Tensile Properties of Geotextiles by the Wide

Tensile Properties of Geotextiles by the Wide
Designation: D 4595 – 09
Standard Test Method for
Tensile Properties of Geotextiles by the Wide-Width Strip
Method1
This standard is issued under the fixed designation D 4595; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of
original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A
superscript epsilon (´) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.
D 123 Terminology Relating to Textiles
D 579 Specification for Greige Woven Glass Fabrics
D 1776 Practice for Conditioning and Testing Textiles
D 2905 Practice for Statements on Number of Specimens
for Textiles3
D 4439 Terminology for Geosynthetics
1. Scope
1.1 This test method covers the measurement of tensile
properties of geotextiles using a wide-width strip specimen
tensile method. This test method is applicable to most geotextiles that include woven fabrics, nonwoven fabrics, layered
fabrics, knit fabrics, and felts that are used for geotextile
application.
1.2 This test method covers the measurement of tensile
strength and elongation of geotextiles and includes directions
for the calculation of initial modulus, offset modulus, secant
modulus, and breaking toughness.
1.3 Procedures for measuring the tensile properties of both
conditioned and wet geotextiles by the wide-width strip
method are included.
1.4 The basic distinction between this test method and other
methods for measuring strip tensile properties is the width of
the specimen. This width, by contrast, is greater than the length
of the specimen. Some fabrics used in geotextile applications
have a tendency to contract (neck down) under a force in the
gage length area. The greater width of the specimen specified
in this test method minimizes the contraction effect of those
fabrics and provides a closer relationship to expected geotextile
behavior in the field and a standard comparison.
1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the
safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the
responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
3. Terminology
3.1 atmosphere for testing geotextiles, n.—air maintained at
a relative humidity of 65 6 5 % and a temperature of 21 6 2°C
(70 6 4°F).
3.2 breaking toughness, T, (FL−1), Jm−2, n.—for geotextiles,
the actual work-to-break per unit surface area of material.
3.2.1 Discussion—Breaking toughness is proportional to
the area under the force − elongation curve from the origin to
the breaking point (see also work-to-break). Breaking toughness is calculated from work-to-break, gage length, and width
of a specimen.
3.3 corresponding force, Fc, n.—the force associated with a
specific elongation on the force-per-unit-width strain curve.
(Syn. load at specified elongation, LASE.)
3.4 geotechnical engineering, n.—the engineering application of geotechnics.
3.5 geotechnics, n.—the application of scientific methods
and engineering principles to the acquisition, interpretation,
and use of knowledge of materials of the earth’s crust to the
solution of engineering problems.
3.5.1 Discussion—Geotechnics embraces the fields of soil
mechanics, rock mechanics, and many of the engineering
aspects of geology, geophysics, hydrology, and related sciences.
3.6 geotextile, n.—any permeable textile material used with
foundation, soil, rock, earth, or any other geotechnical engineering related material, as an integral part of a man-made
project, structure, or system.
3.7 initial tensile modulus, J i, (FL−1), Nm−1, n.—for geotextiles, the ratio of the change in tensile force per unit width
2. Referenced Documents
2.1 ASTM Standards:2
D 76 Specification for Tensile Testing Machines for Textiles
1
This test method is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee D35 on
Geosynthetics and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee D35.01 on Mechanical Properties.
Current edition approved Jan. 15, 2009. Published March 2009. Originally
approved in 1986. Last previous edition approved in 2005 as D 4595 – 05.
2
For referenced ASTM standards, visit the ASTM website, www.astm.org, or
contact ASTM Customer Service at [email protected] For Annual Book of ASTM
Standards volume information, refer to the standard’s Document Summary page on
the ASTM website.
3
Withdrawn. The last approved version of this historical standard is referenced
on www.astm.org.
Copyright © ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, United States.
1
D 4595 – 09
can be calculated from machine scales, dials, recording charts,
or an interfaced computer.
to a change in strain (slope) of the initial portion of a force per
unit width strain curve.
3.8 offset tensile modulus, J o, (FL−1), Nm−1, n.—for geotextiles, the ratio of the change in force per unit width to a
change in strain (slope) below the proportional limit point and
above the tangent point on the force − elongation curve.
3.9 proportional limit, n.—the greatest stress which a material is capable of sustaining without any deviation from
proportionality of stress to strain (Hooke’s law).
3.10 secant tensile modulus, Jsec (FL−1), Nm−1, n.—for
geotextiles, the ratio of change in force per unit width to a
change in strain (slope) between two points on a force per unit
width strain curve.
