Aalborg Universitet CMOS Power Amplifiers for Multi

Aalborg Universitet CMOS Power Amplifiers for Multi
Aalborg Universitet
CMOS Power Amplifiers for Multi-Hop Communication Systems
Aniktar, Hüseyin
Publication date:
2007
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Link to publication from Aalborg University
Citation for published version (APA):
Aniktar, H. (2007). CMOS Power Amplifiers for Multi-Hop Communication Systems. aalborg: Department of
Electronic Systems, Aalborg University.
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CMOS Power Amplifiers for
Multi-Hop Communication Systems
Hüseyin Aniktar
Aalborg, 2007
PhD Thesis
Aalborg University
Department of Electronic Systems
Technology Platforms Section
Niels Jernes Vej 12, DK-9220 Aalborg, Denmark
Phone +45 96358673, Fax +45 98151583
tech-platforms@es.aau.dk
www.es.aau.dk
Acknowledgements
First and foremost, I would like to thank my advisor Torben Larsen for the guidance
and inspiration. I would also like to thank Robert S. Karlsson, Henrik Sjoland, and
Jan H. Mikkelsen for their great contribution to my PhD research.
I thank my colleagues in RF Integrated Systems and Circuit Division (RISC) for
the help, encouragement and pleasant working environment. I would like to thank
Svetoslav R. Gueorguiev, and Ole Kiel Jensen for the fruitful technical discussions. A
special ’thank you’ goes to the administrative and technical staff at the department,
for help with paper work, computers, programs and lab assistance, specifically Peter
Boie Jensen, Eva Hansen, and Rikke D. Klemmensen.
Finally this work would not be possible without the financial support from the Danish
Technical Research Council.
ii
Preface
This thesis was prepared at the Technology Platforms Section, Department of Electronic Systems, Aalborg University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for acquiring the Ph.D. degree in engineering.
The thesis covers wireless system analysis, integrated circuit design, analysis and
verification in the field of RF CMOS. The thesis consists of a summary report and a
collection of five research papers written during the period 2004–2007.
Multi-hop cellular networks are currently being explored for use in future generation cellular networks. In multi-hop cellular networks (MCN), communication is not
established directly between the user equipment (UE) and the base station (BS). Instead, intermediate devices act as repeaters between the BS and a UE. Using multiple
hops in a cellular system is one way to decrease the required transmission power for
UE and possibly mitigate interference and coverage problems. Reductions in transmission power decrease the power consumption in the UE; this increases the time
between battery recharges. MCNs can also provide service in ’dead spots’ in a cell,
which are not reachable by the BS in a single hop.
The thesis studies the overall (the whole TX+RX link) power efficiency of existing
cellular networks with and without multi-hop as a function of transmit power. Based
on these investigations new RF requirements have been identified in both transmitter
iv
Preface
and receiver parts for user equipment. These requirements specifically relate to adjacent channel leakage ratio (ACLR) and power control range characteristics. These
new requirements reflect to RF parts as a need for a highly linear power amplifier
with a wide power control range and sharp transmit/receive filter.
Highly linear power amplifier design clearly seems a challenging issue in multi-hop
cellular network systems. However, there is a critical trade off between the linearity
and efficiency in power amplifier design. To improve this trade off, there are different approaches. High efficiency switching amplifier with linearization techniques and
the linear class of amplification with efficiency improvement techniques are some of
them. Efficient but nonlinear power amplifiers (switching amplifiers) with the use
of linearizing circuits may improve this trade off, but at the price of high complexity and additional power consumption, which can be critical in the case of low or
medium power amplifiers (User equipment). Therefore the thesis studies linear class
of amplification with adaptive biasing technique to improve this trade off.
In addition to this critical trade off, a power amplifier design with a reasonable output
power, efficiency, and linearity still remains a major challenge in CMOS technology.
Standard CMOS substrate is very lossy and it will degrade the performance of the
amplifier greatly. CMOS technology also has low breakdown voltage and high knee
voltage features which limit the maximum voltage swing at transistor drains. This
voltage swing limitations make a large impedance transformation necessary in order
to deliver large powers and consequently lower efficiency.
Moreover, the inductance of the ground bondwires is also one of the most serious
problems in multi-stage single-ended integrated amplifier design. Ground bounce
inductance plays an important role on the amplifier stability. If all stages in a multistage amplifier share the same on-chip ground, they will also share the same inductance to PCB ground. Signal current in the output stage converted to voltage by this
inductance will thus be fed back to the input with a risk of instability. The thesis
proposes on chip ground separation technique to solve this problem.
The thesis consists of a summary report and a collection of five research papers. The
summary report is organized as follows: In Chapter 1, different wireless communication standards are presented, and then standard CMOS technology and its features
v
are discussed. This chapter aims to give the reader some background information
on the thesis’s main subjects. In Chapter 2, multi-hop cellular network systems are
investigated. Multi-hop functionality is analyzed in terms of power efficiency and
outage performance. This chapter identifies the new RF requirements for multi-hop
functionality. Chapter 3 deals with different classes of amplification, stability and
matching issues. This chapter also gives the efficiency enhancing techniques in detail.
Chapter 5 discusses the design details of an amplifier together with RF PCB design,
interconnection elements (i.e., bondwire inductance, pad capacitances) and the other
peripheral components (i.e., decoupling capacitances, choke inductances). This chapter deals with the experimental investigation on efficiency and linearity performance
of amplifier with adaptive biasing technique based on GSM-EDGE standard.
The main research directions of the published five papers can be briefly expressed as
follows:
NORCHIP’04 Paper [Appendix A]:
Multi-hop cellular networks are currently being explored for use in future generation
cellular networks. This paper is a step towards identifying overall system requirements
for the radio frequency (RF) part of terminals for such multi-hop cellular networks.
Multi-hop cellular networks offer trade-offs between coverage, capacity and power consumption. Multi-hop networks are also expected to place new requirements on the RF
parts of the transceivers of both repeating and mobile devices. In this paper, a set
of system requirements are derived for multi-hop enabled RF front-ends. For this
purpose, the uplink transmit power distributions and the uplink outage performance
for multi-hop networks are investigated. According to simulation results, some RF
requirements have been identified in both transmitter and receiver sections.
PIMRC’05 Paper [Appendix B]:
Cellular multi-hop networks has the potential to decrease power consumption, increase
coverage and/or enable higher data rates. We propose using in-band transmissions
for the connection between a fixed repeating device and the cellular base station. A
user connected via the repeater use one frequency band (fq2) for the communication
to the repeater and the repeater uses an adjacent frequency band (fq1) for the communication to the base station. There is strong interference in the repeater due to
vi
Preface
transmitting and receiving on adjacent frequency bands, and strong interference from
users connected directly to the base station on fq2. It is demonstrated that the method
can be used to introduce multi-hop functionality into a WCDMA FDD cellular system with only small changes. In a pessimistic scenario repeated users can lower their
transmit power, but others have to increase their power. The multi-hop system requires no extra frequency spectrum but it has a small capacity penalty, and it requires
a high adjacent channel leakage ratio in the repeaters. The results are reasonable for
this pessimistic study and suggest further studies of alternative scenarios to improve
the performance.
NORCHIP’05 Paper [Appendix C]:
In this paper a single stage broadband CMOS RF power amplifier is presented. The
power amplifier is fabricated in a 0.25 µm CMOS process. Measurements with a 2.5 V
supply voltage show an output power of 18.5 dBm with an associated PAE of 16% at
the 1-dB compression point. The measured gain is 5.1 ± 0.5 dB from 1.65 to 2 GHz.
Simulated and measured results agree reasonably well.
With 2.5V supply voltage, 18.5dBm output power with 16% PAE, a broad frequency
band and a high linearity were measured. An amplifier with these performance characteristics might be suitable for use in multimode radio terminal applications.
EuMW’06 Paper [Appendix D]:
In the future GSM and other parallel 2G systems are likely to be replaced with 3G and
beyond, that is the bands that today are used for GSM will then be used for WCDMA
and other standards. WCDMA in the 900 MHz band is a cost effective way to deliver
a high-speed wireless coverage. This work demonstrates a 850/900/1800/1900 MHz
quad-band WCDMA power amplifier.
The power amplifier is designed as a two-stage common source Class-AB amplifier.
The amplifier is fabricated in a 0.25 µm CMOS process. The measured 1-dB compression point between 800 and 900 MHz is 15 dBm ± 0.2 dB with maximum 18%
PAE, and between 1800 and 1900 MHz is 17.5 dBm ± 0.7 dB with maximum 17%
PAE. The measured gains in the two bands are 23.6 dB ± 0.7 dB and 13 dB ± 2.1 dB,
respectively.
The quad-band characteristics was obtained with a single CMOS power amplifier while
getting medium output power, and reasonable efficiency and linearity. The chip size
vii
is 1280 µm × 420 µm.
SiRF’07 Paper [Appendix E]:
This work presents an on-chip ground separation technique for power amplifiers. The
ground separation technique is based on separating the grounds of the amplifier stages
on the chip and thus any parasitic feedback paths are removed. Simulation and experimental results show that the technique makes the amplifier less sensitive to bondwire
inductance, and consequently improves the stability and performance.
A two-stage CMOS RF power amplifier for WCDMA mobile phones is designed using
the proposed on-chip ground separation technique. The power amplifier is fabricated
in a 0.25 µm CMOS process. It has a measured 1-dB compression point between
1920 MHz and 1980 MHz of 21.3 ± 0.5 dBm with a maximum PAE of 24%. The
amplifier has sufficiently low ACLR for WCDMA (−33 dB) at an output power of
20 dBm.
Aalborg, February 2007
Hüseyin Aniktar
viii
Papers included in the thesis
[A] Robert S. Karlsson, Hüseyin Aniktar, Torben Larsen, and Jan H. Mikkelsen,
”RF Requirements for Multi-Hop Cellular Network Repeaters”, IEEE Norchip
Conference, Oslo, Norway, November 2004.
[B] Robert S. Karlsson, Hüseyin Aniktar, Jan H. Mikkelsen, and Torben Larsen,
”Performance of a WCDMA FDD Cellular Multihop Network”, IEEE International Symposium on Personal Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications
(PIMRC), Berlin, Germany, September, 2005.
[C] Hüseyin Aniktar, Henrik Sjöland, Jan H. Mikkelsen, and Torben Larsen, ”A
Class-AB 1.65GHz-2GHz Broadband CMOS Medium Power Amplifier”, IEEE
Norchip Conference, Oulu, Finland, November 2005.
[D] Hüseyin Aniktar, Henrik Sjöland, Jan H. Mikkelsen, and Torben Larsen, ”A
850/900/1800/1900MHz Quad-Band CMOS Medium Power Amplifier”, European Microwave Week (EuMW), Manchester, England, September 2006.
[E] Hüseyin Aniktar, Henrik Sjöland, Jan H. Mikkelsen, and Torben Larsen, ”A
CMOS Power Amplifier using Ground Separation Technique”, 7th Topical Meeting on Silicon Monolithic Integrated Circuits in RF Systems (IEEE SiRF’07),
California, USA, January 2007.
x
Scientific achievements
1. In this work it is shown that the multi-hop achieves lower transmit powers for
user equipments by splitting the transmission into several hops. The thesis
studies the overall (the whole TX+RX link) power efficiency of existing cellular
networks with and without multi-hop as a function of transmit power. Based
on these investigations new RF requirements have been identified in both transmitter and receiver parts for user equipment. These requirements specifically
relate to adjacent channel leakage ratio and power control range characteristics.
These new requirements reflect to RF parts as a need for a highly linear power
amplifier with a wide power control range and sharp transmit/receive filter.
2. A power amplifier design with a reasonable output power, efficiency, and linearity still remains a major challenge in CMOS technology. The main obstacles
in CMOS technology are the low breakdown voltages and the large parasitics
associated with the lossy substrate. These obstacles degrade the performance of
the amplifier greatly. During the project several CMOS Class-AB amplifier has
been designed and reported. Their power added efficiencies are measured from
about 17% to 28% at 1-dB compression points. Different power levels have
been obtained at the amplifier outputs. Maximum measured output power
level is 21.8dBm. Besides the efficiency and output power characteristics, good
linearity performances have been also measured with these amplifiers.
3. In this work an on-chip ground separation technique has been proposed for
xii
multi-stage single-ended amplifiers. The ground separation technique is based
on separating the grounds of the amplifier stages on the chip and thus any
parasitic feedback paths are removed. Simulation and experimental results show
that the technique makes the amplifier less sensitive to bondwire inductance,
and consequently improves the stability and performance.
4. This work also demonstrates that the power amplifier efficiency can be improved at mid-power ranges by dynamically biasing the amplifier with slightly
reduction on the PAE at 1-dB compression point. In linear power amplifiers,
the quiescent bias of the amplifier is set for maximum linear power and DC
power is wasted at lower output power levels. The adaptive biasing method is
based on adaptation the supply voltage to the envelope of the signal. In this
way, it is expected improvement on the efficiency of the power amplifier while
maintaining the required high degree of linearity.
5. Multi-mode radio terminals are needed more and more as the number of radio
systems on the market increases. Realization of multi-band, multi-mode radio
terminals requires technical progress in several areas. Design of broadband
multi-mode power amplifiers is one of them. In this work both broadband and
quad-band amplifier characteristics have been obtained by properly designing
the matching networks. The matching networks are designed to give the best
input and output VSWR characteristic over a wide frequency range by using
passive network synthesis techniques.
xiii
xiv
Contents
Contents
Acknowledgements
i
Preface
iii
Papers included in the thesis
ix
Scientific achievements
xi
List of Abbreviations
1 Introduction
1.1
xix
1
Wireless Communication Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2
1.1.1
UMTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3
1.1.2
GSM-EDGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6
xvi
CONTENTS
1.2
CMOS Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9
1.2.1
I-V Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9
1.2.2
Gate-Oxide Breakdown Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11
1.2.3
Knee Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12
1.2.4
Substrate Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13
2 Multi-Hop Communication Systems
15
2.1
Radio Resource Provisioning
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17
2.2
System Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20
2.2.1
Network Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
22
2.2.2
Propagation Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
22
2.2.3
Adjacent Channel Leakage Ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
24
2.2.4
Traffic and Service Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
24
2.2.5
Signal to Interference Ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
25
2.2.6
Power Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
26
2.2.7
Performance Measures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
26
Simulation Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
28
2.3.1
Uplink and Downlink Outage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
29
2.3.2
Uplink Power Distributions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
30
Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
32
2.3
2.4
CONTENTS
xvii
3 RF Power Amplifiers
3.1
35
Classes of Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
38
3.1.1
Class A, AB, B and C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
38
3.1.2
Class D, E and F . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
40
3.2
Stability Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
41
3.3
Impedance Matching Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
43
3.4
Efficiency Enhancing Techniques for Power Amplifiers . . . . . . . . .
44
3.4.1
Outphasing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
45
3.4.2
Doherty Technique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
46
3.4.3
Kahn Envelope Elimination and Restoration . . . . . . . . . .
48
3.4.4
Envelope Tracking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
49
State of the art in CMOS PAs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
50
3.5
4 Dynamic Supplied CMOS Power Amplifier for GSM-EDGE Transmitters
53
4.1
Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
54
4.2
Design and Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
56
4.2.1
Core Amplifier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
56
4.2.2
Parasitics and Interconnection Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
58
Simulation and Measurement Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
63
4.3
xviii
4.4
CONTENTS
4.3.1
Transfer Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
64
4.3.2
Efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
64
4.3.3
Linearity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
69
Discussions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
73
5 Conclusion
75
A RF Requirements for Multi-Hop Cellular Network Repeaters
77
B Performance of a WCDMA FDD Cellular Multihop Network
83
C A Class-AB 1.65GHz-2GHz Broadband CMOS Medium Power Amplifier
89
D A 850/900/1800/1900MHz Quad-Band CMOS Medium Power Amplifier
E A CMOS Power Amplifier using Ground Separation Technique
95
101
List of Abbreviations
2G
Second Generation
3G
Third Generation
3GP P
3rd Generation Partnership Project
ACLR
Adjacent Channel Leakage Ratio
BER
Bit Error Rate
BJT
Bipolar Junction Transistor
BS
Base Station
CDF
Cumulative Distribution Function
CM OS
Complementary Metaloxidesemiconductor
CW T S
China Wireless Telecommunication Standards group
DL
Downlink
ECSD
Enhanced Circuit-Switched Data
EER
Envelope Elimination and Restoration
EGP RS
Enhanced GPRS
ESD
Electrostatic Discharge
EV M
Error Vector Magnitude
F DD
Frequency Division Duplex
GP RS
General Packet Radio Service
GSM
Global System for Mobile communication
HBT
Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor
xx
HEM T
High Electron Mobility Transistor
HSCSD
High Speed Circuit-Switched Data
ISM
Industrial, Scientific and Medical
LOS
Line-of-Sight
M CL
Minimum Coupling Loss
M CN
Multi-hop Cellular Networks
M M IC
Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit
N ADC
North American Digital Cellular
ODM A
Opportunity Driven Multiple Access
OQP SK
Offset Quadrature Phase-Shift Keying
PA
Power Amplifier
P AE
Power Added Efficiency
P CB
Printed Circuit Board
PWM
Pulse Width Modulator
Q
Quality Factor
RF
Radio Frequency
RF IC
RF Integrated Circuit
RRC
Root Raised Cosine
RX
Receiver
SIR
Signal-to-Interference Ratio
T DD
Time Division Duplex
TX
Transmitter
UE
User Equipment
UL
Uplink
UMTS
Universal Mobile Telephone System
U T RA
Universal Terrestrial Radio Access
V LSI
Very Large Scale Integration
V SW R
Voltage Standing Wave Ratio
W CDM A
Wideband Code Division Multiple Access
Chapter
1
Introduction
Radio frequency integrated circuits in CMOS are developing a strong presence in
the commercial world by springing out of university research. The evolution of wireless technologies together with technological advancements for CMOS technologies,
has resulted in increased research and development activities in so-called Radio Frequency CMOS circuits. Most important for this development is the drive for highly
integrated, low cost mobile handsets, i.e., both the RF, analog and digital part of a
transceiver can be implemented on a single chip with CMOS technology.
This chapter deals with different wireless communication standards and their evolutions. Specifically, UMTS (UTRA-FDD and UTRA-TDD) and GSM-EDGE standards and their specifications are studied in detail in this chapter. In this work
UTRA-FDD standard has been used to analyze the multi-hop functionality. For this,
multi-hop cellular network system has been introduced into a UTRA-FDD cellular
system with small changes. This is explained in Chapter 2 in detail.
In this study, both UMTS and GSM-EDGE standards are taken as reference for
2
Introduction
power amplifier designs. CMOS technology parameters which are required for amplifier design and fabrication are also given in this chapter. Since technology parameters
are given in detail, the technology provider name is not given because of confidentiality. CMOS power amplifier designs for UMTS and GSM-EDGE standards are
explained in Chapters 3, 4 and publications.
1.1
Wireless Communication Systems
Second generation mobile radio systems have shown great success in providing wireless service worldwide with the use of digital technology, in contrast to the analog first
generation systems [47]. The most important second generation systems are global
system for mobile communication (GSM), North American Digital cellular NADC
(IS-54, IS-136) and personal digital cellular in Japan.
GSM was initially introduced as a pan-European system. Since its commercial introduction in the early 1990s, GSM has been constantly upgraded, as evidenced by
the introduction of High Speed Circuit-Switched Data (HSCSD), GPRS, EDGE, Enhanced Circuit-Switched Data (ECSD) and Enhanced GPRS (EGPRS) [46]. The
introduction of the third generation UMTS, based on WCDMA technology, is a further step towards satisfying the ever increasing demand for data/internet services.
3G is quickly moving on to 3.5G, 3.9G, and 4G and is changing the way the world
communicates.
Multiple wide area and local area wireless systems are deployed in various places
around the world, many of which are outlined in Table 1.1. These mobile systems
include cellular (e.g., GSM/GPRS, EDGE, WCDMA, 1xRTT, 1xEV/DO), local area
networks (e.g., IEEE 802.11-b, -a, and -g (Wi-Fi), IEEE 802.16 (WiMAX)), personal
area networks (e.g., Bluetooth, Zigbee), and specialized networks (e.g., TETRA,
iDEN) [46]. Characteristics of these systems span a broad combination of constantenvelope and varying-envelope signals, time-division (half duplex) and code-division
(full duplex) multiplexing, and high (several watts) to very low (microwatts) transmitter output powers.
1.1 Wireless Communication Systems
3
Table 1.1: Some key parameters of various wireless communication standards [46].
System
Frequency
Modulation
(MHz)
GSM-850
UL: 824-849
Max. Average
Spectral
Antenna Power (dBm)
Quality (dB)
GMSK
33
DL: 869-894
GSM-900
UL: 890-915
GMSK
33
DL: 935-960
GSM-1800
UL: 1710-1785
(DCS)
DL: 1805-1880
−60
@400 kHz
GMSK
30
−60
@400 kHz
GSM-1900
UL: 1850-1910
(PCS)
DL: 1930-1990
WCDMA
UE: 1920-1980
UL: HPSK
(FDD)
BS: 2110-2170
DL: QPSK
TD-SCDMA
UE: 1900-1920
GMSK
QPSK
30
−60
@400 kHz
24
−33
@5 MHz
24
BS: 2010-2015
TETRA
−60
@400 kHz
−33
@1.6 MHz
π/4-DQPSK
36
−60
@25 kHz
Bluetooth
ISM Band:
GFSK
20
2400-2483.5
IEEE802.11b
ISM Band:
DQPSK
20
2400-2483.5
IEEE802.11a
5150-5350
−20
@500 kHz
−30
@11 MHz
OFDM
5725-5825
20
−20
@20 MHz
All of these wireless systems consist of a radio frequency or microwave front-end.
These front-end blocks require some system specifications such as bit error rate, minimum detectable signal (sensitivity), blocking and interference performance, channel
bandwidth, modulation scheme, output power range, frequency bands, etc. For each
system the value of these requirements may differ.
1.1.1
UMTS
Universal mobile telecommunications system (UMTS) is generally referred to as the
third generation mobile phone system, set out to replace existing digital systems
in the world today (GSM, D-AMPS, PDC, etc.). It is one of the most important
4
Introduction
third generation mobile communication systems being developed within the IMT2000 frame work [36, 5].
The first generation mobile communications systems were all based on analog communications using frequency division multiple access. These systems, of which most
were based on regional standards, are all characterized by the low spectral efficiency,
low security, and limited quality. The second generation mobile phones introduced
digital communication in form of time division multiple access except for cdmaOne
which uses direct sequence code division multiple access (DS-CDMA). Second generation mobile communications offered good security, quality, and roaming.
The third generation mobile telecommunication standard UMTS uses a combination
of TDMA and CDMA technology. UMTS aims to provide a broadband, packet-based
service for transmitting video, text, digitized voice, and multimedia at data rates of
up to 2 megabits per second while remaining cost effective [36].
UMTS comprises two air interfaces. One of these interfaces utilizes CDMA combined
with frequency division duplex (UTRA-FDD). The other uses CDMA/TDMA and
time division duplex to achieve two way communication (UTRA-TDD) [36]. UTRAFDD is based on a harmonized version of WCDMA technology. UTRA-TDD is likely
to experience further harmonization related to the TD-SCDMA standard proposed
by the Chinese standards body CWTS.
The spectrum allocation for UTRA-TDD is split into two bands: 1900-1920 MHz
for uplink and 2010-2025 MHz for downlink. The UTRA-FDD uplink frequency
band is between 1920-1980 MHz and the UTRA-FDD downlink uses the frequency
band in the range of 2110-2170 MHz [13].
