplay > Control
Opens a control window allowing you to show or hide various control features on
all or picked objects.
Use the +/- buttons included on the control panel to show and hide object
features.
See Change the form of original object in an animation on
page 1596.
See Edit the timing curve of a motion path on page 1531.
See Move CVs in world (XYZ) space on page 253.
See Move CVs relative to their curve or surface on page 254.
See Move CVs along an arbitrary vector or plane on page 254.
See Move multiple CVs toward or away from a point on
page 255.
See Transform one CV and have surrounding CVs follow it on
page 255.
See Show or hide CVs and other object features on page 125.
Scope
What objects the checkboxes will affect when you click Go. Set this to Active
to only affect the picked objects.
All On, Off
Automatically turns all the checkboxes on or off.
Key points
Show keypoints on keypoint curves (lines, arcs, rectangles, etc.).
See Draw and edit CAD-like lines and arcs on page 154.
Hulls
Show lines connecting adjacent CVs.
See CVs, hulls, and edit points on page 6.
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Edit points, Blend points, CVs
Show control points on curves.
See CVs, hulls, and edit points on page 6.
See Blend curves on page 10.
Surface iso
Show interior isoparametric curves on surfaces. When this option is off, only
the surface edges will be visible.
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ObjectDisplay > Invisible
ObjectDisplay > Invisible hides picked objects.
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ObjectDisplay > Visible
Object Display > Visiblemakes all invisible objects visible.
All
Makes all invisible objects visible.
Pick
Makes only the picked nodes in the SBD window visible. To open the SBD
window, select Utilities > SBD > Open SBD window.
Objects
Choose whether the action will apply to objects.
Locators
Choose whether the action will apply to locators.
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ObjectDisplay > Hide Unselected
ObjectDisplay > Hide Unselected hides unpicked objects.
By default, all unselected geometry is hidden. Additional options in the option box
allow you to also hide unselected Cameras, Lights, and Texture Nodes if
checked.
Select ObjectDisplay > Visible to make all hidden objects visible again.
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ObjectDisplay > Template
Switches the picked object between normal and templated, where you can see
and snap to the object, but not pick it.
See Difference between meshes and polysets on page 44.
See Use objects as templates on page 178.
See Operate on all the objects in a layer on page 236.
Templating is useful to “get objects out of the way”, and for creating reference or
construction objects that you can see without interfering with the modeling tools.
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ObjectDisplay > Draw precision
Increases or decreases the precision (smoothness) with which curves and
surfaces are drawn in the view windows.
See Simplify the display of objects.
Draw Precision
Specifies the drawing smoothness of all curves and surfaces. The slider
value goes from 0.0 (rough approximation) to 1.0 (very smooth). The default
is 0.5.
This value applies to all existing curves and surfaces, as well as all new
curves and surfaces created from this point on.
This slider is also available from the Modeling Control Panel. See Modeling
control panel (page 1259).
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ObjectDisplay > Draw style
Changes how surfaces, curves, and section data appear in the view windows.
See Change the display of section data on page 436.
See Change how objects are drawn on page 126.
The Draw Style settings do not affect printing or plotting.
Surface
Surface Boundary
Choose SINGLE or DOUBLE for the thickness of surface boundaries.
Patch Precision
Choose DOTTED or SOLID for the line style of additional isoparametric
curves introduced when setting the patch precision to a value greater than
the default of 2.
See Object edit > Patch precision for details.
CV Icon
Click a button to choose the icon that represents CVs on surfaces.
Curves
Line Width
Choose SINGLE or DOUBLE for the curve thickness.
BlendPoint Style
Choose SMALL or LARGE for the size of the blend point icons on blend
curves.
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CV Icon
Click a button to choose the icon that represents CVs on curves.
EP Icon
Click a button to choose the icon that represents edit points on curves.
Section data
Point icon
Click a button to choose the icon that represents section data points.
To display section data as points, you must turn on CVs and hulls. You can
do this either in the ObjectDisplay > Control ❒ window or in the Control
Panel.
Show Lines
Click to control whether section data is displayed with lines connecting
points.
Line Style
Choose DASHED or SOLID for the section data line style.
Symmetry
Line style
Choose either DASHED or SOLID. This setting is used for Layers >
Symmetry tools.
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ObjectDisplay > Bounding box
Switches the picked objects between wireframe and bounding box display.
See Change how objects are drawn on page 126.
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ObjectDisplay > Diagnostic shading
Opens the diagnostic shading control window, which allows you to shade the
model using various modes.
See Show the minimum and maximum curvature on a surface on
page 346.
See Shade surfaces with color on page 118.
See Annotate a model or cloud data on page 32.
Tolerance
Controls how accurately surfaces are tessellated when Tessellator is Fast.
The slider range is 0.0001 to 1.0. The default value is 0.1.
The same tolerance value is found in the option window of WindowDisplay
> Hardware Shade.
Tessellator
Fast: Tessellates more quickly and less accurately.
Accurate: Tessellates more accurately and more slowly.
The same option is used in the option window of WindowDisplay >
Hardware Shade.
Multi Color and Random Color options
Show Reversed Normals
When this option is checked, components of surfaces or meshes that have
reversed normals are shaded in yellow.
(This option is only available in Multi Color mode.)
Color
Click the color swatch to set the color, or drag the slider to change the color’s
brightness. (This option is only available in multi color mode.)
Color Saturation
Set the common saturation (the “vividness” of the color) for the random
colors.
Specularity
Set the “shininess” of the surfaces.
Transparency
Set the transparency of the shaded surfaces, from 0.0 (totally opaque) to 1.0
(totally transparent).
Light Intensity
Set the brightness of the light source.
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Highlights
When set to Fast, the highlights are calculated more quickly and less
accurately. When set to Accurate, the highlights are calculated more
accurately, but more slowly.
This option is only available in multi color mode.
Lock Light Position
Normally the light source for the shading comes from the camera (like a
headlight). Turn this option on to lock the light source in its current position.
The following options apply to Multi Color mode only.
Reflections
If this is checked, the following Reflections options are displayed.
Scene
Choose a reflection map by clicking Scene for a drop-down menu. The
choices are Sky1, Sky2, Evaluation, Deck, and Abstract.
Sky environments images copyright © 2004 Dosch Design GmbH. For more
textures, 3D models and HDRIs, please visit www.doschdesign.com.
Reflectivity
Use this slider to control how much your model reflects the scene.
Curvature evaluation map options
This mode shows a curvature map.
This option is not available for all AliasStudio products.
Control the type of shading with the following options:
Surface Evaluation Type
Choose how to calculate the curvature:
Crv V, Crv U—display the curvature in the surface’s V or U parameter
direction at each point.
Crv Z, Crv Y, Crv X—display the curvature in the Z, Y, or X direction at each
point.
Mean—use the average of the two principal curvatures to approximate the
average curvature through each point.
Gaussian—use the product of the two principal curvatures.
Princ Min—use the minimum curvature values (that is, the curvature of the
flattest curves that pass through each point).
Princ Max—use the maximum curvature values (that is, the curvature of the
steepest curves that pass through each point).
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Draft Angle—color in-draft parts of the surface blue and out-of-draft parts of
the surface red. (You can also display a tolerance region in pink.) Distinct
options appear for this evaluation type (see the description following the next
section).
> Crv V, Crv U, Crv Z, Crv Y, Crv X, Mean, Gaussian, Princ Min, and Princ
Max types of evaluation
The following options are available for the Crv V, Crv U, Crv Z, Crv Y, Crv X, Mean,
Gaussian, Princ Min, and Princ Max surface evaluation types:
Curvature Color Scale
Scales the radius ramp to show finer details of curvature variation.
This option is not available when Min. Radius Limit or Max. Radius Limit are
turned on (see below).
Radius Ramp
Shows the range of colors that will be applied to the curvature map (and their
corresponding curvature radius values) in the active modeling window.
If the +/- band is set to 0.0, the curvature map is relative, and the ramp colors,
from left to right, represent increasing curvature values. (The colors are not
associated to specific values.)
If you adjust the Curvature Color Scale value, the radius ramp updates.
Min. Radius Limit
Surface regions having a radius less than the Min. Radius Limit value are
indicated by one color, and surface regions having a radius greater than the
Min. Radius Limit value are indicated by a different color.
This option is only available for the Princ Max evaluation type.
Max. Radius Limit
Surface regions having a radius larger than the Max. Radius Limit value are
indicated by one color, and surface regions having a radius less than the
Max. Radius Limit value are indicated by a different color.
This option is only available for the Princ Min evaluation type.
Transparency
Sets the transparency of the shaded surfaces, from 0.0 (totally opaque) to
1.0 (totally transparent).
Iso-Angle highlight options
This mode shows iso-angle lines on surfaces to help you visually evaluate
continuity across surface boundaries.
Single, Multiple
Controls whether a single black and white iso-angle line is displayed (Single)
or multiple colored iso-angle lines are displayed (Multiple).
698
Blur
The blurriness of iso-angle line edges.
Transparency
The transparency of surfaces with iso-angle lines.
Horizontal/vertical zebra stripe options
This mode shows horizontal or vertical highlights on the surface.
Highlighting helps you find surface flaws by using a color texture to simulate
natural highlights. It maps a color pattern onto a surface based on the angle
(from 90 to -90 degrees) at which a viewing ray hits the surface.
A common use for highlighting is to identify adjacent surfaces with
mismatched tangents. (You can also use Surface continuity for this, but
highlighting gives you a clearer view of the surfaces.)
Note also that not all AliasStudio packages include the highlighting features.
Vert., Horz.
Sets the highlights to be vertical or horizontal.
Lock Texture
Normally the highlights are projected from the camera, so the projection
changes as you move around the surface. (This is the unlocked mode.) You
can turn this option on so that the texture remains locked relative to the
surface.
Repeats
Sets the rate at which the texture repeats. Increasing this number will
increase the number of highlight lines on the surfaces.
Transparency
Sets the transparency of the shaded surfaces, from 0.0 (totally opaque) to
1.0 (totally transparent).
Surface Evaluation options
This mode lets you choose between Draft Angle, Deviation Map, or Contact
Analysis shading types.
>
Draft Angle Evaluation
Some manufacturing processes, like injection molding, need you to design
molds. A section of a mold only moves in a certain direction during removal. This
direction is the pull vector.
Angle-to-pull is the angle between the surface tangent plane at a surface point
and the pull vector. When the angle-to-pull is 0 degrees, the pull vector is parallel
to the surface tangent plane at that point. When the angle-to-pull is 90 degrees,
the pull vector lies normal to the surface.
699
Most manufacturing processes require that the angle-to-pull for a molded surface
be greater than some angle, for example 1 degree, or else the molded part will
not separate from the mold. This angle is the draft angle.
When the angle-to-pull is less than the draft angle, the surface point is out-ofdraft. When the angle-to-pull is more than the draft angle, the surface point is indraft.
This shading mode shows you which parts of a surface are in-draft and out-ofdraft for a specified pull vector and draft angle. In-draft points are shaded blue,
while out-of-draft points are shaded red. You can also display a tolerance region
in pink.
Use one of the tools from the Evaluate > Surface evaluate menu to get an
accurate curve-on-surface for the parting line. To see the changes made from the
Surface evaluate tool on the draft map, click the surface evaluate shading button
again.
Show pull direction as
Rotation—Displays values (that you can edit) for the X, Y, and Z rotation of a
vector that defines the pull direction.
Vector—Displays values (that you can edit) for the X, Y, and Z coordinates of
a vector that defines the pull direction.
Update From Selection
Press this button to set the pull direction to be that of an already selected
(picked) vector or plane. In the case of a plane, the direction perpendicular to
the plane is used.
The X, Y, Z fields are automatically set to the coordinates of the picked
vector.
Draft Angle
Angle defining the boundary between in-draft (blue) and out-of-draft (red).
Tolerance
Displays a pink tolerance region between the in-draft and out-of-draft
regions. The Tolerance value represents an angle measured in degrees. If
the Tolerance value is 0, no tolerance region is displayed.
Transparency
Sets the transparency of the shaded surfaces, from 0.0 (totally opaque) to
1.0 (totally transparent).
>
Deviation Map Evaluation
If you have scanned an object, and are trying to match the scan data with your
NURBS surfaces, the Deviation Map mode lets you know where the two objects
deviate. It calculates the distance between a set of meshes and a set of NURBS
surfaces, and displays it as a color-coded map, for a quick assessment of the
gap’s severity.
Deviation Map can also show the deviation between two sets of surfaces, or two
sets of meshes.
700
This mode acts as a toggle. It only displays the shading once it has been
calculated once through the use of Evaluate > Deviation map.
See also Visualize the deviation between mesh-surface, surfacesurface or mesh-mesh (page 377)
Transparency
Sets the transparency of the shaded surfaces or meshes, from 0.0 (totally
opaque) to 1.0 (totally transparent).
>
Contact Analysis Evaluation
This type of surface evaluation provides you with an ability to analyse the safety
of a model. It is especially useful with car interior surface design work.
Equally capable of working with meshes and NURBS surfaces, this shading
mode enables you to examine a collection of surfaces for potential impact points
with a head (represented by a sphere).
The tool internally creates a sphere, to judge where the head could contact the
surface model. For example, some spaces, like between the steering wheel and
the dash board, are too small for the head to fit into. Only the areas where a head
can actually fit in the case of an accident are examined for sharpness and safety
issues.
Before analyzing the model, ensure that normals are unified. If they point in
different directions, results will be unreliable.
This mode acts as a toggle. It only displays the shading once it has been
calculated once through the use of Evaluate > Contact analysis.
User-defined texture options
This mode shows a user-defined texture reflected on the picked surfaces. You
can use one of the two default textures, or load one of your own.
Map Type
Shade-Sky: shows a texture map with the reflection of the sky.
Double-horizon: shows a texture map with a double-horizon image.
User defined: choose your own reflected texture.
Lock Texture
Normally the highlights are projected from the camera, so the projection
changes as you move around the surface. (This is the unlocked mode.) You
can turn this option on so that the texture remains locked relative to the
surface.
Repeats
Sets the rate at which the texture repeats. Increasing this number will
increase the number of highlight lines on the surfaces.
Transparency
Sets the transparency of the shaded surfaces, from 0.0 (totally opaque) to
1.0 (totally transparent).
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Change texture to
Enter the name of a texture file to use instead of the default horizon or sky
texture. You can use Alias PIX, SGI’s RGB, TIF and various other image file
formats. (The GIF and JPEG file formats are not supported.)
Click the arrow button to choose the texture from a file requester.
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WindowDisplay menu
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WindowDisplay > Window Title Bar
Displays or hides the title bar of modeling and SBD windows.
All Windows
Displays or hides the title bar in all windows.
Current Windows
Displays or hides the title bar in the current (active) window only.
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WindowDisplay > Window Sync
Turns synchronization of movement between the open view windows on or off.
See Synchronize window views on page 115.
See Synchronize canvas plane views on page 50.
705
WindowDisplay > Hardware Shade
Toggles between wireframe and render preview views of the scene.
See Difference between meshes and polysets on page 44.
See Preview an animation without reducing the scene on
page 1545.
See Shade a mesh on page 391.
See Shade surfaces with a preview of their rendered appearance on page 119.
See Use the view panel on page 106.
See Preview rendering on page 51.
See Canvas > Project sketch on page 763.
See Bookmark workflows on page 37.
See Project a sketch for fast design label mapping on page 215.
See Building primary and transition surfaces using the fillet
flange and tube flange tool on page 223.
Preview accuracy
Hardware shading attempts to show as realistic an image as possible while
maintaining interactive speeds. Because of these speed considerations, not all
rendering attributes are supported, and the hardware shading accuracy depends
on your graphics card’s capabilities. Per-vertex shading does not support as
many rendering attributes as per-pixel shading.
The following rendering attributes are shown in the preview:
●
Color, transparency, bump, and displacement mapping on supported texture
types (all Surface, Environment Ball, Solid Projection maps).
●
Specular and reflection maps.
●
2D procedural maps in the color channel.
●
File texture support for label mapping and the Special effects section of the
Shader editor.
●
Cube map environment texture (on graphics cards which have cube map
support).
●
Planar ground shadows generated from a single light source.
●
Ambient occlusion.
●
Reflected background from a cube map environment (on CG-shading
enabled graphic cards).
●
Linear and spot lights.
●
Exclusive and linked lights are ignored in Hardware Shade.
Tessellation
Before surfaces can be rendered, they must be tessellated, that is, polygonal
objects approximating the surfaces have to be calculated. WindowDisplay >
Hardware Shade displays a progress bar during tessellation, indicating the
approximate time to completion. It is also possible to escape tessellation by
pressing the Esc key.
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Limitations
Although unlikely, you may experience the following limitations when viewing
shaded surfaces:
●
When using Label Mapping (any 2D texture placement with Ucoverage or
Vcoverage less than 1.0), turn off U and V wrap if you don't need them, as
they can potentially reduce Studio's ability to optimize hardware shading
quality.
●
Transparent surfaces (or diagnostic shading with Transparency greater than
zero) may cause distant surfaces to appear in front of near objects.
Re-order surfaces in the SBD window from left to right so that the left-most
surface is the surface that is nearest the camera (in the view that you are
shading) and the right-most surface is the surface that is farthest from the
camera.
To move a surface, select it in the SBD window, hold down the Alt key and
press the left arrow key (to move it left) or the right arrow key (to move it
right).
●
Transparent surfaces (or diagnostic shading with Transparency greater than
zero) may shade poorly (for example, triangles or bands may be visible).
●
Smooth line display (WindowDisplay > Smooth) and diagnostic shading
cause lines to break up.
When diagnostic shading is applied to a selected model, the lines in other
models become broken up and difficult to view.
If you dolly (in the perspective view), the models become more difficult to see
the further the surfaces are from the camera.
Options
Use Embedded File Settings
If the file has been saved in AliasStudio 2008 or later, Hardware Shade settings
were saved with the wire file, and will be used by checking this option.
All Windows
If checked, geometry in all modeling windows is shaded. If not checked,
geometry is shaded in the current modeling window only.
All Geometry
If checked, all geometry is shaded. If not checked, only the picked (active)
geometry using the picked lights is shaded. If no lights are active, all lights
are used.
Shading method
Per vertex provides you with the same quality of shaded mode as was
available in previously in AliasStudio. Choose Per vertex for a fast
approximation of the surface while modeling. Per pixel provides highlights
close to the look obtained with the RayCaster, and requires a graphics card
that supports this mode. For further information about qualified graphics
cards, see http://www.alias.com/qual_charts/.
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Per Vertex (left) vs. Per Pixel (right).
Tessellator
Fast: Tessellates more quickly and less accurately.
Accurate: Tessellates more accurately and more slowly.
Quality
Controls how accurately surfaces are tessellated when Tessellator is set to
Fast. Choices include LOW, MEDIUM, and HIGH.
USER DEFINED: You can control how accurately surfaces are tessellated
using the Tolerance parameter (see below).
Tolerance
Controls how accurately surfaces are tessellated when Tessellator is Fast
and Quality is USER DEFINED. The slider range is 0.001 to 0.1. The default
value is 0.1.
Show triangles
Overlays the surfaces with triangles used for tessellation.
Limit edge length
This option only appears if Tessellator is set to Accurate.
If checked, a Max edge length slider appears. If unchecked, there is no limit
on the size of the triangles.
Max edge length
Specifies the maximum length of any triangle edge (in current linear units).
Texture resolution
If you are using textures, you can use approximations to speed the
computations in hardware rendering. Texture maps can be rendered at the
following square resolutions: 128, 256, 512, 1024, and 2048. You can also
turn off texture maps by choosing Off from this pop-up menu. A texture map
should not be larger than the size the rendered texture will appear to be. For
708
example, if a label in a finished rendering is to be about 256 x 256 pixels
square, it is a waste of computational power to use a texture map and a
texture resolution that is greater than that value.
Anti-Alias Quality
Determines the smoothness or roughness of edges. Quality can be set to
LOW, MEDIUM, HIGH or USER DEFINED. If USER DEFINED is selected,
additional options are provided to set the Anti-Alias Samples and the Pixel
Jitter Radius.
Anti-Alias Samples
Sets the number of samples that will be taken and averaged. Generally, you
should choose values lower than 36. Choosing a value that is too high for
your scene may result in some artifacts, like banding.
Pixel Jitter Radius
To create a smooth image, the technique used moves the camera slightly.
Setting a value lower than 1 in this option means the camera jitters less than
a pixel; values greater than 1 jitter it more than 1 pixel. Choosing a value that
is high results in greater blurring than choosing a low value.
Light Source
All Lights: Shade surfaces using the lights in the scene, up to a maximum of
eight.
Selected Lights: Shade surfaces using any picked lights, up to a maximum of
eight.
Warm Cold: Shade surfaces using a preset combination of warm and cool
colored lights.
Contrast: Shade surfaces using a preset combination of lights to create a
wide range from highlights to shadows.
Default: Shade surfaces using a direction light at the camera and an ambient
light. This is the fastest option. This option may be hardware accelerated.
Self Shadows
Self-shadows boost the realism of a scene by adding additional information
about spatial relationships of objects, and provide information about the
shape of an object as it casts shadows on itself.
Self shadows must be turned on in the Hardware shade settings window.
This is the master control that determines whether any self-shadows can be
cast.
Use self-shadows with either ALL LIGHTS or SELECTED LIGHTS to have
control over the shadows based on the lights’ parameters, position, and
rotation.
To select which specific lights can cast shadows, use the Light editor’s Cast
Shadows button in the Active Effects section. The light editor shadow
settings are shared with the software renderer.
709
The WARM COLD and CONTRAST light settings, while useful for examining
a scene, do not create “real” lights, and so, do not provide any controls to
change the lights’ position or parameters. With these settings the Selfshadow check box must be toggled ON but shadows do not have to be ON in
the light editor.
Shadows cast by the preset lights, WARM COLD and CONTRAST, will only
display once the camera has stopped moving. The effect is the same as
when “Optimize during tumble” is enabled for user defined lights which
correspond to the ALL LIGHTS option in the hardware shade settings.
The DEFAULT light setting does not work with self-shadows.
Clicking Self Shadows in the Optimize during Tumble section may speed up
playback.
Self shadows do not work on objects that have any transparency set. They
do work on layered shaders that have at least one opaque (not transparent)
layer.
Moving lights around in a scene is computationally expensive, and the more
lights that are moved, the greater the number of calculations that must be
made. Tumbling a scene, where the objects and lights are stationary and the
camera moves, is much faster and less expensive computationally.
Auto update
When checked, modifications made to the options are implemented
immediately, and reflected in the scene as quickly as possible. You may want
to turn Auto update off if you have a very large model and are applying a
number of initial settings.
Enable Environment Effects
Use Environment
Turn on this option to have your model reflect a background environment.
Several preset cube map environments are provided in the Control Panel
(when you set the application mode to Visualize at the top), or you can create
your own in the Multi-lister.
The reflections will only be applied to shaders that have Refl. Backgnd
turned on in the Multi-Lister, and a non-zero Reflectivity value.
Show Background
If a background is set up in the Environment editor (color, color map, or a
backdrop), checking this option will turn it on. Options that determine what
the background look like are found under Color and Backdrop in the
Environment editor section of the Multi-lister reference documentation.
710
Ground Plane
Enables ground planes, ground plane shadows, and ground plane reflections
in hardware shade mode. Options are found in the Ground Plane section of
the Environment editor.
Ground plane shadows
Ground plane reflections
711
Shader Glow
Enables shader glow. Most settings are found in the ShaderGlow section of
the Environment editor. Be aware that glows require significant calculations
that may slow performance. Reflected objects and the ground plane will not
show the glow.
Glow Quality
If Shader Glow is enabled, this slider enables you to trade off speed vs.
quality of the glow in hardware shade.
Linear Reflection
If enabled, shows the model as if it were surrounded by long fluorescent light
fixtures. The linear reflection tool is only available in hardware shade mode.
Settings for this feature are found in Linear Reflection controls in the
Environment editor.
Edit Environment
Click this button to open the Environment editor.
Optimize during Tumble
Self Shadows
If enabled, self-shadows are approximated while camera operations (track, dolly,
tumble) occur, and are updated when the mouse button is released.
Ground Plane Reflections
If enabled, ground plane reflections are approximated while camera
operations (track, dolly, tumble) occur, and are updated when the mouse
button is released.
712
WindowDisplay > Hidden line
See Shade surfaces as a hidden line drawing on page 119.
Windows
All: Shade all geometry in all modeling windows.
Current: Shade geometry in the current modeling window.
>
Tessellator section
Tessellator
Fast: Tessellates more quickly and less accurately.
Accurate: Tessellates more accurately and more slowly.
Quality
Controls how accurately surfaces are tessellated when Tessellator is set to
Fast. Choices include LOW, MEDIUM, and HIGH.
USER DEFINED: You can control how accurately surfaces are tessellated
using the Tolerance parameter (see below).
713
WindowDisplay > Smooth
Toggles smoothing (anti-aliasing) of the model and the grid.
See Change the display of the wireframe on page 125.
Use smoothing to turn anti-aliased lines or anti-aliased shaded surfaces on and
off. Anti-aliasing reduces or eliminates aliasing and helps to produce smoother,
higher quality lines and shaded surfaces.
You can also anti-alias models rendered using WindowDisplay > Hardware
Shade or Diagnostic Shading.
This feature is only available on Windows.
Anti-aliasing produces a higher quality screen image, but it may slow redraws
significantly.
Model smoothness is automatically updated in each window.
Surfaces
If checked, models rendered using WindowDisplay > Hardware Shade or
Diagnostic Shading are anti-aliased.
For anti-aliasing to be applied, you must also select Preferences >
General Preferences in the menu, select the Draw sub-heading on the left,
and turn on Antialiasing in shaded draw
You must have an NVIDIA FX n000 series graphic card installed to
guarantee the proper behavior of this functionality. Use NVIDIA driver
number 44.65 or higher (which can be downloaded from their web site)
Please refer to www.alias.com qualification charts for the latest information
about supported graphics cards for this function.
Lines
If checked (the default), lines are anti-aliased.
714
WindowDisplay > Transparency
Adjusts the transparency level of different types of objects in the view windows.
See Change the transparency of objects on page 127.
See Modeling control panel on page 1259.
Options
The following sliders range from 0.0 (fully opaque) to 1.0 (fully transparent).
Controls
Changes the transparency of all CVs, hulls, edit points, blend points, etc.
Curves and COS
Changes the transparency of all free curves and curves-on-surface.
Surfaces
Changes the transparency of all surfaces.
Meshes
Changes the transparency of all meshes.
Locators and Visual Sections
Changes the transparency of all locators, evaluation objects, construction
objects (points, vectors, planes, canvases), visual cross-sections, and visual
curves-on-surface.
Canvases
Changes the transparency of the paint on all images layers on all canvases.
715
WindowDisplay > Show
Changes the visibility of items on a per-window basis.
See Hide or show specific items (page 124)
Mode
Show: Choose this setting to make checked items visible, and unchecked
items invisible.
Toggle: Change the visibility state of checked items from their current state.
All/None
The All and None buttons offer a quick way to check or uncheck all the item
check boxes at once.
Model
Shows or hides wireframe models. This does not affect the ability of the
model to be rendered: it’s the wireframe display that is turned off.
Pivots
Shows or hides green rotation and scale pivots.
Grid
Shows or hides window grid.
Guidelines
Shows or hides guidelines (usually created by keypoint curve tools).
716
Locators
Shows or hides objects created using the Locators palette.
Construction Objects
Shows or hides construction points, vectors, and planes.
Canvas Planes
Shows or hides canvas planes.
Lights
Shows or hides light icons as shown in modeling windows. This does not
affect their ability to be rendered.
Textures
Turns texture placement box icons off or on if they are enabled in the multilister and renderer. This does not affect the ability of the textures to be
rendered.
Cameras
Shows or hides camera icons
Image Planes
Shows or hides image planes (created using File > Import > Image plane).
Clouds
Shows or hides display of cloud point data.
All Windows
Check this box to change the display in all windows. Uncheck it to change
the display in the current window only.
Item visibility can also be toggled from the Show menu in the title bar of each
view window.
717
WindowDisplay > Toggles > Model
Toggles the display of the actual model itself on or off. When the model is turned
off, only controls such as hulls and CVs are visible.
See Hide or show specific items on page 124.
See Change the display of the wireframe on page 125.
See Annotate a model or cloud data on page 32.
See Create digital tape drawings on page 187.
Toggle Type
All windows: shows or hides the model (geometry) in all open view windows.
Current window: shows or hides the model only in the current window (the
last window you clicked, marked by a white outline).
Wireframe Only
If this option is checked, CVs and hulls are not toggled off along with their
respective geometry. If unchecked, CV and hulls are toggled off along with
the geometry.
718
WindowDisplay > Toggles > Pivots
Toggles the display of pivot points on or off.
See Constrain one object to another object on page 1580.
See Change an object’s pivot point on page 240.
See Use local instead of global axes on page 244.
See Hide or show specific items on page 124.
Toggle Type
All windows: shows or hides pivot points in all open view windows.
Current window: shows or hides pivot points only in the current window (the
last window you clicked, marked by a white outline).
Notes
Pivot points are displayed only for active items or items with active CVs or
active edit points. You can find an object’s pivot point from its Information
Window (Windows > Information > Information window).
●
●
WindowDisplay > Toggles > Pivots overrides the pivot settings in the
Optimization Options of Animation > Editors > Playback options.
If you have selected WindowDisplay > Toggles > Pivots, pivots are not
rendered during playback, even if you have unchecked Pivots or Cluster
Pivots in Playback Optimization Options.
719
WindowDisplay > Toggles > Grid
Shows or hides the grid in the modeling windows.
See Show, hide, or change the grid on page 123.
See Annotate a model or cloud data on page 32.
Options
Toggle Type
All windows: shows or hides the grid in all open view windows.
Current window: shows or hides the grid only in the current window (the last
window you clicked, marked by a white outline).
720
WindowDisplay > Toggles > Guidelines
Shows or hides guidelines (usually created by keypoint curve tools, such as lines
and arcs).
See Draw and edit CAD-like lines and arcs (page 154)
See Work with, limit, or delete guidelines (page 160)
Toggle Type
All windows: shows or hides guidelines in all open view windows.
Current window: shows or hides guidelines only in the current window (the
last window you clicked, marked by a white outline).
721
WindowDisplay > Toggles > Locators
Shows or hides locators in the modeling windows.
Options
Toggle Type
All windows: shows or hides the locators in all open view windows.
Current window: shows or hides the locators only in the current window (the
last window you clicked, marked by a white outline).
722
WindowDisplay > Toggles > Construction Objects
Shows or hides all reference planes, vectors, and points in the view windows.
Options
Toggle Type
All windows: shows or hides the construction objects in all open view
windows.
Current window: shows or hides the construction objects only in the current
window (the last window you clicked, marked by a white outline).
723
WindowDisplay > Toggles > Canvas Planes
Shows or hides all canvas planes.
Options
Toggle Type
All windows: shows or hides the canvas planes in all open view windows.
