Natural 5 sample

Living things come in an amazing variety of shapes and forms. Most scientists declare that the first living organism probably evolved billions of years ago and science has classified and described some 2 million different species on Earth. Although living things differ from each other, there are differences between living and non living things.

Oral questions (discussion)

Do you know what a living thing is? And a non living thing?

How can you tell if something is living or non-living?

Unit 1

Living things

Living things are organisms that exhibit characteristics of life and respond to the environment.

These characteristics include the ability to grow, reproduce, eat, and use energy. Living things include humans, animals, plants, fungi and small organisms known as bacteria.

Living things are highly organized. All living things are made of cells. The cell is considered the fundamental unit of life.

A primary difference between plant cells and

animal cells is that plant cells are able to make their own food.

A cell is the smallest living unit. Because cells and many other living things are really small, we need an instrument to make them visible to the naked eye.

Green cells

Reptilian blood cell

Unit 1

Cells

Cytoplasm

A cell is the smallest living thing. A cell is the basic unit of life as we know it. All living organisms on Earth are divided into cells. All cells are made by other cells and they have specialized functions. Humans have hundreds of different types of cells such as skin cells, red blood and white blood cells, nerve cells, and muscle cell.

Cell membrane

Nucleus

Vacuole

Parts of a cell

Animal and plant cells have the same basic structure, but plant cells are bigger and have a rectangular shape.

Also, plant cells have a hard cell wall to protect the cell membrane and specialized organelles called chloroplast that absorb the sunlight. Plant and animal cells have many parts, each with a different function.

Vacuole

Cytoplasm

Cell wall

Animal and plants cells

Animal and plant cells have the following parts in common:

Nucleus: It controls function inside the cell.

Cytoplasm: It is a thin outer layer that surrounds the cell and allows the exchange of substances.

Cell membrane: It allows the exchange of substances. Thin outer layer. It surrounds cell.

Vacuole: It stores food and water. It gives shape to the cell.

1

Nucleus

Chloroplast

Cell membrane

What are two abilities of an organism?

Plant cells also have these additional parts:

Chloroplast: It contains chlorophyll for Photosynthesis (only in plants).

Cell wall: It is rigid and go around the cell membrane.

It protects the cell.

2

Complete the sentences:

1.

Living things exhibit ... of life.

2.

Living things include ... , ... , ... , and bacteria.

Unit 1

Unicellular and multicellular organism

Based on the number of cells, there are two kinds of organisms. Some organisms, such as bacteria or yeast, are called unicellular organisms and they have only one cell. However multicellular organ-

isms, such as plants or animals, are made up of numerous cells that work together and have specialized functions. For instance, skin cells, liver cells, muscles and brain cells have different jobs in humans. Multicellular organisms can survive better than unicellular organisms.

3

Go online to learn more about cells with flashcards and games:

1

2

4

5

1. Algae

2. Amoeba

3. Euglena

4. Yeast

5. Paramecium

Specialized cells

Cells in organisms become specialized to carry out certain jobs, such as transporting substances or completing a specific task. These cells are called specialized cells and share many common features with other cells, but specialized cells have a special structure to help them to adapt and perform their functions efficiently. Some specialized cells in plants and in animals are:

Life cycle of great moron butterfly from caterpillar

Plant cells:

Root hair cells:

Absorb water and minerals from the soil.

Leaf cells:

Collect sunlight for photosynthesis.

Unit 1

Animal cells:

Nerve cells (neurons)

: Transmit signals around the body to coordinate actions.

Red blood cells

:

Transport oxygen from the lung to the body cells.

Sperm cells

Muscle cells

:

:

Fertilize an egg for reproduction.

They contract to cause movement.

1 True (T) or false (F)?

Red blood cells transport oxygen to muscles.

Reproductive cells protect the body from viruses.

Root cells collect sunlight for photosynthesis.

White cells transport oxygen to muscles.

Nerve cells transmit signals to coordinate actions.

Sperm cells fertilize an egg for reproduction.

2

Match each concept:

Bacteria

Leaf cell

Nerve cell

Birds

Animal cell

Multicellular

Unicellular

Plant cell

2

Fill the gap in these sentences:

1.

... organisms have only one cell.

2.

...organisms have many different kinds of cells.

Unit 1

Levels of organization

Cells are the smallest part of a living thing and organism. Humans, animal and plants are multicellular and cells carry out all their life processes and function. The cells form tissues, tissues form organs, organs form organ systems, and organ systems combine to form an organism.

