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Surveillance Packages
A
Security Cameras
Digital Video Recorders
CCTV Accessories
CCTV Cables
Monitors
CCTV Lenses
A.L.C. (Automatic Level Control)
On AI lenses, also known as the peak/average control. Adjusting this control allows
to either take bright spots more into consideration (peak), bringing out detail in bri
consideration (average) bringing out detail in darker areas.
CCTV Power Supplies
Connectors
Clearance DVRs
Clearance Cameras
Lease Application
Lease Calculator
Our
Customers
Activity Detection
A feature of the Generation 3 video multiplexer range that uses video motion detec
improve the camera update times. It also gives a relay closure.
Alarming
The ability of CCTV equipment to respond to an input signal, normally a simple swi
response varies depending on equipment type, most common is for switcher to "ho
corresponding to the alarm input.
Analog
A signal in which any level is represented by a directly proportional voltage; not dig
Angle Of View
The maximum scene angle that can be seen through a lens.
Aperture
The lens opening that controls the amount of light reaching the pickup device (ima
Aspect Ratio
The ratio of the picture frame width to the picture frame height in standard TV syst
horizontal over 3 units vertical.
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Aspherical Lens
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A lens designed with a non spherical shape so that it refracts the light passing thro
the lens aperture so that it passes more light or decreases barrel distortion on wide
Attenuation
A decrease or loss in a signal. Reduction of signal magnitude (loss) normally measu
Auto White Balance
Glossary
Camera Comparison
Chart
Lens Comparison Chart
DVR Comparison
Field of View Calculator
Software Downloads
Technical Information
Feature on color cameras whereby the camera constantly monitors the light and ad
maintain white areas.
Automatic Frequency Control (AFC) An electronic circuit used whereby the frequenc
automatically maintained within specified limits.
Automatic Gain Control (AGC) An electronic circuit used by which the gain of a sign
adjusted as a function of its input or other specified parameter.
Automatic Iris Lens A lens in which the aperture automatically opens or closes to m
levels on the camera's pickup device.
Auto-Terminating Feature whereby the equipment automatically selects the correct
on whether the video output BNC is connected.
B
B.L.C. (Back Light Compensation)
A feature of modern CCD cameras which electronically compensates for high backg
detail which would normally be silhouetted.
Back Focus
The mechanical aligning of the imaging device with the focal point of the lens. Most
lenses to ensure the image stays in focus throughout the zoom range.
Balanced Signal
Method of transmitting video, usually over twisted pair cable, that consists of two e
signals being sent down two conductors.
Band Width
The frequency range of a signal. The span that the information-bearing signal occu
difference between the lowest and highest frequency of a band.
Base-Band Video
Unmodulated video signal suitable for display on a monitor but not a domestic TV.
Black Level
The level of the video signal that corresponds to the maximum limits of the black a
Blanking (Field And Line Flyback Blanking)
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The operation of turning off the monitor display, or pick-up device, during sync pul
lines appearing on the picture.
Blooming
The halation and defocusing effect that occurs around the bright areas of the pictur
there is an increase in the brightness intensity.
BNC
Video connector, the most commonly used in CCTV.
Bridging
A term indicating that a high impedance video line is paralleled, usually through a s
video. A separate overall video output.
C
C Mount / CS Mount
The two industry standards for mounting a lens on a camera. The C-Mount lens has
distance. The CS-Mount lens has a 12.5mm flange back distance.
C.C.I.R.
The European TV standard 625 lines 50 fields.
Camera
A device that translates light into a video image and transmits that image to a mon
contains the image sensor and other electronic circuitry to create a video signal.
Cathode Ray Tube (CRT)
The picture tube in a video monitor that can reproduce the picture image seen by t
CATV
Short for Cable Access Television. The method for distributing RF signals via coaxia
radiated through the air.
CCD
Charged Coupled Device. This is a solid state semiconductor imaging device often r
integrated circuit, chip or "imager." Solid state cameras are sometimes referred to
CCTV
The common abbreviation for Closed Circuit Television. A private or closed televisio
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CD-RW
A CD-ROM that can be written, erased, and rewritten by a CD-RW drive.
