3 Chemicals Tutorial
3 Chemicals Tutorial 3.1 Introduction ......................................................................................3 3.2 Steady State Simulation ..................................................................4 3.2.1
3.2.2
3.2.3
3.2.4
3.2.5
3.2.6
3.2.7
3.2.8
Process Description .................................................................4 Setting Your Session Preferences ...........................................5 Defining the Fluid Package ......................................................8 Defining the Reaction ............................................................17 Entering the Simulation Environment ....................................26 Using the Workbook ..............................................................28 Installing Equipment on the PFD .......................................... .46 Viewing Results .....................................................................66 3.3 Dynamic Simulation ......................................................................76 3.3.1
3.3.2
3.3.3
3.3.4
3.3.5
Simplifying the Steady State Flowsheet ................................ 77 Using the Dynamics Assistant ...............................................78 Modeling a CSTR Open to the Atmosphere ..........................82 Adding Controller Operations ................................................86 Monitoring in Dynamics .........................................................92 3-1
3-2 3.1 Introduction
The complete case for this
tutorial has been pre-built and
is located in the file
TUTOR3.HSC in your
HVSVS\Samples directory.
In this tutorial, a flowsheet for the production of propylene glycol is
presented. Propylene oxide is combined with water to produce
propylene glycol in a continuously-stiffed-tank reactor (CSTR). The
reactor outlet stream is then fed to a distillation tower, where essentially
all the glycol is recovered in the tower bottoms. A flowsheet for this
process appears below.
Figure 3.1
.~­
Reacto(
RebDuty
'---'=-"=t--Oi;tOI
Tower
The following pages will guide you through building a HYSYS case for
modeling this process. This example will illustrate the complete
construction of the simulation, including selecting a property package
and components, defining the reaction, installing streams and unit
operations, and examining the final results. The tools available in HYSYS
interface will be utilized to illustrate the flexibility available to you.
Before proceeding, you should have read Chapter A - HYSYS Tutorials
which precedes the tutorials in this manual.
3-3
3.2
Stead~ State Simulation
3.2.1 Process Description
The simulation will be built
using these basic steps:
1. Create a unit set.
2. Choose a property package. 3. Select the components.
4, Define the reaction.
The process being modeled in this example is the conversion of
propylene oxide and water to propylene glycol in a CSTR Reactor. The
reaction products are then separated in a distillation tower. A flowsheet
for this process appears below.
Figure 3.2
5. Create and specify the feed streams. 6. Install and define the Mixer
and Reactor.
7. Install and define the Distillation Column. p";;tl~
..... r
Oxide
L,. .
Mi••
---
r.~a r
Out
MIX·1 00 i
Re"";;tor ­
__-;I.E~'--h
-~~*,
Coolant
..
Reactor
_--­
RebDu!V
'----'=-==.--~Gi;tOI
TOwsr
The propylene oxide and water feed streams are combined in a Mixer.
The combined stream is fed to a Reactor, operating at atmospheric
pressure, in which propylene glycol is produced. The Reactor product
stream is fed to a distillation tower, where essentially all the glycol is
recovered in the bottoms product.
The Workbook displays
information about streams and
unit operations in a tabular
format, while the PFD is a
graphical representation of the
flowsheet.
The two primary building tools, Workbook and PPD, are used to install
the streams and operations, and to examine the results while
progressing through the simulation. Both ofthese tools provide you with
a large amount of flexibility in building your simulation and in quickly
accessing the information you need.
The Workbook is used to build the first part ofthe flowsheet, including
the feed streams and the mixer. The PPD is then used to install the
reactor, and a special sequence of views called the Input Expert will be
used to install the distillation column.
3-4
3.2.2 Setting Your Session Preferences
Start HYSYS and create a new case. Your first task is to set your Session
Preferences.
1. From the Tools menu, select Preferences. The Session Preferences
view appears.
Figure 3.3
•.. .~1t•. . ..JQJU.
10'=-----1 r~-~·=~~7!~~··-·::~=~··~~····l
r
jDodttop
i
Namilg
: TooHips
! i
II
i
U•• ModoIP!cporIyV_
P R."",dTinoWhenN_AleModrlOd
i P EnableC«mH... OnPFD
P CarHmModoSwileho.
r
,
E""bleSingleClickAcboN!
P EnableCoiEcUlIton
I
i D~
I
jPetr;Jll11oOl'lCe
I'i r D~N"""",,,,,Err"'i!TI_Wrldowll_ThominD~Modoll
!I.iconoing
'RTIS~..
i
:·.fR';;;:~:::::::::::::::=:::::::::==::::::::::::::::·:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::.::::::::::-
i r D~E.Q'.inTI_Wrldow
....::;
;
IfS:;:::~:~:::-:-~-'-'-'-~'~-'~J
I::Wrldow I
I.T'__':'~_J
[ftopett)lc-tolions~.--.--.-..--
.• - .. -.. ­
1
l;_;;;oa~;'~7)I';:::000~. .~~~. __ ._.__ ~._J
2. The Simulation tab, Options page should be visible. Ensure that the
Use Modal Property Views checkbox is unchecked.
3. Click the Variables tab, then select the Units page.
3-5
Creating aNew Unit Set
The first task you perform when building the simulation case is
choosing a unit set. HYSYS does not allow you to change any ofthe three
default unit sets listed, however, you can create a new unit set by cloning
an existing one. For this tutorial, you will create a new unit set based on
the HYSYS Field set, then customize it
1. In the Available Units Sets list, select Field.
The default unit for Liq. Vol. Flow is barrell day; next you will change the
Liq. Vol. Flow units to USGPM.
Figure 3.4
The default Preference file is
named HYSYS.prf. When you
modify any of the preferences,
you can save the changes in a
new Preference file by clicking
the Save Preference Set
button. HYSYS prompts you to
provide a name for the new
Preference file, which you can
later recall into any simulation
case by clicking the Load
Preference Set button.
2. Click the Clone button. A new unit set named NewUser appears in
the Available Unit Sets list.
3. In the Unit Set Name field, change the name to Field-USGPM. You
can now change the units for any variable associated with this new
unit set.
4. Find the Liq. Vol. Flow cell. Click in the barrel/day cell beside it.
5. To open the list of available units, click the down arrow ..::J, or press
the F2 key then the Down arrow key.
3·6
6. From the list, select USGPM.
Figure 3.5
_ 5e~~lon Pteference'li (hys-yS-.PRf)
';9
7. Your new unit set is now defined. Close the Session Preferences view.
3-7
3.2.3 Defining the Fluid Package 1. Click the New Case icon.
2. The Simulation Basis Manager appears.
New Case Icon
Figure 3.6
All commands accessed via
the tool bar are also available
as menu items.
HYSYS displays the current
Environment and Mode in the
upper right corner of the view.
Whenever you begin a new
case, you are automatically
placed in the Basis
Environment, where you can
define your property package
and components.
The next task is to create a Fluid Package. A Fluid Package, at minimum,
contains the components and property method that HYSYS will use in
its calculations for a particular flowsheet. Depending on what a specific
flowsheet requires, a Fluid Package may also contain other information
such as reactions and interaction parameters.
Creating aFluid Package
The Simulation Basis
Manager allows you to create,
modify, and otherwise
manipulate Fluid Packages in
your simulation case. Most of
the time, as with this example,
you will require only one Fluid
Package for your entire
simulation.
HYSYS has created a Fluid
Package with the default name
Basls-1. You can change the
name of this fluid package by
typing a new name in the
Name cell at the bottom of the
view.
3-8
1. Click the Fluid Pkgs tab of the Simulation Basis Manager.
2. Click the Add button. The Fluid Package property view appears.
Figure 3.7
The Fluid Package property view allows you to supply all the
information required to completely define the Fluid Package. In this
tutorial you will use the following tabs: Set Up, Binary Coeffs (Binary
Coefficients), and Rxns (Reactions).
You choose the Property Package on the Set Up tab. The currently
selected property package is <none>. There are a number of ways to
select the desired base property package, in this case UNIQUAC.
3. Do one ofthe following:
•
•
Begin typing UNIQUAC, and HYSYS finds the match to your
input.
Use the vertical scroll bar to move down the list until UNIQUAC
becomes visible, then click on it.
Figure 3.8
The Property Pkg indicator bar at the bottom of the view now indicates
UNIQUAC is the current property package for this Fluid Package.
Alternatively, you can select the Activity Models radio button in the
Property Pkg Filter group, producing a list of only those property
packages which are Activity Models. UNIQUAC appears in the filtered
list, as shown here.
Figure 3.10
3·9
In the Component List Selection drop-down list, HYSYS filters to the
library components to include only those appropriate for the selected
Property Package. In this case, no components have yet been defined.
Selecting Components
Now that you have chosen the property package to be used in the
simulation, your next task is to select the components.
1. In the Component List Selection group, click the View button. The
Component List View appears.
Figure 3.11
Each component can appear in three forms, corresponding to the three
radio buttons that appear above the component list.
Feature
SlmName
3·10
I Description
The name appearing within the simulation.
FuliNamelSynonym
IUPAC name (or similar). and synonyms for many components.
Formula
The chemical formula of the component. This is useful when you
are unsure of the library name of a component, but know its
formula.
Based on the selected radio button, HYSYS locates the component(s)
that best matches the information you type in the Match field.
In this tutorial you will use propylene oxide, propylene glycol and H20.
First, you will add propylene oxide to the component list.
2. Ensure the SimName radio button is selected and the Show
Synonyms checkbox is checked.
3. In the Match field, start typing propyleneoxide, as one word. HYSYS
filters the list as you type, displaying only those components that
match your input.
Figure 3.12
4. When propylene oxide is selected in the list, add it to the Selected
Components List by doing one of the following:
• Press the ENTER key.
• Click the Add Pure button.
• Double-click on PropyleneOxlde.
3-11
The component now appears in the Selected Components List.
Figure 3.13
Addea.pan,.
I
··~j·~
I
:
.TI~
Electrol\<.
. Hypolheiiool
I : Othel
i
I
I
filters
rPropelty Package Fllterl
Re.;on·,lnehded Onl;/ I
r
I
II
31
<none>
1____._•.•___._ _ ----1
rFamily Type FiI~
IP' Use Filter
r Hydloearbor\s
r Solid$
r Ml:celaneous
Amines
I1 rr AIcoI1oI;
I
i
!
I
Ir
i
Ketones
Aldehydes
!r
Etbilrs
CaboHylic Acids
rr
!r
Phenok
Ethers
r
Ir
I r Halogens
IrN. . 'I
User.l)efined
---,nv-ert--.. .IIIi
I
j
L
3-12
AI
-.1
Another method for finding components is to use the View Filters to
display only those components belonging to certain families.
Next, you will add Propylene Glycol to the component list using the
filter.
5. Ensure the Match field is empty by pressing ALT M and then the
DELETE key.
6. Click the View Filters button. The Filters view appears.
7. Click the Use Filter checkbox to activate the filter checkboxes.
8. Since Propylene Glycol is an alcohol, click the Alcohols checkbox.
9. In the Match field, begin typing propylene glycol, as one word.
HYSYS filters as you type, displaying only the alcohols that match
your input.
Figure 3.14
riij~~ I r~'=2C::30IIide~'~~=:':l
I!lelch
·T,-""
.
EIeeb~ H~ol
0",,"
IpI1l!lIOie
(,' SinN....
,-_Pur.
(·s_,
R...-..>
I
I
I
T,iCa-G1/COI
r F.." , - I S _
"'->01.81
~1.2.e:
s...WoII
~~I
10. When Propylene Glycol is selected in the list, press the ENTER key to
add it to the Selected Components list.
Finally. you will add the component H20.
11. In the Filter view. clear the Alcohols checkbox by clicking on it.
12. Ensure the Match field is empty by pressing ALT M and then the
DELETE key
13. H20 does not fit into any ofthe standard families, so click on the
Miscellaneous checkbox.
14. Scroll down the filtered list until H20 is visible. then double-click on
H20 to add it to the Selected Components list.
3·13
15. The final component list appears below.
Figure 3.15
A component can be
removed from the Selected
Components list by
selecting it and clicking the
Remove button or the
DELETE key.
YieUJing Component Properl'ies
To view the properties of one or more components, select the
component(s) and click the View Component button, HYSYS opens the
property view(s) for the component(s) you select.
1. Click on 12C3diol in the Selected Components List.
2. Click the View Component button. The property view for the
component appears.
FIgure 3.16
...:r.
17 C3dm'
:J
Il"'~" '~." '~" ':_-=CIi" _I~=.~12C:-,
-.~,_-_,~-_.-_~I
...- _..-.- - ___
3-14
I
The Component property view provides you with complete access to the
pure component information for viewing only. You cannot modify any
parameters for a library component, however, HYSYS allows you to
clone a library component into a Hypothetical component, which can
then be modified as desired. Refer to Chapter 3 - Hypotheticals in the
Simulation Basis manual for more information on cloning library
components.
3. Close the individual component view, then close the Component
List View to return to the Fluid Package.
Providing 8inarq Coef~cients
The next task in defining the Fluid Package is providing the binary
interaction parameters.
1. Click the Binary Coeffs tab of the Fluid Package view..
Figure 3.17
In the Activity Model Interaction Parameters group, the Aij interaction
table appears by default. HYSYS automatically inserts the coefficients
for any component pairs for which library data is available. You can
change any of the values provided by HYSYS if you have data of your
own.
3-15
In this case, the only unknown coefficients in the table are for the
12C30xidel12-C3diol pair. You can enter these values if you have
available data, however, for this example, you will use one ofHYSYS'
built-in estimation methods instead.
Next, you will use the UNIFAC VLE estimation method to estimate the
unknown pair.
2. In the CoeffEstimation group, ensure the UNIFAC VLE radio button
is selected.
3. Click the Unknowns Only button. HYSYS provides values for the
unknown pair. The final Activity Model Interaction Parameters table
for the Aij coefficients appears below.
Figure 3.18
4. To view the Bij coefficient table, select the Bi; radio button. For this
example, all the Bij coefficients will be left at the default value of
zero.
3·16
3.2.4 Defining the Reaction
1. Return to the Simulation Basis Manager view by clicking on its title
bar, or by clicking the Basis icon.
2. Click the Reactions tab. This tab allows you to define an the
reactions for the flowsheet.
Basis Icon
Figure 3.19
The reaction between water and propylene oxide to produce propylene
glycol is as follows:
These steps will be followed in
defining our reaction:
(3.1)
1. Create and define a Kinetic
Reaction.
2. Create a Reaction Set containing the reaction. 3. Activate the Reaction set
to make it available for use
in the flowsheet.
Selecting the Reaction Components
The first task in defining the reaction is choosing the components that
will be participating in the reaction. In this tutorial, all the components
that were selected in the Fluid Package are participating in the reaction,
so you do not have to modify this list. For a more complicated system,
however, you would add or remove components from the list.
To add or remove a component, click the Add Comps button. The
Component List View appears. Refer to the Selecting Components
section in Section 3.2.3 • Derming the Fluid Package for more
information.
3-17
Creating the Reaction
Once the reaction components have been chosen, the next task is to
create the reaction.
L In the Reactions group, click the Add Rxn button. The Reactions
view appears.
Figure 3.20
2. In the list, select the Kinetic reaction type, then click the Add
Reaction button. The Kinetic Reaction property view appears,
opened to the Stoichiometry tab.
On the Stoichiometry' tab, you
can specify which of the Rxn
Components are involved in
the particular reaction as well
as the stoichiometry and the
reaction order.
Figure 3.21
~: Kmehc Beilr.hot'l film 1 I'~l!] EI
Often you will have more than
one reaction occurring in your
simulation case. On the
Stoichiometry tab of each
reaction, select only the Rxn
Components participating in
that reaction.
3. In the Component column, click in the cell labeled **Add Comp**.
4. Select Water as a reaction component by doing one of the following:
• Open the drop-down list and select H20 from the list of available
reaction components.
• Type H20. HYSYS filters as you type, searching for the
component which matches your input. When H20 is selected,
press the ENTER key to add it to the Component list.
5. Repeat this procedure to add 12C30xide and 12-C3diol to the
reaction table.
3-18
The next task is to enter the stoichiometric information. A negative
stoichiometric coefficient indicates that the component is consumed in
the reaction, while a positive coefficient indicates the component is
produced.
6. In the Stoich Coeff column, click in the «empty» cell
corresponding to H20.
7. Type -1 and press the ENTER key.
8. Enter the coefficients for the remaining components as shown in
the view below:
Figure 3.22
Once the stoichiometric coefficients are supplied, the Balance Error cell
will show 0 (zero), indicating that the reaction is mass balanced. HYSYS
will also calculate and display the heat of reaction in the Reaction Heat
cell. In this case, the Reaction Heat is negative, indicating that the
reaction produces heat (exothermic).
HYSYS provides default values for the Forward Order and Reverse Order
based on the reaction stoichiometry. The kinetic data for this Tutorial is
based on an excess of water, so the kinetics are first order in Propylene
Oxide only.
3-19
9. In the Fwd Order cell for H20, change the value to 0 to reflect the
excess of water. The Stoichiometry tab is now completely defined
and appears as shown below.
Figure 3.23
Notice that the default values
for the Forward Order and
Reverse Order appear in red,
indicating that they are
suggested by HYSYS. When
you enter the new value for
H20, it will be blue, indicating
that you have specified it.
The next task is to define the reaction basis.
10. In the Kinetic Reaction view, click the Basis tab.
11. In the Basis cell, accept the default value of Molar Concn.
12. Click in the Base Component cell. By default, HYSYS has chosen the
first component listed on the Stoichiometry tab, in this case H20, as
the base component.
13. Change the base component to Propylene Oxide by doing one of the
following:
•
•
3-20
Open the drop-down list of components and select 12C30xide.
Begin typing 12C30xide, and HYSYS filters as you type. When
12C30xide is selected, press the ENTER key.
You can have the same
reaction occurring in different
phases with different kinetics
and have both calculated in
the same REACTOR.
14. In the Rxn Phase cell, select CombinedLiquid from the drop-down
list. The completed Basis tab appears below.
Figure 3.24
The Min. Temperature, Max. Temperature, Basis Units and Rate Units are
acceptable at their default values.
15. Click the Parameters tab. On this tab you provide the Arrhenius
parameters for the kinetic reaction. In this case, there is no Reverse
Reaction occurring, so you only need to supply the Forward
Reaction parameters:
16. In the Forward Reaction A cell, enter 1.7eI3.
17. In the Forward Reaction E cell (activation energy), enter 3.24e4 (Btu!
lbmole).
The status indicator at the bottom of the Kinetic Reaction property view
changes from Not Ready to Ready, indicating that the reaction is
completely defined. The final Parameters tab appears below.
Figure 3.25
rF~FI~.
. I "E.,.,H........
~.~"'---,
I~ ·L~1M ll~:~:l:~~i'\
i 8
.
~ernpt.Y) I-j I
..........................J I
!
--
-
- .­
r: .. A··.-p l-E' I AT I'T~'
TinKoMn
.L~···
"
_._.' .~..............__._._..J
3-21
18. Close both the Kinetic Reaction property view and the Reactions
view.
19. Click the Basis icon to ensure the Simulation Basis Manager view is
active. On the Reactions tab, the new reaction, Rxn-1, now appears
in the Reactions group.
Basis Icon
Figure 3.26
The next task is to create a reaction set that will contain the new
reaction. In the Reaction Sets list, HYSYS provides the Global Rxn Set
(Global Reaction Set) which contains all ofthe reactions you have
defined. In this tutorial, since there is only one REACTOR, the default
Global Rxn Set could be attached to it, however, for illustration
purposes, a new reaction set will be created.
Creating aReaction Set
The same reaction(s) can be
in multiple Reaction Sets.
3-22
Reaction Sets provide a convenient way of grouping related reactions.
For example, consider a flowsheet in which a total of five reactions are
taking place. In one REACTOR operation, only three of the reactions are
occurring (one main reaction and two side reactions). You can group the
three reactions into a Reaction Set, then attach the set to the appropriate
REACTOR unit operation.
1. In the Reaction Sets group, click the Add Set button. The Reaction
Set property view appears with the default name Set-I.
Figure 3.27 Illllill2 Red! "on Set Set 1
~. J5et.1
The drop-down list contains all
reactions in the Global
Reaction Set. Currently, Rxn·1
is the only reaction defined, so
it is the only available selection.
V,,",,~i'
·.V.ewl~..
....e~2
,S- M_AliIive
2. In the Active List, click in the cell labeled <empty>.
3. Open the drop-down list and select Rxn-I.
A checkbox labeled OK automatically appears next to the reaction in the
Active List. The reaction set status bar changes from Not Ready to Ready,
indicating that the new reaction set is complete.
4. Close the Reaction Set view to return to the Simulation Basis
Manager. The new reaction set named Set-1 now appears in the
Reaction Sets group.
Figure 3.26
3-23
Making the Reaction Set Rvailable to the Fluid Package
The final task is to make the set available to the Fluid Package, which
also makes it available in the flowsheet.
1. Click on Set-l in the Reaction Sets group on the Reactions tab.
2. Click the Add to FP button. The Add 'Set-I' view appears.
This view prompts you to select the Fluid Package to which you
would like to add the reaction set. In this example, there is only one
Fluid Package, Basis-I.
Figure 3.29
3. Select Basis-I, then click the Add Set to Fluid Package button.
3·24
4.
Click the Fluid Pkgs tab to view a summary ofthe completed Fluid
Package.
Figure 3.31
·r~J~p-~:-~.~s~~,:·~·~t·~1l
~.
·\J:Mi!'.e
Gc~."
I
I
.~..
III
d
I'
Ij
'1'
:,li:;
Ilk
L!_.. _.. --......--.. .-....-,.-.~-~-c;'--...-......­ .........:."":C-7]
.QtI_ru:tPkll
1.-::8.-".-:.,---'-----,
'1..:.'._:.
The list of Current Fluid Packages displays the new Fluid Package, Basis­
I, showing the number of components (NC) and property package (PP).
The new Fluid Package is assigned by default to the Main Simulation, as
shown in the Flowsheet-Fluid PkgAssociations group. Now that the
Basis is defined, you can install streams and operations in the
Simulation environment (also referred to as the Parent Simulation
environment or Main Simulation environment).
3-25
3.2.S Entering the Simulation Environment
To leave the Basis environment and enter the Simulation environment,
do one of the following:
Enter Simulation Environment Icon • Click the Enter Simulation Environment button on the Simulation Basis Manager. • Click the Enter Simulation Environment icon on the tool bar.
When you enter the Simulation environment, the initial view that
appears is dependent on your current preference setting for the Initial
Build Home View. Three initial views are available, namely the PFD,
Workbook and Summary. Any or all of these can be displayed at any
time, however, when you first enter the Simulation environment, only
one is displayed. For this example, the initial Home View is the
Workbook (HYSYS default setting).
Figure 3.32
III"J 4-611
3-26
t HI HI( At !Hi h ..c
H'lSV!;:) t 6eta
<
There are several things to note about the Main Simulation
environment. In the upper right corner, the Environment has changed
from Basis to Case (Main). A number of new items are now available on
the Menu and Toolbar, and the Workbook and Object Palette are open
on the Desktop. These two latter objects are described below.
Features
You can toggle the palette
open or closed by pressing F4,
or by choosing Open/Close
Object Palette from the
Flowsheet menu.
I
DeSCription
Workbook
A multiple-tab view containing information about the objects
(streams and unit operations) in the simulation case. By default, the
Workbook has four tabs, namely Material Streams, Compositions,
Energy Streams and Unit Ops. You can edit the Workbook by
adding or deleting tabs and changing the information displayed on
any tab.
Object Palette
A floating palette of buttons that can be used to add streams and
unit operations.
Before proceeding any further to install streams or unit operations, save
your case.
1. Do one ofthe following:
Save Icon
• Click the Save icon on the toolbar.
• From the File menu, select Save.
• Press CTRL S.
If this is the first time you have saved your case, the Save Simulation
Case As view appears. By default, the File Path is the Cases sub-directory
in your HYSYS directory.
Open Case Icon
When you choose to open an
existing case by Clicking the
Open Case button, or by
selecting Open Case from the
File menu, HYSYS allows you
to retrieve backup (* .bk*) and
HYSIM (*.slm) files in addition
to standard HYSYS (* .hsc)
files.
2. In the File Name cell type a name for the case, for example GLYCOL.
You do not have to enter the.hsc extension; HYSYS automatically
adds it for you.
3. Once you have entered a file name, press the ENTER key or the OK
button. HYSYS will now save the case under the name you have
given it when you Save in the future. The Save As view will not
appear again unless you choose to give it a new name using the Save
As command.
If you enter a name that
already exists in the current
directory, HYSYS will ask you
for confirmation before over­
writing the existing file.
3·27
3.2.6 Using the Workbook
Installing the Feed Streams
Workbook Icon
HYSYS accepts blank
spaces within a stream or
operation name.
In general, the first task you perform when you enter the Simulation
environment is to install one or more feed streams. In this section, you
will install feed streams using the Workbook.
1. Click the Workbook icon on the toolbar to make the Workbook
active.
2. On the Material Streams tab, click in the **New·· cell in the Name
row.
3. Type the new stream name Prop Oxide, then press ENTER. HYSYS
automatically creates the new stream.
Figure 3.33
When you pressed ENTER after typing in the stream name, HYSYS
automatically advanced the active cell down one cell, to Vapour
Fraction.
Next you will define the feed conditions for temperature and pressure, in
this case 75°F and 1.1 atm.
4. Click in the Temperature cell for Prop Oxide.
3-28
5. Type 75 in the Temperature cell. In the Unit drop-down list, HYSYS
displays the default units for temperature, in this case R
Figure 3.34
• ",..kim""
CllSO
IMam) _
£I
6. Since this is the correct unit, press ENTER.HYSYS accepts the
temperature.
7. Click in the Pressure cell for Prop Oxide.
If you know the stream pressure in another unit besides the default of
psia, HYSYS will accept your input in anyone of a number of different
units and automatically convert to the default for you. For example, you
know the pressure of Prop Oxide is 1.1 atm.
8. Type 1.1.
9. Press the SPACEBAR or click on ...:J. Begin typing 'atm'. HYSYS will
match your input to locate the unit of your choice.
Figure 3.35
3·29
10. Once atm
is selected in the list, press the ENTER key, and HYSYS
accepts the pressure and automatically converts to the default unit,
psia.
Alternatively, you can specify the unit simply by selecting it from the
unit drop-down list.
11. Click in
the Molar Flow cell for Prop Oxide, enter 150 lbmole/hr,
then press ENTER.
Providing Composinonallnput
Now that the stream conditions have been specified, your next task is to
input the composition.
12. In the Workbook, double-click the Molar Flow cell of the Prop Oxide
stream.
The Input Composition for Stream view appears. This view allows
you to complete the compositional input.
Figure 3.36
The Input Composition for
Stream view is Modal,
indicated by the thick border
and the absence of the
MinimizelMaximlze buttons in
the upper right corner. When a
Modal view is visible, you will
not be able to move outside
the view until you finish with it,
by clicking either the Cancel
or OK button.
3-30
~ Input Composition fOl Stream Prop Ol'ude
EJ
The following table lists and explains the features available to you on the
Input Composition for Stream view.
Features
Compositional Basis
Radio Buttons
You can input the stream composition in some fractional basis
other than Mole Fraction, or by component flows, by selecting
the appropriate radio button before providing your input.
Normalizing
The Normalizing feature is useful when you know the relative
ratios of components; for example, 2 parts N2, 2 parts CO2,
120 parts C1, etc. Rather than manually converting these
ratios to fractions summing to one, simply enter the individual
numbers of parts and click the Normalize button. HYSYS
computes the individual fractions to total 1.0.
i
Normalizing is also useful when you have a stream consisting
of only a few components. Instead of specifying zero fractions
(or flows) for the other components, simply enter the fractions
(or the actual flows) for the non-zero components, leaving the
others <empty>. Click the Normalize button, and HYSYS
forces the other component fractions to zero.
i
Calculation statusi
colour
These are the default colours;
yours may appear differently
depending on your settings on
the Colours page of the
Session Preferences.
I Description
As you input the composition, the component fractions (or
flows) initially appear in red, indicating the final composition is
unknown. These values become blue when the stream
composition is calculated. Three scenarios result in the stream
composition being calculated:
• Input the fractions of all components, including any zero
components, such that their total is exactly 1.0000. Click
the OK button.
• Input the fractions (totalling 1.000), flows or relative
number of parts of all non-zero components. Click the
Normalize button, then click the OK button.
Input the flows or relative number of parts of all
components, including any zero components, then click
the OK button.
.
13. In the Composition Basis group, ensure that the Mole Fractions
radio button is selected.
14. Click on the input cell for the first component, 12C30xide. This
stream is 100% propylene oxide.
15. Type 1 for the mole fraction, then press ENTER.
In this case, 12C30xide is the only component in the stream.
3-31
16. Click the Normalize button to force the other values to zero. The
composition is now defined for this stream.
Figure 3.37
17. Click the OK button. HYSYS accepts the composition. The stream
specification is now complete, so HYSYS will flash it at the
conditions given to determine the remaining properties.
If you want to delete a stream,
click on the Name cell for the
stream, then press DELETE.
HYSYS asks for confirmation
of your action.
3-32
The values you specified are a different colour (blue) than the calculated
values (black).
Figure 3.38
Rdding Rnother Stream
Next, you will use an alternative method for adding a stream.
18. To add the second feed stream, do anyone ofthe following:
Material Stream Icon
• Press F11.
• From the Flowsheet menu, select Add Stream.
•
Double-click the Material Stream icon on the Object Palette.
• Click the Material Stream icon on the Object Palette, then click
the Palette's Add Object button.
A new stream appears in the Workbook and is named according to the
Auto Naming setting in your Session Preferences settings. The default
setting names new material streams with numbers, starting at 1 (and
energy streams starting at Q-I00).
When you create the new stream, the stream's property view also
appears, displaying the Conditions page of the Worksheet tab.
19. In the Stream Name cell, change the name to Water Feed.
20. In the Temperature cell, enter 75°F.
21. In the Pressure cell, enter 16.17 psia.
These parameters are in
default units. so there is no
need to change the units.
Figure 3.39
Water feed =
r~-l~~~~~f~-~---"-I
IP,"I>OI\ioo
i~
IKVolue
I
U""VariobIo. ,NOlet
!CoMP.._
j
I
I
--~""";~.
D
. .
c--~-··-·"-~~ -Url<_~lti>M------'-"---"
3-33
22. Select the Composition page to enter the compositional input for
the new feed stream.
Figure 3.40
Wdter
fe~d
,:;:,.
. ......
1,,-­
':
I'
~
f.iiiiC==E~5f
i~ion
!"v....
ju...v_.
1Nolet
ICooIP.,_
!
Tot.!
~.OOOOO
EditPt-""~"'
. ..
For the current Composition
Basis setting, you want to
enter the stream composition
on a mass flow basis.
23. Click the Edit button near the bottom of the Composition page. The
Input Composition for Stream view appears.
24. In the Composition Basis group, change the basis to Mass Flows by
selecting the appropriate radio button, or by pressing ALT A.
25. In the CompMassFlow cell for H20, type 11,000 (lb/hr), then press
ENTER.
Figure 3.41
3-34
26. Since this stream has no other components, click the Normalize
button. The other component mass flows are forced to zero.
Figure 3.42
27. Click the OK button to close the view and return to the stream
property view.
HYSYS performs a flash calculation to determine the unknown
properties ofWater Feed, and the status bar displays a green OK
message. Use the horizontal scroll bar in the table to view the
compositions of each phase.
Figure 3.43
Water feed
::~ '"
...
..
3·35
The compositions currently appear in Mass Flow, but you can change
this by clicking the Basis button and choosing another Composition
Basis radio button.
2B. Click the Conditions page to view the calculated stream properties.
Sizing Arrow Icon
You can display the properties of all phases by resizing the property
view
29. Place the cursor over the right border of the view. The cursor
changes to a double-ended sizing arrow.
30. With the sizing arrow visible, click and drag to the right until the
horizontal scroll bar disappears, making the entire table visible.
Figure 3.44
""~ !
re=-;-I
~!
I
I: v....
,
I
lu....v..-. !
IN.,...
ICost P-.anetelS
I'
,
..
New or updated information
is automatically and instantly
transferred among all
locations in HYSYS.
3·36
If>
In this case, the aqueous phase is identical to the overall phase.
31. Close the Water Feed property view to return to the Workbook.
Installing Unit Operations
Now that the feed streams are known, your next task is to install the
necessary unit operations for producing the glycol.
Installing the Hixer
Workbook Icon
The first operation is a Mixer, used to combine the two feed streams. As
with most commands in HYSYS, installing an operation can be
accomplished in a number ofways. One method is through the Unit Ops
tab ofthe Workbook.
1. Click the Workbook icon to ensure the Workbook is active.
2. Click the Unit Ops tab ofthe Workbook.
3. Click the Add UnitOp button. The UnitOps view appears, listing all
available unit operations.
When you click the Add button or press ENTER inside this view,
HYSYS adds the operation that is currently selected.
4. Select Mixer by doing one of the following:
• Start typing 'mixer'.
• Scroll down the list using the vertical scroll bar, then select Mixer.
Figure 3.45
• UmlOp, C.se (Ma'nl 1llll1ilE3
.l!ddi.!"
I,;
~
You can also filter the list by
selecting the Piping
Equipment radio button in
the Categories group, then
use one of the above
methods to install the
operation.
Double-clicking on a listed
operation can also be used
instead of the Add button or
the ENTER key.
5. With Mixer selected, click the Add button, or press ENTER.
3-37
The property view for the Mixer appears.
The default naming scheme
for unit operations can be
changed in your Session
Preferences.
Figure 3.46
>
Pi[i¥]1:3
MIX 100 C:~
J'.'IIIIII. . . . . . . . . . . . .-
r ~ I
The unit operation property view contains all the information required
to define the operation, organized into tabs and pages. The Design,
Rating, Worksheet and Dynamics tabs appear in the property view for
most operations. Property views for more complex operations contain
more tabs. HYSYS has provided the default name MIX-lOO for the Mixer.
Many operations, like the Mixer, accept multiple feed streams.
Whenever you see a table like the one in the Inlets group, the operation
will accept mUltiple stream connections at that location. When the
Inlets table is active, you can access a drop-down list of available
streams.
Next, you will complete the Connections page for the Mixer.
6. In the Inlets table, click in the «Stream» cell. The status indicator
at the bottom of the view indicates that the operation needs a feed
stream.
3·38
7.
Open the drop-down list of inlets by clicking on ...::::J or by pressing
the F2 key then SPACEBAR.
Figure 3.47
MIX 100
Alternatively, you can
connect the stream by
typing the exact stream name in the «Stream»
cell, then pressing ENTER.
l1li00
8.
Select Prop Oxide from the drop-down list. The Prop Oxide stream
appears in the Inlets table, and «Stream» automatically moves
down to a new empty cell. 9. In the Inlets table, click the new empty «Stream» cell and select
Water Feed from the list. The status indicator now displays 'Requires
a product stream'.
10. Move to the Outlet field by pressing TAB, or by clicking in the cell.
11. Type Mixer Out in the cell, then press ENTER. HYSYS recognizes that
there is no existing stream with this name, so it creates the new
stream.
Figure 3.48
r
MIX 11111 1!ll1iii.IE3
3-39
The status indicator displays a green OK, indicating that the operation
and attached streams are completely calculated. The Connections page
is now complete.
12. Click the Parameters page.
13. In the Automatic Pressure Assignment group, keep the default
setting of Set Outlet to Lowest Inlet.
Figure 3.49
PlIil E3
, MIX 100 -...=::-c-..,.-" • _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _•
r
Ignored
14. Click the Worksheet tab in the MIX-100 property view to view the
calculated outlet stream. This tab is a condensed Workbook tab
displaying only those streams attached to the operation.
HYSYS has calculated the
oullet stream by combining
the two inlets and flashing
the mixture at the lowest
pressure of the inlet
streams. In this case, both
inlets have the same
pressure (16.17 psia), so
the outlet stream is set to
16.17 psia.
Figure 3.50
, MIX 100 1lll1ilE3
15. Close the MIX-I00 property view to return to the Workbook.
3-40
16. In the Workbook, click the Unit Ops tab. The new operation appears
in the table.
Figure 3.51
The table shows the operation Name, Object Type, the attached streams
(Inlet and Outlet), whether it is Ignored, and its Calc. Level. When you
click the View UnitOp button, the property view for the currently
selected operation appears. Alternatively, by double-clicking on any cell
(except Inlet or Outlet) associated with the operation, you will also open
its property view.
You can also open a stream property view directly from the Workbook
Unit Ops tab. When any of the cells Name, Object Type, Ignored or Calc.
Level are selected, the gray box at the bottom of the view displays all
streams attached to the current operation. Currently, the Name cell for
MIX-lOO has focus, so the box displays the three streams attached to this
operation.
For example, to open the property view for the Prop Oxide stream
attached to the Mixer, do one ofthe following:
•
•
Double-click on Prop Oxide in the box at the bottom of the view.
Double-click on the Inlets cell for MIX-100. The property view for
the first listed feed stream, in this case Prop Oxide, appears.
3-41
Workbook Features
Before installing the remaining operations, you will examine a number
of Workbook features that allow you to access information quickly and
change how information is displayed.
Recessing Unit Operations from the Workbook
While you can easily access the property view for a unit operation from
the Unit Ops tab of the Workbook, you can also access operations from
the Material Streams, Compositions, and Energy Streams tabs.
Any utilities attached to the
stream with focus in the
Workbook are also displayed
in (and are accessible from)
this box.
When your current location is a Workbook streams tab, the gray box at
the bottom ofthe Workbook view displays the operations to which the
current stream is attached. For example, click on any cell associated
with the stream Prop Oxide. The gray box displays the name of the mixer
operation, MIX-IOO.
If the stream Prop Oxide was also attached to another unit operation,
both unit operations would be listed in the box. To access the property
view for the Mixer, double-click on its name in the gray box.
Figure 3.52
.. Wurkbuok ~ Case (MdiO)
3-42
I
"'~"
Hdding aTab to the Workbook
When the Workbook is active, the Workbook item appears in the HYSYS
menu bar. This item allows you to customize the Workbook.
Next you will create a new Workbook tab that displays only stream
pressure, temperature, and flow.
1. Do one of the following:
• From the Workbook menu item, select Setup.
• Object inspect (right-click) the Material Streams tab in the
Workbook, then select Setup from the menu that appears.
The Workbook Setup view appears.
Figure 3.53
rWOIkbookTain
, M••ri~ Sire.....
!~
!E_Streomt
IllnilOJ>O
I
I
I
I
I
....-.
,,,~,-
The four existing tabs are listed in the Workbook Tabs area. When you
add a new tab, it will be inserted before the highlighted tab (currently
Material Streams). You will insert the new tab between the Materials
Streams tab and the Compositions tab.
2. In the Workbook Tabs list, select Compositions, then click the Add
button. The New Object Type view appears.
3-43
3.
Click the + beside Stream to expand the tree.
Figure 3.54
l...
IK_....
. . .1 .........
Energy Stleam
:£ Una Opel'alions:
:£·Ves$els
'£" Heal Tr.....ler E~
'+;.. Rotal;,g E~""" ~anceI
't> P~ Equipment :±i
Solid; Handling Operaliom if} Reactors ,+ .. Prob" Colum", if' Short Cut Caumn. if- Sub-Flowsheets ,.,. Logical Operatial.
Electroi!(e E~menl
•
R ..li ........ nn.,,.li.........
..::J
.!.I
4. Select Material Stream, then click the OK button. You return to the
Setup view, and the new tab Material Streams 1 appears after the
existing Material Streams tab.
5. In the Object group, click in the Name field and change the name for
the new tab to p,T,Flow to better describe the tab contents.
Figure 3.55
.
,~:.:
.....=='=~~'=~~- =~~~~!
I .Tw.:. r'-Mie~S~~,' ...~~~::JI] i!
'N_lp,ulow
...' 1l1det..,
:-l!IliabIer·:' ...,.. · - - - - - - -..· ...··..
J.t.. s.....
e,dd...
D.aieIe
f ..mot...
Oldef...
3-44
I
I
I
Iii
.U
The next task is to customize the tab by removing the variables that are
irrelevant.
If you want to remove
variables from another tab, you must edit each tab individually.
6. In the Variables table, select the first variable, Vapour Fraction.
7. Press and hold the CTRL key.
8. Select the following variables: Mass Flow, Heat Flow, and Molar
Enthalpy.
9. Release the CTRL key.
10. Click the Delete button beside the table to remove the selected
variables from this Workbook tab only. The finished Setup appears
in the figure below. Figure 3.56
11. Close the Setup view. The new tab appears in the Workbook.
Figure 3.57
12. Save the case.
3-45
3.2.7 Installing Equipment on the PFD
Besides the Workbook, the PPO is the other main view in HYSYS you will
use to build the simulation.
PFD Icon
To open the PPO, click the PPO icon on the toolbar. The PPO item
appears in the HYSYS menu bar whenever the PPO has focus.
When you open the PPO view. it appears similar to the one shown below.
Figure 3.58
~
·1 Def.ult Colour Scheme 3 .
Prop
Oxide
Mi)(er
Water
Feed
Like any other non-modal
view. the PFD view can be
re-sized by clicking and
dragging anywhere on the
outside border.
MIX-100
Out
As a graphical representation of your flowsheet, the PPO shows the
connections among all streams and operations, also known as "objects".
Each object is represented by a symbol, also known as an "icon". A
stream icon is an arrow pointing in the direction of flow. while an
operation icon is a graphic representing the actual physical operation.
The object name, also known as a "label", appears near each icon.
The PPO shown above has been rearranged by moving the Prop Oxide
feed stream icon up slightly so it does not overlap the Water Peed stream
icon. To move an icon, simply click and drag it to a new location. You can
click and drag either the icon (arrow) itself, or the label (stream name),
as these two items are grouped together.
3-46
Other functions that can be performed while the PFD is active include
the following:
Fly-by information
Size Icon
Zoom Out 25%
Display Entire
PFD
Zoom In 25%
•
•
•
•
Access commands and features through the PFD tool bar.
Open the property view for an object by double-clicking its icon.
Move an object by clicking and dragging it to the new location.
Access "fly-by" summary information for an object by placing the
cursor over it.
• Size an object by clicking the Size icon, selecting the object, then
clicking and dragging the sizing "handles" that appear.
• Display the Object Inspection menu for an object by placing the
cursor over it and right-clicking. This menu provides access to a
number of commands associated with the particular object.
• Zoom in and out, or display the entire flowsheet in the PFD
window by clicking the zoom buttons at the bottom left of the PFD
view.
Some of these functions will be illustrated in this tutorial; for more
information, refer to the User Guide.
Calculation Status
HYSYS uses colour-coding to indicate calculation status for objects,
both in the object property views, and in the flowsheet. If you recall, the
status bar indicator at the bottom of a property view for a stream or
operation indicates the current state ofthe object:
Indicator Status
These are the HYSYS default
colours; you may change the
colours in the Session
Preferences.
I
Description
Red Status
A major piece of defining information is missing from the object. For
example, a feed or product stream is not attached to a Separator.
The status indicator is red, and an appropriate warning message is
displayed.
Yellow Status
All major defining information is present, but the stream or operation
has not been solved because one or more degrees of freedom is
present. For example, a Cooler whose outlet stream temperature is
unknown. The status indicator is yellow, and an appropriate warning
message is displayed.
Green Status
The stream or operation is completely defined and solved. The
status indicator is green, and an OK message is displayed.
When you are in the PFD, the streams and operations are colour-coded
to indicate their calculation status. If the conditions of an attached
stream for an operation were not entirely known, the operation would
have a yellow outline indicating its current status. For the Mixer, all
streams are defined, so it has no yellow outline.
3-47
Notice that the icons for all
streams installed to this point
are dark blue.
Another colour scheme is used to indicate the status of streams. For
material streams, a dark blue icon indicates the stream has been flashed
and is entirely known. A light blue icon indicates the stream cannot be
flashed until some additional information is supplied. Similarly, a dark
red icon is for an energy stream with a known duty, while a purple icon
indicates an unknown duty.
Installing the Reactor
•XI
CSTR Icon
Next, you will install a continuously-stirred-tank reactor operation
(CSTR). You can install streams or operations by dropping them from
the Object Palette onto the PFD.
1. Ensure that the Object Palette is displayed; if it is not, press F4.
2. You will add the CSTR to the right of the Mixer, so if you need to
make some empty space available in the PFD, scroll to the right
using the horizontal scroll bar.
3. In the Object Palette, click the CSTR icon .
4. Position the cursor in the PFD to the right of the Mixer Out stream.
The cursor changes to a special cursor with a plus (+) symbol
attached to it. The symbol indicates the location of the operation
icon.
Figure 3.59
Cancel Icon
Prop
Oxide
Mixer
Water
Feed
MIX-100
Out
p
5. Click to "drop" the Reactor onto the PFD. HYSYS creates a new
Reactor with a default name, CSTR-lOO. The Reactor has red status
(colour), indicating that it requires feed and product streams.
3·48
Attaching Streams to the Reactor
1. Click the Attach Mode icon on the PPD toolbar to enter Attach
Attach Mode Icon
When you are in Attach mode,
you will not be able to move
objects in the PFD. To return
to Move mode, click the Attach
button again. You can
temporarily toggle between
Attach and Move mode by
holding down the CTRL key.
mode. The Attach Mode button stays active until you click it again.
2. Position the cursor over the right end of the Mixer Out stream icon.
A small white box appears at the cursor tip with a pop-up
description 'Out', indicating that the stream outlet is available for
connection.
Figure 3.60
pro~
Water Feed
Multiple connection points
appear because the Reactor
accepts multiple feed streams.
-+-+----i.
___
~
MIX-100
Mixer Out
CSTR-100
3. With the pop-up 'Out' visible, click and hold the mouse button. The
transparent box becomes solid black, indicating that you are
beginning a connection.
4. Move the cursor toward the left (inlet) side of the CSTR-lOO icon. A
line appears between the Mixer Out stream icon and the cursor, and
multiple connection points (blue) appear at the Reactor inlet.
5. Place the cursor near a connection pOint until a solid white box
appears at the cursor tip, indicating an acceptable end point for the
connection.
Figure 3.61
6. Release the mouse button, and the connection is made between the
stream and the CSTR-lOO inlet.
7. Position the cursor over top right-hand corner of the CSTR-IOO icon.
The white box and the pop-up 'Vapour Product' appear.
8. With the pop-up visible, left-click and hold. The white box again
becomes solid black.
3·49
[t~ I
Break Connection Icon
9. Move the cursor to the right of the CSTR-IOO. A stream icon appears
with a trailing line attached to the CSTR-IOO outlet. The stream icon
indicates that a new stream will be created when you complete the
next step.
Figure 3.62
Mixer Out
CSTR·100
If you make an incorrect
connection, break the
connection and try again.
1. Click the Break
Connection icon on the
PFD tool bar.
2. Place the cursor over
the stream line you want
to break. The cursor
shows a checkmark,
indicating an available
connection to break.
3. Click once to break the connection. 10. With the stream icon visible, release the left mouse button. HYSYS
creates a new stream with the default name l.
II. Place the cursor over the bottom right connection pOint on the
reactor labeled 'Liquid Product', then click and drag to the right to
create the reactor's liquid product stream. The new stream is given
the default name 2.
12. Place the cursor over the bottom left connection point on the
reactor labeled 'Energy Stream', then click and drag down and to the
left to create the reactors energy stream. The new stream is
automatically named Q-100.
The reactor displays a yellow warning status, indicating that all
necessary connections have been made, but that the attached streams
are not entirely known.
Figure 3.63
13. Click the Attach Mode icon again to return to Move mode.
14. Double-click the steam icon I to open its property view.
15. In the Stream Name cell, enter the new name Reactor Vent, then
close the property view.
16. Double-click the stream 2 icon. Rename this stream Reactor Prods,
then close the property view.
17. Double-click the Q-I 00 icon, rename it Coolant, then close the view.
The reactor outlet and energy streams are unknown at this point, so they
are light blue and purple, respectively.
3-50
Completing the Reactor Speci~cations
1. Double-click the CSTR-IOO icon to open its property view.
2. Click the Design tab, then select the Connections page (ifrequired).
The names of the Inlet, Outlet and Energy streams that were
attached before appear in the appropriate cells.
3. In the Name cell, change the operation name to Reactor.
Figure 3.64
........... r
lIJ>o<od 4. Select the Parameters page. For now, the Delta P and the Volume
parameters are acceptable at the default values.
3-51
5. Select the Cooling radio button. This reaction is exothermic
(produces heat), so cooling is required.
Figure 3.65
6. Click the Reactions tab. Next you will attach the Reaction Set that
you created in the Basis Environment.
7. From the Reaction Set drop-down list, select Set-I. The completed
Reactions tab appears below.
Figure 3.66
The next task is to specify the Vessel Parameters. In this Tutorial, the
reactor has a volume of280 fi3 and is 85% full.
3·52
8. Click the Dynamics tab, then select the Specs page.
9. In the Model Details group, click in the Vessel Volume cell. Type 280
(ft3), then press ENTER.
10. In the Liq Volume Percent cell, type 85, then press ENTER.
HYSYS automatically calculates the Liquid Volume in the vessel (280
ft3 x 85% full = 238 ft3), displayed on the Parameters page of the
Design tab.
Figure 3.67
DJoi'' '
1"
ls_~-!·
IH~
Is_~
f°tJ,v
r LagA,,"T~'"
PEMbleE~A~~
I
i L~.;.,:~~..",;. --~, ..~'-""""'.""'" ... ,
.... "::';'~"";~;l~S,~:;'~"'i'~'";''' -.'·r­
ld)~~~
1;1.....
\
"(
r
j
.:...._"'..,..._.._~....~.'""".~ ..J
p.y'\
-~.WOlJ<~ D~"'."""o;::;o;==;==;==;""",==;-o;::;o;-""
'r-";"~---'~~
. OoloQ
~~D~-'-'--'-'~'-"'~'-.~
r ~~
11. Click on the Worksheet tab.
Figure 3.68
, • R.acto<
Set 1
1III!I[!iJ E3
3-53
At this point, the Reactor product streams and the energy stream
Coolant are unknown because the Reactor has one degree of freedom. At
this point. either the outlet stream temperature or the cooling duty can
be specified. For this example, you will specify the outlet temperature.
Initially the Reactor is assumed to be operating at isothermal
conditions, therefore the outlet temperature is equivalent to the feed
temperature, 75°F.
12. In the Reactor Prods column, click in the Temperature cell. Type 75,
then press ENTER. HYSYS solves the Reactor.
Figure 3.69
r=-I . . -.- - . ., .
~}",~"- ~
-.~
I:;:: I
,
I
I
i
,
II ~-="==--'''-~''''--~i
-----. -.
1~--'''----f~----~·--+-
-­
---+- .. ----­
1 ----~--+.~---..-+----.. -----.!-...---+--~-.---+
L_________ j I~-·-·--·--··-
..···----·-·-·+··-··-·-­ ·-f--­
..... Ji!!iiJ~~ \II.........
Delet. ,...-=-=-=-==...........=-................._-=""..ll r::D:"""l"'Il'fOICt--.-:"·
r~.d
There is no phase change in the Reactor under isothermal conditions
since the flow of the vapour product stream Reactor Vent is zero. In
addition, the required cooling duty has been calculated and is
represented by the Heat Flow of stream Coolant. The next step is to
examine the Reactor conversion as a function of temperature.
3·54
13. Click the Reactions tab, then select the Results page. The conversion
appears in the Reactor Results Summary table.
Figure 3.70
L~_~-J
. . . ......
·:.·······:···::·:·c
.............."'...
-~R.....,;.,... r.;A:::::::rr-;::-;:;:TCT.::=:;::'"1..,......,...."""!l'l""""OI'!!""'OI'!!""'..,...."""!!-_...
.0_
·'1:·......................... rjghonod. Under the current conditions, the Actual Percent Conversion (Act. %
Cnv.) in the Reactor is 40.3%. You will adjust the Reactor temperature
until the conversion is in the 85-95% range.
14. Click the Worksheet tab.
15. In the Reactor Prods column, change the Temperature to 100°£
16. Return to the Reactions tab to check the conversion, which has
increased to 72.28% as shown below.
Figure 3.71
17. Return to the Worksheet tab, and change the Temperature of
Reactor Prods to 140°£
3-55
18. Click the Reactions tab again and check the conversion. The
conversion at 140 P is approximately 95%, which is acceptable.
0
Figure 3.72
19. Close the Reactor property view.
Installing the Column
HYSYS has a number of pre-built column templates that you can install
and customize by changing attached stream names, number of stages
and default specifications. Por this example, a Distillation Column will
be installed.
1. Before installing the column, click the Tools menu and select
Preferences. On the Simulation tab, click on the Options page and
ensure that the Use Input Experts checkbox is selected (checked)
then close the view.
2. Double-click the Distillation Column icon on the Object Palette.
The first page of the Input Expert appears.
I
~
-~-"-
Distillation Column Icon
The Input Expert is a logical
sequence of input views that
gUide you through the initial
installation of a Column.
Complete the steps to ensure
that you have provided the
minimum amount of
information required to define
the column.
The Input Expert is a Modal
view, indicated by the absence
of the Maximize/Minimize
icons. You cannot exit or move
outside the Expert until you
supply the necessary
information, or click the
Cancel button.
3-56
Figure 3.73
When you install a column
using a pre-built template,
HYSYS supplies certain default
information, such as the number
of stages. The Numb of Stages
field contains 10 (default
number of stages). Note the
following:
• These are theoretical
stages, as the HYSYS
default stage efficiency is
one.
• The Condenser and
Reboiler are considered
separate from the other
stages, and are not
included in the Num of
Stages field.
3. For this example, 10 theoretical stages are used, so leave the Numb
of Stages at its default value.
4. In the Inlet Streams table, click in the «Stream» cell.
5. From the drop-down list of available inlet streams, select Reactor
Prods as the feed stream to the column. HYSYS supplies a default
feed location in the middle of the Tray Section (TS), in this case stage
5 (indicated by 5_Main TS).
6. In the Condenser group, ensure the Partial radio button is selected,
as the column will have both Vapour and Liquid Overhead Outlets.
7. In the Column Name field, change the name to Tower.
S. In the Condenser Energy Stream field, type CondDuty, then press
ENTER.
9. In the top Ovhd Outlets field, type OvhdVap, then press ENTER.
In the bottom Ovhd Outlets field, type RecyProds, then press ENTER.
10. In the Reboiler Energy Stream field, type Reb Duty, then press ENTER.
11. In the Bottoms Liquid Outlet field, type Glycol, then press ENTER.
When you are finished, the Next button becomes active, indicating
sufficient information has been supplied to advance to the next page of
the Input Expert The first page of the Input Expert should appear as
shown in the follOwing figure.
FIgure 3.74
12. Click the Next button to advance to the Pressure Proftle page.
3-57
13. In the Condenser Pressure field, enter 15 psia.
In the Reboiler Pressure field, enter 17 psia.
Leave the Condenser Pressure Drop at its default value of zero.
Figure 3.75
~ Olshliuhon Column Input £ KPCII Although HYSYS does not
require estimates to produce
a converged column, you
should provide estimates for
columns that are difficult to
converge.
EJ
14. Click the Next button to advance to the Optional Estimates page.
For this example, no estimates are required.
15. Click the Next button to advance to the fourth and final page of the
Input Expert. This page allows you to supply values for the default
column specifications that HYSYS has created.
In general, a Distillation Column has three default specifications. The
overhead Vapour Rate and Reflux Ratio will be used as active
specifications, and later you will create a glycol purity specification to
exhaust the third degree of freedom. The third default specification,
overhead Liquid Rate, will not be used.
3·58
16. In the Vapour Rate field, enter 0 Ibmole/hr.
In the Reflux Ratio field, enter 1.0. The Flow Basis applies to the Vapour Rate, so leave it
at the default of Molar. Figure 3.76
x
17. Click the Done button. The Column property view appears.
18. On the Design tab, select the Monitor page.
Column: lo\tret (OLl Fluid Pkg: 8asts-J
I
/UNlQUAC~Jde<l1
~
{' "
ISpee$
IS",",,9_
I~
I
You can also change
specification values, and
activate or de-activate
specifications used by the
Column solver directly from
the Monitor page.
The Monitor page displays the status of your column as it is being
calculated, updating information with each iteration.
3-59
Rdding aColumn Specincation
~! Add Specs
Tower ICO
EJ
The current Degrees of Freedom is zero, indicating the column is ready
to be run, however, the Distillate Rate (Overhead Liquid Rate for which
no value was provided in the Input Expert) is currently an Active
specification with a Specified Value of <empty>. For this example, you
will specify a water mole fraction of 0.005 in the Glycol product stream.
L Since it is not desirable to use this specification, clear the Active
checkbox for the Distillate Rate. The Degrees of Freedom increases
to 1, indicating that another active specification is required.
2. On the Design tab, select the Specs page.
3. In the Column Specifications group, click the Add button. The Add
Specs view appears.
4. Select Column Component Fraction as the Specification Type.
5. Click the Add Spec(s) button. The Camp Frac Spec view appears.
Figure 3.78
~ romp
ffdt.:
Spec CUtnlJ holt 1100
"REI
6. In the Name cell, change the name to H20 Fraction.
7. In the Stage cell, select Reboiler from the drop-down list.
Figure 3.79
3-60
8. In the Spec Value cell, enter 0.005 as the liquid mole fraction
specification value.
9. In the Components list, dick in the first cell labeled
«Component», then select H20 from the drop-down list of
available components.
Figure 3.80
~"i Comp FloC Spec H20 Fldchon
If you want to view the
entire Specifications
table, re-size the view
by clicking and
dragging its bottom
border.
"iii EI
10. Close this view to return to the Column property view. The new
specification appears in the Column Specifications list on the Specs
page.
11. Return to the Monitor page, where the new specification appears at
the bottom of the Specifications list.
12. Click the Group Active button to bring the new specification to the
top of the list, directly under the other Active specifications.
p
Updolo OUloU
r
~ed
3-61
HYSYS automatically made the new specification Active
when you created it. The Degrees of Freedom has returned to zero, so the column is ready to
be calculated. Running the Column
1. Click the Run button to begin calculations, and the information
displayed on the page is updated with each iteration. The column
converges quickly, in five iterations.
Figure 3.82
r olumn Towel
(0l1 flUid Pkg: fJast;:~ t / UNIQUAC
~ Id~cd
;s ~
The converged temperature profile appears in the upper right corner of
the view.
2. Select the Press or Flow radio button to view the pressure or flow
profiles.
3-62
3. To access a more detailed stage summary, click the Performance
tab, then select the Column Profiles page.
Figure 3.83
I CoIIJUlfl' Tower
Porf",_ _
r;-- lS_
i
C,*- PtaIiIM
iPeedoll'l~
I
COll FIt,ud PIo:g: BdS!!; J
(1""1JQUAC - Ideal
~ltf~"j,
IR..... R..., ReboilR...,
...----...,-"="".."....--=-...",--".,,..
I~
I
!
I
-::Ji!i!iliJ P......... I Side Ore I R!!I!!Q! WOIka-t
Delete
Co/umoE_...
Il.\Il
Porf"""'. r:;;::::::!7.::'"T"o;;:::::;:;::-r;::::::;:7'l"----"'I 1 a.... I
Recessing the Column Sub-~owsheet
PFD Icon
Workbook Icon
«:1
Column Runner Icon
When considering the column, you might want to focus only on the
column sub-flowsheet. You can do this by entering the column
environment.
1. Click the Column Environment button at the bottom of the
property view. While inside the column environment, you can do
the following:
• View the column sub-flowsheet PFD by clicking the PFD icon.
• View a Workbook of the column sub-flowsheet objects by clicking
the Workbook icon.
• Access the "inside" column property view by clicking the Column
Runner icon. This property view is essentially the same as the
"outside", or Main Flowsheet, property view of the column.
3-63
The column sub-flowsheet PFD and Workbook appear in the following
figures.
Figure 3.84
.------~~--~
To
Condenser
...
R••ctor Prods -
RecyProds
~____~~___~R~.~illY
Boilup
L____
....
_ - - -......- ·
To
Reboilor
....
RebOlI.r
L_
Glycol
Figure 3.85
• Wookbook
IlllIilEJ
lowe'ICIJL11 OSi)owli_fl....
1'1......,..0/ HdloriQbIoelt:
Enter Parent Simulation
Environment Icon
3·64
Q
2. When you are finished in the column environment, return to the
Main Flowsheet by clicking the Enter Parent Simulation
Environment icon.
3. Open the PFD for the Main Flowsheet and select Auto Position All
from the PFD menu. HYSYS arranges your PFD in a logical manner.
Hoying Objects and Labels in aPFD
The PFD below has been customized by moving some of the stream
icons. To move an icon, simply click and drag it to the new location.
You can also move a stream or operation label (name).
1. Right-click on the label you want to move.
2. From the menu that appears, select Move/Size Label. A box appears
around the label.
3. Click and drag the label to a new location, or use the arrow keys to
move it.
Figure 3.86
Prop
Oxide Water Feed
Reactor Vent Reactor
Prods
MIX. 100
Coolant
Tower
Glycol
3·65
3.2.8 Viewing Results
1. Click the Workbook icon to access the calculated results for the
Main F1owsheet.
The Material Streams tab and Compositions tab of the Workbook
appears below.
Figure 3.87
.. \¥o.kbnok
'asp-INjlln) I!lfiJ£]
roeaers..
_Prop 0.• ><i:k
. . .•.
1!I1X·100 ..•..
. 1Od\.
• WOIkbook
3-66
CdSC (M.m) IllllfoiJ EJ
Using the Obiect Navigator
Uyou want to view the calculated properties of a particular stream or
operation, you can use the Object Navigator to quickly access the
property view for any stream or unit operation at any time during the
simulation.
To open the Navigator, do one of the following:
Navigator Icon
•
•
•
•
Press F3.
From the Flowsheet menu, select Find Object.
Double-click on any blank space on the HYSYS Desktop.
Click the Navigator icon.
The Object Navigator view appears.
Figure 3.88
You can control which
objects appear by selecting a
different Filter radio button.
For example, to list all
streams and unit operations,
selectthe All button.
The UnitOps radio button in the Filter group is currently selected, so
only the Unit Operations appear in the list of objects.
To open a property view, select the operation in the list, then click the
View button or double-click on the operation name.
You can start or end the
search string with an asterisk
(0), which acts as a wildcard
character. This lets you find
multiple objects with one
search. For example,
searching for VLV· will open
the property view for all objects
with VLV at the beginning of
their name.
You can also search for an object by clicking the Find button.
When the Find Object view appears, enter the object name, then dick
the OK button.HYSYS opens the property view for the object you
specified
3-67
Using the Databook
The HYSYS Databook provides you with a convenient way to examine
your flowsheet in more detail. You can use the Databook to monitor key
variables under a variety of process scenarios, and view the results in a
tabular or graphical format.
1. Before opening the Databook, close the Object Navigator and any
property views you might have opened using the Navigator.
2. To open the Databook, do one of the following:
•
•
Press CTRL D.
From the Tools menu, select Databook.
The Databook view appears.
Figure 3.89
"
To edit any of the Objects in
the Oatabook:
1. Select the Object you want to edit. 2. Click the Edit button.
3·68
()a'rlUook 1!llll1iIE.!
The first task is to add key variables to the Databook. For this example,
the effects of the Reactor temperature on the Reactor cooling duty and
Glycol production rate will be examined.
3. On the Variables tab, click the Insert button. The Variable Navigator
appears.
4. In the Object Filter group, select the UnitOps radio button. The
Object list is filtered to show unit operations only.
5. In the Object list, select Reactor. The variables available for the
Reactor object appear in the Variable list.
The Variable Navigator is used
extensively in HYSYS for
locating and selecting
variables. The Navigator
operates in a left·to-right
manner-the selected
Flowsheet determines the
Object list, the chosen Object
dictates the Variable list, and
the selected Variable
determines whether any
Variable Specifics are
available.
6. In the Variable list, select Vessel Temperature. Vessel Temperature
appears in the Variable Description field. You can edit the default
variable description.
Figure 3.90
I
"OIiiect... fJhr ····1
1
r (.AI
1("5_ ;
I.. m§i
l(o"~
I ("
eo.. .
1("8....
j"
l("u~" _ _·.il
__
L"""-".~~_··
i
1("~1
I ("~.i
rc~
r~S~
.~
~L
/1
·c~~~>'11
1 ••.
L-'~ __ u<_"~" __ ~~J
,/,:T/-/.~,
V~I)&~
7. In the Variable Description field, rename the variable Reactor Temp,
then click the OK button. The variable now appears in the
Databook.
Figure 3.91
, £latdBook I!IGJ Ei
I
1,"-C:71'~:--''''''~~-'~'
~v~
8. To add the next variable, click the Insert button. The Variable
Navigator appears.
9. In the Object Filter group, select the Streams radio button. The
Object list is filtered to show streams only.
10. In the Object list, select Coolant in the Object list. The variables
available for this stream appear in the Variable list.
3·69
11. In the Variable list, select Heat Flow.
Figure 3.92
f~~1
{'""AI, .
j
'r.j~
UniIlJP!'
i
rL~
i
r
,
r~!
r~i
.. ti
.·~
l .:..".....".";......;:,,J
12. In the Variable Description field, change the description to Cooling
Duty, then click the OK button. The variable now appears in the
Databook.
13. Click the Insert button again. In the Object list, select GlycoL In the
Variable list, select Liq Vol [email protected] Condo Change the Variable
Description for this variable to Glycol Production, then click the OK
button. The completed Variables tab of the Databook appears
below.
Figure 3.93
'" D.taBook III~ EJ
Now that the key variables have been added to the Databook, the next
task is to create a data table in which to display these variables.
14. Click the Process Data Tables tab.
3,,70
The three variables that you
added to the Databook
appear in the table on this
tab.
15. In the Available Process Data Tables group, click the Add button.
HYSYS creates a new table with the default name ProcDatal.
Figure 3.94
fIII[;;l E:!
DateBook k
r~.J·f~li~f~~·Cr
i
ProcOlllol
16. In the Process Data Table field, change the name to Key Variables.
17. In the Show column, activate each variable by clicking on the
corresponding checkbox.
Figure 3.95
,··Individuill Proceoo.Q.a14 Selec!ion«-:'.~··~~-"~··:r~r'r···",::'.c."
I fiqcm DlIIa T_ .
A_tor i
.
.
..
1
I
'--cOoIant ,
18. Click the View button to view the new data table.
Figure 3.96
This table will be accessed again later to demonstrate how its results are
updated whenever a flowsheet change is made.
19. For now, click the Minimize icon in the upper right corner of the Key
Variables Data view. HYSYS reduces the view to an icon and places it
at the bottom of the Desktop.
3·71
Before you make changes to the flowsheet, you will record the current
values of the key variables. Instead of manually recording the variables,
you can use the Data Recorder to automatically record them for you.
20. Click the Data Recorder tab in the Databook.
Figure 3.97
When using the Data Recorder, you first create a Scenario containing
one or more of the key variables, then record the variables in their
current state.
21. In the Available Scenarios group, click the Add button. HYSYS
creates a new scenario with the default name Scenario 1.
22. In the Data Recorder Data Section group, activate each variable by
clicking on the corresponding Include checkbox.
Figure 3.98
3·72
~ New Solved Sl
t1_JOI N<!w StMe
151...,11
£J
23. Click the Record button to record the variables in their current state.
The New Solved State view appears, prompting you for the name of
the new state.
24. In the Name for New State field, change the name to Base Case, then
click OK. You return to the Databook.
25. In the Available Display group, select the Table radio button, then
click the View button. The Data Recorder view appears, showing the
values of the key variables in their current state.
Figure 3.99
Delete
Now you can make the necessary flowsheet changes and these current
values remain as a permanent record in the Data Recorder unless you
choose to erase them.
26. Click the Minimize icon on the Data Recorder view.
27. Click the Restore Up icon
on the Key Variables Data title bar to
restore the view to its regular size.
m
Next, you will change the temperature ofstream Reactor Prods (which
determines the Reactor temperature), then view the changes in the
process data table
AI
_I
Navigator Icon
28. Click the Navigator icon in the toolbar.
29. In the Filter group, select the Streams radio button.
30. In the Streams list, select Reactor Prods, then click the View button.
The Reactor Prods property view appears.
31. Ensure you are on the Worksheet tab, Conditions page of the
property view.
3·73
32. Arrange the Reactor Prods and Key Variables Data views so you can
see them both.
Figure 3.100
Currently, the Reactor temperature is l400R The key variables will be
checked at 180 R
0
33. In the Reactor Prods property view, change the value in the
Temperature cell to 180. HYSYS automatically recalculates the
flowsheet. The new results appears below.
Figure 3.101
3-74
As a result of the change, the required cooling duty decreased and the
glycol production rate increased.
34. Click the Close button on the Reactor Prods stream property view to
return to the Databook. You can now record the key variables in
their new state.
35. Click on the Data Recorder tab in the Databook.
36. Click the Record button. The New Solved State view appears.
37. In the Name for New State field, change the name to 180F Reactor,
then click the OK button.
38. In the Available Display group, click the View button. The Data
Recorder appears, displaying the new values of the variables.
Figure 3.102
39. Close the Data Recorder view, then the Databook view, and finally
the Key Variables Data view.
This completes the HYSYS Chemicals Steady State Simulation tutorial. If
there are any aspects of this case that you would like to explore further,
feel free to continue working on this simulation on your own.
Further Studq
For other chemical case examples, see the Applications section.
Applications beginning with "C" explore some of the types of chemical
simulations that can be built using HYSYS.
3-75
imulation Basis Manager
5.2.5 Reactions Tab
See Chapter 5 • Reactions in
the Simulation Basis manual
for more information.
The Reactions Tab in the Simulation Basis Manager allows you to define
reactions within HYSYS. You can define an unlimited number of
reactions and group these reactions in reaction sets. The reaction sets
are then attached to unit operations in the flowsheet.
Any ReactionSet and Reaction in the Reaction Manager bank cannot be
attached to any unit operation in an electrolyte flowsheet (reactor unit
operations are disabled).
The electrolytes thermo calculation conducts a reactive and phase flash
at the same time. Therefore, adding any external reactions to a unit
operation is not yet allowed in HYSYS for electrolyte simulation.
For more information, refer to the HYSYS Electrolytes OLi manual.
The Reaction tab appears as shown in the following figure.
Figure 5.8
lliowSot
e,ddSOl..
Delete Sot
tOPl!SeL
ImpUlSo!..
E><pUISe!..
Ii
Ii
Ii
Ii
II
I!
~~FPIJ
Use the Reaction Manager to do the following:
• Create a new list of components for the reactions or use the
components associated with a fluid package.
• Add, Edit, Copy or Delete reactions and reaction sets.
• Attach reactions to various reaction sets, or attach reaction sets
to multiple fluid packages.
• Import and Export reaction sets.
5-18
Rdding aReaction 1. Click the Add Rxn button. The Reactions view appears.
2. Select the type ofreaction that you want to use.
3. Click the Add Reaction button. The Reaction Property view appears;
in this view, you can define the following:
•
•
•
•
Stoichiometry
Conversion basis
Equilibrium constant
Other properties
4. Click the Stoichiometry tab.
5. Click the field that displays **Add Comp**. Select the component
you want to use for the reaction from the drop-down list.
6. Repeat the previous step until all of the required components are
added to the table.
7. In the Stoich Coeff column, enter a stoichiometric coefficient for
each component. This value must be negative for a reactant and
positive for a product.
8. Specify the coefficient for an inert component as 0 (which for the
Conversion reaction is the same as not including the component in
the table). Fractional coefficients are acceptable.
Editing aReaction
1. From the list of available reactions, select the reaction you want to
edit.
2. Click the View Rxn button. The Reaction Property view appears. In
this view, you can modify the following:
•
•
•
•
Stoichiometry
Conversion basis
Equilibrium constant
Other properties
Deleting aReaction
1. From the list of available reactions, select the reaction you want to
delete.
2. Click the Delete Rxn button. HYSYS prompts you to confirm the
deletion.
5-19
imulation Basis Manager
Copqing aReaction
1. From the list of available reactions, select the reaction you want to
copy.
2. Click the Copy Rxn button. The Copy Reactions view appears.
Figure 5.9
Copy Reactions
EI
3. Select the reaction you want to copy from the list of reactions.
4. Use the radio buttons in the New Reaction Type group to select the
reaction type for the reaction copy.
5. Click the Copy Reaction button.
Adding aReaction Set
Available reaction solver
methods:
•
•
•
•
5-20
Newton's Method
Rate Iterated
Rate Integrated
Auto Select
1. Click the Add Set button. The Reaction Set view appears.
2. In the Active Ust column, click the <empty> cell and use the drop­
down list to select the reaction you want to add to the set.
3. In the Inactive Ust column. click the <empty> cell and use the drop­
down list to select the reaction you want to add to the set. This
reaction remains inactive, but it is included in the set.
4. From the Solver Method drop-down list. select the reaction solver
method you want to use.
5. Add any of the available reactions to the set (as long as they are the
same type). A single reaction can be added to as many sets as
necessary.
Editing aReaction Set 1. From the list of available reaction sets, select the reaction set you want to edit. 2. Click the View Set button. The Reaction Set view appears. In this
view, you can do the following:
• Add and remove reactions in the reaction set.
• Modify the solver method.
• Activate and inactivate reactions already in the set.
Deleting aReaction Set
1. From the list of available reaction sets, select the reaction set you
want to delete.
2. Click the Delete button. HYSYS prompts you to confirm the deletion
of the reaction set.
Copqing aReaction Set
1. From the list of available reaction sets, select the reaction set you
want to copy.
2. Click the Copy button.
Copying a reaction set creates a new reaction set with the exact same
properties as the original.
Importing aReacNon Set
1. Click the Import Set button. The Open File view appears.
2. Browse to the location of your reaction sets file (*.rst).
3. Select the file you want to import, then click Open.
Exporting aReaction Set
1. Click the Export Set button. The Save File view appears.
2. Specify the name and location of your reaction set file.
3. Click Save.
5-21
Hdding aReaction Set to aFluid Package
After creating reactions and reaction sets, you can associate the set(s)
with a fluid package.
1. Click the Add to FP button. The Add Reaction Set view appears.
2. From the list of available fluid packages, select the fluid package to
which you want to add a reaction set.
3. Click the Add Set to Fluid Package button.
5.2.6 Component Maps Tab
See Chapter 6 - Component
Maps in the Simulation Basis
manual for additional
information.
The Component Maps tab allows you to map fluid component
composition across fluid package boundaries. Composition values for
individual components from one fluid package can be mapped to a
different component in an alternate fluid package. This is useful when
dealing with hypothetical oil components.
Figure 5.10
Two previously defined fluid packages are required to perform a
component mapping. One fluid package becomes the target component
set and the other becomes the source component set. Mapping is
performed using a matrix ofsource and target components. The transfer
basis can be performed on a mole, mass or liquid volume basis.
5-22
5.3 Reactions
Refer to Section 5.4 •
Reaction Sets for information
on Reaction Sets.
In HYSYS, a default reaction set, the Global Rxn Set, is present in every
simulation. All compatible reactions that are added to the case are
automatically included in this set. A Reaction can be attached to a
different set, but it also remains in the Global Rxn Set unless you remove
it. To create a Reaction, click the Add Rxn button from the Reaction
Manager.
The following table describes the five types of Reactions that can be
modeled in HYSYS:
Reaction Type
C onvers on
ReqUires th e s OIChlome ry 0 filth
a
e reac Ions an d th e conversion 0
a base component in the reaction.
Equilibrium
Requires the stoichiometry of all the reactions. The term Ln(K) may
be calculated using one of several different methods, as explained
later. The reaction order for each component is determined from the
stoichiometric coefficients.
Heterogeneous
Catalytic
Requires the kinetics terms of the Kinetic reaction as well as the
Activation Energy, Frequency Factor and Component Exponent
terms of the Adsorption kinetics.
Kinetic
Requires the stoichiometry of all the reactions, as well as the
Activation Energy and Frequency Factor in the Arrhenius equation
for forward and reverse (optional) reactions. The forward and
reverse orders of reaction for each component can be specified.
I
I Simple Rate
I
I Requirements
Requires the stoichiometry of all the reactions, as well as the
Activation Energy and Frequency Factor in the Arrhenius equation
for the forward reaction. The Equilibrium Expression constants are
required for the reverse reaction.
Each of the reaction types require that you supply the stoichiometry. To
assist with this task, the Balance Error tracks the molecular weight and
supplied stoichiometry. If the reaction equation is balanced, this error is
equal to zero. If you have provided all of the stoichiometric coefficients
except one, you may select the Balance button to have HYSYS determine
the missing stoichiometric coefficient.
Reactions can be on a phase specific basis. The Reaction is applied only
to the components present in that phase. This allows different rate
equations for the vapour and liquid phase in same reactor operation.
5-7
S.3.l Manipulating Reactions When you object inspect a
reaction in the Reactions
group, you can select View or
Delete from the menu.
From the Reaction Manager, you can use the four buttons in the
Reactions group to manipulate reactions. The buttons are described
below:
I Command
Button
ViewRxn
Accesses the property view of the highlighted reaction.
AddRxn
Accesses the Reactions view, from which you select a Reaction
type.
Delete Rxn
Removes the highlighted reaction(s) from the Reaction Manager.
Copy Rxn
When selected, the Copy Reactions view appears where you can
select an alternate Reaction Type for the reaction or duplicate the
highlighted reaction.
S.3.2 Conversion Reaction
By default, conversion
reactions are calculated
simultaneously. However you
can specify sequential
reactions using the Ranking
feature. See Section 5.4 •
Reaction Sets.
The Conversion Reaction requires the Stoichiometric Coefficients for
each component and the specified Conversion of a base reactant. The
compositions of unknown streams can be calculated when the
Conversion is known.
Consider the following Conversion reaction:
bed
A+-B..-,-C+-D
a
a
a
(5.1)
where: a, b, c and d are the respective stoichiometric coefficients o/the reactants (A and B) and products (C and D). A is the base reactant and B is not in a limiting quantity.
5·8
In general, the reaction components obey the following reaction
stoichiometry:
NA
= N Ao (1-XA )
b
NB=NB--N X
o a Ao A
(5.2)
where:
N. =Theflnal moles ofcomponent '" ("'=A, B, C and D)
N.o The initial moles ofcomponent '"
XA =The conversion ofthe base component A
When you have supplied aU of
the required information for
the Conversion Reaction, the
status message will change
from Not Ready to Ready.
The moles of a reactant available for conversion in a given reaction
include any amount produced by other reactions, as well as the amount
ofthat component in the inlet stream(s). An exception to this occurs
when the reactions are specified as sequential.
Stoichiometrq Tab
The Stoichiometry tab of a conversion reaction is shown in the figure
below:
Figure 5.3
5·9
For each Conversion reaction, you must supply the following
information:
Input Field
The Reaction Heat value is
calculated and displayed
below the Balance Error. A
positive value indicates that
the reaction is endothermic.
!Information Required
Reaction Name
A default name is provided which may be changed. The previous
view shows the name as Rxn-1.
Components
The components to be reacted. A minimum of two components are
required. You must specify a minimum of one reactant and one
product for each reaction you include. Use the drop-down list to
access the available components. The Molecular Weight of each
component is automatically displayed.
Stoichiometric
Coefficient
Necessary for every component in the reaction. The Stoichiometric
Coefficient is negative for a reactant and positive for a product. You
may specify the coefficient for an inert component as 0, which, for
the Conversion reaction, is the same as not including the
component in the table. The Stoichiometric Coefficient does not
have to be an integer; fractional coefficients are acceptable.
Oasis Tab
The Basis tab of a conversion reaction is shown in the figure below:
Figure 5.4
5-10
On the Basis tab, you must supply the following information:
Required Input
Sequential Reactions may be
modeled in one reactor by
specifying the sequential order
of solution. See Reaction
Rank, in Section 5.4 ­
Reaction Sets.
Note that reactions of equal
ranking cannot exceed an
overall conversion of 100%.
I Description
Base
Component
Only a component that is consumed in the reaction (a reactant) may
be specified as the Base Component (i.e., a reaction product or an
inert component is not a valid choice). You can use the same
component as the Base Component for a number of reactions, and it
is quite acceptable for the Base Component of one reaction to be a
product of another reaction. Note that you have to add the
Components to the reaction before the Base Component can be
specified.
Rxn Phase
The phase for which the specified conversions apply. Different
kinetics for different phases can be modeled in the same reactor.
Possible choices for the Reaction Phase are:
• Overall. Reaction occurs in all Phases.
• Vapour Phase. Reaction occurs only in the Vapour Phase.
• Liquid Phase. Reaction occurs only in the Light Liquid Phase.
• Aqueous Phase. Reaction occurs only in the Heavy Liquid
Phase.
• Combined Liquid. Reaction occurs in all Liquid Phases.
Conversion
Function
Parameters
Conversion percentage can be defined as a function of reaction
temperature according to the following equation:
Conv
= Co + Cl . T + C2 . r
This is the percentage of the Base Component consumed in this
reaction. The value of Conv.(%) calculated from the equation is
always limited within the range of 0.0 and 100%.
The actual conversion of any reaction is limited to the lesser of the
specified conversion of the base component or complete
consumption of a limiting reactant.
To define a constant value for conversion percentage, enter a
conversion (%) value for Co only_ Negative values for C1 and C2 means
that the conversion drops with increased temperature and vice versa.
5-11
9.2.2 Conversion Reactor Reactions Jab
Conversion Reactor icon
Refer to Section 5.3.2 ­
Conversion Reaction in the
Simulation Basis manual
for details on creating
Conversion Reaction Sets
and Conversion Reactions.
The Conversion Reactor is a vessel in which conversion reactions are
performed. You can only attach reaction sets that contain conversion
reactions. Each reaction in the set proceeds until the specified
conversion is attained or until a limiting reactant is depleted.
The Reactions tab, consists of two pages:
•
•
Details
Results.
Details Page
You can attach the reaction set to the operation and specify the
conversion for each reaction in the set on the Details page. The reaction
set can contain only conversion reactions.
Figure 9.5
, Conwnion Roaclion Dot.
R.ac:Iittl Sot
.,..-:.3'
I"""Cor'""""'nbu:-•.,-'or""""'R-"".,,-S..
~ S~
r 0..
Iioaclion
r Corw....... ".
:.3
IA",,·1
YO_Ruction.. 1
MoieW
16.043
18.015 .
28.011
Z01S'
·loc.!
1.(0)
3,(0)
~o~ R~Wm~~~~~r.=~~-------==-----------==~1
r
Delet.
l.i;rlofed
The Details page consists of four objects as described in the table below.
ObJect
9-10
I Description
Reaction Set
Allows you to select the appropriate conversion reaction set.
Reaction
You must select the appropriate conversion reaction from the
selected Reaction Set.
i
I
Object
I Description
I
View Reaction button
Opens the Reaction property view for the reaction currently
selected in the Reaction drop-down list. The Reaction
property view allows you to edit the reaction.
[Radio buttons]
The three radio buttons on the Details page are:
• Stoichiometry
• Basis
• Conversion
The three radio buttons allow you to toggle between the
Stoichiometry group, the Basis group or the Conversion
group (each group is described in the following sections).
Stoictliometrq Radio Button
The Balance Error (for the
reaction stoichiometry) and
the Reaction Heat (Heat of
Reaction at 25°C) are also
shown for the current
reaction.
When you select the Stoichiometry radio button, the Stoichiometry Info
group appears. The Stoichiometry Info group allows you to examine the
components involved in the selected reaction, their molecular weights
as well as their stoichiometric coefficients.
Figure 9.6
MoieW
16.0<13·
18.015
29.011
2.016
·1.001
·1.001
tOOl
3.000
0.!lXD)
2.1 ••0SI<JI!\~.
9·11
CSTR/General Reactors Property View
Oasis Radio Outton
When you select the Basis radio button, the Basis group appears. In the
Basis group, you can view the base component, the conversion, and the
reaction phase for each reaction in the reaction set.
Figure 9.7
('
s~
(.' u....
r c..-....,.
up
o.... c _
R... Ph.ue
Co
v."....~1ll
Cl
<~}.
C2
<~}
c..-.... (%I. Co. Cl'T CT"2
(T in KaIWII
Conversion Radio Button
In the Fractional Conversion
Equation group, parameters
shown in red or blue colour
indicate that the variable
can be cloned.
When you select the Conversion radio button, the Fractional Conversion
Equation group appears. The Fractional Conversion Equation group
allows you to implement a conversion model based on the
Conversion(%) equation listed.
Figure 9.8
('
s~
r
B....
(.' Carwet.... %
, Fractionol c..-.... Equation
4001'1
P
p
'~~rnpjy'
p-
1*---+-.;.~mp-'-IY"i.
c..-.... (~. Co • Cl-T • C2"T"2
IT in KeIWI)
The parameters for the attached conversion reaction(s) can be cloned as
local variables belonging to the Conversion Reactor. Therefore, you can
either use the parameters specified in the reaction(s) from the attached
reaction set by clicking the Use Default checkbox or specifying locally
the values within the Fractional Conversion Equation group.
9-12
View Reaction Hutton
When you click the View Reaction button, the Conversion Reaction
property view of the reaction currently selected in the Reaction drop­
down list appears.
Figure 9.9
SIoic:hiome!tY lrio
co
Hydrcige"
""Add Comp""
BfIonca
16,043
18.015
29.01 (
i01G
Sloich Coefl
·1000
·1.000
1.000
3000
I
~S~r.B~_~'r==-========--------~I
0_
tI_IAx",l
Any changes made to the Conversion Reaction property view are made
globally to the selected Reaction and any Reaction Sets which contain
the Reaction. For example, if any change is made to the reaction shown
in the figure above, the change is carried over to every other instance in
which this Reaction is used. It is therefore recommended that changes
which are Reactor specific (Le., changes which are only meant to affect
one Reactor) are made within the Reactions tab.
Results Page
You can change the specified
conversion for a reaction
directly on this page.
The Results page displays the results of a converged reactor. The page
consists of the Reactor Results Summary group which contains two
radio buttons:
•
•
Reaction Extents
Reaction Balance.
The type of results displayed on the Results page depend on the radio
button selected.
9-13
CSTR/General Reactors Property View
Reaction Extents Radio Hutton
When the Reaction Extents radio button is selected, the Results page
appears as shown in the figure below.
Figure 9.10
Reocla Flaub S _ (I"
BeacIionENI!JfI!'
("' Fl84dion a..,.,
11.....1
R..,.2
R..,.3
Ad.:tCnv
II
lIUJ!l
~
B_Como
Flori<.
33.60.,
4Il.31 .
MeIIIone
MeIIIone
..........
R""E_
4.923
9.144
13.15
-
When there are multiple
reactions in a Reaction Set,
HYSYS automatically ranks
the reactions. A reaction
with a lower ranking value
occurs first. Each group of
reactions of equal rank can
have an overall specified
conversion between 0% and
100%.
Any changes made to the
global reaction affect all
Reaction Sets to which the
reaction is attached,
provided local changes have
not been made.
9-14
The Reactor Results Summary group displays the following results for a
converged reactor:
Result Field
I Description
Rank
Displays the current rank of the reaction. For multiple
reactions, lower ranked reactions occur first.
Actual % Conversion
Displays the percentage of the base component in the feed
stream(s) which has been consumed in the reaction.
Base Component
The reactant to which the calculation conversion is based
on.
Rxn Extent
Lists the molar rate consumption of the base component.
Notice that the actual conversion values do not match the specified
conversion values. Rxn-3 proceeds first and is halted when a limiting
reactant is exhausted. The sum of the specified conversions for Rxn-l
and Rxn-2 is 100%, so all of the remaining base component can be
consumed, provided a limiting reactant is not fully consumed
beforehand. All of the base component is consumed, and this is
reflected in the actual conversion totalling 100%.
Reaction Balance Radio Button
When the Reaction Balance radio button is selected, the Reaction
Balance option provides an overall component summary for the
Conversion Reactor. All components which appear in the fluid package
are shown here.
Figure 9.11
R_R_S_ r Beooetion E _
Ii" Ruction B_
T
lnllow
lot
ToIolR""
. . ·Zl.22
TotllOI.llftow
a,COD
1009
36.25
27,22
Zl7.7
98.93
26,30
4,923
22.29 '
51,34
·12490-014
. '·26.30
.
- 277.9
41.21
4i1.51
269,1
98.93
,
Q,COD
Values appear after the solution of the reactor has converged. The Total
Inflow rate, the Total Reacted rate and the Total Outflow rate for each
component are provided on a molar basis. Negative values indicate the
consumption of a reactant, while positive values indicate the
appearance of a product.
9.2.3 CSTR Reactions Tab
For more information on
Kinetic. Heterogeneous
Catalytic and Simple Rate
reactions. refer to Chapter 5
- Reactions in the
Simulation Basis manual.
CSTR icon
The CSTR is a vessel in which Kinetic, Heterogeneous Catalytic, and
Simple Rate reactions can be performed. The conversion in the reactor
depends on the rate expression of the reactions associated with the
reaction type. The inlet stream is assumed to be perfectly (and
instantaneously) mixed with the material already in the reactor, so that
the outlet stream composition is identical to that ofthe reactor contents.
Given the reactor volume, a consistent rate expression for each reaction
and the reaction stoichiometry, the CSTR computes the conversion of
each component entering the reactor.
9-15
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement