Experiment -WM h GpQ000 PQCC4 1ng
XTree For Windows Debuts
THE
January 1993 $2.95
(Canada $3.95)
MICROCONTROLLERS
&
PRACTICAL MAGAZINE FOR PERSONAL COMPUTERS
RefcMN Quhc
Experiment -WM h GpQ000 PQCC4 1ng
A PC-Sound
H
[email protected]
Shells C a n Mal< e' YewC om)uC
o
end
¡
01
BASIC -52 Options For 8051
Microcontrollers
o
74820 08559
SBC
Digital Thermometer With Binary Display
a
LIMITED TIME SPECIALS!
Buy with confidence from HCC!
ORDER TODAY!
eNT/
i
Items stamped with this seal are compatible
elk\1r with X-10 Powerhouse, Leviton Decora Electronic Controls. Radio Shack Plug-n'Power, Sears
Home Control, Stanley Lightmaker, GE Homeminder,
and most powerline carrier remote control systems.
HOME
C1TR1
Plug-in
Intelligent Controller Integrates X-10
and Infrared Technology!
Schlage.HCC-
`
HCC-3001 HomeBase
X-10 Development Kit
Remotely control your homefrom any computeranywhere
inthewotd! Dea!erilnstallers,changeyourclienrsschedule
or debug their system from your office! Allows you to offer
a service contract with your home automation package!
$99 Value! Yours FREE
Dec. 15th!
if your order HomeBase by
Use with PC to Infrared Interface
I/O Interface
Professional Quality 4T
Designer Components e"
Wall Switch Use to control fluorescent or incandescent lighting, appliances, motors, etc. Rated 20A. Neutral required. HCC-8001 White;
HCC-8000 Ivory
Ceiling Fan / Low Voltage Dimming Switch Module Dims low
voltage ligh ing & controls motor speed (e.g. ceiling fans) using X10 DIM/BRIGHT! Rated 500W
incandescent, 500VAinductive. HCC-8041 White;
HCC-8040 IvoryI
ONLY $399° EA.
-10 Keychain & Baser,+x4't
r0'
New! 2 -button keychain remote can be"
set to unit codes 1&2 or 5&6. Plug-in base's
transceiver receives 16 unit codes from any X-
transmitter (incl.
10
554 below) HCCC
65000NLY$2,95
Mobile Control {
\
\
ON LY$1 CrF.
Base Transceiver
_'- `-
house -code; receives unit numbers 1-8 or 9-16.
BUILT-IN APPLIANCE MODULE!
Also features a built-in appliance module preset
to unit number 1 (may be used as Al, B1, etc).
This appliance module contains X 10's future 2 way technology... It an answers "status query"
command from
TW523!
(see X-10
Development Kit this pg) Off-white. By Stanley.
HCC-
9$99XO,20NLY$16OFF
1
(volume, channel, etc), stereo, VCR, and more!
Add whole -house IR repeater such as X-10's
Powermid. Use with Covox Voice Master Key
(HCC-VMK1 $169) for voice control of your
entertainment system! Combine with X-10
Development Kit (above right) to allow any X-10
controller to control your infrared devices! Use
with voice mail system for remote control of IR
from any telephone. Possibilities are limitless!
HCC-RF1
RF Link set includes transmitter,
receiver, documentation. ONLY $3929!
HCC-RFX Extra transmitter ONLY $19m!
`CC-PA12V 12VDC 500mA plug-in adaptor $49,J
r'(Jnderstanding & Installing Home Systems:
How to Automate Your Home"by David Gaddis
(below) to
Home Automation Book
New Edition, expanded and
improved! Electronic House
F
i
HornoSYsem
magazine says "...really
works. ...Gaddis has done a
great job..." Also reviews in
Interface,.;
Popular Science, Radio Electronics, and Circuit Cellar INK.
Excellent! Topics include
Security, Lights, Appliances,
Entertainment, Communications, Energy Man
agement, Heat & Air, Pools & Spas, Home
Theatre, and more! 150 pa es and over 125
illecom
ONL`Req.'29J
!
Home Automation Video'
Lights, camera, automation!
See home
automation in action. Learn about equipment,
systems, what's available, how to install,
professoinal troubleshooting techniques, never
before seen tips and
$2,95
secrets and lots more.
version)ONLY$599
ONLY
Brand New! One -For-All
121
Lets You Control X10 and Infrared from one remote!
Requires One -For -All remote control (see right).
Remote has special port which connects to your
PC's serial port (using our cable and hardware
interface). Use the SendlR program to transmit
infrared signalss by"pushing buttons" on the
remote control. For example type the dos
command SendIR TV MUTE to mute the tv; or
SendlR VCR REC to start your VCR recording!
Call SendlR from DOS batch files, your existing
software program, or develop a program from
scratch using sample source code.
Universal Electronics has just unleashed their
newest model remote control, the One -For -All
12. Billed as the most powerful universal remote
in the world, the One -For -All 12 replaces 12 of
your existing remotes for TVs, VCRs, Cable
Boxes, CDs, Audio Products, Satellite Receivers
and more! It can even control X10 modules!
The One -For -All 12 has a 32K memory which
contains the world's largest library of infrared
codes! In fact, the manufacturer is so confident
that your component's infrared codes are
contained in the One -For -All 12's memory that
they're offering a DOUBLE YOUR MONEY BACK
GUARANTEE! (call HCC Customer Service or
Universal Electronics for further details)
Complete with cable and hardware interface,
development software, sample C -language
source code, technical info/data and
documentation. Requires One -For-All remote
control and IBM PC or compatible computer with
serial port. HCC-PCIR ONLY $69!
Check out these great features: Provides any device with a Sleep Timer
function * Simple set-up " One Button System Control
Perfect replacement for lost or broken
remotes Toll-Free Consumer
Help Line Upgradable (by
manufacturer, no charge!) to
match the latest advance- r
ments in IR remote control
technology... won't become
obsolete!
PowerFlash Interface"
s\ó
01
Plug-in module is activated by a 6-24V low
voyage input or a dry contact switch. Output mode
can be set to several types; use to tum on any X10 module, tum on all lights for an entire house code, or send ALL LIGHTS FLASHING (will also
activate PowerHom Siren, HCC-508. $29.95).
Wire to output of your existing home security
system to flash your X10 lights. Use with external
switch (e.g. doorbell switch, motion detector, etc)
to activate an X-10 chime (HCC-CH1 $19.95) or
beeper (HCC-506 $19.95). Your interface between X10 and the outside world. By Schlage.
$1
J
Built-in macros mean you can turn on a number of
IR devices with the touch of one button! Complex
-800 -CONTROL
t
1
White box connects to PC's serial port; 'Ç
once programmed PC may be shut off or used
for other purposes. Schedule up to 256 devices
(pm&& Mac versions), 72 devices on Apple Ile/
Ilc, Commodore. Battery backup. Console,
cable,
HCC-290P (IBM
Great for development of your own infrared
home control system! Allows your PC to "push
buttons" on remote control! Combine PC based
home automation with infrared control of your TV
TOLL -FREE ORDER LINE (ORDERS ONLY)
. pUCvER
8 to 24 VDC or 12 to 18 VAC.
Two outputs (channels and 2) can each switch
up to 300 mA E 18 VDC maximum to ground.
Directly activate relays, drive bulbs, more.
',
illustrations.ecomen
10 Computer
1-619-693-8887
i
Requires power supply of
Requires IBM PC or compatible computer with
parallel port. Includes TW523 module, adapter,
interface cable, development software, demo pro`ram & technical info/data. HCC-523K ONLY $69j4
INFO, PRICING & CUSTOMER SERVICE
Mastercard
Pq
develop a system which combines home
automation and IR control; any X-10 controller
can control infrared! With addition of Voice
Master Key, voice control of the home becomes
possible. Use X -10's Sundownerto give dusk/
dawn input to your system. Add voice PC voice
mail card for remote call -in control of X-10!
r PC to Infrared Interface
ON LY
Board level
receiver measures
approx 3" square!
*1229
home automation system! Monitor status of
home's lights & appliances and make intelligent
decisions based on their on/off status. Develop
a home control system with IF -THEN logic,
even 1 -button macros! Add Stanley motion
detectors to give system input of room presence.
Development software is interrupt based (does
not use polling!) and includes compiled library
routines and sample C -language source code.
FREE REMOTE COMMUNICATIONS
UPGRADE KIT
The I/O Interface integrates HomeBase
(above) with security systems, moisture
sensors, temperature input, motion detectors,
motors, virtually anything that X-10 can't!
Opto -isolated inputs, relay outputs. Available
1st Quarter 1993. HCC-3008
RECEIVER:
Use to develop your own PC -based "smart"
ONLY $299
Infrared Interface
1
Lithium batteries. Up to 100' range.
ONLY
r24. HCC 2475.
CC -2476 3-Way Switch Set (pair) ONLY
even X-10 modules (with addition of HCC-284
Powerflash Module)!
Set security code on
transmitter and receiver, apply power to receiver
board, and you're ready for wireless control!
transmitter is approx. half the
height of a matchbox!
Transmitter has two buttons
corresponding to channels and 2. Includes two
Controls incandescent lights up to 500
Watt max. Ivory color button. Only 830
modules reserved for this promo, so
ordeLimit
Manufactured by Linear, this low cost RF link is
ideal for wireless control of your own projects,
your home and car alarm, car doodocks, and
TRANSMITTER: Tiny keychain
%Replaces existing wall switch.
Security Mode: Have your front porchlight
come on at "approximately" the time you
specify... gives the house a real lived-in look
No language to learn
Add complete Infrared capability with addition
of IR Interface (see below)
Expansion port for future add-on products
Requires IBM PC or compatible w/Serial Port
The Infrared Interface integrates HomeBase with
your home's infrared -controlled devices! Allows
HomeBase to control IR functions such as TV
volume & channel, CD player track & song select,
stereo system speakers on/off, VCR play or record
& much more! Avail. December 1992. HCC-3005
Here's a great chance to expand
your X10 or Stanley wireless remote
control system to an entire housecode
or several house -codes. Set to any
ON LY $690
Lee Wall Switch Module
"Suprisingly easy to use yet extremelypowerful"
-Robert B. Dunham, Consultant to McDonnell
Douglas and Pacific Bell
HomeBase's expansion port allows easy integration with add-on
products to expand and enhance your home automation system!
°j-
Keychain control of anything!,
controls
gle
Intelligent Home Control System
At last, a user interface that's really EASY to use!
Monitors your powedine and allows IF -THEN
control. Complete 2 -way X-10 system!
Uses PC to set your home's schedule...
once programmed your PC may be powered
down or used for other things
User-friendly windows -like interface
' Can even be used with a mouse
Real-time clock/calendar keeps track of sunrise/
Battery backup
sunset
Mega-Controller allows on-line control...
It's an on -screen X-10 controller and a
status display of your home
* Advanced Scheduling features: IF -THEN -ELSE,
AND/OR, Macros, Timers, Counters, Flags, etc.
Super Sequence Feature: A series of X-10
commands within a settable time window can
trigger an event. For example, pressing Al, A2,
Al within 2 seconds can dim the lights
Log Feature: Your schedule can log (with time/
date) any event you specify
he
module
"Emergency HouseLighter Lamp ,,4t:/D^
Module."
Introducing HomeBase, the most
J powerful mid -end (under $10,000)home
automation system on the market!
ierwee
\Stn/ey8-button hand-held remote
done in sleek 1990's styling. Transmits
RF signal up to 100' to plug-in base
transceiver (below). Offwhite color. HCC-2554
lamp
incandescent lights up to 350 Watt max.
Off-white color. Module is labeled
QQ.Trg
'e
CONCEPTS
Lamp Module Mania!
New! HomeBase
t
LOWEST PRICES GUARANTEED!
DOUBLE MANUFACTURER'S WARRANTY
TECHNICAL SUPPORTSECOND TONONE
IMMEDIATE SHIPPING
audio or video systems can be powered up with the
touch of a single key! Saves time & convenience!
X10 Compatible! Combine with the HCC-3000
One-For -All Command Center for control of your
home entertainment devices AND X10 devices!
Just aim the remote at the HCC-3000 for instant
control
of your
home's lights and
appliances!
1í'a11
Switch
Applwncc Muduk
Apphancc Module
Attention PC hackers! The One-ForC4AII 12 is even PC compatible with the
àddition of the HCC-PCIR PC to Infrared Interface! (see description
upper left)
One -For -All 12 Universal
emote Control HCC-RC5
ONLY $79.95!
One -For -All Infrared Command Center HCC3000 ONLY $29.95!
WHOLESALE PRICES. IMMEDIATE SHIPPING.
TERMS: Most in -stock orders ship within 24 hours. Tax applies to Cali!. orders for non -resale. Shipping &
Handling charge will be added to order. COD orders add S6.50 to shipping charge. Our standard shipping
method in the Continental U.S. is by UPS ground service. Additional charge for UPS second day air, UPS Next
Day Air, Federal Express or Airbome Express. Alaska and Hawaii orders are shipped by air service.
International orders must be paid in U.S. funds by money order, cashiers check or credit card. Returned
merchandise subject to 15°ë restocking fee: before returning call tor required RMA number. Certain
merchandise (lest equipment. software. books, etc) may not be returned for credit.' Defective prodcuts will be
repaired or replaced at our option. Double manufacturer's warranty on most items.' We will match or beat any
competi*..
+.snsible for typographical errors. Limited time specials. Quantities may be limited.
'Phone
Department between 8 a.m. and 5 p.m. Pacific Time for complete details.
;I) INFORMATION CARD
LNICOHN
ELECTRONICS
10010 Canoga Ave., Unit B-8
Chatsworth, CA
91311
LASER DIODES
OUTPUT
WAVE-
STOCK #
MFG.
LS9220
LS9200
LS9201
LS9211
LS9215
LS3200
LS022
SB1053
TOSHIBA
TOSHIBA
TOSHIBA
TOSHIBA
TOSHIBA
NEC
SHARP
PHILLIPS
LENGTH
660nm
670nm
670nm
670nm
670nm
670nm
780nm
820nm
OPER.
OPER.
CURR.
POWER
mW
3 mW
5 mW
5 mW
10 mW
3 mW
5 mW
10 mW
VOLT.
2.5 V
mA
mA
mA
mA
mA
mA
mA
mA
85
85
80
50
45
85
65
90
3
2.3 V
2.4
2.3
2.4
2.2
V
V
V
V
1.75 V
2.2 V
24
-
-
AND MUCH MORE!!
YOUR I.C. SOURCE
SINCE 1983
NO SHIPPING CHARGES ON PRE -PAID ORDERS!*
NO CREDIT CARD SURCHARGE!
SCHOOL P.O.'s WELCOME!
PROTOBOARD DESIGN STATION
25-99
Variable DC output
-5 - to -15 VDC @ 0.5 amp, ripple -
100+
129.99 123.49 111.14
49.99
47.99
43.19
51.29
59.99
56.99
69.99
66.49
59.84
109.99 104.49
94.04
56.99
51.29
59.99
18.99
17.09
19.99
10.99
10.44
9.40
5 mV
Frequency generator
frequency range: 0.1 Hz to 100 KHz in 6
ranges
output voltage: 0 to ± 10V (20 Vp-p)
output impedance: 600
(except TTL)
output current: 10mA max., short circuit
protected
output waveforms: sine, square, triange,
TTL
3°/e (10 Hz to 100
sine wave: distortion
WAO II PROGRAMMABLE ROBOTIC KIT
KHz)
The pen mechanism included with the robot allows it
to draw. In addition to drawing
straight lines, it can also accurately draw circles, and even
draw out words and short
phrases. WAO II comes with
128 x 4 bits RAM and 2K ROM,
and is programmed directly via
the keypad attached to it. With
its built-in connector port, WAO
is ready to communicate with
I
l
your computer. With the
optional interface kit, you can
connect WAO II to an Apple II,
Ile, or Il+computer. Editing and
transfering of any movement
program, as well as saving and
loading a grogram can be
performed by the interface kit.
The kit includes software,
cable, card, and instructions.
The programming language is
)
i
BASIC.
Power Source - 3 AA batteries (not included)
STOCK
#
MV961
79.99
39.99
WAO ll Programmable Robotic Kit
Interface Kit For Apple ll. IIE, Il+
WIIAP
10-24
1-9
DESCRIPTION
The Panavise PV505 1/4 ton
manual IDC bench assembly
press is a rugged, practical installation tool designed for low
volume, mass termination of
various IDC connectors on flat
ribbon cable.
Assembly base & standard
platen included
Base plate & platen may be
rotated 90° for maximum
versatility
Base plates & cutting accessories are quickly changed
without any tools required
Additional accessories below
e
8.75" D
x
9"H
Weight - 5.5 lbs.
STOCK
DESCRIPTION
1-9
10-24
25+
Panavise Bench Assembly Press
149.99
142.49
128.24
e
PV505
68.39
34.19
a
LSLENS
DESCRIPTION
t-9
10-24
250
24.99
23.74
21.37
quality
STOCK
Breadboarding area
2520 uncommitted tie points
Dimensions
11.5" long x 16" wide x 6.5" high
Input
wire AC line input (117
typical)
Weight
3
1-9
10-24
25+
299.99
284.99
256.49
LASER DIODE MODULE
The LDM 135 integrated assembly consisting of a laser
diode. collimating optics and
drive electronics within a single
compact housing. Produces a
bright red dot at 660-685 em. It is
supplied complete with leads for
connection to a DC power supply
from 3 to 5.25 V.
Though pre-set to produce a
collimator pen contain-
parallel beam. the focal length
can readily be adjusted to focus
the beam to a spot.
Sturdy. small and self-contained. the LDM135 is a precision
device designed fora wide range
of applications. 0.64" diem. x 2"
long
1-9
10-24
25+
STOCK k
49.99
47 49
42 74
LDM135-.5
LOM135-1
LDM135-2
LDM135-3
New slimline laser
6:"
pointers only'
DESCRIPTION
.5 mW Laser Diode Module
i mW Laser Diode Module
2 mW Laser Diode Module
3 mW Laser Diode Module
long and weighs
in diameter x
under 2 oz.. 670 nm @ less than
DESCRIPTION
1-9
Dual Mode Laser Pointer
199 99
10-24
2570.99
ROBOTIC ARM KIT
Robots were once confined to science
fiction movies. Today, whether they're
performing dangerous tasks or putting
together complex products, robotics
are finding their way into more and
more industries. The Robotic Arm Kit
is an educational kit that teaches
basic robotic arm fundamentals as well
as testing your own motor skills
Command it to perform simple tasks.
H
STOCK
PRICE
$19.99
--
YO1
#
PRICE
$43.99
25+
153.89
162.44
170.99
179.54
(our choice). Perfect for hobbyists
for home protects. Because of the
variety we purchase. we cannot
guarantee specific outputs will be
available at time of order. All units
are new, tested. and guaranteed
to function at manufacturers
specifications.
1
r
10-24
170.99
180.49
189.99
199.49
New. tested 632nm He -Ne laser
tubes ranging from .5mW to 3mW
warranty.
LP35
1-9
179.99
189.99
199.99
209.99
He -Ne TUBES
1
mW produces a 6 mm beam. 2
switches. one for continuous mode.
and one for pulse mode (red dot
flashes rapidly). 2 AAA batteries
year
provide 8- hours of use.
STOL.K
V, 60 Hz
lbs.
diffraction limited.
Infra -Red Collimator Pen
S81052
+5v @ 3.75A
+12v @ 1.5A
-12v @ .4A
Size: 7" L x 5'=" W x 2
t
is
DESCRIPTION
e
Input 115/230V
STOCK #
PS1003
,
The housing is circular and precision manufactured measuring 11.0
mm in diameter and 27.0 mm long. Data sheet included.
As with all special buy items, quantity is limited to stock on hand
POWER SUPPLY
Output
,
0.25 W, 8
7
DUAL MODE LASER POINTER
Collimating Lens Assembly
1
ing a MOVPE grown gain GaAIAs laser.
This collimator pen delivers a maximum
CW output power of 2.5 mW at 820 nm.
The operating voltage of 2.2-2.5v @
90-150mA is designed for lower power
applications such as data retrieval.
telemetry. alignment, etc.
The non -hermetic stainless steel case
is specifically designed for easy alignment in an optical read or write system.
and consists of a lens and a laser diode.
The lens system collimates the diverging laser light .18 mrad. The wavefront
This economical collimating
lens assembly consists of a
black anodized aluminum
barrel that acts as a heat sink,
and a glass lens with a focal
point of 7.5 mm. Designed to fit
standard 9mm laser diodes.
this assembly will fit all the
above laser diodes. Simply
STOCK
1
DESCRIPTION
Protoboard Design Station
PB503
A low power
COLLIMATING LENS
place diode in the lens assembly. adjust beam to desired
focus, then set with adhesive.
i
mV
STOCK #
COLLIMATING PEN
IDC BENCH ASSEMBLY PRESS
Size - 10" W
5
25+
75.99
37.99
25ns
TTL pulse: rise and fall time
drive 20 TTL loads
Square wave: rise and fall time 1.5 s
Logic indicators
8 LED's, active high, 1.4 volt (nominal)
threshold, inputs protected to d:20 volts
Debounced pushbuttons (pulsars)
2 push-button operated, open -collector
output pulsers, each with 1 normally open, 1 normally -closed output. Each
output can sink up to 250 mA
Potentiometers
- K
1 10K
all leads available
and uncommitted
BNC connectors
2 BNC connectors pin available and
uncommitted shell connected to ground
Speaker
The total design workstation - including
expanded instrumentation, breadboard
and power supply.
Ideal for analog, digital and microprocessor circuits
8 logic probe circuits
Function generator with continuously
variable size, square, triangle wave
forms, plus TTL pulses
Triple power supply offers fixed 5 VDC
supply plus 2 variable outputs - +5 - 15
VDC and -5-15 VDC
8 TTL compatible LED indicators, switches
Pulsers
Potentiometers
Audio experimentation speaker
Multiple features in one complete test
instrument saves hundreds of dollars
needed for individual units
Unlimited lifetime guarantee on breadboard sockets
Fixed DC output
5 mV
+5 VDC @ 1.0 amp, ripple Variable DC output
- to +15 VDC @ 0.5 amp, ripple -
STOCK #
DESCRIPTION
1-9
10-24
25°
LT1001
He -He Laser Tube
69.99
66.49
59.84
AVOIDER ROBOT KIT
An intelligent robot that knows how
to avoid hitting walls. This robot
emits an infra -red beam which
detects an obstacle in front and then
automatically turns left and continues on
--
STOCK
MV912
#
PRICE
$43.99
(818) 341-8833 mal
INTERNATIONAL ORDERS
(800) 824-3432
ORDER LINE
(818) 341-8833
TECHNICAL SUPPORT
FAX ORDERS
(818) 998-7975
OPEN MON-FRI 9:00 AM - 6:00 PM, SAT 10:00 AM - 3:00 PM PDT
UPS BLUE, RED & FEDERAL EXPRESS SHIPPING AVAILABLE
CALL FOR FREE CATALOG (FOR 1ST CLASS DELIVERY OR
CALL FOR QUANTITY DISCOUNTS
CA RESIDENTS ADD 8'/.°7° SALES TAX
WE CARRY A COMPLETE LINE OF ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS
SEND $2.00)
CATALOGS DELIVERED OUTSIDE THE U.S.
NO SHIPPING CHARGES ON PRE -PAID ORDERS DELIVERED IN THE CONTINENTAL U.S.
15.00 MINIMUM ORDER
-
CIRCLE NO.
140 ON FREE
INFORMATION CARD
Volume 2, No. l
January 1993
.
All -TIMERS 04
aAll-MAOOEH 00`-_'
=
j
BA11ON22OTR
1
32
tti
14.4E
86
to help you get work done more
UPGRADING &
ENHANCING
By SF Sparrow
Game Potpourri.
By Raymond H. Green
Let an old computer you no longer
use control your home
environment.
SPECIAL REPORT
32 The World of PC Sound
By Tom Benford
How to add meaningful audio to a
personal computer and evaluations
of more than a dozen external and
internal sound devices to spark up
your applications, multimedia
setups and presentations.
58 CYDAT Goes Parallel
By Nick Goss
Using the CYDAT DataCollector/Controller to
experiment with parallel
processing.
DEPARTMENTS
6 Editorial
By Art Salsberg
Multimedia.
8 What's Happening!
Latest PC News.
9 What's New!
By Peter R. O'Dell
A roundup of new computer
and electronic products.
COLUMNS
APPLICATIONS
24 BASIC -52 Options for
86 Computer Games
efficiently.
16 Recycling Old Computers
8051
Microcontrollers
By Jan Axelson
Options available to BASIC -52
users and a circuit that places
BASIC -52 interpreter in
nonvolatile memory to permit use
of a low-cost 8032 chip.
46 SBC Applications, Conclusion
By Tom Fox
Using input capture to turn the
MAG -11 SBC into an accurate
digital thermometer with binary
display.
54 The Shell Game
By Hardin Brothers
Shells can make your computer a
lot friendlier and much more likely
4
DOWN
/ COMPUTERCRAFT / January 1993
68 Ted Needleman
89 Advertiser's Index
Making Your Point With Style.
72 Joseph Desposito
New Kind of PROM, Software for
NEC Microcontrollers, Switchable
SCSI Terminator and Comparator
with Digital Threshold Control.
74 The World On -Line
By Stan Veit
On -Line Population; Getting the
Fax; Closing the GUI Gap; Pre Loaded CompuServe; Beware the
Tax on Modems!; Setting Up Your
Own BBS.
76 GUI Guts
By Yacco
XTree for Windows Debuts.
ON
THE
COVER:
Sound is
rapidly moving to the forefront as the next
step in fleshing out the PC platform for
multimedia operation and adding sound to
presentations, applications, educational
software and entertainment. Pictured is a
Covox, Inc. internal sound board.
Cover Photo Courtesy of Covox, Inc.
ComputerCraft on MCI Mail
You can contact ComputerCraft on MCI
Mail directly or through an on-line
service, such as CompuServe. Any
questions, article proposals, comments,
etc. are welcome on this electronic mail
box (MCI ID No. 456-3433).
Say You Saw It In ComputerCraft
THE
PARTS
PLACE
TECHLINE
TM
NEW! Autoranging
LCD
Digital Multimeter
Convenient autoranging and auto polarity at a low price. Select the
function-meter does the rest.
Diode -check mode. Measures to
1000VDC, 750VAC, 200mA DC
current, 20 megohms resistance.
Fuse protected, UL 1244 listed.
#22-166
36.99
Tools-The new standard in strength and precision!
Precision -crafted with top-quality materials
Designed for long life and ease of use
Backed by Radio Shack's 1 -Year Limited Warranty
New TECHLINE tools represent Radio Shack's uncompromising dedication to quality. Each is precision -crafted of
long-lasting, hard-working materials and employs the latest design innovations for comfort and ease of use. And,
each is backed by our full 1 -year limited warranty.
Speedy service and low prices on thousands of parts and accessories!
FREE delivery to Radio Shack on orders $5 and up
Semiconductors and ICs Hard -to -find batteries
CB and scanner crystals Long -life vacuum tubes
Phono cartridges/styli SAMS( service books
Why pay more for mail-order? Your Radio Shack stocks 1000 electronic
components, and another 15,000 are available fast from our special -order
warehouse. Ordering is easy! Bring in the exact part number (or old part).
We'll check availability and order by phone. Delivery time to your nearby
Radio Shack for most items is a week.
TECHLINE Rechargeable Soldering Gun. Great for autos, boats and
campers-solder up to 250 joints
on one charge. Trigger -activated
light. UL listed AC charger, case.
39.95
#64-2194
TECHLINE
18 -Piece
Hex Key Set. Ideal for
engine and machinery
work. Heavy-duty steel
alloy. Standard sizes.
#64-1616
4 99
Prices apply
al participating
stores and dealers
Player AC -to -DC Voltage
Adapter. Saves batteries! Connect
to your portable CD player's DC jack
and plug into wall outlet to play from
120VAC. 3VDC regulated output. UL
CD
listed. #273-1659
Transmitter Project
Project Holder. Alli-
Case. For beeper or remote. 9V battery compartment. Molded 7/8 x
gator -type clamps adjust to hold work in any
position. Solid cast-iron
base prevents tipping.
#64-2093
8 49
IR
23/8 x 41/4"
#270-294
enclosure.
4 49
16.95
AC Voltage Sensor. Detects broken
connections, blown fuses, defective
grounds, open breakers, more. Indicates presence of AC voltages from
70 to 440VAC. Replaceable battery.
11.99
#22-103
DC Voltmeter. Measure
vehicle or power -supply
voltage. Jeweled movement. Mounts in 17/s" diameter round hole.
#270-1754
7 95
Infrared Sensor Card.
Detects normally invisible infrared to confirm
output from remotes, IR
LEDs or lasers.
#276-099
Ihack
Radio
AMERICA'S TECHNOLOGY STORE'
SINCE 1921
CIRCLE NO.
150
ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
5.95
Editorial
EDITORIAL STAFF
Art Salsberg
Editor -in -Chief
Multimedia
Alexander W. Burawa
Managing Editor
Dorothy Kehrwieder
Production Manager
Emily Kreutz
Multimedia, which integrates text, graphics, animation and audio CD, continues to
advance on the personal-computing scene.
To do justice to it all, you need a bare
minimum of a 386SX machine. Combined
with other peripherals, such as a CD-ROM
player, makes for a rather costly system.
But for those who can afford it, multimedia makes for the possibility of tapping
great resources for information, education
and entertainment.
The latest move in the
multimedia direction has
been made by Sony's introduction of its new Mul-
Production
and possibly a more -powerful microprocessor as well.
The PIX-100 uses a V-20 CPU running
at 9.55 MHz, with ROM-DOS 3.22 and
1M of RAM. It incorporates a 4/2" -diagonal monochrome LCD back lit screen
that can display seven shades of gray with
320 x 200-pixel graphics or 25 lines x 40
characters. It has a 26 -key QWERTY keyboard, Yes and No keys, a numeric keypad
Elizabeth Ryan
Art Director
Barbara Terzo
Assistant Art Director
Susan Reale
Artist
Edmond Pesonen
Electronic Composition Manager
Pat Le Blanc
Florence V. Martin
Phototypographer
Hal Keith
Illustrator
Bruce Morgan
Photographer
Jan Axelson, Tom Benford, Hardin Brothers,
Joe Desposito, Nick Goss, Ted Needleman,
Peter R. O'Dell, SF Sparrow, Stan Veit,
Wayne Yacco
Contributing Editors
timedia CD-ROM Player.
The portable (7 "W x
2"H x 6 "L and weighing
2 pounds) Model PIX-100
combines a CD-ROM
BUSINESS STAFF
Richard A. Ross
drive that supports the
CD-ROM XA standard, a
PC -compatible microprocessor, an LCD display
panel, a speaker, a keyboard and a cursor pad.
It's got an audio jack for
stereo speakers or headphones, a video -output
port for color TV and a
serial port for outputting
to a printer, uploading information to a PC or connecting to a modem.
A bevy of software
makers have announced
support discs for the Sony
Publisher
Art Salsberg
Associate Publisher
Dorothy Kehrwieder
General Manager
Frank V. Fuzia
Controller
Catherine Ross
Circulation Director
Melissa Kehrwieder
Data Processing Manager
Carol Licata
Data Processing
Denise Pyne
Customer Service
ADVERTISING SALES
player, including IBM
with five $49.95 titles. Interestingly, it's
reported that Northern Telecom, a leading
suppler of digital telecommunications
switching systems, is using Sony's Multimedia CD-ROM portable to provide its
field technicians with electronic documentation, storing 20,000 pages of tech info to
support its Meridian 1 PBX on a CD-ROM
disc.
Developed by Sony, Philips and Microsoft in 1989, CD-ROM XA (extended
architecture) compresses audio, which allows it to be interleaved with text, still images and motion video. As a result, up to
16 times as much audio play time can be
accommodated on a single disc. Moreover,
it's claimed that interleaving delivers more accurate synchronization with graphics,
video and text, whereas a traditional CDROM drive would have to perform a double search to play such information together, besides requiring 4M to 8M more RAM
and multiple-function keys, and a built-in
speaker. Power is provided by a small rechargeable nickel -cadmium battery pack
that provides up to 2 hours of continuous
play time or an ac adapter that also charges
the battery pack.
Each 5" Multimedia CD-ROM disc has
600M for storage 9,000 graphic images or
16 hours of audio. The machine also plays
conventional audio CDs.
The new PIX-100's suggested list price
is $999.95. It evidently competes with Tandy's new VIS (Video Information System)
discussed here last month, which lists for
$700. Looks like we've got a VHS -versusBeta type of battle looming. Or should I
say an IBM -versus -Apple contest, where
each can come up a winner.
Margaret Milanese
(516) 681-2922
FAX: (516) 681-2926
Karen Nauth
Sales Assistant
Offices: 76 North Broadway, Hicksville, NY 11801. Telephone: (516) 681-2922. FAX (516) 681-2926. Computer Craft (ISSN 1055-5072) is published monthly by CQ
Communications, Inc. Subscription prices (payable in
US Dollars only): Domestic-one year $18.97, two years
$36.00, three years $53.00; Canada/Mexico-one year
$21.00, two years $40.00, three years $59.00; Foreignone year $23.00, two years $44.00, three years $65.00.
Foreign Air Mail-one year $76.00, two years $150.00,
three years $224.00.
U.S. Government Agencies: Subscriptions to Computer Craft are available to agencies of the United States government, including military services, only on a cash with
order basis. Requests for quotations, bids, contracts, etc.
will be refused and will not be returned or processed.
Entire contents copyright 1993 by CQ Communications,
Inc. ComputerCraft or CQ Communications Inc. assumes no responsibility for unsolicited manuscripts. Allow six weeks for delivery of first issue and for change of
address. Printed in the United States of America.
Postmaster: Please send change of address notice to
ComputerCraft, 76 North Broadway, Hicksville, NY
11801.
6
/ COMPUTERCRAFT / January 1993
Say You Saw It In ComputerCraft
Coming Next Month
Special Reports Revisited
Ranger Hits Home
*Congratulations on your excellent article
on the application of the Ultrasonic Ranger in your June 1992 issue. I am an electronics technology educator and an avid
analog and digital experimenter. Because
of articles like this, I have subscribed to
ComputerCraft for the next three years.
Chin Leong Wong
Norman, OK
Stick to Niche
subscription renewal to
ComputerCraft magazine. I enjoy each
edition, but I want to encourage you to
concentrate on areas of computer hardware and microcontroller articles. These
are the areas that are handled well in your
*Enclosed is my
magazine and unique to it. They are your
publishing niche and are ignored in other
magazines.
There are numerous other magazines
that I turn to when I want to see evaluations of business or games software. It really seems a shame to waste space to an evaluation of a word processor when it has
been covered in great detail by several other
magazines.
K. Lehman
Ontario, Canada
FotoMan Camera Update
*After reading your October review of
Logitech's FotoMan digital camera and
the accompanying FotoMan software, I
felt compelled to stand up in Logitech's
defense. I use the FotoMan on my 386DX
through Windows 3.1 and have had unqualified success in saving images to my
hard drive in both TIF and TIF Uncompressed (required for use in Core1DRA W
and Ventura Publisher formats), which the
author was unable to accomplish without
incurring a General Protection Fault.
Also, Mr. Benford found that he could
not print any images from FotoTouch
under Windows 3.1. Again, I have printed
all kinds of images from FotoTouch to my
HP LaserJet printer without encountering
even one small problem.
Either I have a more -recent version of
FotoTouch (purchased in late June) or Mr.
Benford is doing something wrong.
Ryan J. Hansen
Everett, WA
The author's FotoMan software was so
early it didn't even have a serial number.
Benford has since received updates from
Logitech, and the shortcomings he cited
have, indeed, been taken care of, per your
comments. Hefound the operations pain-
Supplementing Earlier Reports (November 1992 and January
1993), February's ComputerCraft Will Present:
Software to Make PC's "Sing" When Coupled With Sound
Cards and Alternatives to Hardware
Evaluating Eight -Bit Microcontroller Models on the Market
Workbench
Electronics
electronics lab in a computer"
The
"...you can do 10 times as many experiments with Electronics
Workbench than you'd get done with the real stuff."
- ferry Pournelle.
Ph.D., Byte Magazine
Includes two Independent modules:
Analog Module with passive and active
Pudding and testing circuits is fast and
easy with Electronics Workbench. Just
click -and -drag with a mouse to add
parts, run wires, and adjust
instruments. The traces on the
s.mulated instruments are the same as
you'd get on real equipment.
components including transistors, diodes,
and op-amps; a function generator, an
oscilloscope, a multimeter, and a Bode plotter.
Digital Module with gates, flip-flops, adders,
a word generator, a logic analyzer, and a
unique logic converter and simplifier.
Call (416) 361-0333
Professional Version - $299
Personal Plus Version - $199
Macintosh Version - $199
DOS
DOS
Fax: (416) 368-5799
Interactive Image Technologies Ltd.
908 Niagara Falls
Boulevard
North Tonawanda, NY
14120-2060
Prices are in US dollars. Shipping Eli. Offer valid in the USA and
Canada only. Macintosh and DOS Personal Plus versions are In
nunochrome only. All trademarks are the properly of their
respective owners.
700 King St. W., Ste 815
Toronto, Ontario
Canada
M5v 2Y6
INTER
pal
.
rltzL.r.,..
raaa
rm rs
uWi
_:C7
tt.ie.a
._
n ram
_.
r
fully slow, however.-Ed.
CIRCLE NO. 139 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
Say You Saw It In ComputerCraft
January 1993
/
COMPUTERCRAFT
/
What's Happening!
Acquisitions. Colorado Memory Systems, Inc., popular PC tape
back-up system maker, will be acquired by Hewlett-Packard. With
CMS's quarter -inch cartridge (QIC) tape systems for entry-level
and midrange stand-alone personal computers and HP's 4 -mm digital
audio tape (DAT) back-up products for high -end PCs, workstations
and mid to high -end network servers, the new teaming gives HP one
of the broadest tape back-up lines in the industry.... Kalok
Corp. recently sold its KL3000 line of hard -disk drives to Xebec
America (no affiliation with Xebec Corp.) They're 105- and 120-M
AT/IDE drives, complementing the company's lower -capacity drive
line. Most large drive makers have moved to higher -capacity
drives, leaving a vacuum for smaller drives. It's predicated that
in 1993, there'll be worldwide shipments of more than 8.5 -million
drives in the 30M -to -60M range and more than 4 -million in the
60M -to -100M range.
Intel's Neural -Network Chip. Intel's 80170X electrically trainable analog neural network (ETANN) chip has a high -density
parallel architecture that provides a new way to solve pattern recognition problems such as robotic motion and process
optimizing.... To assist PC programmers in creating in
implementing neural networks, DynaMind Developer software from
NeuroDynamX (800-747-3531) guides designers with little or no
neural network experience through step-by-step creating, training
and embedding of neural networks. It runs on 286, 386 and 486
PCs. The program costs $145, while the Developer package is
priced $495.
Tandy Unveils Factory -Direct Delivery with support of its nearly
7,000 Radio Shack stores. Buyers can choose a variety of
hardware -specific options from one of the local stores and,
within two days of placing the order, the computer system is
shipped directly to the customer by second -day air. The program,
which is said to maintain aggressively low prices, comes with a
30 -day money -back satisfaction guarantee and a custom nameplate
reading "Custom Made For (Name)." The program is limited to the
Tandy Omni Profile 486 series of PCs.
Stolen Computer Registry. A stolen computer registry, created in
late 1990 by NACOMEX, is designed to intercept the sale of stolen
computers through legitimate secondary sales channels. It's
designed for use by insurance companies, brokers, resellers and
law -enforcement agencies. For example, bulletin -board operators
who list used equipment for their shoppers can protect themselves
and customers by subscribing to the Registry. For more
information, call 212-777-1291. For this and any potential
insurance claims for stolen computers, be sure to keep a record
of the make, model and serial numbers of computers in your
possession.
8
/ COMPUTERCRAFT / January 1993
Say You Saw It In ComputerCraft
What's New!
Notebook Has
Removable
Hard Drive
Aurum Computer's new GoldnoteSX is a 6.38 -pound, 25 MHz Intel 80486SX-based
notebook computer that has a
removble hard disk (60M, 80M
or 130M). The standard unit is
configured with an 80M drive,
a 3'/," floppy drive, 4M of
RAM (expandable to 16M),
full-size 80 -key keyboard with
12 function keys and embedded numeric keypad and adjustable backlit VGA LCD
Hard -Drive
Installation Utility
Micro House's Drivepro permits installation of any hard
drive in any computer, whether
or not the BIOS supports that
particular drive type. Drivepro
stores custom parameters on
the drive itself, instead of in
CMOS. It finds and executes
the controller's on -board firmware, creates and edits parti-
with 16 levels of gray. It comes
with power management utilities to extend battery life.
External ports are provided
for a full 101 -key keyboard, external VGA monitor, a parallel
and two serial ports and a proprietary 100 -pin port for an external AT bus-expansion station. The standard configuration includes an external power
pack, DOS 5.0, Windows 3.1
and carrying case. S1,995. Au rum Computer Corp., 5 Pond
Park Rd., Hingham, MA
02043; tel.: 617-749-5092; fax:
617-749-5188.
CIRCLE NO. I ON FREE CARD
tion tables, views and edits
BIOS drive -type table, formats
the hard drive with operating
system transfer, low-level formats most drive types, including IDEs, and saves all important parameters to a backup
file. Drivepro requires a 286 or
later processor. Micro House,
4900 Pearl East Cir., Ste. 101,
Boulder, CO 80301; tel.: 800926-8299.
CIRCLE NO.2 ON FREE CARD
By Peter
R.
O'Dell
operation (110 mA), the abili-
Single -Board
Computer
ty to reduce clock speed as the
application permits and a
Vesta Technology's SBC332 is
based on Motorola's MC68020
processor and has a 32 -bit in-
standby mode.
The SBC332 measures 2.3"
x 6.2.5" and is BCC -compatible for direct employment
without porting of software
systems designed around Mo-
ternal data path and internal
32 -bit address bus, while externally it has a 16 -bit data bus
and 24 -bit address bus. This
facility, coupled to a 16.78 MHz clock 28- and 32 -pin DIP
external memory, makes for
design and user convenience.
Low -power operation is supported with minimal power
consumption during normal
torola's popular evaluation
platform. $249 per board in
25 -piece
quantity. Vesta Tech-
nology, Inc., 7100 W. 44 Ave.,
Ste. 101, Wheat Ridge, CO
80033; tel.: 303-422-8088;fax:
303-422-9800.
CIRCLE NO.3 ON FREE CARD
MCM ELECTRONICS ...
VALUE, SERVICE AND
SELECTION CAN TURN
YOUR WORLD AROUND
Feel like your whole world's spinning out of control? You don't know where to look for the kinds of
electronic parts and components your customers demand? The kind of parts that do the job right the first
time? MCM Electronics has what it takes to put your world back in order. We can give you more than 20,000
quality items, and we can have them ready to ship Mithin 24 hours. That's value. That's service. And that's
selection. Whether you need connectors, semiconductors, parts and accessories for VCRs, television
components, test equipment, tools or chemicals, MCM can deliver. And we're always ready to give you the
technical assistance you need.
For a FREE Catalog call: 1.800.543.4330
To Order By Fax: 1.513.434-6959
For Product Questions: 1 -800 -824 -TECH (8324)
MCM ELECTRONICS
650 CONGRESS PARK DR.
CENTERVILLE. OH 45459-4072
A
PREMIER Company
ELEcraowIe,g
..,. a
berev Wu.
CIRCLE NO. 142 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
Say You Saw It In ComputerCraft
January 1993
/
COMPUTERCRAFT
/
9
What's New!
LED
Printer
Your Calendar
Is Watching You
Okidata's OL810 eight -page per -minute LED -based page
printer has built in OKI
Smoothing Technology for enhanced resolution and superior
print quality. Smoothing Technology is able to create four different dot sizes at 10007o, 8007o,
6507o and 2501o. Different -size
dots are grouped in varying
combinations along the scan
and sub -scan lines to create
noticeably smoother lines on
both axes. The OL810 offers
PCL5 compatibility; 1M of
memory, expandable to 5M; 13
resident AGFA Compugraph-
Powercore has two new "calendaring" packages for net-
ic Intellifont scalable outline
fonts; and 42 resident bitmap
fonts. The OL810 printer is HP
III -compatible and has two
font -card slots. $1,699. Okidata, 532 Fellowship Rd., Mt.
Laurel, NJ 08054; tel.: 609235-2600.
CIRCLE NO.4 ON FREE CARD
Cleaning Products
Read/Right has added several
new items to its line of cleaning
products. New 4 -mm data
drive cleaning cartridge No.
TX255 provides 25 cleanings,
and 8 -mm data drive cleaning
cartridge No. TX256 provides
six to eight cleanings. These are
said to provide the latest technology in automatic data drive
cleaning. To use, you plug a
cartridge into the machine's
drive and let it run for 15 to 20
seconds. Regular use is claimed
to safely eliminate residue and
dust build-up without damaging tape heads.
CD ROM disk cleaner No.
TX258 uses the radial cleaning
method recommended by CD
ROM disk manufacturers to
avoid scratching the disks.
Data error and signal interpretation skips caused by surface
contamination, smudges and
CPU
other foreign matter can often
be avoided by regular cleaning.
The kit contains a small brush,
nonabrasive cleaning wand,
foam -cushioned disk holder, 1
ounce of specially formulated
cleaning fluid in a non -aerosol
pump spray, and instruction
sheet. Each kit provides 25
cleanings, comes packaged in
a convenient compact storage
case and is easy to use. Read/
Right Products Div., 650 E.
Crescent Ave., Upper Saddle
River, NJ 07458; tel.: 800327-1237; fax: 800-569-3600.
CIRCLE NO.5 ON FREE CARD
works and the individual user.
Network Scheduler III (NS3) is
a multi-user calendar that operates on most popular communications environments to
enable a group of users to make
scheduling decisions quickly
and automatically. NS3
schedules persons, work
groups and such key resources
as rooms and equipment. It
provides a shared calendar for
use by the group, with personal
reminders for private events.
Any user can request a meeting
by selecting the desired day and
time period.
NS3 informs the user immediately if there are any individual conflicts with the proposed
place and times. Once a meeting is selected, NS3 broadcasts
new requests to each member
of the group. The new meeting
appears on the individual cal-
endars, informing the users
about the details of the
meeting.
Time Vision, available for
Windows, DOS and Macintosh, has many of the most useful functions of NS3 redesigned and repackaged for the
individual user. It can be used
to plan daily calendars, priori-
tize "to-do" lists, make appointments or schedule other
people and resources. $119
(Time Vision). PowerCore
Inc., One Diversatech Dr.,
Manteno, IL 60950-0756.
CIRCLE NO.7 ON FREE CARD
Radio Scanner
Computer Control
The HB -232 Scanner/Computer Interface from Commtronics Engineering is a retrofit kit
for the Radio Shack PRO -2004,
PRO -2005 and PRO -2006
series vhf/uhf radio scanners.
The modification offers complete two-way communication
and control of the scanner by
an IBM/compatible computer
through a serial port. Up to 400
memory channels can be programmed by downloading information to the scanner from
a computer database.
Autologger appends a comma -delimited line of data to a
DOS text file for every event or
transmission detected by the
scanner. Each plain -text data
line in the file shows memory
channel, frequency, mode, delay and lockout status, operating function, search increment,
date, start time and duration of
the event. A built-in feature
prevents the scanner from locking up on birdies and other un-
desired signals. Partial kit,
$170. Commtronics Engineering, PO Box 262478, San Diego, CA 92196; tel.: 619-5789247; fax: 619-578-2947.
CIRCLE NO.6 ON FREE CARD
10
/
COMPUTERCRAFT
/
January 1993
Module
The HC11 CPU module from
ACS provides expandable control in a low-cost format that
includes all necessary features
for most embedded control applications. Additional expansion is provided by the ACS BUSS via either 64 -conductor
ribbon cable or ACS motherboards for larger applications.
Flash EPROM and EEP ROM
IIIIIIIIIIIIIII1111111111IIII111
technology permit remote in system updates. Hardware includes MC68HC811E2 eight bit microcontroller, 2K
EEPROM with block protection, 256 -byte RAM, 16 -bit
timer, eight -bit pulse accumulator, real-time interrupt, COP
watchdog timer, eight -channel
eight -bit A/D converter and
serial port (RS -232 or RS -485).