Chrominance (C)
The part of the video signal corresponding to the color information.
Coaxial Cable
A type of shielded cable capable of carrying a wide range of frequencies with very l
Composite Video
The complete video signal consisting of the video information, the sync pulse and t
signal.
Contrast
The range of light and dark values in a picture or the ratio between the maximum a
brightness values.
Crosstalk
An undesired signal that interferes with the desired signal.
D
Db (Decibel)
A measure of the power ratio of two signals. It is equal to ten times the logarithm o
the iris.
DC Type Lens
An auto-iris lens with internal circuit which receives voltage and a video signal from
signals.
Depth Of Field
The area in focus in front of and behind the subject.
Digital
A signal that levels are represented by binary numbers. These can be kept in a sto
Digital Recording
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This is the latest form of recording and is relatively new to the CCTV industry as a
economical method however it does have several advantages over the VCR analogu
of all it enables quick access to the desired
Distribution Amplifier
A device that accepts a video signal and sends it out over a number of independent
Duplex (Multiplexer)
A multiplexer with two frame stores allowing it to show multi-screen pictures while
multiplex recording.
Dwell Time
The length of time a switcher displays one camera before sequencing to the next. U
setting.
Dynamic IP Address
A Dynamic IP address is a type of account from an ISP (internet service provider) w
network is assigned an IP address that constantly changing and never remains the
Address and Static IP.
E
E.I. (Electronic Iris) Shutter
Electronic Iris shuttering is the ability of the camera to compensate for moderate li
applications without the use of auto iris lenses.
E.I.A. (Electronic Industry Association)
US TV standard 525 lines 60 fields.
Equalization
The process of correcting losses of certain components in a signal.
Ext. Sync (External Sync)
The ability of CCTV equipment, normally cameras, to accept one or more of the sta
as to align itself to the rest of the system.
F
Facial Capture
Corner mounted cameras are very effective at capturing overview scene surveillanc
facial capture surveillance for positive identification purposes, cameras should be m
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height conducive for facial capture (for example, in light switches). Lenses selected
identification level imaging, ie no less than 120% vertical image of the person.
Fiber Optic
The process of transmitting light through a long, flexible fiber such as glass or plas
transmitting video, audio, or data over long distances.
Field
One half of a frame of video (262.5 scan lines).
Field Of View
The maximum viewed image (area covered) a lens "sees." The horizontal or vertica
distance from the camera.
Flange Back
The distance from the flange of the lens (beginning of the lens mount) to the focal
have a flange back distance of 17.526mm vs. 12.5mm for CS-mount.
Focal Length
The distance (in millimeters) from the lens to the surface of the image sensor. The
the wider the view; the longer the distance, the narrower (telephoto) the view.
Focus
The focal point. An adjustment to the lens optics to improve the clarity of the pictu
Foot Candle (FC)
A measurement of light. 1 lumen per square foot.
Format
The size of the camera's pickup device (imager). Current standard formats are 1/4
Frame
A complete picture (525 scan lines). The frame consists of two fields of video inform
F-Stop
A term used to indicate the speed of a lens. The smaller the f-number, the greater
passing through the lens
G
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Gen. Lock (See Ext. Sync)
To synchronize one piece of equipment to the sync pulses of another.
Ghost
A shadowy or weak image in the received picture, offset to either the right or to th
image.
Gigabyte (GB)
1,024 megabytes or 1 billion characters of information. Also see Megabyte.
Gray Scale
The number of variations from white to gray to black.
Ground
An electrical connection point that is common to either a metal chassis, a terminal,
Ground Loop
Effects video pictures in the form of a black shadow bar across the screen or as tea
a picture. Caused by different earth potentials in a system.
H
Hardwired
Method of controlling camera points using multi-core cable.
Horizontal Resolution
The maximum number of individual picture elements that can be distinguished in a
Hz (Hertz)
Cycles per second.