Current window: shows or hides the canvas planes only in the current
window (the last window you clicked, marked by a white outline).
724
WindowDisplay > Toggles > Lights
Shows or hides all lights.
Toggle Type
All windows: shows or hides lights in all open view windows.
Current window: shows or hides lights only in the current window (the last
window you clicked, marked by a white outline).
725
WindodwDisplay > Toggles > Textures
Shows or hides all 3D texture placement objects.
See also Texture Placement Objects (page 33)
-Options
Toggle Type
All windows: shows or hides texture placement objects in all open view
windows.
Current window: shows or hides texture placement objects only in the
current window (the last window you clicked, marked by a white outline).
726
WindowDisplay > Toggles > Cameras
Shows or hides camera objects.
See Work with camera objects on page 110.
See Display camera icons on page 116.
Toggle Type
All windows: shows or hides camera objects in all open view windows.
Current window: shows or hides camera objects only in the current window
(the last window you clicked, marked by a white outline).
Notes:
Toggling a camera on displays every component of the camera: icons,
vectors, and a complete frustum, including the far clipping plane.
●
●
The icons are displayed in the active color only if the component of the
camera they represent is active. For example, the forward vector is displayed
in the active color if either the eye or viewpoint is active.
727
WindowDisplay > Toggles > Image Planes
Shows or hides all image planes in the view windows.
See Hide or show a canvas plane on page 49.
Toggle Type
All windows: shows or hides image planes in all open view windows.
Current window: shows or hides image planes only in the current window
(the last window you clicked, marked by a white outline).
728
WindowDisplay > Toggles > Clouds
Shows or hides all point cloud objects in the view windows.
Toggle Type
All windows: shows or hides point clouds in all open view windows.
Current window: shows or hides point clouds only in the current window (the
last window you clicked, marked by a white outline).
729
730
Layers menu
731
Layers > New
Creates a new layer.
See Animate objects along a motion path on page 1528.
See Organize objects on layers on page 235.
See Create digital tape drawings on page 187.
Layer Start Number
New layers are numbered starting with this value.
Symmetry Plane Origin
Defines the center of the plane of symmetry for this layer. If you turn
symmetry display on for this layer, the geometry will be reflected across this
plane.
Symmetry Plane Normal
Defines the normal (perpendicular) direction for the symmetry plane. For
example, 0.0 0.0 1.0 is a normal pointing up the Z axis, which creates a plane
oriented along the X and Y axes.
Use the Set Symmetry Plane command in a layer’s pop-up menu to set the
plane.
732
Layers > Select > Objects on selected layers
Picks all objects on the currently selected layer or layers.
733
Layers > Select > Layers by picked objects
Selects all layers which contain picked objects.
734
Layers > Select > All layers
Layers > Select > All layers selects all modeling layers.
735
Layers > Select > Layer range
Layers > Select > Layer range allows you to select a range of numbered layers.
This tool enables you select multiple layers quickly.
To...
Do this
Select a layer by name.
• Choose Layers > Select > Layer
range.
• On the prompt line, type the name
of the layer.
Select a range of
numbered layers.
• Choose Layers > Select > Layer
range.
• On the prompt line, type the first
layer and last layer separated by a
hyphen (for example, L100-L129).
736
Layers > Set State > Pickable
Makes the selected layers normal (pickable).
737
Layers > Set State > Reference
Sets the layers to be visible but not clickable.
Use this setting to snap to objects without picking them.
738
Layers > Set State > Inactive
Sets the selected layers to be templated (inactive).
Like objects templated with ObjectDisplay > Template. The objects are visible
but not snappable or pickable.
739
Layers > Delete > Selected Layers
Deletes the selected layers.
740
Layers > Delete > Unused Layers
Deletes all layers with no objects on them.
741
Layers > Delete > Merge duplicate layers
Merges the contents of all duplicate layers into the original, then deletes the
duplicate layers.
When you have a series of layers called <myLayer>, <myLayer>#2,
<myLayer>#3, etc, the contents of all those layers are merged into <myLayer>
and the other layers are deleted.
This tool comes in handy after using the duplicate layers option in Edit > Paste.
742
Layers > Visibility > Visible
Makes invisible objects on the layer visible.
743
Layers > Visibility > Invisible
Makes objects on the layer invisible.
744
Layers > Visibility > Toggle unused layers
Turns on and off the display of empty layers in the Layer bar and Modeling
Layers Editor.
745
Layers > Symmetry > On
Turns the automatic display of symmetrical halves of objects on the layer on.
746
Layers > Symmetry > Off
Turns the automatic display of symmetrical halves of objects on the layer off.
747
Layers > Symmetry > Set plane
Lets you set the plane across which the automatic symmetrical halves of objects
on the layer will be displayed.
See Automatically create symmetrical geometry on page 181.
748
Layers > Symmetry > Create geometry
Creates real objects from the automatically displayed symmetrical halves.
See Automatically create symmetrical geometry on page 181.
749
Layers > Undo assign
Undo assign moves the last assigned objects back to their previous layer.
750
Layers > Toggle Layers
Hides the layer bar and makes the application act as if the objects were not
grouped in layers.
See Operate on all the objects in a layer on page 236.
751
Layers > Toggle Layer Bar
Show or hide the horizontal list of layers under the prompt line.
752
Canvas menu
753
Canvas > New canvas
Creates a new sketch image plane in the active view.
This feature is not available in SurfaceStudio.
The New canvas tool creates a new canvas plane according to the parameters
specified in the option window. It also automatically creates a construction plane
in the orientation that you specify.
This tool only allows you to create canvases aligned with the X, Y, and Z axes,
that is canvases lying in orthographic views: Top, Side, Front/Back. To create a
canvas lying in a random plane, you must first create the construction plane
(Construction > Plane), then use Canvas > New canvas on construction
plane.
For more information on canvas planes:
See Printing images fundamentals on page 238.
See Create a canvas plane on page 44.
See 2D best practices on page 8.
See Annotate a model or cloud data on page 32.
New Canvas Options
Choose one of: Top, Side, Front, Back,
Top|Side|Front, or Top|Side|Back to orient
the canvas(es) in XYZ (world) space.
Choose one of: Current brush color, Black,
White, or Transparent.
Choose a Paper Size and a linear unit (in or
cm).
For a given Paper Size, specify the size in
pixels, or the number of pixels per in or cm
(resolution). For Custom paper size, you
can also specify the size in units.
Select the orientation of the canvas:
Portrait or Landscape.
Resolution
Canvas Name
Remove the default name, and type a meaningful name for your canvas in
this field.
The name can also be changed later in the Construction Plane Editor.
See also Windows > Editors > Construction Plane editor.
754
Orientation
Specify the orientation of your canvas in 3D space by choosing which
orthographic view it will lie in: Top, Side, Front, or Back. Choose
Top|Side|Front or Top|Side|Back to create three orthogonal canvases at
once.
Background layer color
Choose whether you will be painting on a canvas that is initially transparent,
like an acetate, or opaque (black, white, or the current brush stroke color).
>
Size and Resolution
Paper Size
Choose a standard paper size (default is A4) to print on, or choose Custom
to define your own.
Unit
Specify if you want sizes to be displayed in inches or centimeters.
Pixels
Specify the width and height of the canvas in pixels.
in (or cm)
Specify the width and height of the canvas in inches or centimeters. This
option is only available when Paper Size is set to Custom.
Pixels per in (cm)
Specify the number of pixels per inch (or cm), that is, the resolution of your
canvas.
Portrait/Landscape
Choose between a Portrait (vertical) or Landscape (horizontal) orientation
for your canvas.
755
Canvas > New canvas on construction plane
To add a canvas to a construction plane.
To create a paintable canvas on a construction plane, you need to choose this
tool. New canvas on construction plane is a continuous function. Either pick the
construction planes before choosing this tool, or select them one at a time after
entering the tool.
The options are almost identical to Canvas > New canvas, with the exception of
the Name and Orientation fields. One or more construction planes should already
be present before using this tool.
See New Canvas Options (page 754) for a definition of the
options.
After creating the canvas on the construction plane, this tool will also find/create
a Paint window to display the canvas in, and do a look at on the new canvas.
See The Paint window (page 24) for more information on paint
windows.
756
Canvas > New overlay canvas
Overlay canvases are canvases that are only visible from a particular viewpoint.
They are used in the perspective window to create perspective texture
projections, 2D roughs, or for annotation purposes (to create bookmarks).
You can grab a screen shot of a work in progress, and use the 2D image as a
basis for further painting. The painted image can either be used for presentation
of rough concepts, or you can project that painting back on to the model as a
texture, and see it in 3D.
Transparent planes can be used to annotate a model. The annotations are
associated with the particular viewpoint, so you can be sure they are seen in their
proper context.
The viewpoint is accessible through one of the following methods:
●
Click on the overlay canvas in the Construction Plane Editor
●
Click on the Look-At icon at the top of the Canvas Layer Editor
●
Select the overlay canvas from the pull down menu in the Paint window.
See Windows > Editors > Construction Plane editor.
See Bookmark an annotated model (page 35).
To create a new overlay plane, choose Canvas > New overlay canvas. The
options are almost identical to Canvas > New canvas.
Width (pixels) / Height (pixels)
Specify the width and height of your overlay canvas in pixels.
Canvas Name
Remove the default name, and type a meaningful name for your overlay
canvas in this field.
The name can also be changed later in the Construction Plane Editor or the
Canvas Layer Editor..
See also Windows > Editors > Construction Plane editor
757
Grab window
If this option is checked, you can grab a screen shot of a work in progress,
and use the 2D image as a basis for further painting. The image is added to
the overlay canvas as a new layer called Screen Grab.
The Screen Grab layer is completely opaque and will obscure any layers
and geometry below it.
>
Size and Resolution
Paper Size
Choose a standard paper size (default is A4) to print on, or choose one of the
following:
Custom: Lets you specify the dimensions of the overlay canvas in world size
units (cm or in).
User defined: Lets you specify the dimensions of the overlay canvas in pixels
only. The default values are 1900 by 1200 and can be changed in the Paint
section of Preferences > General Preferences ❐.
Fit to screen: Lets you specify the dimensions of the overlay canvas in pixels
only. The default values correspond to the current size of the window.
Unit
Specify if you want sizes to be displayed in inches or centimeters.
Pixels
Specify the width and height of the overlay canvas in pixels.
in (or cm)
Specify the width and height of the oberlay canvas in inches or centimeters.
This option is only available when Paper Size is set to Custom.
Pixels per in (cm)
Specify the number of pixels per inch (or cm), that is, the resolution of your
overlay canvas.
Portrait/Landscape
Choose between a Portrait (vertical) or Landscape (horizontal) orientation
for your overlay canvas.
758
Canvas > Resize canvas
Crops, expands, scale, or moves a canvas plane.
To resize a canvas plane by cropping or expanding it, choose Canvas > Resize
canvas.
Black manipulators appear on the edges of the canvas. Crop or expand the
canvas by moving any of the manipulators on the edges or corners of the canvas.
Blue crosshairs indicate the horizontal and vertical center lines.
To move the position of the resized canvas, drag the center cross. As you move
the outline of the canvas around, it will subtly snap to the center line when you
get close to it, and the blue line will appear when you are on top of that horizontal
or vertical center line.
Move canvas by moving
this point
Change canvas
size by moving
edge manipulators
To provide numeric input,or to scale the plane, choose Canvas > Resize canvas
to access the control window.
❐
See also:
●
Scale a canvas plane (page 51)
●
Crop, expand, or move a canvas plane (page 52)
759
Resize Mode
Scale: Resize the canvas (including the content of its images layers) by
changing its width, height, or resolution (pixels per in/cm). Scaling is always
done with respect to the center point.
Crop/Expand: Resize the canvas by “cutting” or “adding” material around its
edges, relative to an anchor point. The resolution (pixels per in/cm) does not
change. The content of the image layers does not change size but gets
cropped along with the canvas. This is the default behavior.
>
Image Pixels
Width
Width of the canvas in pixels
Height
Height of the canvas in pixels
>
Image Size
Unit
Choose either Inches or Centimeters as the world size units for the two
measurements below.
Width
True width of the canvas in the units given by Unit.
Height
True height of the canvas in the units given by Unit.
760
Pixels per in/cm
Resolution of the canvas (given by length in pixels divided by true length).
Changing the resolution modifies the true image size Width and Height
accordingly. The Width and Height in pixels are not affected.
This option only appears when Resize Mode is set to Scale.
>
Aspect Ratio
Lock Aspect Ratio
If this option is checked (default), the aspect ratio (width to height ratio) of the
canvas is maintained when either the width or height of the canvas is
modified.
>
Anchor
Horizontal
Choose Right, Center, or Left to specify what part of the canvas remains
fixed as it is cropped or expanded in the horizontal direction.
This option only appears when Resize is set to Crop/Expand.
Vertical
Choose Top, Center, or Bottom to specify what part of the canvas remains
fixed as it is cropped or expanded in the vertical direction.
This option only appears when Resize is set to Crop/Expand.
761
Canvas > Crop to marquee
Reduces or extends the active canvas plane based on the current selection
region.
This feature is not available in SurfaceStudio.
See Crop, expand, or move a canvas plane on page 52.
See Create digital tape drawings on page 187.
To crop a canvas
1
Select the area to be cropped or extended with Paint > Select > Marquee
(rectangle), Paint > Select > Marquee (circle) or Paint > Select > Marquee
(ellipse).
2
Select Canvas > Crop to marquee.
◆
◆
762
If the selected area is smaller than the image plane, the image plane will
be cropped. If the selected area is larger than the image plane, the
image plane will be extended.
If you select the area using either the circle or ellipse marquee, the
image plane will be cropped or extended to the edges of a bounding box
encompassing the marquee.
Canvas > Project sketch
Projects a canvas onto one or more objects..
Project Sketch Options
Render
Determines whether all objects have the projected image applied (All), or
only active (picked) objects have the projected image applied (Active). The
default setting is All.
Project from
Set to either Active window or All windows. This enables you to control the
ordering of the sketches as stacked layers of shaders.
Transparency is supported. If the contents of the image plane include
transparency, then that will be evident in the projected image.
The sketch projection workflow can be done in the perspective window with
perspective turned either ON or OFF.
Sketch projection now supports transparency so that sketches can be layered on
top of existing shading assignments and enable the existing shading to show
through. Previously, it would delete any layering for the surface and assign a new
shader. Hardware Shade now supports projective transparency. Texture quality
levels in Hardware Shade mode have been improved, as well, so you may find
the Low setting satisfactory in terms of performance and shading.
To view your sketches in Shaded mode, choose WindowDisplay > Hardware
Shade ❑ and turn ON the layered shaders flag.
You can also project a sketch onto objects through the Canvas Layer Editor
(Windows > Editors > Canvas Layer editor) by choosing Project >
Project sketch in the menus. In the editor, turn off the visibility of the layers
you do not want to project.
To update a sketch projection after modifying the canvas or its layers, simply reselect the Project sketch tool.
Sketch projection creates temporary textures on disk with the naming convention
WireFileName_CameraName.tiff. If you project a sketch from a window, it
automatically writes to this file on disk regardless of whether it already exists or
not.
Now you can sketch project an image plane that is added to a camera but has no
sketch.
To delete a sketch projection, choose Delete > Painting > Delete sketch
projection. The option box gives you the choice of deleting sketch projections in
all windows or the active window only.
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Render menu
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Render > Globals
The Render Globals window contains the global rendering parameters which
control how the overall scene will render.
See Bake animation and use Motion Blur compensation on
page 1572.
See Rendering tools and menus on page 3.
See Select camera views to render on page 117.
See Create a line drawing rendering on page 158.
See Surfaces against background on page 137.
See Surface silhouettes or edges appear faceted on page 137.
See Cracks appear between surfaces on page 137.
See Large objects do not motion blur correctly on page 140.
See Roping artifacts on highlights on page 146.
See Thin highlights have roping artifacts on page 146.
See BOT (block oriented texture) files on page 147.
See Black borders (letter box) appears in render on page 149.
See Overall image is too sharp on page 149.
See Raycaster/Raytracer optimization on page 151.
See Modeling and shading on page 151.
See Textures on page 152.
See Lights on page 153.
See Rendering parameters on page 154.
See Preview rendering on page 155.
Global rendering parameters
The global rendering parameters control how the overall scene will render.
Render
Determines whether all objects in your scene are rendered (ALL), or only
active (picked) objects are rendered (ACTIVE). The default setting is ALL.
The ACTIVE option has nothing to do with active animation.
Animation
Determines if several frames of an animation are rendered (ON), or only the
current (single) frame is rendered (OFF). The Animation setting determines if
animation is included in the SDL file. If Animation is ON, the Animation
Range From parameter and the Animation Output Filename Extensions
parameters become available. The default setting is OFF.
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Animation Range From
Determines which frames of an animation are rendered when Animation is
ON. The default setting is TIME SLIDER.
TIME
SLIDER
The Start and End values set in the Time
Slider.
MIN/MAX
The minimum and maximum frames of the
animation. If an animation exists, these noneditable values are displayed below the
Animation Range From parameter.
GLOBAL
Displays the following parameters which let
you set the animation Frame Start, End,
and By values.
Frame Start,End, By
The first (Frame Start) and last (End) frame number of the animation to
render, and the increment between frames (By). These parameters are only
available when Animation Range From is GLOBAL.
Global Quality Level
Controls the overall quality level of rendered images by automatically setting
the Global Quality Parameters, Anti-aliasing Levels, and Raytracing
Maximum Limits to preset values. The default setting is MEDIUM.
>
Animation Output Filename Extensions
The Animation Output Filename Extensions parameters control the format of the
rendered images’ file name extensions. These parameters are only available if
Animation is ON.
Modify Extensions
Lets you set the starting number (Start Extension) and the amount which the
extension is incremented by (By Extension). If Modify Extensions is ON, the
Start Extension and By Extension parameters become available. The default
setting is OFF.
Start Extension, By Extension
Lets you set the starting number (Start Extension) and the amount which the
extension is incremented by (By Extension). These parameters are only
available when Modify Extensions is ON. The slider range is 1 to 100. The
default value is 1.
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Extension padding
The total number of characters in file name extensions. If the number of digits
in the frame number is less than the Extension padding value, then leading
zeros are added to the extension. For example, if the frame number is 12,
and the Extension padding value is 4, the image file will have the extension
<pixfile>.0012. The valid range is 0 to ∞. The slider range is 1 to 10. The
default value is 1.
>
Global Quality Parameters (Low, Medium, High)
The Global Quality Parameters control how surfaces are tessellated during
rendering. Default values are different depending on the Global Quality Level
setting. The default values listed below are for the MEDIUM Global Quality
Level.
Tessellator
V9—AliasStudio uses the 9.0 tessellation method to tessellate surfaces.
Accurate—AliasStudio uses the 2008 tessellation method to tessellate
surfaces.
The Mesh Tolerance and Displacement detail options are available only if
Tessellator is set to Accurate.
Mesh Tolerance (cm)
The maximum allowable distance (measured in centimeters) between a
NURBS surface and its tessellated version. The Mesh Tolerance value
controls how smoothly surfaces are tessellated. The lower the Mesh
Tolerance value, the smoother the appearance of surfaces; however,
rendering times may also increase. If the silhouettes of surfaces appear
faceted or jagged, decrease the Mesh Tolerance value. The slider range is
0.001 cm to 0.10 cm. The default value is 0.05 cm for Medium quality.
You should set the Mesh Tolerance value based on the scale of your model.
For example, if your model is very small, you should use a low Mesh
Tolerance value. If your model is very large, you can use a larger Mesh
Tolerance value.
Displacement Detail
Controls how finely surface areas with displacement maps are tessellated.
The higher the Displacement Detail value, the finer the appearance of
surface displacements; however, rendering times may also increase. The
slider range is 10 to 512.
Quality Type
If the V9 Tessellator option is selected, determines which set of render quality
parameters are used during rendering. Render quality parameters control
subdivision, anti-aliasing, and raytracing limits. The default setting is PER
OBJECT.
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PER
OBJECT
GLOBAL
each object renders based on its Object
Rendering Parameters
all objects render based on the Global
Quality Parameters (see Global Quality
Parameters (Low, Medium,
High) (page 768))
Subdivision Type
The method used to subdivide surfaces during rendering. The default value
is ADAPTIVE.
ADAPTIVE
Subdivides surfaces (patches) into triangles
based on surface curvature. (Faces cannot
be adaptively subdivided.) Surfaces with high
curvature are divided into more triangles than
flatter surfaces with low curvature. If
Subdivision Type is ADAPTIVE, then the
Adaptive Minimum, Adaptive Maximum, and
Curve Threshold parameters become
available.
UNIFORM
Subdivides surfaces into uniformly sized
triangles (that is, without taking surface
curvature into account). Trimmed surfaces
must be adaptively subdivided. Only the U
Divisions value is used for subdividing faces.
When Subdivision Type is UNIFORM, the U
Divisions and V Divisions parameters
become available.
Adaptive Minimum, Adaptive Maximum
The minimum and maximum number of subdivisions between CVs in both U
and V directions. Values must be powers of 2 between 0 and 7 (either 1, 2, 4,
8, 16, 32, 64, or 128). If you enter any other value between 1 and 256, the
next highest valid value is used. The default value is 2 for Adaptive Minimum
and 4 for Adaptive Maximum.
Curve Threshold
The threshold for subdivision in both the U and V directions. The higher the
Curvature Threshold value, the greater the number of triangles, and the more
accurate the curvature. The valid/slider range is 0 to 1. The default value is
0.96.
U Divisions, V Divisions
The number of subdivisions that surfaces have between CVs in both the U
and V directions, regardless of surface curvature. The valid range is 1 to 256.
The default value is 4.
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Anti-aliasing Levels
The Anti-aliasing Levels control the quality of anti-aliasing used during
rendering. The default values listed are for the MEDIUM Global Quality Level.
If you are rendering a scene with a few small details that can easily be missed,
try setting the Minimum value to 0 or 1, the Maximum value from 4 to 8, and the
Threshold value from 0.9 to 1.0. This gives very short rendering times and
excellent image quality.
Minimum
The minimum number of subdivisions (or super samples) per pixel. The
higher the Minimum value, the better the anti-aliasing; however, a large
Minimum value can significantly increase rendering times. The valid/slider
range is 0 to 32. The default setting is 0.
Maximum
The maximum number of subdivisions (or super samples) per pixel. The
higher the Maximum value, the better the anti-aliasing.The valid range is 0 to
32. The default setting is 4.
If the Minimum value is greater than the Maximum value, the Minimum value
is automatically reset to the Maximum value.
Threshold
Uses the colors at each corner of a pixel to determine if finer anti-aliasing is
required. If the value differences at each pixel corner are greater than the
Threshold value, the pixel is subdivided again. The valid/slider range is 0 to 1
(the maximum number of samples is always taken). The default value is 0.7.
Reduced Samples
Uses a sampling technique that avoids anti-aliasing every pixel at the most
expensive level. An occasional pixel’s anti-aliasing is skipped if it will not be
very noticeable (speeding up the rendering process). This option, however,
may produce artifacts. The default setting is OFF.
Raytracing Maximum Limits
The Raytracing Maximum Limits set limits on the number of reflections,
refractions, and shadows possible during raytracing. The default values listed are
for the MEDIUM Global Quality Level.
Maximum Reflections
The maximum number of times that a camera ray can be reflected. The
Maximum Reflections value overrides (that is, limits) all shaders’ Reflect
Limit values (see Reflect Limit). The valid range is 0 to ∞. The slider range is
0 to 10. The default value is 4.
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Maximum Refractions
The maximum number of times that a camera ray can be refracted. The
Maximum Refractions value overrides (that is, limits) all shaders’ Refract
Limit values (see Refract Limit). The valid range is 0 to ∞. The slider range is
0 to 10. The default value is 4.
Max Shadows Levels
The maximum number of times any surface can be reflected or refracted and
still receive shadows (in the reflection/refraction). The Max Shadows Levels
value overrides (that is, limits) all shaders’ Shadow Limit values (see
Shadow Limit). The valid range is 0 to ∞. The slider range is 0 to 10. The
default value is 4.
Composite Rendering Options
The Render Globals window contains the Object Rendering Parameters, which
control how individual objects will render.
The Composite Rendering Options control whether objects are anti-aliased
against the background. Composite rendering is used for image compositing and
games design.
Composite Rendering
Renders objects so that they are not anti-aliased against the background.
For example, a pixel on the edge of an object is not mixed with the
background color—only the subsamples actually striking the object are used
to compute the color of the pixel. The default setting is OFF.
In TIFF terms, Composite Rendering generates unassociated alpha. The
RGB anti-aliased images that result won’t look too anti-aliased due to the
unassociated alpha.
Coverage Threshold
The number of subsamples required for the pixel as a whole to be
considered part of the object and not part of the background. For example, if
the Coverage Threshold value is 0.5, then at least half of the subsamples
must strike the object or it will be considered as a missed ray, determined by
the mask generated by the renderer. This lets you control the bleed around
the edges of a sprite. This parameter is available only if Composite
Rendering is ON. The valid/slider range is 0 to 1. The default value is 0.5.
For image compositing, set the Coverage Threshold value to 0.
Memory Options
The Memory Options include the Raytracing Memory Options and the Texture
Caching Memory Options.
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Raytracing Memory Options
Subdivide Recursion
Limits the number of times spatial subdivision is recursively applied to the
scene. Increasing the Subdivide Recursion value requires an exponentially
greater amount of memory. In general, keep the Subdivide Recursion value
set to 2 or 3. The valid/slider range is 1 to 4. The default value is 2.
Only experienced users should adjust the Subdivide Recursion value.
Grid Cache
The number of voxels to be allocated before caching voxels by reusing old
voxels begins. By lowering the Grid Cache value, you can save memory, but
you will lose some speed. The valid slider range is 100 to 10000. The default
value is 4000.
BBox Status
Controls how bounding boxes are stored in memory. The default setting is
FULL.
FULL
the bounding box of each triangle is kept in
memory to speed up raytracing
PARTIAL
the bounding box is encoded, saving memory,
but sacrificing a small amount of speed
NONE
no bounding box is stored, saving even more
memory, but at a significant loss of speed
Reducing memory usage usually increases rendering time. However, if the
raytracer starts to swap, reducing memory usage actually improves
performance. See Optimization on page 151.
Voxel Resolution
Controls how voxel resolution is determined. Changing voxel resolutions
affects the amount of memory needed. Only experienced users should adjust
the Nth Root, X Res, Y Res, or Z Res values. The default setting is Nth
ROOT.
A voxel is a volume element (cube) that encloses a certain amount of 3D
space.
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AUTOMATIC the resolutions of recursive voxels are
automatically determined
SHOWROO
M
a more optimal and automatic determination
of voxel resolution for scenes with a large
overall environment and a small section of
space occupied by very complex geometry
(for example, a showroom)
Nth ROOT
the top level resolution, computed with t **
(1/N), where t = # of triangles, and N = Nth
Root (user input). Typical values of N are 3
to 4; the range is 3 to 10.
SET TOP
LEVEL
lets you specify the voxel resolution of the
top level in the X, Y, and Z directions (X
Res, Y Res, Z Res)
Texture Caching Memory Options
The Texture Caching Memory Options control how File textures are stored in
memory. AliasStudio does not read every component of every texture file into
memory. The MIPMAPs are tiled, and only the portions for the area that the
renderer is working on are kept in memory.
You can specify a cache size that maintains only what has to be in memory at
any time, and load and unload texture tiles (parts of a texture) as need. This can
dramatically reduce the amount of memory used.
Texture Caching
Controls how File textures are stored in memory. The default setting is OFF.
OFF
all File textures are kept in memory at all
times
ON
Creates a cache of texture tiles (parts of a
texture), which is kept on disk, retrieved
as needed, and deleted from memory as
other tiles are needed.
PER
TEXTURE
Creates a cache of texture tiles only for
File textures which have Cache ON (see
Cache). All File textures which have
Cache OFF are kept in memory at all
times.
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Cache Size
The largest memory size needed for all texture files if Texture Caching is
turned ON. The default setting is 256K.
Disk Cache Limit (Mbytes)
The most disk space that texture caching can use. The range is 30 to 5000.
The default value is 30.
Blur Effects
You use the Blur Effects parameters to do post-rendering anti-aliasing and
motion blur during animations.
Post Filter
Does more anti-aliasing after rendering is complete, using a 3 pixel by 3 pixel
Bartlet filter for each pixel. This produces softer edges and improved image
quality. If Post Filter is ON, the Post Center, Post Adjacent, and Post
Diagonal parameters become available. The default setting is OFF.
A Bartlet filter blurs each pixel in an image using a 3 pixel by 3 pixel sample.
The filter applies a weight to the color of the center pixel, the adjacent pixels,
and the diagonal pixels. The ratio between the weighted center pixel color
and the weighted surrounding pixel colors determines how much the center
pixel’s color is blended with the surrounding pixel colors.
Diagonal Adjacent Diagonal
Adjacent
Center
Adjacent
Diagonal Adjacent Diagonal
Post Center
The center pixel weight for the 3 pixel by 3 pixel Post Filter (Bartlet filter). The
valid range is 0 to 1000. The slider range is 0 to 20. The default value is 8.
Post Adjacent
The edge pixel weights for the 3 pixel by 3 pixel Post Filter (Bartlet filter). The
valid range is 0 to 1000. The slider range is 0 to 20. The default value is 1.
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Post Diagonal
The corner pixel weights for the 3 pixel by 3 pixel Post Filter (Bartlet filter).
The valid range is 0 to 1000. The slider range is 0 to 20. The default value is
1.
Motion Blur
Blurs the motion of objects to produce smoother animations. Motion blur is
only calculated for objects which have Motion Blurred on (see Motion
Blurred) and for cameras which have Motion Blur ON (see Motion Blurred).
By default, all objects have Motion Blurred turned on, and all cameras have
Motion Blur turned off. If Motion Blur is OFF, motion blur is not calculated
regardless of individual object settings. If Motion Blur is ON, the Shutter
Angle parameter becomes available. The default setting is OFF.
Motion blur is only available during raycasting.
Lights and shadows are not motion blurred.
Shutter Angle
The angle (in degrees) that the camera shutter remains open. The greater
the angle, the greater the motion blur effect. For example, if the Shutter
Angle value is 180, moving objects are blurred over half of the frame step
time. The Shutter Angle parameter is only available when Motion Blur is ON.
The valid/slider range is 1 to 360. The default value is 144.
Miscellaneous
Textures
Determines if textures are rendered. The default setting is ON.
No Transp. in Depth
Controls whether transparent objects appear in the camera’s depth file (see
Depth (page 779)). If No Transp. in Depth is OFF, transparent objects appear
in the depth file. If No Transp. in Depth is ON, the Transparency % parameter
becomes available. The default setting is OFF.
Transparency %
The level of transparency an object needs in order to appear in the camera’s
depth file (see Depth (page 779)). For example, if the Transparency % value
is 0.8, objects that are more than 80 percent transparent do not appear in the
depth file. This parameter is only available if No Transp. in Depth is ON. The
valid/slider range is 0 to 1. The default value is 1.