UTRA-FDD UE Transmitter Specifications:
In this section UTRA-FDD UE transmitter specifications are given briefly [13]. In
specifications, transmitter characteristics are specified at the antenna connector of
the UE. There will likely be some devices between the PA output and the antenna
terminals such as circulator, duplex filter, and switch(es) with several dB of loss.
1.1 Wireless Communication Systems
5
A. UTRA-FDD UE Transmit Power: The power classes in Table 1.2 define the
maximum average output power of UE [13].
Table 1.2: UE output power levels.
Power Class
Average output power
Tolerance
1
+33 dBm
+1/ − 3 dB
2
+27 dBm
+1/ − 3 dB
3
+24 dBm
+1/ − 3 dB
4
+21 dBm
±2 dB
B. Adjacent Channel Leakage Power Ratio: Adjacent Channel Leakage power
Ratio is the ratio of the root raised cosine filtered mean power centered on the
assigned channel frequency to the RRC filtered mean power centered on an
adjacent channel frequency [13]. If the adjacent channel power is greater than
-50dBm then the ACLR shall be higher than the value specified in Table 1.3
[13].
Table 1.3: UE ACLR [13].
Power Class
Adjacent channel frequency relative
ACLR limit
to assigned channel frequency
3
+5 MHz or -5 MHz
33 dB
3
+10 MHz or -10 MHz
43 dB
4
+5 MHz or -5 MHz
33 dB
4
+10 MHz or -10 MHz
43 dB
C. Error Vector Magnitude: The Error Vector Magnitude is a measure of the
difference between the reference waveform and the measured waveform. This
difference is called the error vector. Both waveforms pass through a matched
RRC filter with bandwidth 3.84 MHz and roll-off α = 0.22 [13]. Both waveforms
are then further modified by selecting the frequency, absolute phase, absolute
amplitude and chip clock timing so as to minimize the error vector. The EVM
value shall not exceed 17.5% in RMS [13].
6
Introduction
UTRA-TDD UE Transmitter Specifications:
The UTRA-TDD mode includes two different transmission modes in the physical
layer: TDD high chip rate with 3.84 Mcps and TDD low chip rate with 1.28 Mcps.
TDD high chip rate mode is known as TD-CDMA and TDD low chip rate is known
as TD-SCDMA. TD-SCDMA was proposed by China Wireless Telecommunication
Standards group (CWTS) and approved by the ITU in 1999. UTRA-TDD UE transmitter specifications are given below briefly [15].
A. UTRA-TDD UE Transmit Power: The power classes in Table 1.4 define the
maximum average output power of UE [15].
Table 1.4: UE output power levels [15].
Power Class
Average output power
Tolerance
1
+30 dBm
+1/ − 3 dB
2
+24 dBm
+1/ − 3 dB
3
+21 dBm
+2/ − 2 dB
4
+10 dBm
±4 dB
B. ACLR and EVM requirements: The ACLR performance for UE is listed in
Table 1.5. The error vector magnitude value for UE shall not exceed 17.5%
both in RMS and peak [15].
Table 1.5: UE ACLR [15].
Power Class
Adjacent channel frequency relative
ACLR limit
to assigned channel frequency
1.1.2
2, 3
+1.6 MHz or -1.6 MHz
33 dB
2, 3
+3.2 MHz or -3.2 MHz
43 dB
GSM-EDGE
EDGE (Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution) technology is an upgrade to the
GSM standard, providing higher data rates in the same frequency spectrum by using higher density modulation. EDGE promises to allow service providers to deliver
1.1 Wireless Communication Systems
7
theoretical data rates up to 384 kilobits/sec, and enable wireless services such as
multimedia and other broadband applications [4].
The EDGE and GSM signal spectrums are nearly identical with the primary difference being that the EDGE signal has deeper nulls at the edges of the main lobe
[4]. GSM is a constant envelope modulation - that is, carrier power does not vary
with modulation. The EDGE signal has the same spectral characteristics as GSM, as
well as the same symbol rate and frame structure. To achieve higher data rates, the
EDGE signal makes use of both amplitude and phase modulation [4]. The addition
of amplitude modulation translates into more stringent requirements for the power
amplifier than GSM, as well as a different approach for measuring modulation quality
and power. In Table 1.6, a brief comparison between the EDGE and GSM standards
is given.
Table 1.6: GSM and EDGE comparison [4].
Modulation
GSM
EDGE
GMSK
3π/8 rotated 8PSK
Bits/symbol
1
3
Data bits per burst
114
342
Symbol rate
270.833 kHz
270.833 kHz
Pulse shaping filter
0.3 Gaussian
Linearized Gaussian
There are eight frequency bands defined for GSM; GSM 450 band, GSM 480 band,
GSM 850 band, standard or primary GSM 900 band (P-GSM), extended GSM 900
band (E-GSM), railways GSM 900 band (R-GSM), DCS 1800 band, and PCS 1900
band. Each of them has a spectrum allocation and it is split into two bands for uplink
and downlink. The spectrum allocation for DCS 1800 is 1710-1785 MHz for uplink
and 1805-1880 MHz for downlink [3].
In Tables 1.7 and 1.8 the UE maximum average output power levels and tolerances
are given according to 8-PSK modulation.
The maximum average output power for 8-PSK in any one band is always equal to
or less than GMSK maximum average output power for the same equipment in the
same band [3]. For instance, 33 dBm maximum average output power for GSM corre-
8
Introduction
Table 1.7: Maximum average output power for EDGE UE [3].
Power
GSM 400, GSM 900
GSM 400, GSM 900
and GSM 850 bands
and GSM 850 bands
Max. average
Tolerance (dB)
class
output power
E1
33 dBm
±2 (normal), ±2.5 (max)
E2
27 dBm
±3 (normal), ±4 (max)
E3
23 dBm
±3 (normal), ±4 (max)
Table 1.8: Maximum average output power for EDGE UE [3].
Power
DCS 1800 band
PCS 1900 band
DCS 1800, PCS 1900
Max. average
Max. average
Tolerance (dB)
class
output power
output power
E1
30 dBm
30 dBm
±2 (normal), ±2.5 (max)
E2
26 dBm
26 dBm
-4/+3 (normal), -4.5/+4 (max)
E3
22 dBm
22 dBm
±3 (normal), ±4 (max)
sponds to 27 dBm maximum average output power for EDGE which is power class-E2.
The modulation accuracy requirement for 8-PSK modulation is defined according
to RMS and peak EVM values, and also the 95:th percentile requirement. The measured RMS EVM over the useful part of any burst, excluding tail bits, shall not
exceed 9% for the user equipment [3]. The measured peak EVM values shall also be
less than 30% for the user equipment [3]. The 95:th percentile is the point where
95% of the individual EVM values, measured at each symbol interval, is below that
point. That is, only 5% of the symbols are allowed to have an EVM exceeding the
95:th-percentile point [3].
The required spectral quality for EDGE standard is -54 dB at 400 kHz offset and
maximum power for GSM 400, GSM 850, GSM 900, DCS 1800, and PCS 1900 bands
[3].
1.2 CMOS Technology
1.2
9
CMOS Technology
In order to provide signal gain, an amplifier must contain at least one active device.
In this work complementary metaloxidesemiconductor (CMOS) transistors are used
as active devices. The CMOS technology, throughout the years, has increasingly
widened in the field of analog and RF integrated circuits by providing low cost and
high performance solutions [18]. The low cost of fabrication and the possibility of
placing both analog/RF and digital circuits on the same chip make CMOS technology more attractive. Over the years, the intrinsic speed of MOS transistors has been
increased by scaling down the channel length. This makes possible multi gigahertz
analog circuits [55]. The main obstacles in CMOS technology are the low breakdown
voltages and the large parasitics associated with the lossy substrate.
In this work 0.25µm 2.5V single poly five metal (1P5M) RF CMOS process is used
for fabrication. Some parameters of this process are discussed in this chapter. Some
limitations, advantages, and disadvantages of CMOS technology are also discussed
and compared to other technologies in this chapter.
In order to represent the behavior of N/P MOSFET transistors in circuit simulations, SPICE requires an accurate model for each device. There are a number of
simulation models for MOS transistors, but only some of them are suitable for RF
circuits. These models are BSIM3v3, BSIM4, MOS9, MOS11, and EKV [63, 62]. The
BSIM3v3 model is the most widely used model for analog circuits and in this work
as well.
1.2.1
I-V Characteristics
The MOS transistor is usually modeled with four terminals: gate, bulk, drain and
source. The transistor can be made symmetric, so that there is no physical difference
between the drain and the source. For both symmetric and non-symmetric transistors, it depends on the driving conditions which terminal is called drain and which
is called source [60].
10
Introduction
There are two types (polarities) of MOS transistors, n-channel and p-channel. The
N device conducts when the gate-source voltage is more positive than the threshold
voltage VT n , which is dependent on parameters such as doping concentrations, oxide
thickness, gate material, surface charge density, and source/substrate bias [22]. The
P device conducts when the gate-source voltage is more negative than the threshold
voltage VT p . The source has higher potential than the drain [60].
The relationship between the drain current of a MOSFET and its terminal voltages is simple for long channels, but it is very complicated for short channels. The
relation for n-channel MOSFET can be briefly given as follows [22]. The p-channel
MOSFET shows similar behavior. In the equations, drain current is denoted by
Id , drain-source, gate-source, and threshold voltages are denoted by VDS , VGS , VT ,
respectively. All are the large signal parameters.
• Cutoff region: ID = 0 (ignoring sub-threshold current), VGS − VT n < 0
• Triode (or ohmic) region: VGS − VT n ≥ 0, and VDS ≤ VGS − VT n
ID = Kp ·(
W
V2
V2
)·[(VGS −VT n )·VDS − DS ] = β ·[(VGS −VT n )·VDS − DS ] (1.1)
L
2
2
• Saturation region: VGS − VT n ≥ 0, and VDS ≥ VGS − VT n ,
If ignoring channel modulation effect:
1
W
1
· Kp · ( ) · (VGS − VT n )2 = · β · (VGS − VT n )2
2
L
2
With channel modulation effect:
ID =
ID =
where β = Kp ·
W
L
1
· β · (VGS − VT n )2 · (1 + λc · (VDS − VDSsat ))
2
and KP = µn · COX = µn ·
(1.2)
(1.3)
εOX
tOX .
In equations, λc is the channel length modulation coefficient and its typical values range from greater than 0.1 for short channel devices to 0.01 for long channel
devices [22]. tOX is the gate oxide thickness, COX is the oxide capacitance, µn is the
1.2 CMOS Technology
11
mobility of electrons, and the εOX is the dielectric constant of the gate oxide. W and
L shows the transistor width and length, respectively [55, 22, 63]. Triode region is
the amplification region for power amplifiers.
In 0.25µm 2.5V 1P5M CMOS technology, the typical threshold voltage (VT n ) for
NMOS transistor (W/L = 10/0.24) is 0.54 V and the typical threshold voltage (VT p )
for PMOS transistor (W/L = 10/0.24) is −0.58 V. The typical drain current density
for the same NMOS transistor is 630µA/µm and the typical drain current density for
the same PMOS transistor is −280µA/µm. These values can be extended to any size
of the transistors.
Besides the current density limitation of MOSFET, metal layers and vias have also
limitations for the maximum current density. The 0.25µm 2.5V 1P5M CMOS technology has five metal layers and each of them has different maximum current density.
The maximum current density of the Metal 1, Metal 2, Metal 3, and Metal 4 layers
is 0.8 mA/µm and it is 1.5 mA/µm for Metal 5 layer. The maximum current density
for vias is 1 mA/via. This means that if the output transistor draws about 150 mA
through the choke from the supply, the required inductance trace thickness is at least
100µm on Metal 5 layer. This size inductance is huge for integration, that is why the
chokes are generally off-chip components.
1.2.2
Gate-Oxide Breakdown Effect
The low breakdown voltage in a modern CMOS technology poses a major limitation
in PA realization. The oxide breakdown occurs when a large voltage is applied over
the gate oxide of a MOSFET. The effect on the transistor is a permanent short circuit
through the insulator [22]. Since RF devices are usually quite large, and are fingered,
different fingers of the device may go through breakdown at different times. Thus
even a single gate-oxide breakdown can be fatal to the functioning of an RF circuit.
The oxide breakdown can be caused by static charge, which means that ESD protective circuits should be used if an input is connected directly to the gate of a MOSFET.
In the 0.25µm CMOS process, the estimated gate oxide breakdown voltage is approx-
12
Introduction
imately 5 V under 2.5 V supply voltage and 50 Å oxide thickness. Having a lower
breakdown voltage means that the maximum voltage swing on the drain terminal is
also limited and this limitation requires a lower load impedance at the output terminal to deliver more power. A lower load impedance makes necessary large impedance
transformation and consequently more power loss over the impedance transformation
network.
Breakdown voltage levels for different semiconductor technologies can be approximately given as follow: GaAs MESFET - from 16 to 20 Volts breakdown is possible.
GaAs PHEMT - 12 Volts breakdown is the best and 5 - 6 Volts is typical [17].
GaAs MHEMT - the breakdown voltage is much lower than PHEMT. SiGe HBT the breakdown voltage is as bad as 1.5 Volts. InP HEMT has also low breakdown
voltage. GaN - the breakdown voltage can reach up to 100 Volts. LDMOS - high
breakdown voltage is one of its most important advantages [17]. For a given output
impedance the power output is the square of voltage swing, therefore it is possible to
get over 7 dB more power going from 12 to 28 Vdd [17].
As CMOS technology continues to scale down, allowing operation in the gigahertz
region, it provides the more opportunities for RF implementations. On the other
hand, decreasing device length in CMOS technologies results in a lower breakdown
voltage because the oxide thickness is decreasing as well. At present, GaAs and
BiCMOS technologies constitute the major section of the RF market, especially in
power amplifiers and switches. While GaAs processes offer useful features such as
higher breakdown voltage, semi-insulating substrate, and high quality inductors and
capacitors, CMOS process can potentially provide both higher levels of integration
and lower overall cost [54]. So there is no single technology meets all market requirements.
1.2.3
Knee Effect
The knee voltage is the drain-source voltage at which the MOSFET starts to operate
as an amplifier [22]. Assuming the PA consists of one single MOSFET, the knee voltage is the same for the PA as for the MOSFET. If a cascade stage is used the PA knee
1.2 CMOS Technology
13
voltage will be increased. Traditionally the knee voltage is taken to be the voltage
where the PA has reached 90% of its drain current in a typical I-V characteristic.
One of the consequences of the knee voltage (Vknee ) is a reduction of the maximum voltage swing at the drain, from 2VDD to 2(VDD − Vknee ). This has a negative
impact on the efficiency.
1.2.4
Substrate Effect
The low-resistivity substrate that is used in standard CMOS processing has limited
the integration of high-quality passive components. At high frequencies the current
flows through Cox and into the lossy substrate [55, 63, 62]. The resulting dissipation
adds a real component to the imaginary impedance and degrades the quality factor
(Q). As the frequency increases to where the skin depth is on the order of the substrate
thickness, eddy currents in the substrate become a major loss mechanism [55, 63, 62].
The use of high-resistivity substrates has been proposed as a solution for suppressing
substrate noise and for increasing the quality factor. In the 0.25µm CMOS process,
the substrate resistivity is 20Ω − cm, the substrate thickness is 29 Mils, and the relative dielectric constant (εr ) is 4.1. For the other technologies these features can be
approximately given as follow: GaAs MESFET - it has a high bulk resistivity and
the dielectric constant is 12.9 [17]. InP HEMT - the dielectric constant is 12.4. LDMOS - it utilizes epitaxial silicon, low-doped P-type layers grown on low-resistivity
(i.e. highly doped) silicon wafers [17]. Since the epitaxial layer is used to ground the
source to the substrate, each source is comfortably grounded to the baseplate.
To have a high dielectric constant and thick substrate gives an opportunity to implement the transmission lines on chip. The approximate relation between the substrate
thickness, relative dielectric constant and the microstrip line width can be given as
14
Introduction
follows:




W
=

d


8·eA
,
e2A −2
2
π [B
for W/d < 2
− 1 − ln(2B − 1) +
where
Zo
A=
60
r
εr −1
2εr ln(B
− 1) + 0.39 −
0.61
εr ],
0.11
εr + 1 εr − 1
+
(0.23 +
)
2
εr + 1
εr
B=
377π
√
2Zo εr
for W/d > 2
(1.4)
(1.5)
(1.6)
where d is the substrate thickness, εr is the relative dielectric constant, Zo is the
characteristic impedance, and the W is the microstrip line width [50]. W and d are
in the same units.
From Equation 1.4, it is found that the microstrip line width is approximately pro√
portional to 1/ εr and d, and the use of a thick substrate with a larger permittivity
thus can result in a smaller microstrip line.
The utilization of CMOS technology for RF applications is becoming more and more
established. It is made possible mainly by the channel length decreasing to submicron
sizes, providing an opportunity to increase the cut-off frequency fT and maximum
oscillation frequency fmax [63, 62]. The advantages of scaling down the transistor
dimensions are apparent in digital design, where a steady decrease is seen in the
power-delay product [63, 62]. However, in analog design some disadvantages appear.
One disadvantage is that the breakdown voltage decreases with reduced physical dimensions, so that lower supply voltages must be used and stacking of transistors is
less efficient [63, 62].
In this chapter wireless communication standards, CMOS technology and MOSFET
operation are briefly discussed. UMTS and GSM-EDGE standards are described
in detail. The influence of scaling, and some problems related to deep-submicron
technology are also described in this chapter.
Chapter
2
Multi-Hop Communication
Systems
Relaying is found in Packet Radio and Ad-Hoc networks whereby communications
between mobile terminals are carried out in a distributed manner through intermediate relay nodes. When employed in a cellular network, this technique can be regarded
as an Opportunity Driven Multiple Access (ODMA) [2] or more generally Multi-hop
Cellular Network scheme where relaying is turned to when communications to and
from the base station for a certain mobile terminal are poor due to a lack of LOS
(Line-of-Sight) or severe multipath fading.
Multi-hop communication systems combine the benefits of having a fixed infrastructure of base stations and the flexibility of ad-hoc networks. They are capable of
achieving much higher throughput than current cellular systems, which can be classified as single hop cellular networks. In multi-hop wireless communication systems
messages are not transmitted directly from a user equipment to a base station. Instead intermediate devices repeat the messages between BS and UE. Figure 2.1 (a)
illustrates the classical direct communication and multi-hop communication systems.
16
Multi-Hop Communication Systems
Figure 2.1 (b) illustrates the circumventing shadowing (dead spot) by multi-hop. Figure 2.2 (a) illustrates an example of multi-hop communication network.
Figure 2.1: (a) Multi-hop and direct communication systems (b) Circumventing shadowing (dead spot) by multi-hop.
Using multiple hops, in a cellular system, is a way to decrease the required transmission power for user equipments and possibly mitigate interference and coverage
problems [41]. Reductions in transmission power decrease the power consumption in
user equipments; this increases the time between battery recharges. Also for health
reasons transmission power reductions are attractive, though there are not yet any
conclusive proofs of the health effects of cellular phones. Multi-hop communication
can also provide service in ’dead spots’ in a cell, which are not reachable by the BS
in a single hop. However, any UE which is close to BS might face up to excessive
communication traffic between the BS and any other distant UEs. This might result
in less battery life time, more interference and security problems for the UEs which
are closer to BS. At this point, well developed routing algorithms (optimum path
selection) and user’s cooperation and security issues are important and necessary for
better overall multi-hop cellular network performance.
Multi-hop communication offers trade offs between coverage, capacity and power
consumptions. To investigate the performance of multi-hop cellular networks and
2.1 Radio Resource Provisioning
17
Figure 2.2: (a) Example of a multi-hop communication network (b) The network
layout. Macro base stations are indicated by o and repeaters by x.
the resulting RF requirements a system model suitable for analyzing multi-hop networks is introduced. The adopted model has been chosen to reflect an urban high
traffic scenario and is taken from 3GPP Radio Frequency Systems Scenarios with
some additions necessary to model the multi-hop functionality [12]. Detailed system
parameters, scenarios and simulation results are discussed in the following sections.
2.1
Radio Resource Provisioning
Splitting the transmissions between BSs and UEs into two or more hops increases
the delay of the communications. Depending on the type of service considered, this
can be acceptable or not. Multi-hop systems could be made in at least two different
ways; 1. using fixed repeaters, and 2. using mobile repeaters. Fixed repeaters are
special devices that an operator place at strategic places in the coverage area - they
are assumed to be connected to a power source. A mobile repeater is any UE that
acts as a repeater for other UEs - thus they run on battery power. This work concentrates on fixed repeaters using two hops.
18
Multi-Hop Communication Systems
When the transmission is split into two hops between a UE and a BS there are
four transmission directions: from the BS to the repeater, from the repeater to the
UE, from the UE to the repeater, and from the repeater to the BS. To provide radio
resources for these transmissions at least three different methods can be used: Separation in time, separation in space, and separation in frequency.
Systems with separation in time end up being similar to time division duplex systems. There should only be additions in the protocols (e.g., routing and scheduling
is needed) to add multi-hop functionality to an existing TDD cellular system. There
is a potential capacity problem with this method if slots used for the extra hop are
not reusable for other users.
Examples of cellular systems with separation in space are the traditional repeater
systems where a repeater with a donor antenna directed at a BS (or an optical fiber
directly from the BS) and a serving antenna directed towards the UEs. The attenuation between server and donor antenna must be in the order of 10 to 15 dB larger
than the gain in the repeater [8]. Traditional repeaters are used for coverage inside
buildings, in tunnels, and along highways or in other areas with bad coverage. The
requirement for attenuation between antennas makes this method unsuitable here because we are interested in small user installed repeating devices with ideally only one
antenna, or maximum two with a short distance between them. Thereby, separation
using space diversity is not an option here.
Separation in frequency is the option in this work since this will put new requirements
on the RF parts of the transceivers of both repeating and mobile devices. The question where to get this extra spectrum for the multi-hop can be solved in several ways.
Below some examples are given on how multi-hop functionality can be introduced
into an existing WCDMA-FDD network where the operator has access to either one
carrier (2x5 MHz, i.e., 5 MHz for uplink and 5 MHz for downlink) or two adjacent
carriers (2x10 MHz). The frequency bands could be, e.g., for pair one 1930-1935
and 2120-2125 MHz (with possible center frequencies 1932.4 and 2122.4 MHz), and
for pair two 1935-1940 and 2125-2130 MHz (with possible center frequencies 1937.4
and 2127.4 MHz). In Figures 2.3 and 2.4 the possible center frequencies for different
setups of the multi-hop system are stated.
2.1 Radio Resource Provisioning
Figure 2.3:
19
(a) Multi-hop system based on using other type of system (e.g.,
GSM/EDGE, WCDMA-TDD or WLAN) for the multihop part. (b) Multi-hop system where the repeater acts as a UE towards the BS and UE using the same frequencies. Transmission paths (solid) and interference (dashed).
To get extra spectrum for the multi-hop cellular network, one option is to use a system on a different frequency band for the part between the repeater and the UE,
e.g., GSM, WLAN, Bluetooth or WCDMA-TDD mode could be used for that part,
see Figure 2.3 (a). The challenge for the RF part is the efficiency of simultaneously
transmitting and receiving on two different systems for the repeater.
The other option to get extra spectrum is that repeater acts as a user equipment.