I
I.R. (Infra Red)
A range of frequencies lower than visible red light used for covert surveillance or as
video link.
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I.S.D.N. (Integrated Services Digital Network
Digital phone lines from which allow transmission of video signals via fastscan at sp
used with terminal adapters.
Image Burn (Retained Image)
A change produced in or on the target of the pickup device which remains after the
previously stationary light image.
Image Device (Imager)
The detector in the camera, either a tube or a CCD solid state device.
Impedance
The effective resistance of an electronic circuit to an A.C. signal.
Infrared Illumination
When a ?low-light? is subject to dark conditions, active infrared illumination must b
results. Active infrared illumination is a new surveillance technology that is so effec
produced are often mistaken for regular daytime monochrome images. Active infra
cost-effective technology for enabling truly effective 24/7 surveillance in any lightin
total darkness.
Insertion Loss
The signal strength loss that occurs when a piece of equipment is inserted into a lin
Intensifier
An electronic device that creates an output image brighter than the input (original)
amplifier.
Interlace
A scanning process where every other horizontal line is scanned in one field while t
scanned in the next field to produce a complete picture frame.
Internal Sync (Crystal Controlled)
A camera that generates its sync pulses without reference to any other source. Nor
controlled oscillator.
IP Address
The Internet Protocol address; a unique numeric address such as 123.231.32.2 Als
Dynamic IP.
Iris
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The adjustable opening (mechanical diaphragm) through which light can pass and
J
JPEG
A digital image format commonly used in digital recording, for storing high-quality
photographs in compressed bitmap form.
L
Lens
A transparent optical component that converges light rays to form a two dimension
Level Control
Main iris control. Used to set the auto-iris circuit to a video level desired by the use
circuit will adjust the iris to maintain this video level in changing lighting conditions
towards High will open the iris, to
License Plate Reading
License plate reading requires specialized equipment in order to successfully overco
related to speed, lighting, reflectivity and headlight glare. Cameras chosen should b
for license plate reading as most conventional cameras will not work on a consisten
lighting is typically required for performance during both day and night.
Line Amplifier (Video Line Corrector)
A device to make good the loss of signal strength and quality due to long cable run
Line Lock
To synchronize the field sync pulses, of an AC powered camera, to the frequency o
voltage).
Looping
A term indicating that a high impedance device has been permanently connected in
source. Individual balanced video outputs for each video input.
Luminance (Y)
The part of a video signal that consists of the monochrome data.
Lux
A unit measuring the intensity of light. One foot-candle = 10 lux.
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M
Manual Iris Lens
A lens with a manual adjustment to set the iris opening (F stop) in a fixed position.
fixed lighting applications.
Matrix Switcher
A switcher able to route any of its camera inputs to any of its monitor outputs; a n
for large systems, that often includes telemetry control.
MATV
Short for Multiple Access Television. The method for distributing RF TV signals by b
through the air.
Mechanical Focus (Back-Focus, Racking)
The mechanical aligning of the imaging device with the focal point of the lens; mos
lenses to ensure the image stays in focus throughout the zoom range.
Megabyte (MB)
1,048,576 bytes or 1,024 kilobytes. Used to measure computer memory. Sometim
million bytes or 1,024,000 bytes (1,000 kilobytes). Also see Gigabyte.
Microwave
Radio frequencies between 1 - 30 GHz used for video transmission over medium/lo
Minimum Object Distance (M.O.D.)
The closest distance a given lens will be able to focus upon an object. This is measu
(front) of the lens to the object. Wide angle lenses generally have a smaller M.O.D
lenses.
Modulate
To change or vary some parameter such as varying the amplitude of a signal for am
the frequency of a signal for frequency modulation. A modulator is the circuit that m
Monitor
A device that converts electronic signals into the video image that was generated b
The picture end of a CCTV system.
Monochrome
Having only one color. In television it is black and white.