3.11 tangent point, n.—for geotextiles, the first point of the
force − elongation curve at which a major decrease in slope
occurs.
3.11.1 Discussion—The tangent point is determined by
drawing a tangent line passing through the zero axis and the
proportional elastic limit. The point from the zero force axis
that the force − elongation curve first touches that tangent line
is the tangent point.
3.12 tensile modulus, J, (FL−1), Nm−1, n.—for geotextiles,
the ratio of the change in tensile force per unit width to a
corresponding change in strain (slope).
3.13 tensile strength, n.—for geotextiles, the maximum
resistance to deformation developed for a specific material
when subjected to tension by an external force.
3.13.1 Discussion—Tensile strength of geotextiles is the
characteristic of a sample as distinct from a specimen and is
expressed in force per unit width.
3.14 tensile test, n.—in textiles, a test in which a textile
material is stretched in one direction to determine the
force − elongation characteristics, the breaking force, or the
breaking elongation.
3.15 wide-width strip tensile test, n.—for geotextiles, a
uniaxial tensile test in which the entire width of a 200-mm
(8.0-in.) wide specimen is gripped in the clamps and the gage
length is 100 mm (4.0 in.).
3.16 work-to-break, W, (LF), n.—in tensile testing, the total
energy required to rupture a specimen.
3.16.1 Discussion—For geotextiles, work-to-break is proportional to the area under the force − elongation curve from
the origin to the breaking point, and is commonly expressed in
joules (inch-pound-force).
3.17 yield point, n.—the first point of the force − elongation
curve above the proportional (linear) section at which an
increase in elongation occurs without a corresponding increase
in force.
3.18 For terminology of other terms used in this test
method, refer to Terminology D 123 and Terminology D 4439.
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5. Significance and Use
5.1 The determination of the wide-width strip
force − elongation properties of geotextiles provides design
parameters for reinforcement type applications, for example
design of reinforced embankments over soft subgrades, reinforced soil retaining walls, and reinforcement of slopes. When
strength is not necessarily a design consideration, an alternative test method may be used for acceptance testing. Test
Method D 4595 for the determination of the wide-width strip
tensile properties of geotextiles may be used for the acceptance
testing of commercial shipments of geotextiles but caution is
advised since information about between-laboratory precision
is incomplete (Note 7). Comparative tests as directed in 5.1.1
may be advisable.
5.1.1 In cases of a dispute arising from differences in
reported test results when using Test Method D 4595 for
acceptance testing of commercial shipments, the purchaser and
the supplier should conduct comparative tests to determine if
there is a statistical bias between their laboratories. Competent
statistical assistance is recommended for the investigation of
bias. As a minimum, the two parties should take a group of test
specimens which are as homogeneous as possible and which
are from a lot of material of the type in question. The test
specimens should then be randomly assigned in equal numbers
to each laboratory for testing. The average results from the two
laboratories should be compared using Student’s t-test for
unpaired data and an acceptable probability level chosen by the
two parties before the testing began. If a bias is found, either its
cause must be found and corrected or the purchaser and the
supplier must agree to interpret future test results in the light of
the known bias.
5.2 Most geotextiles can be tested by this test method. Some
modification of clamping techniques may be necessary for a
given geotextile depending upon its structure. Special clamping adaptions may be necessary with strong geotextiles or
geotextiles made from glass fibers to prevent them from
slipping in the clamps or being damaged as a result of being
gripped in the clamps. Specimen clamping may be modified as
required at the discretion of the individual laboratory providing
a representative tensile strength is obtained. In any event, the
procedure described in Section 10 of this test method for
obtaining wide-width strip tensile strength must be maintained.
5.3 This test method is applicable for testing geotextiles
either dry or wet. It is used with a constant rate of extension
type tension apparatus.
5.4 The use of tensile strength test methods that restrict the
clamped width dimension to 50 mm (2 in.) or less, such as the
ravel, cut strip, and grab test procedures, have been found less
suitable than this test method for determining design strength
parameters for some geotextiles. This is particularly the case
for nonwoven geotextiles. The wide-width strip technique has
been explored by the industry and is recommended in these
cases for geotextile applications.
5.4.1 This test method may not be suited for some woven
fabrics used in geotextile applications that exhibit strengths
approximately 100 kN/m or 600 lbf/in. due to clamping and
4. Summary of Test Method
4.1 A relatively wide specimen is gripped across its entire
width in the clamps of a constant rate of extension (CRE) type
tensile testing machine operated at a prescribed rate of extension, applying a longitudinal force to the specimen until the
specimen ruptures. Tensile strength, elongation, initial and
secant modulus, and breaking toughness of the test specimen
2
D 4595 – 09
equipment limitations. In those cases, 100-mm (4-in.) width
specimens may be substituted for 200-mm (8-in.) width specimens. On those fabrics, the contraction effect cited in 1.4 is
minimal and, consequently, the standard comparison can continue to be made.