If it is assumed that UEs can switch receive and transmit bands (i.e., transmit in
the normal receive band and receive in the normal transmit band), then the repeater
can transmit as a UE towards both the BS and the repeated UE, as seen in Figure
2.3 (b). For operators with 2x10 MHz, or more, of available spectrum the second
frequency band could be used for the second hop, as seen in Figure 2.4 (a). For both
of these options there will be strong interference between the repeated UE and other
UEs that communicate directly with the BS when they happen to come close to the
repeated UE see the dashed lines in Figure 2.3 (b) and 2.4 (a). This can be solved
with a fast intra-cell handover to the other frequency band. Another unavoidable
source of interference is the extra interference at the BS created by the repeater’s
transmission to the UE, and the strong interference at the repeater created by the
20
Multi-Hop Communication Systems
Figure 2.4: (a) Multi-hop system where the repeater acts as a UE towards BS and
UE on different frequencies. (b) Multi-hop system where the repeater acts as an UE
towards BS, and as a BS towards UE.
BS transmission to other UEs. These latter interferences can not be avoided and will
result in problems for the repeater to receive the UE correctly. The challenge for the
RF part is the ability for the UEs to switch the transmit and the receive frequency
band.
Another option is when the repeater works as a UE towards the BS, and as a BS
toward the UE on a second frequency band, see Figure 2.4 (b). In this scenario there
will be strong interference between the repeater and UEs that communicate directly
with the BS when they happen to come close to the repeater. This can be solved
with fast intra-cell handover. An advantage, of this solution, is that existing UEs
probably only will need updates to the protocols. The challenge for the RF part
is the simultaneous transmission and reception on adjacent frequency bands in the
repeater. This option is the case in this work.
2.2
System Models
In this section, system models suitable for analyzing multi-hop functionality are introduced into a WCDMA-FDD network as described in Section 2.1.3. Thus the
2.2 System Models
21
Table 2.1: System parameters [12, 14, 9].
PARAMETER
VALUE
Site to site distance
1000 m.
User bit rate
12200 bit/s
Chip rate
3.84 Mchip/s
Processing gain
3840/12.2
Noise factor UEs and repeater (for both frequencies)
9 dB
Noise factor BS
5 dB
Maximum UE output power
125 mW
Maximum BS output power
20 W
BS output power used for common channels (20% of maximum)
4W
Maximum repeater output power (0.5 W in each band)
500 mW
SIR target in UE, and in repeater (downlink)
7.9 dB
SIR target in BS, and in repeater (uplink)
6.1 dB
ACLR when UE transmits
33 dB
ACLR when BS transmits
45 dB
Antenna gain in BS
11 dB
Antenna gain in repeater and in UE
0 dB
Downlink orthogonality factor
0.4
MCL between two repeaters, and between repeater and UE
45 dB
MCL between BS and repeater, and between BS and UE
53 dB
Repeater distance from BS 1
375 m.
system has 2x10 MHz of available spectrum. The models have been chosen to reflect
an urban high traffic scenario, and are taken from 3GPP Radio Frequency Systems
Scenarios [12] with some additions necessary to model the multi-hop. The model
parameters are summarized in Table 2.1.
It is interested in the capacity aspects and therefore disregarded the mobility and
used independent snapshots [19] to analyze the performance. A snapshot is a randomly chosen time interval that is long enough to let the power control converge but
short enough that large scale propagation does not change.
The uplink (from the UEs to the BSs, possibly via a repeater) and the downlink
(from the BSs to the UEs, possibly via a repeater) are independently investigated.
The term link is used to denote the communication from a transmitter to a receiver.
Thus a user communicates with two links: to and from the BS (or with four links if
the user is repeated). All links are numbered with a unique integer tag.
22
Multi-Hop Communication Systems
2.2.1
Network Layout
It is assumed that a WCDMA-FDD system with 19 macro base stations placed in a
hexagonal pattern as shown in Figure 2.2 (b). In the center cell six fixed repeaters
have been introduced. As a reference case the same system without the repeaters is
also investigated. We let all base stations in the system use both frequency bands.
The communication between BS number one and the repeaters is located on frequency
band one (1930-1935 and 2120-2125 MHz), and the communication between repeaters
and repeated UEs is located on frequency band two (1935-1940 and 2125-2130 MHz).
To avoid border effects, in the macro network, a wrap-around technique is used.
2.2.2
Propagation Model
In this section the path gain (G) is modeled. A transmitter transmitting with power
Ptx is received with power G.Ptx at the receiver. The path gain includes distance
dependent attenuation, shadow fading, the antenna gains and the effect of minimum
coupling loss (MCL). The MCL is due to assumptions on the minimum distance between a transmitter and a receiver; and it is dependent on the type of scenario that
we are considering [10].
The propagation models suggested in [1] are used for simulations, the parameters
are summarized in Table 2.2. There are four different types of propagation models
needed in this scenario:
a) Between a BS and a UE.
b) Between a BS and a repeater.
c) Between a repeater and a UE.
d) Between repeaters.
For a. and b. the COST-Hata-Model is used. This model is suitable for outdoor
urban areas where one of the antennas is placed above the roof top level.
2.2 System Models
23
Table 2.2: Propagation parameters [12, 1].
PARAMETER
VALUE
Frequency
2000 MHz
Repeater antenna height
4 m.
UE antenna height
1.5 m.
Height of buildings and width of roads
15 m.
Building separation
90 m.
Street orientation with respect to direct path
90◦
Base station antenna height
30 m.
Standard deviation of shadow fading
6 dB
Shadow fading spatial correlation distance (Where correlation is equal to 1/e)
110 m.
Shadow fading BS/repeater correlation
0.5
The distance dependent part of the path gain between a BS and a UE/repeater is
described, in dB, by
(G(d))dB = −28 − 35 · log10 (d)
(2.1)
where d is the distance in meters between communicating devices.
For c. and d. the COST-Walfisch-Ikegami-Model is used. This model is suitable
for non-line-of-sight with both antennas placed below roof top level. The distance
dependent part of the path gain is given, in dB, by the following equations:
(
(G(d))dB =
−Lf s − Lrts − Lmsd ,
Lrts + Lmsd > 0
−Lf s ,
Lrts + Lmsd ≤ 0
(2.2)
where Lf s is the free space loss in dB, Lrts is the roof-top-to-street diffraction and
scatter loss in dB, and Lmsd is the multiple screen diffraction loss in dB.
To the distance dependent path gains a log-normal distributed shadow fading is also
added [12], using the spatial correlation model of [33]. Moreover, the shadow fading
value between a UE and different BSs/repeaters was assumed to be correlated (e.g.,
this models a user that moves into the basement of a building when the path gain
decreases to all BSs and repeaters).
24
Multi-Hop Communication Systems
Thus the total path gain between a transmitter and a receiver is given, in linear
scale, by
G = min(At · Ar · G(d) · S; 1/M CLk )
(2.3)
where At is the antenna gain at the transmitter, Ar is the antenna gain at the receiver,
G(d) is the distance dependent path gain, S is the shadow fading factor, and M CLk
is the MCL of this link.
2.2.3
Adjacent Channel Leakage Ratio
In simulation scenario there is severe interference in the repeaters due to the transmissions on adjacent channels. The system performance is investigated for some
different values of ACLR in the repeaters, while ACLR of 45dB [9] for the BSs and
ACLR of 33dB [14] for the UEs are used. Usually the requirements for the ACLR are
lower in the UEs than in the BSs as a result of cost, power consumption, and form
factor trade-offs.
2.2.4
Traffic and Service Model
The number of users per cell is assumed to be Poisson distributed and uniform over
the coverage area. Because there have access to two frequency bands the traffic is
modeled as two independent Poisson processes, each with the same average traffic
load of λ (users/cell).
Every user is assigned to one BS (or to a repeater) - the selection is the one with the
highest path gain. This models a scenario without handover or where handover has
not yet taken place. Admission control or soft handover is not included; these could
improve the performance especially for the downlink. It is assumed that the service
to be speech however speech activity detection is not modeled.
2.2 System Models
2.2.5
25
Signal to Interference Ratio
The uplink signal to interference ratio (SIR), at the receiver of an uplink link i, is
defined as:
P G · Guii · Piu
u
u
u
u
j∈M u Gij · Pj + Iext,i + Ni
SIRiu = P
(2.4)
where u indicates uplink, P G is the processing gain (modeled as the chip rate divided
by the user data rate), Guij is the total path gain from transmitter of link j to the
receiver of link i, Pju is the transmit power of the transmitter of link j, M u is the
set of links using the same frequency as link i (including the link i), and Niu is the
thermal noise power at the receiver of link i. The interference power in the frequency
band of link i at the receiver of link i from all links not using the same frequency as
u
link i is Iext,i
- how to calculate it is described below.
The downlink signal to interference ratio, at the receiver of a downlink link i, it
is defined as:
SIRid =
α
P G · Gdii · Pid
P
d
d
d
d
d
d
j∈K d Gij · Pj +
j∈M d Gij · Pj + Iext,i + Ni
P
i
(2.5)
i
where d indicates downlink, Kid is the set of links that are transmitted from the same
antenna using the same frequency band as link i (including link i), Mid is the set of
links using the same frequency as link i excluding the ones in set Kid , α is a factor that
models the decreased interference due to the orthogonal codes used in the downlink,
and the other quantities are defined correspondingly to the uplink.
The interference power in the frequency band of link i, from all links not using
the frequency of link i, is
Iext,i =
X Gij · Pj
ACLRij
e
(2.6)
j∈Mi
where Mie is the set of all links not using the same frequency band as link i, and
ACLRij is the ACLR from the frequency band of the transmitter of link j to the
26
Multi-Hop Communication Systems
frequency band of the receiver of link i.
The thermal noise power at the receiver of link i is
Ni = kTo W Fi
(2.7)
where kTo is the noise spectral density (−174dBm/Hz), W is the chip rate, and Fi
is the noise factor of the receiver of link i.
2.2.6
Power Control
The power control is modeled using the Distributed Constrained Power Control [32].
It is a distributed iterative algorithm that increase the transmit power for each link
when received SIR is below the target for that link, and decrease the transmit power
if the SIR is above the target. It is considered that the powers to have converged
when the maximum power change between iterations, for any link in the system, is
less than 3%. For the uplink we have the power in iteration n for the link i as:
(n)
Pi
·
(n−1) ¸
P
= min Pmax,i ; γt,i · i(n−1)
γi
(n)
where Pmax,i is the maximum transmit power of link i, γi
(2.8)
is the resulting SIR after
iteration n and γt,i is the target SIR for link i. The power updates are similar for
the downlink, except that the constraint is on the total output power of each base
station (or repeater). It is assumed that the BSs use 20% of the available downlink
power for pilot- and common-channels.
2.2.7
Performance Measures
Uplink: If there are many links to a receiver, or when the path gain is low in one or
more links, some links might end up using the maximum transmit power and thus
not reaching the target SIR; they are in outage. These links are counted separately
2.2 System Models
27
for the two frequency bands and the uplink outage, for each frequency, is defined as:
θku =
# users in outage
λ · # cells
(2.9)
where k indicates either frequency band one or frequency band two. A repeated user
is counted in outage if one (or both) of the two links are in outage. Here there are
potential improvements by removing some of the uplink users that can not achieve
the required SIR target, but this is not investigated further.
Downlink: If there are many links from a transmitter, or when path gain is low
in one or more links, then the available transmit power in the transmitter will not
be enough to support all links. We then choose the link in the system that want the
highest power and remove that user (we set the transmit power of the link to zero
and if this link was part of the communication for a repeated user we also set the
transmit power of the other link to that user to zero). The removed users are counted
separately for the two frequency bands and the downlink outage is defined as:
θkd =
# removed users
λ · # cells
(2.10)
where k indicates either frequency band one or frequency band two.
Repeated users: The outage for the repeated users is also investigated. The repeated
uplink outage is defined as:
θru =
# repeated users in outage
# repeated users
(2.11)
where r indicates that this is only the repeated users. The downlink outage for repeated users is defined correspondingly.
Increasing the load gives increasing outage. If a limit is set to the outage, e.g., a
maximum acceptable outage of 5% the maximum load, or the capacity, of the system
can be found.
28
Multi-Hop Communication Systems
−1
10
Outage [−]
−2
10
repUE a75
repUE a80
repUE a90
Ref repUE
−3
10
−4
10
43
44
45
46
47
Load, λ [users/cell]
48
49
50
Figure 2.5: Uplink outage for the repeated UEs vs load. 95% confidence interval is
shown for repUE a80.
2.3
Simulation Results
To investigate the performance of multi-hop cellular networks, a number of Monte
Carlo simulations are performed. First, the uplink and downlink outage performance
for some different values of repeater ACLR is investigated. After to get the outage
performance, uplink power distribution performance is investigated. By looking at
which users are repeated in the case with repeaters, the performance of those users in
the case without repeaters is found. In the result figures, ”repUE” is used to indicate
repeated users, ”Ref” indicates the reference case without repeaters, ”a75”, ”a80”,
”a90” indicate ACLRs of 75 dB, 80 dB and 90 dB respectively, and ”fq 1” is used to
indicate users on frequency band one. For one of the curves, in most of the figures, it
is plotted ”x” for the approximately 95% confidence interval; the confidence intervals
for the other curves were similar for similar outage level. Each point consists of at
least 1000 snapshots.
2.3 Simulation Results
29
−1
10
Outage (1)
−2
10
repUE a80
fq 2 a80
fq 1 a80, a90, a200
repUE a90
fq 2 a90
fq 2 a200
Ref repUE
Ref fq 2, fq 1
−3
10
−4
10
43
44
45
46
47
Load, λ, (users/cell)
48
49
50
Figure 2.6: Summary of uplink outage vs load.
2.3.1
Uplink and Downlink Outage
In Figures 2.5 and 2.6 the uplink outage versus the load for the multi-hop system is
shown together with the reference case without repeaters. The results are presented
for some values of the ACLR that gave outage levels in the interesting range between
0.1% and 10%. Based on Figure 2.5 the outage for the repeated users is seen to
decrease when the ACLR increases. It is seen that the outage for the repeated users
is higher than for the reference case except for ACLR values of 90 dB or higher (The
outage for an ACLR of 200 dB -ideal case was zero for this range of loads).
In Figure 2.6, the uplink outage versus load is plotted for all different cases. If
the acceptable outage limit is set to 5%, the performance for an ACLR of 90 dB is
limited by the outage on frequency band one. The capacity is then approximately
48.2 users/cell and frequency, or 1.2% lower than for the case without repeaters. We
could probably reach a higher total load by having a lower load on frequency band
one than on frequency band two, but this was not investigated any further.
30
Multi-Hop Communication Systems
−1
Outage (1)
10
repUE a80
fq 2 a80
fq 1 a80
repUE a90, a200
fq 2 a90, a200
fq 1 a90
fq 1 a200
Ref repUE
Ref fq 2, fq 1
−2
10
−3
10
34
36
38
40
Load, λ, (users/cell)
42
44
Figure 2.7: Summary of downlink outage vs load.
In Figure 2.7, the downlink outage versus load is plotted for all different cases. If
the acceptable outage limit is set to 5%, the performance for an ACLR of 90 dB is
limited by the outage on frequency band two. The capacity is approximately 40.4
users/cell and frequency band, or 6.5% lower than for the case without repeaters.
2.3.2
Uplink Power Distributions
First the UEs that are repeated are studied and compared to the transmission powers of the same UEs in the reference case without repeaters. Cumulative distribution
functions (CDFs) and densities (using bins of size 0.5 dBm and normalized so that
the sum over all bins is one in each figure) are estimated.
In Figure 2.8 the CDF of the repeated UEs is illustrated together with the CDF
for the same UE’s when no repeaters are included. In this figure, repeated UEs
transmission powers are compared to the transmission powers of the same UEs in the
reference case without repeaters. The results are based on a load of 49 users/cell and
2.3 Simulation Results
31
0
10
−1
CDF [−]
10
−2
10
With Rep
Ref
−3
10
−60
−50
−40
−30
−20
−10
0
Transmit power [dBm]
10
20
30
Figure 2.8: Uplink UE power CDF of repeated UEs. A load of 49 users/cell is used
and the ACLR is set to 90 dB.
an ACLR of 90dB. Clearly the repeated users operate at much lower transmission
power levels than the same UEs in the reference case without repeaters.
The estimated density of the repeated UEs is seen in Figure 2.9. The estimated
density for the same UEs in the reference case without repeaters is shown in Figure
2.10. For the same load and ACLR, the outage is higher than for the case with repeaters (see Figure 2.5), and thus the peak at 21dBm is lower in Figure 2.9 than in
Figure 2.10. The average power, in linear scale, is found to 28.6mW. Thus, approximately 3 dB is saved for the repeated users at this load and ACLR. Compared to
the reference case it can also be seen that the signal power is distributed more evenly
and over a larger range when using repeaters.
32
Multi-Hop Communication Systems
0.07
0.06
Probability [−]
0.05
0.04
0.03
0.02
0.01
0
−60
−50
−40
−30
−20
−10
0
Transmit power [dBm]
10
20
30
Figure 2.9: Uplink UE power density for repeated users. Load is 49 users/cell and
the ACLR is 90 dB.
2.4
Conclusions
Based on simulation results new RF requirements have been identified in both transmitter and receiver sections. These requirements specifically relate to ACLR and
power control range characteristics. According to uplink outage results, the multihop system performance is better than the reference system performance for an ACLR
of 90 dB or higher. Uplink power distribution results also show that repeated users
average transmit power is 3 dB less than reference case (direct communication system) and signal power is distributed more evenly and over a larger range when using
repeaters. These new requirements are reflected to RF parts as a need for a highly
linear PA with a wide power control range and sharp transmit/receive filter.
Besides the high linearity requirement, since the transmit powers are spread over
a large power range when using repeaters, a wider power control range and a high
accurate power control may be also needed for multi-hop cellular systems. In PA
design there are trade-offs between high power efficiency, high linearity, load toler-
2.4 Conclusions
33
0.07
0.06
Probability [−]
0.05
0.04
0.03
0.02
0.01
0
−60
−50
−40
−30
−20
−10
0
Transmit power [dBm]
10
20
30
Figure 2.10: Uplink UE power density for reference (without repeater). Load was 49
users/cell, and ACLR was 90 dB.
ance and low cost/high integration. Meeting the high ACLR requirements over a
wide power control range without reducing the power efficiency clearly represents a
challenging issue in PA design for multi-hop systems. Filter design is another challenging issue for multi-hop system because of the high ACLR/selectivity requirement.
However, available technology sets limits to the ACLR; state of the art today can
reach values of approximately 77 dB for a peak output power of +30 dBm (RohdeSchwarz Vector Signal Generator, May 2003). Another problem, in the repeaters,
will be the blocking - the ability to receive low power signals at the same time as
transmitting on the adjacent band. This might require fixed sharp RF filters and
thus after implementing this systems we might not be able to change the frequencies
in the areas with multi-hop.
34
Multi-Hop Communication Systems
Chapter
3
RF Power Amplifiers
An amplifier is an assembly of electronic components for the purpose of adding significant power to an input signal, the power being obtained from a DC supply. An RF
power amplifier implies in addition that the amount of power involved is relatively
large, and that effects due to nonlinear operation of the semiconductor device(s) are
important.
All practical RF systems or circuits are nonlinear to some degree: ”linearity” is
a convenient mathematical abstraction which may be valid for a wide range of conditions (e.g. well designed capacitors, resistors, transmission lines) or over a more or
less restricted range (e.g. small-signal models for intrinsically nonlinear devices, such
as transistors).
The mathematics of linear system analysis is highly developed (e.g. matrix analysis) and may be said to be essentially ”complete”. The mathematics of nonlinear
systems is only poorly developed, and even simple nonlinear systems have no exact
mathematical solution. Topics such as chaos, bifurcations etc. are relatively recent
36
RF Power Amplifiers
branches of dynamical analysis. They highlight the fact that nonlinear systems may
be unpredictable and exhibit a rich variety of behavior.
A generally distinctive aspect of linear systems is that any frequency component in
the input is present in the response, and no new frequencies will be generated. The
converse is true for nonlinear systems. A single-input, single-output is linear: if input
X1 (t) produces Y1 (t), and input X2 (t) produces Y2 (t) then input α · X1 (t) + β · X2 (t)
produces α · Y1 (t) + β · Y2 (t) for any α, β ∈ C.
Examples of important high frequency circuit/systems which are fundamentally nonlinear: RF/Microwave power amplifiers, mixers, oscillators, multiplier/dividers, and
limiters.
Figure 3.1: Idealized RF power amplifier, single tone excitation.
Figure 3.2: Practical RF power amplifier, single tone excitation.
One of the most challenging RF/analog parts to implement in CMOS technology is
the power amplifier. Firstly, the transconductance to current ratio (gm /I) of a CMOS
37
transistor is generally lower than that of a bipolar or III-V device, implying that for
the same gain a higher current is needed. Secondly, with decreasing device length
in CMOS technologies the oxide thickness is decreasing as well, resulting in a lower
breakdown voltage [26]. Lastly, the low-resistivity substrate that is used in standard
CMOS processing has limited the integration of high-quality passive components and
consequently degradation on the amplifier performance.
Figure 3.3: Two tone excitation.
Figure 3.4: Practical RF power amplifier, digitally modulated carrier.
The performance of power amplifiers is a crucial issue for the overall performance
of the transceiver’s chain. Until now, power amplifiers for wireless applications have
been produced almost exclusively in GaAs technologies, with few exceptions in LDMOS, Si BJT, and SiGE HBT. Submicron CMOS processes are now considered for
power amplifier design due to the higher yield, and the lower costs it can provide [54].
In Figures 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, and 3.4, typical amplifier behaviors are illustrated. Figure
3.1 illustrates the idealized RF power amplifier with single tone excitation, Figure
3.2 illustrates the practical RF power amplifier behavior with single tone excitation,
38
RF Power Amplifiers
Figure 3.3 illustrates the amplifier behavior with two tone excitation, and Figure 3.4
illustrates the practical RF power amplifier behavior with digitally modulated carrier.
3.1
Classes of Operation
Power amplifier classes can be categorized either as bias point dependent, such as
classes A, B, AB, and C, or depending on the passive elements in the output matching network that shape the drain voltage and current, provided that the transistor in
this case operates as a switch, such as classes D, E, and F [35].
In linear class of amplification (A, B, C, F1), the transistor is a current source.
Transistor ”on” voltage does not saturate. In switching mode amplification (D, E,
F2, F3, S), the transistor operates as a switch. Transistor ”on” voltage saturates to
as close to zero as feasible.
3.1.1
Class A, AB, B and C
Class-A amplifiers are generally the most linear and least efficient amplifiers. A classA amplifier is one in which the operating point and input signal level are chosen such
that the output current (drain current) flows at all times. It therefore operates in the
linear portion of its characteristic and hence the signal suffers minimum distortion
[40].
A class-B amplifier is one in which the operating point is at one or other extreme of
its characteristic, so that the quiescent power is small. The quiescent current or the
quiescent voltage of a class-B stage is approximately zero and hence if the excitation
is sinusoidal then amplification takes place for only one-half of a cycle. Class-B operation is significantly more efficient than class-A for use in linear power amplifiers,
whilst still providing useful levels of linearity. The poor availability of high power
PNP devices at higher frequencies has tended to restrict the use of complementary
class-B amplifiers to the HF bands. A practical class-B amplifier will also exhibit sig-
3.1 Classes of Operation
39
nificant crossover distortion due to the imperfect (nonlinear) transition from cut-off
to the active mode [40].
Figure 3.5: Single ended Class-A, B, AB, or C amplifier generic schematic.
A class-AB amplifier is a compromise between the two extremes of class-A and classB operation. The output signal of this type of amplifier is zero for part, but less than
one-half of the input sinusoidal signal. The distortion added by a class-AB amplifier
is consequently greater than that of a class-A stage, but less than that of a class-B
stage. Conversely the efficiency will be less than that of a class-B stage and greater
than that of a class-A stage. The degree of distortion improvement (or degradation)
will depend upon the level of standing bias applied and the consequent level of inefficiency which can be tolerated in a given application [40].
