Maple TA User Guide

Maple TA User Guide
Maple T.A. User Guide
Copyright © Maplesoft, a division of Waterloo Maple Inc.
2013
Maple T.A. User Guide
Copyright
Copyright © Maplesoft, a division of Waterloo Maple Inc. 2013. All rights reserved.
No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transcribed, in any form or by any means—electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise. Information in this document is subject to change without notice and does not represent a commitment on the part
of the vendor. The software described in this document is furnished under a license agreement and may be used or copied only in accordance with
the agreement. It is against the law to copy the software on any medium except as specifically allowed in the agreement.
Trademarks
Maple, Maple T.A., Maplesoft, Waterloo Maple, and Maple T.A. Content Center are all trademarks of Waterloo Maple Inc.
Adobe and Acrobat are either registered trademarks or trademarks of Adobe Systems Incorporated in the United States and/or other countries.
Microsoft, Excel, Internet Explorer, Windows, and Windows Vista are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation.
Java, all Java-based marks, and Sun are registered trademarks of Oracle and/or its affiliates.
All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
This document was produced using Maple and DocBook.
ISBN 978-1-926902-21-0
Contents
Preface .......................................................................................................................................... xvii
1 Getting Started ................................................................................................................................. 1
1.1 How the System Works ................................................................................................................ 1
User Roles ................................................................................................................................. 1
Single Login .............................................................................................................................. 1
Class Homepage ......................................................................................................................... 1
1.2 Overview: Question Repository, Assignments, and Reports ................................................................ 1
Question Repository .................................................................................................................... 1
Assignments .............................................................................................................................. 1
Gradebook ................................................................................................................................. 2
1.3 Getting Started ........................................................................................................................... 2
Creating a New Class in Maple T.A. ............................................................................................... 2
Working with Questions and Assignments in Maple T.A. .................................................................... 2
1.4 System Overview ....................................................................................................................... 2
The System Login ....................................................................................................................... 3
System Homepage ...................................................................................................................... 4
The Class Homepage ................................................................................................................... 5
Using the System in the Classroom ................................................................................................ 6
Getting Help .............................................................................................................................. 6
2 Creating and Managing Classes ........................................................................................................... 7
2.1 Class Manager ........................................................................................................................... 7
Creating a New Class .................................................................................................................. 7
Registering Users in a Class ........................................................................................................ 10
Shared Classes .......................................................................................................................... 13
2.2 Manage Instructors .................................................................................................................... 14
Adding Additional Instructors ...................................................................................................... 15
Deleting an Instructor ................................................................................................................ 15
2.3 Manage Proctors ....................................................................................................................... 15
Adding a Proctor ....................................................................................................................... 16
Deleting a Proctor ..................................................................................................................... 18
2.4 The Class Web Site Editor .......................................................................................................... 18
Uploading Single Files ............................................................................................................... 18
Uploading Multiple Files ............................................................................................................ 19
Viewing or Deleting Files ........................................................................................................... 19
Working with Folders in the Class Web Site ................................................................................... 19
3 Creating and Managing Assignments ................................................................................................... 21
3.1 The Assignment Editor .............................................................................................................. 21
Overview: The Assignment Editor Screen ...................................................................................... 21
Options in the Assignment Editor ................................................................................................. 23
Adding New Assignments ........................................................................................................... 24
Copying Assignments ................................................................................................................ 24
Deleting Assignments ................................................................................................................ 24
Editing Assignments .................................................................................................................. 25
Previewing Assignments ............................................................................................................ 26
Printing Assignments ................................................................................................................. 26
Controlling the Sequence of Listed Assignments ............................................................................. 26
Overview: Using the Assignment Editor ........................................................................................ 26
Assigning Partial Credit ............................................................................................................. 27
3.2 Tutorial: Using the Assignment Editor .......................................................................................... 28
Assignment Editor Step 1: Choose a Name for the Assignment .......................................................... 28
Assignment Editor Step 2: Select Questions ................................................................................... 28
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iv • Contents
Assignment Editor Step 3: Setting Policies ..................................................................................... 31
Assignment Editor Step 4: Review & Finish ................................................................................... 34
3.3 Assignment Types ..................................................................................................................... 35
Assignment Types Overview ....................................................................................................... 35
Homework or Quiz Assignments .................................................................................................. 36
Proctored Exams ....................................................................................................................... 38
Anonymous Practice Assignments ................................................................................................ 38
Study Session and Mastery Assignments ....................................................................................... 38
Mastery Assignments ................................................................................................................. 39
Study Session Assignments ......................................................................................................... 40
3.4 Details on Using the Assignment Editor ........................................................................................ 40
Choose Name Tab ..................................................................................................................... 40
Select Questions Tab .................................................................................................................. 41
Set Policies Tab ........................................................................................................................ 43
Review & Finish Tab ................................................................................................................. 49
3.5 Details on Using the Adaptive Assignment Editor ........................................................................... 50
Create New Adaptive Assignment ................................................................................................ 50
Choose Name Tab ..................................................................................................................... 50
Select Questions Tab .................................................................................................................. 50
Set Policies Tab ........................................................................................................................ 52
Review & Finish Tab ................................................................................................................. 52
4 Working with the Gradebook ............................................................................................................. 53
4.1 Overview of the Gradebook ........................................................................................................ 53
Viewing Scores and Performing Gradebook Searches ....................................................................... 53
Generating Grade Reports ........................................................................................................... 53
4.2 Performing Gradebook Searches .................................................................................................. 54
Setting Search Criteria ............................................................................................................... 54
Setting View Criteria ................................................................................................................. 54
4.3 Searching for Class Grades ......................................................................................................... 55
Viewing Assignment Grades ....................................................................................................... 55
Changing Grades and Adding Comments ....................................................................................... 57
Changing the Total Points for an Assignment .................................................................................. 60
4.4 Searching for Item Statistics ........................................................................................................ 60
4.5 Working with Grade Reports ....................................................................................................... 61
Creating a New Grade Report ...................................................................................................... 62
Viewing a Grade Report ............................................................................................................. 62
Publishing a Grade Report for Students ......................................................................................... 63
4.6 Exporting Reports and Performance Data ...................................................................................... 63
4.7 Adding an External Assignment ................................................................................................... 63
Adding External Grades using a Roster ......................................................................................... 63
Adding External Grades Individually ............................................................................................ 63
Modifying External Assignment Grades ........................................................................................ 64
4.8 Forced Grading ......................................................................................................................... 64
5 Course Modules .............................................................................................................................. 67
5.1 Course Modules Overview .......................................................................................................... 67
Technical Information: Expected Behaviors of Course Modules ......................................................... 68
5.2 Creating a Course Module .......................................................................................................... 68
Course Module Creation and Shared Class Inheritance of Questions and Assignments ............................ 69
5.3 Exporting a Course Module ........................................................................................................ 69
5.4 Importing and Installing a Course Module ..................................................................................... 70
Requirements ........................................................................................................................... 70
Additional Notes ....................................................................................................................... 71
Course Module Installation and Shared Class Inheritance of Questions and Assignments ........................ 71
5.5 Viewing Details of a Course Module ............................................................................................. 71
Contents • v
5.6 Adding and Deleting Elements within a Course Module ................................................................... 71
Adding Course Module Contents .................................................................................................. 71
Deleting Course Module Contents ................................................................................................ 72
Why Delete Only Part of a Course Module ..................................................................................... 72
5.7 Deleting a Course Module .......................................................................................................... 72
5.8 Relative Web References in Course Modules .................................................................................. 72
6 Administering Maple T.A. ................................................................................................................. 75
6.1 Changing Your Password ............................................................................................................ 75
6.2 Editing Your Profile .................................................................................................................. 75
6.3 Deleting Student Records ........................................................................................................... 75
6.4 Security Issues to Consider ......................................................................................................... 75
Instructor Password .................................................................................................................. 75
Student Account Management .................................................................................................... 76
Proctored Exams ....................................................................................................................... 76
Proctored Browser ..................................................................................................................... 76
7 Integrating Maple T.A. with an LDAP Server ........................................................................................ 77
7.1 LDAP Overview for Instructors ................................................................................................... 77
7.2 Login and Forgotten Passwords with LDAP ................................................................................... 77
Login ...................................................................................................................................... 77
Forgotten Passwords .................................................................................................................. 77
7.3 User Manager - Add Users with LDAP ......................................................................................... 77
7.4 User Manager - Import with LDAP .............................................................................................. 78
8 Authoring Methods for Questions ....................................................................................................... 79
8.1 Navigating the Question Repository ............................................................................................. 79
8.2 Overview: Authoring Methods for Question Banks .......................................................................... 79
Question Banks ........................................................................................................................ 79
Uploading files ......................................................................................................................... 79
File Formats: Browsers and Platforms ........................................................................................... 79
Which Method is Best for my Project? .......................................................................................... 79
8.3 Project Elements ....................................................................................................................... 80
Authoring: When to Use the Question Editor .................................................................................. 80
Authoring: When to Use LaTeX ................................................................................................... 80
Authoring: When to Use Maple T.A. Plain Text Script Files .............................................................. 81
Planning Your Question Bank Project ........................................................................................... 81
8.4 The Question Editor .................................................................................................................. 82
Creating a New Question or Editing an Existing Question ................................................................. 82
Avoiding System Time-outs during Authoring Sessions .................................................................... 82
Adding and Editing Comments .................................................................................................... 83
Adding and Editing Algorithms ................................................................................................... 83
The Algorithm Designer ............................................................................................................. 85
Adding and Editing Information Fields .......................................................................................... 87
Adding and Editing Hints ........................................................................................................... 87
Adding and Editing a Solution ..................................................................................................... 88
Deleting a Comment, Information Field, Hint, or Solution ................................................................. 88
Editing Question Source Files ...................................................................................................... 89
Redefining Question Types ......................................................................................................... 89
Testing the Grading of a Question ................................................................................................ 89
Setting Answer Format in Numeric Questions ................................................................................. 89
Setting Answer Tolerance in Numeric Questions ............................................................................. 90
Images and Reference Files in Questions ....................................................................................... 92
Flash Movies and Java Applets in Questions .................................................................................. 94
Graph Plotting Applet in Questions .............................................................................................. 94
Using a Maple Repository ........................................................................................................... 94
8.5 Question Authoring in the Question Editor ..................................................................................... 96
vi • Contents
Online Authoring in the Question Editor ........................................................................................ 96
Question Designer Questions in the Question Editor ........................................................................ 97
Adaptive Question Designer Questions in the Question Editor ........................................................... 99
Clickable Image Questions in the Question Editor .......................................................................... 100
Essay Questions in the Question Editor ........................................................................................ 101
Free Response (Fill-in-the-Blank) Questions in the Question Editor .................................................. 101
Maple-graded Questions in the Question Editor ............................................................................. 103
Matching Questions in the Question Editor ................................................................................... 104
Math App Questions in the Question Editor (Technology Preview) ................................................... 105
Mathematical Formula Questions in the Question Editor ................................................................. 106
Multipart Questions in the Question Editor ................................................................................... 107
Multiple Choice Questions in the Question Editor .......................................................................... 108
Multiple Selection Questions in the Question Editor ....................................................................... 109
Numeric Questions in the Question Editor .................................................................................... 109
Palette-based Symbolic Editor Questions in the Question Editor ....................................................... 110
True-or-False Questions in the Question Editor ............................................................................. 111
Creating Pop-Up References in Questions .................................................................................... 111
Questions with Labeled Images .................................................................................................. 111
Text Formatting in Questions ..................................................................................................... 112
8.6 Tutorials using the Question Editor ............................................................................................. 113
Tutorial: Multiple Choice Questions in the Question Designer .......................................................... 113
Tutorial: Drop-Down List Question in the Question Designer ........................................................... 119
Tutorial: Numeric Questions in the Question Editor ....................................................................... 120
Tutorial: Maple-Graded Questions .............................................................................................. 122
Tutorial: Maple Syntax Questions with Matrices ............................................................................ 128
Tutorial: Adaptive Question ....................................................................................................... 133
Tutorial: Working with Multipart Questions .................................................................................. 137
8.7 Question Repository ................................................................................................................ 138
Searching for Questions in the Question Repository ....................................................................... 138
Editing Question Detail in the Question Repository ........................................................................ 140
Organizing Questions in the Question Repository .......................................................................... 143
Deleting Questions from the Question Repository .......................................................................... 144
Previewing a Question .............................................................................................................. 144
Exporting Work to Your Hard Drive ............................................................................................ 144
8.8 Sharing Questions ................................................................................................................... 145
8.9 Question Banks ....................................................................................................................... 146
What is a Question Bank? ......................................................................................................... 146
Topic Structure within Question Banks ........................................................................................ 146
Opening a Saved Question Bank File ........................................................................................... 147
Creating and Opening Modules .................................................................................................. 148
Question Fields ....................................................................................................................... 149
Question Modes (Question Types) .............................................................................................. 151
Required Question Elements ...................................................................................................... 152
The name Field: Using Question Descriptions ............................................................................... 153
The answer Field ..................................................................................................................... 153
The info Field ......................................................................................................................... 154
Hints, Coaching, and Performance Feedback ................................................................................ 155
Comments and Performance Feedback ........................................................................................ 155
Using Complete Solutions (Study Session Assignments) ................................................................. 156
Special Characters in Questions .................................................................................................. 157
9 Question Types .............................................................................................................................. 159
9.1 Question Types Available in the System ....................................................................................... 159
9.2 Math Question Types ............................................................................................................... 160
Math Question Types - Overview ............................................................................................... 160
Contents • vii
Math Question Types Comparison Table ......................................................................................
Adaptive Question Designer ......................................................................................................
Blanks [formula] .....................................................................................................................
Chemistry ..............................................................................................................................
Constants of Integration Questions ..............................................................................................
Equation ................................................................................................................................
Formula .................................................................................................................................
Formula - Form Variant ............................................................................................................
Formula List ...........................................................................................................................
Formula with Units ..................................................................................................................
Maple-graded Question Type - Overview .....................................................................................
Maple-graded Formula .............................................................................................................
Maple Syntax .........................................................................................................................
Matrix ...................................................................................................................................
Multi Formula ........................................................................................................................
Multipart Formula ...................................................................................................................
Numeric ................................................................................................................................
Question Designer ...................................................................................................................
Questions with Plots ................................................................................................................
Restricted Formula ..................................................................................................................
Vectors of Formulas .................................................................................................................
9.3 Adaptive Question Designer Questions ........................................................................................
Question Mode: Adaptive Question Designer ................................................................................
Sections of an Adaptive Question ...............................................................................................
Presentation of an Adaptive Question ..........................................................................................
Partial Credit in an Adaptive Question .........................................................................................
9.4 Applet Questions .....................................................................................................................
Question Mode: Applet .............................................................................................................
Applet Question Authoring ........................................................................................................
9.5 Blanks Questions ....................................................................................................................
Question Mode: blanks .............................................................................................................
9.6 Clickable Image Questions ........................................................................................................
Question Mode: clickable image .................................................................................................
9.7 Essay Questions - Ungraded ......................................................................................................
Question Mode: essay ..............................................................................................................
9.8 Flash Questions ......................................................................................................................
Question Mode: Flash ..............................................................................................................
Flash Question Authoring .........................................................................................................
9.9 Free Response and Fill-in-the-Blank Questions .............................................................................
List Questions and Blanks Questions ...........................................................................................
Rules for Grading Free Response Questions .................................................................................
9.10 Key Word or Phrase Questions .................................................................................................
Question Mode: key words ........................................................................................................
9.11 List Questions .......................................................................................................................
Question Mode: List ................................................................................................................
Summary of Question Behaviors ................................................................................................
9.12 Math App Questions ..............................................................................................................
Question Mode: Math App ........................................................................................................
General Overview on Creating Math Apps Questions in Maple TA ...................................................
Create a Math App in a Worksheet ..............................................................................................
Grade a Math App Question ......................................................................................................
Initializing Parameters in a Math App Question .............................................................................
Additional MathApp Creation Examples ......................................................................................
9.13 Matching Questions ...............................................................................................................
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viii • Contents
Question Mode: Matching ......................................................................................................... 218
9.14 Multipart Questions ............................................................................................................... 219
Multipart Questions ................................................................................................................. 219
Multipart Questions - Adding or Editing Parts ............................................................................... 220
Multipart Questions: Partial Credit .............................................................................................. 220
Multipart Questions - Sequencing Parts ....................................................................................... 220
9.15 Multiple Choice Questions ...................................................................................................... 220
Question Mode: multiple choice; non-permuting multiple choice ...................................................... 220
9.16 Multiple Selection Questions ................................................................................................... 221
Question Mode: multiple selection; non-permuting multiple selection ................................................ 221
9.17 Palette Questions ................................................................................................................... 222
Question Mode: palette ............................................................................................................. 222
9.18 Question Designer Questions ................................................................................................... 223
Authoring with the Question Designer ......................................................................................... 224
Formatting Tips ....................................................................................................................... 226
Question Types and Properties ................................................................................................... 227
Edit/Insert Response Area ......................................................................................................... 228
Response Area Properties .......................................................................................................... 230
Insert Algorithm ...................................................................................................................... 235
9.19 Short Phrase Questions ........................................................................................................... 236
Question Mode: short phrase ..................................................................................................... 236
9.20 True-or-False Questions .......................................................................................................... 236
Question Mode: True False ........................................................................................................ 236
9.21 Advanced Question Types ....................................................................................................... 236
10 Authoring Mathematical Questions .................................................................................................. 239
10.1 Authoring Mathematical Questions ........................................................................................... 239
Fundamental Capabilities .......................................................................................................... 239
Mathematics Question Types ..................................................................................................... 239
10.2 Basic Math Syntax in the System .............................................................................................. 240
Writing Mathematical Expressions .............................................................................................. 240
Variable Names ....................................................................................................................... 240
Operator and Function Syntax .................................................................................................... 240
10.3 Understanding the Math Capabilities in the System ...................................................................... 241
10.4 Student Responses and Grading ................................................................................................ 242
Student Responses ................................................................................................................... 242
Controlling Answer Format in Numeric Questions ......................................................................... 242
Controlling Answer Tolerance .................................................................................................... 243
Setting a Margin of Error in Non-numeric Questions< .................................................................... 244
Significant Digits in Maple Questions ......................................................................................... 244
Using Maple Code to Prevent Cheating in Maple Syntax Questions ................................................... 245
Entering Chemistry Expressions ................................................................................................. 245
Plotting a Student Response ....................................................................................................... 247
10.5 Using Formula Syntax ............................................................................................................ 247
10.6 Using the Equation Editor to Create Formatted Math Expressions ................................................... 248
Editing with the Equation Editor ................................................................................................. 248
Equation Editor Palette ............................................................................................................. 249
Equation Editor Requirements and Syntax .................................................................................... 251
10.7 Using MathML to Create Formatted Math Expressions ................................................................. 253
Inline Display of Formatted Math Expressions .............................................................................. 253
MathML Authoring with MathType ............................................................................................ 254
MathML in the Questions ......................................................................................................... 255
Simplified Math Expressions ..................................................................................................... 257
10.8 Plotting Using Maple ............................................................................................................. 258
Displaying a Maple Plot ............................................................................................................ 258
Contents • ix
10.9 Mathematical Functions & Operations ....................................................................................... 262
10.10 Using a Table of Units .......................................................................................................... 263
Default Table of Physical Unit Equivalents ................................................................................... 263
Custom Table of Equivalent Units ............................................................................................... 267
10.11 Tutorial: Displaying Answers vs. Formulas for Answers .............................................................. 269
Displaying the answer Field Formula: ......................................................................................... 269
Displaying the Calculated Final Answer: ...................................................................................... 269
Displaying Both the Formula for the Answer and the Final, Calculated Answer: .................................. 270
10.12 Tutorial: Formatting Integers and Reals .................................................................................... 271
10.13 Tutorial: Setting Margin of Tolerance in Non-numeric Questions .................................................. 272
Absolute Errors ....................................................................................................................... 272
Percentage Errors .................................................................................................................... 272
Algorithmic Variables ............................................................................................................... 273
Using the ? Operator in Complex Expressions ............................................................................... 273
10.14 Overview of Algorithmic Question Capabilities ......................................................................... 274
10.15 How Does an Algorithmic Question Work in an Assignment? ....................................................... 274
Authoring .............................................................................................................................. 274
Assignment Creation ................................................................................................................ 274
Assignment Use ...................................................................................................................... 275
10.16 Working with Variable Data ................................................................................................... 275
Types of Variables .................................................................................................................. 275
Functions within Algorithms ...................................................................................................... 276
Inline Variable Expressions ....................................................................................................... 277
Rules for Naming Variables ....................................................................................................... 277
10.17 Generating Random Numbers in Questions ............................................................................... 277
10.18 Functions and Arguments ...................................................................................................... 279
condition:x ............................................................................................................................. 279
decimal(n, x), sig(n, x), int(x) .................................................................................................... 279
eq(a, b), ge(a, b), le(a, b), ne(a, b) ............................................................................................... 280
fact(n) ................................................................................................................................... 280
frac(a, b) ................................................................................................................................ 281
gcd(a, b) ................................................................................................................................ 281
gt(a, b), lt(a, b) ........................................................................................................................ 281
if(a, b, c) ................................................................................................................................ 281
indexof(k, a, b, c, d, ...) ............................................................................................................. 281
java(cn, a, b, c, d, ...) ................................................................................................................ 282
lsu(n, x) ................................................................................................................................. 282
maple(text) ............................................................................................................................. 282
mathml(f) ............................................................................................................................... 283
max(a, b, c, d, ...), min(a, b, c, d, ...) ............................................................................................ 283
not(a) .................................................................................................................................... 284
numfmt(fmt, x) ....................................................................................................................... 284
plotmaple(text) ....................................................................................................................... 284
rand(m, n), rand(m, n, k) ........................................................................................................... 285
Random Integer Generation range(n), range(m, n), range(m, n, k) ..................................................... 285
rank(n, a, b, c, d, ...) ................................................................................................................. 286
Random Integer Generation rint(n), rint(m, n), rint(m, n, k) ............................................................. 286
Statistical Operations ............................................................................................................... 287
strcat(a, b, c, d, ...) ................................................................................................................... 288
sum(varname, start, stop, expr) ................................................................................................... 288
switch(n, a, b, c, ...) .................................................................................................................. 289
10.19 Mathematical and Logical Operators in Algorithms and Answers .................................................. 289
Unreserved Operations ............................................................................................................. 289
Reserved Operations ................................................................................................................ 289
x • Contents
10.20 Question Chaining Variables ..................................................................................................
Example ................................................................................................................................
10.21 Setting Plot Options .............................................................................................................
2-D Plot Statement Options .......................................................................................................
3-D Plot Statement Options .......................................................................................................
10.22 Details on Using Algorithmic Variables ....................................................................................
The Answer Field Evaluation and Requirements ............................................................................
Controlling Display of Numbers within Questions .........................................................................
Variables within Variable Statements ...........................................................................................
Displaying the $ (Dollar Sign) in Questions ..................................................................................
Displaying the Backslash Symbol in Questions .............................................................................
Text Strings in Variable Statements .............................................................................................
10.23 Tutorial: Algorithmic Question ...............................................................................................
10.24 Tutorial: List-based Variables .................................................................................................
Example ................................................................................................................................
10.25 Tutorial: Maple-based Algorithmic Question Authoring ..............................................................
Using a Text or HTML Editor ....................................................................................................
Using the Question Editor .........................................................................................................
Tutorial 1 ...............................................................................................................................
Tutorial 2 ...............................................................................................................................
11 Authoring Questions in LaTeX .......................................................................................................
11.1 LaTeX Authoring Overview .....................................................................................................
Requirements ..........................................................................................................................
Authoring Process ...................................................................................................................
11.2 LaTeX Question Bank Document Structure .................................................................................
11.3 Question Structure .................................................................................................................
Available Fields in LaTeX Questions ...........................................................................................
11.4 LaTeX Style Sheets ................................................................................................................
11.5 Basic Question Types in LaTeX ................................................................................................
True-or-False Questions in LaTeX ..............................................................................................
Multiple Choice Questions in LaTeX ...........................................................................................
Multiple Selection Questions in LaTeX ........................................................................................
Matching Questions in LaTeX ....................................................................................................
Clickable Image Questions in LaTeX ..........................................................................................
Drop-down Menu-based Questions in LaTeX ................................................................................
Free Response Text-based Questions in LaTeX .............................................................................
Multiple Part Questions in LaTeX ...............................................................................................
11.6 Advanced Question Types in LaTeX ..........................................................................................
Graph Plotting in LaTeX Questions .............................................................................................
Graph Sketching Questions in LaTeX ..........................................................................................
Including Graphic References in LaTeX Questions ........................................................................
Labeling Graphics in LaTeX Questions ........................................................................................
11.7 Tutorial: Using Algorithms in LaTeX Questions ..........................................................................
Algorithmic Questions ..............................................................................................................
11.8 Math Question Authoring using LaTeX ......................................................................................
Other Math Question Features ....................................................................................................
Numeric Questions in LaTeX .....................................................................................................
Formula Questions in LaTeX .....................................................................................................
Constants of Integration Questions in LaTeX ................................................................................
Restricted Formula Questions in LaTeX .......................................................................................
Formula List Questions in LaTeX ...............................................................................................
Coordinates of Points and Vectors Questions in LaTeX ...................................................................
Multi Formula Questions in LaTeX .............................................................................................
Equation Questions in LaTeX ....................................................................................................
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Contents • xi
Matrix Questions in LaTeX ....................................................................................................... 333
Maple-graded Questions in LaTeX .............................................................................................. 334
Mathematical Fill in the Blanks - [formula] option ......................................................................... 336
Mathematical Inline Questions ................................................................................................... 336
12 Plain Text Script Authoring ............................................................................................................ 339
12.1 Using Script Files to Author Questions ...................................................................................... 339
12.2 Library of Example Scripts ...................................................................................................... 339
Creating Algorithmic Graphic Labels .......................................................................................... 340
Algorithmic Mathematical Formula Question Example Script .......................................................... 340
Algorithmic Multiple Selection Question Example Script ................................................................ 340
Answer Tolerance Example Script .............................................................................................. 341
Applet Questions ..................................................................................................................... 344
Clickable Image Question Example Script .................................................................................... 344
Essay Question Example Script .................................................................................................. 345
Fill-in-the-Blank Question Example Script ................................................................................... 345
Graph Plotting Example Script ................................................................................................... 345
Graph Sketching Question Example Script ................................................................................... 346
Key Word or Phrase Question Example Script ............................................................................... 346
Labeling Graphics in Questions Example Script ............................................................................ 347
List Question Example Script ..................................................................................................... 347
Maple-graded Formula Question Example Script ........................................................................... 348
Maple Syntax Question Example Script ....................................................................................... 349
Multipart Question Example Script ............................................................................................. 350
Multiple Choice Question Example Script .................................................................................... 351
Multiple Selection Question Example Script ................................................................................. 352
Authoring Questions with Embedded Plots Example Script ............................................................. 352
Question Designer Question Example using Various Embedded Questions ......................................... 353
Short Phrase Question Example Script ......................................................................................... 356
True-or-False Question Example Script ....................................................................................... 356
A Additional Information ................................................................................................................... 357
A.1 Copyrights and Trademarks ...................................................................................................... 357
Copyrights ............................................................................................................................. 357
Trademarks ............................................................................................................................ 357
A.2 System Requirements .............................................................................................................. 357
Client Recommended Configuration: Instructors, Students, and Proctors ............................................ 357
Index ............................................................................................................................................ 359
xii • Contents
List of Figures
Figure 1.1: System Homepage with Classes I Am Instructing ....................................................................... 5
Figure 1.2: Class Homepage with Assignment List ..................................................................................... 5
Figure 2.1: Inherit Content from a Featured Class ...................................................................................... 8
Figure 2.2: Proctor Tools ..................................................................................................................... 16
Figure 2.3: Add a Proctor to Your Class .................................................................................................. 17
Figure 2.4: Web Site Editor .................................................................................................................. 18
Figure 3.1: Assignment Editor .............................................................................................................. 21
Figure 3.2: Options in the Assignment Editor .......................................................................................... 23
Figure 3.3: Add Questions to Assignment ............................................................................................... 30
Figure 3.4: Select Questions: Specify Order and Weighting of Questions ...................................................... 31
Figure 3.5: Setting the Assignment Type ................................................................................................. 32
Figure 3.6: Feedback Options ............................................................................................................... 33
Figure 3.7: Assignment Properties ......................................................................................................... 33
Figure 3.8: Require Use of Proctored Browser ......................................................................................... 33
Figure 3.9: Restrict Access to Specified IP Addresses ............................................................................... 34
Figure 3.10: Set Criteria for Assignments ............................................................................................... 34
Figure 3.11: Review Assignment Details ................................................................................................ 35
Figure 3.12: Policies for Mastery Assignments ........................................................................................ 39
Figure 3.13: Defining An Exit Strategy .................................................................................................. 52
Figure 3.14: Defining Branch Switching Procedures ................................................................................. 52
Figure 5.1: Create, Import, Export, or Delete Course Modules .................................................................... 67
Figure 8.1: Algorithm Editor ................................................................................................................ 84
Figure 8.2: Create a Random Number Variable ........................................................................................ 85
Figure 8.3: Specify Acceptable Answer Format in a Numeric Question ........................................................ 90
Figure 8.4: Specify Answer Precision and Tolerance in a Numeric Question .................................................. 90
Figure 8.5: Uploading and Linking a Maple Repository ............................................................................. 95
Figure 8.6: Question Designer Question ................................................................................................. 98
Figure 8.7: Specify Settings for a Section in an Adaptive Question ............................................................ 100
Figure 8.8: Multiple Choice Settings .................................................................................................... 114
Figure 8.9: Multiple Choice Question ................................................................................................... 114
Figure 8.10: Random Variable Definitions for a Multiple Choice Question .................................................. 116
Figure 8.11: Inline Random Variable Definition ...................................................................................... 117
Figure 8.12: Incorporating Math Expressions in a Question ...................................................................... 118
Figure 8.13: Question with a Math Expression ....................................................................................... 119
Figure 8.14: List Settings ................................................................................................................... 120
Figure 8.15: Numeric Question ........................................................................................................... 121
Figure 8.16: Defining a Maple-Graded Question .................................................................................... 123
Figure 8.17: Accepting Equivalent Responses ........................................................................................ 124
Figure 8.18: Question with a Random Matrix ......................................................................................... 127
Figure 8.19: Defining a Matrix ............................................................................................................ 128
Figure 8.20: Defining a Simple Matrix Question ..................................................................................... 130
Figure 8.21: Using the Matrix Palette ................................................................................................... 131
Figure 8.22: Invertible Matrix Question ................................................................................................ 133
Figure 8.23: Adaptive Question with Three Sections ............................................................................... 136
Figure 8.24: Search Results in the Question Repository ........................................................................... 139
Figure 9.1: Constants of Integration Question ........................................................................................ 163
Figure 9.2: Equation Question ............................................................................................................ 164
Figure 9.3: Input Field for a Formula Question ....................................................................................... 165
Figure 9.4: Input Field for a Formula List Question ................................................................................. 166
Figure 9.5: Input Field for a Multi Formula Question .............................................................................. 173
Figure 9.6: Input Field for a Multipart Formula Question ......................................................................... 174
xiii
xiv • List of Figures
Figure 9.7: Input Field for a Vector of Formulas Question ........................................................................
Figure 9.8: Adaptive Question ............................................................................................................
Figure 9.9: Clickable Image Question ...................................................................................................
Figure 9.10: Demonstration of Various Free-Response and Fill-in-the-Blanks Questions ................................
Figure 9.11: Question Designer Screen .................................................................................................
Figure 9.12: Tabs for Specifying Feedback, Algorithms, and Additional Question Info ..................................
Figure 9.13: Access the Equation Editor in the Question Designer .............................................................
Figure 9.14: Equation Editor Palettes ...................................................................................................
Figure 9.15: Add Response Area in the Question Designer .......................................................................
Figure 9.16: List Response Area in the Question Designer ........................................................................
Figure 9.17: Maple-graded Response Area in the Question Designer ..........................................................
Figure 9.18: Multiple Choice Response Area in the Question Designer .......................................................
Figure 9.19: Numeric Response Area in the Question Designer .................................................................
Figure 10.1: Equation Editor ...............................................................................................................
Figure 10.2: Plot with Algorithmic Variables .........................................................................................
179
181
184
186
225
225
226
227
229
231
232
233
235
248
260
List of Tables
Table 1.1: System Modules Overview ...................................................................................................... 2
Table 3.1: Assignment Attributes .......................................................................................................... 36
Table 4.1: Assignment Summary ........................................................................................................... 55
Table 4.2: Item Statistics ..................................................................................................................... 60
Table 8.1: Maple-graded Question with Partial Credit .............................................................................. 104
Table 8.2: Expression Types Available in Mathematical Formula Questions in the Question Editor .................. 107
Table 8.3: Examples of HTML Tags to Use for Formatting Text ................................................................ 113
Table 8.4: Question Repository: Available actions through the drop-down menu ........................................... 139
Table 8.5: Question Repository: Available actions using bottom buttons ...................................................... 140
Table 8.6: Question Repository: Available actions in the question edit screen ............................................... 140
Table 8.7: Question Fields .................................................................................................................. 149
Table 8.8: List of Question Types and Corresponding modes ..................................................................... 151
Table 8.9: Answer Field Requirements by Question Type ......................................................................... 154
Table 9.1: Math Question Types Comparison ......................................................................................... 161
Table 9.2: Rules and Keys for Entering Chemistry Expressions ................................................................. 163
Table 9.3: Properties of an Adaptive Section .......................................................................................... 180
Table 10.1: Guidelines for Entering Chemistry Expressions ...................................................................... 246
Table 10.2: Keyboard Shortcuts for the Equation Editor ........................................................................... 249
Table 10.3: Defining Palettes .............................................................................................................. 251
Table 10.4: Options for the mathml Function ......................................................................................... 258
Table 10.5: Mathematical Functions and Operators ................................................................................. 262
Table 10.6: Hyperbolic and Inverse Hyperbolic Functions ........................................................................ 262
Table 10.7: Maple Notation ................................................................................................................ 263
Table 10.8: Base units recognized by Maple T.A. .................................................................................... 263
Table 10.9: Derived units recognized by Maple T.A. ............................................................................... 263
Table 10.10: Other units recognized by Maple T.A. ................................................................................. 267
Table 10.11: Formatting Numbers with $m ............................................................................................ 271
Table 10.12: Random Number Generators ............................................................................................. 278
Table 10.13: Maple Randomization Commands ...................................................................................... 278
Table 10.14: Options for GIF and JPEG Plots ........................................................................................ 284
Table 10.15: Mathematical Functions that Students Can Use ..................................................................... 289
Table 10.16: Mathematical Functions Reserved for Instructor Use ............................................................. 289
Table 10.17: Options for 2-D Plots ....................................................................................................... 291
Table 10.18: Option for 3-D Plots ........................................................................................................ 293
Table 11.1: Example LaTeX Document Structure .................................................................................... 304
Table 11.2: Basic LaTeX Question Structure .......................................................................................... 304
Table 11.3: Arguments and Option for a Graph Plotting Applet ................................................................. 315
Table 11.4: Arguments and Option for a Multigraph ................................................................................ 315
Table 11.5: Arguments and Option for a Sketch ...................................................................................... 316
Table 11.6: Basic Sketch Criteria ......................................................................................................... 317
Table 11.7: Statements for Additional Sketch Criteria .............................................................................. 317
xv
xvi • List of Tables
Preface
Overview of the Instructor Help
Release 9
Maple T.A. has three components:
• Question Repository - collection of questions
• Assignments - tests containing questions from the question repository with policies that control their form and
availability
• Gradebook - results of student assignments
For more information, see the Overview: Question Repository, Assignments, and Reports (page 1).
The Class Homepage is the starting point for instructors, students, and proctors. To learn more about the Class
Homepage, see How the System Works (page 1).
The Instructor Help System in Maple T.A. includes information on:
Instructor Tasks: Chapters 1-7
Advanced Authoring: Chapters 8-12
These chapters provide guidelines for creating assignments, querying the
Gradebook, and using the system tools.
These chapters offer more advanced authoring help, providing descriptions of
supported question types and guidelines for creating questions.
The Maple T.A. User Guide is available for instructors from the help menu. Select Help>User Guide>Download
PDF. You can also visit the Maple T.A. Content Center at http://www.maplesoft.com/tacontent to download additional Maple T.A. resources.
What's New in Maple T.A. 9.5
Release 9.5
Maple T.A. offers easy content sharing, providing you with the new Maple T.A. Cloud that allows you to easily share
your content with the Maple T.A. community. This release also includes the ability to create adaptive tests and also
provides scalability upgrades.
Maple T.A. 9.5 is an expansion of Maple T.A. 9 that provides more information to help instructors and students get
started with the system, increased support for essay questions, and more control over proctored assignments. It also
includes a technology preview of gradeable Math Apps.
Easy Content Sharing
With the new Maple T.A. Cloud, which is integrated seamlessly into Maple T.A. 9, you can easily leverage questions
created by others and share your own content with the community.
• Content sharing between users world-wide is built directly into Maple T.A., so using a publicly shared question is as
easy as using one you wrote yourself.
xvii
xviii • Preface
• You can choose to share individual questions, a group of questions, or even a fully organized, multi-layered collection
of questions to support a full course. The full organizational hierarchy is preserved so others can navigate and understand
your content in the same way you do.
• Any dependencies on local class resources, such as images and Maple repositories, are automatically bundled in so
the question works immediately on any system.
• You can search the Maple T.A. Cloud in the same ways you search your own question repository, including searching
the text of the shared question, so you can find exactly what you need.
• Thousands of questions are already available, ready to be used.
For more information, see Sharing Questions (page 145).
Adaptive Testing
Expanding on the adaptive question type introduced in Maple T.A. 8, Maple T.A. 9 now offers fully flexible adaptive
testing at the assignment level. In adaptive assignments, the selection of the next question in an assignment depends
on how the student has done on the previous questions. With adaptive assignments, you can sort students into different
streams, provide extra reinforcement only when it is needed, allow more advanced students to truly show what they
are capable of without discouraging less advanced students, and more. And with the power of Maple behind it, adaptive
testing in Maple T.A. is more flexible than any other system.
• Organize assignment questions into separate branches or difficulty levels. When a student takes an adaptive test, each
new question is selected from the appropriate branch, depending on their earlier responses.
• Easily specify common conditions for moving between branches, such as moving to a harder branch after five consecutive correct responses or moving to an easier branch after the third mistake occurs.
• Fully customize the branching conditions using the Maple language. The conditions can be based on variety of factors,
such as the number of correct and incorrect responses, the number of correct responses in a row, the start branch, the
current branch, branch weight, and the number of branches in the assignment.
• Easily set the stopping conditions for the assignment based on the number of correct responses, incorrect responses,
or total number of questions seen by the student, or further customize stopping conditions using an algorithm written
in the Maple language.
• View full grading information for both the entire assignment and for each branch.
• Include any type of Maple T.A. question, including adaptive questions and the new Math App questions.
• Use adaptive assignments for practice, graded tests and homework, and proctored tests.
For more information, see Details on Using the Adaptive Assignment Editor (page 50).
Scalability
Maple T.A.9 is now capable of handling an order of magnitude more students than ever before.
• Distributed load balancing across multiple servers supports services scalable to over 1,000,000 million users per
installation.
• A single login seamlessly directs a student or instructor to one of multiple back-ends.
Student Readiness Test
The demo class content for Maple T.A. has been completely updated to provide more information to help students get
started with Maple T.A.
• A Student Readiness Test lets students get familiar with Maple T.A. before their first test or assignment.
Preface • xix
• This test walks the student through important Maple T.A. concepts, such as learning to use the math editor, how to
switch entry modes, where to find help, and more.
• Instructors can easily include this assignment in all their classes and make it a mandatory pre-test for the course.
Instructor Examples
Maple T.A. 9.5 includes new and improved sample content to help instructors become familiar with Maple T.A.
• A sample of every question type and subtype is provided in the newly updated demo class content
• A sample assignment shows instructors what a typical assignment looks like. They can explore this assignment from
both the instructor and student view points to test out different options and see what the experience will be like.
Essay Annotations
Maple T.A. 9.5 includes the ability to mark up a student’s essay by dropping annotation symbols at selected points
inside the essay.
• Choose from over 40 standard symbols, such as “spelling”, “slang”, “sentence fragment”, and more.
• Expand the collection by adding your own annotations, and embed those comments just as easily.
• The student views your feedback by hovering over each annotation marker in the corrected essay. The comment
will appear as a dialog window at the place in the text where the problem occurs.
Expanded Proctor Tools
Proctor tools have been reorganized and expanded to give you more control over individual assignments.
• Give individual students extra time, to accommodate special needs or exceptional situations.
• Easily give permission for individual students to retake a test.
Powerful Mathematics
• Maple T.A. 9.5 is powered by Maple 17, so you can take full advantage of all the improvements to the Maple 17
mathematical engine.
• Cover even more material with expanded support for statistics, group theory, physics, differential geometry, limits,
and much more.
• Enhance your questions with new tools for visualizations of inequalities, branch cuts, and groups, as well as improvements to 3-D plotting.
See What’s New in Maple 17 [http://www.maplesoft.com] for more details.
Gradeable Math Apps (Technology Preview)
Maple T.A. now has the ability to automatically grade interactive Maple applications (Math Apps). With gradeable
Math Apps, you can ask your students to sketch graphs, provide them with specialized calculators, ask them to manipulate parameters until they have found the desired solution, give them interactive plots to explore, and much more.
Maple T.A. 9.5 includes the gradable Math Apps feature as a technology preview so you can start getting familiar with
it and begin developing content for your students. You can create Math App questions, test them, and even give them
to your students for practice.
Highlights:
• Math App questions let you embed an interactive Maple application inside a Maple T.A. question. Students use the
Math App to answer the question, and Maple T.A. grades the results.
xx • Preface
• Students can interact with the Math App using sliders, buttons, and other interactive elements, performing computations
and generating plots, just like they would inside Maple.
• For grading, Maple T.A. compares the state of the student’s Math App with the conditions specified by the question
author, such as the location of a slider, whether or not a checkbox has been selected, and the contents of a math entry
field.
• Like other Maple-graded questions, Math App questions can be open-ended and have infinitely many correct answers,
and still be graded automatically.
• Math App questions can make use of algorithmic variables, so not only the question, but the embedded Math App
itself are changed each time the question is used.
• Grading rules can be specified inside Maple T.A., as usual, or included as part of the Maple document in the startup
code, where they are hidden from the students, so you can choose the authoring approach that best suits your needs.
• When the student advances to another question or leaves the assignment without grading, the state of the Math App
is saved so the student can return to it later.
See Also:
Copyrights and Trademarks (page 357)
1 Getting Started
1.1 How the System Works
User Roles
Each user in the system has a default role as assigned by the administrator: Administrator, Instructor, Proctor,
Student, or Guest. Users can have different roles in different classes. For example, an instructor can be a student in
one class, with student privileges in that class, and he or she will have instructor privileges in the class he or she is instructing.
Single Login
All users log in to the system through the same login screen. Once in the system, users have access to different menu
items depending on their role. Users can register in classes, or access the class homepage of classes they are instructing,
proctoring, or taking as a student.
Class Homepage
To use the system for homework management and online testing in your class, instructors begin by creating a class.
Once your class is set up, students access assignments, quizzes, proctored tests, and view their results through your
class homepage.
Students can register in your class if you allow for open enrollment; otherwise you can add students by uploading a
student roster or through the user manager.
Instructors access the Class Homepage to:
• Use pre-existing question banks
• Create, publish, and manage assignments
• Manage student interactions
• Access a Gradebook that records student work and assignment results
1.2 Overview: Question Repository, Assignments, and Reports
The variety of question types (including sophisticated Math and Science questions that use the MapleTM computer algebra
system), range of assignment modes, powerful tools, and reports the system can generate make Maple T.A. an ideal
productivity enhancement for instructors, while giving students an individualized learning experience.
Question Repository
Using Maple T.A., you create, store, and edit questions in the question repository. Questions are the basis for selfscoring assignments. You can easily select questions from the question repository to create an assignment.
Assignments
Maple T.A. assignments automate common learning activities that involve questions and problems. You can create
assignments for a range of purposes, including:
• Self-study practice
• Mastery
• Homework & Quizzes
• Proctored exams requiring proctor validation
1
2 • 1 Getting Started
When an assignment is created, you specify assignment access, grading parameters, and feedback options. After determining the content (questions), rules, and policies, you publish an assignment to the class web site for use by students.
Students can review their results of any previously completed assignments.
Gradebook
After students complete an assignment, you can view the results in a Gradebook or create downloadable performance
reports that can be viewed in third-party gradebook programs or Microsoft® Excel.
With Maple T.A., you can generate comprehensive performance reports for individual students, individual class sections,
or multiple class sections. You can also perform statistical item analysis of questions.
1.3 Getting Started
Creating a New Class in Maple T.A.
Your first step is to log in to the Maple T.A. system using the username and password that your system administrator
or course coordinator has provided. Once you are logged into the system, you can create a new class (if you have sufficient privileges). You can upload a student roster or set open registration so that system users can enroll themselves
in your class. For details on creating a class, see Creating a New Class (page 7).
Working with Questions and Assignments in Maple T.A.
Question Repository
With Maple T.A. you create self-scoring assignments with questions drawn from the question repository. The system's
assignments can help automate common learning activities that involve questions and problems in classes such as
practice and proctored exams, tutorial sessions, homework, and quizzes. The system can report on individual student
performance, performance across a class section or across multiple sections of a class, and statistical item analysis of
questions.
The system can be configured to enable easy sharing of class content and assignments across sections of large classes.
For more information, see Creating and Managing Assignments (page 21).
Assignments and Results
When you create an assignment, you specify the rules and policies for assignment access and due dates, grading parameters, feedback to students, and whether student results are recorded in the Maple T.A. Gradebook. After students
complete an assignment, you can view results in a Gradebook or create downloadable performance reports that can
be viewed in third-party gradebook programs or Microsoft® Excel. Students can always review the results of any previously completed assignments.
For more information, see Working with the Gradebook (page 53).
1.4 System Overview
Table 1.1: System Modules Overview
Assignment Editor
• Create and publish assignments
• Set rules and policies
Question Repository
• Create questions to use in your tests, quizzes, and
assignments
• Store and manage questions
1.4 System Overview • 3
Gradebook
• View individual and class results
• Export to an external Gradebook
• Force grade incomplete assignments
Class Manager
• Edit your class information
• Lock registration for your class
• Share your class content with others
User Manager
• Register users into your class
• Remove users from your class
• Upload a class roster
• Export a class roster
Additional Tools
• Change your password
• Proctor tools
• Upload and manage reference files used in questions and
assignments
• Course modules
See Also:
Security Issues to Consider (page 75)
The System Login
All users log in to the system using a username and password.
4 • 1 Getting Started
For instructors, the system administrator provides your username and password. The administrator or instructor provides
students with a username and password to log in.
Maple T.A. can be configured to allow self-registration. If this feature is enabled, users will see a link on the login
page allowing them to register themselves. Ask Maple T.A. system administrator at your university about your configuration.
System Homepage
Logging into the system brings you to the System Homepage. If you have created any classes, they are listed under
the Classes I Am Instructing section (see Figure 1.1).
1.4 System Overview • 5
Figure 1.1: System Homepage with Classes I Am Instructing
Additionally, any classes in which you are a student or proctor are also listed, under their own sections (Classes I Am
Taking, and Classes I Am Proctoring, respectively).
From the System Homepage, click on a class name link to open the Class Homepage.
The Class Homepage
Once you have created your class, you can upload a student roster or allow students to register themselves in your
class. The Class Homepage is used by the instructor, students, and proctors involved in that particular class.
Figure 1.2: Class Homepage with Assignment List
See Also:
Creating a New Class (page 7)
6 • 1 Getting Started
Using the System in the Classroom
Possible Uses of Maple T.A. for Online Homework and Testing
• Create self-scoring, web-delivered tests and homework assignments from your time-tested problem files.
• Use formatted problem sets to create automated, self-grading homework or test assignments.
• Edit, modify, or expand existing questions.
• Control the rules and policies surrounding your assignments, including time limitations, ability to retake assignments, feedback content, and results reporting.
• Publish assignments to your class-specific web site.
• Use the system Gradebook to monitor individual and class learning performance, and export data to leading
course management systems like WebCTTM, Blackboard®, and MoodleTM. Content and student records in the
system are built in XML and MathML. The system output is IMS QTI (IMS Question & Test Interoperability
specification) compliant, improving interoperability with other systems and enabling you to attach additional
information to your content.
Getting Help
From the Help menu, select Instructor. You can access Proctor and Student help from the Other Help submenu.
Access Technical Support from Maplesoft
• Email your questions to [email protected]
• Call Maplesoft Technical Support: 1-800-267-6583 ext. 413
Maplesoft
http://www.maplesoft.com
615 Kumpf Drive
Waterloo, Ontario
CANADA
N2V 1K8
2 Creating and Managing Classes
2.1 Class Manager
Creating a New Class
You begin using Maple T.A. by creating a class. Within your class, you have access to the question repository and assignments, resource files, and the Gradebook for the class. It also gives you access to several system tools.
Note: Your administrator may have already created a class for you. If this is the case, once you login you can access
your class by clicking the link under the Classes I Am Instructing tab.
Use one of the following options to create your new class:
Create a New, Empty Class
Note that you can only create a class if you have been given the correct privilege by the Administrator. If you cannot
create a class, contact your Administrator.
To create a new class in the system:
1. From the System Homepage, select the Actions menu, and then select Add Class.
2. Complete the class registration form, and click Submit.
3. Your class is added to the list of Classes I Am Instructing.
4. To access your class, click the link to your newly created class to bring you to the Class Homepage.
7
8 • 2 Creating and Managing Classes
Create a Copy of a Shared Class
To create a copy of a shared class (to create that class that includes questions and pre-populated assignments from the
parent class):
1. From the System Homepage, select the Actions menu, and then select Add Class.
2. Complete the class registration form, and select a class to Inherit content from. See Figure 2.1.
3. Click Submit.
Figure 2.1: Inherit Content from a Featured Class
4. Your class is added to the list of Classes I Am Instructing.
5. To access the newly created class, click the link to the class to bring you to the Class Homepage.
The classes that appear on the list that you can inherit content from are called featured classes.
See Also:
Shared Classes (page 13)
Create a Child Class
In addition to inheriting content from a featured class, you can create a copy of any class for which you are the instructor.
To create a child class (to create that class that includes questions and pre-populated assignments from the parent class):
1. Go to the Class Homepage for the class you want to share.
2. From the Class Homepage, select the Actions menu, and then select Add Child Class.
2.1 Class Manager • 9
3. If desired, click Change Instructor and select a new instructor from the system users. Select the radio button beside
the user and click Update to change the instructor.
4. Complete the class registration form, and click Submit.
5. The class is added to the list of Classes I Am Instructing (if you are the instructor).
6. To access the newly created class, click the link to the class to bring you to the Class Homepage.
Required Registration Information
The following information is requested when you register a new class in the system:
Instructor
The instructor's name.
An instructor is selected from the database of system users at the time of initial class registration and setup. The user
selected to be the instructor does not need to have the default system role of Instructor; any user in the system can be
made an instructor. This is useful because a student user can be made the instructor of a tutorial class, for example.
Then the student will have student privileges in those classes in which he or she is enrolled as a student, and he or she
will have instructor privileges in the class that he or she is instructing.
Instructor Email
The instructor's email address.
When you select the instructor for the class, the email address associated with the user you selected is automatically
used in this field and cannot be changed. The email address will be shown on the Class Homepage.
Course ID
(optional) A combination of letters and numbers to identify the course; for example, stats101.
The maximum number of characters allowed is 10.
Class Name
The displayed name for a class.
The class name appears on the Class Homepage and in other administrator lists. The Class Name is created at the time
of initial registration by the instructor or the system administrator. An administrator can rename classes.
• The maximum number of characters allowed is 255.
• The system ensures that class names are unique. If you or an instructor select a name that exists, the system
requests that you select another name.
• Clicking the Class Name link opens the Class Homepage in the related class.
School
(optional) The name of your school.
Registration Locked
Registration is locked by default, preventing students from enrolling themselves in the class. Open registration allows
students in the system to enroll themselves in the class.
Featured Class
Marking a class as a featured class allows for the creation of child classes that inherit content from this class.
10 • 2 Creating and Managing Classes
Inherit Content From
You can inherit content from a featured class. This gives you access to questions, assignments, quizzes, and tests from
the featured class.
Registering Users in a Class
You can register users in a class by:
• Allowing students to register themselves for your course
• Creating and uploading a class roster
• Using the User Manager
If you allow self-registration, students can register for you class using the Find classes open for registration link on
the System Homepage.
Class rosters are an efficient way to add a large number of students to your course at once. The user manager can be
used to search for and add selected students individually.
To register students in your course, they must have an account in the system. Generally, your system administrator
creates user accounts. The system administrator can give instructors the ability to create user accounts. Contact your
system administrator for more information.
Locking and Unlocking Class Registration
You can close registration for your class to prevent students from registering for your class.
To lock class registration:
1. From the Class Homepage, select the Actions menu, and then select Class Info.
2. Click the Edit Class button.
3. Select the Registration Locked check box. (This is selected by default.) See Figure 2.1.
4. Click Submit.
To allow open registration for the class, you can leave the class unlocked for the first two weeks of class and then lock
it. If you do not want to allow open registration, you can lock the class from the start.
2.1 Class Manager • 11
Class Rosters
You can use class rosters to:
• Upload a class roster to the system from a text file. If a user is not in the system, and you have create privileges,
the student will be added to the system and registered in the class.
• Update the Maple T.A. database with any new information in the roster by uploading a new class roster for an
existing class.
• Remove students from a class by deleting a roster.
To view your user privileges, click the My Profile link on the top right of the screen.
To create and upload a class roster:
1. From the Class Homepage, select the Actions menu, and then select User Manager.
2. From the Actions menu, select Roster>Import.
3. Click Browse to find the text file containing the class roster. The text file (for example, *.txt and *.rst) can contain
fields delimited by comma or tab characters. You can upload an Excel spreadsheet which has been saved to a text
file. The file must have:
• One line for each student
• A header for each included column that matches the specified headers.
Note: If your university uses LDAP authentication, the usernames in the import file should be their LDAP usernames. In this case,
the passwords will be the LDAP passwords. See LDAP Authentication (page 77)
4. Click Submit. The records are displayed. If there are any errors, these are displayed.
12 • 2 Creating and Managing Classes
5. Click Enroll Roster. The students are added to the system, if appropriate, AND registered in your class. Print this
list to record login and password information, or click Create CSV to save this information to a file. Important:
If this page is not printed, automatically generated passwords will be lost.
Attributes:
• Login must be at least one alphanumeric character and must be unique.
• First Name must be at least one alphabetic character.
• Middle Initial must be no more than one alphabetic character.
• Last Name must be at least one alphabetic character.
• Email must be a unique address.
• Student ID must be at least one alphanumeric character and must be unique.
• Password must be at least five alphanumeric characters.
• Role can be one of student, guest, proctor, instructor, or administrator. If roles are specified, they cannot exceed
the level of the current user. The default if not specified is student.
• Require User Validation can be yes or no. If yes, the next time the user logs in to Maple T.A., they will be
asked to validate their profile. The default is yes.
The corresponding header row values are:
login, first, initial, last, email, student, password, role, validate
The headers are not case-sensitive, so first and First are both recognized.
The other fields are optional. If no password is provided, the system generates a password, which is displayed on the
next page.
If you have a null field (for example, a student did not provide a middle initial), use two consecutive delimiters.
However, if the header row includes email and student ID, you cannot have empty values for those fields in the rows
of student data. If there are some students who do not have either an email or a student ID, you should use the value
<NULL>.
To upload an updated roster for a class:
You can update profile information through roster uploads. Follow the same steps as for creating and importing a
roster. To update a roster, only the login username field is required.
To remove students from a class:
From the Class Homepage, select the Actions menu, and then select User Manager. From the Actions menu, select
Roster>Delete. Select the file containing the users you want to remove from your class roster.
To export a roster:
Click on Export options: CSV to open or save the class roster to a CSV (comma-delimited) file
The User Manager
You can select students to register in your class from a list of system users. All the students you want to register must
already have an account in the system. You can search for users that satisfy particular criteria.
2.1 Class Manager • 13
To register users using search criteria:
1. From the Class Homepage, select the Actions menu, and then select User Manager. From the Actions menu, select
Register Users.
2. Enter search criteria to narrow the list of users down or to search for a particular student.
3. Select the check boxes beside the students you want to register in your class.
4. Click Register.
Shared Classes
You can share your questions, resources, and assignments with other instructors. Class sharing is an ideal way to
manage multiple class sections of a large course using common questions and assignments, ranging from practice
sessions to exams. Shared classes can also contain unique questions and assignments that are not part of the parent
class.
When you share a class, you create a single parent class whose content and assignments are cloned. The content and
assignments are inherited by each child class when a new class is created and the Inherit content from option is selected in the class registration form.
Use class sharing to administer a large course with many individual class sections. With class sharing, you can draw
assignments from a common pool of questions, administer common homework, practice assignments, or exams. Even
though content and assignments can be managed in common, each individual section can contain unique content and
assignments.
Questions and assignments inherited from a parent class are always identified in lists by the shared content icon ( ),
which appears beside the assignments and questions.
Shared Class Behaviors
• Changes, additions, and deletions made to questions and assignment content in the parent class are automatically
distributed to child classes.
• The content of an inherited assignment cannot be edited directly. However, you can clone an inherited question
to make your own copy, which you can edit.
• If you edit the policies of an inherited assignment, your changes are reflected in the assignment sessions taken
by students in your class immediately after you save your changes.
Important: In general, changes to questions or assignment content in the parent class automatically update those questions or
assignments in your child class. This is not true about polices; changes to assignment policies are not inherited. You control the
assignment policies for an assignment that you inherit from a parent class.
See Also:
Sharing Questions (page 145)
Shared Class Content Updates
The following applies to changes you make to inherited questions, whether you make changes to them individually
using the Question Editor or if you use course modules to make global changes that affect inherited questions.
Editing Inherited Content or Installing Replacement Content with the Same Name
If you install a course module that has a new version of a question or assignment with the same name as that in the
parent class, you break the link to the parent class version of the question or assignment. The same rule applies if
you edit a parent question or assignment and then save/install it using the original name of the parent class.
14 • 2 Creating and Managing Classes
If you want to refresh the content of your class to match that in the parent class or restore the link to the parent class
version of the content, you must save your new, edited question or assignment under a different name, or delete the
edited/modified version of the question or assignment. The parent class restores the matching (original) question/assignment automatically.
Implications
If you modify questions or assignments that you inherit from a shared parent class, there is no risk that the parent class
version will overwrite your modified version, unless you specifically delete the modified question or assignment from
your child class. This means that if you make changes to the inherited questions or assignments and save them to the
original name, your changed versions sever the relationship with the parent asset and you will not receive any future
updates from the parent class automatically. Therefore, you must stay in communication with the instructor in your
shared parent class if you want to be notified of changes to parent class questions and assignments.
See Also:
Course Modules (page 67)
Importing and Installing a Course Module (page 70)
Creating a Shared Class
To share the contents of your class with other instructors:
1. From the Class Homepage, select the Actions menu, and then select Class Info.
2. Click the Edit button.
3. Select the Featured Class check box.
4. Click Submit to save your changes.
Other instructors can create a copy of your class, including your questions and assignments, by creating a new class
and choosing your class from the Inherit content from list.
To remove class sharing:
1. From the Class Homepage, select the Actions menu, and then select Class Info.
2. Click the Edit button.
3. Clear the Featured Class check box.
4. Click Submit to save your changes.
See Also:
Creating a New Class (page 7)
2.2 Manage Instructors
You can add additional instructors to your class if you would like other users to have the ability to assist in managing
your class.
For a list of instructors in your class, select the Actions menu, and then select User Manager. In the Search panel, select
the Instructor User Role radio button, and click Search. A list of instructors is displayed.
2.3 Manage Proctors • 15
Adding Additional Instructors
To add another instructor to your class:
1. From the Class Homepage, select the Actions menu, and then select User Manager.
2. From the Actions menu, select Register Users.
3. Search for, or select, a user from the list to be registered as an instructor in your class.
4. Select the Instructor User Role radio button.
5. Click Register.
6. Now that user will be able to access your Class Homepage and will have instructor privileges in the class.
Deleting an Instructor
To delete an instructor:
1. From the Class Homepage, select the Actions menu, and then select User Manager.
2. From the Actions menu, select Remove Users.
3. In the Search panel, select the Instructor radio button, and click Search. A list of all instructors for the class are
displayed.
4. Select the check box next to the user you want to remove, and click Remove.
2.3 Manage Proctors
You can add a proctor to your class to ensure security in exam settings. Proctors can log in to their own computer and
perform proctoring duties using the Proctor Tools utility. Proctors can authorize students to start and grade a test. To
authorize students, the proctor must verify the student's identity and then enter his or her password to allow the student
to begin or to grade the test. A proctor can enter his or her password at the student's workstation (local authorization),
or authorize the student from his or her own computer (remote authorization). The benefit of using remote authorization
is that the proctor does not need to enter his or her password in front of students.
When a student attempts a test that is proctored, an Authorize screen is displayed. This screen indicates that the student
requires authorization. Typically, a proctor is physically present in the same computer lab during testing sessions. For
convenience, when notified by the student, proctors can authorize a student exam session from their own work station
using the Proctor Tools screen, and then inform the student. See Figure 2.2.
16 • 2 Creating and Managing Classes
Figure 2.2: Proctor Tools
For a list of proctors in your class, select the Actions menu, and then select User Manager. In the Search panel, select
the Proctor User Role radio button, and click Search. A list of proctors is displayed.
See Also:
Proctored Exams (page 38)
Adding a Proctor
To add a proctor to your class:
1. From the Class Homepage, select the Actions menu, and then select User Manager.
2. From the Actions menu, select Register Users.
3. Search for, or select, a user from the list to be registered as a proctor in your class.
4. Select the Proctor User Role radio button.
2.3 Manage Proctors • 17
5. Click Register.
6. Now that user will be able to access your Class Homepage and use the Proctor Tools utility.
Figure 2.3: Add a Proctor to Your Class
Note: A user with the role of Proctor (set by an administrator, or an instructor with additional privileges) has proctor privileges
in any class in which he or she is not registered as a student. This means that such a user does not need to be registered into the
class to perform proctor duties in your class.
18 • 2 Creating and Managing Classes
Deleting a Proctor
To delete a proctor:
1. From the Class Homepage, select the Actions menu, and then select User Manager.
2. From the Actions menu, select Remove Users.
3. In the Search panel, select the Proctor radio button, and click Search. A list of all proctors for the class are displayed.
4. Select the check box next to the user you want to remove, and click Remove.
2.4 The Class Web Site Editor
In conjunction with your class homepage, your class also has a web site folder on the system that you can use to store
images and other resource material used in your questions. The Web Site Editor provides a list of the contents of the
web site and gives you options for uploading, organizing, and deleting files.
In the class Web Site Editor, you can perform these actions:
• Uploading Single Files (page 18)
• Uploading Multiple Files (page 19)
• Working with Folders in the Class Web Site (page 19)
You can access the Web Site Editor from the Class Homepage. Click Content Manager, and then select Web Site
Editor.
Figure 2.4: Web Site Editor
Note: Your class web site is also accessible directly from the Question Editor when you author a Clickable Image question.
Uploading Single Files
To upload a single file:
1. From the Web Site Editor, navigate to an appropriate subfolder on the web site or click the Create new subfolder
icon ( ) to create a subfolder. For maintainability, it is recommended that you place files in a subfolder.
2. Click the Upload files(s) to this point icon ( ).
3. Click Browse to locate and select the file. The following file formats are supported: htm, html, gif, jpg, png, pdf,
xls, class, jar, js, css, shtml, exe, zip, swf, lib.
2.4 The Class Web Site Editor • 19
4. Select the radio button next to Single File. The system uploads the file to your class web site, giving it the name
that you specify. (The default name is the name of the file on your computer.)
5. Click OK to perform the upload and return to the list of files on your web site. The uploaded zip file appears with
the list of files in the web site explorer.
Important: The maximum size of a file that can be uploaded is 5 MB.
Uploading Multiple Files
You can upload multiple resource files to your class web site if you package them in a compressed zip file first. The
Zip Archive option is useful if you have many files to upload.
To upload multiple files:
1. From the Web Site Editor, navigate to an appropriate subfolder on the web site or click the Create new subfolder
icon ( ) to create a subfolder. For maintainability, it is recommended that you place files in a subfolder.
2. Click the Upload files(s) to this point icon ( ).
3. Click Browse to locate and select the zip file.
4. Select Zip Archive. The program extracts all of the files from the selected zip file and uploads them to the web
site. (If the selected file is not a zip file, the program does not upload any file.)
5. Click OK to perform the upload and return to the list of files on your web site. The uploaded zip file appears with
the list of files in the web site explorer.
Important: The maximum size of a zip file that can be uploaded is 5 MB.
Viewing or Deleting Files
To view a file, click the view icon ( ) beside the filename.
To delete a file:
1. Click the delete icon ( ) beside the filename.
2. A confirmation message is displayed. Click OK to delete the file.
Working with Folders in the Class Web Site
Creating Subfolders
To create a subfolder:
1. Click the folder icon next to new subfolder.
2. Enter the name of the subfolder. When creating the name, use letters, numbers, or underscores in the name, but not
spaces.
3. Click OK.
4. The program adds the subfolder at the top of the web site folder and opens it. If the web site has more than one
subfolder, the program arranges them in alphabetical order. Each subfolder has its own icons for creating a new
subfolder and for uploading files. Use these to create sub-subfolders and to upload files to the subfolder.
Closing Subfolders
To close a subfolder:
1. Click the triangle icon by the name of the subfolder. You return to the root level.
2. Click the triangle icon again to open the subfolder and work on its files.
20 • 2 Creating and Managing Classes
Deleting Subfolders
To delete a subfolder: .
1. Click the delete icon ( ) beside the folder.
2. A confirmation message is displayed. Click OK to delete the subfolder.
3 Creating and Managing Assignments
3.1 The Assignment Editor
Assignments are created by selecting questions from the Question Repository. The Assignment Editor allows you to
create new assignments, edit the content, properties, or appearance of existing assignments, and copy, print, or delete
assignments. Assignment creation options enable you to create assignments in which Maple T.A. reorders questions,
generates questions, or displays a subset of questions. Each student viewing your assignment can potentially complete
a unique set of questions.
The Assignment Editor lists assignments created for your class. If you began your class registration by selecting a
template or a shared class (not an empty class), it may already be populated with a series of assignments based on
testing materials, or other shared questions. If not, you will see a blank list here initially.
To access the Assignment Editor:
• From the Class Homepage, select the Content Manager menu and then select Assignments.
Figure 3.1: Assignment Editor
Overview: The Assignment Editor Screen
Options in the Assignment Editor main Uses
window
New
Allows you to create new assignments.
Assignment Name
(Adding New Assignments (page 24))
Allows you to open and modify existing assignments.
(Editing Assignments (page 25))
21
22 • 3 Creating and Managing Assignments
Options in the Assignment Editor main Uses
window
Edit
Allows you to edit existing assignments.
Copy
(Editing Assignments (page 25))
Allows you to copy existing assignments.
Delete
(Copying Assignments (page 24))
Allows you to erase existing assignments.
Hide/Show
(Deleting Assignments (page 24))
Allows you to hide the assignment from student view in the Class Homepage.
Print
(Assignment Visibility (page 46))
Generates a version of your test that is suitable for printing and distributing to students
as a pencil-and-paper assignment.
Summary
Force Grade
(Printing Assignments (page 26))
Allows you to view a summary of the assignment properties.
Allows you to force grading of an active assignment.
Drop-down Arrow
(Forced Grading (page 64))
Use to sequence your assignment list.
Shared Content Icon
(Controlling the Sequence of Listed Assignments (page 26))
Indicates the assignment is an inherited assignment. Appears next to an assignment in
the list when the assignment originates in the parent class from which your class was
created.
(Adding New Assignments (page 24))
Locked Assignment Icon
See also Shared Classes (page 13)
Indicates the assignment is locked because there is an active version of the assignment
(a student has started but not finished the assignment).
Warnings and Locking Mechanism
When an assignment is opened for edit, the system checks whether the assignment has associated student records in
the Gradebook or is currently in use by a student. The number of students currently using the assignment is displayed
in the Active field of the assignment list in the Assignment Editor.
• If the assignment is currently in use, the Locked Assignment icon is displayed beside the assignment name.
The questions in the assignment are locked so that you cannot edit them. You can edit some of the policies of
the assignment, such as the time limit.
3.1 The Assignment Editor • 23
It is possible to force grade incomplete assignments so that you can edit the assignment. However, if a student
is actively in the process of taking an assignment, you cannot force grade the student's assignment.
• If the assignment is not currently active, the assignment is locked for editing so that new active tests cannot be
started during the editing process. Students who try to start the assignment while it is locked are notified with
a warning message.
See Also:
Assignment Types Overview (page 35)
Overview: Using the Assignment Editor (page 26)
Options in the Assignment Editor
Figure 3.2: Options in the Assignment Editor
From the list of assignments in the Assignment Editor, you can modify and manage existing assignments.
To view the options, hover your mouse over the assignment name. The option buttons are displayed.
• Edit assignments by clicking edit.
• Copy assignments by clicking copy.
• Delete assignments by clicking delete. (The delete option is not available for shared assignments.)
• Hide assignments from student view in the Class Homepage by clicking hide.
• Print assignments. Clicking print displays the print preview of the assignment. You then have the option to
Print the assignment or click the Back button to return to the Assignment Editor.
• View a summary of the assignment by clicking summary.
• Force grade a locked assignment by clicking force grade. (The force grade option is only available for locked
assignments.)
24 • 3 Creating and Managing Assignments
Adding New Assignments
To add a new assignment:
1. In the Assignment Editor, click the New button to create a new assignment. The Assignment Editor screen is
displayed with the Choose Name tab active.
2. Follow the instructions in Overview: Using the Assignment Editor (page 26).
Copying Assignments
To copy an assignment:
1. In the Assignment Editor, move the mouse over the assignment (name) to be copied. Six option buttons are displayed. (See Figure 3.2.)
2. Select copy.
3. "Copy of <original-assignment-name>" appears in Assignment Name list.
4. Click this copied assignment link.
5. Enter a new name in the Choose a name for your assignment field.
6. Make changes as necessary to the question set (Select Questions tab) and policies (Set Policies tab).
7. Click the Review & Finish tab, and then Finish to save the assignment with the new name (and updates).
Deleting Assignments
Considerations BEFORE you delete an assignment:
• After scheduled assignment deadlines have passed, the assignment is listed on the student's view of the assignment
menu for your class, but cannot be selected.
• Hiding an assignment or scheduling an assignment for a specific time period may allow you to achieve most
of your objectives for deleting an assignment.
To delete an assignment:
• In the Assignment Editor, move the mouse over the assignment (name) to be deleted. Six option buttons are displayed.
Click delete, and a confirmation prompt appears.
If you click Yes, the program removes the assignment from the list in the Assignment Editor screen and
from lists of assignments elsewhere in the system. Students will not be able to select the assignment from
the list of assignments in the Class Homepage and you will not be able to view the students' past results for
the assignment in the Gradebook.
Important: Deleting an assignment causes you to lose all results for that assignment from the Gradebook.
Disabling an Assignment
To disable an assignment so that students cannot see it, you can make it hidden. Clear the Visible check box under
Assignment Properties in the Set Policies tab of the Assignment Editor.
If an assignment is flagged as hidden, the Class Homepage does not include it in the list of assignments offered to
students. However, a student can view past results for the assignment in the gradebook. For more information on hiding
an assignment, see Assignment Visibility (page 46).
Alternatively, you might schedule the assignment to be available for a specific time period. Before and after the indicated
availability window, the assignment is shown in the assignment list on the Class Homepage but cannot be selected.
3.1 The Assignment Editor • 25
Deleting Shared Assignments
The system does not allow you to delete an inherited assignment that appears in your assignment list as part of a shared
class or a template.
To disable a shared assignment:
• In the Set Policies tab of the Assignment Editor, clear the Visible check box under Assignment Properties.
For more information, see Assignment Visibility (page 46).
Restoring a Hidden Assignment
To make an assignment available:
1. Return to the Set Policies tab of the Assignment Editor.
2. Change the Visibility of the assignment to Visible, or reset the scheduled availability so that it appears again on
the Class Homepage.
Editing Assignments
To edit an existing assignment:
• Click the assignment you want to edit. The Assignment Editor menu opens with the Choose Name tab active.
Operations within the Assignment Editor are identical whether you are creating a new assignment or editing properties
of an existing assignment. All tabs are accessible.
From within the Assignment Editor you can:
• Change the name of the assignment
• Add or delete questions
• Group, organize, or sequence question delivery
• Attach or edit policies
Finalizing Changes
To finalize your changes:
1. Select the Review & Finish tab.
2. Verify your edits.
3. Click Finish. You are returned to the Assignment Editor, listing all the assignments for your class.
Tip: From within the Assignment Editor you can move between tabs in any order. The numbers on the tabs are merely a suggested
sequence.
See Also:
Finishing and Saving an Assignment (page 49)
Editing Shared Assignments
You cannot make changes to inherited assignments in the same way as you edit any assignment in your class. You can
control some assignment policies for inherited assignments, however you cannot delete or modify them.
To modify an inherited assignment, create a copy of the assignment.
When you copy a shared assignment, your copy of the assignment automatically appears under its new name in the
Assignment List. Note that the original assignment—inherited from the shared or template class—also appears in the
26 • 3 Creating and Managing Assignments
list. If you do not want the original assignment to appear, remove it from view by clearing the Visible check box under
Assignment Properties in the Set Policies tab of the Assignment Editor.
Important: It is possible to break the link to a parent assignment by uploading a course module that has a question with the same
name. For more information, see Importing and Installing a Course Module (page 70)
Previewing Assignments
You can preview an assignment from the student's perspective.
1. From your Class Homepage, click on an assignment. The assignment opens in a new window.
2. Your results are recorded in the Gradebook, but the data is not included in statistical reports (since you are an instructor).
Previewing Questions
To preview individual questions within an assignment, use the Assignment Editor. See Previewing Questions in
Assignments (page 42).
Printing Assignments
To print an assignment:
1. In the Assignment Editor, move the mouse over the assignment (name) to be printed. Six option buttons are displayed.
2. Select print. The system displays the list of questions in the browser and opens a second browser window that
contains a Back button and a Print button.
3. Review the assignment.
4. Click the Print button in the second browser window to print the assignment, or click the Back button to discard
the assignment and return to the Assignment Editor.
Controlling the Sequence of Listed Assignments
The list of assignments that is displayed in the Assignment Editor is also displayed to students in your Class Homepage.
You can change the order of assignments listed in the Assignment Editor. These changes are reflected in the order of
assignments in your Class Homepage.
To order the list of assignments:
• In the Assignment Editor, select the new position number from the drop-down menu of the assignment you
want to reposition. Once selected, all affected assignments will adjust their position accordingly.
Overview: Using the Assignment Editor
The Assignment Editor organizes assignment creation into a four step process.
• Naming your assignment
• Selecting questions
• Establishing rules and policies
• Reviewing, finishing, and publishing assignments to your class
To create a new assignment:
1. From the Content Manager menu, select Assignments. The Assignment Editor opens. (See Figure 3.1.)
2. Click the New button.
3. The Assignment Editor screen opens with the Choose Name tab active.
3.1 The Assignment Editor • 27
4. Follow steps 1 through 4. More advanced options are described in detail later in this chapter.
Step 1: Select a Name for the Assignment
Begin by giving the assignment a name.
Step 2: Select Questions for the Assignment
1. View and add questions to your assignment.
2. Set question weighting.
3. Scramble question sequence upon delivery.
Step 3: Set Assignment Policies
1. Select the type of assignment and set assignment options.
3. Control feedback upon grading.
4. Set assignment properties.
5. Control assignment scheduling.
6. Create rules between assignments.
Step 4: Review and Finish Assignment
1. Review assignment content, rules, and policies.
2. Save the assignment by clicking Finish.
Important: The Assignment Editor does not save partially completed assignments until you click Finish in the Review & Finish
tab. If you begin to create an assignment and then abandon it without clicking Finish, your additions and changes will be lost.
Assigning Partial Credit
You can administer partial credit within assignments for partial answers, alternate answers, or alternate forms of answers.
Maple-graded Questions, Adaptive Questions, and Multipart Questions offer you flexible ways to assign partial credit.
Maple-graded Questions and Partial Credit
Maple-graded Questions allow you to specify partial credit for certain answers. See Maple-graded Questions in the
Question Editor (page 103).
Adaptive Questions and Partial Credit
Adaptive Question Designer Questions incorporate a number of ways to assign partial credit. You can specify penalties
for incorrect answers, as well as credit for incorrect answers. See Partial Credit in an Adaptive Question (page 181).
Multipart Questions and Partial Credit
Multipart questions allow you to create problems with many steps and to grade intermediate responses at the completion
of each step. Assigning partial credit in multipart questions is closely related to establishing point values for the individual (simple) question parts during construction of the multipart (complex) question in the Question Editor.
By carefully structuring and considering the weighting of your questions, you can control partial credit in multipart
questions very specifically. You must set the value of each component part at the time of question creation. See Multipart
Questions in the Question Editor (page 107) and Tutorial: Working with Multipart Questions (page 137).
28 • 3 Creating and Managing Assignments
Related Approaches
Many related approaches offer instructional advantages:
• Using Question Groups within assignments
• Controlling Question Weighting within assignments
• Using Mastery Mode assignments
3.2 Tutorial: Using the Assignment Editor
Assignment Editor Step 1: Choose a Name for the Assignment
To name your assignment:
1. In the Choose Name tab, enter an appropriate assignment name for your assignment in the Choose A Name For
Your Assignment field. The assignment name is displayed to students on the Class Homepage.
2. Optional. To add assignment-level page headers and text for the results page, click the Advanced button.
Proceed to Step 2: Select Questions.
Assignment Editor Step 2: Select Questions
In the Select Questions tab of the Assignment Editor, you can:
• Add questions individually
• Select by search criteria
• Select groups of items and add them all at once, either as individual items or in pools or groups of questions
1. To add questions to an assignment, select a source question group from the Groups tab.
3.2 Tutorial: Using the Assignment Editor • 29
2. Expand the groups and select the questions you want using the check boxes on the left. Preview the question if necessary.
3. Add individual questions:
• Click the add link to the right of the question.
• Select several questions using the check boxes and click the Add as Items button
• Click the check boxes beside the topic name to select every question in the topic and click the Add as Items
button.
Individual questions are included in every version of the assignment served to a student and you control question
weighing individually.
30 • 3 Creating and Managing Assignments
Figure 3.3: Add Questions to Assignment
4. Add a group of questions:
a. Select questions using the check boxes.
b. Enter a name for the Group name and click the Add as Group button.
Adding questions in question groups provides you with the added option of having the system select from within the
questions at random according to the criteria you specify (for example, choosing three of seven questions from the
group each time a new assignment is created for a student). When assigning question weighting for a question group,
you set a single point value that controls the weighting of all questions drawn from the group. See Figure 3.4.
5. Optional.
• Change the default question weighting (one point per question) to match your requirements.
• Select the check box to scramble the sequence of question delivery when assignments are created.
• Reorder questions within your assignment.
• Merge individual selected questions to form new question groups in your assignment.
3.2 Tutorial: Using the Assignment Editor • 31
Figure 3.4: Select Questions: Specify Order and Weighting of Questions
When you have completed these steps, proceed to Step 3: Setting Policies.
Assignment Editor Step 3: Setting Policies
In Set Policies tab of the Assignment Editor screen, you can:
• Select the type of assignment
• Decide when to make the assignment available to your class
• Set feedback options for the assignment
• Establish other grading policies
Type of Assignment
Assignments for Credit (Results Are Recorded)
There are three assignment types that record students results. This is an assessment style session that records performance
in the class Gradebook after students click Grade. For recorded assignments, students can return to view their assignment results (with exactly the same algorithmic data values) in the future.
• Homework or Quiz Assignments (page 36) is the default assignment type
• Proctored Exams (page 38)
• Mastery Assignments (page 39)
Assignment Options
• Reuse Previously Generated Algorithmic Variables Option (page 36)
• Keep Response and Check-Mark Indicator for Correctly Answered Questions Option (page 37)
• Generate A New Question Order Option (page 37)
• Proctored Exams (page 38)
32 • 3 Creating and Managing Assignments
• Setting Mastery Policies (page 43)
Practice Assignment Types (Results Are Not Recorded)
There are two assignment types that allow students to practice. For practice assignments, graded results are not recorded
in the Gradebook. Students cannot return to view their results later.
• Anonymous Practice Assignments (page 38)
• Study Session Assignments (page 40)
Figure 3.5: Setting the Assignment Type
Feedback
During the assignment, you can:
• Provide hints
• Show current grade at top of assignment
• Show correct answer
• Show the question comment (if they exist)
• Allow or prevent students from resubmitting answers to questions (for Homework/Quiz and Proctored Exam
assignment types)
• Allow students to check grades and receive feedback
After the assignment is graded, Show the final grade and show the correct answer are default settings.
Other options for after the assignment include:
• Receiving email reports whenever a student completes an assignment of type Homework/Quiz or Proctored
Exam. The email will contain the class name, assignment, student name, and their grade.
• Showing the question comment (if it exists)
• Restricting feedback until a specified date
Restricting feedback until the assignment due date is useful if you want to prevent students who finish the assignment
early from giving answers to other students.
3.2 Tutorial: Using the Assignment Editor • 33
Figure 3.6: Feedback Options
Optional: Set Assignment Properties
You can set a passing score, time limit, the number of questions on a page for the assignment, and the maximum
number of attempts allowed.
You can set a default start and end date and time for each assignment. The default is no scheduled start and end date.
Clearing the Visible check box temporarily excludes the assignment from the list of assignments displayed to students
on your class homepage.
Figure 3.7: Assignment Properties
Proctored Browser
You can require that students use the Proctored Browser for the assignment. This full screen web browser blocks a
student from accessing external web sites or other programs on their computer while taking the assignment.
Figure 3.8: Require Use of Proctored Browser
34 • 3 Creating and Managing Assignments
IP Address Restrictions
You can restrict access to an assignment to specific IP addresses.
You can require students take an assignment from a restricted set of IP addresses by selecting from a list of predefined
groups set up by your system administrator or creating a custom IP address restriction. IP addresses can be given individually, with wildcards, or using Netmask format. Enter only one IP address or pattern per line.
Figure 3.9: Restrict Access to Specified IP Addresses
Optional: Create Rules between Assignments
You can restrict access to an assignment so that only students meeting certain criteria can take the assignment.
Set criteria by clicking the Advanced button.
When you have completed your assignment rules and policies, go to Step 4 :Review & Finish.
Figure 3.10: Set Criteria for Assignments
Assignment Editor Step 4: Review & Finish
In the Review & Finish tab of the Assignment Editor, you can review assignment summary information, including:
• Assignment Type
• Questions Selected
• Scheduled Availability
• Rules and policies you established
Previewing Questions
To preview a question, click the related link while in the Assignment Editor.
3.3 Assignment Types • 35
Editing Options
• If you want to make a change, clicking the link for each category returns you to the appropriate Assignment
Editor tab.
• If your assignment is ready to save, click Finish to return to the Assignment Editor, where you will view your
list of assignments, with the new assignment displayed in the list. Your edits are immediately saved to your
class records. If you set up your assignment to be immediately available to students, it appears in the list
presented to them in the Class Homepage.
Figure 3.11: Review Assignment Details
See Also:
Setting Assignment Types (page 43)
Scheduling Assignments (page 46)
3.3 Assignment Types
Assignment Types Overview
You can create graded assessments (homework, quizzes, or exams), ungraded practice tests or quizzes, or tutorial assignments with set criteria. For details, see:
• Homework or Quiz Assignments (page 36)
• Proctored Exams (page 38)
• Anonymous Practice Assignments (page 38)
• Study Session and Mastery Assignments (page 38)
To take any assignment, students must be registered in the class.
You can configure the number of questions on a page, create test instruction sheets and headers, and set policies for
restricted access, repeated attempts, and other options.
• Students answer questions one-at-a-time, and the system records their responses between questions.
• Jumping from question to question within an assignment is allowed until students complete all questions (or
choose to ignore the warnings to do so) and submit their responses for automatic grading.
36 • 3 Creating and Managing Assignments
• For Homework/Quiz and Proctored Exam assignments, individual student results are recorded in the
Gradebook.
For a summary of assignment attributes, see Table 3.1.
Table 3.1: Assignment Attributes
Assignment Type Graded
Anonymous
Practice
Homework/Quiz
Mastery
Proctored Exams
Study Session
yes
Recorded in
Gradebook
no
Hints Available Solution
Available
yes
no
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
no
yes
yes
yes
yes
no
no
no
yes
Homework or Quiz Assignments
Description
• Students are presented with an assignment consisting of any number of instructor-selected questions.
• Questions are delivered either in an instructor-specified or scrambled sequence.
• Student responses during sessions are recorded (but not graded) after every question, so assignment sessions
can be interrupted and returned to upon next login.
• By default, homework or quiz assignments can be attempted multiple times for credit. If you want to limit the
number of attempts a student can make on a particular assignment, configure the assignment properties.
• Results for every attempt at a Homework and Quiz assignment are recorded in the Gradebook for the class.
Reuse Previously Generated Algorithmic Variables
To present an exact version of an assignment each attempt:
Select the Reuse previously generated algorithmic variables check box.
• Individual students will always return to the exact version of the assignment they were initially presented with,
even on repeated attempts, regardless of whether the question was authored with algorithms for any attempt
during the assignment's scheduled availability. If questions contain randomly generated variable data, the system
instantiates the variables exactly one time.
To vary questions for each assignment attempt (default setting) :
Leave the Reuse previously generated algorithmic variables option cleared.
• Students rework the assignment with newly randomized variables inserted in questions each time they attempt
the assignment. This enables instructors to create a template assignment and lets students rework it repeatedly,
with each session generating a different version of the algorithmic variables within the assignment, but still
covering the same skills.
Notes: The system records graded results for every repeated attempt, and instructors can control the grading policies, taking the
best score, average score, or another option. You can view results from all sessions, including the unique randomized variable data
for each assignment attempt a student makes. The system records the student's best grade. The system still produces algorithmically
varied versions of the assignment for different students, but each student sees only one version of the assignment regardless of
repeated attempts.
3.3 Assignment Types • 37
Targeted
To keep response and check-mark indicator for correctly answered questions on subsequent attempts:
Select the (Targeted) Keep response and check-mark indicator for correctly answered questions check box.
• When an individual student takes another attempt at an assignment, they will see their previous response and
a check-mark indicator for correctly answered questions.
Generate a New Question Order
To show students the questions in the order the instructor chose when creating the assignment:
Select the Never option from the Generate a new order drop-down list.
• When an individual student takes an assignment, they will see the questions in the order the instructor chose
when creating the assignment. If the student has multiple attempts at an assignment, the order of the questions
will not change.
To show questions in a different order for an individual student, but not on subsequent attempts:
Select the On the first attempt option from the Generate a new order drop-down list.
• When an individual student takes an assignment for the first time, the order of the questions will be scrambled.
If the student has multiple attempts at an assignment, the order of the questions will not change.
To show questions in a different order on each attempt for an individual student:
Select the Every attempt option from the Generate a new order drop-down list.
• When an individual student takes an assignment, whether only once or multiple times, the order of the questions
will always be different.
Printable Assignments Option
To make your assignments printable:
Select the Offer printable version of assignment option.
• With this option selected, students login and the system generates a new assignment (with algorithmically
generated variable data where appropriate). At the next step, however, students are offered the option to generate a printable version of the test suitable for printing and working offline.
• Printable assignments operate like a homework session that was interrupted before grading. The student can
log in again and enter responses for automatic system grading and recording scores in the Gradebook. Or, instructors may prefer to have students submit their completed assignments on paper for hand-grading by instructors
or teaching assistants.
Associated Assignment Properties
You can set the passing score and time limit for an assignment. These properties are set under Assignment Properties
in the Set Policies tab.
• If there is a time limit set for the test in the assignment definition, a pop-up window warns students as they
approach the time limit. They are not allowed to answer additional questions once they exceed the time limit;
however, they can submit their work up to that point for grading.
• When the student has completed the assignment and submitted it for grading, the system displays a graded assignment report that includes the score (for example, 6 out of 8) as well as details on the grading of each question,
along with comments or feedback for all of the questions. (These options can be configured.)
38 • 3 Creating and Managing Assignments
Proctored Exams
Proctored Exams are similar to Homework or Quiz assignments, but with an additional security measure to confirm
the identity of the student taking the test.
• All Proctored tests require a proctor to authorize students submitting their test for grading.
• You can require proctor authorization to validate student identity and grant assignment access at the start of a
proctored exam. Select the Also require proctor sign-in to start session option in the Set Policies tab.
• Students must be registered in your class.
Types of Proctors
There are two types of proctors: Global and Local.
• Global proctors are defined by the System Administrator and can give authorization for any class.
• Local proctors are defined by the Instructor and can only give authorization for a particular class.
Location of Proctor
Proctors can give authorization directly at the student's computer, or remotely through Proctor Tools. In both cases
the proctor must sign in by giving a login name and password.
Note: To give authorization remotely, the proctor must login and access the Proctor Tools utility under the Actions menu.
See Also:
Adding a Proctor (page 16)
Managing Proctors (page 15)
Anonymous Practice Assignments
Anonymous Practice assignments are similar to Homework or Quiz assignments; however, results are not recorded
in the Gradebook. Any number of questions can be included, and the assignment is delivered in an instructor-specified
sequence (or scrambled).
Graded assignment reports are produced upon conclusion of the assignment, but results are not recorded in the
Gradebook. Students can view their results at the end of the session; no permanent record is maintained. Results can
be printed, but are only available for as long as a student displays them.
Study Session and Mastery Assignments
Study Session and Mastery assignments usually draw from a large pool of assignment material (often algorithmically
generated to produce limitless question permutations). There is no pre-established number of questions for either
Mastery or Study Session assignments, questions are drawn from pools throughout the study session.
Assignments are delivered one-question-at-a-time, and the student submits each question for grading individually and
immediately, instead of having the entire test graded at the end. These assignments are also sometimes described as
learning dialogues, because of their question-answer-next question style.
Mastery and Study Session assignment types emphasize the following pedagogical approaches:
• For Mastery assignments, instructors create carefully structured collections of questions grouped by learning
objectives. These assignments usually draw from a large pool of assignment material, often algorithmically
generated to produce limitless question permutations. Mastery assignments require a login and password, and
results are recorded in the Gradebook.
3.3 Assignment Types • 39
• For Study Sessions, students control the study process by practicing question after question. Questions can
provide hints and full solutions that are available to students while they work. Results are displayed one question
at a time and are not recorded in the Gradebook.
Mastery Assignments
For Mastery assignment types you first create an assignment by selecting questions (Step 2) as with other for-credit
assignments. However, when selecting questions for a mastery assignment you must give careful pedagogical consideration to structuring questions by learning objective.
Question groups can be especially important in the instructional design of Mastery assignments. In Step 3 - Setting
Policies, you create rules that establish the minimum number of questions in each learning objective that must be
answered correctly before the student can move to the next learning objective.
For students, the graded results of their responses on individual questions at each level of learning objective determines
their progression through the assignment. When students demonstrate the required level of mastery (by answering the
minimum number of questions correctly), the system allows them to move ahead to the next learning objective's material.
Figure 3.12: Policies for Mastery Assignments
If students demonstrate a lower level of mastery (through repeated incorrect responses), you can establish penalties so
that the system moves the student backwards, to the previous learning objective until minimal proficiency is again established.
Requirements
• Assignment results are recorded in the Gradebook for the class.
• Mastery assignments can be attempted multiple times for credit. If you want to limit the number of attempts a
student can make on a particular assignment, configure the assignment properties.
40 • 3 Creating and Managing Assignments
• As students work through a Mastery assignment, they are shown information about their progress along with
the requirements for the learning objective and the assignment. This information is shown in a Progress Report
box that updates each time they complete and grade a question.
Study Session Assignments
Study Sessions draw from a bank of questions and serve repeated practice to students one question at a time. These
assignments are principally a teaching tool, whereas other types of assignments might be considered testing tools (although all assignment types do both to some degree). This assignment type is ideal for anonymous, student-driven,
self-paced review.
Although you can create a specific content structure for study session assignments, you can also allow the system to
randomly select questions from a pool of questions. Consequently, Study Session assignments typically draw from
Question Groups. Students work at their own pace on questions drawn from a pool of instructor-selected questions.
Where hints and solutions are part of the question content, students can use them during Study Sessions.
Grading
Questions are graded one at a time, and results are not recorded in the Gradebook. When the system grades the question,
it does not tell students the correct answer, but simply whether they got the question correct. If they answered correctly,
it proceeds to the next question. If they answered incorrectly, they can view the Hints and then return to make another
attempt at the question, or they can view the solution and proceed to the next question. Students can also skip questions
and leave the test at any time.
3.4 Details on Using the Assignment Editor
Choose Name Tab
Assignment Name
The name you give your assignment in the Choose Name tab of the Assignment Editor is displayed to students in
your Class Homepage.
Name assignments using unique and informative terms that make it easy for students to identify each assignment and
its instructional objective. For example, although the rules for grading and access are enforced automatically, you may
want to indicate the type of assignment in the name for rapid identification.
Assignment Instructions
This feature is useful for providing instructions viewed by students during an assignment.
1. In the Choose Name tab, click Advanced.
2. In the first text box, enter text that will appear at the top of every page in your assignment.
3. You can also enter information to be shown on the results page. Details are in the section Text Instructions Shown
upon Grading.
Text Instructions Shown upon Grading
To include text or instructions:
1. In the Choose Name tab, click Advanced.
2. Enter text or instructions in the Text to show on the Results Page field. This information is displayed to students
after grading, as part of the graded assignment report they receive. The editor allows you to format your text, as
well as include images, links, and color enhancements.
3.4 Details on Using the Assignment Editor • 41
See Also:
Configuring Feedback Options (page 44)
Select Questions Tab
Add Questions to Assignments
You can add questions to your assignment by
• Adding individual questions by using the Add as Items button
or
• Adding questions as a group by using the Add as Group button
You can use any combination of selection methods when creating an assignment.
You can combine any number of individual questions and question groups in a single assignment.
Adding Individual Questions
To add individual questions:
1. In the Assignment Editor, Select Questions tab, select a source question bank from the Question Group dropdown list.
2. Expand the groups into individual questions.
3. From the left frame of the Select Questions tab, select questions using the check boxes.
4. Click the Add as Items button to place the selected questions in your assignment.
Note: You can select one question at a time and click the adjacent add link to place the individual question in your assignment.
Add Questions as a Group
Questions added as a group are loaded into a single question pool. You can use the drop-down menu to specify the
number of questions to be selected by the system from this pool during your assignment. Question groups are useful
in designing a Mastery assignment.
To add questions as a group:
1. In the Assignment Editor, Select Questions tab, select a source test bank from the Question Group drop-down
list.
2. Expand the groups into individual questions.
3. From the left frame of the Select Questions tab, select questions using the check boxes.
4. Enter a name in the Group name box. (Note: For a Mastery assignment, these names are shown to the student in
the progress report shown after each question is graded.)
5. Click the Add as Group button to add the questions into your assignment as a group or question pool.
See Also:
Mastery Assignments (page 39)
Expanding Groups to View Individual Questions
After selecting a source question bank, the groups for that bank appear in the left frame of the Select Questions tab of
the Assignment Editor screen.
42 • 3 Creating and Managing Assignments
To display questions in a group:
1. Click the icon to expand the group. When expanded, the icon changes to
.
2. To close the group and its question contents, click .
Delete Questions from Assignments
To delete questions that have been selected for inclusion in an assignment:
1. In the right frame of the Select Questions tab, select questions using the check boxes to the left of the question
name.
2. Click Delete.
Merge Questions into Question Groups
You can merge individual questions or question groups into a single question group in an assignment.
To merge questions:
1. In the right frame (displaying the selected questions), select the questions or question groups you want to merge.
2. Click the Merge button to combine all the selected questions into a single question group.
Previewing Questions for Selection
When you select a question group, its structure is displayed in the left frame, directly below the question group list.
To view brief descriptions of individual questions, expand the groups and view the question description. If no question
description accompanies the question, its question type is displayed (for example, Multiple Choice or Formula).
To preview individual questions for selection:
• In the left frame, click the link of the question you want to preview. A preview window opens. You can also
preview a question after it is added to the assignment by selecting the question link in the right frame.
Previewing Questions in Assignments
After questions have been added to an assignment, you can preview the questions.
To preview a question in an assignment:
1. In the right frame of Select Questions tab, select a question.
2. Click the link in the highlighted question description. The question preview includes the information fields.
Configuring Question Weighting
By default, each new question in your assignment is added with a weight of 1 point per question. To change the
weighting of individual questions, change the point value in the Points column for the question. The total points at the
bottom of the column automatically adjust as you change individual question weights.
Note: The question score values you assign here apply only to Assessment-style assignments such as, Homework or Quiz,
Anonymous Practice, and Proctored Exam. Mastery and Study Session Assignments do not use these settings because they employ
other pedagogical scoring models.
Scrambling Question Delivery
To automatically scramble the sequence of questions delivered each time a new assignment is presented to a student,
select the Scramble Questions option within the Select Questions tab.
3.4 Details on Using the Assignment Editor • 43
Note: In the Review & Finish tab, question scrambling is referred to as Versioning. This term is used because scrambling the
sequence of question delivery produces multiple versions of assignments. Using algorithmically generated questions within
assignments creates multiple versions of questions as well.
Set Policies Tab
Setting Assignment Types
Homework or Quiz is the system default assignment type. It delivers an assessment-style session that does not require
proctor authorization. It records student session results in the class Gradebook.
To change the assignment mode, select one of the other options under Type of Assignment in the Set Policies tab of
the Assignment Editor.
For information on each assignment type, see:
• Anonymous Practice Assignments (page 38)
• Homework or Quiz Assignments (page 36)
• Proctored Exams (page 38)
• Mastery Assignments (page 39)
• Study Session Assignments (page 40)
Note: If you select Mastery dialog assignment, you should proceed to the Mastery Policies page to specify the criteria for your
assignment.
Setting Mastery Policies
If you select the Mastery type for the Assignment, you can set learning objectives or competency levels that must be
met before a student is allowed to proceed with the assignment.
To establish policies for your assignment:
1. In the Set Policies tab of the Assignment Editor, click the Edit mastery policies link below the Mastery dialog
option. The Set Policies/Mastery Policies screen opens. See Figure 3.12.
2. Use the drop-down fields to establish rules. The field text provides guidelines.
Penalties apply to the selected topic and also to any preceding (or controlling) topics on which the selected topic depends.
The system returns students to the earlier topics where a learning need has been demonstrated until they reach your
required level of competency.
Example
Consider an assignment in which Topic B depends on Topic A. Both have a basic requirement of 3 correct questions,
and Topic B has a penalty of one additional question for every wrong answer. If the student answers three questions
correctly in Topic A and then moves to Topic B but gets a question wrong, both topics now have a requirement of 4
correct questions, so the student no longer meets the requirements for Topic A. The system returns to Topic A and the
student must answer an additional question correctly in order to proceed again to Topic B.
Note: When delivering Mastery assignments, the system gives students information about their progress towards meeting the
requirements for the assignment. It updates this information with every question that it grades.
See Also:
Limiting Student Access to Assignments: Setting Assignment Requirements (page 48)
44 • 3 Creating and Managing Assignments
Configuring Feedback Options
You can specify which feedback elements are displayed to students when they grade an assignment. (See Figure 3.6.)
The default system behavior is to show the final assignment grade as well as question feedback, but you can switch
either of these elements on or off, control access to hints during assignment sessions (before grading), or withhold
feedback until after the assignment due date has passed.
Hints and Feedback
You can allow access to question hints (if they exist) in any assignment type. Hints and Question Feedback (contained
in the Comment field of a question) are not always present in the source questions in the question repository. You can
add hints or comments by using the Question Editor and editing these fields for individual questions. If you choose
to display hints and comments and your source questions lack them, the system ignores the display settings but otherwise
provides a grading report to students.
In a grading report, the system displays question feedback from the Comment field if it exists, or if not, shows the
correct answer value (as defined in the Answer field). While every question will have something displayed as feedback
in the grading report, not every question may have the type of extensive feedback, coaching, or external review references
that you might provide in the comment for a question.
Note: To display hints during an assignment or custom feedback after grading, your questions must contain content
in hint fields or the comment field.
Selecting Feedback Options
To display hints during an assignment, select Show hints.
To display the current score at the top of the screen during an assignment, select Show current grade at top of assignment.
To allow students to resubmit responses to questions during the assignment, select Allow students to resubmit answers
to questions. Note: Resubmission of answers is always allowed for Anonymous Practice, Mastery, and Study Session
assignments types. This option is available for Homework/Quiz and Proctored Exam assignment types.
To display a grade and/or feedback for each question while the student is taking the assignment, select Allow students
to check grades and feedback.
To display the final grade after the assignment is graded, select Show the final grade.
Notes: Some caution should be used in pairing some of these feedback options. Examples are given here.
1. Selecting Allow students to resubmit answers to questions and Allow students to check grades and feedback provides
students with the equivalent of a solution manual while taking the assignment. Students can check the feedback and change
their response to the question.
2. Selecting Show current grade at top of assignment and Allow students to resubmit answers to questions will enable
students to get immediate feedback on questions and then retry the questions.
You can show feedback during the assignment or after it is graded, for example, displaying the correct answer or
comment for each question. Under Feedback, select from Always, If correct, If incorrect, or Never condition options
for displaying the correct answer and question comment.
You can edit the grading message and feedback messages, if you want to use custom messages instead of the default
messages.
3.4 Details on Using the Assignment Editor • 45
Receiving Email Notification
You can opt to receive an email whenever a student completes the assignment in Homework and Proctored Exam
mode, giving the name of the student and their grade. To receive email notification, select the Send email reports to
check box and enter your email address.
Restricting Feedback
You can restrict feedback so that feedback details are not displayed until a certain date. Check the Restrict Feedback
check box and click the calendar icon to choose a date.
See Also:
Security Issues to Consider (page 75)
Configuring Assignment Properties
Assignment properties are configured in the Set Policies tab of the Assignment Editor. These include:
• Setting a Passing Score (page 45)
• Setting a Time Limit (page 45)
• Setting Questions per Page (page 45)
• Setting the Maximum Number of Attempts (page 46)
Setting a Passing Score
If you select the Practice, Homework, or Proctored Exam assignment types, you can set a Passing score for the assignment. If you set a score, the system assesses each try at the assignment as either Pass or Fail, and records this information in the Gradebook automatically. The field shows the total available score for the assignment (for example,
out of 10), which varies according to the composition of your assignment. For Homework and Proctored Exams, if you
choose to set a passing grade and you have selected to receive email notifications when students complete the assignment,
the emails will included information on whether the student meets the passing criteria.
You can customize the message students receive by clicking the Edit feedback messages link. You can use the dropdown menu to specify when the feedback is displayed: Always, Never, or If the final grade is shown.
Setting a Time Limit
You can set a time limit for an assignment or test. If you set a limit, the program shows the student the time remaining
during the course of the test. If the time limit expires during the test, the system informs the student, and does not allow
the student to answer any more questions. However, the student can submit the test for grading.
Note: The timer does not stop until the student runs out of time or clicks Grade. The timer will continue to run even
if the student clicks Quit and Save.
Setting the Number of Questions per Page
By default, the program displays one question per page when presenting an assignment to students. You can use this
option to deliver more than one question per page. If you set the number of questions to be greater than 5, a warning
dialog will appear.
Note: Mastery and Study Session assignments automatically serve one question at a time. This is part of their instructional design
and this setting cannot be changed for these assignment types.
Tip: If you are concerned about students' ability to access complicated questions over a slower online connection, it is recommended
that you accept the default setting for questions per page (which is one-at-a-time). Loading one question at a time usually allows
a student to move through the assignment effectively, but also saves each question response as it is completed.
46 • 3 Creating and Managing Assignments
Setting the Maximum Number of Attempts
You can set the maximum number of times a student may take an assignment. If the student attempts more than the
maximum amount, a message is displayed indicating the restriction.
It is possible to allow an exception in a particular case to the maximum number of attempts restriction. To authorize
an exception, when the student sees the restriction message, the student clicks Exception. A proctor or the instructor
can then provide authorization.
Scheduling Assignments
Using the calendar function under Scheduling in the Set Policies tab, you can set Start and End times for each assignment. These times govern the availability of the assignment to students in your class. Scheduled times refer to your
system's time zone setting (indicated in the Scheduling section, and set by your System Administrator).
Before and after the indicated availability window, the assignment is displayed in the assignment list viewable by students
on your Class Homepage; however, it cannot be selected. Note that for the instructor, unavailable assignments appear
in the list of assignments on the Assignment Editor page. Additionally, unavailable assignments will appear in a student's
past results page if the student completed them.
Notes:
• You can also choose to withhold grades and feedback until after the assignment due date by setting these policies
under Feedback in the Set Policies tab in the Assignment Editor.
• Students must complete their assignment sessions by submitting their work to be graded before the time and
date specified in the assignment schedule.
• You can also set time limits for assignment sessions. If there is a time limit set for the test in the assignment
definition, a pop-up window warns students as they approach the time limit. They are not allowed to answer
additional questions once they exceed the time limit; however, they can submit their work up to that point for
grading.
• By default, the system does not establish a scheduled start or end time for assignments.
See Also:
Configuring Feedback Options (page 44)
Assignment Visibility
Clearing the Visible check box excludes the assignment from the list of assignments displayed to students on your
class homepage.
Alternatively:
• In the Assignment Editor, you can access this option by clicking the hide option available when you hover
your mouse over the assignment name.
• You can set the schedule for the assignment to exclude a particular period of time (which also restricts the assignment's availability to students).
• You can delete an assignment, but only if you are prepared to lose all of the results for the assignment from the
Gradebook.
Requiring Use of the Proctored Browser
You can require students to take the assignment in the Maple T.A. Proctored Browser. The Proctored Browser is a full
screen web browser that blocks the student from accessing external web sites or other programs on the computer while
taking an assignment.
3.4 Details on Using the Assignment Editor • 47
If you select Require use of Proctored Browser, then on the Class Homepage this requirement will be indicated beside
the assignment name.
Installing the Proctored Browser
The Proctored Browser can be installed ahead of time, if desired. Otherwise, the first time a student clicks on an assignment that requires the proctored browser, the student will be prompted to install the browser.
Note: The Proctored Browser can be installed on Microsoft® Windows® only. For details on system requirements for
the Proctored Browser, see System Requirements (page 357).
If your system administrator wants to install the Proctored Browser on all computers in a computer lab, the setup file
is located at http://MAPLETA/proctoredbrowser/setup.zip, where MAPLETA is the path to your institution's Maple T.A. installation.
To install the Proctored Browser:
1. From the Class Homepage, click on an assignment that requires the Proctored Browser, and when prompted,
download the installer (setup.zip).
2. If setup.zip does not automatically open, locate and double-click setup.zip to open the ZIP file.
3. Double-click setup.exe to start the installer.
4. Follow the on-screen instructions.
5. If Microsoft .NET Framework 4.0 is not installed, the Proctored Browser installer will walk you through installing
the framework. A computer reboot will be required if the .NET Framework needs to be installed.
6. After installation, you can find the Maple T.A. Proctored Browser shortcut on the desktop, as well as under All
Programs > Maplesoft in the Start menu.
Taking an Assignment using the Proctored Browser
To take an assignment that requires the Proctored Browser, the student should access Maple T.A. through the Maple
T.A. Proctored Browser, either through a shortcut on the desktop or under All Programs > Maplesoft > Maple T.A.
Proctored Browser in the Start menu.
If an assignment's properties require use of the Proctored Browser, clicking on the assignment from any other web
browser will produce a message that the Proctored Browser must be used.
To take an assignment in the Proctored Browser:
1. Open the Maple T.A. Proctored Browser and enter the path to your institution's Maple T.A. installation. (Note: Instructors or proctors should provide this information to the students.)
2. Log in to Maple T.A.
3. Start the assignment.
4. During the assignment, the Proctored Browser will be full-screen, and other computer programs or web sites cannot
be accessed. Links within Maple T.A. that pop-up as separate windows in a standard web browser will instead open
in new tabs in the Proctored Browser.
5. When the assignment is completed, click Grade.
6. Log out of Maple T.A. and exit the Proctored Browser.
48 • 3 Creating and Managing Assignments
Notes:
1. As an instructor, if you log into Maple T.A. from the Proctored Browser, you will be given the same access privileges
as a student, allowing you to preview the student experience with the Proctored Browser. Instructor tools are not
available through the Proctored Browser.
2. We recommend that the Proctored Browser be used in a monitored setting, such as an on-campus computer lab,
where the use of other devices or materials is controlled. See Security Issues to Consider (page 75).
3. We recommend that students only use the Proctored Browser for taking assignments and tests. We recommend that
students perform other Maple T.A. tasks, such as enrolling in classes or checking the Gradebook, from a standard
web browser.
4. When an assignment is taken in the Maple T.A. Proctored Browser, all links to image files, reference files, and external URLs will be blocked. When creating an assignment for which you require students to use the Proctored
Browser, you should take care to ensure that the questions do not use any such files.
Limiting Student Access to Assignments: Setting IP Address Restrictions
You can restrict access to an assignment to specific IP addresses.
If your system administrator has defined any IP address groups for your institution, these will be listed here. You can
also create a custom IP address restriction.
To restrict access to certain IP addresses, do one or more of the following:
• Select one or more IP address groups from the list provided (if it exists)
• Enter your custom IP address restrictions.
IP addresses must be entered according to the following rules:
• IP addresses can be given individually or by using patterns.
• Enter one IP address per line.
• Patterns can be entered in Netmask format or using wildcards (for example, 10.10.2.*).
For assistance with entering the appropriate IP addresses for your system, contact your system administrator.
Limiting Student Access to Assignments: Setting Assignment Requirements
You can restrict access to an assignment so that only students meeting certain criteria can take the assignment. You
can also create assignment requirements that refer to the current assignment, even if you are working with a new assignment that has not yet been saved. The assignment on which you are working is now listed along with all other
available assignments in the Criterion specification box. This is useful when you want to ensure minimum competencies
in prerequisite topics. For example, you can limit access to students who have already passed an earlier assignment.
3.4 Details on Using the Assignment Editor • 49
To restrict assignment access:
1. From the Assignment Editor screen in the Set Policies tab, click Advanced. The Set Policies - Advanced screen
is displayed.
2. To set criteria, click Design. A Criterion 1 rule-based field opens. Specify the desired criteria.
3. Save Changes to Criterion: After you have specified the desired criteria, click Back to save changes made to the
criteria and return to the Set Policies tab.
Criterion Options
• The first drop-down list gives a choice between has and has not.
• The drop-down list in the middle lists a range of states and actions, as shown.
• The drop-down list on the right lists all of the assignments for the class, including the assignment currently
being edited.
• Adding an OR Criterion: Click the Add alternative criterion button immediately below the list of assignments.
The program adds the list fields for another criterion.
• Adding an AND Criterion: Click the Add additional criterion button at the bottom right of the form, below
the frame that encloses the criterion fields. The program adds another criterion group, in a separate frame.
• Deleting a Criterion: To delete an OR criterion, click on the Remove criterion button inside the frame for
that criterion group. The program deletes the last criterion from the group. You may have to change the settings
for the remaining criteria in the group to set the requirements that you want. To delete an AND criterion group,
click on the Remove criterion button at the bottom of the form, below the last criterion group. The program
deletes the last group. You may have to change the settings for the remaining groups to set the requirements
that you want.
Review & Finish Tab
Finishing and Saving an Assignment
Saving an assignment involves saving information in cached memory and in your class configuration.
To accept and publish the assignment you have created or modified, click Finish in the Review & Finish tab.
• If you have scheduled it for immediate availability, your new assignment is available for students on the Class
Homepage.
• The system does not save partially completed assignments until you click Finish in the Review & Finish tab
of the Assignment Editor. If you begin to create an assignment and then abandon it without clicking Finish,
your additions and changes will be lost.
• If the server shuts down before you click the Finish button, your editing changes will be lost. When the server
resumes, it will use the last saved version of your assignment data, and any unsaved changes you had made
will be lost.
• To reduce the risk of this during long assignment editing sessions, you may want to periodically use the Finish
button, then select your assignment from the main Assignment Editor list of assignments to start a new editing
session. If you do this, it is recommended that you mark the assignment as hidden so that students cannot access
it. Hide assignments from the main Assignment Editor page by hovering the mouse over the assignment name
in the assignment list and clicking hide.
• After clicking Finish, you are returned to the Assignment Editor list of assignments for your class, where your
new assignment is displayed in the list of all class assignments. Additions or changes you have made during
this session are also displayed.
50 • 3 Creating and Managing Assignments
Canceling Assignment Creation
To cancel assignment creation:
1. In the Review & Finish tab of the Assignment Editor, click Cancel.
2. You are asked to confirm that you want to discard the assignment and modifications you have made.
To discard the assignment, click OK. You return to the Assignment Editor list of assignments. The assignment is not
saved.
To continue editing the assignment, click Cancel.
Reviewing Assignment Details
In the Review & Finish tab of the Assignment Editor, you can review settings for your assignment and preview the
assignment questions.
To change settings:
1. Click the appropriate Assignment Editor tab to return to the tab where the option is set. (If you click on the highlighted link for a policy, it will tell you where this setting can be accessed.)
2. Make the desired modifications and proceed to the Review & Finish tab.
3.5 Details on Using the Adaptive Assignment Editor
With Maple T.A., you can create flexible adaptive assignments that let you separate questions into different branches
or difficulty levels. When a student takes an adaptive test, each new question is selected from the appropriate branch,
depending on their earlier responses.
Create New Adaptive Assignment
To create a new adaptive assignment, do the following:
1. From the Class Homepage, select the Content Manager menu and then select Assignments.
2. Click the New Adaptive button to create a new adaptive assignment.
Choose Name Tab
For information on the assignment name, assignment instructions, and how to define what text is shown upon grading,
please look at the Choose Name Tab (page 40) area in section 3.4.
Select Questions Tab
Add Branches to Adaptive Assignments
1. To add a branch to an assignment, click the
2. Give a name for the new branch and push the
push the
icon instead.
icon which is located underneath the Select Questions Tab
icon. If you would like to cancel the creation of the new branch,
Changing Properties of Branches
To change various properties of a branch, do the following:
1. To change the properties of a branch, you need to first select the branch whose properties you want changed. To do
this, click the name of the branch. The selected branch appears dark gray compared to the other branch.
3.5 Details on Using the Adaptive Assignment Editor • 51
2. Underneath the heading Assignment Questions you will see the following 3 options:
• Scramble Questions – if checked, questions shown from this branch will be picked at random
• Recycle Questions – if checked, questions that a student has already answered will have the possibility to be
shown again to the student
• Branch Weight – the value entered here is what each question from this branch will be worth
Deleting Branches from Adaptive Assignments
To delete a branch, do the following:
1. Locate the branch you want to delete from your assignment and push the
icon.
2. A warning dialog will appear confirming you want to delete this branch. Push OK to confirm the deletion of the
branch or push Cancel to cancel the deletion of the branch.
Note: Deleting a branch also deletes all questions within that branch
Adding Questions to Branches
To add questions to a branch, do the following:
1. Click the branch name you would like to add questions to. The selected branch appears dark gray compared to the
other branch.
After the above step, adding questions to a branch follows the same procedures when adding questions to a non-adaptive
assignment. These procedures can be found in the Select Questions Tab (page 41) area in section 3.4.
Deleting Questions from Branches
To delete questions from a branch, do the following:
1. Click the branch name you would like to delete questions from. The selected branch appears dark gray compared
to the other branch.
After the above step, deleting questions from a branch follows the same procedures when deleting questions from a
non-adaptive assignment. These procedures can be found in the Select Questions Tab (page 41) area in section 3.4.
Defining an Exit Strategy
How a student finishes an adaptive assignment is called an exit strategy. A student can finish a test in a number of
different ways.
To define an exit strategy for an adaptive assignment, do the following:
1. To define how a student completes the adaptive assignment, select the Policies button.
2. Choose at least one grading trigger that will dictate when a student is finished the assignment. There are three options
to choose from which can be used by themselves or in conjunction with another:
• <integer> questions seen – the student is finished the assignment after seeing a predefined number of questions.
It does not matter if they got these questions correct or incorrect.
• <integer> correct responses – the student is finished the assignment after answering a predefined number of
questions correct.
• <integer> incorrect responses – the student is finished the assignment after answering a predefined number
of questions incorrect.-
52 • 3 Creating and Managing Assignments
Figure 3.13: Defining An Exit Strategy
Defining Branch Switching Procedures
To define how a student will move from branch to branch within an adaptive assignment, please do the following:
1. Select the Policies button.
2. Using the Basic options, you can define how a student moves from branch to branch by the following options:
• Increase difficulty when <integer> <non-consecutive or consecutive> correct answers.
• Decrease difficulty when <integer> <non-consecutive or consecutive> correct answers.
3. Using the Algorithmic option, you can customize exactly how a student will move from branch to branch using
Maple syntax.
Figure 3.14: Defining Branch Switching Procedures
Set Policies Tab
When creating an adaptive assignment, the set policies tab is similar to the set policies tab when creating a regular assignment. There are only two differences. (1) When creating an adaptive assignment, you can only choose between
three types of assignment, Anonymous practice, Homework or Quiz, and Proctored exam. (2) There is no Passing score
in an adaptive assignment.
For more information on the Set Policies Tabs, see the Set Policies Tab (page 43) area in section 3.4.
Review & Finish Tab
The Review & Finish Tab is the same for when creating a regular assignment and an adaptive assignment.
For information reviewing adaptive assignment details, please look at the Review & Finish Tab (page 49) area in
section 3.4.
4 Working with the Gradebook
4.1 Overview of the Gradebook
The Gradebook has four primary functions:
• Viewing and analyzing scores and statistics for students, assignments, and question items
• Reviewing student results
• Creating customized grade reports that reflect your grading policy. These grade reports can be saved or published
for student viewing.
• Exporting grades to a file
In addition, from the Gradebook you can grade essay questions, add comments or adjust grades, add external assignments,
and force grade active assignments.
Viewing Scores and Performing Gradebook Searches
The system automatically stores assignment session scores in the Gradebook. The Gradebook stores a variety of information for each student, such as the assignment start time, the time spent on the assignment, and the individual assignment
question performance.
Use the Gradebook to view grade data organized by assignment, by student, or by question item. View the results online
or export them to use in programs such as Microsoft® Excel. You can download the results of any Gradebook search
or report to a file in comma-delimited format.
Search results are based on the data gathered by the system during student sessions, including statistical analysis of
student and class performance. You start a search by selecting what information you want to include. The Gradebook
makes it easy to get to the level of detail you need.
For example, you can begin by listing all student results on an assignment, and then click a student's name to display
only that student's data. From the student record, you can then change a grade or view the student's answers for each
question on an assignment.
Generating Grade Reports
You can define a grade report for your specified grading policy. For instance, you can group homework assignments
and make them worth 30% of the overall grade, group quizzes (worth 30% of the grade), and make the final exam
worth the remaining 40%. You could save this and publish it, allowing students to see their grade by your calculation.
Grade reports are also useful for providing snapshots of the grades to date or trying out alternative methods for
weighing assignments. With options for designating extra credit and dropping the lowest grades, grade reports provide
flexibility for you in assessing your class.
Grade reports allow you to:
• group assignments
• set criteria within an assignment group, such as "drop the lowest grade" and whether to ignore non-attempts or mark
as 0
• designate weighting for each assignment in a group
• designate weighting for each assignment group in the overall grade
• designate an assignment group as extra credit
• save the grade report
• publish the grade report for student viewing
53
54 • 4 Working with the Gradebook
See Also:
Working with Grade Reports (page 61)
4.2 Performing Gradebook Searches
The Gradebook provides two types of searches of assignment data: class grades and item statistics.
• Class Grades — search for any number of assignments. For each assignment, the total grade for each student
is displayed.
• Item Statistics — search for any number of assignments. For each question, item statistics are displayed
(number of correct, partially correct, and incorrect responses as well as success rate, p-value, d-value, pbiserial, and r-biserial).
To perform a gradebook search:
1. From the Class Homepage, select Gradebook from the menu bar.
2. Select Search and the type of search: Class Grades or Item Statistics.
3. In the Search Panel, select the assignments you want to include in the search.
4. Specify additional search criteria.
5. In the View Panel, select the data to include in the search results.
6. Click Search to perform the search.
To start a new search, from the menu bar, select Gradebook>Search again, and then select Class Grades or Item
Statistics.
Setting Search Criteria
The search panel is used to request data from the database. To perform a search, you must specify the assignment or
assignments to include. You can select assignments by name or by assignment type. To include all assignments, select
All.
If desired, customize your gradebook search using the options in the Advanced Search Panel:
• Classes — search within the current class or any child classes
• User — search for a user by login name
• List — specify whether to show all enrolled users or only users with grades
• Results — specify which user roles (students, instructors, and proctors) to include in results.
• Show Results — select from best, average, most recent, earliest, all (best), all (most recent), or all (earliest). If you
let students attempt an assignment multiple times, you can select which result to include in your report. For example,
if you select all (best), the search results display each attempt, but only the best grade is used when computing the
mean, median, and item statistics.
• Progress — show completed assignments, assignments in progress, or assignments that need to be reviewed.
Tip: To find assignments that contain ungraded essay questions, search for To Be Reviewed assignments. For more
information on grading essay questions, see Changing Grades and Adding Comments (page 57).
• Date Range — specify a date range. Assignments completed within that date range are included.
Setting View Criteria
The view panel is used to specify what data is included in the results.
After performing a search, you can change the options in View Panel and refresh the view without performing another
search.
4.3 Searching for Class Grades • 55
Customize the display of the search results using these options:
• Rows — control the number of rows (of students) displayed per page
• Class Name — show the class name
• Style — indicate the presentation style for grades: number, percent, or letter grades
• Grade Data — display assignment details such as the date and time the assignment was started and finished, the time
used to complete the assignment, and the number of attempts
• User Data — specify what student identification information to display
• Summary Data — display assignment summary data, such as total points, number of attempts, mean, and median
for the assignment
You can export any generated table of grades to a file by clicking Export to CSV.
Note: The mean and median are calculated based on the search. For example, if the search is for the best score for each
student, the median computation is computed from those grades only.
4.3 Searching for Class Grades
Search for class grades to show the results of specified assignments. For each assignment, the grade for each student
is displayed. You can search for class grades for just the current class or including any child classes.
After performing a search, you can change the options in View Panel and refresh the view without performing another
search.
You can export any generated table of grades to a file by clicking Export to CSV.
From the Class Grades, you can:
• View Assignment Grades by clicking on the name of an assignment
• View Student Grades by clicking on the name of a student
• View Student Assignment Details by clicking on any grade in the search results
• View Item Statistics
• Change the total points for an assignment
Viewing Assignment Grades
From the Class Grades, click the name of an assignment to access Assignment Grades.
This lets you view the question-by-question scores. The grade for each question (or question group) for each student
is displayed.
Assignment Grades includes a summary of information on the assignment.
Table 4.1: Assignment Summary
Field
Assignment Name
Current Total Points
Original Total Points
# Active Assignments
Class Average
Last modified
Description
The name of the assignment. Click this link to collapse the details view.
The total number of points.
The total number of points originally assigned.
The number of assignments that are currently in progress.
The average score of all assignments taken.
The date and time the assignment was last modified.
56 • 4 Working with the Gradebook
Field
# Attempts
Average # Attempts
Item Statistics
Histogram of Student
Assignment Scores
Description
The total number of assignments taken by students. This number might be greater than the number
of students if the assignment allows for multiple submissions of work.
The average number of attempts per student.
Click this link to view the item statistics for the assignment.
Click this link to view a histogram of the assignment results. The histogram opens in a new window.
From the Assignment Grades, you can:
• Change the options in View Panel and refresh the view without performing another search.
• Export any generated table of grades to a file by clicking Export to CSV.
• Go to the Item Statistics for the assignment.
• View a histogram of student assignment scores.
• Change the total points on the assignment.
• View assignment results for a question group in the assignment.
• Preview a question on the assignment.
• Access question details for a question in the assignment.
• Access details for a question group in the assignment.
If the assignment includes question groups, these are indicated by a + symbol after the question number, such as Q1+.
Click this link to see details on the items within this question group.
Viewing Question Responses
From the Assignments Grades, you can access Question Responses.
• In the Assignment Grades, click the name of a question, such as Q1, to view the student responses to this question.
In the Question Responses view, you can:
• View item statistics
• View student responses for each question. As part of this, you can view the instance of the question that the student
received (for algorithmic questions).
• Add instructor comments
• Update student grades, if desired.
Viewing Student Grades
After performing a basic gradebook search, you can click the name of a student to access the student grades for that
student.
The student record report first shows a summary for the student, including the number of completed, in progress, and
passed assignments for the student, along with the number of assignments that need to be reviewed. For each assignment,
the student score and total points are shown.
You can opt to show all results, or just the best, average, most recent, or earliest. For all of these except average, additional information for each assignment session includes session start and end times and duration.
You can click the Details link for any assignment to access the student assignment details.
4.3 Searching for Class Grades • 57
Viewing Student Assignment Details
After performing a basic gradebook search, you can click any grade in the search results to view the detailed results
for that assignment attempt.
The student assignment details report shows a summary of the results for this assignment attempt, including the student's
score out of the total points, the session start and end times and duration. A summary for student is also shown, with
the number of completed, in progress, and passed assignments for the student, along with the number of assignments
that need to be reviewed.
In the Student Assignment Details view, you can:
• View the student's response for each question. As part of this, you can view the instance of the question that the
student received (for algorithmic questions).
• Add instructor comments
• Update student grades, if desired.
Changing Grades and Adding Comments
From the Gradebook, you can modify student grades if needed. You can:
• Grade essay questions
• Change a student's grade on an individual question
• Leave comments for the student on an individual question
Changing Grades and Grading Essay Questions
You might want to change a student's grade for several reasons:
• The system does not automatically grade essay questions, so you must enter a grade for any essay questions
included in your assignment. If an assignment contains questions that have not yet been graded, such as essay
questions, then an icon ( ) appears to the left of the score.
• You might choose to raise a student's grade based on effort, improvement, or other subjective measure.
• You might choose to apply a curve, based on the performance of the entire class.
As you change grades, keep in mind the total and passing scores you have set for the assignment.
To change a student's grades:
1. From the Class Homepage, select Gradebook and click Class Grades.
2. Select the assignment with the grade(s) you want to change.
a If there are ungraded essay questions in the assignment, then in the Advanced Search Panel, under Progress,
select To Be Reviewed.
b If the assignment is fully graded and you want to change a grade, then in the Advanced Search Panel, under
Progress, select Completed.
3. Click Search.
4. From the resulting report, do one of the following:
• Click the name of a student that requires grade changes. In the Student Assignment Details view, click the
Details link beside the assignment that requires changes to view the student's responses. (The icon
appears
beside the Details link if there are ungraded essay questions that need your attention).
• Click the name of a question that requires grade changes to view the Question Responses.
58 • 4 Working with the Gradebook
5. Each question is displayed, along with the student's response. If a question is algorithmic, you will see the instance
of the question that the student received.
To update one grade:
• Locate the grade to be changed. In the corresponding New Question Grade text box, enter the new grade.
The grade should be a number between 0.0 and 1.0, with 1.0 meaning fully correct.
• You can add a comment in the Comment on Grade text box. This region becomes writable after a new
grade has been entered. This comment is for your reference, and is not seen by the student.
• Click the Save Question Details icon (
) beside the new question grade to save the grade.
To update multiple grades at once:
• Select the questions using the check boxes on the left.
• Enter the new grade in the Update selected grades as field.
• Click Update Grades.
6. You can view a summary of the item's grade changes together with the accompanying comments by clicking View
History beside the Comment on Grade text box.
7. You can add a comment for the student in the Instructors Comment text box, if desired.
8. Click Save Question Details at the top of the page.
9. Use the crumb trail to return to the Assignment Grades screen.
• An asterisk appears beside the assignment name if you have edited the details of the assignment, for example,
adding a comment or changing a grade.
• If the assignment is the original graded by the system, no asterisk appears beside the assignment name.
Adding Essay Annotations
You can add any number of annotations anywhere in a student's essay, by dragging a symbol from the Essay Annotations
palette on to the student's essay.
Descriptions for each annotation symbol can be found at the top of the Essay Annotations palette, when you hover
your mouse over the annotation symbol.
Note: Essay annotations only apply to questions of
type Essay.
Adding and Removing Essay Annotations
Adding Annotations
To add annotations to an essay:
1. From the Class Homepage, select Gradebook and click Class Grades.
2. Select the assignment for which you want to add an annotation.
3. Click Search.
4. From the resulting report, click the name of a student.
5. Each assignment is displayed as a row in a table. Click the Details link that corresponds to the assignment containing
an Essay question you want to annotate.
6. In the Student Assignment Details view, scroll down to the Essay question you want to annotate.
7. Expand the Essay Annotation palette on the left hand side of the window, by clicking the "+" symbol.
4.3 Searching for Class Grades • 59
8. Drag an annotation symbol on to desired location of the student's essay response.
9. Repeat step 9 for additional annotations.
10. To save the annotated essay response, do one of the following. Either click the save (
or check the box to the left of the question, then click Save Question Details.
) button next to the essay,
Students will see these annotations when they review their grade on their essay. You can add personalized comments
to help individual students understand their scores and master the material.
Removing Annotations
To remove annotations from an essay:
1. Find the annotation symbol you want to remove in the student's essay.
2. Click and drag the annotation from the essay on to the Drag here to remove box, in the Essay Annotations palette.
Creating and Removing Essay Annotation Symbols
Creating Symbols
To create essay annotation symbols:
1. Expand the Essay Annotation palette.
2. In the Symbol text field, add characters you want displayed as a symbol.
3. In the Description field, enter a description for the symbol.
4. Click Add. The new symbol is added to the symbol palette.
Removing Symbols
To remove an essay annotation symbol:
1. Expand the Essay Annotation palette.
2. Click and drag the symbol you want to remove down to the Drag here to remove box.
3. The symbol is removed when you release the mouse button.
Adding Comments to Individual Graded Questions
You can add a comment for a student in the Instructors Comment text box. Students see these comments when the
review their performance on the test. You can add personalized comments to help individual students understand their
score and master the material.
To add comments to graded assignment questions:
1. From the Class Homepage, select Gradebook and click Class Grades.
2. Select the assignment for which you want to add a comment.
3. Click Search.
4. From the resulting report, click the name of a student, or the name of a question.
5. Each question is displayed, along with the student's response.
6. Under each question is a Instructors Comment text box. Add a comment for the student in the desired box.
7. Click Save Question Details.
8. You return to the student's record.
60 • 4 Working with the Gradebook
Students will see these comments when they review their performance on the test. You can add personalized comments
to help individual students understand their scores and master the material.
Note: The comments you enter in this way are sent to individual students, and not provided as a part of question feedback. To
enter question-level feedback (even response-specific feedback for multiple choice items), you must use the Question Editor.
See Also:
Configuring Feedback Options (page 44)
Changing the Total Points for an Assignment
To modify the total points for an assignment:
• In the search results in the Gradebook, click Total points in the left column.
• Enter the new total points for an assignment in the Overridden column.
• Click Submit to save the change.
4.4 Searching for Item Statistics
View item statistics for the questions in specified assignments. For each question, item statistics are displayed (number
of correct, partially correct, and incorrect responses as well as success rate, p-value, d-value, p-biserial, and r-biserial).
Important: The system allows a variety of possible assignment applications for each question in the question repository, which
means calculating traditional item analysis on questions may produce unexpected results. Remember that the analysis and statistics
produced in the Item Statistics reports here are based on the limited use of question items in the specific context of the assignments
you specify. If you specify assignments that are of more than one assignment mode or that do not have identical assignment settings,
item statistics calculated here are unreliable. To produce reliable item analysis results, select only one assignment for Item Statistics
or ensure that all selected assignments have identical rules and policies.
Table 4.2: Item Statistics
Success Rate
p-Value
d-Value
The Success Rate of an item is the average normalized score on that item. With each item graded
between 0.0 and 1.0 (that is, normalized), the average score is computed over the set of all scores
recorded for that item in the current assignment.
The p-Value of an item measures the proportion of students who got the item correct. It is defined
as the ratio of the number of fully correct responses to the total number of responses in the data set.
That is,
where n is the number of responses and F is the number of fully correct responses.
The d-Value measures the discrimination of an item. To calculate it, the dataset is divided into two
groups based on the scores on the entire assignment. The sets consist of those that scored greater than
(or equal to) the median grade on the assignment and those that scored less than the median grade on
the assignment. The p-Value for each set is calculated, and the d-Value is the difference of the p-Value
for the high-scoring group and the p-Value for the low-scoring group.
where
n1 = number of assignments with scores
median grade for the assignment
n2 = number of assignments with scores
median grade for the assignment
F1 = number of fully correct responses on this item from the top-scoring set
4.5 Working with Grade Reports • 61
p-Biserial
F2 = number of fully correct responses on this item from the bottom-scoring set
The p-Biserial is a correlation coefficient relating performance on an item and performance on the
total assignment. The p-Biserial correlation coefficient is an index of discrimination that measures
the extent to which students who score high on the assignment tend to get the item correct and those
who score low tend to get the item incorrect.
where
= mean grade of assignments on which this item was answered incorrectly.
= mean grade of assignments on which this item was answered fully correctly.
p = p-Value
q = 1-p
= standard deviation for assignment grades
r-Biserial
The r-Biserial is a correlation coefficient relating performance on an item and performance on the
total assignment. The r-Biserial correlation coefficient is an index of discrimination that measures
the extent to which students who score high on the assignment tend to get the item correct and those
who score low tend to get the item incorrect.
where
= mean grade of assignments on which this item was answered incorrectly.
= mean grade of assignments on which this item was answered fully correctly.
p = p-Value
q = 1-p
= standard deviation for assignment grades
Y = height of the standardized normal distribution at the point z, where P(z'<z)=q and P(z'>z)=p
Note: Since the r-Biserial is scaled by a parameter that is based on a normal distribution, it can result
in values outside of -1 to 1 if the scores are not normally distributed.
4.5 Working with Grade Reports
You can create grade reports that reflect your class grading policy, provide a snapshot of grades-to-date, test out alternative methods for weighing assignments, and so on.
A grade report is defined by selecting assignments, putting them into report groups, and defining the weighting for
each group. You can control the grading policies that determine how grades.
62 • 4 Working with the Gradebook
Creating a New Grade Report
To create a grade report:
1. From the Class Homepage, select Gradebook, then select Grade Reports.
2. Click New to define a new report.
3. Specify a name for the grade report.
4. Then, click Add Group.
a. Specify a name for the report group.
b. Select the assignments for the group.
c. Specify the weight of this group in the overall grade computation.
d. If desired, adjust additional settings.
5. When finished, click Save to save the group settings.
6. Add more groups as needed.
• Within a grade report, an assignment can only be in one group. Thus, any assignments that were already placed
in a group will not appear in the Available Assignments list for other groups.
• The weightings of the groups in a grade report (not including any Bonus assignments) should add to 100%.
7. You can change the order of the groups listed in a grade report. To change the order, select a new position number
from the drop-down menu of the assignment you want to reposition. Once selected, all affected assignments will
adjust their position accordingly.
8. To publish a grade report so students can view the report, select the Visible check box.
9. Click Save to save the grade report.
For a report group, you can set the following settings:
• Group Name — the name of the group in the grade report
• Weight — set a weighting for the group in the overall grade for the report
• Drop Lowest — drop the lowest n grades in the group
• Weight Assignments — weight the assignments in the group equally (normalized) or by using the total points for
each assignment (summed scores are divided by the summed total)
• Non-Attempts — mark non-attempts as 0 or ignore
• Use — if an assignment is attempted multiple times, specify whether to use the best, most recent, earliest, or average
grade
• Bonus — mark a group as extra credit. If a group is marked as Bonus, its weight is not used to reach the cumulative
weight of 100% for the grade report.
Viewing a Grade Report
To view a grade report:
1. From the Class Homepage, select Gradebook, then select Grade Reports.
2. Click Load to view the report.
3. In the View panel, select data to include in the results and then refresh the view of the grade report.
In a grade report, bonus assignments are indicated with the bonus icon ( ).
4.6 Exporting Reports and Performance Data • 63
Publishing a Grade Report for Students
You can publish a grade report for student viewing. To publish a grade report, edit the grade report and select the
Visible check box.
4.6 Exporting Reports and Performance Data
You can export data from any gradebook search or for any grade report you generate in the Gradebook. Exported
performance data files are in comma-delimited (CSV) format and can be opened in a variety of applications (for example,
Microsoft Excel) and are easily imported into many third-party gradebook programs.
To export data from the Gradebook:
1. In the gradebook, perform a search or load a grade report.
2. Click Export to CSV to open or save as a comma delimited file.
4.7 Adding an External Assignment
You can add external assignment grades to your Maple T.A. gradebook. There are two ways to add external grades,
by uploading a roster of grades, or through the gradebook interface.
Adding External Grades using a Roster
Grade rosters are an efficient way to add a large number of grades at once. By uploading a file, you can add multiple
external assignments at once.
To upload external grades:
1. Create a text file in the specified format.
• The first column identifies the users. This can be login names, email addresses, or student IDs.
• The remaining columns provide assignment data. Assignment data consists of the following, in order: the assignment name, the total points, the passing score, and the student scores.
Save the file as a text file, with fields delimited by comma or tab characters.
2. From the Class Homepage, select the Gradebook menu and then select External Import.
3. Click Browse to find the text file containing the grade roster.
4. Specify whether the file is comma-separated or tab-separated.
5. Click Submit.
6. Preview the imported data. Click Save External to save the external assignments to the gradebook.
You can now view this data in the Gradebook.
Adding External Grades Individually
To add an external assignment manually:
1. From the Class Homepage, select the Gradebook menu and then select External.
2. Enter the assignment name, total points, and a passing score.
3. For each student, enter the score they received on the external assignment, and add an optional comment.
4. Click Save to save this data to the gradebook.
5. Click Save & Add Another to add another external assignment to the gradebook.
You can now view this data in the Gradebook.
64 • 4 Working with the Gradebook
Modifying External Assignment Grades
You can modify an external assignment in the gradebook.
1. In the gradebook, perform a search for the assignment.
2. Click the name of the assignment to edit the external grades.
3. Modify the assignment name, total points, passing score, if desired. Modify student grades or comments.
4. Save the results.
4.8 Forced Grading
To force the grading of an assignment:
1. From the Class Homepage, select the Gradebook menu and then select Class Grades.
2. Select the Assignment name and, in the Progress list select In Progress.
3. Click Search to perform the search. An in progress assignment is indicated by the ' symbol beside the grade.
4. In the search results, click the assignment name link.
5. In the Details area, click the Force grade active assignments ... link.
6. The users that are currently taking the assignment are displayed. Click Force Grade.
Important: If a student is actively in the process of taking an assignment, you cannot force grade the student's assignment. If you attempt to force grade an assignment that any active users are currently taking, a list of active users is
displayed with the message that those assignments will not be force graded.
4.8 Forced Grading • 65
See Also:
Changing Grades and Adding Comments (page 57)
66 • 4 Working with the Gradebook
5 Course Modules
Course Modules allow you to share your class content with others, including related assignments and any web resources
(for example, images) used by your questions and assignments.
5.1 Course Modules Overview
When you create a course module (CM) the system packages the class elements you have identified, producing a single
ZIP file that can be archived or redistributed to other instructors using the system. The instructors can have classes on
the same server or on other Maple T.A. servers.
It is an ideal method for content management of entire classes full of related questions, assignments, and web references,
and allows you to include all or only specific parts of those classes in the CM package.
Using CMs is similar to the share class capability in that it allows you to share your class content; however, once a
CM is distributed and installed in a new class location, it does not maintain any synchronization with the original
source class or its materials.
CMs ensure transportability of content from one class to another, archiving of entire class contents, and even portability
of entire classes from one Maple T.A. server to another.
When you create a CM, the web reference URLs inside your questions are converted to a portable format, so that when
you install the CM in a new class, these can be automatically set to the new class web site address by the system as
part of the installation process.
You can create a normal CM or a Legacy CM. A normal CM can only be used with the current version of Maple T.A.
A Legacy CM is used to export content from the latest version of Maple T.A. to past versions of Maple T.A.
Access Course Modules from the Class Homepage by selecting the Content Manager menu and then selecting
Course Modules.
In the Course Modules screen, a list of the currently installed CMs for your class is displayed along with these options.
(The list is empty initially.) See Figure 5.1.
Figure 5.1: Create, Import, Export, or Delete Course Modules
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68 • 5 Course Modules
New - Create a new CM
New Legacy - Create a new Legacy CM
View Details - Select one or more existing CMs from the list and view their individual contents: questions, assignments,
and resources
Import - Upload a CM from your hard drive
Export - Select one or more existing CMs from the list and save them to your hard drive
Delete - Select one or more existing CMs from the list and delete them
The advantage of using course modules rather than question banks or featured classes to manage content between
classes on one or more Maple T.A. servers is that the questions, assignments, and web resource folders are entirely
portable and can be installed in a new class (even at another institution) very easily. After you create and export a
course module, you can send it to other instructors who can upload it into their class and use it in its current state, or
alter it to suit their needs.
Technical Information: Expected Behaviors of Course Modules
1. CMs encapsulate from the source class and allow you to reinstall questions in the destination class.
• Relative paths to resources are preserved and reinstalled.
• All question types (including those requiring outside resources) are preserved. Note: Different releases
of the system may support different question types and earlier system releases may not support all question
types.
2. CMs encapsulate from the source class and allow you to reinstall assignments in the destination class.
• Assignment behaviors and policies are preserved.
• Links to all source content and related resources are preserved.
3. CMs encapsulate from the source class and allow you to reinstall resource objects in the destination class.
• Relative paths are preserved for folders and subfolders of the class web site .
• Underlying folder structure is preserved.
• Connections with questions and assignments (through annotations) are preserved.
See Also
Shared Classes (page 13)
5.2 Creating a Course Module
To share content using a course module, first create a course module by choosing the items you wish to include. After
you have created the course module, save the course module to your computer as a ZIP file. You can then share the
course module with others.
To create a new CM:
1. From your Class Homepage, select the Content Manager menu and then select Course Modules.
2. Click the New button. If you are wanting to create a Legacy CM, click New Legacy instead.
3. A table displays all the questions, assignments, and web folders holding resources (for example, image files) for
your class. Select the course components to be included in your new course module.
• You can highlight multiple items in a list using Shift-click (for contiguous selections) or Ctrl-click (for multiple
individual selections).
5.3 Exporting a Course Module • 69
• Use the
button to add your selections to the list of included elements for your new course module.
• You can include any combination of questions, assignments, and web folders in your selected list.
• To select web resources (for example, images and other files that are referenced by your questions and assignments), select the folders that contain your resources. Subfolders are automatically selected.
4. When you are satisfied that the list on the right contains all the elements to be included in your new course module,
click OK.
5. Specify a name for your course module. Optionally, you can enter descriptions for each course component. You
can also select descriptive names for any web folders you have selected. Question and assignment names cannot
be changed.
6. Click OK to create your Course Module according to the specifications you have indicated. You return to the
Course Modules main screen and your new Course Module has been added to the bottom of the list of installed
course modules for your class.
Note: Click Cancel at any time to return to the Course Modules main page. If you want to export assignments to a CM, you must
use a Legacy CM. Exporting assignments to a regular CM is currently not supported.
See Also:
Exporting a Course Module (page 69)
Adding and Deleting Elements within a Course Module (page 71)
Viewing Details of a Course Module (page 71)
Course Module Creation and Shared Class Inheritance of Questions and Assignments
CMs can only include content that is local to the source class.
• Content inherited from another class cannot be included.
• The course module creation screen will not show any inherited content.
See Also:
Shared Class Content Updates (page 13)
5.3 Exporting a Course Module
Click Export to save the selected CM from your source class to your hard drive. This is a required step if you want
to redistribute or install your CM into a new class.
1. Create a CM.
2. Select the CM you want to save to your hard drive by selecting the check box adjacent to it in the list of available
CMs in your class.
3. Click the Export button. The next page displays all the related URL information that is referenced in the CM you
have selected. You will see a message about the URLs as follows.
Your questions will be scanned for URLs beginning with the following strings. These references
will be replaced with a system-independent string that will make your module relocatable to classes
on other servers.
When the CM is saved, it replaces the source class-specific URL information with relative references that
are then localized upon reinstallation. Typically you will not want to make changes to the system default
behavior for URL replacements.
70 • 5 Course Modules
4. Click OK to continue. The course module is prepared for download.
5. When prompted, start the download. A file download box will appear, and the CM is saved by default to a ZIP file
with the name of the course module.
Note: It is strongly recommended that you rename the CM, replacing the default name with a more meaningful
name.
Maple T.A. uses unique question identifiers to identify questions. When you export a question bank or a course module,
the questions' unique question identifiers are saved along with the other data. This allows question updates during
subsequent QU file imports.
5.4 Importing and Installing a Course Module
Note: In the following discussion, the term destination class refers to the class that you want to install the course
module into and the term source class refers to the originating class for the CM contents.
To install a new course module into the destination class:
1. Ensure that you have access to the saved course module from the source class on your hard drive, a network drive,
or an Internet resource.
2. Click the Import button in the Course Modules screen.
3. To select a course module, click Browse.
4. In the Choose File dialog, select the course module on your hard drive, a network drive, or an Internet resource,
and click Open.
5. Click Import to initiate the file upload. (The speed of the upload process depends on your internet connection.)
• Elements contained in your uploaded course that are also contained in your class are highlighted in yellow
background with red type, with a warning message:
WARNING: The course module you have uploaded contains resources which will overwrite
components that you already have installed. The components which will overwrite your existing
course components are highlighted in the table below. If you do not want these course components
erased and replaced with new ones, press Cancel, or ensure that they are not selected in the table
below. To proceed, select the components that you want to install from the table below and press
Install.
6. At this point you can install the new components in your class, overwriting the original components, or you can
clear the check box adjacent to the duplicate element in the CM details prior to proceeding. You can also select or
clear other elements of the course module for installation into your class. The default installation behavior is to install
all course module elements; however, by clearing individual parts you can choose the specific elements you want
to install. Click Install to copy and install all the selected course module elements into your destination class.
7. The new course module appears in the list of available course modules for your class, and all of the elements you
selected appear in their respective areas throughout your class web site. Questions are listed in the Question Repository, assignments appear in the Assignment Editor, and web resources are displayed in the Web Site Editor.
Requirements
• Course modules are files with a .zip extension.
• If you attempt to upload a ZIP file that is not a CM, the system generates the following error message and you
must make another attempt:
This file does not appear to be course module (it has no manifest file).
• Each server has a maximum file size setting for uploads that is established by your system administrator. (The
system default setting is to allow uploads of up to 1 MB.) If your file upload repeatedly times out, or if you
receive a message informing you that your upload exceeds the server limit, contact your system administrator.
5.5 Viewing Details of a Course Module • 71
Additional Notes
The most common element that will be flagged as a duplicate is the base class web site folder, web_folders. This is a
common default destination for many web resources; however, because it is a folder name established for every course,
you may already have saved your own resources to the class web site folder in the destination course. If this is the
case, you can either:
• Create a new subfolder in your destination class web site and reinstall your resources in that subfolder
• If you have access to the source class for the CM, you can return to the CM's source class and move the resources
in the base folder of that class web site to a subfolder, and then recreate the CM so that it will not overlap with
your destination class folders upon upload.
Course Module Installation and Shared Class Inheritance of Questions and Assignments
If you overwrite or edit or install a CM that has a new version of a question with the same name as the old, you permanently break the link to the parent class version of the question. If, in the future, you want to refresh the content
of your class to match that in the parent class or restore the link to the parent class version of the content, you must
save your new, edited question under a different name and then delete the version that has the same (original) name
as the original in the parent class question, or delete the edited/modified version of the question. The parent class restores
the matching (original) question automatically.
Note: If you modify questions or assignments that you inherit from a shared parent class, there is no risk that the parent class
version will overwrite your modified version, unless you specifically delete the modified question or assignment from your child
class. This means that if you make changes to the inherited questions or assignments and save them to the original name, your
changed versions sever the relationship with the parent asset and you will not receive any future updates from the parent class
automatically. Therefore, you must stay in communication with the instructor in your shared parent class if you want to be notified
of changes to parent class questions and assignments.
See Also:
Shared Class Content Updates (page 13)
5.5 Viewing Details of a Course Module
View Details allows you to inspect the individual elements contained within a selected CM. You also use View Details
as the first step to deleting parts from within a CM.
1. Select the check box adjacent to the CM you want to work with.
2. Click the View Details button on the Course Modules screen.
• A page is displayed that shows the questions, assignments, and web resource folders that are contained
in the CM.
• A description of each component may also be included (depending on whether the creator of the CM included this information).
• If you have selected multiple CMs for viewing, each is displayed in sequence, with the above information
posted.
5.6 Adding and Deleting Elements within a Course Module
Adding Course Module Contents
The current release of the system does not allow you to add CM contents to an existing course module. Instead you
should create a new course module that contains all the elements you want.
72 • 5 Course Modules
Deleting Course Module Contents
You may want to remove specific questions, assignments, or web folders from within a CM.
1. From the Course Modules screen, select the CM you want to work with from the list of available CMs in your
class. You can select multiple CMs for this action.
2. Click View Details to proceed to a page that lists all the questions, assignments, and web resource folders that are
contained in the selected CMs.
3. Select the components to be deleted, and click Delete.
4. You can select all the questions, assignments, or web folders included in the CM by selecting the check box adjacent
to the Name column headings.
Important: When you use this method to delete elements from a CM, the system deletes the selected element: questions,
assignments, or web resource folders are physically deleted from the system and are unrecoverable.
Note: If the elements you have deleted from one CM are used in another CM installed in your class, they will not be
permanently removed from your course, but will be removed from only the selected CM.
To delete only the index file containing the record of the CM contents from the list of the available CMs, click the
Delete button.
Why Delete Only Part of a Course Module
If you install a CM given to you by a colleague, but want to duplicate only certain parts of the contents of that CM,
for example, install only questions and web folders but not install the related assignments, you first install the entire
CM, and then use the steps outlined above to remove the assignments.
5.7 Deleting a Course Module
The Delete button removes the index file that stores the record of what is included in the course module without actually
deleting the class elements. Deleting the course module index file removes the record of the CM from the list of
available CMs but does not actually remove its contents from the system.
To delete the course module index from the list of available course modules in your class:
1. Select the CM you want to remove by selecting the check box adjacent to it. You can select multiple CMs for this
action.
2. A warning message is displayed. To remove this course module index from the list of installed course modules in
this class, click OK. The CM is removed from the list of available CMs for this class.
To delete the contents of a course module, you must delete individual components, as described under Adding and
Deleting Elements within a Course Module.
5.8 Relative Web References in Course Modules
When your questions are saved, Maple T.A. does a global search and replace for the strings listed.
5.8 Relative Web References in Course Modules • 73
http://server.name/Web/yourclass/Public_Html/
http://server.name/classes/yourclass/
../classes/yourclass/
It replaces all of them with:
__BASE_CLASS_URI__
When the questions are uploaded, the string is translated to:
http://server.name/classes/yourclass/
so that your image references are correct.
If you add more strings to the list, they must be replaced with:
__BASE_CLASS_URI__.
The strings listed are the most common ones for people to use in addressing images that are stored in their class, but
it is possible that you have used a different addressing scheme.
You might also want to delete strings if there are addresses you do not want to be replaced. For example, if you intend
to always refer to the copies of images stored on that particular class (that is, you are not copying the images), you
might want to leave the URLs like http://server.name/classes/yourclass/ in place.
74 • 5 Course Modules
6 Administering Maple T.A.
6.1 Changing Your Password
1. From the System Homepage, click the My Profile link located above the Logout link.
2. Click the Password Update button.
3. Enter your new password, confirm your new password, and click Submit.
6.2 Editing Your Profile
1. From the System Homepage, click the My Profile link located above the Logout link.
2. Click the Edit User button.
3. From here, you can change your First Name, Last Name, Display Name, Student ID, and Email. You cannot
change your User Privileges, Class Privileges, or User Login.
4. To save the changes you have made, push the Submit button. Otherwise, push the Cancel button to cancel any
changes you have made.
Note: You cannot edit your profile if Maple T.A. has been connected to BlackBoard, Moodle, or any other management system
through the Maple T.A. API.
6.3 Deleting Student Records
To delete a student record:
1. From the Class Homepage, select the Actions menu and then select User Manager.
2. From the Actions menu, select Remove Users.
3. Select the check box next to the user(s) you want to remove from the class. Click Remove.
Important: Removing a user from your class removes all of that student's records from the Gradebook.
See Also:
Class Rosters (page 11)
6.4 Security Issues to Consider
It is important to protect your Gradebook and test questions. Review the following security suggestions for Instructor
Passwords, Student Account Management, and Proctored Exams.
• Instructor Password Security (page 75)
• Student Account Tricks and How to Foil Them (page 76)
• Secure Proctored Exams (page 76)
• Secure Proctored Browser (page 76)
Instructor Password
• Change your password often.
• Never allow a student to see it. The instructor password grants access to all the grades in your class, and enables
you to change grades. Use caution when entering it in front of students.
• Your password is stored on the server in plain text. This means that the system administrator can read it. Therefore,
do not use a password that cannot be disclosed to a third party.
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76 • 6 Administering Maple T.A.
• When you log in, the time of your last login is given under your user profile. Check this every time to determine if
there are any unaccounted logins. Access your profile by clicking the My Profile link above the Logout link.
Student Account Management
1. Some students will log in to an assignment once or twice and click Grade without attempting any questions, to
make a printout of the feedback. Using this feedback, they complete the assignment. There are three main solutions:
• Restrict the number of retakes allowed. For details, see Setting the Maximum Number of Attempts (page 46).
• Set the feedback level to score only rather than giving out answers or solutions. (This approach penalizes the
good students, too.) For details, see Configuring Feedback Options (page 44).
• If you are writing and using your own questions, you can edit the Comments fields and mask the correct answer.
For details, see Configuring Feedback Options (page 44).
2. Consider locking your class after an initial sign-up period to prevent registration of students not in the class and
creation of fake accounts. You can also delete unwanted accounts. For details, Locking and Unlocking Class
Registration (page 10) and Deleting Student Records (page 75).
Proctored Exams
• Proctors can authorize students to take and grade assignments of the type Proctored Exam. This usually depends on
class size and the number of teaching assistants available to act as proctors. However, this double-checking approach
keeps the testing environment controlled.
• Proctors can use the Proctor Tools utility to avoid entering their password in front of students.
For more information, see Proctored Exams (page 38).
Proctored Browser
• The Proctored Browser is a full screen web browser that blocks the student from accessing external web sites or
other programs on the computer while taking an assignment. When used in a monitored setting, such as an on-campus
computer lab, where the use of other devices or materials is controlled, it prevents students from accessing external
aids during the assignment.
• By pairing the assignment type Proctored Exam with the use of the Proctored Browser, you can utilize both human
monitors and a structured computer setting to maintain additional control over the testing environment.
• If a student tries to bypass the restricted settings of the Proctored Browser, for example, by pressing Ctrl + Alt +
Delete, this will be detected. The student sees an on-screen message, and an email is sent to the class instructor.
For more information, see Requiring Use of the Proctored Browser (page 46).
7 Integrating Maple T.A. with an LDAP Server
7.1 LDAP Overview for Instructors
The LDAP integration in Maple T.A. allows you to integrate Maple T.A. with your campus database for user authentication, making the instructor's class administration even easier. LDAP integration allows Maple T.A. users to log in
with a username and password that are managed by your university's IT group in a central repository -- an "LDAP
Server." Your Maple T.A. system administrator can give you more information on whether LDAP is used at your institution.
What LDAP means to the Maple T.A. course administrator:
1. There is no student "Maple T.A. username" or "Maple T.A. password." Students only need their university username
and university password to log in to Maple T.A.
2. As the Maple T.A. administrator, you don't have to worry about usernames, passwords, or resetting passwords.
Your IT group will do that.
Basic user profile information comes from the LDAP directory. Your system administrator configures which information
in the LDAP profile will be made available to Maple T.A.
7.2 Login and Forgotten Passwords with LDAP
Login
Anyone in the LDAP directory can use Maple T.A. The user simply logs in to Maple T.A. using his university username
and password.
1. A user enters his or her username and password.
2. Maple T.A. presents these credentials to the LDAP server, and the LDAP server performs authentication.
3. If the credentials are rejected by the LDAP server, login is denied. If the credentials are accepted,
a. If the user is already known to Maple T.A., profile information is acquired from the LDAP directory. Maple
T.A.'s database is updated to reflect any changes.
b. If the user is not known to Maple T.A., the user is added to the Maple T.A. database, retrieving profile information from the LDAP directory. Maple T.A. then displays a validation page for the user. The user is given the
opportunity to add profile information not supplied by the LDAP directory, and must confirm the final profile
information.
The login username and password are case-sensitive. You may use any combination of upper and lower case. Maple
T.A. stores the username as found in the LDAP directory and that username will appear in web pages and reports.
Forgotten Passwords
If a user forgets his or her password, the user must contact your university's IT group. In an LDAP environment, Maple
T.A. does not manage passwords, and the Maple T.A. course administrator cannot reset or retrieve passwords.
7.3 User Manager - Add Users with LDAP
The Add User action on the Administer Users page allows you to locate individuals in the LDAP directory who are
not in Maple T.A. and add them to Maple T.A. The effect is the same as if the user had logged in.
You can search for users by attribute: username, first name, last name, or email address. You can use a * as a wildcard.
For example,
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78 • 7 Integrating Maple T.A. with an LDAP Server
Last Name an*
will display all names that start with "an" that are in the LDAP directory but not in Maple T.A. These searches are not
case-sensitive, so an* produces the same results as An*.
Once you have created a list of users in this way, you can select those you want to add to Maple T.A.
7.4 User Manager - Import with LDAP
When you import users in an LDAP Maple T.A. environment, user information is verified and updated from the LDAP
directory. The roster import file must follow the specifications for Roster File Upload. The usernames in the import
file are used to match users to the LDAP directory.
When you import users with LDAP:
1. The LDAP server is consulted to verify each user is in the LDAP directory. Users that are not in the directory will
not be imported.
2. Matching of users is done by username.
3. Profile information from the LDAP directory will override any corresponding information in the import file.
4. Require User Validation, if included, is ignored with LDAP. No validation is necessary on the user's next login.
8 Authoring Methods for Questions
8.1 Navigating the Question Repository
The Question Repository is used to create, organize, and search for questions.
You can also access the Maple T.A. Cloud through the Question Repository to import and export questions with other
users.
To open the Question Repository:
• From the Content Manager menu, select Question Repository.
The Questions menu provides the following options.
• Select New Search to search the Question Repository for questions.
• Select New Question to start a new question.
• Select Import Question Bank to upload a question file from your hard drive.
For more information on the question repository, see Question Repository (page 138).
8.2 Overview: Authoring Methods for Question Banks
There are three methods for authoring question banks in the system.
• Question Editor — The Question Editor, also called QE, is the primary question authoring and editing method
for small to medium projects involving a limited number of questions. See Authoring: When to Use the Question
Editor (page 80).
• Maple T.A. .qu plain text script files — These are plain text script files containing questions formatted according
to the Maple T.A. syntax. These can contain HTML, MathML, and other standard web content. See Authoring:
When to Use Maple T.A. Plain Text Script Files (page 81).
• LaTeX files that can produce math-intensive questions formatted to Maple T.A. specifications — Requires you
to have a text editor and LaTeX. Registered users can download macros. See Authoring: When to Use
LaTeX (page 80).
For project planning information, see Planning Your Question Bank Project (page 81).
Question Banks
Independent of the authoring method you use, a Maple T.A. question bank file is produced. Question bank files are
plain text files, with a .qu extension, structured according to the Maple T.A. question bank syntax.
Uploading files
If you use the Question Editor, the files are automatically saved with a .qu file extension. However, you can upload
a plain text file with any file extension, for example, .htm, to the Maple T.A. system.
File Formats: Browsers and Platforms
With Maple T.A., you are essentially creating web pages. Not all file formats are supported by all browsers or will run
on all platforms. If adding an image file, make sure that it is widely supported by various browsers such as GIF, JPEG,
or PNG. Do not, for example, use bitmap image files in Maple T.A.
Which Method is Best for my Project?
Choose the best method for your project.
79
80 • 8 Authoring Methods for Questions
• To edit a few existing questions
Use the online Question Editor
• To reorganize question repository topics and questions within Group questions in the question repository
topics
• To work with algorithmically generated variable data in my
questions
Use the Algorithm Designer within the Question Editor
• To work with math-intensive content
See Authoring Mathematical Questions
• To edit or author many questions
If you are an experienced LaTeX user, you can use LaTeX to
quickly generate questions.
Use the Question Editor
• To work with information fields
• To work with symbolic expressions (chemistry, foreign
languages, mathematics, logic)
Use LaTeX or the Question Editor
• To create specific advanced question types
Use LaTeX or plain text script files
• To use Maple to grade or generate plots in questions
See Maple-graded Question type and Questions with Plots
See Also:
Authoring: When to Use Maple T.A. Plain Text Script Files (page 81)
Authoring: When to Use LaTeX (page 80)
Authoring: When to Use the Question Editor (page 80)
Planning Your Question Bank Project (page 81)
The Algorithm Designer (page 85)
Authoring Mathematical Questions (page 239)
Maple-graded Question Type - Overview (page 167)
Questions with Plots (page 176)
8.3 Project Elements
Authoring: When to Use the Question Editor
Use the Question Editor to:
• Create new questions or edit existing questions. The Question Editor allows you to author many varieties of
questions in the system.
• Author a limited number of new questions. (Scripting and LaTeX may be faster for large projects.)
Use another method when authoring advanced question types involving interaction with, for example, applets.
See Also:
Online Authoring in the Question Editor (page 96)
Authoring: When to Use LaTeX
Use Question Banks Created from LaTeX Files
• For an alternative to plain text script files when authoring several advanced question modes (for example, dynamically rendered plots in questions, algorithmically generated labels in figures, matrices, and adaptive graph
sketching)
8.3 Project Elements • 81
• You must have LaTeX expertise and technical knowledge. You must use the macro package and web-based
conversion service (http://www.maplesoft.com/products/mapleta/latex2ta/index.aspx).
See Also:
LaTeX Authoring Overview (page 303)
Authoring: When to Use Maple T.A. Plain Text Script Files
Use Maple T.A. .qu Plain Text Script Files
• For full access to the power and flexibility of the system question banks and algorithm syntax contained.
• For authoring all question types
• For full support of HTML, including image references, tables, and JavaScript
To write script files, use a text or HTML editor.
See Also:
Using Script Files to Author Questions (page 339)
Planning Your Question Bank Project
To start a new project:
Create a question bank. Because of the range of question types supported by Maple T.A., you can include a much
wider range of classroom-tested assignment materials, including sophisticated free response questions for Mathematics
and Science.
Once you have selected the source for your questions, adapt the source question material into Maple T.A. questions.
• Decide what type of Maple T.A. question mode works best for your source material.
• Decide what feedback, comments, hints, solutions, and related links are appropriate.
• You may also consider the range of tolerance, margin of error, and required format for correct answers.
Use information fields to tag your questions with information indicating authorship, level of difficulty, key topic, related
topics, page reference, or other outside link information. Because the information fields are entirely user-specified,
consider how you might want to use your questions, interrelate them in assignments, and what performance reporting
dimensions might be useful.
If your question takes advantage of the system's powerful algorithmic variable generation capabilities, you must use
appropriate variable definitions, data ranges, parameters, and other limiting conditions for each variable.
• Maple T.A. is automatically configured to recognize equivalent responses for numeric, algebraic, and numeric
with unit dimension student responses; however, you can provide a question-bank specific table of equivalent
units or expressions as well.
See Also:
Question Types Available in the System (page 159)
Setting a Margin of Error in Non-numeric Questions (page 244)
Tutorial: Displaying Answers vs. Formulas for Answers (page 269)
Controlling Display of Numbers within Questions (page 295)
Overview of Algorithmic Question Capabilities (page 274)
Default Table of Physical Unit Equivalents (page 263)
82 • 8 Authoring Methods for Questions
8.4 The Question Editor
Creating a New Question or Editing an Existing Question
The Question Editor allows you to:
• Create questions
• Edit existing questions
• Add algorithms, hints, comments, feedback, solutions, and information fields to questions
To create a question:
1. In the Question Repository page, select the Questions menu, then New Question. The Question Editor is displayed.
2. Enter the content of your question.
(See Question Authoring in the Question Editor (page 96).)
3. Once you have completed the question, click Finish.
4. Choose the groups (if any) that you wish the question to belong to and click Submit.
5. A preview of the question is displayed. Provide an answer and click Grade to see how the question is graded. Click
edit to continue refining the question if necessary.
To edit a question:
1. In the Question Repository, search for the question.
2. In the right pane, click the Edit icon (
) beside the question.
3. Click the Edit button.
4. Make your changes to the question.
5. Click Finish to save your changes.
Cloning Questions
To add a question that is similar to an existing question in the repository, you can save time by cloning the existing
question and then editing the clone.
To clone a question:
1. In the Question Repository, find the question you want to clone.
2. Click the Clone option from the drop-down menu next to the question. The question has now been cloned and the
clone can now be edited.
To clone multiple questions:
1. In the Question Repository, find the questions you want to clone and check the checkboxes next to them.
2. Click the Clone button at the bottom of the page. The questions have now been cloned and the cloned questions can
now be edited.
See Also:
Sharing Questions (page 145)
Avoiding System Time-outs during Authoring Sessions
While you are working on a question, the system client holds your changes to the working copy of the active question.
While authoring or editing a question, if you click Finish, the system places a copy of your question in the class web
site cache.
8.4 The Question Editor • 83
If you do not interact with the system for about 30 minutes, the system logs you out of your session and purges the
question data (losing any changes that have not been added to the web site cache). When you log in, you revert to the
cached version of your question.
If the system server is restarted, the cache is purged. You revert to the last installed version of your question. You can
also upload a saved version of your question from your hard drive to your client.
Important: If you stop interacting with the system for more than a few minutes, it is recommended that you save your
question to the repository
The question persistence time is controlled by the system administrator. To change its value, contact your administrator.
Adding and Editing Comments
When editing a question in the Question Editor, you can add or edit the comment.
To add or edit a comment:
1. On the Question Editor screen, click Add or Edit in the Feedback area.
2. Enter or edit the comment in the Text Editor. Comments can include HTML-formatted text, JavaScriptTM, symbolic
math expressions, algorithmic variables, inserted objects, and more. To add or edit HTML-formatted text, click the
Source button (
) in the menu bar.
3. Click Save.
4. To add your changes to the cached question, proceed to the Question Display screen by clicking Next, and then
click Finish.
See Also:
Text Formatting in Questions (page 112)
Comments and Performance Feedback (page 155)
Using the Comment Field in a Maple Question (page 349)
Adding and Editing Algorithms
For every question type, you can use algorithmically generated variables in question statements, answers, hints, or
feedback. Using variables in questions you can generate variations on a single template question.
To create a question that uses randomly generated data in a question, you must define variables.
Maple-generated plots to be included in questions are also defined in the Algorithm Editor using the plotmaple command.
When you define a plot in the Algorithm Editor, you can use Preview to see the plot image, verify the plot statement
is correct, and edit it if necessary. For more information, see Plotting Using Maple (page 258).
When editing a question in the Question Editor, you can add or edit algorithms.
To add or edit algorithms:
1. In the Question Editor screen, click Add or Edit in the Algorithm area.
2. The Algorithm Editor opens. See Figure 8.1. The buttons above the algorithm text box perform the following tasks.
• Cancel discards your additions or edits to the algorithms and returns you to the Question Editor screen.
• Clear removes all variable statements in the algorithm region.
• Show Designer displays the Algorithm Designer. After you click the Show Designer button, the system replaces
it with the Hide Designer button. Clicking the Hide Designer button hides the Algorithm Designer. Only one
of the buttons is visible at a time.
84 • 8 Authoring Methods for Questions
• Refresh evaluates your variable definition and control statements, and returns a value for each variable in the
Variable/Value region located below the algorithm text region. If you define a plot in the Algorithm Editor,
the plot image is displayed. You can verify the plot statement is correct, and edit it if necessary.
• Save saves your additions or changes to the algorithms and returns you to the Question Name & Type screen.
Figure 8.1: Algorithm Editor
3. Add or edit algorithm statements (variable definitions and variable control statements).
• If you know the system algorithm syntax, directly add or edit statements in the algorithm text region.
• If you don't know the system syntax, click the Show Designer button to display the Algorithm Designer. You
can only add (not edit) statements using the Algorithm Designer.
When you have finished adding and editing variable statements, click the Save button to save your changes and return
to the Question Name & Type screen.
To add your changes to the cached question, proceed to the Question Display screen by clicking Next, and then click
Finish.
Note: When refreshing the algorithmic variable with a plot statement, you need to change the plot statement in order
for the new image to appear. Changing a plotdevice or plotoption entry will not update the plot.
See Also:
Overview of Algorithmic Question Capabilities (page 274)
Plotting Using Maple (page 258)
8.4 The Question Editor • 85
The Algorithm Designer
Use the Algorithm Designer to simplify adding algorithmic variables.
1. You can add any type of algorithmic statement. In the appropriate section of the Algorithm Designer, enter and
select the required information in the template.
2. To add the statement and refresh the values in the algorithm text box, click OK.
3. Repeat the above steps to add other statements.
For detailed information, see the appropriate section:
• Generating Random Number Variables (page 85)
• Generating Condition based Variables (page 85)
• Using Maple to Generate Random Number Variables (page 86)
• Establishing Conditions Between Variables (page 86)
Generating Random Number Variables
Figure 8.2: Create a Random Number Variable
You can use the Algorithm Designer to create range-based variables.
1. Enter the variable name in the first cell. You do not need to use the $ or ${} notation.
2. Select the type of number to generate (whole number or decimal number generation with 1 to 8 decimal places).
3. Enter the minimum and maximum values for the range, and the increment (step).
Note: For each expression, you can enter a:
• Variable name, for example, x or monthly totals. You do not need to use the $ or ${} notation.
• Number, for example, 5 or 2.67
• Math expression or formula, for example, x^2 + 1
4. To add the variable definition to the algorithm text box, click OK.
5. You can use the Algorithm Designer to generate multiple variables.
Generating Condition-based Variables
You can also set variable values based on conditions and relationships to other variables.
1. Enter the variable name in the first cell. You do not need to use the $ or ${} notation.
2. Enter the expression defining the variable if the condition is satisfied.
3. Enter the condition by:
a. Entering two expressions
b. Selecting the relation
86 • 8 Authoring Methods for Questions
4. Enter the expression defining the variable if the condition is not satisfied.
Notes:
i. Each expression you use must be a
• Variable name, for example, x or monthly totals. You do not need to use the $ or ${} notation.
• Number, for example, 5 or 2.67
• Math expression or formula, for example, x^2 + 1
ii. You must define variables referenced in the condition before defining the conditional variable.
5. To add the variable definition to the algorithm text box, click OK.
6. You can use the Algorithm Designer to generate multiple variables.
Using Maple to Generate Random Number Variables and Generate a Plot
You can use Maple commands to define random variables using any Maple function.
1. Start by adding the variable name in the first cell. You do not need to use the $ or ${} notation.
2. Select the type of variable to generate, variable or plot.
3. Enter the Maple commands used to define the random variable or enter the plot statement. The plot statement
accepts plot device options. See Setting Plot Options (page 291) for a list of plot options.
Guidelines for Maple Commands in Maple-based Variables
i. To generate a random number using Maple, you must use the multiple commands:
randomize(): <random_command>
for each random variable. Otherwise, the same output is generated in each instantiation of the question.
ii. When entering multiple commands, ensure that all (except the last) have a trailing colon. The last command must
not have a trailing colon.
iii. You must use the $ or ${} notation when including variables in a Maple command.
iv. When referencing negative, random variables in a maple variable definition, be sure to place the negative variable
in parentheses, otherwise an error message will return.
4. To add the variable definition to the algorithm text box, click OK.
5. You can use the Algorithm Designer to generate multiple variables.
You can also use a Maple repository when generating random variables. Click the Maple Repository button to import
and link to a Maple repository.
Establishing Conditions Between Variables
8.4 The Question Editor • 87
You can also use the Algorithm Designer to set conditions that must be met when the system generates variable values.
1. Enter the condition by:
a. Entering two expressions
b. Selecting the relation
Notes:
i. Each expression you use must be a:
• Variable name, for example, x or monthly totals. You do not need to use the $ or ${} notation.
• Number, for example, 5 or 2.67
• Math expression or formula, for example, x^2 + 1
ii. You must define variables referenced in the condition before defining the condition statement.
2. To add the condition statement to the algorithm text box, click OK.
3. You can use the Algorithm Designer to define multiple condition statements.
See Also:
Overview of Algorithmic Question Capabilities (page 274)
Generating Random Numbers in Questions (page 277)
Mathematical and Logical Operators in Algorithms and Answers (page 289)
Working with Variable Data (page 275)
Adding and Editing Information Fields
When editing a question in the Question Editor, you can add or edit information fields. Information fields allow you
to add information subfields to a question to indicate subtopic, learning objective, level of difficulty, authorship,
ownership, or other information. The information field values allow sorting and filtering in the question repository
and during assignment creation, and they facilitate performance reporting by information field category.
To add or edit the info fields:
1. In the Question Editor screen, click Add or Edit in the Information Fields area.
2. Enter or edit field names and corresponding values in the Field and Value text boxes.
3. Each question can contain any number of information fields. To add rows, click the More button.
4. Click Save.
5. To add your changes to the cached question, proceed to the Question Display screen by clicking Next, and then
click Finish.
See Also:
The info Field (page 154)
Adding and Editing Hints
When editing a question in the Question Editor, you can add or edit hints.
88 • 8 Authoring Methods for Questions
To add or edit the hints:
1. On the Question Editor screen, click Add or Edit in the Hint area.
2. Delete the text displayed and enter your comment for hint 1 or edit the hint displayed. Hints can include text,
HTML-formatted text, symbolic math expressions, algorithmic variables, inserted objects, JavaScript code, variables,
and more. To add or edit HTML-formatted text, click the Source button in the menu bar.
3. Define a Penalty for the question if you want students to be penalized for using a hint during an assignment. Assign
a weight between 0 and 1 for the penalty. By default, the penalty has weight 0.0, which means a student will not
be penalized if they use the hint.
4. Each question can contain any number of hints. To display a second hint, click Enter to display a second entry of
the numeric list. Click Enter again to display a third hint, and so on.
5. Click Save.
6. To add your changes to the cached question, proceed to the Question Display screen by clicking Next, and then
click Finish.
See Also:
Hints, Coaching, and Performance Feedback (page 155)
Adding and Editing a Solution
When editing a question in the Question Editor, you can add or edit the worked solution. Note: Information in this
field is only presented to students when the question is worked in a Study Session assignment.
To add or edit the solution:
1. On the Question Editor screen, click Add or Edit in the Solution area.
2. Enter or edit the solution in the Text Editor region.
3. Click Save.
4. To add your changes to the cached question, proceed to the Question Display screen by clicking Next, and then
click Finish.
See Also:
Using Complete Solutions (Study Session Assignments) (page 156)
Deleting a Comment, Information Field, Hint, or Solution
To remove a comment, hint, information field, or solution:
1. Open an existing question from the Question Repository.
2. Click the Edit button.
3. Click the Edit in the Feedback, Information Fields, Hints, or Solution area.
4. Delete the text in the entry region.
5. Click Save.
The system returns to the default behavior when grading the question.
See Also:
Question Fields (page 149)
8.4 The Question Editor • 89
Editing Question Source Files
It is not recommended that you use the Edit Source facility when editing a question until you are familiar with the
source file structure.
If you are an experienced user of the system, you can use the Edit Source facility to edit the source for a question
when editing a question in the Question Editor.
In this editing window, you can edit any aspect of the question script for your question, including text content for any
data field.
To edit the question source in the Question Editor,
1. Expand a topic in the left pane and click the hyperlink of the question you want to edit.
2. Click Edit.
3. Click Edit source.
4. Edit the source as desired. When finished, click Save.
Important: If you introduce a syntax error, for example, invalid field or value data, the question will be unusable. In
particular, it is not recommended that you change the question type for a question.
5. You will be returned to the Question Editor screen. This process depends on the question type. In general, it involves
clicking Next on the Question Editor screen and subsequent screens. Click Finish to register your changes.
See Also:
LaTeX Authoring Overview (page 303)
Using Script Files to Author Questions (page 339)
Redefining Question Types
In the Question Editor, when creating a new question, you can change the question type any time before you click
Finish. When you click Finish, the system adds the question to the question repository .
To change the question type after you click Finish, you must edit the question source using the Edit Source facility.
Important: It is not recommended that you change the question type for a finished question. If you introduce a syntax error when
changing the question type, the question will be unusable.
Testing the Grading of a Question
1. Preview the question by clicking the hyperlink of the question in the left pane of the Question Editor.
2. Enter a response to the question (as if you were a student).
3. Click Grade.
4. The system grades the question and displays the result.
5. Click OK to return to the Display Question screen. If there is algorithmic variable data, the random values are regenerated when the question is re-displayed.
6. To check the form of the question with different algorithmic variable data values, in the left panel, click the question
name repeatedly. Each time you click the name, the question is regenerated with new random values.
Setting Answer Format in Numeric Questions
When working with Numeric questions in the Question Editor, you can specify acceptable formatting for student
responses. See Figure 8.3.
90 • 8 Authoring Methods for Questions
Figure 8.3: Specify Acceptable Answer Format in a Numeric Question
Accept 1000 separator - Students responses containing commas (,) as a separator are graded correct.
Accept scientific notation - Student responses specified using scientific notation, for example, 2.0E2, are graded
correct.
Accept $ signs - Student responses containing a leading dollar sign ($) are graded correct.
Accept arithmetic - Student responses specified using the arithmetic operators, that is, +, -, *, /, (), and ^, are
graded correct.
Select the style of negative numbers - Negative responses must specified by using a negative sign (-), by enclosing
in parentheses (()), or by using either notation to be graded correct. Note: If you select the Accept arithmetic check
box, then you cannot allow parentheses to be used to indicate a negative response.
See Also:
Controlling Answer Format in Numeric Questions (page 242)
Numeric Questions in the Question Editor (page 109)
Setting Answer Tolerance in Numeric Questions
When working with Numeric questions in the Question Editor, you can specify the:
• Precision of student responses (that is, the number of digits)
• Acceptable margin of error for student responses
• Precision and margin of error for student responses
See Figure 8.4. For examples of the related plain text script files, see Answer Tolerance Example Script (page 341).
Figure 8.4: Specify Answer Precision and Tolerance in a Numeric Question
8.4 The Question Editor • 91
Specifying Precision
• To require that the student response exactly matches the value of the correct answer (to floating-point limits,
approximately 8 decimal places), select Require absolute accuracy. For example, if the correct answer is
2.77, the response 2.7701 is graded incorrect.
• To require that the student response contains a specific number of significant digits, and exactly matches the
value of the correct answer, select # Figures, and then select the number of significant digits from the dropdown box. Student responses that are correct up to the specified number of significant digits receive 50%
credit.
Important: # Figures does not specify a margin of error. If you specify a correct answer value in the answer value
text field with more significant digits than the number selected in the # Figures drop-down box, all student responses
are graded incorrect. For example, if you specify 2.771 as the correct answer value, and select 3 in the # Figures
drop-down box, 2.77 is incorrect (because it does not have the same value as the correct answer value 2.771) and
2.771 is incorrect (because it has more than 3 significant digits).
Example
In a physics problem where the correct answer is 2.70, if you insist that a student enter the correct number of significant digits, you must use the # Figures option.
If you select Require absolute accuracy and enter 2.70 in the answer value text field, 2.7, 2.70, and 2.700 are
graded correct, which is not the desired behavior.
You must select # Figures, select 3 from the drop-down box, and enter 2.70 in the answer value text field. In this
case, the student responses 2.7 and 2.700 are graded incorrect.
Setting a Margin of Error
• To directly specify the margin of error, select Accept +/- err, and then enter the numeric value of the variance
(or corresponding algorithmic variable) in the err text field. For example, if the correct answer is 3.142 and
err = 0.001, the range of correct responses is between 3.141 and 3.143 (inclusive).
• To specify the margin of error as a percentage of the correct answer, select Accept +/- perc%, and then enter
the percentage in the perc text field. For example, if the correct answer is 3.141592 and perc = 1, the
range of correct responses is between 3.11017608 and 3.17300792 (inclusive).
Specifying a Precision and a Margin of Error
• To specify the margin of error as the tolerance in the value of a significant digit and require that same number
of significant digits, select Accept +/- k in the nth place, enter the floating-point value (or corresponding algorithmic variable) of the tolerance in the k text field, and then select the significant digit from the n dropdown box. Student responses that are correct up to the specified number of significant digits receive 50%
credit. For example, if the correct answer is 2.4, k = 2, and n = 3, the correct responses are 2.38, 2.39,
2.40, 2.41, and 2.42. For example, if k = 1, n = 3, and the correct answer is 27.18, the responses
27.1 and 27.2 are correct. Although 27.3 is within 0.1 of 27.18 rounded to 3 significant digits, it is incorrect because it is not within 0.1 of 27.18.
See Also:
Setting a Margin of Error in Non-numeric Questions (page 244)
Answer Tolerance Example Script (page 341)
Controlling Answer Tolerance (page 243)
Tutorial: Setting Margin of Tolerance in Non-numeric Questions (page 272)
92 • 8 Authoring Methods for Questions
Images and Reference Files in Questions
You can use image files in GIF, JPEG, or PNG formats in questions. To place an image in a question, first upload the
file to your class web site. Then include a reference to the image in the question.
You can also link to a file that has been uploaded to your class website. The following file formats are supported: htm,
html, gif, jpg, png, pdf, xls, class, jar, js, css, shtml, exe, zip, swf, lib.
Uploading Images and Reference Files to the Class Web Site
1. From the Class Homepage, from the Content Manager menu, select Web Site Editor.
2. Navigate to the appropriate subfolder on the web site or click the Create new subfolder icon to create a new subfolder.
For maintainability, it is recommended that you create a subfolder and place your images in it.
3. Click the Upload file(s) to this point icon.
4. To navigate to the file to upload, click Browse.
5. You can upload a single file or a zip archive.
To upload a single file:
a. Select the Single File radio button.
b. To specify a new name for the uploaded file on the web site, enter it in the Save As text field. The default
name is the filename on your computer.
c. Click OK to upload the file.
To upload a zip archive:
a. Select the Zip Archive radio button.
b. To extract the files from the selected zip archive and upload them to the web site, click OK. (This is the
recommended method for uploading multiple files.) If the file is not a zip archive, the system does not
upload the file.
The system returns to the Web Site Editor screen. The uploaded file(s) appear in the web site explorer.
6. To upload additional files, repeat steps 3 to 5.
Important: The maximum size of a file that can be uploaded is 5 MB.
Example of Reference to Image on the Class Web Site
To include an image in a question using the Question Editor:
1. Create or edit a question in the Question Editor.
2. In the field where you want to include the image (question text, feedback, hints, or solution), click the Insert/Edit
Image icon ( ).
3. Under the Image Info tab, click Browse Server and select the image. You will be shown a preview of the image.
4. Click OK to add the image.
To use an HTML reference to an image file you have uploaded to your class web site, use:
<img src="../classes/myclassurl/question-image.gif">
where myclassurl is the unique identifier in your class URL, and question-image.gif is the name of the
image file.
8.4 The Question Editor • 93
If you have created subfolders in your class web site, use:
<img src="../classes/myclassurl/subfolder/question-image.gif">
where subfolder is the subfolder (or subfolders) specifying the subfolder path.
Example of Link to File on the Class Web Site
To include a link to a file (for example, a PDF) in a question using the Question Editor:
1. Create or edit a question in the Question Editor.
2. In the field where you want to include the image (question text, feedback, hints, or solution), click the Insert/Edit
Link icon ( ).
3. Under the Link Info tab, click Browse Server and select the file.
4. Click OK to add the link.
To use an HTML reference to the file you have uploaded to your class web site, use:
<a href=”../classes/myclassurl/filename”>
where myclassurl is the unique identifier in your class URL, and filename is the name of the file.
If you have created subfolders in your class web site, use:
<a href=”../classes/myclassurl/subfolder/filename”>
where subfolder is the subfolder (or subfolders) specifying the subfolder path.
External Images or Reference Sources
You can use any URL that points to a resource to reference, provided the URL will be continuously available to you
and your students. However, it is recommended that you use only images and references on your class web site. For
external resources, enter the full URL.
Notes
• File names can consist of only alphanumeric characters and a single period.
• To include an image in a question, comment, hint, or solution, you must first upload the image file to the class
web site on your server.
• If the image is not uploaded to the class web site, the question text appears with a lost image icon. You cannot
check the appearance and behavior of the question properly until you upload the files to your class web site.
• You can browse and tag images in your class web site during Clickable Image question creation or editing in
the Question Editor.
• Note on Uploaded Questions: If you upload a third-party question, you may need to edit the image reference
URLs in the .qu script file before installing it. Also, you must upload any image or reference files to your
class web site.
• Note on the Proctored Browser: When an assignment is taken in the Maple T.A. Proctored Browser, all links
to image files, reference files, and external URLs will be blocked. When creating an assignment for which you
require students to use the Proctored Browser, you should take care to ensure that the questions do not use any
such files. For more information on the Proctored Browser, including information on how to preview an assignment in the Proctored Browser, see Requiring Use of the Proctored Browser (page 46).
See Also:
Questions with Plots (page 176)
94 • 8 Authoring Methods for Questions
Flash Movies and Java Applets in Questions
You can use Flash movies or Java applets in questions. The process is similar to using an image in a question. In addition,
you can create questions where students are graded directly on their interaction with the Flash move or the applet. For
more information on this more advanced functionality, see Flash Questions (page 185).
To include a Flash movie in a question, you must first upload the Flash movie to a subfolder on the Class web site.
Next, you can include a reference to the Flash movie in your question. To do this in the Question Editor, follow these
steps:
1. Create or edit a question in the Question Editor.
2. In the field where you want to include the movie (question text, feedback, hints, or solution), click the Insert/Edit
Flash icon( ).
3. Under the Flash Info tab, click Browse Server and select the movie you have uploaded to the Class web site. You
will be shown a preview of the movie.
4. Click OK to add the movie.
Graph Plotting Applet in Questions
The graph plotting applet is an interactive plot that is added to a question for adaptive plotting. The applet displays
axes for the graph even when the axes lie outside of the viewable area. You can interact with the graph by shifting the
viewable area or rescaling the image.
To add a graphing applet to your question:
1. Create or edit a question in the Question Editor.
2. In the field where you want to include the graph (question text, feedback, hints, or solution), click the Source button
(
) to edit the HTML source code directly.
3. Paste the following applet code into the source HTML where you want the graph to appear:
<applet code="applets.grapher.Graph" width="350" height="350"
<param name="y1" value="(x-1)(x+3)(x-5)"></param>
<param name="xMin" value="-6"></param>
<param name="xMax" value="6"></param>
<param name="yMin" value="-6"></param>
<param name="yMax" value="6"></param>
<param name="gridLines" value="12"></param>
</applet>
archive="graphing.jar">
4. Modify the applet code to reflect the actual function, plot window, and number of gridlines.
To interact with the applet:
• Click and drag the graph area to bring up a cursor that displays the coordinates of the current point
• Shift-click and drag the graph area to shift the viewable area
• Ctrl-click and drag the graph to re-scale the image
See Also:
Questions with Plots (page 176)
Plotting Using Maple (page 258)
Using a Maple Repository
You can access your personal Maple library archives from within your Maple questions. To do this, you must first
upload your archives files into the class file space on the server. When you create a Maple-graded question, you then
8.4 The Question Editor • 95
specify the location of the archive as part of the question definition. When executing the Maple code associated with
that question, the Maple libname variable will automatically be set to access the archive files specified.
Important: When setting up multiple archives inside the same directory, ensure that there are no name conflicts. If you want to
share your question bank with another class, you must share the Maple files and the test bank files.
Uploading a Maple Repository
A Maple repository consists of two files, with file extensions .lib and .ind.
To use a repository, you must upload the .lib and .ind files.
1. In the Question Repository, select the Questions menu, then New Question. The Question Editor is displayed.
2. On the Question Name & Type screen, in the Question Type drop-down list, select Maple-graded. Click Next.
3. On the Question Statement & Answer screen, click the Maple Repository button beneath the Optional. Import
a Maple repository text. The Linking and Uploading a Repository screen is displayed (see Figure 8.5).
Figure 8.5: Uploading and Linking a Maple Repository
4. Select a folder (location) to which to import the Maple repository.
• You can expand an existing folder by clicking the arrow icon.
• To create a new folder, click the icon next to the instruction new folder... The folder arrow points down.
The repository will upload to this folder location.
5. Click the icon next to instruction upload files(s) to this point... The Upload Files screen is displayed.
96 • 8 Authoring Methods for Questions
6. Click Browse to locate the .lib and .ind files.
7. Select Single File or Zip Archive. You must save both the .lib and .ind files. (This requires two save procedures.)
8. Click OK. The Linking and Uploading a Repository opens with the new .lib (and subsequently) .ind files displayed.
9. Click the icon next to the .lib file. The Question Statement & Answer screen opens with the .lib path and
filename in the LIB File Location field.
Linking to a Maple Repository
To use an existing repository, you must link to the .lib file.
1. In the Question Editor/Add Mathematical Formula screen, click the Maple Repository button beneath the Optional Import a Maple Repository text. The Question Editor/Linking and Uploading a Repository screen is displayed.
2. Expand the folders containing library files by clicking the arrow icon.
3. Click the icon next to the appropriate .lib file. The Question Editor/Add Mathematical Formula screen opens
with the .lib path and filename in the LIB File Location field.
• If you have multiple archives in the same directory, you must specify the directory name and not the .lib
file. To specify the directory, edit out the .lib file name in the path that populates the LIB File Location
field.
Note: Maple libraries are not available for use in algorithm variable definition statements.
See Also:
Maple-graded Questions in the Question Editor (page 103)
Maple-graded Question Type - Overview (page 167)
8.5 Question Authoring in the Question Editor
Online Authoring in the Question Editor
To access the Question Editor, select your class. From the Content Manager menu, select Question Repository. Then
from the Questions menu, select New Question.
The Question Editor allows you to create and edit the following types of questions in an online session.
Authoring Page
Clickable Image Questions in the Question Editor (page 100)
Adaptive Question Designer Questions in the Question
Editor (page 99)
Essay Questions in the Question Editor (page 101)
General Information on Type and Subtypes
Clickable Image Questions (page 183)
Adaptive Questions (page 179)
Essay Questions - Ungraded (page 184) - not graded by the system
8.5 Question Authoring in the Question Editor • 97
Maple-graded Questions in the Question Editor (page 103)
Matching Questions in the Question Editor (page 104)
Math App Questions in the Question Editor (page 105)
Mathematical Formula Questions in the Question
Editor (page 106)
Maple-graded Formula (page 169) or Maple Syntax (page 170)
Matching Questions (page 218)
Math App Questions (page 190)
• Formula with Units (page 167)(dimensioned formula)
• Equation (page 164)
• Formula (page 164)
• Formula List (page 166)
• Constants of Integration Questions (page 163) (formula mod
c)
• Multipart Formula (page 173)
• Vectors of Formulas (page 178) (ntuple)
• Restricted Formula (page 178)
• Chemistry (page 162)
Multipart Questions in the Question Editor (page 107)
Multiple Choice Questions in the Question Editor (page 108)
Multiple Selection Questions in the Question Editor (page 109)
Numeric Questions in the Question Editor (page 109)
Palette-based Symbolic Editor Questions in the Question
Editor (page 110)
Question Designer Questions in the Question Editor (page 97)
True-or-False Questions in the Question Editor (page 111)
Multipart Questions (page 219)
Multiple Choice Questions (page 220)
Multiple Selection Questions (page 221)
Numeric (page 174) (with or without units)
Palette Questions (page 222)
Question Designer Questions (page 223)
True-or-False Questions (page 236)
The online authoring module allows you to include complex content such as tables and other display formatting by
using HTML in question files.
Important:
For information about system time-outs and loss of data, see Avoiding System Time-outs during Authoring Sessions (page 82).
When creating and editing question banks, clicking Finish does not permanently save a copy of a question to a hard drive. You
must save your question bank to your hard drive as a .qu plain text source file or install the question bank on the class web site
hard drive.
See Also:
Creating a New Question or Editing an Existing Question (page 82)
Question Types Available in the System (page 159)
Question Designer Questions in the Question Editor
1. Select the Questions menu, then New Question. The Question Editor is displayed.
2. On the Question Name & Type screen,
a. In the Question Type drop-down box, select Question Designer.
b. It is recommended that you enter a description in the Question Description text field. (The description is used
to label the question in the topic. If excluded, the question type is used.)
c. You can add a comment, algorithms, information fields, hints, or a worked solution.
d. Click Next.
3. On the Question Designer screen
a. In the text box, enter the question statement.
b. Click the Edit/Insert Response Area button ( ).
98 • 8 Authoring Methods for Questions
c. The Edit Response Area dialog opens. You can select from Formula, Maple, Multiple Choice, Numeric, List,
Essay, or Math App question types.
d. Select a question type and define the properties for that question type. Click OK.
e. The properties are now displayed in the Text of the question panel.
f. You can add multiple parts to a question using the Question Designer by inserting additional response areas.
g. Click Finish to place a copy of your question in the web site cache and preview your question.
A sample question is shown in Figure 8.6.
Figure 8.6: Question Designer Question
For detailed information on creating question designer questions, see Question Designer Questions (page 223).
See Also:
Question Designer Question Example using Various Embedded Questions (page 353)
Algorithmic Multiple Selection Question Example Script (page 340)
Multiple Selection Question Example Script (page 352)
8.5 Question Authoring in the Question Editor • 99
Adaptive Question Designer Questions in the Question Editor
Adaptive Question Designer questions can be used to create an adaptive multipart question in which the student is
presented with one subquestion, or section, at a time, and the question behavior depends on whether the student answers
the subquestion correctly. For more information on how adaptive questions work, see Adaptive Questions (page 179).
Adaptive questions are created in a similar way to question designer questions, and support all features of question
designer questions (as described in Question Designer Questions (page 223)).
To create an adaptive question designer question:
1. Select the Questions menu, then New Question. The Question Editor is displayed.
2. On the Question Name & Type screen,
a. In the Question Type drop-down box, select Adaptive Question Designer.
b. It is recommended that you enter a description in the Question Description text field. (The description is used
to label the question in the topic. If excluded, the question type is used.)
c. You can add a comment, algorithms, information fields, hints, or a worked solution.
d. Click Next.
3. On the Adaptive Question Designer screen,
a. In the text box, enter the question statement and response areas as you would in a Question Designer question.
Add multiple sections to a question by inserting additional subquestions and response areas. (See Question
Designer Questions in the Question Editor (page 97).)
b. Insert section divisions between the sections by clicking the Insert/Edit Adaptive Section button ( ). See
Figure 8.7.
• The Attempts property determines the number of attempts allowed for the section.
• The Allow Skip property determines whether the I Give Up button appears for the section, allowing students
to move on without completing all attempts at this section.
• The Passing Score property determines the passing grade for the section.
• The Penalty property determines the penalty to apply for each incorrect attempt at the section.
• The properties for Correct and Incorrect fields determine how the section behaves depending on the
correctness of the student response.
• The Weight property determines the relative weighting of the section in the overall adaptive question.
The grade of a section is determined by how the weighted response areas are answered.
• The Show Answer property controls whether the correct answer is displayed when the section is finished.
• The Display property determines whether to show or hide the section when it is finished.
• The Question Complete property determines whether the question should be considered finished, or if
the next section should be displayed. The question will also be complete when there are no more sections.
100 • 8 Authoring Methods for Questions
Figure 8.7: Specify Settings for a Section in an Adaptive Question
c. In the question screen, the section marker appears as a wide, horizontal line. The section begins at the beginning
of the question or at the previous section marker.
For detailed information on adaptive question designer questions, see Adaptive Questions (page 179). For a tutorial on
creating a sample adaptive question, see Tutorial: Adaptive Question (page 133).
See Also:
Tutorial: Adaptive Question (page 133)
Adaptive Questions (page 179)
Clickable Image Questions in the Question Editor
Clickable image questions can be authored only in the Question Editor. The Question Editor provides a suite of
graphics tools required to tag response areas in the source image files for correct answers.
To create a clickable image question:
1. Select the Questions menu, then New Question. The Question Editor is displayed.
2. On the Question Name & Type screen,
a. In the Question Type drop-down box, select Clickable imagemap.
b. It is recommended that you enter a description in the Question Description text field. (The description is
used to label the question in the topic. If excluded, the question type is used.)
c. You can add a comment, algorithms, information fields, hints, or a worked solution.
d. To proceed to the Add Clickable Imagemap screen, click Next.
3. On the Question Statement & Answer screen,
a. In the text box, enter the question statement.
b. In the URL text field, enter the URL where the GIF image is located. To upload or browse files you have
already uploaded to your class web site:
• Click the Browse button in the Question Editor. Follow instructions in Uploading Images and Reference
Files to the Class Web Site.
• Entering the path and image name populates the Enter the URL of an Image field.
c. When you have located and identified the URL for your graphic image, enter the text of the question and
select Next.
8.5 Question Authoring in the Question Editor • 101
4. On the Define Correct Regions screen, use the system's graphics tools to define the regions of the correct answer
and any other responses.
a. Define the approximate region of the correct answer. Select New Region to engage the define tool and
click one corner of your answer target. Insert additional outlying points with mouse clicks, and drag the
connector lines to shape the final highlighted region.
Note: The define tool essentially works like a peg board with rubber bands. Place the pegs with a click of the mouse, then click
and drag the connecting lines while the system paints the interior of the shape you have created.
b. When you are satisfied with the shape of the region you have defined, click Set Correct to identify it as
the correct response. The system highlights the correct answer region in red.
c. Use New Region to define additional regions. When you have completed each individual region, select
New Region to disengage the define tool.
Note: You can use Delete to clear individual regions if you make a mistake.
d. When you have completed the identification of regions within your image, click Finish to place a copy of
your question in the web site cache and preview your question.
See Also:
Uploading Images and Reference Files to the Class Web Site (page 92)
Clickable Image Question Example Script (page 344)
Essay Questions in the Question Editor
To create an essay question:
1. Select the Questions menu, then New Question. The Question Editor is displayed.
2. On the Question Name & Type screen,
a. In the Question Type drop-down box, select Essay.
b. It is recommended that you enter a description in the Question Description text field. (The description is used
to label the question in the topic. If excluded, the question type is used.)
c. You can add a comment, algorithms, information fields, hints, or a worked solution.
d. Click Next.
3. On the Question Statement screen,
a. In the text box, enter the question statement.
b. Click Finish to place a copy of your question in the web site cache and preview your question.
An essay question is not automatically graded by the system. You, the instructor, must grade them traditionally and
assign a grade in the Gradebook. For more information, see Changing Grades and Adding Comments (page 57).
See Also:
Changing Grades and Adding Comments (page 57)
Essay Questions - Ungraded (page 184)
Free Response (Fill-in-the-Blank) Questions in the Question Editor
Important: The Fill in the blanks question type has been deprecated. It is strongly recommended that you use the
Question Designer question type instead. See Question Designer Questions in the Question Editor (page 97).
You can create two kinds of blanks questions by using the Fill in the blanks question type in the Question Editor.
102 • 8 Authoring Methods for Questions
• The [text] type produces a text field in the question. The student enters a response in the text box. It is graded
using string matching rules. For more information, see Rules for Grading Free Response Questions (page 188).
• The [menu] type produces a drop-down box containing the correct response and any number of incorrect responses. The student selects a response from the drop-down box.
To create a blanks[formula] question, use scripts or LaTeX.
To create a fill-in-the-blank question:
1. Select the Questions menu, then New Question. The Question Editor is displayed.
2. On the Question Name & Type screen,
a. In the Question Type drop-down box, select Fill in the blanks.
b. It is recommended that you enter a description in the Question Description text field. (The description is
used to label the question in the topic. If excluded, the question type is used.)
c. You can add a comment, algorithms, information fields, hints, or a worked solution.
d. Click Next.
3. On the Question Statement screen,
a. In the text box, enter the question statement including the correct answer(s).
b. Select the radio button (Textboxes or Menus) corresponding to the appropriate question presentation. A
text box fill-in-the-blank question has a text field in which the student enters a response.
c. Click Next.
4. On the Question Blanks screen,
a. Select the words to be replaced by blanks in the question.
• To designate a word as a blank, click the dots on either side of the word.
• To designate a phrase (adjacent words) as a blank, click the dots on either side of the phrase.
Note: If the designated word or phrase is followed by punctuation, insert a space between the word (or last word in a phrase) and
the punctuation mark.
• To remove a blank from a word or phrase, click one of the words in the blank.
b. For menu fill-in-the-blank questions, click Add Choices.
i. In the text fields, enter the incorrect responses for the drop-down box (or boxes).
ii. To add additional text fields, click More.
iii. To return to the previous screen, click OK.
c. Click Finish to place a copy in the web site cache and preview your question.
See Also:
Question Designer Questions in the Question Editor (page 97)
8.5 Question Authoring in the Question Editor • 103
Maple-graded Questions in the Question Editor
Creating Maple-Graded Questions
To create a Maple-graded question:
1. Select the Questions menu, then New Question. The Question Editor is displayed.
2. On the Question Name & Type screen,
a. In the Question Type drop-down list, select Maple-graded.
b. It is recommended that you enter a description in the Question Description text field. (The description is
used to label the question in the topic. If excluded, the question type is used.)
c. You can add a comment, algorithms, information fields, hints, or a worked solution.
d. Click Next.
3. On the Question Statement & Answer screen,
a. Enter the text of the question. To include complicated mathematical expressions, click the Equation Editor
icon ( ) in the toolbar. This launches the Equation Editor.
b. In the Enter Maple code that evaluates to the correct answer region,
• The last line of code must evaluate to an expression that is stored to the variable $ANSWER.
• A Maple-graded question must use valid Maple code to evaluate the answer.
• Complete each line of code with a semicolon.
• Add parentheses when appropriate, for example, (x + y) / 2.
• Use the long form name for all package functions, for example, VectorCalculus[ArcLength].
c. In the Enter Maple code to grade the student response region,
• A Maple-graded question must use valid Maple code to evaluate the answer.
• The last line of your question code must evaluate to a Boolean value (true or false) or a floating-point
number between 0.0 and 1.0 for partial grading. By default, use the Maple command evalb(($ANSWER)($RESPONSE)=0); as indicated, where $RESPONSE represents the student response and $ANSWER
represents the correct answer.
• If you choose to alter the default grading syntax, complete each line of code with a semicolon.
• Use the long form name for all package functions, for example, VectorCalculus[ArcLength].
• Use $RESPONSE to represent the student response in your code. Before your code is processed by Maple,
$RESPONSE is replaced by the student response.
• Use $ANSWER to represent the correct answer, as you have provided in the previous field.
d. From the Select the type of expression you want to accept field, select Formula or Maple Syntax. To
learn about the differences between Formula and Maple Syntax expression types, see Maple-graded
Question Type - Overview (page 167).
e. If you selected Maple syntax, from the Text/Symbolic entry field, select Text entry only if you want
students to type their response in a text region, or Symbolic entry only if you want students to use the
Equation Editor to enter their response. For more information on this option and the advantages of each
entry mode, see Maple-graded Question Type - Overview (page 167).
f. Optional. Upload a Maple repository. For instructions, see Using a Maple Repository (page 94).
g. Optional. Enter code to enable plotting of the student response. Use $RESPONSE to represent the student
response in your code. Before your code is processed by Maple, $RESPONSE is replaced by the student
response. The last line must be a Maple plot command.
104 • 8 Authoring Methods for Questions
h. Note: You can copy content from a Maple worksheet or a Maple code text file to be used in a Maple-graded
question. See Copying Content from the Maple Worksheet to Maple T.A. below.
i. Click Finish.
For more information on Maple code, refer to your Maple system documentation.
See Also:
Editing with the Equation Editor (page 248)
Plotting a Student Response (page 247)
Applying Partial Credit to Maple-graded Questions
You can modify Maple-graded questions to allow grading between 0.0 and 1.0 for partial credit. Note: Grading must
be done using a floating-point number. Rational numbers are not accepted. Table 8.1 shows a simple application of
the partial credit feature.
Table 8.1: Maple-graded Question with Partial Credit
Text for the question
Maple code that evaluates to the correct answer
Solve for x in the following equation: 3x+6=12
solve(3*x+6=12,x);
Maple code to grade the student response
if ($RESPONSE=6) then 0.5 else
evalb($RESPONSE-$ANSWER=0) end if;
Copying Content from the Maple Worksheet to Maple T.A.
1. From a Maple worksheet, select the code to be copied.
2. From the Maple menu, select Copy.
3. In Maple T.A., right-click (Control-click on Macintosh®) and paste the contents into the appropriate box.
4. Rename the response value to $RESPONSE.
5. Add $ to all algorithmic variables.
See Also:
Creating a New Question or Editing an Existing Question (page 82)
Displaying a Maple Plot (page 258)
Using the Comment Field in a Maple Question (page 349)
Maple-graded Question Type - Overview (page 167)
Mathematical Functions & Operations (page 262)
Matching Questions in the Question Editor
The Matching question type allows only 1 to 1 matches. One to many matches are not available in the system with
this question type.
8.5 Question Authoring in the Question Editor • 105
To create a Matching question:
1. Select the Questions menu, then New Question. The Question Editor is displayed.
2. On the Question Name & Type screen,
a. From the Question Type drop-down list, select Matching.
b. In the Question Description field, enter an appropriate description of the matching question. To include
complicated mathematical expressions, click the Equation Editor icon.
c. You can add a comment, algorithms, information fields, hints, or a worked solution.
d. Click Next.
3. The Question Statement & Matching screen opens.
a. In the Text of the question field, you can overwrite the default text with appropriate information.
b. Enter an item to be matched in The Item field.
c. Enter the matching information in the Matches with field.
d. Click Add. The matching items are displayed in a shaded background beneath the Display this question in
__ columns field.
Note: If you click Finish, the system displays the following message: A matching question makes no sense without at least two
items. Click OK.
e. Enter the number of columns in which to display the information in the Display this question in __ columns
field.
f. Add more matching questions by repeating steps 3b-3d.
g. Click Finish to place a copy in the web site cache and preview your question.
See Also:
Matching Questions (page 218)
Question Types Available in the System (page 159)
Math App Questions in the Question Editor (Technology Preview)
The Math App question type allows an instructor to embed a Maple worksheet into the question. The question is then
graded on the final state of the worksheet that the student leaves it in.
With Math App questions, you can ask your students to sketch graphs, provide them with specialized calculators, ask
them to manipulate parameters until they have found the desired solution, give them interactive plots to explore, and
much more.
Math App questions are included in Maple T.A. as a technology preview, so you can start getting familiar with this
feature and begin developing content for your students. You can create Math App questions, test them, and give them
to your students for practice.
Note: Although the technology is fully developed and tested, Math App questions may place a heavier load on your
server than other Maple T.A. questions. Maplesoft is actively working on improving the performance, but in the
meantime if you want to use this type of question with your classes, you are encouraged to try it out in a low-risk setting
first to see how your Maple T.A. server responds based on your class size and usage patterns.
If you are using, or planning on, using this feature please contact Maplesoft if you have questions, feedback, or are
willing to share your experiences with this new technology.
106 • 8 Authoring Methods for Questions
To create a Math App question:
1. Select the Questions menu, then New Question. The Question Editor is displayed.
2. On the Question Name & Type screen,
a. From the Question Type drop-down list, select Math App.
b. In the Question Description field, enter an appropriate description of the matching question. To include
complicated mathematical expressions, click the Equation Editor icon.
c. You can add a comment, algorithms, information fields, hints, or a worked solution.
d. Click Next.
3. The Question Statement & Matching screen opens.
a. In the text box, enter the question statement.
b. In the Choose Worksheet section, push the button to choose or upload a new worksheet to use in the question.
c. In the Initialization Parameters section, declare any variables that you want the worksheet you chose above
to initialize when the question loads. This is not a requirement, you can leave it blank if there are no variables
to initialize in the worksheet.
d. In the Select the type of grading used section, choose which type of grading is going to be used to grade the
final state of the worksheet. There are two options to choose from:
i. Grading Algorithm in Math App: The worksheet itself contains a grading procedure called Actions:-Grade.
This grading procedure must return a value between 0.0 and 1.0 which represents the student's grade.
ii. Grading Algorithm in Maple T.A: Use the following Maple code to grade the student response. Whatever
Maple code you put in the box below should return a value between 0.0 and 1.0 which represents the
student's grade.
See Also:
Math App Questions (page 190)
Mathematical Formula Questions in the Question Editor
Formula questions are the fundamental question type. Student responses must contain a mathematical expression including numbers or math formulas.
To create a Formula question:
1. Select the Questions menu, then New Question. The Question Editor is displayed.
2. On the Question Name & Type screen,
a. In the Question Type drop-down box, select Mathematical formula.
b. It is recommended that you enter a description in the Question Description text field. (The description is
used to label the question in the topic. If excluded, the question type is used.)
c. You can add a comment, algorithms, information fields, hints, or a solution.
d. Click Next.
3. On the Question Statement & Answer screen,
a. In the question text box, enter the question statement. To include complicated mathematical expressions,
click the Equation Editor icon ( ) in the toolbar. This launches the Equation Editor.
b. In the text region labeled Enter the correct answer:, enter the correct answer in symbolic math. Your
answer must be in the correct format. For example, for a restricted formula question, you cannot use sin.
8.5 Question Authoring in the Question Editor • 107
c. Select the type of expression you want to accept from the drop-down box. This determines the question
type. Table 8.2 lists the question types and corresponding expression type.
Table 8.2: Expression Types Available in Mathematical Formula Questions in the Question Editor
Question Type
Formula
Restricted Formula
Dimensioned Formula
Formula Mod C
Equation
Multi Formula
Formula List
Ntuple
Chemistry
Type of Expression
Formula
Formula without logs and trig
Formula with physical units
Formula that matches responses to within +C
Equation
Unordered list of formulas
Ordered list of formulas
Vector of formulas
Chemical equation
d. Click Finish to place a copy of your question in the web site cache and preview your question.
For more information on Mathematical Formula questions, see Math Question Types (page 160).
See Also:
Authoring Mathematical Questions (page 239)
Editing with the Equation Editor (page 248)
Understanding the Math Capabilities (page 241)
Multipart Questions in the Question Editor
You create a multipart question in the Question Editor by selecting questions for its parts from a question group.
To create and organize the parts for a multipart question:
1. Create a question group in the Question Repository that will contain the questions that will form the parts of your
multipart question. Add the questions to the group.
2. If necessary, create or import questions.
3. If necessary, reorder the questions.
To create a multipart question:
1. Select the Questions menu, then New Question. The Question Editor is displayed.
2. On the Question Name & Type screen,
a. In the Question Type drop-down box, select Multipart question.
b. It is recommended that you enter a description in the Question Description text field. (The description is used
to label the question in the topic. If excluded, the question type is used.)
c. You can add a comment, algorithms, information fields, hints, or a worked solution.
d. Click Next.
3. On the Import Questions screen,
a. Select the radio button corresponding to the group containing the questions to be used as parts. Click Next.
108 • 8 Authoring Methods for Questions
4. On the Question Statement & Weighting screen,
a. In the text region, enter the question statement (the text to appear at the top of the question).
b. In the Select questions and assign weightings box:
i. Select the check boxes beside questions to include as parts.
ii. Click the plus and minus buttons to assign the relative weighting of each.
c. From the Numbering style drop-down menu, select the numbering style for the parts of the question.
d. Click Finish to place a copy of your question in the web site cache and preview your question.
See Also:
Multipart Questions (page 219)
Multipart Questions: Partial Credit (page 220)
Creating a New Question or Editing an Existing Question (page 82)
Multipart Question Example Script (page 350)
Tutorial: Working with Multipart Questions (page 137)
Multiple Choice Questions in the Question Editor
1. Select the Questions menu, then New Question. The Question Editor is displayed.
2. On the Question Name & Type screen,
a. In the Question Type drop-down box, select Multiple choice.
b. It is recommended that you enter a description in the Question Description text field. (The description is used
to label the question in the topic. If excluded, the question type is used.)
c. You can add a comment, algorithms, information fields, hints, or a worked solution.
d. Click Next.
3. On the Question Statement & Answer screen,
a. In the text box, enter the question statement.
b. In the Choices for the answers boxes, enter the possible choices. To add additional choice text fields, click
the Add Choices button.
c. If the correct answer consists of multiple choices, select the Allow more than one selection radio button.
d. Select the radio button(s) corresponding to the correct answer.
e. Click Finish to place a copy of your question in the web site cache and preview your question.
To add response-specific feedback for the student:
1. On the preview screen, click Edit.
2. On the Question Name & Type screen, click Edit source.
3. On the Edit Source screen, for each choice listed in the source, add a comment line of the form:
comment.<n>=<comment_text>@
where <n> in the comment line is the same as in the corresponding choice line:
choice.<n>=<choice_text>@ at the end of the source code.
4. Click Save.
5. On the Question Name & Type screen, click Next.
6. On the Add Multiple Choice screen, click Finish.
8.5 Question Authoring in the Question Editor • 109
See Also:
Multiple Choice Question Example Script (page 351)
Multiple Selection Questions in the Question Editor
1. Select the Questions menu, then New Question. The Question Editor is displayed.
2. On the Question Name & Type screen,
a. In the Question Type drop-down box, select Multiple selection.
b. It is recommended that you enter a description in the Question Description text field. (The description is used
to label the question in the topic. If excluded, the question type is used.)
c. You can add a comment, algorithms, information fields, hints, or a worked solution.
d. Click Next.
3. On the Question Statement & Answer screen,
a. In the text box, enter the question statement.
b. In the Choices for the answers text fields, enter the possible choices and select the radio buttons corresponding
to the correct answers. To add additional choice boxes, click Add Choices.
c. Click Finish to place a copy of your question in the web site cache and preview your question.
See Also:
Algorithmic Multiple Selection Question Example Script (page 340)
Multiple Selection Question Example Script (page 352)
Numeric Questions in the Question Editor
1. Select the Questions menu, then New Question. The Question Editor is displayed.
2. On the Question Name & Type screen,
a. In the Question Type drop-down box, select Numeric.
b. It is recommended that you enter a description in the Question Description text field. (The description is used
to label the question in the topic. If excluded, the question type is used.)
c. You can add a comment, algorithms, information fields, hints, or a worked solution.
d. To proceed to the Add Numeric screen, click Next.
3. On the Question Statement & Answer screen,
a. Enter the question statement.
b. In the Number text field, enter the numeric part of the correct answer in symbolic math syntax. This is required.
c. If the correct answer has physical units, in the Units text field, enter the units for the correct answer. To use
units in addition to the default system units, you must add a custom table of units. If you do not specify units,
by default, the system does not display a Units text field in the question.
Note: To display the Units text field in a question for which the correct answer has no units, edit the question source to specify
showUnits=true. To not display the Units text field in a question for which the correct answer has units, edit the question
source to specify showUnits=false. See Editing Question Source Files (page 89)
d. Specify the precision or margin of error for the grading of a student response.
Important: When creating questions that have a specific number of significant digits in the correct answer,
it is recommended that you use the sig function to create algorithmic variables. By using these variables in the
question statement, feedback, hints, and solution, you ensure that values are displayed with the correct number
110 • 8 Authoring Methods for Questions
of significant digits. For more information, see Setting Answer Tolerance in Numeric Questions (page 90)
and decimal(n, x), sig(n, x), int(x) (page 279).
e. Specify the acceptable input formats for student responses. See Setting Answer Format in Numeric
Questions (page 89).
f. Click Finish to place a copy of your question in the web site cache and preview your question.
See Also:
Authoring Mathematical Questions (page 239)
Using a Table of Units (page 263)
Understanding the Math Capabilities (page 241)
Numeric (page 174)
Palette-based Symbolic Editor Questions in the Question Editor
To create Palette questions that integrate your customized palette:
1. Create a question bank in plain text script format and define a palette definition(s) at the beginning of the question
bank. For information on specifying a palette definition, see Equation Editor Requirements and Syntax (page 251).
You should also include at least one question in the question bank. (This question is simply a place-holder at this
point.)
2. Import the question bank.
3. Select the Questions menu, then New Question. The Question Editor is displayed.
4. On the Question Name & Type screen,
a. From the Question Type drop-down list, select Palette-based symbolic editor.
b. You can add a comment, algorithms, information fields, hints, or a worked solution.
c. Click Next.
5. On the Question Statement & Answer screen,
a. Enter the text of your question statement in the Question Text field.
b. Select the palette style to use from the Palette Style drop-down menu. (This drop-down menu lists all of
the palette definitions you defined in step 1.)
c. Enter the correct answer in the correct answer region.
d. The default behavior for grading palette question student responses is to perform string-matching on the
palette-created expression. For details, see Rules for Grading Free Response Questions (page 188).
Note: Palette questions should only be created using the Question Editor. Palette questions use an Equation
Editor to generate Presentation MathML for the student response and compare it with the Presentation
MathML of the answer. However, because there are many ways of making Presentation MathML for the
same marked-up expression, creating expressions outside the Equation Editor may generate unpredictable
results.
e. Click Finish to place a copy of your question in the web site cache and preview your question.
See Also:
Palette Questions (page 222)
8.5 Question Authoring in the Question Editor • 111
True-or-False Questions in the Question Editor
1. Select the Questions menu, then New Question. The Question Editor is displayed.
2. On the Question Name & Type screen,
a. In the Question Type drop-down box, select True/false.
b. It is recommended that you enter a description in the Question Description text field. (The description is used
to label the question in the topic. If excluded, the question type is used.)
c. You can add a comment, algorithms, information fields, hints, or a worked solution.
d. Click Next.
3. On the Question Statement & Answer screen,
a. In the text box, enter the question statement.
b. Select the radio button (True or False) corresponding to the correct answer.
c. Click Finish to place a copy of your question in the web site cache and preview your question.
See Also:
True-or-False Question Example Script (page 356)
Creating Pop-Up References in Questions
To add a pop-up reference to a question, insert and customize the sample HTML code (from the example below) in
your question.
Example
To create a pop-up HTML reference file in a question:
1. Create an HTML file containing instructions or reference information. For example,
instructions.html
2. Upload this file to the class web site using the Web Site Tools from the System Tools Menu.
3. Add the following sample HTML code to your question:
<a href="javascript:window.open('../classes/yourclassURL/instructions.html',
'instructions', 'width=450,height=650,scrollbars').focus();">
Click here for instructions</a>
where http://www.yourschool.com/classes/yourclassURL is your class web site URL.
To add HTML code through the Question Editor, click the Source button,
, in the menu bar. You can also
add a pop-up reference to a question using plain text script authoring by adding this code to the question field (or, any
HTML field in the question definition in the .qu script file).
Behavior
The question contains a link Click here for instructions. When you click the link, a new window of size 450x650
pixels opens containing the instructions.html file contents.
To change the description of the content in the HTML file, the filename, or the window size, edit the sample code in
the example above.
Questions with Labeled Images
You can include a GIF or JPG image with labels in a question. The labels can be static or use algorithmically generated
variable data.
112 • 8 Authoring Methods for Questions
You must first upload an image to the class web site. See Images and Reference Files in Questions (page 92).
To use the Label Image applet, include the following HTML code in your question.
<div align = center>
<applet code="applets.labelImage.LabelImage" width="50" height="50">
<param name="image" value="../classes/class1/Image1.gif">
<param name="size" value="1">
<param name="label.1.x" value="20">
<param name="label.1.y" value="20">
<param name="label.1.text" value="text for label">
</applet>
</div>
where
• The div tags are optional.
• The width and height tags specify the dimensions of the image in pixels. To determine the width and height
of the graphic, use a third-party graphics application (for example, Microsoft® Paint).
• The image parameter value specifies the path and filename of the image file.
• The size parameter value specifies the number of labels. You can specify zero or more labels.
The location and contents of each label are specified using three parameters.
1. The label.i.x parameter value specifies the horizontal offset (in pixels) of the middle of the ith label from the
left side of the image.
2. The label.i.y parameter value specifies the vertical offset (in pixels) of the baseline of the ith label from the
top of the image.
3. The label.i.text parameter value specifies the content of the ith label. It can include algorithmic variables.
To add HTML code through the Question Editor, click the Source button,
, in the menu bar. You can also
add a Label Image applet to a question using plain text script authoring by adding this code to the question field (or,
any HTML field in the question definition in the .qu script file).
See Also:
Images and Reference Files in Questions (page 92)
Questions with Plots (page 176)
Overview of Algorithmic Question Capabilities (page 274)
Labeling Graphics in LaTeX Questions (page 319)
Labeling Graphics in Questions Example Script (page 347)
Text Formatting in Questions
You can use HTML 4.0 tags to control the display of character formatting in most question fields. (For a list, see
Special Characters in Questions (page 157).) To do so, click the Source button,
, in the tool bar of the text
editor region of the question and include the appropriate format tags.
Note: This requires an HTML or text editor and knowledge of HTML.
8.6 Tutorials using the Question Editor • 113
Table 8.3: Examples of HTML Tags to Use for Formatting Text
HTML Formatting
<p>Text of paragraph</p>
Function
Sets the enclosed text as a paragraph
<b>Text</b>
Sets a new line break (carriage return) in the current
paragraph
Boldfaces the enclosed text
<i>Text</i>
Italicizes the enclosed text
<sub>TexFot</sub>
Subscripts the enclosed text
<sup>Text</sup>
Superscripts the enclosed text
<font face="..">Text</font>
Sets text font
<font size="..">Text</font>
Sets text size
<font color="..">Text</font>
Sets text color
<br>Text of new line
8.6 Tutorials using the Question Editor
Tutorial: Multiple Choice Questions in the Question Designer
In this tutorial, you are guided through the creation of some multiple choice questions using the Question Designer.
A Simple Multiple Choice Question
This tutorial describes how to create a simple multiple choice question.
This question is created in the Question Editor as a Question Designer question.
To create the question:
1. Select the Questions menu, then New Question. The Question Editor is displayed.
2. On the Question Name & Type screen,
a. In the Question Type drop-down list, select Question Designer.
b. Enter the description Multiple Choice.
3. Click Next.
4. In the Text of the question field, enter the following:
What is 17+9?
5. Click the Insert/Edit Response Area button ( ).
6. Select the question type Multiple Choice.
7. In the right pane, select Permuting to rearrange the order of the displayed choices.
8. Highlight and delete choice 1 and enter 26.
9. Highlight and delete choice 2 and enter 27.
10. Press Enter to display a third multiple choice option.
11. Enter 23.
114 • 8 Authoring Methods for Questions
Figure 8.8: Multiple Choice Settings
12. Click OK. The Edit Response Area dialog opens.
13. Select the correct answer and click OK.
14. Click Finish to save the question.
15. Add the question to one or more question groups and click Submit.
16. The Preview Question window opens. Preview the question and test it by selecting various responses.
Figure 8.9: Multiple Choice Question
The next tutorial continues by modifying this question.
8.6 Tutorials using the Question Editor • 115
Multiple Choice Question with Randomly Determined Parameters
In this tutorial, algorithmic variables are used to generate a question that changes each time it is instantiated. Because
values in the question are randomly generated when the question is instantiated, each student sees a different variation
of the same question.
Note: This question is a modification of the previous question. (It overwrites the question, rather than creating a new
one.) If you prefer to keep the original, first create a clone of the question, and then edit the clone. To clone a question,
find the question in the Question Repository and click the clone icon ( ) located beside the question. To begin editing
the newly cloned question, click the edit icon ( ) beside it.
To change the question to use algorithmic variables:
1. In the Preview Question window, click Edit. The Edit Question window is displayed.
2. On the Question Name & Type screen, change the description to Multiple Choice Enhanced.
3. Click Next.
4. Select the Algorithm tab and click Edit.
5. Enter the following code:
$a=range(10);
$b=range(10);
condition:ne($a,$b);
$sum=$a+$b;
$product=$a*$b;
• When n is a positive integer, the range(n) function generates a random integer in the range 1, ..., n (inclusive).
There are n numbers in that range. Hence, it is a selection of one number from a choice of n.
• The condition::ne function ensures the two variables are not equal.
• $ is required to indicated a variable.
• The question variables are set to $a and $b. Each of these variables ranges from 1 to 10. The answer is set to $sum,
which is the value of $a + $b.
• As this question is multiple choice, you must generate wrong answers to be displayed alongside the correct answer.
For variation, the wrong answer variable $product will be used.
• All lines end with a semicolon.
116 • 8 Authoring Methods for Questions
Figure 8.10: Random Variable Definitions for a Multiple Choice Question
6. Click Refresh to test the algorithm code with random variables.
7. Click Save.
8. Select the Feedback tab and click Edit.
9. Enter the following text:
The sum of $a and $b is $sum.
Note: As the instructor, you can choose to have this information shown to students when they view their graded assignments.
10. Click Save. The Question Designer window is displayed.
11. In the Text of the question field, replace
What is 17+9?
with
What is $a + $b?
12. Double-click Edit below the multiple choice options and replace the previous answers with the variables $sum and
$product.
13. Delete the third option using the backspace key.
14. Click OK.
15. Ensure the $sum variable is selected to be the correct answer.
8.6 Tutorials using the Question Editor • 117
16. Click OK to return to the main Question Designer window.
17. Click Finish to save the question.
18. Add the question to one or more question groups and click Submit.
19. The Preview Question window opens.
To test your question:
1. In the Preview Question window, you can preview a version of the question with randomly generated values.
2. Select the correct answer and click Grade. Verify it is graded correctly.
3. In the Preview Question window, select the incorrect answer and click Grade. Verify it is graded as incorrect.
Tip: It is also possible to avoid the definition of separate variables such as $product, above. Rather than defining
$product, you could enter $($a*$b) directly into one of the answer fields. See Figure 8.11. See also Inline
Variable Expressions (page 277).
Figure 8.11: Inline Random Variable Definition
Incorporating Math Expressions in a Question
This tutorial creates a multiple choice question that uses a symbolic math expression in the text of the question.
118 • 8 Authoring Methods for Questions
This question is created in the Question Editor as a Question Designer question.
To create the question:
1. Select the Questions menu, then New Question. The Question Editor is displayed.
2. On the Question Name & Type screen,
a. In the Question Type drop-down list, select Question Designer.
b. Enter the description Multiple Choice with a Formatted Math Expression.
3. Click Next.
4. In the Text of the question field, enter the following:
What is
5. Click the Equation Editor icon ( ) in the toolbar.
6. Right-click (Control-click, on Macintosh) in the Equation Editor to launch the Equation Editor palette.
Figure 8.12: Incorporating Math Expressions in a Question
7. In the displayed palettes, select the square root symbol.
8. Replace the placeholder a under the square root with 144 and click OK.
9. Add a question mark to complete the question:
What is
?
10. Click the Insert/Edit Response Area button ( ).
11. Select the question type Multiple Choice.
12. In the right pane, select Permuting to rearrange the order of the displayed choices.
13. Enter 12, 14, 72, 13, and 15 as possible answers, one for each field.
8.6 Tutorials using the Question Editor • 119
14. Click OK. The Edit Response Area dialog opens.
15. Select the correct answer (12) and click OK.
16. Click Finish to save the question.
17. Add the question to one or more question groups and click Submit.
18. The Preview Question window opens. Preview the question and test it by selecting various responses.
Figure 8.13: Question with a Math Expression
Tutorial: Drop-Down List Question in the Question Designer
In this tutorial, you are guided through the creation of a list question using the Question Designer. List questions serve
two purposes: ask students to select from a list of entries or fill-in-the-blanks. This tutorial uses a list of entries.
This question is created in the Question Editor as a Question Designer question.
To create the question:
1. Select the Questions menu, then New Question. The Question Editor is displayed.
2. On the Question Name & Type screen,
a. In the Question Type drop-down list, select Question Designer.
b. Enter the description Question Designer List.
3. Click Next.
4. In the Text of the question field, enter the following:
Who introduced the Arabic number system to Europe?
5. Click the Insert/Edit Response Area button ( ).
6. Select the question type List.
7. For Matching Type, select Ignore case text match.
8. For Display Type, select Drop-down Menu.
9. Enter answer choices in the items fields. To add additional items, click Add Item.
120 • 8 Authoring Methods for Questions
Figure 8.14: List Settings
10. Change the weight of the correct answer, Leonardo Fibonacci, to 1.0. (The weights can be any value between 0.0
and 1.0, enabling you to assign partial credit if desired.
11. Click OK.
12. Click Finish to save the question.
13. Add the question to one or more question groups and click Submit.
14. The Preview Question window opens. Preview the question and test it by selecting various responses.
Tutorial: Numeric Questions in the Question Editor
In this tutorial, you are guided through the creation of two numeric questions using the Question Editor.
A Simple Numeric Question
This tutorial describes how to create a simple question that accepts a numeric response in decimal form along with the
accompanying units.
This question is created in the Question Editor as a Numeric question.
8.6 Tutorials using the Question Editor • 121
To create the question:
1. Select the Questions menu, then New Question. The Question Editor is displayed.
2. On the Question Name & Type screen,
a. In the Question Type drop-down list, select Question Designer.
b. Enter the description Question Designer Numeric.
3. Click Next.
4. In the Text of the question field, enter the following:
Round 2.76789 m to three significant digits.
5. Click the Insert/Edit Response Area button ( ).
6. Select the question type Numeric.
7. Enter the correct answer 2.77 in the Numeric Part field.
8. To require a unit with the answer, enter the correct unit dimension m (for meters) in the Units Part field.
Since units are specified, the students are presented with two cells: one for the number part and one for the unit dimension. Students must enter correct values in both cells to receive full credit for the question. If you do not specify
units, students are only presented with one answer cell.
9. Click OK.
10. Click Finish to save the question.
11. Add the question to one or more question groups and click Submit.
12. The Preview Question window opens. Preview the question and test it by selecting various responses.
Figure 8.15: Numeric Question
Numeric Question using Randomization Functions in Maple
This tutorial describes how to create a numeric question that asks students to determine the degree of a random polynomial. The polynomial is generated by using the randpoly command in Maple. Then, Maple's MathML[ExportPresentation] command is used to generate a nicely formatted version of the polynomial.
This question is created in the Question Editor as a Numeric question.
To create the question:
1. Select the Questions menu, then New Question. The Question Editor is displayed.
2. On the Question Name & Type screen,
a. In the Question Type drop-down list, select Numeric.
b. Enter the description Degree of polynomial.
c. Click Add in the Algorithm area.
3. In the Algorithm screen, enter the following code:
$a=range(2,5);
$poly=maple("randomize(): randpoly(x,degree=$a)");
$displaypoly=maple("printf(MathML[ExportPresentation]($poly))");
4. Click Refresh to preview the variables you defined.
122 • 8 Authoring Methods for Questions
5. Click Save.
6. Click Next.
7. In the Text of the question field, enter the following:
What is the degree of $displaypoly?
8. Enter the correct answer $a in the Number field.
9. Leave the Units field blank since units are not required with this answer.
10. In the Specify precision area, ensure that Require absolute accuracy is selected.
11. Click OK.
12. Click Finish to save the question.
13. Add the question to one or more question groups and click Submit.
14. The Preview Question window opens. Preview the question and test it by selecting various responses.
Tutorial: Maple-Graded Questions
This tutorial creates some Maple-graded questions. It also demonstrates how to incorporate plots both by letting students
plot their response and by inserting a plot in the question feedback.
A Maple-Graded Question
This tutorial describes how to create a simple multiple choice question.
This question is created in the Question Editor as a Maple-graded question.
To create the question:
1. Select the Questions menu, then New Question. The Question Editor is displayed.
2. On the Question Name & Type screen,
a. In the Question Type drop-down list, select Maple-graded.
b. Enter the description Differentiation - Product Rule.
3. Click Next.
4. In the Text of the question field, enter the following:
Differentiate sin(x)*x with respect to x.
5. In the Maple code that evaluates to the correct answer field, enter:
diff(sin(x)*x,x);
6. By default, the following Maple code to grade the student response is provided:
evalb(($ANSWER)-($RESPONSE)=0);
$RESPONSE is a system variable that corresponds to the response the student entered, and $ANSWER refers to
the correct answer you entered in step 5.
8.6 Tutorials using the Question Editor • 123
Figure 8.16: Defining a Maple-Graded Question
7. Click Finish to save the question.
8. Add the question to one or more question groups and click Submit.
9. The Preview Question window opens. Preview the question and test it by selecting correct answer, cos(x)*x+sin(x)
or an incorrect answer and verifying it is graded properly.
Plotting the Student's Response
With a Maple-graded question, you can opt to let the students generate a plot that is based on their response. Students
can use this to visually check their response before proceeding.
Note: This question is a modification of the previous question.
To plot the student's response:
1. In the Preview Question window, click Edit. The Edit Question window is displayed.
2. Click Next.
Use a standard Maple plot command. In this tutorial, we plot the student's response as well as the correct derivative.
If the student is correct, the plot region will display a plot with a single curve.
124 • 8 Authoring Methods for Questions
3. In the Plotting field, enter the following:
plot([$RESPONSE, diff(sin(x)*x,x)],x=-10..10);
4. Click Finish to save the question.
5. Add the question to one or more question groups and click Submit.
6. The Preview Question window opens. Preview the question and test it by entering a response and selecting the
Plot link. The plot is displayed in a separate window.
Inserting a Maple Plot in the Question Feedback
You can insert a Maple-generated plot into the question text, hints, or feedback of any type of question.
Note: This question is a modification of the previous question.
To insert a Maple plot as an algorithmic variable:
1. In the Preview Question window, click Edit. The Edit Question window is displayed.
2. Click the Add button in the Algorithm section.
3. Enter the following:
$plot1=plotmaple("plot(sin(x)*x,x=-10..10)");
4. Click Refresh to preview the plot.
5. Click Save.
You can use the algorithmic variable $plot1 to display the Maple plot in all question types anywhere algorithmic
variables can be used (in question text, hints, and feedback).
6. Click the Add button in the Feedback section.
7. Enter the following:
A plot of the expression is $plot1.
8. Click Save.
Designing a Maple-Graded Question to Accept Mathematically Equivalent Responses
This tutorial creates a question that asks for
. It should accept
equivalent as correct. See Figure 8.17.
Figure 8.17: Accepting Equivalent Responses
This question is created in the Question Editor as a Maple-graded question.
,
,
, or anything
8.6 Tutorials using the Question Editor • 125
To create the question:
1. Select the Questions menu, then New Question. The Question Editor is displayed.
2. On the Question Name & Type screen,
a. In the Question Type drop-down list, select Maple-graded.
b. Enter the description Derivative of Secant.
3. Click Next.
4. In the Text of the question field, enter the following:
Compute the derivative of sec(x).
5. In the Maple code that evaluates to the correct answer field, enter:
diff(sec(x),x);
6. Change the Maple code to grade the student response to:
evalb(simplify(($ANSWER)-($RESPONSE))=0);
$RESPONSE is a system variable that corresponds to the response the student entered, and $ANSWER refers to
the correct answer you entered in step 5.
Important: The default grading code, evalb(($ANSWER)-($RESPONSE)=0);, would only give credit for
and reject all other responses. This is because the evalb command does not perform simplification.
It is strongly recommended that you test your Maple code in a Maple worksheet for any Maple-graded question.
7. Click Finish to save the question.
8. Add the question to one or more question groups and click Submit.
9. The Preview Question window opens. Preview the question and test it using a variety of responses to ensure the
Maple code for grading the question is adequate.
Maple-Graded Question using RandomTools in Maple
This tutorial creates a question that generates two sets and asks students to determine the intersection.
This question is created in the Question Editor as a Maple-graded question. The question is Maple-graded because we
want the students to enter a set as the answer.
To create the question:
1. Select the Questions menu, then New Question. The Question Editor is displayed.
2. On the Question Name & Type screen,
a. In the Question Type drop-down list, select Maple-graded.
b. Enter the description Intersection of sets.
c. Click Add in the Algorithm area.
3. In the Algorithm screen, enter the following code:
$set1=maple("randomize(): RandomTools[Generate](set(posint(range=8),5))");
$set2=maple("randomize(): RandomTools[Generate](set(posint(range=10),4))");
4. Click Refresh to preview the variables you defined.
5. Click Save.
6. Click Next.
126 • 8 Authoring Methods for Questions
7. In the Text of the question field, enter the following:
What is the intersection of $set1 and $set2?
Enclose your answer in braces.
8. In the Maple code that evaluates to the correct answer field, enter:
$set1 intersect $set2
9. Change the Maple code to grade the student response to:
is($RESPONSE=$ANSWER);
$RESPONSE is a system variable that corresponds to the response the student entered, and $ANSWER refers to
the correct answer you entered in step 5.
10. In the Select the type of expression you want to accept drop-down list, select Maple syntax - e.g. diff(2*f(x),x).
11. Click Finish to save the question.
12. Add the question to one or more question groups and click Submit.
13. The Preview Question window opens. Preview the question and test it to verify it is graded properly.
Maple-Graded Question using RandomMatrix in Maple
This tutorial creates a question that generates a matrix and asks students to find the determinant.
This question is created in the Question Editor as a Maple-graded question. Again, the MathML[ExportPresentation]
function is used to generate a nicely formatted version for display.
To create the question:
1. Select the Questions menu, then New Question. The Question Editor is displayed.
2. On the Question Name & Type screen,
a. In the Question Type drop-down list, select Maple-graded.
b. Enter the description Determinant.
c. Click Add in the Algorithm area.
3. In the Algorithm screen, enter the following code:
$n=int(rand(2,4));
$matrix=maple("randomize(): LinearAlgebra[RandomMatrix]($n,$n,generator=rand(-9..10))");
$m=maple("printf(MathML[ExportPresentation]($matrix))");
4. Click Refresh to preview the variables you defined. See Figure 8.18.
8.6 Tutorials using the Question Editor • 127
Figure 8.18: Question with a Random Matrix
5. Click Save.
6. Click Next.
7. In the Text of the question field, enter the following:
Calculate the determinant of $m.
8. In the Maple code that evaluates to the correct answer field, enter:
LinearAlgebra[Determinant]($matrix);
9. By default, the following Maple code to grade the student response is provided:
evalb(($ANSWER)-($RESPONSE)=0);
$RESPONSE is a system variable that corresponds to the response the student entered, and $ANSWER refers to
the correct answer you entered in step 5.
10. In the Select the type of expression you want to accept drop-down list, select Formula - e.g. x^2 sin(x^2).
11. Click Finish to save the question.
12. Add the question to one or more question groups and click Submit.
13. The Preview Question window opens. Preview the question and test it to verify it is graded properly.
128 • 8 Authoring Methods for Questions
Tutorial: Maple Syntax Questions with Matrices
A Simple Matrix Question
This tutorial describes how to create a question that asks for the coefficient matrix of a linear system of equations.
Students will be able to use the Equation Editor to construct their response.
This question is created in the Question Editor as a Maple-graded question.
To create the question:
1. Select the Questions menu, then New Question. The Question Editor is displayed.
2. On the Question Name & Type screen,
a. In the Question Type drop-down list, select Maple-graded.
b. Enter the description Coefficient Matrix.
c. Click Add in the Algorithm area.
3. In the Algorithm screen,
a. Define a random variable:
$ans=maple("Matrix([[1,2,-3],[7,-1,2]])");
b. Click Refresh to preview the variable you defined. See Figure 8.19.
c. Click Save.
Figure 8.19: Defining a Matrix
4. Click Next.
5. On the Maple-graded Question and Answer screen,
a. Enter the text of the question:
Give the coefficient matrix of the following system.
8.6 Tutorials using the Question Editor • 129
To enter the system of equations, click the Equation Editor icon ( ) in the toolbar, and enter the expressions
in the Equation Editor.
b. In the Enter Maple code that evaluates to the correct answer region, enter
printf(MathML[ExportPresentation]($ans));
Note: This generates MathML for the matrix, presenting it in a nice format for the students. For the purpose
of grading the student response, however, you must use the $ans variable, not the MathML expression.
c. In the Enter Maple code to grade the student response region, enter
LinearAlgebra[Equal]($RESPONSE,$ans);
Note: The default grading code, evalb(($ans)-($RESPONSE)=0);, is not sufficient when working
with matrices. To check for matrix equality, use the command LinearAlgebra[Equal].
d. From the Select the type of expression you want to accept field, select Maple Syntax because students
will be entering a matrix.
e. From the Text/Symbolic entry field, select Symbolic entry only so that students can use the Equation
Editor to create the matrix rather than having to enter the Matrix command. See Figure 8.20.
f. Click Finish to save the question.
g. Add the question to one or more question groups, and then click Submit.
130 • 8 Authoring Methods for Questions
Figure 8.20: Defining a Simple Matrix Question
To answer this question, students interact with the Equation Editor. A student can right-click (Control-click on
Macintosh) in the Equation Editor to open the palettes. From the Matrix palette, the student must select the appropriate
size of matrix (see Figure 8.21). Then, they must fill in the values for the matrix entries.
8.6 Tutorials using the Question Editor • 131
Figure 8.21: Using the Matrix Palette
Note: One of the skills tested with this question is determining the appropriate matrix dimensions. With the more
limited Matrix question type, the size of matrix is already fixed, and the student simply enters the matrix entries.
See Also:
Maple-graded Questions in the Question Editor (page 103)
Maple-graded Question Type - Overview (page 167)
Editing with the Equation Editor (page 248)
Matrix Question with Infinitely Many Correct Answers
This tutorial describes how to create a question that asks for an invertible matrix. The grading of the student response
checks whether the determinant of the student's matrix is non-zero.
This question is created in the Question Editor as a Maple-graded question.
To create the question:
1. Select the Questions menu, then New Question. The Question Editor is displayed.
2. On the Question Name & Type screen,
a. In the Question Type drop-down list, select Maple-graded.
b. Enter the description Invertible Matrix.
c. Click Next.
132 • 8 Authoring Methods for Questions
3. On the Maple-graded Question and Answer screen,
a. Enter the text of the question:
Give an invertible matrix.
b. In the Enter Maple code that evaluates to the correct answer region, enter
M:=Matrix([[1,2],[3,4]]):
printf(MathML[ExportPresentation](M));
c. In the Enter Maple code to grade the student response region, enter
x:=LinearAlgebra[Determinant]($RESPONSE):
evalb(type(x,numeric) and x<>0);
d. From the Select the type of expression you want to accept field, select Maple Syntax because students
will be entering a matrix.
e. From the Text/Symbolic entry field, select Symbolic entry only so that students can use the Equation
Editor to create the matrix rather than having to enter the Matrix command. (See Figure 8.22).
f. Click Finish to save the question.
g. Add the question to one or more question groups, and then click Submit.
8.6 Tutorials using the Question Editor • 133
Figure 8.22: Invertible Matrix Question
For more information on Maple code, refer to your Maple system documentation.
Tutorial: Adaptive Question
This tutorial describes how to create an adaptive question that asks for the derivative of
. If a student gets the
question wrong, he is taken through a sequence of subquestions that guide him to the final answer. The student will
receive reduced credit for answering the question that way.
This question is created in the Question Editor as an Adaptive Question Designer question. The question presented to
the student will ask "What is the derivative of
w.r.t. ?" If the student answers the question correctly, he receives
full credit and the question is complete. However, if the student answers the question incorrectly, the next section of
the question will be presented. This section steps through the process of differentiating the given expression.
134 • 8 Authoring Methods for Questions
To create the question:
1. Select the Questions menu, then New Question. The Question Editor is displayed.
2. On the Question Name & Type screen,
a. In the Question Type drop-down list, select Adaptive Question Designer.
b. Enter the description Adaptive Question - Derivative.
3. Click the Add button in the Algorithm section.
4. Enter the following:
$eqn=x*cos(x);
5. Click Refresh to preview the variable you defined, then click Save.
6. Click Next.
7. In the Text of the question field, enter the following:
What is the derivative of
w.r.t. ?
8. Click the Insert/Edit Response Area button ( ).
9. The Edit Response Area dialog opens.
a. Select the Maple question type.
b. In the Answer region, enter
diff($eqn,x);
c. In the Grading Code region, ensure the grading code is:
is(($ANSWER)-($RESPONSE)=0);
d. From the Expression Type field select Formula. Click OK.
10. In the Text of the question field, enter the following text beginning on a new line:
Differentiate the function
in the following steps:
• apply the product rule:
• apply the power rule:
• apply the cosine rule:
11. Insert the cursor after the first bullet item, and click the Insert/Edit Response Area button ( ).
12. The Edit Response Area dialog opens.
a. Select the Maple question type.
b. In the Answer region, enter
Diff(x,x)*cos(x)+x*Diff(cos(x),x);
c. In the Grading Code region, ensure the grading code is:
is(($ANSWER)-($RESPONSE)=0);
d. From the Expression Type field, select Maple Syntax.
e. From the Text/Symbolic entry field, select Text entry only. Click OK.
13. Insert the cursor after the second bullet item, and click the Insert/Edit Response Area button ( ).
8.6 Tutorials using the Question Editor • 135
14. The Edit Response Area dialog opens.
a. Select the Maple question type.
b. In the Answer region, enter
cos(x)+x*Diff(cos(x),x);
c. In the Grading Code region, ensure the grading code is:
is(($ANSWER)-($RESPONSE)=0);
d. From the Expression Type field, select Maple Syntax.
e. From the Text/Symbolic entry field, select Text entry only. Click OK.
15. Insert the cursor after the third bullet item, and click the Insert/Edit Response Area button ( ).
16. The Edit Response Area dialog opens.
a. Select the Maple question type.
b. In the Answer region, enter
diff($eqn,x);
c. In the Grading Code region, ensure the grading code is:
is(($ANSWER)-($RESPONSE)=0);
d. From the Expression Type field, select Maple Syntax.
e. From the Text/Symbolic entry field, select Text entry only. Click OK.
17. In the Text of the question field, enter the following text beginning on a new line:
What is the derivative of
w.r.t. ?
18. Click the Insert/Edit Response Area button ( ).
19. The Edit Response Area dialog opens.
a. Select the Maple question type.
b. In the Grading Code region, enter
diff($eqn,x);
c. In the Enter Maple code to grade the student response region, enter the grading code:
is(($ANSWER)-($RESPONSE)=0);
d. From the Select the type of expression you want to accept field, select Formula. Click OK.
Next, define the section divisions and the properties for each section. The overall question layout with section boundaries is shown in Figure 8.23.
136 • 8 Authoring Methods for Questions
Figure 8.23: Adaptive Question with Three Sections
20. Insert the first section division in the desired location by clicking the Insert/Edit Adaptive Section button ( ).
21. The Edit Adaptive Section dialog opens.
a. Under the Section heading, set Attempts to 3. This gives the student three attempts to answer section 1
correctly.
b. Under the Section heading, select Allow Skip. This presents an I Give Up button alongside the Verify
button. If a student doesn't want to attempt the question 3 times, they can move on to the next section by
pressing this button.
c. Under the Correct heading, select Question Complete. This means that the question is finished if this
section is answered correctly.
d. Click OK to return to the question.
22. Insert the second section division in the desired location by clicking the Insert/Edit Adaptive Section button ( ).
23. The Edit Adaptive Section dialog opens.
a. Under the Section heading, set Attempts to 2. This gives the student two attempts to answer this section
correctly.
b. Also under the Section heading, set Passing Score to 0.6.
c. Under the Correct heading, set Weight to 0.4.
d. Under the Correct heading, select Display. This means that if this section is answered correctly, the answers
given in this section remain displayed when the question progresses to the final section.
e. Under the Incorrect heading, select Display. This means that if this section is answered incorrectly, the
answers given in this section also remain displayed when the question progresses to the final section. Click
OK.
For information on all the options on this screen, see Sections of an Adaptive Question (page 179).
24. Insert the last section division in the desired location by clicking the Insert/Edit Adaptive Section button ( ).
8.6 Tutorials using the Question Editor • 137
25. The Edit Adaptive Section dialog opens.
a. Under the Correct heading, set Weight to 0.5. Click OK.
26. Click Finish to save the question.
27. Add the question to one or more question groups and click Submit.
28. The Preview Question window opens. Preview the question and test it by selecting various responses.
See Also:
Adaptive Question Designer Questions in the Question Editor (page 99)
Adaptive Questions (page 179)
Tutorial: Working with Multipart Questions
This tutorial describes:
• Editing General Information (page 137)
• Adding and Editing Individual Question Parts of a Multipart Question (page 137)
• Partial Credit and Weighted Scoring (page 137)
For an introduction to multipart questions, see Multipart Questions (page 219).
For instructions on creating a new multipart question, see Multipart Questions in the Question Editor (page 107).
Editing the Top Level of a Multipart Question
1. In the Question Editor, select the multipart question to edit. Click Edit.
2. On the Question Name & Type screen, edit the description, solution, or other options. Click Next.
3. On the Question Statement & Weighting screen, you can:
• Edit the text to appear at the top of the question
• Specify preferences for numbering the parts using the Numbering style drop-down menu.
• Set question weighting for the parts
4. Click Finish.
Adding to and Editing Individual Question Parts of a Multipart Question
If your question includes variables, you must edit the plain text script file for it to preserve your variable definitions.
You can edit the script file by using the Question Editor Edit Source facility.
To edit using Edit Source:
1. In the Question Editor, select the multipart question to edit. Click Edit.
2. On the Question Name & Type screen, click Edit Source.
3. Edit the file.
4. To save your changes, click OK.
5. On the Question Name & Type screen, click Next.
6. On the Question Statement & Weighting screen, click Finish.
Setting Partial Credit and Question Weighting in a Multipart Question
You can set the weighted scoring of individual question parts in a multipart question.
138 • 8 Authoring Methods for Questions
To set the weighting for each component part of a multipart question:
1. In the Question Editor, select the multipart question to edit. Click Edit.
2. On the Question Name & Type screen, click Next.
3. On the Question Statement & Weighting screen, update the weighting. The part weighting is relative. The default
setting is to equally weight each part. That is, if there are x parts in the question, each part is weighted 1/x of the
total value assigned to the question in an assignment. To change the relative weighting of question parts, use the
plus and minus buttons in the Weighting column.
4. Click Finish.
Example
Assume you have a multipart question with 3 parts. Initially, each part is assigned a weight of 1, which indicates that
1/3 of the total value is assigned to each question. (You determine the total question value during assignment definition.)
To update the weighting of the first part of the question to 5 times that of the other two parts, set the weightings to:
Part 1 - 5 (that is, 5/7 of the total question value)
Part 2 - 1 (that is, 1/7 of the total question value)
Part 3 - 1 (that is, 1/7 of the total question value)
If you add the question to an assignment, and set its value in the assignment as 10 points, the value for the question
parts would be:
Part 1: 5/7 x 10 total points = 7.14 points
Part 2: 1/7 x 10 total points = 1.43 points
Part 3: 1/7 x 10 total points = 1.43 points
Total = 10.00 points
See Also:
Multipart Questions in the Question Editor (page 107)
Multipart Questions - Sequencing Parts (page 220)
8.7 Question Repository
To access the question repository, from the Class Homepage, select Content Manager>Question Repository.
The question repository is used to create, organize, and search for questions.
You can also access the Maple T.A. Cloud through the Question Repository to import and export questions with other
users.
The default view of the question repository shows your all the questions in your current class, organized by groups
and subgroups. You can also view questions in all of your classes, your entire institution, or from the Maple T.A.
Cloud.
Searching for Questions in the Question Repository
You can search for questions by keyword, language, difficulty, question type, or information fields.
To view questions in a group, click the Groups tab on the left side of the question repository and then select a group.
You can also search for questions by Subjects or Assignments by clicking the tabs respectfully.
8.7 Question Repository • 139
By default, the Groups tab is selected.
Some questions may not belong to any group. To search for these questions, select Questions not in groups.
Questions that have been deleted, are not automatically deleted from the Maple T.A. database. You can still view these
deleted questions by selecting Deleted Questions.
Once in that group, you have the option to Undelete a question or Permanently Delete a question.
You will also see your inherited questions from your parent class.
To perform a search, type the keywords into the search field. You will notice that as you type in your keywords, the
results will update accordingly. The search results are shown in the right panel of the question repository screen. The
search feature in Maple T.A. searches the question title, text, description, solution, and feedback. See Figure 8.24.
Figure 8.24: Search Results in the Question Repository
You can now click on the drop-down menu beside the question name to perform actions on that particular question.
Table 8.5 actions available for a single question within your current class.
Table 8.4: Question Repository: Available actions through the drop-down menu
Button
Preview
Edit
Rename
Clone
Export
Delete
Description
preview what the question looks like in a new window
edit the question
rename the question
clone the question (creates a copy of a question)
export the question to a zip file to save to your computer
delete the question
Not all these options are available for all questions. Inherited questions can only be previewed from this drop-down
menu.
140 • 8 Authoring Methods for Questions
Table 8.5 lists buttons that may be available for each question within your current class.
Table 8.5: Question Repository: Available actions using bottom buttons
Button
Export
Clone
Remove from
group
Delete
Description
export the question to a zip file to save to your computer
clone the question (creates a copy of a question)
removes the question from the group
delete the question
You can select multiple questions at once and perform the above actions.
Not all these options are available for all questions. Inherited questions cannot be deleted. However, you can clone an
inherited question to create a local, editable copy of the question. You can also export an inherited question to save to
your computer.
You can push Select All to select all questions that are shown.
You can push Filter questions to perform an advanced search using keyword, language, difficulty, question type, or
information fields.
You can choose how to sort questions by clicking the drop-down menu that displays Sort by Weight by default. The
other sorting options include Sort by Date Created, Sort by Date Modified, and Sort by Name.
Editing Question Detail in the Question Repository
You can edit details of a single question by either clicking the question name itself or by clicking Edit using the dropdown menu beside a question.
Table 8.6 lists actions that are available when editing a question within your current class.
Table 8.6: Question Repository: Available actions in the question edit screen
Action
Question Text
Description
Statistics
Algorithm
Hints
Solution
Feedback
Revisions
Question type
Difficulty
Authors
Privacy
Language
Sort Weight
Created
Modified
Subjects
Question Groups
Information Fields
Description
preview, edit source, or edit the question text
edit or view the description of the question
view different statistics for the question
delete the question
edit or view different hints for the question
edit or view the solution for the question
edit or view the feedback for the question
view revision history for the question
view the question type for the question
edit or view the difficulty for this question
view the authors for this question
view or edit the difficulty for this question
view or edit the language for this question
view or edit the sort weight for this question
view the date for when the question was created
view the date for when the question was last modified
view or edit the subjects for this question
view or edit the questions group this question will be a part of
view or edit the information fields for this question
8.7 Question Repository • 141
Action
Report this
question to
administrators
Description
report the question to the administrator
Question Text
You can click the Preview button to view what the question looks like in a new window
You can also edit the question in two different ways. Push the Edit Source button to edit the source code of the question.
Push the Edit button to edit the question the same way you would create one.
When searching the question repository, the question text is included in what is searched.
Description
You can view the description of the question or click the Edit button to create or revise the existing description.
When searching the question repository, the description is included in what is searched.
For an overview of question descriptions, see The name Field: Using Question Descriptions (page 153).
Statistics
You can view various statistics for the question.
For a description of what each statistic means, see Item Statistics (page 60).
Algorithm
You can view any algorithms for the question or click the Edit button to create or revise an existing algorithm. You
can also click the click here to add one link to create or revise an existing algorithm.
For an overview of creating algorithms in questions, see Adding and Editing Algorithms (page 83).
Hints
You can view any hints for the question or click the Edit button to create or revise an existing hint. You can also click
the click here to add one link to create or revise an existing hint.
For an overview of creating hints in questions, see Adding and Editing Hints (page 87).
Solution
You can view a solution for the question or click the Edit button to create or revise an existing solution. You can also
click the click here to add one link to create or revise an existing solution.
When searching the question repository, the solution is included in what is searched.
For an overview of creating a solution for a question, see Adding and Editing a Solution (page 88).
Feedback
You can view feedback for the question or click the Edit button to create or revise existing feedback. You can also
click the click here to add one link to create or revise existing feedback.
When searching the question repository, the feedback is included in what is searched.
For an overview of creating feedback for a question, see Adding and Editing Comments (page 83).
142 • 8 Authoring Methods for Questions
Revisions
You can view revision history for the question. For each revision, you can click the date or the View button to view a
preview of what that revision looked like. You can push the Clone button to clone the revision into a new question.
Question type
You can view the question type of the question.
When using the Filter questions feature in the question repository, the question type can be filtered.
For an overview of all the different question types, see Question Types (page 159).
Difficulty
You can view the difficulty of the question. You can also choose a difficulty for this question using the drop-down
menu.
When using the Filter questions feature in the question repository, the difficulty can be filtered.
Authors
You can view the authors of the question. If you have made a revision to the question, you can push the Edit my attribution button to edit your authoring attribution.
If you have imported content, you will see who the original authors were.
Privacy
You can view the privacy of the question or choose what type of privacy you want it to have using the drop-down list.
• If you select class instructors, only instructors of this particular class will see the question in their question repository.
• If you select all instructors at this school, all instructors of your institution will see the question in their question
repository.
• If you select all Maple T.A. instructors and push the Publish button, all Maple T.A. instructors will see the question
in the Maple T.A. Cloud through the question repository.
If you push the Publish button, it will automatically set the privacy to all Maple T.A. instructors and publish the
question to the Maple T.A. Cloud.
If you set the privacy to all Maple T.A. instructors but you don't push the Publish button, the question will not be
published to the Maple T.A. Cloud.
If you lower the privacy level from all Maple T.A. instructors to either all instructors at this school or class instructors, the question will be unpublished from the Maple T.A. Cloud automatically.
Language
You can view the language of the question. You can also choose a language for this question using the drop-down
menu.
When using the Filter questions feature in the question repository, the language can be filtered.
Sort Weight
You can view the sort weight of the question. You can also choose a sort weight for this question using the drop-down
menu.
Questions with lower weights appear earlier in the question repository.
8.7 Question Repository • 143
Created
You can view the date the question was created.
Modified
You can view the modified date of the last revision.
Subjects
You can view the subjects of the question. You can also choose the subjects for this question by clicking the Edit
button and then checking the boxes for the subjects you want associated with this question. Push the Done button once
you have chosen the subjects you want associated with the question.
When using the Filter questions feature in the question repository, the subjects can be filtered.
Question Groups
You can view the question groups of the question. You can also choose the question groups for this question by
clicking the Edit button and then checking the boxes for the question groups you want associated with this question.
Push the Done button once you have chosen the question groups you want associated with the question.
When browsing the question repository, you can view different question groups.
For an overview of organizing questions in the question repository, see Organizing Questions in the Question
Repository (page 143).
Information Fields
You can view information fields for the question or click the Edit button to create or revise an existing information
field.
If you either value of the information field itself, you will be shown all the questions with that information field in the
question repository.
When using the Filter questions feature in the question repository, the right side of an information field can be filtered.
For an overview of creating a solution for a question, see Adding and Editing Information Fields (page 87).
Report this question to administrators
You can report a question to an administrator to review by clicking the Report this question to administrators link.
You need to fill out a message explaining what is wrong with the question and then push Send to send it to the administrators to look over. Alternatively, push the Cancel button to cancel the report to administrators.
Organizing Questions in the Question Repository
In the question repository, questions are organized into groups. You can add a new group, rename a group, add a child
group, or delete a group.
You can also add questions to other groups or subjects by doing the following:
1. Find the question(s) you want to put in another group or subject.
2. With those questions still selected, navigate to the group or subject you want to add these questions to.
3. Push the << link next to the group or subject you want to add these questions to.
Note: If you delete a group, the questions in that group are no longer associated with a group. To find such questions,
select Questions not in groups.
144 • 8 Authoring Methods for Questions
Deleting Questions from the Question Repository
In the question repository, you can delete a question.
To delete a question, click the drop-down menu next to the question and click Delete. (Alternatively, check the box
next to the question you want to delete and click the Delete button at the bottom of the question repository).
To view the deleted questions, in the Question Repository, select the Deleted questions group. In addition to the
standard actions, there are these actions:
• Undelete
• Permanently Delete
• Cleanup
Undelete restores the selected deleted questions. The questions are restored to their original groups.
Permanently Delete removes the selected questions shown on the current page of the search results.
Note: A question that is referenced by an assignment or by test results will not be removed. You must use the Assignment
Editor to delete the reference to the question (see Assignment Editor Step 2: Select Questions (page 28) ), and then
save the assignment (see Assignment Editor Step 4: Review & Finish (page 34) ).
Cleanup performs a full cleanup of the question repository for the current class. The Cleanup action will:
• permanently delete all deleted questions
• permanently delete all unused old revisions of all questions (including earlier versions of active questions)
Note: A question that is referenced by an assignment or by test results will not be removed.
Previewing a Question
1. find the question you want to preview by searching for it in the Question Repository
2. In the right frame, in the search results, click the drop-down menu next to the question and click Preview. (Alternatively, click the name of the question to preview it).
You can also preview a question when you are editing it by pushing the Preview button in the Question Text area.
In Preview Mode, you can interact with the question as a student, for example, enter a response to the question in the
input cells or use check boxes and radio buttons. To test the grading of the question, select Grade.
Exporting Work to Your Hard Drive
You can back up questions by downloading them to your hard drive. The questions are saved in a zip file.
To export a copy of your work on the local hard drive on your computer:
1. From the Question Repository, find the questions you wish to save.
2. Select the check boxes beside the questions you wish to export.
3. Click Export button. The files are saved as questions.qu.
You can also export a single question by clicking the drop-down menu next to it and clicking Export.
Why Export Your Questions?
You may want to have your own local copy of your questions (which normally reside on the Maple T.A. server). You
may also want to share your content with others who are not part of your institution. If you save your questions to a
question file (.qu file) or to a course module and share that file with another instructor, that instructor can import the
.qu file or course module into the Question Repository for their class in their instance of Maple T.A.
8.8 Sharing Questions • 145
Note: If you make changes to the .qu file (only recommended if you are familiar with the syntax and structure of
these files), you can update the questions in your own class by importing them back into the Question Repository.
In the QU file, Maple T.A. uses unique question identifiers to allow question updates during subsequent QU file imports.
See Also
Opening a Saved Question Bank File (page 147)
8.8 Sharing Questions
Sharing content makes a wider range of questions available to all users. You can share questions from your class with
your other classes you instruct, other instructors in the system, or even users all around the world with the Maple T.A
Cloud.
Questions belong to a class. The creator of a question becomes the owner of the question. Questions can only be
modified by the owner.
Instructors can obtain questions in three ways:
1. Inherit a question from a parent class. Child classes automatically inherit questions from their parent class.
Instructors can use an inherited question in their assignments, but cannot modify the question. Only the original
owner (creator) of the question can modify the question, and those changes will be automatically propagated to all
subscribers' question groups. This is similar to the Question Bank inheritance rules in Maple T.A. 4.0.
2. Clone a question (public or private) from the question repository or Maple T.A. Cloud. This operation creates a
local copy, or clone, of the original question and sets the owner to the instructor who made the clone.
Instructors who clone a question can edit the cloned question. (No one other than the instructor who created the
cloned question will be able to modify the clone.) Changes made to the original question will not be visible in cloned
questions.
When you inherit or clone a question, it is available in the question repository for your class, and you can use it in assignments.
To determine which method of obtaining questions is appropriate for your class, take the following behaviors into
consideration and choose the method that makes the most sense for you:
• When an instructor inherits a question, the instructor should expect it to be modified by the question owner at any
time without notice. However, the question is likely to be a valid question with all resources (images, etc.) in place.
• When an instructor clones a question, the instructor becomes the full owner of the clone, and can be certain that it
will not be edited by anyone else. However, there is a danger of losing resources (images, etc.) because the cloning
process does not copy the resource files to the class web site; therefore, it is possible that the resources files may be
deleted by the original author at any time.
To share a question:
1. In the Question Repository, find the question you wish to share and use the drop-down menu to edit the question.
2. Find the Privacy option. You can choose what type of privacy you want it to have using the drop-down list.
• If you select class instructors, only instructors of this particular class will see the question in their question repository.
• If you select all instructors at this school, all instructors of your institution will see the question in their question
repository.
• If you select all Maple T.A. instructors and push the Publish button, all Maple T.A. instructors will see the question
in the Maple T.A. Cloud through the question repository.
If you push the Publish button, it will automatically set the privacy to all Maple T.A. instructors and publish the
question to the Maple T.A. Cloud.
146 • 8 Authoring Methods for Questions
If you set the privacy to all Maple T.A. instructors but you don't push the Publish button, the question will not be
published to the Maple T.A. Cloud.
If you lower the privacy level from all Maple T.A. instructors to either all instructors at this school or class instructors, the question will be unpublished from the Maple T.A. Cloud automatically.
This method works well when you are sharing a limited number of questions. Other methods for sharing content include
using question banks and course modules and making your class a feature class.
To clone a question:
1. In the Question Repository, find the question()s that you wish to clone.
2. Use the drop-down menu to clone a single question or click the check boxes next to the multiple questions you wish
to clone and push the Clone button at the bottom of the page.
Note: Newly cloned questions may not belong to a group. In that case, you can find these questions by selecting
Questions not in groups. You can then add them to a group.
Inherited questions are not obtained individually. A child class inherits content from the parent class. Thus, in a child
class, inherited questions automatically appear in your question repository. For more information, see Shared
Classes (page 13).
See Also:
Course Modules (page 67)
Creating a Shared Class (page 14)
8.9 Question Banks
What is a Question Bank?
Question banks are plain text files, with a .qu extension, which store sets of Maple T.A. questions. Question banks
are organized into topics, which contain individual questions. Use topics to organize questions, for example, to match
the structure of your course. Topics can also indicate learning objectives, key topics, or other organizational schemes.
Using the questions in question banks, you can create assignments.
Topic Structure within Question Banks
Each question bank consists of topics, with questions organized by topic. Questions consist of a series of related
statements, all containing the same prefix indicating the topic and question numbers.
• Topics must be numbered in ascending order, starting at 1.
• Questions and topics must be numbered consecutively.
• Each topic has a name, which is a text string set using the line:
qu.x.topic=<topic_name>@
• x is the topic number
The following example shows a question bank with two topics. There are two questions in the first topic, and only one
in the second topic. In general, question banks contain many questions in each topic.
Example
qu.1.topic=Differentiating [email protected]
[email protected]
qu.1.1.question=What is the derivative of x<SUP>2</SUP>[email protected]
[email protected]
8.9 Question Banks • 147
[email protected]
qu.1.2.question=What is the derivative of x<SUP>3</SUP>[email protected]
qu.1.2.answer=3x<SUP>2</SUP>[email protected]
qu.2.topic=Differentiating [email protected]
[email protected]
qu.2.1.question=What is the derivative of e<SUP>x</SUP>[email protected]
qu.2.1.answer=e<SUP>x</SUP>@
Question File Structure Details
Questions are stored with embedded HTML and MathML tags, in a text file called a question file (.qu plain text script
file) that consists of a list of topics. In each topic is a list of questions.
Each question file contains one or more topics. Each topic has a corresponding topic statement in the script file.
qu.x.topic=<topic_name>@
• x is the topic number
The other statements in a question script file define questions. Each question consists of a series of related statements,
all containing the same prefix, which indicates the topic and question numbers. They are of the form:
qu.x.y.<field_name>=<data>@
• x is the topic number
• y is the number of the question within the topic
• Each question has a number of fields that specify, for example, the text of the question, the correct answer, additional
comments displayed when graded, and hints. Some fields are required, others are optional.
• Question fields are populated with data that can span several lines of text.
• The end of each data field statement must be marked with an @ character.
• Questions and topics must be numbered consecutively and arranged in increasing order. That is, x starts at 1 and y
starts at 1 for each new topic.
See Also:
Question Fields (page 149)
Question Modes (Question Types) (page 151)
Opening a Saved Question Bank File
While editing a question bank, it is recommended that you back up your work by exporting it to your hard drive. You
can upload the saved question bank file (plain text script file), and then continue editing or save it in your class web
site.
To open a question bank file that is saved on your hard drive:
1. In the Question Repository page, select the Questions menu, then Import Question Bank.
2. Click the Browse button and navigate to the source file on your hard drive. Click Open.
3. Select how the questions will be organized into groups when importing.
4. Click Import to import the question bank. The questions from the question bank are imported to the question repository.
Important: You may see the following message when you import questions:
Maple T.A. has populated your QU file with unique question identifiers to allow question updates during
subsequence QU file imports.
148 • 8 Authoring Methods for Questions
Please download the file and use it instead of the original one if you plan to modify and re-import the questions
you have just imported.
By using unique IDs for questions and assignments, the system allows content updates through .QU file and course
module imports. If you plan to import a modification of this file again, click the message to download the QU file with
generated unique identifiers.
Note: When you upload a question bank file into the system, it performs a set of validation routines to ensure that the
questions function. Occasionally, you may encounter an error with a variable name or definition upon uploading. The
following is a summary of the system's analysis of variables upon initial loading of a question bank file.
• For variables displayed within HTML text, for example, in a question statement or feedback area, a problematic
variable does not produce a data value generated from its definition. Instead its variable name is displayed, highlighted
in red.
• For variables appearing in non-displayed field parameters, for example, the answer to a question, the variables
$ANSWER and $RESPONSE default to 0. All others have the variable name passed.
See Also
Exporting Work to Your Hard Drive (page 144)
Creating and Opening Modules
If you want to share not just your questions, but also images and assignments that you have created based on those
questions, you should use course modules. Once you create a course module, you can send it to other instructors who
can upload it into their classes and use it as is or alter it to better suit their needs. Course modules can be uploaded to
other installations of Maple T.A. not just the one at your institution.
To create a course module:
1. Log in as an instructor and click on the class that contains the content you want to share.
2. Click Content Manager, then Course Modules.
3. Click New.
4. Select the content that you want included in the course module. Click OK.
5. Enter a name for the module. Optionally, enter a description for any of the items you have included in the module.
Click OK. The course module now appears in the list of course modules for your class.
To open a module, you need to import it and install it.
To import a course module:
1. Log in as an instructor and click on the class in which you want to import the content.
2. Click Content Manager, then Course Modules.
3. Click Import.
4. Click Browse... to locate the course module file (.zip) on your computer.
5. Click Import. The system will display the content from the course module. If there are items that use the same
name as those in your class, they will be highlighted in yellow on the upload screen.
6. Select the check boxes beside the items you want to install and click Install. The selected items are installed in your
class.
8.9 Question Banks • 149
Question Fields
Each question must contain mode, question, and answer statements. In addition, there are many optional fields
that can be added to questions to enhance functionality, add comments or hints, or otherwise define or expand the
capabilities of the question. Table 8.7 lists selected available question fields and summarizes related information.
Table 8.7: Question Fields
qu.x.y.
Required or optional
<field name>
Can include
HTML or
MathML?
No
Field Type
Description /
Function
internal directive
System command that
identifies the question
type
Specifies subtype of
Maple question. For
Maple Syntax
questions, it is maple.
For Maple Formula
questions, it is
formula.
For Maple-graded
questions, specifies the
student entry mode.
Can be 0, 1, or 2. For
maple questions, it
can be 0 (for text-entry
mode) or 1 (for symbol
mode). For formula
questions, it must be 1.
Displays text that
identifies the individual
question.
Indicates use of HTML
editing in the question.
Set directly or
automatically by
Question Editor.
The question statement.
Can contain any
combination of text,
MathML, HTML,
tables, or references to
images or objects.
Contains variable
definitions for use in
the question. Must
conform to the system
formula and variable
syntax.
Defines correct answer
for use in grading. If
mathematical question,
must conform to the
system math/formula
syntax.
mode
required
type
required (in Maple-graded No
questions)
internal directive
allow2d
optional (in Maple-graded No
questions)
internal directive
name
optional
Yes
display - no variables
editing
optional
No
internal directive
question
required
Yes
display - can contain variables
algorithm
optional
No
internal directive
answer
required (except in essay, No
matching, and
Maple-graded questions)
internal directive
150 • 8 Authoring Methods for Questions
qu.x.y.
Required or optional
<field name>
answer.number
answer.unit
required (in numeric
questions)
Can include
HTML or
MathML?
No
Field Type
Description /
Function
internal directive
Defines correct number
and units of answers in
numeric questions.
Maple code to grade
student responses and
prevent cheating
Maple plot command
that plots a student
response or related
function. Available in
all Maple-graded
questions.
Defines grading mode
in numeric questions.
Required in numeric
questions.
Reference to a
customized table of
units
Number of significant
digits. Required for
exact_sigd and
toler_sigd grading
modes in numeric
questions.
Percentage error (or
tolerance). Required
for toler_perc
grading mode in
numeric questions.
Absolute error (or
tolerance). Required
for toler_sigd and
toler_abs grading
modes in numeric
questions.
Absolute tolerance for
formula questions
(including subtypes)
Contains the ith choice
in a multiple choice or
multiple selection
question. The values of
i in a question must
start at 1 and be
consecutive.
Contains feedback
provided to students
upon grading. The
comment.i field
provides
response-specific
comments in multiple
choice questions. The
maple
required (in Maple-graded No
questions)
internal directive
plot
optional
No
internal directive
grading
optional
No
internal directive
units
optional
No
internal directive
digit
optional
No
internal directive
perc
optional
No
internal directive
err
optional
No
internal directive
tolerance
optional
No
internal directive
choice.i
optional
Yes
display - can contain variables
comment
optional
Yes
display - can contain variables
or
comment.i
8.9 Question Banks • 151
qu.x.y.
Required or optional
<field name>
Can include
HTML or
MathML?
Field Type
hint.i
optional
Yes
display - can contain variables
solution
optional
Yes
display - can contain variables
info
optional - user specified
No
internal directive
Description /
Function
values of i in a
question must start at 1
and be consecutive.
Contains a hint. The
values of i in a
question must start at 1
and be consecutive.
Contains a worked
solution. Shown only
in Study Session
assignments.
Contains descriptive
information about the
question. Multiple user
specified fields and
corresponding values
can be contained in this
statement.
Definitions
• Internal Directive fields are commands that are evaluated and performed by the system. They cannot contain
HTML or MathML tags and must conform to the system syntax for algorithms, formulas, math expressions,
or command switches.
• Display fields hold question information that is used in displaying the question or related feedback, hints, or
solutions. The topic and name fields cannot contain variable values because algorithmic variables are set at
the level of the question.
Question Modes (Question Types)
Every question must begin with a mode statement. Using the mode statement, Maple T.A. formats the question on
the page.
• Different question types require different fields in their definition. For example, you must specify every choice
for a multiple choice question as a choice.i field, whereas for a formula question you specify only the correct
numeric answer.
• The question type is entered in the mode field. The question type specification can be all lower-case letters or
have initial upper-case letters. For example, the following line would designate the fifth question in topic 3 as
multiple choice:
qu.3.5.mode=multiple [email protected]
Table 8.8 lists all the Maple T.A. question types and their corresponding mode strings.
Table 8.8: List of Question Types and Corresponding modes
Question Type
Blanks
mode string
qu.x.y.mode=<question_type>@
[email protected]
[text] [menu] [formula] options—This question
type has been deprecated.
Clickable imagemap
qu.x.y.mode=Clickable [email protected]
152 • 8 Authoring Methods for Questions
Question Type
mode string
qu.x.y.mode=<question_type>@
Constant of integration/Formula mod C
qu.x.y.mode=Formula Mod [email protected]
Customized symbolic palette
[email protected]
Equation
[email protected]
Essay
[email protected]
Formula
[email protected]
Formula with physical units
qu.x.y.mode=Dimensioned [email protected]
Key words
qu.x.y.mode=Key [email protected]
List
[email protected]
Maple-graded
[email protected]
Matching
[email protected]
Matrices with numeric/formula entries
[email protected]
Multipart
[email protected]
Multipart formula
qu.x.y.mode=Multipart [email protected]
Multiple choice
qu.x.y.mode=Multiple [email protected]
Multiple selection
qu.x.y.mode=Multiple [email protected]
Non-permuting multiple choice
qu.x.y.mode=Non Permuting Multiple [email protected]
Non-permuting multiple selection
qu.x.y.mode=Non Permuting Multiple
[email protected]
Numeric (with or without units)
[email protected]
Ordered list of formulas
qu.x.y.mode=Formula [email protected]
Question Designer
[email protected]
Restricted formula
qu.x.y.mode=Restricted [email protected]
Short phrase—This question type has been
deprecated.
True-or-false
qu.x.y.mode=Short [email protected]
Unordered list of formulas
qu.x.y.mode=Multi [email protected]
Vector
[email protected]
qu.x.y.mode=True [email protected]
For more information on each question type, see Question Types (page 159).
Required Question Elements
Each question must contain the following elements:
• Question mode
• Question statement
• Answer
In the following descriptions, the variables x and y represent the topic and question numbers.
Question Mode
Format: qu.x.y.mode=<question_type>@
The required mode statement declares the type of question. You must include it as part of the opening statement for
the question.
8.9 Question Banks • 153
Question Statement
Format: qu.x.y.question=<question_text>@
The required question statement holds the text of the question. Question statements can include any combination of
HTML tags for formatting text, integrated HTML graphic or web media references, or MathML expressions.
Answer
Format: qu.x.y.answer=<correct_answer>@
The required answer statement specifies the correct answer value for the question. For more information on this field,
see The answer Field (page 153).
Example
qu.1.topic=Basic Topic [email protected]
qu.1.1.mode=Multiple [email protected]
qu.1.1.question=What is the sum of 5 and [email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
See Also:
Question File Structure Details (page 147)
The name Field: Using Question Descriptions
The name field allows you to provide a description for each question. A descriptive title will help you identify individual questions from lists of questions shown in the Question Editor and the Assignment Editor. The name field
is not required, however it is recommended.
The name field accepts HTML formatting.
Example
qu.x.y.name=Travel time for block on inclined plane
#[email protected]
Note: If you omit the name field, or leave the description blank, the system substitutes the question type for the description. This
can result in questions that show many similar items (for example, Multiple Choice, Multiple Selection, Multiple Choice, Multiple
Selection, and Multiple Selection).
The answer Field
All question types in the system (excluding Maple-graded, Matching, and Essay) must contain an answer field that
indicates the criterion for grading the question. The answer field is a command that the system evaluates and performs,
if necessary. The output is compared against student responses for grading.
• Because the value of the answer field is processed by the system and compared to student responses, the
answer field must not contain HTML, extraneous text (not part of the required answer), or special formatting.
• Answer field values for mathematics questions are processed by the system math parser, and must be entered
in proper system math syntax or MathML. Student responses are processed by the parser and must reduce to
mathematically equivalent values to be graded correct.
154 • 8 Authoring Methods for Questions
Table 8.9: Answer Field Requirements by Question Type
Question Type
Non-Numeric mathematics question types
Numeric questions
Answer Field
Use the ? operator in the answer field value to specify a margin of error or degree
of tolerance in a student response.
For more information, see Setting a Margin of Error in Non-numeric
Questions (page 244).
The value of the answer field must contain answer.num and answer.units
definitions. You can assign null to the answer.units field, that is,
[email protected], for answers without units.
For Numeric questions, use the specialized answer tolerance fields. See
Numeric (page 174) . For general information on tolerance, see Controlling Answer
Tolerance (page 243).
The value of the answer field indicates which response(s) are correct.
Multiple Choice, Multiple Selection,
True-or-False, and Clickable Image questions
Free-response questions with text fields (for The value of the answer field must be a text string that is used to evaluate the
example, Key Word and List questions)
correctness of a student response.
Maple-graded questions do not contain an
answer field
Matching questions do not contain an
answer field.
Essay questions do not contain an answer
field.
For more information, see Rules for Grading Free Response Questions (page 188)
You must specify Maple code to evaluate the student response. For Maple Formula
questions, the system parses the student response, and then passes the parsed result
to Maple. For Maple Syntax questions with the text entry response option, the student
response is passed unparsed to Maple.
For more information, see .
The matching items are defined using pairs of statements:
term.i=<label_i>@
term.i.def.1=<correct_match_of_label_i>@
where the values of i in a question must start at 1 and be consecutive.
They are not graded by the system.
If a student response is incorrect, the default system behavior is to display the answer field value. For more information on this behavior, see Tutorial: Displaying Answers vs. Formulas for Answers (page 269). To display custom
feedback, use the comment field.
See Also:
The Answer Field Evaluation and Requirements (page 295)
Basic Math Syntax in the System (page 240)
The info Field
The info field allows you to add information subfields to a question to indicate subtopic, learning objective, level of
difficulty, authorship, ownership, or other information. The info field is not required.
The info field values:
• Allow sorting and filtering in the question repository and during assignment creation
• Facilitate performance reporting by information field category (for example, assignment results by learning
objective)
8.9 Question Banks • 155
Example
qu.1.1.info=
subtopic=Subtraction;
difficulty=Easy;
learningobj=Subtraction of two small integers;
instructor=John Smith;
course=Math 100
@
Hints, Coaching, and Performance Feedback
In a hint field, you can enter a hint that is displayed in assignments. (For information on adding hints using the
Question Editor, see Adding and Editing Hints (page 87).)
As an instructor:
• You define hints in questions.
• You can optionally define how much a student is penalized for using a hint.
• You enable the display of hints in Step 3 - Rules & Policies of the Assignment Editor so that a student can
view them during an assignment.
• You can enable the display of hints in any assignment mode. The system also displays hints after grading if a
student response is incorrect.
• If you do not enable hints, they are displayed only as feedback when a question is graded incorrect.
• You can create any number of hints for a question.
• Important: When creating questions that have a specific number of significant digits in the correct answer, it
is recommended that you use the sig function to create algorithmic variables. By using these variables in the
question statement, feedback, hints, and solution, ensure that values are displayed with the correct number of
significant digits.
If you provide hints on an assignment, student can view the hints for a question at any time during an assignment session
prior to submitting questions for grading by clicking the links for the numbered hints, for example, Hint 1 and Hint
2. The hints will appear as hyperlinks below the question answer region.
Example
[email protected]
qu.x.y.question=What is the derivative of x<SUP>2</SUP>[email protected]
[email protected]
qu.x.y.hint.1=Differentiate the expression term by [email protected]
qu.x.y.hint.2=The derivative of x<SUP>2</SUP> is [email protected]
qu.x.y.hint.3=The derivative of the constant term is [email protected]
See Also:
Configuring Feedback Options (page 44)
Comments and Performance Feedback
Providing performance feedback is a two-step process in the Maple T.A. system.
Step 1: Create content using the comment field for each question. (For information on adding a comment using
the Question Editor, see Adding and Editing Comments (page 83).) This topic discusses this necessary first step.
Important: When creating questions that have a specific number of significant digits in the correct answer, it is
recommended that you use the sig function to create algorithmic variables. By using these variables in the question
156 • 8 Authoring Methods for Questions
statement, feedback, hints, and solution, you ensure that values are displayed with the correct number of significant
digits. For more information on the sig function, see decimal(n, x), sig(n, x), int(x) (page 279).
Step 2: When creating an assignment, specify if and how feedback is displayed in Step 3 - Set Policies of the
Assignment Editor. You can display information including the:
• Final grade for the test
• Correct answer for each question
• comment for each question
You can also exclude question-by-question grading and question-specific feedback from the final assignment
reports displayed to a student.
Step 1 Details
The comment Field
To return custom feedback when a student enters an incorrect response, each question type supports a comment field.
The comment is displayed after grading. In the comment field, you can include additional explanations about solution
method or final answer.
You can create response-specific comments for multiple choice questions, in which a distinct comment is displayed
for each choice. For more information, see Multiple Choice Questions (page 220).
If you do not specify a comment for a question, the system displays only the correct answer.
For details on using the feedback in assignments, see Assignment Editor Step 3: Setting Policies (page 31).
Using Complete Solutions (Study Session Assignments)
Note: Information in the solution field is available only in Study Session assignments. To display feedback, for example,
step-by-step solutions, in all assignment modes, use the comment field.
In the solution field, you can enter a worked solution that is displayed in Study Session assignments. (For information on adding a complete solution using the Question Editor, see Adding and Editing Comments (page 83).) In
these sessions, the student can view the solution before entering an answer or after submitting the question to be graded.
When the system grades a question in a Study Session assignment, it states whether the response was correct or incorrect.
It does not display the correct answer. The solution can be an essential teaching component in the session.
Important: When creating questions that have a specific number of significant digits in the correct answer, it is recommended that you use the sig function to create algorithmic variables. By using these variables in the question statement,
feedback, hints, and solution, you ensure that values are displayed with the correct number of significant digits.
Example
[email protected]
qu.x.y.question=
What is the derivative of x<SUP>2</SUP>[email protected]
[email protected]
qu.x.y.hint.1=Differentiate the expression term by [email protected]
qu.x.y.hint.2=The derivative of x<SUP>2</SUP> is [email protected]
qu.x.y.hint.3=The derivative of the constant term is [email protected]
qu.x.y.solution=
d/dx( x<SUP>2</SUP> + 3x + 1 ) =
(d/dx)x<SUP>2</SUP> + (d/dx)3x + (d/dx)1 =
8.9 Question Banks • 157
2x + 3
@
Special Characters in Questions
The system supports the use of text, HTML, and MathML for the display of special characters and formatting in the
following question fields.
• topic
• name
• question
• choice
• hint
• solution
• comment
For maximum compatibility, use only character tags from the HTML 4.0 specification.
MathML tags are recommended for special scientific characters such as:
• Algebraic symbols
• Greek letters (and other variable labels)
• Equation elements, including operators and arrows
The system uses a cross-platform MathML rendering technology to ensure that special characters rendered in MathML
appear consistently on W3C®-compliant browsers.
To generate MathML tags that encode a specific character, use one of the following authoring methods.
• LaTeX Authoring Overview (page 303)
• MathML Authoring with MathType (page 254)
• Editing with the Equation Editor (page 248)
For other special characters (for example, non-English characters) you can use any acceptable HTML tabs, employing
the Unicode expression for the character. Note that some platforms and browsers that are non-standard do not map
Unicode HTML expressions correctly, so results can be unpredictable. Therefore, it is recommended that you use
MathML tags for all math and science content. For more information, see http://www.unicode.org.
Important: In other question fields (not listed here), you must avoid HTML and MathML tags, and limit field content to plain
text only. Specifically, HTML and MathML tags in the answer and algorithm field values are rejected by the system. Typically
these fields are used to provide commands to the system for processing the question or grading. Hence, they must be formatted
according to the system command syntax.
158 • 8 Authoring Methods for Questions
9 Question Types
9.1 Question Types Available in the System
There are many different question types available in the system. The following list describes some of the most-used
question types.
• Question Designer — A Question Designer question is created through the Question Editor. The Question Designer
is a powerful and flexible question container that can hold multiple response areas. The response areas are answer
regions supporting various question types all in a single question. The Question Designer also provides a flexible
layout environment, making it easy to include images, tables, and so on in your question.
• Adaptive Question Designer — An Adaptive Question Designer can be used to create an adaptive multipart question.
Rather than presenting with all the parts of the question at once, as in a question designer or multipart question, you
can present just one part of the question, and then only show the second part if the student gets part 1 incorrect (or
correct).
• Clickable imagemap — A clickable image question presents an image with a number of hot spots. Students are required
to identify the correct image element by clicking the appropriate hot spot.
• Formula — A formula question allows instructors to compare a student response (generally a mathematical expression)
to a specified answer. It has several variants.
• Formula mod C — accepts answer within an additive constant
• Formula with physical units — requires units as well as a numeric value
• Multi Formula or Formula List — accepts answers as a list of values (unordered or ordered)
• Restricted Formula — the correct answer only uses basic operations (no logs or trig)
• Equation — answer is an equation
• Chemistry — accepts chemical equations
• Key word — A key word or phrase question searches the student's response for specified key words or phrases, ignoring other text.
• List — A list question is fill-in-the-blanks question. It offers some advanced features, including the ability to give
partial credit to certain answers.
• Maple-graded — A Maple-graded question uses the Maple mathematical software to generate algorithmic variables
in questions, generate plots, and evaluate student responses. The Maple-graded question type gives you access to
the computational power of Maple. You have access to many different kinds of mathematical objects. This question
type allows for questions with complicated answers, questions with different possible answers, and questions requiring
a powerful answer-equivalence checker. You can even find common errors and assign partial credit.
• Math App — A math app question contains an embedded worksheet. A student will leave the worksheet in a final
state that will then be graded.
• Matching — A matching question displays two lists. The student must match each element of the first list with an
element of the second list.
• Multipart — A multipart question can contain a variety of related question materials, data, and even case scenarios
for different types of assessment and learning. A multipart question is built out of a number of individual questions,
which can be of any question type (except adaptive).
• Multiple choice — A multiple-choice question can have any number of choices, and has exactly one correct answer.
You can add additional incorrect choices after the question is initially created. The choices can be presented in static
or permuting order.
• Multiple selection — A multiple selection question is similar to multiple choice questions, but the question can have
more than one correct answer. The choices can be presented in static or permuting order. Students must select all
159
160 • 9 Question Types
correct answers to get full credit. Otherwise, the score is calculated using a formula that takes into account the
number of correct and incorrect answers.
• Numeric — A numeric question compares a student's response to a given number, with or without units. You can
require the student response to a certain precision or within a certain margin of error.
• Palette — A palette question enables you to program a customized palette of symbols for the entry of student responses.
• True or false — A true or false question is treated as a class of multiple choice question featuring only two choices.
You can include a Maple plot in any question type (including nonmathematical question types). For more information,
see Plotting Using Maple (page 258).
For a complete list of question types (nonmathematical and mathematical), see Question Modes (Question
Types) (page 151).
9.2 Math Question Types
Math Question Types - Overview
Basic Question Types
The fundamental math question type is Formula. This appears as a question statement, followed (on a separate line)
by a single free-response entry cell that accepts a math formula, that is, an expression consisting of numbers, variable
names, and the standard arithmetic operators and functions. The system grades it by comparing it with the correct answer.
If the student response and the correct answer are algebraically or numerically equivalent, the response is graded correct.
To require that the response have a specified form, use the form subtype. To create a formula question with multiple
input cells to hold closely related responses to the same question statement, use the Multipart Formula question type.
The Numeric question type accepts numeric quantities or numeric quantities with units in student responses, and
automatically processes scientific notation expressions.
The Dimensioned Formula question type accepts a combination of numeric quantities and physical units. It recognizes
equivalent physical units. For example, if 500g is specified as the correct answer, 0.5kg is also graded correct.
• Any math question type can include algorithmically rendered plots. The Maple-graded question type vastly
expands the math and scientific visualization capabilities of the system. You can include a Maple plot in any
question type (including nonmathematical question types). (For more information, see Plotting Using
Maple (page 258).) In Maple questions, you can specify Maple code to generate a plot based on the student response. (For more information, see Plotting a Student Response (page 247).)
Other Math Question Types
• You can limit the range of standard math functions available. For example, the question "What is sin(Pi/4)?"
should accept the answers sqrt(2)/2 and 1/sqrt(2) but not sin(Pi/4). The Restricted Formula type limits the
functions that the students can use to those commonly found on a non-scientific calculator (for example, the
arithmetic operators and sqrt).
• The basic Formula type does not accept equations, that is, expressions consisting of two components separated
by an "=" sign. For these questions (for example, to accept y-3=4(x+1) and y=4x+7), use the Equation type.
• Questions that have answers with an additive constant (for example, a constant of integration in indefinite integration questions) have many valid answers that differ by the addition of a constant quantity. The Formula
Mod C type accepts all such answers as equivalent.
• To create a question that requires a response with multiple values or formulas in a specific order, use the Formula
List question type.
9.2 Math Question Types • 161
• The Multi Formula question type accepts an unordered list of numbers or formulas separated by semicolons.
A question that has a single formula answer is graded correctly if this type is used. It is recommended that you
use the Multi Formula type for questions that have a single correct answer, but, in general, have multiple
correct answers because the Formula type presentation indicates to students that there is only one solution.
For example, the only root of x^2-2x+1 is x=1 (with multiplicity two), but, in general, a degree two polynomial
has two roots.
• To create a question that accepts responses that include a matrix, use the Maple Syntax question type. If you
prefer to present a rectangular array of entry boxes for responses, use the Question Designer or Matrix type.
• For questions involving vectors and Cartesian coordinates, use the Ntuple type.
• To create a question with multiple response areas (perhaps of different types), including formulas, use the
Question Designer or Adaptive Question Designer type.
For a complete list of question types (nonmathematical and mathematical), see Question Modes (Question
Types) (page 151).
Note: The Blanks [formula] question type is deprecated. Use the Question Designer question type instead.
Math Question Types Comparison Table
This is a list of supported math question types.
Table 9.1: Math Question Types Comparison
Question Type
Formula
Restricted Formula
Equation
Numeric
Maple
Formula Mod C
Multi Formula
Ntuple
Description
Accepts numbers and formulas
Accepts numbers and formulas that do not include
trigonometric functions or logarithms.
Grades equivalent equations as correct. (Other question
types do not allow the "=" sign). Note: The expression
given as the correct answer must consist of a single
variable on the left-hand side of the equation and a
formula that does not involve that variable on the right
hand side. (That is, you cannot specify an implicit
formula.) This restriction does not apply to students
entering their answers.
Accepts numbers in decimal form. Scientific notation
is allowed but formulas are not allowed. Also allows
you to specify required physical units.
For information, see Maple-graded Question Type Overview (page 167).
Numbers and formulas. Accepts two answers as
equivalent if they differ by a constant number.
Accepts an unordered list of numbers or formulas as a
list of numbers and formulas separated by semicolons.
The answer must match the terms of the list in any
order. Explanatory text tells students to enter any order
of numbers or formulas separated by semicolons.
For questions about Cartesian coordinates or vectors.
Accepts an ordered list of number or formulas separated
by commas. (for example, a Cartesian point or a vector).
Parentheses are recommended but not required.
Explanatory text tells students to enter a list of formulas
separated by commas enclosed in parentheses.
Example Responses
ex sin(x2)
1/sqrt(2)
y-2 = 4(x+1)
4.7 * 105
x ln(x)
x ln(x)+ 1
4;
5x; 3
(2, 4t, 7t+1)
162 • 9 Question Types
Question Type
Formula List
Multipart Formula
Matrix
Dimensioned formula
Description
Example Responses
Accepts an ordered list of numbers or formulas.
2, 4, 8, 16
Parentheses accepted but not recommended. Grading
is same as for Ntuple. Explanatory text tells students
to enter an ordered list of formulas or numbers separated
by commas.
Multiple questions arranged in parts (a), (b), (c), ...
Otherwise operates like a formula question.
A rectangular array of entry boxes that accept numbers
3
4x2
and formulas.
sin(x) 6
Accepts algebraic formulas, unit dimensions, numeric sin(x)
responses, or any combination of these.
6
m
6m
cos(x) m/s
Flexible question type that can include numerous
response areas, including nearly all the math question
types listed in this table, such as formula, numeric, and
Maple questions.
Adaptive Question Designer Same math functionality as Question Designer question
type
Question Designer
in-line formula
expressions
in-line formula
expressions
Adaptive Question Designer
Question Mode: Adaptive Question Designer
Question Editor question type: Adaptive Question Designer
Question file (.qu) syntax:
qu.x.y.mode=Adaptive [email protected]
Adaptive Question Designer questions can incorporate multiple question types within one question, including nearly
all math question types.
For information and details on the Adaptive Question Designer question type, see Adaptive Questions (page 179).
Blanks [formula]
Question Mode: blanks [formula] option
Question file (.qu) syntax:
[email protected]
blank.<blank_number>=<math_expression>@
grader.<blank_number>[email protected]
The blanks [formula] question type is deprecated. Use the Question Designer question type instead. See Question
Designer Questions (page 223).
Chemistry
Question Mode: Formula
Question Editor question type: Mathematical formula
9.2 Math Question Types • 163
Question file (.qu) syntax:
[email protected]
[email protected]
In the chemistry question type, student responses require a formula that matches the correct answer.
Table 9.2: Rules and Keys for Entering Chemistry Expressions
Expression
Superscripts and Subscripts
Arrows in Equations
Other Operators
Physical States,
Ion charges, and Parentheses
Keys
Enter superscripts using the caret ^ character, and subscripts using
the underscore _.
Use the text ->, <-, <=> for arrows.
Use * for the center dot operator.
Use the + sign in equations.
Use the - sign to indicate ion charges
No other operations are allowed in equations.
Be sure to include physical states (in parentheses) if your equation
requires them.
Use the + and - characters for polarity and ion charges
Use parentheses to clarify interpretation of groups of characters
See Also:
Mathematical Formula Questions in the Question Editor (page 106)
Entering Chemistry Expressions (page 245)
Constants of Integration Questions
Question Mode: Formula Mod C
Question Editor question type: Mathematical formula
Question file (.qu) syntax:
qu.x.y.mode=Formula Mod [email protected]
In the Formula Mod C question type, student responses require a formula that matches the correct answer to within
an additive constant (+C).
This type is designed for indefinite integration problems, in which the answers differ by a constant of integration. Do
not include the constant in the correct answer.
In a test, a note telling the student they do not need to include the constant of integration appears after the input field,
as shown in Figure 9.1.
Figure 9.1: Constants of Integration Question
164 • 9 Question Types
The response 1/2*x^4+5/3*x^3+2*x^2+1 is also graded correct.
See Also:
Mathematical Formula Questions in the Question Editor (page 106)
Constants of Integration Questions in LaTeX (page 328)
Equation
Question Mode: equation
Question Editor question type: Mathematical formula
Question file (.qu) syntax:
[email protected]
Use the equation question type for any question that requires an equation as an answer. It is the only question type
that requires the inclusion of an "=" sign in the student response (and in the answer). You can use the full range of
functions in the equation, that is, all trigonometric functions, log, ln, abs, and sqrt.
In a test, the input field for the response appears as shown in Figure 9.2.
Figure 9.2: Equation Question
See Also:
Mathematical Formula Questions in the Question Editor (page 106)
Equation Questions in LaTeX (page 333)
Numeric (page 174)
Formula
Question Mode: formula
Question Editor question type: Mathematical formula
Question file (.qu) syntax:
[email protected]
Use the formula type for any question where the student does not specify physical units in their response, and where
the response is not an equation. You can use the full range of functions in the formula, that is, all trigonometric functions,
log, ln, abs, and sqrt.
To create a formula question with multiple response cells in the same question, use the multipart formula question
type. (Note: The multipart formula question type is different from the multi formula question type.)
9.2 Math Question Types • 165
In a test, the input field for the response appears as shown in Figure 9.3.
Figure 9.3: Input Field for a Formula Question
Note:
• If the answer is a number (that is, does not have any variables), it is recommended that you specify in the
question text whether an exact answer or an approximation is required. In the case of an approximation, the
margin of error must be specified in your correct answer. This can be done by specifying a margin of error using
the ? operator.
For example, if the answer field were
{2.34 ? 0.01}
any response between 2.33 and 2.35 (inclusive) would be graded correct. In other words, the number
following the ? operator is the margin of error. For more information on tolerances, see Setting a Margin of
Error in Non-numeric Questions (page 244).
The following sub-types for this question type are available by specifying the grading field:
• Chemistry
• Form Variant (without simplification)
See Also:
Blanks [formula] (page 162)
Formula Questions in LaTeX (page 327)
Algorithmic Mathematical Formula Question Example Script (page 340)
Mathematical Formula Questions in the Question Editor (page 106)
Multipart Formula (page 173)
MultiFormula (page 172)
Formula with Units (page 167)
Numeric (page 174)
Formula - Form Variant
Question Mode: Formula (with "form" grading)
Question file (.qu) syntax:
[email protected]
[email protected]
The Formula - Form Variant question type is a restricted-grading variant of the Formula question type. In this mode,
the student response is required not only to be mathematically equal to the correct answer, but also to be expressed in
the same form.
Thus
166 • 9 Question Types
(x-1)(x+1),
(x+1)(x-1),
and
(x^2-1)
would be graded the same by an standard formula question. However, with the form submode set, only the first two
would be graded as equivalent.
Authoring of this question variant is not directly available using the Question Editor. To invoke this grading variant,
you must create a formula question, and then edit the source by adding a line: "[email protected]".
You can also specify it in LaTeX or the source for a question. When editing the source, include a line of the form
"[email protected]"
See Also
Formula (page 164)
Formula List
Question Mode: Formula list
Question Editor question type: Mathematical formula
Question file (.qu) syntax:
qu.x.y.mode=Formula [email protected]
The Formula list question type requires an ordered list of formulas in the student response. Use this for a list of formulas or numbers that is required in a particular order. For an unordered list of formulas, use the Multi formula
question type (see MultiFormula (page 172)).
You can use the full range of functions in the formulas, that is, all trigonometric functions, log, ln, abs, and sqrt.
Important: You must use commas to separate items in the correct answer (for example, 1,12,12). If you use semicolons in the
correct answer, the system treats the question as an unordered list, and allows the student to give the formulas in any order.
In a test, the input field for the response appears as shown in Figure 9.4.
Figure 9.4: Input Field for a Formula List Question
See Also:
Formula List Questions in LaTeX (page 330)
Formula (page 164)
Mathematical Formula Questions in the Question Editor (page 106)
MultiFormula (page 172)
9.2 Math Question Types • 167
Formula with Units
Question Mode: Dimensioned formula
Question Editor question type: Mathematical formula
Question file (.qu) syntax:
qu.x.y.mode=Dimensioned [email protected]
The Dimensioned formula question type is a highly versatile. Correct answers can include algebraic formulas, unit
dimensions, numeric responses, or any combination of these.
Use this question type for any formula where you require the student to specify the physical units for the expression
(for example, m/s or kg/cm^2), and where the formula is not an equation. When you give the units with the answer,
you must use the units that are recognized by the system.
The system can convert between units of the same type. For example, if you type the answer as 30s, the student can
give the answer as 30s, 0.5min, or 1/120 hour. In each case, the system grades the response correct.
In a test, the input field for the answer appears with a link provided to a list of the recognized units.
See Also:
Formula (page 164)
Using a Table of Units (page 263)
Mathematical Formula Questions in the Question Editor (page 106)
Maple-graded Question Type - Overview
The Maple-graded question type uses the Maple computer algebra system to generate algorithmic variables in questions,
generate plots and evaluate student responses. The Maple-graded question type gives you access to the computational
power of Maple. It includes facilities for algebra, calculus, differential equations, discrete mathematics, graphics, numerical computation, and many other areas of mathematics.
Since the Maple engine is used when grading student's responses, Maple T.A. will give credit for any response that is
mathematically equivalent to the correct answer.
Using the Maple-graded question type, you have access to many different kinds of mathematical objects, not just simple
expressions. You can use Maple to create questions whose responses require sets, differential equations, unevaluated
integrals, groups and many other types of mathematical data. The Maple-graded question type allows for questions
with complicated answers, questions with different possible answers, and questions requiring a powerful answerequivalence checker.
With the Maple-graded question type, you also have access to the plotting capabilities of Maple. You can use Maple
to plot a student response (or a function derived from a student response, for example, the definite integral of the student
response) for a Maple-graded question type or display a plot for any question type.
You can assign partial grades, allowing you to find common errors and reward partial credit.
You can also use functions and routines that are contained in a separate Maple Repository (Maple Library). You can
access your personal Maple library archives from within your Maple questions.
Maple-graded Formula & Maple Syntax Subtypes
The Maple-graded question type has two subtypes:
• Maple-graded Formula
168 • 9 Question Types
• Maple Syntax
Both the Maple-graded Formula and Maple Syntax subtypes allow you to use Maple functions and expressions, for
example, trigonometric functions, log10, ln, abs, sqrt, diff, int, and LinearAlgebra[Determinant]. In addition to the
full range of Maple functions, you can use programming constructs to evaluate responses.
Difference Between Maple Formula and Formula Question Types
Formula questions are very useful when the correct response is a straightforward mathematical expression using
standard common functions, and when the correct answer is easy to describe and easy to evaluate.
The Maple-graded Formula subtype differs from the Formula question type.
• When writing a Maple-graded Formula question, you can use Maple functions and expressions in the evaluation
of the student response.
• When writing a Formula question type, you cannot use Maple code in the evaluation of the student response.
Viewing your source code reveals that for Maple-graded questions (both Maple Formula and Maple Syntax subtypes)
[email protected], while for Formula question types [email protected]
Note: There is no difference for the student in syntax or range of expressions.
Difference Between Maple-graded Formula and Maple Syntax with Text Entry Mode in Student
Response
These two subtypes are distinguished by a student's response.
• A student should not use Maple commands and expressions in a response to a question generated using Maplegraded Formula. For details, see Maple-graded Formula (page 169). The student responds using other Maple
T.A. formula question syntax.
• A student is required to use Maple commands and expressions in a response to a question generated using
Maple Syntax with the Text entry response option. For details, see Maple Syntax (page 170).
Difference Between Maple-graded Formula and Maple Syntax with Text Entry Mode in Syntax Checking
These two subtypes are distinguished by syntax checking of the student response.
• The system verifies the syntax of a student response for a Maple-graded Formula question using a basic syntax
checker. For details, see Maple-graded Formula (page 169).
• The system does not verify the syntax of a student response for a Maple Syntax question. As the author, you
can verify whether the student is using a Maple command to calculate the answer. For details, see Maple
Syntax (page 170).
Difference Between Text Entry and Symbolic Entry for Student Response in Maple Syntax Questions
With a Maple Syntax question, you can choose whether the students enter responses using Text mode or Symbol mode.
In both cases, the response is sent to Maple, where you can apply sophisticated grading methods to evaluate the student
response.
• A student can enter math expressions, including Matrices, in a natural way using Symbol mode. For example,
a student can enter a Matrix using a palette.
• A student is required to use Maple commands and expressions in a response to a question generated using
Maple Syntax with the Text entry response option.
For details, see Maple Syntax (page 170).
9.2 Math Question Types • 169
Guidelines for Using Maple Code for Maple-graded Questions
• A Maple-graded question must use valid Maple code to evaluate the answer. Complete each line of code with
a semicolon.
• The last line of your question code must evaluate to a Boolean value (true or false) or a floating-point number
between 0.0 and 1.1 for partial grading. In many cases, it is recommended that you use the Maple evalb command.
• Use the long form name for all package functions, for example, VectorCalculus[ArcLength].
For an example that uses partial grading, see Applying Partial Grading to Maple-graded Questions (page 104).
Providing Feedback to Students
• To display the correct answer as feedback for a student response, you must enter the correct answer in the
Enter Maple code that evaluates to the correct answer field.
• For open-ended questions, such as "Give and example of an increasing function on the interval [0, 10]", it is
recommended that you include a comment for a graded response. Otherwise, no comment is displayed as
feedback to the student if the response is incorrect. Comments are entered in the Question Name & Type screen.
Maple-graded Question Type Help Pages
The Algorithm Designer (page 85)
Maple-graded Questions in the Question Editor (page 103)
Displaying a Maple Plot (page 258)
Maple Syntax Question Example Script (page 349)
Math Question Types Comparison Table (page 161)
Mathematical Functions & Operations (page 262)
Plotting a Student Response (page 247)
Tutorial: Maple-based Algorithmic Question Authoring (page 300)
Using a Maple Repository (page 94)
Using Maple Code to Prevent Cheating in Maple Syntax Questions (page 245)
Using the Comment Field in a Maple Question (page 349)
Maple-graded Formula
Question Mode: Maple
Question Editor question type: Maple-graded
Question file (.qu) syntax:
[email protected]
[email protected]
In Maple-graded Formula question types, students can enter a math formula, that is, an expression constructed of
numbers, variable names, and the standard arithmetic expressions and functions.
Note: In the Question Editor, on the Maple-graded question screen, the Select the type of expression you want to accept field
lists the Maple-graded Formula option as simply Formula.
170 • 9 Question Types
Guidelines
• The student should not use Maple commands in the response. For an explanation, see Syntax and Student
Responses below.
• The instructor must write code such that the student does not have to use a trailing semicolon in the response.
For example, evalb($RESPONSE=factor(x^2-1)); as a single line of code allows the student to respond with (x+1)(x1) omitting the trailing semicolon. This is especially important, as questions created using the Maple-graded Formula
question subtype are not obvious Maple questions from the student's perspective. A non-Maple student user can answer
a Maple-graded Formula question type without knowing Maple syntax.
Syntax
Maple T.A. verifies the student response using a basic syntax checker.
• If the answer is entered in Text mode, the formula syntax checker assesses the response, changes expressions
to Maple syntax, for example, 2x becomes 2*x, and reports errors if the expression is not a formula. It then
generates a Maple statement.
• If the answer is created using the Equation Editor, a MathML expression is parsed, the syntax checker is run
to ensure the answer is of type formula, and then a Maple statement is generated.
Student Responses
You do not need to explicitly check that the student response is a formula. For example, you do not need to check
whether factor(expr)is a command that calculates the expression for the student. However, a student response
like factor(x^2-1) would be interpreted as implicit multiplication and converted to f*a*c*t*o*r*(x^2-1).
As such, the student response will be marked as wrong.
You may need to write Maple code for responses that are interpreted as formulas by Maple T.A., but are Maple commands. For example, if you ask for the value of sin(Pi/4), you must use code to ensure that the student does not
simply enter sin(Pi/4), which the Maple T.A. syntax checker accepts and passes to Maple. The correct response
is, for example, sqrt(2)/2, which is also a Maple T.A. formula and a Maple command.
Variables
The variable e should not be assigned as a global variable in Maple code. It can be used, however, as a local variable.
See Also:
Maple-graded Questions in the Question Editor (page 103)
Maple-graded Question Type - Overview (page 167)
Maple Syntax
Question Mode: Maple
Question Editor question type: Maple-graded
Question file (.qu) syntax:
[email protected]
[email protected]
Maple Syntax is a subtype of the Maple-graded question type.
In this subtype, the student is required to :
• Respond using Maple commands and expressions
9.2 Math Question Types • 171
• Enter syntactically correct Maple expressions
In a Maple Syntax question, you must specify whether the response area is a text-entry area or a symbolic-entry area.
Example Uses
The Maple Syntax subtype is particularly useful when the answer is to be expressed as a:
• Definite integral, int(f(x),x=a..b)
• Derivative, diff(f(x),x)
• Limit, limit(f(x), x=0)
• Differential equation, for example, diff(y(x,t),t,t)=c^2*diff(y(x,t),x,x)
• Set, for example, {1,4,9}
• Matrix, for example,
Some example questions involving matrices are created in Tutorial: Maple Syntax Questions with Matrices (page 128).
Maple Syntax with Text Entry Response Option
[email protected]
[email protected]
allow2d=0
Guidelines
Student Use of Unevaluated Forms of Maple Commands
Some Maple commands take unevaluated forms. For example, Diff is the inert form of diff. In Maple T.A., students
are directed to answer questions using the unevaluated forms of Maple commands. Your code should accept these
forms.
Semicolon Usage
The instructor should specify to the student (in the question text) whether a trailing semicolon is required, or alternatively,
write code such that the presence or absence of a trailing semicolon has no bearing on the evaluation of the response.
For example, evalb($RESPONSE=factor(x^2-1); as one line of question code does not allow a student response
with a semicolon, such as (x-1)*(x+1); The response is marked as incorrect.
If the question code contains two lines, completed with semicolons, such as
A:= $RESPONSE;
evalb(A=factor(x^2-1);
the student can answer with or without a semicolon and the response is marked as correct.
Syntax
Maple T.A. does not check the syntax of the student response.
• If the answer is entered in Text mode, it is sent directly to Maple for parsing. The student is expected to enter
syntactically correct Maple expressions. Shortcuts such as 2x are marked incorrect.
As the author, you can verify whether the student is using a Maple command to calculate the answer. For more information, see Using Maple Code to Prevent Cheating in Maple Syntax Questions (page 245).
172 • 9 Question Types
Maple Syntax with Symbolic Entry Response Option
[email protected]
[email protected]
allow2d=2
For a tutorial on creating a Maple Syntax question with Symbolic mode response, see Tutorial: Maple Syntax Questions
with Matrices (page 128).
Syntax
Maple T.A. parses the student response entered in Symbol mode to convert the entered expression into Maple syntax,
which is sent to Maple.
Note that, since a translation of the symbolic entry into a Maple Input expression takes place, the technique of using
“$RESPONSE” to check whether students entered a specific command may not be appropriate. This technique is only
recommended for Maple Syntax questions with the Text entry response option.
Variables
The variable e should not be assigned as a global variable in Maple code. It can be used, however, as a local variable.
See Also:
Maple-graded Questions in the Question Editor (page 103)
Matrix
Question Mode: Matrix
Question file (.qu) syntax:
[email protected]
The Matrix question type generates an n by m matrix of text fields, each of which accepts a number or formula.
Matrix questions must be created in LaTeX or in a plain text .qu file. You must specify a unique matrix as the correct
solution.
Note: It is recommended that you use the Maple Syntax question type for questions that will have a matrix response.
Maple Syntax questions provide more flexibility than the Matrix questions in question authoring and grading. With
the Maple Syntax question type:
• Rather than showing the student with a specific size of matrix with a blank for each entry, the student can select the
appropriate size of the matrix in their answer (for instance, using a Palette).
• By sending the entire matrix to Maple for grading, you can evaluate properties of the matrix (such as whether it is
invertible or symmetric).
• Partial grading is possible.
See Also:
Matrix Questions in LaTeX (page 333)
Multi Formula
Question Mode: multi formula
Question Editor question type: Mathematical formula
9.2 Math Question Types • 173
Question file (.qu) syntax:
qu.x.y.mode=multi [email protected]
In the multi formula question type, the correct student response is an unordered list of formulas. Use this for any
unordered list of formulas or numbers. For an ordered list of formulas, use the Formula list question type (see Formula
List (page 166)).
You can use the full range of functions in the formulas, that is, all trigonometric functions, log, ln, abs, and sqrt.
Important: You must use semicolons to separate the items in the correct answer (for example, 1; 12; 12). If you use commas in
the correct answer, the system treats the question as an ordered list, and requires that the student give their response in the order
in which you entered the correct answer.
In a test, the input field for the response appears as shown in Figure 9.5.
Figure 9.5: Input Field for a Multi Formula Question
See Also:
Formula (page 164)
Formula List (page 166)
Mathematical Formula Questions in the Question Editor (page 106)
Multi Formula Questions in LaTeX (page 332)
Multipart Formula
Question Mode: multipart formula
Question file (.qu) syntax:
qu.x.y.mode=multipart [email protected]
The multipart formula question type behaves as a multipart question in which each part is a formula question. It
displays multiple text fields for multiple student responses.
Note: A multipart formula question displays multiple individual text fields, while a multi formula question requires a student
to enter multiple formulas in one text field as its correct answer.
Multipart formula questions must be authored in LaTeX or script files.
To identify multiple correct answers, separate each with a semicolon in your answer field definition statement. (Include
a trailing semicolon for the last answer in the list.)
In a test, the input field for the response appears as shown in Figure 9.6.
174 • 9 Question Types
Figure 9.6: Input Field for a Multipart Formula Question
See Also:
Formula (page 164)
MultiFormula (page 172)
Numeric
Question Mode: Numeric
Question Editor question type: Numeric
Question file (.qu) syntax:
[email protected]
The numeric question type accepts:
• Pure numbers (without physical units) in decimal form or scientific notation
• Numbers with units
Details:
• You cannot use equations or algebraic formulas in the correct answer.
• Equivalent numeric expressions and units are recognized. The system recognizes default unit equivalents. You
can also create a question bank-specific table of equivalent units.
• Students are prompted to enter responses in scientific or numeric format, with or without physical units.
• You specify the inclusion of units in the correct answer using the answer.units question field. If you do
not assign a value to the answer.units statement, the correct answer is dimensionless.
• Using the optional showUnits field, you control whether the system displays the question with the Units
text field.
• You can control the precision and tolerance (or margin of error) required in student responses. The easiest way
to set these modes is by using the Question Editor to author numeric questions.
9.2 Math Question Types • 175
• You can specify whether arithmetic is allowed in student responses.
Important: When creating questions that have a specific number of significant digits in the correct answer, it is recommended that you use the sig function to create algorithmic variables. By using these variables in the question statement,
feedback, hints, and solution, you ensure that values are displayed with the correct number of significant digits.
• Single or multiple numeric questions can be included along with other response objects within a Question Designer question.
Example
[email protected]
qu.1.1.question=
<question_text>
@
qu.1.1.answer.num=<numeric part of the answer, for example, 3>@
qu.1.1.answer.units=<units part of the answer, for example, m/s>@
qu.1.1.showUnits=<true or false; whether to display the question with a Units text field>@
qu.1.1.grading=<grading mode; see below>@
qu.1.1.units=<(optional) reference to external table of units; see below>@
qu.1.1.digit=<# sig digits (positive integer); required for exact_sigd and toler_sigd grading
modes>@
qu.1.1.err=<error/tolerance; required for toler_sigd and toler_abs grading modes>@
qu.1.1.perc=<percentage error/tolerance; required for toler_perc grading mode>@
Grading Modes
Using the grading mode, you can control the precision or margin of error in the student responses graded correct.
Precision
exact_sigd
The numeric value of the student response must match answer.num.
The number of significant digits in the student response must match digit.
For example, if answer.num = 2.5 and the digit = 3, only 2.50 is correct. In particular,
2.5 is incorrect.
exact_value
The numeric value of the student response must match answer.num.
For example, if answer.num = 2.5, 2.50 and 2.5 are correct, but 2.500001 is incorrect.
Margin of Error
toler_perc
The numeric value of the student response must be within perc % of answer.num.
For example, if perc = 5 and answer.num = 2.5, any response between 2.5 * 0.95
and 2.5 * 1.05 is correct. In particular, 2.38888888 is correct.
toler_abs
The numeric value of the student response must be within +/- err of answer.num. The error
can be specified as a numeric value or algorithmic variable.
176 • 9 Question Types
For example, if err = 0.25 and answer.num = 2.5, any response between 2.25 and
2.75 (inclusive) is correct. In particular, 2.333333333 is correct.
Precision and Margin of Error
toler_sigd
The numeric value of the student response must be within +/- err in the digitth significant
digit of answer.num (inclusive) and have digit significant digits. The error can be specified
as a numeric value or algorithmic variable.
For example, if err = 2, digit = 3, and answer.num = 2.5, the responses 2.48,
2.49, 2.50, 2.51, and 2.52 are correct. All other responses, for example, 2.499 and
2.5, are incorrect.
For example, if err = 1, digit = 3, and answer.num = 27.18, the responses 27.1
and 27.2 are correct. Although 27.3 is within 0.1 of 27.18 rounded to 3 significant digits, it
is incorrect because it is not within 0.1 of 27.18.
Using a Question Bank-specific Table of Units
To use a table of units, include the following statement:
qu.<topic_number>.<question_number>.units=<tablename>@
where <tablename> is a table of unit definitions in the question bank. For more information, see Using a Table of
Units (page 263).
See Also:
Numeric Questions in the Question Editor (page 109)
Numeric Questions in LaTeX (page 324)
Formula with Units (page 167)
Controlling Answer Format in Numeric Questions (page 242)
Controlling Answer Tolerance (page 243)
Question Designer
Question Mode: Question Designer
Question Editor question type: Question Designer
Question file (.qu) syntax:
[email protected]
Question Designer questions can incorporate multiple question types within one question, including nearly all math
question types.
For information and details on the Question Designer question type, see Question Designer Questions (page 223).
Questions with Plots
Basic System Plots
You can integrate basic function plotting or graphing components from algorithmic formulas in question statements
or feedback. You must use LaTeX or plain text script authoring to create these questions.
9.2 Math Question Types • 177
For more information, see Graph Plotting Applet, below.
Maple Plots
Use the Maple computer algebra system to generate sophisticated two- and three-dimensional plots in your questions
and feedback. See Plotting Using Maple (page 258). You can add a Maple plot using any authoring method.
Graph Plotting Applet
The graph plotting applet is an interactive plot that is added to a question for dynamic plotting. The applet displays
axes for the graph even when the axes lie outside of the viewable area.
• Click and drag the graph area to bring up a cursor that displays the coordinates of the current point
• Shift-click and drag the graph area to shift the viewable area
• Ctrl-click and drag the graph to re-scale the image
[email protected]
qu.1.1.mode=Multi [email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
qu.1.1.question=<p class="noindent">What are the
<math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" display="inline">
<mi class="MathClass-ord">x</mi></math>
-intercepts of the graph shown?</p>
<applet code="applets.grapher.Graph" width="350" height="350" archive="graphing.jar">
<param name="y1" value="(x-1)(x+3)(x-5)"></param>
<param name="xMin" value="-6"></param>
<param name="xMax" value="6"></param>
<param name="yMin" value="-6"></param>
<param name="yMax" value="6"></param>
<param name="gridLines" value="12"></param>
</applet>@
qu.1.1.answer=-3;1;[email protected]
qu.1.2.mode=Multi [email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
qu.1.2.question=<p class="noindent">What are the
<math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" display="inline">
<mi class="MathClass-ord">x</mi></math>
-intercepts of the graph shown?</p>
<applet code="applets.grapher.Graph" width="350" height="350" archive="graphing.jar">
<param name="y1" value="(x-1)(x-3)(x-5)"></param>
<param name="xMin" value="2"></param>
<param name="xMax" value="6"></param>
<param name="yMin" value="-6"></param>
<param name="yMax" value="6"></param>
<param name="gridLines" value="12"></param>
</applet>@
qu.1.2.answer=-3;1;[email protected]
See Also:
Graph Plotting Applet in Questions (page 94)
Plotting a Student Response (page 247)
Authoring Questions with Embedded Plots Example Script (page 352)
Graph Plotting in LaTeX Questions (page 315)
178 • 9 Question Types
Restricted Formula
Question Mode: Restricted formula
Question Editor question type: Mathematical formula
Question file (.qu) syntax:
qu.x.y.mode=Restricted [email protected]
In the Restricted formula question type, the correct answer is a formula that uses only basic operations (for example,
arithmetic operations and sqrt). You can use this for questions that require a formula without physical units that does
not include trigonometric functions, log, ln, or abs, and which is not an equation.
When authoring in the system Question Editor, if you include a restricted function in the correct answer, the system
warns you that the function is not allowed in restricted mode.
Note: If the answer is a number (that is, does not have any variables), it is recommended that you specify in the question
text whether an exact answer or an approximation is required. In the case of an approximation, the margin of error
must be specified in your correct answer. This can be done by specifying a margin of error using the ? operator.
For example, if the answer field were
{2.34 ? 0.01}
any response between 2.33 and 2.35 (inclusive) would be graded correct. In other words, the number
following the ? operator is the margin of error. For more information on tolerances, see Setting a Margin of
Error in Non-numeric Questions (page 244).
See Also:
Mathematical Formula Questions in the Question Editor (page 106)
Equation (page 164)
Formula (page 164)
Restricted Formula Questions in LaTeX (page 329)
Vectors of Formulas
Question Mode: Ntuple
Question Editor question type: Mathematical formula
Question file (.qu) syntax:
[email protected]
The Ntuple question type requires a vector of formulas (a sequenced list) in correct responses. Use this for questions
with vectors of formulas or numbers. You can use the full range of functions in the formulas, that is, all trigonometric
functions, log, ln, abs, and sqrt.
• This is an ordered list. The entries must appear in the same order as in the given correct answer.
• The correct answer given should have parentheses, such as (3,5) or (2,1,-3), because this is indicated in the instructions under the answer box. However, a response is graded correct with or without the parentheses.
• This type is graded in the same manner as the Formula List type. The only difference is the instructions given
to the students.
In a test, the input field for the response appears as shown in Figure 9.7.
9.3 Adaptive Question Designer Questions • 179
Figure 9.7: Input Field for a Vector of Formulas Question
See Also:
Mathematical Formula Questions in the Question Editor (page 106)
Formula (page 164)
Formula List (page 166)
Coordinates of Points and Vectors Questions in LaTeX (page 330)
9.3 Adaptive Question Designer Questions
Adaptive Question Designer questions can be used to create an adaptive multipart question in which the student is
presented with one subquestion, or section, at a time, and the question behavior depends on whether the student answers
the subquestion correctly.
You can use an adaptive question to give students another chance when they give an incorrect response, perhaps by
walking them through the steps of the problem, letting them try a simpler version of the question before retrying the
original problem, or letting them try the same question again for reduced credit.
Adaptive questions are created in a similar way to question designer questions, and support all features described in
Question Designer Questions (page 223). (The only exception is that essay questions cannot be used in adaptive questions.)
Question Mode: Adaptive Question Designer
Question Editor question type: Adaptive Question Designer
Question file (.qu) syntax:
qu.x.y.mode=Adaptive [email protected]
Sections of an Adaptive Question
Authoring an Adaptive Question Designer question is done in the Question Editor through an editor window that is
based on the Question Designer editor. What differentiates Adaptive Question Designer question from a Question
Designer question is the ability to add section divisions to the question. Section divisions are inserted using the Insert/Edit Adaptive Section button ( ).
• Adaptive sections are displayed sequentially, unless the question is designated as complete when a section is finished.
• You can specify the number of attempts permitted on a section.
• A section is finished when it is answered correctly or when the maximum number of attempts has been reached.
• You can opt to display or hide a section when it is finished.
• Adaptive questions support partial credit.
180 • 9 Question Types
Table 9.3: Properties of an Adaptive Section
Property
Attempts
Allow Skip
Passing Score
Penalty
Correct — Weight
Correct — Show Answer
Correct — Display
Correct — Question Complete
Incorrect — Weight
Incorrect — Show Answer
Incorrect — Display
Incorrect — Question Complete
Description
number of attempts allowed for the section; positive integer
determines whether the I Give Up button appears for the section,
allowing students to move on without completing all attempts at
this section
passing score for the section
penalty to apply for each incorrect attempt at the section; number
between 0.0 and 1.0
relative weighting of the section in the overall adaptive question,
if answered correctly; number between 0.0 and 1.0
determines whether the correct answer is displayed when the
section is finished and answered correctly
determines whether to display the section after it is finished and
answered correctly
determines whether the question is designated as complete when
this section is finished and answered correctly (in which case no
more sections are shown) or whether to continue to the next
section
relative weighting of the section in the overall adaptive question,
if answered incorrectly; number between 0.0 and 1.0
determines whether the correct answer is displayed when the
section is finished and answered incorrectly
determines whether to display the section after it is finished and
answered incorrectly
determines whether the question is designated as complete when
this section is finished and answered incorrectly (in which case
no more sections are shown) or whether to continue to the next
section
Presentation of an Adaptive Question
An adaptive question in an assignment has the following presentation:
• First, a student is presented with this first section of the adaptive question.
• A note is displayed telling the student that this is an adaptive question, and the number of attempts allowed is shown.
• The student answers the displayed question and presses Verify.
• Depending on the question's design and whether the student response is correct or incorrect, one of the following
occurs:
- The student is given another attempt at this section.
- This section is finished and the student is presented with the next section of the adaptive question.
- The question is complete. The student can navigate to the next question on the assignment by pressing Next
at the top of the assignment.
• If many attempts are allowed on a section, you may decide to offer an I Give Up button to enable a student to move
past one section of the adaptive question without completing all possible attempts. If this button is shown, a note is
displayed telling the student that there may be a penalty for skipping the section.
A sample adaptive question is shown in Figure 9.8.
9.4 Applet Questions • 181
Figure 9.8: Adaptive Question
Partial Credit in an Adaptive Question
You can give partial credit as well as penalty deductions for repeated attempts.
Like Question Designer questions, an Adaptive Question is a shell which contain one or more Response Areas. Each
response area has its own defined question mode and grading behaviors.
The total grade for an adaptive question is the sum of the grades for each adaptive section.
The grade of an adaptive section that is answered correctly is given by the formula (RA Grade) * (Correct Weight)
- (# Incorrect Attempts) * (Penalty), where RA Grade is the total grade for the response areas within the adaptive
section. In the case where this formula gives a negative number, the grade is given as 0.
The grade of an adaptive section that is answered incorrectly is Incorrect Weight.
See Also:
Adaptive Question Designer Questions in the Question Editor (page 99)
Tutorial: Adaptive Question (page 133)
Question Designer Questions (page 223)
9.4 Applet Questions
Question Mode: Applet
Question file (.qu) syntax:
[email protected]
The Applet question presents a Java applet. Students are required to interact with the applet using the mouse and/or
keyboard to alter the applet or identify hot spots in the movie to produce the correct answer.
[email protected]
qu.1.1.question=The left-hand ball has mass of $m1 kg and the right-hand ball has mass $m2
kg. The center mass of the left ball is $h1 meters above the ground. Move the right-hand
ball to the height that gives it the same potential energy as the ball on the [email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
qu.1.1.algorithm=$h1=int(rint(35)+5);
182 • 9 Question Types
$h2=int(rint(35)+5;
$m1=rand(10,70,3);
$m2=sig(3,$m1*$h1/$h2)@
qu.1.1.name.Physics Applet [email protected]
[email protected]
Applet Question Authoring
There are three steps to creating an Applet Question. Steps 1 and 2 require some familiarity with Java programming.
1. Create and deploy the Java applet.
2. Create and deploy a Java class grading.
3. Author the question.
Step 1: Create and Deploy a Java Applet
The applet is required to do three things:
1. Provide a getResponse() method which can be queried to find the current student response.
2. Call method getParameter("response") to read the response parameter for a string containing any previous attempt
at a response to this question, and initialize the applet to display that state.
3. Call method getParameter("locked") to read the locked parameter, and disable user modifications if the flag is
set.
You can also make additional getParameter(paramName) values to read any additional parameters for initialization.
These are passed to the param fields in the question (see Step 3).
After creating the applet, place it in the applets directory or an appropriate subdirectory if packages are used) on the
Maple T.A. server.
Step 2: Create and Deploy a Java Class for Grading
This is a server-side grader module that accepts the student response as prepared by the applet and compares it against
the correct answer you will set in Step 3.
Your grader class should implement three methods:
1. An init(String paramName, String paramValue) method with void return type. This method receives a set of
name/value pairs which it can use for initialization. These are passed from the grader.param fields in the question
(see Step 3).
2. A grade(String correctAnswerText, String studentResponseText) method with a double return type value between
0.0 and 1.0, where 1.0 is full credit. The method should compare the text of the student response with text representing
the correct answer.
Note: The student response text is delivered from the applet's getResponse() method. In many cases, grading will
be performed by judging whether the response is "the same" as the correct answer text. However, in some cases the
correct answer text may only provide general guidelines for grading. For example, the correct answer might be "up
and to the left" and the student response might be a point "(76,145)" that the student clicked on.
3. A generateResponseMatchingAnswer(String correctAnswerText) method with String return type. This method
is called to get a sample correct answer to display as student feedback. The method must use the answer text to
generate a string which the applet will display as the correct answer when passed the string as a response parameter.
Note: In many cases, it will be enough to simply return the answer text in unmodified form. However, when the
answer text only provides qualitative grading criteria ("up and to the left") it is more difficult to generate a sample
response. In that case, it may be a good strategy to provide an "example" answer as a grader parameter in the testbank.
For example, set the answer text to be "up and to the left" and set grader.param.example=(140,27).
9.5 Blanks Questions • 183
After your grader class is created, create a JAR file and place it in the /WEB-INF/lib directory so it is accessible to the
class loader. Then restart the Maple T.A. server.
Step 3: Author the Maple T.A. Question
The last step is to host your Java applet in a Maple T.A. question, using the Applet question type. Applet questions
must be authored in a plain text script file.
For example, you can enter the sample code above for a question with slider balls in a plain text file, then save the file
as filename.qu.
9.5 Blanks Questions
Question Mode: blanks
Question Editor question type: Fill in the blanks
Question file (.qu) syntax:
[email protected]
Note: The Blanks question type has been deprecated. Use the Question Designer question type instead. See Question
Designer Questions (page 223).
9.6 Clickable Image Questions
Question Mode: clickable image
Question Editor question type: Clickable imagemap
Question file (.qu) syntax:
qu.x.y.mode=clickable [email protected]
A clickable image question presents an image with a number of hot spots. Students are required to identify the correct
image element by clicking hot spots. Using the Question Editor in the system, you can create these interactive questions
by working with an image and identifying hot spot response regions by painting regions with the mouse.
A sample clickable image question is shown in Figure 9.9.
184 • 9 Question Types
Figure 9.9: Clickable Image Question
See Also:
Clickable Image Question Example Script (page 344)
Images and Reference Files in Questions (page 92)
Clickable Image Questions in the Question Editor (page 100)
9.7 Essay Questions - Ungraded
Question Mode: essay
Question Editor question type: Essay
Question file (.qu) syntax:
[email protected]
An essay question is not automatically graded by the system. Student responses are sent to you, the instructor, who
scores them traditionally, and assigns a grade in the system Gradebook. No answer or feedback is available to the student.
For information on grading essay questions, see Changing Grades and Adding Comments (page 57).
See Also:
Essay Questions in the Question Editor (page 101)
Essay Question Example Script (page 345)
9.8 Flash Questions • 185
9.8 Flash Questions
Question Mode: Flash
Question file (.qu) syntax:
[email protected]
The Flash question presents a Flash movie of the question. Students are required to interact with the movie using the
mouse and/or keyboard to alter the movie or identify hot spots in the movie to produce the correct answer.
[email protected]
qu.1.1.movie=<path to your .swf file>@
qu.1.1.question=Move the red disk to the point ($x, $y)[email protected]
qu.1.1.answer=$x,[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
qu.1.1.algorithm=
$x = range(1,8);
$y = range(1,8);@
qu.1.1.name=Graph [email protected]
[email protected]
Flash Question Authoring
To create a Flash movie, you will need Flash development software (for example, Adobe® Flash® CS3) and some familiarity with Flash programming. Your flash movie must implement the following features.
• A pair of variables called response and locked should be declared.
• Whenever a student interacts with the movie and brings it to a new state, that state should be translated into a text
string and assigned to the variable response. You are free to decide for yourself how this translation is done.
• When the Flash movie starts, it reads the variable response and finds a string that was returned by a previous call to
GetVariable("response"). You must program the movie to initialize its appearance to the state consistent with that
response.
• The Flash movie also reads the variable locked. This variable determines when a student is allowed to modify his/her
response. When the value of locked is equal to true, this signals to the Flash movie that the question is in 'feedback'
mode; in this case, the movie should present in a form suitable for feedback.
After creating the Flash movie, upload it to a folder on the class web site, as described in Flash Movies and Java Applets
in Questions (page 94)
Finally, you need to host the Flash movie in a Maple T.A. question, using the Flash question type. Flash questions
must be authored in a plain text script file.
For example, the demonstrated code above is for a Flash question which asks students to move the disk to a specific
point on the Cartesian plane.
9.9 Free Response and Fill-in-the-Blank Questions
Free response questions present students with a question and a response object (or entry cell) in which to express their
response. Upon grading, the student response is evaluated against the correct answer defined for the question.
The system provides many styles of automatically graded free response question types that differ in terms of presentation,
accepted response types, and the graders applied to student responses. The range of question types includes questions
that accept and grade symbolic and numeric mathematics, chemistry expressions, and a variety of text-based responses.
186 • 9 Question Types
List Questions and Blanks Questions
There are two types of Text-based free response (or fill-in-the-blank) questions in the system. Each evaluates student
responses by comparing the student response text string to that of the correct answer (as coded into the question).
• list questions
• blanks questions
Input Style and Options
1. Inline Blanks
Both List and Blanks questions allow you to display free response entry cell blanks inside the HTML question statement.
This method of presentation can provide inline student response cells anywhere within the question.
The question in Figure 9.10 demonstrates the power and flexibility of the question designer question type. There are
6 individual response cells included, each of which requires a different type of student response.
Notes:
• Response cells can appear anywhere within the formatted question statement, including within tables.
• Response cells can consist of any individual question mode, including response cells that handle text (lenient or
stringent string matching), numbers, formulas, or any other question variety.
• Partial credit can be allowed for exact-graded text or menu-style entry cells.
Figure 9.10: Demonstration of Various Free-Response and Fill-in-the-Blanks Questions
9.9 Free Response and Fill-in-the-Blank Questions • 187
Both List questions and Blanks questions can be set to require students to enter text (textbox style presentation), or to
select from a list of entries (menu-style presentation). Each style has its advantages.
• Use textbook style presentation when you want to evaluate short or long text responses in true fill-in-the-blank
style. You can set the grader to exact and enforce an exact match between the student response and the correct
answer, or you can set it to relaxed, a more lenient grading style in which capitalization and punctuation are
ignored.
• Alternatively, you may want to constrain student input and test general knowledge by providing a longer excerpt
with isolated phrases blanked out, but using the menu style presentation to require that a student select from a
drop-down list of possible answers.
2. Traditional Blanks Presentation
Because you control the HTML formatting inside the question as well as the position of the blanks inside a List or
Blanks question, you can also use those question types to present a response cell on a separate line by inserting paragraph
or line breaks inside the question statement.
Comparison of Question Types Supported
The List question offers the widest variety of response objects.
Question
Mode
List Question
Blanks
Question
Text - Exact
Grading
Text Relaxed
Yes
Yes
Grading
Yes
Yes
Text - Menu
Formula
Numeric
Multiple
Choice
Multiple
Selection
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Comparison of List Questions vs. Blanks Questions
List and Blanks questions are very similar; however, List questions provide: a greater diversity of graders that can be
applied, better control over the specification of multiple correct answers, and the ability to return partial credit for answers
that are not 100% correct.
Authoring Free Response Questions
The easiest way to create Blanks free response questions is by using the Question Editor, but you can also author List
questions using the LaTeX authoring or plain-text scripting methods.
Key Word or Phrase Questions
Although similar to these question types, key word or phrase questions use a different grading approach for evaluating
student responses, in which student responses are evaluated for the presence of an identified word or phrase anywhere
within the student response.
See Also:
Palette Questions (page 222)
Key Word or Phrase Questions (page 189)
List Questions (page 189)
Math Question Types - Overview (page 160)
188 • 9 Question Types
Rules for Grading Free Response Questions
By default, text-based free response question types, including Key Word Questions and List Questions, apply
standard rules when grading student responses. Standard grading behavior applies the relaxed grader style.
Relaxed Grader Rules
The process for evaluating student responses against the correct answer is as follows. With the student response and
correct answer:
• Change uppercase Roman letters to lowercase Roman letters.
• Remove punctuation characters.
• Do not change lowercase Roman letters or numbers (0 - 9).
• Replace all other characters with the ASCII space character.
• Convert strings of spaces to a single space character.
• Compare the modified student response to the answer field string indicated in the question. Spaces in the response
must correspond to spaces in the answer value.
For example, if the answer field value is "Albert Einstein", then the following responses are graded correct.
• "Albert Einstein"
"albert einstein"
• "a'lbert Ein-stein"
However
• "A l b e r t Einstein"
is incorrect (as is "Aleister", of course).
Note: The relaxed grader rules are not appropriate for international languages since non-Roman characters are removed.
Exact Grader Rules
The optional exact grader style that can be specified in List questions and Blanks questions modifies the above rules
to recognize and enforce capitalization, punctuation, and other characters but still applies the above algorithm for
handling spaces.
Again, assuming the answer field value is "Albert Einstein", then the following answer is graded correct:
• "Albert Einstein"
However,
• "aLBert eiNsteiN" or "albert einstein" or "a'lbert Ein-stein"
is graded wrong.
Palette Grader Rules
The Palette question type is intended for use in chemistry content areas, and applies a modified exact grader designed
to recognize and enforce superscripts and subscripts as well as the order of certain superscript and subscript operators.
Math Grader Rules
Each of the Formula question varieties, as well as the Numeric question type apply question-specific grading rules,
and support methods for setting margin of error and tolerance, and equivalent unit dimensions at the level of the
question.
9.10 Key Word or Phrase Questions • 189
See Also:
List Questions (page 189)
Key Word or Phrase Questions (page 189)
Palette Questions (page 222)
Setting Answer Tolerance in Numeric Questions (page 90)
9.10 Key Word or Phrase Questions
Question Mode: key words
Question file (.qu) syntax:
qu.x.y.mode=key [email protected]
The key words or phrase questions search the student's response for specified key words or phrases but ignore other
text. This question type is not supported by the Question Editor in this release. You must author key words questions
using scripts or LaTeX.
See Also:
Key Word or Phrase Question Example Script (page 346)
Free Response Text-based Questions in LaTeX (page 311)
9.11 List Questions
Question Mode: List
Question file (.qu) syntax:
[email protected]
List questions can be used to present a drop-down list or a free response area. In both cases, you set a single response
object in the question. To include multiple response areas in a single question, use the Question Designer question
type.
List questions provide the following features:
• You can define multiple correct (and even incorrect but expected) answers.
• For each specified answer, you can control the amount of credit awarded for each specified answer.
• For each specified incorrect answer, you can define response-specific comments (feedback).
• You can define the display style for the student response input cells - either text or menu style display for
student response objects (entry cells).
• Graders can be set to exact or the more lenient relaxed style.
Summary of Question Behaviors
Graders
• default grader: "exact"
• option: "relaxed" (set grader=relaxed)
• option: "regex" (set grader=regex)
(This provides access to the student response set as a regular expression, for interacting with custom graders.)
190 • 9 Question Types
Input Display Style
• default display: "textbox"
• option: "menu"
To change the order of menu entries, set display.permute = false
Sizing of Textbox Blanks
• blanks sizing: based on max of answer length
Full and Partial Credit
• at least one answer field must give full credit
• all other answers can be set for credit from 0-1 (specified in decimal numbers)
Grading Algorithm
Grading is done by comparing the student response with each answer in order until a match is found, and the corresponding credit is then returned. If no match is found, the credit is zero. The emphasis on comparing in order is necessary
because someone writing regular expression questions might start with a very specific criteria for full credit and then
allow more vague criteria for low credit.
Updating Example 1 on List Question Example Script, if the answers and credits are changed to:
qu.1.1.answer.1=(E|e)[email protected]
[email protected]
qu.1.1.answer.2=(E|e).*@
[email protected]
then "Einstein" and "einstein" receive full credit and any other response beginning with "E" or "e" receives 10%. If
the order of the two criteria is reversed, it is impossible to receive full credit.
See Also:
Rules for Grading Free Response Questions (page 188)
Free Response and Fill-in-the-Blank Questions (page 185)
List Question Example Script (page 347)
9.12 Math App Questions
Question Mode: Math App
Question Editor question type: Math App
Question file (.qu) syntax:
[email protected]
Math App questions display a worksheet that the student has to interact with.
General Overview on Creating Math Apps Questions in Maple TA
1. Create your worksheet in Maple. This worksheet will contain the Math App question content (sliders, math containers,
etc). Create this question with or without grading scheme.
2. Upload your worksheet to Maple T.A.
3. In Maple T.A., go to the Question Editor, select a question of type Math App.
4. Enter text for the question.
9.12 Math App Questions • 191
5. As part of the question creation process, browse to the uploaded Math App worksheet and select it.
6. Initialize any parameters in the worksheet. (optional)
7. Select Grading Scheme (whether it's in Maple T.A. or in the worksheet).
Create a Math App in a Worksheet
There are several different ways you can create your Math Apps using Maple.
1. Create a Math App using the Exploration Assistant in Maple.
2. Create a Math App using Maple embedded components.
3. Download an existing Math App from the Maple Cloud and make modifications to it.
Create a Math App with the Exploration Assistant
There are two ways you can use the Exploration Assistant:
1. Right-click and select Explore from the context-sensitive menus.
2. Call the Explore command.
Using the Context Menu
General steps for invoking the Exploration Assistant through the context menu.
1. Enter your expression in a Maple worksheet.
2. Right-click the expression and select Explore. A new Explore dialog box appears.
3. Enter lower and upper values for the parameters you want to explore. Select the skip box beside any variables or
parameters you don't want to change. Click Explore.
4. A new Exploration Assistant document will open with the expression and sliders for your indeterminates. Move the
sliders back and forth to see how they change the solution.
5. You can now save the assistant for future use with File > Save.
Example: Explore the expression:
Enter the expression:
Tip: You can use the Expression palette to insert the integral.
192 • 9 Question Types
Right-click the expression and select Explore.
A new Explore dialog box appears. From here, you can set the
range of values you would like to explore, as well as select which
variables you would like to skip. When you select skip, that
parameter remains as a symbolic unknown in the expression; no
slider will be created to control that value.
Enter -5 for the lower values of a and b, and 5 for the upper
values. Beside the variable x, select the skip box. This will leave
the variable x unchanged in the expression. When you are
finished, click Explore.
9.12 Math App Questions • 193
A new table is generated inline, with a math container for the
expression and sliders for the indeterminates a and b. Move the
sliders back and forth to see how they change the solution.
Calling the Explore Command
General steps for calling the Explore command.
1. Enter the expression,
, where
and press Enter. The Explore dialog box opens.
is the expression you want to explore
2. Enter lower and upper values for the parameters you want to explore. Select the skip box beside any variables or
parameters you don't want to change. Click Explore.
3. A new Exploration Assistant document will open with the expression and sliders for your indeterminates. Move the
sliders back and forth to see how they change the solution.
4. You can now save the assistant for future use with File > Save.
Example: Explore the expression:
Enter the expression,
press Enter
and
>
In the Explore dialog box, enter 1 for the lower value of n. Beside
each of the variables x and y, check the skip box on the right,
this will keep these variables in the solution. When you are
finished, click Explore.
A new table is created inline with a math container for the
expression and a slider for n. Move the slider back and forth to
see how it changes the expansion.
194 • 9 Question Types
Create a Math App with Embedded Components
To create Math Apps using components, you first have to expand the Components palette to insert them into your
worksheet. After you have chosen all the components you would like to use in your Math App, you can edit the Startup
Code to link all your components together.
From the Components palette, click the Plot (
(
) and Slider
) components to add them to your document.
Right-click the Slider component and select Component >
Component Properties.
Change the Value at Lowest Position to -5.
Change the Value at Highest Position to 5
Change the Spacing of Major Tick Marks to 5.
Change the Spacing of Minor Tick Marks to 1.
Check the boxes for the following Options:
• Enable Input
• Visible
• Show Track
• Show Axis Labels
• Show Axis Tick Marks
• Update Continuously while Dragging
Click the Edit button next to Action When Value Changes.
9.12 Math App Questions • 195
You will see some existing code already in the new window. This
code is purely instructional and will not have any affect on what
you append to it.
Right above the end use; statement, add the following code to the
component code editor :
Do(%Plot0=plot(x^2+%Slider0*x+4, x=-5..5,
y=-5..10));
The Math App is now complete. As you move the Slider
component, notice how the Plot component is updated.
Grade a Math App Question
You can grade a Math App question directly inside of Maple T.A. The Math App will be presented to students in the
form of a question. A student will then have the ability to manipulate the Math App in order to get credit for this particular question in Maple T.A.
When the student finishes the question, the final state of the Math App question is graded.
Grading is done in one of two different ways:
i. Grading Algorithm in Math App: The worksheet itself contains a grading procedure called Actions:-Grade.
This grading procedure must return a value between 0.0 and 1.0 which represents the student's grade.
ii. Grading Algorithm in Maple T.A: Use the following Maple code to grade the student response. Whatever
Maple code you put in the box below should return a value between 0.0 and 1.0 which represents the student's
grade.
How to Make a Math App Question Gradable Through Maple
General Steps for making a Math App gradable through Maple (the Math App itself).
196 • 9 Question Types
1. Define an `Actions` module with a module export `Grade` in your Math App. This module is recommended for
communication with Maple T.A. Note: If you put the Grade procedure in a module with a different name, it will not
work properly. The Actions module can optionally define the following exports:
• `InitParams`: can take arguments from Maple T.A. to initialize the worksheet with different parameters.
• `Grade`: a procedure that returns a number in the range 0..1.
• `Answer`: can be used to show the correct answer.
2. Create a Math App question in Maple T.A. using the Math App.
3. Select the option to use the grading algorithm in your Math App worksheet .
Example: A Math App Question, gradable through Maple T.A., that asks students to display a plot of
Open the Math App worksheet that you created in the previous
section, "Create a Math App with Embedded Components" .
From the Edit menu, select Startup Code.
You will notice that the Startup Code is currently blank. In order
to have Maple T.A. communicate with your Math App document,
you will need to export any variables you want Maple T.A. to be
able to read. For this example, insert the following code into the
Startup Code window.
Actions := module()
export Grade;
Grade:=proc()
if
DocumentTools:-GetProperty(Slider0,value)=-2 then
return 1;
else
return 0;
end if;
end proc;
end module;
From the Startup Code File menu, select Save.
From the Startup Code File menu, select Exit.
Save and then close your worksheet.
9.12 Math App Questions • 197
Log in to your Maple T.A. server and then go to your Class
Homepage.
From the Content Manager menu, select Question Repository.
From the Questions menu, select New Question.
In the Question Type list, select Math App.
Enter a description in the Question Description text field.
Click Next.
Enter the text for the question, and then click Choose Worksheet
to upload your Math App.
Click upload file(s) to this point.
Click Choose File to find the Math App on your machine.
Select Single File and provide a name for the Math App.
Click OK.
198 • 9 Question Types
Click the worksheet icon next to the Math App you want to use
in your question.
Under the heading Select the type of grading used, select
Grading Algorithm in Math App.
Push the Finish button at the top of the page.
Add the question to one or more question groups and then click
Submit.
To see how the question works, click Preview.
How to Make a Math App Question Gradable Through Maple T.A.
1. Define an `Actions` module in your Math App. Export all the procedures and variables you would like to call from
Maple T.A.
2. Create a Math App question in Maple T.A. using the Math App.
3. Select Maple T.A. Grading and define the grading code to grade the student response.
Example: A Math App Question, gradable through Maple TA, that asks students to display a plot of
9.12 Math App Questions • 199
Log in to your Maple T.A. server and then go to your Class
Homepage.
From the Content Manager menu, select Question Repository.
From the Questions menu, select New Question.
In the Question Type list, select Math App.
Enter a description in the Question Description text field.
Click Next.
Enter the text for the question, and then click Choose Worksheet
to upload your Math App.
Click upload file(s) to this point.
Click Choose File to find the Math App on your machine.
Select Single File and provide a name for the Math App.
Click OK.
200 • 9 Question Types
Click the worksheet icon next to the Math App you want to use
in your question.
Select Grading Algorithm in Maple T.A.
Insert the following command into the input box:
if DocumentTools:-GetProperty(Slider0,value)=-2
then
return 1;
else
return 0;
end if
Click Finish.
Add the question to one or more question groups and then click
Submit.
To see how the question works, click Preview.
Initializing Parameters in a Math App Question
In Maple T.A. you can declare static or algorithmic variables to be used in a Math App question. These declared variables
are initialized by the Math App when the question is loaded.
Working With Math App Variables in Maple T.A.
1. Open the Maple worksheet that contains the Math App.
2. In the Startup Code for the Math App, you must have an InitParams procedure defined within the Actions module.
Also, you must export the InitParams procedure.
3. Log in to Maple T.A.
4. In the New Question, page, create a new Math Apps question type.
9.12 Math App Questions • 201
5. Enter a name or description for the question in the Question Description field.
6. Click Next
7. Edit the value you are passing to the Math App as a parameter in the Initialization Parameters text field . The
variable name in Maple T.A. must match the parameter declaration in the InitParams procedure in the Math App.
If you want to pass an algorithmically generated variable to the Math App, define the variable first using the Algorithm
Designer, then assign the value of the parameter to this algorithmic variable in Initialization Parameters.
8. Click Finish
Example: Editing a Math App Variable Through Maple T.A.
Defining the InitParams procedure in the Math App.
In the first part of this example, you will create a Math App called ParameterTest to be used in Maple T.A. for a Math
App question.
1. Open a new Maple worksheet.
2. Place one text area embedded component onto the worksheet,
then place another text area embedded component onto the
worksheet, just below the first text area embedded component,
as shown. By default, they will be called TextArea0 (top) and
TextArea1 (bottom).
3. Place a slider component on to the worksheet, beside
TextArea1.
4. Right-click on the Slider component and select Component
Properties from the context menu.
Enter 0 in the Value at the Lowest Position field
Enter 10 in the Value at the Highest Postion field
Enter 2 in the Spacing of Major Tick Marks field
Enter 1 in the Spacing of Minor Tick Marks field
Click OK.
5. Add the following text beside the top text area embedded
component:
"The parameter passed in from Maple T.A. is:"
6. Next, above the slider embedded component, add the following
text:
"Move the slider to this number"
202 • 9 Question Types
The next step is to add startup code to the worksheet.
7. Open the Startup Code code editor (from the Edit menu, select
Startup Code).
8. Add the following code to the code editor:
Actions := module()
export InitParams, Grade, Num := 3;
InitParams := proc( { val::posint := 5 } )
Num := val;
DocumentTools:-Do(%TextArea0 = Num);
end;
Grade := proc()
`if`( DocumentTools:-Do(%Slider0) = Num,
1.0, 0.0 );
end;
end module:
DocumentTools:-Do(%TextArea0="");
DocumentTools:-Do(%TextArea1="")
Inside the Actions module, the InitParams procedure defines a
variable, Num that is used in TextArea0. Num takes the value,
val, which will be passed as a parameter from Maple T.A.
9. Save your code in the code editor.
10. Save your worksheet as ParameterTest.mw
Next, you will define a variable in Maple T.A. that is passed to InitParams through the val parameter.
1. Log in to Maple T.A.
2. Click the link for the class that you want to add the Math App
question to.
3. From the Content Manager menu, select Question Repository
4. Once you are in the Question Repository, from the Questions
menu, select New Question
9.12 Math App Questions • 203
5. In the Question Editor, select Math App as the question type.
6. Enter a name or description for the question in the Question
Description field.
7. In the Question Editor, click Add beside Algorithm to go to
the Algorithm window.
8. Click Show Designer to display the Algorithm Designer.
9. Enter a as the name of the variable
10. Next, select Whole Number from the list.
11. Enter 1 and 10 as the minimum and maximum values for the
range.
11. Enter 1 in the in steps of field
12. Click OK.
13. Click Save
You will be returned to the Question Editor.
15. Click Next.
16. In the Choose Worksheet section, click Choose Worksheet
then select the ParameterTest worksheet that you created in the
first part of this example.
17. In the Initialization Parameters section, assign a, as the value
for parameter, val. In other words val=$a;
18. Click Finish
Additional MathApp Creation Examples
Exploring a Series Expansion
1. Enter the expression:
2. Right-click the expression and select Explore. The Explore dialog box opens.
204 • 9 Question Types
3. In the Explore dialog box, enter 1 for the lower end of n. Beside the variable x check the skip box on the right, this
will keep the variable x in the solution. When you are finished, click Explore.
4. A new document opens with the expression and a slider for n. Move the slider back and forth to see its effect on
the expression.
Tip: When you are entering value ranges for the variables you would like to explore, be sure they are mathematically
acceptable (e.g. avoid causing a value of zero in the denominator).
Exploring an Integral Numerically
1. Enter the expression:
.
2. Right-click the expression and select Explore. The Explore dialog box opens.
3. Use the default ranges for a and b. To see numerical (rather than symbolic) results, select the check box for floatingpoint computation. When you are finished, click Explore.
4. A new document opens with the expression and sliders for a and b. Move the slider back and forth to see its effect
on the computation.
Tip: You can control whether the sliders vary through decimal values or only integer values. When you are entering
value ranges for the variables you would like to explore, if you enter the endpoints using decimals (such as 10.0 instead
of 10), then the corresponding slider will explore decimal values.
For more details on floating-point computation and the other options for the Exploration Assistant, see the Explore
help page.
Exploring a 2-D Plot
1. Enter the command:
2. Right-click the expression and select Explore. The Explore
dialog box opens.
3. Enter 1 for the lower end of a and b. When you are finished,
click Explore.
4. A new table is created inline with a math container for the
expression and sliders for a and b. Move the sliders back and
forth to see how they change the plot.
Tip: If you are going to explore a 2-D plot it is not necessary to
define the range for x. However, if you do not define x then you
must select skip for x. Default values will then be used for the
range.
Exploring a 3-D Plot
Enter the command
9.12 Math App Questions • 205
Right-click the expression and select Explore. The Explore dialog
box opens.
Enter -5 for the lower end of a, and 5 for the upper end. Next to
the variables x and y, select skip. When you are finished, click
Explore.
A new table is created inline with a math container for the
expression and a slider for a. Move the slider back and forth to
see how it changes the expansion.
Creating the Quadrant Game MathApp
With this Math App, a user is shown a 2-D plot window that contains a red dot. The user has to use radio buttons to
choose the quadrant containing the red dot. Credit for the correct answer is given to somebody if they get it right on
their first attempt. If they require multiple attempts to get the answer correct, they are not given any credit. After the
user gets 10 correct answers, the total time elapsed and the user's score are displayed. The user can click Restart to
reset the game and try it again.
Copy and paste the Table that you see to the right to a new
worksheet. This table will make it easy to position all the
components that will be in this example Math App.
From the Components palette, add these components to your
table so they look as they do in the image on the right:
• 1 Plot component
• 6 Radio button components
• 3 Text Area components
• 2 Label components
• 1 Button component
206 • 9 Question Types
Right-click the Plot component and select Component >
Component Properties.
Ensure the Name of the component is Plot0 and select Make
"execute code" the default manipulator.
Click OK to accept the code, and click OK on the Plot Properties
window.
Right-click the first Radio Button component and select
Component Properties.
Ensure the Name of the component is RadioButton0 and change
the Caption to Quadrant I. Click the Edit button next to Action
When Clicked.
Remove the existing code in this component code editor and
change it to say:
Actions:-QuadrantSelect(1);
Click OK to accept the code, and click OK on the RadioButton
Properties window.
Do this for the other Radio Buttons, but edit them as follows:
• The second Radio Button component has Name
RadioButton1 and Caption Quadrant II. Insert the
following code for Action When Clicked:
Actions:-QuadrantSelect(2);
• The third Radio Button component has Name RadioButton2
and Caption Quadrant III. Insert the following code for Action
When Clicked:
Actions:-QuadrantSelect(3);
9.12 Math App Questions • 207
• The fourth Radio Button component has Name RadioButton3
and Caption Quadrant IV. Insert the following code for Action
When Clicked:
Actions:-QuadrantSelect(4);
• The fifth Radio Button component has Name RadioButton4
and Caption No Quadrant. Insert the following code for Action
When Clicked:
Actions:-QuadrantSelect(0);
• The sixth Radio Button component has Name RadioButton5
and Caption placeholder. Clear the Visible check box and
click OK. The RadioButton should now have disappeared from
your worksheet.
Right-click the left Label component and select Component
Properties.
Change the Caption to x: and click OK.
Right-click the right Label component and select Component
Properties.
Change the Caption to y: and click OK.
208 • 9 Question Types
For the Text Area component next to x:, right-click it and select
Component Properties. Ensure the Name of this component is
TextArea0. Click OK.
For the Text Area component next to y:, right-click it and select
Component Properties. Ensure the Name of this component is
TextArea1. Click OK.
For the Text Area component next to the Button component,
right-click it and select Component Properties. Ensure the Name
of this component is TextArea2. Change the Visible Character
Width to 50. and Visible Rows to 3. Click OK.
Now right-click the Button component and select Component
Properties.
Change the Caption to Restart Game and then click the Edit
button next to Action When Clicked.
Remove any existing text in this new window and change it to
say:
Actions:-RestartGame();
Click OK to accept the code, and click OK on the Button
Properties window.
9.12 Math App Questions • 209
From the Edit menu, select Startup Code.
Insert the following commands into the Startup Code region:
Actions := module()
export QuadrantSelect, RestartGame,
num_incorrect;
local x, y, StartTime, Num, DoPlot;
QuadrantSelect := proc( quad::integer )
if Num > 10 then
return;
end if;
if StartTime = -1 then
# Start the clock when the user makes
their first choice
StartTime := time[real]();
end if;
if quad = 0 and x*y = 0 or member( [quad,
signum( 0, x, 0 ), signum( 0, y, 0 )],
{[1, 1, 1], [2, -1, 1], [3, -1,
-1], [4, 1, -1]} ) then
DocumentTools:-SetProperty(
'RadioButton5', value, true );
DocumentTools:-Do( %TextArea2( value
) = "Correct!" );
Num := Num+1;
if Num < 10 then
x := RandomTools:-Generate(
integer( range = -10 .. 10 ) );
y := RandomTools:-Generate(
integer( range = -10 .. 10 ) );
DoPlot( x, y );
else
DocumentTools:-Do( %TextArea2(
value ) = cat( "That took you ",
convert( round( 100 *
(time[real]()-StartTime) ) * .01, 'string' ),
" seconds.\nYour score
is ", convert(((add(num_incorrect[i],i=1..10) /
10)*100), string), "%." ) );
DoPlot();
end if;
else
DocumentTools:-Do( %TextArea2( value
) = "Please try again." );
num_incorrect[Num+1] := 0;
end if;
return NULL;
end proc; # QuadrantSelect
210 • 9 Question Types
RestartGame := proc()
x := RandomTools:-Generate( integer( range
= -10 .. 10 ) );
y := RandomTools:-Generate( integer( range
= -10 .. 10 ) );
StartTime := -1;
Num := 0;
DoPlot( x, y );
DocumentTools:-SetProperty( 'RadioButton5',
value, true );
DocumentTools:-Do( %TextArea2( value ) =
"Go!" );
num_incorrect := Array(1..10,fill=1);
return NULL;
end proc; # RestartGame
DoPlot := proc( x := "", y := "" )
local p;
if x = "" then
p := plot([]); #empty plot
else
p := plots:-pointplot( [x, y],
'style' = 'point',
'symbol' = 'solidcircle',
'color' = 'red', 'symbolsize' = 20 );
end if;
DocumentTools:-Do( %Plot0 =
plots:-display( [ p ],
'view' = [-10..10, -10..10],
'title' = "The Quadrant Game", 'gridlines',
'font' = ["Times New Roman", 12], 'thickness' =
2 ) );
DocumentTools:-Do( %TextArea0( value )
= x );
DocumentTools:-Do( %TextArea1( value )
= y );
return NULL;
end proc;
end module; #Actions
randomize();
Actions:-RestartGame()
Go to File > Save to save the startup code.
Go to File > Exit.
9.12 Math App Questions • 211
Right-click the table and select Table > Properties from the
context-sensitive menu. Change Exterior Borders to None.
Change Interior Borders to None. Click OK.
Push the Restart Server button (
App
) to re-initialize your Math
.The Math App is now complete and you can play the game.
Making the Quadrant Game MathApp Gradable Through Maple T.A.
In the following example, you will make the Quadrant Game MathApp gradable through Maple T.A.
Before you create the question in Maple T.A., open the Quadrant
Game MathApp in Maple and delete the Restart Game button.
This will prevent students from restarting the game during an
actual assignment.
Log in to your Maple T.A. server and then go to your Class
Homepage.
From the Content Manager menu, select Question Repository.
From the Questions menu, select New Question.
In the Question Type list, select Math App.
Enter a description in the Question Description text field.
Click Next.
212 • 9 Question Types
Enter the text for the question, and then click Choose Worksheet
to upload your MathApp.
Click upload file(s) to this point.
Click Choose File to find the MathApp on your machine.
Select Single File and provide a name for the MathApp.
Click OK.
Click the worksheet icon next to the MathApp you want to use
in your question.
Select Grading Algorithm in Maple T.A.
Insert the following command into the input box:
add(num_correct[i],i=1..10)/10.0;
9.12 Math App Questions • 213
Click Finish.
Add the question to one or more question groups and then click
Submit.
To see how the question works, click Preview.
Creating an Interactive Plot of a Circle
Within a plot component, you can define click-and-drag behavior. You can enter commands to define actions to be
performed in three scenarios:
• Action When Clicked performs an action when the mouse is clicked in the plot area.
• Action When Dragged performs an action when the mouse is dragged in the plot area.
• Action When Drag Ends performs an action when the mouse is released from dragging.
To interact with the plot you need to use the Click and Drag manipulator (
) . This allows you to add or drag
points on the plot area. You can access this manipulator from the Plot Toolbar or by right-clicking the plot area and
selecting Manipulators > Click and Drag.
For this Math App, you will be creating an interactive plot of a circle. First, you will click on a point to define its center,
then define its radius by clicking on a point that will be on the circle. To set up this interactive plot, you will edit the
Action When Clicked section of the plot component.
From the Components palette, click the Plot(
Button (
document.
) and
) components to add them to your
214 • 9 Question Types
Right-click the Plot component and select Component >
Component Properties.
Change the Name of the component to ClickPlot and select Make
"execute code" the default manipulator.
Click the Edit button next to Action When Clicked.
Remove any existing text in this component code editor and
change it to say:
Actions:-Click();
Click OK to accept the code, and click OK on the Plot Properties
window.
Right-click the Button component and select Component
Properties.
Change the Name of the component to Button and the Caption
to Clear Plot.
Click the Edit button next to Action When Clicked.
Remove any existing text in this component code editor and
change it to say:
Actions:-ClearPlot();
Click OK to accept the code, and click OK on the Button
Properties window.
9.12 Math App Questions • 215
From the Edit menu, select Startup Code.
Insert the following commands into the Startup Code editor:
Actions := module()
export Click, ClearPlot, CenX, CenY;
local EndX, EndY, P1;
Click := proc()
if type(CenX,symbol) then
CenX:=round(DocumentTools:-Do(%ClickPlot(clickx)));
CenY:=round(DocumentTools:-Do(%ClickPlot(clicky)));
P1:=plots:-pointplot([CenX,CenY],
view=[-10..10,-10..10],style=point,symbol=solidcircle);
DocumentTools:-Do(%ClickPlot=P1);
else
EndX:=round(DocumentTools:-Do(%ClickPlot(clickx)));
EndY:=round(DocumentTools:-Do(%ClickPlot(clicky)));
DocumentTools:-Do(%ClickPlot=plots:-display([P1,plottools:-circle([CenX,CenY],sqrt((EndX-CenX)^2+(EndY-CenY)^2))]));
end if;
end proc; #Click
ClearPlot := proc()
DocumentTools:-Do(%ClickPlot =
plots:-pointplot([NULL]));
CenX:='CenX';
end proc; #ClearPlot
end module; #Actions
# Initialize components
proc()
Actions:-ClearPlot();
end proc()
Go to File > Save to save the startup code.
Go to File > Exit.
216 • 9 Question Types
Push Restart Server (
) to re-initialize your Math App.
The Math App is now complete and you can click the plot
component to create circles.
Making the Interactive Plot of a Circle MathApp Gradable Through Maple T.A.
In the following example, you will use the Interactive Plot of a Circle Math App created in the previous section. You
will make the Quadrant Game gradable through Maple T.A.
Log in to your Maple T.A. server and then go to your Class
Homepage.
From the Content Manager menu, select Question Repository.
From the Questions menu, select New Question.
In the Question Type list, select Math App.
Enter a description in the Question Description text field.
Click Next.
9.12 Math App Questions • 217
Enter the text for the question, and then click Choose Worksheet
to upload your Math App.
Click upload file(s) to this point.
Click Choose File to find the Math App on your machine.
Select Single File and provide a name for the Math App.
Click OK.
Click the worksheet icon next to the Math App you want to use
in your question.
Select Grading Algorithm in Maple T.A.
Insert the following command into the input box:
if Actions:-CenX < 0 and Actions:-CenY < 0 then
return 1;
else
return 0;
end if
218 • 9 Question Types
Click Finish.
Add the question to one or more question groups and then click
Submit.
To see how the question works, click Preview.
9.13 Matching Questions
Question Mode: Matching
Question Editor question type: Matching
Question file (.qu) syntax:
[email protected]
Matching questions display two lists. A student must match each element of the first list with an element in the second
list.
Matching question types allow only one-to-one matches in the correct answer. Matches of one element to many are
not available in the system. As an alternative, consider using Multiple Choice or Multiple Selection questions.
The elements can be HTML-compatible reference objects, for example, images.
The system displays the elements of the first list in rows of three, by default. Each element has a drop box that contains
numbers relating to the elements from the second list, which are listed below.
Example
The following algorithmically generated Matching question uses images (not text) for matching pairs.
[email protected]
qu.1.1.name=pKa sort by [email protected]
[email protected]
qu.1.1.algorithm=
$a=switch(rint(4),
"<img src=../classes/myclass/pka/pka01a01.gif>",
"<img src=../classes/myclass/pka/pka01a02.gif>",
"<img src=../classes/myclass/pka/pka01a03.gif>",
"<img src=../classes/myclass/pka/pka01a04.gif>");
$b=switch(rint(4),
"<img src=../classes/myclass/pka/pka02a01.gif>",
"<img src=../classes/myclass/pka/pka02a02.gif>",
"<img src=../classes/myclass/pka/pka02a03.gif>",
"<img src=../classes/myclass/pka/pka02a04.gif>");
$c=switch(rint(5),
"<img src=../classes/myclass/pka/pka03a01.gif>",
"<img src=../classes/myclass/pka/pka03a02.gif>",
9.14 Multipart Questions • 219
"<img src=../classes/myclass/pka/pka03a03.gif>",
"<img src=../classes/myclass/pka/pka03a04.gif>",
"<img src=../classes/myclass/pka/pka03a05.gif>");
$d=switch(rint(6),
"<img src=../classes/myclass/pka/pka04a01.gif>",
"<img src=../classes/myclass/pka/pka04a02.gif>",
"<img src=../classes/myclass/pka/pka04a03.gif>",
"<img src=../classes/myclass/pka/pka04a04.gif>",
"<img src=../classes/myclass/pka/pka04a05.gif>",
"<img src=../classes/myclass/pka/pka04a06.gif>");
$e=switch(rint(2),
"<img src=../classes/myclass/pka/pka05a01.gif>",
"<img src=../classes/myclass/pka/pka05a02.gif>");
@
[email protected]
qu.1.1.question=Sort the molecules below from highest to lowest pKa:@
qu.1.1.term.1=1 (lowest pKa, Most acidic)@
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
qu.1.1.term.5=5 (highest pKa, Least acidic)@
[email protected]
See Also:
Matching Questions in the Question Editor (page 104)
Multiple Choice Questions (page 220)
Multiple Selection Questions (page 221)
Question Types Available in the System (page 159)
9.14 Multipart Questions
Multipart Questions
Question Mode: multipart
Question Editor question type: Multipart
Question file (.qu) syntax:
[email protected]
A multipart question can contain a variety of related question materials, data, even case scenarios for different types
of assessment and learning.
Although the multipart mode is a question type, its component question parts can be of any question type except adaptive. Note that this include multipart. This allows nested multipart questions.
The Question Editor is the recommended method for authoring multipart questions. However, you can also use the
plain-text script file path or the LaTeX authoring path.
See Also:
Multipart Questions in the Question Editor (page 107)
Multipart Question Example Script (page 350)
220 • 9 Question Types
Question Designer Questions (page 223)
Adaptive Questions (page 179)
Tutorial: Working with Multipart Questions (page 137)
Multipart Questions - Adding or Editing Parts
It is recommended that you organize and edit question parts in a topic, and then build the topic into multipart question
only after you are finished. For details on editing multipart questions, see Tutorial: Working with Multipart
Questions (page 137) .
Multipart Questions: Partial Credit
Assigning partial credit in multipart questions is closely related to establishing point values for the individual parts
during construction of the question in the Question Editor. As you build a multipart question in the Question Editor,
you can assign a question weight to each part of the question. In this way, you control partial credit in multipart questions.
See Also:
Multipart Questions in the Question Editor (page 107)
Partial Credit and Weighted Scoring (page 137)
Tutorial: Working with Multipart Questions (page 137)
Multipart Questions - Sequencing Parts
When creating a multipart question, identify the source question for each part.
• To select questions as parts, you can add them individually or select multiple questions from a single topic
(using the check boxes beside the questions).
• If you select multiple questions from the same topic during the same authoring session, the multipart questionauthoring tool in the Question Editor inserts each question part in the same order in which it appears in the
source topic.
See Also:
Multipart Questions in the Question Editor (page 107)
9.15 Multiple Choice Questions
Question Mode: multiple choice; non-permuting multiple choice
Question Editor question type: Multiple choice
Question file (.qu) syntax:
qu.x.y.mode=multiple [email protected]
qu.x.y.mode=non permuting multiple [email protected]
Multiple choice questions in the system can have any number of choices. You can also add incorrect choices after
questions are initially created.
When making assignments, you choose to permute the choices with each delivery (multiple choice) or maintain
a static choice order (non permuting multiple choice).
9.16 Multiple Selection Questions • 221
You can provide response-specific feedback. That is, you can provide a distinct comment for each choice. For every
choice in your question, add a comment line of the form:
qu.x.y.comment.<n>=<comment_text>@
where <n> is the same positive integer as in the corresponding choice line:
qu.x.y.choice.<n>=<choice_n>@
To enter response-specific feedback, use a text or HTML editor, LaTeX, or the Question Editor Edit Source functionality.
See Also:
Multiple Choice Questions in the Question Editor (page 108)
Multiple Choice Question Example Script (page 351)
9.16 Multiple Selection Questions
Question Mode: multiple selection; non-permuting multiple selection
Question Editor question type: Multiple selection
Question file (.qu) syntax:
qu.x.y.mode=multiple [email protected]
qu.x.y.mode=non permuting multiple [email protected]
Multiple selection questions are similar to multiple choice items. However, they can require the user to identify more
than one correct answer. You can create as many choices as you want.
In multiple selection questions, the selections are permuted each time they appear. In non-permuting multiple selection
questions, the selection order is static.
Display of Choices in Multiple Selection Questions
By default, the system presents choices in a stacked, vertical list. If you want to set choices horizontally, use the
Question Designer question type, and set your response object to multiple selection or non-permuting multiple selection. For more information, see Question Designer Questions (page 223).
Grading Multiple Selection Questions
A multiple selection question is graded fully correct if the student selects all the correct answers (and no incorrect answers). The grader applies negative credit for selecting incorrect answers. The score is calculated using the following
algorithm.
1. Score +1 for each selected correct answer and -1 for each selected incorrect answer.
2. Sum these scores. If this result is negative, then it is replaced by 0.
3. Divide by the total number of correct answers.
4. Multiply by the total points for the question defined during assignment creation.
That is, for a multiple selection question the score is given by the formula
222 • 9 Question Types
with the exception that if the numerator is less than 0, it is set to 0.
For example, if the correct answers are (a) and (b), and the incorrect answers are (c) and (d), then selecting all four
would score 0%, and selecting a, b, and c would score 50%.
If the multiple selection question is included as a part of a multipart or question designer question, the question score
is multiplied by the question part weighting to determine the grade for the question. Question part weighting is set in
the question definition.
See Also:
Algorithmic Multiple Selection Question Example Script (page 340)
Multiple Selection Questions in the Question Editor (page 109)
Multiple Selection Question Example Script (page 352)
9.17 Palette Questions
Question Mode: palette
Question Editor question type: Palette-based symbolic editor
Question file (.qu) syntax:
[email protected]
Palette questions enable you to create your own customized palette for student response entries.
• Before creating a new palette definition, you should get familiar with the Equation Editor requirements and
syntax.
• To add a new palette definition, you need to create a question bank in plain-text script format and add the
toolbar definition at the beginning of the file using the qu.env.palette.toolbarname= structure (see
below). You can add one or more toolbar definitions at a time. You can add one or more palette entries to a
toolbar definition.
• After importing the question bank, you will add a palette question using the Question Editor and select from
the list of available palettes you created in the Palette Style drop-down menu.
Note: Palette questions should only be created using the Question Editor. Palette questions work by using an Equation Editor to
generate Presentation MathML for the student response and compare it with the Presentation MathML of the answer. However,
because there are many different ways of making Presentation MathML for the same (or almost same) marked-up expression,
creating the expressions outside the Equation Editor may generate unpredictable results.
Grading of Palette Questions
The default behavior for grading palette question student responses is to perform string-matching on the palette-created
expression.
Example Toolbar Definition:
Provide a toolbar definition by including
qu.env.palette.toolbarname=
<toolbar def>
@
Example Palette Definition:
Provide palette definition(s) by including
9.18 Question Designer Questions • 223
qu.env.palette.subsup=
<btn>FRAC</btn>
<btn>SQRT</btn>
<btn>SUB</btn>
<btn>SUP</btn>
@
qu.env.palette.greek=
<tb>
<btn>SYMBOLPALETTE</btn>
<sub cols=3>
<btn>alpha</btn>
<btn>beta</btn>
<btn>gamma</btn>
</sub>
</tb>
@
Example Question
[email protected]
qu.1.1.question=
<the text of the question>
@
qu.1.1.answer=
<the text of the answer; this is in MathML and is intended to be editable>
@
qu.1.1.toolbar=<ref to external toolbar definition>@
See Also:
Palette-based Symbolic Editor Questions in the Question Editor (page 110)
Equation Editor Requirements and Syntax (page 251)
Rules for Grading Free Response Questions (page 188)
9.18 Question Designer Questions
Question Designer questions are a more flexible and extensible form of free response question that can include multiple
response areas. In this way, they are similar to multipart questions in that they provide a shell structure in which to
embed other questions. Question Designer questions support the following features.
• Using the Question Designer, you can enter question text and the correct answers wherever they appear.
• Questions can contain multiple response cells, for example, Fill-in-the-Blanks questions
• The widest variety of types of response cells (linked to specific question grader types) anywhere in the body
of a question
Question types supported in the Question Designer:
• All Formula Question Types: Formula, Formula Mod C, Restricted Formula, Equation, MultiFormula,
ntuple, Formula List, Chemical Equation
• Numeric Question Types: with and without required unit dimensions
• Multiple Choice, Non-permuting Multiple Choice (displayed vertically or horizontally)
• Multiple Selection, Non-permuting Multiple Selection (displayed vertically or horizontally)
• List Questions, including text or menu input styles, exact or relaxed graders, multiple correct or incorrect
responses can be specified, partial credit can be defined for each response
• Maple-graded: Formula and Maple Syntax
224 • 9 Question Types
• Essay
• Math App
As in a multipart question, each subpart of the Question Designer question must itself be a well-formed question. The
only exception is that when used to define a blank inside a Question Designer question, any of the above question
types may omit the question field (because this is actually defined inline in the body of the larger question statement).
The Question Designer question type is a shell that is internally consistent with other questions. Numeric blanks inside
Question Designer questions, for example, will grade the same as single-part numeric questions because the grading
is actually done by the numeric question itself. Likewise, each embedded question type inside a Question Designer
question supports all the features offered with that individual question type (for example, margin of error, significant
figures, and tolerance).
Note: The Question Designer question type supersedes the Blanks and Inline question types.
See Also:
Question Designer Question Example using Various Embedded Questions (page 353)
List Questions (page 189)
Adaptive Questions (page 179)
Authoring with the Question Designer
The Question Designer is a powerful and flexible question container that can hold one or more graded answer regions
or Response Areas. A variety of grading behaviors can be combined and placed anywhere within the formatted html
that defines the question. For example, questions can be placed inside tables, formatted text, bulleted lists, and can include
embedded images or media objects.
In addition to flexible question and response areas, it provides an environment similar to a word processor. See
Figure 9.11. Apply character formats such as bold, italics, and fonts using toolbar buttons. You can insert images,
tables, or links to other file resources.When you are satisfied with the appearance of the question, insert answer regions
and then apply grading and other behaviors.
9.18 Question Designer Questions • 225
Figure 9.11: Question Designer Screen
Features
Questions authored in the Question Designer can contain:
• Any number of answer regions. Parts of your question can require text, numeric or formula answers while
other parts can require multiple choice, essay answers—all in a single question.
• Standard HTML elements. You can include character formatting, HTML tables, embedded images and media
objects.
• Any number of images, tables, algorithmic variables and inline math expressions as required.
From the Question Designer screen, you can view, add, or edit feedback, algorithm, information, hint, and solution
fields.
Figure 9.12: Tabs for Specifying Feedback, Algorithms, and Additional Question Info
See Also:
Question Types and Properties (page 227)
Edit/Insert Response Area (page 228)
226 • 9 Question Types
Formatting Tips
The Question Designer makes it easy to apply formatting to your question in many of the same ways you use your
word processor. There are a few limitations and requirements unique to the editor. These tips are offered to help you
achieve the best results.
As with other web content, you may observe differences in the display of your question in various operating systems
and browsers.
Character Formatting
• Use the toolbar buttons to apply character formatting.
• HTML tags are allowed and will be rendered as HTML
Math expressions in questions
• Use the Equation Editor to enter expressions. Click the Sigma icon to launch the Equation Editor dialog, as
shown in Figure 9.13.
• Right-click (Control-click, Macintosh) in the input field to display palettes. See Figure 9.14.
Figure 9.13: Access the Equation Editor in the Question Designer
9.18 Question Designer Questions • 227
Figure 9.14: Equation Editor Palettes
Algorithmic Variables in questions
• Insert variables by typing their name. Use the required "$" at the beginning of the variable name: $variable.
Displaying the $ sign and the @ symbol in questions
• Insert the "$" sign by using the escape sequence "\", as follows: \$.
• Insert the "@" symbol by using the escape sequence "\" as follows: \@.
Important: When saving elements, remember to click Finish to save changes. If you change a value by simply typing content
and do not click Finish, your changes will be lost.
Question Types and Properties
Questions can hold one or more Response Areas. You define the question mode, display style, grading behaviors, and
correct (and incorrect) answers using the panel.
Supported Question Types
Essay (Ungraded)
Essay question Response Areas can be defined anywhere in the Text of the question panel.
Formula (Mathematical)
Formula questions provide full access to the formula mode math grading behaviors, including configurable
grading of equivalent symbolic algebraic and equation expressions. The sub-modes are:
• Formula, for example, e^x sin(x^2)
• Formula that matches responses to within +C
• Vector of formulas, for example, (2t, t+1, 3t^2)
228 • 9 Question Types
• Equation, for example, x +3y=1
• Formula without simplification, for example, 4x + x
• Chemical Equation, for example, 2H_2+O_2-->2H_2O
List Questions (Fill-in-the-blank or select correct answer from drop-down menu)
List questions are used to define fill-in-the-blank or select the correct answer from a drop-down menu questions. They can include multiple correct, incorrect, or partially correct responses.
Maple Questions
Maple questions include facilities for algebra, calculus, differential equations, discrete mathematics, graphics,
numerical computation, and many other areas of mathematics.
You also have access to the plotting capabilities of Maple. You can plot a student response (or a function
derived from a student response, for example, the definite integral of the student response) for a Maple-graded
question type or display a plot for any question type. You can also use functions and routines that are contained
in a separate Maple Repository (Maple Library). You can access your personal Maple library archives from
within your Maple questions.
Math App
Math App questions let an instructor embed a worksheet that a student will interact with. The worksheet itself
will be graded by the final state the student leaves it in.
Multiple Choice and Multiple Selection
Multiple choice (one answer) and multiple selection (more than one answer) questions can be defined as
either permuting (choices are shuffled) or non-permuting (order of choices is fixed as authored). Answer
choices can be displayed horizontally or vertically.
Numeric
Numeric questions can be defined to require a number and a unit dimension or simply a number as the answer.
You can set grading tolerance and answer precision using one of four methods.
The following sections explain how to use each of these question types within the response area.
Edit/Insert Response Area
Response Areas are the areas of your question that hold the answer definitions. Using the Edit/Insert Response Area
button, you activate and define response areas in your question.
To define answer regions in your questions:
1. Click the Insert/Edit Response Area button ( ).
9.18 Question Designer Questions • 229
Figure 9.15: Add Response Area in the Question Designer
2. The Edit Response Area dialog opens. You can select from Formula, Maple, Multiple Choice, Numeric, List, or
Essay question types.
3. Define the properties for the question type and click OK. See the next section for details on specifying these properties.
4. The response area is now displayed in the Text of the question panel.
230 • 9 Question Types
Response Area Properties
Essay Question
To create an Essay question:
1. Enter the essay question in the Text of the question panel.
2. Click Insert/Edit Response Area.
3. Select the Essay question type in the Edit Response Area dialog.
4. Indicate the number of rows and columns (length) of the response area for the essay question and click OK.
• You can define the size of the essay blank using rows and columns. A typical screen-width size is 65-70 columns
wide. Rows directly correspond to the lines of text you want to provide in a typical response.
• If a student enters more text than will fit in the preconfigured text window, the cell will automatically insert a
scroll bar and allow the student to continue his or her response.
5. Click OK and then Finish to save and preview the question.
Formula
To create a Formula question:
1. Enter a question in the Text of the question panel. Optionally, enter the question using symbolic math by clicking
the Equation Editor icon. (The Equation Editor opens. See Formatting Tips (page 226) .)
2. Click Insert/Edit Response Area.
3. Select the Formula question type in the Edit Response Area dialog.
4. Select a formula math grader by clicking Sub-type drop-down list.
5. Enter the answer in the Answer field.
6. Click OK and then Finish to save and preview the question.
List Question
To create a List question:
1. Enter a question in the Text of the question panel.
2. Click Insert/Edit Response Area.
9.18 Question Designer Questions • 231
Figure 9.16: List Response Area in the Question Designer
3. Select the List question type in the Edit Response Area dialog.
4. Select the Display Type. The default Display Type is Text field, which presents students with a blank response
area. To present students with a drop-down menu of choices, select Drop-down menu.
• When the display type is Text field, you can set the grading standards. To apply strict grading, case-sensitive,
and literal string-matching as your grading mode, set matching type to Exact text match from the Matching
Type drop-down list. To invoke a less stringent grader that ignores case sensitivity and punctuation, select Ignore
Case text match. You can also use a regular expression matching grader to customize the grading routine.
• Enter answer choices in the Item fields. To add items, click the top Item button.
• As you add expected answers the system assigns them a credit value of "0.0" in the right column. Edit the
weights as desired, using 1 (fully correct) or any decimal value between 0 and 1 for partially correct answers.
5. Click OK and then Finish to save and preview the question.
See Also:
Rules for Grading Free Response Questions (page 188)
232 • 9 Question Types
Maple
To create a Maple question:
1. Enter a question in the Text of the question panel.
2. Click Insert/Edit Response Area.
3. Select the Maple-graded question type in the Edit Response Area dialog.
4. Select an Expression type: Formula or Maple Syntax.
5. Using Maple code, enter the correct answer in the Answer field. For example, if the question is find the indefinite
integral of sin(x), then the Answer field must contain the Maple code int(sin(x),x);
6. By default, the Maple code to grade the student answer is given: is(($ANSWER)-($RESPONSE) = 0);
7. Click OK and then Finish to save and preview the question.
Figure 9.17: Maple-graded Response Area in the Question Designer
Options
• You can enter Maple code to plot the student answer. For example, enter an expression in x. The Maple grading
code is plot($RESPONSE, x=0..10);
• You can access your personal Maple library archives from within your Maple questions. You must first upload
your archive files into the class file space on the server. When you create a Maple-graded question, you specify
the location of the archive as part of the question definition. When executing the Maple code associated with
that question, the Maple libname variable is set automatically to access the archive files specified. Click the
blank field in the Maple repository row and enter the Library location.
9.18 Question Designer Questions • 233
Multiple Choice
To create a Multiple Choice question:
1. Enter a question in the Text of the question panel.
2. Click Insert/Edit Response Area.
3. Select the Multiple Choice question type in the Edit Response Area dialog.
Figure 9.18: Multiple Choice Response Area in the Question Designer
4. Select Single for one correct answer or Multiple for multiple correct answers.
5. To rearrange the order of the displayed choices, select Permuting.
6. Select the display format of the choices in a table: Vertical or Horizontal.
7. In the Choices: area enter the text that defines the choices for the question.
8. Click OK. The Edit Response Area dialog opens. Select the correct values.
234 • 9 Question Types
9. Click OK.
10. Click Finish to save and preview the question.
Numeric (with or without required unit dimensions)
To create a Numeric question:
1. Enter a question in the Text of the question panel.
2. Click Insert/Edit Response Area.
3. Select the Numeric question type in the Edit Response Area dialog.
• Numeric questions can accept numbers without units as valid responses. The correct answer must be expressed
as a number. The student response can be an expression (such as "1+2+3+4").
• Numeric responses can be expressed in decimal form or scientific notation (for example, 3.24E4).
• To require units, enter a unit in the Units Part field (for example, m for meters). If you do not enter a required
unit dimension, the system displays only a single response cell that accepts only numbers. If you do enter a
unit dimension, students are presented two cells, one for the number part and one for the unit part. The student
must enter correct values in both cells to receive full credit.
• Correct answers can be specified with a margin of error or range of tolerance.
• Algorithmic variables can be created for use in the question statement, answer, hint, feedback, and solution
fields.
9.18 Question Designer Questions • 235
• The system automatically grades equivalent numeric expressions correct
4. Click Finish to save and preview the question.
Figure 9.19: Numeric Response Area in the Question Designer
See Also:
Authoring with the Question Designer (page 224)
Question Types and Properties (page 227)
Edit/Insert Response Area (page 228)
Insert Algorithm
Insert algorithms using the Algorithm tab in the Question Designer screen.
Click the Algorithm tab in the Question Designer screen and then click Edit and follow the instructions on the screen.
Maple-generated plots to be included in questions are defined in the Algorithm Editor using the plotmaple command.
When you define a plot in the Algorithm Editor, you can click Refresh to see the plot image, verify the plot statement
236 • 9 Question Types
is correct, and edit it if necessary. For more information on the Algorithm Editor, see Adding and Editing
Algorithms (page 83).
Note: When refreshing the algorithmic variable, you need to change the plot statement in order for the new image to
appear. Changing a plotdevice or plotoption entry will not update the plot.
See Also:
Plotting Using Maple (page 258)
9.19 Short Phrase Questions
Question Mode: short phrase
Question file (.qu) syntax:
qu.x.y.mode=short [email protected]
Note: The Short Phrase question type is deprecated. Use the List question type instead. See List Questions (page 189).
9.20 True-or-False Questions
Question Mode: True False
Question Editor question type: True/false
Question file (.qu) syntax:
qu.x.y.mode=True [email protected]
True-or-false questions are treated as a class of multiple choice question featuring only two choices.
See Also:
True-or-False Questions in the Question Editor (page 111)
Multiple Choice Questions (page 220)
True-or-False Question Example Script (page 356)
9.21 Advanced Question Types
The system supports the following applet question types. To create these questions, you must author the questions in
LaTeX, or in a text or HTML editor.
• Dynamic figure label questions Questions with Labeled Images (page 111), Labeling Graphics in LaTeX
Questions (page 319)
• Graph-sketching questions Graph Sketching Questions in LaTeX (page 316), Graph Sketching Question Example
Script (page 346)
• Applet questions Applet Questions (page 181)
Note: While these question types cannot be created in the Question Editor, it is possible to embed an applet graph in
a question that is created in the Question Editor, using the Edit Source functionality to edit the source code directly.
For more information, see Graph Plotting Applet in Questions (page 94).
See Also:
Questions with Plots (page 176)
9.21 Advanced Question Types • 237
Graph Plotting in LaTeX Questions (page 315)
Graph Plotting Applet (page 177)
238 • 9 Question Types
10 Authoring Mathematical Questions
10.1 Authoring Mathematical Questions
Maple T.A. provides cross-platform support for learning content that includes numeric or symbolic mathematics expressions, and chemistry equations and expressions.
Fundamental Capabilities
• Integrated mathematics parser and Math Syntax for expressions
• Maple-graded expressions
• Graded free-response mathematics questions containing numeric responses, equations, formulas, physical units,
and combinations of numbers, formulas, and units
• MathML support
• Inline expression rendering from graphing calculator syntax to formatted MathML expressions
• System evaluation of equivalent symbolic, numeric, equation, and unit expressions
• Automatic recognition of scientific notation in the answer field and in student responses
• Control over precision, significant digits, and margin of error/tolerance in questions
• Support for questions using Maple
• Support for questions that use plots generated by Maple
Mathematics Question Types
Maple T.A. offers 14 varieties of mathematical and scientific free response question types ( including formula, numeric,
and questions that use the Maple mathematical software to grade and plot student responses).
Symbolic and Equation Question Types
• Maple-graded Formula (page 169)
• Maple Syntax (page 170)
• Formula (page 164)
• Restricted Formula (page 178)
• Formula with Units (page 167)
• Constants of Integration Questions (page 163)
• Equation (page 164)
• MultiFormula (page 172)
• Formula List (page 166)
• Vectors of Formulas (page 178)
• Graph Plotting in LaTeX Questions (page 315)
Numeric Question Types
• Numeric (page 174) (including numbers with physical units)
• Labeling Graphics in LaTeX Questions (page 319)
• Matrix (page 172)
239
240 • 10 Authoring Mathematical Questions
10.2 Basic Math Syntax in the System
• Mathematical Expression Syntax (page 240)
• Variable Names Syntax (page 240)
• Operator and Function Syntax (page 240)
Writing Mathematical Expressions
The basic syntax for entering mathematical formulas or expressions in the system enables you to quickly enter expressions
using symbolic math. You can type formulas using standard mathematical notation (similar to that used for a graphing
calculator) and, in general, the system correctly interprets it.
For example, the following formula is acceptable.
(x^2-2x+1) 2sin(x) (x^2+1)e^(-x^2)
Note: If a product includes one or more variables, always use an asterisk "*". For example, specify 2*x*y or 2*$A.
For a Maple question, you must always include an asterisk (*).
(x^2-2*x+1)*2*sin(x)*(x^2+1)*e^(-x^2)
The most common mistake is to forget parentheses "()". For example, the expression:
1/(x+1)
is different from:
1/x+1
which the system interprets as:
Alternatively, you can use MathML expressions, which are supported for both display and content within the system.
Variable Names
You can use any letter for a variable name.
Note: The grading system is case-sensitive with respect to variable names. So if the correct answer is:
(t+1)^2
then the response
T^2 + 2T +1
is graded wrong, but
t^2 + 2t +1
is correct.
Note: Be certain that the case of letters like x and X or v and V in answers match the case of the variables in questions.
Operator and Function Syntax
For multiplication, use an asterisk "*". Alternatively, simply write:
• Two letters with a space (for example, x y)
10.3 Understanding the Math Capabilities in the System • 241
• A letter and a number with or without a space (for example, 2x or 2 x). Note that two letters without a
space represents a single variable name.
• For Maple-graded questions, you must include an asterisk *, for example 2*x and not 2x, x*y and not
xy, or x*y and not x y, which will be marked as incorrect.
For:
• Exponentiation, use the caret "^".
• Euler's Constant, 2.718..., use the letter e. (The exponential function is e^x.) For Maple-graded questions, use
the exp function: exp(1) and exp(x) for e and e^x.
• Scientific notation, use the upper case letter E. (For example, 0.078 is 7.8E-2.)
• The trigonometric constant, 3.141..., use pi. For Maple-graded questions, use Pi. In the Equation Editor
(MathML Editor), select Pi from the palette.
• Common mathematical functions, use the standard abbreviated names (for example, sin, cos, and tan).
• The arguments of trigonometric functions, remember they are measured in radians.
• The square root function, use sqrt(x). (Alternatively, use x^(1/2) or x^0.5.) In Text entry mode the square
root function is sqrt(x). (Alternatively, you can enter x^(1/2) or x^0.5.) In the MathML Editor, select
the square root symbol from the palette.
• The inverse trigonometric functions, use the standard abbreviated names (arcsin(x), arccos(x), and
arctan(x)).
Note: The variable e should not be assigned as a global variable in Maple code. It can be used, however, as a local variable.
See Also:
Editing with the Equation Editor (page 248)
Mathematical Functions & Operations (page 262)
Maple-graded Question Type - Overview (page 167)
10.3 Understanding the Math Capabilities in the System
The Maple T.A. system has powerful question types and capabilities designed for technical and scientific educators.
It grades responses that contain symbolic or numeric answers. There are many restrictions and extensions to the type
of answers that instructors accept, which determine the variety of question types in the system.
Learn more about the system math capabilities.
• How are questions with algebraic and numeric math authored? Authoring Mathematical Questions (page 239)
• Why are there so many varieties of mathematics questions? Math Question Types - Overview (page 160)
• How can I control margin of error and tolerance? Setting a Margin of Error in Non-numeric Questions (page 244)
• Can the system display WYSIWYG mathematics? Math Question Types - Overview (page 160)
• Does the system accept "graphing calculator" style math entry? Using Formula Syntax (page 247)
• What syntax constraints are placed on the processing of math expressions? Basic Math Syntax in the System (page 240)
• What functions and operators are supported? Mathematical Functions & Operations (page 262)
• What units does the parser understand? Default Table of Physical Unit Equivalents (page 263)
• Does the system support MathML? MathML in the Questions (page 255)
• Does the system support LaTeX? LaTeX Authoring Overview (page 303)
242 • 10 Authoring Mathematical Questions
10.4 Student Responses and Grading
This section provides detailed information related to grading of student responses.
Student Responses
On an assignment, students can opt to enter their responses in Symbol mode or Text mode. This setting applies to any
question type that supports both modes. For other question types, a specialized input field is presented to the students.
For more information on the input field for a specific question type, see the section on that question type in Question
Types (page 159). For Maple syntax questions, the instructor specifies Symbol mode or Text mode for responses in the
question itself. For more information, see Maple-graded Questions in the Question Editor (page 103).
Controlling Answer Format in Numeric Questions
Note: You can use the Question Editor's on-screen dialog boxes to set the answer format. For more information, see Setting
Answer Format in Numeric Questions (page 89).
Student responses do not need to be formatted identically to your answer to be correct. You can specify notations that
the student is allowed to use.
Number Style
Use the numStyle field to set the acceptable formatting for student responses. List the acceptable number styles (in
a space-separated list) as the value.
The available number styles are:
• thousands - responses containing commas (,) as a separator are graded correct
• scientific - responses specified using scientific notation, for example, 2.0E2, are graded correct
• dollars - responses containing a leading dollar sign ($) are graded correct
• arithmetic - responses specified using the arithmetic operators, that is, +, -, *, /, (), and ^, are graded correct
For example:
numStyle = thousands [email protected]
allows students to correctly enter responses using comma (,) separators or leading dollar signs ($).
Negative Number Style
Use the negStyle field to set the acceptable formatting for negative student responses. Set negStyle to one of
minus, paren, or both.
• minus - Negative responses must be entered using a negative sign (-).
• paren - Negative responses must be entered using parentheses (()).
• both - Negative responses can be entered using a negative sign (-) or parentheses (()). Note: If you set numStyle
to include arithmetic, then you cannot allow parentheses to be used to indicate a negative response. That is,
negStyle must be set to minus.
See Also:
Numeric (page 174)
Setting Answer Format in Numeric Questions (page 89)
10.4 Student Responses and Grading • 243
Controlling Answer Tolerance
There is not general agreement on how to grade numeric answers with respect to the number of significant digits. For
example, if the correct answer to 3 significant digits is 2.77, some instructors grade the response 2.77021 incorrect.
Other instructors grade 2.77021 correct because they think that the inclusion of extra digits does not make a response
incorrect.
In Maple T.A. you control how numeric responses are graded. For example, you can:
• Accept only 2.77 (and not 2.77021). For more information, see Setting the Precision.
• Accept all answers that agree with the correct answer to 3 (or another positive integer) significant figures (that
is, any response between 2.765 and 2.775 is correct). For more information, see Setting a Margin of Error.
For Maple-graded questions, see Significant Digits in Maple Questions (page 244).
Setting the Precision
For the numeric question type, you can specify that the student response exactly match the correct answer, or specify
that in addition to matching the value of your correct answer the student response have a specified number of significant
digits.
Student responses that are correct up to the specified number of significant digits receive 50% credit.
For information on setting the precision for a numeric question in the Question Editor, see Setting Answer Tolerance
in Numeric Questions (page 90). For related plain-text script file examples, see Answer Tolerance Example
Script (page 341).
For other formula questions, unless a margin of error is specified, the value of the student response must match that
of the correct answer up to the tolerance specified by the tolerance field, which is by default is the system floatingpoint limit, 1.0E-9.
Setting a Margin of Error
You can specify a margin of error in one of two ways:
• Percentage: ± x%. This requires the student response to be within a specified percentage of the correct
answer.
• Absolute: ± x. This requires the student response to be within a specified number of the correct answer.
For information on setting a margin of error for a numeric question in the Question Editor, see Setting Answer
Tolerance in Numeric Questions (page 90).
For information on setting a margin of error for other question types, see Setting a Margin of Error in Non-numeric
Questions (page 244).
For related plain-text script file examples, see Answer Tolerance Example Script (page 341).
Note: It is recommended that you develop a policy for the tolerance in responses at the beginning of a project, so that every numeric
question uses similar policies.
See Also:
Tutorial: Setting Margin of Tolerance in Non-numeric Questions (page 272)
lsu(n, x) (page 282)
decimal(n, x), sig(n, x), int(x) (page 279)
244 • 10 Authoring Mathematical Questions
Setting a Margin of Error in Non-numeric Questions<
Note: Use the Question Editor's on-screen dialog boxes for setting the margin of error in numeric and numeric-with-unit questions.
For more information, see Setting Answer Format in Numeric Questions (page 89).
For an introduction to the concept of margin of error, see Controlling Answer Tolerance (page 243).
The exact answer is not always required. In Maple T.A., you can specify a margin of error, within which student responses are graded correct, for any mathematical question type. You can specify a margin of error for answers that are
static or defined using algorithmic variables.
Use "?" in the answer field to set a margin of error. The ? (plus or minus) operator represents "+/-" in ordinary math
notation. You can specify an absolute tolerance. For example, to accept 2.5 +/- 0.25, that is, any response between
2.25 and 2.75 (inclusive), use 2.5 ? 0.25. You can also specify a percentage tolerance. To accept 5.12 +/5%, that is, any response between 4.864 and 5.376 (inclusive), use 5.12(1 ? 0.05).
Note: The ? operator cannot be used in an algorithmic variable definition (or other algorithmic statement).
For numeric and Maple-graded questions, you cannot use the "?" operator. For information on specifying a margin
of error for a numeric question, see Setting Answer Tolerance in Numeric Questions (page 90). To specify a margin
of error in a Maple-graded question, use Maple code.
Consider the following when working with margins of error:
• Precedence of the ? Operator: The ? operator is of the same precedence as "+" and "-". For example, 2*3 ?
0.5 is the same as 6 ? 0.5 and 2*(3 ? 0.5) is the same as 6 ? 1.
• Units: Because expressions with units have different dimensions from pure numbers, you must specify a dimensioned margin of error for a dimensioned answer. To specify "2kg with a tolerance of 0.1kg", enter 2kg ?
0.1kg or (2 ? 0.1)kg. To specify "50cm within 5%", enter (1 ? 0.05)50cm.
Important: The expression 50cm ? 2 is invalid. It is a mixed expression. The left-hand side has dimension length.
The right-hand side is dimensionless (a pure number).
• The ? operator is not available to students: A student cannot specify a margin of error. The above issues do
not arise for students.
For more examples and information, see Tutorial: Setting Margin of Tolerance in Non-numeric Questions (page 272).
See Also:
Answer Tolerance Example Script (page 341)
Significant Digits in Maple Questions
The Maple Digits environment variable controls the number of digits that Maple uses when calculating with software
floating-point numbers.
• The default value of Digits is 10.
• The value of Digits is changed by using the assignment operator. For example, Digits:= 20;
Using the evalf Command to Set the Value of the Digits Variable
The parameter n, which can be given as a second argument (evalf(expr, n)), sets the value of Digits for a
single computation.
To round the exact answer, assign the exact answer to a dummy variable, and then use the evalf(expr,n) command
in the evalb command to compare the student response to the rounded answer.
10.4 Student Responses and Grading • 245
Example
Calculate the quadratic mean of the following list of data: [695, 607, 511, 588, 710, 500, 682, 515, 709, 478, 497, 657,
652, 634, 488, 615, 714, 579, 589, 493, 584, 484, 503, 711, 622, 695]. The answer requires 5 significant digits.
1. First calculate the exact numeric answer.
2. Round it to the required number of significant digits. For example:
exact_answer:=evalf(Statistics[Mean](<695, 607, 511, 588, 710, 500, 682, 515, 709, 478, 497,
657, 652, 634, 488, 615, 714, 579, 589, 493, 584, 484, 503, 711, 622, 695>)):
rounded_answer:=evalf(exact_answer,5):
evalb($RESPONSE=rounded_answer);
Using Maple Code to Prevent Cheating in Maple Syntax Questions
As the author, you can verify whether a student is using a Maple command to calculate the answer.
The following example scripts illustrate code that allows and prevents potential cheating by the student using Maple
commands.
Examples
The student is required to factor(x^2-1). The expected correct response is (x-1)*(x+1).
In this example question code, the student could easily use the Maple factor command to obtain the answer.
question=Factor x^[email protected]
maple=evalb($RESPONSE=factor(x^2-1))@
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
name=Allow [email protected]
[email protected]
In this example, the code verifies if the factor command has been used in the answer. The student response will be
marked incorrect if the Maple factor command is used.
question=Factor(x^2-1)@
maple=evalb(0=StringTools[Search]("factor","$RESPONSE")) and evalb($RESPONSE=factor(x^2-1))@
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
name=Prevent [email protected]
[email protected]
If you are concerned about students using Maple commands to calculate answers, consider using Maple-graded
Formula to create your question. Students respond with a limited number of expressions and functions. As such, you
do not need to explicitly check that the student response is a Maple command. For details, see the Syntax and Student
Response subsections of Maple-graded Formula (page 169).
See Also:
Maple-graded Question Type - Overview (page 167)
Maple Syntax (page 170)
Entering Chemistry Expressions
There are two ways to enter the answer to a question of the chemistry question type.
246 • 10 Authoring Mathematical Questions
Text Mode
The system default mode is Text Mode, in which you enter symbolic or numeric math expressions in a simple keyboard
notation, much like a graphing calculator.
Table 10.1: Guidelines for Entering Chemistry Expressions
Rule
Superscripts and Subscripts Enter superscripts using the
caret "^" character, and
subscripts using the underscore
"_".
Examples
H_2O
H_2SO_4
Arrows in Equations
Use the text ->, <-, <=> for
arrows.
->
<<=>
Other Operators
Use "*" for the center dot
operator.
Use the "+" sign in equations.
*
+
Note: No other operations are allowed in equations. You can use the "-" sign to indicate ion
charges (see below.)
Physical States,
Be sure to include physical
Ca^2+(aq)+ (CO_3)^2- (aq) -> CaCO_3 (s)
Ion charges, and Parentheses states (in parentheses) if your
equation requires them.
Use the "+" and "-" characters
for polarity and ion charges.
Use parentheses to clarify
interpretation of groups of
characters.
Symbol Mode
For chemistry formula questions, you can also use Symbol Mode entry, which allows you to enter formulas in a
WYSIWYG ("What you see is what you get") editing window. You can pick arrows, symbols or operators from a
palette, and see your expressions appear as you type. Select Equation Editor in the Edit Question window of the
Mathematical Formula question type to display the symbol palette.
Rules for Chemistry Expressions and Equations
• Spaces are ignored in expressions.
• Parentheses may be used to clarify physical states, compound groupings, and application of ion charges. Use
the formula preview link to preview your expressions.
• In grading equations, any characters you enclose in parentheses (for example, ion charges, superscripts, subscripts,
etc.) are associated with the preceding term (not the next term). Example: Pb^(2+) is Pb2+
• For numbers that are not super or subscripted that precede a compound or element, the grader associates the
number with the term that follows. Example: 2H_2O is 2H2O
See Also:
Chemistry (page 162)
10.5 Using Formula Syntax • 247
Plotting a Student Response
Maple T.A. uses Maple plotting features to graph student responses or a function derived from a student response, for
example, the definite integral of the student response. Maple provides many ways of representing data and mathematical expressions graphically using plots.
Plotting a student response is available only with the Maple-graded Question Type.
Plotting a Student Response
When entering code for plotting in the Question Editor, use only one Maple plot command. It must be the last command
entered. You must use the long form name for Maple package functions.
Example
The following is the source file for a Maple-graded Formula question that plots the student response.
question=Enter an expression in [email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
plot=plot($RESPONSE,x=0..10)@
[email protected]
[email protected]
name=2D Maple [email protected]
[email protected]
The following is the source code for a Maple Syntax question that plots the student response using the Maple tubeplot
command. Students must use Maple syntax in their response.
question=Enter a set of spacecurves using Maple syntax, for example, [cos(t),sin(t),0]@
[email protected]
[email protected]
plot=plots[tubeplot]($RESPONSE, t=0..4, radius=.05, numpoints=70)@
[email protected]
[email protected]
name=Tube [email protected]
[email protected]
Important:
You must use the long form name for Maple package functions. You must test your plot code prior to publishing assignments.
Maple T.A. does not display error messages if the plot does not work correctly.
See Also:
Maple-graded Questions in the Question Editor (page 103)
Maple-graded Question Type - Overview (page 167)
Tutorial: Maple-based Algorithmic Question Authoring (page 300)
10.5 Using Formula Syntax
In the Maple T.A. system, you can create questions that use mathematical formulas or expressions. In the Question
Editor, you can enter formulas using standard mathematical notation. In general, the system accepts the same formulas
as a graphing calculator. Thus, the system accepts:
x^2-2x+1
2sin(x)
(x^2+1)e^(-x^2)
Note: The most common mistake is to forget parentheses "( )". For example, 1/(x+1) is different from 1/x+1, which the system
interprets as (1/x)+1.
248 • 10 Authoring Mathematical Questions
See Also:
Basic Math Syntax in the System (page 240)
Mathematical Functions & Operations (page 262)
10.6 Using the Equation Editor to Create Formatted Math Expressions
The equation editor, shown in Figure 10.1, provides an easy way to create formatted math expressions.
Editing with the Equation Editor
Using the Equation Editor, you can add symbolic math expressions and symbols to the question text and answer regions
in all question types available through the Question Editor.
Figure 10.1: Equation Editor
Adding/Editing an Expression Using the Equation Editor
1. Click the question text region or the answer text region and select the Sigma icon,
, in the toolbar.
2. In the Equation Editor dialog, click on the editor region. Then, click on any 2-D expression to insert it into the editor
region.
3. Click OK.
Note: You also have the option to insert 2-D expressions using MathML or LaTeX. To do so, lafter you click the Sigma
icon, , in the toolbar, click the MathML/LaTeX tab. In this window, you are free to enter in your MathML or LaTeX
code to display 2-D expressions. A preview is shown based off of your MathML or LaTeX code.
Keyboard Shortcuts
The Equation Editor accepts keyboard shortcuts.
10.6 Using the Equation Editor to Create Formatted Math Expressions • 249
Table 10.2: Keyboard Shortcuts for the Equation Editor
Result
Fraction
Superscript
Subscript
Pre-superscript
Pre-subscript
Shortcut Characters
/
^ (caret)
_ (underscore key)
Ctrl+^
Ctrl+_
Template Shortcuts
A second set of keyboard shortcuts handles the insertion of templates:
• The Tab key cycles the cursor through the open template blanks in an expression.
• Enter the first few characters of an expression or symbol name and select Ctrl + Space (Command + Space
on Macintosh) to insert the expression or symbol name, or to display a list of commands to complete the entry.
Equation Editor Palette
The Maple T.A. system uses a Equation Editor for creating and displaying symbolic characters and expressions. The
palette question type enables you to use customized Math editor toolbars and palettes in creating student response
objects.
Using the Equation Editor Palette
The palette is used to insert equation templates and symbols. The standard palette contains one main panel organized
into four categories: layout templates, expression templates, relational palettes, and symbol palettes. To display the
palette, right-click (Control-click on Macintosh) the Equation Editor region (see Figure 10.1).
To display the options available in each panel, click the mouse over a template. A list of options displays. Continue to
click the available palettes or scroll the mouse over the sub-templates. To insert a template, click the mouse over a
highlighted template. The templates and character palettes are broadly organized by theme, such as calculus templates
or arrow symbols. Spend a few minutes exploring the toolbar to familiarize yourself with the available templates and
symbols.
Layout templates
The left side of the toolbar consists of pop-up palettes containing an assortment of layout templates. Templates are
highlighted as you move the mouse over them.
250 • 10 Authoring Mathematical Questions
Expression templates
The second section of the standard toolbar consists of pop-up palettes containing expression templates.
Relational palettes
The third section of the standard toolbar consists of pop-up palettes containing relational templates.
Symbol palettes
The fourth section of the standard toolbar consists of pop-up palettes containing symbol templates.
See Also:
Palette Questions (page 222)
Editing with the Equation Editor (page 248)
10.6 Using the Equation Editor to Create Formatted Math Expressions • 251
Equation Editor Requirements and Syntax
When creating an Equation Editor for Palette-based questions, below is a list of possible palette entries. Note: All
entries are case-sensitive. If the palette item syntax is not correct, the text will display on the button instead of the
proper symbol.
To create a new toolbar definition, you need to create a question bank in plain-text script format and add the toolbar
definition at the beginning of the file using the qu.env.palette.toolbarname= structure (see below). You can define
one or more toolbar definitions at a time. A toolbar definition can define one or more palette entries at a time.
<btn> - name of the palette item.
<sub cols> - number of columns in the palette
<sep/> - palette separator
Table 10.3: Defining Palettes
Palette Definition
<btn>SYMBOLPALETTE</btn>
<sub cols=3>
<btn>pi</btn>
<btn>e</btn>
<btn>i</btn>
<btn>I</btn>
<btn>infin</btn>
<btn>Sum</btn>
<btn>Product</btn>
<btn>int</btn>
<btn>d</btn>
<btn>lt</btn>
<btn>gt</btn>
<btn>le</btn>
<btn>ge</btn>
<btn>equals</btn>
<btn>ne</btn>
</sub>
<sep/>
Palette
252 • 10 Authoring Mathematical Questions
Palette Definition
<btn>LCGREEKPALETTE</btn>
<sub cols=3>
<btn>alpha</btn>
<btn>beta</btn>
<btn>gamma</btn>
<btn>delta</btn>
<btn>lambda</btn>
<btn>mu</btn>
<btn>nu</btn>
<btn>psi</btn>
<btn>phi</btn>
<btn>sigma</btn>
<btn>Delta</btn>
<btn>Gamma</btn>
<btn>omega</btn>
<btn>epsilon</btn>
<btn>zeta</btn>
<btn>eta</btn>
<btn>theta</btn>
<btn>kappa</btn>
<btn>rho</btn>
<btn>upsilon</btn>
<btn>xi</btn>
</sub>
<sep/>
<btn>OPERATORPALETTE</btn>
<sub cols=1>
<btn>plus</btn>
<btn>minus</btn>
<btn>plusmn</btn>
<btn>times</btn>
<btn>middot</btn>
<btn>divide</btn>
</sub>
<sep/>
<btn>SUBSUP</btn>
<sub cols=2>
<btn>FRAC</btn>
<btn>SQRT</btn>
<btn>SUB</btn>
<btn>SUP</btn>
<btn>SUBSUP</btn>
<btn>UNDER</btn>
<btn>OVER</btn>
<btn>UNDEROVER</btn>
</sub>
<sep/>
Palette
10.7 Using MathML to Create Formatted Math Expressions • 253
Palette Definition
Palette
<btn>TRIGPALETTE</btn>
<sub cols=3>
<btn>SIN</btn>
<btn>COS</btn>
<btn>TAN</btn>
<btn>SEC</btn>
<btn>CSC</btn>
<btn>COT</btn>
<btn>ARCSIN</btn>
<btn>ARCCOS</btn>
<btn>ARCTAN</btn>
</sub>
<btn>ARROWPALETTE</btn>
<sub cols=2>
<btn>rarr</btn>
<btn>larr</btn>
<btn>harr</btn>
<btn>rlarr</btn>
<btn>lharu</btn>
<btn>rharu</btn>
</sub>
Example Header Toolbar/Palette Definitions:
qu.env.palette.operator=
<tb>
<btn>OPERATORPALETTE</btn>
<sub cols=1>
<btn>times</btn>
<btn>divide</btn>
<btn>middot</btn>
</sub>
</tb>@
qu.env.palette.greek=
<tb>
<btn>SYMBOLPALETTE</btn>
<sub cols=3>
<btn>alpha</btn>
<btn>beta</btn>
<btn>gamma</btn>
</sub>
</tb>@
10.7 Using MathML to Create Formatted Math Expressions
Inline Display of Formatted Math Expressions
The algorithmic function mathml(s) accepts a string argument s, which it treats as a formula in calculator syntax
and typesets it as MathML that can be used inside algorithms.
Note: When you create inline typeset math expressions using the mathml(f) function, the system automatically
simplifies the expressions.
Example
qu.1.1.question=
What is the derivative of ${mathml(sqrt(1+x^$n))}?
@
254 • 10 Authoring Mathematical Questions
qu.1.1.answer=
(1/2)(1+x^$n)^(-1/2)
@
qu.1.1.algorithm=
$n=range(2,10);
@
$n x^${$n-1}
Since you can also use algorithmic commands to generate inline expressions, you can use the $mathml(s) command
along with inline expressions of the form ${expression} to display the following typeset math expression inside
a question statement.
What is ${mathml( (x+1)/sqrt(x^2-1) )}
This will generate
This is a quick and easy way to place MathML in question banks that use a little math notation but are not heavily reliant on it.
In addition, your expression can include other algorithmic functions and variables. You can use the following,
${mathml((x+$a)/sqrt(x^$n-1))}
Numeric Arguments to the mathml function
mathml(expr, 0)
returns MathML with no <math> tags
mathml(expr, 1)
(the default) returns MathML with <math> tags
See Also:
Simplified Math Expressions (page 257)
mathml(f) (page 283)
MathML Authoring with MathType
The Maple T.A. system can display and process MathML expressions as part of questions, answers, and feedback.
However, creating MathML expressions in a plain text or HTML editor is extremely complicated, so this topic discusses
how to use Design Science MathTypeTM Version 6 to create expressions that can then be exported into MathML expressions for importing into your Maple T.A. content.
Microsoft Windows and Mac OS® X users can use the Design Science MathType Version 6 to create MathML expressions. To do so, follow these steps:
1. Launch MathType.
2. Set the MathType MathML translator to export MathML as follows:
a. From the menu, select Preferences > Translators to set MathML export.
b. Set the options exactly as indicated in the MathType Dialog box below, then click OK:
• Select Translator: MathML 2.0 (no namespace) radio button
• Clear Include translator name in translation check box.
10.7 Using MathML to Create Formatted Math Expressions • 255
• Clear Include MathType data in translation check box.
3. Create your math expression using MathType.
4. Select the expression (use Ctrl-A to select all elements).
5. Copy the highlighted expression to the Windows clipboard (use Ctrl-C).
6. Open your .qu plain-text script file and position the cursor at the location for the MathML expression.
7. Paste the MathML expression into your plain-text script file (use Ctrl-V).
8. Save your .qu script file according to the system requirements.
9. Open your class web site and use the Question Editor to upload and install the new question bank, with MathML
intact.
See Also:
Editing with the Equation Editor (page 248)
MathML in the Questions
MathML is used by the system for both the display of complicated math expressions as well as for content in math
expressions (mathematical meaning).
For small expressions, you can use the mathml(f) function to create inline MathML expressions, in effect, to force
the system to render an expression defined in calculator syntax as a typeset math expression.
Example
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
qu.1.8.algorithm=
$a=range(1,8);
$num=$mathml("(x/2)=$a");
$ans=$a*2;
@
qu.1.8.question=
Solve for x:
<br> [email protected]
256 • 10 Authoring Mathematical Questions
[email protected]
For larger expressions, you can include the MathML code for the expressions directly in questions, answers, comments,
hints, and solutions in your question bank.
Example
The following is an example of MathML code used to create an expression inside a question script:
[email protected]
qu.1.5.name=<b>Equations with algorithmic MathML feedback</b>@
qu.1.5.comment=
Use the slope/intercept form of the line to find the equation as
<math>
<mo>(</mo><mi>y</mi> <mo>-</mo> <mn>$yone</mn><mo>)</mo>
<mo>=</mo>
<mfrac>
<mrow><mn>$ytwo</mn> <mo>-</mo> <mn>$yone</mn></mrow>
<mrow><mn>$xtwo</mn> <mo>-</mo> <mn>$xone</mn></mrow>
</mfrac>
<mo>(</mo><mi>x</mi> <mo>-</mo> <mn>$xone</mn><mo>)</mo>
</math>
@
[email protected]
qu.1.5.algorithm=
$xone=decimal(1, rand(0,10));
$xtwo=decimal(1, rand(0,10));
condition: ne($xone, $xtwo);
$yone=decimal(1, rand(0,10));
$ytwo=decimal(1, rand(0,10));
$m=($ytwo - $yone)/($xtwo-$xone);
$b=-$m*$xone + $yone;
@
qu.1.5.question=
What is the equation of the straight line passing through the points
($xone, $yone) and ($xtwo, $ytwo)?
<br>
@
qu.1.5.answer=
y = $m x + $b
@
You can also generate MathML using Maple.
[email protected]
qu.1.5.name=<b>Equations with algorithmic MathML feedback</b>@
qu.1.5.comment=
Use the slope/intercept form of the line to find the equation as $Solution.
@
[email protected]
qu.1.5.algorithm=
$xone=decimal(1, rand(0,10));
$xtwo=decimal(1, rand(0,10));
condition: ne($xone, $xtwo);
$yone=decimal(1, rand(0,10));
$ytwo=decimal(1, rand(0,10));
$m=($ytwo - $yone)/($xtwo-$xone);
$b=-$m*$xone + $yone;
$Solution=maple("printf(MathML:-ExportPresentation(y=$m*x + $b))");
@
qu.1.5.question=
10.7 Using MathML to Create Formatted Math Expressions • 257
What is the equation of the straight line passing through the points
($xone, $yone) and ($xtwo, $ytwo)?
<br>
@
qu.1.5.answer=
y = $m x + $b
@
See Also:
LaTeX Authoring Overview (page 303)
Inline Display of Formatted Math Expressions (page 253)
MathML Authoring with MathType (page 254)
Simplified Math Expressions
When you use the mathml(f) function to easily render typeset mathematics expressions, the system also engages a
set of automatic simplification rules, as follows.
• Simple addition, subtraction, and multiplication are performed. For example, x+(2+3) are set as x+5 and
2*3*x as 6x.
• Additions and subtractions of zero are disregarded. For example, x+0 is x
• Addition of a negative number on the right becomes subtraction. For example, x+(-2) becomes x-2.
• Subtraction of a negative number on the right becomes addition. For example, x-(-2) becomes x+2.
• Multiplication by a number always comes first. For example, x*2 becomes 2x.
• Multiplication by 0 becomes 0. For example,0*x becomes 0.
• Multiplication by 1 and -1 handled correctly. For example, -1*x becomes -x.
• Division of two numbers simplified:
• Denominator is always positive. For example, 3/-2 becomes -3/2.
• Quotient of two integers is always put in lowest terms. For example, 3/6 becomes 1/2 and 6/3 becomes
2.
The best place to use these functions is in in-line expressions. For example, consider the algorithm:
$a=range(-10,10);
$b=range(-10,10);
$c=range(-10,10);
$d=range(-10,10);
condition: ne($a*$c, $b*$d);
You can set the question as follows.
Solve the simultaneous linear equations ${mathml("$a*x+$b*y")}=0
and ${mathml("$c*x+$d*y")}=0
Exceptions to Automatic Simplification
There may be situations in which the simplifications performed by mathml(f) may go beyond what you want. For
example, you might want to typeset "2*3"4"x" literally. Automatic simplification is the system default.
To override the system defaults, use the optional numeric arguments for the mathml(f) function, which indicates
that it is not to simplify math, as follows.
258 • 10 Authoring Mathematical Questions
There are two pieces of mathml(f) behavior that can be controlled by a numeric argument:
• Whether to enclose the generated MathML in <math> tags - the default is to do so
• Whether to simplify math expressions - the default is to do so
Syntax
mathml(expr) - set expression in MathML using the defaults above
mathml(expr, k) - set expression in MathML using the options from the table below
Table 10.4: Options for the mathml Function
k
0 Default
1
2
3
Include <math> tags
yes
no
yes
no
Simplify math
yes
yes
no
no
Turning off the <math> tags allows you to generate a MathML snippet with mathml(...) that is to be used within
a larger math layout that is generated either in raw MathML or from LaTeX. For example, in the LaTeX macros you
can write:
$$ \int_1^\infty \var{mathml("$a+$b/x^2",
1)} dx $$
to display simplified algorithmic math inside an integral.
See Also:
Inline Display of Formatted Math Expressions (page 253)
mathml(f) (page 283)
10.8 Plotting Using Maple
You can use Maple plotting features to display plots. Maple provides many ways of representing data and mathematical expressions graphically using plots. You can display a plot with any question type.
• Displaying a Maple Plot with the plotmaple Command - Use the plotmaple command anywhere an algorithmic
variable can be used, that is, in question text, hints, feedback, solution, and answer. For more information, see Displaying a Maple Plot.
• Plotting a Student Response - Use Maple plotting features to graph student responses or a function derived from a
student response. For more information, see Plotting a Student Response (page 247).
• Plotting Options for 2-D and 3-D Maple Plots - Many options are available when generating a 2-D or 3-D Maple
plot. For more information, see Setting Plot Options (page 291).
Displaying a Maple Plot
To display a plot within a question, use the plotmaple command.
1. From the Question Editor/Select Question Type screen, click the Algorithm Add button.
2. Enter the plotmaple algorithmic variable using the structure
$algorithmic_variable_name=plotmaple("plotstatement, libname='filename.lib', plotdevice='gif|jpeg',
plotoptions='options'");
3. Click Preview or Refresh to preview the plot image. See Figure 10.2.
4. Click OK to return to the Question Editor/Select Name and Type screen.
10.8 Plotting Using Maple • 259
5. Click Next.
6. In the text field for the question type, enter the text of the question along with the algorithmic variable name defined
in step 2.
Note: The algorithmic variable can also be used in the feedback or hints section.
Using plot options, you can specify the height and width of the image without losing any quality in the image. For
example,
$a=range(1,5);
$myplot=plotmaple("plot($a*sin(x),x=-Pi..Pi), plotoptions='height=250, width=250'");
With the plotmaple command, you can specify whether you want the image saved as a GIF or JPEG. Maple animations
are animated GIFs, so you must use GIF for an animation. For example,
$myanimation=plotmaple("plots[animate](sin(a*x),x=-Pi..Pi,a=1..4), plotdevice='gif'");
You can use another algorithmic variable in the plot command. For example,
$myplot=plotmaple("plot(sin(x),x=-Pi..Pi), plotdevice='gif', plotoptions='height=250, width=250'");
Note: You must use the long form name for Maple package functions
You can see a plot immediately using the Algorithm Editor.
260 • 10 Authoring Mathematical Questions
Figure 10.2: Plot with Algorithmic Variables
Example Using An Essay Question Type
The following is the source file for an Essay question type that displays a plot.
[email protected]
[email protected]
algorithm=$wave=plotmaple("plot(sin(x),x=0..10)");@
question=Discuss the following wave.<br />
[email protected]
Example Using A Randomly Generated Variable
The following is the source file for a Maple-graded Formula question type that displays a plot.
question=Determine the expression in the following plot.<br
[email protected]
maple=evalb(($ANSWER)-($RESPONSE)=0);@
maple_answer=x^[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
/>
10.8 Plotting Using Maple • 261
name=Displaying a [email protected]
[email protected]
algorithm=$n=maple("randomize():rand(1..10)()");
$graph=plotmaple("plot(x^$n,x=-2..2)");@
Example Using the Maple tubeplot Command
The following is the source file for a True-False question type that displays a tube plot.
mode=True [email protected]
name=tube [email protected]
[email protected]
algorithm=$algorithmic_variable_name=plotmaple("plots[tubeplot]( [t*cos(3*Pi*t), t*sin(3*Pi*t),
t], t=0..4, radius=.05, numpoints=70)");@
question=<p class="Listing">This displays a tube plot using the Maple long form name for the
plots package.</p>
<p>$algorithmic_variable_name</p>@
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
Important: You must test your plot code prior to publishing assignments. Maple T.A. does not display error messages if the plot
does not work correctly.
The drawMaplePlot command
Important: The Maple drawMaplePlot command has been superseded by the plotmaple command. Questions created
using the drawMaplePlot command will continue to function. However, it is recommended that you use the plotmaple
command.
To display a plot with a question using the drawMaplePlot command:
1. From the Question Editor/Select Name and Type screen, select the Use HTML formatting for the question
text option.
2. Click Next.
3. In the text field for the particular question type, click the Source button and enter the HTML script tags and structure
illustrated below.
<script>drawMaplePlot("maplecode",width,height,"libname");</script>
<script>drawMaplePlot("plot(sin(x), x=0..10)",400,400);</script>
The script requires the following syntax:
• <script> and </script> tags
• drawMaplePlot command
• Expression enclosed parentheses
• Maple code to create plot, enclosed in quotes
• Closing semicolon
• width (optional) - specifies plot width
• height (optional) - specifies plot height
• libname (optional) - specifies path to Maple libraries
To use multiple libraries, place all libraries in the same directory and specify the path using the libname option.
262 • 10 Authoring Mathematical Questions
See Also:
plotmaple(text) (page 284)
Maple-graded Questions in the Question Editor (page 103)
Maple-graded Question Type - Overview (page 167)
Tutorial: Maple-based Algorithmic Question Authoring (page 300)
10.9 Mathematical Functions & Operations
The following tables provide a reference of mathematical functions, constants, and operators.
• Table 10.5 contains general functions and numbers that can be used for both Maple T.A. and Maple questions.
• Table 10.6 provides the function names for Maple T.A. and Maple questions for the hyperbolic and inverse hyperbolic functions. Note that Maple T.A. and Maple use different notation for these functions.
• Table 10.7 contains exclusive Maple notation. For a complete list of Maple functions, refer to Maple documentation.
Some Maple commands take unevaluated forms. For a discussion on student use of unevaluated forms, see Maple
Syntax (page 170).
Table 10.5: Mathematical Functions and Operators
+
Arithmetic
addition
sin
Trigonometric Functions
sine
-
subtraction
cos
cosine
*
multiplication
tan
tangent
/
division
arcsin
inverse sine
^
exponentiation
arccos
inverse cosine
arctan
inverse tangent
Numbers and Constants
e
2.71828...
sec
secant
pi ( )
3.14159...
csc
cosecant
scientific notation: 290,000,000 cot
2.9E8
Functions
cotangent
arcsec
inverse secant
sqrt
square root
arccsc
inverse cosecant
log
logarithm base 10
arccot
inverse cotangent
ln
natural logarithm
abs
absolute value function
Table 10.6: Hyperbolic and Inverse Hyperbolic Functions
Function
Maple T.A.
Notation
Maple Notation
Function
Maple T.A.
Notation
Maple Notation
hyperbolic sine
hypsin
sinh
archypsin
arcsinh
hyperbolic cosine
hypcos
cosh
archypcos
arccosh
hyperbolic tangent
hyptan
tanh
archyptan
arctanh
hyperbolic secant
hypsec
sech
archypsec
arcsech
hyperbolic cosecant hypcsc
csch
inverse hyperbolic
sine
inverse hyperbolic
cosine
inverse hyperbolic
tangent
inverse hyperbolic
secant
inverse hyperbolic
cosecant
archypcsc
archcsch
10.10 Using a Table of Units • 263
Function
Maple T.A.
Notation
hyperbolic cotangent hypcot
Maple Notation
Function
Maple T.A.
Notation
Maple Notation
coth
inverse hyperbolic
cotangent
archypcot
arccoth
Table 10.7: Maple Notation
Constant
Maple Notation
2.71828...
exp(1)
3.14159...
Pi
, the square root of -1
Function
logarithm base 10
I
integral
Int
differential equation
Diff
limit
Limit
exponential function
exp
Maple Notation
log10
Calculates the value of e to power of x, where e is the base of the
natural logarithm, 2.718281828...
Note: The variable e should not be assigned as a global variable in Maple code. It can be used, however, as a local variable.
See Also:
Maple Syntax (page 170)
10.10 Using a Table of Units
Default Table of Physical Unit Equivalents
The system recognizes many, but not all, units. To use equivalent units that are not recognized, create a custom table
of units for your question bank.
The following tables give the default units recognized by the system.
Table 10.8: Base units recognized by Maple T.A.
Base Units
Definition
Unit
m
s
kg
A
K
Name
meter
second
kilogram
amp
kelvin
Table 10.9: Derived units recognized by Maple T.A.
Derived Units
Definition
Unit
Name
ng
-9
10 g
nanogram
ug
-6
10 g
microgram
mg
10-3 g
milligram
264 • 10 Authoring Mathematical Questions
Derived Units
Definition
Unit
g
Mg
lb
lbs
oz
deg
degree
degrees
rad
radian
radians
nm
0.001 kg
106 g
453.59237 g
lb
(1/16) lb
π/180
π/180
π/180
1
1
1
Name
gram
megagram
10-9 m
pounds (Avoirdupois)
pounds (Avoirdupois)
ounces (Avoirdupois)
degree
degree
degree
radian
radian
radian
nanometer
um
10-6 m
micrometer
mm
-3
10 m
millimeter
km
3
10 m
kilometer
Mm
6
megameter
meter
meters
cm
centimeter
centimeters
ft
foot
feet
in
inch
inches
yd
yard
yards
mi
mile
miles
L
10 g
m
m
0.01 m
cm
cm
0.3048 m
ft
ft
(1/12) ft
in
in
3 feet
yd
yd
5280 feet
mi
mi
10-3 m3
meter
meter
centimeter
centimeter
centimeter
foot
foot
foot
inch
inch
inch
yard
yard
yard
miles (statute)
miles (statute)
miles (statute)
liter
nL
10-9 L
nanoliter
uL
-6
10 L
microliter
mL
-3
10 L
milliliter
kL
103 L
kiloliter
ML
106 L
L
L
s
s
s
megaliter
liter
liters
sec
second
seconds
liter
liter
second
second
second
10.10 Using a Table of Units • 265
Derived Units
Definition
Unit
Name
min
minute
minutes
h
hr
hour
hours
as
60 s
min
min
60 min
h
h
h
10-18 s
minute
minute
minute
hour
hour
hour
hour
attosecond
fs
10-15 s
femtosecond
ps
10-12 s
picosecond
ns
10-9 s
nanosecond
us
-6
10 s
microsecond
ms
-3
10 s
millisecond
ks
3
10 s
kilosecond
Ms
6
10 s
megasecond
N
kg m s-2
newton
nN
10-9 N
nanonewton
uN
10-6 N
micronewton
mN
10-3 N
millinewton
kN
3
10 N
kilonewton
MN
6
meganewton
J
nJ
10 N
Nm
10-9 J
joule
nanojoule
uJ
10-6 J
microjoule
mJ
-3
10 J
millijoule
kJ
3
10 J
kilojoule
MJ
6
10 J
megajoule
Pa
N m-2
pascal
nPa
10-9 Pa
nanopascal
uPa
10-6 Pa
micropascal
mPa
10-3 Pa
millipascal
kPa
3
10 Pa
kilopascal
MPa
6
megapascal
-1
watt
W
10 Pa
Js
nW
-9
10 W
nanowatt
uW
10-6 W
microwatt
mW
10-3 W
milliwatt
kW
103 W
kilowatt
MW
106 W
megawatt
Hz
-1
s
hertz
266 • 10 Authoring Mathematical Questions
Derived Units
Definition
Unit
Name
nHz
-9
10 Hz
nanohertz
uHz
10-6 Hz
microhertz
mHz
10-3 Hz
millihertz
kHz
103 Hz
kilohertz
MHz
106 Hz
megahertz
GHz
9
10 Hz
gigahertz
THz
12
terahertz
-9
10 C
coulomb
nanocoulomb
uC
10-6 C
microcoulomb
mC
-3
10 C
millicoulomb
kC
3
10 C
kilocoulomb
MC
6
10 C
megacoulomb
nA
10-9 A
nanoamp
uA
10-6 A
microamp
mA
10-3 A
milliamp
kA
103 A
kiloamp
MA
6
C
nC
V
10 Hz
As
10 A
-1
JC
megaamp
volt
nV
-9
10 V
nanovolt
uV
-6
10 V
microvolt
mV
10-3 V
millivolt
kV
103 V
kilovolt
MV
106 V
megavolt
ohm
V A-1
ohm
nohm
uohm
mohm
-9
nanoohm
-6
microohm
-3
milliohm
3
10 ohm
10 ohm
10 ohm
kohm
10 ohm
kiloohm
Mohm
106 ohm
megaohm
S
A V-1
siemens
nS
10-9 S
nanosiemens
uS
10-6 S
microsiemens
mS
-3
10 S
millisiemens
kS
3
10 S
kilosiemens
MS
6
10 S
megasiemens
F
CV
farad
nF
10-9 F
nanofarad
uF
10-6 F
microfarad
-1
10.10 Using a Table of Units • 267
Derived Units
Definition
Unit
Name
mF
-3
10 F
millifarad
kF
103 F
kilofarad
MF
106 F
Vs
megafarad
Wb
nWb
10 Wb
weber
nanoweber
uWb
10-6 Wb
microweber
mWb
10-3 Wb
milliweber
kWb
103 Wb
kiloweber
-9
MWb
6
10 Wb
T
-2
Wb m
megaweber
tesla
nT
-9
10 T
nanotesla
uT
-6
10 T
microtesla
mT
-3
10 T
millitesla
kT
103 T
kilotesla
MT
106 T
megatesla
H
Wb A-1
henry
nH
10-9 H
nanohenry
uH
-6
10 H
micorhenry
mH
-3
10 H
millihenry
kH
3
10 H
kilohenry
MH
6
megahenry
10 H
cd
lm
lx
cd m
lumen
lux
mol
6.02214199 ⋅ 1023
mole
mole
6.02214199 ⋅ 1023
mole
moles
6.02214199 ⋅ 1023
mole
M
mol L-1
molar
Molar
mol L-1
molar
-2
Table 10.10: Other units recognized by Maple T.A.
Unit
degC
degF
Other Units
Definition
(T + 273.15) K
(5/9)(T-32) + 273.15 K
Name
degree Celsius
degree Fahrenheit
Custom Table of Equivalent Units
You can specify a table of custom equivalent units, which you can use in any Numeric question in the question bank.
You can define new units, or add additional names or symbols for base units.
268 • 10 Authoring Mathematical Questions
Defining a Table of Equivalent Units for a Question Bank
To define a table of units for a question bank, you need to create a question bank in plain text format and include an
equivalent units table at the beginning of file. This table requires the following structure:
qu.env.numeric.<tablename>=
<table_definition>
@
where <tablename> is a string of lower-case letters (without spaces) identifying the table. Once the table of units
is defined, you need to upload the question bank.
Table Structure
A table of unit definitions <table_definition> has the general structure:
<new_unit1>
<new_unit2>
= <numeric_multiplier1><old_unit1>, description1;
= <numeric_multiplier2><old_unit2>, description2;
For example:
gr
Gr
= 1m, grain (metric);
= 0.00006479891kg, grain (troy);
Note: All unit definitions must reduce to the base SI units: m (meter), kg (kilogram), s (second), A (amp), K (kelvin), and cd
(candela). Units can be derived in terms of other units, for example, micron = 0.0001cm, provided that you include the line
cm = 0.01m (or otherwise relate cm with the base SI unit m) in your table.
Include Table-specific Help
Optionally, there can be a line
qu.env.numeric.tablename.help=http://[email protected]
where myhelpurl is the URL of a page with help information on the units in the table.
Using a Custom Table of Unit Equivalents in a Question
To use a table of units, include the following statement in the question definition of any Numeric question in your
question bank.
qu.<topic_number>.<question_number>.units=<tablename>@
Replacing Derived Units with Custom Units in Units Table
When custom units are used in a question, the custom units are automatically appended to the table of base and derived
units available to students.
To instead replace the derived units in this table with the custom units (base units are always displayed), include the
following statement in the question definition.
qu.<topic_number>.<question_number>[email protected]
See Also:
Using a Table of Units (page 263)
Numeric (page 174)
10.11 Tutorial: Displaying Answers vs. Formulas for Answers • 269
10.11 Tutorial: Displaying Answers vs. Formulas for Answers
After grading, for questions answered incorrectly, you can display the:
• calculated value of the answer field
• formula used to define the answer
Depending on your instructional objectives, you can display one or both.
Displaying the answer Field Formula:
In some cases, you may feel that there is extra instructional benefit to be derived from showing the student the correct
formula instead of the final answer. If you do not use the comment field in your question definition, the default system
behavior after grading is to display the value of the answer field. To return the formula, assign it to the answer field.
If the answer field is defined by a formula using variables, the system displays a formula, with algorithmically generated
data substituted for the variables.
Example 1 If a student gives the wrong answer to the question:
qu.1.topic=Displaying Answers vs Formulas for [email protected]
[email protected]
qu.1.1.name=Kinetic energy of random [email protected]
qu.1.1.algorithm=
$mass=decimal(1,rand(1, 10));
$velocity=decimal(1,rand(10, 15));
@
qu.1.1.question=
An object of mass $mass kg is moving at a speed of $velocity m/s. What is its kinetic energy
(in joules)? @
qu.1.1.answer= (1/2)$mass*($velocity)^[email protected]
the system displays the correct answer as:
Correct answer: (1/2) 5.4 * (11.3)^2
(assuming that the randomization set $mass=5.4 and $velocity=11.3).
Displaying the Calculated Final Answer:
In some cases, you will prefer to return only the final answer.
To return only the final answer:
1. Do not use the comment field in your question definition.
2. Create a variable, $ans, that holds the formula for the answer.
3. Use the $ans variable in the answer field instead of the formula for the answer.
Example 2 If a student gives the wrong answer to the question:
[email protected]
qu.1.2.name=Show only final calculated [email protected]
[email protected]
qu.1.2.algorithm=
$mass=rand(4,8,2);
$velocity=rand(10,20,2);
$ans=sig(2, (1/2)$mass * ($velocity)^2)
@
qu.1.2.question=
270 • 10 Authoring Mathematical Questions
What is the kinetic energy of a body of mass $mass kg moving at $velocity m/[email protected]
[email protected]
the system displays the correct answer as:
Correct answer: 900
(assuming that the algorithmically generated variables set $mass=4.5 and $velocity=20).
In this case an incorrect response by the student shows only the correct numerical answer (to 2 significant figures).
Displaying Both the Formula for the Answer and the Final, Calculated Answer:
To show the student both the correct formula and the calculated answer, combine these methods and use the comment
field.
1. Create a variable, $ans, that holds the formula for the answer.
2. Use the $ans variable in the comment field, along with the formula for the answer.
Example 3 If a student gives the wrong answer to the question:
[email protected]
qu.1.3.name=Shows both calculated and formula [email protected]
qu.1.3.comment=
<br>This answer is derived according to the general formula,
<br>kinetic energy = (1/2)mass * (velocity<sup>2</sup>)
<br>In this case, the kinetic energy is
<br>(1/2)$mass * $velocity<sup>2</sup>, or $ans.
@
[email protected]
qu.1.3.algorithm=
$mass=rand(4,8,2);
$velocity=rand(10,20,2);
$ans=sig(2, (1/2)$mass * ($velocity)^2)
@
qu.1.3.question=
What is the kinetic energy of a body of mass $mass kg moving at $velocity m/[email protected]
[email protected]
the system displays the correct answer as:
Correct answer:
This answer is derived according to the general formula,
kinetic energy = (1/2)mass * (velocity2)
In this case, the kinetic energy is
(1/2)7.6 * 192, or 1,400.
(assuming that the algorithmically generated variables set $mass=7.6 and $velocity=19).
Consider another example.
Example 4
[email protected]
qu.1.4.algorithm=
$a=rint(12)+1;
$b=rint(12)+1;
$c=rint(12)+1;
10.12 Tutorial: Formatting Integers and Reals • 271
@
qu.1.4.question=
Find the solution of the linear equation
${a}x + ${b}=${c}.
@
qu.1.4.answer=(${c}-${b})/${a}@
The above code chooses random integer coefficients $a, $b, and $c between 1 and 12. The formula for the answer
is calculated in the answer field.
Note: Braces {variable} is used to enclose the variable names in expressions. This structure allows you to use variable names
directly adjacent to other letter characters.
Although the above example does not cause errors, there are several side effects:
• The answer is displayed in the form (7-3)/5 (for example). This provides an indication of the method for obtaining
the answer, which may be inappropriate.
• The above format can return answers of the form (7-7)/5, which is more complicated than the simplified form,
0.
To avoid these issues, rewrite this example as follows, using a new variable $ans (so that you return only the final
answer (to 3 decimal places)):
Example 5
[email protected]
qu.1.5.algorithm=
$a=rint(12)+1;
$b=rint(12)+1;
$c=rint(12)+1;
$ans=decimal(3,($c-$b)/$a);
@
qu.1.5.question=
Find the solution of the linear equation
${a}x+${b}=${c}.
@
[email protected]
See Also:
Adding and Editing Comments (page 83)
10.12 Tutorial: Formatting Integers and Reals
This tutorial demonstrates the effect of applying various formatting options to the same expression in a question.
Consider a question that contains the text:
A dog weighs $m kg.
The following table shows how different assignments of values to $m are interpreted.
Table 10.11: Formatting Numbers with $m
Syntax
$m=15.27375491
Format Display
A dog weighs 15.27375491 kg.
$m=sig(3, 15.27375491)
A dog weighs 15.3 kg.
$m=int(15.27375491)
A dog weighs 15 kg.
272 • 10 Authoring Mathematical Questions
Syntax
$m=decimal(1, 15.27375491)
Format Display
A dog weighs 15.3 kg.
$m=decimal(0, 15.27375491)
A dog weighs 15 kg.
decimal(n, x)
Returns x expressed as a floating-point number rounded to n decimal places.
sig(n, x)
Returns x expressed as a floating-point number rounded to n significant digits.
int(x)
Returns the integer part of x.
10.13 Tutorial: Setting Margin of Tolerance in Non-numeric Questions
Note: Use the Question Editor on-screen dialog boxes for setting the margin of error in numeric and numeric-with-unit questions.
For more information, see Setting Answer Format in Numeric Questions (page 89).
For an introduction to the concept of margin of error, see Controlling Answer Tolerance (page 243).
For basic information on the system plus or minus operator, "?", see Setting a Margin of Error in Non-numeric
Questions (page 244).
Absolute Errors
You can specify an absolute error using the ? operator.
x ? y represents x +/- y.
Example 1
2.12 ? 0.01
specifies a margin of error of +/- 0.01 in the answer. The answer matches any response between 2.11 and 2.13
(inclusive). For example, the system grades 2.114 or 2.123456789, as well as 2.11 and 2.13, correct.
Example 2
2.1J ? 0.25J
specifies a margin of error of +/- 0.25J. The system grades correct any response between 1.85J and 2.35J. The
error must have the same dimension as the correct answer.
Example 3
cos(pi/6) ? 1000
specifies a margin of error of +/- 1000. The system grades correct any response between cos(pi/6)-1000 and
cos(pi/6)+1000, approximately between -999.1339746 and 1000.866025.
Percentage Errors
You can also specify a percentage error using the ? operator.
x (1 ? y) represents x +/- x*y.
10.13 Tutorial: Setting Margin of Tolerance in Non-numeric Questions • 273
Example 4
1.52 (1 ? 0.025)
specifies a margin of error of 2.5%. The system grades correct any response between 1.444 and 1.596.
Example 5
50 (1 ? 1.1)
specifies a margin of error of 110%. The system grades correct any response between -5 and 105.
Algorithmic Variables
You can use a margin of error with answers that are algorithmic variables. Consider a question in which the correct
answer is assigned to $answer.
Note: The ? operator cannot be used in an algorithmic variable definition (or other algorithmic statement).
Example 6
To specify an absolute margin of error of 0.1, use:
$answer ? 0.1
Example 7
To specify a percentage margin of error of 3%, use:
$answer (1 ? 0.03)
Using the ? Operator in Complex Expressions
You can use the ? operator in complex expressions. It is an arithmetic operator.
Example 8
2.12?0.01
matches any response between 2.11 and 2.13 and
2*(2.12?0.01)
matches any response between 4.22 and 4.26.
Example 9
The ordinary rules of arithmetic (for example, the distributive rule) apply.
2*(2.12?0.01)
is equivalent to:
(2*2.12)?(2*0.01)
Example 10
You can specify very complicated ranges of numbers.
((2.17 ? 0.01) + e^(1.07?2.03))/(1? 0.5)
Important: If the exact answer is an expression, not a simple formula, number, or variable, ensure that you use parentheses to
generate the correct answer.
274 • 10 Authoring Mathematical Questions
Example 11
2 + 2 * (1 ? 0.05)
which defines a tolerance of 5% of 2, is different from:
(2 + 2) * (1 ? 0.05)
which defines a tolerance of 5% of the sum 4.
See Also:
Answer Tolerance Example Script (page 341)
Controlling Answer Tolerance (page 243)
10.14 Overview of Algorithmic Question Capabilities
Algorithmic question generation allows you to write questions in which specified variables are assigned random values
(according to defined ranges and conditions) each time the question is reused in an assignment. Using algorithmically
generated variables within questions allows you to generate multiple question permutations from the same question
stem. Thus, you can write a single stem or template question that can be reused. The numbers and wording change to
use new randomly determined values in different assignment attempts (by the same student or different students).
The system allows you to create variables that use mathematical/logical arguments to generate random numbers in
questions (where the data used in a question is determined by random selection from an entire scenario's data and the
variables are based on lists), or to use a combination of mathematical/logical and list-based variables to produce a
randomized question.
See Also:
Rules for Naming Variables (page 277)
Tutorial: Algorithmic Question (page 297)
Tutorial: Maple-based Algorithmic Question Authoring (page 300)
Tutorial: List-based Variables (page 298)
10.15 How Does an Algorithmic Question Work in an Assignment?
Authoring
1. Create a static question -- a version of the question in which the variables have fixed values.
2. Edit the question. (All three authoring methods support algorithm authoring.)
3. Click Edit in the Algorithm region.
4. Add variable(s) and click Save.
5. Click Next and replace the fixed values with variable names in the question. Variable names must start with the $
(dollar sign) character.
6. Save your question.
Assignment Creation
1. Select algorithmic questions for inclusion in an assignment in the same manner used for other questions.
2. In the Assignment Editor, each time you preview the question the system regenerates the variable values. To preview
the question with new variable values, preview it again.
10.16 Working with Variable Data • 275
3. Save your assignment.
Assignment Use
1. Each time the assignment is instantiated (generated for a new session) by Maple T.A., new variable values are created
in all the algorithmic questions. New assignment sessions occur either when the same student is making a new attempt
at the same assignment or when different students request sessions from the same assignment.
2. Until an assignment is submitted for grading, variable data that is created for that particular session persists
throughout the assignment session, even when students navigate between questions.
3. To give individual students the ability to return and rework an assignment with the same algorithmically generated
variable values for each repeated attempt, use the Reworkable option for homework in Step 3 of the Assignment
Editor.
4. Algorithmically generated variable values are recorded permanently in the graded session results stored in the class
Gradebook. At any time following grading, students and instructors can return and review the exact assignment,
with the variable values used and student responses entered in the assignment.
10.16 Working with Variable Data
For each type of question supported, you can include algorithmically generated (random) variables in question statements,
answers, hints, comments, and solutions. Using variables in questions, you can generate variations on a single template
question.
Types of Variables
• MapleTM-based variables: You can use any Maple function to generate variables. See the tutorial on this
topic, Tutorial: Maple-based Algorithmic Question Authoring (page 300).
• Range-based variables: You can specify mathematical ranges (set by declaring minimum and maximum data
values and increments for randomly generated data). Range-based variables are defined by a formula, and can
include mathematical operations. For example, you can specify a variable x that is a random integer between
0 and 30, in steps of 3, using the variable definition: $x=range(0,30,3). See the tutorial on this topic,
Tutorial: Algorithmic Question (page 297).
• List-based variables: You can randomly select a set of data from lists, and present to students a scenario with
related variables. For example, you can create an astronomy question that randomly selects a planet in our
solar system, and then automatically assigns the acceleration due to gravity at the planet's surface to the answer
variable. See the tutorial on this topic, Tutorial: List-based Variables (page 298).
You can use more than one type of variable in a question. You can use any combination.
You can place conditions on variables. For example, you can specify that the value of a variable not exceed that of
another.
Note: You can create or edit variables and algorithmically generated data using the Algorithm Designer in the Question Editor.
Alternatively, you can create questions without variable data using the Question Editor, and then export the plain-text script file
(with the file extension .qu) to your hard drive. Add variables by editing the questions directly in your text or HTML editor.
See Also:
Generating Random Numbers in Questions (page 277)
Mathematical and Logical Operators in Algorithms and Answers (page 289)
The Algorithm Designer (page 85)
Using Script Files to Author Questions (page 339)
276 • 10 Authoring Mathematical Questions
Functions within Algorithms
Algorithmic definitions of variables are of the form:
qu.x.y.algorithm=
$variable1=expression;
$variable2=expression;
@
• The use of the semicolon at the end of the variable definition is optional if there is only one variable defined
in the algorithm statement.
• The syntax of formulas and the use of operators in variable definition statements is similar to the standard
graphing calculator syntax used in the system, with the addition of some new functions. Therefore, the system's
usual arithmetic operations and functions can be used in the expression portion of the code statement.
• However, unlike most other programming languages, variables cannot be redefined in terms of themselves (for
example, the statement $a=$a+1; is invalid).
The following additional functions and operations are also available for use in variable definitions in algorithms.
Random Number Functions
Random integer generation (integers in a specified range, in steps of k):
• Random Integer Generation rint(n), rint(m, n), rint(m, n, k) (page 286)
• Random Integer Generation range(n), range(m, n), range(m, n, k) (page 285)
Random real number generation (to k significant digits):
• rand(m, n), rand(m, n, k) (page 285)
Operations and Modifiers
condition:x
eq(a, b)
See condition:x (page 279)
See eq(a, b), ge(a, b), le(a, b), ne(a, b) (page 280)
ne(a,b)
not(a)
gt(a, b)
See not(a) (page 284)
See gt(a, b), lt(a, b) (page 281)
lt(a, b)
if(a, b, c)
decimal(n, x)
See if(a, b, c) (page 281)
See decimal(n, x), sig(n, x), int(x) (page 279)
int(x)
sig(n, x)
lsu(n, x)
sum(varname, start, stop, expr)
switch(n, a, b, c, ...)
See Also:
Rules for Naming Variables (page 277)
See lsu(n, x) (page 282)
See sum(var name, start, stop, expr) (page 288)
See switch(n, a, b, c, ...) (page 289)
10.17 Generating Random Numbers in Questions • 277
Inline Variable Expressions
You can include a computed expression anywhere within a question statement, comment, or hint.
• Inline variable expressions can contain computations involving functions or algorithmic variables defined
elsewhere in the question.
• The syntax is to enclose the expression in ${...}.
For example, you can include expressions like ${$n + 1} in place of defining a separate variable to hold n+1. This
simplifies complex algorithms.
Example
qu.1.1.question=
What is the derivative of x^$n?
@
qu.1.1.answer=
$n x^${$n-1}
@
qu.1.1.algorithm=
$n=range(2,10);
@
See Also:
Tutorial: Multiple Choice Question with Randomly Determined Parameters (page 115)
mathml(f) (page 283)
Inline Display of Formatted Math Expressions (page 253)
Simplified Math Expressions (page 257)
Rules for Naming Variables
Follow these rules when naming variables:
• A variable name must be of the form $name or ${name}.
• The string name can consist of letters (a-z and A-Z), numbers (0-9), and underscore characters (_).
• The first character of name must be an alphabetic character (a-z or A-Z).
• If the ${name} form is used, spaces can also appear in name. This allows you to use multiple word names
without the underscore character.
Note: The variable e should not be assigned as a global variable in Maple code. It can be used, however, as a local variable.
See Also:
Functions within Algorithms (page 276)
10.17 Generating Random Numbers in Questions
The algorithm syntax in the system allows you to generate random numbers in a variety of ways, depending on your
requirements and preferences. This table summarizes functions related to random number generation.
278 • 10 Authoring Mathematical Questions
Table 10.12: Random Number Generators
Function
rint(n)
Range of Operation
0, ..., n-1
Example
rint(3)
= 0, 1, or 2
rint(m,n)
m, ..., n-1
rint(3,6)
= 3, 4, or 5
rint(m,n,k)
range(n)
m, m+k, m+2k, ..., m+q*k
(where q is the largest integer
such that
)
rint(3,12,3)
1, ..., n
range(3)
= 3, 6, or 9
= 1, 2, or 3
Description
Returns a random integer between
0 and n-1 (inclusive). Generates n
variations.
Returns a random integer between
m and n-1 (inclusive). Generates
n-m variations.
Returns a random integer between
m and n-1 (inclusive) in steps of k.
Generates approximately (n-m)/k
variations.
When n is a positive integer,
returns a random integer between
1 and n (inclusive). Generates n
variations.
range(m,n)
m, m+1,... ,m+q (where q is the range(3,6)
floor of (n-m)/k)
= 3, 4, 5, or 6
Returns a random integer between
m and n (inclusive). Generates
(n-m)+1 variations.
range(m,n,k)
)
Returns a random number between
m and n (inclusive), in steps of k.
Generates approximately (n-m)/k
+1
range(3,12,3)
= 3, 6, 9, or 12
variations.
rand(m,n)
rand(m,n,k)
m, ..., n
rand(0.5,9.5)
Returns a random real number
between m and n (inclusive).
m, ..., n expressed to k
significant figures
= all real numbers between 0.5
and 9.5 (inclusive)
rand(0.5,9.5,3)
Returns a random real number
between m and n (inclusive),
= all real numbers between 0.5 expressed to k significant figures
and 9.5 (inclusive), expressed
to 3 significant figures
For details on each of these functions, see Functions and Arguments (page 279).
In addition to Maple T.A.'s built-in functions, you can access MapleTM commands. Maple provides many randomization
commands. The following table lists selected randomization commands in Maple. For more information on Maple
functions that can be used to generate random numbers, refer to your Maple documentation.
Table 10.13: Maple Randomization Commands
Maple Function
rand
randpoly
LinearAlgebra[RandomMatrix]
LinearAlgebra[RandomVector]
RandomTools[Generate]
Use
generate a random 12-digit non-negative integer, or a random integer within a
specified range (inclusive)
random polynomial generator
construct a random Matrix
construct a random Vector
generate a particular random object (For example, return a random complex number
with real and imaginary parts of a specified flavor, or choose one of the entries in
a collection with equal probability)
10.18 Functions and Arguments • 279
Note: When using Maple's random number generator rand, you must include randomize(): as the first part of the call.
This sets the initial state of the random number generator using a number based on the system clock instead of the
default seed in Maple. Without randomize(), each call to rand will produce the same sequence of values using the
default randomization seed. For an example that uses Maple randomization commands, see Tutorial: Maple-based
Algorithmic Question Authoring (page 300).
See Also:
Tutorial: Algorithmic Question (page 297)
Tutorial: List-based Variables (page 298)
Tutorial: Maple-based Algorithmic Question Authoring (page 300)
10.18 Functions and Arguments
The system contains numerous built-in functions for creating algorithmic variables. You can create random integers
or real numbers, perform operations on lists of items, or set conditions on variables.
This section describes the built-in functions, and gives the syntax and purpose of each function.
Most of these functions are for use in authoring questions, but cannot be used in student responses. For more information,
see Mathematical and Logical Operators in Algorithms and Answers (page 289).
condition:x
condition:x
Imposes the condition defined by statement x, which is typically constructed using one or more other functions.
For example,
$a=range(-10,10);
condition: ne($a,0);
This generates a random non-zero integer between -10 and 10 (inclusive).
decimal(n, x), sig(n, x), int(x)
decimal(n, x)
Returns x expressed as a floating-point number rounded to n decimal places. When decimal(0, expression) is used
with an expression, the system automatically inserts commas to separate thousands.
Trailing zeros are truncated and not displayed. For another option, see numfmt(fmt, x) (page 284).
sig(n, x)
Returns x expressed as a floating-point number rounded to n significant digits. In cases of possible ambiguity, scientific
notation is used to display the value.
int(x)
Returns the integer part of x.
For example,
decimal(3, 20.8571)
returns 20.857
280 • 10 Authoring Mathematical Questions
sig(3, 20.8571)
returns 20.9
int(20.8571)
returns
20
eq(a, b), ge(a, b), le(a, b), ne(a, b)
eq(a, b)
Returns 1.0 if a and b are equal. Otherwise, it returns 0.0.
ge(a,b)
Returns 1.0 if a is greater than, or equal to b. Otherwise, it returns 0.
le(a,b)
Returns 1.0 if a is less than, or equal to b. Otherwise, it returns 0.0.
ne(a,b)
Returns 1.0 if a and b are not equal. Otherwise, it returns 0.0.
For example,
if(eq($a, $b), "Red", "Green")
returns Red if $a=$b and Green otherwise.
if(ge($a, $b), "Red", "Green")
returns Red if $a>=$b and Green otherwise.
if(le($a, $b), "Red", "Green")
returns Red if $a<=$b and Green otherwise.
if(ne($a, $b), "Red", "Green")
returns Red if $a and $b are not equal and Green otherwise.
See Also:
if(a, b, c) (page 281)
fact(n)
fact(n)
Returns factorial n.
If n is not an integer returns fact(int(n)).
If n is negative, returns 1.
For example,
fact(4)
returns 24
10.18 Functions and Arguments • 281
frac(a, b)
frac(a, b)
The frac(a,b) structure typesets x/y as a fraction in its lowest terms. For example, the fractions "4/8" and
"2/6" are presented as "1/2" and "1/3", in simplest form.
frac(a,b)returns a string that expresses the fraction a/b in its lowest terms.
For example,
frac(12, 15)
returns 4/5
frac(12, 3)
returns 4
Note: frac(a,b) can be combined with mathml(s) to produce nicely typeset fractions. For example,
mathml(frac(8, 12))
displays
gcd(a, b)
gcd(a, b)
Returns the greatest common divisor of a and b.
For example,
gcd(12, 15)
returns 3
gt(a, b), lt(a, b)
gt(a, b)
Returns 1.0 if a is greater than b, that is (a > b). Otherwise, it returns 0.0.
lt(a, b)
Returns 1.0 if a is less than b, that is (a < b). Otherwise, it returns 0.0.
if(a, b, c)
if(a, b, c)
If a is nonzero, it returns b. Otherwise, it returns c.
indexof(k, a, b, c, d, ...)
Returns the index of an item within a list (the first item is in position 0, the second in position 1, and so on).
282 • 10 Authoring Mathematical Questions
For example,
indexof(3, 2, 3, 5, 7, 11)
returns 1
java(cn, a, b, c, d, ...)
java(cn, a, b, c, d, ...)
Pass the arguments a,b,c,d,.. to a custom JavaTM evaluation engine and return the result. The first argument
(cn) must be a string giving the fully qualified name of a Java class that implements the interface
gateway.question.random.AlgorithmicFunction.
This interface has a single public method.
public String eval(String[ ] args);
The arguments a,b,c,d,... are passed to eval() in a string array.
For example,
java("com.mycompany.QuoteFunction", "SUNW")
returns a real-time quote for Sun Microsystems, Inc. stock (assuming that the class QuoteFunction had been suitably
programmed).
lsu(n, x)
lsu(n, x)
Returns the unit in the nth significant place of x. (This is called the least significant unit of x in the nth place).
For example,
lsu(3, 3.14159)
returns 0.01 (the unit in the third significant place).
This operation is designed to be used when setting the tolerance for correct answers. For example, to accept an answer
to within a tolerance of one unit in the third significant digit, use:
$ans = <formula>;
$tol = lsu(3, $ans);
and set the answer field to:
$ans ? $tol
maple(text)
Pass text to the MapleTM kernel and return the value of the last line processed.
For example,
maple("ithprime(12)")
returns 37
10.18 Functions and Arguments • 283
maple("diff(sin(x)*x, x)")
returns cos(x)*x + sin(x)
See Also:
Mathematical and Logical Operators in Algorithms and Answers (page 289)
mathml(f)
Returns a string consisting of the formula f typeset in MathML.
Note: The system renders MathML; the MathML tags do not appear on the screen when the value of the string is displayed. Instead, the rendering appears.
For example,
mathml("x^$n")
returns
By default, mathml(f) automatically simplifies the formula. To prevent auto-simplification, use the "nosimplify"
option.
For example,
mathml("x^2 + 4/8", "nosimplify")
returns
If you want to include the function in another function, use the "notags" option.
$\sum0^\infty\var{mathml("1/$a x^2
+ $b)", "notags")}$
See Also:
Inline Display of Formatted Math Expressions (page 253)
Simplified Math Expressions (page 257)
max(a, b, c, d, ...), min(a, b, c, d, ...)
max(a, b, c, d, ...)
Returns the largest of the arguments.
For example,
max(3,5,7,4.8,-1)
returns
7
min(a, b, c, d, ...)
Returns the smallest of the arguments.
284 • 10 Authoring Mathematical Questions
For example,
min(3, 5, 7, 4.8, -1)
returns
-1
not(a)
not(a)
Returns 1.0 if a is equal to 0.0. Otherwise, it returns 0.0.
numfmt(fmt, x)
Returns the value of x, formatted according to the template fmt.
For example,
numfmt("#.00", 20.9)
returns 20.90.
plotmaple(text)
Maple T.A. uses MapleTM plotting features to display plots. Maple provides many ways of representing data and
mathematical expressions graphically using plots. You can display a plot with any question type.
The plotmaple command can be used anywhere an algorithmic variable can be used, that is, in text, hints, feedback,
and more.
plotmaple("plotstatement, libname='filename.lib', plotdevice='gif|jpeg', plotoptions='options'");
Where
• plotstatement - plot expression and plot options
• libname (optional) - specifies path to user Maple libraries
• plotdevice (optional) - gif (produces a GIF/ANIMATED-GIF) or jpeg (produces a 24-bit color JPEG rendering of the image)
• plotoptions (optional) - specifies plot options available for the plot device specified (see Table 10.14)
Some examples:
plotmaple("plot3d(sin(x)*y, x=0..10, y=-1..1, style=patchnogrid, lightmodel=light1), plotdevice='jpeg', plotoptions='width=250,height=250'")
plotmaple("plot(sin(x), x=-Pi..Pi), plotdevice='gif', plotoptions='height=250, width=250'");
plotmaple("plot(sin(x), x=-Pi..Pi), plotdevice='jpeg', plotoptions='height=250, width=250'");
Table 10.14: Options for GIF and JPEG Plots
GIF plot options
colors=n
height=n
width=n
result
Set the number of colors. The default 256 colors.
Set the number of pixels in the height. The default is 512.
Set the number of pixels in the width. The default is 512.
10.18 Functions and Arguments • 285
JPEG plot options
height=n
quality=n
width=n
result
Specify the height of the canvas. The default is 360.
Set the JPEG quality level, an integer value from 0 to 100. The
default is 95. Settings greater than 95 generally have negligible
visible effect.
Specify the width of the canvas. The default is 480.
See Also:
Setting Plot Options (page 291)
rand(m, n), rand(m, n, k)
rand(m,n)
Returns a random real number between m and n (inclusive). For example, to generate random numbers between 0.5
and 9.5, use the formula:
rand(0.5, 9.5)
rand(m,n,k)
Returns a random real number between m and n expressed to k (k>0) significant digits (k is truncated to an integer).
For example, to generate numbers between 2.73 and 7.91 to two significant figures, use:
rand(2.73, 7.91, 2)
Note: In this definition, the dummy variable k represents the number of significant figures, not the step size (as it indicates in
defining range and rint).
To generate random numbers that vary an order of magnitude and have the same number of decimal digits, use the
decimal function in conjunction with the rand function. For example, to generate a random number between 2 and
20 with one decimal place, use:
decimal(1, rand(2, 20, 3) )
Note: Numbers posing a possible ambiguity are returned using scientific notation.
See Also:
decimal(n, x), sig(n, x), int(x) (page 279)
Random Integer Generation range(n), range(m, n), range(m, n, k) (page 285)
Random Integer Generation rint(n), rint(m, n), rint(m, n, k) (page 286)
Generating Random Numbers in Questions (page 277)
Random Integer Generation range(n), range(m, n), range(m, n, k)
The range function returns random integers from a range defined with a step size.
range(n)
The range(n) function, where n>=1, generates a random integer in the range 1, ..., floor(n) (inclusive).
There are floor(n) numbers in that range. Hence, it is a selection of one number from a choice of floor(n).
range(m,n)
The range(m,n) function, where n-m>=0, generates a random integer in the range m, m+1,..., m+q (inclusive)
where q is the floor of n-m
286 • 10 Authoring Mathematical Questions
range(m,n,k)
The range(m,n,k) function, where (n-m)/k=0 generates a random integer in the range m, m+k, ..., m+q*k
(inclusive) where q is the floor of (n-m)/k.
That is,
range(n) = range(1,n) = range(1,n,1)
Examples
range(3) returns 1, 2, or 3.
range(2,3) returns 2 or 3.
range(0,7,3) returns 0, 3, or 6.
range(0,8,3) returns 0, 3, or 6.
range(0,9,3) returns 0, 3, 6, or 9.
Note: The rint function returns random numbers in the range 0, ..., n-1 (inclusive).
See Also:
rand(m, n), rand(m, n, k) (page 285)
Random Integer Generation rint(n), rint(m, n), rint(m, n, k) (page 286)
Generating Random Numbers in Questions (page 277)
rank(n, a, b, c, d, ...)
Returns the nth largest element item from a list. (Numbering starts at 1)
For example,
rank(3, 2, 4, 6, 5, 7)
returns 5
See Also:
indexof(k, a, b, c, d, ...) (page 281)
switch(n, a, b, c, ...) (page 289)
Random Integer Generation rint(n), rint(m, n), rint(m, n, k)
The rint function return random integers.
rint(n)
The rint(n) function generates a random integer in the range 0, ..., n-1 (inclusive). There are n numbers in
that range. Hence, it is a selection of one number from a choice of n.
rint(m,n)
The rint(m,n) function generates a random integer in the range m, ..., n-1 (inclusive).
10.18 Functions and Arguments • 287
rint(m,n,k)
The rint(m,n,k) function generates a random integer in the range m, m+k, ..., m+q*k (inclusive) where
q is the largest integer such that m+q*k<=n-k.
That is,
rint(n) = rint(0,n) = rint(0,n,1)
Examples
rint(3) returns 0, 1, or 2.
rint(1,3) returns 1 or 2.
rint(0,7,3) returns 0 or 3.
rint(0,8,3) returns 0 or 3.
rint(0,9,3) returns 0, 3, or 6.
Note: The range function returns random integers in the range 0, ..., n (inclusive).
See Also:
Random Integer Generation range(n), range(m, n), range(m, n, k) (page 285)
rand(m, n), rand(m, n, k) (page 285)
Generating Random Numbers in Questions (page 277)
Statistical Operations
binomial(n, r)
Computes the rth binomial coefficient of degree n. This corresponds to the number of ways of choosing r objects
from a set of n, ignoring order. It is used in system performance statistics, but is also available for use in internal directives (algorithms and answers).
For example,
binomial(22, 3)
returns the coefficient of x19 in (x+1)22 or 1,540.
erf(z)
Computes the cumulative probability (probability that a variate assumes a value less than or equal to z) for a standard
normal distribution (that is, with mean 0 and variance 1).
For example,
erf(0) = 0.5
erf(1) = 0.68
erf(2) = 0.95
erf(3) = 0.997
Other normal distributions can be modeled by re-normalizing (that is, erf((z-m)/s) is the probability distribution
of a normal distribution with mean m and standard deviation s).
It is used in producing performance statistics within the system, but is also available for use in internal directives (algorithms and answers).
288 • 10 Authoring Mathematical Questions
inverf(p)
The inverse function of erf(z): Let Z be a standard normally distributed random variable. Then inverf(p) is the
value of z for which P(Z<z) = p
For example,
inverf(0.99)
returns the value of z with probability 0.99 that Z<z.
invstudentst(k, x)
Computes the inverse of the cumulative probability density of the Students-t distribution with k degrees of freedom.
For example,
invstudentst(2, 0.9)
returns the value of x with probability equal to 0.9.
studentst(k, x)
Compute the cumulative probability distribution at x of the Students-t distribution with k degrees of freedom.
For example,
studentst(2, 1.55)
returns the probability that X<1.55.
strcat(a, b, c, d, ...)
strcat(a, b, c, d, ...)
Returns the concatenation of the strings in the list.
For example
strcat("$a", " and ", "$b")
returns "cats and dogs"
when $a="cats" and $b="dogs"
sum(varname, start, stop, expr)
sum(varname, start, stop, expr)
Sums the expression (expr) with respect to the dummy variable (varname) between the values start and stop.
For example,
sum(i, 1, 20, i^2)
evaluates 1^2 + 2^2 + 3^2 + ... + 20^2 and returns 2,870.
$s = sum(i, 1, $n, i^2);
calculates the sum of the squares of the integers from 1 to n.
10.19 Mathematical and Logical Operators in Algorithms and Answers • 289
Note: Do not use a $ character for the dummy variable in the summation.
switch(n, a, b, c, ...)
Given a whole number 0, 1, 2, ... and a list of items, returns the nth item in the list (the first item is in position 0, the
second in position 1, and so on).
For example,
$prime=switch(rint(5), 2, 3, 5, 7, 11)
sets $prime to a random choice from the first 5 primes.
switch(1, "red", "green", "yellow")
returns green
See Also:
Tutorial: List-based Variables (page 298)
rank(n, a, b, c, d, ...) (page 286)
Random Integer Generation rint(n), rint(m, n), rint(m, n, k) (page 286)
10.19 Mathematical and Logical Operators in Algorithms and Answers
This is a list of mathematical and logical operators (functions) that you can use in internal directives within questions.
Some of these operators are also available to students in their responses to math questions in the system (unreserved
operations), while others are reserved for instructor or question-authoring use only.
Unreserved Operations
These functions are available for use in both internal directives (in variable definitions and statements) and for use by
students when expressing their responses to math questions. Each command performs the expected mathematical
function in a formula or algorithm.
Table 10.15: Mathematical Functions that Students Can Use
sin,
csc,
abs,
log,
cos, tan
sec, cot
sqrt
ln, exp
arcsin, arccos, arctan
hypsin, hypcos, hyptan
archypsin, archypcos, archyptan
Reserved Operations
The following functions are only available as internal system directives (in variable definitions and statements). These
functions are not available to students.
Table 10.16: Mathematical Functions Reserved for Instructor Use
binomial, erf, inverf,
invstudentst, studentst
indexof
plotmaple
decimal, sig, int
java
rand
eq, ge, le, ne
lsu
range
fact
maple
rank
frac
mathml
rint
290 • 10 Authoring Mathematical Questions
gcd
max, min
strcat
gt, lt
not
sum
if
numfmt
switch
See Also:
Mathematical Functions & Operations (page 262)
10.20 Question Chaining Variables
Question chaining is an authoring technique in which you create reference objects in one question that are called into
display in the next question. By using question chaining, you can capture a student's response to the first question in
an assignment, and then include that response as part of other questions in the same assignment.
To use question chaining, you must:
1. Author questions that use the special variables $response and/or $grade described below.
2. Create assignments that use these questions in sequence.
Note: The questions that use chaining must have an algorithm. If this is not needed, you can define a dummy variable. This is
demonstrated in the example. See the line qu.1.2.algorithm=$x=0;@
To use question chaining variables:
• If a question has an id field set, then you can use the id tag to refer to the response the student provided during
an assignment.
Example
qu.1.topic=Question [email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
qu.1.1.question=Pick a number between 1 and 7: <1> @
qu.1.1.blank.1=1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, [email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
qu.1.2.question=What is the sum of $response.foo1 and [email protected]
qu.1.2.algorithm=$x=0;@
qu.1.2.answer.num=${($response.foobar + 17)}@
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
qu.1.2.name=Exact answer Precision with system [email protected]
[email protected][email protected]
To refer to the student response to one question in another question, use the variable $response.foobar. The referring questions need not be in the same question bank, but they must use the correct ID code. The contents of $response.foobar is a string.
Note: $response.foobar can be used only in in-line dynamic text; it cannot be used in the algorithm section of a question
because the algorithm is initialized before the assignment is started.
Questions frequently have multipart responses. For example, suppose foobar is a Blanks question with 5 blanks.
You can access the blanks individually using $response.foobar.1, .., $response.foobar.5. In the case
of a multipart question with parts (a),..(c), each of which holds a Blanks question with 5 blanks, you can access the
10.21 Setting Plot Options • 291
responses using $response.foobar.1.1, ..., $response.foobar.3.5. You can have as many levels of
depth as are needed.
In addition to accessing the raw text of the student response, you can also access the grade that is assigned to the current
response, using $grade.foobar (or, as appropriate, $grade.foobar.3.5). This is a decimal number between
0.0 and 1.0. In the case that the question has not yet been answered, the grade is -1.0. (You should be careful revealing
grade information, because that may undermine the intent of the instructor in setting the assignment.)
Note: $response and $grade can be used only in in-line expressions. You can use these variables inside only question
statements and answer definitions and not inside algorithm statements because the algorithm field of the question is evaluated
only once, when the question is first loaded at the time of initial assignment creation. To use the response object inside other
variable calculations would require that the algorithm field be refreshed each time the question is presented, which would
incorrectly update the other variable values in the algorithm field.
Example:
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
qu.1.3.question=Pick a number between 1 and 7: <1> @
qu.1.3.blank.1=1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, [email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
qu.1.4.question=What is the sum of $response.foo2 and [email protected]
qu.1.4.algorithm=
@
qu.1.4.answer.num=${($response.foo2 + 17)}@
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
qu.1.4.name=Exact answer Precision with system [email protected]
[email protected]
Question: How do I use the $grade variable to return a statement that tells the student on the following question
"Your response was correct/incorrect" depending on the grade in the first question?
Answer: Try
${if(eq($grade.foo2, 1), "correct", "incorrect")}
10.21 Setting Plot Options
2-D Plot Statement Options
The options to the Maple plot command are given after the function(s), horizontal range, and vertical range, as
equations of the form option = value.
For example,
plotmaple("plot(sin(x), x=-Pi..Pi, filled=true, title=`My Plot`)");
The options described below are supported.
Table 10.17: Options for 2-D Plots
Option
adaptive
Description
When plotting a function over an interval, the interval is sampled at a number of
points, controlled by sample and numpoints. Adaptive plotting, where necessary,
subdivides these intervals to attempt to get a better representation of the function.
This subsampling can be turned off by setting the adaptive option to false. By
292 • 10 Authoring Mathematical Questions
Option
axes=f
color=n or colour=n
coords=<name>
discont=s
filled=truefalse
labels=[x,y]
labeldirections=[x,y]
legend=s
linestyle=n
numpoints=n
resolution=n
sample
scaling=s
style=s
symbol=s
symbolsize=n
thickness=n
Description
default, this option is set to true, and intervals are subdivided at most 6 times in
trying to improve the plot. By setting this option to a non-negative integer, you
can control the maximum number of times that subintervals are divided.
Specifies the type of axes, one of: boxed, frame, none, or normal. The value can
be in lowercase or uppercase.
Allows the user to specify the color of the curves to be plotted.
Indicates that a parametric plot is in the coordinate system specified by
<coord_name>.
Setting s to true forces plot to call the function discont first to determine the
discontinuities of the input (or fdiscont if discont fails or if the input is not an
expression) and then breaks the horizontal axis into appropriate intervals where
the expression is either continuous or contains only removable discontinuities.
If the filled option is set to true, the area between the curve and the x-axis is given
a solid color. This option is valid only with the following commands: plot,
contourplot, implicitplot, listcontplot, polarplot, and semilogplot.
This option specifies labels for the axes. The values of x and y must be strings.
The default labels are the names of the variables in the original function to be
plotted, if any. The strings must be entered using left single quotes.
This option specifies the direction in which labels are printed along the axes. The
values of x and y must be horizontal or vertical. The default direction of any
labels is horizontal. The value can be in lowercase or uppercase.
A legend for a plot can be specified by either a string or a list of strings. When
more than one curve is being plotted then they must be specified as a list (and not
a set) and there must be a legend for each curve where the ith curve is associated
with the ith legend. The strings must be entered using left single quotes.
Controls the dash pattern used to render lines in the plot. The linestyle can be
specified as either an integer between 1 and 4, or a name from the following list:
SOLID, DOT, DASH, or DASHDOT. The value must be in uppercase.
Specifies the minimum number of points to be generated. The default is 50. Note:
plot employs an adaptive plotting scheme which automatically does more work
where the function values do not lie close to a straight line. Hence, plot often
generates more than the minimum number of points.
Sets the horizontal display resolution of the device in pixels (the default is n =
200). The value of n is used to determine when the adaptive plotting scheme
terminates. A higher value results in more function evaluations for non-smooth
functions.
A list of values which is to be used for the initial sampling of the function(s). When
coupled with adaptive=false, this option allows explicit control over the function
evaluations performed by plot.
Controls the scaling of the graph as constrained or unconstrained. The default
value is unconstrained. The value can be in lowercase or uppercase.
The interpolation style must be one of line, patch, patchnogrid, or point. The
default is line. The value can be in lowercase or uppercase. The point style plots
points only, line interpolates between the points, patch uses the patch style for
plots containing polygons, and patchnogrid is the patch style without the grid
lines.
Symbol for points in the plot, where the value s is one of box, circle, cross,
diamond, or point. The value can be lowercase or uppercase. Note: If the style
is set to point, the default symbol is plot device specific.
The size (in points) of a symbol used in plotting can be given by a positive integer.
This does not affect the symbol POINT. The default symbol size is 10.
This option specifies the thickness of lines in the plot. The thickness n must be a
non-negative integer. The default thickness is 0.
10.21 Setting Plot Options • 293
Option
tickmarks=[m,n]
title=t
view=[xmin..xmax, ymin..ymax]
xtickmarks=m
ytickmarks=n
Description
If m is an integer, then this option controls the number of tickmarks that are placed
on the x-axis. If m is a list of numeric values, then tickmarks are placed only at
the specified values. If m is a list of equations v=t, where v is a numeric value and
t is a name or string, then a tickmark with the label t is placed at v. If m is the
name default, then the default tickmark placement is applied. Similarly, n specifies
the placement of y-axis tickmarks. This option can be replaced by the
xtickmarks=m or ytickmarks=n option if you wish to specify tickmarks for one
axis only.
The title for the plot. The value t must be a character string. The default is no title.
You can create multi-line titles for standard plots. Use the characters \n in the
character string to denote the start of a new title line. The strings must be entered
using left single quotes.
This option indicates the minimum and maximum coordinates of the curve to be
displayed on the screen. The default is the entire curve.
See the description for the tickmarks option.
See the description for the tickmarks option.
See Also:
plotmaple(text) (page 284)
3-D Plot Statement Options
Options to the Maple plot3d function are given after the first three arguments, as equations of the form option =
value.
For example,
plotmaple("plot3d(sin(x)*y, x=-Pi..Pi, y=-1..1, lightmodel=light1)");
The options described below are supported.
Table 10.18: Option for 3-D Plots
Option
ambientlight=[r, g, b]
axes=f
color=c or colour=c
contours=n
coords=c
filled=truefalse
grid=[m,n]
gridstyle=x
labeldirections=[x,y,z]
Description
This option sets the red, green, and blue intensity of the ambient light for user
defined lighting. The values of r, g, and b must be numeric in the range 0 to 1.
This option specifies how the axes are to be drawn, where f is one of boxed,
normal, frame, or none. The default value is none. The value can be in lowercase
or uppercase.
This option defines a color value or function. Note that color specification takes
precedence over shading specification, regardless of the order of the options in
the command.
This option specifies the number of contours or a list of contour values, where n
is a positive integer or a list of contour values. The default value is 10.
This option specifies the coordinate system to be used. The default is Cartesian.
If the filled option is set to true, the region between the surface and the xy-plane
is displayed as solid. This option is valid only with the following commands:
plot3d, contourplot3d, and listcontplot3d.
This option specifies the dimensions of a rectangular grid on which the points are
generated (equally spaced).
This option specifies a grid x as either rectangular or triangular. This option is
not available for all 3-D plot objects.
This option specifies the direction in which labels are printed along the axes. The
values of x, y, and z must be horizontal or vertical. The default direction of any
294 • 10 Authoring Mathematical Questions
Option
labels=[x,y,z]
light=[phi, theta, r, g, b]
lightmodel=x
linestyle=n
numpoints=n
orientation=[theta, phi]
projection=r
scaling=s
shading=s
style=s
symbol=s
symbolsize=n
thickness=n
tickmarks=[m,n,p]
Description
labels is horizontal. The value can be in lowercase or uppercase. The axes option
must be set to boxed, frame, or normal.
This option specifies labels for the axes. The value of x, y, and z must be a string.
The default labels are the names of the variables in the original function to be
plotted. The strings must be entered using left single quotes.
This option adds a directed light source from the direction phi, theta in spherical
coordinates with red, green, and blue intensities given by r, g, and b. The values
of r, g, and b must be numeric in the range 0 to 1.
This option chooses a predefined light model to illuminate the plot. Valid light
models include none, light1, light2, light3, and light4. The value must be in
lowercase.
This option controls the dash pattern used to render lines in the plot. The linestyle
can be specified as either an integer between 1 and 4, or a name from the following
list: SOLID, DOT, DASH, and DASHDOT. The value must be in uppercase.
This option specifies the minimum total number of points to be generated (default
625 = 25^2). The plot3d command uses a rectangular grid of dimension
isqrt(n+3)+1.
This option specifies the theta and phi angles of the point in three dimensions
from which the plot is to be viewed. The default is at a point that is out
perpendicular from the screen (negative z axis) so that the entire surface can be
seen. The point is described in spherical coordinates where theta and phi are angles
in degrees, with default 45 degrees in each case.
This option specifies the perspective from which the surface is viewed, where r
is a real number between 0 and 1. The 1 denotes orthogonal projection, and the 0
denotes wide-angle perspective rendering. r can also be the one of the names,
fisheye, normal, or orthogonal, which correspond to the projection values 0, 0.5,
and 1, respectively. The default is orthogonal. The value can be in lowercase or
uppercase.
This option specifies whether the surface should be scaled so that it fits the screen
with axes using a relative or absolute scaling, where s is either unconstrained or
constrained. The default is relative unconstrained. The value can be in lowercase
or uppercase.
This option specifies how the surface is colored, where s is one of xyz, xy, z,
zgrayscale, zhue, or none. The default is device dependent. The value can be
lowercase or uppercase. Note that color specification takes precedence over shading
specification, regardless of the order of the options in the command. The value
can be in lowercase or uppercase.
This specifies how the surface is to be drawn, where s is one of contour, hidden,
line, patch, patchcontour, patchnogrid, point, or wireframe. Some of the options
may not be available on some devices. The default style is patch (for colored
surface patch rendering). The value can be in lowercase or uppercase.
This option defines the symbol for points in the plot. s is one of box, circle, cross,
diamond, or point. The value can be in lowercase or uppercase. Note: If the style
is set to point, the default symbol is plot device specific.
The size (in points) of a symbol used in plotting can be given by a positive integer.
This does not affect the symbol point. The default symbol size is 10.
This option specifies the thickness of lines in the plot. The thickness n must be a
non-negative integer. The default thickness is 0.
If m is an integer, then this option controls the number of tickmarks that are placed
on the x-axis. If m is a list of numeric values, then tickmarks are placed only at
the specified values. If m is a list of equations v=t, where v is a numeric value and
t is a name or string, then a tickmark with the label t is placed at v. If m is the
name default, then the default tickmark placement is applied. Similarly, n specifies
the placement of y-axis tickmarks and p specifies the placement of z-axis tickmarks.
10.22 Details on Using Algorithmic Variables • 295
Option
title=t
view=zmin..zmax
or [xmin..xmax, ymin..ymax, zmin..zmax]
Description
This option specifies a title for the plot. The value of t must be a string. The default
is no title. You can create multi-line titles for standard plots. Use the characters
\n to denote the start of a new title line. The strings must be entered using left
single quotes.
This option indicates the minimum and maximum coordinates of the surface to be
displayed on the screen. The default is the entire surface.
See Also:
plotmaple(text) (page 284)
10.22 Details on Using Algorithmic Variables
The Answer Field Evaluation and Requirements
The answer field specifies internal directives, or instructions to the system for how to grade the question. It operates
like a command-line statement when processed by the system.
The answer field accepts only values that can be system-evaluated: numbers, formulas, algorithmic variables, or
numbers and/or formulas with required physical units.
The system recognizes:
• Equivalent numeric and algebraic expressions
• Equivalent standard physical units
• Scientific notation
• The ? operator as a representation of a margin of error. The answer:
(3.75 ? 0.05) kg
grades all responses in the range 3.70 to 3.80 kg (inclusive) correct.
Note: You cannot use the ? operator in the numeric answer (answer.num field) for a numeric question. You must
use the specialized tolerance fields.
Variable definitions must reduce to one of the above.
You can round a variable value to any number of significant digits, and then specify the variable as the answer.
Controlling Display of Numbers within Questions
All random numbers generated by the system from variable definitions are floating-point variables. By default, they
are expressed to about 8 significant digits.
To control the display of numeric variables, enclose expressions in an int() statement to make them integers (for
example, $m=int(14.5*5);), or in double quotes "" to make them strings (for example, $s="380";).
You can also control the appearance of numeric variables by enclosing random number generating statements and
arithmetic operations with decimal(n,(statement)), to express the result to n decimal places, or by using the
sig(n,(statement)) structure to express the result to n significant digits.
See Also:
Random Integer Generation rint(n), rint(m, n), rint(m, n, k) (page 286)
decimal(n, x), sig(n, x), int(x) (page 279)
296 • 10 Authoring Mathematical Questions
Variables within Variable Statements
You can use variables as arguments in variable definition statements.
Since the algorithm generation works linearly, you must define variables before referencing them in other variable
definition statements (or control sequences).
Example
[email protected]
qu.3.7.algorithm=
$n=rint(8);
$x=rand(1,10);
$ans=sig($n, $x)
@
qu.3.7.question=
Express the number $x to $n significant places.
@
[email protected]
See Also:
Controlling Answer Tolerance (page 243)
decimal(n, x), sig(n, x), int(x) (page 279)
Formula (page 164)
rand(m, n), rand(m, n, k) (page 285)
Random Integer Generation rint(n), rint(m, n), rint(m, n, k) (page 286)
Displaying the $ (Dollar Sign) in Questions
The use of the $ is reserved for variable definitions in algorithms in the Maple T.A. question syntax.
To display a $ character in the text of your question, use:
\$
Displaying the Backslash Symbol in Questions
The use of the backslash character is reserved in the Maple T.A. system question syntax. To include a \ character in
the text of your question, use:
\\
Text Strings in Variable Statements
Statements defining variables can also include text strings. Strings must be enclosed in double quotes "".
Example
[email protected]
qu.4.1.algorithm=
$animal=switch(rint(2), "cat", "dog");
$mass=if(int(eq("$animal", "cat")), rand(2,15,2), rand(10,30,2));
$velocity=rand(2,5,2)
@
qu.4.1.question=
A $mass kg $animal is running at $velocity m/s. What is its kinetic energy?
@
qu.4.1.answer= (1/2)$mass * $velocity^2
10.23 Tutorial: Algorithmic Question • 297
@
In the test for the type of animal in the definition of $mass, it is required that the variable $animal be enclosed in
quotes.
Note: The strings in the example above appear only as arguments to functions. It is recommended that you do not mix strings and
numbers in expressions.
10.23 Tutorial: Algorithmic Question
Algorithmically generated variables are used in questions to generate random numbers in questions and create multiple
permutations of questions from a single template. The system uses a special field (algorithm) to contain variable
definitions. Variable definitions must be presented in the proper system syntax. They can contain embedded functions
and arguments.
Note: For any question type, you can use Maple commands and Maple T.A. to generate algorithmic numbers. For more
information, see Tutorial: Maple-based Algorithmic Question Authoring (page 300)
This tutorial examines the process of converting a typical numeric question to an algorithmically generated question
by using variables.
Consider a single example. Substitute variable data for the mass and speed values in the following question each time
the assignment is generated.
A ball of mass 0.8 kg is thrown at a speed of 12.6 m/s.
(a) What is its momentum?
(b) What is its kinetic energy?
The plain-text script for this question with no algorithms is:
qu.1.1.mode=Multipart [email protected]
qu.1.1.question=
A ball of mass 0.8 kg is thrown at a speed of 12 m/s.
<br>(a) What is its momentum?
<br>(b) What is its kinetic energy?
@
qu.1.1.answer=
9.6 m/s; 46.08 J
@
The plain-text script for this question, created algorithmically, is:
qu.1.1.mode=Multipart [email protected]
qu.1.1.algorithm=
$m=decimal(1,rand(0.5, 1.0));
$v=decimal(0,rand(10, 15));
$ansa=decimal(2,($m*$v));
$ansb=decimal(2,(1/2)*$m*$v^2);
@
qu.1.1.question=
A ball of mass $m kg is thrown at a speed of $v m/s.
<br>(a) What is its momentum?
<br>(b) What is its kinetic energy? @
qu.1.1.answer= $ansa; [email protected]
qu.1.1.comment=
$ansa kg m/s is its momentum.<br>
298 • 10 Authoring Mathematical Questions
$ansb J is its kinetic energy.
@
Note that the algorithm field and variable definitions have been added.
• The variables are represented by alphanumeric names that must start with a $ followed by an alphanumeric
sequence that consists of at least one letter.
• The first character in the name of the variable must be a letter (not a number).
• Variables are defined in a series of statements resembling equations of the form:
$variable=<formula>;
• Each variable definition is separated by a semicolon (the final semicolon in a series of variable definitions is
optional).
• The syntax of the formula is similar to the standard graphing calculator syntax used throughout by the system,
with the addition of some new functions.
In this question, the randomized variables are mass, $m, which varies between 0.5 and 1.0 and velocity, $v, which
varies between 10 and 15. The decimal argument is used to truncate the values of the numeric variable data.
The answer field holds two statements, one corresponding to each part of this multipart formula question. Statements
in the answer field are evaluated by the system grader, so must be expressed using proper math syntax. Also, note that
in this question we use the comment field to display the computed value of the answer rather than answer definition
(Displaying Answers).
See Also:
Overview of Algorithmic Question Capabilities (page 274)
10.24 Tutorial: List-based Variables
You can use the algorithmic syntax to manage multiple scenarios or sets of randomized data in questions. Using listbased variables, you can use the same question statement but substitute corresponding sets of data throughout the
question, answer, comment, hints, and solution statements.
Example
Consider the case in which you want to create a chemistry problem that uses one of several sets or scenarios of data
related to distinct elements. Each set contains a visual depiction (GIF file) and related data linked to various properties
of the distinct elements.
To create a single problem that randomly chooses an element and substitutes its individualized properties into the
question statement and other fields, use algorithm and answer statements as in the following examples.
(a) Single Index Case with Sixteen Scenarios
1. Use a single variable $k as an index.
$k=rint(15);
2. Create individual variables for the first related property of each of the sixteen scenarios. In this case, the first related
property is an image file depicting the molecular structure. Create a new variable $molecule1 that uses the index
to select the appropriate indexed data value (in this case, the correct image).
$molecule1x00="<img src=../classes/myclass/chap15/image01.gif>";
$molecule1x01="<img src=../classes/myclass/chap15/image02.gif>";
$molecule1x02="<img src=../classes/myclass/chap15/image03.gif>";
...
10.24 Tutorial: List-based Variables • 299
$molecule1x15="<img src=../classes/myclass/chap15/image16.gif>";
$molecule1=switch($k, $molecule1x00, $molecule1x01, $molecule1x02, ... ,$molecule1x15);
3. Define the second related property for each scenario. Create a new variable that uses the index to select the appropriate indexed data value.
$property1x00="value...";
$property1x01="value...";
...
$property1x15="value...";
$property1=switch($k, $property1x00, $property1x01,
... , $property1x15);
4. Define additional related properties for each scenario, and then select (using the index) and assign the appropriate
values to new variables.
5. The final set of variables is the answer field (assuming that each different case has a different answer). Select the
appropriate answer using the index.
$ans00=50;
$ans01=16;
..
$ans15=3.6;
$ans=switch($k, $ans2x00, .. , $ans2x15);
(b) Multiple Index Case
It may be the case that your question requires multiple indexes to your data. Consider the above case with only four
elements (molecule1 to molecule4), where for each element there are four individualized sets of properties.
Assume that you have four images of molecules. To avoid redundancy (because molecule1 has only four values,
but there are sixteen scenarios), use two indices. The first index, $i, determines the element and image. The second
index, $k, determines the scenario. Depending on the value of $i, the value of $k is in one of the four ranges: 0-3,
4-7, 8-11, or 12-15. By using $k, $property1 (and other properties, and $ans) match with the appropriate molecule1. To implement this, use the following statements.
$i=rint(4);
$j=rint(4);
$k=4*i+j;
$molecule1x0="...";
$molecule1x1="...";
$molecule1x2="...";
$molecule1x3="...";
$molecule1=switch($i, $molecule1x0, $molecule1x1,..);
$property1x00="..";
$property1x01="..";
..
$property1x15="..";
$property1=switch($k, $property1x00, .. , $property1x15);
$ans00=50;
$ans01=16;
..
300 • 10 Authoring Mathematical Questions
$ans15=3.6;
$ans=switch($k, $ans2x00, .. , $ans2x15);
See Also:
switch(n, a, b, c, ...) (page 289)
10.25 Tutorial: Maple-based Algorithmic Question Authoring
Algorithmically generated variables are used to generate random numbers in questions and create multiple permutations
of questions from a single template.
You can use either Maple T.A. or Maple to generate algorithmic variables. You can use either (or both) types of variables
in any question type.
The syntax for a Maple-based variable definition is:
<variable_i>=maple("<Maple_command>");
Using a Text or HTML Editor
To define an algorithmic variable in the plain-text script file, specify variable definitions (or other variable control
sequences) in the algorithm field.
algorithm=
<variable_definition_1>
...
<variable_definition_n>
@
Using the Question Editor
In the Question Editor, define variables by directly entering Maple-based variable definitions on the algorithm screen
or using the Algorithm Designer.
Tutorial 1
The following tutorial shows how to convert a static Maple Formula question to an algorithmically generated question
by using variables assigned values by Maple commands.
Maple-graded Question
Consider the following plain-text script question definition, which asks a student to enter an anti-derivative of x^3.
qu.1.1.question=Enter an anti-derivative of x^[email protected]
qu.1.1.maple=evalb(diff($RESPONSE,x)=x^3)@
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
qu.1.1.name=Maple [email protected]
qu.1.1.comment=Any function of the form x^4/4 + C, where C is a constant, is an anti-deriv-
10.25 Tutorial: Maple-based Algorithmic Question Authoring • 301
ative of x^[email protected]
[email protected]
Notes:
1. This question uses Maple to verify that the derivative of the student response is equal to x^3. This is recommended
in place of comparing the student response, which can have an additive constant, with the integral of x^3, that is
evalb($RESPONSE=int(x^3,x)).
2. If the student enters an incorrect response, the system display the value in the comment field. In Maple-graded
questions, if there is no comment field, the system returns the message Comment: No feedback provided with
this question.
To change this question to an algorithmic question, use the following plain-text script question definition.
qu.1.2.question=Enter an anti-derivative of x^$exponent + ${coeff}[email protected]
qu.1.2.maple=evalb(diff($RESPONSE,x)=x^$exponent+$coeff*x)@
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
qu.1.2.name=Maple [email protected]
qu.1.2.comment=Any function of the form $answer + C, where C is a constant, is an anti-derivative of x^$exponent + ${coeff}[email protected]
[email protected]
qu.1.2.algorithm=$exponent=maple("randomize():rand(2..5)()");
$coeff=maple("randomize():rand(2..9)()");
$answer=maple("int(x^$exponent+$coeff*x,x)");
@
Notes:
1. You must follow the variable naming conventions.
2. For a list of the guidelines for Maple commands in Maple-based variables, see The Algorithm Designer (page 85).
3. The variable $exponent is assigned a value calculated by Maple using the rand function.
rand() returns a random 12-digit positive integer
rand(a)() returns a random integer in the range 0 ... a-1 (inclusive)
rand(a..b)() returns a random integer in the range a ... b (inclusive)
For information on other Maple commands, see your Maple documentation.
4. The Maple command:
randomize():
is included so that a different value is generated for each question instantiation. You must include the randomize(): command in every Maple-based variable definition. That is, it is required in the definition of $exponent
and $coeff.
5. The Maple command:
int(x^$exponent,x)
calculates the correct answer, which is displayed using the comment statement if the student response is incorrect.
6. The examples in Tutorial 1 can be converted to Maple Syntax questions by changing the type field value from
formula to maple, and changing allow2d to 0 for text-entry mode. For Maple Syntax questions, it is recommended that you attempt to prevent a student from calculating the correct answer using Maple commands. For more
information, see Using Maple Code to Prevent Cheating in Maple Syntax Questions (page 245).
For an example plain-text script that defines a Maple question with Maple plotting of the student response, see Plotting
a Student Response (page 247).
Tutorial 2
You can also use Maple-based algorithmic variables in other question types.
302 • 10 Authoring Mathematical Questions
Formula Question
The following plain-text script defines a Formula question that uses Maple-based variables.
qu.1.3.question=What is the sum of $a and [email protected]
[email protected]
qu.1.3.name=Maple-based Variables in [email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
qu.1.3.algorithm=$a=maple("randomize():rand(100..200)()");
$b=rint(10,50);
$answer=int($a+$b);
@
Notes:
1. This question uses both Maple-based (for $a) and Maple T.A. random variables (for $b).
2. When referencing negative, random variables in a maple variable definition, be sure to place the negative variable
in parentheses, otherwise an error message will return. $c=maple("$a + ($b)");
See Also:
Maple-graded Formula Question Example Script (page 348)
Maple-graded Question Type - Overview (page 167)
Maple Syntax Question Example Script (page 349)
Questions with Plots (page 176)
11 Authoring Questions in LaTeX
11.1 LaTeX Authoring Overview
You can author and edit all question types using LaTeX to generate plain-text script files.
There are certain advanced question types that cannot be created in the Question Editor (for example, dynamically
rendered plots in questions, algorithmically generated labels in figures, matrices, and dynamic graph sketching). For
these questions, you can use plain text script files or LaTeX.
It is recommended that you write and edit question banks using LaTeX only if you are an experienced LaTeX user.
Otherwise, it is recommended that you edit script files using a text or HTML editor or use the Question Editor.
Requirements
To use LaTeX to author Maple T.A. question banks, you need:
• ed.sty — The LaTeX style file for Maple T.A. question authoring. Download this file from
http://www.maplesoft.com/products/mapleta/latex2ta/index.aspx and put it in the same location as your
other LaTeX style files.
Authoring Process
To author in LaTeX:
1. Write your question bank in LaTeX using a text editor.
2. Run LaTeX on your text files. Preview the output to ensure it is correct.
You may perform multiple iterations of the steps 1 and 2.
3. Use the web-based conversion service at http://latex2ta.mapleserver.com to convert your LaTeX-format question
file to Maple T.A. .qu format.
Note: If you are using Maple T.A. 6 Service Pack 1 or later (check with your system administrator to confirm),
select "Yes, I am using Maple T.A. 6 Service Pack 1 or later." When this box is selected, the LaTeX converter
generates unique identifiers for the questions and inserts them into your LaTeX file and into the generated QU file.
The converter returns the updated version of your LaTeX file together with the generated QU file as a TAR archive.
Use the updated LaTeX file for future modifications. This allows you to update questions within Maple T.A.
4. Import and save the question bank (QU file) in your Maple T.A. class. (See Opening a Saved Question Bank
File (page 147).)
11.2 LaTeX Question Bank Document Structure
Questions are grouped into topics. Use the LaTeX topic environment to mark the beginning and end of topics.
Each question is wrapped inside a question environment. The Maple T.A. question type must be provided as an argument
to the opening statement.
You can include any number of questions. The example format in Table 11.1 shows one topic containing two questions.
The LaTeX package epsfig is loaded by default. The ed package is required. Other standard LaTeX packages, for example, amsmath, can be included using the \usepackage macro. You can also define additional LaTeX macros
as usual.
To include graphics:
1. Select a location in your Maple T.A. class web site for graphics files. It is recommended that you use a distinct
folder for the images in each question bank. Upload the graphic to a folder on your Maple T.A. class web site. For
303
304 • 11 Authoring Questions in LaTeX
information on uploading, see Uploading Images and Reference Files to the Class Web Site (page 92). After uploading graphics files, you can click the icon beside a file to see its full path, which will have the form
http://.../web/<class>/Public_Html/<folder>/...
2. Insert the \setImageBase directive near the top of the LaTeX file to specify the path to this location. For example,
if your Maple T.A. class identifier is myclass, and your graphics folder is Images, use the directive:
\setImageBase{web/myclass/Public_Html/Images}
Table 11.1: Example LaTeX Document Structure
\documentclass[12pt]{article}
\usepackage{ed}
% Optionally set the location for graphics files on the Maple T.A. system.
\setImageBase{...}
\begin{document}
\begin{topic}{topicname}
\begin{question}{question type}
...
\end{question}
\begin{question}{question type}
...
\end{question}
\end{topic}
\end{document}
11.3 Question Structure
Table 11.2 gives the basic structure for a question.
Table 11.2: Basic LaTeX Question Structure
\begin{question}{question type}
\name{question name}
\property{name1}{value1}
\property{name2}{value1}
\hint{first hint}
\hint{second hint}
\comment{feedback text}
\qutext{question text}
...
\end{question}
Available Fields in LaTeX Questions
All questions can be given a name, hints, a comment, and a set of properties.
• The \name field is used as an identifier for a question. It is recommended that you assign a name to every
question. This will help you to identify questions when creating assignments from your question bank.
• If present, the \comment field provides feedback that can be shown to the student instead of the \answer
field if the question is answered incorrectly.
• The \hint field provides hints for the question. There can be more than one \hint statement.
• The \property field takes two arguments. The first is the name of the property. The second is its value. You
can choose any useful name. There can be more than one \property statement. When converted to the Maple
T.A. format files, properties are converted to information fields.
11.4 LaTeX Style Sheets • 305
Example
\begin{question}{formula}
\name{p65, qu14}
\qutext{Differentiate $x e^x$.}
\answer{x e^x + e^x}
\comment{Use the product rule to differentiate this formula. The answer
is $x e^x + e^x=(x+1)e^x$.}
\hint{Use the product rule.}
\property{author}{I. M. Prof}
\property{difficulty}{medium}
% The 'author' and 'difficulty' property names are
% examples. You can create property names as required.
\end{question}
Other macros include:
• \code - To specify algorithmic statements, use the \code command. For example:
\code{
$m=rint(7);
$n=int(2*$m+3);
}
• \var - To use a system algorithmic variable in LaTeX, do not specify the $, but instead enclose the name in
a \var{} command. For example, to display the variable $n in the question statement, use:
\qutext{What is the exact value of $\sin(\frac{\var{n}\pi}{4})$?}
For more information, see Tutorial: Using Algorithms in LaTeX Questions (page 320).
In addition, each question type has its own set of LaTeX macros for defining properties of that type of question.
See Also:
Overview of Algorithmic Question Capabilities (page 274)
The info Field (page 154)
11.4 LaTeX Style Sheets
The Maple T.A. LaTeX macros can be used on a range of platforms and with a variety of TeX implementations. To
determine where to save your style sheets (.sty files), refer to your LaTeX documentation.
11.5 Basic Question Types in LaTeX
True-or-False Questions in LaTeX
Question Mode: True False
The True False question type creates a question and a list of two choices: True and False.
Example 1
\begin{question}{True False}
\qutext{Whales are mammals.}
% Mark the answer \true or \false:
\true
\end{question}
Example 2
\begin{question}{True False}
\qutext{The equation $2x-3y^2=4$ defines a function with an independent
306 • 11 Authoring Questions in LaTeX
variable $x$.}
\false
\end{question}
Example 3
\begin{question}{True False}
% This question uses randomized variables.
\qutext{The equation $\var{a}x-\var{b}y^2=\var{c}$ defines a function
with an independent variable $x$.}
\false
\code{
$aa=int(rint(11)+2);
$s=rint(2);
$a=int(if($s,$aa,-$aa));
$b=int(rint(11)+2);
$cc=int(rint(11)+2);
$t=rint(2);
$c=int(if($t,$cc,-$cc));
}
% The above code chooses random integer coefficients with absolute values
% between 2 and 12. b must be positive, but a and c may be
% positive or negative.
\end{question}
See Also:
True-or-False Questions (page 236)
Multiple Choice Questions in LaTeX
Question Mode: Multiple Choice; Non Permuting Multiple Choice
The Multiple Choice and Non Permuting Multiple Choice question types create a question and a list of choices,
which includes one correct answer.
Notes
• You can have as many (or as few) choices as desired. Mark the correct choice with an asterisk.
• The order of the choices is permuted for the student. To force the choices to appear in the order you specify,
use the Non Permuting Multiple Choice question type.
Example 1
\begin{question}{Multiple Choice}
\qutext{What is the capital of California?}
% List the choices, and mark the correct choice with an asterisk.
\choice{San Francisco}
\choice{Los Angeles}
\choice*{Sacramento}
\end{question}
Example 2
\begin{question}{Multiple Choice}
\qutext{$3\log x-2\log y=$}
\choice*{$\log\left(\displaystyle\frac{x^3}{y^2}\right)$}
\choice{$\log(x^3y^2)$}
\choice{$\log(3x-2y)$}
\choice{$\log(x^3-y^2)$}
\end{question}
11.5 Basic Question Types in LaTeX • 307
Example 3
\begin{question}{Non Permuting Multiple Choice}
% This question uses randomized variables.
\qutext{Consider the function $f(x)=\var{c}x^{\var{n}}$.
What happens to $f(x)$ as $x\to -\infty$?}
\choice*{$f(x)\to\infty$}
\choice{$f(x)\to -\infty$}
\choice{$f(x)\to 0$}
\code{
$n=int(2*rint(4)+3);
$c=int(-(rint(6)+2));
}
% The above code chooses random integer coefficients n and c.
% The exponent n is positive and odd (3, 5, 7, or 9).
% The coefficient c is negative, between -2 and -7.
\end{question}
See Also:
Multiple Choice Questions (page 220)
Multiple Selection Questions in LaTeX
Question Mode: Multiple Selection; Non Permuting Multiple Selection
The Multiple Selection and Non Permuting Multiple Selection question types create a question and a list of choices,
which includes possibly more than one correct answer.
Notes
• You can have as many (or as few) choices as desired. Mark the correct choice(s) with an asterisk.
• The order of the choices is permuted for the student. To force the choices to appear in the order you specify,
use the Non Permuting Multiple Selection question type.
Example 1
\begin{question}{Non Permuting Multiple Selection}
\qutext{Select all cities that are located in California.}
% List the choices, and mark all the correct choices with an asterisk.
\choice*{San Francisco}
\choice*{Los Angeles}
\choice{Chicago}
\choice{New York}
\choice*{Sacramento}
\end{question}
Example 2
\begin{question}{Multiple Selection}
\qutext{Select the equations of all lines that are vertical asymptotes
of the graph of $y=\sec x$. If the graph has no vertical asymptotes,
select ``No vertical asymptotes''.}
\choice*{$x=-7\pi/2$}
\choice{$x=-\pi$}
\choice*{$x=-\pi/2$}
\choice{$x=0$}
\choice{$x=\pi/4$}
\choice{$x=2\pi/3$}
\choice*{$x=5\pi/2$}
\choice{No vertical asymptotes}
\end{question}
308 • 11 Authoring Questions in LaTeX
Example 3
\begin{question}{Multiple Selection}
% This question uses randomized variables.
\qutext{Select the equations of all lines that are vertical asymptotes
of the graph of the function
$f(x)=\displaystyle\frac{\var{a}x^{\var{b}}}{x^2-\var{cc}}$.
If the graph has no vertical asymptotes, select ``No vertical
asymptotes''.}
\choice*{$x=-\var{c}$}
\choice*{$x=\var{c}$}
\choice{$x=0$}
\choice{$x=\var{d}$}
\choice{$x=\var{e}$}
\choice{No vertical asymptotes}
\code{
$a=int(rint(8)+2);
$b=int(rint(8)+2);
$c=int(rint(4)+1);
$cc=int($c^2);
$t=rint(2);
$d1=int($c+rint(2)+1);
$d=int(switch($t,$d1,-$d1));
$e1=int($d+rint(2)+1);
$e=int(switch($t,-$e1,$e1));
}
% The above code chooses random integer coefficients a and b between
% 2 and 9. The value of cc can be 1, 4, 9, or 16. d and e are
% extra choices that do not duplicate the others.
\end{question}
See Also:
Multiple Selection Questions (page 221)
Matching Questions in LaTeX
Question Mode: Matching
The Matching question type presents two lists. The student must match each entry on the first list with one entry from
the second list.
Notes
• To specify pairs of matching elements, use the \match (for elements in the first list) and \with (for elements
in the second list) macros.
• The default behavior is to display the first list in a single row across the screen, with a drop-down list of all
choices from the second list. You can instead specify the number of columns using the \cols macro.
Example 1
\begin{question}{Matching}
\qutext{Match the following states with their capitals.}
\match{California} \with{Sacramento}
\match{New York} \with{Albany}
\match{Pennsylvania} \with{Harrisburg}
\match{Oregon} \with{Salem}
\end{question}
11.5 Basic Question Types in LaTeX • 309
Example 2
\begin{question}{Matching}
\qutext{Match the following polynomials with their factorizations:}
\match{$x^2-1$} \with{$(x-1)(x+1)$}
\match{$x^2+2x+1$} \with{$(x+1)^2$}
\match{$x^2-2x+1$} \with{$(x-1)^2$}
% Optionally, specify the number of columns in which to arrange the display of data.
\cols{3}
\end{question}
See Also:
Matching Questions (page 218)
Clickable Image Questions in LaTeX
Question Mode: Clickable Image
The Clickable Image question type displays an image and text. As the student moves the mouse over the image,
various hot-spots are selected. The goal is to click the correct hot-spot.
To write a clickable image question you must first upload the image:
1. Select a location in your Maple T.A. class web site for graphics files. It is recommended that you use a distinct
folder for the images in each question bank. Upload the graphic to your class web site. For information on uploading,
see Uploading Images and Reference Files to the Class Web Site (page 92).
2. Insert the \setImageBase directive near the top of your question bank TeX source file to specify the path to
this location. For example, if your Maple T.A. class identifier is myclass, and your graphics folder is Images, use
the directive:
\setImageBase{web/myclass/Public_Html/Images}
To incorporate your image file into the question, use the clickableimage environment. The \begin{clickableimage} command takes three arguments:
i. The name of the image file.
ii. The width of the image file in pixels.
iii. The height of the image file in pixels.
To determine the width and height of the graphic, use a third-party graphics application (for example, Microsoft® Paint).
To define the hotspots, use the \region macro. The argument to the \region macro is a comma-delimited list of
points, specifying the vertices of the clickable region.
• The x- and y-coordinates are measured from the upper left corner of the graphic.
• More than one \region command can be used. Mark the correct region with an asterisk.
• Note that \begin{clickableimage}...\end{clickableimage} must appear outside the argument to \qutext.
Note: The \setImageBase directive has a global effect on your document. You can temporarily override the image
base with \ignoreImageBase. This macro takes no arguments. Its effect is local, so upon leaving the current group
or environment, the image base will revert to its previous value.
310 • 11 Authoring Questions in LaTeX
Example
Note: To use this example, you must specify the actual URL for your image as well as your own \region{...}
coordinates for hotspots. This example will not work without these modifications.
\begin{question}{Clickable Image}
\qutext{Find the dog in the picture below.}
{\ignoreImageBase % use empty image base in this group
\begin{clickableimage}
{http://www.YourDomain.com/images/pose.gif}{192}{288}
\region*{139,32,
144,40,
137,58,
115,68,
109,101,
132,155,
138,209,
155,273,
148,281,
52,282,
44,266,
29,224,
33,198,
36,176,
61,108,
59,57,
74,37,
93,29}
\region{149,87,
168,90,
172,148,
151,122}
\region{153,157,
186,152,
185,212,
158,218,
149,185}
\end{clickableimage}} % image base returns to original value
\end{question}
Drop-down Menu-based Questions in LaTeX
Question Mode: Blanks - [menu] option
This question type has been deprecated. Use the Inline question type instead. See Inline Questions in LaTeX (page 313).
Question Mode: List - menu display
The List question type generates a fill-in-the-blank question where the author specifies multiple correct (and even
incorrect but expected) answers, along with the credit awarded for each answer (a number between 0 and 1). Any student
answer that does not appear on the list earns a grade of zero. By default, the student response region is displayed as a
text box. By adding \display{menu} you can display the response object as a drop-down menu, listing the responses
specified with the \answer{} macros.
The format for List questions is \answer{credit}{answer}. More than one \answer can be used, but at
least one answer must give full credit (equal to 1). List questions can have multiple comments, with one assigned to
each specified response, and one default comment. The value of each \comment{} macro is assigned as the feedback
associated with the preceding \answer{} macro.
Example 1
\begin{question}{List}
\qutext{Who was the first man to walk on the moon?}
\display{menu}
\answer{1.0}{Neil Armstrong}
\comment{Exactly correct.}
\answer{0.5}{Edwin Aldrin}
\comment{Not quite. Edwin Aldrin was the second man to set foot on the moon.}
\answer{0.0}{Michael Collins}
\comment{Incorrect. Michael Collins orbited the moon but never set foot on it.}
\end{question}
Example 2
By using the Inline question type, you can insert multiple List-type blanks within one question. See Inline Questions
in LaTeX (page 313).
\begin{question}{Inline}
% This question uses randomized variables.
\qutext{The graph of the function
$f(x)=\var{s1}\var{a}(x+\var{h})^2-\var{k}$ is the same as the graph of
the function $g(x)=\var{s1}\var{a}x^2$ shifted \blank and shifted \blank.}
\code{
$t1=rint(2);
11.5 Basic Question Types in LaTeX • 311
$s1=if($t1,"","-");
$a=int(rint(8)+2);
$h=int(rint(8)+2);
$k=int(rint(8)+2);
}
% The above code selects random integer coefficients between 2 and 9,
% and allows the leading coefficient of the function f to be either
% positive or negative.
\begin{blank}{List}
\display{menu}
\answer{1.0}{to the left \var{h} units}
\answer{0.0}{to the right \var{h} units}
\end{blank}
\begin{blank}{List}
\display{menu}
\answer{0.0}{up \var{k} units}
\answer{1.0}{down \var{k} units}
\end{blank}
\end{question}
See Also:
Free Response and Fill-in-the-Blank Questions (page 185)
Free Response Text-based Questions in LaTeX
The system supports three varieties of open text response questions:
• Key Words
• Essay (ungraded)
• List (fill-in-the-blank)
Question Mode: Key Words
The key words question type is an open response question. The answer field consists of a segment of text in which
the keywords are marked by enclosing parentheses. Any student response that includes all the words in parentheses is
graded correct. If the question is not answered correctly, the full answer text (excluding the parentheses) is displayed
as the correct answer.
Example
\begin{question}{key words}
\qutext{Which two scientists independently discovered inductance?}
\answer{Michael (Faraday) and Joseph (Henry)}
% Any responses that include both the words "Faraday" and "Henry" is
% graded correct. If the question is not answered correctly,
% "Michael Faraday and Joseph Henry" is displayed as the correct answer.
\end{question}
Question Mode: Essay
The essay question type is an open response question. The system does not grade it. You must grade each student's
answer and assign a score using the Gradebook.
Example
\begin{question}{essay}
\qutext{Discuss the effect of gamma rays on Man-in-the-Moon Marigolds.}
312 • 11 Authoring Questions in LaTeX
\end{question}
Question Mode: List - text display
The List question type generates a fill-in-the-blank question where the author specifies multiple correct (and even
incorrect but expected) answers, along with the credit awarded for each answer (a number between 0 and 1). Any student
answer that does not appear on the list earns a grade of zero. By default, the student response region is displayed as a
text box.
The format for List questions is \answer{credit}{answer}. More than one \answer can be used, but at
least one answer must give full credit (equal to 1).
Specify the grading style in a List question as exact, relaxed, or regular by using the \grader macro:
• exact — Strings of spaces are collapsed to a single space, but all capitalization and punctuation must match. This
the default grading style.
• relaxed — Strings of spaces are collapsed to a single space; case and punctuation are ignored.
• regex — You define a set of acceptable (or partially acceptable) responses using a regular expression pattern.
Example 1
\begin{question}{List}
\qutext{Who was the President of the USA during the Civil War?}
\grader{relaxed}
\comment{That response is incorrect.}
\answer{1.0}{Abraham Lincoln}
\comment{Exactly correct.}
\answer{1.0}{Lincoln}
\comment{Yes, although you should give his first name, too.}
\answer{0.25}{Jefferson Davis}
\comment{Your answer is partially correct--Davis was president
of the CSA, but not the USA.}
\end{question}
Example 2
By using the Inline question type, you can insert multiple List-type blanks within one question. See Inline Questions
in LaTeX (page 313).
\begin{question}{Inline}
\qutext{The human race belongs to the genus
%Format: \blank
\blank and species \blank.}
\begin{blank}{List}
\answer{1.0}{Homo}
\grader{relaxed}
\end{blank}
\begin{blank}{List}
\answer{1.0}{sapiens}
\grader{relaxed}
\end{blank}
\end{question}
See Also:
Free Response and Fill-in-the-Blank Questions (page 185)
Essay Questions - Ungraded (page 184)
11.5 Basic Question Types in LaTeX • 313
Question Mode: Blanks - [text] option
This question type has been deprecated. Use the Inline question type instead. See Inline Questions in LaTeX (page 313).
Multiple Part Questions in LaTeX
Question Mode: Blanks
This question type has been deprecated. Use the Inline question type instead. See Inline Questions in LaTeX (page 313).
Question Mode: Inline
Inline questions are a flexible and extensible form of question that can include multiple question types. The Inline
question type in LaTeX gives you the same flexibility as the Question Designer question type in the Question Editor.
Inline questions support the widest variety of response objects anywhere within the body of a question, including
within HTML tables. Use the \blank{} macro, with no arguments, to place a response cell within \qutext{}.
The type of blank, correct answer, and other details are specified with sequential blank environments outside of
\qutext{}. In this way, Inline questions are written much like Multipart questions, where each blank functions as
one part. As in a multipart question, each subpart of an Inline question must itself be a well-formed question. The only
exception is that, when used to define a blank inside an Inline question, any of the above question types may omit the
\qutext{} statement because this is actually defined in the body of the larger question statement.
Example
\begin{question}{Inline}
\qutext{Answer the following questions: \newline \newline
$2+2=$\blank\\
\\
$3+8=$\blank\\
\\
If a cat walks 20~ft in 2~min, how fast is the cat walking? \blank\\
\\
Who discovered the theory of relativity? \blank\\
\\
Who was the first man to walk on the moon? \blank}
\begin{blank}{Formula}
\answer{4}
\end{blank}
\begin{blank}{Formula}
\answer{11}
\end{blank}
\begin{blank}{Numeric}
\answer[ft/min]{10}
\end{blank}
\begin{blank}{List}
\answer{1.0}{Einstein}
\answer{1.0}{Albert Einstein}
\grader{exact} % not necessary, since 'exact' is the default
\end{blank}
\begin{blank}{List}
\display{menu}
\answer{1.0}{Neil Armstrong}
\answer{0.5}{Edwin Aldrin}
\answer{0.0}{Michael Collins}
\end{blank}
\end{question}
See Also
Question Designer Questions in the Question Editor (page 97)
Mathematical Inline Questions (page 336)
314 • 11 Authoring Questions in LaTeX
Question Mode: Multipart
To make a multipart question, declare a question of type Multipart and include other questions in its body.
Multipart structure:
\begin{question}{Multipart}
...
\begin{question}{Numeric}
...
\end{question}
\end{question}
Notes
• Multipart questions can be nested inside other Multipart questions. The conversion tool accepts only four
levels of nesting.
• Multipart questions can contain any question types as parts (except adaptive).
• The parts of a question are numbered using lower-case letters regardless of nesting level. To use different labels,
use the \numbering macro. Its argument must be one of:
alpha - "(a), (b), (c), (d), ..." (the default setting)
Alpha - "(A), (B), (C), (D), ..."
roman - "(i), (ii), (iii), (iv), ..."
Roman - "(I), (II), (III), (IV), ..."
arabic - "(1), (2), (3), (4), ..."
none - no numbering
• By default, each part receives equal weighting when the question is graded. To specify a non-uniform weighting,
use the \weighting macro prior to the \begin{question} for the first part. The \weighting macro
requires one argument, a comma-delimited list of non-negative integers, specifying the relative values assigned
to each part.
Example
\begin{question}{Multipart}
\weighting{1,2} % The value of part (b) is twice that of part (a).
\qutext{Answer the following questions:}
% part (a)
\begin{question}{Formula}
\qutext{Differentiate the function
$\displaystyle f(x)=\frac{x}{1+x^2}$.}
\answer{(1 - x^2)/(1 + x^2)^2}
\end{question}
% part (b)
\begin{question}{Multipart}
% The 2/3 of the points assigned to part (b) are split evenly between
% its subparts because \weighting is not used.
\numbering{roman} % These are subparts (i) and (ii)
% part (i)
\begin{question}{Ntuple}
\qutext{Find the absolute minimum point on the graph of the
function $\displaystyle f(x)=\frac{x}{1+x^2}$.}
\answer{(-1,-1/2)}
\end{question}
% part (ii)
\begin{question}{Ntuple}
\qutext{Find the absolute maximum point on the graph of the
function $\displaystyle f(x)=\frac{x}{1+x^2}$.}
\answer{(1,1/2)}
\end{question}
11.6 Advanced Question Types in LaTeX • 315
\end{question}
\end{question}
See Also:
Multipart Questions (page 219)
11.6 Advanced Question Types in LaTeX
Graph Plotting in LaTeX Questions
Maple Plotting
In Maple T.A. you can use the plotmaple command to assign a Maple plot to a variable name within a question's
algorithm. Then, you can insert the plot in your question by referring to the corresponding variable. For information
on using algorithms in LaTeX question, see Tutorial: Using Algorithms in LaTeX Questions (page 320). For more information on the plotmaple command, see plotmaple(text) (page 284).
Example
\begin{question}{Equation}
\qutext{Determine the equation of the line shown below.\\
\var{plt}}
\code{$m=range(-5,5);
$b=range(1,5);
condition:not(eq($m,$b));
$plt=plotmaple("plot($m*x+$b,x=-2..6,y=-2..6), plotoptions='width=400, height=400'");}
\answer{y=$m*x+$b}
\end{question}
See Also:
Questions with Plots (page 176)
Graph Plotting Applet - \graph and \multigraph Macros
The \graph macro embeds a graph in a question. (You can also embed Maple plots in questions using the Question
Editor.) The graph has its center at the origin, x- and y-axes, and horizontal and vertical gridlines. The axes are labeled
at each gridline.
The macro takes one option and five required arguments, in the following order:
Table 11.3: Arguments and Option for a Graph Plotting Applet
gridlines option
formula
xMin
xMax
yMin
yMax
number of horizontal and vertical gridlines in addition to the axes
(default is 10)
formula of the function in calculator syntax, not TeX
minimum x-value on the x-axis
maximum x-value on the x-axis
minimum y-value on the y-axis
maximum y-value on the y-axis
The \multigraph macro plots two curves on the same axes. This macro takes one option and six required arguments,
in the following order:
Table 11.4: Arguments and Option for a Multigraph
gridlines option
number of horizontal and vertical gridlines in addition to the axes (default
is 10)
316 • 11 Authoring Questions in LaTeX
formula1
formula2
xMin
xMax
yMin
yMax
formula of first function in calculator syntax, not TeX
formula of second function in calculator syntax, not TeX
minimum x-value on the x-axis
maximum x-value on the x-axis
minimum y-value on the y-axis
maximum y-value on the y-axis
Syntax
\graph[gridlines]{formula}{xMin}{xMax}{yMin}{yMax}
\multigraph[gridlines]{formula1}{formula2}{xMin}{xMax}{yMin}{yMax}
Example
\begin{question}{MultiFormula}
\qutext{What are the $x$-intercepts of the graph shown?
% Format: \graph[gridlines]{formula}{xMin}{xMax}{yMin}{yMax}
\graph[12]{(x-1)(x+3)}{-6}{6}{-6}{6}}
% The choice of gridlines and scale here will ensure that the axes are
% labeled at the integers -6, -5, ..., -1, 1, ..., 5, 6.
\answer{1;-3}
\end{question}
See Also:
Questions with Plots (page 176)
Graph Sketching Questions in LaTeX
Question Mode: sketch
The sketch question type displays introductory text accompanied by a set of axes. The student draws a graph on the
axes by clicking points to be used as interpolation nodes.
Use the sketch environment to configure the applet, declaring the ranges of the axes, a sample correct response, and
a list of criteria that the student answer must meet. The \begin{sketch} macro takes one option and four required
arguments, in the following order:
Table 11.5: Arguments and Option for a Sketch
gridlines option
xMin
xMax
yMin
yMax
number of horizontal and vertical gridlines in addition
to the axes (default is 10)
minimum x-value on the x-axis
maximum x-value on the x-axis
minimum y-value on the y-axis
maximum y-value on the y-axis
The following commands must appear in the sketch environment.
• \example{<point-list>} describes a sample correct answer that is displayed if the student gives an
incorrect response. The sketch is given as <point-list>, a space-delimited set of coordinates of the form
x,y. The resulting sketch is a single curve interpolated from these points.
• \check{criterion} sets a criterion that the student's sketch must satisfy. Available criteria are:
11.6 Advanced Question Types in LaTeX • 317
Table 11.6: Basic Sketch Criteria
goes_through(xcoord, ycoord)
increasing
decreasing
concave_up
concave_down
linear
sketched function must pass through the point (xcoord,
ycoord)
sketched function must be increasing
sketched function must be decreasing
sketched function must be concave up
sketched function must be concave down
sketched function must be linear
To restrict a criterion to an interval [a,b], use \check[a,b]{criterion}. This option is ignored for
goes_through.
The criterion can also be a boolean expression; useful statements in this case are:
Table 11.7: Statements for Additional Sketch Criteria
slope_at(xval)
value(xval)
expr1 == expr2
expr1 < expr2
expr1 > expr2
true
false
return the slope of the curve at the x-value xval.
return the y-value for the x-value xval.
return true if expr1 is equal to expr2. Otherwise, it
returns false.
return true if expr1 is less than expr2. Otherwise, it
returns false.
return true if expr1 is greater than expr2. Otherwise,
it returns false.
boolean constant
boolean constant
For example, value(xcoord) == ycoord is equivalent to goes_through(xcoord, ycoord).
More than one \check statement can appear, in which case every criterion must be satisfied.
Syntax
\begin{sketch}[gridlines option]{xMin}{xMax}{yMin}{yMax}
\example{<point-list>}
\check{criterion1}
\check{criterion2}
\check{criterion3}
\end{sketch}
Example 1
\begin{question}{sketch}
\qutext{Sketch the graph of the function $y=x+1$.}
\begin{sketch}[4]{-2}{2}{-2}{2}
\example{-2,-1
1,2}
\check{linear}
\check{goes_through(0,1)}
\end{sketch}
\end{question}
Example 2
This example uses randomized variables.
\begin{question}{sketch}
\code{$a = int(rand(2,6));
$a2 = int($a*$a);
$xmax = int(2*$a);
318 • 11 Authoring Questions in LaTeX
$x = sqrt(2)*$a;}
\qutext{Sketch the graph of the function $y=x^2/\var{a2}$.}
\begin{sketch}[4]{-\var{xmax}}{\var{xmax}}{-4}{4}
\example{-\var{x},2
-\var{a},1
0,0 \var{a},1
\var{x},2}
\check{goes_through(0,0)}
\check{goes_through(-\var{a},1)}
\check{goes_through(\var{a},1)}
\check{slope_at(0) == 0}
\check[-\var{x},0]{decreasing}
\check[0,\var{x}]{increasing}
\check{concave_up}
\end{sketch}
\end{question}
Including Graphic References in LaTeX Questions
Including Graphics Using \image
You can insert an image in a LaTeX question. The \image macro is the recommended method for including graphics
in a question. If the file is available locally as an Encapsulated Postscript (eps or epsf) file, it is included (\image
calls \epsfig to include the graphic).
Important: Do not explicitly call \epsfig. Using \epsfig directly does not ensure that proper Maple T.A. code
results.
To include graphics:
1. Select a location in your Maple T.A. class web site for graphics files. It is recommended that you use a distinct
folder for the images in each question bank. Upload the graphic to a folder on your Maple T.A. class web site. For
information on uploading, see Uploading Images and Reference Files to the Class Web Site (page 92). After uploading graphics files, you can click the icon beside a file to see its full path, which will have the form
http://.../web/<class>/Public_Html/<folder>/...
where <class> is Maple T.A.'s internal identifier for your class, and <folder> is the folder that contains the images.
2. Insert the \setImageBase directive near the top of the LaTeX file to specify the path you determined in step 1.
For example, if your Maple T.A. class identifier is myclass, and your graphics folder is Images, use the directive:
\setImageBase{web/myclass/Public_Html/Images}
3. Include graphics in a question using the \image macro. The format for the \image macro is:
\image[extension]{filename}
The extension argument is optional. It specifies the extension to be appended to the filename (the second argument)
when the question bank is converted to Maple T.A. format. The default value is jpg.
If the filename argument is a filename with an extension, the first argument is ignored. If the filename argument
is a filename without an extension, the .eps extension is used in preview mode, and extension (or the default
.jpg) is used in production processing.
Sample 1
\image{graphic}
Places the file graphic.eps from the current directory in the dvi output in preview mode. In production
processing, it produces an image tag pointing to graphic.jpg in the directory specified by \setImageBase.
11.6 Advanced Question Types in LaTeX • 319
Sample 2
\image[gif]{graphic}
Places the file graphic.eps from the current directory in the dvi output in preview mode. In production
processing, it produces an image tag pointing to graphic.gif in the \setImageBase directory.
Sample 3
\image{graphic.pct}
Does not place the file graphic.pct in the dvi output. In production processing, it produces an image
tag pointing to graphic.pct in the \setImageBase directory.
Notes
• While the \epsfig macro allows various options, for example, width, \image does not support any options.
Encapsulated Postscript files appear at full size in the dvi file.
• The conversion tools do not provide graphic conversion services. You must use third-party tools to produce
web image files.
Example
Note: for this example to work as is, you must first upload a GIF image quad.gif to your Maple T.A. class web site.
You will also need to set the image base for your LaTeX file as described above.
\begin{question}{Numeric}
\qutext{Quadrilateral $ABCD$ is circumscribed about a circle, as shown, with $AB$=\var{a} cm,
and $CD$=\var{b} cm. Find the perimeter of the quadrilateral.
\image{quad.gif}}
\code{$a=range(5,25);
$b=range($a+1,$a+5);
$ans=2*(($a)+($b));}
\answer{$ans}[cm]
\end{question}
Labeling Graphics in LaTeX Questions
Labeled Graphics - labelgraphic Environment
The labelgraphic environment allows you to add text labels to graphics (gif and jpg files).
To add text labels to graphics in your LaTeX question:
1. Select a location in your Maple T.A. class web site for graphics files. It is recommended that you use a distinct
folder for the images in each question bank. Upload the graphic to a folder on your Maple T.A. class web site. For
information on uploading, see Uploading Images and Reference Files to the Class Web Site (page 92). After uploading graphics files, you can click the icon beside a file to see its full path, which will have the form
http://.../web/<class>/Public_Html/<folder>/...
where <class> is Maple T.A.'s internal identifier for your class, and <folder> is the folder that contains the images.
2. Insert the \setImageBase directive near the top of the LaTeX file to specify the path you determined in step 1.
For example, if your Maple T.A. class identifier is myclass, and your graphics folder is Images, use the directive:
320 • 11 Authoring Questions in LaTeX
\setImageBase{web/myclass/Public_Html/Images}
3. To incorporate the image file into a question, use the labelgraphic environment. The \begin{labelgraphic} command takes three arguments:
i. The name of the image file.
ii. The width of the image file in pixels.
iii. The height of the image file in pixels.
To determine the width and height of the graphic, use a third-party graphics application (for example, Microsoft
Paint).
• To label the graphic, use the \grlabel macro. The \grlabel macro takes three arguments:
i. The text of the label.
ii. The x-coordinate of the label, in pixels.
iii. The y-coordinate of the label, in pixels.
• The x- and y-coordinates are measured from the upper left corner of the graphic.
• More than one \grlabel command can be used.
Note: Without any \grlabel commands, the labelgraphic environment only incorporates the image file into a question.
To include a graphic, it is recommended that you use the \image macro. For more information on the image macro, see Including
Graphic References in LaTeX Questions (page 318).
Example
Note: For this example to work as is, you must first upload a 309 x 256 pixel GIF image LabeledGraphic.gif
to your Maple T.A. class web site. You will also need to set the image base for your LaTeX file as described above.
\begin{question}{Multi Formula}
\qutext{Suppose that you throw a rock from the top of a \var{h} m cliff
with a velocity of \var{v} m/s in the three directions shown. Neglecting
aerodynamic drag, use the principle of work and energy to determine the
velocity of the rock as it hits the ground in the upward, horizontal,
and downward angles, respectively.
\begin{labelgraphic}{LabeledGraphic.gif}{309}{256}
\grlabel{$h m}{80}{174}
\grlabel{$angle}{200}{134}
\grlabel{$angle}{200}{97}
\end{labelgraphic}}
\code{$angle=rand(10,50,2);
$h=rand(7,14,2);
$v=rand(8,17,2);
$ansa=sig(3, sqrt(2*9.8*$h + $v^2));
$ansb=$ansa;
$ansc=$ansa;
$tol=lsu(2, $ansa);}
\answer{($ansa ? $tol)*m/s;($ansb ? $tol)*m/s;($ansc ? $tol)*m/s}
\end{question}
11.7 Tutorial: Using Algorithms in LaTeX Questions
Algorithmic Questions
Randomized variables can be incorporated into any question. Rules and recommendations for effective use of randomized
variables are given below, illustrated by related examples.
11.7 Tutorial: Using Algorithms in LaTeX Questions • 321
• The code that creates and manipulates the randomized variables is contained in the \code{} section of the
question. Each variable in the code section is designated with a $ symbol, such as $m, $ans, and $b2. The
first character after the $ symbol must be a letter. Each code statement is of the form
$variable=expression;
Separate multiple variable definitions with a semicolon.
Note: TeX comments (%) cannot appear in the argument to \code. To include comments, use the comment control
sequence.
The usual arithmetic operations and functions can be used in the expression portion of the code statement.
However, unlike most other programming languages, variables cannot be redefined in terms of themselves (for
example, the statement $a=$a+1; is not allowed). For a description of the additional functions that can be
used in the code sections, see Functions within Algorithms (page 276).
• To use the variables in other sections of the question, enclose them in the \var macro. For example, to refer
to the variable $a, use:
\var{a}
In the following examples, a Formula question is designed through a series of refinements.
Example 1
\begin{question}{Formula}
\qutext{Find the solution of the linear equation
$\var{a}x+\var{b}=\var{c}$.}
\answer{(\var{c}-\var{b})/\var{a}}
\code{
$a=rint(12)+1;
$b=rint(12)+1;
$c=rint(12)+1;
}
\end{question}
The above code randomly determines integer coefficients $a, $b, and $c between 1 and 12. The answer is
calculated in the \answer section.
Although the above example does not cause errors, there are several side effects:
• The answer is displayed in the form (7-3)/5 (for example). This provides an indication of the method for
obtaining the answer, which may be inappropriate.
• The above format can return answers of the form (7-7)/5, which is more complicated than the simplified
form, 0.
To avoid these issues, rewrite this example as follows, using a new variable $ans (so that you return only
the final answer).
Example 2
Refinement of Example 1.
\begin{question}{Formula}
\qutext{Find the solution of the linear equation
$\var{a}x+\var{b}=\var{c}$.}
\answer{\var{ans}}
\code{
$a=rint(12)+1;
$b=rint(12)+1;
322 • 11 Authoring Questions in LaTeX
$c=rint(12)+1;
$ans=($c-$b)/$a;
}
\end{question}
There is another problem. The variable $a can equal 1, in which case the equation has the form 1x+5=8. To
avoid this situation, impose the condition that $a be an integer between 2 and 12.
Although $c can be 0 or negative, if $b is 0 or negative the equation is again unsimplified. Generalize the
code to allow $c to be any integer between -12 and 12.
Example 3
\begin{question}{Formula}
\qutext{Find the solution of the linear equation
$\var{a}x+\var{b}=\var{c}$.}
\answer{\var{ans}}
\code{
$a=rint(11)+2;
$b=rint(12)+1;
$c=rint(25)-12;
$ans=($c-$b)/$a;
}
\end{question}
There is another problem. The answer $ans is a (potentially inexact) floating-point number, for example,
.666667, instead of 2/3. To solve the problem, use a string variable to prevent Maple T.A. from performing
a floating-point evaluation.
Example 4
\begin{question}{Formula}
\qutext{Find the solution of the linear equation
$\var{a}x+\var{b}=\var{c}$.}
\answer{\var{ans}}
\code{
$a=rint(11)+2;
$b=rint(12)+1;
$c=rint(25)-12;
$num=$c-$b;
$ans="$num/$a";
}
\end{question}
Note: Writing $ans="($c-$b)/$a"; displays answers of the form (11-6)/3. First, calculate the numerator and
store it as an integer in $num, and then create the fraction with the string "$num/$a".
This last change introduces a new problem. The system displays correct answers of the form 10/5 or 2/4. To
make answers display as simplified fractions, implement one more change.
Example 5
Final refinement of the question.
\begin{question}{Formula}
\qutext{Find the solution of the linear equation
$\var{a}x+\var{b}=\var{c}$.}
\answer{\var{ans}}
\code{
$a=rint(11)+2;
$b=rint(12)+1;
$c=rint(25)-12;
$num=$c-$b;
11.8 Math Question Authoring using LaTeX • 323
$ans=frac($num,$a);
}
\end{question}
The string returned by the frac command is a reduced fraction.
Example 6 - Question with a Plot
\begin{question}{Formula}
\qutext{Enter the expression plotted below. Give only the expression itself, omitting
any "y=" or "f(x)=" from your answer. \newline
\var{plot}.}
\answer{x^2+\var{a}x+\var{b}}
\code{
$a=rint(2, 9);
$b=rint(1, 9);
$plot=plotmaple("plot(x^2+$a*x+$b, x=-10..10)");
}
\end{question}
To add a plot to a question in the question text, feedback, or hints, add an algorithmic variable using the plotmaple command. For more information, see plotmaple(text) (page 284).
Use the following guidelines for algorithms:
• Ensure that all possible values of randomized variables are valid in the question text and the answer, and that
the response will grade correctly.
• Define randomized variables so that you avoid expressions like 1x, 0x, x+-3, or -3/-4. If these values are
required, write the question so that they display properly.
• Write the code so that if the student answers incorrectly, the correct answer appears in a standard form. You
may need to use strings, as shown in examples 4 and 5.
11.8 Math Question Authoring using LaTeX
The LaTeX authoring method is ideal for creating sophisticated math question content. This method supports the following math question types.
• Numeric (Numeric Questions in LaTeX (page 324))
• Dimensioned Formula (Maple Formula (page 335))
• Formula (Formula Questions in LaTeX (page 327))
• MultiFormula (Multi Formula Questions in
LaTeX (page 332))
• Formula mod C (Constants of Integration Questions in
LaTeX (page 328))
• Equation (Equation Questions in LaTeX (page 333))
• Restricted Formula (Restricted Formula Questions in
LaTeX (page 329))
• Matrix (Matrix Questions in LaTeX (page 333))
• Formula List (Formula List Questions in
LaTeX (page 330))
• Maple-graded (Maple-graded Questions in
LaTeX (page 334))
• Ntuple (Coordinates of Points and Vectors Questions in
LaTeX (page 330))
• Inline Math Response Areas (Mathematical Inline
Questions (page 336))
Other Math Question Features
• Graph plotting applet - \graph and \multigraph macros (Graph Plotting in LaTeX Questions (page 315))
• Including graphics - \image macro (Including Graphic References in LaTeX Questions (page 318))
• Labeled graphics - labelgraphic environment (Labeling Graphics in LaTeX Questions (page 319))
324 • 11 Authoring Questions in LaTeX
See Also:
Overview: Authoring Methods for Question Banks (page 79)
Math Question Types Comparison Table (page 161)
Numeric Questions in LaTeX
Question Mode: Numeric
The Numeric question type accepts either a number in decimal or scientific notation, or a number with units for an
answer.
You must specify units as an optional argument to the \answer macro. For example:
\answer[m/s^2]{9.8}
Because it is natural to specify the units after the number, you can use the format:
\answer{9.8}[m/s^2]
Notes:
• In the correct answer, the number must be enclosed in braces "{ }". The units must be enclosed in brackets "[
]".
• If you do not specify units in the correct answer (that is, if you do not specify an argument to \answer), the
system presents the student with a single text field in which to enter a response (without units). If you specify
an argument to \answer, that argument is taken as the correct answer's units. In this case, the system displays
two text fields. A student must enter the numerical part of the response in the first field and the units in the
second field
• You must use recognized units.
• To define a custom list of units in a question bank, use the \TableOfUnits command after beginning a
topic in the LaTeX document (that is, after \begin{topic} and before \begin{question}{...}).
The \TableOfUnits command takes two required arguments, in the following order:
tablename - table name, consisting of lower-case letters (a-z) with no spaces. Use the table name to reference
the table in the document.
units_list - the list of acceptable units. Units are defined with statements defining the units in terms of SI
units or previously defined units. Each statement must end with a semicolon. For example:
cm = 0.01m;
mm = 0.1cm;
The base SI units are:
m (meter)
kg (kilogram)
s (second)
A (amp)
K (kelvin)
11.8 Math Question Authoring using LaTeX • 325
cd (Candela)
• To use a custom list of units in a question, use the \units{tablename} command in the body of the
question, where tablename is the table name (the first argument to \TableOfUnits).
Important: Because the system converts between systems of units using inexact conversion factors, it is recommended that you
accept responses in a margin of error in questions with units.
• The Numeric question type has five distinct types of grading. Descriptions are given below, followed by usage
instructions and examples.
1. Exact value - the student response must match the value given in the \answer field. There is no error tolerance.
If you do not specify any other commands, this behavior is used.
2. Exact value and number of significant digits - the student response must agree with the value given in the \answer
field and contain the specified number of significant digits. Specify the number of significant digits using the
\digits{n} command, where n is the number of significant digits. For example, using \digits{3} with
\answer{2.5}, only 2.50 is graded correct.
3. Absolute tolerance - the student response must agree with the value given in the \answer field to within a specified
tolerance. Specify the absolute tolerance using the \err{error} command, where error is the absolute tolerance.
For example, using \err{0.25} with \answer{2.5}, any response between 2.25 and 2.75 (inclusive) is
graded correct. For example, 2.333333 is correct.
4. Significant digits with tolerance - the student response must agree with the value given in the \answer field to
within a specified tolerance in the nth significant digit. Specify the tolerance using the \err{k} and \digits{n}
commands, where k is the tolerance in the nth significant digit. For example, using \err{2} and \digits{3}
(tolerance of 2 at the third significant digit) with \answer{2.5}, any response among 2.48, 2.49, 2.50,
2.51, and 2.52 (inclusive) is graded correct.
5. Relative tolerance - the student response must agree with the value given in the \answer field to within a specified
percent error. Specify the percent tolerance using the \perc{error} command, where error is the percent.
For example, using \perc{5} with \answer{2.5}, any response between 2.5 * 0.95 and 2.5 * 1.05
(inclusive) is graded correct. For example, 2.388888 is correct.
• Consider the following recommendations when using this question type.
1. In general, allow some tolerance in a student response.
2. Provide a correct answer that is as accurate as possible.
3. If the use of units is not an important part of the question (that is, you are not testing the student's ability to convert
units), do not include units in the \answer field. In this case, instruct the students to enter a purely numeric response
in terms of a unit you specify.
Example 1
\begin{question}{numeric}
\qutext{Compute the exact value of the function $f(x)=3x^4-2x^2-1$
$x=2.1$.}
\answer{48.5243} % exact value grading
\end{question}
at
Example 2
\begin{question}{numeric}
\qutext{Compute the value of $\log_{10}(45)$. Round your answer to 5
significant digits.}
\answer{1.6532} % This question uses exact grading because \digits is not used
% In this case, a more accurate response is graded incorrect.
\end{question}
326 • 11 Authoring Questions in LaTeX
Example 3
\begin{question}{numeric}
\qutext{Compute the value of $\log_{10}(45)$. Your answer must be correct
to at least 5 decimal places.}
\answer{1.653212514}
\err{0.00001} % absolute tolerance
% Any numerical response between 1.653202514 and 1.653222514 is
% graded correct.
\end{question}
Example 4
\begin{question}{numeric}
% This question uses algorithmic variables.
\qutext{Compute the value of $\log_{10}(\var{a})$. Your answer must be
correct to at least 5 decimal places.}
\answer{\var{ans}}
\err{0.00001}
\code{
$a=rand(1,100,4);
$ans=log($a);
}
% The above code chooses a random value a between 1 and 100, to four
% significant figures. The value of log(a) is then calculated.
\end{question}
Example 5
\begin{question}{numeric}
\qutext{A man is on the top of a tower that is 800 feet above ground.
How far can he see?
\newline\newline
Use 3960 miles for the radius of the earth.\newline
Express your answer to an accuracy of at least 6 significant digits.}
\answer{34.64134750325308}[mi]
\err{0.0001} % Note: Using \digits{6} would allow no tolerance, and would
% cause '182906 ft' and '34.6413 mi' to be graded incorrect
% because the values do not match the correct answer.
\end{question}
Example 6
\begin{question}{numeric}
% If the ability to convert units is not an important part of the
% question, do not use units.
\qutext{A cat is on the top of a tower that is 800 feet above ground.
How far (in miles) can it see?
\newline\newline
Use 3960 miles for the radius of the earth.\newline
Express your answer to an accuracy of at least 4 decimal places.\newline
Do NOT include any units in your answer.}
\answer{34.64134750325308}
\err{0.0001}
\end{question}
Example 7
\begin{question}{numeric}
% An algorithmic version of the previous question.
% The height is a multiple of 50 in [400,900].
\code{$height = int(range(400,900,50));
$answer = sqrt((3960 + $height/5280)^2 - 3960^2);}
\qutext{A woman is on the top of a tower that is \var{height}
ground. How far (in miles) can she see?
feet above
11.8 Math Question Authoring using LaTeX • 327
\newline\newline
Use 3960 miles for the radius of the earth.\newline
Express your answer to an accuracy of at least 4 decimal places.\newline
Do NOT include any units in your answer.}
\answer{\var{answer}}
\err{0.0001}
\end{question}
Formula Questions in LaTeX
Question Mode: Formula
The Formula question type is the most general math question type. Answers can be any kind of formula, entered in
calculator syntax, or using the system Symbolic Editor entry mode. Answers can include variables and standard
functions.
Notes
• The \answer field is a calculated field. It must be in calculator syntax, not in TeX. Enter the answer as you
expect the student to enter it (although equivalent answers are graded correct).
• If the answer is a number (that is, does not have any variables), it is recommended that you specify in the
question text whether an exact response or an approximation is required. In the case of an approximation, the
margin of error must be specified in your correct answer. This can be done by:
• Specifying a margin of error using the ? operator
For example, if the answer field were
{2.34 ? 0.01}
any response between 2.33 and 2.35 (inclusive) would be graded correct. In other words, the number
following the ? operator is the margin of error. For more information on tolerances, see Setting a Margin of
Error in Non-numeric Questions (page 244).
Example 1
\begin{question}{Formula}
\qutext{What is the derivative of $x^3+3\cos(x)-1$?}
% Use calculator syntax for the answer, not TeX.
\answer{3x^2-3*sin(x)}
\end{question}
Example 2
\begin{question}{Formula}
\qutext{Compute the exact value of $f'(2)$ if $f(x)=x^3+3\cos(x)-1$.}
\answer{12-3*sin(2)}
% Any numerical approximation is graded incorrect.
\end{question}
Example 3
\begin{question}{Formula}
\qutext{Compute $f'(2)$ if $f(x)=x^3+3\cos(x)-1$. Round your answer to 5 significant digits.}
\answer{9.2721}
% In this case, a more (or less) accurate response is graded incorrect.
\end{question}
Example 4
\begin{question}{Formula}
\qutext{Compute $f'(2)$ if $f(x)=x^3+3\cos(x)-1$. Your answer should be
correct to an accuracy of at least 5 decimal places.}
328 • 11 Authoring Questions in LaTeX
\answer{9.27211 ? 0.00001}
% Any response between 9.27210 and 09.27212 is graded correct.
% The response '12-3*sin(2)' is also acceptable.
\end{question}
Example 5
\begin{question}{Formula}
% This question uses randomized variables.
\qutext{Find the formula for the inverse of the function
$f(x)=\var{a}x+\var{b}$.}
\answer{(x-\var{b})/\var{a}}
\code{
$a=int(rint(9)+2);
$b=int(rint(9)+2);
}
% The above code chooses random integer coefficients a and b between
% 2 and 10.
\end{question}
Constants of Integration Questions in LaTeX
Question Mode: Formula mod C
The Formula Mod C question type is similar to the Formula type. Answers can be any kind of formula, entered in
calculator syntax, but responses are graded as correct if they differ from the given answer by a constant value. Answers
can include variables and standard functions. This question type is designed for indefinite integral questions.
Note:
• The \answer field must be in calculator syntax, not in TeX. Enter the answer as you expect the student to
enter it (although equivalent answers are graded correct). Do not include + C in the answer.
Example 1
\begin{question}{Formula mod C}
\qutext{Calculate $\int 6x^2\, dx$.}
% Use calculator syntax for the answer, not TeX.
\answer{2x^3}
% Note: The response '2x^3+1' is also graded correct.
\end{question}
Example 2
\begin{question}{Formula mod C}
% This question uses randomized variables.
\qutext{Calculate $\int \var{a}x+\var{b}\, dx$.}
\answer{\var{a2}x^2+\var{b}x}
\code{
$a1=int(rint(9)+2);
$t=rint(2);
$a2=int(switch($t,$a1,-$a1));
$a=int(2*$a2);
$b=int(rint(20)+1);
}
% The above code chooses random integer coefficients a and b.
% a is an even integer with absolute value between 4 and 20.
% b is a positive integer between 1 and 20.
\end{question}
11.8 Math Question Authoring using LaTeX • 329
Restricted Formula Questions in LaTeX
Question Mode: Restricted Formula
The Restricted Formula question type is similar to the Formula type, but answers can use only the standard arithmetic
operations (+, -, *, /, and ^) and the sqrt() function. The correct answer and student responses cannot contain
logarithmic and trigonometric functions such as log() and sin(). Answers can include variables.
Notes
• The \answer field must be in calculator syntax, not in TeX. Enter the answer as you expect the student to
enter it (although equivalent answers are graded correct).
• If the answer is a number (that is, does not have any variables), it is recommended that you specify in the
question text whether an exact response or an approximation is required. In the case of an approximation, the
margin of error must be specified in your correct answer. This can be done by:
• Specifying a margin of error using the ? operator
For example, if the answer field were
{2.34
? 0.01}
any response between 2.33 and 2.35 (inclusive) would be graded correct. In other words, the number
following the ? operator is the margin of error. For more information on tolerances, see Setting a Margin of
Error in Non-numeric Questions (page 244).
Example 1
\begin{question}{Restricted Formula}
\qutext{What is the exact value of $\sin(\frac{\pi}{4})$?}
% Use calculator syntax for the answer, not TeX.
\answer{1/sqrt(2)}
% Note: The response 'sin(pi/4)' would be graded correct in
% 'Formula' mode, but not in 'Restricted Formula' mode.
\end{question}
Example 2
\begin{question}{Restricted Formula}
\qutext{Compute the value of $\sin(\frac{\pi}{4})$. Round your answer to 5 significant digits.}
\answer{0.70711}
% In this case, a more accurate response is graded as
% incorrect.
\end{question}
Example 3
\begin{question}{Restricted Formula}
\qutext{Compute the value of $\sin(\frac{\pi}{4})$. Your answer must
be correct to at least 5 decimal places.}
\answer{0.707107 ? 0.00001}
% Any numerical response between 0.707097 and 0.707117 is graded
% correct.
\end{question}
Example 4
\begin{question}{Restricted Formula}
% This question uses randomized variables.
\qutext{What is the exact value of $\sin(\frac{\var{n}\pi}{4})$?}
\answer{\var{s}1/sqrt(2)}
\code{
$m=rint(7);
330 • 11 Authoring Questions in LaTeX
$n=int(2*$m+3);
$s=switch($m,"","-","-","","","-","-");
}
% The above code chooses the random integer coefficient n to be an odd
% integer between 3 and 15. The 'switch' statement selects the correct
% sign for the answer.
\end{question}
Formula List Questions in LaTeX
Question Mode: Formula List
The Formula List question type accepts an ordered list of numbers or formulas separated by commas.
Notes
• This is an ordered list. The entries in the student response (numbers or formulas) must appear in the same order
as in the correct answer.
• This type is graded in the same manner as the Ntuple type.
Example 1
\begin{question}{Formula List}
\qutext{Compute the exact values of $\sin(\pi/3)$, $\cos(\pi/3)$, and
$\tan(\pi/3)$.}
% Separate the entries of the answer with commas.
\answer{sqrt(3)/2,1/2,sqrt(3)}
\end{question}
Example 2
\begin{question}{Formula List}
% This question uses randomized variables.
\qutext{Find the slope $m$ and the vertical intercept $b$ of the line with the equation
$y=\var{m}x+\var{b}$.}
\answer{\var{m},\var{b}}
\code{
$m1=int(rint(9)+2);
$t=rint(2);
$m=int(switch($t,$m1,-$m1));
$b=int(rint(20)+1);
}
% The above code chooses random integer coefficients m and b.
% m is an integer with an absolute value between 2 and 10.
% b is a positive integer between 1 and 20.
\end{question}
See Also:
Coordinates of Points and Vectors Questions in LaTeX (page 330)
Coordinates of Points and Vectors Questions in LaTeX
Question Mode: Ntuple
The Ntuple question type accepts an ordered list of numbers or formulas separated by commas. It is designed for
questions that accept vector or point coordinates as an answer.
Notes
• This is an ordered list. The entries in the student response must appear in the same order as in the correct answer.
11.8 Math Question Authoring using LaTeX • 331
• The correct answer given should have parentheses, for example, (3,5) or (2,1,-3). This is indicated in
the instructions given under the answer box. However, a response without the parentheses is graded correct.
• This question type is graded in the same manner as the Formula List type. The only difference is the instructions
displayed.
Example 1
\begin{question}{Ntuple}
\qutext{Find the intersection of the lines $y=x+1$ and $y=2-x$.}
% Separate the entries of the answer with commas. Parentheses
% should be included.
\answer{(1/2,3/2)}
% Note: The response "1/2,3/2" is graded correct.
\end{question}
Example 2
Note: The 'amsmath' package is needed to use the 'align' environment.
\begin{question}{Ntuple}
% This question uses randomized variables.
\qutext{Find the exact solution of the following system of equations.
\begin{align*}
\var{a}x+\var{b}y&=\var{e}\\
\var{c}x+\var{d}y&=\var{f}
\end{align*}
\newline Your answer should be an ordered pair $(x,y)$.}
\answer{(\var{ans1},\var{ans2})}
\code{
$aa=int(rint(5)+2);
$b=int(rint(5)+2);
$c=int(rint(5)+2);
$d=int(rint(5)+2);
$e=int(rint(5)+2);
$f=int(rint(5)+2);
$det1=int($aa*$d-$b*$c);
$a=int(if($det1,$aa,$aa+1));
$det=int($a*$d-$b*$c);
$x=int($e*$d-$f*$b);
$y=int($a*$f-$c*$e);
$ansx=$x/$det;
$ansy=$y/$det;
$ansxint=int($x/$det);
$ansyint=int($y/$det);
$detabs=int(abs($det));
$xabs=int(abs($x));
$yabs=int(abs($y));
$numx=int(if(int(lt($ansx,0)),-$xabs,$xabs));
$numy=int(if(int(lt($ansy,0)),-$yabs,$yabs));
$ans1=if(int(eq($ansx,$ansxint)),"$ansxint","$numx/$detabs");
$ans2=if(int(eq($ansy,$ansyint)),"$ansyint","$numy/$detabs");
}
% The above code chooses random integer coefficients a, b, c, d, e,
% and f. a is modified if necessary so that the determinant of the
% system is nonzero. The solution is calculated using
% Cramer's Rule. Care is taken to display the answer
% coordinates correctly.
\end{question}
See Also:
Formula List Questions in LaTeX (page 330)
332 • 11 Authoring Questions in LaTeX
Multi Formula Questions in LaTeX
Question Mode: Multi Formula
The Multi Formula question type accepts an unordered list of numbers or formulas separated by semicolons.
Notes
• This is an unordered list. The entries in the student response do not need to appear in the same order as in the
correct answer.
• This type is commonly used for solutions of equations.
• This type can also be used for unordered lists of ntuples (questions requiring coordinates of points or vectors).
• A question that has a single formula answer is graded correct if you use this type. For example, consider the
question of finding all solutions to a given equation that has only one solution, but is of a type that could have
more. It is recommended that you use the Multi Formula type because the Formula type indicates to the student
that there is only one solution.
Example 1
\begin{question}{Multi Formula}
\qutext{Find all roots of the polynomial $x^2+2x-24$.}
% Separate multiple entries of the answer with semicolons.
\answer{-6;4}
% Note: The response '4;-6' is graded correct.
\end{question}
Example 2
Note: The 'amsmath' package is needed to use the 'align' environment.
\begin{question}{Multi Formula}
\qutext{Find all exact solutions of the following system of equations.
\begin{align*}
x^2+y^2-4x&=0\\
x+y&=4
\end{align*}
}
\answer{(2,2);(4,0)}
\end{question}
Example 3
\begin{question}{Multi Formula}
% This question uses randomized variables.
\qutext{Find all roots of the polynomial $x^2+\var{b}x-\var{c}$.}
\answer{\var{p};-\var{q}}
\code{
$p=int(rint(5)+1);
$q=int($p+rint(4)+2);
$b=int($q-$p);
$c=int($p*$q);
}
% The above code chooses random integers p and q, and then calculates
% the coefficients b and c. Note: b and c are both positive and
% b is not equal to 1.
\end{question}
11.8 Math Question Authoring using LaTeX • 333
Equation Questions in LaTeX
Question Mode: Equation
The Equation question type accepts an equation (two formulas separated by an = sign) as an answer.
Notes
• One side of the correct answer must be in the form of only a single variable (for example, y=... or ...=z).
However, the student response does not need to be in this form. Any equivalent equation is graded correct.
• The \answer field must be in calculator syntax, not in TeX.
Example 1
\begin{question}{Equation}
\qutext{Find an equation of the line that passes though the points
$(-3,4)$ and $(6,1)$.}
% One side of the answer given must be a single variable.
\answer{y=-x/3+3}
% Note: The response 'y-1=-(x-6)/3' is also graded correct.
\end{question}
Example 2
\begin{question}{Equation}
% This question uses randomized variables.
\qutext{Find an equation of the line that is parallel to the line
$y=\var{m}x+\var{b}$ and that passes through the point
$(\var{c},\var{d})$.}
\answer{y=\var{m}x\var{sgn}\var{e}}
\code{
$m1=int(rint(19)+2);
$t=rint(2);
$m=int(switch($t,$m1,-$m1));
$b=int(rint(20)+1);
$c=int(rint(21)-10);
$d=int(rint(21)-10);
$e1=int($d-$m*$c);
$sgn=switch(lt($e1,0),"+","-");
$e=int(abs($e1));
}
% The above code chooses random integer coefficients m and b, and a
% random point (c,d). The y-intercept e is calculated. Care is
% taken to display the answer correctly because e may be positive or
% negative.
\end{question}
Matrix Questions in LaTeX
Question Mode: Matrix
The Matrix question type lays out an n by m matrix of text fields, each of which accepts a number or formula. Matrix
questions must be composed in LaTeX.
Notes
• The given correct answer must be presented as a comma-separated list with the first row listed first, then the
second row, etc.
• The required \size macro gives the size of the answer matrix. The format is \size{m}{n}, where m is the
number of rows and n is the number of columns.
334 • 11 Authoring Questions in LaTeX
• Maple Syntax questions can also be used for questions that will have a matrix response, and provide more
flexibility than the Matrix questions in question authoring and grading.
Example 1
\begin{question}{Matrix}
\qutext{Find the transpose of the matrix
$$A=\left[\begin{array}{ccc} 1 & 2 & 3\\ 0 & 1 & -2\end{array}\right]$$}
% Specify the number of rows of the answer, and then the number of columns.
\size{3}{2}
% Use a comma-separated list, starting with the first row:
\answer{1, 0,
2,
1,
3, -2}
% The answer is formatted for readability, but this is not required.
\end{question}
Example 2
\begin{question}{Matrix}
% This question uses randomized variables.
\qutext{Find the transpose of the matrix
$$A=\left[\begin{array}{ccc} \var{a} & \var{b} & \var{c}\\
\var{d} & \var{e} & \var{f}\end{array}\right]$$}
\size{3}{2}
\answer{\var{a}, \var{d},
\var{b}, \var{e},
\var{c}, \var{f}}
\code{
$a=int(rint(19)-9);
$b=int(rint(19)-9);
$c=int(rint(19)-9);
$d=int(rint(19)-9);
$e=int(rint(19)-9);
$f=int(rint(19)-9);
}
% The above code chooses six random integer coefficients a, b, c, d, e,
% and f, between -9 and 9.
\end{question}
Maple-graded Questions in LaTeX
Question Mode: Maple
The Maple question type allows you to create questions that are graded using Maple code. Specify the grading code
in the \maple field. The syntax is \maple{expression}, which by default is translated by the LaTeX-to-Maple
T.A. converter into the Maple boolean command evalb($RESPONSE = expression). You can also include a
different evaluation command (see Custom Grading and Plotting of Responses (page 336)).
For information about grading questions using Maple code, see Maple-graded Question Type - Overview (page 167).
Note: Because student responses are graded by Maple, there is no \answer field.
The Maple question type has two subtypes:
• Maple Formula (page 335)
• Maple Syntax (page 335)
11.8 Math Question Authoring using LaTeX • 335
Maple Formula
Using the Maple Formula subtype (type = formula), you can create formula questions. A student can use calculator syntax, which is converted to Maple syntax before passing the response to Maple for grading. For more information,
see Maple-graded Formula (page 169).
Example 1
\begin{question}{Maple}
\qutext{What is the derivative of $x^2$?}
\type{formula} % to allow the student to enter "2x"
\maple{diff(x^2,x)}
\end{question}
Maple Syntax
Using the Maple Syntax subtype, you can create questions that require a solution entered in Maple syntax. All student
responses must use Maple syntax. For more information, see Maple Syntax (page 170).
Example 2
\begin{question}{Maple}
\qutext{Find the solution to the initial-value
problem $xy'=\sin x$, $y(0)=0$. Give your answer
as the formula for $y(x)$.}
\maple{Si(x)}
% The response "int(sin(t)/t,t=0..x)" is graded correct
\end{question}
Unlike Maple Formula questions, with Maple Syntax questions students cannot toggle between text and symbolic
entry. By default they must use text entry. However, you could require that they use symbolic entry instead by adding
the line
\allowtwodee{2}
to your Maple Syntax question. With matrices, for example, symbolic entry is more natural than having to type in a
matrix command. This is illustrated in the following example. In addition, the \maple*{...} macro is used to
override the default grading logic. For more information, see Custom Grading and Plotting of Responses (page 336).
Example 3
\begin{question}{Maple}
\qutext{Give an example of a singular matrix.}
\maple*{evalb(LinearAlgebra[Determinant]($RESPONSE)=0)}
% This question uses custom grading logic
\allowtwodee{2}
\end{question}
Maple Plotting
In any Maple-graded question, you can allow students to view a plot based on their response, using Maple plot code.
Specify the plotting code by including a \plot macro in the question, outside of \qutext . For answers in two
variables, a three-dimensional plot can be added by including a \plot3d macro. The syntax is \plot{variable}{min}{max} and \plot3d{variable1}{min}{max}{variable2}{min}{max} . For both, you
specify the independent variable(s) along with minimum and maximum values of the plotting range(s). These commands
will be translated into default Maple plotting commands by the LaTeX-to-Maple converter. For example,
\plot{x}{a}{b} gets translated into the Maple command plot($RESPONSE,x=a..b) . You can also include
custom plotting commands. For more information, see Custom Grading and Plotting of Responses (page 336).
336 • 11 Authoring Questions in LaTeX
In any question, including non-mathematical questions, you can include a Maple plot. Specify the Maple plot code
with the plotmaple command.
Example 4
\begin{question}{Maple}
\qutext{The graph of a trigonometric function $f(x)$
is given below.\newline
\var{plotmaple("plot(2*sin(Pi*x + Pi/4), x = -2..2)")}\newline
The graph passes through the point $(1/4,2)$.\\
\\
Give a formula for $f(x)$.}
\maple{2*sin(Pi*x + Pi/4)}
\plot{x}{-2}{2}
\type{formula}
% You would not use \plot for this
% question because it gives away the answer
\end{question}
Custom Grading and Plotting of Responses
The default Maple grading, evalb($RESPONSE = expression), may not be appropriate in every context. You
can use the macro \maple*{Maple grading code} to specify your own custom grading procedure. Analogously,
you can use the macro \plot*{Maple plotting code} to specify your own procedure for producing a plot
based on the student response.
Example 5
\begin{question}{Maple}
\qutext{Find an antiderivative of $\sin(x)$. Click the plot button to plot the {\em derivative}
of your response.}
\type{formula}
\maple*{is(diff($RESPONSE, x)=sin(x))}
% The grading checks to see whether the derivative
% of the student's response is equal to sin(x).
\plot*{plot(diff($RESPONSE,x),x=-Pi..Pi)}
% The plot command will plot the derivative
% of the student's response
\end{question}
Mathematical Fill in the Blanks - [formula] option
This question type has been deprecated. Use the Inline question type instead. See Inline Questions in LaTeX (page 313)
and Mathematical Inline Questions (page 336).
Mathematical Inline Questions
Question Mode: Inline
Inline questions are a flexible and extensible form of question that can include multiple question types, such as the
Numeric, Formula, and Maple types. For an introduction to inline questions in LaTeX, see Inline Questions in
LaTeX (page 313).
Example
\begin{question}{Inline}
\qutext{The derivative of the function $f(x)=\frac{1}{3}x^2$ is $f'(x)=$
\blank. \newline
And $f'(1) \approx$ \blank\ to three decimal places. \newline
An {\em antiderivative} of $f$ is $F(x)=$ \blank.}
\begin{blank}{Formula}
\answer{(2/3) x}
11.8 Math Question Authoring using LaTeX • 337
\end{blank}
\begin{blank}{Numeric}
\answer{0.667}
\err{0.001} % absolute tolerance\
\end{blank}
\begin{blank}{Maple}
\type{formula}
\maple*{evalb(simplify(diff($RESPONSE-x^3/9,x))=0)}
\end{blank}
\end{question}
338 • 11 Authoring Questions in LaTeX
12 Plain Text Script Authoring
12.1 Using Script Files to Author Questions
You can author and edit all question types using the system plain text script file syntax. (To create advanced questions
(Advanced Question Types (page 236)) and other problems that use the system API to produce interactive content, you
cannot use the Question Editor.)
To create or edit script files for a question bank, use:
• A text or HTML editor
• LaTeX. See LaTeX Authoring Overview (page 303)
For some question types, you must use LaTeX.
Note: You can edit the script file for a question (not question bank) in the system Question Editor using the Edit Source
functionality. It is recommended that you use the Question Editor Edit Source functionality only for minor editing.
To edit a question bank that was created in the Question Editor in a text or HTML editor, export the question bank
to your hard drive. You can export any question bank in its plain text script format as a file with a .qu file extension.
After editing the plain text script file, import it and save the question bank into your class web site.
See Also:
Topic Structure within Question Banks (page 146)
Exporting Work to Your Hard Drive (page 144)
Opening a Saved Question Bank File (page 147)
12.2 Library of Example Scripts
This section provides example script files for:
Algorithmically generated figure labels inserted in your static reference figure—Creating Algorithmic Graphic
Labels (page 340)
Algorithmically generated math fomulas—Algorithmic Mathematical Formula Question Example Script (page 340)
Algorithmically generated multiple selection questions—Algorithmic Multiple Selection Question Example
Script (page 340)
Questions with embedded applets—Applet Questions (page 344)
Questions with plots—Authoring Questions with Embedded Plots Example Script (page 352)
Questions with tolerance in answers—Answer Tolerance Example Script (page 341)
Clickable Image questions—Clickable Image Question Example Script (page 344)
Essay questions—Essay Question Example Script (page 345)
Key word or phrase questions—Key Word or Phrase Question Example Script (page 346)
List questions—List Question Example Script (page 347)
Maple Formula questions—Maple-graded Formula Question Example Script (page 348)
Maple Syntax questions—Maple Syntax Question Example Script (page 349)
339
340 • 12 Plain Text Script Authoring
Multipart questions—Multipart Question Example Script (page 350)
Multiple choice questions—Multiple Choice Question Example Script (page 351)
Multiple selection questions—Multiple Selection Question Example Script (page 352)
Numeric questions—Numeric Mathematical Questions Example Script (page 342)
Question Designer questions—Question Designer Question Example using Various Embedded Questions (page 353)
True-or-False questions—True-or-False Question Example Script (page 356)
To use an example script:
1. Save the question definition as a text file with the extension .qu.
2. Import the text file.
Creating Algorithmic Graphic Labels
To author questions with algorithmically generated labels in figures, you must use LaTeX.
See Also:
Labeling Graphics in LaTeX Questions (page 319)
Algorithmic Mathematical Formula Question Example Script
The following example script creates a mathematical Formula question that has algorithmically generated variable
data .
qu.1.topic=Formula Question Example [email protected]
[email protected]
qu.1.1.name=<b>Traditional formula</b>@
[email protected]
qu.1.1.algorithm=
$n=int(rint(20) + 2);
@
qu.1.1.question=
Let <math><mi>y</mi><mo>=</mo><msup><mi>x</mi><mn>$n</mn></msup></math>. What is the derivative
of <math><mi>y</mi></math> with respect to <math><mi>x</mi></math>?
@
qu.1.1.answer=$n x^($n - 1)
@
See Also:
Overview of Algorithmic Question Capabilities (page 274)
Algorithmic Multiple Selection Question Example Script
The following example script creates a Multiple Selection question with algorithmically generated data.
qu.1.topic=Multiple Selection Question Example [email protected]
qu.1.1.mode=Multiple [email protected]
qu.1.1.name=<b>Multiple selection</b>
@
[email protected]
qu.1.1.algorithm=
$a=int(2 * rint(10) + 2);
$b=int(2 * rint(10) + 2);
$c=int(2 * rint(10) + 2);
$d=int(2 * rint(10) + 2);
12.2 Library of Example Scripts • 341
$e=int(2 * rint(10) + 1);
$f=int(2 * rint(10) + 1);
condition: ne($a,$b,$c,$d) ne($e,$f);
@
qu.1.1.question=
Which of these numbers are [email protected]
qu.1.1.answer=1, 2, 3, [email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
See Also:
Overview of Algorithmic Question Capabilities (page 274)
Answer Tolerance Example Script
The following questions define mathematical questions that accept student responses to a specified precision or margin
of error. For more information on precision and margins of error, see Controlling Answer Tolerance (page 243).
Formula Mathematical Questions
For formula question types (including subtypes), you must use the "?" operator to define a margin of error. The "?"
operator functions as a "+/-" operator.
Example 1.1
You can specify an absolute margin of error using the form x ? y, which accepts x +/- y. This question grades
as correct any student response between 0 and 4 (inclusive).
qu.1.topic=Non-numeric Math [email protected]
[email protected]
qu.1.1.name=Absolute margin of [email protected]
[email protected]
qu.1.1.question=Enter a number within 2 units of
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
Note:
• For formula questions, there is a tolerance of 1.0E-9, which represents the floating-point limit in the
system.
Example 1.2
You can specify a percentage margin of error using the form x (1 ? y), where 100y is the percentage tolerance,
which accepts x +/- x*y. This question grades correct any response within 5% of the correct answer.
qu.1.2.question=What is the length of the shadow cast by a 10 foot wall when the sun is 30 degrees
above the [email protected]
qu.1.2.answer=10 / tan(pi/6) foot (1 ? 0.05)@
[email protected]
qu.1.2.mode=Dimensioned [email protected]
qu.1.2.name=Percentage tolerance with [email protected]
342 • 12 Plain Text Script Authoring
qu.1.2.comment=Using the formula 10 / tan(pi/6)
[email protected]
foot, the correct answer is 17.3 [email protected]
Note:
• By using the comment field, you return custom feedback to a student if the response is incorrect.
Example 1.3
You can use a margin of error in questions that use algorithmic variables.
[email protected]
qu.1.3.name=Algorithmic [email protected]
[email protected]
qu.1.3.algorithm=$InitialSize=int(rint(2,10)*1000);
$DoublingTime=rint(5,10);
$NumDays=rint(2,4);
$DeltaTime=int($NumDays*24);
$Exponent=ln(2)/$DoublingTime;
$Size=int($InitialSize*e^($Exponent*$DeltaTime));
@
qu.1.3.question=A bacterial culture is initially of size $InitialSize. If the doubling time is
$DoublingTime hours,
what is the size of the culture after $NumDays [email protected]
qu.1.3.answer=$Size ? [email protected]
[email protected]
For general information on algorithmic variables, see Overview of Algorithmic Question Capabilities (page 274).
Example 1.4
You can use margins of errors with complicated answers. Enclose the answer in parentheses when there is a percentage
margin of error. Otherwise, the percentage error multiplies only the last term in your answer.
[email protected]
qu.1.4.name=Absolute margin of error in [email protected]
qu.1.4.comment=The total area is $AreaSquare + [email protected]
[email protected]
qu.1.4.algorithm=$length=rand(2,15,2);
$diameter=rand(3,10,2);
$AreaSquare=$length*$length;
$AreaCircle=decimal(2,pi*($diameter/2)^2);
@
qu.1.4.question=What is the total area of a square with sides of length $length and a circle
with diameter [email protected]
qu.1.4.answer=($length^2+pi*($diameter/2)^2) (1 ? 0.01)@
[email protected]
Important:
• The exact answer is enclosed in parentheses so that the margin of error applies to both terms in the sum. If the
answer were $length^2+pi*($diameter/2)^2 (1 ? 0.01), the margin of error would be based
on only the second term, pi*($diameter/2)^2, because the assumed multiplication is of higher precedence
than the addition.
Numeric Mathematical Questions
For Numeric question types, you cannot use the "?" operator to define a margin of error. It is recommended that you
use the Question Editor on-screen dialog boxes for setting the margin of error in numeric and numeric-with-unit
questions. However, once familiar with the syntax, you may prefer to use a text or HTML editor.
For more information on setting the precision and margin of error in the Question Editor, see Setting Answer Tolerance
in Numeric Questions (page 90).
12.2 Library of Example Scripts • 343
Example 2.1
To specify that the student response must exactly match the value of your answer, use grading=exact_value.
qu.2.topic=Numeric Math [email protected]
qu.2.1.question=Round 2.76789m to three significant [email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
qu.2.1.name=2.77m (exact)@
[email protected]
Notes:
• This question grades correct the response 2.77m and equal-valued responses with trailing zeros, for example,
2.770m and 2.7700m.
• To specify the answer, assign the numeric component to answer.num and the units to answer.units.
• If you set showUnits=false, the system does not display the Units text field in the question.
Example 2.2
To specify that the student response must exactly match the value of your answer and contain specified number of
significant digits, use grading=exact_sigd and digit=<n>, where <n> is a positive integer that defines the
required number of significant digits.
qu.2.2.question=A person counts 162 cars driving up a street in 1.00 hour.
How many cars drive up the street per minute? Use the correct number of significant digits in
your [email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
qu.2.2.name=2.70 (exactly 3 significant digits)@
[email protected]
Notes:
• This question grades correct the response 2.70, but grades incorrect equal-values responses with a different
number of trailing zeros, for example, 2.7 and 2.700.
• Ensure that <n> is greater than or equal to the number of digits in the correct answer (the value in the answer.num field). Otherwise, all student responses are graded incorrect.
• If the correct answer is dimensionless and you set showUnits=true, the system displays the question with
a Units text field.
Example 2.3
To specify an absolute margin of error, use grading=toler_abs and err=<tolerance>, where <tolerance>
is a floating-point number. This question grades correct any answer within 0.001 of 3.14159.
qu.2.3.question=Estimate pi to at least 3 decimal [email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
344 • 12 Plain Text Script Authoring
[email protected]
qu.2.3.name=Pi (+/- 0.001)@
[email protected]
Example 2.4
To specify a precision and an absolute margin of error as a value in a significant digit, use grading=toler_sigd,
digit=<n>, and err=<tolerance>, where <n> is a positive integer specifying the number of significant digits
required and <tolerance> is a floating-point number specifying the tolerance value in the <n>th digit. This question
grades correct 3.141 and 3.142 because they contain 4 significant digits and are within 0.001 of 3.14159.
All other responses are graded incorrect.
qu.2.4.question=Estimate pi to four significant digits (to within a unit in the fourth significant
digit)[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
qu.2.4.name=Pi (+/- 1 in the 4th significant digit) using four significant [email protected]
[email protected]
Notes:
• The behavior of this question is different from that of Example 2.3, which has only a margin of error, but no
required precision.
• The margin of error is applied with respect to the value in the answer.num field, not the result of rounding
the value in the answer.num field to <n> significant digits. For example, 3.14159 rounded to 4 significant
digits is 3.142. However, 3.143 is graded incorrect because it is not within 0.001 of 3.14159.
Example 2.5
To specify a percentage margin of error, use grading=toler_perc and perc=<percentage>, where <percentage> is the percentage margin of error. This question grades correct any answer within 0.1% of 3.14159.
qu.2.5.question=Estimate pi to within 1%[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
qu.2.5.name=Pi (+/- 0.1%)@
[email protected]
Applet Questions
Your question banks can integrate interactive learning objects in the form of JavaTM applets. For more information,
see Advanced Question Types (page 236).
Clickable Image Question Example Script
The following example script creates a Clickable Image question.
qu.1.topic=Clickable Image Question Example [email protected]
qu.1.1.mode=Clickable [email protected]
qu.1.1.name=Locate [email protected]
[email protected]
12.2 Library of Example Scripts • 345
qu.1.1.question=Click on the <b><i>trachea</i></b> in the diagram below.
<p>@
qu.1.1.imageURL=/questionbanks/physio/[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
qu.1.1.region.1=288,198,278,235,278,270,289,272,290,237,300,[email protected]
qu.1.1.region.2=293,166,302,171,311,178,309,186,306,195,299,202,288,194,
292,188,293,[email protected]
qu.1.1.region.3=305,227,300,238,294,291,296,309,312,327,328,345,332,368,
355,378,371,383,378,355,376,311,367,282,353,256,317,[email protected]
qu.1.1.region.4=256,225,268,232,271,244,267,260,274,277,280,303,274,320,
275,344,268,358,239,376,192,377,189,358,190,331,197,283,205,270,224,[email protected]
See Also:
Clickable Image Questions (page 183)
Essay Question Example Script
The following example script creates an Essay question.
qu.1.topic=Essay Question Example [email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
qu.1.1.question=Contrast <i>kinetic</i> and <i>static</i> [email protected]
See Also:
Essay Questions - Ungraded (page 184)
Fill-in-the-Blank Question Example Script
The blanks question type has been deprecated. Use the Question Designer question type instead. For a sample Question
Designer question, see Question Designer Question Example using Various Embedded Questions (page 353).
Graph Plotting Example Script
The following example script creates an Multi Formula question with a graph.
[email protected]
qu.1.1.question=<p class="noindent">What are the <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" display="inline">
<mi>x</mi>
</math>-intercepts
of the graph shown?
</p>
<applet code="applets.grapher.Graph" width="250" height="250" archive="graphing.jar">
<param name="y1" value="(x-1)(x+3)"/>
<param name="gridLines" value="12"/>
<param name="xMin" value="-6"/>
<param name="xMax" value="6"/>
<param name="yMin" value="-6"/>
<param name="yMax" value="6"/>
</applet>@
qu.1.1.answer=1;[email protected]
[email protected]
See Also:
Graph Plotting in LaTeX Questions (page 315)
346 • 12 Plain Text Script Authoring
Graph Sketching Question Example Script
The following example scripts create Sketch questions.
[email protected]
qu.1.1.question=<p class="noindent">Sketch the graph of the function <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" display="inline">
<mi>y</mi>
<mo>=</mo>
<mi>x</mi>
<mo>+</mo>
<mn>1</mn>
</math>.</p>@
[email protected]
qu.1.1.axes=-2,2,-2,[email protected]
[email protected]
qu.1.1.axes.background=\@ImageBase @
qu.1.1.example=-2,-1 1,[email protected]
qu.1.1.answer=check(( linear($1) ) && ( goes_through($1,0,1) ))@
[email protected]
[email protected]
qu.1.2.algorithm=$a = int(rand(2,6));
$a2 = int($a*$a);
$xmax = int(2*$a);
$x = sqrt(2)*$a;@
qu.1.2.question=<p class="noindent">Sketch the graph of the function <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" display="inline">
<mi>y</mi>
<mo>=</mo>
<msup>
<mrow>
<mi>x</mi>
</mrow>
<mrow>
<mn>2</mn>
</mrow>
</msup>
<mo>&#8725;</mo>
<mn>${a2}</mn>
</math>.</p>@
[email protected]
qu.1.2.axes=-${xmax},${xmax},-4,[email protected]
[email protected]
qu.1.2.axes.background=\@ImageBase @
qu.1.2.example=-${x},2 -${a},1 0,0 ${a},1 ${x},[email protected]
qu.1.2.answer=check(( goes_through($1,0,0) && goes_through($1,-${a},1) &&
goes_through($1,${a},1) ) && ( slope_at($1,0) == 0 ) && ( decreasing(restriction($1,${x},0)) ) && ( increasing(restriction($1,0,${x})) ) && ( concave_up($1) ))@
[email protected]
See Also:
Graph Sketching Questions in LaTeX (page 316)
Key Word or Phrase Question Example Script
There is no Question Editor interface for Key Words (or phrase) questions. To create a key word question, you must
use a text or HTML editor, or LaTeX to produce script files
In Key Words questions, the text of the student response is checked for key words. The system ignores other text,
extra white space, and capitalization in the student response.
12.2 Library of Example Scripts • 347
In the correct answer, identify keywords by enclosing them in parentheses. The complete text of your correct answer
(omitting parentheses) is used as feedback if the student response is incorrect.
The following example script creates a Key Words question.
qu.1.topic=Key Words Question Example [email protected]
qu.1.1.mode=Key [email protected]
qu.1.1.name=<b>Translation into French - four houses</b>@
qu.1.1.question=<b>Translate into French:</b>
<p>"four houses".</p>
@
qu.1.1.answer=
The French phrase for "four houses" is "(quatre) (maisons)"
@
See Also:
Key Word or Phrase Questions (page 189)
Labeling Graphics in Questions Example Script
The following example scripts create an Numeric question with a labeled graph.
[email protected]
qu.1.5.question=<p class="noindent">A ball is thrown upward from the top of a 40 foot high
tower at an initial velocity of 64
feet/second. The graph of the height of the ball versus time is shown below. What is the
maximum
height of the ball in feet? Express your answer to an accuracy of at least 3 significant
figures.
</p>
<applet code="applets.labelImage.LabelImage" width="250" height="200" archive="modules/applets.jar">
<param name="image" value="\@ImageBase ball.gif"/>
<param name="label.1.text" value="time (seconds)"/>
<param name="label.1.x" value="120"/>
<param name="label.1.y" value="10"/>
<param name="label.2.text" value="height (meters)"/>
<param name="label.2.x" value="10"/>
<param name="label.2.y" value="100"/>
<param name="size" value="2"/>
</applet>@
qu.1.5.answer.num=104 ? [email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
List Question Example Script
Example 1: List Question - Textbox Display - Exact Grader Options
Sets a question with a text response cell that uses the exact grader to enforce capitalization and punctuation in the answer.
Specifies three expected responses with credit for each.
qu.1.1.question=
Who first developed the General Theory of Relativity?
@
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
qu.1.1.answer.2=Albert [email protected]
348 • 12 Plain Text Script Authoring
[email protected]
qu.1.1.answer.3=Stephen [email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
Example 2: List Question - Textbox Display - Relaxed Grader Options
Sets a question with a text response cell that uses the relaxed grader to ignore case sensitivity and punctuation in student
responses. Specifies three expected responses with credit for each and a comment for each.
qu.1.2.question=
Who first developed the General Theory of Relativity?
@
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
qu.1.2.comment.1=Yes, but you should specify his first name [email protected]
qu.1.2.answer.2=Albert [email protected]
qu.1.2.comment.2=Exactly [email protected]
[email protected]
qu.1.2.answer.3=Stephen [email protected]
[email protected]
qu.1.2.comment.3=Your answer is partially correct. Hawking helped to extend Albert Einstein's
General Theory of [email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
Example 3: List Question - Menu Display - Exact Grader Options
Sets a question with a menu list response object that uses the exact grader. Specifies credit for each option in the list,
and a comment for each.
qu.1.3.question=
Who first developed the General Theory of Relativity?
@
[email protected]
[email protected]
qu.1.3.answer.1=Sir Isaac [email protected]
[email protected]
qu.1.3.comment.1=No, Sir Isaac Newton formed the theory of Newtonian gravitation that preceded
Albert Einstein's General Theory of [email protected]
qu.1.3.answer.2=Albert [email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
qu.1.3.answer.3=Stephen [email protected]
[email protected]
qu.1.3.comment.3=Your answer is partially correct. Hawking helped to extend Albert Einstein's
General Theory of [email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
See Also:
List Questions (page 189)
Maple-graded Formula Question Example Script
The following example script creates a Maple-graded question using the Formula subtype.
12.2 Library of Example Scripts • 349
qu.1.topic=Maple Formula Question Example [email protected]
qu.1.1.question=What is the derivative of x^2 with respect to [email protected]
qu.1.1.maple=evalb($RESPONSE = diff(x^2,x));@
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
qu.1.1.comment=The correct answer is 2*[email protected]
qu.1.1.name=Derivative - Maple [email protected]
[email protected]
qu.1.2.question=What is the integral of 2*x with respect to [email protected]
qu.1.2.maple=evalb(diff($RESPONSE,x)=2*x);@
[email protected]
[email protected]
qu.1.2.comment=The correct answer is x^[email protected]
qu.1.2.name=Integral - Maple [email protected]
[email protected]
To return feedback to a student if the response is incorrect, you must use the comment field. For more information,
see Using the Comment Field in a Maple Question (page 349).
See Also:
Maple-graded Question Type - Overview (page 167)
Plotting a Student Response (page 247)
Tutorial: Maple-based Algorithmic Question Authoring (page 300)
Using the Comment Field in a Maple Question
The following example script returns feedback to the student including a comment in a Maple formula question.
Note: When a student response is incorrect, Maple question subtypes can return feedback. You must enter Maple code that evaluates
to the correct answer by using the $ANSWER variable. See Maple-graded questions in the Question Editor.
qu.1.topic=Maple Comment Example [email protected]
qu.1.1.question=What is the greatest common divisor of $a and [email protected]
qu.1.1.maple=evalb($RESPONSE - $ANSWER)=0);@
qu.1.1.maple_answer=gcd($a, $b);@
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
qu.1.1.comment=Try [email protected]
[email protected]
qu.1.1.algorithm=$a=int(rand(3, 100)); $b=int(rand(3, 100)); $gcd=maple(gcd($a, $b));@
See Also:
The Algorithm Designer (page 85)
Maple Syntax Question Example Script
The following example script creates a Maple-graded question using the Syntax subtype, and using the text-entry
student response area.
qu.1.topic=Maple Syntax Question Example [email protected]
qu.1.1.question=What is the Maple syntax for the derivative of x^2 with respect to x? Do not
include the trailing [email protected]
qu.1.1.maple=evalb("$RESPONSE" = "diff(x^2,x)") or evalb("$RESPONSE" = "Diff(x^2,x)");@
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
350 • 12 Plain Text Script Authoring
qu.1.1.comment=The correct answer is diff(x^2,x)[email protected]
qu.1.1.name=Derivative - Maple [email protected]
[email protected]
qu.1.2.question=What is the Maple syntax for the integral of 2*x with respect to x? Do not include
the trailing [email protected]
qu.1.2.maple=evalb("$RESPONSE"="int(2*x,x)") or evalb("$RESPONSE"="Int(2*x,x)");@
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
qu.1.2.comment=The correct answer is int(2*x,x)[email protected]
qu.1.2.name=Integral - Maple [email protected]
[email protected]
To return feedback to a student if the response is incorrect, you must use the comment field. For more information,
see Using the Comment Field in a Maple Question (page 349).
See Also:
Maple-graded Questions in the Question Editor (page 103)
Maple-graded Question Type - Overview (page 167)
Plotting a Student Response (page 247)
Multipart Question Example Script
Multipart questions can consist of any combination of questions as parts, including nested multipart questions.
The following example script creates a Multipart question that contains a nested Multipart question.
qu.1.topic=Multipart Question Example [email protected]
[email protected]
qu.1.1.name=<b>Full multipart question featuring nested multipart</b>@
[email protected]
qu.1.1.algorithm=
$n=int(rand(5,15));
$a=int(rand(1,10));
$nminus = int($n - 1);
$nplus = int($n + 1);
$isEven=int(eq($n/2, int($n/2)));
$k=if($isEven, 1, 3);
$type=if($isEven, "even", "odd");
$othertype=if($isEven, "odd", "even");
@
qu.1.1.question=
This question concerns the integral of the function
<math>
<msup>
<mi>x</mi>
<mn>$n</mn>
</msup>
</math>.
@
qu.1.1.weighting=1,1,[email protected]
[email protected]
qu.1.1.part.1.question=
In the first part, use a geometric argument to decide whether
<math>
<msubsup>
<mo>&Integral;</mo>
<mn>-$a</mn>
12.2 Library of Example Scripts • 351
<mn>$a</mn>
</msubsup>
<msup><mi>x</mi><mn>$n</mn></msup>
</math> is:
<mi>dx</mi>
@
[email protected]
[email protected]
qu.1.1.part.1.mode=Multiple [email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
qu.1.1.part.2.part.2.question=
Use the indefinite integral above to compute
<math>
<msubsup>
<mo>&Integral;</mo>
<mn>-$a</mn>
<mn>$a</mn>
</msubsup>
<msup><mi>x</mi><mn>$n</mn></msup> <mi>dx</mi>
</math>
@
qu.1.1.part.2.weighting=1,[email protected]
qu.1.1.part.2.question=
In the second part, check your answer by computing the integral.
@
[email protected]
[email protected]
qu.1.1.part.2.part.1.mode=Formula Mod [email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
qu.1.1.part.2.part.2.answer=($a^$nplus - (-$a)^$nplus) / [email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
qu.1.1.part.2.part.1.question=
Evaluate
<math>
<mo>&Integral;</mo> <msup><mi>x</mi><mn>$n</mn></msup> <mi>dx</mi>
</math>.
@
qu.1.1.part.2.part.1.answer=x^$nplus / [email protected]
qu.1.1.part.3.question=
The geometric argument in the first part was based on the fact that
<math>
<msup>
<mi>x</mi>
<mn>$n</mn>
</msup>
</math> is an <1> function.
@
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
qu.1.1.part.3.mode=Complete [email protected]
See Also:
Multipart Questions (page 219)
Multiple Choice Question Example Script
The following example script creates a Multiple Choice question.
352 • 12 Plain Text Script Authoring
qu.1.topic=Multiple Choice Question Example [email protected]
qu.1.1.mode=Multiple [email protected]
qu.1.1.name=Type of [email protected]
[email protected]
qu.1.1.question=For f(x)=(x-4)(x-1)(x+3), classify the point with x-coordinate 2/3+1/3*37^(1/2)[email protected]
[email protected]
qu.1.1.choice.1=global [email protected]
qu.1.1.choice.2=local [email protected]
qu.1.1.choice.3=inflection [email protected]
qu.1.1.choice.4=local [email protected]
qu.1.1.choice.5=global [email protected]
qu.1.1.choice.6=none of the [email protected]
See Also:
Multiple Choice Questions (page 220)
Multiple Selection Question Example Script
The following example script creates a Multiple Selection question.
qu.1.topic=Multiple Selection Question Example [email protected]
qu.1.1.mode=Multiple [email protected]
qu.1.1.name=Characterization of function at a [email protected]
[email protected]
qu.1.1.question=Classify f(x)=x^3-3x^2+4 at the point with x-coordinate 2.
<p><i>(Choose all that apply)</i></p>@
qu.1.1.answer=2, [email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
qu.1.1.choice.7=concave [email protected]
qu.1.1.choice.8=inflection [email protected]
qu.1.1.choice.9=concave [email protected]
See Also:
Multiple Selection Questions (page 221)
Authoring Questions with Embedded Plots Example Script
To author applet graphing questions, you must use a text or HTML editor, or LaTeX to produce script files. For details
on using LaTeX to generate questions that display graphs, see Graph Plotting in LaTeX Questions (page 315).
You can also embed Maple plots in questions using the Question Editor. For more information, see Questions with
Plots (page 176).
The following example script creates a question that generates graphs using algorithmically driven data.
[email protected]
qu.4.7.name=Algorithmically generated [email protected]
qu.4.7.comment=
The correct answer is
<math>
<msup><mi>x</mi><mn>2</mn></msup>
<mo>-</mo>
<mn>$B</mn> <mi>x</mi>
<mo>-</mo>
<mn>$C</mn>
</math>
@
12.2 Library of Example Scripts • 353
[email protected]
qu.4.7.algorithm=
$a=int(rand(-8,5));
$b=int(rand(-$a+2, 10));
$yMin=5*int((-0.25($b-$a)^2)/5) - 5;
$yMax=-$yMin;
$B=int($a+$b);
$C=int(-$a*$b);
@
qu.4.7.question=
Give a formula for the quadratic equation shown in the graph below:
<p>
<center>
<applet code="applets.grapher.Graph" archive="graphing.jar" width="250"
<param name="xMin" value="-10">
<param name="xMax" value="10">
<param name="yMin" value="$yMin">
<param name="gridLines" value="10">
<param name="yMax" value="$yMax">
<param name="y1" value="(x-$a)(x-$b)">
</applet>
</center>
@
qu.4.7.answer=(x-$a)(x-$b)@
height="250">
Question Designer Question Example using Various Embedded Questions
This is an example of a question designer question containing response objects within the question statement. Note:
The Question Designer question type supersedes the Inline question type.
Description
• Question Designer questions are multipart questions.
• You control question weighting.
• You control formatting of the entire question (including tables).
• Blanks can be inserted inside tables (to create fill-in-the-blanks tables of data).
• Multiple Choice and Multiple Selection Questions are set with response choices displayed horizontally rather
than following the question. This enables you to create survey-style questions.
• Individual response cells are indicated by angle brackets, in the form <#>, where # corresponds to the sequentially
numbered part.
• This question includes individual response objects (embedded questions) as follows.
• Blank 1 - Formula question
• Blank 2 - Numeric question
• Blank 3 - Numeric question with required units
• Blank 4 - List question, text input, relaxed grading, multiple answers, partial credit
• Blank 5 - List question, text input, exact grading, multiple answers, partial credit
• Blank 6 - List question, menu input, exact grading, partial credit
qu.1.topic=Question Designer Question [email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
qu.1.1.weighting=1,1,1,1,1,[email protected]
[email protected]
354 • 12 Plain Text Script Authoring
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
qu.1.1.part.1.answer=$n x^($n2)@
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
qu.1.1.part.3.answer.units=ft/[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
qu.1.1.part.4.answer.3=Stephen [email protected]
qu.1.1.part.4.answer.2=Albert [email protected]
[email protected]
qu.1.1.part.4.mode[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
qu.1.1.part.5.answer.3=Stephen [email protected]
qu.1.1.part.5.answer.2=Albert [email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
qu.1.1.part.6.answer.4=Sir Isaac [email protected]
[email protected]
qu.1.1.part.6.answer.3=Johannes [email protected]
qu.1.1.part.6.answer.2=Stephen [email protected]
qu.1.1.part.6.answer.1=Albert [email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
qu.1.1.algorithm=$n=int(rint(20) + 2);
$n2=$n-1;
@
qu.1.1.question=
<p>This single question demonstrates the power and flexibility of the inline question type.
There are 6 individual response cells included, each of which requires a different type of
student response.</p>
<p><i><font face="arial" size="-1">
<b>Notes:</b>
<br>- Response cells can appear anywhere within the formatted question statement, including
12.2 Library of Example Scripts • 355
within tables.
<br>- Response cells can consist of any individual question mode, including response cells that
handle text (lenient or stringent string matching), numbers, formulas, or any other question
variety.
<br>- Partial credit can be allowed for exact-graded text or menu-style entry
cells.</font></i></p>
<p>Here is a question using a <b>symbolic formula</b> blank:
<br>Let <math><mi>y</mi><mo>=</mo><msup><mi>x</mi><mn>$n</mn></msup></math>. What is the derivative of <math><mi>y</mi></math> with respect to <math><mi>x</mi></math>? <1><br>
<font face="arial" size="-1"><i>Enter only the expression for the derivative, omitting "y'
=".<b>
Try it:</b> The answer is ${mathml("$n x^($n2)")}</i> </font>
</p>
<p>Here is a <b>numeric</b> blank style of question:<br>
3+8=<2><br>
<br><i><font face="arial" size="-1">Numeric questions can specify margin of error and significant
figure precision.</font></i>
</p>
<p>The following numeric blanks question requires a <b>number and a unit dimension</b> in its
response:<br>
If a cat walks 20ft in 2min, how fast is the cat walking? <3>
<br><i><font face="arial" size="-1">Most standard equivalent unit dimensions are graded correctly
by the system, or you can specify your own table of unit equivalents to apply to a question.</p></font></i>
<p>This next question grades input in the form of a <b>text string,</b> and can also be set to
accept multiple correct answers, so "Einstein" <i>or</i> "einstein" will be graded as correct,
as will "Albert Einstein" <i>or</i> "aLbeRt einSTEIN".
<br>
Who first developed the General Theory of Relativity? <4><br>
<br><i><i><font face="arial" size="-1">This question <b>also</b> awards partial credit if you
answer 'Stephen Hawking'. </font></i></i></p>
<p>This is the same question, with the grader set to accept only an <b>exact match</b> of the
answer text string, however it too can be set to accept multiple correct answers, so "Einstein"
<i>or</i> "Albert Einstein" will be graded as correct, but "einstein" or "aLbeRt einSTEIN"
will be graded wrong.
<br>
Who first developed the General Theory of Relativity? <5><br>
<br><i><font face="arial" size="-1">This type of question also allows you to give some partial
credit for certain responses, so if you enter "einstein" or "albert einstein" you will get
1/2 credit for this question.</font></i></p>
<p>In the following question the student picks from a <b>drop-down menu</b> of choices. Partial
credit can be set for some options, full credit for others.<br>
Who first developed the General Theory of Relativity? <6><br>
<font face="arial" size="-1"><i>In this case, you get full credit for 'Albert Einstein' and
1/2 credit for 'Stephen Hawking'.</font></i></p>
@
See Also:
Formula (page 164)
Numeric (page 174)
List Questions (page 189)
Question Designer Questions (page 223)
356 • 12 Plain Text Script Authoring
Short Phrase Question Example Script
The short phrase question type has been deprecated. Use the List question type instead. For an example List question,
see List Question Example Script (page 347).
True-or-False Question Example Script
The following example script creates a True False question.
qu.1.topic=True-or-False Question Example [email protected]
qu.1.1.mode=True [email protected]
qu.1.1.name=Quantum [email protected]
[email protected]
qu.1.1.question=The phenomenon of quantum tunneling has a counterpart in classical [email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
See Also:
True-or-False Questions (page 236)
Appendix A Additional Information
A.1 Copyrights and Trademarks
Copyrights
• Copyright © Maplesoft, a division of Waterloo Maple Inc. 2013.
Trademarks
• Maplesoft, Maple, Waterloo Maple, and Maple T.A. are trademarks of Waterloo Maple Inc.
• Linux is a registered trademark of Linus Torvalds.
• Red Hat is a registered trademark of Red Hat, Inc.
• SUSE is a registered trademark of Novell, Inc.
• Microsoft, Excel, Internet Explorer, Windows, and Windows Vista are registered trademarks of Microsoft
Corporation.
• Macintosh, Mac OS, and Safari are trademarks or registered trademarks of Apple Computer Inc.
• Firefox is a trademark of the Mozilla Foundation.
• Google Chrome is a trademark of Google, Inc.
• Java, all Java-based marks, and Sun are registered trademarks of Oracle and/or its affiliates.
• W3C is a trademark (registered in numerous countries) of the World Wide Web Consortium; marks of W3C
are registered and held by its host institutions MIT, INRIA, and Keio.
• MathType is a trademark of Design Science, Inc.
• MathML, Mathematical Markup Language is a trademark of the World Wide Web Consortium.
• Blackboard, Building Blocks, and the Blackboard Learning System are trademarks/registered trademarks of
Blackboard Inc., in the United States and/or other countries. Usage by permission.
• Moodle is a registered trademark of the Moodle Trust.
• WebCT is a trademark of WebCT, Inc.
All other brand names or product names are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective companies.
A.2 System Requirements
Client Recommended Configuration: Instructors, Students, and Proctors
The following is a list of the minimum system requirements for access to the Maple T.A. system. System performance
may vary based on the speed of your Internet connection. For all computers, it is recommended that you set your screen
resolution to at least 800 x 600 dpi.
• All clients require a Java-enabled browser.
• JavaScriptTM and cookies must be enabled.
• Instructors require Java runtime environmentTM (JRETM) 1.6 or Java runtime environment (JRE) 1.7.
• Students require Java 1.6 or Java 1.7.
Windows (32-bit and 64-bit)
• Platforms: Windows XP®, Windows Vista®, Windows 7, Windows 8
357
358 • Appendix A Additional Information
• Browsers: Firefox® 17.0 ESR, 21.0, Google ChromeTM 27.0, Internet Explorer® 8.0, 9.0, 10.0
Maple T.A. Proctored Browser*
• 1 GHz processor or better
• 2 GB RAM or better
64-bit Macintosh
• Platform: Mac OS X® 10.7 or 10.8
• Browsers: Firefox 17.0 ESR, 21.0, Safari 5.1, 6.0
• 1 GHz processor or better
• 2 GB RAM or better
Linux (32-bit and 64-bit)
• Platforms: SUSE® Linux Enterprise Desktop 11, 12; Red Hat® Enterprise 5, 6; Ubuntu® 12.04 LTS, 12.10
• Browsers: Firefox 17.0 ESR, 21.0, Google Chrome 27.0
• 1 GHz processor or better
• 2 GB RAM or better
Notes
* For Students: Instructors may require that students take a test in the Maple T.A. Proctored Browser. The Proctored
Browser can be installed on Windows only. On Windows XP, the Proctored Browser requires Windows XP SP 3 or
later. The Proctored Browser also requires the Microsoft .NET Framework 4.0 to be installed.
Internet Access
• Broadband (Cable Modem or DSL) Internet connection is recommended for optimal performance.
See Also:
Copyrights and Trademarks (page 357)
Index
Symbols
$ (dollar) Sign, 296
.qu files, 81, 144
.qu files for question banks, 339
2-D plot options, 291
2.9E8, 262
3-D plot options, 293
? operator, 153, 273, 289
A
Absolute Value Function, 262
Accessing the Assignment Editor Screen, 21
Adaptive Assignment Editor
Details, 51
Adaptive Assignments
Add Branches, 50
Adding Questions to Branches, 51
Changing Properties of Branches, 50
Create New, 50
Defining An Exit Strategy, 51
Defining Branch Switching Procedures, 52
Deleting Branches, 51
Deleting Questions from Branches, 51
Details on Using the Adaptive Assignment Editor, 51
Adaptive question
Tutorial, 133
Adaptive Question Designer Questions
Math, 162
Adaptive Questions, 99, 179
Flow, 179
Partial Credit, 181
Adaptive Section
Properties, 99, 179
Add External Assignment, 63
Adding and Deleting Elements in a Course Module, 71
Adding assignment, 24
Adding Questions in Assignment Editor
Add individual questions, 41
Add questions as a group, 41
Advanced button
Assignment Name tab, 40
Set Assignment Policies tab, 48
Text on Results Page field, 40
Advanced Question Types
Applets, 237
Algebraic Symbols, 157
Algorithm authoring, 274, 285
Algorithm Editor, 275
Algorithmic Question Capabilities, 274
Algorithmic Variable Expressions
Defined Inline, 277
Algorithmic variables
Details evaluation, 295
Algorithmically generated, 83, 275
Formula question, 340
Multiple selection question, 340
Variables, 301
Algorithms, 83, 149, 235, 275, 276, 277, 289, 297, 299,
321
Defined in the Algorithm Designer, 85
allow2d, 170
Anonymous practice, 38
Answer Field, 153
evaluation, 295
Answer Region, 228
Answers, 89, 149, 152, 153, 244, 269, 273, 289, 295
Defining correct responses, 241
Different Forms of, 160
Applet, 94, 151
plotting, 315
Applet Questions, 181
Authoring, 344
Applets.grapher.Graph, 352
Arccos, 240, 289
Arcsin, 240, 289
Arctan, 240, 289
Assigning partial credit, 27
Assignment access
Restrict to IP addresses, 48
Restrict to Proctored Browser, 46
Assignment Editor, 27, 28
Choose Name tab, 40
Details, 49
Options, 23
Review & Finish tab, 34
Select Questions tab, 28
Set Policies tab, 31
Assignment Editor Main Menu
Add button, 24
Backup button, 49
Delete button, 24
Move Up Move Down buttons, 26
Print button, 26
Shared content icon, 27
Assignment grades, 55
Assignment name
Choose Name tab, 28
Student Menu, 40
Assignment Options
Feedback, 44
Final grade, 44
Hints during assignment, 44
Send email reports, 44
359
360 • Index
Assignment policies
Proctor override, 46
Assignment properties
Passing score, 45
Questions per page, 45
Time limit, 45
Assignment types, 39
Anonymous practice, 38
Homework or Quiz, 36
Mastery, 39
Proctored exam, 38
Setting, 43
Study session, 40
Assignment visibility, 46
Assignments, 1
Deleting questions, 42
Forced grading, 27, 65
Header, 40
List order, 26
Reviewing Details, 50
set prerequisites, 48
Authoring, 79
Applet Questions, 344
Graphing, 352
Mathematical, 239
multipart, 107
Pathways, 81, 96
Authoring Questions, 79
Using LaTeX, 303
Using Script Files, 339
With Question Designer, 224
Axes
Display in Interactive Plots, 94
B
Backing up questions, 144
Backslash symbol
Displaying, 296
Blanks, 151
Blanks Questions, 162, 188, 310
and Short Phrase Questions, 187
Browser, 79
C
C, 263
Canceling assignment, 50
Case-sensitivity, 188
Changing grades, 57
Checkmark icon, 228
Chemistry, 162
Child classes
Gradebook, 59
Choose Name tab, 24
Advanced button, 40
Assignment name, 28
Class Homepage, 1
Guidelines, 5
Class Name, 9
Class Registration
Locking and unlocking, 10
Class roster
Creating and uploading, 11
File type, 11
Class web site
Flash movie, 94
Images and reference files in questions, 92
Uploading images and references files, 92
Uploading multiple files, 19
Uploading single files, 18
Viewing or deleting files, 19
Working with folders, 19
Clickable Image Questions, 100, 183
Example script, 344
Images for, 92
In LaTeX, 309
Clickable imagemap, 151
Clone Question, 138
Cloned Questions, 145
Coaching, 155
Comma-delimited, 63
commas
in answers, 166
Comment Field, 155
Comment Field for Maple-graded, 85, 103, 167
Comments, 83, 149, 269
Deleting, 88
Condition, 279
Constant of Integration, 160, 163, 328
Content Updates, 13
Controlling Answer Format, 242
Coordinates, 330
Copy
From Maple Worksheet, 103
Copying Assignments, 24
Copying questions, 82
Copyright, 357
Cos, 289
Course Grade
Computation of, 61
Course ID, 9
Course Modules, 67
Creating, 68
Deleting, 72
Exporting, 69
Importing and installing, 70
Relative web references, 73
Viewing Details, 71
Index • 361
Creating
Course Module, 68
multipart, 107
New Class, 7
Pop-Up References, 111
Shared Class, 14
Csc, 289
D
d-Value, 60
Decimal, 161, 271, 279
Decimal places, 295
Define Response Area, 224
Defining
Answer Region, 228
Grading, 230
Response Area, 224
Deg, 263
Deleted Gradebook results, 24
Deleting
Assignment, 24
Course Module, 72
Files using Web Site Editor, 19
Instructors, 15
Proctors, 18
Question, 144
Questions from assignments, 42
Roster from Class, 11
Student record, 75
Description URL, 9
Digits in Maple Questions, 244
Dimensioned Formula, 151, 160, 167
Dimensioned Number, 151
Disable vs Delete assignment, 24
Displaying
$, 296
Answers vs Formulas, 269
Backslash symbol, 296
Plot, 258
drawMaplePlot, 258
Drop-Down List Questions
Example, 119
Drop-down List Questions, 183
Drop-down Menu-based Questions, 310
Duplicating
Questions, 82
E
E
Maple questions, 170
e, 262
Naming variables, 277
Ed.sty, 303
Edit HTML, 226
Edit Question, 138, 140
Edit Response Area, 228
Edit/Insert Response Area button, 97
Editing
assignments, 25
existing questions, 80
Profile, 75
Questions, 82, 89
Source, 89
With the Equation Editor, 248
Editor for Math Expressions, 226
Electromagnetism, 263
Email notification
Passing score, 44
Empty Class, 7
Entering Chemistry Expressions, 245
Equals condition, 280
Equation, 151, 160, 164
Equation Editor, 226
Equation Editor Palette, 249
Equation Editor Requirements and Syntax, 251
Equation Question Types, 239
Equation Questions, 239, 333
Equivalent Answers, 153
Equivalent Units, 167
Creating New Table, 267
Erf, 287
Error
Margin, 244
Essay Question Example Script, 345
Essay Questions, 184, 230, 345
Creating in the Question Editor, 101
Grading, 57
Euler's Constant, 240
Example Script
Library of Example Plain text script files, 355
Maple Formula, 348
Maple Syntax, 349
Excel, 63
Exception to Max Number of Attempts, 46
Exporting
Course Module, 69
Grades, 63
Question Bank File, 138
External Assignment, 63
Extra credit
Gradebook, 61
e^x, 240
F
F, 263
Factorial, 280
362 • Index
Featured Class, 9
Features, xvii
Feedback, 32, 44, 155
Feedback for Maple-graded questions, 167
Feedback Options
Configuring, 155
Field Type, 149
Figure Labels, 340
Fill-in-the-blank, 101, 187, 188, 227
Fill-in-the-Blank Questions, 183, 187
Final grade, 44
Finishing assignments, 49
Flash movie, 94
Flash Questions, 185
Folders, 19
Force grade, 65
Formatting, 226
Formula, 230, 239, 247, 269, 276, 285, 289, 296, 340
Blanks, 162
Chemical equation, 162
Equation, 164
in Question Editor, 106
Multipart, 173
Ordered list, 166
restrict form of response, 165
Restricted, 178
Restricted in LaTeX, 329
that matches responses to within C, 163
Unordered List, 172
Vectors, 178
with unit dimensions, 167
without logs and trig, 178
Formula - Form Variant, 165
Formula List, 151, 166, 330
Formula list Questions, 330
Formula Mod C, 151, 163, 328
Formula Questions, 160, 164, 327
Multipart, 173
FormulaList, 330
frac, 281
Free Response, 101, 187
Functions within Algorithms, 276
G
G, 263
gcd, 281
Getting help, 6
Getting Started, 2
GIF, 92, 100, 299
Gif file
Including in LaTeX Questions, 318
Labeling in LaTeX, 319
Global proctor, 38
Grade reports, 61
Gradebook, 1
Add External Assignment, 63
Assignment grades, 55
Class grades, 59
Deleted results, 24
Item statistics, 60
Overview, 53
Search, 54
Security, 75
snapshots, 61
Student statistics, 56
Graded Free-response, 239
Grades
Changing, 57
Grading
Essay questions, 57
Free Response Text Questions, 188
Math Input, 241
Multiple selection question, 221
Testing, 89
Grading policy
Grade report, 61
Graph Plotting Applet, 177
Graph Plotting in Plain Text, 345
Graph Sketching Question Example Script, 346
Graph-sketching, 316
Graphic Labels, 340
Graphics
Creating pop-ups, 111
Including, 318
Labeling, 319
Graphics Elements, 315
Graphics File
.eps, 318
.gif, 318
.jpg, 318
.pct, 318
Graphing, 176, 316
Graphing Questions
Authoring, 352
Greater than (condition), 281
Greek Letters, 157
Group Questions in the Question Repository, 143
Gt, 281
H
Hide assignment, 24, 46
from view, 24
Hints, 87, 149, 155
Deleting, 88
Hints during assignment, 44
Homework or Quiz, 36
Index • 363
HTML, 157, 226
HTML Formatting, 112
Hz, 263
I
if, 281
Image files, 79
Images, 92, 100, 183, 224, 309, 318
file names, 92
Img src, 92
Importing and Installing Course Module, 70
Indefinite Integrals, 163
indexof, 281
Info Field, 87, 154
Information, 87
Inherit Content From, 9
Inherited Questions, 145
Inline Display of Formatted Math Expressions, 253
Inline Questions in LaTeX, 313
Mathematical, 336
Inline Variable Expressions, 277
Insert Algorithm, 235
Insert/Edit Adaptive Section, 99, 179
Insert/Edit Response Area, 228
Inserting
MathML, 226
Instructor
Adding, 15
Changing your password, 75
Deleting, 15
Login, 3
Managing, 14
Name, 9
Overview, 14
Password security, 75
Instructor Help, xvii
Advanced, 79
Integer part, 279
Integers
Formatting, 271
Random, 286
Integration, 151, 160, 163
Integration Questions
Constants, 328
Internal Directive, 149
Internet Access, 357
Inverse Cosine, 262
Inverse Sine, 262
Inverse Tangent, 262
IP Address
assignment property, 48
Item statistics, 60
J
J, 263
java, 282
Java applet, 237
JPEG, 92
K
Kelvin, 263
Key Word, 189, 346
KHz, 263
KiloHertz, 263
KiloJoules, 263
KiloWatts, 263
KJ, 263
KW, 263
L
Labelgraphic, 319
Labeling
Graphics, 319
Labeling Graphics in Questions Example Script, 347
LaTeX, 80, 172, 187, 303, 352
Maple Questions, 334
Mathematical Inline Questions, 336
question fields, 304
Question Structure, 304
Question types, 313
Question Using Algorithms, 321
LaTeX Authoring Overview, 303
LaTeX Question Bank Document Structure, 303
LaTeX Style Sheet Tips, 305
LDAP, 77
Add user, 77
Import, 78
Least significant unit, 243, 282
Linux, 357
List, 189
List Question
Example, 119
List Question Example Script, 347
List Questions, 230
List-based variables, 289, 296, 299
Lm, 263
Ln, 289
Load, 147
Local proctor, 38
Lockdown
Access during assignment, 46
Locked assignment icon, 27
Locking class registration, 10
Logical Operators, 289
Login, 1
Instructor, 3
364 • Index
Using university logins, 77
Lsu, 243, 282
Lux, 263
Lx, 263
M
Macintosh, 357
Managing Instructors, 14
Managing Proctors, 17
Maple, 247, 258, 261, 284
Maple Questions, 167, 230
$RESPONSE variable, 103
Boolean value, 103
Digits, 244
e, 169, 170, 277
Feedback in Basic Question, 349
in the Question Editor, 103
LaTeX, 334
Custom plotting, 336
Plotting of responses, 335
Linking to a Maple Repository, 94
Maple Formula Example Script, 348
Maple Syntax, 170
Maple Syntax Example Script, 349
Maple-graded Formula Questions, 169
Partial Credit, 103
Preventing Cheating, 245
Unevaluated forms, 170
Using a Maple Repository, 94
Maple Repository, 94
Maple Syntax, 170
Preventing Cheating, 245
Maple Syntax Questions
Editing, 128
Maple T.A.
Using in the classroom, 6
maple(text), 282
Maple-graded questions
editing, 122
plotting field, 123
Margin of error, 90, 241, 243, 244, 273
Margin of tolerance, 90, 243, 244, 273
Mastery assignments, 39
Edit mastery policies link, 43
Setting policies, 43
Study Session and Mastery, 38
Matching, 218, 308
in Question Editor, 104
Math App
in Question Editor, 105
Math App Questions, 217
Math capabilities, 241
Math Expressions, 226
Authoring, 255
From the Equation Editor, 251
Using MathML, 257
Math Functions, 262
Math grading, 227
Math Input
Grading, 241
Math Question Types, 177
Comparison Table, 161
Math Questions
Overview, 160
Math Syntax
Basic, 240
Math Syntax in Questions, 240
Mathematical Formula Free Response, 227
Mathematical Formula Questions, 106, 340
Mathematical Functions, 289
Mathematical Questions
Authoring, 239
Mathematics Question Types, 239
Mathematics Questions, 239
Answers, 295
MathML, 149, 157, 257, 324, 327
Authoring, 254
support, 80
Mathml, 226
mathml(f), 283
MathType, 254
Matrices
Create Maple question using palette, 128
Matrix, 151, 160, 172
Matrix palette, 128
Matrix Questions, 333
max, 283
Merging
questions into question groups, 42
Metadata, 149, 154
MiKTeX, 305
Min, 263
min, 283
Misc, 263
Mol, 263
Move Up Move Down, 26
Movie clips, 79
Multi Formula Questions, 160, 172, 332
Multipart, 151, 164, 173, 220
authoring, 107
Multipart Questions, 107, 219, 220, 313, 350
Editing, 137
Multiple Choice, 151, 227
Multiple Choice Question Example Script, 351
Multiple Choice Questions, 108, 220, 230, 306
Examples, 113
Multiple Selection, 151, 227
Index • 365
Multiple Selection Question Example Script, 352
Multiple Selection Questions, 109, 221, 307, 340, 352
My Profile, 75
N
Name, 149, 153
Natural Logarithm, 262
New Class
Create, 7
New Question
Create, 82
Nm, 263
Non Permuting Multiple Choice, 306
Non Permuting Multiple Selection, 307
Non-Permuting Answers
Multiple Choice, 220, 233
Multiple Selection, 221
NOT Celsius, 263
not equal to (condition), 284
Not equals condition, 280
not(a), 284
Ns, 263
Nth item, 289
Nth place
least significant unit, 282
Ntuple, 151, 161, 178, 330, 332
Number, 151, 160, 174, 239, 244, 277
Number following, 324
Numbers
Random, 285
Numbers within Questions, 295
Numeric, 151, 174
in Question Editor, 109
Numeric Free Response, 227
Numeric Question Types, 239
Numeric Questions, 230, 239, 273, 324
Example, 120
in Question Editor, 109
numfmt, 284
O
Online Authoring, 96
Online Help, 6
Open Response Text-based Questions, 311
Operations, 289
Order
Assignment list, 26
Ordered, 151
Ordered List, 161
Formulas, 166
Overview, xvii, 1
Course Modules, 67
P
p-Biserial, 60
p-Value, 60
Palette Questions, 222
in Question Editor, 110
Palettes, 226
Partial credit, 27
Maple-graded questions, 104
Multipart Questions, 137, 220
Tutorial Multipart Questions, 137
Partial Credit
Adaptive Questions, 181
Partial marks, 27
Pascals, 263
Password, 75
Forgotten, 77
Penalties
in Mastery assignments, 43
Performance data, 63
Performance Feedback, 155
Permuting Answers
Multiple Choice, 220, 233
Multiple Selection, 221
Phrase questions, 189, 346
Physical Unit Equivalents
Table, 263
Physics/engineering, 243
Plain Number, 151, 174
Plain text question bank files, 81, 339
Planning
Your Question Bank Project, 81
Platforms, 79
plotmaple, 261, 284
Plotting, 176, 261, 284
2-D options, 291
3-D options, 293
applet, 315
Displaying a Plot, 258
Student Response, 247
PNG, 92
Points column, 42
Pop-up HTML reference, 111
Precision, 90, 243
Previewing
Assignments, 26
Questions for selection, 42
Questions in assignments, 26, 42
Printing assignments, 26
Proctor
Adding, 16
Deleting, 18
Managing, 17
Overview, 17
366 • Index
Proctor authorization
Override assignment policies, 46
Proctored Browser
For taking assignments, 46
Proctored exams
Proctor types, 38
Profile
Edit, 75
Properties, 227
Public Questions, 145
Q
Qu.x.topic, 146
Qu.x.y.algorithm, 276
Qu.x.y.answer, 269
Qu.x.y.comment, 269
Qu.x.y.mode, 151, 164, 172
Qu.x.y.name, 153
Qu.x.y.solution, 156
QuesitonEditor
Tutorials, 137
Question
Adding, 82
Deleting, 144
Duplicating, 82
Essay, 227, 230
Formula, 227, 230
List, 227, 230
Maple, 227, 230
Multiple Choice, 227, 230
Numeric, 227, 230
Permanently Deleting, 144
Previewing, 144
Question authoring, 101
Question Bank File
Exporting, 138
Opening, 147
Question Bank File Format
Plain text script files, 81, 339
Question Bank Files, 79
Question Banks, 1, 80, 81, 144, 152, 157
Authoring, 79
Open, 147
Question Chaining Variables, 290
Question Descriptions, 153
Question Designer, 224
Example with List Questions, 353
Question Designer Questions, 235
Adaptive, 99
In the Question Editor, 97
Edit/Insert Response Area button, 97
Math, 176
Question Editor, 80, 96, 111
Essay, 101
Pop-Ups, 111
True-or-False, 111
Question Elements
Required, 152
Question Fields, 149
Question Modes, 151, 159
Mathematical, 160, 161
Redefining, 89
Question parts, 220
Sequencing Parts, 220
Question Repository, 143
Clean up, 144
Question Statement, 152
Question Types, 101, 151, 159, 227, 333
Equation, 164
Fill-in-the-Blanks, 183, 187
Free Response, 187
in the Question Editor, 111
Key Word, 189
List, 189
Maple-graded, 167
Math, 177
Matrix, 172
Multipart, 219
Short Phrase, 236
Question weighting, 42, 137
Questions, 289
save to hard drive, 144
Sharing, 145
Questions menu, 79
Questions with Images, 111
Questions with Interactive Plots, 94
R
r-Biserial, 60
Rad, 263
Random Integer, 277, 321
Random Integer Generation, 286
Random number generation, 277, 285
Random variables
Tutorial, 115, 121, 125, 126
Randomized Formula, 151, 352
Range, 285
rank, 286
Reals, 271
Redefining
Question Types, 89
Reference Files, 92
Reference Sources, 92
Register students
in a class, 10
using class rosters, 11
Index • 367
using the User manager, 12
Registration
Locked, 9
Registration code, 14
Release, xvii
Reports, 1
d-Value, 60
Exporting, 63
File types, 63
p-Value, 60
Resequence questions, 220
Resequence topics, 220
Response Area Properties, 230
Response Areas, 224
Response-specific, 108, 149, 155, 220
Hints, 155
Restricted Formula, 151, 178
Restricted Formula Questions, 329
Review & Finish tab, 34
Canceling assignment, 50
Finishing and Saving assignments, 49
Reviewing assignment details, 50
Reviewing
Assignment details, 50
Rint, 277, 285, 286
Roster, 11
Roster add
External assignment, 63
Rules, 188, 247
Mastery assignments, 39
Naming variables, 277
S
S, 263
Save
back up questions to hard drive, 144
Saved Question Bank File
Opening, 147
Saving assignments, 49
Saving shared assignments, 25
Saving table from Gradebook, 63
Scenario-based variables, 299
Scheduling assignments, 46
School Name, 9
Scientific notation, 160, 174, 239, 240, 324
Scramble questions, 42
Script Files, 79, 355
Script files
Authoring, 339
Search for Questions, 138
Security
Proctors, 75
Student account management, 75
Select Questions tab, 41
Add Branches to Adaptive Assignments, 50
Add questions as group, 41
Add questions to assignments, 41
Adding Questions to Branches, 51
Changing Properties of Branches, 50
Defining An Exit Strategy, 51
Defining Branch Switching Procedures, 52
Deleting Branches from Adaptive Assignments, 51
Deleting Questions from Branches, 51
Merging questions into question groups, 42
Points column, 42
Scramble questions, 42
Select Test Bank, 41
Self-registration, 10
semicolons
in answers, 172
Send email reports, 44
Sequence of listed assignments, 26
Sequencing Parts, 220
Set Policies tab, 31
Advanced button, 48
Assignment options, 44
Feedback options, 45
Scheduling assignments, 46
Set assignment type, 43
SetImageBase, 318
Setting Answer Format in Numeric Questions, 89
Share Question, 138
Shared assignments
Saving, 25
Shared content icon, 27
Shared class, 13
Behavior, 13
Content Updates, 13
Create, 7
Creating, 14
Shared content icon, 13, 27
Sharing questions, 145
Short Answer Questions, 236, 356
Short Phrase, 151, 236, 356
Sig, 271, 295
Sigma, 226
Significant Digits, 244, 282
Controlling, 243
Significant figures, 279
Simplified Math Expressions, 257
Solution, 88, 149
Deleting, 88
Solution field, 156
Special Characters, 157
Sqrt, 240, 289
Square Root, 262
Statistical Operations, 287
368 • Index
strcat, 288
Student
Changing grades, 57
Deleting student record, 75
Student Menu
Assignment name, 40
Student Responses
Grading, 245
Plotting, 247
Student result
Adding comments, 57
Study Session Assignments, 40, 155, 156
Study Session and Mastery, 38
Success rate, 60
Sum, 288
Support, 6
Switch, 289, 299
Symbol mode
in student response, 170, 242, 245
System, 1
System Homepage, 4
System Requirements, 357
System Time-outs During Authoring Sessions, 82
T
Tab-delimited, 63
Table
Assignment types overview, 35
Physical Unit Equivalents, 263
Telsa, 263
Test Bank, 147
Test Bank in Assignment Editor, 28
Add questions as a group to assignments, 41
Adding individual questions to assignments, 41
Previewing questions for selection, 42
Testbank.qu, 144
Testing
Grading, 89
Text Formatting within Questions, 112
Text mode
in student response, 170, 242, 245
Text strings within variable statements, 296
Time-outs During Authoring Sessions, 82
Tips
Formatting, 226
Tolerance, 90, 149, 174, 243, 244, 273, 282, 341
Topic, 149, 152, 157
Open, 148
Topic Structure within Question Banks, 146
Trademark, 357
Trigonometric Functions, 262
restricting entry, 329
True-or-False Questions, 151, 236
Creating, 111
LaTeX, 305
Script file example, 356
Tutorial, 137
Adaptive question, 133
Algorithmic question, 115, 121, 125, 126, 297
Basic Gradebook Searches, 54
Formatting integers, 271
List question, 119
List-based variables, 299
Maple-based algorithmic variables, 301
Maple-graded questions, 122
Margin of tolerance, 273
Matrix questions, 128
Multipart questions, 137
Multiple choice questions, 113
Numeric question, 120
Providing answers, 269
Using math expressions in a question, 117
Using the Assignment Editor, 26
Types Comparison Table, 160
U
Unevaluated forms, 170, 262
Ungraded Essay Questions, 184
Unicode HTML, 157
Units, 160, 167, 174, 239, 243, 244
Equivalents, 263
Unlocking class registration, 10
Unordered List, 151, 161
Formulas, 172
Uploading
multiple files, 19, 92
Saved Question Bank File, 147
single files, 18, 92
URL
Class Homepage, 5
Use HTML, 226
User Manager
LDAP, 77
Register students, 10, 12
User Roles, 1
Username, 77
Using /epsfig, 318
Using Algorithms, 321
Using Formula Syntax, 247
Using Hints, 155
Using Images
File naming rules, 92
Using Information Fields, 154
Using Script Files
Author Questions, 339
Using Scripts, 346
Index • 369
Create Multipart Questions, 350
Create Multiple Choice Questions, 351
Create Multiple Selection Questions, 352
Create Short Answer Questions, 356
Feedback in Maple Question, 349
V
Variable, 161, 240, 274, 276, 285, 289
Display, 295
Names, 277
Names with braces, 269
Variable Data, 275
Algorithmic, 340
In Algorithmic Questions, 274
Tutorial Algorithmic Questions, 297
With range, 285
Variable group, 299
Variables
Conditions, 280
e, 277
In LaTeX, 321
In Questions, 285
List-based, 296
Lists of variables, 289
Setting conditions, 279
Within variable statements, 296
Vectors, 151, 160
Formulas, 178
Vectors Questions, 330
Versioning
Scramble questions, 42
View Question Detail, 140
Viewing Details of a Course Module, 71
Viewing files, 19
Visible
assignment property, 46
W
Wb, 263
Web files, 79
Web References in Course Modules, 73
Weber, 263
Weighting
Question, 42
What's New, xvii
Windows, 357
Worked Solution, 88
WYSIWYG, 226
Y
Your Question Bank Project
Planning, 81
370 • Index
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