NOTE 1—When roller clamps are used an external extensometer, per
Fig. 3, is often used to determine displacement. External extensometers or
other external means of measurement are encouraged for all tests where
modulus is to be measured. In this case, the distance between the moving
feet of the extensometer determines the gage length for use in elongation
calculations and not test speed. Please see Note 7.
6. Apparatus and Reagents
6.1 Tensile Testing Machine—A constant rate of extension
(CRE) type of testing machine described in Specification D 76
shall be used. When using the CRE type tensile tester, the
recorder must have adequate pen response to properly record
the force—elongation curve as specified in Specification D 76.
6.2 Clamps—The clamps shall be sufficiently wide to grip
the entire width of the sample and with appropriate clamping
power to prevent slipping or crushing (damage).
6.2.1 Three basic clamp designs are shown in Fig. 1, Fig. 2,
Fig. 3, Fig. 4, and Fig. 5. These designs have been used in the
laboratory and have provided reproducible tensile strengths.
These clamps may be modified to provide greater ease and
speed of clamping. In any event, caution must be taken to
ensure the type material and dimensions of the clamp are
adequate for the user’s expected fabric strength.
6.2.2 Size of Jaw Faces—Each clamp shall have jaw faces
measuring wider than the width of the specimen, 200 mm (8
in.), and a minimum of 50-mm (2-in.) length in the direction of
the applied force.
6.3 Area-Measuring Device—Use an integrating accessory
to the tensile testing machine or a planimeter.
6.4 Distilled Water and Nonionic Wetting Agent, for wet
specimens only.
7. Sampling
7.1 Lot Sample—For the lot sample, take rolls of geotextiles
as directed in an applicable material specification, or as agreed
upon between the purchaser and the supplier.
NOTE 2—The extent of the sampling for wide-width strip tensile
properties is generally defined in an applicable order or contract. Among
the options available to the purchaser and the supplier is for the purchaser
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FIG. 1 Wedge Clamps
3
D 4595 – 09
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FIG. 2 Inserts for Wedge Clamps
FIG. 3 Roller Clamps
to accept certification by the manufacturer that the material in question
meets the requirements agreed upon by the two parties, and what the basis
for the certification is, such as, historical data generated from material
manufactured under the same conditions.
4
D 4595 – 09
FIG. 4 End View of Composite of Clamp, Insert, and Threaded Rod
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FIG. 5 Sanders Clamp
laboratory sample, with those for the measurement of the
machine direction tensile properties from different positions
across the geotextile width, and the specimens for the measurement of the cross-machine direction tensile properties from
different positions along the length of the geotextile. Take no
specimens nearer the selvage or edge of the geotextile than
1/10 the width of the geotextile (see 8.2).
7.2 Laboratory Sample—For the laboratory sample, take a
full-width swatch approximately 1 m (40 in.) long in the
machine direction from each roll in the lot sample. The sample
may be taken from the end portion of a roll provided there is
no evidence it is distorted or different from other portions of
the roll. In cases of dispute, take a sample that will exclude
fabric from the outer wrap of the roll or the inner wrap around
the core.
7.3 Test Specimens—For tests in the machine direction and
the cross-machine direction, respectively, take from each
swatch in the laboratory sample the number of specimens
directed in Section 8. Take specimens at random from the
8. Test Specimen Preparation
8.1 Number of Specimens:
8.1.1 Unless otherwise agreed upon, as when specified in an
applicable material specification, take a number of specimens
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D 4595 – 09
men, accurately perpendicular to the length dimension and
separated by 100 mm (4 in.) to designate the gage area (See
Note 7).
8.2.2 For some woven geotextiles, it may be necessary to
cut each specimen 210-mm (8.5-in.) wide and then remove an
equal number of yarns from each side to obtain the 200 mm
(8.0 in.) finished dimension. This helps maintain specimen
integrity during the test.
8.2.3 The length of the specimen depends upon the type of
clamps being used. It must be long enough to extend through
the full length of both clamps, as determined for the direction
of test.