A class-C amplifier is characterized by the operating point being chosen such that
the output current (or voltage) is zero for more than one-half of an input sinusoidal
signal cycle. This class of amplifier will thus result in significant distortion of the
input signal wave-shape during the amplification process, thus making it unsuitable
for linear amplification applications [40].
The output efficiency and output power for a power amplifier operating in classA, AB, B, or C are given by [27]:
η=
vdd − vdsat
θ − sin θ
vdd
4(sin θ2 − θ2 cos θ2 )
(3.1)
40
RF Power Amplifiers
Pout =
1
Im
(vdd − vdsat ) (θ − sin θ)
2
2π
(3.2)
The magnitude of the nth harmonic of the output drain current is given by [27]:
1
In =
π
Z
θ
2
−θ
2
Im
θ
(cos α − cos( )) cos(nα)dα
θ
2
1 − cos( 2 )
(3.3)
where Vdd is the supply voltage, θ is the conduction angle of the drain current, Vdsat
is the pinch-off voltage (knee voltage), and Im is the maximum drain current in the
output transistor. The conduction angle is 2π for Class-A, π for Class-B, θ < π for
Class-C, and 2π < θ < π for Class-AB mode.
3.1.2
Class D, E and F
An optimally efficient amplifier would consist of a controlled switch, in which the onresistance was zero, the off-resistance was infinite and the transition time was zero.
The output signal would then consist of the power supply switched at the rate of the
input (carrier) signal, with no losses in the switching device. The efficiency of this
system would be 100% since there are no losses within the device either due to its
resistance or due to a finite switching time [40].
The class-E amplifier is a single ended switching configuration with a passive load
network. The simplest form of load network consists of a series tuned L-C circuit
and a shunt capacitance. A class-F amplifier has a load network which is resonant
at one or more harmonic frequencies in addition to its resonance at the fundamental
frequency. The addition of harmonics, at the correct level, to the fundamental causes
a flattening of the drain voltage waveform. The drain voltage waveform thus begins
to approximate a square-wave with a consequent improvement in both efficiency and
output power [40].
Class-S amplification utilizes a PWM input waveform, with the desired output waveshape contained in its mean value, and amplifies this switching waveform efficiently
3.2 Stability Analysis
41
before low pass filtering it to leave the desired output waveform. Two difficulties are
immediately apparent with this type of amplifier. Firstly, the frequency at which
the transistors must switch is many times that of the final output frequency of the
amplifier and hence very wide bandwidth devices are required. This currently limits such techniques to low RF frequencies at best. Secondly, since there are few RF
PNP devices available, this again limits the maximum frequency of operation of these
amplifiers [40].
Figure 3.6: (a) Equivalent circuit of Class-D amplifier (b) Equivalent circuit of ClassE amplifier (c) Equivalent circuit of Class-F amplifier [40].
3.2
Stability Analysis
The stability is one of the most important criteria in the design stage. This is especially important when working at the lower frequencies where the high frequency
transistors are usually conditionally stable.
The stability analysis is based upon the following fact: Any two-port network is
unconditionally stable if the input or output reflection coefficient is less than one in
magnitude for all passive load and source impedances. In terms of reflection coefficients, the basic conditions for unconditionally stability can be stated as follows [31]:
|ΓS | < 1
(3.4)
|ΓL | < 1
(3.5)
42
RF Power Amplifiers
¯
¯
¯
S12 S21 ΓL ¯¯
¯
|ΓIN | = ¯S11 +
<1
1 − S22 ΓL ¯
(3.6)
¯
¯
¯
S12 S21 ΓS ¯¯
|ΓOU T | = ¯¯S22 +
<1
1 − S11 ΓS ¯
(3.7)
These conditions can be more useful if they are grouped into a simpler set of conditions
known as Rollet’s stability factors [31]:
K=
1 − |S11 |2 − |S22 |2 + |∆|2
>1
2|S12 S21 |
(3.8)
|∆| < 1
(3.9)
∆ = S11 S22 − S12 S21
(3.10)
where
If the two-port does not satisfy these conditions then it is said to be conditionally
stable. The source and load impedances for which the two-port is stable are found
by setting the input and output reflection coefficients to one and solving the Eqs.
(3.4)-(3.7) for the source and load reflection coefficients. The solutions for ΓS and
ΓL lie on stability circles [31].
¯
¯ ¯
¯
∗
∗¯
¯
¯
¯
¯ΓL − (S22 − ∆S 11 ) ¯ = ¯ S12 S21 ¯
¯
¯
¯
2
2
2
2
|S22 | − |∆|
|S22 | − |∆| ¯
(3.11)
¯
¯ ¯
¯
∗
∗¯
¯
¯
¯
¯ΓS − (S11 − ∆S 22 ) ¯ = ¯ S12 S21 ¯
¯
|S11 |2 − |∆|2 ¯ ¯ |S11 |2 − |∆|2 ¯
(3.12)
These circles determine the border between the stable and unstable regions in the
input plane and the output plane, respectively. The determination of which side of
the circle, for example the input stability circle, is stable is made by looking the
magnitude of the input scattering parameter (S11 ). If the magnitude of this quantity
is smaller than 1 then the center of the Smith chart (R = 50 Ω, X = 0) shows a stable
point and vice versa. Then, the side of the circle that encompasses the center is
considered to be stable [50]. The same is valid in the output plane for the parameter
3.3 Impedance Matching Networks
43
S22 . In simulation programs, all these stability calculations are made automatically
and the designer can see the results in a graphical environment.
A potentially unstable transistor can be made unconditionally stable by either resistively loading the transistor or by adding negative feedback. In narrowband amplifiers, these techniques will end up degradation in power gain, noise figure, and
VSWRs [31].
Figure 3.7: Serial, shunt and feedback resistive loading.
Figure 3.7 shows the different resistive loading configurations for the stabilization.
Serial gate resistance with parallel capacitance and the output shunt inductance with
serial resistance are the most common ones.
3.3
Impedance Matching Networks
For optimum power transfer efficiency in the passband it is desirable to match impedances of sections connected together in a passive or an active circuit. Passive
as well as active microwave circuits require impedance matching of complex loads
with reactive constraints. Single frequency or narrowband (less than 10% typical)
44
RF Power Amplifiers
impedance matching is simply achieved using a single fixed tuned network or, at
most, a two-element network depending upon the Q of the structure. Broadband
matching network design, particularly for bandwidths greater than 50%, is a difficult
and challenging task due to prescribed reactive constraints, broadband impedance
transformations of large impedance ratios, and prescribed tapered magnitude characteristics [21].
Broadband impedance matching was first introduced by Bode and Fano to enhance
the bandwidth of antennas [23, 29]. Fano has derived a complete set of integrals that
predicts the gain-bandwidth restrictions for lossless matching networks terminated
in an arbitrary load impedance [29]. Fano’s broadband method is hence a natural
solution to extend the bandwidth of narrowband circuits.
Basically, the design of a constant gain amplifier over a broad frequency range is
a matter of properly designing the matching networks, or the feedback network, in
order to compensate for the variations of |S21 | with frequency [31]. Two techniques
that are commonly used to design broadband amplifiers are the use of compensated
matching networks and the use of negative feedback. The technique of compensated
matching networks involves mismatching the input and output matching networks
to compensate for the changes with frequency of |S21 |. The matching networks are
designed to give the best input and output VSWR.
3.4
Efficiency Enhancing Techniques for Power Amplifiers
Linear digital modulation techniques in modern communication systems generate
carrier signals with relatively high peak-to-average ratio. For linear amplification of
such a signal, power amplifier must be operated at excessive back off, thus sacrificing
the overall amplifier efficiency. Efficiency boosting schemes can be used to enhance
the efficiency of power amplifier.
3.4 Efficiency Enhancing Techniques for Power Amplifiers
3.4.1
45
Outphasing
The outphasing technique (LINC) combines two nonlinear RF power amplifiers into
a linear RF power amplifier system. The two PA’s are driven with signals of different
phases, and the phases are controlled so that the addition of the PA outputs produces a system output of the desired amplitude. The outphasing technique can be
classified into two categories: simple (transformer coupler) and Chireix (transmission
line coupler with shunt reactance) outphasing [51].
Class-A power amplifiers have constant dc input current and, hence, constant dc
power consumption. The efficiency of an outphasing system with class-A PA’s is
therefore the same as that of a linear class-A PA. For saturating class-B and class-C
power amplifiers, the efficiency at lower output voltages can be considerably improved
by the Chireix system. For class-D power amplifiers whose efficiency remains high
regardless of the load impedance, simple outphasing system is quite satisfactory [51].
Figure 3.8: (A) Simple outphasing system (B) Chireix outphasing system.
Figure 3.8 illustrates the simple and Chireix outphasing systems. Despite the both
techniques are very useful to enhance the efficiency of class-B, class-C, and classD amplifiers, these two techniques have drawback because of the implementation
problems in CMOS technology. Implementation of simple outphasing system with
integrated low loss transformer, and the implementation of Chireix outphasing system with integrated quarter wavelength transmission lines are critical issues in CMOS
technology.
46
RF Power Amplifiers
Monolithic transformers have been used in silicon radio frequency integrated circuit
designs to perform impedance matching, signal coupling, phase splitting, low-loss
feedback, and single-ended to differential signal conversion. A monolithic transformer can be realized either by tapping into a series of turns of microstrip lines
or by interwinding two identical spiral inductors [66]. However, high quality passive
components (e.g. inductors) are hard to achieve in a standard CMOS technology.
The inductance and Q depend on various factors such as frequency, geometry of the
metal wire, properties of the metal and the insulating layer, and properties of the
substrate. In CMOS VLSI technology the Si substrate generally is heavily doped,
i.e. lossy compared to a more lightly doped Si bipolar substrate [24]. This typically
limits the Q to be less than 10, while discrete inductors can reach a Q of 100 and
bondwires between 25 and 50 [26].
3.4.2
Doherty Technique
The Doherty amplifier is a technique for improving the efficiency of backed-off linear
amplifiers. In a Doherty amplifier, the output powers of two amplifiers operating at
a proper phase alignment and bias level, are combined using appropriate power combining techniques. Figure 3.9 illustrates the schematic of a Doherty amplifier [40].
Figure 3.9: Schematic of a Doherty amplifier.
The Doherty amplifier consists of one main (carrier) and one auxiliary (peaking)
3.4 Efficiency Enhancing Techniques for Power Amplifiers
47
power amplifier. The main amplifier is typically biased class-B and the auxiliary
amplifier is typically biased class-C, so that the auxiliary amplifier turns on at the
power when the main amplifier reaches saturation. The current contribution from
the auxiliary amplifier reduces the effective impedance seen at the main amplifier’s
output. This ”load-pulling” effect allows the main amplifier to deliver more current
to the load while it remain saturated. Since an amplifier in saturation typically operates very efficiently, the total efficiency of the system remains high in this high power
range until the auxiliary amplifier saturates [39].
Because the Doherty amplifier requires quarter-wave transmission line and input
splitter circuits, the integrated circuit implementation of the Doherty amplifier is
not easy and practical. Many published papers show that λ/4 impedance transformer can be replaced by π-type L-C lumped components [59]. However, the size
and loss problems especially due to large inductors are still burdens to achieve integrated transmission lines in CMOS technology.
Figure 3.10 shows that a quarter wavelength transmission line with fo carrier frequency and Zo characteristic impedance can be approximated to n segments of L-C
ladder [59]. Inductance and capacitance values of L-C ladder can be given as follow:
Figure 3.10: Quarter wavelength transmission line with n segments of LC ladder.
Zo
4nfo
(3.13)
1
4nfo Zo
(3.14)
L=
C=
Besides the size and loss problems especially due to inductors, minimum coupling
effect between inductors requires some reasonable distance between them and consequently extra chip size.
48
RF Power Amplifiers
The Doherty technique appears to offer some useful possibilities for solving some
of the problems that arise in both mobile and base station amplifiers in modern wireless communication systems. It would appear to be especially relevant to systems
using nonzero crossing modulation schemes, such as OQPSK and π/4DQPSK. In the
latter case, for example, the low point of the envelope is only about 12 dB below the
global peak power; thus, the efficiency improvement would be significant for most of
the envelope power range [27].
3.4.3
Kahn Envelope Elimination and Restoration
The Kahn Envelope Elimination and Restoration technique is particularly attractive
as it can utilize power efficient amplifiers, while also providing high linearity. An
input RF signal is split into its polar components, envelope and phase, by an envelope
detector and a limiter respectively. The limiter output is a constant envelope signal
that can be amplified by a power efficient but nonlinear power amplifier such as classC, class-D, class-E or class-F. Figure 3.11 illustrates a Kahn EER architecture [49].
Figure 3.11: Kahn EER architecture.
In theory, a well-saturated amplifier can be approximated by an RF voltage generator
whose output amplitude is proportional to the DC supply voltage [49, 52]. The
envelope information is restored at the output by modulating the supply voltage of
3.4 Efficiency Enhancing Techniques for Power Amplifiers
49
the PA, where the modulating signal is derived from the envelope detector. Thus,
EER shifts the linearity issue away from the PA, but places demands on how accurate
the envelope and phase information can be recombined. An accurate delay matching
is critical .
3.4.4
Envelope Tracking
When the amplifier’s output power decreases, its efficiency also drops sharply. Deep
class-AB or class-B amplifiers improve their efficiency by a self adaptation of the
current drawn from the power supply [57]. However in many cases, neither deep
class-AB or class-B provides enough linearity as, for instance, in CDMA applications
where spectral regrowth is of primary concern. From class-A to class-B, RF PAs
face the linearity and efficiency tradeoff. The class-A is linear but power inefficient,
whereas class-B is efficient but has a poor linearity.
Figure 3.12: Dynamic supply PA architecture.
An alternative solution to improve the linearity-efficiency tradeoff is to adapt the
power supply voltage of a linear PA with respect to input RF signal envelope. The
supply voltage is varied dynamically to conserve power, but with sufficient excess to
allow the RF PA to operate in a linear mode. Figure 3.12 illustrates the dynamically
biased power amplifier architecture. Typically, the envelope is detected and used to
50
RF Power Amplifiers
control a DC-DC converter. The efficiency is significantly better than that of a linear
RF PA operating from a fixed supply voltage.
In dynamically supplied power amplifier, DC-DC converter efficiency is one of the
key parameter in total system efficiency. State of the art today can reach values
of approximately 95% efficiency in DC-DC converter. The another issue is in band
harmonics produced by pulse width modulator switching. Pulse width modulators
will produce extra harmonics and these will effect the linearity of the system.
The main problem in DC-DC converter is to integrate the output L-C low pass
filter on chip.
3.5
State of the art in CMOS PAs
Performance comparison of some previously reported CMOS power amplifiers is given
in Table 3.1. To date, there are few reported fully integrated power amplifiers with
high output power, efficiency and linearity. The disadvantages of scaling down the
transistor dimensions also appear in analog/RF design, specifically in PA design
because the breakdown voltage decreases with reduced physical dimensions. For
frequencies up to several GHz and low to medium output power, CMOS may be an
alternative to stand-alone power amplifiers, in exchange for less efficiency and a lower
maximum output power.
3.5 State of the art in CMOS PAs
Ref.
51
Table 3.1: State-of-the-art in CMOS PAs.
Pout
Freq.
PAE
TechOutput
Class
(dBm)
(GHz)
(max.)
nology
matching
[56]
15
0.9
< 30%
1µm
off-chip
C
VLSI’94
@1-dB
(η)
CMOS
off-chip
AB
on-chip
E/F3
off-chip
AB
F
[30]
23.5
RFIC’00
max.
[20]
33.4
IJSSC’02
max.
[45]
28.2
1.9
2.4
1.9
MTT-T’01
[59]
24.8
IJSSC’02
max.
[42]
31.8
ISSCC’01
max.
[28]
30
ISSCC’01
max.
[25]
20
MTT-S’00
max.
[25]
22
MTT-S’00
max.
[38]
17.5
RAWCON’01
max.
[61]
23
ISSCC’02
max.
[48]
30
IJSSC’02
max.
[64]
9
IJSSC’01
@5-dB
[34]
18.6
IJSSC’01
max.
1.4
0.9
1.8
1.9
2.4
2.4
2.4
0.7
2.4
0.9
35%
0.35µm
(PAE)
(Bi)CMOS
31%
0.35µm
(PAE)
(Bi)CMOS
30%
30 GHz
(PAE)
BiCMOS
49%
0.25µm
off-chip
(PAE)
CMOS
(transm. lines)
43%
0.2µm
off-chip
F
(PAE)
CMOS
45%
0.35µm
off-chip
AB
(PAE)
CMOS
16%
0.8µm
on-chip
F?
(η)
CMOS
44%
0.25µm
off-chip
F?
(η)
CMOS
A
16.4%
0.35µm
partly
(PAE)
CMOS
on-chip
42%
0.18µm
off-chip
AB
(PAE)
CMOS
62%
0.35µm
partly
E
(PAE)
CMOS
on-chip
16%
0.18µm
partly
@5-dB
CMOS
on-chip
30%
0.6µm
on-chip
(PAE)
CMOS
AB?
C
52
RF Power Amplifiers
4
Dynamic Supplied CMOS Power
Chapter
Amplifier for GSM-EDGE
Transmitters
Most modern digital modulations with high spectral efficiency present a non-constant
envelope, which requires RF circuits with high linearity to prevent signal degradation. Efficient but nonlinear power amplifiers are thus not suitable for such linear
modulations. The use of linearizing circuits can alleviate this issue, but at the price
of high complexity and additional power consumption, which can be critical in the
case of low or medium power amplifiers [30, 58]. In order to satisfy the linearity
requirement for preserving modulation accuracy with minimum spectral regrowth,
power amplifiers are typically operated in highly linear Class-A or -AB configurations. One of the major problems with these linear power amplifiers is their low
power efficiency. Therefore, achieving high efficiency in power amplifiers while maintaining the required high degree of linearity is a challenging issue [65].
In this work a two-stage Class-AB CMOS RF power amplifier is designed and mea-
54
Dynamic Supplied CMOS Power Amplifier for GSM-EDGE Transmitters
Figure 4.1: Impedance transformation network.
sured. The amplifier is measured according to EDGE requirements which required
high degree of linearity, and hence linear class of amplification is necessary.
This work also analyzes efficiency improvements obtainable using a DC-DC converter
which lets the power supply voltage track the envelope of the signal. The idea is to
adapt the supply voltage to the envelope of the signal. In this way, it is expected
to improve the efficiency of the power amplifier while maintaining the required high
degree of linearity.
4.1
Analysis
A two-stage single-ended class-AB power amplifier is designed and implemented in
0.25 µm CMOS technology. It is intended for medium output power ranges such as
EDGE E3, and has an operating frequency of 1.75 GHz. The UE maximum average
output power levels for EDGE E3 is 22 ± 3 dBm. The EVM requirements for mobile
terminals are maximum 9% in RMS and 30% in peak, and the required spectral
quality is −54 dB at 400 kHz offset.
In Figure 4.1 a current source with impedance transformation network T is shown.
This serves as a model for an ideal output stage, where the transistor operates as
a controlled current source driving Ropt , the transformed load impedance RL . The
4.1 Analysis
55
power supply voltage is VDD , the rms value of the load voltage is VL , and the ideal
maximum output power is given by
Pout =
VL2
V2
= DD
Ropt
2Ropt
(4.1)
√
where VL is the VDD / 2. For Pout = 20dBm, and VDD = 2.5 V, the optimum load resistance Ropt is equal to 31Ω. It is 24Ω for Pout = 21dBm, and 19Ω for Pout = 22dBm.
One of the most crucial non idealities in any power amplifier implementation is the
knee voltage, i.e. the minimum drain voltage necessary to have the PA operating as
an amplifier [26, 27]. Vknee reduces the maximum voltage swing. The output voltage
swing is reduced to VDD − Vknee , and the maximum output power can be written as
Pout =
(VDD − Vknee )2
.
2Ropt
(4.2)
Besides the knee voltage effect, there are other non idealities which cause the voltage degradation at the drain. These are the series resistance of the RF choke, finite
output impedance of the transistor, and the finite quality factor of the other passive
components. To compensate these losses and deliver the required output power, an
optimum load should be less than the ideal case in equation 4.1.
In PA analysis and design, power added efficiency (PAE) is used as a measure of
efficiency. PAE is described as
P AE =
Pout − Pin
PDC
(4.3)
where Pout and Pin are the RF output and input powers, and PDC shows the power
supplied by the battery.
56
Dynamic Supplied CMOS Power Amplifier for GSM-EDGE Transmitters
Figure 4.2: Schematic of the two-stage single ended power amplifier.
4.2
4.2.1
Design and Implementation
Core Amplifier
The power amplifier is designed as a single-ended two-stage common source amplifier.
It is biased in class-AB to get high linearity and reasonable efficiency. The amplifier
is designed and fabricated with 0.25 µm CMOS process under 2.5 V supply voltage.
Figure 4.2 shows the schematic of the CMOS power amplifier.
To satisfy the EDGE E3 power specifications (see Chapter 1), an output power of
21 dBm was aimed in the PA design. To achieve this power level with a 2.5 V supply
voltage, a transistor width of 2000 µm was used in the output stage. The length of
the transistor was set to minimum (0.24 µm) to maximize its high frequency gain.
To achieve the 2000 µm transistor width, 5 parallel transistors were used. Each of
them has 40 fingers and the finger width is 10 µm. The estimation of the required
transistor size and the bias point is an iterative process using the I-V characteristics
of the transistor. The bias voltage was set to 0.7 V in the output stage to operate it
4.2 Design and Implementation
57
in class-AB mode.
The driver stage transistor size is established after simulation of the output stage
power gain. To ensure that the driver stage does not enter compression before the
output stage, a transistor width of 800 µm was chosen. To achieve the 800 µm transistor width, 2 parallel transistors were used. Each of them has 40 fingers and the
finger width is 10 µm. The length of the transistor was set to (0.24 µm). The bias
voltage for the driver stage was set to 0.8 V to achieve enough gain and linearity.
The load impedance for maximum output power is determined by simulations using
the Agilent-ADS Harmonic-Balance simulator. The optimum load is approximately
11.5 − j6.4 Ω. The input and output matching circuits are designed by using on-chip,
off-chip components, and interconnection elements (bond wires, pad capacitances,
and PCB board traces), see Figure 4.2.
Load inductances (choke inductances) are implemented as off-chip components. In
0.25 µm CMOS process, Metal-5 layer maximum current density is 1.5mA/µm hence
implementing the load inductances on chip will increase the size and cost of the dice
on a large scale. On the other hand choke inductances are also part of the interstage
and output stage matching networks, that is, the high quality factor is necessary for
these components, and it is a difficult issue to obtain it by on-chip components.
Some part of the input and output matching networks was also implemented as
off-chip components. In this way it was possible to compensate the on-chip component tolerances and PCB effects.
The stability of the amplifier was ensured with the serial gate resistors, at the cost
of a slight reduction in the gain and efficiency and with on-chip ground separation
technique. On-chip ground separation weakens the any parasitic feedback between
the driver and output stages and in this way the amplifier stability is improved. This
technique will be explained in detail in the following section.
58
Dynamic Supplied CMOS Power Amplifier for GSM-EDGE Transmitters
L bondwire
R bondwire
PCB
Chip
C PCB_pad
PCB_GND
C Chip_pad
Chip_GND
Figure 4.3: Interconnection model for chip signal/bias pad to PCB signal/bias pad.
4.2.2
Parasitics and Interconnection Models
In the circuit simulations, two interconnection models are used; one is from chip
signal/bias pad to PCB signal/bias pad, and the other is from chip ground pad to
PCB ground pad. These models are shown in Figures 4.3 and 4.4. These models are
suitable for the chip-on-board assembly used in the measurements.