This feature is ideal for transparency mapped surfaces used as collision
objects in games.
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Keep Non Glowed Image
Creates a separate file with no glow component (for example, from particle,
shader or light glow) with the name <pixfile>.ng. The default setting is
OFF.
Keep Non Glowed Image acts the same as the -P option for the command
line renderer.
Spotlight Depth Maps
Saves spot light shadow depth maps to disk for spot light’s that have Use
Depth Map ON (see Use Depth Map). The default setting is OFF.
Depth Maps in Memory
Keeps spot light shadow depth maps in memory for spot light’s that have Use
Depth Map ON (see Use Depth Map). The default setting is OFF.
Depth Maps in Memory acts the same as the -k option for the command line
renderer.
Attenuate Transp. (Attenuate Transparency)
This is relevant only for the raytracer/powertracer.
◆
◆
◆
If it is ON, all transparent objects are attenuated according to Beere’s
law, which is physically based, and depends on the distance rays travel
through the object. Thus, large objects will have more attenuation than
small ones for the same transparency. Also note that the attenuation is
inverse to the transparency, so that as the transparency approaches 1,
the attenuation becomes smaller; a value equal to 1 effectively turns the
attenuation off. The default setting is ON.
If it is OFF, attenuation does not occur, and the resultant transparent
objects match raycaster-like effects (and totally transparent objects
appear totally transparent).
Attenuate Transp. acts the same as the -j option for the command line
renderer.
Invis. Obj. Cast Shadows
Lets invisible objects cast shadows (for example, to create special effects).
The default setting is OFF.
Raytraced Shadow Bias
Set this slider if there are self-shadowing artefacts. Increase the bias beyond
the default zero until the artefacts disappear: the amount this will require
depends on the scale of the scene, and will require trial-and-error test
renderings.
Image File Output
Format
The rendered image is output and saved in this file format. The default
setting is ALIAS.
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ALIAS
Alias pix file format (see The Alias Pix File
Format in the File Formats online
documentation)
SGI
Silicon Graphics Image file format
TIFF
Tagged Image File Format
TIFF16
Tagged Image File Format with 16 bits per color
component
RLA
Wavefront image file format (an indexed scanline
file)
HARRY
Quantel Harry image file format (four fixed
resolutions are supported: NTSC frame, NTSC
field, PAL frame and PAL field)
Depth Format
The camera depth file is output and saved in this file format (see
Depth (page 779)). The default setting is ALIAS.
ALIAS
Alias camera depth file format (see Alias
Camera Depth File Format in the File
Formats online documentation)
COMPOSER
Composer depth file format
Fields
Controls whether rendering produces frames or fields. A frame consists of
two fields, odd and even. The odd field contains every second line starting at
the first line. The even field contains every second line starting at the second
line. The default setting is OFF.
OFF
frames
BOTH both odd and even fields
ODD
odd fields only
EVEN
even fields only
If Fields is either BOTH, ODD, or EVEN, an additional parameter becomes
available.
This parameter defines the order that the fields are rendered. The default
setting is ODD FIRST.
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ODD FIRST
odd fields first
EVEN FIRST even fields first
You can use field-rendered Pix Backdrops when rendering Fields. If you
render fields, the renderer uses pixbackdrop.*e during the even field
rendering and pixbackdrop.*o during the odd field rendering. The fieldrendered Pix Backdrop files is used only if the frame-rendered files
(pixbackdrop.1, pixbackdrop.2, etc.) do not exist. See Backdrop.
You can also render even fields first by setting the
ALIAS_SWITCH_SCANLINES_EVEN_ODD_SENSE environment variable.
Ignore Film Gate
Does not render the region outside the filmback. The default setting is OFF
(the region outside the filmback is rendered).
Gamma Correction
A color correction factor applied to the rendered image. The valid range is 0
to ∞. The slider range is 0 to 2. The default setting is 1.
The Gamma Correction value (gamma_value) is applied to each color
channel (RGB), according to the following formulas:
R
R = 255 x (
255 )
G
G = 255 x (
255 )
B
B = 255 x (
255 )
gamma_value
if R > 255, then R = 255
gamma_value
if G > 255, then G = 255
gamma_value
if B > 255, then B = 255
Camera Toggles
Determines whether a camera produces an image file, a mask file, or a depth
file, or all three. You can select one camera only. .
If all camera toggles are OFF when you do a render (Render > Render) or
save an SDL file (File > Export > SDL), the following confirm box is
displayed.
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Image
The renderer produces an RGB image (see Format (page 776)). The default
setting is ON for the perspective camera, and OFF (no image produced) for
the orthographic cameras.
Mask
The renderer produces an 8-bit mask or matte file for use with compositing or
paint software. If Mask is ON and the image file output Format is TIFF,
TIFF16, RLA, or SGI, the renderer produces not a separate mask file but a
four-channel Image file (RGBA). The fourth channel (A) represents the mask
information. The default setting is OFF (no mask file produced) for all
cameras.
Depth
The renderer produces a camera depth file (see Depth Format (page 777)).
The default setting is OFF for all cameras.
Image XY Ratio Lock
Maintains the ratio between the X Resolution and Y Resolution values (that
is, if you double one value, the other value doubles automatically). If Image
XY Ratio Lock is OFF, you can set the X Resolution and Y Resolution values
independently. The default setting is OFF.
X Resolution, Y Resolution
The X and Y resolution of the rendered image. The valid range is 0 to ∞. The
slider range is 0 to 2048. The default setting is 645 for X Resolution and 486
for Y Resolution.
If Image XY Ratio Lock is ON, then you cannot set the X Resolution and Y
Resolution values independently. You can also set image resolution using
several predefined values (see Predefined Resolutions (page 780)).
Pixel Aspect Ratio
The ratio of each individual pixel’s width to its height for a display or recording
device. Most devices, including the monitor screen, use square pixels, so the
pixel aspect ratio is 1/1 = 1. Some devices, however, use non-square pixels.
If you are rendering an animation that you plan to display on or record to one
of these devices, you must set the Pixel Aspect Ratio value to the device’s
pixel aspect ratio value. The rendered animation will then look squashed or
stretched when you view it on the monitor screen, but will have the proper
proportions when you view it from the device. You can also set the Pixel
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Aspect Ratio by selecting a predefined value (see Predefined
Resolutions (page 780)). The valid range is 0 to ∞. The slider range is 0 to 1.
The default value is 1.
Device
Pixel
Aspec
t Ratio
IRIS NTSC
1.0
IRIS PAL
1.0
Raster Tek's Hidef Frame Buffer
1.0
Abekas Internal Frame Buffer
1.33
Raster Tek's NTSC Frame Buffer
1.125
Quantel's Harry Interface
1.33
Full Frame 1K width
1.11
Motion Picture 1K with sound track
1.0
Motion Picture, no sound track
1.0
Predefined Resolutions
The Predefined Resolutions section of the Render Globals window contains a
list of common screen resolutions. You can select a predefined resolution by
clicking on it. The corresponding Image File Output parameters (X Resolution, Y
Resolution, and Pixel Aspect Ratio) are automatically set.
You can change the X Resolution, Y Resolution, or Pixel Aspect Ratio values of
a predefined resolution by double-clicking in the appropriate field in the
Predefined Resolutions list, and entering a new value. You can also add a
predefined resolution to the list by clicking the Add button, or delete a predefined
resolution from the list by selecting the predefined resolution and then clicking
the Delete button.
If you change a predefined resolution, the change is automatically written to your
misc_data directory in a file called resolutions. The predefined file is
located within the active project. If no file exists, the system creates the
AliasStudio default.
Add
Adds a new (blank) predefined resolution to the list which you can then edit.
Delete
Deletes the selected predefined resolution from the list.
Hidden Line Rendering Parameters
The Hidden Line Rendering Parameters control the appearance of surfaces
during hidden line rendering.
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Hidden Line Parms
Determines which set of Hidden Line Rendering Parameters are used during
hidden line rendering. The default setting is PER OBJECT.
PER
OBJECT
each object renders based on its shader’s
Hidden Line Rendering Parameters
GLOBAL
all objects render based on the Hidden
Line Rendering Parameters in the
Render > Globals window
Use Fill Color
The renderer colors all surfaces in the scene with the Fill Color. If Use Fill
Color is OFF, all surfaces in the scene are colored with the background color
(as though they were transparent). The default setting is OFF.
Fill Color
The color of filled regions for all surfaces in the scene.
Line Color
The color of lines for all surfaces in the scene.
U Patch Lines, V Patch Lines
The number of lines shown in the U and V directions for each surface in the
scene. The valid range is 0 to ∞. The slider range is 0 to 8. The default
setting is 0 (no lines drawn on the surface other than edges).
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Render > Direct render
Renders the active window directly on-screen.
See Preview rendering on page 51.
See Rendering tools and menus on page 3.
See Canvas > Project sketch on page 763.
Direct Render window
re-render
pause
render
renderer name
render status
copy to
clipboard
re-render bounding box
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Direct Rendering Options
Renderer Type
The type of renderer used: Raycaster, Raytracer, Powercaster, or
Powertracer. The default setting is Raycaster.Processors
Determines whether the renderer uses all available processors (All), or only
a certain number of them (User Defined). This parameter appears only when
Renderer Type is Powercaster or Powertracer. If Processors is User
Defined, the Num Processors parameter appears. The default setting is All.
Num Processors
The number of processors that the renderer uses. This parameter is only
available if Renderer Type is Powercaster or Powertracer, and Processors is
User Defined. The valid/slider range is 1 to 32. The default value is 8.
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Render > Render
Determines the type of rendering operation that will be performed, the location of
the renderer, and renders the scene.
See Rendering tools and menus on page 3.
See Canvas > Project sketch on page 763.
See Render > Ambient Occlusion > Compute on page 794.
Rendering Options
Renderer Type
The type of renderer used: Raycaster, Raytracer, Hidden Line, Powercaster,
or Powertracer. The icon in the Rendering Options window changes if you
change Renderer Type. If Renderer Type is Powercaster or Powertracer, the
Processors parameter becomes available. The default setting is Raycaster.
With Powercaster or Powertracer, multiple renders on the same multiprocessor machine may produce the message /usr/temp/sgi_mp_rt_locks
permission denied. As a workaround, use the command setenv
ALIAS_PLACE_LOCKS_IN_SWAP.
Processors
Determines whether the renderer uses all available processors (All), or only
a certain number of the available processors (User Defined). This parameter
is available only when Renderer Type is Powercaster or Powertracer If
Processors is User Defined, the Num Processors parameter becomes
available. The default setting is All.
Num Processors
The number or processors the renderer uses. This parameter is only
available if Renderer Type is Powercaster or Powertracer, and Processors is
User Defined. If you select User Defined, the initial value is 1. The valid/slider
range is 1 to 32. The value you set will be saved in User Prefs.
Test Render
Automatically names the rendered image file testrender_nnnnnn, where nnnnnn
is a six-digit number. If Test Render is ON, the Test Resolution parameter
becomes available. The default setting is OFF.
Test Resolution
A scaling factor applied to the X Resolution and Y Resolution values in the
Render > Globals window. The slider range is 0.1 to 1. The default setting is
0.5.
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>
Rendering Options window buttons
Reset
Resets all Rendering Options to their default settings.
Save
Saves the current Rendering Options settings for use by all subsequent
renders.
Exit
Closes the Rendering Options window. The scene is not rendered, and any
changes you have made to the Rendering Options are not saved.
Go
Renders the scene using the current Rendering Options settings.
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Render > Render to QuickTimeVR
Render a QuickTime VR window to move around a model or explore an interior
scene in either a web browser or in QuickTime Player.
QuickTime must be installed on your computer to use this feature.
A limitation exists with QuickTime 7.1; large QTVR scenes may not navigate
directly in QuickTime 7.1, but can be navigated if you load the QTVR file into
a web browser that has the appropriate QuickTime plug-in.
You can now easily produce a QuickTime VR of your scene in AliasStudio.
Create a QuickTime VR movie
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1
Click the menu bar of the window you want to use.
2
Choose Render > Render to QuickTimeVR ❑ and set options to create the
type of QTVR you want.
3
Click Go. If you are creating a QTVR file using screen grabs, do not overlap
any windows onto the AliasStudio window while the scene is being recorded.
After the frames are recorded, they are assembled into a QTVR .mov file that
is stored in your project’s pix directory.
4
Double-click the .mov file to open the QTVR file in QuickTime, or drag and
drop the output .mov file into a QuickTime-enabled web browser.
Options
Choose Render > Render to QuickTimeVR ❑ to open the options window. The
options in Render > Render to QuickTimeVR are as follows:
>
Image Source
Screen Grab
Uses the Perspective window as the source for the QTVR. If a Perspective
window is not current, QTVR will set it to the first available Perspective
window.
This mode supports different window display styles; for example, wireframe
and Hardware Shade.
To modify the output size while preserving the aspect ratio of the window, set
the Perspective window to Fixed aspect ratio first, and drag-resize your
Perspective window to the desired output size.
Render
Uses the AliasStudio software renderers (Render, PowerRender, Hiddenline, and so on) as the source for the QTVR. Choose from one of the
available renderers, as applicable.
When using the Software Render option with Save Frames set OFF,
because of the subsequent removal of the rendered files, the Show and
Logfile buttons in the Render Monitor window are disabled when the
software rendering finishes.
Saved Frames
Uses frames that have previously been rendered and saved. You can control
the ability to wrap around and the number of frames, so you can generate a
partial QTVR.
>
Coverage — how the scene is represented
Complete
A complete 360 degree camera navigation around all view axes.
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Rotisserie
Rotates about an axis perpendicular to the camera. Choose this option if the
top, bottom, and sides of an object are of interest, and the front and back are
not important.
Turntable
Rotates about the up axis (usually the Z axis). Choose this option if the front,
back and sides of the object are of interest, and the top and the bottom are
not important.
Frames per revolution
Controls the number of snapshots taken for the QTVR render. If the
Coverage is set to Complete, multiple axes of revolution are used. Rotisserie
and Turntable use a single revolution.
The higher the number of frames per revolution, the smoother the QTVR
navigation will be. However, the file size, and time to render and create the
QTVR, increase proportionately.
Total Frames
The total number of image frames to be rendered to create the QTVR
environment. These values are driven by the Coverage type and Frames per
revolution setting. This value is not directly editable.
>
View Type
Object
Produces an Object-style QuickTime VR file, in which the camera orbits
around the outside of the objects in the scene. The camera rotates about its
view pivot.
Panorama
Produces a Panorama-style QuickTime VR file, in which the camera pans
from a fixed location. The camera rotates about its eye pivot.
>
Center of Interest
(available only if View Type is set to Object)
Origin
Sets the Center of Interest at the world origin (0, 0, 0).
Picked Objects
Sets the Center of Interest at the bounding box center of all picked objects in
the scene.
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If no objects are picked, QTVR sets the Center of Interest at the bounding
box center of all visible objects in the scene.
If only one object is picked, QTVR sets the Center of Interest at that object's
rotate/scale pivot location. To make a single surface or object use its
Bounding Box center instead, use Transform > Local > Center pivot first.
>
Constrain lights to camera
Keeps the lighting in a constant position relative to the camera when it
moves. When unchecked, lights are in a constant position relative to the
scene (and therefore, don’t move).
>
Viewing Angle
(available only if View Type is set to Panorama)
180
Limits the output Panorama QTVR to a 180 degree camera tilt.
360
Produces a Panorama QTVR with an unlimited camera tilt.
>
Codec
Codec is short for compressor/decompressor. It determines how the QTVR is
compressed and optimized. The codec is used to control the output QTVR image
quality and file size. The higher the Quality setting, the larger the output QTVR
file size. In general, the current codecs available for QTVR are older codecs, in
contrast to regular (that is, non VR) QuickTime movies that use the latest and
most efficient codecs.
None
No compression is used.
Graphics
The Apple Graphics codec (also known as SMC). It has two Quality settings:
Low and High.
Video
The Apple Video codec. Its Quality settings are from 0 percent to 100
percent, where 100 percent is highest quality.
Photo - JPEG
Implements the Joint Photographic Experts Group (also known as JPEG)
compression. Its Quality settings are from 0 percent to 100 percent, where
100 percent is highest quality.
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Cinepak
Produced by Compression Technologies Inc. Its Quality settings are from 0
percent to 100 percent, where 100 percent is highest quality.
>
Resolution
Current Window
Sets the output resolution for the QTVR (screen grab or software render) to
the xy dimensions of the current modeling window.
Render Globals
Sets the output resolution for the QTVR to the current Render Globals Image
File Output resolution.
This choice is not exclusive to Software Render QTVR output; it is just
another means of controlling the output QTVR resolution. It can be used,
even if Screen Grab is the chosen Image Source.
Custom
Sets resolution from the custom xy sliders. The minimum allowable QTVR
resolution is 8 by 8.
Image XY Ratio Lock
Maintains the ratio between the X Resolution and Y Resolution values (that
is, if you double one value, the other value doubles automatically). If Image
XY Ratio Lock is OFF, you can set the X Resolution and Y Resolution values
independently. The default setting is OFF.
X Resolution, Y Resolution
The X and Y resolution of the rendered image. The slider range is 0 to 2048.
The default setting is 645 for X Resolution and 486 for Y Resolution.
If Image XY Ratio Lock is ON, you cannot set the X Resolution and Y
Resolution values independently.
Save Frames
Choose this check box to save the temporary rendered files used to produce
the QTVR. They are written to a subfolder in your current project’s /pix
directory.
There is no feedback that QuickTime is building the qtvr file after the .tifs
have been written to disk. This can take some time. After the frames have
been created and while the QuickTime file is being generated, the filename
of the movie file is filename (Generating).mov. When the file is ready,
it is named filename.mov.
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Render > Convert Frames to Movie
Compile an .avi file or a .mov file from a series of frames that have already been
rendered.
Images may be in any format AliasStudio supports. Bitmaps are the ideal image
filetype. Other formats are converted to bitmaps before adding the frames to the
video, which slows the process down.
To convert a series of rendered images to a single movie file
1
Choose Render > Convert Frames to Movie ❐
When choosing the tool the first time, it takes a few seconds to load all
the codecs for AVI and Quicktime.
1
Set the type of the output movie file (AVI or QuickTime), the codec, the frames
per second, and other options. (Some options, e.g. Quality, are only available
for some codecs).
2
Click Go.
The file browser opens and you are prompted to
Choose the first frame.
3
Select a file in the browser to use as the starting frame. A series of files must
be numbered sequentially; for example, image.tif.1, image.tif.2,
image.tif.3, image.tif.4, and so on.
The image filename formats that are accepted are “filename.num.ext” or
“filename.ext.num” or “filename.num”, where “num” is the sequence
number and “ext” is the image format extension.
After the frames are chosen, an external program creates the movie in either
AVI or QuickTime format.
QuickTime format is only available if QuickTime has been installed. The
software is available at www.quicktime.com.
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Options
Output
Specifies the type of movie that will be output: AVI or Quicktime.
Codec
Specifies the coder/decoder application that will be used for compression.
Quality
This option is only enabled for codecs that support it. It may appear as a
slider with numerical values, or a pull-down with a choice of Low or High
quality.
Frames per second
Specifies the number of rendered frames contained within each second of
the movie.
Control maximum number of frames
If this option is turned on, you can set the maximum number of frames to
include in the movie by using the Maximum number of frames field.
If this option is off, the tool will create a movie from all the frames in the
continuously-numbered sequence of images.
The image selected in the browser is always the first frame.
Control keyframe positions
This option only applies to AVI movies. If turned on, it lets you specify the
frequency at which you want to position keyframes through the Keyframe
every field.
Control datarate
This option only applies to AVI movies. If turned on, it lets you specify the
maximum data rate through the Datarate (kilobytes/second) field.
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The data rate is the speed at which data can be transferred. The higher a
video file's data rate, the higher quality it will be, but the more system
resources (processor speed, hard disk space, and performance) it will take
to work with it.
Quality, Control datarate and Control keyframe positions are only
enabled for codecs that support them. Some codecs also have their own
configuration windows, which can be accessed by using the Configure
Codec button.
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Render > Ambient Occlusion > Compute
Ambient occlusion calculates shading based on a theoretical ambient light
source to create general areas of shadow on your model. Ambient occlusion
calculations can be used both with hardware shading and software renderings.
The calculated information is saved to the wire file, and after it has been
calculated, it can easily be turned on and off without requiring a large overhead of
calculations again.
Ambient occlusion requires that all surface normals are unified. For further
information about unifying normals, see Surface Edit > Orientation > Unify
Surface Orientation.
Ambient occlusion works best when intersecting geometry is trimmed to the
shared edge. Intersecting geometry causes confusion because the algorithim
tries to average between dark sample points on the interior and light sample
points on the exterior. Raising the Detail (resolution) minimizes the problem but
does not completely get rid of it.
There is a distinction between geometry that is the "occluder" and geometry that
is "occluded;" only spline surfaces can be occluded - not meshes. Hardware
shading tessellation is used for the calculation. You must have hardware shade
turned on.
Occlusion textures can't be computed on mesh objects. However, if you
compute ambient occlusion on a NURBS surface and then convert the
surface to a mesh, the occlusion calculation is retained.
Scope
Choose whether all surfaces are to have their occlusion textures calculated,
or only the picked (active) surfaces in the scene.
All geometry that isn't set as invisible, template, or reference will occlude,
regardless of the switch.
All transparent surfaces should be hidden (or templated, or referenced)
before calculating ambient occlusion, to ensure that the surfaces are not
obscured during rendering.
If you have a few surfaces that are much larger than any others (like the floor
or walls of an environment), compute occlusion separately for these large
surfaces with a lower resolution. If you have a few small details that you
want higher quality on, compute those separately with a higher resolution.
Smoothness (rays/sample)
Increase this value if your image is speckled or spotty to create a smoother,
more uniform image.
The value is the number of rays traced per pixel of occlusion texture. A
higher value takes longer to compute but reduces the contrast of the
noisyness of the resulting texture.
The algorithm used for the smoothness calculation rounds the number of
rays to a multiple of 4, so try to use a multple of 4 for this value.
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Detail (resolution)
Occlusion texture resolutions are computed automatically in order to balance
the quality evenly across the model and provide a reasonable resolution for
models of any scale. The Detail slider lets you scale these resolutions up or
down.
Increase this value to ensure that small details are calculated and included in
the ambient occlusion. If the scene does not have small details, the number
can be left low.
Imagine that it works this way: the scene bounding box is computed and a
512 by 512 texture is mapped onto that box. A measuring tape checks the
distance between those texture pixels. The "Detail (resolution)" slider is
multiplied into that distance. This scheme ensures that the initial result is
satisfactory, whether you're modeling a cufflink or a passenger jet, without
having to change any settings at all .
Now forget about the bounding box and the imaginary 512 by 512 texture.
We take the distance we've measured and multiplied and use it to measure
the occlusion texture onto each surface in proportion to its own worldspace
length in u and v. This is so that (1) there's a consistent level of detail across
the whole model and (2) none but the most dramatic changes to the model
will have the side effect of altering the level of detail you're getting with any
given slider value.
Self-shadow correction
In the event that a surface is both sufficiently concave and very coarsely
tessellated, you might see some black spots or streaks in the model. Usually,
the problem can be solved by computing occlusion with Hardware Shade set
to a finer tessellation than before. If it still has spots and streaks, the Self
Shadow Correction value can be increased, and those surfaces recomputed
to fix the artifact.
Self-shadowing can be confirmed as the cause of an artifact by turning on
Show Triangles in the Hardware Shade settings and observing whether the
dark spots line up with the tesselation grid.
Filter Radius
Controls the smoothing of occlusion textures. The slider range is 1-4,
however, you can enter values in the range of 0 to 7.
In general, try changing the occlusion settings together: often, an increase in
resolution works well with an increase in the filter size and a decrease in the
number of rays per sample. Conversely, a decrease in resolution often works
well with an increase in the number of rays per sample and a decrease in the
filter size.
Converting NURBS surfaces to meshes with Ambient Occlusion on
preserves the occlusion textures.
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Chord-length Parameterization
Causes the surfaces to use a mapping technique that ignores the UV
parameterization of the spline-based surface, and instead maps according to
surface distances (measured in world space units). This can help to distribute
occlusion detail evenly over surfaces regardless of how they are constructed.
Seam artifacts are sometimes produced because of highly uneven detail
distribution.
Calculations can be halted by pressing Esc. It may take a few seconds before
the calculations stop.
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Render > Ambient Occlusion > Delete
Delete the ambient occlusion calculation if you modify your model, and then
calculate the changed surfaces. To delete the occlusion calculation for some
surfaces, ensure they are picked, and set the scope to Selected Objects.
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Render > Ambient Occlusion > Toggle Display
Toggles on and off the display of occlusion textures for both hardware shading
and software rendering.
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Render > Multi-lister > Multi-list edit
Opens multi-lister control window for active object.
Use Render > Multi-lister > Multi-list edit for fast access to information about a
shader on a particular object, the environment, or a light.
Pick the object for which you want to open the control window, and choose
Render > Multi-lister > Multi-list edit. The appropriate control window opens. If
no objects are picked, the control window for the Environment opens.
For further information about how to use the Multi-lister, see Render > Multilister.
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Render > Editors > Render stats
This window provides per-object information that can be changed to optimize
scenes for rendering.
See Rendering tools and menus on page 3.
See Moving objects with motion blur on page 135.
See Motion blur noise on page 140.
See Transparent surfaces on page 141.
See Fast moving objects on page 141.
See Raycaster/Raytracer optimization on page 151.
See Rendering parameters on page 154.
>
Sort By menu
The Sort By menu contains tools to control how objects are listed in the Render
Stats window.
nothing
Objects are not sorted.
type
Sorts objects alphabetically by surface type.
name
Sorts objects alphabetically by name.
>
List Mode menu
The List Mode menu contains tools to control which objects are listed in the
Render Stats window.
all
Lists all surfaces.
active
Lists only active surfaces.
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tgl groups
Displays the hierarchy of groups of surfaces. If Sort By is nothing, and List
Mode is tgl groups, object nodes with surfaces below in the hierarchy are
listed as shown in the following illustration. A surface icon appears in the cell
row for each group node displayed. Clicking this icon automatically selects all
rows for cells which correspond to the surfaces below this node.
surface icon
>
Select menu
The Select menu contains tools which let you select objects in the Render Stats
window and in the modeling windows.
select all rows
Selects all objects listed in the Render Stats window.
pick selected rows
Picks objects in the modeling windows that are selected in the Render Stats
window.
Object rendering parameters
The object rendering parameters control how individual objects will be rendered.
Double Sided
Determines whether both sides of the surface will render. If Double Sided is
ON, both sides of the surface will render. If Double Sided is OFF, only one
side of the surface will render; the side that renders is determined by the
direction of the surface normals and the setting of the Opposite parameter
(see Opposite below). The default setting is ON.
You may not want to render both sides of a closed object, such as a sphere,
(for both performance and memory reasons) because only one side of the
object will be visible when it is rendered. The Double Sided setting is ignored
during raytracing (both sides of all surfaces must be active).
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Opposite
Determines which side of the surface will renders when the Double Sided
parameter is OFF. If the wrong side of the object renders, toggle the
Opposite parameter. The default setting is OFF.
Shadows
Lets the surface cast shadows during raycasting or raytracing. If Shadows is
ON, the surface casts a shadow. The default setting is ON.
Adaptive Subdiv
Subdivides surfaces (patches) into triangles based on surface curvature.
(Faces cannot be adaptively subdivided.) Surfaces with high curvature are
divided into more triangles than flatter surfaces with low curvature. The
Minimum Subdiv and Maximum Subdiv values determine the subdivision
triangulation. Setting Adaptive Subdiv ON automatically sets Uniform
Subdiv OFF, and vice versa. The default setting is ON.
When Revert to V9.0 Tessellator is off in the Render > Globals window,
the Adaptive Subdiv values are dimmed in the Render Stats window.
Minimum Subdiv, Maximum Subdiv
The minimum and maximum number of subdivisions between CVs in both U
and V directions. These values are only applicable if Adaptive Subdivision is
ON. Valid values are 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, or 128. If you enter any other value
between 1 and 128, the next highest valid value is used. The default value is
2 for Minimum Subdiv and 4 for Maximum Subdiv.
When Revert to V9.0 Tessellator is off in the Render > Globals window,
the Minimum Subdiv and Maximum Subdiv values are dimmed in the
Render Stats window.
Curvature Threshold
The threshold for subdivision in both the U and V directions. The higher the
Curvature Threshold value, the greater the number of triangles, and the
more accurate the curvature. The valid range is 0 to 1. The default value is
0.96.
When Revert to V9.0 Tessellator is off in the Render > Globals window,
the Curvature Threshold values are dimmed in the Render Stats window.
Uniform Subdiv
Subdivides surfaces into uniformly sized triangles (that is, without taking
surface curvature into account). Trimmed surfaces must be adaptively
subdivided. The Uniform U and Uniform V values determine the number of
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subdivisions. Only the Uniform U value determines the number of
subdivisions for faces. Setting Uniform Subdiv ON automatically sets
Adaptive Subdiv OFF, and vice versa. The default setting is OFF.
When Revert to V9.0 Tessellator is off in the Render > Globals window,
the Uniform Subdiv values are dimmed in the Render Stats window.
Uniform U, Uniform V
The number of subdivisions the surface will have between CVs in both the U
and V directions, regardless of surface curvature. These values are only
applicable if Uniform Subdiv is ON. The valid range is 1 to 256. The default
value is 4.
When Revert to V9.0 Tessellator is off in the Render > Globals window,
the Uniform U and Uniform V values are dimmed in the Render Stats
window.
Smooth Shading
Gives polysets a smooth appearance during rendering. If Smooth Shading is
OFF, one normal of each triangular facet is used as a representation of the
triangle, giving surfaces a faceted appearance. The default setting is ON.
Motion Blurred
Blurs the motion of the surface to produce smoother animations. To use this
option, Motion Blur must be ON (see Motion Blur). The MB Texture Samples
and MB Shading Samples values control the smoothness of the motion blur
effect (see MB Texture Samples and MB Shading Samples below). The
default setting is ON.
Reflect Only
Determines whether the surface will be reflection raytraced only. If Reflect
Only is ON, the object is highlighted and will only appear in reflections or
refractions during raytracing, but will be invisible otherwise. The default
setting is OFF.
MB Texture Samples
The number of texture samples taken over the motion blur period (for motion
blurred surfaces only). The valid range is 1 to 6. The default value is 2.
If the texture on a motion blurred surface appears noisy, or not smoothly
blurred, increase the MB Texture Samples value by 1, test render, and repeat
until the texture is anti-aliased to your satisfaction. The actual number of
samples taken increases exponentially with the MB Texture Samples value.
Increasing this value also increases rendering time, so keep it as low as
possible.
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MB Shading Samples
The number of shading samples taken over the motion blur period in a pixel
sample (for motion blurred surfaces only). The valid range is 1 to 5. The
default value is 1.