8.2.4 When specimen integrity is not affected, the specimens may be initially cut to the finished width.
8.2.5 When the wet tensile strength of the fabric is required
in addition to the dry tensile strength, cut each test specimen at
least twice as long as is required for a standard test (see Note
2). Number each specimen and then cut it crosswise into two
parts, one for determining the conditioned tensile strength and
the other for determining the wet tensile strength; each portion
shall bear the specimen number. In this manner, each paired
break is performed on test specimens containing the same
yarns.
per fabric swatch such that the user may expect at the 95 %
probability level that the test result is not more than 5.0 % of
the average above or below the true average of the swatch for
each, the machine and cross-machine direction, respectively.
Determine the number of specimens as follows:
8.1.1.1 Reliable Estimate of v—When there is a reliable
estimate of v based upon extensive past records for similar
materials tested in the user’s laboratory as directed in the
method, calculate the required number of specimens using Eq
1, as follows:
(1)
where:
n = number of specimens (rounded upward to a whole
number),
v = reliable estimate of the coefficient of variation of
individual observations on similar materials in the
user’s laboratory under conditions of single-operator
precision, %,
t = the value of Student’s t for one-sided limits (see Table
1), a 95 % probability level, and the degrees of
freedom associated with the estimate of v, and
A = 5.0 % of the average, the value of the allowable
variation.
8.1.1.2 No Reliable Estimate of v—When there is no reliable estimate of v for the user’s laboratory, Eq 1 should not be
used directly. Instead, specify the fixed number of six specimens for each the machine direction and the cross-machine
direction tests. The number of specimens is calculated using
v = 7.4 % of the average. This value for v is somewhat larger
than usually found in practice. When a reliable estimate of v for
the user’s laboratory becomes available, Eq 1 will usually
require fewer than the fixed number of specimens.
8.2 Test Specimen Size:
8.2.1 Prepare each finished specimen 200-mm (8.0-in.)
wide (excluding fringe when applicable, see 8.2.2) by at least
200-mm (8.0-in.) long (see 8.2.2) with the length dimension
being designated and accurately parallel to the direction for
which the tensile strength is being measured. If necessary,
centrally, draw two lines running the full width of the speci-
NOTE 3—For geotextiles which shrink excessively when wet, cut the
test specimens for obtaining wet tensile strength longer in dimension than
that for dry tensile strength.
9. Conditioning
9.1 Bring the specimens to moisture equilibrium in the
atmosphere for testing geotextiles. Equilibrium is considered to
have been reached when the increase in mass of the specimen
in successive weighings made at intervals of not less than 2 h
does not exceed 0.1 % of the mass of the specimen. In general
practice, the industry approaches equilibrium from the “as
received” side.
NOTE 4—It is recognized that in practice, geotextile materials are
frequently not weighed to determine when moisture equilibrium has been
reached. While such a procedure cannot be accepted in cases of dispute,
it may be sufficient in routine testing to expose the material to the standard
atmosphere for testing for a reasonable period of time before the
specimens are tested. A time of at least 24 h has been found acceptable in
most cases. However, certain fibers may exhibit slow moisture equalization rates from the “as received” wet side. When this is known, a
preconditioning cycle, as described in Practice D 1776, may be agreed
upon between contractural parties.
TABLE 1 Values of Student’s t for One-Sided Limits and the
95 % ProbabilityA
df
One-Sided
df
One-Sided
df
One-Sided
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
6.314
2.920
2.353
2.132
2.015
1.943
1.895
1.860
1.833
1.812
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
1.796
1.782
1.771
1.761
1.753
1.746
1.740
1.734
1.729
1.725
22
24
26
28
30
40
50
60
120
`
1.717
1.711
1.706
1.701
1.697
1.684
1.676
1.671
1.658
1.645
9.2 Specimens to be tested in the wet condition shall be
immersed in water, maintained at a temperature of 21 6 2°C
(706 4°F). The time of immersion must be sufficient to wet-out
the specimens thoroughly, as indicated by no significant
change in strength or elongation following a longer period of
immersion, and at least 2 min. To obtain thorough wetting, it
may be necessary or advisable to add not more than 0.05 % of
a nonionic neutral wetting agent to the water.
10. Procedure
10.1 Conditioned Specimens—Test adequately conditioned
specimens in the atmosphere for testing geotextiles.
10.2 Wet Specimens—Test thoroughly wet specimens in the
normal machine set-up within 20 min after removal from the
water.
A
Values in this table were calculated using Hewlett Packard HP 67/97 Users’
Library Programs 03848D, “One-Sided and Two-Sided Critical Values of Student’s
t” and 00350D, “Improved Normal and Inverse Distribution.” For values at other
than the 95 % probability level, see published tables of critical values of Student’s
t in any standard statistical text. Further use of this table is defined in Practice
D 2905.