Printed Circuit Board:
The chip was bonded to a double-sided PCB with a copper thickness of 35 µm. The
substrate material is FR–4 and its thickness is 1 mm. For easy wire bonding, the
top layer of the PCB is plated with the soft gold material. In order to improve the
grounding of the board, multiple through-hole ground vias were used. To minimize
the inductive reactance of passive components, vias were placed as close as possible to components [7]. It is also very important to use efficient capacitive decoupling
between the Vdd feed points and ground. This will prevent tendencies toward oscillations. All RF routing is realized using microstrips with 50Ω characteristic impedance.
To minimize RF coupling from the output to the input, all RF lines has been kept
as short as possible.
PAD Model:
On the chip, 85 µm × 85 µm pads are used for all connections. The shunt capacitance
of a single pad was found to be approximately 65 fF in prior measurements.
4.2 Design and Implementation
59
Figure 4.4: Interconnection model for chip ground pad to PCB ground pad.
Bondwire Inductance:
Bondwire material is gold and the diameter is 0.001inch. The inductance value of the
bondwires is assumed to equal approximately 1 nH/mm [43]. Multiple bondwires are
used in order to reduce the bondwire inductance both in output matching network
and ground connections. It is assumed that three parallel connected bondwires has
about 0.4 nH/mm inductance [37].
Ground bounce inductance plays an important role on the amplifier stability. If
all stages in a multi-stage amplifier share the same on-chip ground, they will also
share the same inductance to PCB ground. Signal current in the output stage converted to voltage by this inductance will thus be fed back to the input with a risk
of instability. Using the proposed ground separation technique this feedback path is
weakened.
Figure 4.4 shows the interconnection model for chip ground pad to PCB ground
60
Dynamic Supplied CMOS Power Amplifier for GSM-EDGE Transmitters
Figure 4.5: CMOS power amplifier die photo.
pad. Different chip grounds are assigned for driver and output stages, GND1 and
GND2. PCB ground is assumed to be a perfect ground and is denoted by GND.
Driver and output stage grounds are isolated from each other by the substrate resistivity. The on chip ground assignment is also illustrated on die photo, Figure 4.5.
Investigations showed that when driver and output stage grounds are separated, the
stability was improved. Figure 4.6 shows the simulated stability factor of the amplifier with and without ground separation. As can be seen the PA with the ground
separation technique is stable, whereas without the technique the amplifier is potentially unstable and malfunctioning.
To quantify the stability of the amplifier, the Rollet Stability criteria is used. The
Rollet Stability criteria can be expressed as follows [44]:
K=
1 − |S11 |2 − |S22 |2 + |∆|2
2|S12 S21 |
|∆| = |S11 S22 − S12 S21 |
• Stable: K > 1 and |∆| < 1
(4.4)
(4.5)
4.2 Design and Implementation
61
15
K
13
11
Stability and Delta Factor
9
7
5
3
1
|∆|
−1
− − − − Without ground separation
With ground separation
−3
−5
0
250
500
750
1000
1250
1500 1750
Frequency [MHz]
2000
2250
2500
2750
3000
Figure 4.6: Simulated stability factor with and without ground separation technique.
– Unconditionally stable:
||cs | − rs | > 1 for |S22 | < 1
(4.6)
||cl | − rl | > 1 for |S11 | < 1
(4.7)
||cs | − rs | < 1 for |S22 | < 1
(4.8)
||cl | − rl | < 1 for |S11 | < 1
(4.9)
– Conditionally stable:
• Unstable (potentially): K > 1 & |∆| > 1 and K < 1 & |∆| < 1,
where cs , cl , rs , and rl parameters represent the center and radius of the source and
load stability circles respectively.
62
Dynamic Supplied CMOS Power Amplifier for GSM-EDGE Transmitters
Simulations show that about 21 Ω resistance between GND1 and GND2 is enough to
sufficiently isolate them from each other. In the 0.25µm CMOS process, the substrate
resistivity (R) is 20 Ω · cm and the substrate thickness (T ) is 29 mils. The substrate
resistance between GND1 and GND2 can be roughly estimated using the formula:
RSub = R[Ω · m] ×
d[m]
,
A[m2 ]
(4.10)
where the substrate distance (d) between the GND1 and GND2 is approximately
130 µm (See Figure 4.4) and the substrate cross-section area (A) can be found as
follow:
A = T [m] × W [m] = 335.15 × 10−9 m2 ,
(4.11)
where the chip width (W ) is 455µm. Using Eq. (4.10), the resistance (RSub ) between
GND1 and GND2 is roughly estimated to 77.6 Ω, which is much larger than the 21 Ω
which is needed. This means that the simple calculation is sufficient in this case, and
that there will be no problem to achieve the isolation.
4.3 Simulation and Measurement Results
4.3
63
Simulation and Measurement Results
The simulations were performed with Agilent-ADS and MATLAB simulation tools.
The CMOS power amplifier was tested using chip on board assembly. The amplifier
is characterized by small signal S-parameters, 1-dB compression point, OIP3 (Third
order output intercept point), ACLR, and EVM parameters. Since Class-A and
Class-AB amplifiers are weakly nonlinear systems, small signal S-parameters characterization and then 1-dB compression, OIP3, ACLR, and EVM characterization for
linearity still is a reasonable approach.
The small signal S-parameters are measured with Agilent Vector Network Analyzer.
The absolute power levels are measured with Boonton Power Meter. All cable and
connector losses are calibrated before the measurements. Relative power levels, OIP3,
ACLR, and EVM parameters are measured with Rohde & Schwarz spectrum analyzer, signal generator, and CMU200 radio and communication tester.
For MOSFET simulation, the BSIM3v3 RF Extension Model was used. The simulation and measurement results are presented in the following sections. Experiments
are performed according to fixed and dynamic supply scenarios. Test boards are
illustrated in Figure 4.7.
Figure 4.7: CMOS power amplifier and dynamic supply test boards.
64
Dynamic Supplied CMOS Power Amplifier for GSM-EDGE Transmitters
4.3.1
Transfer Characteristics
The measured and simulated forward and reverse gain characteristics (|S21 | & |S12 |)
and input and output reflection characteristics (|S11 | & |S22 |) of the PA are shown
in Figures 4.8 and 4.9. In Table 4.1, some measured values in the GSM-EDGE band
are listed.
Table 4.1: Measured S-parameters in the GSM-EDGE Band.
Freq. [MHz] |S21 | dB |S11 | dB |S22 | dB
1700
12.3
−21.46
−20.16
1750
11.75
−19.7
−16.18
1800
11
−17.2
−12.57
While the simulated gain is 14.2 dB at 1.75 GHz, the measured gain is only 11.75 dB.
Differences between simulation and measurement results are due to imperfections of
parasitic models used in simulations, on-chip and off-chip component tolerances, and
also measurement inaccuracy.
4.3.2
Efficiency
A. Efficiency with Constant Bias:
The measured 1-dB compression point at 1700MHz is 20.2 dBm, and the corresponding power added efficiency is 28.2%. The amplifier draws 137 mA current from the
2.5 V supply voltage at the maximum output power. The measured 1-dB compression point at 1750MHz is 19.87 dBm, and the corresponding power added efficiency
is 26.5% with 133.8 mA current consumption. It is 19.93 dBm, and the corresponding
power added efficiency is 27.2% with 130 mA current consumption at 1800MHz.
The simulated 1-dB compression point is found as 20.92 dBm at 1750MHz, and the
simulated PAE and current consumption are found as 30.88% and 156 mA. Figure
4.10 shows a plot of PAE vs. output power at 1750MHz.
|S12| − dB
|S21| − dB
4.3 Simulation and Measurement Results
20
12
4
−4
−12
−20
−28
−36
−44
−52
−60
0
−10
−20
−30
−40
−50
−60
−70
−80
65
Measured data
Simulated data
0
250
500
750 1000 1250 1500 1750 2000 2250 2500 2750 3000
Frequency [MHz]
Measured data
Simulated data
0
500
1000
1500
2000
Frequency [MHz]
2500
3000
Figure 4.8: Simulated and measured forward and reverse gain characteristics.
0
|S11| − dB
−5
−10
−15
−20
Simulated data
Measured data
−25
−30
0
250
500
750 1000 1250 1500 1750 2000 2250 2500 2750 3000
Frequency [MHz]
0
|S22| − dB
−5
−10
−15
Simulated data
Measured data
−20
−25
0
250
500
750 1000 1250 1500 1750 2000 2250 2500 2750 3000
Frequency [MHz]
Figure 4.9: Simulated and measured input and output reflection characteristics.
30
160
27.5
155
25
150
22.5
145
20
140
17.5
135
15
130
12.5
125
10
120
7.5
115
5
110
2.5
105
0
−20
−16
−12
−8
−4
0
4
Pout [dBm]
8
12
16
20
Id [mA]
Dynamic Supplied CMOS Power Amplifier for GSM-EDGE Transmitters
PAE [%]
66
100
24
Figure 4.10: Measured power added efficiency and supply current at 1750 MHz.
B. Efficiency with Dynamic Bias:
Adaptive biasing technique is similar to Kahn envelope elimination and restoration
technique. EER technique combines a highly efficient, but nonlinear RF PA with a
highly efficient envelope amplifier to implement a high efficiency linear RF PA [53].
In adaptive biasing (envelope tracking) technique, the supply voltage is varied dynamically to conserve power, but with sufficient excess to allow the RF PA to operate
in a linear mode [53].
The envelope of the input RF signal is detected and used to control a dc-dc converter. In Figure 4.11, an adaptive biasing architecture is shown. DC-DC step
down converter and the RF power detector are the commercial off-the-self (COTS)
components from Linear Technology [6, 11]. The 18 dB directional coupler is from
Mini-Circuits [16]. The DC-DC converter switching frequency is 1.5 MHz which is
quite bigger than the bandwidth of the EDGE signal. Therefore there will not be
any problem for the pulse width modulator to follow the envelope of the EDGE signal.
4.3 Simulation and Measurement Results
67
Figure 4.11: Adaptive biasing architecture.
30
27
PAE with Dynamic Supply
PAE with Constant Supply
24
21
PAE [%]
18
15
12
9
6
3
0
−20
−16
−12
−8
−4
0
4
Pout [dBm]
8
12
16
20
24
Figure 4.12: Measured power added efficiency with and without adaptive biasing at
1750 MHz.
In Figure 4.12, power added efficiency with adaptive biasing is compared to the
PAE without adaptive biasing. From Figure 4.12 it is clear that the amplifier effi-
68
Dynamic Supplied CMOS Power Amplifier for GSM-EDGE Transmitters
150
140
Constant Supply Current
Dynamic Supply Current
130
Id [mA]
120
110
100
90
80
70
−20
−16
−12
−8
−4
0
4
Pout [dBm]
8
12
16
20
24
Figure 4.13: Measured supply current at 1750MHz with and without dynamic supply.
ciency can be improved reasonably using the adaptive biasing technique. Efficiency
improvement is largest at low to mid-power ranges. At maximum power, however,
the efficiency is a bit reduced due to the DC-DC converter losses. The estimated
density for the WCDMA FDD uplink output power is found in Figure 4.14 for a load
of 49 users/cell and frequency. According to the probability distribution of the user
equipment transmit power levels, Figure 4.14, medium transmit power levels are the
most frequently used. The probability distribution of the UE transmit power levels
can be expected as similar in GSM-EDGE and the other wireless cellular systems.
Improving the efficiency at mid-power is therefore critical to battery life-time. In
this amplifier 3 − 4% improvement is obtained at mid power ranges with adaptive
biasing. The quiescent current of the amplifier is 120 mA under 2.5 V supply voltage.
It is about 88 mA with adaptive biasing. DC currents drawn by constant supply and
dynamic supply are compared in Figure 4.13. Since the dynamic range of the power
detector is limited with minimum −32 dBm, the supply current could not measured
below some power levels in adaptive biasing scenario (See Figure 4.13).
4.3 Simulation and Measurement Results
69
0.07
0.06
Probability [−]
0.05
0.04
0.03
0.02
0.01
0
−60
−50
−40
−30
−20
−10
0
Transmit power [dBm]
10
20
30
Figure 4.14: W-CDMA uplink UE power density.
4.3.3
Linearity
The linearity performance of the amplifier was analyzed according to the GSM-EDGE
user equipment requirements [3]. Third order output intercept point, ACLR, and
EVM measurements are performed.
For two-tone measurement the frequencies (tones) are set at fc ± 500 kHz. The
measured third order intercept points are 33.14 dBm, 33.08 dBm, and 31.03 dBm for
1700 MHz, 1750 MHz, and 1800 MHz center frequencies. Measured 1-dB compression
point, power added efficiency, and output third order intercept point values for certain frequencies are listed in Table 4.2.
The measured average burst power is 19.8 dBm, and the measured peak burst power
is 21.7dBm. The measured spectral mask at this power level and 1750MHz frequency
with 400 kHz offset is −58.9 dB. The measured RMS and peak EVM is 6.4 and 16.2
respectively. According to GSM-EDGE standards, the spectrum mask has to be better than −54 dB, the RMS and peak EVM values have to be better than 9% and 30%
70
Dynamic Supplied CMOS Power Amplifier for GSM-EDGE Transmitters
Figure 4.15: Measured spectrum mask at 1750 MHz
Table 4.2: Measured spectrum characteristics for selected frequencies.
Freq [MHz] P 1dB [dBm] Id [mA] PAE [%] OIP3 [dBm]
1700
20.2
137
28.2
33.14
1750
19.87
133.8
26.5
33.08
1800
19.93
130
27.2
31.03
respectively [3]. In Figures 4.15, 4.16, and 4.17 the spectral mask measurement, and
EVM measurements are illustrated.
In Figures 4.18, and 4.19, the spectral mask measurement, and EVM measurements
are compared based on constant and dynamic supply cases. As expected, the linearity performance of the amplifier with constant supply is better than that of amplifier
with dynamic supply. However, according to the GSM-EDGE user equipment technical specifications [3], the spectrum mask and EVM requirements are satisfied with
both constant and dynamic supply scenarios.
4.3 Simulation and Measurement Results
Figure 4.16: Measured power spectrum at 1750 MHz
Figure 4.17: Measured EVM performance
71
72
Dynamic Supplied CMOS Power Amplifier for GSM-EDGE Transmitters
−54
Spectral mask at 400kHz [dB]
−56
−58
−60
−62
−64
−66
−68
Fixed supply
Dynamic supply
−70
−11 −9 −7 −5 −3 −1 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21
Average output power [dBm]
Figure 4.18: Spectrum mask is compared based on constant and dynamic supply
cases.
9
8
7
Fixed supply
Dynamic supply
EVM−RMS [%]
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
−11 −9 −7 −5 −3 −1 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21
Average output power [dBm]
Figure 4.19: RMS-EVM is compared based on constant and dynamic supply cases.
4.4 Discussions
4.4
73
Discussions
The power amplifier design for modern digital modulations with high spectral efficiency is usually constrained by linearity requirements at the maximum power output,
regardless of the average power transmitted by the radio terminal. As a result, the
quiescent bias of the amplifier is set for maximum linear power and DC power is
wasted at lower output power levels. To overcome this problem, an adaptive biasing approach can be employed, significantly reducing the average DC current and,
thereby increasing the power added efficiency.
This work shows that adaptive biasing technique can significantly improve the amplifier’s efficiency in mid power ranges, on the other hand there will be slight reductions
on the maximum power efficiency because of the DC-DC converter losses (dominantly).
To even improve the linearity, efficiency, and maximum output power trade-off in
power amplifiers, parallel amplification technique can be combined with adaptive
biasing technique, i.e. two CMOS Class-AB amplifiers can be combined by power
splitter/combiner and the supply voltages dynamically controlled by the DC-DC converter. This architecture can be called as ”Turbo Class-AB Amplifier”. In this way,
first, the output power level can be increased approximately 3 dB, secondly, the linearity of the Turbo class-AB amplifier is 3 dB backed off the single class-AB amplifier
(i.e. the linearity performance of Turbo class-AB amplifier at 20 dBm will be same as
it in 17 dBm output power in single class-AB amplifier.), and lastly, the efficiency of
Turbo class-AB amplifier is expected to be same as the efficiency of single class-AB
amplifier.
In this work it is also demonstrated that the ground separation technique improves
the amplifier’s stability and performance. The inductance of the ground bondwires
is one of the most serious problems in single-ended integrated amplifier design. The
inductance creates parasitic feedback which can cause the amplifier to self-oscillate.
This feedback path can be broken using the ground separation technique, and consequently amplifier’s stability and performance can be improved.
74
Dynamic Supplied CMOS Power Amplifier for GSM-EDGE Transmitters
As a future work, the linearity performance of the amplifier can be investigated
according to with and without ground separation technique. How the geometrical
arrangement of the amplifier’s layout and stages affect the stability and performance.
The answer of this question also might be investigated as a future work.
Chapter
5
Conclusion
This work concentrates on investigation of multi-hop cellular network functionality
and designing linear power amplifiers which will be the critical part for efficient multihop cellular networks.
In this work it is shown that multi-hop can be introduced into a WCDMA-FDD
cellular system with small changes. Investigations show that the multi-hop achieves
lower transmit powers for user equipments by splitting the transmission into several
hops.
According to uplink outage simulation results, the multi-hop system performance
is better than the reference system (direct communication system) performance for
an ACLR of 90 dB or higher. Uplink power distribution results also show that repeated users average transmit power is 3 dB less than reference case and signal power
is distributed more evenly and over a larger range when using repeaters. These new
requirements are reflected to RF parts as a need for a highly linear power amplifier
with a wide power control range and sharp transmit/receive filter.
76
Conclusion
Linear power amplifiers in CMOS, however, generally have much lower efficiency
at linear output power. This work concentrates on CMOS Class-AB amplifiers with
adaptive biasing scenario. Several CMOS Class-AB amplifier designs have been published during this work and their power added efficiencies are measured from about
17% to 28% at 1-dB compression points. The power amplifiers deliver reasonable
output powers with good linearity characteristics.
In this work it is also shown that the power amplifier efficiency can be improved
at mid-power ranges by dynamically biasing the amplifier with slightly reduction on
the PAE at 1-dB compression point. The idea is to adapt the supply voltage to the
envelope of the input signal. In this way, the average DC current is reduced and
thereby the power amplifier’s PAE is improved at mid-power ranges.
This work also demonstrates that using on-chip ground separation technique improves the stability and performance of the amplifier. The inductance of the ground
bondwires is one of the most serious problems in single ended integrated amplifier
design. Any parasitic feedback paths between stages via ground bondwire inductance
can be broken using the on-chip ground separation technique, and consequently amplifier’s stability and performance can be improved.
Appendix
A
RF Requirements for Multi-Hop
Cellular Network Repeaters
A
Published in the Proceedings of IEEE Norchip Conference, Oslo, November 2005. Authors are Robert S. Karlsson, Huseyin Aniktar, Torben Larsen, and Jan H. Mikkelsen.
RF Requirements for Multi-hop Cellular
Network Repeaters
Robert S. Karlsson, Huseyin Aniktar, Torben Larsen, and Jan H. Mikkelsen
RlSC Division, Center for TeleInFrasnucme (CTIF),
Aalborg University, Niels Jemes Vej 12, 9220 Aalborg East, Denmark
E-mail: risc@kom.aau.dk
Abstract
tems Scenarios with some additions necessary to model the
multi-hop functionality [3]. The model parameters are s u m marized in Table 1 . In the model, the repeater can act as a
UE towards the BS and as a BS towards the UE. The method
is depicted in Figure 1.
Multi-hop cellular networks are currently being erploredfor
use infuture generation cellular networks. This paper is a
step towards identibing overall system requirementsfor the
radio j-equency (RF)part of terminals for such multi-hop
cellular networks. Multi-hop cellular network offer tradeoffs between coverage, capaciw and power consumption.
Multi-hop networks are also erpected to place new requirements on the RFparts of the lransceivers of both repeating
and mobile devices. In this pope< a set of system requirements are derivedfor multi-hop enabled RFfront-ends. For
this purpose, the uplink transmitpower dishibutions and the
uplinkoutageperformancefor multi-hop networks are investigated. According to simulation results. some RF requirements have been identi ed in both transmitter and receiver
sections.
Table 1: System parameters [3,4, 51.
1. Introduction
Existing cellular systems suffer from interference problems
related to the centralized nature of the radio communication
[I]. Typically, within a cell there are several user equipments (UEs) that are all communicating with the same base
station (BS). As these UEs are likely to experience greatly
differing propagation losses in the radio transmission, they
are forced to use transmission power levels with a similar
variance. This is the mot of the so-called near-far problem
where UEs near a BS may interfere with communication between the BS and UEs further away. In multi-hop cellular
networks (MCN), communication is not established directly
between the UE and the BS [2]. Instead, intermediate devices act as repeaters between the BS and a UE. Using multiple hops in a cellular system is one way to decrease the
total required transmission power and possibly mitigate interference and coverage problems. Reductions in transmission power decrease the power consumption in the UE; this
increases the time between battery recharges. MCNs can
also provide service in 'dead spots' in a cell, which are not
reachable by the BS in a single hop. Reducing the transmission power in MCNs would be bene cia1 also for medical
reasons.
2. System Model
To investigate the resulting RF requirements a system model
suitable for analyzing multi-hop networks is introduced. The
adopted model has been chosen to re ect an urban high trafc scenario and is taken from 3GPP Radio Frequency Sys0-7803-8510-1/04/$20.00 @ZOO4 IEEE.
281
PARAMETER
Site to site distance
User bit rate
Chip pdcc
Processing gain
Noise factor UEs
Noise factor BS
Noise factor repeater (for bo& tiqequsncies)
M a x i " UE oulput power
Maximum BS ourput power
BS output power used far common
channels (20(%) of maximum)
Maximum repater output power toward BS
Maximum rspeater output power toward U&
SIR targer in UE (downlink)
SIR target in BS (uplink)
SIR target in repeater (tiom UE uplink)
ACLR when UE tnnsmib
ACLR whcn BS Wnsrmrs
htenna gain in BS
h t e o o a gain in repeatn
h t e n gain
~ in UE
Dawnlink anhogonality factor
MCL beween repeaten
MCL bcwcen repeater and W
MCL bewcen BS and repeater
MCL bcwccn BS and UE
Repeater distance horn BS I
I VU'E
I IOOOm
1??00 bids
3.84 Mchipis
3840112.2
9 dB
5dB
9 dB
125 mW
20 w
4w
5WmW
I
5W mW
7.9 dB
6.1 dB
6.1 dB
33 dB
45 dB
I I dB
OdB
0 dB
0.4
45 dB
45 dB
53 dB
53 !iB
375 m
2.1. Network Layout
The network simulation model assumes a WCDMA FDD
system with 19 macro base stations placed in a hexagonal
panem. The network layout is illustrated in Figure 2. The
frequencybandsare 1930-1935 and2120-2125 MHz forpair
one(FBI), and 1935-1940and2125-2130MHzforpairtwo
(FB2). Center frequencies are 1932.4, 2122.4, 1937.4 and
2127.4 MHz respectively (see Figure 1). Six xed repeaters
are placed in the center cell hosted by BS one. A reference
case is also investigated by using the same system set-up as
described above hut without the repeaters. All BSs in the
system are allowed to use both frequency bands. The communication between BS one and any one of the repeaters is
located on FBI and the communication between repeaters
and repeated UEs is located on FB2. To avoid border ef-
scenario:
a) Between a BS and a UE.
Figure 2: The network layout Macro BSs are indicated by
'0' and repeaters with 'x'. The site to site distance is 1000
meters.