Many individual organisms can be organized into the following levels:

Cell: Basic unit of structure and function of all living things.

Tissue: Group of cells of the same kind. They work together to do a specific job. Muscle tissue makes up muscles. Tissue carries water from roots to stems to leaves, flesh of fruits.

Organ: One or more types of tissues. The tissues of an organ work together for a specific function. Brain, lungs, heart, stomach for humans. Roots, flowers, fruits for plants.

Organ system: Organ systems work together to perform a function. Examples of organ systems in humans include the skeletal system, nervous system, and circulatory systems. Flowers and pollen in flowering plant reproduction.

Organism: All the different organ systems work together to form an organism or living thing.

Atoms

1

CHEMICAL LEVEL

Molecule

2

CELULAR

LEVEL

Smoot muscle cell

5 ORGANISM LEVEL

Unit 1

3

TISSUE LEVEL

4

ORGAN

LEVEL

Serous membrane

Stomach

Smooth muscle tissue layers

Epithelal tissue

5 SYSTEM LEVEL

Esophagus

Liver

Stomach

Pancreas

Gallbladder

Small Intestine

Large Intestine

1

True (T) or false (F)?

1.

Heart and stomach form the circulatory system.

2.

Lungs form the digestive system.

3.

Roots and leaves are organs of a plant.

4.

The skeletal system is composed of cartilage and bones.

2

Complete the sentences:

plant animals plants reproductive

1. The flesh of fruits is an example of tissue found in ...

2. The bones, the stomach and the intestines are organs found in ...

3. Leaves and flowers are ...organs.

4. Flowers and pollen belong to the ... systems in plants.

3

Complete the sentences:

1. Cells are basic ...

2. Organs systems work ...

3. Organs are made up of ...

4. Tissues are made up of ...

Unit 1

Life processes

All living things depend on life processes to stay alive. Living things have many differences. However, they all perform basic life processes or vital functions. The life processes carried out by all living things include nutrition, reproduction and interaction. These life processes allow living things to obtain and process food, make more organisms like themselves, and interact with their environment.

Nutrition

is the ability living things have to obtain food from the environment to transform them into energy. Animals use the respiratory system for oxygen, and the digestive system for nutrients.

Plants absorb minerals and water through their roots and carbon dioxide and sunlight through their leaves. An example of the nutrition process is an athlete who takes in oxygen while exevcising.

Nutrition

Reproduction

is the ability to produce new organisms similar to its own kind. Through the process of reproduction, all living things make new individuals. Reproduction is essential for continuation of the species. A plant reproduces from a seed while many mammals reproduce from the mother’s womb

(pregnancy).

Interaction

is the ability to react to changes in the environment. All living things receive or detect information about their environment and react to this information in different ways. A change that causes an organism to react is called a stimulus. Interaction can help animals to defend their own territory and react to changes in light, temperature, humidity, and situation in plants. Chameleons change color to match their surroundings.

Reproduction

Interaction

Unit 1

Human body system

The human body is made up of several organ systems that as a unit work together to keep the body functioning. There are major organ systems in the body. Each organ system has a different job in helping the body work.

Circulatory

System

Skeletal

System

Digestive

System

Nervous

System

Respiratory

System

1

True (T) or false (F)?

Interaction can help animals to defend their territory.

Reproduction allows birds to hatch from eggs.

Senses are used to receive information about our surroundings.

2

Match the life processes to the correct concept:

nutrition interaction reproduction

Process materials to obtain energy.

Make possible the survival of the human species.

Detects elements from the surrounding to respond to the information.

Unit 1

Nutrition

Nutrition consists of specialized organ systems through which material or substances are processed to obtain matter and energy for human activities.

The respiratory system supplies the oxygen in order for the blood to deliver oxygen to all parts of the body and remove the carbon dioxide. It consists of the nose, trachea, bronchi, and lungs.

The circulatory system is made up of the blood vessels, blood, and heart. It delivers oxygen and nutrients from cells to every part of the body.

The purpose of the digestive system is to process the food you eat so your cells can use it to make energy and to help develop your body. The organs involved in this system are the mouth, stomach, and intestines.

The excretory system system uses skin, lungs, and kidneys to remove waste substances our body produces.

Fallopian tube

Vagina

Reproduction

Our reproductive systems make it possible for humans to reproduce and survive as a species.