6
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n 5 ~tv/A!2
of the modifications listed above are used, state the method of
modification in the report.
10.6 Measurement of Elongation—Measure the elongation
of the geotextile at any stated force by means of a suitable
recording device at the same time as the tensile strength is
determined, unless otherwise agreed upon, as provided for in
an applicable material specification. Measure the elongation to
three significant figures as shown in Fig X1.1.
10.6.1 A measured strain within the specimen can be
obtained from jaw to jaw measurements by gaging along the
center axis between the jaws across the center 3 in. of the
specimen. These measurements can be made using a sealed
rule taped on a line on the upper end of the specimen, in the
gage area, and recording the change in length as measured
from a line spaced 3 in. below the upper line. In addition, the
center portion of the specimen can be gaged using LVDTs or
mechanical gages. By comparing, it can be determined if
slippage is occuring in the clamps.
10.3 Machine Set-Up Conditions—Adjust the distance between the clamps at the start of the test at 100 6 3 mm (4 6
0.1 in.). At least one clamp should be supported by a free
swivel or universal joint which will allow the clamp to rotate
in the plane of the fabric. Select the force range of the testing
machine so the break occurs between 10 and 90 % of full-scale
force. Set the machine to a strain rate of 10 6 3 %/min.
NOTE 5—It is recognized that some tensile tests on geotextiles are
conducted using a manually applied strain rate. In that case, approximately
a 2 %/min strain rate should be used. In any event, the strain rate described
in 10.3 is preferred.
10.4 Insertion of Specimen in Clamps—Mount the specimen centrally in the clamps. Do this by having the two lines,
which were previously drawn 100 6 3 mm (4.0 6 0.1 in.) apart
across the width of the specimen positioned adjacent to the
inside edges of the upper and lower jaw. The specimen length
in the machine direction and cross-machine direction tests,
respectively, must be parallel to the direction of application of
force.
10.5 Measurement of Tensile Strength—Start the tensile
testing machine and the area measuring device, if used, and
continue running the test to rupture. Stop the machine and reset
to the initial gage position. Record and report the test results to
three significant figures for each direction separately (See Note
7).
10.5.1 If a specimen slips in the jaws, breaks at the edge of
or in the jaws, or if for any reason attributed to faulty operation
the result falls markedly below the average for the set of
specimens, discard the result and test another specimen.
Continue until the required number of acceptable breaks have
been obtained.
10.5.2 The decision to discard the results of a break shall be
based on observation of the specimen during the test and upon
the inherent variability of the fabric. In the absence of other
criteria for rejecting a so-called jaw break, any break occurring
within 5 mm (1⁄4 in.) of the jaws which results in a value below
20 % of the average of all the other breaks shall be discarded.
No other break shall be discarded unless the test is known to be
faulty.
10.5.3 It is difficult to determine the precise reason why
certain specimens break near the edge of the jaws. If a jaw
break is caused by damage to the specimen by the jaws, then
the results should be discarded. If, however, it is merely due to
randomly distributed weak places, it is a perfectly legitimate
result. In some cases, it may also be caused by a concentration
of stress in the area adjacent to the jaws because they prevent
the specimen from contracting in width as the force is applied.
In these cases, a break near the edge of the jaws is inevitable
and shall be accepted as a characteristic of the particular
method of test.
10.5.4 For instructions regarding the preparation of specimens made from glass fiber to minimize damage in the jaws,
see Specification D 579.
10.5.5 If a geotextile manifests any slippage in the jaws or
if more than 24 % of the specimens break at a point within 5
mm (0.25 in.) of the edge of the jaw, then (1) the jaws may be
padded, (2) the geotextile may be coated under the jaw face
area, or (3) the surface of the jaw face may be modified. If any
11. Calculations
11.1 Tensile Strength—Calculate the tensile strength of
individual specimens; that is, the maximum force per unit
width to cause a specimen to rupture as read directly from the
testing instrument expressed in N/m (lbf/in.) of width, using Eq
2 (See Fig X1.1), as follows:
af 5 F f / W s
(2)
where:
= tensile strength, N/m (lbf/in.) of width,
af
= observed breaking force, N (lbf), and
Ff
Ws = specified specimen width, m (in.).
11.2 Elongation—Calculate the elongation of individual
specimens, expressed as the percentage increase in length,
based upon the initial nominal gage length of the specimen
using Eq 3 for XY type recorders, or Eq 4 for manual readings
(ruler), as follows:
´p 5 ~E 3 R 3 100!/~C 3 Lg!