[SI.A high ACLR results from high linearity of the transmitter. Usually the requirements for the ACLR are lower in the
UEs than in the BSs as a result of cost, power consumption,
and form factor trade-offs. In simulation scenario there is severe interference in the repeaters due to the transmissions on
adjacent channels. The system performance is investigated
for some different values of ACLR in the repeaters, while
ACLR of 45dB [SI for the BSs and ACLR of 33dB [4] for
the UEs are used.
3. Results
-.-
Based on the model presented in section 2, a number of
Monte Carlo simulations are performed. First, the uplink
outage performance for some different values of repeater
ACLR is investigated. If there are many links to a receiver,
or when the path gain is low in one or more links, some
links might end up using the maximum transmit power and
thus not reaching the target SIR, they are in outage. After
to get uplink outage performance, uplink power distribution
performance is investigated. In Figures 3 and 4, "repUE"
is used to indicate repeated users, "Ref' indicates the reference case without repeaters, and "a75", " a W , "ago" indicate ACLRs of 75 dB, 80 dB and 90 dB respectively. In Figure 3 the 95% con dence interval is indicated for the 'repUE
a80' case. As the con dence intervals in the other cases are
similar for similar outage they are not included. Each simulation point consists of at least 1000 independent snapshots.
A snapshot is a randomly chosen time interval that is long
enough to let the power control converge but short enough
to ensure that the large scale propagation does not change.
Figure 1: Multi-hop system where the repeater acts as an UE
towards BS, an: as a BS towards the WE. Transmission path
(solid) and interference (dashed)
Tablel2: Propagation parameter! 3,61.
PARAMETER
I
.Frequuency
1
Repeater antenna height
UE antenna heis$[
Height ofbuildinds
Widthofroads
Building scpantion
1
Street orientation bilh respect to direct path
Base station ante& height
Standard deviatid o f shadow fading
Shadow fading spbtial carrclation d i s c " (Where
VALUE
2000 MHr
4m
1.5 m
ISm
15 m
90 m
90"
30 m
6 dB
llOm
colrehiion i s equal to I/e)
Shadow fading BSIrepcater conelation
0.5
I
3.1. Uplink Outage
2.3. Adjacent Channel Leakage Ratio
I
I
The adjacent channel leakage power ratio (ACLR) is the ratio of the RootrRaised Cosine (RRC) ltered mean power
centered on thelassigned channel frequency to the RRC 1I
teredmean power centered on the adjacent channel frequency
I
0-7803s51,0-1/04/$20.00 02004 IEEE.
In Figure 3 the uplink outage versus the load for the multihop system is shown together with the reference case without repeaters. The results are presented for some values of
the ACLR that gave outage levels in the interesting range hetween 0.1% and 10%. Based on Figure 3 the outage for the
repeated users is seen to decrease when the ACLR increases.
282
It is seen that the outage for the repeated users is higher than
for the reference case except for ACLR values of 90 dB or
higher (The outage for an ACLR of 200 dB -ideal case was
zero for this range ofloads).
0.01
0.06-
0.05-
-- 0.04
E
-
1
n
2 0.03 -
Figure 5: Uplink UE power density for repeated users. Load
is 49 usersicell and the ACLR is 90 dB.
Figure 3: Uplink outage for the repeated UEs vs load. 95%
confidence interval is shown for repUE a80.
0.06
0.05
I::]
3.2. Uplink Power Distributions
IL
In Figure 4 the CDF (Cumulative Distribution Function) of
the repeated UEs is illustrated together with the CDF for the
same UE’s when no repeaters are included. In this gure, repeated UEs transmission powers are compared to the transmission powers of the same UEs in the reference case without repeaters. The results are based on a load of 49 usersicell
and an ACLR of 90dB. Clearly the repeated users operate at
much lower transmission power levels than the same UEs in
the reference case without repeaters.
,d.,I
11
1
,
,
-50
-40
,
,
,
0.02
,
0.01
%a
-20 -10
0
Transmit p w e r [dBml
-30
10
20
30
Figure 6: Uplink UE power density for reference (without
repeater). Load was 49 usersicell, and ACLR was 90 dB.
I
lod
-MI
-50
-40
-30
-20 -10
0
Tranrmit p w e r IdBm1
10
20
30
Figure 4: Uplink UE power CDF of repeated UEs. A load
of 49 usersicell is used and the ACLR is set to 90 dB.
The estimated density of the repeated UEs is seen in Figure
5. There is a high probability of nding users in the highest bin (at ZldBm). This is because of the UEs that are in
outage and end up using the maximum transmission power
(125mW). The average power, in linear scale, is 13.2mW.
The estimated density for the same UEs in the reference case
without repeaters is shown in Figure 6. For the same load
0-7803-8510-1/04/$20.00 02004 IEEE.
and ACLR, the outage is higher than for the case with repeaters (see Fi&e 3), and thus the peak at 2ldBm is lower
in Figure 5 than in Figure 6. The average power, in linear scale, is found to 28.6mW. Thus, apprnximately 3dB is
saved for the repeated users at this load and ACLR. Compared to the reference case it can also be seen that the signal power is distributed mnre evenly and over a larger range
when using repeaters. The estimated density for the repeater
uplink output power is found in Figure 7 for 49 userdcell and
ACLR of 90dB. The average repeater power was 96.2mW.
In Figure 8 the CDF of the repeated UEs with and without repeaters is illustrated for a load of 47 userdcell and an
ACLR of 90 dB. As expected it is very similar to Figure
4 but shifted to the left (towards lower powers) in comparison to the load 49 userdcell. The average power for the
repeated users is found to 6.6 mW (8.2 dBm), and for the
repeated users without the repeaters it is found to 10.8 mW
(10.3 dBm). Similar results were achieved for other loads
and ACLRs.
283
4. Discussion
According to the uplink outage performance results the system performance is highly dependent on the ACLR perfor-
”.”,
0.060.05
I-
-
ll
I
Figure 7 : Uplink repeater power density. ‘Load is 49
userskell and the ACLR is 90 dB.
I
100
106
-i
0
I
10-2-
10-3-
I
Figure 8: Uplink UE power CDF of repeated Ws. A load
of 47 userdcell is used and the ACLR is set to 90 dB.
mance of the repeaters. For 49 userskell and a 90 dB ACLR
the uplink oudge performance of the multi-hop system is
2.5Ywpoint better than the reference system performance. In
1
the transmitter section the ACLR performance depends on
especially the bower ampli er (PA) linearity and transmit
Iter chmcteriktics. In the receiver section, ACLR depends
mainly on rediver Iter characteristic. Another problem
for the repeate:s is the self-blocking performance - that is
the ability to rdceive a low power signal while at the Same
I
time transmitting a high power signal in an adjacent frequency band. This might also require xed sharp RF lters
I
which could make these systems unable to exibly change
I
frequency in the areas with multi-hop capability, It is found
I
that the average transmission power for multi-hop systems is
I
reduced compared to a reference system where no repeaters
I
are used. In the multi-hop system, approximately 3 dB of
transmit power IS saved for the repeated users. The average transmit power is 11.2 dBm for multi-hop systems while
the same value is 14.6 dBm for the reference system. It is
also found that the transmit powers are spread over a large
‘power range when using repeaters. These results also place
I
new requirements on PA design besides the high linearity requirement. A dider power control range may be needed and
I
a highly accurate power control could also be required for
I’
0-7803-8510-1/04/$20.00 @ZOO4 IEEE.
I
284
multi-hop cellular systems. In PA design there are a number
of trade-offs between high power ef ciency, high linearity,
load tolerance and low codhigh integration. Meeting the
high ACLR requirements over a wide power control range
without reducing the power ef ciency clearly represents a
challenging issue in PA design for multi-hop systems. Filter design is another challenging issue for multi-bop system
because of the high ACLRiselectivity requirement. To meet
a ACLR of 90 dB or higher in the Iter design, high Q elements are needed. That speci cation might be also achieved
by only xed sharp Iten or some new technologies like RF
E M S (Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems), BAW (Bulk
Acoustic Wave) or SAW (Surface Acoustic Wave) technologies. So Iter design is the other important issue for multihop systems. Available technology sets limits to the ACLR;
State of the art today can reach values of approximately 77
dB for a peak output power of +30dBm [7].
5. Conclusions
In this paper, RF requirements for multi-hop cellular networks have been investigated. For this purpose, some simulations have been performed to nd uplink transmit power
distributions and outage performance. Based on simulation
results new RF requirements have been identi ed in both
transmitter and receiver sections. These requirements specifically relate to ACLR and power control range characteristics. According to uplink outage results, multi-hop system performance is 2.5%-point better than the reference system performance for an ACLR of 90 dB or higher. Uplink
power distribution results also show that repeated users average transmit power is 3 dB less than reference case and
signal power is distributed more evenly and over a larger
range when using repeaters. These new requirements are
re ected to RF parts as a need for a highly linear PA with
a wide power control range and sharp transmitkceive Iter.
Furthermore, PAS in MCNs have a higher dynamic range according to the reference case. This,‘can he illustrated with
a relatively at probability distribution, means that high PA
ef ciency is needed.
6. References
111 A. Muqattash, M. KNnz, and W. E. Ryan, “Solving the NearFar Problem in CDMA-based Ad Hoc Networks,”AdHoc Networks Joumal, vol. 1, pp. 435453, November 2003.
121 K. J. Kumar, B. S. Manoj, and C. S. R Murthy, “On the Use
of Multiple Hops in Next Generation Cellular Architectures,”
Pmc.ICON, pp. 283-288, August 2002.
[31 “Radio Frequency System Scenarios,”3GPP TechnicalRepon,
September 2003. TR 25.942 v6.1.0.
“User Equipment Radio Transmission and Reception (FDD),”
3GPP Technical Speci cation, September 2003. TS25.101
v6.2.0.
[51 “Base Station Radio Transmission and Reception (FDD),”
3GPP Technical Speci cation, 09 2003. TS 25.104 v6.3.0.
[6] “Urban Transmission Loss Models for Mobile Radio in the
900-and 1800-MHz Bands,” COST231, September 1991.
TD(973)l19-REV(WG2).
171 “Vector Signal Generator,” Rohde Schwan, wwwmhdeschwan.com/, May 2003. RS SMIQ03HD.
[4]
Appendix
B
Performance of a WCDMA
FDD Cellular Multihop Network
B
Published in the Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Personal Indoor
and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC), Berlin, September 2005. Authors are
Robert S. Karlsson, Huseyin Aniktar, Torben Larsen, and Jan H. Mikkelsen.
2005 IEEE 16th International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications
Performance of a WCDMA FDD Cellular Multihop
Network
Robert S. Karlsson, Huseyin Aniktar, Jan H. Mikkelsen, Torben Larsen
traffic was investigated in [4].
Splitting the transmissions between BSs and UEs into
two or more hops increases the delay of the communication,
which might not be acceptable for some services. Multihop
systems can use fixed repeaters or mobile repeaters. Fixed
repeaters are special devices that are placed at strategic
places in the coverage area - they are assumed to be
connected to a power outlet. A mobile repeater is a UE that
acts as a repeater for other UEs - they run on battery power.
To keep low delays, enabling voice traffic, and to have
small changes to the existing cellular system we concentrate
on fixed repeaters and a maximum of two hops. Thus we do
not consider Ad-hoc functionality, i.e., all connections has
to go through the BSs. We study the system capacity and
transmit power distribution, taking into account
interference between cells, users and repeaters and also
between frequency bands. The contribution in this paper is
the circuit switched traffic analysis in multihop CDMA
cellular systems and the in-band technique used to
introduce repeating into an existing WCDMA FDD system
with only small changes.
Abstract- Cellular multihop networks has the potential to
decrease power consumption, increase coverage and/or enable
higher data rates. We propose using in-band transmissions for
the connection between a fixed repeating device and the
cellular base station. A user connected via the repeater use
one frequency band (fq2) for the communication to the
repeater and the repeater uses an adjacent frequency band
(fql) for the communication to the base station. There is
strong interference in the repeater due to transmitting and
receiving on adjacent frequency bands, and strong
interference from users connected directly to the base station
on fq2. We demonstrate that the method can be used to
introduce multihop functionality into a WCDMA FDD
cellular system with only small changes. In a pessimistic
scenario repeated users can lower their transmit power, but
others have to increase their power. The multihop system
requires no extra frequency spectrum but it has a small
capacity penalty, and it requires a high adjacent channel
leakage ratio in the repeaters. The results are reasonable for
this pessimistic study and suggest further studies of
alternative scenarios to improve the performance.
I. INTRODUCTION
JN multihop systems communication is not directly from
1user
equipment (UE) to base station (BS). Instead
intermediate devices relay the communication. Cellular
multiple hop systems has been suggested as a new area of
research [1]. They have the potential to decrease the total
required transmission power and mitigate interference and
coverage problems [1-3]. Multiple hop cellular systems
offer trade offs between coverage, capacity and power
consumption [4]. Reduction in transmission power may be
attractive for health reasons, though there are not yet any
conclusive proofs of the health effects of cellular phone
usage. In [2] the authors investigate Ad-Hoc functionality
introduced into a cellular architecture using the IEEE
802.11 standard with packet traffic. The increased coverage
of a CDMA based multihop cellular system with packet
II. RADIO RESOURCES
When we split the transmissions between a UE and a BS
into two hops there are four transmission directions: from
the BS to the repeater, from the repeater to the UE, from
the UE to the repeater, and from the repeater to the BS. To
provide radio resources for these transmissions we can use
User Eqipment
fq2
A
User Equipment
This work was supported by the Danish Technical Research Council,
Project number 26-03-0030.
R. S. Karlsson was with Aalborg University, Denmark. He is now with
ZTE Wistron Telecom AB, Farogatan 33, SE- 164 51 Kista, Sweden (e-mail:
fq
Repeater
robert.karlsson@ztewistron.com).
Ruse Station
H. Aniktar, J. H. Mikkelsen, and T. Larsen are with Department of
Communication Technology, Aalborg University, DK-9220 Aalborg 0,
Denmark (e-mail: {ha, jhm, tl }kom.aau.dk).
978-3-8007-2909-8/05/$20.00 ©2005 IEEE
If
Fig. 1. Multihop system. The repeater acts as an UE towards BS, and as a BS
towards UE. Intended transmission paths (solid) and interference (dashed).
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2005 IEEE 16th International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications
Fig. 1). Other users connectcd directly to the same base
station can communicate on either of these two frequency
bands. This method can be used in a WCDMA FDD system
when the operator has access to two or more carriers (that is
a minimum of 10 MHz for the uplink and 10 MHz for the
downlink). The only change to an existing system, besides
the repeaters, is the extra information necessary: either
location information (UE positions) in the BSs or one extra
measurement for the UEs to report to the BSs (one more
cell in monitored set).
III. SYSTEM MODELS
Here we introduce models chosen to reflect an urban high
traffic scenario; the models are taken from 3GPP Radio
Frequency Systems Scenarios [5] with necessary additions
to model the multihop. The most important model
parameters are listed in Table I. We are interested in the
capacity and transmit powers, and therefore we disregard of
the mobility and use independent snapshots [6] to analyze
the performance. We investigate both the uplink (from the
UEs to the BSs, possibly via a repeater), and the downlink.
The term link is used to denote the communication from a
transmitter to a receiver. Thus a user communicates with
one link if it is not repeated and with two links if it is
repeated.
Fig. 2. Network layout. Macro base stations are indicated by o and repeaters
with x. The site to site distance is 1000 meters.
three different methods: separation in time, separation in
space, and separation in frequency. We concentrate on the
separation in frequency as only small changes to an existing
system are needed, and we will benefit from the separation
in space that naturally exist in a cellular system.
We let the repeater act like a BS toward the UE and as a
UE toward the BS. This means there will be strong
interference between transmit and receive frequency bands
in the repeater, and strong interference for the receiver in
the repeater from users connected directly to the base
station on frequency band fq2, see dashed line in Fig. 1.
Thus we depend on the DS-CDMA systems good ability to
withstand interference. This relaying system is classified as
a decode-and-forward system in [3], it differs from the
system investigated in [4] in that we consider continuous
transmission instead of packet traffic and that we consider
two frequency bands instead of one.
For the uplink a user connected via the repeater use one
frequency band for the communication to the repeater (fq2
see Fig. 1), and the repeater uses an adjacent frequency
band for the communication to the base station (fql see
TABLE I KEY SYSTEM PARAMETERS
Parameter
Noise factor BS
Noise factor repeater and UE
Maximum BS output power
BS output power used for common channels
Maximum UE output power
Maximum repeater output power (0.5 W in each band)
SIR target in BS, and in repeater (uplink)
SIR target in UE, and in repeater (downlink)
ACLR when UE transmits
ACLR when BS transmits
Antenna gain in BS
Antenna gain in repeater and in UE
Downlink orthogonality factor
MCL between two repeaters, and between UE and repeater
MCL between BS and repeater, and between BS and UE
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A. Network Layout
We investigate a system with 19 hexagonal cells (site to
site distance 1000 m) where six fixed repeaters are
introduced in the center cell (375 m from center BS), see
Fig. 2. For reference we also investigate the same system
without the repeaters. The communication between BS
number one and the repeaters is located on fql, and the
communication between repeaters and repeated UEs is
located on fq2. All base stations in the system use both
frequency bands. To avoid border effects, in the macro
network, a wrap-around technique is used.
Value
5 dB
9 dB
20 W
4W
0.125 W
0.5 W
6.1 dB
7.9 dB
33 dB
45 dB
11 dB
0 dB
0.4
45 dB
53 dB
B. Propagation Models
A transmitter transmitting with power P,t is received
with power G- Pt, at the receiver, G is the path gain. We
model the path gain as G=min(A,ArG(d)S; J/MCL), where
A, is the antenna gain at the transmitter, Ar is the antenna
gain at the receiver, G(d) is the distance dependent path
gain, S is a shadow fading factor, and MCL is the minimum
coupling loss [7] of this link.
For G(d) we use the propagation models suggested in [8],
the parameters are summarized in Table 1I. There are four
different types of propagation models needed: a) Between a
BS and a UE. b) Between a BS and a repeater. c) Between a
repeater and a UE. d) Between a repeater and other
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2005 IEEE 16th International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications
TABLE 11 PROPAGATION PARAMETERS
Parameter
Frequency
Repeater antenna height
UE antenna height
Height of buildings
Width ofroads
Building separation
Street orientation with respect to direct path 900
Base station antenna height
Standard deviation of shadow fading
Shadow fading spatial correlation distance (where
correlation is equal to l/e)
Shadow fading BS/repeater correlation
Value
2000 MHz
4m
1.5 m
15 m
15 m
90 m
30 m
6 dB
110 m
0.5
repeaters. For a and b we use the COST-Hata-Model
suitable for non-line-of-sight outdoor urban areas where one
of the antennas is placed above the roof top level. Whereas
for c and d we use the COST-Walfisch-lkegami-Model of
non-line-of-sight with both antennas placed below roof top
level. In Fig. 3 we have plotted the distance dependent part
of the path gain (assuming a co-located BS and repeater) as
well as for line-of-sight (LOS, as described in [8]).
The shadow fading is assumed to be log-normal
distributed [5] and we use the spatial correlation model of
[9]. Moreover, the shadow fading value between a UE and
different BSs/repeaters are assumed to be correlated (this
model, e.g., a user that moves into the basement of a
building when the path gain decreases to all BSs and
repeaters).
vv_0
200
300
Distance (m)
400
500
Fig. 3. Distance dependent part of path gain versus distance.
(fast fading is not considered). We do not include admission
control or soft handover which could improve the
performance, especially for the downlink. We assume the
service to be circuit switched speech and we do not model
speech activity detection.
E. Signal to Interference Ratio
We define the uplink signal to interference ratio (SIR), at
the receiver of a link i, as
SIR i
E
R Z
i* 1 I
GM *Pj+Jet +N,
(1)
where W is the chip rate (3.84 Mchip/s), R is the user bit
rate (12.2 kbps), Gij is the total path gain from transmitter
of linkj to the receiver of link i, Pj is the transmit power of
the transmitter of link j, Mi is the set of links using the
same frequency as link i (including the link i), and Ni is the
thermal noise power at the receiver of link i. The
interference power in the frequency band of link i at the
receiver of link i from all links not using the same
frequency as link i is Ie.tti - we have
C. Adjacent Channel Leakage Ratio
The adjacent channel leakage power ratio (ACLR) is the
ratio of the Root-Raised Cosine (RRC) filtered mean power
centered on the assigned channel frequency to the RRC
filtered mean power centered on the adjacent channel
frequency [10]. A high ACLR results from high linearity in
the transmitter. In polar transmitters, a good time
alignment between envelope and phase is needed for high
ACLR performance. In the repeaters we will have strong
interference due to the transmission and reception on
adjacent channels. We investigate the performance for some
different values of ACLR in the repeaters, while we use the
value from [10] for the BSs and from [11] for UEs.
D. Traffic and Service Model
The number of users per cell is assumed to be Poisson
distributed and uniform over the coverage area. We model
the traffic (before multihop is considered) on the two
frequency bands as two independent Poisson processes,
each with the same average traffic load of k (users/cell).
Every user is assigned to one BS (or to a repeater) - the
selection is the one with the highest path gain. This model
a scenario with handover based on the average path gain
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100
leXt.I
=
EMc GqPJ/ACLRJJ
(2)
where Mc is the set of all links not using the same
frequency band as link i, and ACLR,j is the ACLR from the
frequency band of the transmitter of linkj to the frequency
band of link i. The thermal noise power at the receiver of
link i is N1-kT0WF, where kTo is the noise spectral density
(-174 dBm/Hz), and Fi is the noise factor of the receiver.
F. Power Control
We use the iterative Distributed Constrained Power Control
[12], which decreases (increase) the transmission power
when the SIR is above (below) the target SIR. We consider
the powers to have converged when the maximum power
change between iterations, for any link in the system, is less
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2005 IEEE 16th International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications
than 3%. For the uplink there is a constraint on the
maximum link power, while for the downlink (and in the
repeaters) we have a constraint on the total output power
from the BS.
G. Performance Measures
When the power control has converged, if there are many
links to a receiver or when the path gain is low in one or
more links, some links might end up using the maximum
transmit power and thus not reaching the target SIR; they
are defined to be in outage. We define the outage on band k
1)
0)
CD
0
as
k= EaEMk Xa/(2 N)
(3)
where N is the number of cells (19), A'k is the set of users
using frequency band k and XA, is equal to one if user a is in
outage and zero else. A repeated user is counted in outage if
one (or both) of the two links is in outage.
Repeated users: We also investigate the outage for the
repeated users. We define the repeated outage as
90r=
MrXa
Mr
43
45
47
46
Load, X, (users/cell)
Fig. 4. Outage versus load.
reference case without repeaters, except when ACLR is
90 dB or higher. For fql, the outage for ACLR of 80, 90,
and 200 dB are all within the 95% confidence intervals of
each other, therefore they are shown as one curve only. The
outage for fq 1 and fq2 in the reference case is also within
the 95% confidence interval of each other and thus they are
shown in one curve. For fq2, performance gets better as we
increase the ACLR, and for an ACLR of 90 dB and above
we get similar or better performance than for the case
without repeaters.
The capacity at 5% outage and an ACLR of 90 dB is
approx. 48.2 users/cell on each frequency band (limited by
the outage on fql), or 1.2% lower than for the case without
repeaters (48.8 users/cell on each frequency band).
(4)
where MA is the set of repeated users, and jAlf is the
number of repeated users.
Increasing the load gives higher outage. If we set a limit
to the outage, e.g., a maximum acceptable outage of 5%, we
get the maximum load, the capacity, of the system.