Generally, one sample is enough to represent the shade of a surface in each
pixel sample. Thin specular highlights, bump maps, and displacement maps,
however, can alias incorrectly with only one shading sample. When you use
a bump or displacement map, MB Shading Samples will automatically
increase to 2 (if it is set to 1). If a sample value of 2 is not sufficient to antialias your geometry, increase the MB Shading Samples value. Increasing
this value can dramatically increase rendering time, so increase it with
caution, and only for those surfaces that display aliasing with the default
settings.
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Render > Editors > Light links
An editor for assigning lights to illuminate only specific objects.
See Rendering tools and menus on page 3.
The Link Editor is the interface you use to create, list, and remove links between
lights and surfaces.
To open the Link Editor
1
Use Pick > Object to select surfaces(s) and light(s) that you want to link or
unlink.
2
Select Render > Editors > Light links.
The Link Editor contains three lists: Components, Current Links, and Picklist.
All lists are sorted alphabetically by name with lights appearing before surfaces.
The icons to the left of light names represent the light types and are the same as
those displayed in the SBD window and the Multi-lister.
Components
Components lists all lights and surfaces (at the component level) that were active
when you opened the Link Editor. (If you unpick an active item in the modeling
window, it will still be listed in the Components list, but it will no longer be
highlighted.) Lights and surfaces that are highlighted in the Components list are
listed in the Picklist. You can select or deselect components in this list by clicking
on them. If the auto button in the Picklist is ON, this selection is automatically
updated in the Picklist.
Click the arrow (->) beside a component’s name to list all the components that
are currently linked to that component in the Current Links list. If an arrow is not
highlighted, that component is not linked. Adding and removing lights or surfaces
from the Components list has no effect on the Picklist.
Select none, all
Selects all or none of the elements in the list. The numeric value to the right
of these two buttons is the number of currently selected items.
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Add
Adds highlighted lights and surfaces from the Picklist to the Components list.
Only lights or surfaces that are active (or are below active DAGs) are
affected.
Remove
Removes highlighted lights and surfaces from the Components list.
Current links
Current Links lists all components linked to the active arrow’s component in the
Components list. For example, if the highlighted arrow component is a light,
Current Links lists the surfaces linked to that light.
Select none, all
Selects all or none of the components in the list. The numeric value to the
right of these two buttons is the number of currently selected components.
Picklist
Picklist lists lights or surfaces that are active in the Components list. Using the
Link and Unlink buttons, you can link or unlink lights and surfaces that are listed
in the Picklist.
auto
Toggles auto update ON and OFF. If auto update is ON, selecting or
deselecting components in the Components list automatically adds or
removes them in the Picklist.
Disable auto update if you are working on a large model. This will reduce the
number of times the screen has to refresh.
update
Updates the Picklist to include only active components in the Components
list.The update button has no effect if auto update is ON.
Link
Creates a link between the lights and surfaces listed in the Picklist.
Unlink
Removes the link between lights and surfaces listed in the Picklist.
Link Editor lists are grayed out when you are in an option window or when
you choose a function that requires picking operations. While these items
are grayed out, you cannot use the Link Editor. To use it again, choose one
of the pick options.
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Render > Create Lights > Point
Creates a point light that illuminates evenly in all directions.
See Create a light on page 105.
Point lights are like incandescent light bulbs — they throw light evenly in all
directions.
Multi-lister
swatch
Modeling
window
icon
You can create a light using the Create light tools or using the Multi-lister. You
can use the light options to set properties for any new light you create.
By default, lights are named sequentially as you create them: Light, Light#2, and
so on. To avoid confusion, however, you should name all lights as you create
them. If you let the system assign default names and later combine two or more
files, all lights are renumbered to avoid duplicate names. It may then become
difficult to distinguish lights by name.
Light#1 is not used explicitly as a name; the first light with a given name is
implicitly numbered 1.
To create a light using the Light tools
1
Select a tool from the Render > Create lights cascading menu, or click one of
these icons on the Create shelf:
2
Place the light by clicking in the modeling window, or by typing a set of
coordinates in the prompt line.
If shelves are not visible choose Windows > Shelves.
A new light swatch appears in the Multi-lister, and a new light icon appears in
the modeling window. Each type of light has a unique modeling window icon
and Multi-lister swatch.
In addition, light manipulators are displayed in the modeling window.
(To display the manipulators for an existing light, select the Pick > Object
tool, select the light, and select a Light tool.)
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Light Position
Look At Point
Most lights have one manipulator that controls the light’s position. Spot lights
have two manipulators: one manipulator controls the light’s position, the
other manipulator controls its direction (look-at point). Each manipulator
consists of a square icon at its center, and three colored arrow icons radiating
from the center in the X, Y, and Z directions.
By dragging a square icon you can move the light or the light’s look-at point
across the view plane (in orthographic windows) or parallel to the ground
plane (in perspective windows). By holding the Alt key while you drag a
square icon you can snap the light to grid points.
By dragging an arrow icon you can move the light or the light’s look-at point
in the X, Y, or Z direction.
To create a light using the Multi-lister
●
In the Multi-lister (Render > Multi-lister > Lights), select Edit > New Light.
A new point light swatch appears in the Multi-lister, and a new point light icon
appears in the modeling windows at 0,0,0. Double-clicking the icon opens up
the Control Window that allows you to change the light type and other
parameters.
To display the light options box
●
Do one of the following:
◆
◆
Select Create lights from the Render menu, then click the box beside the
name of a light type (for example, Render > Create Lights > Point ❒), or
Double click one of the light icons from the Create shelf.
Point Light Options
The Point Light Options can be opened using the Point light tool.
808
The Color, Intensity, and Exclusive options are common to all light types.
Color
The color of the light. If you map a texture to this parameter, the light projects
the texture. (The exact method of projection depends on the Light Type.) The
default setting is white.
White
Red
Green
Blue
Intensity
The brightness of the light. If the light exerts a force, this value sets its
strength. A light with an Intensity value of 0 produces no light. A light with
negative Intensity value removes light from a scene in the area of the light’s
influence. The slider range is 0 to 100. The default value is 1.
Use a negative Intensity value to reduce or remove hot-spots or glare.
0
1
10
100
Decay
Controls how quickly light intensity decreases with distance. The Decay
setting has no effect at distances less than 1 unit. If Force is set (that is, not
OFF) under Active Effects, the Decay value controls how quickly the force
intensity decreases with distance.
Valid settings are 0, 1, 2 or 3. The default setting is 1.
0
no decay; light reaches everything
1
light intensity decreases directly (linearly) with
distance (slower than real world light)
809
0
1
2
2
light intensity decreases proportionally with the square
of distance (the same as real world light)
3
light intensity decreases proportionally with the cube
of distance (faster than real world light)
3
Exclusive
Makes the light only illuminate objects that are linked to that light. A light with
Exclusive Link OFF illuminates objects that have no light links. The default
setting is OFF.
Shadows
Determines whether the light casts shadows or not. The default setting is
OFF. Please note that only spotlights can cast shadows in a raycast image.
810
Render > Create Lights > Spot
Creates a spot light that illuminates in one direction in an expanding cone.
See Shade surfaces with a preview of their rendered appearance on page 119.
See Lights on page 39.
See surface when raycasting on page 134.
Spot lights cast light in one direction only, emanating from a point in an expanding
cone.
Multi-lister
swatch
Modeling
window
icon
You can create a light using the Create light tools or using the Multi-lister. You
can use the light options to set properties for any new light you create.
By default, lights are named sequentially as you create them: Light, Light#2, and
so on. To avoid confusion, however, you should name all lights as you create
them. If you let the system assign default names and later combine two or more
files, all lights are renumbered to avoid duplicate names. It may then become
difficult to distinguish lights by name.
Light#1 is not used explicitly as a name; the first light with a given name is
implicitly numbered 1.
To create a light using the Light tools
1
Select a tool from the Render > Create lights cascading menu, or click one of
these icons on the Create shelf:
If shelves are not visible choose Windows > Shelves.
2
Place the light by clicking in the modeling window, or by typing a set of
coordinates in the prompt line.
A new light swatch appears in the Multi-lister, and a new light icon appears in
the modeling window. Each type of light has a unique modeling window icon
and Multi-lister swatch.
In addition, light manipulators are displayed in the modeling window.
811
(To display the manipulators for an existing light, select the Pick > Object
tool, select the light, and select a Light tool.)
Light Position
Look At Point
Most lights have one manipulator that controls the light’s position. Spot lights
have two manipulators: one manipulator controls the light’s position, the
other manipulator controls its direction (look-at point). Each manipulator
consists of a square icon at its center, and three colored arrow icons radiating
from the center in the X, Y, and Z directions.
By dragging a square icon you can move the light or the light’s look-at point
across the view plane (in orthographic windows) or parallel to the ground
plane (in perspective windows). By holding the Alt key while you drag a
square icon you can snap the light to grid points.
By dragging an arrow icon you can move the light or the light’s look-at point
in the X, Y, or Z direction.
To create a light using the Multi-lister
●
In the Multi-lister (Render > Multi-lister > Lights), select Edit > New Light.
A new point light swatch appears in the Multi-lister, and a new point light icon
appears in the modeling windows at 0,0,0. Double-clicking the icon opens up
the Control Window that allows you to change the light type and other
parameters.
To display the light options box
●
Do one of the following:
◆
◆
Select Create lights from the Render menu, then click the box beside the
name of a light type (for example, Render > Create lights > Spot ❒).
Double click one of the light icons from the Create shelf.
Spot Light Options
The Spot Light Options can be opened using the Spot light tool.
812
Color
The color of the light. If you map a texture to this parameter, the light projects
the texture. (The exact method of projection depends on the Light Type.) The
default setting is white.
White
Red
Green
Blue
Intensity
The brightness of the light. If the light exerts a force, this value sets its
strength. A light with an Intensity value of 0 produces no light. A light with
negative Intensity value removes light from a scene in the area of the light’s
influence. The slider range is 0 to 100. The default value is 1.
Use a negative Intensity value to reduce or remove hot-spots or glare.
0
1
10
100
Decay
Controls how quickly light intensity decreases with distance. The Decay
setting has no effect at distances less than 1 unit. If Force is set (that is, not
OFF) under Active Effects, the Decay value controls how quickly the force
intensity decreases with distance.
The Decay parameter works differently for volume lights (see
Decay (page 831)). Valid settings are 0, 1, 2 or 3. The default setting is 1.
813
0
1
2
0
no decay; light reaches everything
1
light intensity decreases directly (linearly) with
distance (slower than real world light)
2
light intensity decreases proportionally with the square
of distance (the same as real world light)
3
light intensity decreases proportionally with the cube
of distance (faster than real world light)
3
Spread
The angle (in degrees) from edge to edge of the spot light’s beam.
Resolution problems may occur when the Spread value is greater than 170;
small objects may not cast shadows. The valid/slider range is 2 to 179. The
default value is 90.
10
30
45
90
Dropoff
Controls the rate at which light intensity decreases from the center to the
edge of the spot light beam. The valid range is 0 to ∞. The slider range is 0 to
255.
Typical values are between 0 and 50. Values of 1 and less produce almost
identical results (no discernible intensity decrease along the radius of the
beam). The default value is 0 (no dropoff).
The Penumbra parameter produces an effect somewhat similar to the
Dropoff parameter.
0
5
10
50
Penumbra
The angle (in degrees) over which the intensity of the spot light falls off
linearly to zero.
For example, if the Spread value is 50 and the Penumbra value is 10, then
the spot light has an effective spread of 60 (50 + 10) degrees; however, the
spot light intensity decreases to 0 between the angles of 50 and 60 degrees.
814
If the Spread value is 50 and the Penumbra value is -10, then the spot light
has an effective spread of 50 degrees and the spot light intensity decreases
to 0 between the angles of 40 and 50 degrees.
The valid range is -90 to 90. The slider range is -10 to 10. The default value
is 0.
-10
0
10
50
Edge Quality
The size of the blur filter used on the shadow depth map. The valid range is 1
to 10. The slider range is 1 to 5. The default value is 2.
A low Edge Quality value (1 or 2) may produce slight aliasing (staircasing)
around shadow edges. Increasing the Edge Quality value will eliminate this
aliasing, but will increase rendering time. This will also cause the edges to
become softer, requiring a larger shadow Resolution value to maintain sharp
edges.
Adjust the Resolution value (not the Edge Quality value) to control the general
level of blur.
1
2
5
10
Resolution
The size of the shadow depth map used during raycasting, which determines
the softness/sharpness of shadows. (The Spread and Edge Quality values
also affect the general softness/sharpness of shadows.)
High Resolution values produce sharp edged shadows but also use more
memory and slow down rendering. Low Resolution values use little memory
and speed up rendering. Use a Resolution value of 50 to produce very soft
and smooth shadows. The valid range is 2 to 4096. The slider range is 8 to
1024. The default value is 512.
A spot light with a low Spread value produces sharper shadows than a spot
light with a high Spread value, if their Resolution values are the same. For
example, a spot light with a Spread value of 90 requires a Resolution value
twice that of a spot light with a Spread value of 45 in order to have the same
shadow sharpness.
Fog samples
Controls the quality of light fog shadows. A high Fog samples value produces
better quality fog shadows, but also increases rendering time. The valid
range is 4 to 4096. The slider range is 4 to 1024. The default value is 50.
The default value (50) is usually good enough; however, small details may be
missed or may appear noisy. In this case, increase the Fog samples value up
to the Resolution value.
815
4
50
512
1024
Use Depth Map
Creates a spot light shadow depth map file the first time the scene is
rendered for re-use during subsequent renders. This eliminates the need for
the renderer to re-calculate the shadow depth map for each render, and
decreases overall rendering time. However, Use Depth Map is only useful if
objects do not move within the spot light’s field of view (for example, during a
camera fly-by).
The file created by Use Depth Map has the same name as the spot light. The
default setting is OFF.
Min Depth
The world space distance that points on shadow casting objects are moved
toward the spot light before the shadow map is calculated (during
raycasting). Adjust the Min Depth value to correct self-shadowing problems.
The valid range is 0 to ∞. The slider range is 0 to 10. The default value is
0.05.
If the Min Depth value is 0, then an object will shadow itself by 50% (if it casts
shadows) when the light is at an inclined angle to the surface. A relatively
small Min Depth value can bring the surface out of its own shadow, especially
when combined with a small Blend Offset value. If the Min Depth value is too
high, the object may not cast shadows onto surfaces that are very close.
Also, if the surface does not have to cast shadows but only receive them, set
Shadows off for the object (see Shadows). A Min Depth value of 0 is then fine.
A typical example of this is a ground plane.
0
0.01
0.05
0.5
Blend Offset
Proportionally scales the distance that points on shadow casting objects are
moved toward the spot light before the shadow map is calculated (during
raycasting). Adjust the Blend Offset value to correct self-shadowing
problems. The valid range is 0 to ∞. The slider range is 0 to 10. The default
value is 1.
0
0.1
0.5
1
Shadows
Determines whether the light casts shadows or not. The default setting is
OFF. Please note that only spotlights can cast shadows in a raycast image.
816
Exclusive
Makes the light only illuminate objects that are linked to that light. A light with
Exclusive Link OFF illuminates objects that have no light links. The default
setting is OFF.
817
Render > Create Lights > Directional
Creates a directional light that illuminates in one direction without having an
obvious source of light in the scene.
See Shade surfaces with a preview of their rendered appearance on page 119.
See Lights on page 39.
Directional lights have color, intensity, and direction, but no obvious source in the
scene. Use directional lights to simulate very distant light sources. For example,
the sun can be considered a directional light since it is far enough away that light
rays reaching the earth are effectively parallel. Directional lights do not decay
with distance.
Multi-lister
swatch
Modeling
window
icon
Because directional lights only have a direction, their location in a scene is
unimportant. This also means that during raytracing they can cast shadows on
objects behind their apparent location in a scene.
You can create a light using the Create light tools or using the Multi-lister. You
can use the light options to set properties for any new light you create.
By default, lights are named sequentially as you create them: Light, Light#2, and
so on. To avoid confusion, however, you should name all lights as you create
them. If you let the system assign default names and later combine two or more
files, all lights are renumbered to avoid duplicate names. It may then become
difficult to distinguish lights by name.
Light#1 is not used explicitly as a name; the first light with a given name is
implicitly numbered 1.
To create a light using the Light tools
1
Select a tool from the Render > Create lights cascading menu, or click one of
these icons on the Create shelf:
2
Place the light by clicking in the modeling window, or by typing a set of
coordinates in the prompt line.
If shelves are not visible choose Windows > Shelves.
818
A new light swatch appears in the Multi-lister, and a new light icon appears in
the modeling window. Each type of light has a unique modeling window icon
and Multi-lister swatch.
In addition, light manipulators are displayed in the modeling window.
(To display the manipulators for an existing light, select the Pick > Object
tool, select the light, and select a Light tool.)
Light Position
Look At Point
Most lights have one manipulator that controls the light’s position. Spot lights
have two manipulators: one manipulator controls the light’s position, the
other manipulator controls its direction (look-at point). Each manipulator
consists of a square icon at its center, and three colored arrow icons radiating
from the center in the X, Y, and Z directions.
By dragging a square icon you can move the light or the light’s look-at point
across the view plane (in orthographic windows) or parallel to the ground
plane (in perspective windows). By holding the Alt key while you drag a
square icon you can snap the light to grid points.
By dragging an arrow icon you can move the light or the light’s look-at point
in the X, Y, or Z direction.
To create a light using the Multi-lister
●
In the Multi-lister (Render > Multi-lister > Lights), select Edit > New Light.
A new point light swatch appears in the Multi-lister, and a new point light icon
appears in the modeling windows at 0,0,0. Double-clicking the icon opens up
the Control Window that allows you to change the light type and other
parameters.
To display the light options box
●
Do one of the following:
◆
◆
Select Create lights from the Render menu, then click the box beside the
name of a light type (for example, Render > Create lights
> Directional ❒).
Double click one of the light icons from the Create shelf.
Directional Light Options
The Directional Light Options can be opened using the Directional light tool.
819
Color
The color of the light. If you map a texture to this parameter, the light projects
the texture. (The exact method of projection depends on the Light Type.) The
default setting is white.
White
Red
Green
Blue
Intensity
The brightness of the light. If the light exerts a force, this value sets its
strength. A light with an Intensity value of 0 produces no light. A light with
negative Intensity value removes light from a scene in the area of the light’s
influence. The slider range is 0 to 100. The default value is 1.
Use a negative Intensity value to reduce or remove hot-spots or glare.
0
1
10
100
Exclusive
Makes the light only illuminate objects that are linked to that light. A light with
Exclusive Link OFF illuminates objects that have no light links. The default
setting is OFF.
Shadows
Determines whether the light casts shadows or not. The default setting is
OFF. Please note that only spotlights can cast shadows in a raycast image.
820
Render > Create Lights > Ambient
Creates a point light that provides a gentle omni-directional illumination.
See Lights on page 39.
Ambient lights are like point lights except that only a portion of the illumination
emanates from the point. The remainder comes from all directions and lights all
objects uniformly.
Multi-lister
swatch
Modeling
window
icon
You can create a light using the Create light tools or using the Multi-lister. You
can use the light options to set properties for any new light you create.
By default, lights are named sequentially as you create them: Light, Light#2, and
so on. To avoid confusion, however, you should name all lights as you create
them. If you let the system assign default names and later combine two or more
files, all lights are renumbered to avoid duplicate names. It may then become
difficult to distinguish lights by name.
Light#1 is not used explicitly as a name; the first light with a given name is
implicitly numbered 1.
To create a light using the Light tools
1
Select a tool from the Render > Create lights cascading menu, or click one of
these icons on the Create shelf:
If shelves are not visible choose Windows > Shelves.
2
Place the light by clicking in the modeling window, or by typing a set of
coordinates in the prompt line.
A new light swatch appears in the Multi-lister, and a new light icon appears in
the modeling window. Each type of light has a unique modeling window icon
and Multi-lister swatch.
In addition, light manipulators are displayed in the modeling window.
(To display the manipulators for an existing light, select the Pick > Object
tool, select the light, and select a Light tool.)
821
Light Position
Look At Point
Most lights have one manipulator that controls the light’s position. Spot lights
have two manipulators: one manipulator controls the light’s position, the
other manipulator controls its direction (look-at point). Each manipulator
consists of a square icon at its center, and three colored arrow icons radiating
from the center in the X, Y, and Z directions.
By dragging a square icon you can move the light or the light’s look-at point
across the view plane (in orthographic windows) or parallel to the ground
plane (in perspective windows). By holding the Alt key while you drag a
square icon you can snap the light to grid points.
By dragging an arrow icon you can move the light or the light’s look-at point
in the X, Y, or Z direction.
To create a light using the Multi-lister
●
In the Multi-lister (Render > Multi-lister > Lights), select Edit > New Light.
A new point light swatch appears in the Multi-lister, and a new point light icon
appears in the modeling windows at 0,0,0. Double-clicking the icon opens up
the Control Window that allows you to change the light type and other
parameters.
To display the light options box
●
Do one of the following:
◆
◆
Select Create lights from the Render menu, then click the box beside the
name of a light type (for example, Render > Create lights > Ambient ❒).
Double click one of the light icons from the Create shelf.
Ambient Light Options
You can open the Ambient Light Options using the Ambient light tool.
822
Color
The color of the light. If you map a texture to this parameter, the light projects
the texture. (The exact method of projection depends on the Light Type.) The
default setting is white.
White
Red
Green
Blue
AmbientShade
The proportion of directional light to omnidirectional (ambient) light. The
slider range is 0 (light comes from all directions) to 1 (light comes only from
the position of the light). The default value is 0.5.
0
0.5
0.75
1
Intensity
The brightness of the light. If the light exerts a force, this value sets its
strength. A light with an Intensity value of 0 produces no light. A light with
negative Intensity value removes light from a scene in the area of the light’s
influence. The slider range is 0 to 100. The default value is 1.
Use a negative Intensity value to reduce or remove hot-spots or glare.
0
1
10
100
Exclusive
Makes the light only illuminate objects that are linked to that light. A light with
Exclusive Link OFF illuminates objects that have no light links. The default
setting is OFF.
823
Render > Create Lights > Area
Creates a rectangular light source useful for simulating lightbox reflections.
See Lights on page 39.
Area lights are two-dimensional rectangular light sources. They are useful for
simulating the rectangular reflections of windows on surfaces. An area light is
initially two units long and one unit wide. Use Transform > Scale and Transform
> Non-p scale to re-size an area light.
Multi-lister
swatch
Modeling
window
icon
The diffuse component of area lights is very small. To increase diffusion, move
the light further away and increase its Intensity value. Area light shadows are
much more costly than point light shadows. The increase in processing cost is
proportional to the complexity of the scene and the size of the area light.
You can create a light using the Create light tools or using the Multi-lister. You
can use the light options to set properties for any new light you create.
By default, lights are named sequentially as you create them: Light, Light#2, and
so on. To avoid confusion, however, you should name all lights as you create
them. If you let the system assign default names and later combine two or more
files, all lights are renumbered to avoid duplicate names. It may then become
difficult to distinguish lights by name.
Light#1 is not used explicitly as a name; the first light with a given name is
implicitly numbered 1.
To create a light using the Light tools
1
Select a tool from the Render > Create lights cascading menu, or click one of
these icons on the Create shelf:
If shelves are not visible choose Windows > Shelves.
2
Place the light by clicking in the modeling window, or by typing a set of
coordinates in the prompt line.
A new light swatch appears in the Multi-lister, and a new light icon appears in
the modeling window. Each type of light has a unique modeling window icon
and Multi-lister swatch.
824
In addition, light manipulators are displayed in the modeling window.
(To display the manipulators for an existing light, select the Pick > Object
tool, select the light, and select a Light tool.)
Light Position
Look At Point
Most lights have one manipulator that controls the light’s position. Spot lights
have two manipulators: one manipulator controls the light’s position, the
other manipulator controls its direction (look-at point). Each manipulator
consists of a square icon at its center, and three colored arrow icons radiating
from the center in the X, Y, and Z directions.
By dragging a square icon you can move the light or the light’s look-at point
across the view plane (in orthographic windows) or parallel to the ground
plane (in perspective windows). By holding the Alt key while you drag a
square icon you can snap the light to grid points.
By dragging an arrow icon you can move the light or the light’s look-at point
in the X, Y, or Z direction.
To create a light using the Multi-lister
●
In the Multi-lister (Render > Multi-lister > Lights), select Edit > New Light.
A new point light swatch appears in the Multi-lister, and a new point light icon
appears in the modeling windows at 0,0,0. Double-clicking the icon opens up
the Control Window that allows you to change the light type and other
parameters.
To display the light options box
●
Do one of the following:
◆
◆
Select Create lights from the Render menu, then click the box beside the
name of a light type (for example, Render > Create lights > Area ❒).
Double click one of the light icons from the Create shelf.
Area Light Options
The Area Light Options can be opened using the Area light tool.
825
Color
The color of the light. If you map a texture to this parameter, the light projects
the texture. (The exact method of projection depends on the Light Type.) The
default setting is white.
White
Red
Green
Blue
Intensity
The brightness of the light. If the light exerts a force, this value sets its
strength. A light with an Intensity value of 0 produces no light. A light with
negative Intensity value removes light from a scene in the area of the light’s
influence. The slider range is 0 to 100. The default value is 1.
Use a negative Intensity value to reduce or remove hot-spots or glare.
0
1
10
100
Decay
Controls how quickly light intensity decreases with distance. The Decay
setting has no effect at distances less than 1 unit. If Force is set (that is, not
OFF) under Active Effects, the Decay value controls how quickly the force
intensity decreases with distance.
The Decay parameter works differently for volume lights (see
Decay (page 831)). Valid settings are 0, 1, 2 or 3. The default setting is 1.
826
0
no decay; light reaches everything
1
light intensity decreases directly (linearly) with
distance (slower than real world light)
0
1
2
2
light intensity decreases proportionally with the square
of distance (the same as real world light)
3
light intensity decreases proportionally with the cube
of distance (faster than real world light)
3
Exclusive
Makes the light only illuminate objects that are linked to that light. A light with
Exclusive Link OFF illuminates objects that have no light links. The default
setting is OFF.
Shadows
Determines whether the light casts shadows or not. The default setting is
OFF. Please note that only spotlights can cast shadows in a raycast image.
827
Render > Create Lights > Volume
Creates a geometrical volume that illuminates objects contained within the
volume without illuminating objects outside the volume.
See Lights on page 39.
See Lights on page 153.
Volume lights define a closed volume within which objects are illuminated;
nothing outside the volume is illuminated by the volume light.
Within the volume, the direction and intensity can vary with many different
parameters. A volume light is a convenient way to “link” a light spatially, instead
of by object. One main use of the volume light is as an emitter of forces or
particles. Volume lights are also useful for removing hot spots or glare by using a
negative Intensity value.
Multi-lister
swatch
Modeling
window
icon
The shape of the volume light’s
modeling window icon is based on
the light’s Shape
You can create a light using the Create light tools or using the Multi-lister. You
can use the light options to set properties for any new light you create.
By default, lights are named sequentially as you create them: Light, Light#2, and
so on. To avoid confusion, however, you should name all lights as you create
them. If you let the system assign default names and later combine two or more
files, all lights are renumbered to avoid duplicate names. It may then become
difficult to distinguish lights by name.
Light#1 is not used explicitly as a name; the first light with a given name is
implicitly numbered 1.
To create a light using the Light tools
1
Select a tool from the Render > Create lights cascading menu, or click one of
these icons on the Create shelf:
If shelves are not visible choose Windows > Shelves.
828
2
Place the light by clicking in the modeling window, or by typing a set of
coordinates in the prompt line.
A new light swatch appears in the Multi-lister, and a new light icon appears in
the modeling window. Each type of light has a unique modeling window icon
and Multi-lister swatch.
In addition, light manipulators are displayed in the modeling window.
(To display the manipulators for an existing light, select the Pick > Object
tool, select the light, and select a Light tool.)
Light Position
Look At Point
Most lights have one manipulator that controls the light’s position. Spot lights
have two manipulators: one manipulator controls the light’s position, the
other manipulator controls its direction (look-at point). Each manipulator
consists of a square icon at its center, and three colored arrow icons radiating
from the center in the X, Y, and Z directions.
By dragging a square icon you can move the light or the light’s look-at point
across the view plane (in orthographic windows) or parallel to the ground
plane (in perspective windows). By holding the Alt key while you drag a
square icon you can snap the light to grid points.
By dragging an arrow icon you can move the light or the light’s look-at point
in the X, Y, or Z direction.
To create a light using the Multi-lister
●
In the Multi-lister (Render > Multi-lister > Lights), select Edit > New Light.
A new point light swatch appears in the Multi-lister, and a new point light icon
appears in the modeling windows at 0,0,0. Double-clicking the icon opens up
the Control Window that allows you to change the light type and other
parameters.
To display the light options box
●
Do one of the following:
◆
◆
Select Create lights from the Render menu, then click the box beside the
name of a light type (for example, Render > Create lights > Volume ❒).
Double click one of the light icons from the Create shelf.
829
Volume Light Options
The Volume Light Options can be opened using the Volume light tool.
Color
The color of the light. If you map a texture to this parameter, the light projects
the texture. (The exact method of projection depends on the Light Type.) The
default setting is white.
White
Red
Green
Blue
Intensity
The brightness of the light. If the light exerts a force, this value sets its
strength. A light with an Intensity value of 0 produces no light. A light with
negative Intensity value removes light from a scene in the area of the light’s
influence. The slider range is 0 to 100. The default value is 1.
Use a negative Intensity value to reduce or remove hot-spots or glare.
0
1
10
100
Exclusive
Makes the light only illuminate objects that are linked to that light. A light with
Exclusive Link OFF illuminates objects that have no light links. The default
setting is OFF.
The Volume Parameters can be accessed by double-clicking the Volume light
swatch in the Multi-lister (Render > Multi-lister > Lights).
830
Volume lights have many parameters which define the shape of the volume and
the direction of the light/force in the volume.
Shape
Defines the shape of the volume light as either a BOX, SPHERE, CYLINDER,
CONE, or TORUS. The default setting is SPHERE.
This option is also available from the Volume light tool’s option box.
You can also use the Transform tools to position or reshape a volume light.
Apply the Transform to the light icon in the modeling window or to the DAG
node above the light in the SBD window.
Specular
Makes the light contribute to the specular component. (If the Intensity value is
negative, set Specular OFF.) The default setting is ON.
Decay
Controls how quickly the light intensity decreases with distance within the
light’s volume. (The volume light Decay parameter differs slightly from the
Decay parameter for other light types.) The slider range is 0 to 10. The
default value is 1.
0
No decay (light reaches everything within the volume
and nothing outside).
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>0
Light intensity decreases from the center to the
edges of the volume. For example, a value of 0.5
produces a linear dropoff from the center to the
edges. With a value close to 1, intensity drops off
very fast from the middle. With a value close to 0,
intensity drops off slowly in the middle and fast near
the edges.
<0
Light intensity decreases from the edges to the
center of the volume.