The main function of the female reproductive

system is to produce offspring (that is, more of one’s own kind). It is made up of organs such as the uterus, ovaries, and vagina.

The main function of the male reproductive

system is to reproduce and to be involved in the process of reproduction of the species. It is made up of organs such as testis, and the penis.

Ureter

Bladder

Ductus

Deferens

Prostate

Gland

Bulbourethral

Gland

Penis

Unit 1

Ovary

Uterus

Cervix

Seminal

Vesicle

Erectile

Tissue

Urethra

Epididymis

Testis

Glans Penis

Interaction

Human body interaction helps us to coordinate and control our daily activities. Some of our organ systems detects information from the environment in order to respond to that information.

The five sense organs help you to gather information about your surroundings. The five senses are sight, smell, touch, hearing and taste, located in a specialized organs.

The immune system is made up of a network of cells, tissues, and organs that work together to fight illnesses and protect the body.

The nervous system is known as the control center of the human body. It receives, interprets, and sends messages to organs. It is made up of the brain, spinal cord, and nerves.

This musculoskeletal system includes muscle tissue that helps move the body. It is made of bones, tendons, and muscles which support and protect the body and give it shape.

Sensory organs

Nervous system

Immune system

Musculoskeletal System

1

The system that protects your body from sickness and germs is the...

digestive system. excretory system. immune system.

circulatory system.

2

The male and female ... systems are  essential for reproduction.

reproductive digestive musculoskeletal nervous

3

The nervous system is made up of ... and ...

brain, tendons, and liver. blood vessels and nerves.

brain and spine cord.

Unit 1

Focus knobs

Arm

Base

Unit 1

Tube

Objective lenses

Stage

Diaphragm

Light source

How to use a microscope

Why is the microscope important to the study of cells?

A cell is the smallest living unit. Because cells and many other living things are really small, we need an instrument to make them visible to the naked eye.

This instrument is the microscope. A microscope is an optical instrument containing one or more lenses that produce an enlarged image of the object.

Special instructions to operate a microscope:

• Always use two hands to carry the microscope

• Keep the stage clean

• Use a glass slide for samples

• After using keep the microscope covered to prevent dust

The main parts of an optical microscope are:

Eyepiece (s) contains a lens to look through.

Tube supports the eyepiece.

Arm supports different parts of the microscope.

Objective lenses magnify the objects or samples.

Focus knobs adjust or place the sample into focus.

Stage area to place the slide with the sample.

Diaphragm controls the amount of light.

Light source used to focus light on the sample.

Base supports the microscope.

Use of a microscope:

• Place a sample on the slide.

• Adjust the mirror so it reflects light.

• Place the slide with the sample on the center of the stage.

• Start with the lower power objective lens.

• Focus the sample using the adjustment knob and set the objective lens close to the sample.

• Slowly move back the lens to avoid breaking the glass slide.

• Keep both eyes open to reduce eye strain.

• Use the adjustment knob to fine-tune the focus.

• Shift to a higher power objective lens.

1

A microscope is an ... instrument to make ... visible to the naked eye.

2

Fill the gaps. The main parts of a microscope are:

(a) ..., tube, arm, (b) ..., focus knobs, stage, diaphragm, (c) ..., and base.

3

4

Choose the correct answer to fill the gap. In a laboratory you need a microscope to.

Study an insect.

Mix two substances.

Observe a cell.

Match. When using a microscope.

focus knobs stage diaphragm

Where do you place the sample?...

How do you focus?...

How do you control the light?...

Unit 1

UNICELLULLAR

TISSUES

ORGANS

MULTICELLULLAR

ORGANS SYSTEM

Parts of the skin.

Unit 1

CELLS

LIVING THINGS

NUTRITION

DIGESTIVE

SYSTEM

RESPIRATORY

SYSTEM

CIRCULATORY

SYSTEM

EXCRETORY

SYSTEM

LIVE THINGS

LIFE PROCESSES

REPRODUCTION

INTERACTION

FEMALE

REPRODUCTIVE

SYSTEM

MALE

REPRODUCTIVE

SYSTEM

IMMUNE SYSTEM

NERVOUS SYSTEM

MUSKULOSKELETAL

SYSTEM

SENSORY SYSTEM

Unit 1

1

Complete the sentences:

4

True (T) or false (F)?

vacuole citoplasm cell membrane

White cells transport oxygen to muscles.