IV. NUMERICAL RESULTS
Here we present numerical result achieved with Monte
Carlo simulation of the models presented in last section. As
a reference case we investigate the same system but without
the repeaters, and by looking at which users are repeated in
the system with repeaters, we can find the performance of
the same users in the case without repeaters. In the result
plots we use "repUE" to indicate repeated users, "Ref' to
indicate the reference case without repeaters, "a80" to
indicate an ACLR of 80 dB, and "fqql" to indicate users on
frequency band one, etc. Each point consists of at least 1000
independent snapshots (more for low outages).
B. Power Distribution
Here we present estimates of the cumulative distribution
functions (CDFs) and density functions of the transmission
powers, for a load of 49 users/cell on each frequency band
and an ACLR of 90 dB (using bins of size 0.5 dBm and
normalized so that the sum over all bins is one). We
compare the transmission powers of UEs that are repeated
to the same UEs in the reference case without repeaters.
In Fig. 5 we have the CDF of the UE transmission
powers for the repeated UEs with (solid) and without (dash
dotted) repeaters. Clearly the repeated users use lower
transmission powers with repeaters. The CDF for all users
is also found in Fig. 5; unfortunately the system with
repeaters (dotted) uses slightly higher transmission powers
than the system without repeaters (dashed). This is due to
the interference created by the in-band transmission for the
multihop part.
The estimated probability density function of the repeated
UEs we find in Fig. 6. There is a high probability of finding
users in the highest bin (at 21 dBm); this is because of the
UEs in outage ends up using the maximum transmission
A. Outage
In Fig. 4 we have plotted the uplink outage versus the
load for the multihop system as well as for the reference
case without repeaters. The results are presented for values
of the ACLR that gave outage levels in the interesting range
between 0.1% and 10%. The ACLR of 200 dB, in practice
infinite, shows the limit of the achievable performance. For
the repeated users, as expected the outage decreases when
the ACLR increases (the outage for the repeated users is
zero for this range of loads at an ACLR of 200 dB). The
outage for the repeated users is higher than for the
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44
334
2005 IEEE 16th International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications
{]
07.
0.06F
0.05h
'Z 0.04
._
U.
0
.0
C)
2 0.03
0L
0.02F
0.01 -
-60
-50
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
10
Transmit power (dBm)
Fig. 5. Power distributions. Load 49 users/cell, ACLR 90 dB.
J
_U
-60
30
-50
--.1
........
-40
1.1difflifil
-30
-20
-10
Transmit power (dBm)
0
10
20
30
Fig. 6. UE power density of repeated users with repeater (low peak) and
without repeaters (high peak). Load 49 users/cell, ACLR 90 dB.
power of 125 mW (20.97 dBm). The average power is
13.2 mW (11.2 dBm).
The estimated probability density function for the
repeated UEs without repeaters we also find in Fig. 6. The
average power is 28.6 mW (14.6 dBm). Thus we save
approximately 3 dB for the repeated users at this load and
ACLR. We can also see that the powers are more spread out
with than without the repeaters.
We also studied the average power for all users in the
system; it is 25.1 mW (14.0 dBm) with and 22.7 mW
(13.6 dBm) without repeaters. Thus we loose 0.4 dB
transmit power for the case with repeaters.
Similar results were achieved for other loads, other
ACLRs and in the downlink. For the downlink there is no
power loss using multihop, but the capacity penalty is
higher (approximately 6.5%).
multihop achieves lower transmit powers for repeated users,
but others get increased transmission powers. There is a
small capacity loss for using the proposed multihop scheme
in the pessimistic scenario investigated. We showed a high
required ACLR of 90 dB, this can be mitigated if the
repeater has separated antennas towards BS and towards
UEs. State of the art today is an ACLR of around 77 dB for
a peak output power of +30 dBm [13]. We propose further
studies to mitigate the high required ACLR by separating
receive and transmit antennas in the repeaters, and also
include a LOS scenario.
REFERENCES
[1] M. Frodigh, S. Parkvall, C. Roobol, P. Johansson, P. Larsson, "Futuregeneration wireless networks," IEEE Personal Communications, vol. 8,
no.5, pp. 10-17, Oct. 2001.
[2] K. Jayanth Kumar, B. S. Manoj, C. Siva Ram Murthy, "On the use of
multiple hops in next generation cellular architectures," in Proc. IEEE
ICON2002, pp. 283-8, 2002.
[3] R. Pabst, e atl., "Relay-based deployment concepts for wireless and
mobile broadband radio," IEEE Comm. Mag., pp. 80-89, Sept. 2004.
[4] A. Fujiwara, S. Takeda, H. Yoshino, T. Otsu, "Area coverage and
capacity enhancement by multihop connection of CDMA cellular
network," in Proc. IEEE Veh. Tech. Conf fall 2002, pp. 23714, 2002.
[51 Radio frequency system scenarios, 3GPP Technical Report, TR 25.942
v6.1.0 2003-09.
[6] M. Almgren, L. Bergstrom, M. Frodigh, K. Wallstedt, "'Channel
allocation and power settings in a cellular system with macro and micro
cells using the same frequency spectrum" in Proc. IEEE Veh. Tech.
Conf 1996, pp. 1150-54.
[7] FDD base station classification, 3GPP Technical Report, TR 25.951
v6.2.0 2003-09.
[8] COST231, Final Report. http://www.lx.it.pt/cost23 1/final_report.htm
[9] M. Gudmundson, "Correlation model for shadow fading in mobile radio
systems" Electronics Letters, vol. 27, issue 23, pp. 2145-6, Nov. 1991.
[10] Base station radio transmission and reception (FDD), 3GPP
Technical Specification, TS 25.104 v6.3.0 2003-09.
[ 11] User equipment radio transmission and reception (FDD), 3GPP
Technical Specification, TS 25.101 v6.2.0 2003-09.
[12] S. A. Grandhi, J. Zander, R. Yates, "Constrained Power Control",
Wireless Personal Communications, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 257-70, 1995.
[13] Vector Signal Generator R&S SMIQ03HD, Rhode & Schwarz, ver.
01.00, May 2003. Available: http://www.rohde-schwarz.com/
V. CONCLUSION
The scenario we investigated was aimed at investigating
the power saving feature and capacity of multihop cellular
systems. Using multihop cellular systems for coverage
extensions requires a different scenario to evaluate. A
scenario where multihop cellular systems are likely to show
gains is when repeaters are placed in LOS from the BS and
there is LOS between the repeater and the UE but not
directly between the BS and the UE. Other methods to
improve the performance is: removal of users in outage,
multiple antennas at the repeaters, hotspot coverage by
repeaters, different propagation scenarios (LOS), and interfrequency handovers based on received quality instead of
path gain to mitigate interference for UEs close to the
repeaters. Thus the investigated scenario was pessimistic.
We have shown that multihop can be introduced into a
WCDMA FDD cellular system with small changes. The
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335
Appendix
C
A Class-AB 1.65GHz-2GHz
Broadband CMOS Medium
Power Amplifier
C
Published in the Proceedings of IEEE Norchip Conference, Oulu, November 2005.
Authors are Hüseyin Aniktar, Henrik Sjöland, Jan H. Mikkelsen, and Torben Larsen.
A Class-AB 1.65GHz-2GHz Broadband CMOS
Medium Power Amplifier
H. Aniktar1 , H. Sjöland2 , J.H. Mikkelsen1 , and T. Larsen1
1
RISC Division, Center for TeleInFrastructure, Aalborg University,
Niels Jernes Vej 12, DK–9220 Aalborg East, Denmark,
E-mail: risc@kom.aau.dk
2
Department of Electroscience, Lund University, Sweden,
E-mail: Henrik.Sjoland@es.lth.se
Abstract
In this paper a single stage broadband CMOS RF power
amplifier is presented. The power amplifier is fabricated in
a 0.25µm CMOS process. Measurements with a 2.5V supply
voltage show an output power of 18.5 dBm with an associated PAE of 16% at the 1-dB compression point. The measured gain is 5.1 ± 0.5 dB from 1.65 to 2 GHz. Simulated
and measured results agree reasonably well.
ing passive network synthesis techniques to achieve optimum VSWR characteristics over the broad frequency band.
Interconnection elements (bonding wires, pad capacitances,
and board traces) were also taken into account in the design
of matching networks. Figure 1 shows the schematic of the
CMOS power amplifier.
Vd=2.5V
1. Introduction
Multi-mode radio terminals are needed more and more as
the number of radio systems on the market increases. Multimode terminals enable the user to have access to different
systems with a single terminal. Realization of multi-band,
multi-mode radio terminals requires technical progress in
several areas. Design of broadband multi-mode power amplifiers (PA) is one of them [1].
6.8 nH
5.6 ohm
2.78 pF
0.24 x 1640
7.2 pF
RFout
15 ohm
RFin
4.7 pF
8.8 pF
3.3 pF
220 ohm
On Chip
0.5 pF
5.6 nH
Vg=0.9V
The design of broadband amplifiers introduces difficulties
which require careful considerations [2]. Two techniques
that are commonly used in the design broadband power amplifiers are the use of compensated matching networks and
the use of negative feedback [2]. Basically, the design of
a constant-gain amplifier over a broad frequency range is a
matter of properly designing the matching networks, or the
feedback network, in order to compensate for the variations
of |S21 | with frequency [2]. In this work, the matching networks are designed to give the best input and output VSWR
by using passive network synthesis techniques.
Figure 1: Schematic of the single stage power amplifier.
2.1. Interconnection Models
In the circuit simulations, two interconnection models are
used; one is from chip signal/bias pad to PCB signal/bias
pad, and the other is from chip ground pad to PCB ground
pad. These models are shown in Figures 2 and 3.
L bondwire
2. Circuit Design
The power amplifier is designed as a single-ended one stage
common source amplifier. It is biased in class-AB to get high
linearity and reasonable efficiency. To achieve about 20dBm
output power with a 2.5 V supply voltage, a transistor width
of 1640 µm was used. The estimation of the required transistor size is an iterative process using the DC characteristics
of the transistor. The length of the transistor was set to minimum (0.25 µm) to maximize its high frequency gain. The
optimum load was determined to 16.5 Ω. After initial transistor size and the load determination, fine tuning was done
using the harmonic balance simulation in Agilent-ADS.
The input and output matching networks were designed us-
R bondwire
PCB
Chip
C PCB_pad
PCB_GND
C Chip_pad
Chip_GND
Figure 2: Interconnection model for chip signal/bias pad to
PCB signal/bias pad.
The inductance value of the bondwires is assumed to equal
approximately 1 nH/mm [3]. Multiple bondwires are used in
order to reduce the inductance of the chip ground. It is assumed that three parallel connected bondwires has 0.4nH/mm
L bondwire
Chip_GND
R bondwire
PCB_GND
Figure 3: Interconnection model for chip ground pad to PCB
ground pad.
inductance [4, 5].
On the chip, 85 µm × 85 µm pads are used for all connections. The shunt capacitance of a single pad is found to approximately 65 fF based on prior measurements. The chip
was bonded to a double-sided PCB with a copper thickness
of 70 µm. The substrate material is FR–4 and its thickness is
1 mm. In order to reduce the inductance of the ground plane,
vias were used as much as possible. The PCB track capacitance was estimated to 1.5 pF for simulations. To reduce
the PCB track capacitance, one solution is to use a thicker
substrate. Another solution might be removing the backside
ground plane under critical parts.
3. Simulation and Measurement Results
Simulation and measurements were performed to find the Sparameters, 1-dB compression point, power added efficiency
(PAE), third order intercept point (IP3), and adjacent channel leakage ratio (ACLR). The simulations were performed
with Agilent-ADS, and the measurements with a vector network analyzer, signal generator, and a spectrum analyzer,
all from Rohde & Schwarz. For MOSFET simulation, the
BSIM3v3 RF Extension Model was used. The simulation
and measurement results are presented in the following sections.
3.1. Frequency Response
In this section, the input and output reflection characteristics (S11 & S22 ) and forward and reverse gain characteristics (S21 & S12 ) of the PA are presented. The simulation
and measurement results are shown in Figures 4 and 5.
Figure 5: Forward and reverse gain characteristics.
According to the measurement results, the input return loss
is more than 10 dB from 1040 MHz to 2600 MHz whereas
the output return loss is more than 10 dB from 1800 MHz
to 2010 MHz. The forward gain was measured to 5.2 dB at
1 GHz, 5.3 dB at 1.25 GHz, 5.3 dB at 1.5 GHz, 5.7 dB at
1.75 GHz, 5.3 dB at 1.95 GHz, and 4.7 dB at 2 GHz. The
gain flatness is 5.2 ± 0.5 dB from 1 GHz to 2 GHz.
Differences between simulation and measurement results are
because of the imperfections of parasitic models which are
used in simulations, on-chip and off-chip component tolerances, and also measurement inaccuracy.
3.2. Efficiency
The measured 1–dB compression point is 18.5 dBm output
for 14dBm input power, and the measured PAE at this power
level is 16%. At the output compression point, 114 mA current is drawn from the 2.5 V supply voltage. The simulated
1-dB compression point is found to 20.8 dBm for 17 dBm
input power, and the corresponding simulated PAE is found
to 23%. Input-output power relation and 1-dB compression
point are illustrated in Figure 6. Simulated and measured
PAE are illustrated in Figure 7.
Figure 6: Input and output power relation and 1-dB compression point.
Figure 4: Input and output reflection characteristics.
Figure 7: Simulated and measured power added efficiency.
3.3. Linearity
The linearity performance of the amplifier was analyzed for
WCDMA/3GPP since linearity is of primary importance for
the that system. According to the 3GPP user equipment
technical specifications, the uplink frequency band of the
WCDMA is 1920 − 1980 MHz and the transmit power level
is 21 dBm ± 2 dB for power class IV. The required adjacent channel leakage ratio (ACLR) for the user equipment
is −33 dB for adjacent channels (±5 MHz) and −43 dB for
second adjacent channels (±10 MHz) [6].
The output referred third order intercept point (OIP3 ) and
fifth order intercept point (OIP5 ) were measured. In the measurements, the signal generator frequencies (tones) were set
at 1950 MHz ±500 kHz. The levels were set so as not to saturate the amplifier, 15dB below the 1-dB compression point
[7]. The measurement results are listed in Table 1. OIP3 and
OIP5 are calculated according to the following equations by
using the measurements of the third order intermodulation
product level (PIM 3 ), fifth order intermodulation product
level (PIM 5 ) and the output power level (Po ).
Po − PIM 3
OIP3 (dBm) = Po +
2
(1)
Po − PIM 5
4
(2)
OIP5 (dBm) = Po +
Table 1: Measured output intercept points.
OIP3
OIP5
3rd Order Products
2f2 − f1
2f1 − f2
1951.5MHz 1948.5MHz
30.2dBm
31.5dBm
Figure 8: The ACLR performance of the WCDMA/3GPP
output signal from the PA.
Table 2: The ACLR performance of the amplifier.
Adjacent Channel
Bandwidth
Spacing
3.84MHz
5MHz
Lower
Upper
−34.91 dB
−35.01 dB
Alternate Channel
Bandwidth
Spacing
3.84MHz
10MHz
Lower
Upper
−66.28 dB
−67.55 dB
In Table 3, this work is compared to other published medium
power amplifiers. Since there are trade-off’s in linearity vs.
efficiency and in broadband vs. output power, in this amplifier we reached good linearity while getting lower efficiency
and broad frequency range while getting a bit lower output
power.
Table 3: Performance comparison.
Pout
(dBm)
18.5
PAE
(%)
16
G
(dB)
5.1±0.5
1 stage
[5]
23.5
35
24.6
2 stages
[9]
22.5
29
25
3 stages
[10]
18.1
This
work
5th Order Products
3f2 − 2f1
3f1 − 2f2
1952.5MHz 1947.5MHz
25.5dBm
26.9dBm
The measured ACLR performance of the amplifier is illustrated in Figure 8. The ACLR measurement was performed
for 17.5 dBm PA output power level. Measurement results
are also listed in Table 2.
Since more advanced measurement instruments are needed
for ACLR measurements, it is also possible to calculate the
out-of-band spectrum regrowth by using the third order and
fifth order intercept point measurements [8].
14.5±0.4
1 stage
ACLR
(dBc)
35.01
@5MHz,
17.5dBm
50
@50kHz,
22dBm
55
@600kHz,
21.5dBm
Vdd
(V)
2.5
F
(GHz)
1.65-2
Proc.
2.5
1.9
CMOS
0.35u
3.4
1.9
GaAs
2
0.8-7.4
GaAs
HEMT
CMOS
0.25u
4. Chip Layout
A microphotograph of the CMOS PA is shown in Figure
9. The chip was fabricated in a 0.25µm 2.5 V single poly
5-metal layer (1P5M) CMOS technology. The chip size is
750 µm × 330 µm.
5. Conclusion
A CMOS RF power amplifier has been realized in a 0.25 µm
CMOS technology. With 2.5 V supply voltage, 18.5 dBm
output power with 16% PAE, a broad frequency band and
Figure 9: Die photo.
a good linearity were measured. An amplifier with these
performance characteristics may be suitable for use in multimode radio terminal applications.
6. References
[1] J. A. Hoffmeyer and W. Bonser, “Standards Requirements
and Recommendations Development for Multiband, Multimode Radio Systems,” MILCOM 97 Proceedings, vol. 3,
pp. 1184–1191, November 1997, Monterey, USA.
[2] G. Gonzalez, Microwave Transistor Amplifiers.
Hall, Second ed., 1996, New Jersey, USA.
Prentice-
[3] T. H. Lee, The Design of CMOS Radio-Frequency Integrated
Circuits. Cambridge University Press, 1998, Cambridge,
United Kingdom.
[4] P. Howard, “Analysis of Ground Bond Wire Arrays for
RFICS,” IEEE Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits Symposium, June 1997, Denver, USA.
[5] A. Giry, J.-M. Fournier, and M. Pons, “A 1.9GHz Low Voltage CMOS Power Amplifier for Medium Power RF Applications,” IEEE Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits Symposium, June 2000, Boston, USA.
[6] “User Equipment Radio Transmission and Reception FDD,”
3GPP TS 25.101 v3.17.0, 1999.
[7] “Measuring the Electrical Performance Characteristics of
RF/IF and Microwave Signal Processing Components,” MiniCircuits Application Note, 1999.
[8] H. Xiao, Q. Wu, and F. Li, “A Spectrum Approach to the Design of RF Power Amplifier for CDMA Signals,” Ninth IEEE
Statistical Signal and Array Processing Workshop, pp. 132–
135, September 1998, Portland, USA.
[9] K. Yamamoto, K. Maemura, Y. Ohta, N. Kasai, M. Noda,
H. Yuura, Y. Yoshii, M. Nakayama, N. Ogala, T. Takagi, and
M. Otsubo, “A GaAs RF Transceiver IC for 1.9GHz Digital Mobile Communication Systems,” ISSCC, February 1996,
San Fransisco, USA.
[10] W.-C. Wu, H. Wang, and H.-H. Lin, “A Fully Integrated
Broadband Amplifier with 161% 3-dB Bandwidth,” Proceedings of APMC, December 2001, Taipei, Taiwan.
Appendix
D
A 850/900/1800/1900MHz
Quad-Band CMOS Medium
Power Amplifier
D
Published in the Proceedings of European Microwave Week (EuMW), Manchester,
September 2006. Authors are Hüseyin Aniktar, Henrik Sjöland, Jan H. Mikkelsen,
and Torben Larsen.
Proceedings of the 36th European Microwave Conference
A 850/900/1800/1900MHz Quad-Band CMOS
Medium Power Amplifier
Hüseyin Aniktar1 , Henrik Sjöland2 , Jan H. Mikkelsen1 , and Torben Larsen1
1
RISC Division, Department of Communication Technology, Aalborg University,
Niels Jernes Vej 12, DK–9220 Aalborg East, Denmark,
E-mail: ha@kom.aau.dk, jhm@kom.aau.dk, tl@kom.aau.dk
2
Department of Electroscience, Lund University, Sweden,
E-mail: Henrik.Sjoland@es.lth.se
Abstract— This paper presents a two-stage quad-band CMOS
RF power amplifier. The power amplifier is fabricated in a
0.25 μm CMOS process. The measured 1-dB compression point
between 800 and 900 MHz is 15 dBm ± 0.2 dB with maximum
18% PAE, and between 1800 and 1900MHz is 17.5dBm ± 0.7dB
with maximum 17% PAE. The measured gains in the two bands
are 23.6 dB ± 0.7 dB and 13 dB ± 2.1 dB, respectively.
I. I NTRODUCTION
GSM was initially introduced as a pan-European system. In
its original form, GSM in the 900, 1800 and 1900 MHz frequency bands uses a Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA)
scheme. Since its commercial introduction in the early 1990s,
GSM has been constantly upgraded, as evidenced by the
introduction of High Speed Circuit-Switched Data (HSCSD),
GPRS, EDGE, Enhanced Circuit-Switched Data (ECSD) and
Enhanced GPRS (EGPRS) [1].
The introduction of the third generation UMTS, based on
WCDMA technology, is a further step towards satisfying
the ever increasing demand for data/internet services. 3G is
quickly moving on to 3.5G, 3.9G, and 4G and is changing the
way the world communicates. The evolution of wireless technologies including CDMA2000, GPRS, EGPRS, WCDMA,
HSDPA and 1xEV, allow development of new wireless devices
that combine voice, internet, and multimedia services.
In the future GSM and other parallel 2G systems are likely
to be replaced with 3G and beyond, that is the bands that today
are used for GSM will then be used for WCDMA and other
standards. WCDMA in the 900 MHz band is a cost effective
way to deliver nationwide high-speed wireless coverage[2].
This evolution will bring new requirements on the RF parts
of the transceivers. High linearity because of the modern
digital modulations with high spectral efficiency and the multiband, multi-mode characteristics will be some of them [3].
This work demonstrates a 850/900/1800/1900 MHz quadband WCDMA amplifier. The PA shows a good quad-band
characteristic and a reasonable linearity and efficiency.
The paper is organized as follows: In Section II, the brief
design procedure of the amplifier is given, and then interconnection models of the amplifier are investigated. Experimental
results demonstrating the PA performance are offered in Section III. Section IV describes the chip layout, and Section V
concludes.
2-9600551-6-0  2006 EuMA
II. C IRCUIT D ESIGN
The power amplifier (PA) is designed as a single-ended
two-stage common source amplifier. It is biased in class-AB
mode to get reasonable linearity and efficiency. Figure 1 shows
the schematic of the quad-band CMOS amplifier which is
designed to operate from a single 2.5 V supply.
To achieve about 19 dBm output power with a 2.5 V supply
voltage, a transistor width of 2460 μm was used in the output
stage. The estimation of the required transistor size is an
iterative process using the DC characteristics of the transistor.
The length of the transistor was set to minimum (0.24 μm) to
maximize its high frequency gain [4]. To achieve the 2460 μm
transistor width, 6 parallel transistors were used. Each of them
has 41 fingers and the finger width is 10 μm. The bias voltage
was set to 0.6 V in the output stage to operate it in class-AB.
The driver stage transistor size is established after simulation of the output stage power gain. To ensure that the driver
stage doesn’t enter compression before the output stage, a
transistor width of 700 μm was chosen. To achieve the 700 μm
transistor width, 2 parallel transistors were used. Each of them
has 35 fingers. The length of the transistor was set to minimum
(0.24 μm). The bias voltage for the driver stage was set to
0.75 V to achieve enough gain and linearity.
The load impedance for optimum output power was determined by simulations using the Agilent-ADS HarmonicBalance simulator. The optimum load was 14 Ω. The output
matching network was achieved by using a single filter with
two matching pass bands. The two matching pass bands
(dual band matching) was realized with on-chip, off-chip
components, and interconnection elements (bonding wires, pad
capacitances, and board traces) [5], [6].