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MPEG
MPEG is a video compression method commonly used in digital recording. MPEG-1
ROM video and audio. MPEG-2 is a standard for full-screen, broadcast quality video
for video telephony.
Multiplex (Time Multiplex)
Using one carrier to send more than one signal. In video multiplexers, achieving th
MUX
A multiplexer.
N
N.T.S.C. (National Television Standards Comm
E.I.A.)
Color TV system used in the USA. CCTV
N/D (Neutral Density)
A filter that attenuates light equally over the whole visible spectrum.
Noise
Undesired signal(s) that corrupts the original video signal and may reduce image q
P
P.A.L. (Phase Alternate Line. See CCIR)
Color TV system used in the UK
P.S.T.N. (Public Switched Telephone Network
Standard phone lines used to transmit fastscan pictures via modems.
Pan
Side-to-side movement of a camera (on a horizontal axis).
Passive
A non powered element of a system.
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Peak-To-Peak
The amplitude difference between the most positive and the most negative excursi
Peripheral
An optional device that can enhance a CCTV system, for example, a multiplexer, VC
Phase Adjustable (See Line Lock)
The ability to delay the line locking process, so as to align cameras fed from A.C. v
phases.
Photocell
Automatically switches on the infra-red lights when light levels fall to a preset level
Pinhole Lens
Lens used for applications where the camera/lens must be hidden. Front of lens ha
allow the lens to view an entire room through a small hole in a wall.
Pip
Picture in picture.
Pixel
Picture element. The smallest cell or area of a CCD chip capable of displaying detai
greater the number of pixels, the higher the resolution.
Presets
The pre-positioning of pan, tilt and zoom cameras by the use of potentiometers in t
camera head. These allow the control equipment to store and move to a set referen
controller dictates or when an alarm exists.
Q
Quad
A device that compresses up to four video signals and simultaneously displays the
monitor.
R
Rack Mount (19" Rack)
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An industrial standard housing 19" wide, its height is measured in units (U?s) of 1.
Radio Frequency (R.F.)
Signals with a repetition rate above audible range, but below the frequencies assoc
light.
RAID
Redundant Arrays of Independent Disks. The use of two or more disk drives instead
provides better disk performance, error recovery, and fault tolerance, and includes
techniques and mirroring of important data.
Random Interlace
A scanning technique commonly used in CCTV systems in which there is no externa
scanning process. That is, there is no fixed relationship between adjacent lines and
Range Finder
Used to determine the focal length needed and what the picture will look like on th
looks through the device and adjusts the range finder to the desired picture. Numb
the range finder indicate the focal length neede
Raster
The rectangular pattern of scanning lines upon which the picture is produced. The i
TV monitor without the video information present.
Reflected Light
The scene brightness or the light being reflected from a scene.
Resolution
A measure of the ability of a camera or television system to reproduce detail. Typic
number of picture elements that can be reproduced with good definition.
Roll
A loss of vertical sync which causes the picture to move up or down on the TV scre
Rs232
A commonly used computer serial interface.
S
S.E.C.A.M. (See CCIR)
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Color TV system used in France.
S.V.H.S. (Super Video Home System)
New format high resolution VHS video recorders, capable of giving greatly improve
are used. VHS compatible.
S/N Ratio (Signal To Noise Ratio)
Measure of noise levels of a video signal; the higher the number the better.
Saturation (Color)
The vividness of a color. It is directly related to the amplitude of the chrominance s
Scanner
A pan only unit.
Scanning
The rapid movement of the election beam in a pickup device of a camera or in the
receiver. It is formatted in a line-for-line manner across the photo sensitive surface
reproduces the video picture. When referred to a
SCSI
Small Computer Systems Interface (Pronounced "scuzzy".) A ultra high-speed inter
to computer devices such as a hard drive or CD-Rom. A SCSI channel can connect
Sensitivity
A camera's ability to reproduce a given scene with a given amount of light. Usually
candles or lux.