The direction that light decays depends on the volume light’s Shape setting.
Shape
Decay Direction
BOX and SPHERE
all directions from the center
CYLINDER and CONE
in the direction of the principal
axis
TORUS
perpendicular to the principal axis
If Emit Particles is ON under Active Effects, the Decay value controls where
within the volume the particles are emitted. For large positive values of
Decay, particle emission is concentrated in the center of the volume. For
large negative values, particle emission is entirely on the surface of the
volume.
If Force is set (that is, not OFF) under Active Effects, the Decay value controls
how quickly the force intensity decreases with distance within the light’s
volume.
Decay Start
Defines how far out from the center of the volume the light intensity begins to
decay. The slider range is 0 to 1. The default value is 0.
Dropoff
Controls the rate at which light intensity decreases from the principal axis to
the edge of the light for CONE and CYLINDER volume lights only. The slider
range is 0 to 10. Typical values are between 0 and 50. Values of 1 and less
produce almost identical results (no discernible intensity decrease along the
radius of the volume). The default value is 0 (no dropoff). The volume light
Dropoff parameter is similar to the spot light Dropoff parameter (see
Decay (page 813)).
Dropoff Start
Defines how far out from the principal axis of the volume the dropoff starts.
The slider range is 0 to 1. The default value is 0.5.
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Torus Radius
The ratio of the minor radius to the major radius for TORUS volume lights
only. The slider range is 0 to 0.5. The default value is 0.5 (a typical bagel,
where the “hole” is reduced to a single point).
Cone End Rad
The radius of the end of the cone for CONE volume lights only. If the Cone
End Radius value is negative, the direction of the cone is reversed. The slider
range is 0 (a true cone) to 1 (a cylinder). The default value is 0.1.
Arc
The portion (in degrees) of the swept volume for CONE, SPHERE, TORUS,
and CYLINDER volume lights only. The slider range is 0 to 360. The default
value is 360 (the entire volume).
Directionality
The proportion of directional light to omnidirectional (ambient) light. The
slider range is 0 (light comes from all directions, like an ambient light) to 1
(light comes from one direction only, like a directional light). The default value
is 1.
Direction Vectors
The Direction Vectors define the direction of the directional component of the light.
If the Directionality value is 0, the Direction Vectors have no effect.
If Emit Particles is ON under Active Effects, the Direction Vectors determine the
initial direction of the particles. If Force is set (that is, not OFF) under Active
Effects, the Direction Vectors control the direction of the force within the light’s
volume.
Concentric
The direction of the directional component of the light toward or away from
the volume’s axis. The slider range is -1 (toward axis) to 1 (away from axis).
The default value is 1.
Directional
The direction of the directional component of the light up or down the
volume’s axis. The slider range is -1 (down axis) to 1 (up axis). The default
value is 0.
Radial
The angle of the directional component of the light relative to the volume’s
axis. The slider range is -1 (at a negative angle to axis) to 1 (at a positive
angle to axis). The default value is 0 (perpendicular to axis).
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Render > Create Lights > Linear
Creates a fluorescent tube-like light.
See Lights on page 39.
Linear lights are one-dimensional lines of light like fluorescent tubes. A linear
light is initially two units long. Use Transform > Scale to re-size a linear light.
Linear light shadows are much more costly than point light shadows. The
increase in cost is proportional to the complexity of the scene and the length of
the linear light.
Multi-lister
swatch
Modeling
window
icon
You can create a light using the Create light tools or using the Multi-lister. You
can use the light options to set properties for any new light you create.
By default, lights are named sequentially as you create them: Light, Light#2, and
so on. To avoid confusion, however, you should name all lights as you create
them. If you let the system assign default names and later combine two or more
files, all lights are renumbered to avoid duplicate names. It may then become
difficult to distinguish lights by name.
Light#1 is not used explicitly as a name; the first light with a given name is
implicitly numbered 1.
To create a light using the Light tools
1
Select a tool from the Render > Create lights cascading menu, or click one of
these icons on the Create shelf:
If shelves are not visible choose Windows > Shelves.
2
Place the light by clicking in the modeling window, or by typing a set of
coordinates in the prompt line.
A new light swatch appears in the Multi-lister, and a new light icon appears in
the modeling window. Each type of light has a unique modeling window icon
and Multi-lister swatch.
In addition, light manipulators are displayed in the modeling window.
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(To display the manipulators for an existing light, select the Pick > Object
tool, select the light, and select a Light tool.)
Light Position
Look At Point
Most lights have one manipulator that controls the light’s position. Spot lights
have two manipulators: one manipulator controls the light’s position, the
other manipulator controls its direction (look-at point). Each manipulator
consists of a square icon at its center, and three colored arrow icons radiating
from the center in the X, Y, and Z directions.
By dragging a square icon you can move the light or the light’s look-at point
across the view plane (in orthographic windows) or parallel to the ground
plane (in perspective windows). By holding the Alt key while you drag a
square icon you can snap the light to grid points.
By dragging an arrow icon you can move the light or the light’s look-at point
in the X, Y, or Z direction.
To create a light using the Multi-lister
●
In the Multi-lister (Render > Multi-lister > Lights), select Edit > New Light.
A new point light swatch appears in the Multi-lister, and a new point light icon
appears in the modeling windows at 0,0,0. Double-clicking the icon opens up
the Control Window that allows you to change the light type and other
parameters.
To display the light options box
●
Do one of the following:
◆
◆
Select Create lights from the Render menu, then click the box beside the
name of a light type (for example, Render > Create lights > Linear ❒).
Double click one of the light icons from the Create shelf.
Linear Light Options
The Linear Light Options can be opened using the Linear light tool.
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Color
The color of the light. If you map a texture to this parameter, the light projects
the texture. (The exact method of projection depends on the Light Type.) The
default setting is white.
White
Red
Green
Blue
Intensity
The brightness of the light. If the light exerts a force, this value sets its
strength. A light with an Intensity value of 0 produces no light. A light with
negative Intensity value removes light from a scene in the area of the light’s
influence. The slider range is 0 to 100. The default value is 1.
Use a negative Intensity value to reduce or remove hot-spots or glare.
0
1
10
100
Decay
Controls how quickly light intensity decreases with distance. The Decay
setting has no effect at distances less than 1 unit. If Force is set (that is, not
OFF) under Active Effects, the Decay value controls how quickly the force
intensity decreases with distance.
The Decay parameter works differently for volume lights (see
Decay (page 831)). Valid settings are 0, 1, 2 or 3. The default setting is 1.
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0
no decay; light reaches everything
1
light intensity decreases directly (linearly) with
distance (slower than real world light)
0
1
2
2
light intensity decreases proportionally with the square
of distance (the same as real world light)
3
light intensity decreases proportionally with the cube
of distance (faster than real world light)
3
Exclusive
Makes the light only illuminate objects that are linked to that light. A light with
Exclusive Link OFF illuminates objects that have no light links. The default
setting is OFF.
Shadows
Determines whether the light casts shadows or not. The default setting is
OFF. Please note that only spotlights can cast shadows in a raycast image.
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Render > Create Lights > Create defaults
Creates one ambient light and one directional light in the scene.
See Render > Create Lights > Ambient on page 821.
See Render > Create Lights > Directional on page 818.
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Render > Create texture projections
Creates texture projection objects to determine the way 2D texture maps are
applied to objects in a scene.
Texture projections include: Planar, Concentric, Ball, Triplanar, Spherical, Cubic,
Cylindrical, and Camera
To use the Projection tools
1
Select a tool from the Create texture projections cascading menu.
2
Click or click-drag in a modeling window to place the pivot point of the new
Texture Projection Object.
The Texture Projection Object is different for each Projection type.
A new shader appears in the Multi-lister, having a Projection texture mapped
to its Color.
>
●
●
Tips
The projection objects are moved by their pivot points. When they are
created, the Planar and Tri-planar projections are not centered on their pivot
points.
When you are using the Camera projection, it may be helpful to pick the
objects you want to texture first, then use the Look at tool in the View palette
before creating the projection object.
Projection options
Each Projection tool has a similar option box.
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Make global
Makes all projection tools default to the options you last saved (using the
Update button).
Display editor
Automatically opens the Projection texture’s Control Window after you place
the Texture Projection Object in the modeling window.
Magnet snap to B-box (Magnet snap to Bounding-box)
Snaps the Texture Projection Object as you move it in the modeling windows
as listed below.
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SELECTION LIST
snaps to the bounding box of a
selected individual object or
component (for example, CV or
edit point) or a group of selected
objects or components
FROM SELECTED
DAGS
snaps to the bounding box of a
selected individual object or
group of objects
OBJECT
snaps to the bounding box of an
individual object (selected or
unselected)
OFF
does not snap to the bounding
box of any object or component
(default)
If Magnet snap to B-box is set to SELECTION LIST, FROM SELECTED
DAGS, or OBJECT, the Draw snap box and Uniform scale options become
available.
The Magnet snap to B-box option is not available for the Camera Projection
tool.
Draw snap box
Momentarily displays the XYZ bounding box of the object being snapped to,
during the creation of the projection. This option is not available for the
Camera Projection tool.
Uniform scale
Makes the projection object square. If Uniform Scale is off, then the
projection object is non-proportionally scaled to the shape of the bounding
box of the object being snapped to. This option is not available for the
Camera Projection tool.
Snap to camera
Matches the position and orientation of the Texture Projection Object to the
modeling window’s camera. This option is only available for the Camera
Projection tool.
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Render > Place projection
Attaches a projective texture placement object to the bounding box of one or
more objects.
See Texture Placement Objects on page 33.
Use this tool to ensure that projected textures don’t "swim" on objects if the
objects are moved in an animation sequence.
To place a projective texture placement
1
Pick the projective texture placement object and the items that you want to
snap to.
2
Choose Render > Place projection or click its icon.
The texture placement object is snapped to the bounding box of the picked
items.
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Render > Pop Monitor Windows
Brings rendering monitor windows to the front of the window stack.
See Render > Render on page 784.
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Render > Multi-lister
Editor for creating, editing, and managing shaders, textures, lights, and the
environment for rendered scenes. The submenu contains options for listing All
multi-lister entities, Picked, Shaders, Lights, or Glows.
The Multi-lister is the primary interface that you use to create, edit, manage and
display shaders, textures, lights, and the environment. You also use the Multilister to access the Control Window and the Color Editor.
The Multi-lister consists of a title bar, five menu buttons, and a swatch display
area. The swatches represent the environment, shaders, textures, and lights
contained in your scene. The title bar contains tools to control the display of
swatches in the Multi-lister. The menu buttons contain tools to create, edit,
manage, and display shaders, textures, lights, and the environment.
Title bar
Swatch
Menu
buttons
General information about the
multi lister window
Multi-lister
interface (page 847)
Multi-lister
menus (page 851)
Control
Window (page 859)
Color Editor (page 862)
Texture placement
window (page 869)
Environment
parameters (page 876)
Shader
parameters (page 886)
Textures (page 900)
Environment texture
parameters (page 905)
Ball texture (page 906)
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Chrome
Texture (page 908)
Cube textures (page 910)
Sky textures (page 911)
Sphere texture (page 917)
Surface texture
parameters (page 917)
Bulge texture
parameters (page 921)
Checker texture
parameters (page 922)
Cloth texture
parameters (page 923)
File Texture
Parameters (page 925)
Fractal texture
parameters (page 927)
Grid texture
parameters (page 929)
Mountain texture
parameters (page 930)
Noise texture
parameters (page 932)
Ramp texture
parameters (page 933)
Stencil texture
parameters (page 936)
Water texture
parameters (page 938)
Solid texture
parameters (page 942)
Snow texture (page 948)
sCloud texture (page 949)
sFractal texture (page 951)
sMarble texture (page 952)
sRock texture (page 953)
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Leather texture (page 954)
Granite texture (page 955)
sWood texture (page 956)
Volume texture (page 958)
Light parameters (page 958)
Point Light
Parameters (page 969)
Spot Light
Parameters (page 970)
Area Light
Parameters (page 974)
Volume Light
Parameters (page 975)
Linear Light
Parameters (page 978)
Multi-lister interface
Title bar
The title bar indicates the type of swatches that are listed in the Multi-lister. It
also lets you control the display of swatches in the Multi-lister (text, small
swatches, large swatches), and lets you close, track, and minimize/maximize the
Multi-lister window.
Multi-lister swatches listed
text
small swatches
large swatches
Swatches
There are five different types of swatches used in the Multi-lister: environment,
shader, texture, layered shader, and light.
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These five types of swatches are used to represent:
●
the environment (the scene’s surroundings)
●
shaders (surface materials)
●
layered shaders
●
textures (two-dimensional or three-dimensional patterns)
●
lights (lights that emit light and illuminate surfaces)
●
glows (shaders that produce a glow, and lights that produce a glow, halo, fog,
or lens flare)
Swatches are listed in the following order: the environment, shaders, lights.
Shaders and lights are listed alphabetically by name. Textures are listed next to
the environment, shader, or light that they are mapped to.
All swatches consist of an image and a frame. The image represents the
appearance of the environment, shader, texture, or light. The frame contains the
swatch name and any icons.
swatch image
swatch frame
The type of swatch image and the way that you use the swatch are different for
different swatch types. All swatches, however, share the following features.
click-drag triangle to change swatch resolution
click swatch to select it
Shift-click swatches to select multiple swatches
double-click swatch to open the Control Window
indicates that a parameter is texture-mapped
click to show/hide the texture swatch
double-click name to change swatch name
indicates that a parameter is animated
click-hold to play back the animation
You can select a swatch by clicking on it. You can select several swatches by
Shift-clicking on them. By double-clicking a swatch, you open its Control
Window. You can then edit any parameter for that particular environment, shader,
texture, or light. See Use the control window on page 75.
You can edit the swatch name by double-clicking on the name and typing a new
name. You can change the resolution of the swatch’s image by click-dragging the
white triangle on the right side of the swatch either up (higher resolution) or down
(lower resolution).
848
If an environment, shader, texture, or light has a texture mapped to one of its
parameters, the swatch will have an arrow in its bottom right corner. By clicking
on this arrow, you can toggle the display of the texture in the Multi-lister.
If you have animated a parameter of an environment, shader, texture, or light, the
swatch will have a diamond in its bottom left corner. By click-holding on this
diamond, you can play back the animation of the swatch.
>
Shader swatches
See Assign or layer a shader on page 65.
A shader swatch uses a sphere to represent the appearance of a surface. By Altclicking on different parts of the sphere, you can open the Color Editor and edit
the shader’s Color, Specular, or Incandescence settings. (By Shift+Alt-clicking
on the background, you can open the Color Editor and edit the shader icon
background color.) By click-dragging on the sphere’s highlight, you can
interactively edit the shader’s Shinyness or Eccentricity value.
Alt-click to change Color
Alt-click to change Specular
click-drag to change Shinyness or Eccentricity
Alt-click to change Incandescence
Alt+Shift-click to change background color
The shader swatch is only a preview image and may not exactly correspond
to the appearance of the shader in a rendered image.
>
Surface texture swatches
See Apply surface textures on page 85.
A surface texture swatch displays the two-dimensional texture. By Alt-clicking on
the top half of the swatch, you can open the Color Editor and edit the texture’s
Rgbmult setting. By Alt-clicking on the bottom half of the swatch, you can open
the Color Editor and edit the texture’s Rgboffset setting. By click-dragging
anywhere in the swatch, you can interactively edit the texture’s Urepeat and
Vrepeat values.
A surface texture swatch has two texture mapping symbols in its bottom right
corner. By clicking on one of these symbols you activate either 2D mapping or 3D
mapping.
See Use 3D mapping to position a texture on a surface on
page 87.
Alt-click top half of swatch to edit Rgbmult
Click-drag swatch to edit Urepeat and Vrepeat
Alt-click bottom half of swatch to edit Rgboffset
click to use 2D mapping
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The Stencil texture appears black in the Multi-lister until you specify its Image.
The File texture appears black with a small question mark (?) icon until you
specify its Image. If the Multi-lister cannot find a File texture’s image file, the File
texture appears with both large and small question mark icons.
>
Layered shader swatch
A layered shader represents the combination of shaders that have been layered
onto a surface. The appearance of these layers is rendered onto a sphere swatch
in the multilister. Click on the swatch to open the layered shader editor.
A new, empty layered shader appears black, because the layers are empty. To
add shaders to a layered shader, select one or more shaders from the Multilister
window, then click Add. You can select multiple shaders by pressing the Shift
key while you select shaders.
To remove shaders from a layered shader, select one or more of the listed
shaders in the Layered Shader editor, then click Remove. You can select multiple
shaders by pressing the Shift key while you select shaders.
Use the middle mouse button in the Layered Shader editor to rearrange the
layers.
The window shows the layers of shaders that have been applied to a simple
sphere. You can now assign this layered shader to other objects.
>
Environment texture and solid texture swatches
An environment or solid texture swatch uses a two-dimensional pattern to
represent the three-dimensional texture. By Alt-clicking on the top half of the
swatch, you can open the Color Editor and edit the texture’s Rgbmult setting. By
Alt-clicking on the bottom half of the swatch, you can open the Color Editor and
edit the texture’s Rgboffset setting.
See Apply 3D environments (page 99) and Apply solid
textures (page 91).
An environment or solid texture has a texture placement symbol in its bottom
right corner. By clicking on this symbol you can display the texture’s Texture
Placement Object in the modeling windows.
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Alt-click top half of swatch to edit Rgbmult
Alt-click bottom half of swatch to edit Rgboffset
click to display Texture Placement Object
The Ball, Cube, Sphere, Projection, and Volume textures appear black in the
Multi-lister until you specify an image file or series of image files for them. The
sCloud texture always appears black in the Multi-lister; the shader it is mapped
to displays the actual texture.
See Set the texture placement object on page 79.
>
Light swatches
A light swatch represents a light as viewed from 10 units away with a 20 degree
field of view. By Alt-clicking the swatch you can open the Color Editor and edit
the light’s Color parameter.
A light swatch has a light type symbol in its top left corner. If the light has a force
component, the light swatch will also have a force type symbol. If the light is
linked to a surface, the light swatch will also have an L symbol. If a light’s link to a
surface is exclusive, the light swatch will also have an E symbol.
See Create a light on page 105.
indicates the light type
Click to select the light in the modeling windows
indicates that the light is linked to a surface
indicates that any link to a surface is exclusive
Alt-click swatch to change Color
Multi-lister menus
The Multi-lister menus contain tools to create, edit, manage, and display
shaders, textures, lights, and the environment. To display a menu, click and hold
the mouse on a menu button at the bottom of the Multi-Lister window. The
default active menu item is displayed below each button.
menu
buttons
active
menu
button
>
File menu
The File menu contains tools to save and retrieve lights, environments, shaders,
and textures.
851
Shader Browse
Opens the File Requestor and lets you retrieve any shader that was
previously saved using File > Save in the Multi-lister. The default directory is
the directory that you last used to save.
Texture Browse
Opens the File Requestor and lets you retrieve any texture that was
previously saved using File > Save in the Multi-lister, into the active Multilister swatch (environment, shader, texture, or light).
The retrieved texture is automatically assigned to the Color parameter (if the
active Multi-lister swatch is an environment, shader, or light) or to the
Rgbmult parameter (if the active Multi-lister swatch is a texture). Only one
Multi-lister swatch can be active when using Texture Browse.
Light Browse
Opens the File Requestor and lets you retrieve any light (including glows)
that was previously saved using File > Save in the Multi-lister. The default
directory is the directory that you last used to save.
Environment Browse
Opens the File Requestor and lets you retrieve any environment that was
previously saved using File > Save in the Multi-lister. If you retrieve an
environment, it will automatically replace your current environment. The
default directory is the directory that you last used to save.
File > Layered Shader Browse
Enables you to retrieve a previously-saved layered shader. Retrieving a
layered shader also retrieves all shaders referenced by the layered shader.
Save as, Save
Saves the active environment, shader, texture or light in the Multi-lister to a
file that is independent from your scene’s wire file. The file’s name can either
be the current environment/shader/texture/light name (Save) or a name that
you specify when saving (Save as). You can retrieve files saved using Save
as/Save into other wire files using Shader Browse, Texture Browse, Light
Browse, and Environment Browse.
Note the following when using Save as or Save:
◆
◆
◆
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Files are saved to the current project’s relevant subdirectory or to the last
place that an item of that type was saved. Glows are saved in the lights
subdirectory.
Save does not prompt for a name or path. If a file of the same name
exists, it will be overwritten without confirmation.
If you save a shader that has associated textures, the shader and its
textures are saved as a single file in the current shader directory. If you
save a texture, the texture is saved as a single file in the current texture
directory. If you save a shader and a texture at the same time (that is,
both shader and texture are active in the Multi-lister), the shader is
saved in the current shader directory and the texture is saved in the
current texture directory.
◆
◆
>
When you use Save, a small icon representing the active object appears
momentarily in the lower left corner of the screen.
By default, whenever you save a wire file, the environment and all
shaders, textures, and lights are stored in the wire file. When you later
retrieve the wire file, they are all retrieved. For this reason, you do not
have to explicitly save environments, shaders, textures, and lights from
the Multi-lister (File > Save or File > Save as). However, you cannot
easily access this information from other wire files.
Edit menu
The Edit menu contains tools for creating and editing environments, shaders,
textures, and lights.
New Shader
Creates a new shader that is identical to the default shader. To create a new
shader based on a shader other than the default shader, use Edit > Copy. To
change the default shader for all future sessions, save a shader in the default
shader directory with the name DefaultShader. If you edit the default
shader in the Multi-lister, but don’t save it, the changes will only last for that
session.
New Light
Creates a new point light (based on the last point light you created) located at
(0,0,0). To set options for the new light, change the values in the Point Light
Options box and save them before selecting New Light. To create a new light
based on an existing light, use Edit > Copy.
New LayeredShader
Creates a new, empty layered shader. Double-click the swatch to open the
LayeredShader editor.
Copy
Creates a copy of the currently active shader or light. Note the following
when using Copy:
◆
◆
◆
◆
If a texture is active when you select Copy, the shader or light that the
texture is assigned to will be copied.
You cannot copy the environment.
When you copy a shader/light, a number suffix is automatically added to
the new shader/light name. (If the original shader/light name has a
number suffix, the number is automatically incremented for the new
shader/light name.)
When you copy a light (including glows), the new light appears in the
scene in the same location as the original light.
See Edit an environment, shader, texture, or light on page 61.
Copy Parameters
Copies selected parameter settings from one environment/shader/texture/
light to another. Note the following when using Copy Parameters:
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◆
◆
◆
You cannot copy Shading Model from one shader to another. If you
attempt to copy one or more parameters that do not exist in the target
shader (for example, because the shaders have different Shading
Models), a warning message will appear, the operation will stop and no
parameters will be copied.
You can use Copy Parameters to copy textures and texture parameters.
This is particularly useful when matching Texture Placement and Label
Mapping parameters.
You can use Copy Parameters to copy parameters between dissimilar
Multi-lister items. For example, you can copy a light’s color to a shader’s
color.
See Copy parameter settings on page 75.
Convert Solid Tex
Creates a new shader for selected surfaces, where all solid textures are
replaced by a file surface texture so that the appearance of the objects does
not change. These surface textures recreate the shading qualities of the solid
texture. In effect, this freezes the solid texture onto the surface.
Note the following when using Convert Solid Tex:
◆
◆
◆
◆
If you press Esc during the Convert Solid Tex operation, the files created
up to that point will be correct, but will not necessarily be assigned. Even
if you delete the shader created by Convert Solid Tex, the image files still
exist in a directory with the same name as the original shader in the
current pix directory. If you perform a second Convert Solid Tex
operation using the same shader and objects, the previously created files
are overwritten without warning.
You can only use Convert Solid Tex for spline type surfaces. You cannot
use Convert Solid Tex for polysets or faces.
Any image files created are referenced on the Per Object Images list of
the new file texture. Each surface gets its own image file for every solid
texture converted. The file textures created have no default Image file,
only per object files, therefore the shader swatch does not display the file
texture.
To display the texture on the shader swatch, copy any image file name
from the Per Object Images list to the default Image field (click in the
Object list to highlight the image file name, then click in the default Image
field with the middle mouse button to paste).
Use Convert Solid Tex in the following situations:
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You are animating several objects that all use the same shader. Because
solid shaders can have only one texture node, the objects would appear
to flow through the solid material, changing appearance as they move.
You are using Blend Surfaces with a solid texture assigned and as the
objects change shape their textures change as the surfaces move
through the solid.
You have a digitized head with a cylindrical scan image of the face. By
converting a cylindrical projection map you can animate the face and
have the skin texture behave properly.
Generally, file textures are faster to render than solid textures. Speed is
gained, however, at the cost of memory usage since file textures use
more memory, especially if they are large and numerous.
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You can use several solid textures, like 3D paint brushes on a surface, by
using the Overlay mapping technique (in the Effects section of the
shader’s Control Window) and turning Uwrap and Vwrap OFF for the
textures (in the Label Mapping section of the shader’s Control Window).
When the desired effect is achieved, you can use Convert Solid Tex to
both bind the texture to the surface and optimize render performance.
Extract LayeredShader
Enables you to retrieve information from an active surface, andview the
shaders applied to that selected surface in the layered shader editor.
Edit
Opens the Control Window for the active environment, shader, texture, or
light. You can also open the Control Window by double-clicking the
environment/shader/texture/light swatch in the Multi-lister.
See Use the control window on page 75.
Color
Opens the Color Editor for the Color parameter of the active environment,
shader, or light or for the Rgbmult parameter of the active texture. You can
also open the Color Editor by clicking the color field of a parameter in the
Control Window.
See Change colors on page 71.
Texture Map
Opens the Texture Procedures window for the Color parameter of the active
environment, shader, or light or for the Rgbmult parameter of the active
texture. You can also open the Texture Procedures window by clicking the
Map button beside a texturable parameter in the Control Window.
See Open a texture procedures window on page 79.
Undo
Cancels all changes made to the active environment, shader, texture, or light
since it became active. This includes all changes made to any textures
assigned to it.
>
List menu
The menu item you use to open the Multi-lister determines the type of swatches
initially displayed in the Multi-lister (see Open the Multi-lister (page 58)). The List
menu lets you change the type of swatches that are displayed in the Multi-lister.
The Multi-lister title bar indicates the type of swatches currently displayed in the
Multi-lister.
All
Displays the environment and all shaders, layered shaders, textures, lights,
and glows currently in memory.
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Shaders
Displays the environment and all shaders currently in memory, including
textures that are assigned to the environment or to any shader.
Lights
Displays all lights in your scene that have a Light component, including
textures that are assigned to any of these lights.
Glows
Displays all lights in your scene that have a Glow, Halo, Fog, or Lens Flare
component and all shaders currently in memory that have a Glow
component, including textures that are assigned to any of these lights or
shaders.
See Active Effects (page 958) and Glow Intens (Glow
Intensity) (page 895).
Picked
Displays all lights in your scene that are picked (active) and all shaders
currently in memory that are assigned to active objects, including textures
that are assigned to any of these lights or shaders. Selecting List > Picked
displays lights with or without a Light component.
Linked Lights
Displays all lights in your scene that are linked to surfaces, including textures
that are assigned to any of these lights. Selecting List > Linked Lights
displays lights with or without a Light component.
See Link a light on page 111.
Non-excl Lights
Displays all lights in your scene that have a Light component and are not
exclusively linked to surfaces, including textures that are assigned to any of
these lights.
See Exclusive Link on page 961.
List > Layered Shaders
Removes from display all items that are not layered shaders.
>
Delete menu
The Delete menu contains tools to delete shaders, textures, and lights from the
Multi-lister. You cannot delete the environment or the default shader. If you try to
delete either of them, they will reset to their default parameters.
Active
Deletes all selected shaders, textures, and lights, including textures that are
assigned to them. To select multiple shaders, textures, and lights, click one
shader/texture/light, then hold the Shift key and click on any other shaders/
textures/lights.
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All
Deletes all shaders, textures, and lights.
Lights
Deletes all lights, including textures that are assigned to lights. Selecting
Delete > Lights deletes lights with or without a Light component.
Shaders
Deletes all shaders, including textures that are assigned to shaders.
Unused Shaders
Deletes all shaders not currently assigned to objects in your scene, including
textures that are assigned to any of these shaders.
Delete > Layered Shaders
Deletes all layered shaders from the multilister.
>
Shading menu
The Shading menu contains tools to assign and layer shaders to objects, link and
unlink lights, and pick and list objects.
Assign Shader
Assigns the active shader to all active objects (surfaces or polygons) in your
scene.
If a shader is already assigned to an active object when you select Assign
Shader, the active shader replaces it. If you assign a shader to the wrong
object or overwrite an existing shader assignment, you must re-assign the
original shader to the object.
You can assign shaders to individual polygons in a polyset, up to a maximum
of 64 different shaders on a single polyset.
Layer Shaders
Layers the active shader onto all active objects in your scene, on top of any
shaders previously assigned or layered. The Transparency setting of a
shader layered on top of another shader determines the visibility of shaders
beneath it.
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You can achieve an effect like that of layered shaders by mapping a
Stencil texture to a shader parameter (for example, Color). See Stencil
texture parameters on page 936. The main advantage of using layered
shaders is that each shader can have a different Shading Model and
different Shading Parameters. For example, you can use layered
shaders to simulate rust or dirt (low reflectivity) on metal (high
reflectivity).
Typically, the first shader that you assign to an object represents its
material properties. You can then layer more shaders on top of it to
create effects. For example, you can layer a shader having a fractal color
map, bump map, and transparency map onto a smooth, shiny shader to
simulate rust or dirt on metal. Or you could layer a shader having a
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fractal incandescence map, bump map, and transparency map onto a
granite shader to simulate phosphorescent lichen or fungus on stone.
You can also use layered shaders to create labels.
Shaders layered on top of other shaders must have some level of
transparency or have a transparency map; otherwise, you can not see
the shader beneath it.
You cannot layer shaders on individual polygons in a polyset, although
you can layer them on an entire polyset.
AliasStudio may consider a layered shader partially transparent if even
one of its layers is partially transparent. For example, shadows cast by a
surface that uses a layered shader may appear faint, colored, or not at
all.
To apply a displacement to a layered shader, you must apply the
displacement map on the lowest available layered shader.
List Objects
Displays a window that lists all objects to which the active shader is assigned
or all objects to which the active light is linked.
The Objects window lists lights with or without a Light component. If you
select a different shader or light while the Objects window is still open, the list
is updated. Active objects appear highlighted in the Objects window.
Pick Objects
Selects all objects to which the active shader is assigned or all objects to
which the active light is linked (including the light itself).
Although you can select Shading > Pick Objects with multiple shaders or
lights selected, only the first shader or light that you select is used to pick
objects.
When multiple shaders are assigned to a single polyset, selecting any of
these shaders and then selecting Shading > Pick Objects will automatically
select the entire polyset. To determine which polygons in a polyset use which
shaders, select WindowDisplay > Hardware Shade to preview the polyset.
Link Lights
Links active surfaces to the active light. See Link a light on page 111.
Selecting Shading > Link Lights links lights with or without a Light
component.
Unlink Lights
Removes the link between the active light and the active surfaces. Selecting
Shading > Unlink Lights unlinks lights with or without a Light component.
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Control Window
The Control Window is sometimes referred to as the Environment Editor, Shader
Editor, Texture Editor, or Light Editor.
The Control Window is the interface that you use to edit shaders, textures, lights,
and the environment. You can also use the Control Window to access the Color
Editor.
The Control Window contains a list of parameters for the selected swatch in the
Multi-lister, and allows you to edit these parameter values or settings
interactively. There are four different types of Control Window: environment,
texture, shader, and light.
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>
Title bar
The title bar indicates the name of the active environment, shader, texture, or
light in the Multi-lister. It also contains buttons or icons that let you set a
keyframe for a parameter, or scroll through the Multi-lister swatches.
scroll through Multi-lister
swatches
keyframe button
environment, shader,
texture, or light name
>
Parameters
Parameters control the appearance of shaders, textures, lights, and the
environment. Each parameter has a name, which describes the parameter, and a
field, which specifies (and allows you to change) the parameter’s setting or value.
The Control Window contains several different types of fields: name fields, file
name fields, toggle fields, menu fields, numeric fields, and color fields.
All the parameters are displayed on the Software tab; a selection of applicable
parameters is displayed on the Hardware tab. The hardware tab is labelled either
Per Pixel or Per Vertex, depending on the Shading Method selected for
WindowDisplay > Hardware Shade.
Name fields
Name fields let you change the name of a shader or texture by clicking in the field
and typing a new name. Textures also have an arrow button on the left side of the
name field, and ON and OFF buttons on the right side of the name field. The
arrow button lets you select the texture’s parent swatch in the Multi-lister (that is,
the environment, shader, texture, or light that the texture is mapped to). The ON
and OFF buttons let you turn the effect of the texture on or off.
Click to turn on/off the
effect of the texture
Click the field to enter a
new name
Click to select the texture’s parent environment,
shader, texture, or light
File Name fields and Browse buttons
File name fields let you specify a path and file name by clicking in the field and
typing a file name. File name fields also have a Browse button on the right side of
the field. You can click the Browse button to select a file using the File
Requestor.
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Click the Browse button to
select a file using the File
Requestor.
Click the field to enter a file
name.
Toggle fields
Toggle fields let you set a parameter ON or OFF.
Menu fields
Menu fields let you select from a list of menu options by clicking the mouse on a
menu button, and then releasing the mouse on the desired option.
Click the button to
display the menu
Numeric fields
Numeric fields let you enter a number using either the keyboard or a slider beside
the field. (You can also hold down the Alt key and drag the mouse in the numeric
field to make fine adjustments to the value.) Each numeric field has a valid range
(the range of values you can enter by typing in the field) and a slider range (the
range of values you can enter using the slider). The slider range represents the
recommended range of values for that parameter. The valid range is -∞ (negative
infinity) to ∞ (positive infinity) for all numeric fields unless otherwise stated.
Click-drag the slider to adjust the
numeric value within the
recommended range
Click the numeric field to enter
a value directly
Alt-click-drag in the numeric field
to finely adjust the value
Some numeric fields also have a Map button (for example, Reflectivity).
Color fields and Map buttons
Color fields let you specify the color value by using the slider, specify the color by
clicking the color field and opening the Color Editor, or map a texture to the
parameter by clicking the Map button. If you map a texture to a color field, a red
arrow button appears to the right of the Map button. By clicking this red arrow you
can open the Control Window for that texture.
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Click the red arrow to open
the mapped texture in the
Control Window
Click the Map button
to map a texture to
the parameter
Click-drag the slider to
adjust the color Value
Click the color field to
open the Color Editor
>
Parameter groups
In the Control Window, parameters are organized in groups. You can display or
hide a parameter group by clicking on the group name.
Click to hide
parameter
group
Click to display
parameter group
Color Editor
The Color Editor is the interface that you use to change the colors of
environments, shaders, textures, and lights by that have a color field in the
Control Window.
The color editor has three tabs that enable you to choose color based on your
preferred method: a color wheel and triangle; a box for blending between four
colors, and a palette of colors.
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Swatches menu
Reset to Default
Resets the Swatches to their default setting (except for locked swatches).
Compress Swatches
Re-arranges the Swatches so all empty swatches are in the bottom right
corner of the Swatches area.
Ramp Selected
When several swatches in the Swatches area are selected, Ramp Selected
creates a ramp of swatches gradually blending between the color of the first
selected swatch and the color of the last selected swatch.
Lock Selected
Locks the selected swatches in the Swatches area so you cannot delete
them (by choosing Swatches > Delete Selected or Swatches > Reset to
Default). A locked swatch has anwhite triangle in the upper right corner.
Locked swatch
Unlock Selected
Unlocks the selected swatches in the Swatches area so you can delete them
(by choosing Swatches > Delete Selected or Swatches > Reset to Default).
>
Options menu
0->255
Sets the RGB and CMY slider ranges to 0 to 255.
0->1
Sets the RGB and CMY slider ranges to 0 to 1.
0->100
Sets the RGB and CMY slider ranges to 0 to 100.
>
Common elements
Color history
Click to choose a
recent color
Active color
A history of the last fourteen colors you have used is automatically stored in a
series of swatches along the top of the Color Editor. To choose a color from
the history, click its swatch.
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Sliders
The Sliders let you choose a color by dragging sliders or setting values for
each color component.
Color Model
Controls whether the sliders use the HSL, HSV, RGB, or CMY color model.
See Color Models on page 866.
Sliders
Let you choose a color by setting values for:
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hue (0 to 360), saturation (0 to 1), and lightness (0 to 1)
hue (0 to 360), saturation (0 to 1), and value (0 to 1)
red, green, and blue (either 0 to 255, 0 to 1, or 0 to 100)
cyan, magenta, and yellow (either 0 to 255, 0 to 1, or 0 to 100).
You can choose the range for RGB and CMY sliders from the Options
menu.
Active color
Drag to the Shelf or the Swatches
area to save the active color
The active color swatch indicates the active color. The active color swatch
updates interactively as you adjust the active color or choose a new color.
Color picker
Grab a color
from the
canvas
Positioned directly beside the active color swatch is a color picker. Click on
this icon to change the cursor to a medicine dropper. Click on the canvas to
pick up a color from the active layer.
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Color wheel and triangle
Click to choose a
color model
Click to choose
saturation and
lightness/value
Click to choose
white, black, or
gray
Click to choose a
primary color
Click to choose a
hue
This area lets you choose a color using a color wheel and triangle.
Color Model
Controls whether the color triangle uses the HSL or HSV color model.
See Color Models on page 866.
Color Wheel
Lets you choose:
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a hue by clicking on the outer ring
a primary color by clicking on the inner disk.
Color Triangle
Lets you choose:
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white, black, or gray by clicking on the column of swatches
a saturation and lightness/value by clicking in the triangle.
Blending box
Click to set the corner color to the current
color
Click or drag to select a color
The blending box represents a blend of four colors (the colors in the four
corner squares of the palette). You can use the blending box to select a color
by clicking or dragging anywhere within the box.
You can change the corner colors of the box by setting the current color (for
example, using the sliders), and then clicking a corner square of the blending
box.
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Swatches
Click to choose a
color
Selected (and locked)
swatch
Drag to select several
swatches
The Swatches area lets you choose a color from a customizable collection of
color swatches.
>
Color Models
The Color Editor Picker and Sliders can represent color using various color
models:
●
HSL color model
●
HSV color model
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RGB color model
●
CMY color model.
HSL color model
Lightness
Lightness increases in
this direction. Along the
axis, black is at the bottom,
white at the top
1.0
White
Green
120
0.5
Gray
Red
0
Blue
240
0.0
Black
Hue
Saturation
Saturation is 100% (pure
colors) on the perimeter of
the middle hexagon.
Hue is represented by the
angle around the vertical
axis.
The HSL color model uses dimensions that are familiar to artists to specify
colors: hue, lightness, and saturation. These three dimensions are represented
by a double-hexcone.
There is one main difference between the HSL and HSV color models. In the
HSV color model, both fully saturated colors (for example, pure red) and white
have a value of 100%. In the HSL color model, fully saturated colors have a
lightness (value) of 50% and white has a lightness (value) of 100%. In the HSL
color model, pure white is perceived to be “lighter” than fully saturated colors (for
example, pure red).
Hue
Hue is the quality humans use to distinguish one color from another. For
example, red, green, and yellow are hues. In the HSL double-hexcone, hue
is measured by the angle around the vertical axis. Red is at 0°, green at
120°, and blue at 240°.
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Saturation
Saturation is the quality that distinguishes a strong color from a weak one. At
100% saturation, the hue is perceived at its strongest; 0% saturation is
grayscale — there is no hue, only black, white, or a shade of gray. In the HSL
double-hexcone, 100% saturation is at the perimeter of the hexagon, and 0%
saturation is at the central axis of the double-hexcone.
Lightness
Lightness distinguishes light colors from dark ones. Black has a lightness of
0, and white has a lightness of 1 (and a saturation of 0). The bottom point of
the double-hexcone has 0 lightness; this increases along the axis of the
double-cone to 1 at the top point.
If the Lightness = 0, then the color is black, regardless of the values for hue
and saturation. Similarly, if Lightness = 1, then the color is always white.
HSV color model
The HSV color model uses dimensions similar to the HLS color model: hue,
saturation and (brightness) value. These three dimensions are represented by a
single hexcone.
Saturation is 100%
(pure colors) on the
perimeter of the top
hexagon.
Hue is represented by
the angle around the
vertical axis.
Value increases in this
direction. Along the
axis, black is at the
bottom, white at the
top
Hue
green
120°
red
0°
blue
240°
Hue is the quality humans use to distinguish one color from another. For
example, red, green, and yellow are hues. In the HSV hexcone, hue is
measured by the angle around the vertical axis. Red is at 0°, green at 120°,
and blue at 240°.
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Saturation
100
100
0
100
100
0
0
sa
Saturation is the quality that distinguishes a strong color from a weak one. At
100% saturation, the hue is perceived at its strongest; 0% saturation is
grayscale — there is no hue, only black, white, or a shade of gray. In the HSV
hexcone, 100% saturation is at the perimeter of the hexagon, and 0%
saturation is at the central axis of the hexcone.
Value
1
0.5
0
Value is the brightness value; it distinguishes light colors from dark ones.
Black has a brightness value of 0%, and white has a brightness value of
100% (and a saturation of 0%). The point of the hexcone is 0% value; this
increases along the axis of the cone to 100% at the top surface.
If the Value = 0, then the color is black, regardless of the values for hue and
saturation. In other words, the absence of light is black.
RGB color model
Red, green, and blue are the additive primary colors. The RGB color model
describes how red, green, or blue light combines at different intensities to
produce different colors. In AliasStudio, each component color can have a value
from 0 (zero intensity) to 1, 100, or 255 (full intensity).
At full intensity red, green, and blue light combine to form white light. This is
the opposite of how subtractive primary colors combine to form black.
The RGB color model is useful because it relates directly to how monitors emit
light to create colors. However, it is often hard for determine what the RGB
values are for a specific color. If you are “mixing” a color, you may find the HLS or
HSV model more useful.
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CMY color model
The CMY model describes colors as different values of cyan, magenta, and
yellow (the complements of red, green, and blue respectively). These subtractive
primary colors specify what is removed from white light. This model describes
how output devices such as printers deposit color pigments onto paper.
Texture placement window
The Texture Placement window is sometimes referred to as the Texture Space
Editor.
The Texture Placement window displays a texture that is mapped to a surface,
and allows you to position the texture interactively. The two dimensions of this
window (S and T) represent the two parametric dimensions of the active surface
(U and V). A texture mapped to the active surface is therefore displayed in the
Texture Placement window relative to the surface.
Please note that not all texture parameters are available when using textures
within Shapes when sketching or painting.
The buttons at the bottom of the Texture Placement window allow you to edit the
position and orientation of the texture relative to the surface.
these tools are unique to the Texture Placement window
The title bar contains standard dolly and track icons, and full/half/resize,
minimize, and close icons. The buttons and menus located along the bottom of
the window let you interactively edit all Surface Placement and Label Mapping
parameters. There are also some additional tools along the bottom of the window
that are unique to the Texture Placement window.
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Grid buttons
The Grid buttons allow you to display a grid in the window, specify the size of the
grid, and enable snapping of texture vertices to the grid.
Disp
Displays a light grey grid in the window. The numeric field above the Disp
button controls the number of vertical grid lines (representing U in parametric
space), and the numeric field above the Snap button controls the number of
horizontal lines (representing V in parametric space). Click in either of these
fields to change the number of grid lines.
Snap
Enables snapping of texture vertices to the nearest grid location when you
perform texture vertex transformations.
>
Pick buttons
The Pick buttons, Obj (Object) and TVert (Texture Vertices) allow to you to select
geometry or vertices in the modeling window, and load them into the Texture
Placement window. Picking geometry or vertices in the modeling window is
similar to using the Pick > Point Types > CV tool:
Mouse Button
Selection Description
left
toggles selection
middle
deselects all vertices or geometry
right
deselects vertex or geometry
The Obj and TVert buttons are mutually exclusive; only one can be active at a
time.
Obj
Allows you to select polygonal geometry in the modeling window and load it
into the Texture Placement window. You can modify geometry loaded into the
Texture Placement window using the Transform tools.
If any polysets, components, or polygons are selected when you first open
the Texture Placement window, all polysets or fully selected polygons are
loaded (if all of their vertices are selected) into the Texture Placement
window. This geometry is displayed as two-dimensional parametric space
geometry. At any point after you open the window, you can change the
loaded geometry by clicking the Obj button and selecting the geometry in the
modeling window.
When the Obj button is selected, you can select polygonal geometry at the
vertex level by clicking and dragging in the modeling windows (for example,
by using the Pick > Point Types > CV tool). Polygons are loaded into the
Texture Placement window only if all of their vertices are selected.
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If you have selected polygonal geometry before opening the Texture
Placement window, the Obj button is selected by default and all Texture
Placement window tools are enabled. If you have not selected polygonal
geometry before opening the Texture Placement window, the Obj button is
not selected and all Texture Placement window tools are disabled except for
the Obj button. Selecting polygonal geometry as above enables the tools.
While using the Texture Placement window, if you select another continuous
tool (such as Transform > Move), all geometry is unloaded and the Obj
button is deselected. If you select the Obj button again, you can reload all
active geometry. This also exits from the continuous tool.
A continuous tool is one that remains active after you have selected it and
used it to perform an action (for example, Transform > Move).
TVert
Allows you to select polyset vertices in the modeling window. These vertices
correspond to the vertices displayed in the Texture Placement window. You
can modify selected vertices using the Vertex tools in the Texture Placement
window.
>
Vertex menu
The Vertex tools let you interactively transform selected polyset vertices.
You can select vertices by several methods:
●
You can select an individual vertex in the Texture Placement window by
clicking on it. You can select multiple vertices in the Texture Placement
window by holding the Shift key and click-dragging a box around the
vertices.
●
You can select individual or multiple vertices in the modeling window by
clicking the TVert button and then clicking on (or click-dragging a box around)
the vertices in the modeling window.
●
You can select all vertices associated with a polygon in the Texture
Placement window by holding the Alt key and clicking in the middle of the
polygon. This includes all vertices that are shared with other polygons.
●
You can select all vertices of a polygon in the Texture Placement window by
holding the Alt and Ctrl keys and clicking in the middle of the polygon. This
does not include vertices that are shared with other polygons.
●
You can select and transform a vertex without affecting any polygons that
share that vertex. First, select the vertex using any of the methods described
above, and then press the -> (right arrow) key. A white diamond-shaped
marker is displayed in one of the polygons that shares this vertex. Press the > key again until the marker is in the polygon that you want to transform the
vertex for. Transform the vertex using any of the Vertex tools. Press the <(left arrow) key to remove the marker.
Move
Lets you move selected vertices in the Texture Placement window by clicking
and dragging in the window.
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Mouse Button
Move Direction
left
freeform
middle
equal in S and T directions
right
along the S or T axis
Rotate
Lets you rotate selected vertices about the current pivot point in the Texture
Placement window by clicking and dragging in the window. The pivot point is
indicated by a small green circle in the Texture Placement window, and is in
the bottom left corner of the window by default..
Mouse Button
Move Direction
left
clockwise
right
counter-clockwise
To move the pivot point, see Set Pivot (page 873).
Scale
Lets you scale selected vertices about the current pivot point in the Texture
Placement window by clicking and dragging in the window. The pivot point is
indicated by a small green circle in the Texture Placement window, and is in
the bottom left corner of the window by default.
Mouse Button or
Direction
Scale Type or
Direction
left button
non-proportional scale
middle button
proportional scale
right button
along the S or T axis
right or up direction
scale up (larger)
left or down direction
scale down (smaller)
Smear
Lets you smear selected vertices in the Texture Placement window by
clicking and dragging in the window. Vertices closest to the mouse pointer
are moved more than vertices further away from the mouse pointer.
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Set Vertex
Lets you enter numeric S and T values to re-position the selected vertex.
When you select Set Vertex, the following dialog box is displayed.
You can also select the Set Vertex function by moving the mouse pointer
over the Texture Placement window and pressing the S key.
Set Pivot
Lets you move the pivot point (used during Scale and Rotate operations) by
clicking and dragging in the Texture Placement window. The pivot point is
indicated by a small green circle in the Texture Placement window, and is in
the bottom left corner of the window by default.
To center the pivot point within the selected vertices, move the mouse pointer
over the Texture Placement window and press the C key.
Freeze Transform
Applies any Translate, Coverage, Rotate, Offset, or Repeat values (set using
either the Transform tools, or the actual parameters in the texture’s Control
Window) to all vertices loaded in the Texture Placement window.
The texture coordinate that results from the transformation is calculated and
then assigned to the appropriate texture vertices in the Texture Placement
window. A system prompt also asks whether you want to reset the texture
transform values before you confirm the operation. If you decide to reset,
then the transformation values are set to their defaults.
The Freeze Transform tool is very useful when preparing texture coordinate
data for export to systems that do not support advanced placement options
such as Translate, Coverage, Rotate, Offset, and Repeat.
Undo
Undoes the last vertex transformation you performed. You can also select the
Undo function by moving the mouse pointer over the Texture Placement
window and press the U key.
>
Vertex Flipping hot keys
Two other vertex tools are available only by your using hot keys in the Texture
Placement window.
H (Horizontal Flipping)
Scales the S value of the selected vertices by a factor of -1 around the center
of the selected vertices (no matter where the pivot point is). This flips the
vertices horizontally.
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V (Vertical Flipping)
Scales the T value of the selected vertices by a factor of -1 around the center
of the selected vertices (no matter where the pivot point is). This flips the
vertices vertically.
>
Transform menu
The Transform tools let you transform the texture relative to the active surface it
is mapped to. Any transformations you make using these tools are automatically
updated in the texture’s Surface Placement and Label Mapping parameters. The
origin of the texture is in the lower left corner of the window. The U parametric
direction is horizontal, and the V parametric direction is vertical.
Translate
Lets you move the texture on the surface by clicking and dragging in the
Texture Placement window. This tool controls the texture’s Utranslate and
Vtranslate values.
Coverage
Lets you reduce the coverage of the texture on the surface by clicking and
dragging in the Texture Placement window. This tool controls the texture’s
Ucoverage and Vcoverage values.
Rotate
Lets you rotate the texture on the surface by clicking and dragging in the
Texture Placement window. The texture is not actually rotated in the Texture
Placement window. Instead, a white border representing the edges of the
surface is rotated. This tool controls the texture’s Rotate value.
Offset
Lets you offset the texture’s position on the surface by clicking and dragging
in the Texture Placement window. This tool controls the texture’s Uoffset and
Voffset values.
Repeat
Lets you change the number of times that the texture is repeated within the
coverage area by clicking and dragging in the Texture Placement window.
This tool controls the texture’s Urepeat and Vrepeat values.
This changes with shapes; Urepeat and Vrepeat become Uscale and Vscale,
which represent the number of times the texture repeats over 100 pixels. So
if Uscale is set to 2, the texture will repeat twice in the U direction every 100
pixels.
Reset
Undoes the last transformation.
Fit
Automatically fits the texture to the surface.
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Lookat
Dollies the display in the Texture Placement window so that the placement
object (representing the surface) fills as much of the window as possible.
>
Display Mode menu
The Display Mode tools let you change the way the surface and texture are
displayed in the Texture Placement window. The default display mode is Picture.
Line Only
Displays the surface as a white outline, the texture as a red outline, and the
grid as blue lines.
Drag Line
Displays the texture as a color image against the shader color, unless you
are using an Transform function. During Transform operations, the display
changes to Line Only mode. When the Transform operation is completed
and the mouse button is released, the texture is displayed as a color image
again.
Picture
Displays the texture as a color image at all times.
High Res.
Displays the texture as a high resolution color image at all times. High Res.
mode may be slower than other display modes.
>
Wrap menu
The Wrap tools let you repeat the texture pattern outside of its coverage area.
Toggle V
Wraps the texture outside of its coverage area in the V parametric direction.
This tool controls the texture’s Vwrap setting.
Toggle U
Wraps the texture outside of its coverage area in the U parametric direction.
This tool controls the texture’s Uwrap setting.
>
Model View menu
The Model View tools let you change the type of view in the modeling window.
Shaded Wire
Displays the texture on the wire frame of the active surface if the texture is
mapped to that surface. This tool activates 3D mapping.
Wireframe
Displays the active surface in normal wire frame view. This tool toggles the
modeling windows out of Shaded Wire mode.
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Environment parameters
The environment parameters define the appearance and properties of the
environment. All parameters except Linear Reflection controls and Ground
Plane are available for software renders; Linear Reflection controls are only
available for Hardware Shade mode, and only if the shading method is set to Per
Pixel.
A subset of parameters are available for Hardware Shade mode, and these will
vary, depending on whether the shading mode is set to Per Vertex (a small
selection) or Per Pixel (a larger selection of parameters).
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Image-Based Lighting
See Image Based Lighting (IBL) on page 27.
See To use image-based lighting on page 99.
Reflection Map
Either type the full or relative path to the High Dynamic Range (HDR) image
to be used as a reflection map or click the Browse button to navigate to the
file. HDR images are the only type of image allowed to be used as reflection
maps for Image-Based Lighting.
HDR images can be created using Photoshop CS2, HDRIshop, or
purchased; some are available on the web, as well (search for “royalty-free
HDR images”).
Tone Mapping
The contribution of image-based lighting to illuminating the model can be
controlled by tone mapping. HDR images, since they have a wide range, may
produce a resulting rendered image that may need to be "toned" to represent
lighting that is suitable for the scene. The toning is applied near the end of the
rendering process, and the final rendering accounts for both the toned imagebased lighting and the rendering done with regular lights. The tone mapping does
not affect regular lights.
As with digital photography and images that are higher than 24 bits, the longer
the original data is maintained and the later in the process that it is reduced to 24
bits, the more value the high dynamic range data can contribute to the final
image.
Gamma
Sets the brightness of the mid-tone values of the reflection map. Lower
values create darker reflections; higher values create brighter reflections.
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Exposure
Sets the overall brightness of the reflection map. Lower values reduce the
exposure of the image; higher values increase the exposure compensation.
Saturation
Sets the amount of color in the reflection map that will be used.
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Background
The Background parameters control the appearance of the background.
Color
The color of the background. The default setting is black.
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Pix File Backdrop
The Pix File Backdrop parameters let you specify an image file, or a series of
image files, to use as a background.
Backdrop
The name of the image file to be used as a 2D backdrop.
Sequence
Appends the frame number to the backdrop file name. Set Sequence ON if
you want to use a series of pix files (that is, an animation) as a 2D backdrop.
>
Fog (available in software renderings)
The Fog parameters control whether the environment contains fog, and let you
specify fog properties. Use environmental fog to simulate fog, mist, dust, haze,
smog, dispersed smoke, or great distances.
Fog Type
The type of fog present in the environment.
OFF
no environmental fog
CONSTANT
constant density fog
LAYERED
fog whose density varies with altitude (see
Layered Fog Parameters (page 878))
MAX_MIN
constant density fog between the Min and
Max Distance from the camera (see Max/
Min Fog Parameters (page 879))
Fog Color
The color of the environmental fog. Change Fog Color to simulate smog
(brown fog) or to create the illusion of great distance (blue fog). The default
setting is white.
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Fog Depth
Determines the distance that you can see through environmental fog. (The
color Value controls fog density in the direction of the camera’s view.) Fog
Depth is the distance away that a surface must be before it has half of its light
scattered by the fog. Fog density also depends on the scale of your scene.
Small scenes require a higher Fog Depth value than large scenes to have
the same effect.
The slider range is 0 (nothing visible) to 1 (most objects visible). The default
color Value is 0.039.
Amult
A scaling factor applied to the Fog Depth value when Fog Type is LAYERED.
The slider range is 0 to 1. The default value is 1.
Aoffset
An offset factor applied to the Fog Depth value when Fog Type is LAYERED.
The slider range is 0 to 1. The default value is 0.
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Layered Fog Parameters
The Layered Fog Parameters control the appearance of layered environmental
fog. They are only available if Fog Type is LAYERED.
AltitudeMin
The lower boundary for environmental fog. The slider range is -10 to 10. The
default value is 0.
AltitudeMax
The upper boundary for environmental fog. The slider range is -10 to 10. The
default value is 1.
Column
The column in a Density Map file used to calculate the vertical density of the
fog. The valid/slider range is 0 (left side of the Density Map file) to 1 (right
side of the Density Map file). The default value is 0.5.
Animate the Column value between 0 and 1 to vary the layers of fog during
an animation. Use an image file or ramp texture with some horizontal
variations as a Density Map.
Density Map
The image file or texture that determines the vertical density of the fog. The
Column value determines which column of the Density Map file is used to
calculate the vertical density of the fog. The default Density Map is a smooth
ramp.
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Use a vertical or diagonal ramp texture. If you use a horizontal ramp texture,
the fog will have a constant vertical density.
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Max/Min Fog Parameters
The Max/Min Fog Parameters control the appearance of MAX_MIN
environmental fog. They are only available if Fog Type is MAX_MIN.
Min Distance, Max Distance
The minimum and maximum distance from the camera within which a
constant density fog exists. The slider range is -10 to 10. The default value is
0 for Min Distance and 10 for Max Distance.
>
Ground Plane
Plane height
Enables you to set the ground plane for reflections and shadows.
Ground Plane Preview
Enables you to see the placement of the ground plane in the Front/Side and
Right/Back windows while adjusting the Plane height slider. This is for
display purposes only: the plane is not real geometry and cannot be picked,
transformed, grouped, etc.
Receive shadows
Enables shadows, and makes the Shadow blur, Shadow position, and
Shadow transparency options available.
Shadow blur
Enables you to slide between Hard Shadows (0) and Soft Shadows (1).
Setting the value higher than 0.7 may cause longer processing times.
Shadow position
User Defined: The shadow is generated from either a spot light or directional
light created by the user. The appropriate light is selected through the Multilister where the color and transparency of the shadow can be modified.
Directly Above: The shadow is generated from a single light source located
directly above the model. The light source cannot be edited.
45 degrees left: The shadow is generated from a single light source located
at 45 degrees to the left and above the model. The light source cannot be
edited.
45 degrees right: The shadow is generated from a single light source located
at 45 degrees to the right and above the model. The light source cannot be
edited. This is the default.
Shadow transparency
Enables you to slide between opaque shadows (0) and very pale shadows
(0.9).
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Reflection
Check this box to enable ground-plane reflections of the scene. The following
options are made available.
Reflectivity
Sets the amount the ground plane will reflect, from 0 (no reflection) to 1
(mirror-like).
Reflection depth
Real life reflections fade out; Reflection Depth sets the fade on the ground
plane.
Blur
Sets the amount by which the reflections are blurred on the ground plane.
Blur depth
Similar to Reflection depth, it sets the amount by which the blur will increase
the further the distance a point on the surface is from the ground plane.
>
ShaderGlow
The ShaderGlow parameters determine the type of effect produced when a
shader’s glow intensity (Glow Intens value) is not zero. See Glow Intens (Glow
Intensity) on page 895.
Glow Type
The type of glow a shader produces when its Glow Intensity value is not
zero. The default setting is LINEAR.
OFF
No glow
LINEAR
Glow slowly diminishes from the surface
SPECTRAL
Lower wavelengths (red) refract (or
spread) more than the higher frequencies
(blue)
RIM_HALO
Forms a circular ring with a soft central
glow. The size of the ring is determined
by the halo Spread value.
Halo Type
The type of halo a shader produces when its Glow Intensity value is nonzero. The default setting is LINEAR.
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OFF
No halo
LiNEAR
Halo slowly diminishes from the surface
SPECTRAL
Lower wavelengths (red) refract (or
spread) more than the higher
frequencies (blue)
RIM HALO
Forms a circular ring with a soft central
glow. The size of the ring is determined
by the halo Spread.
Auto Exposure
Evaluates glows in the rendered scene, and based on the maximum intensity
found, automatically adjusts the intensity of shader glows. The default setting
is ON.
Although Auto Exposure is very useful, you should not use it during an
animation. This is because each frame could have a very different intensity
adjustment, resulting in glow flicker between frames. See Common glows
problems (page 143) for information on eliminating glow flicker.
Quality
Controls the resolution of the glow. The slider range is 0 to 5. The default
value is 0.5.
Increase the Quality value to prevent very small glow sources from
vanishing when rendered.
Threshold
The minimum brightness at which surfaces will glow. For example, if the
Threshold value is 0.5, only surface regions with a rendered intensity over
127 (255*0.5) will glow. The slider range is 0 to 1. The default value is 0.
Glow
The Glow parameters control the appearance of shader glow effects. These
parameters are similar to the light Glow parameters (see Glow (page 963)).
Glow Color
The color of shader glows. The default color Value is 0.392.
Intensity
The brightness of shader glows. The Intensity value acts as a scaling factor
applied to Glow Color. As value increases, so does the apparent size of the
shader glow effect. A negative value subtracts from other glows. The slider
range is 0 to 10. The default value is 1.
Spread
Controls the size of the shader glow effect. Negative values can have odd
but useful effects. For example, a Spread of -6 and a 2D Noise of 1 produces
an image of a fiery bubble. The slider range is 0 to 1. The default value is
0.05.
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Eccentricity
Determines how focused the glow effect is. The slider range is 0
(concentrated glow, fast decay) to 1 (ball-like glow). The default value is 0.1.
The degree to which a glow effect can be focused is limited. For very low
values of Eccentricity (0.01), increase the Quality value. Generally, it is
better to use a glow with a low Spread value and a halo with a high Spread
value.
Radial Noise
Randomizes the spread of shader glows to simulate starburst effects and
eyelashes refracting light. The slider range is 0 to 4. The default value is 0.