The stability of the amplifier was ensured with the serial
gate and the output shunt resistors, at the cost of a slight
reduction in gain and efficiency.
In the circuit simulations, two interconnection models are
used; one is from chip signal/bias pad to PCB signal/bias pad,
and the other is from chip ground pad to PCB ground pad.
These models are shown in Figures 2 and 3. The models
are suitable for the chip-on-board technique used in the
measurements.
The inductance value of the bondwires is assumed to equal
403
September 2006, Manchester UK
Schematic of the quad-band power amplifier.
1 nH/mm [7]. Multiple bondwires are used in order to reduce
the inductance of the chip ground. It is assumed that three
parallel connected bondwires has 0.4 nH/mm inductance [8].
The chip was bonded to a double-sided PCB with a copper
thickness of 35 μm. The substrate material is FR–4 and its
thickness is 1 mm. In order to improve the grounding of
the board, multiple through-hole ground vias were used. To
minimize the inductive reactance of passive components, vias
were placed as close as possible to components [9]. It is
also very important to use efficient capacitive decoupling
between the Vdd feed points and ground. This will prevent
tendencies toward oscillations. All RF routing is realized using
microstrips with 50 Ω characteristic impedance. To minimize
RF coupling from the output to the input, all RF lines has
been kept as short as possible.
A good PCB ground is essential to avoid oscillations.
Large PA currents flowing through the ground impedance
can otherwise induce a significant voltage, which could cause
stability problems.
Fig. 2.
III. M EASUREMENT R ESULTS
The CMOS power amplifier was tested using chip on
board assembly. Measurements were performed to find the Sparameters, 1-dB compression point, power added efficiency
(PAE), output third order intercept point (OIP3), adjacent
channel leakage ratio (ACLR), and error vector magnitude
(EVM).
A. Frequency Response
The measured input and output reflection characteristics
(|S11 | & |S22 |) and forward and reverse gain characteristics
(|S21 | & |S12 |) of the PA are shown in Figures 4 and 5.
Measured values for certain frequencies are listed in Table
I.
Interconnect model for chip signal pad to PCB signal pad.
0
Input and Output Reflection Characteristics [dB]
Fig. 1.
−5
−10
|S22|
−15
−20
−25
−30
−35
0
0.25
Fig. 4.
Fig. 3.
Interconnect model for chip ground pad to PCB ground pad.
404
|S11|
0.5
0.75
1
1.25 1.5 1.75
Frequency [GHz]
2
2.25
2.5
2.75
3
9
x 10
Measured input and output reflection characteristics.
18
|S21|
16
14
12
PAE [%]
Forward and Reverse Gain [dB]
25
20
15
10
5
0
−5
−10
−15
−20
−25
−30
−35
−40
−45
−50
−55
−60
−65
−70
−75
−80
|S12|
10
850 MHz
1900 MHz
8
6
4
2
0
0.25
Fig. 5.
0.5
0.75
1
1.25 1.5 1.75
Frequency [GHz]
2
2.25
2.5
2.75
0
3
Fig. 6.
TABLE I
M EASURED NETWORK CHARACTERISTICS FOR SELECTED FREQUENCIES .
|S11 | dB
−25
−12.7
−6.5
−28.4
−18.5
−11.5
−9.4
|S22 | dB
−2.5
−2.5
−1.8
−5.6
−5.7
−5.7
−5.9
8
10
Pout [dBm]
12
14
16
18
Measured power added efficiency and output power.
72
70
68
900 MHz
850 MHz
66
Measured 1-dB compression point, power added efficiency,
and output third order intercept point values for certain
frequencies are listed in Table II. Figure 6 shows the PAE
characteristic of the amplifier. Figures 7 and 8 illustrate DC
current consumption of the amplifier.
64
62
−2
TABLE II
M EASURED SPECTRUM CHARACTERISTICS FOR SELECTED FREQUENCIES .
P 1dB [dBm]
15.3
15
14.8
16.8
17.8
18.2
17.8
6
74
B. Efficiency and Linearity
Freq [MHz]
800
850
900
1800
1850
1900
1950
4
76
DC Current [mA]
|S21 | dB
24.3
24.2
22.9
15.1
14
12
10.9
2
x 10
Measured forward and reverse gain characteristics.
Frequency [MHz]
800
850
900
1800
1850
1900
1950
0
9
Id [mA]
74
75
75
133
144
147
141
PAE [%]
18.2
16.8
16
14
16
17
15.6
OIP3 [dBm]
25
24.8
25.8
26
26.9
27.2
27
0
Fig. 7.
2
4
6
8
Pout [dBm]
10
12
14
16
Measured DC current for 850/900 MHz band.
are illustrated. The measurements have been performed at
1950 MHz with 17 dBm PA output power. For 5 MHz adjacent
channel, the measured ACLR is −28 dBc and for 10 MHz
alternate channel, the measured ACLR is −58 dBc. The
measured RMS EVM is 3.4%, and peak EVM is 8.3%.
IV. C HIP L AYOUT
For two-tone measurements, the signal generator frequencies (tones) were set at fc ± 500 kHz. Two-tone measurements
show that the OIP3 between 800 - and 900 MHz is 25.3 dBm
± 0.5 dB, and between 1800 - and 1900 MHz is 26.6 dBm ±
0.6 dB.
The linearity performance of the amplifier was analyzed
according to the WCDMA/3GPP user equipment requirements
[10]. In Figure 9 and 10, adjacent channel leakage ratio
(ACLR) and error vector magnitude (EVM) measurements
The chip was fabricated in a 0.25 μm 2.5 V single poly
5-metal layer (1P5M) CMOS technology. The chip size is
1282 μm × 414 μm. A microphotograph of the CMOS PA
is shown in Figure 11.
V. C ONCLUSION
In this work a quad-band characteristics was obtained with
a single CMOS power amplifier while getting medium output
power, and reasonable efficiency and linearity. With 2.5 V
405
150
140
DC Current [mA]
130
120
110
100
90
1900 MHz
1800 MHz
80
70
60
−2
0
Fig. 8.
2
4
6
8
10
Pout [dBm]
12
14
16
18
20
Measured DC current for 1800/1900 MHz band.
Fig. 10.
The EVM performance of the amplifier output signal.
Fig. 11.
Die microphotograph.
R EFERENCES
Fig. 9.
The ACLR performance of the PA output signal.
supply voltage, the measured 1-dB compression point between
800 and 900 MHz is 15 dBm ± 0.2 dB with maximum 18%
PAE, and between 1800 and 1900 MHz is 17.5 dBm ± 0.7 dB
with maximum 17% PAE. The measured gains in the two
bands are 23.6 dB ± 0.7 dB and 13 dB ± 2.1 dB, respectively.
The chip was fabricated in a 0.25μm 2.5V single poly 5-metal
layer (1P5M) CMOS technology. The chip size is 1280 μm ×
420 μm.
[1] V. Kumar, “Wireless communications ’Beyond 3G’,” Alcatel Telecommunications Review, 1st Quarter 2001.
[2] I. Tadmoury, “Nortel, Qualcomm and Orange Achieve Industry’s First
W-CDMA 900 MHz Calls,” NORTEL News Releases, January 24 2006.
[3] J. A. Hoffmeyer and W. Bonser, “Standards Requirements and Recommendations Development for Multiband, Multimode Radio Systems,”
MILCOM 97 Proceedings, vol. 3, pp. 1184–1191, November 1997,
Monterey, USA.
[4] F. Op’t Eynde and W. Sansen, “Design and Optimisation of CMOS
Wideband Amplifiers,” IEEE Custom Integrated Circuits Conference,
May 1989, San Diego, California, USA.
[5] “Impedance Matching Networks Applied to RF Power Transistors,”
Motorola Semiconductor Application Note, AN721, 1993 1993.
[6] W.-K. Chen, The Circuits and Filters Handbook. CRC and IEEE Press,
1995, Boca Raton, Florida, USA.
[7] T. H. Lee, The Design of CMOS Radio-Frequency Integrated Circuits.
Cambridge University Press, 1998, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
[8] A. Giry, J.-M. Fournier, and M. Pons, “A 1.9GHz Low Voltage CMOS
Power Amplifier for Medium Power RF Applications,” IEEE Radio
Frequency Integrated Circuits Symposium, June 2000, Boston, USA.
[9] “The MAX2242 Power Amplifier: Crucial Application Issues,” DALLAS/MAXIM Semiconductor Application Note 1990, Jun 01 2001.
[10] “User Equipment Radio Transmission and Reception FDD,” 3GPP TS
25.101 v3.17.0, 1999.
VI. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The authors would like to thank Peter Boie Jensen for lab
assistance. This work was supported by the Danish Technical
Research Council, project number 26-03-0030.
406
Appendix
E
A CMOS Power Amplifier using
Ground Separation Technique
E
Published in the Proceedings of 7th Topical Meeting on Silicon Monolithic Integrated
Circuits in RF Systems, California, January 2007. Authors are Hüseyin Aniktar,
Henrik Sjöland, Jan H. Mikkelsen, and Torben Larsen.
A CMOS Power Amplifier using Ground Separation
Technique
Hüseyin Aniktar1 , Henrik Sjöland2 , Jan H. Mikkelsen1 , and Torben Larsen1
1
Department of Electronic Systems, Aalborg University, Denmark, E-mail: risc@kom.aau.dk
Department of Electroscience, Lund University, Sweden, E-mail: Henrik.Sjoland@es.lth.se
2
Abstract— This work presents an on-chip ground separation
technique for power amplifiers. The ground separation technique
is based on separating the grounds of the amplifier stages on
the chip and thus any parasitic feedback paths are removed.
Simulation and experimental results show that the technique
makes the amplifier less sensitive to bondwire inductance, and
consequently improves the stability and performance.
A two-stage CMOS RF power amplifier for WCDMA mobile
phones is designed using the proposed on-chip ground separation
technique. The power amplifier is fabricated in a 0.25µm CMOS
process. It has a measured 1-dB compression point between
1920MHz and 1980MHz of 21.3 ±0.5dBm with a maximum PAE
of 24%. The amplifier has sufficiently low ACLR for WCDMA
(−33 dB) at an output power of 20 dBm.
I. I NTRODUCTION
Most modern digital modulation forms with high spectral
efficiency present a varying envelope, which requires RF circuits with high linearity to prevent signal degradation. Efficient
but nonlinear power amplifiers are thus not suitable for such
linear modulations. The use of linearization techniques can
help alleviate this issue, but at the price of high complexity
and additional power consumption, which may be critical in
the case of low or medium power amplifiers [1]. In order
to satisfy the linearity requirement for preserving modulation accuracy with minimum spectral regrowth, such power
amplifiers are typically operated in highly linear Class-A or
Class-AB configurations. However, high linearity, particularly
in CMOS technology, comes at the cost of poor efficiency.
Stability requirements place restrictions on PA characteristics,
and limitations of CMOS technology such as low breakdown
voltage introduce additional challenges for PA realization.
Stability is a key issue in amplifier design. RF oscillations
are especially common in single-ended multi-stage designs
[2]. The instability occurs when some of the output energy
is fed back to the input port with a phase that makes negative
resistance appear at the output or input of the amplifier [3].
Ground bounce inductance plays an important role on the
amplifier stability. If all stages in a multi-stage amplifier
share the same on-chip ground, they will also share the same
inductance to PCB ground. Signal current in the output stage
converted to voltage by this inductance will thus be fed back to
the input with a risk of instability. Using the proposed ground
separation technique this feedback path is removed.
The paper is organized as follows: In Section II, the brief
design procedure of the amplifier is given, and then interconnection models of the amplifier are investigated. How the
amplifier performance improved with ground separation is also
discussed in this section. Simulation and measurement results
demonstrating the PA performance are offered in Section III.
Section IV describes the chip layout, and Section V concludes.
II. C IRCUIT D ESIGN
The reported amplifier is designed as a single-ended two
stage common source amplifier. It is biased in Class-AB
to get high linearity and reasonable efficiency. Simulations
are performed using the 0.25 µm CMOS process library
components with Agilent-ADS. Figure 1 shows the schematic
of the CMOS PA which is designed to operate from a single
2.5 V supply.
A. Core Amplifier
To achieve about 23 dBm output power with a 2.5 V supply,
a transistor width of 2870µm was used in the output stage. The
estimation of the required transistor size is an iterative process
using the DC characteristics of the transistor. The length of
the transistor was set to minimum (0.24 µm) to maximize its
high frequency gain. The load impedance for optimum power
output was determined to approximately 10 − j11 Ω. The gate
bias voltage was set to 0.75 V in the output stage.
The driver stage transistor size is established after simulation of the output stage. To ensure that the driver stage doesn’t
enter saturation before the output stage, a transistor width of
1120µm was chosen. The bias voltage for the driver stage was
set to 0.85 V.
The input and output matching networks were designed
using passive network synthesis techniques to achieve optimum VSWR characteristics over the desired frequency band
(1920 − 1980 MHz). An output impedance transformation
network including the MOS output capacitance and interconnection elements (bond wires, pad capacitances, and PCB
board traces) is designed to transform the 50 Ω load into the
10 − j11 Ω optimum load. The network includes the MOS
output capacitance, 6 nH off-chip load inductance, 6 pF onchip DC blocking capacitance, and interconnection elements
(see Figure 1).
To improve the stability and performance of the amplifier,
driver and output stage grounds are separated on the chip. This
is described in more detail in the following section.
B. Interconnection Models
In the circuit simulations, two interconnection models are
used; one is from chip signal/bias pad to PCB signal/bias pad,
l=1343 um
VD1=2.5V
VD2=2.5V
w=360 um
10 ohm
3120 ohm
2.3 nH
1560 ohm
3 pF
Rsub
GND1
GND2
GND1
GND2
d=100 um
GND1
Fig. 1.
VG2=0.75V
PCB GND
Schematic of the CMOS power amplifier.
and the other is from chip ground pad to PCB ground pad.
These models are shown in Figures 2 and 3. The models
are suitable for the chip-on-board technique used in the
measurements.
The inductance value of the bondwires is assumed to equal
approximately 1 nH/mm [4]. Multiple bondwires are used in
order to reduce the bondwire inductance both in output and
ground connections. It is assumed that three parallel connected
bondwires has about 0.4 nH/mm inductance [5].
On the chip, 85 µm × 85 µm pads are used for all connections. The shunt capacitance of a single pad was found to be
approximately 65 fF in prior measurements. The PCB track
capacitance was roughly estimated to 1.5 pF for simulations.
L bondwire
Interconnection model for chip ground pad to PCB ground pad.
3
2.5
2
K
1.5
|∆|
1
|∆|
0.5
0
K
−0.5
−1
___ Stability with Ground Separation
−−− Stability without Ground Separation
−1.5
−2
R bondwire
PCB
0
0.25
0.5
0.75
Chip
C PCB_pad
PCB_GND
Fig. 2.
pad.
Fig. 3.
Stability and Delta Factor
VG1=0.85V
Bondwire
12 ohm
Pout
Bondwire
6 pF
6 pF
METAL1 LAYER
3.9 nH
10 ohm
Pin
L: 0.24µm
W: 2870µm
6 pF
15 pF
OUTPUT STAGE GND
(GND2)
SUBSTRATE
METAL1 LAYER
6 nH
4.4 nH
ON CHIP
L: 0.24µm
W: 1120µm
DRIVER STAGE GND
(GND1)
C Chip_pad
Chip_GND
1.25 1.5 1.75
Frequency [GHz]
2
2.25
2.5
2.75
3
9
x 10
Fig. 4.
Simulated stability factor with and without ground separation
technique.
as follows [6]:
Interconnection model for chip signal/bias pad to PCB signal/bias
Figure 3 shows the interconnection model for chip ground
pad to PCB ground pad. Different chip grounds are assigned
for driver and output stages, GND1 and GND2. PCB ground
is assumed to be a perfect ground and is denoted by GND.
Driver and output stage grounds are isolated from each other
by the substrate resistivity.
Investigations showed that when driver and output stage
grounds are separated, the stability and performance were
improved. Figure 4 shows the simulated stability factor of the
amplifier with and without ground separation. As can be seen
the PA with the ground separation technique is stable, whereas
without the technique the amplifier is potentially unstable and
malfunctioning.
To quantify the stability of the amplifier, the Rollet Stability
criteria is used. The Rollet Stability criteria can be expressed
1
K=
1 − |S11 |2 − |S22 |2 + |∆|2
2|S12 S21 |
|∆| = |S11 S22 − S12 S21 |
•
(1)
(2)
Stable: K > 1 and |∆| < 1
– Unconditionally stable:
||cs | − rs | > 1 for |S22 | < 1
(3)
||cl | − rl | > 1 for |S11 | < 1
(4)
– Conditionally stable:
•
||cs | − rs | < 1 for |S22 | < 1
(5)
||cl | − rl | < 1 for |S11 | < 1
(6)
Unstable (potentially): K > 1 & |∆| > 1 and K < 1 &
|∆| < 1,
RSub
d[m]
,
= R[Ω · m] ×
A[m2 ]
(7)
where the substrate distance (d) between the GND1 and
GND2 is 100µm (See Figure 3) and the substrate cross-section
area (A) can be found as follow:
0
Input and Output Reflection Characteristics [dB]
where cs , cl , rs , and rl parameters represent the center and
radius of the source and load stability circles respectively.
Simulations show that 12 Ω resistance between GND1 and
GND2 is enough to sufficiently isolate them from each other.
In the 0.25 µm CMOS process, the substrate resistivity (R)
is 20 Ω · cm and the substrate thickness (T ) is 29 mils. The
substrate resistance between GND1 and GND2 can be roughly
estimated using the formula:
−10
A = T [m] × W [m] = 36 × 10
2
m ,
−20
−25
−30
III. S IMULATION AND M EASUREMENT R ESULTS
The CMOS power amplifier was tested using chip on
board assembly. Measurements were performed to find the Sparameters, 1-dB compression point, power added efficiency
(PAE), third order intercept point (IP3), adjacent channel
leakage ratio (ACLR), and error vector magnitude (EVM).
A. Frequency Response
The measured and simulated forward and reverse gain
characteristics (|S21 | & |S12 |) and input and output reflection
characteristics (|S11 | & |S22 |) of the PA are shown in Figures
5 and 6. In Table I, some measured values in the WCDMA
band are listed.
20
|S21|
10
Forward and Reverse Gain [dB]
5
0
−5
−10
−20
−25
|S12|
−30
−35
−40
−45
−50
−−− Simulated Results
___ Measured Results
−55
Fig. 5.
0
0.25
0.5
0.75
Fig. 6.
1
1.25 1.5 1.75
Frequency [GHz]
2
2.25
2.5
2.75
3
9
x 10
Simulated and measured input and output reflection characteristics.
TABLE I
M EASURED S- PARAMETERS IN THE WCDMA BAND .
Freq. [MHz]
1920
1950
1980
|S21 | dB
11.8
11.2
10.7
|S11 | dB
−10.4
−10.5
−10.6
|S22 | dB
−12.7
−11.4
−10
While the simulated gain is 14dB at 1.95GHz, the measured
gain is only 11.2 dB. Differences between simulation and
measurement results are due to imperfections of parasitic
models used in simulations, on-chip and off-chip component
tolerances, and also measurement inaccuracy.
B. Efficiency
The measured 1-dB output compression point is 21.8 dBm
with 24% PAE at 1920 MHz, it is 20.8 dBm with 20.4%
PAE at 1950 MHz, and it is 21.4 dBm with 22.4% PAE
at 1980 MHz. At the compression point, the current drawn
from the 2.5 V supply voltage is 232 mA, 216 mA, and
222 mA respectively. The simulated 1-dB compression point
at 1950 MHz is 22.7 dBm with 32% PAE. The difference
between the simulated and measured results is related to the
measured gain being lower than the simulated one. Simulated
and measured PAE are illustrated in Figure 7.
C. Linearity
−15
−60
− − − Simulated Results
____ Measured Results
(8)
where the chip width (W ) is 360 µm. Using Eq. (7),
the resistance (RSub ) between GND1 and GND2 is roughly
estimated to 76 Ω, which is much larger than the 12 Ω which
is needed. This means that the simple calculation is sufficient
in this case, and that there will be no problem to achieve the
isolation.
15
|S11|
−15
−35
−9
|S22|
−5
0
0.25
0.5
0.75
1
1.25 1.5 1.75
Frequency [GHz]
2
2.25
2.5
2.75
3
9
x 10
Simulated and measured forward and reverse gain characteristics.
The linearity performance of the amplifier was analyzed
according to the WCDMA/3GPP user equipment requirements
[7]. Third order output intercept point (OIP3 ), ACLR, and
EVM measurements are performed.
For two-tone measurement the frequencies (tones) are set at
fc ± 500 kHz. The measured third order intercept points are
30.9 dBm, 30 dBm, and 30.1 dBm for 1920 MHz, 1950 MHz,
and 1980 MHz center frequencies.
In Figure 8, ACLR measurement is illustrated. The measurement has been performed at 1950 MHz with 20 dBm PA
output power.
TABLE II
M EASURED PERFORMANCE AND WCDMA/3GPP S PECIFICATIONS .
34
32
Measured PAE
Simulated PAE
30
Parameter
Output Power & PAE
1920 MHz
1950 MHz
1980 MHz
ACLR Performance
1950 ±5MHz
1950 ±10MHz
RMS EVM
Peak EVM
28
26
24
PAE [%]
22
20
18
16
14
12
Measured
21.8 dBm & 24%
20.8 dBm & 20.4%
21.4 dBm & 22.4%
−33.2 dB
−60.7 dB
4%
10.7%
WCDMA/3GPP Specs
Class 3:
23dBm +1/ − 3dB
Class 4:
21dBm ±2dB
< −33 dB
< −43 dB
< 17.5%
10
d=100 um
8
6
GND1
4
Vd1
GND1
GND1
GND2
Vg2
Vd2
GND2
Pout
2
0
−10 −8 −6 −4 −2
Fig. 7.
0
2
4
6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24
Pout [dBm]
Simulated and measured power added efficiency.
Pin
Pout
Vg1
GND2
Fig. 9.
Pout
Die photo.
area of the chip with 0.036 mm2 .
V. C ONCLUSION
The inductance of the ground bondwires is one of the most
serious problems in single-ended integrated amplifier design.
The inductance creates parasitic feedback which can cause
the amplifier to self-oscillate. In this work it is demonstrated
that the parasitic feedback path can be broken using a ground
separation technique, and consequently amplifier’s stability
and performance can be improved.
To demonstrate the technique, a CMOS RF power amplifier
with ground separation has been realized. With 2.5 V supply
voltage, 21.3 ± 0.5 dBm output power with maximum 24%
PAE, and a good linearity were measured. At 20dBm it fulfills
the WCDMA/3GPP requirements on ACLR and EVM.
VI. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
Fig. 8.
The ACLR performance of the amplifier output signal.
In Table II, all measured results are listed and compared to
system requirements. In WCDMA 3GPP UE document, transmitter characteristics are specified at the antenna connector of
the UE. There will likely be some devices between the PA
output and the antenna terminals such as circulator, duplex
filter, and switch(es) with several dB of loss. When making
the comparison, these losses also have to be taken into account.
IV. C HIP L AYOUT
A microphotograph of the CMOS PA is shown in Figure 9.
The chip was fabricated in a 0.25µm 2.5V single poly 5-metal
layer (1P5M) CMOS technology. The chip size is 1343 µm
× 360 µm. Driver and output stage layouts are separated with
100µm distance. Each block is connected to PCB ground with
different GND pads. Ground separation increases the overall
The authors would like to thank Peter Boie Jensen for lab
assistance. This work was supported by the Danish Technical
Research Council, project number 26-03-0030.
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