(3)
´p 5 ~DL 3 100!/Lg
(4)
where:
´p = elongation, %,
E
= distance along the zero force axis from the point the
curve leaves the zero force axis to a point of
corresponding force, mm (in.),
R
= testing speed rate, m/min (in./min),
C
= recording chart speed, m/min (in./min),
Lg = initial nominal gage length, mm (in.), and
DL = the unit change in length from a zero force to the
corresponding measured force, mm (in.).
NOTE 6—Some clamping arrangements may lead to slack in the
specimen within the gage area. When this occurs, that increase of the
specimen length must be added and included as part of Lg, nominal gage
length.
11.3 Tensile Modulus:
11.3.1 Initial Tensile Modulus—Determine the location and
draw a line tangent to the first straight portion of the
force − elongation curve. At any point on this tangent line,
measure the force and the corresponding elongation with
7
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D 4595 – 09
D 4595 – 09
11.4.3 When determining the breaking toughness of geotextiles that exhibit take up of slack caused by fabric weave,
crimp, or design, the area under the force − elongation curve
which precedes the initial modulus line represents the work to
remove this slack. Automatic-area-measuring equipment may
or may not include this area in measuring breaking toughness,
and therefore, such information should be reported along with
the value observed for the breaking toughness.
11.4.4 Calculate the breaking toughness or work-to-break
per unit surface area for each specimen when using XY
recorders using Eq 8, or when using automatic area measuring
equipment using Eq 9, or when using manually obtained strain
measurements with a steel rule or dial gage using Eq 10:
respect to the zero force axis. Calculate initial tensile modulus
in N/m (lbf/in.) of width using Eq 5. (See Fig X1.1), as follows:
Ji 5 ~F 3 100!/~´p 3 Ws!
(5)
where:
= initial tensile modulus, N/m (lbf/in.) of width,
Ji
F
= determined force on the drawn tangent line, N (lbf),
= corresponding elongation with respect to the drawn
´p
tangent line and determined force, %, and
Ws = specimen width, m (in.).
11.3.2 Offset Tensile Modulus—Determine the location and
draw a line tangent to the force—elongation curve between the
tangent point and the proportional limit and through the zero
force axis. Measure the force and the corresponding elongation
with respect to the force axis. Calculate offset tensile modulus
using Eq 6 (See Fig X1.1 and X2.1), as follows:
Jo 5 ~F 3 100!/~´p 3 Ws!
(8)
Tu 5 ~V 3 S 3 R!/~Ic 3 As!
(9)
Ff
0
Tu 5 ( pdDL
(6)
(10)
where:
=
Tu
Ac =
S
=
R
=
Wc =
C
=
=
As
where:
= offset tensile modulus, N/m (lbf/in.) of width,
Jo
F
= determined force on the drawn tangent line, N (lbf),
= corresponding elongation with respect to the drawn
´p
tangent line and determined force, %, and
Ws = specimen width, m (in.).
11.3.3 Secant Tensile Modulus—Determine the force for a
specified elongation, ´2, usually 10 %, and label that point on
the force − elongation curve as P2. Likewise, label a second
point, P1 at a specified elongation, ´1, usually 0 % elongation.
Draw a straight line (secant) through both points P1 and P2
intersecting the zero force axis. The preferred values are 0 and
10 % elongation, respectively, although other values may be
used, for example, when provided for in an applicable material
specification. Calculate secant tensile modulus using Eq 7 (See
Fig X3.1), as follows:
Js 5 ~F 3 100!/~´p 3 Ws!
Tu 5 ~Ac 3 S 3 R!/~Wc 3 C 3 As!
breaking toughness, J/m2 (in.·lbf/in.2),
area under the force − elongation curve, m2 (in.2),
full scale force range, N (lbf),
testing speed rate, m/min. (in./min.),
recording chart width, m (in.),
recording chart speed, m/min. (in./min.),
area of the test specimen within the gage length, m2
(in.2), usually 0.200 m by 0.100 m (8 in. by 4 in.)
(See Note 7),
V
= integrator reading,
= integrator constant,
Ic
= observed breaking force, N (lbf),
Ff
DL = unit change in length from a zero force to the
corresponding measured force, mm (in.),
p
= unit stress per area of test specimen within the gage
length, N/m2 (lbf/in.2), and
0
= zero force.
11.5 Average Values—Calculate the average values for
tensile strength, elongation, initial modulus, secant modulus,
and breaking toughness of the observations for the individual
specimens tested to three significant figures.
(7)
where:
= secant tensile modulus, N (lbf) between specified
Js
elongations per m (in.) of width,
F
= determined force on the constructed line, N (lbf),
= corresponding elongation with respect to the con´p
structed line and determined force, %, and
Ws = specimen width, m (in.).