Sensor
A device that indicates a change of state in response to an event or stimulus. See I
Sequential Switchers
Are commonly used devices in small to medium sized CCTV systems. The sequentia
the displayed video image from one camera to the next. However, with sequential
cameras can be viewed simultaneously.
Simplex (Multiplexer)
A multiplexer with 1 frame store that can either time multiplex records or show mu
live or play back. It cannot record the multiplexer pictures whilst showing multi-scr
Solving Focus Shift
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Filtering techniques can be applied to solve the problem of focus shift under active
Cameras behave differently under visible light and infrared light, with one of the ch
focal properties. Day-night mechanical filters solve this problem by blocking IR ligh
and optimizing IR response during the night. The result is a sharply focused image
conditions.
Spot Filter
A small insert used in a lens to increase the f-stop range of the lens.
Static IP Address
A Static or Dedicated IP address is a type of account from an ISP where your comp
assigned the same constant IP Address at all times. Also see IP Address and Dynam
Switcher
A device used to switch the video signals from two or more cameras on a monitor.
Super HAD CCD
Super HAD (Hole Accumulation Diode) CCDs allow more light to pass to each pixel,
and reducing noise.
Sync
Abbreviation for synchronization. Electronic pulses that are inserted in to video sign
assembling the picture information in the correct position.
T
T.V.L. (Television Lines - Resolution)
The maximum number of changes between light and dark on a picture across 3/4 o
resolution of a CCTV product, measured in TVL.
Tearing
A picture condition in which horizontal lines are displaced in an irregular manner.
Telemetry
A system utilizing ?control code? transmitters and receivers. These use the video c
pair cable to send their information.
Telephoto
A lens used to produce a larger image of a distant object.
Terminated (75 Ohm Terminated)
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Video input of a piece of CCTV equipment, wired to be the last in a particular video
Tilt
The up and down tilting movement of a camera. To elevate or depress the vertical
Time Zone
Time intervals during which an activity is permitted.
Timebase Corrector (T.B.C.)
Electronic circuit that aligns unsynchronized video signals before signal processing.
and quad splitters.
Time-Lapse VCR
Video recorder that can record frames with pauses between them thereby extendin
standard length tape will last.
Triplex (TM)
Multiplexer feature that gives you the ability to simultaneously view both playback
the same multi-screen, while still encoding.
Twisted Pair
A cable, often screened, that consists of two conductors twisted together along the
U
Uninterrupted Power Supply (Ups)
Equipment that supplies power to a system in the event the primary power is lost.
batteries or auxiliary motor generators.
Unterminated (Hi-Z)
Video input of a piece of CCTV equipment, wired so as to allow the video signal to b
equipment. Does not necessarily include extra sockets for the extra coaxial cables.
V
Varifocal Lens
See Zoom Lens. Usually not motorized (manual).
VCR
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A device that records video images on tape.
Vertical Interval Switching
Sequential switchers waiting until the current field has finished before they display
though the dwell time has elapsed.
Vext
A multiplexer feature that uses a pulse generated by the VCR so that the multiplex
to the VCR time lapse speed.
Video Motion Detection (V.M.D.)
A system that uses the video signal from a camera to determine if there is any mov
and set of an alarm.
Video Printer
A device that prints a hard copy image from a video signal.
Video Type Lens
An auto-iris lens without an internal circuit to control the iris. All iris control voltage
located within the camera.
Visible Light
Wavelengths of light visible to the human eye.
W
Wavelet
A digital file commonly used in digital recording, which contains a representation of
form; limited in duration and frequency.
White Light
The entire spectrum of visible light.
Y
Y/C
A method of sending video pictures in 2 separate parts down 2 separate cables. Th
Y (the Black and White portion) and C ( the color portion).
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Z
Zoom
The ability to change the magnification of a scene.
Zoom Lens
A lens with a variable focal length. This lens may be effectively used as a wide ang
telephoto lens by varying the focal length of the lens. A varifocal lens.
Zoom Ratio
The ratio of starting focal length (wide position) to the ending focal length (telepho
lens. Typically 10X.
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