1. ______________ is a clear gel material composed mainly of water.

Nerve cells transmit signals to coordinate actions.

3. ______________ stores food and water. It gives shape to the cell.

1. ____________ organisms have only one cell.

2. ____________ organisms have many different kinds of cells.

Sperm cells fertilize an egg for reproduction.

2

2. ______________ is a thin outer layer that surrounds the cell and allows the exchange of substances.

Fill the gaps in these sentences:

5

Complete the sentences:

1. Leaf is an example of cells found in

____________________.

2. The muscles, the mouth and the intestines are organs found in ____________________.

3. Liver and pancreas belong to the

_________________ system in animals.

3

Match each concept:

6

Answer the questions:

focus knobs stage diaphragm

Bacteria

Animal cell

Leaf cell

Nerve cell

Birds

Multicellular

Unicellular

Plant cell

1.

Where do you place the glass slide?

_______________________________________ .

2.

How do you focus?

_______________________________________ .

3.

How do you control the light?

_______________________________________ .

Unit 1

7

Are they true (T) or false (F)?

Interaction cannot help animals to defend their territory.

Nutrients enable living things to grow and give energy.

Senses are used to detect information about our surroundings.

12

In a laboratory you need a microscope to …

1. study an insect.

2.

3. mix two substances.

observe a cell.

13

The main parts of a microscope are:

1.

2.

____________________

, tube, arm.

____________________, focus knobs, stage, diaphragm.

3.

__________________, and base.

8

Read the sentences and circle the correct word:

1.

The epidermis that covers leaves is a plant is a

tissue/organ.

2.

Larger living things have the same number of cells

as / more cells than smaller living things.

14

Complete the boxes under a picture using: organ, tissue or cell.

1. _________________ 2. _________________

9

The immune system includes _____________ and

_______________.

1. brain, tendons, and liver.

2. blood vessels and nerves.

3. lymph nodes and bone marrow.

10

The organ system we use for reproduction is the ____________________ .

1. musculoskeletal system.

2. reproductive system.

3. nervous system.

4. urinary system.

11

The system that transports oxygen and remove carbon dioxide is ____________________ .

1. Musculoskeletal system.

2.

3.

4.

Excretory system.

Immune system.

Circulatory system.

3. _________________

4. _________________

Unit 1

The History of the Microscope

Microscopes are instruments that scientists use to make observations. Microscopes magnify things that are invisible to the naked human eye. Many things in science can be studied under a microscope. Light microscopes have been used for a long time.

Today’s light microscopes work better than the initial ones. With the development of technology and advanced optics, the microscope as we know it today came into being. For instance, the ultramicroscope was invented in 1903 to study  colloidal  particles. Modern electron microscopes are still innovations for viral diagnoses and ultra-structure studies.

Many different inventors worked on making the microscope. There is controversy about the origins of the microscope, but their first microscopes were more of a novelty than a scientific tool.

Robert Hooke and Anton Van Leeuwenhoek were two of the microscope early inventors. However,

Zacharias Jansen and his father Hans started experimenting with lenses during the 1590’s. They made an important discovery and invented the compound microscope.

Nowadays, an electron microscope is able to magnify images thousands of times. Microscopes help working professionals with medical diagnostics, and they have assisted scientists in gaining knowledge of biology and science.

Reading comprehension:

1.

What does a microscope do?

2.

Who were two of the men who helped invent the microscope hundreds of years ago?

3.

How are microscopes used today?

4.

How do scientists let other scientists know about the things they observe so they can learn too?

Unit 1

The circulatory system performs many vital functions. It plays an important role in respiration and also it is important in nutrition. The circulatory system protects the body from diseases.

Materials:

Magic markers (different colors)

Paper

Scissors

Pen

Glue

Cardboard

Instructions:

Work in pairs.

Investigate and read about the circulatory system using the Internet (videos, websites, and mobile apps), reference books, encyclopedia, etc.

Draw pictures and write a brief description from your research.

Talk to a partner about what you have learned about this body system. 

Summarize your science project results. Include key facts from your background research.

Prepare a slide show presentation using a cardboard.

Answer each question:

1.

Name the system that brings oxygen into your body.

2.

What organs make up the circulatory system?

3.

Find out about the three main types of cells of the blood.

4.

List the jobs of the circulatory system:

To transport and deliver ...

To take away and remove ...

To protect and defend ...

Unit 1

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