Negative values of Radial Noise will create a thicker noise. Use the Noise
Freq. parameter (under Radial Effects) to adjust the smoothness of this
effect.
Star Level
Simulates camera star filter effects. The slider range is 0 to 4. The default
value is 0.
The Star Level parameter is often effective when combined with a high value
of Radial Noise. Use the Star Points parameter to set the number of points
on the star. Use the Rotation parameter to rotate the star.
Opacity
Allows a shader glow to obscure objects. (Opacity can be thought of as the
opposite of transparency.) The slider range is 0 to 1. The default value is 0.
Halo
The Halo parameters control the appearance of shader halo effects. These
parameters are similar to the light Halo parameters (see Halo (page 964)).
Halo Color
The color of shader halos. The default color value is 0.392.
Intensity
The brightness of shader halos. The Intensity value acts as a scaling factor
applied to Halo Color. The slider range is 0 to 10. The default value is 1.
Spread
Controls the size of the shader halo effect. The Spread value also controls
the size of the glow if Glow Type is RIM_HALO. Halo size is generally larger
than glow size when the halo Spread and glow Spread values are the same.
The slider range is 0 to 1. The default value is 0.3.
Eccentricity, Radial Noise, Star Level
Control the appearance of shader halo effects. These parameters operate
the same way as the Glow parameters Eccentricity, Radial Noise, and Star
Level (see Glow (page 881)).
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Lens Flare
Simulates a bright light source illuminating the surfaces of several camera
lenses. The intensity of the flare is determined by the halo Intensity value.
The size of the circles created is relative to the field of view of the camera.
The slider range is 0 to 1. The default value is 0
Radial Effects
The Radial Effects parameters control the appearance of shader glow and halo
radial effects (Radial Noise and Star Level).
Rotation
Rotates glow and halo noise and star effects about the location of the
surface. The slider range is 0 to 180 (degrees). The default value is 0.
The Rotation value affects the following ShaderGlow Glow and Halo
parameters: Star Level and Radial Noise.
Noise Freq. (Noise Frequency)
Controls the smoothness of shader glow and halo radial noise (see Radial
Noise (page 882)). The slider range is 0 to 1. The default value is 0.5.
Star Points
The number of points on glow and halo star filter effects. A Star Points value
of 1 produces a comet-like effect. The slider range is 0 to 10. The default
value is 4.
Non-integer values could produce a seam or hard line at the top of a star
effect when rendered.
Photo Effects
The Photo Effects parameters control the overall appearance of the rendered
image.
Film Grain
The level of graininess of the rendered image to simulate the appearance of
film stock. The slider range is 0 (no grain) to 1. The default value is 0.
Filter
The color or texture applied to the rendered image to simulate a camera lens
filter. The default setting is white (no filter).
Master Lighting control
The Master Lighting Control parameters act as scaling factors that are applied to
all lights in the scene.
Intensity
A scaling factor applied to the Intensity value of all lights in the scene. For
example, a value of 2 will double the brightness of all lights in the scene. The
slider range is 0 to 10. The default value is 1.
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Light Color
A scaling factor applied to the Color of all lights in the scene. The default
setting is white.
A new visualization tool enables you to see your model as if it were surrounded
by long fluorescent light fixtures. The linear reflection tool is only available in
hardware shade mode.
Linear Reflection controls
How to create linear reflections
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1
Open WindowDisplay > Hardware Shade and check that the shading mode
is set to Per Pixel.
2
To interactively create linear reflections, turn on Linear Reflection, choose
Shade On and close the window.
3
Choose the Hardware (per pixel) tab on the Environment editor. Scroll down to
Linear Reflection Controls.
4
Adjust the Environment settings to suit your model. The reflections don’t add
lights to the scene, just reflections to the model that look like they were
generated from a series of fluorescent light tubes.
Reflection Bands
Either On or Off. If turned off, all settings in this section of the Shader editor
are ignored.
Show Tunnel
If turned on, the tunnel is represented with green lines. It’s useful to turn the
display on when creating the reflection band display.
Color
Click the swatch to choose a color other than white for the reflections, or
move the slider to change the value of the color.
Intensity
Controls the relative brightness of the reflections. Values greater than one
are equivalent to setting a light to the same intensity.
Number of Bands
Controls the number of bands of reflected light in the cylinder.
Band Width
Controls the width of the lights.
Band Fringe
Controls the edge transition of the lights ranging from a hard, sharp transition
to a smooth soft transition.
To place and scale the size of the light tunnel, use the interactive placement jack:
To scale the tube, move one or all of the three cubes.
To rotate the tube, click on a sphere, which enables you to rotate about that axis.
To move the tube, click on an arrow.
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Shader parameters
For general information on shaders, see How to create and assign
shaders. (page 65).
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Shader name
The name of the shader. Shader swatches in the Multi-lister are listed
alphabetically (except for the DefaultShader). If you change a shader’s name,
the swatch display in the Multi-lister may also change.
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Shading model
Defines the basic surface type (for example, matte, reflective). The default setting
is LAMBERT. Each Shading Model has its own set of Shading Parameters.
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LAMBERT
A matte surface (chalk, matte paint, or unpolished surface)
PHONG
A glassy or glossy surface (ABS or SAN copolymer which
is often used for car mouldings, telephones, and bathroom
fittings)
BLINN
A metallic surface (brass, aluminum)
LIGHTSOURCE
A special effect. Light falling on the surface is summed and
averaged, and no complex shading is done. The surface
does not act as a light (that is, it does not illuminate other
objects).
Lambert Shading
Parameters
Phong Shading
Parameters
Blinn Shading
Parameters
The Shading Parameters differ between LAMBERT, BLINN, or PHONG. There
are no Shading Parameters when Shading Model is LIGHTSOURCE.
Diffuse
0
0.5
0.8
1
The ability of the surface to reflect light in all directions. The Diffuse value
acts like a scaling factor applied to the Color setting: the higher the Diffuse
value, the closer the actual surface color is to the Color setting. The valid
range is 0 to ∞. The slider range is 0 (no light is reflected in all directions) to
1. The default color Value is 0.8.
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Gloss
Gloss reproduces the effect of surface shinyness. A high Gloss material has
specular highlights the same color as its reflections. A low Gloss material has
specular highlights the same color as its diffuse shading. Values in the middle
blend between these.
Reflective materials with a low Gloss appearance could previously be
achieved only with a layered shader.
0.00
0.20
0.40
0.60
0.80
1.00
Specular
Default
White
Blue
Black
The color of shiny highlights on the surface. A black Specular produces no
surface highlights. The default color Value is 0.5.
For glossy plastic surfaces, use a whitish Specular color. For metallic
surfaces, use a Specular color similar to the surface color.
Specularity
Specularity works with Gloss to determine the appearance of specular
highlights that are based on the color of the bright parts of the environment
cast on the object.
0.00
0.20
0.40
0.60
0.80
1.00
Specular reflections (the blurry ones which in the past only reflected the light
sources (point, directional, and so on) used to be colored only by Specular
Color. Now they are colored by a blend of the Specular Color and the
(diffuse) Color (which is actually the diffuse color of the surface), with the
blending being controlled by Gloss. When Gloss is 1.0, it's pure “Specular
Color”, when Gloss is 0.0 it's pure (diffuse) “Color.”
This is handy because it lets you do with one shader something that used to
require a layered shader. It's also positively irreplacable with image based
lighting (IBL), since even a layered shader wouldn't give you independent
control over reflected and specular part of IBL.
Experiment with these two parameters together in Hardware shading to get
new effects.
Low gloss and high specularity can produce a satiny, lustrous surface like a
pearl or wood with an oiled or waxed finish. High gloss and low specularity
gives small precise highlights, like highly polished enamel surfaces or wood
with a varathane finish.
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Shinyness
2
5
20
100
Controls the size of shiny highlights on the surface. This parameter is only
available when Shading Model is PHONG. The valid range is 2 to ∞. The
slider range is 2 (broad highlight, not very shiny surface) to 100 (small
highlight, very shiny surface). The default value is 20.
Reflectivity
0
0.25
0.5
1
The ability of the surface to reflect its surroundings (the environment, other
surfaces), or the Reflection map, if any. Reflectivity values for common
surface materials are: car paint (0.4), glass (0.7), mirror (1), chrome (1). To
help visualize the effect of Reflectivity in the shader swatch, temporarily
assign a Reflection map to the shader.
The valid range is 0 to ∞. The slider range is 0 (no reflections) to 1 (clear
reflections). The default value is 0.5.
Reflections are calculated only during raytracing.
Reflection
Maps a texture onto the surface to simulate reflections. By default, reflection
mapping only works during raycasting. To use reflection maps during
raytracing, set the shader’s Use Refl. Map parameter ON (page 900).
Map only environment textures to this parameter. Mapping a surface texture
or solid texture to this parameter does not produce realistic-looking
reflections.
Use Environment
OFF
ON
Causes the surface to reflect the environment texture assigned to the
environment, or the Image Based Lighting tone map. When IBL is on, this
option controls diffuse and specular as well as reflected illumination from the
Environment. The default setting is OFF.
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Use Environment has no effect if an environment texture is not assigned to
the environment. If Use Environment is ON, any Reflection map assigned to
the surface is ignored.
Use Environment has a different effect during raycasting and raytracing.
During raycasting, the surface reflects the environment texture assigned to
the environment. During raytracing, the surface reflects only the environment
texture assigned to the environment. Any surrounding objects that would
normally be reflected by the surface during raytracing will not be reflected
when Use Environment is ON. If Use Environment is OFF during raytracing,
the surface will reflect the environment and surrounding objects.
See Workflow for rendering on page 3.
Spec. Rolloff (Specular Rolloff)
0
0.3
0.5
1
The ability of the surface to reflect its surroundings (the environment, other
surfaces), or the Reflection map, if any, when viewed at oblique angles. This
parameter appears only when Shading Model is BLINN. To help visualize the
effect of Spec. Rolloff in the shader swatch, temporarily assign a Reflection
map to the shader.
The slider range is 0 to 1. The default value is 0.3.
Use a Spec. Rolloff value of 0.7 to simulate a wet surface (for example, wet
paint).
Eccentricity
0
0.1
0.3
0.5
Controls the size of shiny highlights on the surface. This parameter is only
available when Shading Model is BLINN. The valid range is 0 (no highlight)
to 0.999 (broad highlight, not very shiny surface). A value of 0.1 produces a
small highlight (very shiny surface). The default value is 0.3.
Common Shader Parameters
Color
The color of the surface.
Incandescence
0
890
0.1
0.5
1
The color and brightness of light that a surface appears to be emitting.
(Incandescent objects do not illuminate other objects.) For example, to
simulate lava, use a bright red Incandescence. The default color Value is 0
(black).
Use a little Incandescence for vegetation to make it look alive.
Transparency
0
0.1
0.5
1
The color and level of transparency of a surface. For example, if the
Transparency Value is 0 (black), the surface is totally opaque; if the
Transparency value is 1 (white), the surface is totally transparent. To make
an object transparent, set the Transparency color to a shade of gray or to the
same color as the shader Color. The default value is 0 (black).
If you change Transparency from the default black (0), the background of the
shader’s Multi-lister swatch becomes a checkered pattern. This is a visual
aid and is not rendered in your scene.
To create a realistic looking material, set the Specular, Reflectivity, and
Transparency values so that they satisfy the following equation:
(Specular x Reflectivity) + Transparency <= 1
For this equation the Specular and Transparency values must each be
expressed as a number between 0 and 1. (By default, they are each
expressed as a value between 0 and 255 in AliasStudio.)
For example, if the Specular value is 0.5, and the Reflectivity value is 1,
then the Transparency value should be 0.5 or less.
Special Effects
Bump
Makes the surface appear rough or bumpy by altering surface normals
(during rendering) according to the intensity of the pixels in the bump map
texture.
A bump map does not actually alter the surface. A silhouette of the surface
appears smooth.
A two-dimensional bump map does not significantly increase rendering time.
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Displacement
Makes the surface actually rough or bumpy by altering the tessellated
triangle vertices during rendering, according to the intensity of the pixels in
the displacement map texture.
Displacement mapping is similar to bump mapping, except that the surface is
actually altered. (A silhouette of the surface appears bumpy.) Displacement
mapping, however, requires more rendering time than bump mapping.
Be careful when placing surfaces with displacement maps near other
surfaces. Because the actual displacement takes place during rendering,
parts of the surfaces may intersect.
You can convert a displacement-mapped surface to a mesh, and the mesh
will be displaced according to the map. This is useful for positioning surfaces
or camera paths before rendering.
Shading Map
Applies a color map to the surface after it is rendered. The U value of the
Shading Map texture is mapped to the surface’s hue, and the V value is
mapped to the surface’s intensity (the value defined by [R+G+B]/3). A
shading map changes the shader’s color, specular color, and eccentricity,
effectively creating a new type of shading model.
A Shading Map is useful for creating non-photorealistic effects (for example,
cartoon shading) or for highlighting threshold values (for example, using a
ramp texture).
Rendered Surface (no
Shading Map)
Rendered Surface
(with Shading Map)
Shading Map
V
0.3
200
V 0.3
H 200
H
V 0.9
H 200
Translucence
0
0.1
0.5
1
The surface’s ability to transmit and diffuse light. Light falling on a translucent
surface is first absorbed beneath the surface, and then diffused in all
directions. The slider range is 0 to 1. The default value is 0.
The Translucence value of a surface lit by a non-shadow-casting light is
effectively zero or infinite (all non-zero values).
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If your scene combines a translucent surface with a shadow casting
spotlight, faint grid-like artifacts may become visible. If this happens,
increase the spotlight shadow Edge quality or lower the shadow Resolution.
For high values of Translucence, lower Diffuse accordingly to avoid washout.
A surface’s actual translucence is based on the illumination it receives from
lights, and is not related to its transparency. However, as an object becomes
more transparent, its translucent (and diffuse) illumination gets dimmer.
Ambient lights have no effect on translucent (or diffuse) illumination.
Use Translucence to simulate clouds, fur, hair, marble, jade, wax, paper,
leaves, flower petals, or frosted light bulbs.
Transl. Depth (Translucence Depth)
0
0.1
1
5
The distance light can penetrate a surface. The slider range is 0 to 5. The
default value is 0.5.
If the Transl. Depth value is greater than 0, light can penetrate a surface
entirely and illuminate the opposite side of the surface, even though it is
facing away from the light. For example, if a texture mapped spotlight shines
on a plane, you can see the texture on the side of the plane facing away from
the light (like a rear-projection screen).
The Transl. Depth value of a surface lit by a non-shadow-casting light is
effectively zero or infinite (all non-zero values).
If the Transl. Depth value is low (for example, 0.1) and you are raycasting
with a spotlight, make sure the spotlight shadow Min Depth value is low
(0.01) and the Blend Offset value is low (0.2).
Opacity Depth
0
0.1
1.5
2
Causes the transparency of an object to diminish with its thickness. An object
is opaque if its thickness is greater than its Opacity Depth. The slider range is
0 to 5. The default value is 0.
When the Opacity Depth value is 0, it has no effect (as opposed to making
an object entirely opaque).
The shader must have some Transparency to show the effect of Opacity
Depth. When Opacity Depth is non-zero, transparency controls specularity,
reflectivity, and incandescence, which are normally independent of
transparency. This makes it easier to create soft, fuzzy objects.
Also, if you use a transparency map to create holes in a surface that has
specular highlights, set Opacity Depth to a high value instead of creating a
matching specular map.
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Transparent objects cast shadows in the raycaster even if the Opacity Depth
value is non-zero.
Use Opacity Depth to simulate hair, fur, and clouds.
Use Back Color
OFF
ON
Assigns the color of the background that is directly behind the object to its
surface. The object then appears invisible, except for any reflections and
shadows on its surface. The default setting is OFF.
For example, if you are using an image file of an automotive showroom as a
background, a car model reflects this background. However, the car does not
cast a shadow on the showroom floor because no actual floor exists.
You can simulate a floor by placing a plane under the car model, and setting
its shader’s Use Back Color ON. Now the plane is invisible, except for the
shadow of the car on it. If the plane’s shader is reflective, the floor also
reflects the car. If you apply a transparency map to the plane that is more
transparent at the edges and opaque in the center, the plane blends nicely
into the background.
Matte Transp. (Matte Transparency)
A transparent multiplier applied to the surface’s alpha channel in the
rendered image. If the Matte Transp. value is 0, an opaque object has an
alpha value of 1 (that is, it is entirely invisible when composited). If the Matte
Transp. value is 1, an opaque object has an alpha value of 0 (that is, it is
entirely visible when composited). For example, to make an object gradually
appear during an animation (after compositing), animate the Matte Transp.
value from 1 to 0.
The slider range is -1 to 1. The default value is 0.
Ambient Occlusion
Ambient occlusion calculates shading based on a theoretical ambient light
source to create general areas of shadow on your model. Ambient occlusion
calculations can be used both with hardware shading and software renderings.
Concentration
Increasing this value causes the occlusion shadow to retreat to the places
where it is darkest.
Contrast
Reduces the effect of occlusion uniformly.
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Glow
The Glow parameters define the type of glow produced from light reflecting off a
surface, or from surface incandescence.
Glow Intens (Glow Intensity)
0
0.5
1
2
The brightness of the shader glow effect. The slider range is 0 to 1. The
default value is 0.
Shader glow appears different at different image resolutions. If the
Environment’s Glow Type and Halo Type are both off (in the ShaderGlow
section of the Control Window), the Glow Intens. value has no effect (see
ShaderGlow (page 880)).
Hide Source
OFF
ON
Causes the surface to become invisible when rendered, showing only the
glow effect. The default setting is OFF.
If the Environment’s Glow Type and Halo Type are both off (in the
ShaderGlow section of the Control Window), or if the shader’s Glow Intens
value is zero, Hide Source has no effect (see ShaderGlow (page 880)).
Use shader glow and Hide Source to simulate gas effects (for example, an
aurora borealis).
Clearcoat Settings
The Clearcoat Settings let you control the appearance of surface reflections to
simulate various types of surface finish (for example, automotive paint). They are
available only when the Shading Model is BLINN or PHONG.
Clearcoat
Makes the shader resemble the Clearcoat Material if the shader has any
reflections. Clearcoat is on by default.
Clearcoat Material
The material that the shader appears to be, if the shader has any reflections
and Clearcoat is on. When you select a Clearcoat Material, the CC
Refractive Index value is automatically set. The default setting is Sheet
Metal.
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CC Refractive Index
0
0.5
1
2
2.5
3
4
5
Controls the appearance of clearcoat reflections. A value of 1.6 produces
reflections similar to glass. A value of 1.8 produces reflections similar to car
paint. This parameter is only available when Clearcoat Material is set to User
Defined. The slider range is 1 to 5. The default value is 1.8.
Brightness
0
1
2
5
Scales the brightness of clearcoat reflections. The slider range is 0 to 5. The
default value is 1.55.
Contrast
-1
-0.5
0
1
Scales the contrast of clearcoat reflections. The slider range is -1 to 1. The
default value is -0.1.
Raytrace Parameters
The Raytrace Parameters control the appearance of the surface during
raytracing only.
Refractive Material
The material that the shader appear to be, if the shader has any reflections.
When you select a Refractive Material, the Refractive Index value is
automatically set. The default setting is Glass - flint.
Refractive Index
0.01
0.5
1
1.6
The amount that camera rays bend when passing through a transparent
object. A Refractive Index value of 1 does not bend camera rays at all.
Refractive Index values for common materials are: glass (1.6), air (1), water
(1.333), crystal (2), diamond (2.417). This parameter is only available when
Refractive Material is set to User Defined. The valid range is 0.01 to ∞. The
slider range is 0.01 to 3. The default setting is 1.6.
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The shader’s Multi-lister swatch only approximates the effect of the
Refractive Index parameter.
Surfaces should have thickness in order for Refractive Index to have the
expected effect. If a surface does not have thickness (for example, a plane or
face element), set the Refractive Index value to 1 and use the Surface Width
parameter to simulate surface thickness. See Surface Width on page 898.
For best results, make sure there are suitable objects in the scene to be
refracted.
Reflect Limit
The maximum number of times that the surface allows a camera ray to be
reflected. For example, if the Reflect Limit value is 4, the surface reflects
camera rays that have been reflected (off itself or off other surfaces) 3 times
or less; the surface does not reflect camera rays that have been reflected 4
or more times. The valid range is 0 to ∞. The slider range is 0 to 10. The
default value is 1.
High values for Reflect Limit greatly increase rendering time. Test render
your scene using various settings, and use the lowest values that give you
acceptable results. Even highly reflective surfaces rarely need a Reflect
Limit value as high as 10 or more.
Refract Limit
The maximum number of times that the surface allows a camera ray to be
refracted off itself or other surfaces.
For example, if the Refract Limit value is 10, the surface refracts camera
rays that have been refracted or reflected 9 times or less; the surface does
not refract camera rays that have been refracted or reflected 10 or more
times.
The valid range is 0 to ∞. The slider range is 0 to 10. The default value is 6.
In the following example, a glass sits in front of a mirror.
mirror: shader must have a Reflection Limit of at least 5
eye point
3
4
1
2
5
6
7
8
9
glass: shader must have a
Refraction Limit of at least 9
The number of refractions includes both the entry and exit of a camera ray
from a surface having thickness.
The physical property Total Internal Reflection (TIR) can make some
transparent objects appear not to refract light. This is a real-world property
caused by light rays reflecting inside the thickness of the object. If this occurs
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in your model, increasing Refract Limit has no effect, because the rays never
leave the surface. However, because TIR is a real-world property, you may
want to keep this effect. If do not want this effect, increase the Refractive
Index.
To simulate realistic looking glass, set the Refract Limit value to 9 or 10.
Shadow Limit
The maximum number of times the surface can be reflected or refracted and
still receive shadows (in the reflection/refraction).
For example, if the Shadow Limit value is -1, the surface does not receive
any shadows. If the Shadow Limit value is 0, the surface receives shadows
when viewed directly by the camera but does not receive any shadows when
viewed in reflections/refractions.
If the Shadow Limit value is 1, the surface receives shadows when viewed
directly by the camera or when viewed through a single reflection/refraction,
but does not receive any shadows when viewed through 2 or more
reflections/refractions.
The valid range is -1 to ∞. The slider range is -1 to 10. The default value is 0.
High Shadow Limit values greatly increase rendering time.
Raytrace Effects
The Raytrace Effects parameters control the appearance of the surface during
raytracing only.
Surface Width
The simulated thickness (in world space units) of transparent objects that are
made from single surfaces (for example, a plane or face). The valid range is
0 to ∞. The slider range is 0 to 1. The default value is 0.
Using Surface Width does not produce the same results as building a
surface with actual thickness. However, the effect works well when the edges
of the surface are not visible (for example, closed surfaces, or bounded
shapes like a car windshield).
Transp. Shade (Transparency Shade)
Causes shadows of transparent objects to be brighter in the center,
simulating the focusing of light. The valid range is 0 to ∞. The slider range is
0 (constant intensity shadows) to 1 (shadows focused in the center). The
default value is 0.
Transp. Depth (Transparency Depth)
The distance (in world units) camera rays can travel after passing through a
transparent surface. By setting the Transp. Depth value, you can vary the
surface’s transparency based on the distance of objects behind the surface.
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If the Transp. Depth value is 0, camera rays can travel an infinite distance,
and all objects behind the transparent surface are visible no matter how far
away they are. The surface’s transparency is the same across the entire
surface.
For non-zero values, after a camera ray reaches the distance of the Transp.
Depth value, its color becomes the surface color. Only objects near the
transparent surface (less than the Transp. Depth value) are visible through
the surface. Objects close to the surface are more visible (that is, the surface
is more transparent in those areas) and objects further away are less visible
(that is, the surface is less transparent in those areas). Objects beyond the
Transp. Depth value are not visible at all (that is, the surface is opaque in
those areas).
The valid range is 0 to ∞. The slider range is 0 to 10. The default value is 0.
Chroma Abber. (Chromatic Aberration)
Causes different wavelengths of light to refract different amounts when
passing through a transparent surface. The valid range is 0 to ∞. The slider
range is 0 (no chromatic aberration) to 1. The default value is 0.
Chromatic aberration only affects light rays as they pass through the second
surface of a transparent object (that is, the first exit ray). For best results,
make sure there are suitable objects in the background to be refracted.
Refrac Jitter (Refraction Jitter)
0
0.1
0.5
1
Randomly alters the direction of refracted light rays. The valid range is 0 to ∞.
The slider range is 0 (no jitter) to 1. The default value is 0.
If the Refrac Jitter value is high, you may have to increase the Refrac
Samples value to reduce the appearance of aliasing artifacts.
Use Refrac Jitter to simulate frosted glass.
Refrac Samples (Refraction Samples)
1
2
5
10
Controls the smoothness of the Refrac Jitter effect. If the Refrac Jitter value
is 0, the Refrac Samples value has no effect. If the Refrac Jitter value is high,
you may have to increase the Refrac Samples value to reduce the
appearance of aliasing artifacts (see Common aliasing
problems (page 136)).
The valid range is 1 to ∞. The slider range is 1 (rough) to 10 (smooth). The
default value is 1.
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Use Refl. Map (Use Reflection Map)
Causes the surface to have reflections from the Reflection map only. If Use
Refl. Map is OFF, the surface has reflections from all of its surroundings, but
not from its Reflection map. The default setting is OFF.
Hidden Line Rendering Parameters
The Hidden Line Rendering Parameters control the appearance of the surface
during hidden line rendering only (see Create a line drawing
rendering (page 158)).
Use Fill Color
OFF
ON
Causes surfaces to be filled with the Fill Color during hidden line rendering. If
Use Fill Color is OFF, surfaces are filled with the background color. The
default setting is ON.
Fill Color
The color that the surface is filled with during hidden line rendering, if Use Fill
Color is ON. The default color is white.
U Patch Lines, V Patch Lines
0, 0
1, 1
4, 4
8, 8
The number of lines shown on the surface in its U and V directions during
hidden line rendering. The valid range is 0 to ∞. The slider range is 0 (no
lines shown on the surface except for edge lines) to 8. The default value is 0.
Textures
Texture types
The Surface, Environments, and Solid sections of the Texture Procedures
window list all textures that you can map to the parameter of an environment,
shader, texture, or light.
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Texturable Values
The Texturable Values section of the Texture Procedures window contains a
button for each parameter (of the active environment, shader, light, or texture in
the Multi-lister) that you can map a texture to. The button(s) that are pressed will
have a texture mapped to them.
Texture parameters
The Color Balance, Intensity, Blur, and Effects parameters are common to all
textures.
Color Balance
The Color Balance parameters let you color correct a texture. These parameters
are not available when the texture is mapped to certain single-channel
parameters (for example, Reflectivity, Bump, Displacement). In these cases, the
Color Balance parameters (Rgbmult and Rgboffset) are replaced by the
Intensity parameters (Amult and Aoffset). See Intensity on page 902.
Rgbmult
0
0.1
0.5
1
A scaling factor applied to the parameter that the texture is mapped to. That
is, all colors in the texture are multiplied by the Rgbmult color. For example,
you can color correct a texture that appears too green by setting the Rgbmult
color to a shade of blue.The default color is white (no effect).
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Rgboffset
0
0.1
0.5
1
An offset factor applied to the parameter that the texture is mapped to. That
is, all colors in the texture have the Rgboffset color added to them. For
example, you can brighten a texture that appears too dark by setting the
Rgboffset color to a shade of gray. The default color is black (no effect).
Intensity
The Intensity parameters let you correct the intensity of the texture. These
parameters are only available when the texture is mapped to certain singlechannel parameters (for example, Reflectivity, Bump, Displacement). In other
cases, the Intensity parameters (Amult and Aoffset) are replaced by the Color
Balance parameters (Rgbmult and Rgboffset). See Color Balance on page 901.
Amult
0
0.1
0.5
1
A scaling factor applied to the parameter that the texture is mapped to. That
is, all values in the texture are multiplied by the Amult value. The slider range
is 0 to 1. The default value is 1 (no effect).
Aoffset
0
0.1
0.5
1
An offset factor applied to the parameter that the texture is mapped to. That
is, all values in the texture have the Aoffset value added to them. For
example, if the Amult value is -1 and the Aoffset value is 1, the texture is
inverted. The slider range is 0 to 1. The default value is 0 (no effect).
Blur
The Blur parameters control the sharpness of the texture. If the Blur parameter
values are both 0, the texture is perfectly sharp. However, a small amount of blur
is usually needed to reduce aliasing effects (see Common aliasing
problems (page 136)).
Blurmult
0
0.1
0.5
1
A scaling factor that controls the amount of texture blur in eye space. That is,
the further an object is from the camera, the greater the blur effect.
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Increase the Blurmult value (for example, to 1) only to reduce aliasing effects
caused by sharp textures (see Common aliasing problems (page 136)). If
you want to actually smooth the texture, increase the Bluroffset value.
Lower the Blurmult value (for example, to 0.1) if you are using the texture as
a bump or displacement map. If the Blurmult value is high, the bump/
displacement appears smoother when the surface is further from the camera.
The slider range is 0 (sharp texture, no blur) to 1 (good anti-aliasing). The
default value is 1.
Bluroffset
0
0.1
0.5
1
An offset factor that controls the amount of texture blur in texture space. That
is, the amount of blur is the same no matter where the object is relative to the
camera. The slider range is 0 (no blur) to 1 (completely blurred). The default
value is 0.
Effects
The Effects parameters let you create a variety of texture effects.
Invert
OFF
ON
Reverses all texture colors (for example, black becomes white amd white
becomes black). For example, you can change a bump or displacement
map’s raised regions to depressions and vice versa by setting Invert ON or
OFF. The default setting is OFF.
Overlay
None
Ramp
Layers another texture on top of the original texture. The overlay texture
completely replaces the original texture in the region of a surface where both
textures exist.
For example, you can place multiple image file decals onto a model using
this parameter. You can also overlay another texture onto the overlaid
texture, and another texture onto that one, and so on.
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Color Remap
Original
texture
Color
remap
Final
texture
V 0.7
H0
Applies a color map to the texture. The U value of the Color Remap texture is
mapped to the original texture’s hue, and the V value is mapped to the
original texture’s intensity (the value defined by [R+G+B]/3). The Color
Remap parameter acts similar to the Shading Map parameter (see Shading
Map (page 892)).
Smear Map
None
Red
Green
Blue
Stretches the texture in the U and V directions. The intensity of the Smear
Map texture determines the magnitude of the stretch, and the hue
determines the direction (angle). For example, you can use Smear Map to
create swirl and dissolve effects using an animated fractal noise texture.
Convert to Pix
Converts any procedural surface texture to an image file texture. Because
procedural textures take longer to render than image file textures, you can
use Convert to Pix to reduce rendering time. You can also use it to reduce a
texture with several overlays into a single image file texture.
If you click the Convert to Pix button, the following dialog box appears:
You can edit the Pix Size value (the size of the image file) and the Pix
Filename (the name of the image file), and you can turn Anti Aliasing ON or
OFF.
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The Convert to Pix parameter is only available for surface textures.
Convert to Smear
This parameter is only available for the Projection texture. See Convert to
Smear on page 947.
Environment texture parameters
The Color Balance, Blur, Effects, and 3D Placement parameters are common to
all environment textures.
Color Balance, Blur, Effects
See Color Balance on page 901. See Blur on page 902. See Effects on
page 903.
3D Placement
Texture Node
The name of the texture’s Texture Placement Object. The Texture Placement
Object is easier to find in the SBD window if you know its name. See Texture
Placement Objects on page 33.
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Ball texture
Ball Environment Parameters
Image
The texture used by the Ball texture. To use a single image of a highly
reflective chrome ball in an environment, map a File texture to the Ball
texture’s Image parameter, and then map the image file to the File texture’s
Image parameter.
To use several images of a highly reflective chrome ball in an environment,
map a Volume texture to the Ball texture’s Image parameter, and then map
one of the image files to the Volume texture’s Pix Sequence parameter (see
Volume texture (page 958)).
Inclination
The rotation (in degrees) of the ball image about the vertical axis. The valid
range is -10000 to 10000. The slider range is 0 to 180. The default setting is
0.
Set the Inclination value to the inclination of the camera (that is, the angle
between the camera’s view and the environment’s YZ plane) used to
generate the image file (by photographing or rendering a reflective ball in an
environment). For example, if the inclination of the camera is 45 degrees, set
the Inclination value to 45. If the camera is parallel to the YZ plane, set the
Inclination value to 0. When creating the ball image, a camera inclination
and elevation of zero will provide the best resolution for the view you intend
to use.
Elevation
The rotation of the ball image about the horizontal axis. The valid range is 10000 to 10000. The slider range is -90 to 90. The default setting is 0.
Set the Elevation value to the elevation of the camera (that is, the angle
between the camera’s view and the environment’s ground plane: XY plane
for a Z-up scene) used to generate the image file (by photographing or
rendering a reflective ball in an environment). For example, if the elevation of
the camera is 90 degrees (that is, it is directly above the ball), set the
Elevation value to 90. If the camera is parallel to the ground plane, set the
Elevation value to 0. When creating the ball image, a camera inclination and
elevation of zero will provide the best resolution for the view you intend to
use.
Eyespace
Causes the position of the Ball texture’s Image file to be defined relative to
the window, not the camera view. If Eyespace is ON, the Ball texture’s Image
file automatically matches the environment’s Backdrop image file (provided
they were both originally photographed/rendered from the same point of
view), even if the camera view changes. Reflections, however, are based on
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the background being infinitely far away; that is, the reflection planes are
ignored (see Projection Geometry below). Rendering is faster when
Eyespace is ON. The default setting is OFF.
Reflect
Causes the Image file to be reflection mapped onto the background. If
Reflect is OFF, the Image file is mapped using a solid texture spherical
projection (see Projection texture (page 37)). This allows you to model the
geometry of the background image and then map the background image to
this geometry, for example, to add shadows, lighting effects, or fog to your
scene. The default setting is OFF.
Projection Geometry
The Projection Geometry parameters define the location of the sky or room walls
of the original environment so that the system can calculate reflections on
surfaces in the re-created environment.
For example, if the original environment consisted of a ground plane and a sky,
then you would set the Sky_radius value to the radius of the sky, and the Bottom
value to the distance between the ground plane and the reflective ball. If the
original environment consisted of a room, then you would set the Bottom, Top,
Left, Right, Front, and Back values to the distance between each wall and the
reflective ball.
In some cases you may want to use values different than the original
environment. For example, instead of using the Bottom, Top, Left, Right, Front,
and Back values to define the walls of a room, you may simply use the
Sky_radius parameter. Because Sky_radius defines a sphere, reflections on
surfaces in the simulated environment will be smoother and less likely to become
blurred. You can also combine Sky_radius with Bottom, Top, Left, Right, Front,
or Back.
Sky_radius
The radius of the sky of the original environment. The valid range is 0 to
100000. The slider range is 0 to 20. The default value is 0.
Bottom,Top, Left, Right, Front, Back
The distance between the reflective ball and each wall of the original
environment. The valid range is 0 to 9.999e+13. The slider range is 0 to 20.
The default value is 0.
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Chrome Texture
Sky Parameters
Sky_color
The color of the sky at the horizon. Overall sky color is linearly interpolated
between Sky_color and Zenith_color.
Zenith_color
The color of the sky at the zenith (straight up). Overall sky color is linearly
interpolated between Sky_color and Zenith_color.
Light_color
The color of the simulated fluorescent lights. These “lights” produce
reflections in surfaces, but they do not actually illuminate surfaces.
Light Placement
The Light Placement parameters control the size and placement of the simulated
fluorescent lights in the environment. These “lights” produce reflections in
surfaces, but they do not actually illuminate surfaces.
Width, Depth
0.5,0.1
0.5,0.5
0.1,0.5
0.9,0.9
The width and depth of each light. These parameters also determine spacing
between lights. The valid/slider range is 0 to 1. The default Width value is 0.5
and the default Depth value is 0.1.
Width_mult, Depth_mult
1, 1
0.5, 0.5
0, 1
1, 0
The number of lights per unit length. The valid/slider range is 0 to 1. The
default value is 1.
Width_offset, Depth_offset
0, 0
0, 0.5
0.5, 0
0.5, 0.5
The light displacement. The slider range is 0 to 1. The default value is 0.
Floor Parameters
The Floor Parameters control the appearance of the environment’s floor.
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Floor_color, Horizon_color, Grid_color
The color of the floor, the floor’s horizon and the floor’s grid.
Real_floor
OFF
ON
If Real_floor is OFF, the environment’s floor is located at infinity, so
reflections on moving objects or reflections viewed from a moving camera will
be incorrect. The default setting is OFF.
If Real_floor is ON, the floor is located on the ground plane, so reflections on
moving objects or reflections viewed from a moving camera will be correct. If
Real_floor is ON, make sure surfaces or the camera do not go below the
ground plane.
Grid Placement
The Grid Placement parameters control the size and placement of the floor’s
grid.
Width, Depth
0, 0
0.1, 0.1 0.5, 0.5 0.9, 0.9
The width and depth of the grid lines. These parameters also determine the
spacing between grid lines. The valid/slider range is 0 to 1. The default value
is 0.1.
Width_mult, Depth_mult
1, 1
0.5, 0.5
0.1, 1
1, 0.1
The number of grid cells per unit length. The valid/slider range is 0 to 1. The
default value is 1.
Width_offset,Depth_offset
0, 0
0, 0.5
0.5, 0
0.5,0.5
The grid displacement. The slider range is 0 to 1. The default value is 0.
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Cube textures
Cube Environment Parameters
Cross Orientation
Choose either Horizontal or Vertical. Also, if you are using a cross image
(rather than six discrete images), use the following option. This (and the
following option) are designed for use with cross images generated by HDR
software.
Cross Image
Browse to the location of the cross image that you want used for a cube
environment texture.
Right, Left, Top, Bottom, Front, Back
The image files mapped to the right, left, top, bottom, front, and back inner
surfaces of an infinite cube. (The front of the cube faces the front
orthographic window.)
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Sky textures
Sky Environment Parameters
Total_bright.
0.1
0.5
1
2
The overall brightness of the environment. The valid range is 0 to ∞. The
slider range is 0 to 5. The default value is 1.
Sun Parameters
Sun_bright.
0
0.1
0.5
1
The color and brightness of the sun. The default color Value is 0.5.
Halo_bright.
0
0.1
0.5
1
The color and brightness of the halo around the sun. The default color value
is 0.1.
Elevation
0
10
45
90
The angle (in degrees) of elevation of the sun relative to the floor. The valid
range is -10000 to 10000. The slider range is 0 (sunrise/sunset) to 90
(midday). The default value is 45.
Azimuth
0
30
90
180
The angle (in degrees) of the sun in the sky about a vertical vector. The valid
range is -10000 to 10000. The slider range is 0 to 360. The default value is
145.
911
Size
0
2
10
20
The size (radius) of the sun. The valid range is 0 to 10000. The slider range
is 0 to 20. The default value is 0.531.
Blur
0
2
10
20
The size (radius) of the halo around the sun. The valid range is 0 to 1000.
The slider range is 0 to 20. The default value is 1.
Atmospheric Settings
sun
sun vector
Sky_thickness
scene
Sky_radius * Sky_thickness
planet center
planet surface
cloud layer
outer limit of atmosphere
Sky_bright.
0
0.1
0.5
1
A scaling factor applied to the sky color. The default color Value is 0.5.
Air_density
0
0.5
1
3
The density of the air in the atmosphere. The denser the air, the more light
will be scattered. Think of air density in terms of low and high altitudes. High
altitude skies are almost black straight up and blue near the horizon (the
912
Air_density value less than 1). Low altitude skies are blue straight up and
white near the horizon (the Air_density value greater than 1). The slider
range is 0 to 3. The default value is 1.
Dust_density
0
0.5
1
3
The density of dust in the atmosphere. The slider range is 0 to 3. The default
value is 0.
Sky_thickness
1
10
100
1000
The thickness of the atmosphere. The valid range is 0 to ∞. The slider range
is 0 to 10000. The default value is 1000.
Sky_radius
0.1
5
50
300
The outer radius of the sky as a multiple of Sky_thickness. The
Sky_thickness and Sky_radius values determine the planet radius, and
planet radius influences the appearance of sunsets. A planet with a large
radius will have very red (and very dark) sunsets (you can adjust Sky_bright
to compensate for sunsets that are too dark).
For example, if Sky_thickness is 1000 and Sky_radius is 50, the outer radius
of the sky is 1000 x 50 = 50 000 units, and the radius of the planet is (1000 x
50) - (1000 x 1) = 49 000 units.
The valid range is 0 to ∞. The slider range is 0.01 to 300. The default value is
50.
Floor Parameters
The Floor Parameters control the appearance of the environment’s planet
surface.
Has_floor
OFF
ON
Toggles the floor ON or OFF. If Has_floor is OFF, the environment below the
horizon is a mirror image of the environment above the horizon.
913
Floor_texture
None
Checker Chrome
Water
The color or texture of the floor. The default color value is 0.392.
Cloud Parameters
Cloud texture
None
Noise
Fractal
The texture that determines cloud distribution in the sky. For example, the
Fractal texture creates very realistic clouds. By default, there is no cloud
texture map (and no clouds).
Cloud_bright.
0
0.25
0.5
1
The brightness and color of cloud illumination from ambient scattered light in
the atmosphere. (The amount of ambient light depends on the Elevation
value.) The default color Value is 0.5.
Sunset_bright.
0
0.1
0.5
1
The brightness and color of cloud illumination when the sun is below the
horizon and the clouds are front lit (for example, when the sun’s Elevation
value is 0 and its Azimuth value is 180). This is a very subtle effect and
occurs only briefly in nature during a sunrise or sunset. The effect is more
noticeable with high altitude clouds. The default color Value is 1.
Density
0
1
2.5
5
The density of individual clouds. The valid range is 0 to ∞. The slider range is
0 (no clouds) to 5 (heavy clouds). The default value is 1.
914
Threshold
0
0.1
0.5
1
A threshold value for the Cloud texture that controls how much of the sky is
covered with cloud. As the Threshold value increases, darker areas of the
texture do not produce clouds. The valid range is 0 to ∞. The slider range is 0
(entire sky is cloudy) to 1 (no clouds). The default value is 0.5.
Power
0
0.1
0.5
1
The clouds are scaled and positioned by adjusting the Power option. The
cloud density is achieved by subtracting the Threshold from the pixel value
clipping to 0, then multiplying the result with Density. To control the amount of
unfocusing of the Cloud_texture, adjust the Blur value (under Sun
Parameters). The valid range is 0 to ∞. The slider range is 0 to 1. The default
value is 1.
Altitude
0
0.2
0.5
1
The height of the clouds. The Altitude value does not greatly affect the
position of the clouds. Instead, it determines how much the atmosphere
obscures the clouds near the horizon. Low altitude clouds disappear into
haze much more slowly than high altitude clouds. The valid/slider range is 0
to 1. The default value is 0.2.
Halo_Size
0
5
20
50
The size (radius) of cloud illumination from direct back lighting by the sun (for
example, when the sun’s Azimuth value is 0). Direct back lighting is most
noticeable near the edges of thick clouds or through thin clouds. The valid
range is 0 to ∞. The slider range is 0 to 50. The default value is 20.
Calculation Quality
The calculations required for curved atmospheres are expensive. The
Calculation Quality parameters do not greatly affect the appearance of the sky,
but do affect the speed at which the calculations are computed.
915
Sky_samples
0
1
2
5
The number of samples used above the cloud layer. Set the Sky_samples
value to 1 for maximum speed. The valid range is 0 to 20. The slider range is
0 to 3. The default value is 5.
Floor_samples
0
1
2
5
The number of samples used by the atmosphere between the eye and the
horizon. Increasing the Floor_samples value increases the effect of the
atmosphere along the floor. At 0, there is no atmosphere between the eye
and horizon. The valid range is 0 to 20. The slider range is 0 to 3. The
default value is 1.
Cloud_samples
0
1
2
5
The number of samples used below the cloud layer. At 0, clouds do not fade
to mist at the horizon. The valid range is 0 to 20. The slider range is 0 to 3.
The default value is 5.
916
Sphere texture
Sphere Environment Parameters
Source texture
Checker
File
The texture mapped to the inner surface of an infinite sphere.
Shear_u
0
0.1
0.5
1
Shears the Source texture in the U direction. For example, horizontal stripes
will resemble a barber pole. The slider range is -10 to 10. The default value is
0.
Shear_v
0
0.1
0.5
1
Shears the Source texture in the V direction. For example, concentric lines at
the poles will spiral inward. The slider range is -10 to 10. The default value is
0.
Flip
OFF
ON
Reverses the U and V orientation of the Source texture. For example, what
was the horizon now spans the two poles. The default setting is OFF.
Surface texture parameters
The Color Balance, Intensity, Blur, Effects, Surface Placement, and Label
Mapping parameters are common to all surface textures.
Color Balance, Intensity, Blur, Effects
See Color Balance on page 901. See Intensity on page 902. See Blur on
page 902. See Effects on page 903.
917
Surface Placement
The Surface Placement parameters control how a texture’s pattern covers the
texture coverage area (the area the texture covers on the actual surface).
See Apply surface textures on page 85.
Rotate
0
10
45
90
The angle (in degrees) the texture map is rotated on the surface. The slider
range is 0 to 360. The default value is 0 (no rotation).
Urepeat, Vrepeat
1, 1
2, 1
1, 2
2, 2
The number of times the texture is repeated within the coverage area along
the surface’s U and V parametric directions. If Urepeat value or Vrepeat
value are greater than 1, the texture will be repeated several times within the
coverage area, but the size of each instance of the texture will be smaller
than the default size. Similarly, if the Urepeat value or the Vrepeat value are
less than 1, only a portion of the texture will be mapped to the surface. The
slider range is 1 to 10. The default value for most textures is 1.
Uoffset, Voffset
0, 0
0.2, 0
0, 0.2
0.2,0.2
Offsets the texture pattern (without actually moving the texture itself) along
the surface’s U and V parametric directions. Adjust the Uoffset and Voffset
values to fine-tune the placement of a pattern on a surface. The slider range
is 0 (no offset) to 1. The default value is 0.
Mirror
OFF
ON
Mirrors repeated patterns of the texture (when the Urepeat value or the
Vrepeat value is greater than 1) so that rows of images appear as mirrored
images of themselves. This helps to disguise the effect of seams between
repeated areas. The default setting is OFF.
918
Stagger
OFF
ON
Offsets repeated patterns of the texture (when the Urepeat value or the
Vrepeat value is greater than 1) so that alternate rows are offset exactly half,
like bricks in a brick wall. When Stagger is OFF, the repeated patterns line up
horizontally and vertically. The default setting is OFF.
Chord Length
OFF
ON
Surface
parameterization
OFF
ON
Causes the texture to use a mapping technique that ignores the UV
parameterization of the (spline-based) surface, and instead maps according
to surface distances (measured in world space units). This can help minimize
texture distortion on surfaces with non-uniform parameterization. The default
setting is OFF.
Label Mapping
The Label Mapping parameters control how the texture covers the surface.
See Map a label to a shader on page 85.
Ucoverage, Vcoverage
0, 0
0.5,0.5
1, 0.5
1, 1
The fraction of the surface covered by the texture along the surface’s U and
V parametric directions. For example, if the Ucoverage and Vcoverage
values are both 0.5, the texture will cover half of the surface in the U direction
and half of the surface in the V direction, or one quarter of the total surface.
Areas outside of the texture coverage area have a non-texture mapped
parameter value as indicated in the shader’s Control Window (for example,
the shader color). The slider range is 0 to 1. The default value is 1.
Utranslate, Vtranslate
0, 0
0.1,0.1
0.5,0.5
1, 1
Moves the texture coverage area along the surface’s U and V parametric
directions. Effectively, the Utranslate and Vtranslate values determine where
the texture map will be located on the surface. The slider range is 0 to 1. The
default setting is 0.
919
Uwrap, Vwrap
OFF
OFF
ON
OFF
OFF
ON
ON
ON
Determines whether or not the texture will replicate (copy itself outside of the
coverage area) in the surface’s U and V parametric directions, when the
Utranslate or Vtranslate value is greater than 0.
By default, both Uwrap and Vwrap are ON. Toggle these parameters OFF to
prevent seams from showing on a closed surface, such as a cylinder or
sphere, or to prevent the texture from duplicating itself when you are using
the translation and coverage parameters to limit the mapping to a very
specific surface area.
920
Bulge texture parameters
Uwidth, Vwidth
0, 0
0.5,0
0,0.5
0.5,0.5
The width of the texture squares in the U and V parametric directions. The
valid range is 0 to 1. The slider range is 0 to 0.5. The default value is 0.1.
921
Checker texture parameters
Color1, Color2
The two colors of the checkerboard squares.
Contrast
0
0.1
0.5
1
The contrast between the two texture colors. The valid/slider range is 0 (the
two colors are averaged over the entire texture) to 1. The default value is 1.
When a checker texture is mapped to a parameters that uses the alpha
channel of the texture (for example, Bump, Displacement, or Reflectivity),
then the Color 1 and Color 2 parameters are ignored. In these cases, use
the checker texture’s Contrast, Amult, and Aoffset parameters to control
the relative intensity of the checker pattern.
922
Cloth texture parameters
U ThreadColor,V ThreadColor
The colors of the warp (U direction) and weft (V direction) threads of the
cloth.
Gap Color
The color of the area between the warp and weft threads. The threads’ colors
blend into the Gap Color at their edges, so a lighter Gap Color tends to
simulate a cloth with softer, more translucent threads.
U Thread Width, V Thread Width
0.1
0.5
0.75
1
The width of the warp and weft threads. If the thread width is 1, then the
threads will fully touch with no gap between them. If the thread width is 0, the
thread will disappear. (You can randomize thread width by setting the Width
Spread parameter.) The valid/slider range is 0 to 1. The default value is 0.75.
U Wave, V Wave
0, 0
0.2, 0
0, 0.2
0.2,0.2
Controls the waviness of the warp and weft threads to create special weave
effects such as herringbone. The slider range is 0 to 0.5. The default value is
0.
Randomness
0
0.2
0.5
1
Smears the texture randomly in the U and V directions. Adjust the
Randomness value to create natural-looking cloth with irregular threads, or
to prevent aliasing and moiré patterns on very fine cloth textures. The valid
range is 0 to ∞. The slider range is 0 to 1. The default value is 0.
Width Spread
0
0.2
0.5
1
Randomizes the width of each thread along its length by subtracting a
random amount (between 0 and the Width Spread value) from the U Thread
Width and V Thread Width values. For example, if the thread widths are 1
and the Width Spread value is 0.75, the actual thread widths with vary
923
between 0.25 and 1. If the Width Spread value is greater than or equal to the
Thread Width value, then some threads will disappear entirely at certain
points along their length. The valid/slider range is 0 to 1. The default value is
0.
Brght. Spread
0
0.2
0.5
1
Randomizes the brightness of each thread along its length by subtracting a
random amount (between 0 and the Bright. Spread value) from U Thread
Color and V Thread Color (similar to Width Spread). The valid/slider range is
0 to 1. The default value is 0.
924
File Texture Parameters
The File Texture Parameters let you set an image to be used as a texture map (or
a sequence of images to create an animation), and lets you control the image
quality.
Image
The image file used by the File texture. If you type only the file name, the
system looks for the image file in the pix directory of your current working
project, unless Preferences > General Preferences has been set to direct
all searches to a common pix directory. If the file is not found there, the
system looks in ALIAS_INPUT_PIX_DIR. If the file is found, the full path is
displayed in the Image field.
Use Extension
Appends the frame extension number (Frame exten.) to the Image file name
and to any images in the Per Object Images list. To use a sequence of image
files to create an animation, set Use Extension ON and then animate the
Frame exten. value. The default setting is OFF.
Frame exten. (Frame Extension)
The frame extension number that will be appended to the Image file name
and to any images in the Per Object Images list. To use a sequence of image
files to create an animation, set Use Extension ON and then animate the
Frame exten. value. If Use Extension is OFF, the Frame exten. value has no
effect.
Filter
The anti-aliasing technique applied to the image file during rendering. The
higher order filters (QUADRATIC, QUARTIC, and GAUSS) only work when the
File texture is mapped directly to a shader. The default setting is BLEND.
OFF
No anti-aliasing. This is useful for game designers who want to see pixels of
a texture without any interpolation by the renderer.
BLEND
Standard anti-aliasing (as in previous versions). This is the default setting.
BOX
Higher quality anti-aliasing, but slower performance.
QUADRATIC
Higher quality anti-aliasing, but slower performance.
QUARTIC
Higher quality anti-aliasing, but slower performance. Use only if QUADRATIC
is inadequate (extremely rare).
925
GAUSS
Higher quality anti-aliasing, but slower performance.
Cache
Caches the file texture. If Texture Caching is OFF in the Global Rendering
Parameters window, the Cache setting has no effect. The default setting is
OFF.
Per Object Images
The Per Object Images section lets you create a list linking image files to objects
so that different objects can use the same shader and File texture, but different
image files. During rendering this list is examined. If the object is on the list, the
corresponding image file is used. If the object is not on the list, the default Image
(under the File Texture Parameters) is used.
If the default Image field is blank, then only the objects in the Per Object Images
list will be textured. Conversely, you could turn off the file textures for specific
objects by putting them in the Per Object Images list and leaving their Image fields
blank. You must still assign the shader to the objects in the Per Object Images list.
A File texture that uses Per Object Images is sometimes referred to as a
supertexture.
Two notable uses for this feature are StudioPaint and Convert Solid Texture. In
both cases you want to create the appearance of a single texture that spans
several patches. Separate image files must be used; however, by using the Per
Object Images list you only need one shader. Image files in the Per Object Images
list are not displayed in the Multi-lister.
Add
Adds a blank line to the Per Object Images list.
Delete
Deletes the active (highlighted white) line in the Per Object Images list. To
make a line active, click once on it.
926
Fractal texture parameters
Amplitude
0
0.1
0.5
1
A scaling factor applied to all values in the texture about the texture’s
average value. The valid range is 0 to ∞. The slider range is 0 to 1. The
default value is 1.
Threshold
0
0.1
0.5
1
An offset factor applied to all values in the texture. The valid range is 0 to ∞.
The slider range is 0 to 1. The default value is 0.
Ratio
0
0.5
0.707
1
Controls the frequency of the fractal pattern. The valid/slider range is 0 (low
frequency) to 1 (high frequency). The default value is 0.707.
Level_min, Level_max
0, 1
0, 2
0, 3
9, 9
The minimum and maximum number of iterations used to calculate the
fractal pattern. These parameters control how fine grained the fractal pattern
is. The valid range is 0 to 100. The slider range is 0 to 25. The default value
is 0 for Level_min and 9 for Level_max.
If both Level_min and Level_max are high (close to 100) rendering will take
a long time. If you want to make the fractal pattern more finely grained, lower
the Blurmult or Amult value instead.
Animated
Allows you to animate the fractal pattern by setting Animated ON and
animating the Time value. The Fractal texture will take longer to calculate
when Animated is ON. The default setting is OFF.
Use an animated Fractal texture to create billowing cloud or flame effects.
927
Time
Allows you to animate the fractal pattern by setting Animated ON and
animating the Time value. If Animated is OFF, the Time value has no effect.
The slider range is 0 to 1. The default setting is 0.
928
Grid texture parameters
Line_color
Default
Red
Green
Blue
The color of the grid lines. The default color is white.
Filler_color
Default
Red
Green
Blue
The color of the spaces between the grid lines. The default color is black.
Uwidth, Vwidth
0.1,0.1
0.5,0.1
0.1,0.5
0.5,0.5
The width of the grid lines in the U and V parametric directions. The valid
range is 0 to 1. The slider range is 0 to 0.5. The default value is 0.1.
Contrast
0
0.1
0.5
1
The contrast between the Line Color and the Filler Color. The valid/slider
range is 0 (the two colors are averaged over the entire texture) to 1. The
default value is 1.
929
Mountain texture parameters
Snow_color
The color of the snow element of the texture.
Rock_color
The color of the rock element of the texture.
Amplitude
0.1
0.5
0.8
1
A scaling factor applied to all values in the texture about the texture’s
average value. The valid range is 0 to ∞. The slider range is 0 to 1. The
default value is 1.
Roughness of Features
Snow
0
0.4
0.5
1
The roughness of the snow element of the texture. The valid/slider range is 0
(perfectly smooth snow) to 1 (extremely rough snow). The default value is
0.4.
Rock
0
0.5
0.707
1
The roughness of the rock element of the texture. The valid/slider range is 0
(perfectly smooth rock) to 1 (extremely rough rock). The default value is
0.707.
Boundary
0
0.1
0.5
1
The raggedness of the rock/snow boundary. The valid/slider range is 0
(perfectly smooth rock/snow boundary) to 1 (extremely rough rock/snow
boundary). The default value is 1.
930
Snow Levels
Snow_alt.
0
0.5
0.8
1
The level (altitude) of the transition between rock and snow. The valid range
is 0 to ∞. The slider range is 0 to 1. The default value is 0.5.
Snow_dropoff
0
0.1
0.5
1
The suddenness with which snow no longer sticks to the mountain. The valid
range is 0 to ∞. The slider range is 0 to 1. The default value is 2.
Snow_max_slope
0.1
0.5
0.8
3
The maximum angle (expressed as a decimal value) over which snow will not
stick to the mountain. For example, where the slope exceeds the
Snow_max_slope value, it would be bare rock. The valid range is 0 to ∞. The
slider range is 0 to 3. The default value is 0.8.
Recursion Depth
Level_max
1
2
3
20
The maximum number of iterations used to calculate the fractal pattern,
which controls how fine grained the fractal pattern is. The valid/slider range is
0 to 40. The default value is 20.
931
Noise texture parameters
Amplitude
0
0.1
0.5
1
A scaling factor applied to all values in the texture about the texture’s
average value. The valid range is 0 to ∞. The slider range is 0 to 1. The
default value is 1.
Threshold
0
0.1
0.5
1
An offset factor applied to all values in the texture. The valid range is 0 to ∞.
The slider range is 0 to 1. The default value is 0.
Animated
Allows you to animate the noise pattern by setting Animated ON and
animating the Time value. The Noise texture will take longer to calculate
when Animated is ON. The default setting is OFF.
Time
Allows you to animate the noise pattern by setting Animated ON and
animating the Time value. If Animated is OFF, the Time value has no effect.
The slider range is 0 to 1. The default setting is 0.
932
Ramp texture parameters
Ramp Type
Controls the direction of the color ramp. The default setting is V RAMP.
V Ramp
U Ramp
Diagonal
Radial
Box
UV_Ramp
Tartan
Four Corner
Circular
Interpolation
Controls the way colors in the ramp are blended. The default setting is
LINEAR_RAMP.
None
Smooth
Linear_Ramp
Bump Out
Ramp Up
Ramp Down
Bump In
Ramp
click to edit the color component, or clickdrag to move the color component
click to delete the color component
click to add a new color component, or
click-drag to add and interactively
position a new color component
active color component
Each color component in the ramp has a circular color handle on the left side
of the ramp, and a square color icon on the right side of the ramp (except for
the bottom color in the ramp). The active color has a white border around its
color handle. The Position and Ramp Color parameters apply to the active
color only. That is, to edit a color component’s Position value or Ramp Color,
you must first click its color handle to make it the active color component.
933
Only changes in Ramp Type, Interpolation, Position, and Ramp Color are
actually displayed in the ramp. Changes in all parameters are displayed in
the Multi-lister swatch.
Position
The position of the active color component in the ramp. The valid/slider range
is 0 (bottom of ramp) to 1 (top of ramp).
Ramp Color, Intensity
The color or intensity of the active color component. Only one of these
parameters (Ramp Color or Intensity) is available for a particular ramp
texture. If the Ramp texture is mapped to a three-channel parameter (for
example, Color), then the Ramp Color parameter is available. If the Ramp
texture is mapped to a single-channel parameter (for example, Bump), then
the Intensity parameter is available. The slider range for Intensity is 0 to 1.
Uwave
0
0.1
0.5
Vwave
1
0
0.1
0.5
1
Uwave, Vwave
Controls the amplitude of a sine wave offset of the texture in the U and V
directions. Increasing the Uwave or Vwave value makes the texture appear
increasingly wavy. The slider range is 0 (no wave) to 1. The default value is
0.
To increase the number of waves in the texture, increase the Urepeat or
Vrepeat values.
Noise
0
0.1
0.5
1
The amount that the texture is offset in the U and V directions by twodimensional noise. If the texture repeats (the Urepeat value or Vrepeat value
are greater than 1), the noise will not repeat. That is, each instance of the
texture will be unique. The slider range is 0 (no noise) to 1. The default value
is 0.
Noise Freq.
0
0.1
0.5
1
Controls how fine-grained the noise is (if the Noise value is non-zero). The
slider range is 0 to 1. The default value is 0.5.
934
HSV Color Noise, Value Noise
The HSV Color Noise parameters allow you to modulate the texture color using
three separate two-dimensional noises which affect the color’s hue, saturation,
and value. If the Ramp texture is mapped to a single-channel parameter (for
example, Bump), the Value Noise parameters (Val Noise and Noise Freq.)
replace the HSV Color Noise parameters.
Noise Hue
0
0.1
0.5
1
Offsets the color hue (mottles the color). The slider range is 0 to 1. The
default value is 0.
Sat (Saturation)
0
0.1
0.5
1
Offsets the color saturation with “whiteness” (creates a weathered look). The
slider range is 0 to 1. The default value is 0.
Val (Value)
0
0.1
0.5
1
Offsets the color value with “blackness.” The slider range is 0 to 1. The
default value is 0.
Freq. Hue, Sat (Saturation), Val (Value)
Freq. Hue
0
0.1
0.5
1
Freq. Sat
0
0.1
0.5
1
Freq. Val
0
0.1
0.5
1
Controls the graininess of