11.4 Breaking Toughness:
11.4.1 When using the force − elongation curves, draw a
line from the point of maximum force of each specimen
perpendicular to the elongation axis. Measure the area bounded
by the curve, the perpendicular and the elongation axis by
means of an integrator or a planimeter, or cut out the area of the
chart under the force − elongation curve, weigh it, and calculate the area under the curve using the weight of the unit area.
11.4.2 When determining breaking toughness of geotextiles
using a manual gage (steel rule or dial) to measure the amount
of strain at a given force, record the change in specimen length
for at least ten corresponding force intervals. Approximately
equal force increments should be used throughout the application of force having the final measurement taken at specimen
rupture.
12. Report
12.1 Report that the specimens were tested as directed in
Test Method D 4595. Describe the material or product sampled
and the method of sampling used.
12.2 Report all of the following applicable items for both
the machine direction and cross direction of the material tested.
12.2.1 Average breaking force/unit width in N/m (lbf/in.) as
tensile strength.
12.2.2 Average elongation at specified force in percent.
12.2.3 If requested, the average initial or secant modulus in
N/m (lbf/in.). For secant modulus, state that portion of the
force − elongation curve used to determine the modulus, that
is, 0 to 10 % elongation, reported as 10 % secant modulus.
Other portions of the force − elongation curve can be reported
as requested.
12.2.4 If requested, the average breaking toughness (workto-break per unit surface area) in J/m2(in·lbf/in.2). Report the
method of calculation.
8
D 4595 – 09
12.2.5 If requested, the standard deviation, coefficient of
variation, or both, of any of the properties.
12.2.6 If requested, include a force − elongation curve as
part of the report.
12.2.7 Condition of specimen (dry or wet).
12.2.8 Number of specimens tested in each direction.
12.2.9 Make and model of testing machine.
12.2.10 Size of jaw faces used.
12.2.11 Type of padding used in jaws, modification of
specimens gripped in the jaws, or modification of jaw faces, if
used.
12.2.12 Full scale force range used for testing.
12.2.13 Any modification of procedure (see 5.2).
procedure should be provided. The major problem encountered was
definition of the origin (zero position) point on the force − elongation
curve. The following procedural interpretations with respect to this test
method are suggested: (1) No bonding of the specimen should be provided
within the clamp face area for materials showing a breaking force of
17500 N/m (100 lbf/in.) and under, unless shown to be necessary as agreed
upon between the purchaser and supplier, (2) Protection within the clamp
faces should be provided, such as resin bonded tabs, for materials having
a breaking force in excess of 17500 N/m (100 lbf/in.), (3) A pretension
force should be provided having a minimum total applied force to the
specimen of 44.5 N (10 lbf) for materials exhibiting an ultimate breaking
force of 17500 N/m (100 lbf/in.) and under. For materials exhibiting a
breaking force in excess of 17500 N/m (100 lbf/in.), a pretension force
equal to 1.25 % of the expected breaking force should be applied, however
in no case should the total pretension force exceed 222 N (50 lbf). A low
force range may be used to establish the point of the applied pretension
force on the force − elongation curve and then increased to the working
force range selected for the material under test, (4) The gage length should
be determined relative to the zero base line on the extension axis and the
applied pretension force (zero position point), (5) The zero position point
should be used to determine the elongation, initial modulus, and secant
modulus when applicable, (6) Roller clamps and other mechanical
clamping mechanisms have been successfully used in conjunction with
external extensometers, however strain rates may be different compared to
flat-faced clamps, (7) Extreme care should be used when loading
specimens in the clamps to insure vertical alignment of the specimen in
the direction of test. The task group is continuing further interlaboratory
testing. It is the intent of the task group to include the above mentioned
clarifications and subsequent changes as a result of improved technology
in future issues of this test method.
--`,,`,,,,`,``````,,`,`,,`,`,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
13. Precision and Bias (Note 7) 4
13.1 Precision—The precision of this test method of testing
wide width strip tensile properties is being established.
13.2 Bias—The true value of wide width strip tensile
properties of geotextiles can only be defined in terms of a
specific test method. Within this limitation, the procedures in
Test Method D 4595 has no known bias.
NOTE 7—The wide width tensile task group of subcommittee D35.01
conducted a pilot interlaboratory test in 1985. This test indicated that
additional clarification to illustrate implied procedures within the test
4
Supporting data have been filed at ASTM International Headquarters and may
be obtained by requesting Research Report RR: D35-1002.
APPENDIXES
(Nonmandatory Information)
X1. EXTENSOMETERS
confined testing but, provisions must be provided to protect
wires, etc. from influences due to the confinement.
X1.1.3 Remote extensometers (optical) use markers or other
devices that are mounted directly on the geosynthetic and
sensing units that are mounted independent of the geosynthetic
and the markers or devices. These sensing units use electromagnetic radiation, such as light, to sense the distance between
the markers. This type of extensometer may be inappropriate
for use in confined tests.
X1.1 Three types of extensometers have been successfully
used in testing geosynthetics.
X1.1.1 Direct reading extensometers are mounted directly
on the geosynthetic. These extensometers typically consist of
linear variable-differential transformer (LVDTs) units that read
strain directly as the material extends. These units place an
additional force (weight) on the material undergoing testing
and may have an effect on the force versus strain results. The
user should determine that this additional force is or is not
significant for the material being tested. Typically, this type of
extensometer cannot be used in confined testing.
X1.1.2 Semi-remote reading extensometers use clamps that
are mounted directly on the geosynthetic. Wires, pulley systems, or other physical devices connect the clamps to LVDT
units. This type of extensometer can be appropriate for
X1.2 Users must bear in mind that clamps, markers, or
other physical attachments can damage materials undergoing
testing. This damage can cause premature failure in geosynthetics. It is of paramount importance to design and use clamps,
markers, or other attachments in a manner that will not alter
test results by damaging the material undergoing testing.
9
D 4595 – 09
X2. INITIAL GEOTEXTILE TENSILE MODULUS
X2.1
In a typical force − elongation curve (Fig. X2.1),
X2.1.1 The initial geotextile tensile modulus can be deter-
FIG. X2.1 Material with Hookean Region
there is usually a toe region AC that represents take up of slack,
alignment, or seating of the specimen; it can also represent a
significant part of the elongation characteristic of the specimen.
This region is considered when determining the initial geotextile modulus.
mined by dividing the force at any point along the line AG (or
its extension) by the elongation at the same point (measured
from point A, defined as zero strain).
X3.2 In the case of a geotextile that does not exhibit any
linear region (Fig. X3.1), a line is constructed tangent to the
point on the force versus strain curve exhibiting the maximum
slope (i.e., point H8. ). This is extended to intersect the zero
force axis at point B8 . This intersection, point B8 , is the zero
strain point from which strain is measured.
X3.1 In the case of a geotextile exhibiting a region of
Hookean (linear) behavior (Fig. X2.1), after the non-linear
region, a continuation of the linear region of the curve is
constructed through the zero-force axis. This intersection, point
B, is the zero elongation point from which elongation is
measured.
X3.1.1 The offset geotextile tensile modulus (Fig. X2.1) can
be determined by dividing the force at any point along the line
BD (or its extension) by the strain at the same point (measured
from point B, defined as zero strain). The point where line BD
first touches the force versus strain curve is the tangent point
(for example, C).
X3.2.1 The offset geotextile tensile modulus can be determined by dividing the force at any point along line B8K8 (or its
extension) by the strain at the same point (measured from point
B8, defined as zero strain).
10
--`,,`,,,,`,``````,,`,`,,`,`,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
X3. OFFSET GEOTEXTILE TENSILE MODULUS
D 4595 – 09
FIG. X3.1 Material with No Hookean Region
X4. SECANT GEOTEXTILE TENSILE MODULUS
--`,,`,,,,`,``````,,`,`,,`,`,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
FIG. X4.1 Construction Line for Secant Modulus
X4.1 In a typical force versus strain curve (Fig. X4.1), a
straight line is constructed through the zero force axis, usually
at zero strain point A9 and a second point usually at 10 % strain,
point M9. Point A9 is the zero strain point from which strain is
measured.
X4.1.1 The secant geotextile tensile modulus at the selected
strain level can be determined by dividing the force at any
point along line A9M9 (or its extension) by the strain at the
same point (measured from point A9, defined as zero strain).
X4.1.2 Fig. X4.1 also presents a straight line constructed
through any two specified points, where a secant modulus is to
be calculated, point Q9 and point R9, other than zero and 10 %
strain. In this case, the line is extended through the zero force
axis at point B9. . This intersection is the zero strain point from
which strain is measured. The secant geotextile tensile modulus can be determined by dividing the force at any point along
lineQ9 R9 (or its extension) by the strain at the same point
(measured from point B9, defined as zero strain). If this latter
11
D 4595 – 09
method is used, for example to account for zero-force offset
due to the removal of slack, etc. in the geosynthetic, the
specified means for defining points Q9 and R9should be
identified in the testing report.
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12
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