Software includes HC I IPL in
EEPROM, POST diagnostics
and IBM programming utili1
ties. $287. Ackerman Computer Sciences, 4276 Lago Way,
Sarasota, FL 34241-5815; tel.:
813-377-5775; fax: 813-3784226.
CIRCLE NO.
Data -Acquisition
Packages
Texmate has three new integrated data -acquisition packages for laboratory and field
applications. VIS/2000 is virtual instrumentation software
that employs a mouse and
GUI. It supports four 16 -channel ac/dc voltage input boards
on an AT. The program displays 16 channels simultaneously an panel meters, chart recorders or oscilloscope traces.
The Acquisitor is a menu driven real-time graphic dis-
8
ON FREE CARD
play of multi -channel strip
chart, bargraph and spreadsheet data with process monitoring functions. Hardware is
available in four versions that
plug into a PC's parallel port.
DASH300 is a Windows 3.x
application program that supports most popular eight- and
16 -channel data -acquisition
boards. Menu driven, it acquires and displays up to 16
channels.
Texmate Inc., 995 Park Center Dr., Vista, CA 92083-8397;
tel.: 619-598-9899; fax, 619598-9828.
CIRCLE NO.9 ON FREE CARD
Say You Saw It In ComputerCraft
other training shows you
how to troubleshoot and
service computers like NRI
No
NEWT
888sx/20 MHz ,INI
TOWER COWIFTERI
Features 32 -bit 80386sx
CPU, 1 meg RAM, 64K ROM,
1.2 meg high -density floppy
disk drive
MONROR
SEW! 40 MEG
High -resolution,
SHARD
nonglare, 12" TTL
monochrome
monitor with tilt
and swivel base
DISK DRIVE!
iou install this
40 meg IDE
zard disk drive
_ntemally, for
greater data
storage capacity
SOFTWARE
DISCOVERY LAB
Train with MS-DOS, GW-BASIC,
and popular Microsoft Works
applications software
Complete breadboarding
system lets you design and
modify circuits, diagnose
and repair faults
DIAGNOSTIC HARDWARE
AND SOFTWARE
R.A.C.E.R. plug-in diagnostic
card and QuickTech menudriven software, both from
Ultra -X, give you hands-on
experience with today's
professional
DUVAL MULTINETEII
Professional test instrument for
quick and easy measurements
DIGITAL LOGIC PROBE
Simplifies analyzing digital
circuit operation
LESSONS
Clear, illustrated texts
build your understanding
of computers step by step
walks you
through the step-by-step
assembly of a powerful 388sx computer
system you train with and keep
giving you the hands-on
experience you need to work with, troubleshoot, and service
today's most widely used computer systems. Only NRI gives you
everything you need to start a money -making career, even a
business of your own, in computer service.
No doubt about it: The best way to learn to service computers is to actually
build a state-of-the-art computer from the keyboard on up. Only NRI, the
leader in career-building at-home electronics training for more than 75 years,
gives you that kind of practical, real -world computer servicing experience.
Indeed, no other training
in school, on the job, anywhere
shows you
how to troubleshoot and service computers like NRI.
Only NRI
-
-
-
Get inside the West Coast 388sx computer system ... and
experience all the power and speed of today's
computer technology!
FRE catalog tells more. Send today!
Send today for NRI's big, free catalog that describes every aspect of NRI's
innovative computer training, as well as hands-on training in TV/video/audio
servicing, telecommunications, industrial electionics, and other high -growth,
high-tech career fields.
If the coupon is missing, write to NRI School of Electronics, McGraw-Hill
Continuing Education Center, 4401 Connecticut Avenue, NW, Washington,
DC 20008.
With NRI's exdusive hands-on training, you actually build and keep the
powerful new West Coast 386sx/20 MHz mini tower computer system.
You start by assembling and testing your computer's 101 -key "intelligent"
keyboard, move on to test the circuitry of the main logic board, install the
power supply and 1.2 meg high -density floppy disk drive, then interface your
high -resolution monitor.
What's more, you now go on to install and test a powerful 40 meg IDE
hard disk drive
today's most-wanted computer peripheral induded in
your course to dramatically increase your computer's data storage capacity
while giving you lightning -quick data access. But that's not all!
-
No experience necessary ... NRI builds it in
With NRI, you learn at your own pace in your own home. No dassroom
pressures, no night school, no need to quit your present job until you're ready
to make your move. And all throughout your training, you have the full
support of your personal NRI instructor and the NRI technical staff, always
ready to answer your questions and give you help whenever you need it.
-
Professional diagnostic hardware and software makes
troubleshooting fast and accurate
Your NRI training now indudes a remarkable diagnostic package that allows
you to quickly locate and coiled defects in IBM XT, AT 80286/80386, and
compatible computers.
You'll use your Ultra -X QuickTech diagnostic software to test the system
RAM and such peripheral adapters as parallel printer ports, video adapters,
and floppy and hard disk drives. You'll go on to use your R.A.C.E.R. diagnostic
card, also from Ultra-X, to identify individual defective RAM chips, locate
interfacing problems, and pinpoint defective support chips.
This ingenious diagnostic package is just one more way NRI gives you the
confidence and the know-how for advancement, a new career, or a moneymaking business of your own.
a registered trademark of International Business Machines Corp. QuickTech
and R.A.C.E.R. are registered trademarks of Ultra -X, Inc.
IBM is
SEND TODAY FOR FREE CATALOG
IVA
/Schools
I:AI,
McGraw-Hill Continuing Education Center
4401 Connecticut Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20008
For career courses
approved under GI Bill
check for details.
['Check one FREE catalog only
E
E
E
MICROCOMPUTER SERVICING
E Computer Programming
TVNidea/Audio Servicing
Industrial Electronics & Robotics
Telecommunications
Basic Electronics
E Electronic Music Technology
E Desktop Publishing
Name
Security Electronics
Programming in C++ with Windows
(please print)
Age
Address
City/State/Zip
Accredited Member, National Home Study Council
4-0193i
What's New!
Memory
Management
and Multitasking
Beyond 640K
By Lenny Bailes &
John Mueller
(Wind crest /McGraw-Hill.
Soft cover. 434 pages. $29.95)
The popularity of multitasking environments Windows
and DESQview and growing
interest in networks, no matter how small, means that
more and more PC users are
being forced to deal effectively with memory management
or suffer the consequences.
This book is dedicated to
those users who find themselves thrown into the middle
of this fray.
Chapter I is an introduction to PC hardware with emphasis on the features and
limitations of the x86 family
Parallel -To-SCSI
uses the first megabyte of
memory is detailed in Chapter 3. Then Chapter 4 defines
and discusses memory be-
yond the first megabyte.
Three of the more common
software tools to access this
memory are discussed:
QEMM, Rational Systems
DOS extender, and Microsoft's XMS.
Chapter 5 surveys hardware requirements for different PC productivity situations and features alternative
upgrade options. Strategies
for improving performance
by minimizing the overhead
of your current applications
are covered in Chapter 6.
Coverage of the basics of
memory management is handled in Chapter 7, which uses
of processors. Chapter 2 is
devoted to taking stock of
examples based on the utilities bundled with DOS 5.0. In
Chapter 8, the authors provide a similar treatment of
DR DOS and show how to
your base system. How DOS
perform more advanced
memory -management tasks
with third -party packages.
Chapter 9 moves on to
memory management in the
context of Windows 3.x, with
emphasis on the differences
in performance and capability between 286- and 386/
486 -based systems. Quarterdeck's DESQview as an alternative to Windows is the topic
of Chapter 10. Chapter
11
discusses memory management tasks under OS/2.
Appendices cover troubleshooting tips, network considerations and other sources
of information, as well as a
brief description of the free ware and shareware utilities
contained on an accompanying 1.2M disk. Programs
range from an IRQ display
utility to a basic 386 memory
manager.
The writing is clear and
concise, and the depth of coverage is more than adequate
for the intermediate user.
Adapter
Trantor Systems' T348 Mini SCSI Plus provides simple,
quick connection of many different types of SCSI devices
through a computer's parallel
printer port without losing use
of a printer connected to the
port. It features an integral
3 -foot cable, built-in SCSI termination and a physical design
that improves on the original
T338 adapter by moving the
portion of the product containing the active circuitry adjacent
to the SCSI device. This new
design makes connection to a
computer port much smaller
than the T338 and eliminates
the need for a separate SCSI
cable. Also, the new T348
makes full use of bidirectional
parallel ports, which can improve the performance of CDROMs and similar devices.
$229. Trantor Systems, Ltd.,
5415 Randall Pl., Fremont,
CA 94538-3151; tel.: 510770-1400; fax: 510-770-9910.
CIRCLE NO. LOON FREE CARD
EZ- ROUTE PRO
TALK TO YOUR COMPUTER
WITH VOICE MAS'T'ER KEYS
A PROFESSIONAL VOICE PROCESSING SYSTEM
ADD UP TO 1024 VOICE COMMANDS TO EXISTING PROGRAMS! Speeds data
entry and command input to CAD, desk -top publishing, word processing, spread
sheet, data base, or game programs. Simply train the computer to recognize a word
or phrase and assign a series of key strokes to that command. Pop-up TSR program
features pull -down menus and mouse support. Requires under 15K of main memory if
EMS present. Near instant response time and high recognition accuracy.
The Most Complete Schematic PCB Layout -Auto-Router System
EZ-ROUTE PRO system from AMS for IBM PC, PS/2 and compatibles is an
integrated system and includes schematic capture, PCB layout, Automatic
Router, DesignRule checker and ability to view gerber plot files. The schematic
capture module from EZ-ROUTE system supports A through E size sheets,
comes with user expandable library and outputs netlists compatible to several
different formats such as Futurnet, PCAD, and EDIF. The PCB Layout Module
supports 256 layers, trace width from 0.001 inch to 0.255 inch, flexible grid,
SMD components on both sides of the board and outputs on penplotters,
gerber photoplotter, and dot matrix printers.
For a FREE Evaluation call 1-800-972-3733
NO -HASSLE MONEY BACK GUARANTEE
ADVANCED MICROCOMPUTER SYSTEMS, INC.
1
1460 SW. 3rd St., Suite B-8, Pompano Beach,
(305) 784-0900
FAX (305) 784-0904
CIRCLE NO. 125 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
14
/ COMPUTERCRAFT / January 1993
FL.
INTERACTIVE SPEECH INPUT AND OUTPUT
Tag your own digitized audio files to voice recognition macros. Provides speech
response to your spoken commands -- all from within virtually ALL DOS application
software! Reduces CRT "eye fixation". Also ideal for training, security, robotics, factory business -home automation, science experiments, handicapped, etc.
COMPATIBLE with talking software from IBM, Milliken, First Byte, Davidson, Optimum
Resources, Britannica Software, Electronic Arts, Hyperglot, Orange Cherry, Wesson
Intl, Villa Crespo, McGraw-Hill, etc. -- both DOS and Windows-compatible versions.
EVERYTHING INCLUDED Voice Master Key System consists of a half-size card,
durable lightweight microphone headset, software (5.25" floppies unless otherwise
specified), and manual. Made in U.S.A. One year warranty on hardware.
ONLY $199.95
ONLY $695 Instead of thousands
30 DAY
-
33069
SOUND RECORDING STUDIO
Digitally record your own speech,
sound, or music. Software controlled
sampling
rate
(up to
25Kbytes/sec)
with graphics based editing and data compression utilities. Create customized
audio software for use within
education,
language
training,
presentations, entertainment, etc.
DMA data transfer provides continuous recording and playback of
sound to/from hard disk. PC internal speaker supported.
(plus shipping)
ORDER HOTLINE call: (503) 342-1271 Monday-Friday 8 AM to 5 PM Pacific Time.
VISA/MasterCard/American Express phone or FAX orders welcome. NO CODS. Add
$5 shipping charge for delivery in USA and Canada. Payment by personal check subject to 3 week shipping delay. Foreign inquiries contact Covox for C&F/CIF proformas.
30 DAY MONEY BACK GUARANTEE IF NOT COMPLETELY SATISFIED.
CALL , WRITE, or FAX US FOR FREE PRODUCT CATALOG
OOVOX INC.
675 Conger Street
Eugene, Oregon 97402 U.S.A.
CIRCLE NO.
132
Tel: (503) 342-1271
FAX: (503) 342-1283
BBS: (503) 342-4135
ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
Say You Saw It
111
ComputerCraft
PC's & Parts
Button Reader
$129
386/25 SX
386/33 SX
$149
386/40 OK CACHE $169
386/40 64K CACHE $199
C486/33 64KCACHE $499
486/33 256K CACHE$525
486/50 256K CACHE$799
housed in small water-resistant
stainless -steel cases. Touch
buttons work like electronic labels that the TouchProbe can
access for the purpose of reading information or storing
data. This is done by a simple
contact of the TouchProbe to
the button.
The standard TouchProbe
model features a cast metal
case, real-time internal clock
and 128K of RAM. Its lithium
battery requires no recharging
and lasts more than five years
(about 350,000 reads). More
Boards with CPU's. All are AMI
BIOS with OPTI or other C/S.
Mini size fits nearly all cases. Std.
power conctrs. Fax Fact # 1115
All
than 5,000 reads can be stored
internal memory before
downloading to a computer.
Communications software is
available for IBM/compatible
and Macintosh computers.
$395. Videx, 1105 NE Circle
in
DRAM
Blvd., Corvallis, OR 973304285; tel.: 503-758-0521; fax:
Meg SIMMS 3 chip $43
1 Meg SIMMS 9 chip
$45
4 Meg SIMMS 9 chip $199
503-752-5285.
All SIMMS
CIRCLE NO.
11
ON FREE CARD
1
are 70 ns speed. Call
for faster speeds & DIP or SIP
packages.
Fax Fact
#
1112
HARD DRIVES
Broad -Spectrum
Anti -Virus Programs
program gives you several options for handling the situation. $69. Trend Micro De-
Trend Micro Devices's PC Rx
Antivirus 2.0 is a rule -based
program that both scans and
removes 1,650 viruses in DOS
and Windows and monitors
suspicious programs for up to
nine virus -like activities. This
vices, 2421 W. 205 St., Ste.
pattern -independent method
of filtering for both old and
new viruses doesn't require fre-
D-100 Torrance, CA 90501;
tel.: 310-782-8190; fax: 310-
40MB 28 MS
80MB 19 MS
100MB 18 MS
130MB 16 MS
210MB 15 MS
328-5892.
All
CIRCLE NO.
NOVI
12
ON FREE CARD
similar program
from Certus, provides invisible
virus protection for DOS and
Windows applications. It
operates continuously in the
background and neither requires frequent updates, nor
flashes false alarms when new
software is loaded onto a system or when program files
change. NOVI uses several advanced virus -protection technologies driven by artificial intelligence to either prevent files
from becoming infected or per1.1, a
fectly repair any files that
quent updates. Detecting even
the newest Mutation Engine viruses, the filter monitors suspicious programs for such activities as redirection of DOS
interrupts. In Windows, the
PC Rx scanning meter runs
minimized (reduced to an icon)
while you continue working.
Once a virus is detected, the
COMPLETE PC's
MOTHERBOARDS
The TouchProbe portable
touch reader from Videx is
about the size of a small pocket
flashlight and reads information to and from "touch buttons," which are memory chips
become infected. The repair facility operates much like "un erase" DOS utilities. Improvements over Version I include
speed (about 30 seconds for an
80M drive), updated scanning
information and more -efficient support of Windows.
$129. Certus, 6896 W. Snow-
ville Rd., Brecksville, OH
44141; tel.: 216-546-1500; fax:
216-546-1450.
CIRCLE NO.
13
ON FREE CARD
(Continued on page 80)
Say You Saw It In ComputerCraft
II
$189
$249
$299
$329
$499
Drives are IDE type. Add $19
for 16 bit controller card. Maxtor&
Seagate drives.
486/33DLC with 64k SRAM
Cache, 4 megs RAM, 1.44
Floppy, 16Bit Dual (1:1)
HD/FD controller, 1 Parallel
2 Serial Ports, 101 Key
Enhanced keyboard, Mini
tower case, SVGA Monitor
w 1MB card, 130 meg HD.
$1495.00
SYSTEM OPTIONS II
$295
386/40 64k cache 486/33 256k cache +
486/50 256k cache +
Add'I4 MB DRAM +
Add'l 12 MB DRAM+
+
1MB SVGA card
+
S3 Accelerator
+
17" VGA
210MB Hard Drive +
+
386/33 SX mb
$39
$579
$129
$499
$15
$199
$379
$170
$129
To custom configure your system,
start with the 386/40 PC on top
and add or subtract components as
desired for your custom designed
system. Fax Fact #1200
LANtastic PC LANS
Fax Fact # 1120
Ethernet 10Mbps Kit $495
Ethernet Coax Card $199
1.44MB, 3.5 inch
$52 Ethernet 10BASE-T $299
$399
1.2MB, 5.25 inch
$55 Central Station
Kit
$349
2Mbps
Starter
MONITORS
$149
2Mbps Card
$89 Zero Slot Lan Ser/Par $95
12" Amber Mono
$129 LANtastic hNetware $295
14" VGA Mono
14" SVGA .28 Intl ace $299 Sounding Board
$79
14" SVGA .28 Non/IN$329 Use LANtastic, the top rated DOS
$949 based LAN for file & printer
17" SVGA Non/IN
sharing. Made in USA, 5 year
$69 warranty. Fax Fact #1122 1125.
VGA Card 512k
$89
SVGA Card 1M
ACCESSORIES
$229
S3 Accelerator 1M
FLOPPY DRIVES
,
Monitors Carry One year Printers, Modems, Fax Cards,
Factory warranty. Fax Fact #1114 "Mice" etc. Call Toll Free for info.
All
Dial 317 849 8683 to get instant tech information
FREE from your Fax! You can obtain specs and info on
these products and more by dialing our Fax Facts automated
service. Call our number from your fax, then request the document as listed
above. Start your fax,and the document will begin printing immediately on your fax!
Order TollFive 24 /-#ours a Day! Dial 1-800-445-7717
Fax In your order Toll Free, 1-800-448-1084
Use 800 numbers in all 50 states, plus Canada. International voice lines, 317-842-7115
or fax 317-849-8794. Use our BBS for information by dialing 317-579-2045
ACE Communications 10707 East 106th Street, Fishers, IN 46038
ss
'1//(d°
-Checks, Apposed P.O:s & COD. (add MO) & AMEX (add
5%.). Prizes, specifications and avaiabiiy subject to doge.
Express shipping avaaabie. No returns accepted two weeks
after original receipt without substantial restocking charge.
All units carry full factory warranty. IN residents add tax
January 1993
/
MasterCard
-J
COMPUTE RCRAFT /
15
Enhancing
By
Raymond
H.
Green
Recycling Old Computers
Let an old computer you no longer use control your
home environment
Do
you have an old IBM PC or
compatible collecting dust
because it's outlived its usefulness for
running today's sophisticated software? If so, this article describes an
easy and fun way to restore it to service for controlling lights, motors,
coffee makers, burglar alarms, fire
alarms or anything else you have that
operates electrically.
My old PC was still serviceable. So
I decided to put it to use controlling my
everyday electrical appliances, rather
than mothballing it. You, too, can recycle your old PC to perform the same
or similar service. I came up with a
simple, elegant solution that could be
executed in short order.
What makes the system described
here easy to implement was that I used
existing appliance modules, available
from Radio Shack, Sears and other
outlets, that can be connected to a PC.
Without having to make internal connections. All control circuits connect
to the parallel printer port.
The Hardware
If you don't already have a computer
you can dedicate to appliance control,
you can buy an XT/compatible with
monochrome display and one or two
floppy drives for as little as $250. A
hard drive isn't required, and 64K of
RAM is sufficient.
My control method is easy and effective because I use the computer's
parallel port to operate all external circuits I've incorporated into the system. This port can monitor up to nine
input circuits and switch up to eight
output circuits simultaneously.
The best way to connect to a parallel
port is via a standard parallel printer
cable that has a 25 -pin male DB -25
connector on the computer end and
36 -pin male connector on the printer
end. Alternately, you can use any ser-
16 /
COMPUTERCRAFT
/ January 1993
ial cable that has a 25 -pin male connec-
tor on one end with wires connected
to all 25 pins and no connector at the
other end.
If you're starting with a standard
printer cable, cut off the connector at
the printer end and fan out the conductors at this end. After you fabricate a barrier -block assembly, you'll
connect these conductors to positions
on the barrier blocks, as detailed in
Fig. 1. Make the cable about 3 to 4 feet
long. Though a longer cable won't
hurt, you really don't need it.
For this project, you need the items
listed in the Bill of Materials. Start
construction by fabricating the barrier -block Interface assembly. For this,
you need the first six items listed in the
Bill of Materials.
Construction
is simple. Begin
with
BILL
1-6" x
4'/,"
OF MATERIALS
x %" block of wood
2-Eight-position dual -row barrier
blocks (Radio Shack Cat. No.
274-670
or similar)
1-Four-position dual -row barrier block
1-25 conductor cable with male DB -25
connector on one end (see text)
1-Plastic cable clamp
20-Spade lugs
7-Woodscrews
3-Plug 'n Power universal interface
modules (Radio Shack Cat. No.
61-2687
or similar)
2-Universal appliance modules (Radio
Shack Cat. No.
61-2684
or similar)
I-Wall-switch module (Radio Shack
Cat. No.
61-2683
or similar)
1-Cadmium-sulfide photocell (Radio
Shack Cat. No.
276-116
or similar)
Say You Saw It In ComputerCraft
VoxxxxxxxDoc23,ó)ogo08190o©o®®
Fig. 2. Pin location, pin view, on male
parallel printer cable connector.
Fig. 1. Fabrication details for the Parallel Interface Board.
the block of wood specified in the Bill
of Materials, using any type of lumber
you have handy. When you're finished trimming the block to size, sand
it smooth and give it a coat or two of
clear urethane and allow it to dry.
Then, referring to Fig. 1, mount two
eight- and one four -position barrier
blocks on it as shown. Label the parallel -port pin numbers on the block of
wood near the positions on the barrier
blocks exactly as shown.
Carefully remove about 4" of outer
plastic jacket from the end of the
printer cable that has no connector.
Strip V," of insulation from the ends
of all conductors in the cable.
Now determine which cable conductor connects to which pin on the remaining cable connector. With some
cables, you can remove the hood from
the connector and simply record the
insulation color(s) of the conductors
that connect to each pin of the connector. If you're able to remove the hood
from the connector, you'll find the pin
numbers molded into the plastic by
each pin on the DB -25 connector. If
you're unable to remove the hood
from the connector, use an ohmmeter
or continuity checker to determine
which conductor connects to which
pin on the connector. Refer to Fig. 2
for the pin -numbering scheme.
Make a chart of the connector's pin
number and the color of insulation on
cable conductor to which each connects. An example of what your table
should look like is shown in Table 1.
Some parallel printer cables use the insulation color code shown. If the col-
Say You Saw It In ComputerCraft
or scheme is different for the cable
you're using make suitable entries for
each pin.
Next, connect the cable to the barrier blocks. To assure good electrical
and mechanical connections, it's a
good idea to solder a spade lug to each
conductor end in the cable.
Position the cable on the Interface
Board as shown in Fig. so that all its
conductors can reach their respective
barrier -block positions. Fasten the
cable to the board with a cable clamp.
Then connect the conductors to their
respective positions on the barrier
blocks, matching the numbers on the
barrier -block positions with the same
numbers you determined for the connector on the cable, until you've wired
conductors through 17.
Interconnect positions 18, 19 and 20
on the upper barrier block with a solid
bare jumper wire. Then slip the spade
lugs on conductors 18 through 25 of
the cable under the heads of the screws
at positions 18, 19 and 20, distributing
them evenly. Be aware that some
cables have a jumper wire inside the
connector that interconnects pins 18
through 25 and have only a single conductor in them that serves as a common conductor. Also, if your cable
has a shield wire, connect this to position 20 of the upper barrier block.
1
often use address 956. Later models
that have a separate printer card usually use address 888. Any address is
okay, as long as it's the correct one.
If you use BASIC, you can use your
computer to locate it's port address
quite simply. With DOS 5.0 or later,
you need GWBASIC from an earlier
DOS version. Put this in your DOS
subdirectory. (Earlier versions of DOS
come with GWBASIC.) Boot up your
computer, call up BASIC, type DEF
SEG = 0 and hit Enter. Your computer
should respond with "Ok." Type
PRINT PEEK(1032) + 256
Insulation Color
Pin
2
Brown
Red
3
Orange
4
Yellow
5
Green
6
Blue
7
Purple
Gray
White
8
9
10
Black
Pink
Light Green
Light Blue
Brown/White Stripe
Red/White Stripe
Orange/White Stripe
Yellow/Brown
Stripe
Green/White stripe
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
LPT1
Port Address
To use the Interface Board, you must
know its address. Older computers
with monochrome monitors that have
the printer port on the video card most
PEEK(1033)
Table 1. Wiring Scheme For
Parallel Printer Cable
1
Finding
*
and hit Enter.
At this point, the screen should display port address 956 or 888 or, on
rare occasions, 632. Make a note of
this address for future reference, and
exit BASIC. To keep things simple, I'll
use 956 as the port address in this article. If the port address in your particular computer is different, substitute
its number whenever you read address
956 here.
18-25
Typical example of insulation color scheme
used for pins on the DB -25 connector on a
parallel printer cable.
January 1993
/
COMPUTERCRAFT
/
17
If you have a second parallel port
(LPT2), the address will be the next
lower number. For example, if the address of LPT1 is 888, use address 632
for LPT2.
Now test your Interface Board as
follows. You need an analog or digital
voltmeter or a multimeter with a minimum dc sensitivity of 20,000 ohms
per volt. All measurements you make
will be less than 10 volts dc.
Turn on your computer, and bring
up BASIC. Set your meter to a range
on which you can measure 10 volts dc.
Connecting the meter's "hot" and
common test leads to positions 2 and
18 on the barrier blocks, respectively,
should yield a meter reading of about
+ 0.1 volt.
Now type OUT 956,1 and hit Enter
(don't forget to substitute the appropriate number if you have a different port address from 956 in the OUT
statement). With its leads connected
to the Interface Board as above, your
meter should read + 3 to + 5 volts
Fig. 3.
18
A
(typically about + 3.5 volts).
Next, type OUT 956,0 and hit Enter.
Your meter should read about + 0.1
volt once again. When you type OUT
956,128 the potential on position 9
should be about + 3.5 volts. Typing
OUT 956,0 should yield a meter
reading of about +0.1 volt on position 9 again. If you obtain the proper
results, you've correctly wired the Interface Board.
The OUT statement in the above test
routines and the program listings in
this article directs an action to a specific address. This statement controls
pins 2 through 9, which connect to bits
0 through 7 on your parallel I/O card.
For example, OUT 956,1 directs bit 0
at pin 2 to go high (+ 3.5 volts), OUT
956,128 directs bit 7 at pin 9 to go high,
etc. OUT 956,0 directs all eight bits on
pins 2 through 9 to go low ( + 0.1 volt).
Applications
Now let's look at a few applications to
which you can put this simple Interface Board and your PC, using simple
control programs written in BASIC.
Computer -Controlled Light Switch.
Begin by connecting a wire from position 2 of the terminal block to the +
screw terminal on the Plug 'n Power
Universal Interface Module, as in Fig.
3. Connect another wire (ground)
from position 20 to the terminal on
the Interface Module. Set both
switches on the Interface Module to
position 1 and plug this module into
an ac outlet.
Plug a Universal Appliance Module
into another ac outlet within sight of
your PC. Turn on a table lamp, unplug it from the ac outlet and plug it
into the socket on the Universal Appliance Module. Make sure the unit
and house codes read the same on both
modules. Power up your PC and bring
up BASIC. Turn on the lamp by typing OUT 956,1 and hitting Enter. To
turn off the lamp, type OUT 956,0 and
hit Enter.
-
computer -controlled light -switch arrangement.
/ COMPUTERCRAFT / January 1993
Say You Saw It In ComputerCratt
Listing
Computer -Controlled Lamp
1.
BASIC Program
10 CLS
20 PRINT "Light control program, 'LIGHTEST.BAS'."
30 LOCATE 6,1 : PRINT "The time is ";TIME$
40 IF TIMES > "18:00:00" AND TIMES < "22:00:00" then PIN2=1 ELSE
PIN2=0
50 OUT 956,PIN2
REM Output 'Hi' on Pin 2 when PIN2 =
60 IF PIN2 = 1 THEN LIGHTS = " ON" ELSE LIGHTS = "OFF"
70 LOCATE 8,1
PRINT "The light is ";LIGHT$
80 GOTO 30
:
1
:
18:00 (6:00 P.M.) and off at 22:00
(10:00 P.M.). You can easily change
the on and off times by changing the
numbers in this line.
Line 50 tells the computer to OUT
956,PIN2. When PIN2 = 1, pin 2 goes
high. The variable name "PIN2"
helps to keep the pin numbers straight.
Line 60 selects the string value of
LIGHT$ to be either "ON" or
"OFF."
Listing 2. Dusk -to -Dawn Light -Control Program
10
KEY OFF
:
CLS
20 PRINT "Dusk to dawn light control, 'PHOTOCEL.BAS'."
30 LOCATE 6,1 : PRINT "The time is ";TIME$
40 REM Photocell connected to parallel Input, pins 13 and 18
50 IN13 =-((INP(957) AND 16)=16)
REM Read Input on pin 13
60 IF IN13 = 1 THEN PINS = 8 ELSE PINS = 0
70 OUT 956,PIN5
REM Output 'Hi' on Pin 5 when PINS = 8
80 IF PINS = 8 THEN LIGHT$ = " ON" ELSE LIGHTS = "OFF"
90 LOCATE 8,1 : PRINT "The light is ";LIGHT$
100 GOTO 30
:
:
Line 70 positions and prints the
statement "The light is," followed by
the string value of LIGHT$.
Line 80 causes the program to loop
back to line 30 and run through the
whole program again.
You might want the lights to go on
at 2:30 P.M. and off at 2:35 PM., for
example. You do this by changing the
times in line 40 as follows:
40 IF TIME$ > "14:30:00" AND TIME$ <
"14:35:00" THEN PIN2=1 ELSE PIN2=0
With the Interface still connected to
your computer, you'll now put the
computers' clock to work to control
the lamp. Key in Listing and save it
to disk with the filename LIGHTEST,A (the ",A" saves the program
in ASCII format for compiling or/and
viewing it under DOS).
Line 50 shows 956 as the port address. If your port address is different,
substitute the appropriate number.
When entering the program, make
sure you punctuate it exactly as
shown. Note in line 60 the space after
the quote in " ON." Once you've
entered and saved the program, run it.
When the program starts, the following message should appear on -screen:
Make the change by typing the new
time over the old and pressing Enter.
To make the time change permanent,
use the SAVE command again and give
the program a new filename like SAVE
Light control program, 'LIGHTEST. BAS'.
"LIGHTON,A."
1
The time is 17:43:38
The light is OFF
Stop the program with a Ctrl
+ Break.
Line 10 clears the screen.
Line 20 prints a statement.
Line 30 positions the time statement
on the screen and prints it.
Line 40 sets the lights to turn on at
Listing 3. Control Your Home Program
10 KEY OFF
:
CLS
20 LOCATE 2,18
'HOMECON.BAS'."
30 LOCATE 3,18
40 LOCATE 5,5
50 IF TIMES >
:
PRINT "Control your Home Program,
:
PRINT
"
PRINT "The time is ";TIME$; TAB(60); DATE$
"18:00:00" AND TIMES < "22:00:00" THEN PIN2=1 ELSE
:
PIN2=0
TIME$ > "06:30:00" AND TIMES < "08:30:00" THEN PIN3=2 ELSE
PIN3=0
70 REM Photocell connected to parallel Input, pins 13 and 18
80 IN13 = -((INP(957) AND 16)=16)
REM Read Input on pin 13
90 IF IN13 = 1 THEN PINS = 8 ELSE PINS = 0
100 OUT 956,PIN2+PIN3+PIN5
REM Output control on pins 2, 3 and 5
110 IF PIN2 = 1 THEN L$ = " ON" ELSE LS = "OFF"
120 LOCATE 8,5
PRINT "Timer control for Lights.
Lights are ";L$
130 IF PIN3 = 2 THEN C$ = " ON" ELSE C$ = "OFF"
140 LOCATE 10,5
PRINT "Timer control for Coffee Pot.
Coffee is
";C$
150 IF PINS = 8 THEN P$ = " ON" ELSE P$ = "OFF"
160 LOCATE 12,5
PRINT "Control for Photocell.
Lights are ";P$
170 GOTO 40
60 IF
:
:
:
:
:
Say You Saw It In
ComputerCraft
Now let's look at some practical applications for this simple project:
Dusk -to -Dawn Light Control. This
application uses an input port. In addition to sending out high and low levels, the parallel port can monitor input levels. This project monitors the
resistance of a photocell connected to
one of the inputs. When darkness
falls, the lights turn on.
With a cadmium -sulfide photocell
connected between positions 13 and 18
of the terminal blocks on the Interface
Board, as the light intensity increases,
the cell's resistance decreases, to less
than 2,000 ohms with sufficient light
intensity. At this point, the control
port input switches from high to low.
Though you can connect the
photocell to any control port input, it
seems to be the most sensitive and
works best when connected from input pins 12, 13 and 15 to ground.
These pins have a lower positive voltage on them than the others and require less current to switch. If you
choose a different input from that in
the program, modify the program to
read the pin you use.
Some photocells are more sensitive
than others. A small paper tube can
help control light if the cell doesn't
January 1993
/
COMPUTERCRAFT
/
19
Table 2. Parallel Port Details for
LPT1
Hexadecimal
Address
Decimal
Address
Register
Type
03BC
03BD
03BE
956
957
958
Eight -Bit Output
Five -Bit Input
Four -Bit I/O
Table
3.
Port
Designation
LPT1
LPTI
LPT1
Details for Separate Parallel Printer Card
controls a coffee maker or other electrical appliance, again using the computer clock.
The third circuit (lines 80, 90 and
100) is controlled by a photocell and
switches dusk -to -dawn lights.
To use the program, plug correct
output address (956, 888 or 632) into
line 100. Line 80 shows INP(957) as
the input address. If your output address is 888, use INP(889). If your output address is 632, use INP(633).
More -Complex Control
Hexadecimal
Address
Decimal
Address
Register
Type
Designation
0378
0379
037A
0278
0279
027A
888
889
890
632
633
634
Eight -Bit Output
Five -Bit Input
Four -Bit I/O
Eight -Bit Output
Five -Bit Input
Four -Bit I/O
LPTI or LPT2
LPT1 or LPT2
LPTI or LPT2
LPT2 or LPT3
LPT2 or LPT3
LPT2 or LPT3
switch off under low light conditions.
Very bright light can drop the resistance of some cells to as low as 100
ohms. In complete darkness, a photocell typically has a resistance of several
megohms.
Input addresses are different from
output addresses. In Listing 2, note
that line 50 shows INP(957) as the input address. If your output address is
888 or 632, use INP(889) or INP(633),
respectively. Enter and save to disk
Listing 2 and then test it. This program
is similar to LIGHTEST.BAS above.
To test the program, connect your
Universal Interface Module between
positions 5 and 18 on the Interface
Board, run the program and cover the
photocell with your hand. The Appliance Module should switch on when
the photocell is in darkness.
Home Control. The program given
Port
in Listing 3 illustrates a very good way
to control devices around your home
with three separate switching circuits,
for which you need three Universal Interface Modules. One module connects between positions 2 and 18, a
second between positions 3 and 18 and
the last between positions 5 and 18 on
the Interface Board.
Make sure each Interface Module is
set to a different unit code number.
Also, switch the Appliance Modules
to the same unit code numbers as the
Interface Modules that control them.
One thing you can do with this arrangement is turn on and off an electric coffee maker. The first circuit
(lines 50 and 100 in Listing 3) controls
lights, using the PC's clock. To con-
trol switched lights, replace the
switches will Wall Switch Modules.
The second circuit (lines 60 and 100)
Table 4. Pin Connections to Main Output Port
DB -25 Pi n
Binary Code
Port Bit
Address Command
2
0000 0001
0000 0010
0000 0100
0000 1000
0001 0000
0010 0000
0100 0000
1000 0000
i)
OUT 956,1
OUT 956,2
OUT 956,4
OUT 956,8
OUT 956,16
OUT 956,32
OUT 956,64
OUT 956,128
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
20
/ COMPUTERCRAFT / January 1993
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
For more complex programs, you
need to know more about the parallel
port and how to control it. The parallel port is capable of reading up to nine
input ports and switching up to 12 output ports. As you can see, this permits
control of many things simultaneously.
If you wish to keep your printer output separate, you can install a second
parallel card as LPT2 for these projects. There are three port registers on
each card, including an eight -bit output port, five -bit input -only port and
four -bit input/output port. If you're
using a monochrome display card with
built-in parallel printer adapter, its address will probably be set at decimal
956, 957 and 958 (03BC, 03BD and
03BE hex), which your computer designates as LPT1, as in Table 2.
If you have a separate parallel printer card, its address will probably be
decimal 888, 889 and 890 or decimal
632, 633 and 634, as in Table 3.
Table 4 details pin connections to
the main output port (used to send
characters to the printer) and the
BASIC OUT command required to
send a high to this pin.
Line 100 of HOMECON.BAS in
Listing 3 illustrates how to do this.
Simply add the values that represent
the desired switch selection. For example, OUT 956,8+66+128 switches high
pins 5, 6 and 9. In a program, this could
be
stated
as
OUT
956,PIN5 + PIN6 + PIN9. If PINS =
and PIN6 = 0 and PIN9 = 128, only pin
9 would switch high.
When connecting to the main output of the parallel port, keep its current limitation in mind. Limit load
current to 1 mA when drawing current
from a high and to 10 mA when using
a port as a sink bit in the low condition. Absolute maximum ratings for
the parallel output port are 2.6 mA
sourcing and 24 mA sinking.
Say You Saw It In ComputerCraft
DEVELOP YOUR OWN MICRO CONTROLLER BASED PRODUCTS!
DESK-TOP MANUFACTURING
USING YOUR OWN PC COMPUTER!
PUT YOUR PC TO WORK DEVELOPING NEW PRODUCTS!
Why not use the Winter months constructively by developing a
new product based on the Motorola MC68HC705C8? Using
your PC computer and the Cyber HC5 as a development
system, you can now develop your own micro -controller
products more easily than ever before! Self-contained in a
JOIN THE 21st CENTURY REVOLUTION NOW!
Imagine being able to machine three dimensional parts in
wood, plastic and light metals! This easy to assemble CNC X,Y
& Z table turns a serial port on your computer and a standard
Dremel(tm) tool into a "Santa Claus" machine. The standard
18" by 18" by 6" Neuractor(tm) Linear Actuators translate CAD
generated files into actual working parts. Machine three
dimensional prototype or production parts. Drill printed circuit
boards, or use the CNC Neuractor in CMM applications. Cash in on this new revolution in computer peripherals.
Make
custom signs and plaques. Do advanced wood carvings, etc.
Comes complete with all electronic components, Boards, pre machined mechanical parts and stepper motors. (You supply
the Dremel!) A BASIC program controls the Neuractor CNC
directly from your PC computer. Accepts manual input or
reads ASCII files; only $549! Add $22.95 P&H. ORDER NOW!
professional enclosure with integral power supply, the Cyber
HC5 is fun and easy to build and use. Even if you have never
programmed in Assembler before, the Cyber HC5 will have you
"up and running" in no time! Completely supported with an
official Motorola documentation package, membership on their
BBS and FREEWARE Assembler and Programmer software, the
Cyber HC5 will serve you for years to come. Join thousands
of others who are busy building and using this remarkable new
device.
Complete kit and power supply is only $89.95!
MC68HC705C8S (EPROM type) $22.95 each! Add $6.60 P&H.
BUILD THIS DIGITAL VHF
DATA TRANSMITTER & RECEIVER!
MOVE INTO A CYANCE CHASSIS
AND ADD COMPUTER SLOTS!
IT'S TIME TO MAKE YOUR PC A POWER -HOUSE!
The Cyance Chassis and Cyance Expander offer the serious PC
computer user an upgrade path like no other. Tired of having
to reach around your PC to get at the cables and expansion
cards? The Cyance Chassis offers you exclusive UP -FRONT
access to your expansion cards and cables by remounting your
motherboard "backward" in the front of the chassis. As
featured on the cover of February '92 ComputerCraft, the
Cyance Chassis can also be used to house the Cyance
Expander.
This amazing kit uses an 8 slot passive
motherboard to expand your existing PC motherboard bus.
Imagine having those extra slots for additional cards! The
Cyance Chassis comes as a professional aluminum pre -painted
and assembled enclosure for $99.95. The Cyance Expander kit
is easy to assemble and comes complete with cables for
$169.95. Add $7.95 P&H for each. MC/Visa COD welcomed.
EXPERIMENT WITH DIGITAL RF DATA LINKS!
wanted to experiment with digital RF telemetry,
here's your chance! You choose either crystal control or digital
synthesizer for the VOICEDAT Receiver or Transmitter. Use
your PC computer to automatically select the transmit and
receive frequency. The VOICEDAT Receiver direct digital port
brings data straight out of the on -board data separator. Here
is your chance to build and use a professional long-range RF
link using the new "code -free" Communicator Class license.
The VOICEDAT system can also be used to transmit voice and
television pictures from your lab or in the field. Perfect for
mobile and remote sensing applications. The VOICEDAT can
also be used in conjunction with the Cyance Satellite Down Converter in L (C & Ku) Bands. Receiver (fixed freq.) only
$89.95! Transmitter (fixed freq.) only $114.95! Synthesizers are
$39.95 & $49.95 each. Add &6.60 TÍR P&H. Get yours today!
If you have ever
U.S. CYBERLAB
Call now to order! (501) 839-8293 Rt
2
Box 284, Cyber Rd., West Fork, AR 72774 Now over 60 kits!
CIRCLE NO.
166
ON
I
REE INFORMA
IION CARI)
Instead of Universal Interface Modules, an output can drive a 500-ohm,
5 -volt relay, provided the other side of
the relay is connected to + 5 volts. The
relay will close when a bit is low and
open when a bit is high. A 500 -ohm
relay draws less then 10 mA. Connecting it between an output pin and
ground would probably damage the
parallel port because it would draw
more than the 2.6 mA limit. You can
exceed these load limitations by buf-
5.
different inputs.
Connections to the five-bit input only port and the BASIC command
required to read a given bit are detailed
in Table 8. All read high but switch to
low if the pin is grounded. Bit 7 on pin
22
/ COMPUTERCRAFT / January 1993
Ports
DB -25 Pin
Binary Code
Port Bit
Address Command
1
1110
0
OUT 958,5
OUT 958,6
OUT 958,0
OUT 958,12
14
16
17
6.
fering the output circuit with a
74LS240 or 74LS244.
When using the four -bit input/output port for output, you can't use it for
input as well. This limits your inputs
to five. If you plan to drive a greater than -l -mA load, connect it between
the pin and + 5 volts so that it draws
current when the pin is switched low.
Sinking load current mustn't exceed 7
mA, unless you use a buffer. The address for this port is 958. Alternate addresses are 890 and 634.
Table 5 shows the OUT commands
required to individually switch low
each four-bit I/O port bits, while the
balance switch high. Most external
loads using this I/O port should return
to + 5 volts so that they operate when
the bit is low or sinking current. Table
6 shows the OUT command required to
individually switch high each of the
four -bit I/O bits, while the balance
switch low. The unusual address commands in Tables 5 and 6 are the result
of interaction between pins 16 and 17
and the fact that pin 16 is low when the
computer is turned on.
Until now, I've shown you how to
address the four -bit input/output port
for output. Now I'll show you how to
use this same port addressed for input.
Table 7 shows the port register connections and the BASIC command to use
to read this register.
Pin 17 can't normally be used as an
input because it comes up low when
your PC is turned on. The solution is
to insert OUT 958,4 in your program
prior to the above address commands
to cause the open state of pins 16 and
17 to be high. When high, inputs to
this port switch low after the input pin
is grounded. This port can read five
Commands Required to Switch Low Four -Bit 1,0
1101
1011
2
0111
3
1
Commands Required to Switch High Four -Bit I/O
DB -25 Pin
Binary Code
Port Bit
Address Command
OUT 958,10
OUT 958,9
OUT 958,15
OUT 958,3
0001
0
14
16
0010
0100
2
17
1000
3
11 can take several seconds to return
high after being grounded; so don't
use it if you want fast off response.
Each bit is normally high. Grounding an input pin to pin 18, forces low
the input bit. The programs here use
the format in the above INP statements
to check the high/low status of the input bit you select.
Many control applications require
information from the outside world to
respond, including but not limited to
measuring temperature, controlling a
heating system, connecting an electric
eye, sensing rain, measuring moisture
in your soil for watering your garden,
Table
DB -25 Pin
7.
1
Address Command
16
17
2
3
-
W = ((INP(958) AND 1)=0)
1N14 = ±((INP(958) AND 2)=0)
1N16 =
((INP(958) AND 4)=4)
1N 17 =
((INP(958) AND 8) = 0)
1
1
reading humidity or wind speed and
monitoring a burglar/fire alarm. The
simplest monitoring application is to
see if the condition of an external
switch is open or closed.
To make a burglar alarm, put normally -open switches on windows and
doors and connect them in parallel.
Connect one side of the switches to an
input pin, the other to the ground pin,
and have the computer sound an
alarm if a switch closes.
The Input Test Program given in
Listing 4 illustrates how to read all
nine inputs and print on -screen the
status of each. It serves as the basis for
Using the Four -Bit I/O Port for Input
Port Bit
14
Ports
Open State
High
High
High
High
Table 8. Using the Five -Bit Input -Only Port
DB -25 Pin
Port Bit
Address Command
State
15
Bit 3
Bit 4
Bit 5
Bit 6
Bit 7
IN 15 =
((INP(957) AND 8)=8)
IN 13 =
((INP(957) AND 16) = 16)
IN 12 =
((INP(957) AND 32) = 32)
INI0 = -((INP(957) AND 64)=64)
IN11 =
((INP(957) AND 128)=0)
-
High
High
High
High
High
13
12
10
11
-
Say You Saw It In ComputerCraft
Table 9. Parallel -Port
Listing 4. Input Test Program
Measurements
10 CLS
:
KEY OFF
20 PRINT "Test all
Inputs port test program. 'INPTEST.BAS""
PRINT "Test program used to check input status."
PRINT
PRINT "As this program runs, touch a wire between ground"
PRINT "and each of the following pins respectively."
PRINT
PRINT "Notice each input goes to '0, (Lo), when it is grounded."
PRINT
PRINT "Use Ctrl -Break to stop program."
100 OUT 958,4
REM Required to raise bit 3 high.
110 REM
Read the input port registers
120 REM IN numbers are the same as the pin numbers
130 IN1 = -((INP(958) AND 1)=0)
REM Address 958, Bit 0
140 IN14 = -((INP(958) AND 2)=0)
REM Address 958, Bit 1
150 IN16 = -((INP(958) AND 4)=4)
REM Address 958, Bit 2
160 IN17 = -((INP(958) AND 8)=0)
REM Address 958, Bit 3
170 IN15 = -((INP(957) AND 8)=8)
REM Address 957, Bit 3
180 IN13 = -((INP(957) AND 16)=16)
REM Address 957, Bit 4
190 IN12 = -((INP(957) AND 32)=32)
REM Address 957, Bit 5
200 IN10 = -((INP(957) AND 64)=64)
REM Address 957, Bit 6
210 IN11 = -((INP(957) AND 128)=0)
REM Address 957, Bit 7
220 LOCATE 11,1
230 PRINT "Pin #1 Address 958 (Bit 0) = ";IN1
240 PRINT "Pin #14 Address 958 (Bit 1) = ";IN14
250 PRINT "Pin #16 Address 958 (Bit 2) = ";IN16
260 PRINT "Pin #17 Address 958 (Bit 3) = ";IN17
270 PRINT "Pin #15 Address 957 (Bit 3) = ";IN15
280 PRINT "Pin #13 Address 957 (Bit 4) = ";IN13
290 PRINT "Pin #12 Address 957 (Bit 5) = ";IN12
300 PRINT "Pin #10 Address 957 (Bit 6) = ";IN10
310 PRINT "Pin #11 Address 957 (Bit 7) = ";IN11
320 GOTO 110
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
:
:
Pin
1
14
16
17
:
Current*
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
mA
mA
1 mA
mA
0.5 mA
0.03 mA
0.3 mA
0.3 mA
0.3 mA
13
1.5
1.7
1.5
1.5
15
1.1
10
11
12
:
:
Voltage
1
1
1
:
:
:
*When pin is grounded
:
:
:
further experiments you may wish to
Line 210 sets the next print position
on the screen.
Lines 220 through 300 print the results on the screen.
Line 310 puts the program in a continuous loop, reading the inputs.
Notice that the pin number is as-
make. Switch to BASIC, type in Listing 4 and save this program under the
file name "INPTEST,A." Alternate
addresses are 890 or 634 in place of 958
and 889 or 633 in place of 957.
Line 10 clears the screen.
Line 100's OUT 958,4 statement sets
high bit 3.
Lines 120 through 200 read the input ports.
signed to the IN number for easy
reference. For example, IN14 means
input on pin 14. When you run this
program, the on -screen display should
Input port test program. 'INPTEST.BAS'
Test program used to check input status.
As this program runs, touch a wire between ground
and each of the following pins respectively.
Notice each input goes to '0'
(Lo),
when it
is
grounded.
be as shown in Fig. 4. In this example,
pin 13 shows 0 because it's grounded.
Measure and record the voltage and
current between each input pin and
ground pin 18. made measurements
on my computer with the input pins
high (nothing connected). Depending
on the particular computer you're using, your results may be different from
those given for one parallel port on my
computer shown in Table 9.
Grounding an input pin causes current to flow. If you're going to be
monitoring inputs on a permanent
basis and an input current exceeds 0.5
mA, place a 470- or 1,000- ohm resistor in series with the input pin.
Dedicating a computer for the sole
purpose of home control is worthwhile, especially if you have an old
computer you haven't used for a while
or can get one at very low cost. Leaving a computer that lacks a hard drive
operating around the clock is economical, too. Just keep the video monitor
turned off until you need to read a
I
screen display.
The projects described here and
others you dream up can be great fun
in addition to providing state-of-theart control of the electrical devices in
your home.
Use Ctrl -Break to stop program
Pin
Pin
Pin
Pin
Pin
Pin
Pin
Pin
Pin
#1 Address 958 (Bit 0) =
#14 Address
#16 Address
#17 Address
#15 Address
#13 Address
#12 Address
#10 Address
#11 Address
958
958
958
958
958
958
958
958
(Bit
(Bit
(Bit
(Bit
(Bit
(Bit
(Bit
(Bit
1) =
2) =
3) =
1
1
1
1
3) = 1
4) = 0
5) = 1
6) = 1
7) = 1
Fig. 4. Screen display obtained when the program in Listing 4 is run.
Say You Saw It In ComputerCraft
Raymond H. Green
January 1993 /
COMPUTERCRAFT
/
23
Application
By
Jan Axelson
Options for 8051
Microcontrollers
BASIC -52
Options available to BASIC -52 users and a circuit that
places the BASIC -52 interpreter in battery -backed
nonvolatile RAM, EEPROM or EPROM to permit use of a
low-cost 8032 chip
ntel's 8052 -BASIC microcontrollerI has long been popular
because its full -featured, embedded
BASIC -52 programming language
makes it easy to get a project up and
running quickly. With the 8052 -BASIC chip, you don't need a large investment in development tools or a lot of
programming experience because
BASIC is easy to learn and use.
Since the 8052 -BASIC was introduced in the mid -1980s, development
of products relating to BASIC -52 has
become a small industry in itself.
Several variants of the original chip
have appeared, including a low -power
CMOS version and low-cost and enhanced BASICs in external EPROMs.
Also available are BASIC -52-compatible compilers and other development
software.
In this article, I'll take you on a tour
of the options available to BASIC -52
users, including a BASIC 31 EPROM
that executes on low-cost 8031 micro controllers, and provide you with a
circuit and instructions for placing the
BASIC -52 interpreter in a battery backed or nonvolatile (NV) RAM,
EEPROM or EPROM that you can
then use with a low-cost 8032 chip.
BASIC -52 History
It all started with Intel's 8052AHBASIC chip. This is an 8052 micro controller with a BASIC interpreter
mask -programmed into its 8K on -chip
ROM. The chip costs $25 to $35 in
single quantity and is available from
many mail-order sources. The
8052AH-BASIC chip, a static RAM
chip, personal computer, serial interface and a few other components form
24
/
COMPUTERCRAFT
/ January 1993
a complete development system for
8052-based microcontroller projects.
Using a PC's keyboard and video
screen, you can write, run and debug
BASIC -52 programs. By adding an
EPROM, a programming voltage and
related components, you can even
save your BASIC programs in
EPROM and configure the system to
run the BASIC program automatically on power -up. You then can disconnect the serial link to the PC and use
the 8052 -BASIC circuit as a standalone system.
The BASIC-52 interpreter has more
capabilities than you might expect
would fit into 8K. Its floating-point
math capabilities let you calculate with
decimal fractions, rather than being
limited to whole numbers as other
ROM -based BASICs require.
BASIC -52 also permits string variables and includes real-time clock instructions, a pulse -width -modulated
output and many other functions useful for controller projects.
The main drawback of BASIC -52 is
its slow execution speed. When a
BASIC -52 program runs, the BASIC
interpreter must read each line of
BASIC code and translate it into
assembly language for execution on
the 8052. Toggling a port bit takes
microseconds in assembly language
but milliseconds in BASIC -52. If
necessary, you can write high-speed
routines in assembly language and call
them from a BASIC-52 program.
Two BASIC -52 manuals are available, Intel's original MCS BASIC -52
User's Manual (No. 270010-003) and
a re -write of this from Systronix titled
BASIC -52 Programming. Each costs
$15 and covers much of the same ma-
terial. The Systronix manual contains
more example code, while the Intel
manual includes circuit schematics.
If you're interested in seeing the
source code for the BASIC -52 interpreter, you can download it from Intel's BBS (it's number was scheduled
to change in October 1992 to 916-3563605). The source code is in the public
domain, and you're free to use or
adapt it as you wish in your own projects. To modify the code, you'll also
need an Intel ASM51 or compatible
assembler.
For experimenting with BASIC-52,
you can buy a ready-made printed -circuit board with an 8052 -BASIC chip
or you can build your own circuit. The
buyers guide in the November 1992
ComputerCraft described several
BASIC -52 boards, both assembled
and in kit form. If you'd rather build
your own from scratch, sources for
schematics include Q -Line Productions, Pure Unobtainium (schematic
included in parts kit) and the Intel
BASIC -52 manual.
As an alternative to the 8052AHBASIC, Micromint offers its 80C52 BASIC for $25, which is a low-power
CMOS 80052 chip with a BASIC interpreter in ROM, just like the
original. Maximum power -supply current for the 80052 is just 30 mA, compared to the 8052AH's 175 mA. The
80052 also has power -saving idle and
power -down modes.
BASIC -52 in External Memory
The ROM -based BASIC -52 is convenient, but it can get expensive, since
you have to buy the special, higher -
Say You Saw It In ComputerCraft
\\\\\\\\
O.- N n.f 1Mof
poop...
< << << <<<
\\\\\\
o
r NIrY< 1n m
000lDoopo
««««
-Nnt)mhm01
O-NnYIn10h
D D p. D p p p
-Nnlnmhmrn
««<«<
NnN)IO1m
00000000
\\\\\\\
Nn1.IOhm
0 00 0 0 0 00
u-
.-Nnlnmhm0l
<
NnKI!)mhm
000
0 0 0 00
N Ct
N1 h
(O
N
N
Y
O
O-Nn<mhmO)
In
zU
2-Nnelnmhm0l92
< ..... < < < < < U
OQ cla
e7I[yI
001 m h
kVNÑÑNN NN
O
m0) 0
op
<<
KK
0
<
j1luÿ.+1
N
N
WUN
I"I;ZU
/J
pI*zu
0minwnNN
Olmh
o a m h m In ,nNNNNNN
C>
O
O
W
V)
0-
Qop-T
\\\\\
««<
.....
H
O
O
a.
O
K
0
>0+
m
Z
L"
<OK
gr;
o««<
\\\\.
oQ-9=ry
>
.0--
««««
\,\..\\\.\\
O
O-NnaintO1
////////
N
<
N
n .r
+
In m
< < 4<<
\\\.\\.\\
O-Nn+hlnm
<<<<««
0 03 N I() m
O -N,<.., n
oaa0000a h
M
o1
N1t)
U
O -N,<..,
D D D DD D DD
<
h
Y
Z
<
O
h
S
2
0
N
O
0
O
Q'
S
Y
m
O
O
m
1,A,
<
e
<
N
+
m O
S
00
00
S
O
0
O
Z
á
D
<
n
<
N
O
0
O
S
2
S
<
U
W
O
O
O
l7m 4
4,
I>
U
m
N
n
^
<
In
O
O
O
O
O
O
U
4
IY
Iz_
(9
0-
".-c
/77/7/7/
<nN.-Oáó
<<<<<<<
<
rn)l
N
n
r11
mhml()wnNN NNNNNNNN
01
< Z hmin<nNmO
o-NneInmh
N NN N N NN
00000000
aaaaaaaa W WIna Naaaaaaaa
J<<J
I-ONnI!)mh
V)nnnnnnnn
¢aaaaaaaa XX
1*144-iwi
CO
H
xX
+i7/
W
.3
>
N
rn
UNÓ
m
,O
2,15
L J
<
N H
X
W
N
KN
D
X
Lo_
CC
hÑ
U
01
Fig. 1. With this circuit, you can copy the BASIC -52 interpreter from ROM to external nonvolatile RAM.
Say You Saw It In ComputerCraft
January 1993
/
COMPUTERCRAFT
/
25
PARTS LIST
Semiconductors
D1 -1N914 or similar silicon signal
diode
U1-8052AH-BASIC or 80052 -BASIC
(can be replaced by 80(C)32 or 80(C)52
after copying BASIC -52; see text)
U2-74HC373, 74HCT373 or 74LS373
octal latch
U3-74HCT08 or 74LS08 quad AND
gate
U4-MAX232 RS232 interface
U5-74HCT 138 or 74LS 138 3 -to -8 -line
decoder
U6,U8-DS1225 64K (8K) battery backed static RAM, DS1213 or
DS 1216 28 -pin SmartSocket with 6264
8K static RAM installed or 2864 or
2865 8K EEPROM (access time 250 ns
or less)
U7-6264 8K static RAM
Capacitors (16 -volt)
C1 -10-µF aluminum or tantalum
electrolytic
C2 thru C6 -0.1-µF ceramic disc
C7,C8-20-pF ceramic disc
C9 thru C12 -1-µF aluminum or tan-
talum electrolytic
Resistors ('/4 -watt, 507o tolerance)
R1 thru R9-10,000 ohms
Miscellaneous
J1-Three-position jumper
SI-Spst momentary -action pushbutton
switch
XTAL1-12-MHz crystal (see text)
Printed -circuit board or perforated
board and Wire Wrap or soldering
hardware (see text); DIP sockets (required for U6 and U8 and recommended for other ICs); DB -25 or other
RS -232 connector
priced 8052 -BASIC chip for each system you build. To get around this, you
can place the BASIC-52 interpreter in
an external EPROM and then use the
EPROM with a lower -cost 8032,
which is identical to the 8052, except
that it has no internal ROM. Of
course, with this approach you have
the added expense of the EPROM and
its socket and wiring, but you can still
come out ahead, since the 8032 sells
for as low as $3.
Iota Systems offers two EPROMS
for use with its EC -series boards:
BASIC -52 for $15 and BASIC -52
PLUS for $25. BASIC-52 PLUS adds
monitor -type commands for displaying, filling and changing internal and
external memory and uploading and
downloading Intel hex files. The
26
/ COMPUTERCRAFT / January 1993
PROG and FPROG commands in these
BASICs save a program to NV RAM
or EEPROM but not to EPROM.
Source code is also available.
For those who would rather do it
themselves, the schematic diagram
shown in Fig. 1 illustrates a circuit you
can use to copy the BASIC -52 code
from an 8052 -BASIC chip into a NV
RAM. You then can use the NV RAM
as the BASIC interpreter in projects
that contain an 8032. This circuit is
similar to many other 8052 -BASIC
designs. Chip Ul is an 8052-BASIC,
which you can replace with an 8032
after you copy the BASIC interpreter.
Like all 8052s, the 8052 -BASIC accesses separate data and code memory
areas, with PSEN accessing the readonly code memory, and READ and
WRITE accessing data memory. An
AND gate combines PSEN and READ
to create a RDANY signal that's active
when data or code memory is read.
The circuit has three memory sites,
each of which holds an 8K device.
Chip U6 is an 8K NV RAM that occupies code memory from 0 to 1FFFh.
When an NV RAM containing the
BASIC -52 interpreter is placed at U6
and pin 31 of Ul is jumpered to GND,
BASIC -52 runs automatically on power -up. Chip U7 is an 8K static RAM
that occupies data memory from 0 to
FFFh. This is included because
BASIC -52 requires at least 1K of
RAM beginning at 0 in data memory.
Chip U8 holds another NV RAM,
at 8000h in combined data/code memory. This site is used for permanent
storage of BASIC programs, duplicating the function of the EPROM in a
regular 8052 -BASIC system.
Other circuit components include
74HCT138 3 -to -8 -line U5 decoder
that divides the 64K memory area into
eight 8K blocks, each of which has its
own chip -enable signal, although only
0 and 8000h are used in this circuit.
74HC373 octal latch U2 latches the
low address byte (AO through A7) on
the multiplexed data/address bus.
1
MAX232 U4 provides a serial interface to a PC. You'll also need a regulated + 5 volts at 0.5 ampere to power
the project.
I built the Fig.
circuit on perforated board using Wire Wrap hardware
and techniques. You could also use
point-to-point wiring and solder components and leads or design and make
a printed -circuit board.
1
Here are a few tips to keep in mind
when assembling the Fig. 1 circuit:
You must use sockets for U6 and U8
because you'll move the NV RAM
from the U8 to the U6 socket after programming. Use a socket for UI as well
to permit replacing the 8052AH-BASIC chip with an 8032.
Wire a jumper or switch to pin 31 of
UI to permit tying this pin to + 5V or
GND. This allows you to select booting
from internal or external memory.
Except for U4, V + power -supply
and ground pins for ICs aren't indicated in Fig. 1. These are in their traditional locations, with the highest numbered pin connecting to + 5 volts
and the diagonally opposite pin connecting to ground.
Space decoupling capacitors C2
through C5 evenly across the board.
Wire U4 exactly as shown. Connect
the positive (+) terminal of C12 to
ground because pin 6 of U4 is at 10
volts. Also note the non-standard
ground location at pin 15 on U4. Wire
RS232 OUT, RS232 IN and RS232 GND to
a connector that mates with your PC's
serial cable.
To connect to a typical male 25 -pin
DB -25 serial connector, use a female
DB -25 connector and wire pin 13 of
U4 to pin 2 on the DB -25, pin 14 of U4
to pin 3 and pin 15 of U4 to pin 7.
Check your serial port's documentation, since pinouts can vary.
The crystal frequency isn't critical.
Any value from 3.5 MHz to 12 MHz
should work.
For NV RAM, you can use Dallas
Semiconductor's DS1225 or the
DS1213 or DS 1216 SmartSocket with
a 6264 static RAM installed. A Smart Socket contains a battery-backup circuit in a socket into which you plug a
6264 or similar 8K static RAM. Use
separate NV RAMs to store the BASIC -52 interpreter at U6 and BASIC -52
programs at U8. NV RAMs and
SmartSockets are available from parts
distributors, or order parts and a data
book directly from Dallas Semiconductor, with no minimum order.
-
Copying & Using BASIC -52
Now I'll describe how to use the Fig.
circuit to copy the BASIC -52 interpreter to NV RAM and then detail
how to use your new BASIC -52 in ex1
ternal memory. These instructions
assume that you have some experience
using the 8052 -BASIC chip.
Say You Saw It In ComputerCraft
Listing
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
1.
BASIC -52 Program for Copying from
Internal ROM to External RAM
PRINT "copying BASIC -52 from ROM to RAM at 8000h..."
FOR I=0 TO 1FFFH
XBY(I+8000H)=CBY(I)
NEXT I
PRINT "verifying..."
X=0
FOR I=0 TO 1FFFH
IF XBY(I+8000H)<>CBY(I) THEN GOSUB 120
NEXT I
PRINT "Copy successful"
IF X=0 THEN
END
PHO. "Error at location ",I
X=1
RETURN
Begin by configuring and running
the circuit as a normal BASIC -52 system. Install an 8052AH-BASIC or
80052 -BASIC chip in the UI socket
and a DS1225 or equivalent in the U8
space bar on your PC's keyboard to
see the BASIC -52 sign -on message.
Listing 1 is a BASIC -52 program
that copies the BASIC -52 interpreter
from the 8052 -BASIC's internal pro-
socket. Leave the U6 socket vacant for
now, but install the other components
as labeled. Jumper pin 31 of UI to + 5
volts so that this chip will boot to its
internal ROM.
As with other BASIC -52 circuits,
plug the 8052-BASIC circuit's serial
connector into a serial port on your
gram memory (0 to 1 FFFh) into U8.
Enter the program and run it as you
would any BASIC -52 program. You
should now have the BASIC -52 interpreter stored in the NV RAM at U8.
To test your new component, power
down the circuit and disconnect the
serial link. Remove the DS1225 from
the U8 socket and install it in the U6
socket. If you use a SmartSocket, be
sure to remove it along with the RAM
installed in it, to preserve the battery
back-up.
Jumper pin 31 of Ul to ground to
PC and run your communications
software or terminal emulator with
eight data bits, one stop bit and one
parity bit. BASIC -52 automatically
detects the baud rate. Power up the
8052 circuit and, as usual, press the
Listing 2. BASIC -52 Program Simulates PROG
and
PROG-
Commands
8990
END
9000
PRINT "Press 'P' to copy the current BASIC program to
RAM at 8000h."
9010
PRINT "Press 'Q' to quit."
9020
G=GET
9030
G=GET
IF G=0 THEN 9030
9040
IF (G<>80.AND.G<>112) THEN END
9050
XBY(8010H)=55H
9060
FOR X=200H TO (200H+LEN)
9070
XBY(X+7E11H)=XBY(X)
9080
NEXT X
9090
PRINT "Press a number from 1 to 6 to do PROG1-PROG6."
91D0
PRINT "Press 'Q' to quit."
9110 G=GET
9120
G=GET
IF G=0 THEN 9120
9130
IF (G<49.OR.G>54) THEN END
9140
XBY(8000H)=G
9150
XBY(8001H)=INT(RCAP2/256)
9160
XBY(8002H)=RCAP2-(XBY(8001H)*256)
9170
END
IF G<50 THEN
9180 XBY(8003H)=INT(MTOP/256)
9190
XBY(8004H)=MTOP-(XBY(8003H)*256)
9200
END
:
:
Say You Saw It In ComputerCraft
force the 8052 to boot to external
memory at U6. If you wish, you can
now replace the 8052 -BASIC chip
with a ROM -less 8032 or 80C32, since
you no longer need BASIC -52 in
ROM. You can also use any 8052 or
80052 microcontroller.
Reconnect the serial link, power up
the circuit and press the space bar, as
before. You should see the same sign on message, and BASIC -52 should
function exactly as before, with one
main exception. BASIC -52's PROG
and FPROG commands, which store
programs in EPROM, will no longer
work because BASIC -52 uses the address and data lines as I/O ports with
these commands. When BASIC-52 executes from external memory, these
lines are needed to access U6.
In -circuit EPROM programming
isn't possible. But there's another way
to store programs, which I've adapted
from one of Micromint's application
notes for its RTC52 board. Install a
second NV RAM in the U8 socket.
Write and test your BASIC programs
as usual. When you want to store a
program permanently, append the
code in Listing 2 to your program. The
code is shown beginning at line 9000,
but it can begin at any line number
after the END statement in the program you want to save.
Let's take a quick run-through of
2 to familiarize you with
what's going on as it runs:
Line 8990 indicates the end of the program you want to save.
Lines 9000 through 9040 have the user
press "P" to copy the current
BASIC -52 program to NV RAM at U8
or "Q" to quit without copying.
Line 9050 has 55h indicate to the interpreter that a BASIC program follows.
Lines 9060 through 9080 copy the current
BASIC -52 program, which is stored
beginning at 200h in external data
memory U7, to NV RAM U8, beginning at 8011h. These lines (beginning
at 8990) are also copied as part of the
current program.
Lines 9090 through 9130 have the user
press a number from to 6 to simulate
a BASIC -52 PROG1 through PROG6
command or press "Q" to quit without executing a PROG-.
Lines9140 through 9190 have the PROGsimulation store the PROG- value,
RCAP2 upper and lower bytes (for
saving the baud rate) and MTOP upper and lower bytes, as requested. (See
Listing
1
January 1993
/
COMPUTERCRAFT
/
27
the BASIC -52 manuals for more on
the PROG- commands).
To store a program in U8, type
GOTO 9000, where 9000 is the line
number at which Listing 2 begins, and
follow the on -screen instructions. The
code can simulate all of the PROG
functions, including automatic execution on power-up, setting baud rate
and saving MTOP.
This technique stores only the current program, not multiple programs
like the original PROG command. But
you can store a new program whenever you wish by writing over the previously stored program. And you
don't have to worry about removing
and erasing an EPROM when it has
been filled.
You now have a BASIC -52 system
without the 8052AH-BASIC chip. If
you want to store BASIC -52 or your
BASIC -52 programs in EPROM, you
can do so with many EPROM programmers. Configure the EPROM
programmer to read a DS1225 RAM
or, if this option isn't available, a 2764
EPROM, since the pinouts for reading
these two devices are equivalent. Place
the DS1225 or SmartSocket and RAM
in the programmer's socket and read
the contents into the programmer's
buffer.
Remove the DS1225 or SmartSocket from the programmer. Be sure not
to subject the DS1225 to any EPROM
programming voltages, which would
be lethal to it. Plug a 2764 EPROM into the programmer's socket, and program the EPROM with the buffer's
contents. You now have an EPROM
with the same contents as your NV
RAM and can use it just like the NV
RAM at U6 or U8, except that U8 is
now write -protected.
You can also use 8K EEPROMs at
U6 and U8. Many modern EEPROMs
operate entirely from a single + 5 -volt
supply and function much like NV
RAMs. That is, you can read from and
write to them, and they retain their
contents when power is removed. The
main thing to be careful about with
EEPROMs is their write cycle time
(minimum time between write cycles).
Typical values are 2 and 10 ms. For an
EEPROM with a 10 -ms write cycle
time, writing to 8192 (IFFFh) locations should take at least 82 seconds.
To slow down Listings and 2 to
give a longer delay between writes, after each XBY statement, call a subrou1
28
/ COMPUTERCRAFT / January 1993
tine that contains the "do-nothing"
loop "FOR J = to 2:NEXT J" or
something similar.
If you design your own circuits using BASIC -52 in external EPROM,
remember that each circuit must have
the following:
Any 8052, 8032, 80052 or 80C32
microcontroller chip.
BASIC -52 stored in non-volatile
memory (NV RAM, EEPROM or
EPROM), beginning at 0 in code
memory.
At least 1K of read/write memory
(RAM), beginning at 0 in data
memory.
For permanent storage of BASIC -52
1
programs, non-volatile memory
beginning at 8000h in data or
data/code memory.
One other thing to be aware of is
that, on power -up, BASIC-52 examines and clears contiguous data
memory beginning at 0. In Fig. 1,
BASIC -52 clears only U7 and ignores
U8, since no data memory exists from
2000h to 7FFFh. This enables you to
save BASIC -52 programs in U8
without loss on powering down.
If you design a circuit with a 32K
RAM at 0 on power -up, BASIC -52
clears an NV RAM at 8000h unless
you do one of the following: in
BASIC -52, set MTOP to 32767
(7FFFh) and use Listing 2 to do a
PROG3, -4, -5 or -6 to instruct
BASIC -52 not to clear memory beyond 7FFFh; install a jumper that ties
pin 27 of U8 to + 5 volts, preventing
writes to U8; or use an EPROM at U8
when your program is debugged and
requires no more changes.
BASIC 31
Figure requires an 8032 or 8052
1
chip-not
an 8031 or 8051-mainly
because the BASIC -52 interpreter uses
TIMER 2, which the 8031/51 doesn't
have. But the 8031 and 80C31 are
more widely available than the 80(C)32
and often cost less. If you want to use
8031s, there's a solution. Reader
Ronald Papasso has developed a version of BASIC -52, which he calls
BASIC 31, that runs from an external
EPROM using an 8031 or 80C31. He
created the code by modifying and
reassembling the original BASIC -52
source code.
Projects Ronald has created using
BASIC 31 include a loop -back tester
for data and voice telephone carrier
lines, special effects controller for
radio -controlled aircraft, phase locked -loop tester and battery cycler.
He offers two versions, BASIC 31 and
VBASIC 31 at $25 each, as programmed EPROMs. User's manuals
($6) summarize in 20 pages hardware
requirements, BASIC 31's differences
from BASIC -52 and BASIC 31 commands and statements and include a
sample schematic.
Also available is a kit that contains
a bare BASIC 31 printed -circuit board
and assembly manual for $41. Write
for a complete price list (see Sources
box at end of article).
VBASIC 31 differs from BASIC 31
mainly in that the interrupt vectors are
relocated from 4003h through 4023h
to 8010h through 801Ch. Thus, you
don't have to add program memory at
4000h if you write your own assemblylanguage interrupt routines. BASIC
31 retains the original BASIC -52
interrupt-vector locations. VBASIC
also replaces BASIC-52's > prompt
with to prevent the problems some
communications programs have in
distinguishing when the > symbol is
meant as a greater -than operator and
when it's used as the prompt.
Creating BASIC 31 from BASIC -52
involved several challenges:
As in Fig. 1, the original PROG and
FPROG commands won't work when
the BASIC interpreter is in external
memory. So PROG and FPROG were
revised to use ordinary write instructions that copy a program to an NV
RAM or EEPROM. You can use
PROG and FPROG without having to
add EPROM -programming components or voltages to your circuits.
FPROG waits ms between write
cycles, and PROG waits 50 ms to accommodate EEPROMs that require
longer delays.
Another challenge in creating BASIC 31 was that BASIC -52 uses TIMER
2 in its baud -rate generator for the
serial port. TIMER 2 is a 16 -bit timer,
and the 8031 has only two eight -bit
timers, TIMER 0 and TIMER 1. In
BASIC 31, the baud -rate generator
and associated code were rewritten to
use TIMER 1.
Because TIMER I is just eight bits
wide, BASIC 31's automatic baud detection isn't as capable at adjusting to
different baud rates, but it's adequate
for most purposes. The BASIC 31
1
Say You Saw It In ComputerCraft
Sources
Binary Technology
P.O. Box
541
Carlisle, MA 01741
Tel.: 508-369-9556
CIRCLE NO. 102 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
Dallas Semiconductor
4350 S. Beltwood Pkwy.
Dallas, TX 75244-3292
Tel.: 214-450-0400
Orders: 1-800-336-6933
CIRCLE NO. 103 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
Intel Books
P.O. Box 7641
Mt. Prospect, IL 60056-7641
Tel.: 1-800-548-4725
CIRCLE NO. 104 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
Moving the baud -rate generator to
TIMER 1 creates new problems
because BASIC -52's PWM, LIST-,
PRINT-, PROG and FPROG all use
TIMER 1. In BASIC 31, these now use
TIMER 0, as does the real-time clock;
so only one of these functions can be
used at a time.
on these boards differs slightly from
the original.
A final possibility is Micromint's
ROM A and B ($100), which add an
assembler, monitor commands, line
renumbering and other utilities to
BASIC -52 systems.
Other BASIC -52 Options
Next time, I plan to answer a variety
of questions submitted by readers over
the past several months.
To complete this roundup of
BASIC -52 tools and options, you
should be aware that compilers and
development systems are also available. BASIC -52 -compatible compilers
include Binary Technology's BXC51
($295) and Systronix's BCI51 ($299).
Compiled programs execute faster
Iota Systems
P.O. Box 8987
than interpreted programs and
Incline Village, NV 89450
Tel.: 702-831-6302; fax: 702-831-4629
CIRCLE NO. 105 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
MDL Labs
1073 Limberlost Ct.
Columbus, OH 43235
Tel./fax: 614-431-2675
CIRCLE NO. 106 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
Micro Future
40944 Cascado Pl.
Fremont, CA 94539
Tel.: 510-657-0264; fax: 510-657-5441
CIRCLE NO. 107 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
Micromint
4 Park St.
Vernon, CT 06066
Tel.: 203-871-6170; fax: 203-872-2204
CIRCLE NO. 108 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
Ronald V. Papasso
P.O. Box 611
Atco, NJ 08004
eliminate the need to store the BASIC
interpreter in -circuit.
If you like the convenience of the
BASIC -52 interpreter but long for a
more -elegant development environment than BASIC -52 offers, several
alternatives are available. Micro
Future's BDT52 ($199) and MDL
Labs' BASIKIT ($150) include features like block editing, structured
modules, elimination of line numbers,
stripping of comments, on-line help,
debugging tools, communications
software and conversion of BASIC -52
programs to hex files for EPROM
programming. BASIKIT also has versions that are compatible with Blue
Earth's Micro -440 and Iota Systems'
EC -series boards, since the BASIC -52
Moving On
Ifyou have comments, suggestions or
questions relating to designing, building and programming microcontrollers or other small, dedicated computers, contact me on Compuserve at
71163 ,3555 or by writing to me at
ComputerCraft, 76 North Broadway,
Hicksville, NY 11801. Questions of interest to all may be published and
answered in this space. For a personal
reply by mail, please include a selfaddressed stamped envelope.
Jan Axelson
CIRCLE NO. 109 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
Pure Unobtainium
P.O. Box 285
Tolland, CT 06084
Tel./fax: 203-870-9304
CIRCLE NO. 110 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
Q -Line Productions
P.O. Box 393
Sharon, WI 53585
CIRCLE NO.
111 ON
DR. "CHIP" MUNK SAYS
805/ 68HC05
DEVELOPMENTI 68HC11
TOOLS
QUALITY end SERVICE
AFFORDABILITY
a
FREE INFORMATION CARD
Systronix
754 E. Roosevelt Ave.
P.O. Box 526398
Salt Lake City, UT 84152-6398
Tel.: 801-487-7412; fax: 801-487-3130
CIRCLE NO. 112 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
I
"Chip" experts agree with Dr. Munk.
TECI's PC based microcontroller development tools are the most cost effective
for veterans or beginners.
6805 PRIMER FOR BEGINNERS
$195.00
6805/68HC05/68HC11 CROSS ASSEMBLERS
$99.00
6805/68HC05 SIMULATOR / DEBUGGERS
$99.00
68705P3,P5,U3,U5,R3,R5 PROGRAMMERS FROM $349.00
manual lists ranges of allowable
crystals at different baud rates. At
higher baud rates, the ranges are more
restricted. You can use the popular
11.059 -MHz crystal at all common
baud rates from 300 to 19,200.
68HC705/68HC805 PROGRAMMERS FROM $395.00
COMPLETE PC BASED DEY. SYSTEMS FROM $449.00
68HC05/6811C11 REAL TIME EMULATORS FROM $895.00
TEC1=
CALL TOLL FREE 1-800-336-8321
The Engineers Collaborative, Inc.
Rt #3 Box 8C, Barton, VT 05822
USA
TEL:(802)525-3458
FAX:(802)525-3451
CIRCLE NO. 152 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
Say You Saw It In ComputerCraft
f3oardMokcr
PC Layout software for MS-DOS machines
BoardMaker 1 - Entry level
(no net Ilst Input)
$ 95.
PCB and schematic drafting
Easy and Intuitive to use
Ground plane copper fill
BoardMaker 2 - Advanced level $295.
All the features of BM1 PLUS:
Full netlist support - OrCad, others
Full Design Rull Checking
BoardMaker 2 with Boardßouter $495.
Simultaneous multi - layer routing
SMD and Analog support
Full Interrupt, pan, zoom while routing
Output drivers - included as standard
Laser, Postscript, 9 & 24 pin printers
Penplotters - Photopiotters - NC Drill
Call for Info or FREE evaluation kit
Call (800) 626-4460 Advanced
Systems
FAX (603) 635-3918 Design, Inc,
Mastercard and Visa accepted
Pelham, NH
CIRCLE NO. 126 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
January 1993
/
COMPUTERCRAFT /
31
SPECIAL
FR
'p The
World of PC Sound
y
By Tom Benford
When
designers of the original
IBM PC made a list of essential features to build into the machine,
sound was apparently at the bottom of
it. The PC contained only a wimpish
2" speaker that's capable of producing little more than a "beep" sound.
This shortcoming was filled by the Apple Macintosh, Atari and Commodore
Amiga models, which took the sonic
route. In time, however, things
changed.
With a sound board, you can immediately enter the world of multimedia, for example, whether you're a
staunch DOS user or you run everything under Windows. Digitized voice
narration, sound effects and music
can all be added and blended with
graphics, text and even animated sequences to make presentations, applications and programs come alive with
sound as well as sight.
The ability to digitally sample your
own voice, sounds and music gives
computing a whole new perspective.
Once sound is digitized, it can be
manipulated, processed, cut and pasted, reversed and more with almost the
same ease as using the editing functions of a word processor.
What can't be sampled can probably be synthesized with an on -board
11- or 20 -voice synthesizer chip,
depending on sound card and model.
Virtually any musical instrument
sound and sound effect can be created
(or recreated) by controlling the chip's
registers. "Patches" of sounds are
also provided with the software that
comes bundled with many sound
boards. Patches-preprogrammed
libraries of sound settings ready to
load and use-can change the sound
of the synthesizer from laser zaps to
"ah-ooga" horns, for example. Many
of the sound utility programs provided with sound boards permit you to
32
create and store your own patch
libraries as well.
Music files can also be edited into
new versions or variations on the original that were never possible before.
With a sound board and the right software, complex variations, like changing the entire key of a song, can easily
be accomplished with a couple of
mouse clicks. Dedicated sequencer,
compositing/arranging and score printing software packages can all be
utilized with the sound card's onboard synthesizer, too. So you don't
have to spend a bundle on purchasing
additional hardware to tap into the
world of MIDI.
If you want to explore or work with
MIDI beyond what the sound card itself can provide in the way of audio,
external MIDI devices, such as keyboards, synthesizers, drum boxes,
lighting and more, can also be accessed and controlled. Most sound
cards provide MIDI support, either as
a standard feature of the card or with
an optional MIDI cable kit. Virtually
all sound cards that support MIDI are
Roland MPU-401-compatible (in
UART mode) and are capable of sending, receiving and passing -through
MIDI control signals. This makes
linking together several MIDI devices
under computer control and further
expands creative possibilities.
Today, the PC audio card is one of
the most popular peripherals you can
add to your system, opening up a
whole new dimension in computing.
Sound Source
PC sound devices come in numerous
varieties and flavors. Some are internal boards that require an expansion
slot. Some are self-contained units
that connect externally. Others utilize
synthesizer chips to produce music
/ COMPUTERCRAFT / January 1993
and sound effects, and still others rely on actual digitized samples as the
sound source. There are other differences as well. So it might be a good
idea to define the basic required capabilities and componentry that comprise a sound board.
A sound -generation source is a prerequisite for any sound board. Most
boards use a multi-timbral FM (frequency -modulated) synthesizer chip
or chips for the sound source, although devices that utilize actual digitized sound samples (though quite
pricey) are beginning to make their appearance in the marketplace.
Using digitized sound samples is
another way of providing a sound
source for the board. There are advantages and disadvantages with this
method. Major advantages are that
digitized sample sounds are absolutely pristine renditions of the instruments (or other sources) that
created them since they're digital
recordings of the actual sounds.
Moreover, sounds can be changed by
replacing the EPROMs on the board
with a different "library" of samples.
Major disadvantages are high cost of
the board and forfeiture of the ability
to produce satisfactory audio effects
with some software, especially games,
that make extensive use of synthesized
sound effects.
For satisfactory playback of these
programs, each waveform variation
of the most commonly -used sounds
would have to be recorded (since
there's no on -board synthesizer). In a
practical sense, the sonic variations
used in game and recreational software products are almost limitless. So
covering all bases with a library of
sampled sounds would be impossible.
This month, I'll deal the hardware
means of implementing high -quality
sound on the PC by looking at exter-
Say You Saw It In ComputerCraft
www.americanradiohistory.com
nal and internal devices from a variety of manufacturers. Next month, I'll
conclude with an overview and capsule evaluations of a range of software
alternatives to implementing sound on
the PC.
TABLE
Sound Generation System
MIDI and More
The MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface) standard is included as
an integral part of Windows 3.1 and
as part of the Multimedia Extensions
1.0 for Windows 3.0. Many of the
sound boards and devices to be examined here contain a multiple -voice
FM synthesizer chip that can be accessed through MIDI to create and
play back music files. The Windows
Media Player accessory makes it
Type
Number of Operators/Modes
Total # of Sounds Possible
synthesizer, while the OPL3 is a stereo
chip with some additional capabilities
(see Table 1 for feature comparisons
of both chips).
Some sound boards use a pair of
OPL2s to provide stereo (discrete left and right -channel) capability. Newer
board designs are utilizing the OPL3,
which produces cleaner -sounding
audio and requires less support circuitry. This results in a smaller physical
board size.
Other Key Components
Regardless of whether the sound
source is synthesized or sampled, other components are essential to make
a sound board a functional peripheral.
These include:
An amplifier to boost the raw signal
to an easily audible level. This can be
a
one -channel
amplifier
Say You Saw It In ComputerCraft
for
YM3812
YMF262
OPL-II
OPL-III
FM
FM
monophonic
sterephonic
2
4
11
20
(9 sounds or
(18 simultaneous melody
6 melody sounds
with 5 rhythm sounds)
or 15 melody sounds with
rhythm sounds, other sound/
operator variations possible;
5
8
Effects
possible to play back MIDI files
through an installed sound card
without the need for an externally connected MIDI device.
A synthesizer chip artificially creates facsimiles of sounds. These
sounds can be simulations of musical
instruments, common everyday noises, sonic special effects and more by
changing values of the synthesizer registers via software. This approach is
the most common means of generating sound on an audio board and is the
method used by most manufacturers.
Synthesizer chips most frequently
employed are from Yamaha. The two
leading ones are the YM3812 and the
YMF262, more commonly referred to
as the OPL2 and the OPL3, respectively. The OPL2 is a monophonic
1
SYNTHESIZER CHIP COMPARISON
Other Features
selectable waveforms)
8i amplitude modulation
LFO for
vibrato and tremolo
oscillator (AM)
effects
built-in vibrato oscillator
input/output TTL compatible
Si -gate CMOS-LSI
5V single power supply
two programmable timers
5V single supply silicon gate CMOS process
shorter register access time than YM3812
24-pin DIP or 24 -pin SOP package
Recommended D/A converter
YM3014
monophonic boards, with two single channel amplifiers or a dual -channel
amplifier for stereo boards.
A digital -to -analog converter (DAC)
to translate stored digital sound data
to an analog format that's capable of
being heard through speakers or headphones.
A physical means of outputting
sound. Headphone and/or line-out
jacks are usually provided, along with
an output connector for MIDI signals
if the board supports MIDI.
A means of transferring sound information from PC to sound card. This
can be byte -by -byte transferral, as
with Covox's SpeechThing, or in
DMA (direct memory access) blocks,
which is the method used in most
sound-card designs. In addition to
providing a faster transfer rate, the
DMA method also works in the background; so other events, like animation, can take place in the foreground
simultaneously.
A physical means of inputting sound
if the board is capable of sampling. Inputs are usually provided for microphone and line sources.
An analog -to-digital converter
(ADC) for converting analog sound
source information into digital for-
YM3015 (stereo)
mat. A preamplifier is also required to
boost microphone gain, as are some
filters to remove any alias distortion.
DMA support of input is also desirable, rather than the byte -by -byte
transfer method.
The sound boards and devices
covered here contain all or most of the
listed components to one degree or another. But the ways they are put together and the resulting capabilities
vary quite a bit from one product to
another.
As with just about any other computer peripheral, how deep your pockets are determines how lavish a sound
setup will be right for you. Included
here are sound boards from the lowest
to highest price ranges, as well as software to produce sound through the
PC's own speaker.
Let's take a look at the products
themselves.
Products Evaluated
External Sound Devices
Covox "SpeechThing" ($100)
The smallest and least -expensive external
audio hardware device covered here,
January 1993
/
COMPUTERCRAFT
/
33
-SPECIAL
ris
O
documentation states that on some computers SpeechThing sounds better without
the + 5 -volt source plugged in. I found this
to be true of my CAF 386SL notebook
computer, which generated static sounds
during floppy or hard -drive accesses.
Unplugging the + 5 -volt connector silenced the noise without compromising
quality of the sound.
A 9 -volt dc power adapter is supplied,
and the speaker can also be powered via
a 9 -volt battery that fits into a compartment inside the enclosure. The wedgeshaped speaker cabinet (4" tall by 3 "wide
and deep) has a red LED power indicator
and a thumbwheel volume control with
power on/off switch built in. The speaker
delivers surprisingly good sound for its size.
SpeechThing is a D/A-converter playback -only device. You can't sample sounds
or digitally record your own voice with it.
To do so, you need one of Covox's other
products (SoundMaster II or VoiceMaster
Key System in either the internal or exter-
nal configuration).
Plenty of software is supplied with
Covox's SpeechThing was one of the first
products released for sound on the PC.
While it has remained basically unchanged over the last few years, Covox's
driver and utility software has undergone
constant improvement and finessing, with
the latest release providing support for the
playback of .WAV files through
SpeechThing in Windows.
Measuring only about 2%" square and
weighing well under an ounce, Speech Thing plugs directly into a PC's parallel
port. Unlike the other parallel devices
covered here, which monopolize this port,
SpeechThing is a transparent device that
fits between printer cable and parallel port.
Since it doesn't interfere with normal
printer operation, SpeechThing can be left
permanently installed at the parallel port,
adding to its convenience of use and overall
appeal.
SpeechThing uses FIFO (first -in, first out) data streaming instead of the DMA
(direct memory access) schemes used with
other external -connected devices. Although this doesn't affect sound quality,
it does cause other operations to come to
a standstill as sound is being output through
it. FIFO streaming hogs all I/O operations
while sound is being accessed, but DMA
permits other events (like video refreshing,
mouse control, keyboard input, etc.) to
continue while sound is playing.
Covox provides an amplified speaker
that mates with a miniature phone jack on
SpeechThing's cable. A second cable fitted with a subminiature jack is used to
deliver an additional + 5 volts of dc power
to the speaker from the parallel port. The
34
/ COMPUTERCRAFT / January 1993
SpeechThing, including a CVSD playback
utility for CD-ROM and IBM talking programs, Smooth Talker text -to -speech software, a music synthesizer utility that modulates sampled sound, utility software for
playback of digitized speech and sounds
and speech/sound editing software.
Also included in current packages is a
driver for Windows to playback .WAV
sound files via SpeechThing. (Covox has
the latest versions of all its drivers for Windows on its BBS. They're available for
downloading free of charge. Call
503-342-4135. Set up your modem for
1,200, 2,400 or 9,600 baud and 8-N-1 terminal settings).
Because no FM sound synthesizer is used
in SpeechThing, MIDI playback and encoding aren't possible. Notwithstanding its
drawbacks, the SpeechThing, ounce -for ounce and dollar -for-dollar, is truly a
bargain for the hardware, software and audio playback capabilities it delivers.
Covox Voice Master System
External)
II
($240
.
VOICE MASTEN KEY'
i er. C".
m.
1ó'
Voice Master System II is the external
counterpart of Covox's internal PC-card
Voice Master Key System covered elsewhere in this article. It shares all of the
same capabilities as the internal version,
but it connects to a parallel port, rather
than requiring an internal expansion slot.
This makes it compatible for use with laptops and notebooks as well as desktop PCs
(even Micro Channel machines). Since it
attaches to this port, no conflict exists with
I/O addresses, IRQs or DMA request/acknowledge settings.
Other features of the external model include separate tone and volume controls
located on the front of the unit, where % "
miniature phone jacks for microphone input and speaker output also reside. On the
front panel are also a built-in speaker,
high/low microphone impedance selector
switch, red power LED and nearby green
LED that turns on when VoiceMaster's
(recognition) mode is active.
A pass -through printer port and a parallel -input port (a 3 -foot cable is provided
for connecting to the PC) are on the rear
of the enclosure. The pass-through port
keeps System II and printer connected
simultaneously. A three -position switch on
the front panel establishes priority for System II, printer or automatic selection of
either device.
A power jack is on the rear panel of the
cabinet, along with dual miniature phone
jacks for external input and output. A dc
power adapter is also supplied with the
unit, along with a Covox microphone/
headset, for hands -free recording,
playback and speech recognition.
Voice Master System II doesn't contain
an FM synthesizer. Therefore, it isn't capable of playing back digital sound files or
MIDI files. It can record and play back
digital speech and sampled sounds in either
native Covox .VOX format or, under Windows, .WAV file types.
Aside from providing an excellent monophonic means of digitally recording and
playing back sampled sounds, Voice Master System II's strongest card is its ability
to provide speech recognition for voice
control of the PC and application software. A Voice Master Key software utility lets you add voice commands to existing
programs. These commands activate a predefined series of macros that enable you
to perform tedious tasks, repetitive keystrokes or multiple mouse movements by
uttering a spoken command. Version 3.1
of Voice Master Key software supports up
to 1,023 commands, while memory requirement has been reduced to under 20K,
when using EMS.
The voice -recognition software uses a
pull -down menu system and features context -sensitive help and mouse support.
This software is currently available for
DOS. A Windows version is nearing completion and should be available by the time
you read this. Recording and playing back
of .WAV files, however, is currently supported with the Covox Windows driver.
Covox's user manual is thorough to the
Say You Saw It In ComputerCraft
point of almost containing too much information. You'll surely like this manual
if you have more than a casual interest in
learning about sound and voice recognition or in writing your own programs in
BASIC or C that utilize the Voice Master
Key System. The manual, along with the
additional software and utilities provided
with System II, is identical to that provided
with the internal model. It's covered in
more detail in that section.
MediaVision 'AudioPort" ($349)
r.n.t,
thumbwheel volume control is mounted on
the opposite side of the unit.
AudioPort comes with an assortment of
software for using the product under Windows 3.1 or 3.0 with MultiMedia Extensions 1.0. The main software program
is Lotus Sound, a Windows application
that permits recording and playing back
digitized sound. The program can be used
independently or with any other Windows
application that supports OLE, such as
Lotus Ami Pro, Microsoft Excel or Microsoft Word.
Pocket Recorder permits you to record
and play back eight-bit digital audio at
AudioPort is a very good way to easily add
AdLib- and SoundBlaster-compatible
sound to your system, particularly if you're a
Windows user.
MicroKey "AudioPort" ($195 to $295)
sample rates up to 22 kHz. The main
strength of this application is extensive
editing capability of digital sound files, in-
rc :.±.
cluding splicing and blending files and adding special effects like echo, reverberation,
pitch adjustments and directional reversing of sound files.
The user interface for both Lotus Sound
and Pocket Recorder is a graphical analogy
to the controls on a standard cassette recorder. It has "pushbuttons" for rewind,
stop, play, fast forward and record. Scroll bars are also available for moving to a desired point in the recording for editing, and
views at different magnifications are provided for easy editing of even the smallest
audio file sections.
AudioPort doesn't support DOS -based
DÜDIÖPDDi
applications directly from the system
A self-contained external device measuring a petite 4'%," long x 2' " wide x %e"
thick, the AudioPort plugs into the 25 -pin
parallel printer port of any PC. This little
device fits conveniently into a pocket and
provides a host of features, including
digital recording and playback of sounds.
Power for the AudioPort can be from
four internal AAA cells that install inside
a snap -open compartment or from a supplied supply that delivers 6 volts dc.
Average battery life expectancy is rated at
about four hours, a realistic figure.
For sound generation, a Yamaha
YM3812 FM synthesizer chip produces 11
voices. The AudioPort can sample eight bit monophonic sound at rates ranging
from 2 kHz to 22.1 kHz. Frequency response is 100 Hz to 12 kHz, with a signalto-noise ratio of 50 and 80 dB at maximum and minimum gain, respectively.
A 'A" miniature microphone jack is provided for audio input. Input level is 10 mV,
-
-
and input impedance is 10,000 ohms.
Automatic gain control (agc) is built into
the device and yields 20 -dB minimum and
100 -dB maximum boost.
Mounted on the side of the unit, next to
the input jack, is a %" miniature microphone jack for connecting Walkman-type
headphones or speakers. A built-in 11/2" internal speaker provides audio playback
without connecting other external devices.
Sound quality is surprisingly good. A
Say You Saw It In ComputerCraft
prompt. However, games and other programs that utilize sound can be run in a
DOS window from within Windows with
the SB2AP utility program, a virtual Windows driver that's also part of the supplied
software (Windows 3.1 must be running
in enhanced mode to use SB2AP).
An animated talking calendar program,
At Your Service, is supplied with Audio Port. This is a personal reminder that runs
as a background task in Windows and features "Jeeves," the talking butler. Based
on data entered into the calendar's database, Jeeves reminds you of appointments,
phone calls, meetings and other events that
require action or attention at the appropriate times. This program has some practical
merit, but it's more "cutesy" than I care
for in my software. So I'll stick to ACTfor
Windows for my scheduling tasks and
reminders.
MIDI file playback is supported via the
Media Player accessory in Windows, although the device doesn't allow MIDI input through it.
Overall, AudioPort is an ideal device for
notebook users and users who are slot poor when it comes to adding internal peripherals. It's unfortunate that AudioPort
isn't a transparent device that permits a
printer to be attached at the same time as
it is. Since there's no through port, you
must disconnect your printer to attach the
sound device. Aside from this limitation,
Both MicroKey and MediaVision have licensed the name "AudioPort" for their respective products, but the two are different
and distinct devices and don't share a commonalty of engineering or design. To avoid
confusion, I'll use the full brand name
from here on.
Another external device that connects
via the PC's parallel port, the MicroKey
AudioPort from Video Associates Labs is
slightly shorter than the MediaVision described above. The MicroKey AudioPort
measures 2.18" wide x 3.42" long. It's
housed in metal, rather than plastic, adding considerably to its weight.
As with the MediaVision unit, the MicroKey AudioPort doesn't provide a parallel pass -through port. Thus, a parallel
printer can't be connected simultaneously while the device is in place. Since power
for the unit is provided by an included
9 -volt dc adapter, you'll need an ac outlet
any time you intend to use this unit. This
is a limiting factor for notebook users on
the go who like to fly solely on battery
power, but it shouldn't pose a hindrance
for desktop PC users.
Two miniature phone jacks are located
on the MicroKey AudioPort between two
thumbscrews for fastening it to a parallel
port. One is for input from a microphone
or, with an included - 40 -dB attenuating
adapter, from a line source. The other is
for output. There's no built-in speaker, but
supplied headphones make the output
audible. A 500 -ohm ball -type microphone
is also provided, along with a microphone -
stand adapter and a stereo miniature
phone -to -standard phone plug adapter.
Sonic capabilities for the MicroKey
AudioPort are up to most tasks since the
unit supports monophonic 12 -bit sampl-
January 1993
/
COMPUTERCRAFT /
35
SPECIAL
itu
O
No support is provided for input or playback of MIDI files through the unit, which
doesn't contain an FM synthesizer chip.
This is an important point to consider if
you wish to incorporate MIDI music with
presentations and digitized samples.
Though lacking an on -board synthesizer
and a few other features, the device does
provide a functional means of inputting
and outputting sound to and from the PC's
parallel port, without having to open the
system unit. Its greatest appeal will be to
users who want a good device for extensive voice annotation (or even dictation
over a network) and don't want or need the
ing at eight user -selectable sampling rates
from 4 kHz to 44.1 kHz. Built-in agc controls input signal strength. No volume control is provided; so no manual override is
musical/sound-effects capabilities of a
synthesizer chip and MIDI support.
possible. Dynamic recording range is
greater than 55 dB for both recording and
Sound Boards
playback, and frequency response is 20 Hz
to 20 kHz ±3 dB).
ADPCM 3:1 compression is supported
to let you store up to 11 minutes of audio
in a 1M file. MPC (.WAV) files are directly supported, and uncompressed Sound Blaster -format .VOC files are converted
for compatible playback using an included utility.
DOS -based software supplied with the
unit is straightforward and easy to use,
thanks to a drop-down menu scheme you
use for recording, editing and assembling
presentations. The device is compatible
with numerous presentation graphics,
multimedia and authoring packages, including Autodesk Animator/Animator
Pro, Ask*Me 2000, Freelance Plus/
Graphics, GRASP, Harvard Graphics,
Show Partner FX, Asymetrix Toolbook
and some others.
Several stand-alone utility programs are
also provided for recording and assembling sound files. And a rich assortment
of samples and example programs give
food for thought as well as showcase the
device's capabilities.
In addition to required Windows
drivers, Voyetra's WinDAT digital -audio
editing software comes with the unit. The
"DAT" in the software's name stands for
"digital audio transport," an appropriate
moniker because it uses the familiar tape deck interface that features mouse activated pushbuttons for play, record, rewind, fast forward and pause, in addition
to range -selection controls. Drop -down
menus further simplify using the program
that allows you to play, record and edit
sound files with the MicroKey AudioPort.
Documentation consists of a 43 -page
user manual for AudioPort itself and a
24 -page manual for WinDAT software.
Between the two, everything you need or
want to know about the device and using
it from either DOS or Windows is covered
in depth.
36
/ COMPUTERCRAFT / January 1993
Eight -Bit Internal
Covox Voice Master Key ($200 Internal)
The internal counterpart to Covox Voice
Master System II reviewed earlier, the
Voice Master Key is a half-length card that
fits into any eight- or 16-bit expansion slot.
This model has DMA circuitry that permits
recording and playback of a single audio
file up to the maximum capacity of available hard disk space. A side benefit of
DMA access is that audio files can play in
the background while you're accessing
other applications in the foreground.
Voice Master Key's default port configuration is jumpered for 22Fh. Because
changing the jumper to any of the adjacent
three pin pairs changes port address to
24Fh, 28Fh or 2CFh, resolving any I/O
conflicts with other devices is easily
accomplished.
A cable lets you bypass the PC's internal speaker and route the sound through
the Voice Master Key card to get enhanced
audio. The board features an eight -bit
PCM digitizer that supports software -defined sample rates that range up to 25K
bytes/second.
Recording and playback are both under
software control, although volume can be
controlled via software or a bracket mounted knob. Separate high- and lowimpedance miniature microphone jacks
are mounted on the card's bracket, as is a
miniature phone jack for connecting an
earphone or extension speaker.
As with the external System II, the bus
version of the Voice Master Key system can
record and play back sampled sounds and
is capable of voice recognition. Two record
and edit programs are provided as part of
the standard software complement. One
is a very sophisticated graphics -based editing program that displays sound waveforms and supports cut -and -paste, raises/
lowers sound levels and provides high- and
low-pass filtering, inversions, duplications
and more.
Sampling rate is user -variable between
1K and 25K bytes per second. An included data -compression utility can compress
the sound file in the buffer by removing
silence periods, sections of sound or compressing to four-, three- or one-bit samples.
Though this editing program is DOS based, it relies on a graphical user interface
to make working with sound files almost
as easy as using a word processor. Using
the same procedures as in a word processor, you can highlight a section of sound,
cut or copy it, modify it and paste it wherever you want. You can also cut and clip
sections of sound files to create altered versions. You can save to disk and link to
form digital sound files for use in software
programs or even external EPROMs.
The other utility is much easier to use but
bare-bones in capabilities. But it's enough
to meet the needs of most users. Record
and Say utilities are executable programs
you run from the DOS prompt to record
and play back, respectively. Command line arguments permit you to select record/
playback rates, format coding (eight-,
four-, three- and two-bit PCM/ADPCM)
and port addressing (internal, external
Voice Master or internal PC speaker).
These utilities are normally used for creating sound files (verbal responses) for the
Voice Master Key recognition program,
rather than elaborate sampled files with
lots of special effects as a result of heavy
editing.
Another program, Convert, lets you
convert custom sound files created with the
graphics -based editor to Say -executable
format. In addition, Covox provides several sound samples, a talking blackjack game
and an oscilloscope program. Needless to
say, plenty of value and utility are packaged with the hardware.
Covox SoundMaster II ($230)
SoundMaster II is a three -quarter -length
card that plugs into any eight- or 16 -bit slot
on a PC bus. It incorporates all of the recording, playback and voice -recognition
capabilities of the Voice Master Key board
reviewed earlier and adds FM sound synthesis and MIDI (UART mode) capabilities.
The board makes extensive use of
CMOS logic for high noise immunity and
Say You Saw It In ComputerCraft
low power consumption. SoundMaster
was the quietest of all the boards covered
here in terms of residual background noise
through Labtec Model CS -150 amplified
speakers.
Every function of SoundMaster II has
alternate addresses so that two boards can
be installed in a PC at the same time for
stereo output or extended instrument voicing using the FM synthesizer(s). Three
jumper banks let you avoid any device conflicts with other installed peripherals. One
bank selects address 330 (default) or 338
for the MIDI port. Another jumper set
governs selection of DMA acknowledge
channel 1 (default) or 3, while shunting a
second set of pins selects DMA request
channel 1 (default) or 3. A three-cap row
of jumper pairs select DMA interrupt 3,
4, 5, 6 or 7 (default), MIDI IRQ 2 (default),
3, 5 or 7 and port 220 (default), 240, 280
or 2C0.
On the card's mounting bracket are two
miniature microphone jacks, designated
M I and M2 for high- and low -impedance,
respectively; a rotary volume control; an
earphone/external speaker jack; and a
nine -pin D connector for attaching the included combination MIDI input/output
cable. An included jumper wire lets you
route the PC's speaker sounds through
SoundMaster II.
A headset/microphone comes as part of
the standard complement of accessories.
The headset is outfitted with dual 1/8" miniature plugs, one from the high-impedance
hands -free microphone and the other from
the earphone built into the headset.
A Yamaha YM3812 FM synthesizer
chip provides the audio source for creating
music and sound effects, with a 1 -watt
audio amplifier. A pair of stereo Walkman -type speakers and a stereo -to-mono
miniature phone adapter are provided. Because SoundMaster's output is monophonic, the adapter is needed to route the
signal to both speakers.
The user manual tells you everything
you could want to know about SoundMaster II and the software provided with it and
how to program for it. In addition to the
Voice Master Key software supplied with
Voice Master systems, SoundMaster includes Covox's DSP-FX digital signal -
Microsoft Introduces Sound System
Just as I was finishing this report, Microsoft announced its new Windows Sound
System. This is a set of software applications and an internal sound board.
According to Microsoft, the Windows
Sound System was designed specifically
for the business environment, with applications that include voice annotation,
proofreading and voice recognition figuring heavily into product design. In
keeping with the "business" intent of the
system, there's no joystick port on the
Sound System's board.
The Windows Sound System has a suggested retail price of $289, or $349 when
bundled with Windows 3.1.
The half-slot Sound System card is a
16 -bit board that supports selectable
sampling rates up to 48 kHz and includes
a CODEC chip, Yamaha YMF262
(OPL3) FM music synthesizer and five
connectors (inputs and outputs). The
board will ship with headphones and a
microphone.
The unique feature of the Sound System board is that it includes Analog Device's AD1848 SoundPort CODEC IC,
a chip that supports audio from a variety of difference sources, including CD quality (16 -bit, 44 -kHz) and telephone quality (eight -bit, II -kHz) sampling. The
board also comes with a load of software
utilities, among which are VoicePilot,
which provides a limited number of
voice -recognition commands, and
QuickRecord, which adds vocal and
other sounds to documents.
On the heels of this, Microsoft also announced release of SoundBits, a new
software series that consists of a number
of audio software collections. Aimed at
making using sound in the Windows environment more enjoyable and fun,
SoundBits includes digitized sound
samples of one-liners, fun sound effects
and a variety of musical sounds.
Three SoundBits collections will be
available by the time you read this.
Classic Cartoons from Hanna -Barbera
brings back the childhood fun and
nostalgia of The Flintstones, The Jet sons, Yogi Bear and Scooby-Doo.
Classic Hollywood Movies features
memorable dialog clips from Groucho
Marx, Humphrey Bogart, Cary Grant
and some of the characters from The
Wizard of Oz, among others. Musical
Soundsfrom Around the World provides
rare cuts of international music ranging
from harmonicas to violins to African
drums and Andean pan pipes. Each
SoundBits collection has a suggested
retail price of $39.95.
Windows Sound System, $289; $349.00
Bundled With Windows 3.1
SoundBits Collections, $39.95 Each Collection
Microsoft Corp.
One Microsoft Way
Redmond, WA 98052
Tel.: 1-206-882-8080
(IRCLE NO.
117 ON FREE
INFORMATION CARD
processing utility. This facilitates real-time
pitch changing, harmonizing, flanging,
chorusing, echoes, reverberation, distortion and numerous other special effects.
The Covox graphic waveform editor is also
included, as are dozens of MIDI song files,
sound samples and other interesting tidbits.
The real bonus is the inclusion of PCLyra, a graphics -based music -composition
program that permits musical input using
a mouse or computer keyboard or directly from a MIDI instrument connected to
the PC via SoundMaster's cables. All of
these software programs run from DOS.
Say You Saw It In ComputerCraft
January 1993
www.americanradiohistory.com
/
COMPUTERCRAFT / 37
SPECIAL
O
00
As of this writing, Covox's Windows
drivers are shipping and can be downloaded from the company's BBS (503-342-4135).
Covox is converting its other software and
utilities to run under Windows as well.
These should be ready by the time you read
this. Contact Covox directly to check
availability.
Creative Labs SoundBlaster ($230)
One of the original sound cards to make
its way onto the PC scene, the three -quarter -length SoundBlaster, has become the
de facto standard for PC audio in the DOS
environment, and it was the only sound
card directly supported by Multimedia Extensions 1.0 for Windows 3.0.
Longevity for hardware peripherals in
the microcomputer industry depends
largely on support for the device by software developers. SoundBlaster is unquestionably the most -supported audio card,
as evidenced by the thousands of applications and recreational titles that access its
audio capabilities.
SoundBlaster plugs into an eight- or
16 -bit slot. The heart of the board is Yamaha's 3182 synthesizer chip, which delivers
11 -voice FM sound. Older versions of
SoundBlaster are about 2" longer than the
current version and sport only one audio
input jack, as opposed to the two microphone and line -input jacks on the newer
model. The older model uses more discrete
components, which requires more surface
38
area than the tight integration used on the
newer model. Both models, however, have
a sticker that bears the legend "FM 1312"
covering the top of the 3812 chip.
Jumpers are provided for selecting port
address of either 220 (default) or 240. Likewise, shunting pairs of pins with a jumper
cap changes the IRQ setting from the default 7 to 2, 3 or 5, if needed.
In addition to the input already mentioned, the card's mounting bracket provides access to a thumbwheel volume control, the subminiature audio output jack
and a 15 -pin D -type connector for attaching an analog joystick or optional MIDI
connector box (circuitry for an MPU-401
MIDI interface in UART mode is built into the board itself).
SoundBlaster comes with FM Intelligent
Organ, a program that's very easy to use
and lets you compose and play compositions directly from a PC keyboard or an
attached MIDI device. Included is Talking Parrot, a program that displays on-
screen a gaudily -colored parrot that
mimics speech, talks back and makes
wisecracks to passersby (an AT -class or
better machine is required for proper program execution). The parrot's digitized
voice has a markedly "pigeon English" accent, which is good for evoking a laugh or
two with some of its erroneous pronunciations and misplaced emphasis.
Voxkit is also included in the basic package and wraps up a well-rounded assortment of sound- and voice -development
tools that permit recording, compressing,
editing and playback of digitized sounds.
Since SoundBlaster supports DMA transfer, sound files of any length up to available capacity of the hard or floppy disk being used.
Required Windows drivers and DLLs
are also provided. Hence, you can take advantage of the board's sonic capabilities
from the DOS prompt or within Windows
3.1 or 3.0 with Multimedia Extensions 1.0.
SoundBlaster is the sound card that
started it all for lots of PC users. It continues to be a strong seller and a good
choice for adding sound for both DOS and
Windows applications.
Media Vision ThunderBoard
($179 for Windows; $169 for DOS)
Media Vision's half-length Thunderboard
comes in two flavors: DOS and Windows.
These are separate entities, each in its own
distinctive packaging. The ThunderBoard
card is physically the same in both versions,
but accompanying software and drivers
are different.
ThunderBoard requires only an eight bit slot for installation. A six DIP -switch
bank is utilized for setting DMA channels,
and a four -pair jumper block is used to select IRQ 2, 3, 5 or 7. On the card's mount-
/ COMPUTERCRAFT / January 1993
ing bracket are a thumbwheel volume control, miniature phone jacks for audio input and output and a 15 -pin joystick -port
connector.
Both DOS and Windows versions support eight -bit digital -audio recording and
playback from 2 kHz to 22 kHz and feature dynamic filtering to reduce noise. The
sound source for ThunderBoard is a
Yamaha 3812 (OPL2) synthesizer chip that
produces 11 frequency -modulated voices.
In addition to a manual volume control,
agc is built in to further improve recording
quality by reducing overload distortion.
ThunderBoard is capable of realtime
hardware compression at a 2:1 ratio and
realtime hardware decompression at ratios
of 2:1, 3:1 and 4:1. Software compression/decompression at 2:1, 3:1 and 4:1 is
also supported so that large sound files can
be'compressed and expanded on the fly to
conserve disk space. As with any compression algorithm, the greater the compression factor, the greater the sound -quality
deterioration, although the 2:1 compression ratio yields very acceptable sound with
either ThunderBoard version.
Thejeal difference between the DOS
and Windows versions is the software that
accompanies the hardware. The DOS version comes with Thunder Master, a utility
program for recording, editing and playing sound files. The program is straightforward to use, and on-line help is available
if needed.
With Thunder Master, you can record
and play back sound files of any length
since DMA transfer is supported. Sound
file length is limited only by available disk
space. The Sound Editor feature of the
program lets you edit and enhance recordings, and quite a bit of control is afforded
by it. Available modifications include adding echo, reversing a sample or section
thereof, increasing/decreasing playback
speed, changing sample rates in -kHz increments from 4 kHz to 22 kHz, changing
1
volume and mixing prerecorded sound files.
Say You Saw It In ComputerCraft
www.americanradiohistory.com
For DOS -based software, Thunder
Master does a lot and does it well. A games
sampler software assortment is included to
get you started using ThunderBoard right
out of the box. This includes special versions of Nova 9, Lemmings, Lexi-Cross,
Rex Nebular and Goblins and, on specially marked boxes, F-15 Strike Eagle.
ThunderBoard for Windows comes
with drivers and DLLs need for Windows,
Lotus Sound (OLE -enabled sound recorder utility), Sound Forge (fairly sophisticated waveform sound editor), At Your Service (talking Windows calendar and scheduler), Monologue (Windows text -to-speech
converter) and Pocket Recorder (simplified "down -and -dirty" recorder/playback
utility for quickie sound bytes). MIDI music files can also be played through ThunderBoard's FM synthesizer via the Windows Media Player accessory.
Since ThunderBoard for Windows also
supports all PC games for DOS and Windows, this is the versions to go for if you
think you'll be upgrading to Windows in
the near future. You can also use the DOS
version under Windows, but you have to
obtain the drivers and other Windows
sound utilities yourself. In either version,
ThunderBoard is a good, moderately priced means of adding sound and music to
your PC.
Internal
16 -Bit
Sound Cards
Creative Labs SoundBlaster Pro ($300)
Using the original SoundBlaster as a starting point, SoundBlasterPro takes a good
thing and makes it better by expanding the
capabilities of the board and adding some
slot. It has several features that aren't
found on the monophonic model. For example, a 40-pin CD-ROM interface header
accommodates an internal or external CDROM drive from Creative Labs, Panasonic, Matsushita or any other drive that complies with the SBCD or Panasonic interfacing standards. (Note: this is not a standard
SCSI interface.)
A four -pin connector on the card is used
to route a CD-ROM drive's audio output
through SoundBlaster Pro for mixing or
processing. A pin header is provided for
connecting the PC's speaker signals to SB
Pro, as well for enhanced audio.
On SB Pro's mounting bracket are subminiature phone jacks for microphone and
line input, a thumbwheel volume control
and a stereo subminiature jack for audio
output. A 15 -pin D -type connector allows
you to attach single or dual joysticks, as
well as the included MIDI cable kit.
With the exception of the Covox Sound Master II, SoundBlaster Pro is the only
other product covered here that includes
all required MIDI cabling and software as
part of the basic package. MIDI kits are
extra -cost options with all other products
reviewed here that support MIDI.
All standard configuration features are
selectable by changing jumper settings.
Jumpers are used to select IRQ address 2,
5 (default), 7 or 10; DMA channel 0, 1 or
3 for acknowledge/request (1 is default for
both functions); and I/O address 220 (default) or 240.
The software assortment is good and includes the FM Intelligent Organ that came
with the original SoundBlaster. Additional
software include: an advanced SB Voice
Editor II recording, editing, processing
and playback utility; memory -resident SB
Talker to convert text to speech (it isn't as
good as Monologue that comes with the
MediaVision products); CD Music Player
to bring all the features of a home audio
CD player to a PC so that you can play
audio CDs on a CD-ROM drive; and a
complement of Windows drivers, DLLs
and utilities. The last includes a Mixer that
lets you mix all attached audio sources
(stereo DAC, stereo FM synthesis, microphone input, stereo line input, stereo CD
audio and PC speaker signal).
Voyetra's Sequencer Plus Pro MIDI
software is also provided to let you utilize
the 22 -voice capability of the on -board
synthesizers. Though this is a "bundled"
additional features. This three -quarter -length board, like the original mono-
software product, it's comprehensive
enough to satisfy the demands of even the
phonic version that used only a single chip,
utilizes a pair of Yamaha 3812 FM synthesizer chips to produce 22 voices of synthesized sound (11 voices per stereo channel).
Like the mono version, both of these chips
wear the "FM 1322" sticker that mask their
true identity.
SoundBlaster Pro mounts in a 16 -bit
more -than -casual computer musician and
it's easy to use and well -documented. An
MMPIay Presentation utility is also integrates graphic animations with the sound
capabilities of the board for creating synchronized presentations.
SoundBlaster Pro represents a good
value for the standard in PC sound.
Say You Saw It In ComputerCraft
MediaVision ProAudio Spectrum
Plus
($199)
MediaVision's ProAudio Spectrum Plus
is a three-quarter -length high-performance
stereo sound card that offers plenty of flexibility and an excellent assortment of standard features. It requires a 16 -bit slot and
has the circuitry required to support a
built-in MIDI interface, joystick port and
SCSI interface.
The joystick port is ready to use right out
of the box, but you need an optional MIDI
Mate kit to take advantage of the MIDI interface. This break-out box "kit" connects
to the card and provides a full -duplex (play
and record simultaneously) MIDI port.
To utilize the card's on -board SCSI
adapter, you also need an optional SCSI
cable kit. Internally -mounted SCSI devices, like a CD-ROM drive, can be accommodated via the 40 -pin header, which accepts a standard SCSI ribbon cable. Any
external SCSI devices you use requires an
external SCSI cable that attaches via the
joystick port.
The 16-bit PC bus interface enhances
card performance while extending the
choices for interrupt and DMA settings.
This is something to consider if you have
lots of peripherals installed in your system.
Jumpers are provided for selecting port
220 (default), 230 or 240. Another trio of
jumper pins lets you select DMA sharing
(the default) or non-sharing for some PCs
(like the Dell 310, HD 386/33, Swan
386SX/ 16, PD 386/25, Microlabs 386/33
and others) that cause the board to have
problems with the default setting.
Software -selectable DMA and IRQ settings make installation quick and easy.
Available IRQ settings are 2 through 7 and
10 through 15. DMA choices are 0, 1, 2,
3, 5, 6 and 7.
On the card's mounting bracket are separate miniature phone jacks for microphone input, line input and audio output.
January 1993
/
COMPUTERCRAFT / 39
Covox
SpeechThing
Covox
VoiceMaster Key II
MediaVision
AudioPort
MicroKey
AudioPort
Covox
SoundMaster II
Sample/digitize sounds
No
Yes
Yes
Yes^
Yes
Playback digitized sounds
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Can be used from DOS
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Can be used from Windows
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
External
(parallel port)
External
External
External
Internal card
(parallel port)
(parallel port)
(parallel port)
3/4-length
None
None
None
None
8 -bit
Microphone Input
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Microphone included
No
Yes*
No
Yes
Yes*
Line Input
No
Yes
Yes (Mic. port)
Yes (Mic. port)
Yes
PRODUCT
Attachment to PC
Slot required
(attenuating adapter included)
Bulit-In Speaker
Yes
Yes
No
No
Yes
No
No
No
Yes
Patch cables Included
No
No
No
No
No
Ear/headphones Included
No
Yes*
No
Yes
Yes'
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Manual Volume Control
Yes (on speaker)
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Power
Batt./DC adapter
DC Adapter
Batt./DC adapter
DC adapter
PC exp. slot
Power Adapter Included
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
N/A
Built -In FM Synthesizer
No
No
Yes
No
Yes
None
None
Yamaha 3812 (OPL2)
None
Yamaha 3812 (OPL2)
No
No
Yes
No
Yes
Mono
Mono
Mono
Mora
Mono
0
0
11
0
11
MIDI Capable
No
No
No
No
Yes
MIDI connectors Included
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
Yes
Joystick port
No
No
No
No
No
Sample sizes
8 -bit
8 -bit
8 -bit
12 -bit
8 -bit
playback sample rates (DAC
444
4-44
2-22kHz
3.5-44.1
4-44kHz
Record sample rates (ADC)
N/A
4-25kHz
2-22kHz
3.5-44
4-22kHz
Watt
1R-Watt
1/2 -Watt
$239.95
$199.00
$295.00
External speaker included
Audio Output Jack
Synthesizer Chip
AdLib compatible synthesize
Mono/Stereo Output
Ñ
of Synth voices
Output Power
1
Mfg. Sugg. Retail
$99.95
^a
40
/ COMPUTERCRAFT /
Watt
1
p ayback-on y version (no recording capability) of the MicroKey Audioport
January 1993
1
Watt
$229.95
is also available for $195 list
Say You Saw It In ComputerCraft
www.americanradiohistory.com
Covox
Voice Master Key
Creative Labs
SoundBlaster
MediaVision
ThunderBoard
Creative Labs MediaVision ProAudio MediaVision ProAudio
MediaVision
SoundBlaster Pro
Spectrum Plus
Spectrum 16
Thunder & Lightning
(DOS & Windows)
(Sound + Super VGA)
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
DOS version
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Windows version
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Internal card
Internal card
Internal card
Internal card
Internal card
Internal card
Internal card
1/2 -length
3/4 -length
1/2-length
3/4 -length
3/4 -length
3/4 -length
3/4 -length
8 -bit
8 -bit
8 -bit
16 -bit
16 -bit
16 -bit
16 -bit
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes'
No
No
No
No
No
No
Yes
Yes
Yes (Mic. port)
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes (Mic. port)
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
Yes
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
No
No
Yes'
No
No
No
No
No
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
Yes
PC exp. slot
PC exp. slot
PC exp. slot
PC exp. slot
PC exp. slot
PC exp. slot
PC exp. slot
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
2 - 3812 (OPL2)
YMF262 (OPL3)
YMF262 (OPL3)
Yamaha 3812 (0P12)
None
Yamaha 3812 (OPL2) Yamaha 3812 (OPL2)
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Mono
Mono
Mono
Stereo
Stereo
Stereo
Mono
0
11
11
22
20
20
11
No
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
N/A
No (optional extra)
N/A
Yes
No (optional extra)
No (optional extra)
No (optional extra)
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
8 -bit
8 -bit
8 -bit
8 -bit
8 -bit
8, 12, 16 -bit
8-bit
4 44
4-44kHz
2-22kHz
4-44kHz
4-44kHz
2-44kHz
2-22kHz
4-25kHz
5-12kHz
2-22kHz
4-44kHz
4-44kHz
2-44kHz
2-22kHz
1Watt
4 Watts/channel
2 Watts
4 Watts/channel
4 Watts/channel
4 Watts/channel
4 Watts
$199.95
$229.95
DOS = $169.00
Windows = $179.00
$299.95
$199.00
$299.00
$349.00
Say You Saw
It In ComputerCraft
January 1993
www.americanradiohistory.com
/
COMPUTERCRAFT
/
41
SPECIAL
channel volume for each device, as well as
a master volume control.
TrakBlaster Pro is a music utility that
provides a four -track scope, spectrum
analyzer and left and right VU meters.
Pro Speech is a text -to -speech synthesizer that works surprisingly well, once your
ear becomes accustomed to its synthesized
pronunciations.
Audio Mate is a DOS -based multimedia
application that lets you add CD -audio,
digital sound effects, stereo synthesized
audio and MIDI to existing DOS files.
Autodesk Animator/Pro, Harvard
No manual volume control is provided,
since this is a software -controlled function.
A 15 -pin D -type connector on the bracket
lets you attach an analog joystick or an optional MIDI Mate kit to the card. This port
also provides for connection of external
CD-ROMs, as mentioned earlier.
The sound source for ProAudio Spectrum Plus is a Yamaha YMF262 (OPL3)
FM synthesizer chip that provides 20 voices
for synthesizing music and sound effects.
MIDI files can also be channeled through
the synthesizer for playback without the
need for an external MIDI device.
Also provided is a four-pin connector
for channeling audio output from a CDROM drive through the board for additional processing and mixing. This is a very
convenient feature because it allows all of
the PC's audio to emanate from one pair
of speakers, rather than requiring a separate pair for sound board output and another pair for CD-audio.
MediaVision packs a rich assortment of
software utilities that enable you to exploit
the card's potential from DOS as well as
Windows. The Stereo Studio F/X waveform sound editor features easy access to
all record, playback, edit, cut and paste
functions through a GUI. You can record
sounds directly from a microphone, CD or
another source and add such effects as
echo, reverberation and envelope shaping
to alter the original file.
Included SP Spectrum software provides a reasonably powerful MIDI sequencing program that lets you compose
and play back music using the card's synthesizer. Though it also works well with external MIDI devices, if you have serious
MIDI musical requirements you'll want a
more-powerful dedicated program, such
as the Passport Designs software that I'll
review next month. A mixer utility lets you
set volume levels for CD -audio, digital
audio (sampled sound), FM synthesized
audio, external line input, microphone input and PC speaker input.
A jumper on the board lets you route PC
speaker sound through this speaker as well.
The mixer uses familiar slide -type controls
for adjusting individual left- and right -
42
Graphics and other popular applications
are supported, and you can even add
sounds to your .BAT and .EXE files with
this utility.
A rich assortment of MIDI songs, digital
sound effects and four -track music files are
included, as are all drivers and DLLs for
Windows 3.1 and 3.0 with Multimedia
extensions.
MediaVision ProAudio Spectrum
16
($299)
MediaVision devoted lots of attention to
shielding the circuitry and adding dynamic
filtering to eliminate noise.
Sixteen -bit stereo sampling (linear
ADC) as well as 16 -bit stereo playback
(linear DAC) are supported, and Media Vision touts the board as being capable of
recording CD -quality (16 -bit, 44 -kHz) recordings. I'll attest that digitized music I
recorded directly from an audio CD
through the mixer utility was virtually indistinguishable from the original CD music
on playback. Without doubt, the Pro Audio Spectrum 16 does, indeed, have the
best sound of all the products covered here.
Eight-, 12- and 16 -bit PCM sampling
from 2 kHz to 44 kHz in stereo is possible,
along with user -programmable dynamic
filtering in the 4-Hz -to -20 -kHz range. No
manual volume control is provided. Software permits master volume adjustment
from 0 to 62 dB in 1 -dB increments. The
input mixer also provides volume control
from + 1 to 60 dB in 2 -dB increments.
Dynamic range and signal-to-noise ratings are 90 dB for synthesized and mixed
-
-
audio, sampled audio and PCM. Total
harmonic distortion is only 0.0507o for a
frequency response of 30 Hz to 20kHz at
± 3 dB. If a better -sounding audio card exists, I've yet to hear it!
The only device covered here that features
a true 16 -bit linear DAC, the ProAudio
Spectrum 16, is designed to meet the demands of high -end users who want superior PC audio.
Physically, the Spectrum 16 is very similar to its sister, the Spectrum Plus. On its
metal mounting bracket are miniature
phone jacks for microphone and line inputs and a stereo output. On the bracket
is also a 15 -pin joystick/expansion connector. The board sports a 40 -pin SCSI connector for attaching a ribbon cable to mate
an internal SCSI device and four -pin connectors for CD -audio, routing PC -speaker
sound and auxiliary audio input (the latter isn't present on the Spectrum Plus).
The principal distinction of the Spectrum 16 is its 16 -bit 44 -kHz stereo sound
that yields incredibly pure and clean audio.
/ COMPUTERCRAFT / January 1993
As with Spectrum Plus, to take advantage of the MIDI or SCSI features supported by Spectrum 16 you'll have to purchase
an optional MIDI Mate for $69.95 or SCSI
cable kits for less than $50. The SCSI interface built into the board is capable of 690K bytes -per-second transfer rates. Hence, it's
capable of driving virtually any multimedia -capable CD-ROM drive and related
applications, including those with full -motion video, without a problem.
The user manual is very well -written and
extraordinarily comprehensive in coverage. Excellent organization makes finding
help on a particular topic a painless procedure. The troubleshooting section is especially helpful in resolving DMA and IRQ
conflicts, too.
The same rich assortment of software
programs, utilities and sound/music files
that come with Spectrum Plus is also included with Spectrum 16. However, some
of the applications and utilities (like Windows drivers) are tweaked to take advantage of this board's 16 -bit recording and
playback capabilities.
If you want really superb sound along
with the optional MIDI and SCSI capabilities this board supports, the ProAudio
Spectrum 16 is the way to go.
Media Vision Thunder & Lightning
($349 Combination Audio/Video Board)
The three -quarter -length, 16 -bit Thunder
& Lightning board is a new product that
was released by MediaVision in time to be
Say You Saw It In ComputerCraft
www.americanradiohistory.com
ditional standard and enhanced VGA
to install the ribbon connector and second
mounting bracket.
A 26 -pin VGA feature connector
mounted on the board accommodates
another video card for special applications
that support tandem video processing.
Jumper-pin headers are also used to select IRQ, DMA request/acknowledge
channels and MIDI interrupts. Available
audio interrupts are 2, 3, 5, 7, 10, 11, 12
and 15. Available audio DMA channels are
0, 1 or 3. MIDI interrupt can be 2, 3, 5, 7,
10, 11, 12 or 15. With so many choices
available, there should be no problem finding a setting that's compatible with any
other installed peripherals.
The board's audio amplifier outputs 4
watts into a 4 -ohm load. Frequency response is 35 Hz to 10 kHz. The audio section has all of the same features and functionality of ThunderBoard for Windows.
It's guaranteed to be fully SoundBlaster-,
ThunderBoard- and AdLib-compatible.
(Though AdLib is no longer in business,
the popularity of its sound boards has
made it one of two standards, along with
the SoundBlaster, for manufacturers to
make their sound boards and other products to be compatible with.)
The included software bundle consists
of Lotus Sound, Sound Forge for Windows, At Your Service, Pocket Recorder
modes up to 1,024 x 768 in 256 colors are
also supported, as are 15- and 16 -bit color
(800 x 600 is the maximum resolution, but
the 16.8 -million color palette is active in
these modes). A comprehensive set of
drivers for Windows and popular application packages like AutoCAD, GEM, Ventura Publisher and others are included with
the hardware.
The board is very densely populated,
with a Yamaha 3812 (OPL2) 11 -voice FM
synthesizer as its sound center. On its
mounting bracket are a thumbwheel
included in this guide. The product is noteworthy because it combines both audio
and video on a single card for use under
Windows 3.1.
This multi -function card combines super -VGA graphics with high -quality audio. It's capable of displaying 24 -bit color up to 640 x 480 resolution from a
palette of up to 16.8 -million colors. Ad-
volume control, miniature phone jacks for
audio input and output and a 15 -pin video
connector. A 10 -position DIP switch lets
you enable/disable various audio features
and select I/O addresses. A four -pin header routes the PC's speaker audio through
the Thunder & Lightning board.
A 15 -pin header mates to an included
ribbon cable that terminates with a standard IBM joystick port on a second mounting bracket. This port also doubles as the
MIDI connector for attaching MediaVi-
sion's optional $69.95 MIDI Mate
breakout box (the T&L board has MIDI
MPU-401/UART mode circuitry built in).
If slots are at a premium in your machine
and you don't intend to use a joystick or
an external MIDI device, you don't have
COMPUTER SHOW
& SALE SCHEDULE
WHOLESALE PRICES
Dec. 12
-
Low Cost CAD Software
for the IBM PC and Compatibles
Now for DOS and
OPEN TO THE PUBLIC
Sat.
Wm. Paterson College - Wayne,NJ
20 M in to New York City - 400 Tables
Dec. 19
Sat.
Royal Plaza Trade Ctr - Marlborough
In MA Near Boston - off Route 1-495
Jan. 2
Sat.
Geo. Washington Lodge -200 Tables
Willow Grove, PA - PA Tpke. Exit 27
Jan. 9
Sat.
New Carrollton, MD - Sheraton
1-95 Exit # 20-B - Near D.C.
Jan. 16-17 Royal Plaza Trade Centrer
Sat. & Sun. Marlborough, MA - 500 Tables
Jan. 23-24 FDU Rothman Center -Hackensack, NJ
Sat. & Sun. 500 Tables - Near New York City
SAVE $1 ON ADMISSION WITH THIS AD
KGP PRODUCTIONS
-
(800) 631-0062
«ii Design &
Simulation
1111.11.1151.1111
o
PCR
r
Layoct
*
Easy to use schematic entry program (SuperCAD) for cucul diagrams, only 599
*
Powerful, event -driven digital simulator (SuperSIM) allows you to check logic circuitry quickly before actually
wiring A up. Works directly within the SuperCAD editor from a pulldown menu and displays results in logic
analyzer" display window. Starling al 599, this is the lowest cost simulator en the market Support for PALs, a
larger Norary, and a separate interactive logic viewer are available n f ull-featured SuperSlMv for only $395.
Library part models include YU, CMOS and ECL devices. New Windows version available.
*
*
dudes netlisting, bill of
materials, extensive pans libranes, dot metre porter output More pans, FIPGL plo er and laser palter output
available separately or n enhanced CAD package (SuperCAD.) for only 5199 New Windows version available.
I
Circuit board artwork editor and autorouter programs, starting at $99 each. Produce high quality artwork directly
on dot maim or laser prreers. Separate plotter driver available for $49. You can do both sengte or double -layer
boards with plated through holes. Includes drill hole listing utility. Autoroute, accepts netlists and placement
data directly form the SuperCAD schematic editor.
All software comes weh complete documentation and 30 -day money -beck guarantee.
Write or call for further information and free demo disks:
MENTAL AUTOMATION, INC
Mental Automation, Inc.
5415 - 136th Place S.E.
Bellevue, WA 98006
i/
(206) 641-2141
CIRCLE NO.
Say You Saw It In ComputerCraft
Windows'M
143 ON FREE
January 1993
e
_i
INFORMATION CARD
/
COMPUTERCRAFT
/
43
SPECIAL
Compact & Versatile
8051/8052
Names & Addresses
Microcontroller Board
For Production Applications
SpeechThing, $99.95
Voice Master Key, $199.95 Bus Model
Voice Master Key System II, $239.95
Parallel Model
SoundMaster II, $229.95
Covox Inc.
675 Conger St.
Eugene, OR 97402
Tel.: 1-503-342-1271
Low power CMOS technology
Only 3.5"x 4.5" with mounting holes
Supports RS232 or RS485
Battery -backed RAM socket
Watchdog timer and power -fail interrupt
circuitry
and Monologue for Windows (see the
ThunderBoard review for more detail on
this software). As a special bonus, a working sample demo of Passport Designs Master Tracks Pro MIDI Sequencer for Windows and an assortment of MIDI song
4/ 8 -bit I/O ports
Configurable for all known byte -wide devices
Memory Maps
Parallel I/O:
4 Jumper -Selectable
508-369-9556
FAX 508.369.9549
Call for detailed brochure andquantity pricing
Binary Technology, Inc.
P.O. Box 541
Ca,lwe. MA 01741
samples are included.
Thunder & Lightning does, indeed, provide a viable single -slot solution for adding
both audio and high -end video capabilities
to a PC system.
PAY TV AND SATELLITE DESCRAMBLING
ALL NEW
1992 EDITION ALL NEW
1992 Edition Updates Latest Circuits. Turn-Ons, Bypasses. Bullets, Bags,
Blackciphers. VCII Plus and 13 -Mac Fixes. Only $15.95. VC11 W'zzard Hacker's
Bible includes Plus. Tells All. $15.95. Pay TV And Satellite Descrambling Vol.
1
(Basics), 1989, 1991 Editions Are All Different. $14.95 Each. MDS Handbook $9.95. Satellite Systems Under $600. $12.95 (52). Any 3/$29.95 or
5/$49.95. Scrambling News Monthly Will Keep You Up To Date On Plus Breaks.
$24.95/Yr. Special. Everything We Have Including Video. $109.95. New
Catalog $1.
Scrambling News. 1552F Hertel Ave..
Buffalo. NY. 14216. Voice/FAX 1716)-874-2088.
COD'S ARE OK. ADD S6.
In
Closing
Be with us next month, when I'll tell
you about no -hardware alternatives to
implementing sound on your PC. I'll
discuss a range of software you can use
to inexpensively achieve this aim and
CIRCLE NO. 119 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
SoundBlaster, $229.95
SoundBlaster Pro, $299.95
Creative Labs, Inc.
2050 Duane Ave.
Santa Clara, CA 95054
Tel.: 1-408-986-1461
CIRCLE NO.
120 ON
FREE INFORMATION CARD
MediaVision AudioPort, $199
ThunderBoard, $169 (DOS Version)
ThunderBoard, $179 (Windows Version)
ProAudio Spectrum Plus, $199
ProAudio Spectrum 16, $299
Thunder & Lightning (Sound & Super VGA), $349
MediaVision Inc.
47221 Fremont Blvd.
Fremont, CA 94538
Tel.: 1-800-348-7116
CIRCLE NO. 121 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
Memory mapped variables
The
only
8051/52
BASIC
compiler
that is
100%
BASIC 52
Compatible
and
In -line assembly language
option
Compile time switch to select
8051/8031 or 8052/8032 CPUs
Compatible with any RAM
or ROM memory mapping
Runs up to 50 times faster than
the MCS BASIC -52 interpreter.
Includes Binary Technology's
SXA51 cross -assembler
& hex file manip. util.
Extensive documentation
Tutorial included
Runs on IBM-PC/XT or
compatibile
Compatible with all 8051 variants
has full
floating
point,
integer,
byte & bit
variables.
CIRCLE NO.
122 ON FREE
INFORMATION CARD
give summary reviews of some really
interesting software packages I've used
for this purpose and to expand upon
the abilities of sound boards. As
sound becomes as standard a feature
on the PC as a mouse now it, prices for
sound boards will probably drop and
their capabilities increase. Getting
started now means that you'll be a step
ahead when sound finally-and
inevitably-does become a routine
part of daily computing"'
BXC51 $ 295.
508.369.9556
FAX: 508-369-9549
Binary Technology, Inc.
P.O. Box 541
44
MicroKey AudioPort, $295 Record/
Play, $195 Play -Only
Video Associates Labs, Inc.
4926 Spicewood Springs Rd.
Austin, TX 78759
Tel.: 1-800-331-0547
Carlisle, MA 01741
/ COMPUTERCRAFT / January 1993
Tom Benford
Say You Saw It In ComputerCraft
www.americanradiohistory.com
If you enjoy Amateur Radio,
you'll enjoy CQ.
It's a different kind of ham magazine. Fun to read,
interesting from cover to cover, written so you
can understand it. That's CQ. Read and enjoyed
by over 90,000 people each month in 116
countries around the world.
It's more than just a magazine. It's an institution.
`In
Thìsdssue:
,.,est . .
All th
CO also sponsors these thirteen world famous
awards programs and contests: The CO World Wide
DX Phone and CW Contests, the CO WAZ Award, the
CO World Wide WPX Phone and CW Contests, the
CO World Wide VHF WPX Contest, the CO USA -CA
Award, the CO WPX Award, the CO World Wide 160
Meter Phone and CW Contests, the CO Five Band
WAZ Award, the CQ DX Award, and the highly
acclaimed CO DX Hall of Fame. Accept the
challenge. Join the fun. Read CO.
.
,ge 15
1
yyyy
Corte5t ipecords
Also available in Spanish language edition. Write
for rates and details.
SUBSCRIBE TODAY!
The Radio Amateur's Journal
76 North Broadway
Hicksville, NY 11801
Please start my CO subscription with the next
available issue.
Enclose payment or charge information with order.
Term and Rate (check one):
40/0
e,`
i
"
-ÉVIVINGPGa{El1A.;..
.YPlEe4s
1g9Ve
USA
22.95
..
Year
2 Years
3 Years
1
43.
VEIXE
D 25.
Foreign
347.
351.
63.
D 27.
D 75.
69.
Paid by: D Check
Money Order
VISA
American Express aa312EM
MasterCard
CZ712M0
VISA
Card Number:
Allow 6-8 weeks for delivery of first issue
Name
Street
City
State or Country
Zip
Applications
SBC
By Tom Fox
Applications
Conclusion
Using input capture to turn the MAG -11 SBC into an
accurate digital thermometer with binary display
T
ast month in Part of this article, I introduced you to MAG 11's binary output and how to use its
D/A converter to produce a digital
voltmeter with binary display and a
photometer with bargraph display.
This time out, I introduce you to
MAG -11's input -capture feature and
detail how to use it to make an accurate binary -display thermometer.
1
1
4
Using Input Capture
In the past, when data like voltage,
temperature, pressure, etc., was input
into an MPU-based circuit, one instinctively reached for a data book on
A/D converters. With the HC 11's advanced timer, it's often easier to input information using its input -capture capabilities at pins 6, 7 and 8
(MC68HC 11 A P) than using an external or even internal A/D converter.
The built-in binary -display thermometer, contained in MAG-11DIAG
firmware, makes use of this feature.
Now let's look at the concept of input
capture and how it can be used to measure temperature.
Both input -capture and output compare features make use of the
HC1 l's timer. The concept of this timer
is almost trivial, but it's a complex device. One look at its block diagrams
in Fig. 10-1 and Fig. 10-3 in the
M68HC1I Reference Manual will
convince you of this. Figure 5 here illustrates the Main Timer System
Block Diagram.
In essence, the timer is a free -running 16 -bit counter with a four -stage
programmable prescaler and an overflow function that allows software to
extend the timer's range. The basic
clock is the MCU's E clock. With a
4 -MHz crystal, the E clock is 1 MHz.
1
46
/ COMPUTERCRAFT / January 1993
The programmable prescaler divides
this E clock by 1, 4, 8 or 16; 1 is the default value, chosen automatically after
a system reset.
From the prescaler, this clock then
goes to the 16 -bit free -running counter, which starts from a count of $0000
after reset and then counts up continuously. Nothing, except perhaps if
someone steps on the board or hits the
RESET switch, stops it while the MCU
is in normal mode. You can read this
counter at any time.
The contents of the timer counter
are in the TCNT register at $100E and
$100F. It's important to read this register with only a double -byte read instruction like LDD or LDX. If you try
to read this register with a single -byte
read instruction, you'll likely get errors associated with the data. When
the register reaches its maximum
count of $FFFF, the counter rolls over
to $0000, sets an overflow flag (bit 7
of TFLG2 at $1025) and continues
counting.
The basic concept of input capture
is simple. All it does is use the timer to
measure the length of a portion of an
input waveform. The input -capture
function includes edge -detection logic; so the the time between successive
rising edges, successive falling edges or
any edge can be determined. Since f =
I /T, you determine instantaneous frequency at the same time.
You can configure the MC68HC
11A1P's three input -only pins for input capture. They're on Port A and
are PAO/IC3 pin 8 (bit 0 of Port A or
Input Capture 3), PAI/IC2 pin 7 and
PA2/ICI pin 6. We'll concentrate on
PA2/ICI pin 6, since it's used by
MAG -11's built-in binary thermometer. The other input -capture pins perform identically.
Three registers are used by
MAG-I1's binary thermometer:
TIC1. Input Capture Register stores
the value of the 16 -bit free -running
counter at the time an input -capture
occurs. It isn't affected by reset and
can't be written by software. It isn't
shown here because it can be viewed
as two read-only registers located at
$1010 and $1011. Normally, TICI is
1
read with an LDD or other double -byte
instruction.
TCTL2. Timer Control Register 2
($1021) enables the capture input and
determines whether capture occurs on
a falling or rising edge or both (see Fig.
B). Table 4 details the significance of
the various bits.
The other register used by the Binary Thermometer is TFLGI (Timer Interrupt Flag Register 1; Fig. C), which
indicates the occurrence of timer system events and by both the input -capture and the output -compare systems.
The Binary Thermometer makes use
of bit 2, Input Capture 1 flag.
OCxF. This Output Compare x Flag bit
is set each time the timer counter
matches the output -compare Register
x value. This bit is cleared by a write
of 1; a 0 write has no effect.
ICxF. This Input Capture x Flag is set
each time the selected active edge is detected on the Icx input line. As in the
OCxF, this bit can be cleared only by a
write of 1.
The sensor circuit is a simple inverter astable multivibrator. With RTH in
the circuit, the period decreases as the
temperature rises. It's approximately
2.2RC, where C is 0.1µF and R is the
combination of the R5 and RTH parallel and R6 and R19 serial networks.
(Exact frequency depends on the type
of inverter and IC technology used.)
The length of the oscillation period is
Say You Saw It In ComputerCraft
keet
7
6
0
0
O
O
5
4
3
2
1
0
TFLG2
EDG1B EDG1A EDG2B EFG2A EDG3B EDG3A $1021
0
O
n
o
o
Fig. B. Timer Control Register
2
Practical Aspects
Of the Thermometer
o
($1021).
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
OC1F
OC2F
OC3F
OC4F
005F
IC1F
IC2F
IC3F
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
TFLG1
Reset
$1023
Fig. C. Timer Interrupt Flag Register 1.
made more linearly related to the temperature with RS.
After adjustment, the multivibrator's output period at OF is 2,503 µs,
or 2,307 cycles with a 921 -kHz clock.
(With a 1 -MHz clock, exact figures are
slightly different, but the basic theory
is identical.) Each cycle corresponds
to 1 ° F, and each decrease (in cycles)
of period length corresponds to an increase of 1 ° F.
If the data was used directly by the
display, it would appear nonsensical
because as temperature increases, the
displayed value would decrease. This
problem is simply corrected by complementing the data and then subtracting 63,228 (65,535
2,307) from the
complement. The partial program in
Listing 5 was taken directly from the
assembly-language listing for MAG 1 1DIAG. Its only difference is that a
few more comments (preceded by *)
have been added for more clarity.
Listing 5 is included here for instructional purposes only and doesn't
show subroutines. Subroutine names
are descriptive of their function: JSR
-
turns off all LEDs,
and JSR DLY500 causes a delay of about
500 ms. MAG-11DIAG software automatically executes this program
when positions 1 through 4 and 6
through 8 of S1 set to OFF and position
5 is set to ON.
Listing 5 should be meaningful if
you're familiar with 6800 -series
MPUs. We'll briefly look at the
BRCLR 0,X -$04 * instruction, which
is new to the 68HC11. BRCLR is
BRanch if bit(s) CLeaR. Lets see what
BRCLR 0,X -$04 * does.
Here, o,x means index addressing is
being set with a 0 offset (the address
is contained in the index register). In
our example, this is the address of the
TFLG1 register, since we previously
stored this address in the index register.
Next, -$04 is the mask (in binary it's
0000 0100). This instruction causes a
branch if the mask bit at the address
of interest is clear; otherwise, the program continues.
The * in this instruction is interpreted by the assembler to branch to
CLRLED, simply
the current value of the program
Table 4. Significance of Various Bits for
EDG1B
EDG1A
o
o
0
1
0
1
Say You Saw It In ComputerCraft
TCTL2
Configuration
Input Capture 1 disabled
Capture on rising edges only
Capture on falling edges only
Capture on either rising or falling edge
The lin EDG 1 B and EDG1A refers to Input Capture
1; 2
counter. The program continues looping until bit 2 of the TFLG1 register is
set, indicating a capture has occurred.
and 3 have similar meanings.
To run the binary thermometer, you
must have an EPROM with MAG11DIAG firmware in the EPROM
plugged into the U7socket. To operate
the thermometer, set position 5 of S1
to ON and all other positions to OFF.
(Of course, if position 9 is also OFF,
MAG -11 is in its low -power invisible
mode and all but LED11 are always
off.) Press the RESET switch.
After a few seconds, the binary
thermometer starts running. Because
3.6864 -MHz crystal was originally
used, the E clock ran at about 921.6
kHz and a 74HC14 Schmitt -trigger
hex inverter was used, values chosen
for RS, R6 and R19 are acceptable.
However, using a 4 -MHz crystal and
a 74HC 14 prevents calibration of the
thermometer with the values shown.
(If you change the value of R19 to
6,040 ohms, you can then calibrate the
thermometer.)
If you use a 74HCT04 as U14, you
can calibrate the thermometer with the
resistor values shown, but only if you
use a 4 -MHz crystal. The reason for
this is that the 74HCT04 provides a
slightly shorter period waveform. For
calibration, set R6 so that the display
shows the temperature of TTH in binary notation. For instance, if the
temperature is 72 ° F, adjust R6 for a
display of 0100 1000 (64 + 8 = 72).
More Input Capture
A simple application is use of the
input -capture pins as a general-purpose input, even if the input-capture
function is enabled. To do this, simply read Port A ($1000). Read bit 0 for
logic -level data at pin 8, read bit 1 for
data at pin 7 and bit 2 for pin 6.
One possible application for the input -capture pins is to use them in a
robot, where pin 6, 7 or 8 connects to
a front "bump" sensor that causes the
MCU to issue a "back-up" command
to the main drive motor if the robot
bumps into something. Another possibility is in an HC 11 used in an agricultural weather -monitoring instrument,
where an input -capture pin could be
connected to a sensing circuit so that
January 1993
/
COMPUTERCRAFT
/
47
it can be used to record the start and
end of a critical wetting period.
A somewhat more sophisticated use
for the input -capture pins is as a flexi-
ble interrupt input. To enable masked
interrupt structure, you must clear the
bit in the CCR (Condition Code
Register). It's automatically set after
reset. Additionally, you must set the
appropriate control bit in the TMSK1
[
($1022) register to generate a hardware
interrupt request whenever the corresponding ICxF bit is set to 1 (see Fig. D).
Before leaving the interrupt service
routine, clear the ICxF bit by writing to
the TFLG1 register.
For an interrupt request to occur at
pin 6 of ICI (PA2), bit 2 (lc l[) of the
TMSK1 register must be set. Interrupt
requests for the other pins are similarly
enabled. You can individually configure pins 6, 7 and 8 as an edge -triggered
interrupt with its own interrupt vector.
You can also specify the type of edge
that causes an interrupt.
Referring back to Table 4 and register TCTL2, for an interrupt occurring
at pin 8 (Ic3), the interrupt vector is
$FFEA and $FFEB; for pin 7 (1c2),
it's $FFEC and $FFED; and for pin 6
Oct), it's $FFEE and $FFEF. Recall
that the interrupt vector is the address
that loads into the program counter
when the respective interrupt occurs.
Normally, a programmer places the
starting address of the interrupt service routine at the address of the interrupt vector. For example, let's suppose you're designing a cuckoo clock
that pops out a bird from its house and
cries "cuckoo" every hour and vocally
tells you the weather outside and how
you should dress. If you use an HC 11,
you connect pin 8 to a simple rain sensor that alerts the clock when it starts
to rain outside.
Having detected a rain condition,
you might program the clock's bird to
vocalize something like: "Close that
window! I don't want soggy feathers!
Its raining outside!" Assuming the
software for the cuckoo clock's rain
routine starts at address $D000, you'd
make sure $D0 is stored at address
$FFEA, with $00 at address $FFEB.
Output -Compare Function
By now, you should have a glimmer of
the enormous versatility of the HC 11's
design. For instance, the programmable timer is just one of the chip's sever -
48
/
COMPUTERCRAFT
/
January 1993
Listing 5. Thermometer With Binary Display'
*CONFIGUR TCTL2 FOR FALLING EDGE CAPTURE MODE
LDAA
#001000006
STAA
TCTL2
'DELAY 1 SECOND
JSR
DLY1S
`CLEAR ANY IC1F FLAG GOTEMP
LDAA
#$04
STAA
TFLG1
'BE READY TO DETECT FIRST FALLING EDGE
LDX
ifTFLG 1
'LOOP HERE UNTIL EDGE WAS DETECTED
BRCLR
0,X $04
'WHEN FIRST EDGE DETECTED CONTINUE
"FIRST READ TIME OF FIRST EDGE
LDD
T1C1
'SAVE TIME OF FIRST EDGE AT FIRSTE
STD
FIRSTE
'CLEAR IC1F FLAG
LDAA
#$04
STAA
TFLG1
'WAIT FOR SECOND EDGE
BRCLR
0,X $04
'WHEN SECOND EDGE DETECTED CONTINUE
'FIRST READ TIME OF SECOND EDGE
LDD
T1C1
*SUBTRACT FIRST TIME FROM SECOND TIME WITH
"DIFFERENCE IN DOUBLE ACCUMULATOR. THIS
'DIFFERENCE IS PULSE LENGTH IN CYCLES OF CLOCK 'E'
SUBD
FIRSTE
'IF TEMPERATURE IS ABOVE 255 F BRANCH TO TOOHI
CPD
-2050
BLO
TOOHI
'IF TEMPERATURE IS BELOW 0 F BRANCH TO TOOLOW
CPD
#2307
BHI
TOOLOW
7
OC
Reset
0
1
I
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
OC21
0C3I
0C4I
0C5I
Ich I
IC2I
IC3I
0
0
0
0
0
0
Fig.
D.
TMSK1
$1022
TMSK1 Register.
al subsystems. The input -capture
function is just one of the several peripherals that make use of the program-
mable timer. Moreover, there are
many different ways of using the input -capture pins, considerably more
than have been discussed here.
The concept of output -compare is
almost trivial. As in the input -compare function, output -compare makes
use of the free -running timer. However, here you set up a 16 -bit "number" (up to 65,535 decimal). When a
match occurs between this number
and the free -running timer, a status
flag is set (ocxF), an interrupt can be
generated (if enabled), and timer output pins are automatically changed per
software -accessible control bits.
As a simple but practical example,
let's use the output -compare function
to generate an accurate -kHz square
wave. To hear this signal, breadboard
the Fig. 6 circuit, which uses an optically -isolated input and an LM386 IC
audio power amplifier to drive a small
speaker. Connect a wire from pin 4 of
J3 to the circuit's input. Use an oscilloscope to view the signal.
Use BUFFALO's ASM line assembler to enter the program in Listing 6.
Run it with the GO B650 command.
1
Say You Saw It In ComputerCraft
how the bits control Output Compare 2.
Line
*NOW COMPLEMENT DOUBLE ACCUMULATOR AND SUBTRACT 63,228
COMA
COMB
#63228
SU B D
*ACCUMULATOR B NOW HAS TEMPERATURE IN DEGREES F FROM
*NOW WE MAKE LED1 - LED8 INDICATE TEMPERATURE IN BINARY
STAB
TEMPF
LDX
0 TO 255 F
#LED1
*ACTIVATE LED POINTED TO BY 'X' NXTLED
STAB
O,X
LSRB
'LAST LED YET?
CPX
#LED8
*IF DONE BRANCH TO GOTEMP FOR NEXT READING
BEQ
GOTEMP
'OTHERWISE SET UP INDEX REGISTER FOR NEXT LED
INX
BRA
NXTLED
'THE FOLLOWING ROUTINE SIMPLY MAKES LED8 FLASH ON AND OFF
TOOHI
JSR
CLRLED
LDAA
#$01
STAA
LED8
JSR
DLY500
CLR
LED8
JSR
DLY500
DOAGIN
JMP
GOTEMP
*THE FOLLOWING ROUTINE SIMPLY MAKES LEDI FLASH ON AND OFF
TOOLOW
CLRLED
JSR
LDAA
STAA
JSR
CLR
JSR
BRA
#$01
LEDI
DLY500
LEDI
DLY500
DOAG N
I
*Binary display drivers are contained in MAG-11DIAG firmware.
(With a Data Precision 5740 Digital
Frequency meter, the output frequency measured 1,000.1 Hz when E was
1.000087 MHz.)
Two registers I haven't discussed
yet are used by this example. TOC2 is
a 16 -bit output -compare register that
simply holds the "number" you wish
to compare the free -running timer
with. It isn't shown here pictorially
since there's no need for it. Its address
is $1,018 and $1,019. Timer control
register (TCTL1; Fig. E) has several
important control bits. Table 5 lists
1
Listing 6. Square -Wave Generator Using Polling
1
loads the stack pointer with
$50, which is a good habit to get into.
Line 2 loads the index register with
$1000 so that reads and writes to
HC11's registers can use index addressing when desired.
Lines 3 and 4 configure TCTL1 so
that pin 2 of the HC11 toggles when
a successful compare is made.
Lines 5 and 6 clear double -byte register TOC2.
Lines 7 and 8 clear the Output Compare 2 Flag in the Timer Interrupt Flag
Register 1.
Line 9 loads the double accumulator with 500 decimal ($1F4).
Assuming you're using a 4 -MHz
crystal, the free -running timer's clock
has a period of 1µs. So if you want a
1,000 -Hz output signal (1 -ms or
1,000-µs period), you must toggle pin
2 every 500 ms. To do this, simply load
D with decimal 500.
Line 10 adds the data in the TOC2
register to D.
Line 11 stores the result back in the
Toc2 register. Line 12, t\,e program
waits until the TCNT timer register
matches TOC2. When the compare is
successful, the program branches
back to line 7 and clears the Output
Compare 2 flag and continues to run
through again.
Listing 6 polls the TFLG1 register.
All you have to do is change line 9 by
loading D with a different number.
There are limits to how high a frequency you can generate. Unless you
change bits 0 and 1 of the TMSK2 register ($1024), the longest wavelength signal that can be generated (assuming E
= MHz) is 2 x 65,535 µs or 0.13107
second, or 7.6295 Hz. You do this by
loading D in line 9 with 65,535 decimal
(FFFF hex or 1111 1111 1111 1111
binary).
What if you load D with in Line 9?
Is a 500 -kHz signal generated? Try this
and note your result. If you keep in
mind that the shortest instructions (for
example, NOP) take at least two cycles
(2µs) to complete, it's obvious that it
isn't possible to generate a 500 -kHz
signal. (The instruction on line 12
alone takes 7µs to complete.)
Practically speaking, don't try to
create a signal shorter than 70µs (f x
14,286 Hz) using a 4 -MHz crystal. If
you want a wavelength with a longer
period, first change the TMSK2 register. If you set both bits 0 and of this
1
1
Line
Address
B650
B653
B656
LDS
LDX
#0050
#1000
LDAA
#40
6
B658
B65B
B65E
7
B661
1020
1018
1019
#40
8
B663
B665
B668
B66B
B66E
B672
STAA
CLR
CLR
LDAA
STAA
LDD
ADDD
STD
BRCLR
BRA 13661
1
2
3
4
5
9
10
11
12
13
'OC2 PIN TOGGLES ON
SUCCESSFUL COMPARES
*CLEAR TOC2
#01 F4
*CLEAR ANY OC2 FLAG
*LOAD D WITH 500
1018
1018
23,X 40
B66E *LOOP HERE TIL OC2F=1
23,X
1
Say You Saw
It In ComputerCraft
January 1993
/
COMPUTERCRAFT
/
49
J3 Pin
4
(PA6/0C2,
U1 Pin 2)
Ri
J6
Pin 5
1K
o +5V
4N26
D1_
Cl
(optical
isolator)
1N914
0.001 µF
C51.
100µF-
2
C4
C2
3
R3<I
100K<
R2
10K
C3
220µF
6
2
0.1 µF
.
6M386
'
0.1µF
852-16Q
R4?
R5
10K
3.3K
Ec
SPKR
J6 Pin 15
Fig. 6.MAG-11 can be programmed to generate accurate square waves.
circuit and connect it to the SBC.
If
you wish to listen to the output signal, wire this
Table 5. How Bits Control Output Compare 2
0M2
OL2
o
o
o
Action Taken
0C2 Does Not Affect Pin (OC1 still may)
Toggle pin 2 of 68HC11A1P on successful compare
Clear pin 2 of 68HC I l A 1 P on successful compare
Set pin 2 of 68HCI IAIP on successful compare
o
1
I
Reset
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
o
0M2
OL2
0M3
OL3
0M4
OL4
0M5
OL5
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
TCTL1
$1020
Fig. E. The TCTL1 Timer Control Register.
register, you can produce a wavelength that's slightly longer than 2 seconds (16 x 0.13107) in duration.
Generating Square Waves
Because polled -driven software wastes
CPU time, the designers of the HC 11
(who must hate the thought of wasting
CPU time) included a myriad of interrupts. We'll look at only the Timer
Output Compare 2 interrupt here (I
discussed several others in previous
Installments).
The HC 11's Interrupt vector assignments are shown in the left column of
50
/ COMPUTERCRAFT / January 1993
Table 6. However, if you use the BUF-
FALO monitor, these assignments
aren't very useful because they're occupied by BUFFALO. Fortunately,
BUFFALO provides pseudo -vectors,
located in internal RAM space.
(They're identical to the pseudo -vectors used by the HC11's bootstrap
ROM. The only difference is that at reset, the bootstrap ROM jumps to
$BF40, while the BUFFALO monitor
jumps to $E000).
Refer to the right column in Table
6 for the starting address of these
pseudo-vectors. These differ slightly
from normal vector assignments in
that they require a JMP op code (7E)
to be placed before the address of your
interrupt service routine.
The first step in using the 0C2 interrupt is to bring it to life by clearing the
I bit in the CCR register, using op code
CLI and setting the 0C21 bit (bit 6) in
the TMSKI register.
Listing 7 provides a 1,000 -Hz signal, as did Listing 6. However, this
time, instead of polling, the interrupt
method is used. As before, it's shown
here in a form that allows direct entry
using BUFFALO's ASM line assembler, and the program resides in the
HC11's EEPROM. To run this short
program, enter GO B6B0. If you have
the circuit connected as shown in Fig.
6, you should hear a loud, moderate pitched sound from the speaker.
Lines 2 and 3 load the JMP op code
at location $00DC, which is the pseudo -vector for Output Compare 2.
Lines 3 and 4 load the starting address ($B6A0) at address $00DD and
$00DE. Thus, after an 0C2 interrupt
is detected, the program jumps to
$B6A0, which is the starting address
of the interrupt service routine.
Line 7 sets 0C2 for a toggle of pin
2 on a compare match.
Line 8 clears the 0C2 flag bit in the
TFLGI register.
Line 9 enables the 0C2 interrupts
and the CLI.
Line 10 enables the interrupts.
Lines 11 through 14 make up a pro -
Say You Saw It In ComputerCraft
Table 6. HC11's Interrupt Vector Assignments
Interrupt
On -Chip Normal
Vector Address
FFD6,D7
FFD8,D9
FFDA,DB
FFDC,DD
(Overflow)
Source Pseudo -Vector*
Source Pseudo -Vector*
SCI
SPI
00C4
0007
Pulse Accumulator
(Input Edge)
Pulse Accumulator
OOCA
OOCD
Listing
Line
B680
B683
3
8685
4
B687
B68A
B68C
B68E
1
5
6
7
OODO
8
FFE2,E3
FFE4,E5
00D3
00D6
00D9
9
10
FFE6,E7
FFE8,E9
FFEA,EB
FFEC,ED
Timer Output Compare 2
Timer Output Compare 1
Timer Input Compare 3
Timer Input Compare 2
OODC
OODF
FFEE,EF
Timer Input Capture
Real Time Interrupt
IRQ
XIRQ
FFEO,E I
FFFO,F1
FFF2,F3
FFF4,F5
FFF6,F7
FFF8,F9
FFFA,FB
FFFC,FD
Illegal Opcode Trap
COP Fail
Clock Monitor
FFFE,FF
Reset
00E2
00E5
00E8
00EB
00EE
1
00F1
00F4
00F7
00FA
00FD
SWI
E000(IN ROM)
the 0C2 compare register.
Lines 18 and 19 clear the oc2 flag in
the TFLGI register before returning
from the interrupt (Line 20).
Line 21 starts a short program that
stores 500 decimal, or $1F4 hex (for a
1,000 µs period) at location $60. The
program them jumps to $B680, where
the square -wave program starts.
Interesting Programs
Listing
8
automatically sweeps the
Say You Saw It In ComputerCraft
12
13
#50
#7E
LDX
#B6A0
STX
LDAA
STAA
STAA
STAA
B691
B69A
B697
B698
B699
B69A
DC
DD
#40
1020
1023
1022
CLI
NOP
NOP
NOP
Note: After entering line 13, press LINE
FEED or +-not ENTER.
14
B69B
BRA
B698
The next line starts the interrupt service
routine. Press LINE FEED or + until address B6A0 shows up.
15
B6A0
LDD
60
16
B6A2
ADDD
1018
17
B6A5
STD
1018
18
19
20
B6A8
B6AA
B6AE
Press LINE FEED or
until address B6B0
LDAA
#40
STAA
1023
RTI
+ instead of ENTER
shows up.
The next program segment places the frequency/period data at addresses 60 and
61 and then jumps to the start of the main
21
*Starting address of pseudo -Vector used by BUFFALO monitor.
cycle.
Lines 16 and 17 add this value to the
last compare value and store it back in
11
LDS
LDAA
STAA
program.
Note: All addresses are in hexadecimal.
gram that serves as a place to wait for
interrupts. (A JMP xxxx instruction can
substitute for the three NOP5. You can
use this instruction to lead into a more meaningful program.)
Line 15 starts the Interrupt Service
routine. It loads the double accumulator with the data (pre -stored in internal RAM at $60) for the delay time for
Square -Wave
Instruction
2
Timer Overflow
Timer Output Compare 5
Timer Output Compare 4
Timer Output Compare 3
FFDE,DF
7.
Generator Using Output Compare Interrupter
scale from about 93 Hz to nearly 9
kHz. The rate of frequency climb is
determined in the third line (the LDY
-300 instruction). Change the data here
if you want to experiment. If you want
to try this program, change line 11 of
Listing 7 to jump to the start of Listing
8 as follows:
Line
New
11
B698
Instruction
JMP B6C0
Enter GO B680 to run this program
from the BUFFALO monitor.
Lines 1, 2 and 3 load D with a pseudo -random number. (The original
number comes from free -running timer register TCNT.)
Lines 4 through 7 reject this number
if it's less than 56 decimal ($38) or
greater than 4,608 decimal ($1200).
Line 8 stores this number at $0060
and $0061 if its number passes the test
in lines 4 through 7. This number de -
22
23
B6B0
B6B3
B6B5
LDX
STX
JMP
#1F4
60
B680
termines the frequency produced by
the listing.
Lines 9, 10 and 11 cause a/, -second
delay for the "note" to be heard.
Line 12 causes the program to get
another number.
MAG -11 Plays Music
After loading Listing 9, running the
program and listening to the "alien"
sound produced for a few minutes, it
becomes obvious that it isn't difficult
to have MAG -11 produce computer
music. Keep in mind that the length of
time a note is held is determined by line
9. If you load D with $B000, the length
of a note will be about 'A second.
The basic program to produce music is given in Listing 10. The data required to play Old MacDonald is given
in Listing 11. Key in M EM 1100, followed by ENTER to enter this data. Use
the space bar-not ENTER-to step
the address for loading the data.
January 1993
/
COMPUTERCRAFT
/
51
Listing 8. Square -Wave
Sweep Generator
Line
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Instruction
B6C0
I_Dx
B6C3
B6C5
B6C9
B6CB
B6CD
B6CE
B6CF
B6D2
B6D4
STX
LDY
DEY
#1500
60
#300
BNE
B6C9
DEX
DEX
CPX
BLO
BRA
#38
B6C0
B6C3
Listing 9. Produces Music
Line
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
Instruction
B6D8
B6DB
B6DC
B6DD
LDD
MUL
MUL
CPD
BLO
CPD
BHI
STD
LDY
DEY
BNE
BRA
B6E1
B6E3
B6E7
B6E9
B6EB
B6EF
B6F1
B6F3
100E
#38
B6D8
#1200
B6D8
60
#8000
B6EF
B6D8
This program is fun to listen to. Line 11
of Listing 7 must be altered to actually
use this listing as follows: JMP B6D8. Use
GO B680 to run this program.
Data FF causes a delay (lines 6, 7
and 19 through 24), and data 00 causes
the program to halt (lines 5, 16, 17 and
18). The larger the number in data, the
lower the pitch of the note. Note pitch
is also determined by lines 3 and 9 of
Listing 10.
The length of the note is determined
by line 11, and the relative length of
pause is determined by line 20. If
you're using the MAG-11BAT battery -backup board, it would be wise to
install it before entering the data in
Listing 11. Because this data is stored
in CMOS static RAM, it will be lost
shortly after power is removed when
MAG-11BAT isn't used.
If you run the program in Listing
10, you must first change line 11 of
Listing 7 to J MP B7C7. Again, run the
program with GO B680.
If you'd like to experiment with
voice synthesis, load D in Line 11 of
Listing 10 with $150 or even $100 instead of $B000. Doing this allows the
program to take several hundred of
these short notes to voice a word. I've
briefly experimented with MAG-11 in
voice synthesis, but generating speech
with it seems possible.
If you do experiment with voice synthesis, vary the notes sharply. For instance, a fairly accurate "s" sound can
be made with the data: FO 01 E0 05 FO
01 DO 80 01 FO 01 EO . . With 100
to 300 distinct notes a second, the hu .
.
man ear interprets such a combination
of notes as the "pink noise" of the "s"
sound. Rapid alteration of frequencies
is required to obtain the sound of the
human voice. Some sounds, like a
long "e," don't require as abrupt
changes in frequency as does "s."
Its obvious considerable memory is
needed for MAG-11 to vocalize a single word, with no guarantees on speech
quality. However, experimenting with
computerized speech is a fascinating
pursuit all by itself.
Advanced I/O
Pin Control
Our examples of output -compare control of pin 2 is labeled "Normal I/O
Pin Control" in the M68HC11 Reference manual. "Advanced" methods of
using oc are also covered. OC1 permits one output compare to control up
to five pins or two output compares to
control one pin. Details of using ocl
in this manner are beyond the scope of
this article.
A simpler feature in the HC1l's
output -compare system is Forced Output Compare (Fig. F), used in some
1
Listing 10 Electronic
Organ Vocal Chord
Line
1
The Pocket
Programmer- $129.95
The portable
Eprom
programmer
that uses the
printer port
of your PC instead of a internal card. The
software has 24 functions and programs
27/28/25/68764, Cmos, EEproms & Flash
from 16K - 4Meg (2K-256K x 8) with a 32
pin socket. Adapters available for 874X
MCU's, 40 -Pin Eproms, 5-Gang, 16 Pin X4
& X8 Prom, Serial Eproms and Eprom
Emulator to 32K x 8.
TimeType
In today's business world, an eight hour
day sometimes isn't enough. But why
should you stay in the office babysitting
chores that TimeType 2.0 can easily
handle? From hard drive backups to
remote logins, TimeType simulates your
keystrokes at a time you set, so you get
the most from your time.
.
.
.
.
Box 13723
Edwardsville, KS 66113
(913) 422-2094
Add $3.00 for shipping
Add $3.75 for COD.
VISA/Master Charge
CIRCLE NO. 138 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
52
/
COMPUTERCRAFT
/
January 1993
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
B7C7
B7CA
B7CB
B7CD
B7CF
B7D1
B7D3
B7D5
B7D6
B7D9
B7DB
B7DF
B7E1
B7E3
B7E4
LDX
CLI
LDAB5
LDAA
BEQ
CM PA
BEQ
MUL
ADDD
STD
LDY
DEY
BNE
INX
BRA
press 'LINE FEED' or
SEI
B7F1
NOP
WAI
16
17
18
software
press 'LINE FEED' or
CMS
ChnMar Systems
707S. Division, Suite I
Ann Arbor, MI 48104
(313) 761-8076
19
20
21
22
23
24
B7F2
B7F4
B7F5
B7F9
B7FB
B7FD
B7FE
#1100
#6
0,X
B7F0
#FF
B7F4
#A7
60
#B000
B7DF
B7CA
key
B7F0
Occupies only 3K of memory
Encrypts commands to prevent password theft
Handles CTRL or ALT key combinations and
function keys with ease
Can serve as a driver to all kinds of popular
$29.95
Intronics, Inc.
2
3
4
5
6
Instruction
key
SEI
LDY
DEY
#3000
BNE
INX
BRA
B7F9
B7CA
CIRCLE NO. 131 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
Say You Saw It In
ComputerCraft
Prairie Digital, lnc.
Listing
11.
Data for "Old MacDonald"
77 FF 77 FF 77 FF 90 FF 87 FF 87 FF 90 90 FF FF FF FF FF FF 65 FF 65 FF 70 FF
77 77 FF FF FF FF FF FF 77 FF 77 FF 77 FF 90 FF 87 FF 87 FF 90 90 FF FF FF FF
65 FF 65 FF 70 FF 70 FF 77 77 FF FF FF 77 FF 77 FF 77 FF FF FF FF 77 FF 77 FF
FF FF FF 77 FF 77 FF 77 FF 77 FF 77 77 FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF 77 FF 77 FF 77
FF 87 FF 87 FF 90 90 FF FF FF FF FF FF 65 FF 65 FF 70 FF 70 FF 77 77 00 00
70 FF
FF FF
77 FF
FF 90
8,8188181'.i9ig
PC DATA ACQUISITION
SYSTEM - $79
Starting address is at $1100.
Note: Data reads across; press space bar for next address.
INCLUDES SOFTWARE ON 5.25" FLOPPY
MODEL 30 -FOR 386'S, XT'S, AT'S, PS2
MODEL 25 & 30'S.
FEATURES:
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
FOCI
FOC2
FOC3
FOC4
F005
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
CFORC
Reset
$100B
*
*
*
*
*
*
automotive spark timing systems.
Forced Output Compare enables a
program to "force" a compare before
a compare can occur in the "normal"
way. This "force" mechanism uses
the CFORC register ($100B).
To force one or more output -compare channels, write to this register
with 1s in the bit positions that correspond to the channels to be forced.
Thus, storing $40 at $100B "forces"
a compare of 0C2 at the next timer
counter clock cycle. (In our examples,
this would occur at the next E clock cycle, since the prescale factor for the
timer system is the default value of 1.
If the prescale factor was set to 16,
forced compare would require 16 E
clock cycles to occur.)
We've looked at, sometimes with
significant myopia, most of the
68HC1 l's features and peripherals so
far. Two peripherals I didn't mention
are the Synchronous Serial Peripheral
Interface (SPI) and Pulse Accumulator
(PA). SPI permits communication with
peripheral devices like an LCD display
driver and a multi -channel D/A converter. The Pulse Accumulator can be
used to count things like pieces on an
assembly line or count time like the
width of a pulse.
It should be obvious that the
68HC11 is "loaded." The only things
you need to fully use this MCU are desire and a little skill. The HC1l's design is a two-edged sword, though. Its
numerous features permit you to design simplified and economical sys-
8
CHANNEL ANALOG MULTIPLEXOR
12 BIT CMOS COUNTER
EASY INTERFACE TO ALL POPULAR LANGUAGES
OPTIONAL 7 CHANNEL 50V DRIVER AVAILABLE
FOR ADDITIONAL $5
APPLICATIONS:
*
*
Fig. F. Forced Output Compare Register.
24 LINES OF PROGRAMMABLE INPUT/OUTPUT
8 BIT ANALOG TO DIGITAL CONVERTER
*
*
CONTROL RELAYS, LIGHTS & MOTORS
MEASURE TEMPERATURE, PRESSURE, LIGHT
LEVELS, & HUMIDITY
INPUT SWITCH POSITIONS, THERMOSTATS, &
LIQUID LEVELS
GREAT FOR ROBOTICS, SERVO CONTROL LOOPS
tems, but its complexity can unnerve
some designers. If you persevere,
you'll soon find yourself deeply enmeshed in the fascinating world of
Brat rie Uiuii8L Inc.
Sh Digit 18811
to RS232 Convert..
mocrocontrol.
Parts
Availability
The following items are available from
Magicland, 4380 S. Gordon Ave., Fremont, MI 49412: ready -to -wire double sided MAG -11 pc board with plated-
through holes, component -placement
silkscreen and complete Parts List (No.
MAG-11BD), $25; semi -kit with pc
board and all ICs that aren't optional, including a 27C256 programmed with your
choice of MAG-11DIAG or BUFFALO
firmware, IC sockets, thermistor, 7.32K
and 6.04K 1% tolerance resistors, loaded PC -compatible software disks with all
software mentioned thus far and pc fabrication guides for MAG -11 revision c
and MAG -11 BAT, and a utility for printing the exposure mask using a HP Laser Jet II -compatible laser printer or 100%
compatible IBM dot-matrix printer (specify your choice of 3%2" or 51/4") manual;
and three-ring binder (No. MAG-11PKT
/c), $69. Also available are: MC68HC
11 A 1 P CPU, $25; 27C256 programmed
with either MAG-11DIAG or BUFFALO firmware, $12; loaded pc compatible disk (see above), $10.
All prices include postpaid shipping in
the US. Add $5 for shipments to Canada,
$10 for shipments to all other countries.
Deduct 15% on orders that exceed $100.
Michigan residents, please add 4% sales
tax.
MODEL 70 18 BIT (5.5 DIGIT)
A/D WITH RS232 INTERFACE $239
INEXPENSIVE- Equivalent resolution of 51/2 digit DVMs
costing over $10001 FAST -- 16.7 to 133 ms/conversion
depending on resolution and mode
MULTI -CHANNEL CAPABILITY - Up to 32 model 70's
can be daisy chained together off of 1 serial port
SOFTWARE - Virtual instrument software features easy
pull down menus, mouse support, CGA, EGA, VGA
support. Will log to screen, printer, or disk data file for
easy import to spreadsheets and graphic programs.
Source code included (QuickBasic)
$239 COMPLETE (- Includes software on floppy, PC
cable, 9 volt wall mount power supply and manual)
$199 WITHOUT - Software and cable
MODEL 150 TRUE RMS
DMM W/RS232 PORT - $149
INCLUDES RS232 PC CABLE AND
SOFTWARE ON 5.25" FLOPPY
*
*
*
*
*
LARGE 33/4 DIGIT DISPLAY (3.999 VS. 1.999 FOR
3 1/2 DIGIT METERS)
RS232SERIAL INTERFACECOMMUNICATES WITH
COMPUTERS AND PRINTERS
MEASURES AC -DC VOLTAGE AND CURRENT,
FREQUENCY, RESISTANCE
20 AMP CURRENT RANGE, 30 Hz TO 40 KHz
FREQUENCY RANGE
DIODE TEST AND AUDIBLE CONTINUITY
SEND CHECK, MO, VISA, MC
INCLUDE $8 FOR SHIPPING & HANDLING
Prairie Digital, Inc.
846 Seventeenth Street
Prairie du Sac, Wisconsin 53578
Tel: (608) 643-8599Fax: (608) 643-6754
CIRCLE NO.
148
ON FREE INFORMATION CAR D
53
Applications
By
The Shell
Hardin Brothers
Game
Using shells can make your
computer a lot friendlier
and much more likely to help you get work done
instead of hindering you
Lurking in your CONFIG.SYS file
is probably an innocuous looking line that says something like:
SHELL = C: \ COMMAND.COM /P
/E:512. You may know that this line
reserves 512 bytes for the master environment (the text you see if you type
SET at the DOS prompt). Otherwise,
you probably ignore this line completely. However, this line says a lot
about how DOS and other operating
systems work. Before it sets aside environment space, it specifies that you
want to use a program called COMMAND.COM as your DOS shell. Without really thinking about it, you've
defined the program you'll probably
use most often while your computer is
turned on.
A shell is an unusual program. Very
often, its design is crucial to the success of an operating system. In fact,
in most people's minds, the shell is the
operating system. But if you're an assembly -language programmer, you
probably have a more -realistic view of
DOS and what it really is.
At its heart, an operating system is
a collection of services that are
available to application programs.
These services take care of the disk file
system and other computer resources,
including the keyboard and time -of day clock. The services an operating
system makes available strongly influence the applications written for it.
For example, DOS's eight -character
filenames give it a completely different
feel from the operating systems that
permit much longer filenames.
To request a DOS function, a program puts specific values into the
CPU's registers, including a function selection number. The program then
transfers control to DOS, usually by
invoking software Interrupt 21 hex.
54
/
COMPUTERCRAFT
/
January 1993
MS-DOS Shell
File Options
C:\MASM
®A ®B
View
[Mille
Tree
Help
OD
Directory Tree
C:\
-e]
-
-+
-tn
-e+
-r
ACAD
BASIC
COMM
DOS
GAMES
MAG
i]
R
8
an
8
C:\MASM\»..
ASM
CHEF
.BAT
.EXE
28,427
83-11-88
.HLP
EXE2COM .EXE
LINK
.EXE
MASM
.EXE
239,863
3,063
142,015
124,712
02-07-90
11-18-88
02-28-90
03-11-88
CV
129
0438-91 t
MISC
a
Command Prompt
Editor
MS-DOS QBasic
Disk Utilities
a
The DOS 5.0 shell's main screen.
DOS performs the requested function,
puts data and status information back
into the CPU registers and returns to
the application program that called it.
DOS provides a large number of
services, but it's severely lacking in one
area. It has absolutely no user interface. DOS itself doesn't know how to
display a C > prompt. It doesn't know
how to interpret or react to simple
commands like DIR and TYPE, and it
doesn't know how to run a program
when you type its name at your keyboard. These aren't properly DOS activities at all. Instead, they're the job
of the user interface shell.
When you turn on your computer,
it goes through its self -tests (the POST
routine), loads a bootstrap program
from disk, loads and initializes the
operating system and, finally, starts a
user shell. The shell is then responsible for all interactions between you
and the operating system. If you want
to see a directory of files, for example,
the shell is responsible for interpreting
your request, making the necessary
DOS calls to generate a list of files and
putting the filenames on the screen.
The only thing DOS does during this
operation is pass filenames to the shell,
one at a time.
Almost any program can be used as
a DOS shell. If you like to experiment,
format a bootable floppy disk and
copy any small program onto this
disk. Then create a CONFIG.SYS file
on the floppy that has only a SHELL =
line that defines the program as your
shell. Now boot up from this floppy
disk, and you'll see your chosen program instead of the DOS prompt. The
program should run in the normal
manner, but if you try to exit from it,
you'll see a "Bad or missing command
interpreter" error, and the computer
will lock up.
Remove the floppy disk and re -boot
from your hard drive to restore your
computer to normal operation. This
Say You Saw It In Comput erCraft
little test demonstrates a shell's first
responsibility: it can't end. If it does,
you're left without a method of interacting with your computer.
If you try this experiment, you'll
also see that COMMAND.COM, not
DOS, runs your AUTOEXEC.BAT file
(and all other batch files). COMMAND.COM is also responsible for
maintaining the environment, including the PATH, displaying the C >
prompt, reacting to your typed commands and launching other programs.
Commands listed as "internal" in
your DOS manual are those built into
COMMAND.COM. "External" commands are any other programs available on your system, including several
utilities, like XCOPY, that are shipped
with DOS.
You probably know how to change
the name of an external command by
changing the file name. For example,
many users change the name of FORMAT.COM to something else and then
write a batch file called FORMAT.BAT
that keeps them from accidentally formatting their hard disks. And you may
have read that you can't write a program or batch file with the same name
as an internal command, because such
a program will never run. The point of
this warning is that COMMAND.COM
reads through its internal list of commands before it searches for a .COM,
.EXE or .BAT file to execute.
If you really want to alter the way
COMMAND.COM works and use your
own DIR.BAT or DIR.EXE program,
you can. All you have to do is disable
the DIR command inside COMMAND.COM. If you examine COMMAND.COM with a sector editor like
the one in Norton Utilities or PC
Tools, you'll find a list of commands
in upper-case letters. Between each
command, you'll see a few nonsense
characters, which you can ignore but
not change. COMMAND.COM shifts
any command you type to upper-case
and then tries to match your command
with a word in its command list. If you
want to disable one of these internal
commands, use your sector editor to
change one or more characters in the
command to lowercase. You can re enable the command at any time by
changing it back to uppercase.
You may not have a reason to alter
COMMAND.COM on your personal
computer, but doing so might make an
office computer a lot more secure.
You could, for example, disable DEL
and ERASE or the COPY command. A
sophisticated user will find ways of
performing the same operations with
various application programs, but you
may keep relatively inexperienced
users from accidentally destroying important files. Of course, you should
make sure that you have a good backup of the original COMMAND.COM to
use in case your patches cause unexpected problems.
Just because COMMAND.COM is
shipped with DOS and installed as the
default command interpreter, it isn't
the only user shell available. Starting
ELENCO & HITACHI & B+ K PRODUCTS
48 HOUR
SHIPPING
l
-
.a.;
'
$ 349
S-1325 25MHz
Dual Trace Oscilloscope
$495
S-1340 40MHz
l32 channels (VC -3120)
S-1360 60MHz
II
Automatic beam finder
Built -In component fester
a
Comonettivity
Dual time boss
Digital Capacitance Meter
DeltaI
LCR
.-
Meter
$58.95
$125
BI01
Meawm:
coda Ive -200e
Display
Capº.1p1.2ooul
q
Ranges
p1.20.000uld
.5% basic accy.
Zero control w/ Case
e 1. Display
.
US
1'
YOUR
V
COMPONENT
NEEDS
12A DC Power
S
Bo
`
n
I
300F-900í
Grounded Tip
Overheat Protect
Tells you
"tl
or
worn
.
4l!
2 to
15V091Á
1
and 55 @ 34
All the desired features for doing experiments.
Features short circuit protection, all supplies.
,
4Mcaraliiir
Multi -Function Counter
Audio Generator
Elenco F-1200
BeK 3001
-r"
Frequency. Period, Totalize
Kit $69.95
LCM1850
10
RF 8
.
r^^'m'-^
$B9
Auto/Manual Range
Many Features
w/ D Factor
High Accuracy
®
2MHz Function Generator
WE WILL NOT BE UNDERSOLD
PROBES INCL
ALL SCOPES&METERS
I::-9.'s
n
with Training Course
Elenco Model
M-2665K
$49.95
* ti
NTSC
_'
"
*A»
Fun o
EasyMeasures
to Build
Full Function 34 Ranges, Includes
Capacilance,Transistor/Diode Testing
$219.95
20Amp AC/DC, Extra Large Display, Ideal
School Project
Generator w/RGB
100MHz Portable Frequency
Counter
«
r raised
rl
$129
RF Free 100K4SOMHi AM Mcdula
than of lKHZ Variable RF output
D1apkY a
MI00 w/
180 MHz built-in Coumer$249
150SG-
50K 1249A
$479
NTSC color bars. Excellent for most
¡rig work. A must
C&S SALES INC.
1245 ROSEWOOD. DEERFIELD. L 60015
FAO. 708-520-0085 (708) 541.0710
r'IRCLE NO.
Digital Multimeter Kit
-!!`
SG -9000
UPS SHIPPING: au STATES 5°.,
IL RES 7.55 TAX (53 min StO maxi
Stet Functions
Model 878
$239.95
B.KS best DMM
Large 3-1/2 digit
Rugged conslruceon
Full featured
13K 3011B
' .-_-
-
rWtlnebnmetfarer roubuildaooeWebsyesem.ar
Awo-sr
M
nexar madam you o arse into RAMS.
ROAM and run a roes ...prat
vrMm uas
amlar machine language s IoM PC.
Wl
'_.
LED Display, Sine, Square, Triangle, Ramp
8 Pulse Waves. TTL 6 CMOS
All Pads, Assembly and Lesson Manual
MM -6000
video output
Duel -Display LCR Meter
Model 2860
dhad"
Elenco Wide Band
Signal Generators
$129.00
nes
the industry
rack steady patterns
=
Ten Functions
H
Model
$289.00
Model 87
SG -250
LED digits. Crystal oven oscillator, .5ppm accy
Incurs:
Wee
$89.95
$
Computers with this KR
80
+j )°'.t
20Hn150611
Sine/Square
Learn to Build and Program
$65.00
5145.00
5169.00
7011
Mode17711
Mode17911
Color Convergence Generator
65
1.2GHz
$229
Model
$62.95
$79.95
The Survivor
-2 to -15V (9 1A
(or 4 to 30V
1A)
e1/'
7oder701
$75.00
i-
-.
Kit $50
9 9
I
by Elenco
XP -620
Assembled $75
1686
Fully regulated & protected
'Separate voll 8 current meters
r..th current limiting low ripple
8
-
Is
Ca
Ca
(All Models Available Call)
$1,095.00
$1,395.00
$1.695.00
Digital Multimeter
w/ inductance
& Ca Pacitance
*
'I
r
VH$ need
defective
$
Triple Power Supply
pply
$169.95
f."
r'--'` $44.95
$99
Digital Display
Temp Range
-
Traniºors and
Nodes/with lase
HT-200
SL-30
o
:.,
,.
c,,,,aors,
Video Head Tester
Temperature Controlled
FOR ALL
cunenl,
$1,650
$1 950
$2,350
FLUKE MULTIMETERS
eters
Model 93
Model 95
Model 97
10 Seams
Model 10
Model 12
ipe,oh,,
Reeds
-
$2,695
VC -6023 - 20MHz, 20MS/s
VC -6024 - 50MHz, 20MS/s
VC -6025A - 50MHz, 20MS/s_
VC -6045A - 100MHz, 40MS/s
VC -6145 - 100MHz, 100MS/s
Mst8meterwith
-,
000-; Capacitance
a7'r Translator Testa
$55 CM15008
Res .01-20M
Soldering Station
CALL
-
$2 195
RSO's feature; roll mode, averaging, save
memory, smoothing, interpolation, pretriggering, cursor measurements.
25MHz synchronous operation on all channels
100MHz asynchronous operation (8 or 12 channels)
5ns glitch capture capability
Multi -level trigger sequencing
Non-volatile data and set-up memories
Disassembler options for popular uPs
9 inch LCD screen
Call for prices
CIA-1550BLG1601
$409
$975
$949
$849
$749
$625
$1 095
$1 325
$1 375
51.649
$1 995
Hitachi RSO Series
or 48 channels (VC-3130)
,
Dual Trace, Delayed Sweep
1mV
V-212 - 20MHz Dual Trace
V-525 - 50MHz, Cursors
0-523 - 50MHz, Delayed Sweep
V-522 - 50MHz, DC Offset
V-422 - 40MHz, DC Offset
V-222 - 20MHz. DC Offset
V-660 - 60MHz, Dual Trace
V-665A - 60MHz,DT, w/cursor
1/-1060 - 100MHz, Dual Trace
V -1065A - 100MHz, DT. w/cursor
V-1085 - 100MHz. QT, w/cursor
V -1100A - 100MHz. Quad Trace
V-1150 - 150MHz, Quad Trace
LOGIC ANALYSERS
Dual Trace Oscilloscope
P
75
Hitachi Compact Series Scopes
B+K OSCILLOSCOPES
2120 - 20MHz Dual Trace
$395
2125 - 20MHz Delayed Sweep
$539
1541B - 40MHz Dual Trace
9749
2160 - 60MHz Dual Trace, Delayed Sweep,
Dual Time Base
$949
2190 - 100MHz Three Trace Dual Time Base,
$1 395
Delayed Sweep
2522 - 20MHz / 10MS/s Storage
$069
1442 - 20MHz Portable
$1.229
1443 - 40MHz Battery / AC operated with
Cursor 8 Readouts
$1 439
Cr-a
_
CALLOTOLDL FREE
1-800-292-7711
1-800-445-3201 (Can.)
AT DISCOUNT PRICES
ELENCO OSCILLOSCOPES
$
with MS-DOS4, MS-DOS itself incorporates the option of using its own
shell to work with the OS in a visual
way. The most popular replacement
for COMMAND.COM is a shareware
product called 4DOS from J.P. Software (the NDOS program included
with the Norton Utilities is an earlier
version of 4DOS).
4DOS is fully compatible with MSDOS' and PC -DOS' COMMAND.
COM and adds many new features that
are absent in both of these DOSs. It includes an improved command history
that lets you re -issue commands without retyping them, faster and much
129 ON FREE
BA
sank-
18038
$179
Digit display, battery operation
Selectable gate times, High Accuracy
8
15 DAY
MONEY BACK GUARANTEE
FULL FACTORY WARRANTY
WRITE FOR FREE CATALOG
Places suodtel locuANGI
INFORMATION CARI)
Earn Your B.S. Degree
in
more powerful batch files, many new
ELECTRONICS
or
COMPUTERS
and vastly improved commands,
more-powerful aliases or macros than
those available in DOS 5 and many
other new features. I use 4DOS constantly on my computer. Though I
may be biased in its favor since I
helped write the manual for the current version, I can honestly say that if
you enjoy using a command -line interface, you might want to try 4DOS and
see whether its powerful enhancements help you get your work done.
Secondary Shells
By Studying at Home
Grantham College of Engineering,
now in our 43rd year, is highly experienced in "distance education"- teaching
by correspondence-through printed materials, computer materials, fax, and phone.
No commuting to class. Study at your
own pace, while continuing on your present
job. Learn from easy -to -understand but
complete and thorough lesson materials,
with additional help from our instructors.
Our Computer B.S. Degree Program
includes courses in BASIC, PASCAL and
C languages-as well as Assembly Language, MS DOS, CADD, Robotics, and
much more.
Our Electronics B.S. Degree Program includes courses in Solid -State Circuit Analysis and Design, Control Systems, Analog/Digital Communications,
Microwave Engr, and much more.
An important part of being prepared
to move up is holding the right college
degree, and the absolutely necessary part is
knowing your field. Grantham can help
you both ways-to learn more and to earn
your degree in the process.
Write or phone for our free catalog.
Toll free, 1-800-955-2527, or see mailing
address below.
The program defined on the SHELL =
line in CONFIG.SYS is known as the
primary shell because it's the first link
between DOS and the user. However,
it's certainly possible to start a secondary shell to install a new user interface, either temporarily or until you
reboot your computer.
Both COMMAND.COM and its
substitutes can be used as a secondary
shell. At the DOS prompt, type COMMAND and you'll start another copy
of COMMAND.COM. To prove that
this really is a second copy of COM-
Order Back Issues of
ComputesCraft
Analog & Digital
Circuit Design & Simulation
for the Macintosh
& PC with Windows
Accredited by
the Accrediting Commission of the
National Home Study Council
a.)
2
ú
GRANTHAM
College of Engineering
Grantham College Road
Slidell, LA 70460
1
iranelenr Graph
Beige Bag Software Ph.:(313)663-4309
Fax: (3131663-0725
715 Barclay C
.
Ann Arbor. MI 44105
MAND.COM, redefine the DOS
prompt. Then, once the new prompt
is displayed, type EXIT. You'll be
returned to your original copy of
COMMAND.COM and its normal
prompt.
You probably won't have much reason to start a second copy of the
primary shell like this, but before DOS
3.3's CALL instruction, doing so was
the only way to run one batch file as
a subroutine of another batch program. Also, every time you "shell to
DOS" from an application program,
you're essentially, starting a secondary copy of COMMAND.COM.
Dozens of commercial and shareware programs call themselves DOS
shells. Almost all are meant to be run
as a secondary shell instead of the
primary shell. They leave the work of
maintaining the environment, responding to direct commands and executing AUTOEXEC.BAT to COMMAND.COM. These programs then
take over the computer to provide an
improved user interface.
Secondary-shell programs usually
fall into two categories. One group includes programs that normally display
a file list and/or directory tree and let
you move a light bar or mouse cursor
around the screen to select programs
you want to execute. These point -and shoot programs are often aimed at
new computer users and experienced
users who simply want a faster method
of finding and launching programs.
Probably the best-known program in
this category is XTree in its many
versions.
The other group is composed of
menu programs. These shells usually
let you set up a series of menus that
launch favorite applications or run a
subset of DOS commands, often with
the help of a secondary copy of COMMAND.COM. These menu programs
are excellent if you want to set up a
computer for someone who has no experience with DOS. They're also good
if you want to create a standard user
interface for all computers in an office. And because many menu programs include password protection
for some menus and many DOS operations, they can help improve the safety of data on an office LAN. One of
the most -thorough menu programs
I've seen is Menu Works Advanced,
but there are hundreds of other such
programs from which to choose.
CIRCLE NO. 128 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
56
/
COMPUTERCRAFT
/
January 1993
Say You Saw It In ComputerCraft
If you're thinking of trying either a
point -and -shoot or menu -based secondary shell, you may want to try a
shareware program before paying for
a full commercial program. There are
dozens, if not hundreds, of shells from
which to choose on information services and bulletin boards and in the
catalogs of disk resellers. Try two or
three that sound interesting, and you
may find one you like as well as any
commercial product.
Your choice of a secondary shell
will be determined largely by your
tastes and the way you want to use
your computer. Therefore, don't feel
limited to programs suggested by others. Their tastes and requirements will
probably be different from yours and
even from each others'.
Shells Around Windows
If you use Windows 3.0 or 3.1, you use
another shell. Like DOS, Windows is
an operating environment. Also like
DOS, it has no built-in way to collect
and react to user commands. To use
Windows, you need a shell program
that translates whatever requests you
make into Windows commands.
The Windows shell is defined in the
file SYSTEM.INI in the Windows subdirectory. If you look at this file with
a text editor or Windows Notepad,
you'll see a line that probably states:
shell = progman.exe. This line tells
Windowsto run PROGMAN.EXE (the
Windows Program Manager) during
initialization. It also tells Windows
that when the user exits from PROGMAN.EXE, it's time to shut down
Windows and return to DOS.
Like DOS, Windows can run any
program as its shell. Unless you use
Windows to run a single application,
you'll want to make sure to choose a
shell that can launch other programs.
Those who dislike the Program Manager often choose to install the Windows File Manager as their shell. If
you want to make the change, edit the
"shell = " line in SYSTEM.INI to read:
shell = winfile.exe. Then save
SYSTEM.INI and restart Windows. If
you want to use the Program Manager
also, you can start it (and any other application) from the File Manager.
Of course, not everyone will want
to use either the Program Manager or
the File Manager as their Windows
shell, and several developers believe
they've come up with a better way to
use Windows. Some of these programs are meant to be a primary shell,
while others are intended to be used as
a secondary shell, running beside the
Windows Program Manager or File
Manager.
If you want to look for a new Windows shell, you have a few shareware
programs and many commercial programs from which to choose. Probably the most popular is the Norton
Desktop for Windows, which integrates several utility programs with
features borrowed from both the Program Manager and the File Manager.
Some programs, like New Wave 4.0,
create a completely different kind of
desktop and organize your applications and files according to projects
and activities, instead of directories
and application groups.
Some replacement Windows shells,
like Windows Express, are meant to
provide a common user interface
throughout an office and give the
system administrator the ability to add
password protection to files and applications. Others, like Win Tools, seem
aimed more at individual users and try
to make Windows more intuitive environment to use.
Instead of calling their products
Windows shells, distributors of these
programs often call them Windows
desktops. Some have macro commands and even agents, which are
simply powerful macros that can be
triggered automatically based on the
time of day, particular windows appearing on the screen or specific
keystrokes or mouse activity. If you're
interested in these programs, make
sure that the package you pick can
support both universal, or systemwide, agents and local agents that appear only when you're using a specific
application.
Like their DOS -shell cousins, Windows shells or desktops are designed
to fit particular tastes, ways of working and computer expertise. Because
Windows is much more flexible than
DOS, you'll find a greater variety of
programs from which to choose.
However, being that few shareware
Windows desktops are available at the
present time, you probably won't have
the luxury of trying several approaches before you find the one
that's right for you. Instead, ask
around at user -group meetings and on
bulletin boards and read as many
desktop reviews as possible until you
find a program that seems geared to
your tastes.
You may understand intellectually
that DOS and Windows are collections of services for application programs and COMMAND.COM and
Program Manager are simply the default user interfaces. But these interfaces have a lot to do with the way you
feel about these two operating systems. A new shell or desktop will alter
your feelings, perhaps dramatically.
When you've found the right shells for
your way of working, you'll enjoy
these operating systems much more
and won't be willing to return to the
built-in defaults.
Part of the power of DOS and Windows is that they permit and even encourage development of new shells.
When you take advantage of this power, you'll probably find that your computer is a lot friendlier and much more
likely to help you get your work done
instead of hindering you.
ELECIRONIC ENCLOSURES
.
el?).
----imes___
_
Rack Mount
Split Case
Complete line in Aluminum, Steel &
ABS; also Hardware, Silkscreening,
Hand Tools, Custom Fabricating
Call for our FREE Full Color Catalog
(800) 800-3321 (216) 425-1228 Fax
Universal
& Preamp
Enclosures
Cage
Linear
WIN
lei,,I'I
ABS
Knobs
&
Parts
(Project Pro
1710 ENTERPRISE PKWY TWINSBURG OH 44087
CIRCLE NO. 136 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
Say You Saw It In ComputerCraft
January 1993
/
COMPUTERCRAFT
/
57
Application
By Nick Goss
CYDAT Goes Parallel
Using the CYDAT Data Collector/Controller to experiment
with parallel processing
n the November and December is-
sues of ComputerCraft, I detailed
how to build a CYDAT Data-Collector/Controller system that lets you use
just about any microcontroller you
prefer as an "engine." Now I'll show
you how to include a parallel -processor arrangement that greatly increases
the power and flexibility of the basic
system. When you do this, you can use
CYDAT as a processing platform by
adding modems, nonvolatile memory,
real-time clocks, speech processors,
digital signal processors, math coprocessors and more.
Traditionally, one simply added
58
/ COMPUTERCRAFT / January 1993
these devices to the parallel data and
control buses in small processor systems. Though this approach serves
well in many cases, in other cases, the
single -processor approach can sometimes overwork the processor, resulting in processor latency and poor overall system performance. CYDAT
breaks with traditional controller
architecture by heavily utilizing what
has become known as "parallelism."
Using a high-speed "global" serial
bus, CYDAT can share data with and
control seven on up to 255 Parallel
Peripheral Processors (PPPs). Thus,
CYDAT is capable of amazing per-
formance with its Peripheral Processors managing individual tasks
concurrently!
If you've ever wanted to experiment
with parallel processing, CYDAT
gives you an excellent opportunity to
build a simple and easy -to -understand
system with which to do so. Some of
the things you can do with such a system include performing several processor -intensive tasks simultaneously;
experimenting with distributed intelligence; and developing an array processor. Only your imagination and
technical proficiency limit how you
can expand CYDAT to achieve an al -
Say You Saw It In ComputerCraft
PARALLEL
I/O
INTERFACE CARDS
PERIPHERIAL PROCESSORS
SS1
CARD 0
256K EEPPOM
PROCESSOR
SPI
CARD
'
DATA BUS
REAL TIME
CARD 2
CLOCK
PROCESSOR
CARD 3
MODEM
CARD
SPI
4
_
PROCESSOR
BUS PROCESSOR
CARD
5
SS4
CONTROL
SERIAL PERIPHERAL
SPEECR
BUS
INTERFACE
SPI
PROCESSOR
CARD 6
SS5
FRONT
CARD 7
SPI
PANEL
PROCESSOR
CARD 8
SS6
DSP
SPI
CARD 9
RS
PROCESSOR
-232/422
REMO'
E
Fig. 1. Block diagram of CYDAT system architecture.
most bewildering variety of sophisticated tasks.
Parallel Processing
Parallel processing isn't new. However, though the theory behind it is
very simple, the hardware needed to
implement it has traditionally been too
costly to be practical in most applications. Too, parallel processing presents special challenges in terms of inter -processor communication.
Many communication schemes
have evolved over the years, each optimized for the particular problem the
parallel processor was designed to
solve. For various topologies, unique
software also had to be evolved.
The CYDAT system has a very simple and efficient high-speed serial bus
with which to communicate with its
peripheral processors. Its SPI (Serial
Peripheral Interface) scheme is easy to
understand and use. It isn't difficult
to imagine how powerful a CYDAT
system can be when using separate
Say You Saw It In ComputerCraft
peripheral processors to manage a variety of real -world tasks in parallel. In
addition to the power of parallel processing, CYDAT opens the door to
customized processing.
I chose the Motorola 68HC705C8
as an inexpensive microcontroller to
implement the CYDAT Parallel Peripheral Processors. Last month, I detailed how to use the '705 as the Bus
Processor for the CYDAT system.
Now let's look at it as a Peripheral
Processor that can be used for expansion purposes.
Notice in Fig. 1 that the '705 Bus
Processor connects directly to the I/O
interface cards via the parallel data
and control buses. This arrangement
remains the same during the expansion process. However, by selecting
(enabling) individual peripheral processors with the data bus, you can use
the SPI as an inter-processor communication system. With the SPI, you
can communicate between individual
peripheral processors, between a spe-
cific peripheral processor and the Bus
Processor or globally across all
processors.
Figure 2 shows that individual peripheral processors can take on specific
functions through a special -function
module (SFM). These inexpensive
function blocks are "personality modules" that add required hardware to
the basic Peripheral Processor Card to
perform predetermined tasks.
As an example of the above, if you
need to configure a peripheral processor to function as a modem, you simply attach a Modem SFM to the card
via the 40 -pin module socket. You can
then download the appropriate modem software directly to a given
'705C8 peripheral processor. If you
wish to change the card's "personality" later, just change the SFM and
controller software.
In addition to standard SFMs, you
can build modules of your own design.
These might contain specialized hardware for data encryption, fiber-optic
January 1993
/
COMPUTERCRAFT
/
59
interfaces, math coprocessors, etc.
Keep in mind that CYDAT is flexible
and is designed to serve as a platform
for personal experimentation and
development.
In Fig. 2, Ul is a standard Motorola
MC68HC705C8 microcontroller that
mounts in a 40 -pin IC socket for easy
N
a0
1
a
I
a
a a
b
In
-J-2
removal and reinstallation during pro-
gramming. The frequency control
crystal connected to pins 38 and 39 of
Ul mounts in the SFM IC and oper-
-2
I
a
I
a
O
a
-2J
ates at 4 MHz.
Power for UI is supplied by fixed
+ 5 -volt regulator U3. Capacitors C2
and C3 bypass the power supply lines,
and resistor RI and capacitor CI provide a power -on reset timing function.
Ports A, B and C of Ul go to the associated pins on SFM chip U2. These
lines handle control and transfer of
data to and from the SFM and are configured in software according to the
needs of the specific SFM IC. Pins 31
through 37 of U2 route signals between the SFM and the outside world.
Individual Peripheral Processor
Cards mount on a small motherboard,
called the Parallel Peripheral Processor Bus Card. In Fig. 3, you can see
how PPP Bus Card connectors are
arranged.
Ribbon cables that attach at connectors P3 and P4 connect to the PPP
Bus Card. Each card slot contains PI
and P2 connectors that correspond
with the PI and P2 connectors on each
PPC. The P2 connectors use pins 7
and 8 to supply + 12 volts to the PPCs.
Power from the external power -supply module attaches via P6, as shown
M
M
N
S.0
rv
in Fig. 3.
Each card slot position along the
PPP Bus Card receives a different
SS
Enable line from the Bus Processor
Data Bus at pin 4 of P2. These individual lines signal the appropriate Peripheral Processor Card when a data ex-
change is made to or from that card.
With this simple enable technique, the
Bus Processor is able to establish and
coordinate the SPI communication
protocol.
Pins 1, 2 and 3 of P2 are the backbone of the SPI bus. They correspond
to the MISO (Master In/Slave Out),
MOSI (Master Out/Slave In) and SCK
(Serial Clock) pins on the '705C8. The
auxiliary bus formed by the Pl and P3
connectors aren't defined, which
leaves them free for you to customize
as card -to -card interconnects or card -
60
/
COMPUTERCRAFT
/
January 1993
+
--/-
p
Fig. 2. Schematic diagram of Peripheral Processor Card circuitry.
Say You Saw It In ComputerCraft
!
0
I
I
N)
N)
cp
i(1
J
N)
N)
a
rA ^ ^
`
N
M M M
a a a a
I
M
a
C._
I
a
I
J?
C_
I
I. A Al
A
tL
C_a á
I
y
I
I
A A A
y
J
I
n_
y
I
I
a á á
AA
to -outside world terminals.
Parallel Peripheral Processors communicate with each other over the SPI
bus. If you think a serial bus is slow,
consider that the SPI transfers data at
1- and 2 -MHz bit rates. This is both
fast and efficient for a simple eight -bit
serial bus.
The Bus Processor discussed last
month functions as the master SPI
processor, and each Parallel Processor
(1)
3
0
CL
PARTS LIST
O
I
n
PPP Bus Card
I
a
fl
ti
16-Eight-position Molex male
KK connectors
L^_^J
1-Two-position Molex male KK con
L
nector
1-Six-position Molex male KK con
nector
8-4-40-'/" Phillips -head
V V V V V V
r.,
V .. ..
i
V V
V1
screws
4-4-40-Y," threaded spacers
Misc.-Printed-circuit board (see Note
below); machine hardware; etc.
Peripheral Processor Card
V V V V V V V
V1
V V
r-
r.
Semiconductors
V V
U1-MC68HC705C8P microcontroller
U2-ASIC special -function module
U3 -78L05 fixed + 5 -volt regulator
Capacitors
V V V V V V
O
V V
r.
V
Cl,C2,C3-10-µF,
Resistors ('/-watt,
R1-10,000 ohms
Miscellaneous
electrolytic
tolerance)
16 -volt
51/4
P 1,P2-Eight-position Molex female
..
r-
V
V V
r.
V V V
V
C_
CL
2
T
7
d d 1
7 7
d
2
o
C.4
a
D
r4
Cl
N
r.
O
M
V
V
V
Vl
-
ä ä ä ä a ä
Fig. 3. Schematic diagram of Parallel Peripheral Processor Bus Card circuitry.
Say You Saw It In ComputerCraft
KK connector
P3 -10 -pin C -grid male connector
Printed -circuit board (see Note below); plastic card extractor clip (plastic); two 40 -pin DIP IC sockets; etc.
Note: The following items are available
from U.S. Cyberlab, Inc., Rte. 2, Box 284
Cyber Rd., West Fork, AR 72774; tel.:
501-839-8293: Ready -to -wire PPP Bus Card
pc board, $19.95; PPC card, $9.95; CYDAT
enclosure chassis with 10 slot card rack,
$39.95; MC68HC705C8 Bus Processor kit,
$69.95; EPROM version of MC6SHC705C8S, $22.95. Other available items include:
Cyber HC5 Development System, $89.95;
membrane front -panel keypad, $24.95; and
Optrex two-line by 16 -character LCD unit,
$24.95. A complete Modem SFM kit with
pre-programmed '705, pc board and all
parts is available for $99.95. A 256K EE PROM SFM kit with pre-programmed
'705, PC board and all parts costs $79.95.
A Real -Time Clock SFM kit with pre-programmed '705, pc board and all parts
costs $69.95. Call for free full -line catalog
and specifications sheets on DSP, Speech
and Neural Net SFMs (sold individually or
as kits). Arkansas residents, please add 5%
sales tax. MasterCard and Visa welcome.
January 1993
/
COMPUTERCRAFT
/
61
Card functions as a slave. Pin 34 of the
'705 Controller presented last month
ties to + 5 volts to configure the processor's SPI as a master device. The
68HC7805C8 Bus Processor uses its
data bus to directly select the individual SS (Slave Select) lines at pin 34 of
each PPC.
The MOSI signal at pin 32 is the
Master Output/Slave Input line that
outputs data from the master device
(Bus Processor) and receives data at
the slave device (Peripheral Processor
Card). This line transfers data from
the master to the slave, with the most significant bit sent first.
The MISO signal at pin 31 is the
Master Input/Slave Output line that
receives data at the master device (Bus
Processor) and outputs data from the
slave device (Peripheral Processor
Card). This line transfers data from
slaves to the master, with the most -significant bit sent first.
The SCK signal at pin 33 is the serial
clock that synchronizes data transfer
in and out of the master and slave devices. Master and slave processors can
exchange a byte of information during a sequence of eight serial clock
cycles. The Bus Processor (master)
genrates the serial clock. Software in
the master and slaves select the data transfer rate by controlling the SCK
clock stream.
When the Bus Processor wishes to
transfer data to one or more Peripheral Processor Cards, it parallel -loads a
byte of data into a special on -board
hardware shift register. Using the SCK
signal, the master device shifts the data
out to the slave devices. As data is received at the slave, it's loaded one bit
at a time into an on -board hardware
shift register. After all eight bits are
transferred, the data byte can be parallel -loaded into the slave accumulator
with a software command.
To simplify use of the SPI, other onboard control registers set options like
serial peripheral interrupts, clock polarity, clock phase, write collision protection, etc., all from software. As you
can see, the SPI is an efficient and fast
communications technique.
Construction
Begin building the CYDAT Parallel
Peripheral Processor by fabricating
the PPP Bus Card, using the actual size artwork shown in Fig. 4. If you
62
/
COMPUTERCRAFT
/ January 1993
TROY
399
r.
\ )
335595399993999.1
0
00
.
llll
1111 ò òll
l
.
.8888888g) f (.4
Fig. 4. Actual -size artwork for Peripheral Processor Card printed -circuit board.
prefer not to fabricate your own pc
board, you can purchase a ready -to wire one from the source given in the
Note at the end of the Parts List. If you
fabricate your own board, drill the
PPP Bus Card connector holes with a
No. 52 drill to allow for plenty of
clearance on the Molex pins.
Referring to Fig. 5, populate the
board. The male connector pins are
easy to solder into place, but make
sure that the connectors are perpendicular to the board's surface before soldering. I like to tack -solder a pin or
two, check vertical alignment and
then, when everything appears to be
okay, finish soldering all pins. Make
mounting holes with a No. 28 or No.
30 bit so that they're large enough to
clear the 4-40 screws that will secure
the spacers against the bottom of the
CYDAT chassis.
I use the CYDAT chassis for mounting the PPP Bus Card. While you can
certainly leave the card out on your
bench as you experiment, the chassis
provides support for the PPC card
guides and makes a professional -looking system package.
When connecting the various ribbon cables to the PPP Bus Card, route
them neatly out of the way of the PPC
card guides.
Construction of the Peripheral Processor Card is straight forward. Again,
fabricate a pc board or purchase one
from the source noted. Fig. 6 shows
the full-size artwork to use if you fabricate your own board. Drill all holes
with a No. 68 bit, except for the large
Molex connector pad and extractor handle holes, which should be made
with a No. 52 bit.
Referring to Fig. 7, solder the Molex connectors into place on the component side of the PC card. Mount
high -quality 40 -pin IC sockets in the
ut and U2 locations. Snap the extractor handle into place along the top of
the card. Then mount and solder into
place voltage regulator U3 (make sure
it's properly oriented). Finally, mount
the other passive components and
10 -pin C -grid male connector below
the extractor handle.
Configuring
It
Install whatever special -function
modules you plan to include in your
system. The source listed in the Note
at the end of the Parts List can provide
several different types of SFMs. For
example, if you wish to add a modem
to your CYDAT, simply plug a Modem SFM into any one or more of
your PPCs. The modem SFM is provided with pinout information for
connecting it to the telephone line and
a software disk or pre-programmed
'705C8 controller.
In addition to the Modem SFM,
nonvolatile memory modules (EE -
Say You Saw It In ComputerCraft
SUPER
12 HOUR
RECORDER
CALL TOLL FREE
Modified Panasonic
Slimline. 6 hrs per side.
120 TDK tape furnished.
AC/DC Operation.
Quality Playback.
Digital Counter.
Durable Lightweight Plastic
$119.00*
PHONE RECORDING ADAPTER
Starts & Stops Recorder
Automatically When
FCC
APPROVED
Hand Set is Used.
Solid State!
*
$28.50
VOX VOICE ACTIVATED CONTROL
$28.50*
Solidstate Adjustable
Sensitivity. Voices &
Sounds Activate Recorder.
Adjustable Sensitivity.
Provisions for Remote Mike.
'Add for ship. & handling. Phone Adapter & Vox $2.00
each, Recorders $5.00 each, Colo. Res. add tax. Mail
Order, VISA, M/C, COD's OK. Money Back Guar. Qty.
Disc. available. Dealer inquiries invited. Free data on
other products.
ALL MAIL TO: Box 20100, Boulder, CO 80308
AMC SALES INC., 193 Vaquero Dr..
Boulder, CO 80303
1-800-926-2488
Phones (303) 499-5405
FAX (303) 494-4924 Mon -Fri 8-5 MTN. TIME
CIRCLE NO.
123
ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
DC/CAD
introducing
...
THE TERMINATOR
Super High Density Router
(Complete with Schematic
Editor)
& PCB
Features the following powerful
algorithm & capability:
No copy protection
Rip -up Retry
Pre -routing of SMT
p F<iFE
ag
a
components
User defined strategies
CUrre
R$
959.Ise
myrA 2 6$ 95
Real -Time clean up and
via minimization
Window 3.0 capability as DOS Task
1 -mil Autoplacer and Autopanning
Two-way Gerber and DXF
Automatic Ground Plane w/CrossHatching
Complete w/Schematic & Dolly Libraries
Optional simulation capability &
enhanced mode for 386 users
*PCB LAYOUT SERVICE AT
LOW COST*
Fig. 5. Actual -size artwork for Parallel Peripheral Processor Bus card pc board.
=
LEASE PROGRAM
PROM) and real -time -clock modules
are also available. Digital signal processing, speech synthesizer/recognition, fuzzy -logic and neural -network
SFMs are on the way and should be
available in the near future.
Keep in mind that PPCs use open architecture design and, thus, are
ready for you to experiment as you
wish. Try your hand at developing
:.t wrd
!4t;fld
n`C77f
1771
State Highway 34, Farmingdale, NJ 07727
(908) 681.7700
(
... The
(908) 681.8733 (FAX)
focal point of future CAD market"
IR( II Nl). )33 (IN
J(ntlrurr 1993
www.americanradiohistory.com
I
mDESIGN
«COMPUTATION
"DC/CAD
Say You Saw It In ComputerCraft
SITE LICENSE AVAILABLE
110
CONII'1
INI
(HZ MA11()NCARI)
I1 RC
IZ
FT / 65
NEFV1Tonc-Master Touch Tone Decoder
SCROLL
RS
-232
--I
Crr
Sri
AUDIO
18003389058
MoTron Electronics
Tone -Master TM -16 PLUS
/
deed..
one
MoTron Electronics
O
310 Garfield St., Suite 4 Eugene OR 97402
Info: (503) 687-2118
Orders: (800) 338-9058
Fax: (503)687-2492
`
C
1' 3
Decode and display Touch Tones from a telephone,
tape recorder, scanner, or nearly any audio source.
J 16 digit LCD display, 80 digit scrollable buffer
V Built-in speaker
9V battery V Metal case J TM 16 PLUS includes RS -232 output and Software for
optional automatic date/time/number logging using your
IBM Compatible computer.
TM -I6 Standard Model
TM -16 PLUS RS -232 Model with Software
`AUX2
SFM U2
$229
$299
$10
PS -12 AC Power Adaptor
S/H $5 USA/Canada. $19 Foreign.
O
,
,
R1
AUX1
e
O-.
r
/
1
30 day money back guarantee! Try at no risk!
Vim, MasterCard A American Emma. Aooepted
CIRCLE NO. 146 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
C2
/1
JP2
lJl
68HC1 i System
_J
1
T
j
;3
C3
e5P2
JI
SP
o
J2
J3
J4
JS
I6
J7
_) 1
+
°
p .,
Mhz Bus Speed.
... FAST2.45
RS -232 Host Interface.
32K
...
-
..
RAM -32K EPROM.
Trimmable Crystal Oscillator.
Configurable Analog Input Buffers.
Buffered and Optically Coupled I/0.
Single Supply - Local Power Regulation.
Full Reset/Power Supply Management.
Battery Backup the RAM or Entire Board
Banked Memory Logic allows up to 2Meg.
Four Pre-Oecoded Chip -Selects Available.
Buffalo Monitor Supplied on EPROM.
BASICI I and Real -Time Kernel Available.
$159
heatstone
m2a2si,ReH
(203) 669-0401
MicroSvstems, Inc.
Suite 41y. 105-14 Him St.
Old Savbrork, CT 06475
Call for FREE 68HC16 Info
CIRCLE NO. 154 ON FREE INFORMATION CARI)
ANNOUNCING THE REDESIGNED URDA'R--, INC.
SDK -51
8051
8
BIT MICROCONTROLLER TRAINER
AND DEVELOPMENT SYSTEM
Single Board System With On -Board Power
Supply, LCD Display, OWERTY (ASCII) Keyboard, 16K SRAM,
BK EPROM Monitor, Serial/Parallel I/O, Etc.
Self Contained
Upload
/
/
Disessembler
Download Communication Capability with
a PC
CALL URDA®, INC.
1-800-338-0517 or (412) 683-8732
URDA®, Inc. Has Additional Single Board
Products:
68000 68020 68030 32010 D S P
SDK -51 SDK -85 SDK -86 SDK -3867[1'
With Cross Assemblers for MS-DOS Computers
.3861s
a
SFMs that satisfy specific CYDAT
applications.
Using the PPCs as building blocks
lets you rapidly restructure your CYDAT into many useful configurations. Note, too, that you can use
PPCs as input/output modules. For
example, you can use a PPC to operate the front panel user interface
system in the CYDAT.
Front -Panel Interface
BASED
Onboard Assembler
Fig. 6. Wiring guide for Parallel Peripheral Processor Card.
trademark of Intel Corporation. Used by permission
Referring to the User Interface diagram shown in Fig. 8, note that the
Optrex display and membrane keyboard connect to a PPC via a standard
40 -pin ribbon cable. Software in U/
controls the data displayed at the Optrex alphanumeric LCD display. User
input can also be collected by directly
scanning the membrane keypad on
CYDAT's front panel.
When information is entered at the
keypad, the data is stored in the PPC
for further processing or directly routed via the SPI to the Bus Processor or
other PPC card. Likewise, data to be
displayed is transferred from the Bus
Processor or other PPC card to the
User Interface PPC. Using this type of
distributed -processing architecture,
CYDAT can handle many different
time -domain -sensitive functions in
parallel, without interrupting sensitive
timing loops and communication
routines.
Feel free to experiment with your
own front panel designs. Many different keyboards and LCD displays exist. Take advantage of your newfound front -panel freedom!
The Software
To utilize a computer system's full
processing power, software development tools are required. CYDAT is
well -supported when you use MC68HC705C8 microcontrollers. Using
your PC as a host, software generation
is straightforward with the Cyber HC5
development system (see the June
1992 issue of ComputerCraft for details). This device lets you develop
code and program the '705C8s used in
the bus processor and PPCs. Several
CIRCLE NO. 153 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
66
/
COMPUTERCRAFT
/ January 1993
Say You Saw
www.americanradiohistory.com
It In ComputerCraft
o
o
of
w
o
o¡
01
zo
oi
i
o
(3
01
oi
>0
'9
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
ol
J
o
a
o¡
Cf)
o
O
o
Fig. 7. Wiring guide for Peripheral Processor Card.
Fig. 8. Schematic of front -panel user-interface circuitry.
excellent C compilers available for the
'705 will work in conjunction with the
Cyber HC5.
Developing your own parallel -processor operating system can be fun and
challenging. By expanding the code in
your bus processor a little at a time,
you can grow a PPOS at whatever rate
Say You Saw It In ComputerCraft
suits you. Individual special -function
modules used on the PPCs come with
their own software drivers, making it
easy to interface them with your bus processor software. Free membership
on Motorola's '705 BBS and CYDAT
BBS can be helpful to you when developing your software.
Nick Goss
January 1993
/
COMPUTERCRAFT
/
67
Making Your Point With Style
It's no big surprise to me that presentation
software has become a very popular force
in the marketplace. In my experience, both
in business and in the increasing amount
of public speaking I do, the better the
presentation tool, the easier it becomes to
get a point across.
Today's tools are very good, indeed. Of
course, the particular software tool you
select to create a presentation will vary according to what you need to accomplish,
the time and effort you're willing to put into creating visuals, what's available in your
arsenal and your budget. Low-cost graphics packages, like the Micrografx Windows
DRAW! and Computer Support Corp.'s
Picture Wizard, reviewed a while back in
this column, are an excellent place to start.
Inexpensive desktop -publishing software like Microsoft's Publish and PowerUp Software's Express Publisher are also
rich enough in features for you to create
an impressive presentation, as are high -end
word processors, like Word for Windows,
that provide a large amount of typographic
control and inclusion of clipart and graphics. Even a feature -rich typography package, like MakeUp from Bitstream (reviewed here in the November 1992 issue)
can let you create eye-catching slides,
handouts and overhead transparencies.
To create a really impressive presentation, you must have two things. One is an
understanding of some of the basic principles involved in making any presentation.
Then, regardless of which tools you use,
you must have a game plan. You must
know exactly what information you want
to impart and how to present it in a way
that facilitates, rather than obscures, its
meaning. A planned approach, coupled
with a clear understanding of the points to
be presented and the proper presentation
tools, go a long way in helping you make
points that buttress your conclusions.
Enough
is
Enough
The first thing I'd suggest for anyone contemplating doing a lot of public speaking
is to take one of the many courses given in
this art at numerous colleges and adult
education centers. One of these days, if I
can ever find the time, I'd like to do this
myself. In the interim, I'll share a few of
the more obvious principals gleaned from
years of trial and error.
68
/ COMPUTERCRAFT / January 1993
Here are five important principles that
are germane to any presentation, whether
it's an explanation to your boss of why you
deserve a raise or a presentation on an esoteric subject to a group of 500.
1. Make sure the time you have is appropriate for the information presented. One
of the worst mistakes people who are creating a presentation make is trying to conform to a time constraint. Therefore, one
of the first things you learn as you start
making presentations is that the length of
the presentation depends on how much information you're trying to impart and how
much explanation of the information is
necessary.
There's really no point in trying to
stretch 15 minutes of information into an
hour's presentation. Though it can be
done, doing so means you'll either have to
spend a lot of time telling your audience
things they already know or going over the
same points several times. Either way,
you'll quickly lose your audience's attention and interest.
The same caveat applies to trying to impart huge amounts of information in a very
short time. Glossing over important data
your audience really needs to gain an understanding of the rest of your presentation serves little purpose. You can finish
your presentation in the allotted time, but
you won't have presented a firm enough
foundation to support the conclusions you
want your audience to reach.
No pat solution exists to either of the
above situations, though too much time is
somewhat easier to deal with than too little. With a presentation that doesn't take
up the allotted time, you can always throw
the floor open to questions, move on to another subject or just end early. With too
much information for a given time period,
the best thing you can do in many circumstances is to reduce the scope of what
you're trying to accomplish. While your
presentation may not cover as much
ground as you may have wanted it to, the
ground that you do manage to cover will
be presented in an effective and persuasive
manner.
2. Be Prepared. Having sat through my
share of presentations, as well as having
given them, I've noticed that there are two
extremes of presentation styles, neither of
which is particularly ideal. On one end is
the ad-lib presenter, who obviously hasn't
given a moment's thought to what he'll actually say once he's in front of his audience. We've all come across this type of
presentation (I've even given a few myself),
and they're usually boring enough to put
us to sleep.
If I'm listening to a presentation on, for
example, where pen-based computing will
be in the next two years, I don't want to
hear about the difficulty the presenter had
learning script in third -grade, even though
he may use the anecdote to underscore the
problems that exist with handwriting
recognition.
On the other side of the coin are presenters who have taken the time and effort to
create a truly impressive and extensive lecture and then reading it to their audiences
word-for-word. If this is all I'm going to
get out of a presentation, the speaker can
mail it to me so I can read it myself.
Obviously, the ideal is somewhere in between these two extremes. A well -thoughtout presentation uses visuals to explain and
underscore the points one is trying to
make, while the verbal part of the presentation fills in the gaps and rough spots.
3.Focus Attention. To accomplish the
above "ideal" takes a fair amount of forethought and orchestration. For a presentation to accomplish its goal, you must
capture and keep your audience's attention. Part of this process consists of manipulating your audience's focus. You
want it directed at you most of the time
and, when you need to make a point, transferred to your visual. If your audience is
focused on either for too long, their attention tends to drift.
The secret is movement. When you want
the attention on you, look up and talk to
your audience. Make eye contact with as
many of your audience as you can. Smile
and, if at all possible, move around a little. Don't hide behind a podium, reading
from your notes. Instead, try to use notes
that touch upon your most -important
points in the order in which you want to
present them. Make a note of the next important point or two, then look up at your
audience and talk to them.
When you want to focus your audience's
attention on a visual, use a transitional
sentence like: "This next slide shows the
difference between my approach and the
more conservative method of approaching
this problem."Never, ever, use the phrase:
Say You Saw It In ComputerCraft
"As you can see... "! Your audience can
see, and they don't need you pointing out
what's patently obvious. What they want
is for you to tell them the significance of
what they're seeing!
4. Emphasize important points, but do so
sparingly. The great thing about today's
graphic toolk is that it's easy to create a
stunning piece of visual art. It's also easy
to go completely overboard. There's a fine
line between a stunning and effective
graphic and one that's so busy it detracts
from the information contained in it. Using a package optimized for presentations,
like the Freelance Graphics for Windows
software package discussed later is one way
to deal with this problem.
With software specifically meant to
create a presentation, odds are good that
the design of the visual has already been
done for you. But when you're using a
more -general graphics package, keep in
mind the old cliche that "less is more." I f
you're not sure whether your graphic overshadows the data you're trying to present,
go for less rather than more graphics.
The main point is that the graphics you
use in your presentation should enhance
the information you're presenting, not detract from it. Sometimes, this means using appropriate symbols. For example, a
bargraph depicting cash revenues over a
period of time might benefit from using the
dollar sign ($) symbol rather than just runof-the-mill color bars.
You might even be more effective using
a ghosted graphic of a pile of coins as
background to this particular visual. But
stay away from graphics used in a slide or
overhead that are so complex and detailed
that your audience's attention is focused
on deciphering and analyzing the graphic
instead of the information presented.
The same principle holds for the number
of graphics you use in a presentation. It
may be very impressive to have 120 slides
or overheads in an hour-long presentation.
But what tends to happen in this situation
is that individual slides quickly lose their
impact. A good rule of thumb is to use one
graphic for each important point. If time
permits, and the subject of your presentation supports it, you can sometimes double this figure. But if a graphic contains a
fair amount of information or explanation, it could be displayed for five minutes
or longer.
Using the foregoing rule of thumb, most
one -hour presentations should consist of
somewhere between 20 and 40 slides. The
one thing you want to avoid if at all possible is having such a complex visual presentation that you're spending more of your
attention keeping up with the mechanics
of your visuals than on actually thinking
about what you're saying.
Say You Saw It In
ComputerCraft
5. Come to an end. One last word of advice. When you're first putting together
your presentation, spend a little time thinking about how you'll conclude it. As with
almost every kind of expository writing,
a presentation has a beginning that lays out
the reason for your presentation, a middle that presents the information and supports your premise and an end. Many presenters spend a tremendous amount of
time on the first two, then just stop. This
is extremely jarring to an audience and can
undo all of the careful preparation and ef-
fort that went into the presentation
demonstrated.
A good way to wind up a presentation
is to provide a quick summary of the important points you've made. Don't go
overboard-three or four of the most important of these is enough. If your presentation is intended to answer a question,
your wind-up should re -state the question,
give the important points you've made and
state the answer you feel your presentation.
Finally, there's one slide I always show
last in every presentation I make, whether
it's to my management or a large group.
It has two simple words on it: "Thank
You." Never forget to thank your audience for sitting through your presentation.
Now that you have an idea of what goes
into making a good presentation, let's see
how you can put all this theory into practice. To do this, I'll give you a critical look
at a software package, Lotus Freelance
File Edit
No Selection
View
1ä? le
(
Graphics for Windows, that can help you
make it all happen.
Freelance Graphics
For Windows
I've spent such a large amount of this column talking about the theory and principles behind giving an effective presentation
for a good reason. It provides a foundation for what a good presentation software
package must provide.
While almost any decent graphics package will let you prepare overheads and
slides, a presentation package goes beyond
this with features that make it easier to not
only mechanically prepare and give a presentation, but also follows the principles
that govern an effective one.
There are lots of presentation graphics
packages around, of course. Microsoft's
PowerPoint, Computer Associates' CA Cricket Presents and Aldus' Persuasion
are just a few of the better-known ones.
During the last year, though, I've standardized on Lotus' terrific Freelance
Graphics for Windows (FG W). It was my
first experience with this software that
largely sold me on it.
On the day I received and installed
FG W, my boss walked into my office with
the department's sales manager, who had
an important presentation to give early the
next day. My boss wanted to know if I
could do "something" on the computer to
Freelance Graphics - IWORKyTESTPRNT.PREI
Page Style Text Graph Arrange Tools
Page 1
I
B)IIIV,
1f7:;#
Ready
Window
.
a:, ;:..
Help
41iI'}f:Y3®ee
CI;
abc
Click here to type
presentation title
ti
Click here to type subtitle
Click
hereto
add symbol
Paye 3 4:457
4,
PbeEesed.
I
j
1+'..
Freelance Graphics' title page offers three areas in which you can click to add text orasymbot
of your choice.
January 1993
/
COMPUTERCRAFT
/
69
Ted Needleman
Cross -Development
Tools
from $50.00
Cross Assemblers
File
Extensive arithmetic and logical operations
No
Powerful macro substitution capability
Edit
Freelance Graphics - IWORK¡TESTPRNT.PREI
Page Style Text Graph Arrange Tools Window
IPage 1
View
Selection
Help
Unlimited include file capability
Selectable Intel hex or Motorola hex object file format
^
Simulators
Ten user -definable screens
Unlimited breakpoints and memory mapping
Disassemblers
Style Choose SmartMaster Set
Smaddaster sets:
-abc
,
Trace file to record simulator session
Q
w:.á
Osketch_ ma:
Cl
T
1992.maz
31ine. ma:
[Century...rll
"`
...)
,_
4..e.mrela
Automatic substitution of defined label names for all jumps and
a
branches
Browse SmartMaster set
Automatic insertion of supplied comments and expressions
&oad range of processor specific tools - Intel, Motorola. dlog,
`
RCA, Rockwell
Same day shipment
VISA, MasterCard, American Express. and COO
Unlimited technical support
Ç
Thousands of satisfied customers worldwide
PseudoCorp
716Thimble
(804) 873-1947
156
-Column Bullets
a
Cancel
3
Click here to
add symbol
ON FREE INFORMATION (-.ARI)
$18.97
$36.00
3 Years - $53.00
Year
-
-
CABLE-TRONICS, INC.
Are You Tired of Paying
Outrageous Fees?
All makes and models of cable
equipment shipped within 24 hrs.
Quantity discounts. For free
catalog send S.A.S.E. to:
Cable-Tronics, Inc., 450 Shag Bark Ct.
Algonquin, IL 60102
C.O.D. orders accepted
CALL FOR PRICES TODAY!!
1-800-232-5017
(708) 658-7474
'No Illinois orders
Hours -8:00 am -5:00 pm central time
>
1
FAX:(804) 873-2154
2 Years
> The
TK Ie
236116
Subscribe Now and Save
1
1]
Shoals Blvd.
Newport News, VA
CIRCLE NO.
...........,....
asI
.a SP.
p*.f4
-i1-
NI products require an IBM PC or compatible. MS DOS 2.1 or greater
Most Complete Line of Descramblers
Friendly, professional service
>FREE Catalog
C1 GO=
Go
CO.D
to the Source
NUTEI( ELECTRONICS
3250 Hatch
RD
Cedar Park TEXAS 78613
J
P..e-10157
,
P
L
tl
NewPage.
;J
lel
Freelance Graphics' title page with window overlay for choosing a style from a SmartMaster
Set built into the program.
turn eight pages of handwritten notes into something a bit more presentable to give
to a potential client. It was late in the day,
but I said I'd give it a shot.
Curious about the Freelance Graphics
package, I spent about 10 minutes running
through the tutorial. An hour and ten minutes later, the last of a 20 -page color presentation rolled off the Seiko color thermal -transfer printer I had connected to my
computer. The sales manager was delighted, and I was sold on Freelance Graphics!
Freelance Graphics for Windows provides two major benefits. Given my first
and every subsequent experiences with it,
it's obviously easy to learn to use. Granted,
after 25 years using computers, I'm obviously no longer a novice, but because of
the way the software provides guidance,
I'd predict that anyone who spends 10
minutes with the tutorial will be able to
turn out a credible presentation the first
time through-within an hour! Also, because FGW provides all the tools needed
to conform to the principles of good presentations, your presentations in general
will show an improvement as you become
more familiar with the software.
As with most Windows -based software,
FGW uses an icon bar above the working
space for quickly choosing and performing the operations most frequently needed. In addition to these "SmartIcons," as
Lotus calls them (you can redefine what
they mean and add or delete icons as you
wish from the icon bar), there are the more familiar Windows-style pull -down menus
at the top of the screen, a Toolbar along
the left side of the screen and a Viewbar
on the right side, directly over the vertical
scroll bar.
The Toolbar provides a simple but robust set of drawing tools that include ellipse, rectangle, line and fill tools, among
others. The Viewbar allows you to change
from outliner view to page view with just
a mouse click on the appropriate icon.
Although the manual doesn't discuss the
Outliner until Chapter 4, well after it has
already covered the basics of using FGW,
the most -efficient way to use the software
is to start with this feature. Having stated
this, I also have to admit that I'm not especially enamored of outlining software in
general. So I rarely use Freelance's Outliner, preferring the good old pencil and
paper approach for my outlines.
Lotus' Outliner
is a
pretty good one,
though. It uses a yellow -pad emulation and
allows you to easily create a complex multilevel outline, complete with bulleted lists.
When the outline is finished, you transfer
it directly into your presentation pages,
where you can polish it up a bit. Changes
made in the outline are reflected directly
in the presentation, and vice-versa.
The one limitation in using the Outliner
is that you can't directly print it. It must
first be "dumped" it into a presentation
and then you print the presentation. If you
CIRCLE NO. 147 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
70
/ COMPUTERCRAFT / January 1993
Say You Saw It In ComputerCraft
feel comfortable working from only the
computer screen, this won't be a problem.
A built-in spelling checker that works in
both outline and presentation view lets you
minimize embarrassing goofs in your fin-
When you're finished creating a presentation, there's a "slide sorted" function
that lets you change page order. You can
automate the presentation, if you're going
to present it on computer, adding fades
ished presentation.
Once you've laid out your presentation,
either in the Outliner or on paper, creating
it is quick and easy. Freelance Graphics for
Windows features something that Lotus
calls "SmartMasters." These are pre -defined sets of presentation pages that contain a border or design and a variety of
page -layout templates.
There are 60 different SmartMaster sets,
some optimized for color presentations
and others for black and white. Each contains a page layout for a Title Page, One
or Two -Column Bulleted Text, Text with
one or more graphics, Bullets and Symbol,
Bullets and Graph and a Basic Layout
that's pretty much a clean page, except for
the page design graphic.
Once you've chosen your SmartMaster
set (you can change this even after your
presentation is completed), creating your
presentation is just a matter of going page
by page selecting the type of page you want
and plugging in the elements on it. FGW
automatically brings up the Title Page layout for the first page, but you can easily
change to another page layout by clicking
on the Page Layout button at the bottom
of the page.
Each page layout contains instructions
on what elements you can add to the page.
For example, the Title page has three element boxes that instruct you to "Click here
to type presentation title," "Click hereto
type subtitle" and "Click here to add symbol." Clicking on either of the first two
opens a text box in which you type in the
appropriate text.
As with most Windows applications,
typeface and size can be selected from
those installed on your system. You can
even change text color, though FGW will
automatically use an appropriate color,
depending on the SmartMaster set you've
chosen. Provided is a large selection of
symbols you can include on every page of
your presentation, or you can import your
own graphic from a wide variety of formats and even add to the symbol -set library.
Alternatively, you can create your own
graphics with the draw tools. There's a
very complete graphing facility built into
Freelance Graphics. Click on the Graph
icon, and you're brought into a spreadsheet screen, where you construct the data
table for your graph. When you've finished entering labels and data, another
mouse click lets you select the type of graph
you want the software to generate. If you
don't like what you see, simply click again
to change the type of graph.
and other special -effects transitions. These
are rather limited, compared to some other
presentation packages, but they provide a
nice effect nonetheless.
When you're ready to print, you can
create a file that can be sent to one of the
many graphics companies that generate
slides or color overheads, print a full -page
per presentation page on your printer or
make speaker's notes that have the presentation page on the top of the page and lines
to add your own notes on the bottom. You
can also print "Handout," which contains
two, four or six presentation pages on each
handout page.
I haven't discussed many of the features
available in Freelance Graphics for Windows, a goodly number of which I've never
used. You have almost infinite control over
the creation of your presentation. Most of
the time, though, if you just follow what's
on -screen, your presentation will turn out
terrific!
The manual set that comes with the
Windows.
At a list price of $495, which is widely
discounted down to as little as $149 with
one of the many mail-order competitive
upgrade plans, Freelance Graphics for
Windows isn't only a great way to create
a presentation, it's also an excellent education on the elements that make up a good
presentation. I consider it one of the most
effective and efficient software tools in my
arsenal.
Product Mentioned
Freelance Graphics for Windows, $495
Lotus Development Corp.
55 Cambridge Pkwy.
Cambridge, MA 02142
Tel.: 617-577-8500
CIRCLE NO.
101
ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
IBM PC CCD Cameras!
FEATURES:
8 Bit ISA Bus Interface
Card is Included
256 Gray Level Images
1.6 x 106 pixels/sec
(Camera to RAM)
Sub -Array Scanning
TDI Mode
Standard Camera
EDC-1000
192 x 330 pixels
Cooled
EDC-1000TE
Long Cables (up to 100 feet)
192 x 330 pixels
False Color Display
Monochrome/High Resolution
EDC-1000HR
753 x 488 pixels
24 Bit Color/High Resolution
EDC-1000C
751 x 488 pixels
C-Mount Lens Options
ELECTRonic
IMaging
(609) 683-5546
CIRCLE NO.
Say You Saw It In ComputerCraft
product is excellent, but most of the time,
the on-line help has been sufficient to answer questions I've had. Perhaps, with the
next release of FGW, Lotus will add the
great multimedia SmartHelp provided
with the CD-ROM version of 1-2-3 for
134 ON
Real Time Zoom
Antiblooming
TIFF and PCX Formats
Optional Image Processing
and Compression Software
ELECTRIM Corporation
353 Nassau St.
Princeton, NJ 08540
Fax: (609) 683-5882
FREE INFORMATION CARD
January 1993
/
COMPUTER CRAFT /
71
Joseph Desposito
New Kind of PROM, Software for NEC
Microcontrollers, Switchable SCSI Terminator and
Comparator with Digital Threshold Control
Programmable read-only memory, or
PROM, has been a staple of microcomputer systems since their inception. With
this in mind, I lead off this month's column with a device that adds a new twist to
this old technology.
DATA
/VIAXIM
This is because solutions using the
CY7C270 do not suffer from delays associated with implementing the memory interface using external logic.
The CY7C270's x 16 architecture
means designers need only two chips to
support the 32 -bit buses of many processors, further reducing chip count. Trimming the need for still more external devices, the CY7C270's three programmable
72
/
COMPUTERCRAFT
/
January 1993
500k
7
MAX910
VEE
REFOUT
10
-5V
RA
11
RB
13
TH OUT
CMP IN+
14
CMP IN-
REFIN
CMP
OUT
17
CMP
GND
18
R3000
R2000
88000
Featuring a high amount of programmable
on -chip logic, the CY7C270 saves the
design complexity and performance penalties of going off -chip to discrete logic
devices. Designers can eliminate one or a
pair of 22V lOs generally used to implement
burst counters, latches (for CISC processors) and registers (for RISC processors).
Access times of 14 ns for burst reads and
28 ns for single reads let the 16K x 16
CY7C270 deliver zero -wait -state memory
accesses for 33 -MHz CISC processors and
25 -MHz RISC processors. The CY7C270's
high degree of integration also lets it run
with better in -system performance than a
solution that employs faster PROM and
external logic for the memory interface.
10k
TH CTRL
D7 -DO
control.
By incorporating this logic on -chip with
the PROM array, the Cypress CY7C270
Processor -Intelligent PROM permits
system designers to interface PROM
directly with processors, including:
68030
80960KB
80960CA
29000
500k
Vcc
VDD
Cypress Semiconductor (3901 N. First St.,
San Jose, CA 95134) has a PROM that integrates on -chip user -configurable burst
counters, registers and latches. The device
reduces chip count, lowers cost, improves
performance and simplifies design when
interfacing PROM to a wide range of
popular processors used in embedded
486
386
68040
61
19
Processor -Intelligent PROM
SPARC
+5V
+5V
BUS
GND
20
GND
15
THRESHOLD OUTPUT
RANGE = -2.54V TO +2.56V;
1
LSB = 20mV
Fig. 1. Schematic diagram of a programmable level detector built around Maxim's MAX910.
chip selects eliminate the need for off-chip
decoding logic.
To accommodate various processor
burst sequences, the CY7C270 can be configured by the user to provide a two-, four or eight -bit linear burst counter; a two-bit
non-linear burst counter (for the 486
CPU); or no burst counter (for use with
RISC processors).
The CY7C270 is re -programmable for
low-cost prototyping. It's priced at $56.05
each in 100 -piece quantity in PLCC
packages.
Software for NEC
K
Series
Avocet Systems, Inc. and NEC Electronics
Inc. (401 Ellis St., P.O. Box 7241, Mountain View, CA 94039) have the first in a
series of Avocet software support solutions
for the NEC K -Series family of microcontrollers. Two new design tool packages,
Avocet C 78K2 and AVICE, allow for optimizing and high-level debugging of both
C and assembly-language source code with
NEC K2 in -circuit emulators.
Avocet Systems, one of the leading U.S.
microcontroller design software vendors,
has created a robust set of software tools
that fully utilizes the features of NEC's K2
microcontrollers.
K2 is an eight -bit family of CMOS microcontrollers designed for real-time
embedded control applications. These devices are particularly rich in on -board
peripherals. Most chips include synchronous and asynchronous serial I/O; multiple counter/timers with compare and capture registers that support high -resolution
timing; pulse -width -modulated (PWM)
outputs; real-time output ports; and
multichannel A/D converters and D/A
converters.
A macro service data -transfer facility,
unique to the K-Series, is also included with
all K2 devices. Macro service greatly
reduces the interrupt load on the CPU by
Say You Saw It In ComputerCraft
handling many repetitive service requests
normally addressed by the CPU.
In addition, the K2 CPU features highspeed data execution, permitting the
devices, operating at 12 MHz, to support
a minimum instruction cycle of 333 ns.
NEC's K2 family also offers large memory
capacity, including products with up to
32K of ROM and 1K of RAM. On -chip
data memory includes 512 bytes each of
RAM and EEPROM. K2 microcontrollers
can address 64K of program memory and
1M of external data memory.
The Avocet C 78K2 package contains an
ANSI C compiler with complete K2 family feature support and the AVMAC 78K2
macro assembler. The C compiler uses a
compiled stack technique that produces
optimized K2 code. It additionally supports interrupt service routines written in
C, generates ROM -able code and copies initialized variables from ROM to RAM at
run time.
The AVMAC 78K2 assembler includes
a macro pre-processor, linker/locator, object librarian, cross-reference utility, HEX
file utility and cross-reference report
generator. Created to write assembly language, it contains assembly and structured
programming directives.
AVICE 78K2 is a new high-level debugger front-end that supports all of the
features of the NEC K2 IE-78230-R and
IE-78240-R in -circuit emulators. The
package contains a window -style user interface that supports high-level debugging
of C and assembly -language source code.
A watch window allows the debugger to inspect variables within their execution scope
and proper format. Based on a sophisticated command language, a user can create
new commands, configure windows, bind
key strokes to commands, and attach them
to breakpoints.
Additional AVICE 78K2 features include real-time trace; multiple source and
memory dump windows; hardware and
software breakpoints; single and multiple
stepping; and on-line help.
To run the Avocet C 78K2 and AVICE
78K2 packages, an IBM PC/AT or compatible computer with a minimum 640K of
RAM, and MS-DOS 3.1 or later are required. A 386 or 486 machine is recommended for running this software.
NEC's IE-78230-R and IE-78240 in -circuit emulators with one probe are available
for $9,490. The IE-78240-R supports
NEC's PD2821XA line of microcontrollers, while the IE-78230-R supports the
µPD7823X products.
A complete package containing both
Avocet C 78K2 and AVICE 78K2 sells for
$1,496. The packages are also sold separately, with the Avocet C 78K2 package
priced at $1,195, the AVICE 78K2 high-
level debugger at $300, and the AVMAC
macro assembler at $495.
Switchable SCSI Bus Terminator
Motorola (2200 W. Broadway, Mesa, AZ
85202) has a new family of switchable
precision SCSI bus -terminator solutions
that eliminate the need to physically
remove termination. These SCSI Bus Terminators are available in reliable, easy -to implement surface -mount packages that
reduce board -area requirements.
These devices improve manufacturing
flow and reliability and are easy to expand
to 27 -bit -wide SCSI bus applications. One
SCSI terminator replaces all termination
resistor packs and sockets, which simplifies printed -circuit board layout and reducing inventory and carrying costs.
The new circuitry gives designers a simple way to enable or disable termination
with either software or hardware. When
enabled, these circuits provide passive or
active -style SCSI termination. When their
switches are disabled according to their
truth tables, these devices are in a highimpedance state on nine or all 18 bits.
Motorola's family of SCSI Bus Terminator solutions currently include five
devices. The MCCS142233 is a nine -bit
passive terminator. The MCCS 142234 and
MCCS142235 are nine- and 18 -bit active
terminators that can be used with Motoro-
la's MC34268 voltage regulator. The
MCCS142236 and MCCS142237 are nine -
and 18 -bit active terminators with integrated 2.85 -volt regulators.
All these SCSI terminators contain a
Local Vcc (LVcc) low voltage sense circuit
to latch the enable state, which provides
the ability to latch the current output state
when power is removed from the LVcc
pin. As long as the terminator power or
voltage regulator remains, no interruption
to the SCSI bus occurs when powering
down are SCSI peripheral.
Motorola's family of SCSI Terminators
can be used in computer equipment applications that include all SCSI, SCSI -2
and SCSI -3 computer platforms (PCs,
workstations, mini -computers) and their
associated peripherals that utilize single ended SCSI buses. Examples include rigid disk drives, printers, barcode readers, CD
ROMs, tape drives, plotters, image scanners and laser-disk drives.
Pricing for the SCSI Terminators in
10,000-piece quantity ranges from 99 cents
for the MCCS 142234 nine-bit active to $2
for the MCCS 142235 18 -bit active device.
Digital Threshold Comparator
Maxim Integrated Products' (120 San
Gabriel Dr., Sunnyvale, CA 94086) new
MAX910 and MAX911 ultra-high-speed
comparators are the first to include a highspeed eight -bit DAC and voltage reference
to rapidly set the input threshold voltage
of the comparator (Fig. 1). The MAX910
is TTL-compatible with an 8-ns propagation delay, while the MAX911 is ECLcompatible with a 4-ns propagation delay.
The comparator's threshold level, set by
the DAC, has a 10 -mV resolution and is
digitally updated through its full-scale
range in only 50 ns. By combining a comparator, voltage reference and an eight -bit
DAC in a single IC, the MAX910 and
MAX911 reduce board space requirements
by a factor of 10 and power consumption
by a factor of five.
For high-speed comparator applications
in which the threshold voltage must be updated rapidly, such as automatic test
equipment (ATE) or process -control applications, the MAX910 and MAX911
provide a complete single-IC solution that
reduces stray capacitance, design time and
cost over multi -chip discrete solutions.
The MAX910 and MAX911 come in 24 pin DIP and SO packages. The price for
the MAX910CNG or MAX911 CNG is
$5.20 in 1,000 piece quantity.
PROGRAMMER for
E(E)PROM & Microcontroller
1 Gang $159
NEW
4 Gang $219
includes Programming Module, Cable (3),
software, manual, 1 year warranty, and Free
life time software update!
Made in U.S.A.
32 -pin wide ZIF socket (300 - 600 mil)
File Load/Save, Blank -check,
Program, Verify, Read, Checksum,
Full -screen Buffer Edit, MACRO function
Supports most of file formats
8, 16, 32 bit data split
NMOS/CMOS EPROMs (2716...27C040)
EEPROMs(2804...28256)
Page EPROMs (27C513, 27C011)
Flash EPROMs(28F256...28F020)
Optional Adapters:
RM -4G 4 Socket Module
$95
RM-16BIT for 16 Bit upto 40 pin $758
RM-875X for 87>0(& 87C)0(
RM-PIC16C5X for PIC 16C5X
$85
NS COPXXX Micro adapters available.
UNIVERSAL PROGRAMMER:
Call us for more information!
UV Eraser w/timer
$85
Erases up to 9 EPROMs
Order now!
Electronic Engineering Tools
528 Weddell Dr. #4, Sunnyvale, CA 94089
CIRCLE NO.
Say You Saw It In
ComputerCraft
(408)7x34-8ä1s84
(Risk-Free 30 days money ecic)1se
January 1993
/
135 ON
FREE INFORMATION CARD
COMPUTERCRAFT /
73
On -Line Population; Getting the Fax; Closing the
Gap; Pre -Loaded CompuServe;
Beware The Tax on Modems!; Setting Up
GUI
Your Own
We have no idea how many people are online these days. No census is taken of the
population of cyberspace, nor do the major public networks like CompuServe
release numbers we can rely upon. Thus,
we have no concept of the number of people on the internet. When you add the
number of people who are on private corporate nets and others who sign onto only
local BBS services, you have a population
numbering in the millions.
However many people may be on-line,
though, the fact that on-line services exist
has already affected the way we live and
communicate with each other. I recently
read a report that 1.5 -million people were
on-line in Japan, this in a country where
there are nowhere near as many personal
computers as there are in the U.S.
Getting the Fax
Now fax is rapidly becoming the preferred
method of sending written messages, so
much so that this past year has seen an explosion in low-cost fax modems. You can
get 2,400/9,600 -baud modem/fax boards
for less than $100 and 1,400 -baud modems
are going for about $300. So now you can
use the board as a regular modem at 2,400
baud and as a fax modem at 9,600 baud
(or 1,400 baud). Fax communications software is bundled with these modems at no
extra cost.
Brands offered by direct -market vendors and discount retail stores include
Twincomm, Cardinal, Practical Peripherals, The Complete PC, BSR and Ultimate,
to name just a few. Higher -priced boards
or external modems, like those from
Hayes, cost about twice as much as the
economy brands. With these boards, you
can write a message using any of the popular word-processing programs and transmit it to any Group 1, 2 and 3 fax machine,
or to another computer equipped with a
fax board.
When a fax message is received by a
computer, it can be printed on any dotmatrix or laser printer that can print graphics. The printer must be able to print graphics to churn out fax copy that started out
as an ASCII text file because the fax software you use in your transmitting computer converts ASCII text into a bit map that's
a picture of the printed page.
Until now, one important thing you
74
/ COMPUTERCRAFT / January 1993
BBS
couldn't do with a received fax was receive
the fax message with a fax modem board,
save it into your word processor and modify it. Another problem was that the received fax took a lot of memory to store
it. Now there are several programs from
character-recognition software publishers
that eliminate these limitations.
FaxMaster from Caere Corp. allows you
to launch a fax from within a Windows application. You can even select a time for
the fax to be transmitted. When a fax is received, the software converts it back to
ASCII within the Windows application so
that you can export it into a word processor
or DTP program. You can even click on
a Windows box and look at the cover sheets
of up to six faxes.
So far so good. However, this program
does even more. It can compress a bitmapped fax into ''/ of its received size and
store it on you hard disk. In addition, a
Viewer function enables you to look at all
the thumbnail -sized faxes you've stored.
The only problem with this wonderful program is its $249 cost. When you add this
to the cost of the modem, the price is about
as much as for a stand-alone fax machine.
You have to add up pros and cons to decide
the best deal for you.
Another fax -conversion program is Cal era's Faxgrabber, also a Windows application. It receives incoming faxes and converts them to ASCII or any of the popular
word -processor formats.
Both of the fax converters cited are
available from most software retailers.
Pre -Loaded CompuServe
CompuAdd Computer Corp. is now pre loading the CompuServe Information
Manager onto the hard disks of all computers it sells. Included are a month of free
use of CompuServe's Basic Services and
a $15 credit for use of other extended services that are optional at additional charges.
The CIM front-end program makes it
much easier to sign onto and access specific
areas of the service. This front end greatly speeds up use of the service and reduces
the amount of on-line time needed to access specific services.
Closing the GUI Gap
Now with the two dominant GUI's, Macintosh and Windows, coming closer and
closer to each other in functionality, the
time of the graphics network has arrived.
Prodigy is part of the proof, but it's America On Line that's blazing the trail. It keeps
growing and looking better and better,
with more graphics features and new innovative services.
AOL is the model for the future. The
former specifications for graphic -based
networks, such as those used by Prestel in
England, didn't offer clear-cut advantage
and, therefore, were a failure in this country. But the current crop of graphic networks based on Windows or Motif are
something else again.
The whole concept of personal computers on-line and connected in LANs is
expected to take another leap forward
from the original idea of one person, one
computer. Now the buzzword is "work groups," the idea being that people in business aren't isolated or grouped in vertical
LANs. They work in groups, and work
done is the product of many minds. Microsoft recognized this with the new Windows
for Work Groups and included the work group concept in the forthcoming Windows NT.
Beware The Tax on Modems!
They never stop trying, only this time it
isn't the states or even Congress that are
after modem users for more money. It's
the IRS, which is making its own rules by
interpreting laws passed by Congress for
totally different purposes.
The Information Technology Association of America has issued a warning that
the IRS may be seeking to extend a 3%
communications tax to users of on-line services. A similar tax is already being collected on all telephone service and has been
since 1965. After Congress made the tax
permanent, the IRS began making rules to
implement it. The IRS may now be seeking to extend it to use of modems.
The ITAA is calling this a foul because
it would impose an unfair burden on the
growth of a highly competitive and expanding sector of the economy. Users are
already paying a tax on their use of the
phone service. An additional tax on on-line
services they use would be double taxation.
The greatest fear is that IRS could decide
to tax services like CompuServe and GEnie
directly. Moreover, the extension of the tax
Say You Saw It In ComputerCraft
to new technologies may come as the result
of an IRS ruling not caused by an action
of the President or Congress and is, therefore, harder to protest or influence by voters.
It's much harder to get Congress and the
administration to legislate on specific reductions in bad tax law. However, one
hope is that it will take about a year for the
IRS to implement such a ruling and that
there may be a different administration
and Congress by the time this column appears in print.
Setting Up a
BBS
Have you ever considered running your
own BBS for your business or club or just
for the fun of it? It's not that hard to do.
If you have an 80286 or better computer
you don't use all the time, you can run your
own board. You need about 2M of RAM,
a floppy drive, a hard -disk drive of at least
40M capacity, a 2,400 -baud modem and
a telephone line for a minimum installation.
You also need bulletin -board software
and the time to look in on your system once
in a while. Most of the time, your BBS can
run unattended. There are many kinds of
BBS software systems. I'll examine one
here and others over the next few months
and explain their operation.
One of the most successful BBS systems
is The Major BBS from Glacticomm, now
released in Version 6. Minimum configuration is a complete bulletin -board software
system for two simultaneous users on a
single PC. The Major BBS includes five
prepared BBS models from which to
choose:
The Public Model grants anyone who
calls full access immediately.
The Sign -Up Model allows new users to
call and sign up. You approve them later.
The Private Model allows you to specify
exactly who can sign onto your net.
Customer Service Model supports your
customers and gets their feedback.
For Profit Model has users pay for using your service.
The software enables users to send messages and write electronic mail with a full screen editor. They can attach a binary or
ASCII file via the file -transfer protocol of
their choice, with XMODEM, YMODEM,
ZMODEM, Y-MODEM -G, KERMIT, Super
KERMIT and ASCII supported. They can re-
quest return receipts and send "carbon
copies" to other users.
You can have up to 3,500 public message
forums with keyword searching, file attaching, message threading, message quoting, and "quick -scan" capabilities. And
you can assign users read-only, read/write
or co -management access to each forum.
Each forum can have its own teleconference for real-time discussions.
Each forum can also have a file library,
with as many sub-libraries as you want.
Users can do key -word search or tag a
group of files to be downloaded. Major
BBS has propriety Locks and Keys security, which allows you to place locks on
features or areas of the board. You can
give a "Key" to each user you authorize
to use the features of the board. A common group of keys can be combined into
a key ring that can be set up for sharing by
many users.
You can also conduct polls about members, and each member can have a personal
resume on the board that describes his or
her interests.
The Major BBS also has a full accounting system with as many types of users as
you wish. You can assign time limits per
call and exempt any user you wish. The
pay -for -use system can calculate a user's
on-line time by the minute and generate accounts for billing purposes.
In short, The Major BBS can do just
about anything the commercial networks
do in a local mode.
For each modem you use, you must have
an available COM (COM 1, 2, 3 and 4 are
supported) port and a Hayes -compatible
modem. Speeds can range from 300 to
3,800 bps.
The standard package costs $259 and
supports up to two simultaneous users. For
more users, you need only a "User Six
Pack" to support up to six additional users,
at $249 per "Pack." Advanced LAN options and X.25 Packet Switching options
to offer long-distance callers easy access
to your BBS are also available.
The Major BBS also has all kinds of
games and other options that can be added as the BBS grows. This includes multiuser applications and on-line order entry.
Running a BBS is a hobby in itself and
can really hook you. There are networks
of BBS sysops who provide world-wide
0N\
Little PLC
Tm
see
communication via relay systems, and
there are board -busters against whom you
must protect your system.
If you're going to run a board as a free
hobby, you'll be exempt from most regulation and taxes. However, once you start to
charge fees to use your board, you're considered to be running a business. In such
a case, there are sales taxes to be paid on
the fees you charge. Be aware, too, that
there's also a tendency in some states to try
to tax any software that is downloaded from
your board.
You can also be held responsible for illegal information placed on your board by
members. There have been cases where
BBS sysops have had their equipment seized
because a user placed credit-card numbers
on their boards without their knowledge.
Being that you'll be held responsible for
what's posted on your board, pay attention to the goings-on. Play safe by controlling access to users you can trust.
For information about The Major BBS,
call 1-800-328-1128. To sign onto The Major BBS, call 1-305-583-7808.
If you're interested in the legalities of being a BBS sysop, get a copy of SyslawThe Legal Guide for On Line Service by
Lance Rose, Esq. and Jonathan Wallace,
Esq. Now in its second edition, this book
spells out to BBS sysops their basic rights
and responsibilities. It has been written so
that non -lawyers can understand it. Subjects covered include the First Amendment, copyrights, trademarks, the user
agreement, privacy, criminal law, searches
and seizures, viruses and adult materials.
Syslaw not only explains the law, it gives
advice that can enable sysops to protect
their boards from risk of legal actions. It's
available for $34.95 plus $3 S&H (and any
applicable sales tax) from PC Information
Group, 1125 E. Broadway, Winona, MN
55987; tel.: 800-321-8285 or 507-452-2824.
DOS IN ROM!
Tired of waiting for the
Prompt? Speed up with an
MVS ROM Drive.
Boot
Instantly) Also used for
Disidess Workstations and
Embedded control. Easy
to Install half-size card.
64k $751
360k
1.44m $300
PROM Programmer $95
5
Program It In C
Our new Little PLC," measures only 4.33 x 2.85 inches
and can mount on standard DIN rail. This miniature
controller costs only $195, including 8 optically isolated
inputs and 8 relay driver outputs. Low cost expansion
cards allow you to add more inputs and outputs: digital
anc analog. It has dual RS -485 serial I/O, battery
backed memory and time/date clock, programmable
timers and a watchdog. Our easy to use and affordable
Dynamic CT" integrated development system also costs
$195. You can write simple programs in an hour, or you
can develop major applications with 20,000 lines of C
language.
Z -World
Engineering
1724 Picasso Ave., Davis, CA 95616
(916) 757-3737 Fax: (916) 753-5141
24 hr. Automatic Fax: (916) 753-0618
(Call from your fax, request catalog #18)
CIRCLE NO.
155
ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
MerrImackValle S emº
Box 850 Merrlrhaek.NH
Phone: (508) 792 9507
WORLDS SMALLEST PC
.MVS
I
robots-alarms-datalog
3 Easy Steps:
Develop, debug on PC
2. Download, test in SBC
3. Bum PROM, stand alone
-LCD port
-3 ser 2 par
-Keyboard in -PC bus
-Battery or 5v -BIOS option
1.
-Real Tm CIk -LED display
Use Turbo C, BASIC, MASM
8088 S B C $95
CIRCLE NO. 144 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
GUI Guts
By
Yacco
XTree for Windows Debuts
My favorite file -management program for
DOS, Xtree, has finally made it to Windows. Despite the fact that I've been eagerly anticipating XTreefor Windows, I was
somehow less than satisfied with what I
got. It wasn't the program. XTreefor Windows has even more features than the DOS
version. It includes a large array of viewers
that let you see files from popular word
processors, databases and spreadsheets
with some of their formatting intact. Many
common graphic -file formats are also
supported.
The program has several functions for
handling compressed files and a file -transfer utility. And XTreefor Windows effectively uses Windows' GUI conventions to
provide easy access to its features, as well
as to display different file groups. There
are a feature toolbar, buttons to quickly
change the number of levels displayed in
the tree view, a window for the automatic
file viewer, and so on. Moves and copies
can be accomplished using drag -and-drop,
and files can be launched by dropping them
on any executable or batch file.
Nevertheless, XTree for Windows
didn't give me the same thrill XTree for
DOS first did. I think the reason is that
Windows is so much more self-sufficient
than DOS. DOS originally lacked sophisticated file -management tools. XTree was
an order of magnitude or two beyond it.
But although File Manager pales in comparison to XTree for Windows, it lets you
do the basics.
You can tag groups of files and then
copy, move or delete them. There's a global search, and you can select from a number of display options. Windows leaves a
file -management utility with a relatively
smaller incremental advantage than DOS
did. This may not be enough to justify extra expense or extra training.
Utility vendors must be careful about
how they enter the Windows marketplace
or they may find too much of their target
market preferring free functions over extra -cost enhancements they offer. For example, take the experience of Flambeaux
Software's DOS Help, which is a nearly
perfect utility and one that has held up well
over quite a few years. Nothing beats it for
providing help with DOS commands. In
fact, the help systems in both Windows and
OS/2 have more than a passing resem-
76
/
COMPUTERCRAFT
/ January 1993
blance to its method of threading through
topics, something DOS Help has been doing since well before hypertext became
fashionable and widespread.
A few years ago, Dan Rollins, DOS
Help's author and a Flambeaux partner,
revealed to me that users wouldn't buy a
good program if a free alternative was
available. He was talking about the on-line
references included with later versions of
DOS and their effect on sales of DOS Help.
Despite DOS Help's excellence, the majority of DOS users apparently prefer the free
built-in product to paying for an additional
utility. These free references are hollow
substitutes for DOS Help, of course, but
Rollins maintained that they still kept
down his sales.
Flambeaux's marketing hasn't always
impressed me as the industry's strongest,
but I suspect Rollins's argument has meritand relevance-for Windows utilities. The
company's experience makes me wonder
how much room there's going to be for
third -party ISVs as Windows continues to
grow and add functions.
Windows for Workgroups
The next challenge will be to network utilities, peer -to -peer networks themselves and
several groupware categories. By the time
this appears in print, Windowsfor Work groups 3.1 should be shipping.
Additions in Windowsfor Workgroups
include special toolbars for both the Print
Manager and File Manager. There are also
several utilities. A Chat Accessory enables
point-to-point, real-time communication.
Net Watcher lets you see who's connected
to your machine. And Win Meter shows
the percentage of resources going to local
and remote applications.
The Control Panel in Windows for
Workgroups includes a slide bar to adjust
performance between local and remote requests. You can also use it to configure
cards and the network transport layer, perform a drag -and -drop Netware installation, change machine names and work group names, etc.
Windows for Workgroups users will be
able to share printers, access files on servers and share files on their local machines
with others. The program runs on Lan Manager, LanServer, Net ware, DEC
Path Works, PowerLAN(from Perform-
ance Technologies) or any other network
that supports the SMB (Server Message
Block) protocol. It also has its own peer to -peer network capabilities. Windowsfor
Workgroups can even connect to an SMB
network and other Windows for Work groups machines over its built-in peer -to peer network simultaneously.
Windows for Workgroups should be a
powerful competitor for the small peer -to peer installation. Installation is eased by
detection of known network cards and
automatic configuration of the appropriate drivers. However, Microsoft says that
beta sites are also using the product for networks with hundreds of nodes.
The program's network support is based
on the NDIS (Network Device Interface
Specification) standard for card -to-transport layer communications (between the
network and physical layer). Out of the
box, there are expected to be at least 29
drivers and support for 112 Arcnet, Token
Ring and Ethernet cards. An additional 35
drivers and 65 cards are on the Windows
Supplemental Driver Library.
Moreover, Windows for Workgroups
includes a Microsoft Mail 3.0 work -alike
with capabilities of both the client and sever. You'll be able to send mail directly from
the File Manager toolbar or by dragging
a file and dropping it on the minimized
email icon. Almost everything is in there
except the message -transfer agent that allows you to send mail between Microsoft
Mail post offices.
Also included in Windows for Work groups is the Schedule+ application,
which is an email -enabled calendar and
group meeting scheduler. Its Network
DDE feature extends DDE across the network. A Clipbook View Accessory provides a network -wide clipboard. Workstations that want to share data simply copy
it to the Clipbook, and any node with access privileges can paste from it.
Microsoft says all of this will break
down the barriers to networking. It may
also break down a few competitors in the
network and groupware markets and keep
many others from entering.
The above is just the beginning. The
Mac's remaining advantage over cheap
commodity computers is already being
eroded by Windows. For instance, Super Mac has launched a Windows business
Say You Saw It In ComputerCraft
group, and insiders have informed me that
the company's Video Spigot will soon be
available for the PC.
When the Windows -compatible NT operating system rolls out in a few months,
we may finally see the beginning of the
end-if not of the Macintosh itself, at least
the end of the absolute need for one. It will
certainly be much more difficult to justify
getting into Apple's high -cost closed technology once a popular 32-bit operating system is on the PC.
Developers are flocking to NT now, and
it's just a matter of time before the innovations that have traditionally kept the Mac
out in front for designers and artists are
developed for both computer platforms at
the same time.
route to Minneapolis for a meeting with
Seagate the following day. He also told me
about a ground -breaking joint announcement the two companies were planning. It
was an exciting demonstration-and surprising news.
But then, Disk Technician has been
breaking new ground for years. I've been
a fan of the program for a long time because of its soft -error tracking. From its
beginning, Disk Technician has built a database of soft errors over time that allows
it to move data before hard errors occur.
The last version, released about a year ago,
added another innovation by making repairs in the background.
Now, the current revision extends this
capability to Windows. Just install the 14K
Disk Technician device driver, and it
moves your data away from failing areas
of the drive. It does this while you work.
Another new feature allows Disk Technician to protect data from power failures.
Though there's an overhead penalty, with
this option enabled, you can pull the plug
in the middle of a disk write operation
without losing a single bit. If this seems unlikely, think about using it with your laptop. You can forget about the habit Ni -Cd
batteries have of draining almost without
warning and outright battery failures.
Disk Technician has also answered a
thorny question it shares with virus software. How do you know if it's going to
Disk Technician Gold
Some utilities still seem like safe bets.
Neither Windows nor DOS has yet approached the issue of hard -disk reliability. So, you're definitely going to want to
consider the new Disk Technician Gold
(DTG) from Disk Technician Corp. It's
the first hard -disk maintenance -and restoration utility to run in the background
under Windows 3.1.
On Columbus Day, Disk Technician
president Norm Ivans touched his Aerostar 601/700P down in Burbank, CA just
long enough to show me a pre-release version of the product before continuing en -
work when you really need it? It isn't easy
to test the efficacy of either type of program, and Disk Technician claims to be the
only drive utility that can detect soft errors.
Fortunately, according to Ivans, Seagate
has made the definitive determination using its own Intelligent Disc Tester (IDT).
Ivans says that Seagate became a convert when Disk Technician found 100% of
the known errors in 120 drives that had
been tested with its expensive hardware
devices. Not only did Disk Technician find
all the errors, it did so 20 to 30 times faster
than IDT did. A 40M drive takes roughly
3 minutes to test with the software. A
more -comprehensive hard -disk media certification takes Disk Technician about 40
minutes for a slow MFM drive of the same
40M capacity.
As a result of its tests, Seagate is expected to recommend Disk Technician Gold
with an endorsement that will include the
use of a Seagate medallion on the software's packaging. The drive vendor will also use the software to replace some of the
testing presently done by its IDTs. Disk
Technician will allow VARs and other re sellers to test drives without having to send
them back to the manufacturer. Savings
in time and money should be significant.
Disk Technician claims to find soft errors not only on MFM drives but on IDE
and almost all SCSI drives (except fast wide) as well. This is possible because the
REAL-TIME ERROR DETECTION ARCHITECTURE
WHAT
WHAT
IS YOUR
WHAT
IS
IS YOUR
PROGRAM DOING?
DISK TECHNICIAN GOLD DOING?
HARD DISK DOING?
Reading or
writing data
Monitoring hard disk
Reading or
writing data
read/write activity
If
Critical error detected,
see note
Processing data
in RAM
ED
If No error detected,
IDLE
Soft error detected,
records error location
in databank
If
Writing error location
to databank
IDLE
IDLE
Block diagram of Disk Technician Gold's real-time error -correction architecture.
Say You Saw
It In ComputerCraft
January 1993
/
COMPUTERCRAFT
/
77
GUI Guts
REAL-TIME CRITICAL ERROR OPERATIONS ARCHITECTURE
o
TRIGGERS:
Excessive
read attempts
Excessive read attempts
and ECC invoked
Critical en-or detected
SYSTEM LAUNCH:
PATHS:
Hard error
(unreadable)
If excessive
read attempts
If excessive read attempts
If
and ECC invoked
hard error
Seek profiling and other
special routines used to
recover data
It recovered as
reconstnrctable
ECC data
ECC reconstructs
data successfully
If totally
recovered
Data from area where critical error
occurred is recorded in databank
Your current program is interrupted
Audio message:
Continuous warbling tone
Visual message:
On -screen instructions
You acknowledge
warning message(s) by
pressing the F2 key
You save your work,
exit the program and
reboot your system
Flow chart of DTG's real-time critical error operations architecture.
78
/ COMPUTERCRAFT /
January /993
Say You Saw It In
ComputerCraft
Disk Technician Gold ERROR 908 - See Chapters 6,7,13
HARDWARE FAILURE WARMING± BACKUP YOUR DATA MOW!
Call Frank Smith in PC Technical Services Dept
IMMEDIATELY!!
234-6789, extension 123
Press F2 to acknowledge message
When DTG detects a hard -disk problem,
it
program doesn't rely on ECC status. Instead, Disk Technician relies on methods
of measuring the time a drive requires to
complete reads. A long interval can indicate read failures that are requiring retries.
Soft errors are recorded in a database
that's used to find intermittent errors and
to detect patterns. An expert system evaluates the patterns for incipient hardware
failures. For example, a predominance of
errors on inside tracks may indicate that
heads, amplifiers or (rarely) data -separator circuits are going bad. Bearing wobble
is likely to cause more soft errors out at the
edge of the disk, where deflection is greatest.
DTA also claims to be able to recover
generates an on -screen warning, like the one shown here, that tells you exactly what to do.
data from almost all hard errors, given
Correction
enough time. Ivans says testers have yet to
find an error from which the program was
unable to recover the data.
Two other functions are included with
the product. A built-in defragmenter operates on full drives (save a single sector) and
handles unlimited partition sizes and an
unlimited number of files. The method used
moves data only once. Every time the
system boots, a system -integrity test runs
to prevent virus infections of user -specified
file types. Other tests automatically check
for bad FATs, lost clusters, cross -linked
chains, allocation errors and errors in
subdirectories.
Last month, I mentioned a couple of
humorous calendar programs, and stated
that the product from Amaze is "more
flexible about how and when you consume
its cartoons." What I meant to say was that
Cartoon -A -Day from Individual Software
is more flexible, but I didn't notice my
careless error until after it went to press.
Actually, Individual allows you to choose
when you change its cartoons and to print
them in a variety of ways (as correctly stated). The cartoons in the Far Side Calendar from Amaze are more rigidly programmed for their consumption to coincide with the passage of time.
Organize and Protect
Your Copies of
N
C
0]
co
co
a)
ro
U
COMPUTERCRAFT
EA
oi
N
EA
EA
a)
Now there's an easy way to organize and keep copies of your favorite
magazine readily available for future reference.
Designed exclusively for CC by Jesse Jones Industries, these custommade titled cases and binders provide the luxury look that makes them
attractive additions to your bookshelf, desk or any location in your home
or office.
Whether you choose cases or binders, you'll have a storage system
that's durable and well organized to help protect your valuable copies from
damage.
Cases and binders designed to
hold a year's issues (may vary
with issue sizes).
Constructed of heavy reinforced
board, covered with durable
green leather -like material.
Title hot -stamped in gold.
Q
C
á
r ¿ß
T
EA
L
,c2a)
x_
Q
-o
co
jr)
Free personalization foil for indexing
year.
Cases V -notched for easy access.
Binders have special spring mechanism to hold individual rods which
easily snap in. This allows magazines
to be fully opened for easy
readability
Say You Saw It In ComputerCraft
January 1993
/
COMPUTERCRAFT
/
79
What's New!
Blue Multimedia
Four new 486 -based "Ultime dia" computers running at 25
MHz to 66 MHz are a part of
the revamped line of IBM's
PS/2 computers. Each Ultimedia model offers high-speed
XGA graphics, 600M CDROM II drive with extended
architecture capability and
330-ms seek time, system CDs
loaded with programs, tools
and samplers, 16 -bit sound,
headphone jack, microphone
and volume control. These
CIRCLE NO.
Super Super -VGA
Video Seven's 1024i PLUS
graphics card
is
configured
with 512K DRAM and is capable of producing 16 colors at
1,024 x 768 resolution, or 256
colors at 800 x 600 resolution
in either interlaced or noninterlaced modes. It supports high resolution text and graphics
on both fixed- and variable frequency monitors. The card
offers high -resolution drivers
for most major software programs $129.
CIRCLE NO.
15
Borland's Quattro Pro For
Windows is a powerful new
spreadsheet designed for the
Windows environment from
ground up. Two unique technologies that provide a significant departure from traditional
spreadsheet models are an integral part of the product's design. Object Inspector menus
let a user "right -click" on an
object to display a list of all options that can be changed for
that object. All changes can be
made at once, saving the time
of wading through several dif-
ferent menus. Spreadsheet
Notebooks, based on the familiar tabbed paper notebook,
organize spreadsheet data and
dramatically improve the way
a user builds and manages
spreadsheets.
SpeedBar controls are collections of conveniently placed
buttons that provide point and -click access to the most frequently -used features, such
as cut, copy, paste, instant
summing, automatic data en-
Microcontroller
Technology:
By Peter Spasov
(Regents/Prentice Hall.
Hard cover. 622 pages)
This is an engineering text
book suitable for theory arid
some hands-on experience
with a production microcontroller. It consists of 15 chapters organized and divided into five parts. Part 1, consisting only of Chapter 1, provides an introduction to computers, covering such topics
as the technology, terminology, and essential memory
concepts.
Programming concepts are
covered in Part 2, which is
made up of Chapters 2, 3 and
4. This section also includes
information on the language
ON FREE CARD
The Win.VGA Super VGA
card, also from Video Seven, is
optimized for fast Windows
graphics performance. It offers
built- in hardware -assisted icon
(BitBlt) transfers and line
draws for dramatic improvement over standard VGA. The
card supports Windows 3.1
and is packaged with drivers
for most major software pack-
used to instruct the microcontroller, how to use the registers and memory and how to
produce, use and document
ages. $199. Video Seven, 46221
Landing Pkwy., Fremont, CA
94538; tel.: 510-623-7857; fax:
510-656-0397.
CIRCLE NO.
16
Several other significant
areas of functionality include
point -and -click feature accessibility, comprehensive presentation graphics, easy access to
external dBASE and Paradox
database files, and visual applications building tools. Quattro
Pro For Windows is compatible with Lotus 1-2-3 and Excel
at the file level and even at the
macro level, simplifying upgrading existing applications.
Upgrades and DOS/ Windows
bundles available. $495. Borland, PO Box 660001, Scotts
Valley, CA 95067-0001; tel.:
800-331-0877.
CIRCLE NO.
/ COMPUTERCRAFT / January
1993
17
programs.
Part 3 (Chapters 5, 6 and 7)
is devoted to operation of the
chip itself. Topics include the
ON FREE CARD
try, formatting, graphing and
others. SpeedFill determines
what information should be
placed into a range of cells,
based on information the user
provides (adding the remaining
month labels to a row once
"JAN" is entered, for example). Drag And Drop lets a user
select a block of cells, drag it,
and drop it to move or copy to
another location. Speed Buttons are user -created push buttons that run macros.
ON FREE CARD
system bus, operating modes,
clocked operation and memory technology.
The 68HC11
digital video. $4,225 to $5,675.
IBM, 1133 Westchester Ave.,
White Plains, NY 10604.
ON FREE CARD
New Windows
Spreadsheet
80
14
models are upgradable and
compatible with other PS/2s.
OS/2 and/or Windows and
DOS are available pre-loaded
on a 212M 12 -ms hard drive.
Each unit includes 8M RAM
and has at least three open expansion slots and one open
drive bay. Options include
8516 Touch Display and
TouchSelect panels, PS/2 TV
for video monitoring and an
ActionMedia II DVI card for
(from page 15)
Windows
Accelerator Card
Add -On America's Renoir NT
Windows Accelerator provides
graphics -intensive environments, like Windows and X Windows, with increased video
speed and high -resolution display support. It supports up to
1,280 x 1,024 for both interlaced and noninterlaced monitors with eight -bit mode for
256 colors and 15 -bit direct
mode for a maximum of 32,000
colors. The card also supplies
hardware -supported cursor
that provides perfect, smooth
a
Chapters 8 through 12,
which make up Part 4, deal
with subsystems for parallel,
serial, programmable timer
and analog interfacing. This
section covers basic software
techniques to use these systems and introduces some
common hardware designs
used to connect the micro controller to sensors and
actuators.
In the concluding Part 5,
three chapters cover control
methods, the microcontroller
industry, a survey of typical
applications, choices in selecting microcontrollers and
characteristics of other microcontrollers.
The book ends with four
appendices that cover the
68HC11 instruction set, a
quick -reference section, a
glossary of terms and sources
of further information.
This book isn't a "light"
read. It will be of most interest to someone who needs to
learn the ins and outs of designing with the 68HC11.
cursor and icon movement.
At the heart of the card is the
S3 chip set that provides such
on -board graphic primitives as
circles, squares and rectangles,
freeing the CPU of the necessity of generating them each time
they're used on -screen. Renoir
NT has I M RAM. Bundled
software drivers are included
for Windows, WordPerfect,
Lotus, Ventura Publisher,
AutoCAD and most other
CAD programs. $300. Add -On
America, 433 N. MathildAve.,
Sunnyvale, CA 94086; tel.:
800-292-7771.
CIRCLE NO.
18
ON FREE CARD
files. Because not all programs
Print Utility
Version 3.1 of TreeSaver from
Discoversoft adds the ability to
make saddle-bound pamphlets
and manuals to its utilities for
laser printing "tiled" pages onto a single sheet. Treesaver is a
PCL interpreter. As such, it
can handle graphics, soft fonts
and even LaserJet macros. It
also handles ASCII and PCL
have the ability to print Laser Jet -formatted output to a file
(a PCL file), Version 3.1 has a
utility that enables the user to
capture LaserJet output into a
file from any DOS application.
$90. Discoversoft Inc., 1516
Oak St., Alameda, CA 94501;
tel.: 510-769-2902; fax: 510769-0149.
CIRCLE NO.
19 ON
FREE CARD
Say You Saw It In ComputerCraft
Soldering Stations
transfer rate. Sony's RMOS
Rewritable
Optical Drive
Sony's RMO-S350 is a rewritable optical system for IBM/
compatible and Apple Macintosh computers. It stores up to
128M of fully rewritable information on a 3 % " magneto optical disk. Using a SCSI -2 interface for high throughput, it has
an average seek time of less
than 40 ms with a 4M/s burst
driver supports full removability by enabling users to import
files from several rewritable
optical disks without exiting
the program and booting the
computer every time the disk is
changed. $2,295. Sony Computer Peripheral Products Co.,
Optical Products Div., 655
River Oaks Pkwy., San Jose,
CA 95134; tel.: 800-352-7669;
fax: 408-432-0253.
Solid-state circuitry regu-
Hexacon's HIT series soldering stations feature heating elements located inside the tip for
rapid recovery and an innovative sponge holder design with
removable dross tray that eliminates operator contact and
collects potentially hazardous
lates temperature with ± 10 °F
from 550 °to 850 °F. A positive
grounded tip, together with
static dissipative handle and
case, ensures that the unit is
ESD safe. The station has
spike -free performance and exceeds requirements of all military soldering specifications.
Hexacon Electric Co., PO Box
36, Roselle Park, NJ 072041946; tel.: 908-245-6200; fax:
solder dross. The sponge holder makes tip cleaning more effective by using a double sponge concept with four wiping surfaces that total 32 sq. in.
CIRCLE NO.20 ON FREE CARD
CIRCLE NO.
908-245- 6176.
21
ON FREE CARD
They're fun! They're informative!
They're the "Video Elmer" who's always there to help!
Introducing an ALL NEW series of Videos about Amateur Radio.
Three -time Emmy Award winning Producer Richard Moseson, NW2L,
has pulled out all the stops to create the most exciting and entertaining video series ever about Amateur Radio. Four "Getting Started"
videos cover individual subjects for the newcomer to Amateur Radio,
as well as the oldtimer who's branching out into something new.
Getting
Getting
Getting
Getting
Started
Started
Started
Started
In Ham Radio
in Amateur Satellites
In Packet Radio
In DXing
Available at your favorite Amateur Radio dealer.
$19.95 each
All videos are available only in VHS NTSC format. For mail
orders add $3.50 shipping and handling per video (First Class
Mail in USA and possessions); $7.00 for overseas shipment.
Look for announcements of more videos from CQ.
CQ
Productions
... A division of CQ Communications, Inc.
76 North Broadway, Hicksville, NY 11801. Telephone 516 681.2922; FAX 516 681.2926.
Say You Saw It In ComputerCraft
January 1993
/
COMPUTERCRAFT
/
83
What's New!
Board & Design Kit
Mosaic Industries' QED board
3.2" x 4" embedded controller that hosts a high-level
kit includes a multitasking executive, memory manager, I/O
device drivers and comprehensive floating point and matrix
programming environment in
on -board ROM. A FORTH in-
math libraries.
Up to 384K of on -board
teractive compiler and 68HC I1
memory includes battery backed write -protect -able
is a
assemble facilitate programming via any PC or terminal,
and symbolic debugging tools
support break-point insertion,
tracing and single -stepping.
The built-in programming tool
RAM that eliminates the need
for PROM burning. Battery
operable, the surface -mount
board provides with up to 60
I/O lines, including keypad
and display interfaces, digital
I/O, 16 eight- and 12 -bit A/D
inputs, eight D/A outputs,
eight timer -controlled signals
and dual RS -232/485 serial interface ports. $495.
Also from Mosaic is the
QED Product Design Kit that
consists of integrated hardware
and software created as a turnkey tool for instrument proto typing. It includes a QED
board outfitted with 160K battery -backed RAM, 64K development ROM, power supply,
serial cables, 5 x 4 keypad, 4
x 20 LCD screen, prototyping
board with cables, comprehensive documentation and enclosure with mounting hardware.
Flip -of-the -switch write -pro-
tection and battery -backed
RAM facilitate "PROM -less"
development. Programming is
done via an RS -232 link using
any PC or terminal. $875. Mosaic Industries, Inc., 5437 Central Ave. Ste. 1, Newark, CA
94560; tel.: 510-790-1255; fax:
510-790-0925.
CIRCLE NO.
Dvorak's Inside
Track to DOS & PC
Performance
By John C. Dvorak &
Nick Anis
(Osborne McGraw-Hill. Soft
cover. 879 pages. $39.95)
At best, DOS is often confusing to even people who have
used it for years. To the new-
comer, DOS can be overwhelming. This book addresses the needs of both the
long-time user and the newcomer, and it succeeds in being useful to both groups
amazingly well. In large part,
this is due to the clear,
C -Size Inkjet Plotter
Pacific Data Products' new
ProTracer personal CAD
printer produces both large
drawings (C -size, 17" x 22")
and standard text documents.
It combines an Intel i960 RISC -
based controller and highperformance Canon engine to
provide quality C -size draw-
84
straightforward writing style
employed by the authors. A
few evenings spent with the
book and the 70 or so utilities
included on the 720K floppy
could move the casual DOS
user up to the "power -user"
category.
DOS basics and commonly used commands are covered in the first three chapters. Chapter 4 is devoted to
menu programs and DOS
shells. AUTOEXEC.BAT
and CONFIG.SYS are covered in Chapter 5. Chapters
6 and 7 are devoted to multi-
22 ON
back-up software, back-up
hardware, security and viruses are covered in Chapters
8 through 11. Then operating
environments-such as Windows, OS/2, Unix, Desqview, VMS, DR -DOS and
networks-are covered
in
18.
Chapters 19 through 23 dis12
through
ground processing and PC
memory management. Data
cuss diagnostic utilities,
benchmarks, disk caching,
disk defragmenters and other
performance-enhancing software. Edit and other line editors are addressed in Chapter
24. The most important section in this book may be
Chapter 25, which is an ex-
ings in less than 5 minutes. By
adding HP -GL and/or PostScript emulation cards, you
can customize the printer to
match your software applications. For check plots, Pro Tracer also supports a higher -speed mode that prints
at 180 dpi instead of the stan-
dard 360 dpi.
The plotter handles all types
of commonly used media, including plain paper, plotter
paper and vellum. Two optional sheet feeders make it possible to feed A- and B -size cut sheet paper or business -size envelopes automatically. Pro -
tasking, task switching, back-
/ COMPUTERCRAFT / January 1993
WINSPRINT from Myriad is
printer controller
that accelerates Windows 3.x
printing on LaserJet II and III
printers. It consists of a small
interface board that fits into
the optional input/output slot
at the back of the LaserJet, a
a low-cost
16 -bit ISA interface board that
installs in the computer, a cable
that connects the two interface
boards and a printer driver.
The controller requires an
80386 or 80486 computer with
one open 16-bit slot and at least
4M of system memory and uses
2M of available memory. It
supports 64 shades of gray and
device -independent bitmaps
and such advanced desktop"publishing features as negative
justification, inter -character
spacing, full kerning pairs and
extended text metric information. $399. Myriad Enterprises,
Inc., 3149 Bonn Dr., Laguna
Beach, CA 92651; tel.: 714494-8165; fax: 714-497-9398.
CIRCLE NO. 23 ON FREE CARD
FREE CARD
protection and recovery,
Chapters
Windows Printing
Booster
tremely clear presentation on
DEBUG. Batch files and ma-
cros are the main topics in
Chapter 26, while device drivers are covered in Chapter 27.
Major utilities (commercial, shareware and freeware)
are described and evaluated
in each chapter to provide the
newcomer with a basis for
judging the suitability of a
particular program. The utilities range from freeware to
shareware to portions of
commercial programs. This
volume would be a solid addition to almost any PC user's library. To quote John C.
Dvorak, "Highly recommended."
Tracer also accepts cut -sheet
paper up to 17 " wide and
continuous -feed fan -fold paper through its manual feed
tray. $1,499. Pacific Data
Products, 9125 Rehco Rd., San
Diego, CA 92121; tel.: 619552-0880; fax: 619-552-0889.
CIRCLE NO.24 ON FREE CARD
Say You Saw It In ComputerCraft
SuperMart
This new advertising section highlights products in an easy-to -locate format for
reader convenience. Call Margaret Milanese today for deadlines and additional
details. 516-681-2922.
EPROM Emulator
80052 -BASIC MICROCONTROLLER
Printed Circuit Boards
BASIC INTERPRETER
32K RAM; 85/16K EPROM
Print
EPROM PROGRAMMER
Etch Special
$0.24/sq. inch SS
$0.32/sq. inch DS
&
RS232 TERMINAL 8
PRINTER INTERFACE
AUDIO OUTPUT
EXPANSION CONNECTOR
Solder Plated to Mil -P -81728b
MICRO/EMMY-64K Ver.
4
Reduce Development Time. STOP
BURNING EPROMS,
Download 64K in
ONLY 14 Seconds,
Emulates
ALL
EPROM5.
2716/32/64/128/512 to
Standard MOS and CMOS
13Ons
TRUE' EPROM Emulation at Power -Up
Serial Port Interface. Command Une or
Menu Driven Target Reset (HIGH and
LOW).
MCC
MICRO
COMPUTER
CONTROL
Tel 1609)466-1751
Fax 1609)466-4116
CALL TODAY FOR A FREE
Download, Edit, Upload and more
5295.00
OTHER SERVICES AVAILABLE:
CNC Drill and Route
TECHNICAL BULLETIN
1-ï
CIRCLE NO. 145 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
Mcrocortro4er board can 'piggy back' pert board with user circuits.
Plated Thru Holes
LPI Soldermask and Legend
Software
Development T0015
P.O. Box 275
Hooewen. NJ 08525
USA
High quality double side pc board with silk screen and solder mask.
Programs written in BASIC can be saved to EPROM. Auto start on
power up optional. Easy expansion via 40 pin connector.
PC/Clone based 8052 assembler included
Bare board with manual, schematics
Photoplotting
80C52 -BASIC microprocessor IC
Assembled 8 tested
$124.95
Send check or Raney order to:
Channel Island Circuits
358 S. Fairview Ave. Unit
Goleta. CA 93117
(805)964-4449
a
<
your PC
what
satellites in
orbit see
410-661-5950
Learn how you can benefit greatly from this exciting new
technology. Send $30 ($35 air, $40 overseas) for our
fantastic 12 diskette set of professional quality
copyrighted programs (IBM type) that does satellite
tracking, data acquisition, image processing, file
conversion and much more. Diskette package includes
all programs, satellite views, C language source code for
a popular satellite image acquisition program, hardware
schematics, catalog and $20 discount certificate.
VANGUARD Electronic Labs
Dept. C, 196-23 Jamaica Ave.
Hollis, NY 11423 Te1.718-468-2720
RACK AND CHASSIS BOXES
jili"IMhr
-
RACK BOXES
H
D
1RU5 1.75 5
1RÚ7 1.75
1RU10 1.75 10
2RU5
3.50 5
21407 3.50 7
2RU10 3.90 10
3RU5
5.25
3RU7
525 7
3RU10 5.25 10
VISA
CÓM
FEATURES:
PRICE
22540
31.50
33.80
31.50
33.80
35.70
39.90
4200
44.10
/ MC
EASY TO FABRICATE
SHIPPED FLAT)
ALL MAIN PANELS ARE
FIAT FRONT AND PEAR
ARE CLEAR BRUSHED
ANODI2D. TOP,
BOTTOM AND THE
END PANELS APE
BLACK BRUSHED
ANCO2ED
FACfañ«MON PMRTp:Ió
MO2A
D
H
Prototype it
FAST!
with ProtoOuick 8051 and Z8 single board prototyping systems
MC-SA
MC-2.4
MC-7A
TAC -SA
MC -9A
AsmeS
PRICE
31575
3
3
4AA
A
3
i
:
7
7
17.55
19.05
17.85
19.95
22.05
12.95
22.05
24.15
wo0ueeM.cmnprrrryn
8005croeaseene,.ru
NOT SHOwN
NowxE
SESCOM INC. 2100 WARD DRIVE HENDERSON, NV U.SA
80015-4249 (ORDERS)800-634-3457 (TECHNICAL HELP)
732-565.3400 FAX 702-565-4828
CIRCLE NO. 157 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
Today!
Send $3.50 Per Issue (Check,
oney Order, Mastercard, VISA
It In ComputerCraft
W
z
Order Your Back Issues
Of CornputerCraft
Say You Saw
CIRCLE NO. 149 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
CHASSIS BOXES
MODEL
MC -1A
PED.Pado Úíaro
BE0741) DAY NR {1000 NExr DAY NR ¡2000
and AMEX).
sales tax
discounts.
Custom design
and manufacturing
P.O. Box 19026
Baltimore, MD 21204
CIRCLE NO. 130 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
MODEL
MD residents include
Prologic Designs OEM & quantity
C
SPY ON THE EARTH
See live on
$27.95
$25.95
,wr.r.eY,o
pROM ene 9K or ºtete
Ás,S,::;.RazSdo
neerype
Korn
epp,kerane
me*al,'
AaM
,caacra
rcecode c,.nw
:22"-$99.00
$99. 00
erydp.r.r-
or.+penne, rMrowere
WITHOUT
pRoeRa4xRNc
ea
Science
Software Software
3750 Roundbottom Road
Cincinnati, OH 45244
Science
(513) 561-2060
FAX
(513)
271 3181
Send All Correspondence To:
CQ Communications
76 North Broadway
Hicksvile, NY 11801
Or Call
516-681-2922
FAX 516-681-2926
January 1993
/
COMPUTERCRAFT
/
85
Computer Games (from page 90)
U.S. Department of Defense cut a deal
with the government of Japan for Mitsubishi Heavy Industries and General
Dynamics to join mind and machine to
make a new fighter jet. If the dual project
isn't blown apart by politics and cost overruns, the Japanese F-16 FSX may see its
first test flight in 1996. The FSX will incorporate larger and stronger wings, a
more-powerful engine and a longer fuselage and larger fuel tanks.
Whatever the eventual fate of the FSX,
fighter jocks who can handle a "hot"
joystick are able to lift off from a
computer -generated tarmac and fly missions in Operation: Fighting Tiger, which
is more than a new addition to Falcon 3.0.
It's another significant upgrade (3.0 to
3.01), with game improvements and new
theaters of conflict.
As with Falcon 3.0, players of Fighting
Tiger get to fly with a squadron and even
plan an entire engagement. New digitized
messages are used, with radio chatter, new
wingman commands, more weather conditions and better landing aids. Although
three new theaters beckon for actionKorea, Kashmir and the Kurile Islandsonly the Kurile Islands campaign flies the
FSX. Another change to game play is that
more emphasis is placed on mission planning and execution, as opposed to the use
of brute force.
Like Falcon 3.0, Fighting Tiger is complex and requires a large investment of
time. The game manual is comprehensive
and tedious. Graphics are excellent. Air combat enthusiasts who like the play of
Falcon 3.0 will undoubtedly like Fighting
Tiger even more.
And now ...Falcon: The Book. As
detailed as the Falcon 3.0 manual (and the
Fighting Tiger manual) is, its complexity
welcomes additional instruction. One such
aid to increased Falcon understanding is
the book Falcon 3.0 Air Combat by F-16
pilot Pet Bonnani and writer Bernard Yee.
This in-depth treatise launches itself with
a historical perspective of air combat and
F-16 development.
The meat of fighter pilot tutelage
doesn't get going until Chapter 3. Still,
plenty of room is left in the more than -300 -page book to over all aspects of
Falcon 3.0, this from the perspective of an
experienced pilot.
The advantage of owning this book is
that it can help you through the rough parts
of Falcon 3.0, like landing, ground bombing and SAM avoidance. Mercifully, the book includes a keyboard template,
a useful tool that has become all but extinct
in this age of multifarious simulations.
John Madden Football
Some years elapsed between the time John
86
/
COMPUTERCRAFT
/ January 1993
Madden retired from coaching professional football and release of the initial version of the football game that bears his
name. Madden's football game was well received in the computer -game market, at
least well enough for Electronic Arts to
have a second version ready for the
1992/93 NFL season.
Both versions of the John Madden Football game reflect Madden's concepts of individual player match-ups, coupled with
the kind of rough-and-tumble play that
characterized his coaching tenure and current sports announcing. Madden Football
lets computer coaches take full control,
selecting plays, substituting players and
looking for the most advantageous oneon-one match -up.
Perhaps the game's most useful feature
is its Chalkboard, where you can diagram,
edit and examine formations and plays in
great detail. Computer coaches can even
design original plays and execute them in
slow motion to see what occurs. Furthermore, one can isolate a particular player
position to look for ways to make minute
adjustments.
Player positions can be assigned to run
block, pass block or trap in either direction. Potential pass receivers can be told
to block and go, execute a comeback or run
a curl pattern. The Chalkboard can help
novice coaches learn the basics of football
and serves as a refinement aid for armchair
veterans.
John Madden Football His undoubtedfootball game that offers the most
ly the
tools and the most control over game play.
From a coach's view, it lacks nearly nothing. However, computer football fans who
like a lot of graphics will be disappointed
with this game in this area. Madden Football comes up short of a first down. Players
appear on a low -resolution football field
that lacks visual detail. Players themselves
are little more than blocky figures that
lumber across the computer screen.
The visuals of Madden Football suffer
from poor depth of field, making it difficult to gain precise control of key players
like pass receiver or running back. Even the
menus can become fatiguing to the eyes
after a few minutes of play. The game
design team might want to work on improving the graphics for any future version
of John Madden Football or eliminate the
3D look and go completely to Xs and Os,
with everything text-based.
The weight of John Madden Football
clearly rests in its coaching aspect, which
is what one might expect from an ex -coach
of professional football. It's a fun game,
once you understand how it works. The
game is easy to control via computer
mouse, and it offers an interesting view of
football.
World Atlas
Most computer users have probably seen
a computerized atlas of one kind or
another. One of the original proponents
of this kind of software is The Software
Toolworks. Honoring its own efforts, The
Software Toolworks has released Version
3.0 of World Atlas.
The geopolitical world saw rapid
changes in the last few years. WorldAtlas
reflects some of these changes by including
maps of the Republics, formerly known as
the Soviet Union. An advantage of any
map is that it lets you oversee a large section of geography at a glance but still
dispense supportive and informative details. If the map package is large, it might
have several smaller maps or fold -out sections that contain other kinds of factual
data. Map-browsing in this manner can
easily demand the entire area of a large
tabletop.
Another way to enjoy maps and their
characteristic information is to use a software map like World Atlas. Not only does
this reduce the physical work space, but
voluminous amounts of data can go right
along with it. World Atlas provides more
than 240 maps of varying kinds, including
index, topographical and statistical maps
and even maps of the ocean floor. All maps
are detailed and colorful, which makes
them easy on the eyes.
No map is much good without supporting information like coordinate markings
and indications of land elevations. This information and lots more is waiting for
owners of World Atlas. A keyboard combination or click of a mouse button pro-
duces detailed intelligence about
geography, people, education, health,
government, crime, economy, agriculture,
communications or travel.
World Atlas handles its own virtual river
of data by displaying it in logical groupings. Thus, you can witness a listing of
agricultural exports by country and have
it sorted in alphabetical order. In case simple textual lists aren't enough, World Atlas
can make a graph of the same data.
World Atlas needs about 6M of hard drive space, which is a significant investment for many computer users. But the
disk space is well used by this program,
considering the wealth of material and
generous number of maps.
At one's whim, information displays
abound. Some displays concern climate,
religion, language, health care, legal
systems, crime, energy, inflation, transportation .... You get the idea. World
Atlas is the kind of tool one wishes had
been available years ago, during certain
testy classes in junior high school. What a
world of difference it might have made.
Say You Saw It In ComputerCraft
LCR - Hz - dBm - TrueRM
Looking Ahead
Lucas. Rebel Alliance fighters will execute
a continuing battle with the Empire. X Wing, Y -Wing and A -Wing fighters will
escort transports, dogfight against TIE
fighters and attack the Death Star.
If you're wondering what took
LucasArts so long to do the foregoing,
designer Lawrence Holland remarks that
the technology to accomplish LucasArts
goals wasn't available until recently. XWing will for the first time integrate
polygon and bit -mapped graphics, complete with shading and lighting effects.
Keep a watch out for this one.
Bird's Eye View
John Madden Football II, $49.95
Electronic Arts Sports Network
1450 Fashion Island Blvd.
Operation: Fighting Tiger, $39.95
Spectrum Holobyte, Inc.
2490 Mariner Square Loop
Alameda, CA 94501
Tel.: 800-695 -GAME
Requirements
VGA, EGA
Bird's Eye View
o
Learning
Curve
Long
Complexity
Difficult
Play ability
Good
In Brief: This is the best F-16 simulator
World Atlas, $69.95
The Software Toolworks, Inc.
60 Leveroni Ct.
Novato, CA 94949
Tel.: 800-234-3088
CIRCLE NO. 113 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
o
Bird's Eye View
Falcon 3.0 Air Combat, $19.95
Osborne McGraw-Hill
2600 Tenth St.
Berkeley, CA 94710
Tel.: 510-549-6600
In Brief: This book is an in-depth tutorial
of air combat and F-16 technique as it applies to Falcon 3.0.
CIRCLE NO. 114 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
"Le
4tm
!2
4A
48A
400A
4M
40M
\4oEM
4ef
IA 40m" 4oaNi40,.F 4µf
auto
power off
Cx
L LCR-Hz-dBm
,«A -mA -Lx
A
V-4-11z-Cx
CON
MyA1[LLL
o00V-
oNFOSE G
VOA
MAX
KELVIN
i
TRUE RMS °`°` 94
Model
.1%
94
ACCURACVonDCVoltages
TRUE RMS
PLUS
MAX/MIN/AVERAGE MEMORY RECORD
RELATIVE MODE / DATA HOLD
DC/AC VOLTMETERS
DC Range: 400mV, 4V, 40V, 400V, 1000V
AC Rangs: 400mV, 4V, 40V, 400V, 750V
NEW!
DC/AC AMP METERS
DC/AC Rangea: 400uA, 4mA, 40mA, 400mA, 10A
OHM METER
Range: 400, 4K 40K, 400K, 4M, 40M, 4000M Ohms
FREQUENCY COUNTER -AUTORANGING
4KHz, 40KHz, 400KHz, 4MHz (Trigger Low).
LOGIC PROBE
AUDIBLE CONTINUITY TESTER
CAPACITANCE TESTER
Requirements
Memory
Graphics
Sound
Controllers
640K, Hard Drive
VGA
AdLib, Sound
Blaster, Pro Audio
Spectrum
Joystick, Mouse
Evaluation
Documentation Good
Graphics
Excellent
Learning
Curve
Short
Complexity
Easy
Playability
N.A.
In Brief: This package provides detailed
software map and collection of data and
facts about the world. Recommend hardware include a mouse and extended
memory for best results.
CIRCLE NO. 116 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
Range: 40F, 40nF, 400nF, 4uF, 40uF
DIODE TESTER
INTRODUCTORY
dBm TESTER
Range: -25.7 dBm m 58.7 darn
OFFER!
INDUCTANCE TESTER
Range: 40mH, 400mH, 4H, 40H
10 MEGA OHM IMPEDANCE
10A HIGH-ENERGY FUSE PROTECTION
AUTO SLEEP & AUTO POWER OFF
WATER
&
DUST RESISTANT
MODEL 94 COMES COMPLETE WITH
TEST LEADS, YELLOW HOLSTER,
TILT STAND, BATTERY & FUSE
Stock No.
990111
2
ON
$199 95
YEAR WARRANTY
KELVIN
EL EC TR ON IC
S
10 HUB DRIVE, MELVILLE, NY 11747
(800) 645-9212
(516) 756-1750
CIRCLE NO.
Say You Saw It In ComputerCraft
Ni
20M Hz (Trigger High)
yet. Recommend '386 computer,
joystick, expanded memory and sound
card for best results.
{
E.'AC
RELATIVE
i tn
4
400
10
Evaluation
1M, DOS 5.0
Documentation Good
Graphics
Excellent
MIArWG
4oer
CIRCLE NO. 115 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
Evaluation
WNW
Tandy, Sound
Blaster, Roland,
Covox
Joystick, Mouse
Requirements
Thrustmaster
1kM0
400a orf
Kee,,
640K
Controllers
1_I 1_I
uld11lllllll118111)
40
best results.
VGA only
All sound cards
Joystick, Mouse,
tl
*IL4P4
Memory
Graphics
Sound
ove
MAX
1
San Mateo, CA 94404
Tel.: 415-571-7171
Documentation
Good
Graphics
Poor
Learning Curve
Medium
Complexity
Medium
Playability
Fair
In Brief: This software incorporates
John Madden's own coaching philosophy into a computer game. Recommend
hardware include '386 and mouse for
Bird's Eye View
Memory
Graphics
Sound
Controllers
_g I
ai
OC
LucasArts Games, maker of fine simulations and graphic adventures, plans the
release of what may be an exciting new
simulation. It is called X-Wing, based on
the famed Star Wars series by George
January 1993
141 ON
/
(516) 756-1763:FAx
FREE INFORMATION CARD
COMPUTERCRAFT
/
87
ComputerCraft Mart
Classified Commercial Rates: $1 per word, 15 -word minimum ($15.00) prepaid. (Word
count includes name and address; ZIP code and abbreviation each count as one word;
P.O. Box number and telephone number count as two words each.) Indicate free category heading (Computers, Software, Electronics, Video or Miscellaneous). A special
heading is available for a $6 surcharge. First word only is set boldface caps at no charge.
Add 25C for each additional boldface word.
Non -Commercial Rates: FREE to subscribers, as space permits; maximum 15 words. A
recent COMPUTERCRAFT mailing label must accompany ad.
(All advertisers with P.O. Box addresses must supply permanent address and telephone
number. Copy is subject to publisher approval.)
Mailing Information: Copy must be received by the publisher by the 25th of the third
month preceding the cover date. Send Advertising material with check or money order or
credit card information (Visa or MasterCard only) with number and expiration date to:
COMPUTERCRAFT, Classified Department, 76 N. Broadway, Hicksville, NY 11801.
UNIVERSAL MICROPROCESSOR SIMULATOR/DEBUGGER V2.0 each CPU $90.
Simulates Z8, Z80, 8048, 8051, 8085, 6800,
6801, 6805, 6809, 6811, 6303, 6502, and 65CO2.
Features cross assembler, disassembler, windowed source -level debugger. ROMY-8
EPROM Emulator $155. Emulates EPROM
2716-27256. J & M Inc. 83 Seaman Road, West
Orange, NJ 07052, TEL: 201-325-1892, FAX:
201-736-4567.
CELLULAR HACKERS BIBLE. Theory-
Hacks-Modifications-$53.95. Cellular Programmers Bible-$84.45. TELECODE P.O.
Box 6426 -CC, YUMA, AZ 85366-6426.
SURVEILLANCE / VideoCipher / Satellite /
Scanner / Cable / Amateur / Cellular / Repair
Manuals, Modification Books & Software. Catalog--$3.00. TELECODE P.O. Box 6426 -CC,
YUMA, AZ 85366-6426.
COMPUTERS
80052 -BASIC microcontroller board. BASIC
interpreter, 32K RAM, 16K EPROM,
EPROM programmer, RS232, expansion connector. Bare board with manual, schematics
$19.95 +$3 P&H. 80052-BASIC microprocessor chip $24.95 + $1 P&H. Assembled and
tested $119.95 + $5 P&H. MD residents include sales tax. SASE for info. Prologic Designs, P.O. Box 19026, Baltimore, MD 21204.
Microcontroller applications plans/software
catalog. Temperature datalogger plans, $9.95
US. TENSOR, 342 Roberta St., Thunder Bay,
Ontario, Canada P7A 1A3.
BARCODES BARCODES BARCODES
they're everywhere you look! Now you can get
in on an industry that is growing by 20% each
year with THE BARCODE COURSE. This
course comes complete with a detailed barcode textbook, portable barcode reader,
RS232 interface and barcode printing software for only $149.95 + $7.00 S&H. OBR
Inc., RR3 Box 47-7 Carbondale, IL 62901.
(618) 549-7100.
AND
COMPUTERS
ACCESSORIES!
Mouse $6.00, Keyboards $12.00, Buy Direct
from Foreign Manufacturers! Any quantity!
Excellent Business Opportunity! Complete
and ALL details $12.00 postpaid. SMI, Box
5500-R, Lakeland, FL 33807
PC Modem Club, Electronic Correspondence, Free Membership, $2 Application &
Postage, LINK \ UP P.O. Box 4534, Waterbury, CT 06704.
SOFTWARE
FREE PRINTED 122 PAGE CATALOG
3400+ IBM Prgms. ASP Vendor Sunshine
Software, 6492 South St., Suite 470, Lakewood, CA 90713.
88
/
COMPUTERCRAFT / January 1993
INVENTORS save money with patent application software. Any IBM or compatible.
Only $69.95. World Permission Software, 996
Redondo Ave. #418 Dept. A2, Long Beach,
DIGITAL CLOCK using MC68HC705K1.
Send SASE for info. BCD Inc., 3133 South Illinois, Belleville, IL 62220.
CA 90804.
QUALITY SOFTWARE - PC COMPATIBLE USER SUPPORTED SOFTWARE
$1.00 PER DISK. WHY PAY MORE? NOW
YOU CAN FIGHT BACK AGAINST OVERPRICED SOFTWARE. FOR FREE CATALOG WRITE RC2T INC., DEPT C., P.O.
BOX 366, FRANKLIN, NJ 07416.
Incredible time saving software! Our select
group of software includes catalogs of work
blasting audio and video training programs, a
whopping amount of shareware containing
over 2,000 of the newest and best computer
programs! Listings of super -powerful and
most asked for rentals, industry trouncing
printing bargains and toner cartridge refilling
services ans supplies on one 360K disk with
adult listings when you send $3.00 (refundable) for shipping or $3.50 (refundable) for
720K disks. BEACH RADIO P.O. Box 548,
Dept. CC, Boston, MA 02112-0548.
Free IBM PD and Shareware disk catalog.
Low prices since 1988! ASP Approved Vendor. VISA/MC accepted. Finto Software,
Dept. CC, Route 2 Box 44, Rosebud, TX
76570 1-800-859-5040 voice or fax.
NEVER BEFORE! 20,000 SHAREWARE
PROGRAMS ON THREE CD-ROM DISCS.
$69 PLUS $5 SHIPPING. ASTOUNDING
VALUE! DEALERS WANTED! CROS LEY, BOX 2760, ALBURG, VT 05440. 514739-9328.
ELECTRONICS
PCB LAYOUT, electronics, & THOUSANDS
OF IBM SHAREWARE PROGRAMS. $3.00
S&H for 2 disks full plus diskalog. American
Software, P.O. Box 509, Suite M8, Roseville,
MI 48066-0509.
VIDEO
VHS -VCR Repair Solutions Sets I, II, III, IV,
V, VI, VII. Each contains 150 symptoms and
cures, updated cross reference chart, free
assistance, $11.95 each all seven $69.95. Schematics available. VISA/MC. Eagle Electronics Box A, 52053 Locks Lane, Granger, IN
46530.
TV NOTCH FILTERS PHONE RECORDING EQUIPMENT, BROCHURE $1.00. MICRO THinc. BOX 63/6025, MARGATE, FL
33063.1-305-752-9202.
MISCELLANEOUS
MORSE Code? No Problem. You can increase your speed, no matter how many times
you've failed before. Results guaranteed when
you follow the instructions. PASS Publishing's CW Mental -Block Buster program helps
you explode mental blocks that hold you back.
Based on 40 years of research, the CW Mental Block Buster uses guided meditation, dynamic
visualizations, and powerful affirmations to
blast through mental blocks. You can do
code! That means new bands, more contacts,
more fun! (This is not a CW practice tape.)
The CW Mental -Block Buster audio cassette
and practice booklet are only $24.95 ppd. in
the US (NY residents add $2.00 sales tax). Info: 516-584-8164. PASS Publishing, P.O. Box
570, Stony Brook, NY 11780.
ASIAN LADIES want correspondence for
friendship, marriage. SUNSHINE INTERNATIONAL -Dept. TW, Box 5500, KailuaKona, Hawaii 96745. (808) 325-7707.
Say You Saw It In ComputerCraft
Advertisers' Index
ATTRACTIVE ORIENTAL LADIES seeking correspondence, marriage. Professional
introductions since 1984. Asian Experience,
Box 1214TZ, Novato, CA 94948. (415) 8972742.
THAILAND -Marriageable women waiting!
Photograph brochure $3. Video $20. Tours.
"Thai", Box 398176, Miami, FL 33139.
IDEAS WANTED
PROTECT AND MARKET YOUR PRODUCT IDEAS! Call the IDEA EXCHANGE
Fast, Professional, Confidential: 1-800-
-
BOOKS
BUYING COMPUTER BOOKS HAS JUST
BECOME A WHOLE LOT EASIER AND
CONSIDERABLY LESS EXPENSIVE! The
Computer Book Connection Winter 19921993 catalog offers over 600 outstanding titles
from seven major publishers, covering all skill
levels in 21 categories with discounts up to
30%. For free catalog write The Computer
Book Connection, 180 W. Streetsboro Road,
Suite 118 -CC, Hudson, OH 44236. The first
150 people responding to this ad will receive a
coupon for free shipping on all orders for
year.
1
PERSONAL CODE EXPLORER
272-6875.
CABLE TEST CHIPS. Jerrold, Tocom,
S.A., Zenith. Puts cable boxes into full service
mode! $29.95 to $59.95. 1-800-452-7090, (310)
EXCITING! Easy -to -use Personal
Code Explorer copies digital radio signalsFAX, Morse, RTTY, ASCII, SITOR, Packet
and more on your IBM/PC screen. Free brochure. Call, write. MC/VISA. $129 plus $4
shipping. Microcraft, Box 513CC, Thiens-
867-0081.
ville, WI 53092. (414) 241-8144.
NEW!
CABLE TV
USE YOUR FREE
INFORMATION CARD
CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING ORDER FORM
Mail this form with payment to COMPUTERCRAFT, Classified Dept., 76 N. Broadway, Hicksville, NY 11801.
Name'
Street Address'
City'
State:
Zip.
PRINT EACH WORD SEPARATELY. $1.00 per word, 15 word minimum. Note that P.O. Box
numbers' and telephone numbers must be counted as two words each. Circle additional words you
wish boldfaced at 20% more each (initial boldface word is free).
Free Boldface
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
($15)
16 ($16)
TOTAL PAYMENT ENCLOSED (Check or Money Order) $
Payment may also be made by MasterCard or Visa. For this, please fill in information below.
Credit Card Number
Print Full Name
lf
a
Expire Date
Signature
box number is used, please supply your permanent address and telephone number for our records.
Say You Saw It In ComputerCraft
RS #
Page #
123 AMC Sales
65
124 Ace Communications
15
125 Advanced Micro. Sys.
14
126 Advanced Systems Design 31
127 B.G. Micro
Cov.IV
128 Beige Bag Software
56
- Binary Technology, Inc.
44
CQ Magazine
45
CQ Productions
81
CIE
Cov.III
129 C & S Sales
55
- Cable-Tronics, Inc.
70
130 Channel Island Circuits
85
131 ChriMar Systems
52
132 Covox, Inc.
14
133 Design Computations
65
134 Electrim
71
135 Elec. Engineering Tools
73
- Grantham
56
136 Hampshire
57
137 Home Ctrl. Concepts.....Cov.II
138 Intronics, Inc
52
139 Interactive Image Tech.
7
- Jesse Jones Industries
79
- KGP Productions
43
141 Kelvin Electronics
87
142 MCM Electronics
9
143 Mental Automation
43
144 Merrimack Valley Systems 75
145 Micro Computer Controls 85
146 Motron Electronics
66
- NRI Schools
13
147 Nu -Tek Electronics
70
148 Prairie Digital
53
149 Prologic Designs
85
156 PseudoCorp.
70
150 Radio Shack
5
157 SESCOM
85
- Scrambling News
44
- Software Science
85
152 TECI
31
153 URDA
66
166 U.S. Cyberlabs
21
140 Unicorn Electronics
3
- Vanguard Electronics
85
154 Wheatstone MicroSystems 66
155 Z -World Engineering
75
We'd like to see your company listed here
too. Contact Margaret Milanese at 516681-2922 to work out an advertising program tailored to suit your needs.
January 1993
www.americanradiohistory.com
/
COMPUTERCRAFT
/
89
Computer Games
By SF
Sparrow
Game Potpourri
3.0. After a long absence from the airspace
One definition for potpourri, taken from
Webster's Third New International Dictionary, is "a general mixture of often
disparate or unrelated materials or subject
matter." As you'll soon see, this definition
of military flight simulation, Spectrum
Holobyte yanked open the doors of its
marketing hangar and rolled out a completely restructured version of its combat
simulator of the F-16 Fighting Falcon. As
reported in this column in May 1992,
Falcon 3.0 was newer and brighter than its
predecessors. It was complex, thrilling
and, unfortunately, "buggy."
readily describes the contents of this
month's column.
Operation: Fighting Tiger
The date is May 1992; the magazine is
ComputerCraft; and the subject is Falcon
Initial consumer reaction to Falcon 3.0
ranged from disappointment to outrage.
With no time to waste, Spectrum Holobyte
launched software upgrades like radar guided missiles. It took at least three pinpoint "kills," but the bugs were shaken.
Falcon subsequently kicked in afterburners and went ballistic.
Now there's a new bird in the air-or
soon will be. Its appearance is like that of
the esteemed F-16, but the newer model
will fly with marked improvements. The
(Continued on page 86)
Planning the FSX mission in Falcon.
Falcon's title screen.
s
..41111111s:Y°
4Mr'. -.
,+..,
1-
!
d
SOLI OH 22 QTR
1
DOWN
10
1 i
re7r7.77:r-
14:461
3
Screen shot of an All Madden Team line-up.
90
/
COMPUTERCRAFT
/ January 1993
The world at a glance from World Atlas.
Say You Saw It In ComputerCraft
Learn to Use Your
Computer's Full Potential.
i
If you've been hesitating about upgrading your
computer skills because you couldn't find the time or
locate the right program to teach you everything you
need to know to be successful in today's world of
computers, you'll be happy to hear that CIE's new
career course can provide you with the computer
technology curriculum you seek in an independent
study program you can afford to invest your time in.
CIE's COMPUTER OPERATION and
PROGRAMMING course was designed and developed by CIE to provide a complete overall understanding of the unlimited potential today's computers
offer, once you learn and discover their full capabilities, in today's high tech environment. CIE's new
computer course quickly provides you with the
electronics fundamentals essential to fully understand
and master the computer's technological potentials for
your personal and professional advancement. Upon
mastering the fundamentals you will move into high
level language programming such as BASIC and
C -Language and then use that programming in order
to relate the interfacing of electronic hardware circuitry
to programming software. As a graduate of the Computer Operation and
Programming course, you will be able
to successfully understand, analyze,
install, troubleshoot, program and
maintain the various types of electronic
equipment used in business, manufacturing, and service industries.
Since 1934, CIE has been
the world leader in home
study electronics by
providing our 150,000plus graduates with the
curriculum and hands-on
training they've needed to
become successful in
New Career r
Course from
CIE!
today's highly competitive and computer oriented
society. As a CIE student you'll receive a first rate
education from a faculty and staff with only one
desire. Your future success!
We encourage you to look, but you won't find a
more comprehensive computer course anywhere!
And it's a course designed to fit
around your lifestyle and commitments today, so you can be assured
of professional successes and
financial gains tomorrow.
Please, do yourself a favor and
send the attached card or fill out and
mail the coupon below for more
information about CIE's
Computer Operation
and Programming
course. Do It
Today!
111101E
,
Computer not
included with
course
...q...1...
....
...i:ss
tile
Wit
_r
O YES! I want to get started. Send me my CIE school catalog including details about the Associate Degree program
(for your convenience, CIE will have a representative contact you - there is no obligation).
Print Name
Address
Apt
City
State
Zip
Age
Area Code/Phone No
Check box for G.I. Bulletin on Educational Benefits
IIII
1./'
1776 East 17th Street
3
Veteran
Q Active Duty
CLEVELAND
INSTITUTE OF
ELECTRONICS, INC.
Cleveland, Ohio 44114
(216) 781-9400
www.americanradiohistory.com
A school of thousands.
A class of one.
Since 1934.
4
yDNa ,t,o9
A033
--B. G. MICRO
SPECIALS
45
45
der Cup) M/F 2/1 00
DB2::
DB25-k. Angle PC BD. F .. 55
35
DB9-Rt. Angle PC BD. M/F
?'
MONITOR
BRAND NEW!
Factory Fresh
IBM
VGA Monochrome Monitor
12" Paper -White
640 x 480
$79.95 plus $9.50 SM
Within the Continental U.S
DISPLAY DEVICES
FLAT PANEL LCD
GRAPHIC DISPLAY
EPSON EG -7004S -AR
6/5100.00
LTP 1157AE
1.2" 5x7 Matrix Displays
5x7 Array with x.y select.
This Red Orange Matrix Can Be
Stacked Horizontally. Choice of
Two Matrix Orientation-Cathode
Column, Anode Row. Great For
"Moving Message" Signs.
LSOO
LSO1
LSO2
LSO3
LSO4
LSO5
LSO8
LSO9
Ea.,
8/$6.95, 100/$75.00
.14 LS114.25
LS241 .60
LS242.65
.14 LS122.35
LS243.50
.14 LS123.45
LS244 .55
.14 LS1241.35
.14 LS125.30 LS245.55
.14 LS126.35 LS251.45
.14 LS132.35 LS253.40
LS257.35
.14 LS133.25
LS258.45
.14 LS136.28
LS2591.00
.14 LS138.35
.20 LS139.35 LS260.40
.25 LS145.75 LS266.30
.30 LS148.35 LS273.75
.20 LS151 .35 LS279.30
.14 LS153.35 LS280.80
.16 LS154 .85 LS283 .35
.16 LS155.50 LS290.70
LS293.50
.14 LS156.42
.20 LS157.30 LS298.65
.15 LS158 .25 LS2991.00
.14 LS160 .25 LS3221.30
.16 LS161 .35 LS3232.25
.25 LS162.45 LS348.75
.24 LS163 .36 LS3531.00
.24 LS164.45 LS357.80
.35 LS165.60 LS363.75
.15 LS166.75 LS364.75
.20 LS169.90 LS365.30
.20 LS170.45 LS366.28
.33 LS173.60 LS367.35
.22 LS174.35 LS368.30
.25 LS175.35 LS373.50
.30 LS181 1.25 LS374 .45
.45 LS191 .45 LS375.35
LS10
LS11
LS12
LS13
LS14
LS15
LS20
LS21
LS22
LS26
LS27
LS28
LS30
LS32
LS33
LS37
LS38
LS42
LS51
LS54
LS55
LS73
LS74
LS75
LS83
LS85
LS86
LS90
LS92
LS93
LS95
LS96
LS107
LS109
LS192.65
LS193.65
.30 LS194.40
.25 LS195.52
.20
.35
.30
.33
.28
.20
LS112.25
1S113 -25
LS196
LS197
LS221
LS240
DTMF
SSI-202 Decoder
8870 Decoder
5087 Generator
5089 Generator
.55
.75
.50
.50
LS377.75
LS378 .80
LS390.80
LS393.75
LS3991.00
LS541 1.20
LS645 .75
LS646 .75
LS670.80
25LS2569 1-50
PC/XT COMPATIBLE. MAKE YOUR COMPUTER TALK!
2.25
di $6995
2.25
2.00
2.10
(JJ
THE 625 NETWORK
Try The 1st Truly Low Cost LAN
Connect 2 or 3 PCs, XTs, ATs
Uses serial ports and 5 wire
cable
Runs at 115 K baud
Runs In background, totally
transparent
Share any device, any file, any
time
Needs only 14K of ram
Skeptical: We make believers!
LITTLE BIG LAN
640 a 200 dots - Super twisted nematic type.
Built In drivers - 4 bit TTL Intert.ca - C.pable of
phab.tics, special
displaying numerics, graphic..
characters, graph., chan.. and patterns.
Viewing area 10-7/16".4.5/8". OveraII11-3/6" a 5-1/18"
14 pins for signal. and power (05V, -12V).
Complet 27 page manual
1.19
TEXT TO SPEECH BOARD
SUPER BUYS
2.30
MAX232
$19.95
0. Box 280298 Dallas, Texas 75228
(214) 271-5546
M4astwCad
VISA
FAX (214) 271-2462
P.
Low coat - 875 per LAN, not per nodal
Hardware Independent network
ARCNET. Parallel, and Serial port
support on first release
Serial Speed: 6500(XT)-8500(AT) bytes
per second
Parallel Speed: 8000(XT)-29000(AT) bytes
per second
ARCNET Speed: 40000 plut byte. per
eecond
U.e any PC/XT/AT/306 mix, even laptop.
and PS/2 machine.
Connect up to 254 computers. can mix
connection method. (Serial, Parallel.
AMAZING SPEECH CARD. USES THE
GENERAL INSTRUMENTS SPO256-AL2 SPEECH CHIP AND THE
CTS256A-AL2 TEXT TO SPEECH CONVERTER.
THIS BOARD USES ONE SLOT ON THE MOTHERBOARD AND
REQUIRES A COM SERIAL PORT. BOARD MAY ALSO BE USED IN A
STAND ALONE ENVIRONMENT (EXTERNAL POWER SUPPLY) WITH
ALMOST ANY COMPUTER THAT HAS A RS232 SERIAL PORT. TO
USE THE BOARD IT IS ONLY NECESSARY TO SEND ENGLISH TEXT
TO THE RS232 INPUT ON THE BOARD. THE BOARD INCLUDES A
1500 BYTE TEXT BUFFER AND HANDSHAKE LINE TO ALLOW YOU
TO SEND DATA TO THE BOARD; THE SAME AS YOU WOULD SEND
DATA TO AN RS232 SERIAL PRINTER. YOU CAN SET UP BATCH
FILES THAT WILL MAKE YOUR COMPUTER GREET YOU WITH
"GOOD MORNING MASTER," ETC. EVERY TIME YOU TURN IT ON.
DEMONSTRATION SOFTWARE AND A LIBRARY BUILDING PROGRAM ARE INCLUDED ON A 51/. INCH PC/XT DISKETTE. FULL
DOCUMENTATION AND SCHEMATICS ARE ALSO INCLUDED.
FOR INFORMATION ON A LOW COST SPEECH SYNTHESIZER
SYSTEM FOR THE VISUALLY IMPAIRED, PLEASE SEND FOR FREE
PACKET T.M.1.
A VERY POWERFUL AND
AUTOCAD, Word Perfect, all complier.,
GWBASIC, and In fact, most anything!
Work. with DOS 2.0 to DOS 5.0 end DR -
-
SOCKETS
6264-15
62256 32KX8
-
protocols
CABLES S ARCNET CARDS
PLEASE CALL
AVAILABLE
Low Profile SOLDER TAIL
14/1.00
6 Pin
13/1.00
8 Pin
13/1.00
14 Pin
13/1.00
16 Pin
13/1.00
18 Pin
13/1.00
20 Pin
13/1.00
22 Pin
8/1.00
24 Pin
7/1.00
28 Pin
7/1.00
40 Pin
BUY $10
CHOICE
GET $1.00 - FREE
.79
68 Pin PLCC
.89
84 Pin PLCC
6500/6800
EPROM SPECIAL
STATIC RAM
2016-2KX8 200 n.s.
2101-1 - 256X4 500 n.s.
21L02-1 350 n.s.
2102AL-4 L.P. 450 n.s.
2111-1 256X4 500 n.s.
2112A-2
2114L-3 1 K X4 300 n.s.
2125A-2 1KX1 70 n.s.
2147 4KX1
6116P-4
6117
DOS
DOS 3.1 or greater I. preferred
Open network, programmer API provided
Example tor low-level link module.
you can support .peclal hardware
Full specs provlded on packet level
...
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
1.00
.75
.65
.49
1.00
2.50
.. .45
1.70
1.95
1.00
1.20
1.40
.
.
5.75
DYNAMIC RAM
1.50
2108-4 8KX1
.70
2118-4 16KX1-5Voit
.80
4027-4KX1-250 n.s.
40
4116-16KX1-250 n.s.
75
4116-16KX1-200 n.s.
90
4116 16KX1-150 n.s.
.49 or 9/3.50
4164 150 n.s.
1.10
4164 120 n.s.
1.40
4164-100 n.s
TMS4416-16KX4-150 n.s. 2.75
1 40
4464-150 n.s
1 45
4464-120 n.s
1.45
4464-100 n.s
1.45
4464-80 n.s,
1.25 or 9/9.95
41256 150 n.s.
41256 120 n.s. 1.30 or 9/10.99
41256 100 n.s. 1.30 or 9/10.99
1.30 or 9/10.99
41256-80 n.s.
1.85
41256-60 n.s
4.40
1 Meg - 100 n.s.
4.40
1 Meg - 80 n.s.
4.60
414256-80 n.s. 256 x 4
SIPPS & SIMMS AVAILABLE
.
.
.
.
6502
6520
6522
6530
6532
6545
6551
6800
6802
6803
6805
6809EP
6809P
6810
2.00
1.25
2.70
3.00
4.25
2.10
2.40
1.40
2.50
3.00
2.95
2.75
2.50
1.25
6821
1.00
2.20
6845P
2.20
6845S
1.75
6850
3.50
6852
3.95
6860
3.00
68681
68A09EP 1.29
4.00
68A40
3.00
68A54
4.00
68B09
2.00
68B10
4.95
68B45
4.00
68854
$1999
STAND ALONE POWER SUPPLY
FOR ABOVE
ADD $2.50 SHIPPING & HANDLING
Ar cn at)
DOS Flle and Record locking support
Share any device, any file, any program
Runs In the background, totally transparent
Low memory overhead
Typically only 28K Is needed, but will
very with various setup.
Works with moat software, Including DBASE
III, Microsoft
WORD. LOTUS 123, Windows 3,
ASSEMBLED & TESTED
ADD $3.50 SHIPPING
& HANDLING
.
.
THREE CHIP SET
B.G. SPECIAL
$6.95
16450, 1488, 1489
16550, 1488, 1489
$13.50
-
quantity of
2716s, 2532s, 2732s,
27128s, 27256s and
We bought a large
2708s,
2764s,
27512sfrom a computer manufacturer who redesigned their
boards. We removed them from
sockets, erased and verified
them, and now we offer the savings to you. Complete satisfaction guaranteed
Your Choice
10/8.00
1.20
2708
1.75 10/15.00
2716
2.00 10/17.50
2532
2.00 10/17.50
2732
2.00 10/17.50
2764
3.00 10/25.00
27128
3.50 10/30.00
27256
4.75 10/40.00
27512
8000/80000
2.95
3.95
12
1.00
8035
1.00
8039
1.55
8085
1.55
8086
87.50
8087
167.50
8087-1
8087-2 127.50
2.20
8088
3.25
8088-2
2.25
8155
2.25
8156
8.00
8202A
1.25
8212
2.00
8214
1.25
8216
1.25
8224
1.75
8228
2.80
8237-5
1.75
8243
2.95
8250
(16450) 6.50
(16550) 13.00
8031
80C32
1.10
1.75
1.80
1.50
1.75
1.50
1.85
2.10
10.95
2.25
1.49
3.50
2.49
3.50
3.00
7.00
8741
7.00
8742
7.00
8748
7.00
8749
7.00
8755
80286-8 PLCC 8.5(
125.0(
80287-8
135.0(
80287-10
8251
8253-5
8254
8255
8255-5
8257
8259A
8259C-5
8275
8279
8284
8286
8287
8288
8530
V-20-10MHZ
6.51
for insurance. No C.O.D. Texas Res. Odd
TERMS: (Unless specified elsewhere) Add $3.25 postage, we pay balance. Orders over $50.00 add 85C
subject to change without notice. Foreign order - US funds
8'4a/o Tax. 90 Day Money Back Guarantee on all items. All items subject to prior sale. Prices
only. We cannot ship to Mexico or Puerto Rico. Countries other than Canada, add $9.00 shipping and handing.
7/31/92
CIRCLE NO.
127 ON FREE
INFORMATION CARD
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement