2013 Salary Survey Back from the Grave

2013 Salary Survey Back from the Grave
2013 Salary Survey
Back from the Grave—
The Resurrection of
Lincoln Paper
Intrinsically Safe,
Cost-Effective
Coal Mining
JUNE 2013
ON THE WEB
Ensuring Strong Security
in Your Control System
CT1306_01_CVR.indd 1
Many distributed control systems
are rapidly aging and risk
breaking down. Luckily, there are
many new tools and innovative
methods for supporting and
breathing new life into controls
and process applications.
6/3/13 11:11 AM
© 2012 Siemens Industry, Inc.
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© Copyright 2013. All rights reserved. Invensys, the Invensys logo, Foxboro and Triconex are trademarks of Invensys plc, its subsidiaries or affiliates.
All other brands and product names may be trademarks of their respective owners.
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6/3/13 10:40 AM
ABB Safety Systems. Integrated or integrated?
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2/6/13 3:33 PM
6/3/13 10:41 AM
June 2013 • Volume XXVI • Number 6
f e at u r e s
C
o
v
e
r
S
t
o
r
y
32 / restoration Possible
It’s possible to support and breathe new life into old controls and process applications. by Jim Montague
Cover photo: Pavel Kapish/Shutterstock.com
S
a
l
a
r
y
S
u
r
v
e
y
42 / Steady State
In spite of economic turbulence, the state of the process
engineer remains remarkably stable. by Nancy Bartels
BuSine SS ProCe SS imProvement
47 / Back from the Grave
How multivariable testing reanimated Lincoln Paper.
by Nancy Bartels
i
n
t
r
i
n
S
i
C
S
a
f
e
t
y
51 / Where the information is
Daw Mill colliery implements intrinsically safe (IS) PLCs
and IS Ethernet. by Jim Montague
W E B
E X C L U S I V E S
Securing Your OPC Classic Control System
www.controlglobal.com/articles/2013/enterprise-sysconnect.html
Photo: Sherri R. Camp/Shutterstock.com
CONTROL (ISSN 1049-5541) is published monthly by PUTMAN Media COMPANY (also publishers of CONTROL DESIGN, CHEMICAL PROCESSING, FOOD PROCESSING, INDUSTRIAL NETwORkING,
PHARMACEUTICAL MANUFACTURING, and PLANT SERVICES ), 555 w. Pierce Rd., Ste. 301, Itasca, IL 60143. (Phone 630/467-1300; Fax 630/467-1124.) Address all correspondence to Editorial and Executive Offices, same address. Periodicals Postage Paid at Itasca, IL, and at additional mailing offices. Printed in the United States. © Putman Media 2013. All rights reserved. The contents of this publication may not be reproduced in whole or part without
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J u n e / 2 0 1 3 www.controlglobal.com
CT1306_05_07_TOC.indd 5
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6/4/13 9:33 AM
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6/3/13 10:41 AM
June 2013 • Volume XXVI • Number 6
On-site
On-line
Hands-on
or in the
Classroom
D E PA RT M E N T S
9 / Editor’s Page
Security: It’s Not Just Cyber Anymore
But there’s more to it than just stopping
crazy bombers at races.
11 / On the Web
Safety on Our Minds
look here for some of our most recent online coverage of process safety issues.
13 / Feedback
How long will it take big cybersecurity
vendors to get iCS security?
14 / Other Voices
arC’s report on Q4 2012 and what it means
for the rest of 2013.
19 / On the Bus
30 / Resources
online help with controlling your loops.
55 / Ask the Experts
ultrasonic flowmeters for paper pulp; flowmeter accuracy.
57 / Roundup
Contents under Pressure
the latest in pressure instrumentation.
60 / Products
northwest analytics’ new manufacturing
intelligence solution, instrument housings,
smart phone apps, power converters, flowmeters and more new products.
63 / Control Talk
China Gets FF Virtual Marshalling
You should too. note: it’s not quite the same
as “remote i/o.”
The Road to Success in Model-Predictive
Control
How Chevron downstream and Controls
does it.
20 / Without Wires
65 / Ad Index
The Industrial Wireless Game Changes
nivis goes open-source, providing the
source code for its iSa100.11a and WirelessHart software platforms.
22 / In Process
You choose.
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Customize your training
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Whether it be on-site, on-line
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and now a word from our sponsors.
66 / Control Report
You Can Do More Than You Think
Software and PC-based tools are making
upgrades easier.
Monsanto Muscatine is Hart’s plant of
the year; and other process news.
Find out more about
Endress+Hauser’s unique training:
www.us.endress.com/training
CirCulation audited June 2012
Food & Kindred Products............................................ 11,430
Chemicals & Allied Products ...................................... 10,731
Systems Integrators & Engineering Design Firms ......... 9,277
Primary Metal Industries ............................................... 5,073
Electric, Gas & Sanitary Services .................................. 4,055
Pharmaceuticals ............................................................ 3,749
Paper & Allied Products ................................................ 3,623
CT1306_05_07_TOC.indd 7
Petroleum Refining & Related Industries ....................... 3,417
Rubber & Miscellaneous Plastic Products .................... 3,372
Miscellaneous Manufacturers ....................................... 2,141
Stone, Clay, Glass & Concrete Products ....................... 1,758
Textile Mill Products ..................................................... 1,248
Tobacco Products............................................................. 146
Total Circulation .......................................................... 60,000
6/4/13 9:33 AM
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EDITOR’S PAGE
Security: it’s not Just cyber Anymore
The bombing of the Boston Marathon by two young Chechen immigrants to the United
States and the damage on April 16 to several transformers at the critical PG&E Metcalf
Road substation that serves Silicon Valley should remind us that attacking critical infra-
In fact, the threat scenarios that truly
frighten the anti-terrorism folks in federal, state
and local governments include multiple attack
vectors and wave attacks. If a dedicated group
of terrorists really wanted to do maximum damage for the least cost, a combined physical and
cyber attack, conducted in waves over several
hours or even days, would be the most effective way to strike a serious blow at our critical
infrastructure. I find it important to note that
the perpetrators of the “vandalism” at the Metcalf substation have not been caught as of this
writing.
I’ve written before about the dangers of attacks on the electrical grid. The power companies and the North American Electric Reliability Corp. (NERC) are locked in a game of “that
can’t happen” and “we are in compliance,”
rather than acting swiftly and decisively to improve cybersecurity (and physical security, for
that matter). They falsely equate security with
legal risk and liability, rather than understanding that improving both physical and cybersecurity is actually improving the reliability of
the grid.
It is a good thing that the oil and gas, refining
and chemicals sectors have taken cybersecurity
(and physical security) seriously as a subset of
process safety. The water and wastewater distribution sectors are also taking security seriously.
It is to be hoped that the Metcalf incident will
help the electric utilities to do so, but frankly,
based on the record of NERC and the large
utilities over the past 10 years, I doubt it.
Compliance and conventional risk management can’t be used in the case of cybersecurity,
especially in the case of combined attacks conducted in waves. Compliance is a legal fiction
that says that an audit indicates that the utility
is operating in accordance with the letter of the
regulations. If the regulations themselves, such
Walt boyes
Editor in chiEf
[email protected]
structure by cyber means isn’t the only way to injure the U.S. economy by terror.
as the NERC CIPs, are not specifically designed
to address increased reliability through security,
the audit will not show security deficits. It’s not
intended to. What it is intended to do is to shift
the burden of liability after an attack from the
utility to the regulations. “It’s not our fault; we
were in compliance.”
While risk management does work, most of
the time, in the case of accidental incidents,
it is unreliable and worse than useless in the
event of an active, directed terrorist attack. So
operating from a conformance or compliance
or risk management view will not make us safer
or more secure in our critical infrastructure.
The question is, though, how long we can
wait before we begin to actually put policies in
place to improve reliability in the electric utilities, rather than assuring legal compliance.
What happens if a major incident does occur? Remember, the same results can be from a
concatenation of accidental incidents as from a
directed, intentional, terrorist attack.
Supposing the Boston Marathon bombers
had decided to bomb the substations around
Boston, or managed to hit a large turbine generator? What would happen if it were not possible to get power restored to any large urban area
for weeks or maybe even months? The results
would not be pretty.
So we should use the Boston Marathon
bombing as a wake-up call, and be “thankful”
the bombers hit a running event instead of a
part of our critical infrastructure killing many
more. I know that sounds rude, but we need to
face the reality that we are continually under
threat and deal with it, now, before a real disaster happens.
When will we begin
to actually put
policies in place to
improve reliability
in the electric
utilities rather than
assuring legal
compliance?
J u n e / 2 0 1 3 www.controlglobal.com
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6/3/13 11:10 AM
800 453 6202
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CONTROL ONLINE
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www.controlglobal.com/thismonth
Safety on Our Minds
Electronic Weighing Systems Handbook
The third edition of this comprehensive text from Vishay Weighing
Systems. www.controlglobal.com/
wp_downloads/130429-vishay-weighing-systems.html
NANCY BARTELS
MANAGING EDITOR
nbar [email protected]
The Power of the Loop
What with tornados, floods, terrorist attacks and factory explosions and collapses, safety’s been on our minds at ControlGlobal.com quite a bit lately.
Given that our view of the world focuses tightly on process automation, those
industrial “accidents” have garnered the bulk of our attention.
Workplace safety is a lot more manageable than preventing floods or tornados, which isn’t to say it’s easy. Still, it’s something that has to be on every
business’s agenda, especially if one’s business involves substances like oil and
gas, chemicals or explosives.
Over time, ControlGlobal.com has gathered a library of material on process
safety. The most recent additions include last month’s cover story, “Solving
the Process Safety Puzzle” (www.controlglobal.com/articles/2013/bartels-solving-process-safety-puzzle.html),
which talks about the trend toward integrated DCS and
safety systems, and the challenges of building a plantwide safety culture. A companion piece is the ARC podcast with Barry Young at http://tinyurl.com/pkrzy6v.
To hear more about integrated safety systems, listen to
Walt Boyes discuss them with Charlie Fialkowski of Siemens, an active member
of ISA’s S84 standards committee, and Bill Goble of exida, a global authority
on SIS and process safety. Go to www.controlglobal.com/articles/2007/326.html.
At www.controlglobal.com/articles/2008/162.html, Dan Hebert discusses
why process safety is so hard.
Security issues have added a new wrinkle to the safety debate. This article,
“Cybersecurity in Your Safety DNA” (www.controlglobal.com/articles/2012/
boyes-cybersecurity-safety-dna.html) talks about linking the two.
At www.controlglobal.com/articles/2008/162.html, Jim Montague explains why “sorry” isn’t a good enough response when a catastrophic accident happens at your plant.
We have plenty of white papers on safety subjects too. You might start with
“Selection of a SIS for Maximum Availability,” (www.controlglobal.com/wp_
downloads/080815_RTP_Safety.html), while “Don’t Compromise on Safety”
(www.controlglobal.com/wp_downloads/121009-hima-safety.html) discusses
how to be uncompromising about safety without breaking the bank.
And there are plenty more where those came from. Just type the words
“process safety” into the ControlGlobal search box for the entire collection.
Meanwhile, as Sgt. Phil Esterhaus of “Hill Street Blues” used to tell his
people every morning, “Let’s be careful out there.”
Integrated safety systems offer
one solution, but there’s no
one-size-fits-all fix.
ON THE WEB
Reviving Lincoln Paper
with Multivariable
Testing
M AY 2 0 1 3
What’s New in
PC-Based
Control
Motors and
Drives Grow Up
and Graduate
Killing Dead
Time
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4/29/13 10:26 AM
You don’t have to tear down your current loop and use its power to upgrade
to digital technology. www.controlglobal.com/whitepapers/2013/130424otek-power-of-loop-back-to-basics.
html
The Difference Between Process Control
and Management
http://community.controlglobal.com/
content/difference-between-processcontrol-management
Unified Approach to PID Control
http://community.controlglobal.com/
content/unifi ed-approach-pid-controlsteps-12-16-tips
Exida Discovers Counterfeit
Safety Certificates
http://community.controlglobal.com/
content/exida-discovers-counterfeitsafety-certificates-0
ControlGlobal E-News
Multimedia Alerts
White Paper Alerts
Go to www.controlglobal.com and
follow instructions to register for our
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Go to www.controlglobal.com and follow instructions to register for our free weekly e-newsletters.
J U N E / 2 0 1 3 www.controlglobal.com
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6/3/13 12:11 PM
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© 2013 Magnetrol International, Incorporated
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FEEDBACK
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IT versus ICS
[In a May 20 post (http://tinyurl.com/przvtr3), our “Unfettered” blogger, cybersecurity expert Joe Weiss, argues that cybersecurity heavyweights such as Symantec still
don’t get industrial control system (ICS)cybersecurity.]
Weiss states: “With so much money and
spotlight on critical infrastructure protection and no barrier to entry, is it a surprise
there’s so much participation from the IT
security community that’s relatively clueless about ICS issues? This lack of understanding is evident in the utility control
system cybersecurity test bed. Most of the
companies that responded to provide ICS
cybersecurity solutions simply rebranded
their IT solutions with the term ‘SCADA’
in front with minimal understanding of
the environment. This lack of understanding is not painless. There have been too
many ICSs shut down or disabled by wellintentioned IT types. As a plant manager
recently stated, ‘With well- intentioned
people monkeying around in the automation system, who needs terrorists or disgruntled employees?’ ”
One blog reader, named “bryansowen,”
adds: “Indeed, this is a quite ironic position for Symantec given their researchers
were knee-deep with Stuxnet.
“Not too long ago ICS were just too
complex or expensive to have test beds.
Many apprentice engineers and technicians had no choice but to ‘practice’ on
production systems.
“The test bed concept is awesome. Integrating the test bed concept with realworld practices at a utility seems like a
good path forward. Industry probably
needs a few more test beds. ICS-ISAC is
starting up the ICS Security Lab, but a few
more real-world venues might be in order.
“If you really want folks involved in ICS
security they need safe place to learn.”
More on Fukushima
I have a GE certificate in boiling water reactor (BWR) technology. Béla’s analysis
(May, 2013, http://tinyurl.com/oad2uyg) is
incorrect in several aspects. He is confusing “passive” emergency cooling with the
systems that were designed in. BWRs have
emergency cooling systems designed to
work both at high and low pressures, but
none are fully passive.
This statement of Béla’s is incorrect:
“The plant was neither provided with elevated water storage tanks (to take advantage of gravity to flood the reactors), nor
with backup cooling
water pumps driven
by steam turbines,
as steam energy was
available.”
In fact, BWR IVs
have two different
emergency cooling
systems, which are
designed to keep the reactor cool by using steam. They’re called RCIC and EDS.
RCIC has a steam turbine-driven pump.
These systems do require some electric
power (to run their I&C!). This is part of
the reason why emergency diesel generators and associated busses/switchgear are
designed into the plant. No emergency
power was available at Fukushima except
station batteries, which only lasted a short
time as expected.
The meltdowns occurred because
emergency electric power could not be
supplied.
Electric power could not be supplied
because the critical switchgear was under
water. The critical switchgear was under
water because the tsunami had flooded it.
The tsunami flooded critical switchgear
because the tsunami was higher than the
plant’s design basis.
The design basis tsunami estimate
for Fukushima proved to be inadequate.
Tepco realized this possibility during
the plant life, after the plant was built,
and made some adjustments, but did not
change the formal design basis. Had they
done so, the inadequate elevation of the
critical switchgear would likely have been
noted and changed. There are very serious
financial, regulatory and organizational
barriers to changing a plant’s design basis,
especially after it is built.
HARRY FORBES
[email protected]
J U N E / 2 0 1 3 www.controlglobal.com
CT1306_13_Feedback.indd 13
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6/4/13 9:58 AM
Other VOices
is Q4 2012 a Harbinger of Things to Come?
ARC Advisory Group developed its quarterly Automation Index to summarize the current state of automation markets to enable participants to learn from past developRoy KoK
ARC AdvisoRy GRoup
[email protected]
In both the process
and discrete
manufacturing
industry groups,
the charts show
that market
development was
flat during 2012.
14
ments and to provide a forecast based on major variables, such as investment, consumer spending, GDP and other leading economic indicators. ARC bases its index on
publicly available data of major automation companies, including published revenues. Each vendor is included within its region of origin. Extreme
values, such as those resulting from acquisitions,
are excluded, and all raw data is seasonally adjusted. Seasonal changes in financial reports are
frequent due to incentive structures, and are usually strong in the last quarter of a fiscal year.
ARC’s Automation Index has proven to mirror market developments well, but the current
situation is difficult to forecast. In Europe,
many early economic indicators point upwards,
while product sales in many categories decline.
In Asia, Chinese and Indian markets developed
poorly in 2012, whereas Japan was a bright spot.
In North America, the political and regulatory situation added uncertainty, while new inexpensive energy and feedstock sources and a
new focus on manufacturing injected new life
into several industrial segments.
Looking at both the process and discrete
manufacturing industry groups, the charts
show that the market development was flat during 2012. How they will develop through 2013
depends on a number of factors. The discrete
industries, which typically lead the process industries by between two and four quarters, had
already turned negative in Q4 2012.
ARC believes that, overall, the growth in Q1
2013 will be near zero, and may be slightly negative due to developments in Europe. For mid- to
late-2013, we expect an upturn to kick in. However, since 2012 benefited from the backlogs of
2011, we expect low overall growth in 2013.
Global Development
In North America, we see three important factors, two positive and one negative:
• Re-shoring caused by government initiatives is helping to drive a manufacturing
resurgence in the U.S.;
• Shale gas development in the U.S. and continued development of oil sands in Canada
provide low-cost energy and petrochemical
feedstock, giving a competitive advantage to
many North American industries; and
• The constant threat of the fiscal cliff and
sequestration-related budget cuts will have
a negative impact.
In Asia, the growth motors of the last decade,
China and India, both face a turbulent time,
and much of the local development will depend
on both nations’ ability to re-stabilize investment
and return to a sustainable growth path. In Japan, the current monetary easing policy is stimulating economic growth, at least over the short
term. ARC estimates that most of the effects will
impact the automation market in Q3 and Q4
2013, and will disappear afterwards.
In Europe, the ongoing debt crisis recently
hit another inflection point with the situation in
Cyprus. While the structure in Europe offers a
Americas
Europe
Asia
WW
Q4 2012
k
k
i
k
Q3 2012
k
i
i
i
Q2 2012
k
g
k
g
Q1 2012
k
g
k
k
Q4 2011
k
i
h
k
Q3 2011
h
h
h
h
Q2 2011
h
h
h
h
Q1 2011
h
h
h
h
Q4 2010
h
h
h
h
Q3 2010
h
h
h
h
Q2 2010
k
h
h
h
mixed Reviews
Figure 1. Growth in 2012 over all four quarters was
decidedly mixed, with some actual declines in
the third and fourth quarters.
www.controlglobal.com J u n e / 2 0 1 3
CT1306_14_16_Voices.indd 14
6/3/13 3:33 PM
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CT1306_full
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OTHER VOICES
Discrete industries
Process industries
60%
60%
300
250
40%
250
40%
200
20%
200
20%
150
0%
150
0%
100
-20%
100
-20%
50
-40%
50
-40%
-60%
0
300
0
Q1
Q1 Q1 Q1
Q1 Q1
Q1 Q1 Q1
Q1
Q1
Q1 Q1
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
Growth to the year ago period
Discrete value
Discrete trend
Q1
Q1 Q1 Q1
Q1 Q1
Q1 Q1 Q1
Q1
Q1
Q1 Q1
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
Growth to the year ago period
Process value
-60%
Process trend
DISCRETE VERSUS PROCESS
Figure 2. Disrete manufacturing tends to lead process in terms of growth or decline. Its numbers already turned negative in Q4 of 2012. The
process numbers remained flat. Indications are that growth in 2013 will be slow at best.
foundation for growth and a stable economy, the longer the crisis lasts, the more significant could be the long-term impacts,
particularly if the current high rates of unemployment among
youth continue and ultimately threaten the availability of educated and trained labor to support economic growth.
Looking at the year-over–year growth, ARC forecasts a
flat Q1/Q2 2013, with an increase in growth afterwards. Our
worst-case scenario is a completely negative 2013, which is not
totally unlikely, based on our analysis of the book-to-bill ratio.
The ARC Automation Index report goes into a great deal
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ON THE BUS
Fieldbus Savings the Same in dollars or Yuan
At the Fieldbus Foundation General Assembly in Shanghai this March, Lin Rong, chief
engineer for Sinopec, discussed a real-world example of fieldbus versus conventional
I/O. For a large petrochemical project, he solicited bids from a number of service pro-
added the price of copper, instantly the fieldbus
solutions become the clear winner across the
board, regardless of who was bidding the job.
I was presenting a paper in the latter part of
2010 with my friend, distinguished technologist of Emerson Process Management, Marcos
Peluso. He has has contributed greatly to the
success of fieldbus and its widespread adoption.
The aim of our paper was to dispel some of
the fear, uncertainty and doubt that had arisen
from the struggles of early adopters. We were
doing a little math to show that, even with the
more expensive fieldbus infrastructure (couplers, power conditioners, terminators, etc.),
bussed I/O was still a clear winner.
Then a member of our audience interjected,
“I can do the same thing with remote I/O.
There’s been too much hype about the cost savings of fieldbus!” he wailed.
I was a little unprepared and admittedly
befuddled by this argument. True, early proponents of fieldbus were at times prone to hyperbole when claiming savings from installing
fieldbus instead of point-to-point, but in recent
years that sort of marketing zeal had seemingly
moved to wireless. Was our listener carrying a
grudge from 1999?
I had never thought of fieldbus as remote
I/O. To me fieldbus was the new 4-20 mA, an
open digital standard for the integration of microprocessor-based devices with microprocessor-based DCS systems. Remote I/O was an
expedient compromise for lower priority and
indicate-only measurements. In the predominant cultures of the large process industries, remote I/O was rarely considered an acceptable
choice for robust control. Why? Remote I/O
requires field-sourced power and a geographically diverse, secure and redundant backhaul
network that itself may require field power for
repeaters, media converters and switches.
john Rez abek
contributing Editor
[email protected]
viders, and sure enough, they all estimated a higher cost for fieldbus. But when he
If you’re running an ethylene cracker or a refinery, you don’t like losing your eyes—critical
measurements and controls—when the lights
go out, even if it’s only for forensics. It’s possible
to make remote I/O processors, power supplies,
networks, repeaters, media converters and
switches redundant, and even to have some sort
of UPS power out in the plant area, but it’s not a
trivial or inexpensive effort to engineer, deploy
or maintain. And when you’re done, what you
have is “remote I/O.”
Fieldbus has this much in common with
remote I/O: it brings in a multitude of information on a single pair of wires. Sure, you’re
limited to 16 to 32 devices on a pair, but each
of those devices can be a portal for eight or
more process variables, their statuses, device
diagnostics, and closed-loop control. One
Pepperl+Fuchs discrete device can operate and
monitor the limit switches and solenoids of four
on-off valves. One Rosemount 848T can communicate eight temperatures from diverse sensors or other analog inputs. Application by application, you can pick and choose whether you
need inputs or outputs, analog or discrete, modulating valves, and on-off valves or single-variable transmitters. You can add what you need,
where you need it, in the precise quantities you
need it, and it all shares the same pair of wires.
The majority of devices, especially valve positioners, are powered over the same pair from
the UPS-powered and battery-backed-up control house. And, you get all this without changing a single I/O card.
What you get is “virtual marshalling,” all
the copper-saving benefits of remote I/O, and
a modern and robust solution for process control at the same time. Engineering leaders such
as Sinopec’s Rong are realizing millions in
savings in China—and the money spends the
same all over.
You get “virtual
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j u n e / 2 0 1 3 www.controlglobal.com
CT1306_19_OTB.indd 19
19
6/3/13 11:05 AM
Without Wires
industrial wireless Goes open-source
In mid-April, Nivis, (www.nivis.com) announced it’s now providing the source code for
its ISA100.11a and WirelessHART software platforms, which will certainly encourage the
ian verhappen
Director,
inDustrial automation ne t works
[email protected]
Open-source
developers can’t
turn bad ideas into
good ideas, but
they can turn
good ideas into
great ideas.
20
development of products using both protocols. It appears the business model Nivis
plans to follow is a combination of the one used by many Linux providers and similar
open-source-based companies. The company’s
press release states: “Nivis will utilize a hybrid
model, in which the core software is freely
available, with Nivis selling a complete suite of
supporting services and hardware, which will
include software maintenance, professional
services—consulting and support, ATEX Zone
2 gateways (VersaRouter 900), OEM gateway
modules (VersaRouter 800), radio modules
(VersaNode 210, 220, 310), hardware reference
designs, development kits, handheld provisioning tools and network simulation devices.”
Going to an open-source model will open
the standard development to a wide range of
communities, including universities, systems
integrators, OEMs, end users, enthusiasts and
startups. It gives them the opportunity to build
on the WirelessHART and ISA100.11a software
platforms.
The open-source offering includes the following software components for the two protocols: ISA100.11a—field device, backbone
router, gateway, system manager and security
manager; and WirelessHART—field device, access point, gateway, network manager and security manager.
Of course, the above software still requires
the approved hardware to operate properly, and
of course, Nivis will be pleased to sell you that
and the associated listed services as well. Despite this, moving to an open-source model will
increase the adoption of wireless field networks,
while also increasing access to, and hence, the
pool of coders able to assist in its advancement.
What’s not addressed with the open-source
software, but is certainly something that will be
of concern to end users before they implement
a field-level network in their facility, will be the
question of compliance. The device is made
compliant by receiving the appropriate “registration” with either the HART Communications
Foundation or the ISA100 Wireless Compliance Institute. Registration is usually based on a
combination of hardware and software, so even
though the software will be free, anyone wanting to develop a new device will need to acquire
a suitable platform as well—likely from Nivis
would be my guess.
Open source may be free, however, the total
solution cost must factor in other items such as
training, consulting, maintenance, etc. As a result, the total cost of ownership to institutions
may not differ greatly between a closed-source
solution and an open-source alternative.
The enterprise version of the software was
available in April, with the developer code released in mid-May, so both versions are now
available for download from www.nivis.com/
OpenSource. As is typical of open-source tools,
a developer’s forum for online support is also
being hosted at www.nivis.com/Forums. Posting of bugs for tracking on the forum risks
“warts” in the software, as well the associated
standard, being open to others.
However, as in most open-source environments, the ability to add features and submit
them back to the community will help improve
the code. Open-source developers can’t make
bad ideas become good ideas, but they can turn
good ideas into great ideas, which will improve
the associated standards as well, assuming
they’re fed back to the associated committees,
though it’s likely many committee members
will at least monitor developments.
This is a smart move on the part of Nivis,
as I’m sure it will help the company sell more
hardware/chipsets. More important, making
this software available will expand the development pool for innovative ways to use wireless
field level networks, and find the “killer apps”
that will fuel the rapid adoption of wireless
technology in plant environments.
www.controlglobal.com J u n e / 2 0 1 3
CT1306_20_Wireless.indd 20
6/3/13 11:04 AM
Using wireless here and there is one thing.
But using it across my entire operation?
There’s no one I could trust to do that.
n
,
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Emerson is your proven partner with Smart Wireless in more customer sites and with more operating
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to expand your vision into more places across your operations. And its self-organizing mesh network
delivers the highest reliability available. It is simply the most intelligent, secure and cost-effective
operation-wide wireless option available. See how Smart Wireless can empower your bottom line
at EmersonProcess.com/SmartWireless
The Emerson logo is a trademark and a service mark of Emerson Electric Co. © 2012 Emerson Electric Co.
CT1306_full page ads.indd 21
6/3/13 10:43 AM
In Process
Monsanto Muscatine named
2012 HART Plant of the Year
Getting connected to HART Communication improves plant operation, and enables transition from reactive to proactive and predictive maintenance.
The Monsanto chemical plant in Muscatine, Iowa, is the 2012 HART Plant
of the Year. The award showcases end
users who have demonstrated ingenuity in the application of HART communication technology for real-time
operational improvements.
Monsanto engineers used the full
capabilities of HART Communication
to get connected and integrate the intelligent information from more than
600 HART-enabled devices into their
control systems, CMMS and daily work
processes. Using the intelligent device
information significantly reduced costs
and improved plant operations as it enabled the transition from reactive to proactive and predictive maintenance.
“By implementing condition-based
monitoring techniques, we can effectively identify, diagnose, troubleshoot
and ultimately repair issues prior to
their effects negatively impacting production,” says Joel Holmes, Monsanto’s
site electrical reliability engineer. “We
were able to identify the bad actors and
save the operation between $800,000
and $1.6 million dollars in cost avoidance per year.”
According to Holmes, the use of
HART enabled the plant to embrace
the asset optimization process in assigning criticality measures to over
14,000 pieces of equipment and instrumentation; incorporate an asset
management system into the plant’s
site reliability workflow practices; leverage and share reliability results and
document return on investment (ROI);
and quantify predictive versus reactive
work by generating a bad actor list that
shows how much cost avoidance the reliability program is providing. 22
Hart plant of tHe year winners
Ron Helson (2nd from left), HART Communication Foundation’s executive director, presents
the 2012 HART Plant of the Year Award to Monsanto Muscatine represented by (l-r) Thad
Witte, electrical reliability technician, Dave Penn, plant manager, Joel Holmes, site electrical
reliability engineer, and Mike Chaney, electrical reliability technician.
“HART-enabled devices [measurement devices and smart valve positioners] are at the core of this achievement. I consider the asset management
system to be a smart handheld on steroids!” says Holmes. “Now management is asking the reliability group to
identify what we want to do next.” Monsanto is expanding its use of
HART Communication through the
application of WirelessHART. WirelessHART is currently installed at its
waste treatment facility, and was recently added to one of the company’s
Acetanilide herbicide manufacturing
units with the addition of six level instruments for pump seal pots. Five additional WirelessHART gateways have
been purchased for installation in the
near future, and will provide network
coverage for the entire facility. Monsanto Muscatine is home to
eight operating units on 150-plus acres,
and employs 450+ personnel. The plant
produces over 70% of North America’s
Roundup herbicide in addition to 100%
of the company’s Acetanilide Select
Chemistry products, including Harness
Xtra, Degree Xtra and Warrant.
The HART Plant of the Year award
is given annually to recognize the people, companies and plant sites around
the world using the advanced capabilities of HART Communication in
real-time applications to improve operations, lower costs and increase availability. Previous recipients are Shell
Scotford (Canada); MOL Danube Refinery (Hungary); Mitsubishi Chemical (Japan); Petropiar PVSDA (Venezuela); StatoilHydro (Norway); BP
Canada Energy (Canada); Sasol Solvents (South Africa); BP Cooper River
(US) and Clariant (Germany); Detroit Water and Sewerage Department
(US); and DuPont (US).
www.controlglobal.com J u n e / 2 0 1 3
CT1306_22_28_InPro.indd 22
6/3/13 9:46 AM
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6/3/13 10:43 AM
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MIT Technology Review
Recognizes ABB Innovation
Power and automation technology group ABB has been recognized by MIT Technology Review for its hybrid, high-voltage, direct-current (HVDC) breaker, placing it among the
10 most important technology milestones of the past year.
This is an annual list highlighting the top 10 breakthrough
technologies the editors believe will have the greatest impact on the shape of innovation in the future.
“Since 2001, our editors have carefully selected the technologies poised to make the greatest impact on the shape of
innovation in the years to come and the organizations leading the charge in those fields,” says MIT Technology Review
editor-in-chief and publisher, Jason Pontin. “ABB is helping
to define the way we think about creating practical, highvoltage, direct-current circuit breakers.”
The hybrid HVDC breaker overcomes a 100-year-old barrier to the development of interconnected HVDC transmission
grids, which can help improve grid reliability and enhance the
capability of existing AC networks. It combines very fast mechanics with power electronics, and will be capable of ‘interrupting’ power flows equivalent to the output of a large power
station within 5 milliseconds, which is 30 times faster than the
blink of a human eye.
HVDC technology facilitates the long-distance transfer
of power from hydropower plants, integration of offshore
wind power, development of visionary solar projects, and the
interconnection of different power networks. Deployment of
HVDC has led to an increasing number of point-to-point
connections in different parts of the world. The logical next
step is to connect the lines and optimize the network.
ABB pioneered HVDC nearly 60 years ago, and continues to be a technology driver and market leader with many
innovations and developments, recently earning it a place
among MIT Technology Review’s top 50 most disruptive
companies in 2013.
Invensys Awarded Quality Challenge
Coin from Bechtel Parsons
Invensys has received the Bechtel Quality Challenge Coin,
recognizing its work for the Bechtel Parsons Blue Grass Joint
Venture at the Blue Grass Chemical Agent-Destruction Pilot
Plant (BGCAPP) project. Bechtel Parsons Blue Grass is the
systems contractor for the BGCAPP, which is being built to
safely and efficiently destroy a stockpile of chemical weapons
currently in storage at the Blue Grass Army Depot in Kentucky. The plant will destroy 523 tons of munitions containing blister and nerve agents.
6/3/13 9:47 AM
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CT1306_full page ads.indd 25
3/12/2013 2:52:28 AM
6/3/13 10:43 AM
In Process
In July 2006, Bechtel Parsons Blue Grass contracted Invensys to provide a facility control system to help operate
the BGCAPP. Invensys is supplying comprehensive control and safety systems and software solutions based on its
InFusion enterprise control technology, including its Foxboro visualization and configuration tools, Foxboro distributed control system, Wonderware InTouch HMI
software and Triconex TÜV-certified safety and critical
control systems. Invensys is also providing training, configuration and engineering services, as well as commissioning and plant operations support.
To help confirm the systems’ reliability and functionality, Invensys tested the entirety of the plant’s equipment,
including its servers, workstations and control processors,
under multiple operating scenarios, including equipment
failure, equipment recovery and other operating situations.
The company also simulated operator interactions under
these scenarios, ensuring their ability to retain control of the
plant. Results of the tests were then used to enhance the
functionality of the company’s Foxboro visualization and
configuration software.
After the systems were successfully tested, Bechtel Parsons
Blue Grass management presented Invensys with its Bechtel
Quality Coin to acknowledge the Invensys team’s commitment to quality and dedication to overcoming unique technical challenges in providing the facility control system.
Siemens Wins ISA Product of the Year
Siemens Industry has been awarded the prestigious ISA
Analysis Division Product of the Year Award for 2013 for its
Maxum Edition II gas chromatograph.
Judging was based on the product’s innovation, novelty and impact on the industry. The judging panel was
made up of independent process analysis experts and end
users appointed by the division’s staff.
“In our industry, this is the most important award a
process analyzer product might receive,” says Siemens
product manager Bob Farmer.
The new configuration is designed with a small modular oven with space for an integrated analysis module, as
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CT1306_22_28_InPro.indd 26
6/3/13 9:47 AM
In Process
modules. The new operator panel also has a large, 10inch, intrinsically safe, color-touch display that’s now
standard on all Maxum GCs.
AspenTech Breaks New Ground in
Simulation, Model-Based Control
From its roots at MIT more than three decades ago, Aspen
Technology emerged as an early leader in the commercialization of mathematical models that today are widely used
in the design, control, planning and scheduling of industrial
processes. However, on the heels of a series of undisciplined
acquisitions culminating in the late 1990s tech bust, the optimization company struggled financially. It was forced to
look inward, refine and refocus its value proposition for process manufacturers.
The fruits of that effort were on display at the company’s
Optimize 2013 event held the week of May 6 in Boston. AspenTech is four years into a six-year transition to a new
subscription-based revenue model, explained Mark Fusco,
president and CEO since 2004, in his opening remarks to
the more than 650 customers and partners on hand.
“Cash flow is strong, and it gives us the ability to invest,”
Fusco said. Indeed, the company is plowing 16% of revenue into R&D, which this year translates into more than
$60 million. That investment is paying off in the form of
innovative new products, including a newly integrated
and mobile-enabled aspenOne simulation suite, as well
as aspenOne Exchange, a new applications marketplace
of off-the-shelf models and flowsheets. These innovations
join the new “adaptive” mode of the company’s DMCplus
model-based, real-time optimizer tool that was introduced
in 2012.
Underlying all of the company’s initiatives is the realization that, despite advances in functional capability, simulation-based optimization remains a complex, inaccessible
and sometimes fragile tool. “As global markets evolve and
new users enter the workforce every day, it’s critical that
simulation tools and real-time plant information are easily available to all who need them—not just power users,”
according to Manolis Kotzabasakis, AspenTech’s executive
vice president of products. “Our new aspenOne software
addresses that need.”
© 2013 by AMETEK. All rights reserved.
AMETEK 12407-half Page_AMETEK 12407-Unv-IV 3/12/13 2:16 PM Page 1
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First, we bent the rules to enter the oil stream through the elbow. Then we
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The probe senses changes in capacitance. The relationship between
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In Process
With the release of version 8.2, the
new aspenOne suite features a web
and mobile interface that allows process industry professionals to work
with aspenOne software through
web-enabled devices. The suite provides a single, consistent user interface for multiple AspenTech products,
including Aspen Plus, Aspen Hysys
and InfoPlus.21.
Built on HTML5 technology, the
aspenOne web and mobile interface
even allows process engineers to interact with models and real-time plant
information using portable, touch-enabled devices. “The new aspenOne
web interface is a big step towards
ensuring that the right person can always access, select, and use the right
model right when it’s needed,” commented Phil Edwards, staff scientist,
Sabic. “This access can result in better operational decisions.”
Also introduced at Optimize 2013,
the company’s aspenOne Exchange is
intended to provide process designers
with a one-stop-shop to source equipment data, third-party content and AspenTech resources. By referencing design information hosted in aspenOne
Exchange, process engineers can
build more comprehensive and more
accurate models faster, according to
AspenTech’s Kotzabasakis.
“This app marketplace includes
more than a thousand sample models
and flowsheets to get you up and running more quickly,” he said. “So far we
have pump performance curve data
from 80 pump manufacturers that address more than 100,000 pump configurations,” Kotzabasakis said. “It’s a
game-changer, but only the start of a
journey. Next up are compressors, heat
exchangers and turbines.”
“The aspenOne Exchange provides an excellent way for new and
experienced users to explore welldocumented, best-practice process
models,” added Eric Cordi, associate
research fellow at Pfizer. “This shared
environment increases the breadth
28
AsPEntEch’s nEW rOADmAP
“We’ll continue to spend industry-leading
amounts on R&D,” says Aspentech CEO
Mark Fusco on the company’s commitment
to continue to improve the integration and
usability of its optimization software--and to
invest in new intellectual property.
of open innovation resources we rely
on in our computational process and
product design efforts.”
MPc That Maintains Itself
Last year’s introduction of adaptive mode operation for the company’s DMCplus model-based controller (MPC) has the potential to
make these often finicky creatures
infinitely easier to care for and feed.
Indeed, industry is rife with modelbased control applications that work
beautifully for a year or two, but degrade in performance as unit conditions change. Operators, tired of
an ill-tuned optimizer’s tendency to
hunt about in its operating window,
shut it off in favor of more stable operations.
The breakthrough with AspenTech’s adaptive mode is that it effectively combines continuously scalable
step-test functionality with the all-ornothing profit commitment of an unrestrained optimizer. A “calibration ratio” that can be set between zero and
one effectively determines how much
step-test character (zero) vs. optimizer
character (one) the controller demonstrates. To put it another way, the CR
quantifies how much confidence you
have in the underlying model.
Push the CR to one, and you have
an optimizer that will “sell its grandmother for a dime,” explained Michael Harmse, senior director of APC
and MES product management. But
pull it back from one, and you introduce a degree of economic relaxation
together with automated step-testing.
“This means you perform step-testing
much closer to maximum profitability,” Harmse said.
Adaptive mode operation allows
even DMCplus applications based on
imperfect models to be continuously
tuned without changing the fundamentals of the model itself. “The calibration ratio keeps the model from
trying to over-exploit the weaker degrees of freedom in the model. And
it’s a lot more benign that traditional
step-testing, where you’re pushing the
unit to all corners of its operating envelope,” Harmse said. “It’s a lot less
scary and a lot more profitable.”
—Keith Larson, VP Content
ODVA Works on
Industrial Ethernet Plan
ODVA has launched an “initiative for
process automation” in cooperation
with major suppliers to the process
industry, including Cisco Systems,
Endress+Hauser, Rockwell Automation and Schneider Electric, to further accelerate adoption of industrial
Ethernet in process automation.
Based on ODVA’s industrial EtherNet/IP technology, the results of this
initiative will provide end users with
more choices to deploy a complete
Ethernet solution for process automation starting with connectivity
down to the field level. In the long
term, this will expand to include the
full spectrum of process automation
needs, including safety, explosion
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In Process
protection, long distances and extensive diagnostic coverage.
“Since EtherNet/IP is already successfully deployed in hybrid industries and some pure process industries, users are looking to ODVA for
additional functionality to facilitate wider use of EtherNet/IP,” says
Katherine Voss, executive director
of ODVA. “ODVA has decided to
respond with an ‘initiative for process automation’ focused on providing new opportunities for integration
improvements, optimized network
architecture and increased ROI.”
In addition, through this initiative, ODVA plans to explore and
adopt technology enhancements to
ODVA’s EtherNet/IP and Common
Industrial Protocol (CIP) technologies to optimize them for the needs
of process automation.
CEO Hogan to Leave ABB
ABB Chief Executive Officer Joe Hogan has decided to leave ABB for private reasons. A date for his departure
has not yet been decided. Hogan will
continue to lead ABB until a successor is announced. He is committed to a
smooth transition.
“Joe is a great and successful CEO
and has done a remarkable job of leading the company through the deepest economic crisis in living memory.
ABB today is in a much better position
than it was when he joined five years
ago,” says ABB Chairman Hubertus
von Grünberg. “I know this has been a
tough and difficult decision for Joe and
the Board sincerely regrets that Joe will
be leaving the company.”
Hogan joined ABB as CEO in September 2008. During his time at the
helm, ABB has invested about $20 billion to strengthen the company. Major investments have been made in
acquisitions and in R&D to help secure ABB’s technological leadership in
power and automation.
“Under Joe’s leadership ABB’s competitiveness has significantly improved
by investing boldly in measures to
drive growth and innovation, and by
carefully managing costs,” von Grünberg adds.
Hogan stated, “I have informed the
board that I have decided to leave ABB.
This has been a difficult decision as I
leave behind a strong and talented executive committee and a cohesive
board whose support I could always
count on. I look forward to making a
smooth transition with as little disruption as possible to the positive momentum that ABB has established.”
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CT1306_22_28_InPro.indd 29
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RESOURCES
Loop Controllers
Control’s Monthly Resource Guide
Every month, Control’s editors take a specific product area, collect all the latest, significant tools we can find,
and present them here to make your job easier. If you know of any tools and resources we didn’t include, send
them to [email protected], and we’ll add them to the website.
4-20mA CONTROL LOOPS
THE VOICE OF EXPERIENCE
This paper reviews the operation and
advantages of the 4-20mA transmission
standard and loop-powered transmitters.
The discussion explains sink vs. source
wiring, power requirements, voltage
drops, proper grounding, transmission
distance, signal noise, live zero calibration and more. The download is free, but
registration is required. The direct link is
at http://tinyurl.com/dxaqrjw.
This is the website of experienced engineer John A. Shaw. It contains brief
tutorials and lessons about PID loop
control and tuning, the PID control algorithm, writing software for the PID
algorithm, cascade control, ratio control and more.
ACromAg
248-624-1541; www.acromag.com
CONTROL LOOPS AND DYNAMICS
An explanation of each component of
a control system, including valves, actuators, sensors and controllers, is presented with an introduction to methods of control and system dynamics,
including simple control loops and
feedback systems. Topics covered included open control loops, closedloop control, disturbances, feedback
and feed-forward control, single and
multi-loop control and loop dynamics. This presentation has many illustrations, is freely downloadabe, and is
at http://tinyurl.com/2ecsfct.
Spir A x SArCo
www.spiraxsarco.com
PID CONTROL VIDEOS
PID Loop Tuning Explained, Parts 1
and 2, are YouTube videos showing the
basics of PID loop tuning. Part 1 covers
proportional. Part 2 covers proportional
and integral. The site also contains many
links to other loop-tuning videos. The
direct link is at http://www.youtube.com/
watch?v=IcQQRUdBiGw.
The ConTroLS Fre Ak
www.youtube.com
30
discusses the role of the three modes
of the algorithm, highlights different
algorithm structures, and discusses
methods that have evolved over the last
50 years as aids in control loop tuning.
The direct link is at www.pacontrol.
com/download/Proportional-IntegralDerivative-PID-Controls.pdf.
www. jAShAw.Com
www.jashaw.com
pAConTroL
www.pacontrol.co
TUNING LEVEL CONTROLLERS
MPC KNOWLEDGE CLEARINGHOUSE
F. Greg Shinskey explores the special
needs of managing level loops. Level
loops differ from others in their economic objectives. There may be no
economic penalty associated with a particular deviation from setpoint, but a
loss of level control can shut down an
entire plant. Their task is to regulate a
process that is fundamentally non-selfregulating, leading to limit-cycling of a
PI (proportional + integral) controller
in the presence of any dead band in the
control valve, avoided by using either a
valve positioner or a cascade flow loop.
Categories of level loops covered, based
on vessel type and tuning rules that apply to it are: surge tanks feeding critical
processes; material-balance regulators
between process stages; levels affected
by shrink-swell and inverse response,
such as boiler drums; and levels with
resonance (manometer effect). The direct link is at http://tinyurl.com/cjdysnv.
Multivariable
predictive
control
(MVPC) is the most popular and successful computer control technology
in the refining and petrochemical
industries. This site has information
needed to help users make informed
decisions about MVPCs that will benefit APC applications for operating
units. The information is provided
in various forms from publications
and typical examples to actual installations and experiences reported by
practitioners in the field. It also has
forums, technical chats and questions
and answers.
ConTroL mAgA zine
www.controlglobal.com
PID CONTROL IN 13 PAGES
This 13-page, downloadable PDF covers all the basics of PID control. It introduces the proportional-integralderivative (PID) control algorithm,
ApC-ne T work.Com
ApC-net work.com
CONTROL TUNING BLOG
Control’s long-time columnist, Greg
McMillan, is the author of the Control
Talk blog found at www.controlglobal.
com. Greg covers all manner of tuning
questions, tips, suggestions and techniques for handling your most challenging loop-tuning and other control
questions. The direct link is at http://
community.controlglobal.com/controltalkblog.
ConTroL mAgA zine
www.controlglobal.com
www.controlglobal.com J u n e / 2 0 1 3
CT1306_30_Resources.indd 30
6/3/13 11:02 AM
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CT1306_full page ads.indd 31
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DISTRIBUTED CONTROL SYSTEMS
Many distributed control systems
(DCSs) are rapidly aging and risk
breaking down. Luckily, there are
many new tools and innovative
methods for supporting and
breathing new life into controls
and process applications.
by JIM MONTAGUE
32
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DistributeD Control systems
Youth may be wasted on the young, but there’s no reason
you and your control systems and process applications can’t
regain and maintain some youthful strength and couple it
with your veteran experience and know-how.
Just as getting up, moving around, walking, biking and sensible weightlifting can get people’s blood moving, release endorphins and fuel a sense of well-being, there’s a boatload of innovative tools and methods that can do the same for supporting,
migrating and reviving distributed control systems and their
overall applications—and help them overcome the problems of
obsolete equipment and persistent downtime, and reach new
levels of efficiency, safety and sustainability. Of course, most
process applications go years or decades without replacing
many controls and other equipment, but there comes a time
when maintenance and repairs must give way to technical advances and more capable components and systems.
For instance, Valero Energy Corp.’s (www.valero.com)
refinery in Benicia, Calif., recently completed a major upgrade and rearrangement of its control systems, control
room and networking infrastructure with help from Honeywell Process Solutions (HPS, www.honeywellprocess.com).
The refinery was built by Exxon Mobil in the late 1960s and
originally used an IBM 1800 system for process control, but
later replaced these mainframe computers with Honeywell’s
TDC 2000 and TDC 3000 systems with extended controllers on Data Hiways for base regulatory control and application modules for supervisory control.
Beginning with 44 nodes, the system grew to more than
60 nodes over the next 20 years. The refinery added a local
control network (LCN) as its node count grew, but later replaced it with total plant network (TPN) bridges to maintain
the performance of this large system. High-performance
process managers (HPMs) were added in 2004. And Valero
began planning in 2006 to remove its TPN bridges by 2010.
The company also wanted to improve its native Windows
(NW) interfaces and reduce the possible scope of failure by
dividing its system into manageable clusters.
“TPN Bridge support was going away, and, though our
big LCN was working OK, a refinery-wide reliability study
in 2003 reported that using it was out of step with the industry. The study pointed out that multiple smaller LCNs were
more common in the refining industry,” says Denise Plaskett,
Valero’s principal applications engineer for control systems.
“So the best solution for us was to remove the TPN Bridge
and add Honeywell’s Experion PKS on top, allowing distributed system architecture (DSA) communications between
clusters to keep our system whole.” Plaskett adds that some of
the main challenges to renovating with Experion included:
• Limited space in the refinery’s centralized control room;
• Seven-week shift cycles that made it hard to get operators in to help with design and training plans;
• A traditionally do-it-yourself Control Systems group that
needed external support for this renovation, even as it
continued to support day-to-day refinery operations; and
• Timing issues that required all integration and cutover
to the new system be done on-line, while working
around unit turnarounds over a multi-year time period.
reasoning the need
Of course, Valero’s Benicia plant is just one of many on the
quest to renovate its controls, and though each has many
unique characteristics, they also share many common challenges and can use many of the same solutions.
In fact, a new automation survey by system integrator Maverick Technologies LLC (www.mavtechglobal.com) in Columbia, Ill., included responses from 175 technical support,
asset maintenance and project planning and execution personnel about their DCS applications and efforts (Figure 1).
More than half of the respondents (53.5%) report they’re
operating with new or updated automation systems, but more
than a third each are running legacy automaton (35.7%) or
integrating control data into their enterprise (33.5%).
They add the biggest constraints on automation in their
plants include budget (28%); capital expenditure priorities
(26.5%); resources (19.5%); integration of platforms (9.7%);
maintaining legacy systems (8.6%); and planning (7%).
To improve their applications, close to half of the respondents plan to expand with new automation systems (47%)
within the next 24 months, while about a third each plan to
add remote support for data and controls (37.8%); integrate
controls with their enterprise/business systems (33.5%); and/
or migrate their legacy automation systems (33%).
For more detailed results of Maverick’s survey, visit ControlGlobal.com/1306_MaverickSurvey.
Plan is Key, schedule is King
Before securing the most suitable hardware and software
for upgrading a DCS, the most important task is evaluating
what’s truly needed by the application and the overall business, drafting a thorough plan meet those requirements and
following a precise, but flexible schedule.
For instance, Indonesia-based PT. Pertamina (www.pertamina.com) recently migrated the DCS that runs its paraxylene plant, which is part of Unit IV at its Cilacap refinery. It worked with Azbil Corp. (www.azbil.com) and
local affiliate Azbil Berca Indonesia (ABID), and together
they planned a combined cold changeover (CCO) and hot
changeover (HCO), minimized switchover time by retaining all sensors, valves and terminal panels in good working
condition, and migrated only the plant’s DCS to Azbil’s Harmonas-DEO monitoring and control system.
“The DCS was replaced while part of the plant was shut
down for planned maintenance, so the timing would change
depending on how the maintenance work progressed,” says
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DistributeD Control systems
Maverick autoMation Survey: DcS reSuLtS
Present level of Automation Activity
Using panel board controls
15.7%
Operating with legacy automation system
35.7%
Operating with updated or new automation system
53.5%
Integrating plant controls data into enterprise system
33.5%
Fully integrated throughout our enterprise
7.3%
biggest Constraint on Automation at Facility
Budget
28.6%
Plant capital expenditure priorities
26.5%
Resources
19.5%
Integration of technology platforms
9.7%
Maintaining legacy systems
8.6%
Project planning
7%
IT infrastructure limits
0%
investment Plans in next 24 months
Plant expansion using new automation system
47%
Add remote support for information and control systems
37.8%
Integrate controls into enterprise systems
33.5%
Legacy automation system migration
33%
Panel board controls migration
7.6%
None of the above
11.9%
Living with Legacy, Seeking to Migrate
Figure 1: More than a third of respondents to Maverick Technologies’
recent automation survey report operating with legacy automation
systems, while just about one third report they’re planning to migrate
legacy automaton systems in the next two years.
34
Erfan Gafar, deputy section head of Pertamina’s project engineering department. “Despite repeated schedule changes, switchover was completed as originally planned without delays.”
Likewise, the Langkawi cement plant in Kedah, Malaysia, has two production lines producing 3.3 million tons of
clinker per year. The facility is one of three operated by
Lafarge Malayan Cement (LMC, www.lafargemalayancement.com), and its Line 2 was run by an aging Polysius DCS
for which spare parts were no longer easily available.
So beginning in 2007, Lafarge planned and undertook
a four-phase, five-year revamping of the line’s controls with
help from ABB Malaysia and its associated Operation Center
in India (INOPC). The third phase shifted key process areas
of Line 2 to ABB’s 800xA control system in June 2011, and the
final phase was completed in June 2012 (Figure 2). This new
DCS included with 11 AC 800M controllers for 14,000 I/O
points, integration of existing 5 AC 800M controllers for 6000
I/O points, and seven operator workstations.
To upgrade the plant’s safety capabilities at the same
time, Lafarge also planned to renovate the line’s electrical systems and installed visible cut-off, switch-power isolation and control units on more than 300 motors and local
control units for 13 high-tension (HT) motors, and added
about 100 pulse-controlled speed sensors for critical drives.
This allowed 800xA to provide safety instrumented systems
(SISs) that comply with IEC 61508 and IEC 61511.
“Our operators now have full control over energy and raw
material consumption with 800xA and can keep vital processes running without interruption,” says Mohamad Fadzil
Ramli, Lafarge’s methods manager. “For instance, with a
fully integrated control system, the average temperatures in
the kiln can be adjusted for minimum energy requirements.
When an operator combines process knowledge with 800xA,
energy consumption can be reduced by 10%.”
Divide and Conquer
Because migrating an old DCS is such a complex project,
the best way to carry out its upgrade and replacement plan is
to break it up into a logical series of workable chunks.
For example, Golden Triangle Energy Cooperative
(GTEC, http://goldentriangleenergy.com) in Craig, Mo.,
makes about 20 million gallons of ethanol and 160,000 tons
of wet livestock feed per year. It had been controlled by a
DCS installed when the plant was built in 2001, but just a
few years later its manufacturer reported it was obsolete and
would no longer be supported.
“The supplier would still repair some rundown parts, but
the refurbishment process could take up to three weeks,”
explains Roger Hill, GTEC’s general manager. “One day
of downtime can cost us $35,000 in lost profit, and unexpected shutdowns can cause unsafe conditions for our employees. We started shutting down operations at every threat
www.controlglobal.com J u n e / 2 0 1 3
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Worried about profits disappearing into thin air?
Upgrade your legacy DCS to PlantPAx.
There is a cost to doing nothing with your aging DCS system and the
dedicated resources needed to support it. Mitigate your risk. Protect your
future with the flexibility of the PlantPAx™ process automation system.
Learn more at
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PlantPAx is a trademarks of Rockwell Automation, Inc. Copyright © 2013 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. AD2013-03-EN
CT1306_full page ads.indd 35
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Copyright © 2013 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. AD-NA-4001
Photo courtesy of Lafarge and ABB
DistributeD Control systems
Smarter Cement
Figure 2: Operators at Lafarge’s Langkawi cement plant use their new
800xA DCS from ABB to adjust their process to run at optimal levels.
of a thunderstorm just to avoid the risk of an outage. We
were even browsing online auction sites to find backups for
our critical components.”
To solve these problems and replace the old DCS, GTEC
sought help from system integrator Bachelor Controls Inc.
(http://bachelorcontrols.com) in Sabetha, Kan., and together
they implemented PlantPAx process automation system and
ControlLogix PLCs from Rockwell Automation (www.rockwellautomation.com), and minimized costs by retaining all
existing field wiring and devices and reverse engineering control logic and strategies from the old DCS.
The migration was completed during two, scheduled,
four-day shutdowns. The first included installation of one
ControlLogix controller, Ethernet and ControlNet communications and FactoryTalk View supervisory HMI software.
The second involved the complete plant switchover with
BCI replacing GTEC’s outdated I/O racks for more than
800 I/O points spread throughout the plant, installing the
remaining ControlLogix PACs, and checking that each I/O
point responded correctly to controller commands.
Restart procedures began on the morning of the fifth
day, and Hill reports that downtime and maintenance were
greatly reduced. “There are some months that we operate
with zero downtime,” says Hill.
In addition, PlantPAx also helped GTEC install a new
production line for grain-neutral spirits. “We just tied in the
new I/O, downloaded the necessary programming to the
FactoryTalk View SE software and ControlLogix controllers,
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CT1306_32_41_CoverStory.indd 36
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DistributeD Control systems
and double-checked the I/O points for each valve and input,” says Marvin Coker, BCI’s senior project engineer. As a
result, GTEC has expanded its production capacity by 75%,
and is now able to manufacture 35 million gallons of industrial and beverage-quality ethanol per year.
educate and execute
Meanwhile, Plaskett reports the Benicia’s refinery’s migration
to Experion began with I/O realignment, including an “A cluster,” covering the refinery’s upstream instruments and controls,
and a “B cluster,” covering its blending and other operations.
“More than 2000 points were moved and rebuilt,” says
Plaskett. “With movement of I/O comes deleting and rebuilding of points, meaning internal IDs changed, and all
references needed to be cleaned up. With only one LCN in
the beginning, DOC 4000 Express worked fairly well to allow us to identify and cleanup references. However, we also
used—and I would advise doing it—a homegrown crossreference (XREF) utility based on the Find Names utility,
which allowed us to find even indirection references that
we also use at Benicia. We also learned it’s easiest to do this
before Experion is placed on top because priming for the
Experion layer is also required.”
Following some in-depth training and hands-on practice,
the Benecia refinery’s engineers and operators set up a testing system to explore the relationship between their LCN and
Experion to gain more application-specific knowledge. In addition, because a critical part of any Experion system is the
configuration of the fault-tolerant Ethernet (FTE) network,
Plaskett added that Valero’s engineers also secured help from
Honeywell Network Services to set up a hot-standby router
protocol (HSRP) in a redundant configuration.
“Using our test system, we were able to conduct extensive
testing of switch shutdowns, router shutdowns and FTE cable disconnects,” explains Plaskett. “The testing pointed out
the need to carefully check operating systems on these network devices and to test, test and test for proper operation.”
The detailed design also included an enterprise model
database (EMDB), as well as three clusters, A, B and OM,
with redundant servers on top of each individual LCN to allow future expansion. Also, each cluster would have its own
subnet address, and these would be tied together with redundant routers, allowing for reliable DSA communications, as
well as protected access to/from upper-levels plant networks.
, LOCAL TOUCH
N
N
PROCESS
PROCESS CONTROL
CONTROL &
& OPTIMIZATION
OPTIMIZATION
J u n e / 2 0 1 3 www.controlglobal.com
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DistributeD Control systems
Why and hoW to Upgrade a dCS
In his white paper, “Upgrading Your DCS: Why You May Need
to Do It Sooner Than You Think,” Chad Harper of system integrator Maverick Technologies (www.mavtechglobal.com) lays
out some reasons for migrating distributed control systems,
and describes how to approach it.
signs your DCs needs upgrading
• Staff resources supporting the existing DCS are close to
retirement;
• Vendor plans to end support for the product;
• Control problems are causing unplanned outages and increased downtime;
• Latest technologies are not compatible with your DCS;
• Spare parts and technical support are becoming hard to find.
Why not to Wait too long to upgrade
• Present staff don’t know your legacy DCS;
• Waiting until support for DCS ends will make migration
harder;
• Old systems often can’t use new technologies;
• Old DCSs only allow for configuration of certain types of
controls;
• Cost of maintaining an old system will outgrow the cost of
migration.
Approaching a DCs upgrade
Because upgrading a DCS can be a monumental and expensive project, it’s important to evaluate whether it makes more
sense to migrate all at once or conduct a partial or phased approach, which most DCS suppliers offer. A phased upgrade
can be less risky, spread out costs and minimize downtime.
Two common phased-migration methods are
• Upgrade HMIs first. Most newer DCS HMIs can be configured on top of legacy control systems. This can be done on a
running plant with little impact to production. By upgrading the
HMI first, you ensure that toperators know the new technology
before the complete system is installed. Changes in presentation and interaction with new controls are some of the biggest
hurdles that operators face. Many new HMI packages also support extra connectivity, such as OPC. HMI software can serve
as an interface that allows for development of MES and ERP
projects without needing a full DCS revamp.
• Replace the controllers and HMI, but leave the existing I/O
modules. Most of the latest DCSs can connect to I/O devices at
the backplane of old DCS controllers.
Most I/O and field wiring can be left in place and upgraded
as needed. This allows for easier hot cutovers and the ability to
change out I/O as plant shutdown schedules permit. It also reduces labor costs for electrical and wiring work and associated
documentation updates, such as wiring diagrams.
38
To get its actual execution moving, Benecia’s engineers
decided to start with their graphics conversion. “We had
an extensive set of operating graphics and wanted to retain
the operators’ familiarity with their layout and reduce their
learning curve by continuing to use our 20 years of good
graphics,” says Plaskett. “By interviewing, visiting and getting proposals from several vendors, we found one that had
shape libraries and navigation tools that met the ASM-like
look and feel we wanted to give the operators, while also
being able to take our existing graphic layouts and convert
them efficiently to HMIWeb graphics. For this project, we
decided to convert only our primary control graphics, which
included 165 for A, 195 for B and 42 for OM, which adds
up to 402 graphics that were converted and migrated out of
3000 total NW displays. My advice here is that, if you have
a good set of DCS graphics, don’t change them too radically
during upgrade projects. And, for us, though ASM-type
graphics are good for handling upsets, they’re extremely
bland for normal monitoring by operators.”
Flexible tools = easier migrations
One of the primary forces aiding DCS migrations these days
is more capable software and hardware that can adapt more
easily to legacy systems and allow more old I/O points and
other devices to continue to run in updated environments.
For example, Tsb Sugar (www.tsb.co.za) recently decided
to consolidate automation and data assets at its 18-year-old
Komati Mill in Komatipoort, South Africa, and planned
to migrate from its old DCS to a control system combining
PLCs, SCADA and even its manufacturing execution system
(MES) into a one, overall information server. This would allow Komati to measure and optimize throughput, evaluate
stoppages and downtime, predict final volumes, and provide
device-layer and area-level bookings to Tsb’s reporting layer.
However, this plan required renovating and/or integrating
new Quantum PLCs, legacy Provox and DeltaV DCSs, LIMS
database, and SAP enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems into one data and reporting point. As a result, Tsb and
system integrator Control Systems Integration (CSI, www.
controlsi.co.za) implemented ArchestrA System Platform and
Wonderware InTouch SCADA/HMI, historian and MES
Performance software from Invensys Operations Management South Africa (http://iom.invensys.co.za). The plant also
adopted AutoSave change management software from MDT
Software (www.mdtsoft.com) and Top Server OPC solution
from Software Toolbox (www.softwaretoolbox.com) to connect the PLCs to Komati’s new systems.
The project was completed in phases with first-phase implementation during a three-month, off-crop season in January to April 2011, which was enough time to remove the old
Provox DCS and replace it with the new, integrated system on
Komati’s Extraction Line 2. “All the other systems remained
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DistributeD Control systems
the same, and System Platform was built on top of the existing
systems to facilitate integration,” says Samantha Rabé, CSI’s
systems engineer. “Overall equipment effectiveness (OEE),
LIMS, Provox and DeltaV data were integrated into System
Platform to show KPIs on the InTouch dual-screen displays.”
Pieter san Tonder, Tsb Komati’s instrumentation engineer, reports, “We’re now able to manage low throughput
because, for the first time, we can measure it accurately.
Real-time feedback to record the plant’s lost-time availability (LTA) and overall time efficiency (OTE), and have it
available on managers’ desktops was unthinkable a decade
ago. System Platform’s ability to integrate and consolidate
data across the different systems and deliver it in a presentable format enables us to be proactive rather than reactive.”
Meanwhile, on the software side, PCN Technology Inc.
(www.pcntechnology.com) reports it’s developed software algorithms and hardware modules that can be dropped into a legacy control system, and allow it to be retained, but still enable
it to be accessed by an Internet protocol (IP) network. “This allows migrations at a more rapid pace because we don’t have to
rip and replace so much,” says Daniel Drolet, PCN’s executive
vice president. “For example, users may have an old Seriplex or
RS485 network that works OK, and we can plug into its PLCs,
head or service center router to add multidrop IP communications, while still allowing the serial network to continue.”
Rich Clark, principal applications consultant in Honeywell’s Lifecycle Services business unit, reports, “Many DCS
migration plans are using advances in the IT world, such as
virtualization, open standards-based devices and HMIs using
thin-client computing and eServer produces to put control
data in secure zones for viewing by browser-based systems.
For example, in the past three years, more migration projects
are using virtualized data processing that doesn’t need to be
implemented all at once. There are many large base stations
and applications in Windows XP and Windows 2003 with
three- to five-year-old hardware, but Microsoft won’t support
XP after next year, so many users will need to migrate those
stations. Virtualization gives users the flexibility to stretch out
their migrations and go longer between the time they have to
touch wires and reengineer systems.”
“rip off the band-Aid”
To finally upgrade its consoles and layer on its new DCS,
Benecia’s engineers added a pair of redundant Experion
Servers (ESVTs) to their 73-node LCN, and then added
two Icon stations to test them on their production system.
As these worked well, they upgraded their engineer console.
Finally, they added a second temporary console in the center, reaching a total of 10 Icon stations in their system. These
provided stations for engineers and operators to preview and
test the converted graphics, while still maintaining enough
stations for operations in high demand situations.
“Once all three chunks of A’s complex graphics were converted, we were ready to train our A console operators. Our
graphics vendor trained the operators, and then they were physically relocated to the new center console,” added Plaskett. “We
left their console in place for another seven weeks, making sure
all operators had a chance to work their shift cycle at the new
stations before removing the stations they felt most comfortable
with. These stations were not side-by-side, but in an emergency,
the operator could go back to the console and operate the refinery. This satisfied our space limitation challenge. Once the
Thousands of enclosures
Hundreds of sizes
Next-day shipping
ENCLOSURES
ENCLOSURES
CT1306_32_41_CoverStory.indd 40
POWER
POWER
DISTRIBUTION
DISTRIBUTION
CLIMATE
CLIMATE
CONTROL
CONTROL
6/3/13 3:39 PM
NTROL
L
DistributeD Control systems
seven weeks passed, we began demolishing and replacing the
old A console, and these operators were moved back to their
home when it was upgraded. This method of training and relocation also allowed us to satisfy our seven-week shift schedule
staffing challenge.”
Next, with the B cluster graphics completed and B operators trained on Experion, it was time to upgrade the B console to Icon stations. However, this could not be done until
the old TPN Bridge was removed and a second set of Experion servers put into operation. This bridge removal was
preceded by months of preparation. LCN nodes were relocated within cabinets, so nodes on the same cluster were in
close proximity and could be re-cabled together carefully.
“Our detailed procedure for making all of these moves included over 120 LCN cable moves. Besides moving and recabling all of these nodes, the exact procedure we developed
for removing the bridge was reviewed and blessed by Honeywell,” explains Plaskett. “On D-day, all operators were
moved to universal stations (USs) or used NW on ESTs. The
TPN Bridge nodes and switches were all simultaneously
powered off. The system complained loudly for two minutes, noting which nodes were now missing from each LCN.
LCN re-cabling was done to eliminate these boxes from the
LCNs. A console ESTs could not be used until all points
were re-primed, since many internal IDs it had known about
were now gone. It had to discover these points now as DSA
points. The new B cluster servers had to be started up and
primed with the points on its LCN. Once primed, they
could each offer up their points on DSA. After several days
of re-priming, HMIWeb graphics could be used again and B
console stations could now be upgraded to Icons.
IT INFRASTRUCTURE
IT INFRASTRUCTURE
“At this point, the console upgrades could continue. The
B operators who had been at their B console USs could be
moved back to the center console. The USs were replaced
with Icons, and the B operators were moved back to the
newly converted B console. Throughout all of this, OM operations had been a subset of the B complex. After allowing the A and B complex operations to line out over a few
months, the OM cluster was finally broken off and created.”
Finally, Plaskett reports finding that seven weeks was
enough time for Benecia’s operators to train on Experion.
“Though we heard of other locations where old USs and new
Experion stations sit side by side for years, we essentially had
to ‘rip off the Band-Aid’ and remove the old stations to move
through the project and complete it,” she says. Also, NW on
the Icon has been a blessing and a curse because operators
sometimes fall back to using it when they don’t think the Experion graphic is responding fast enough. So we’re glad it’s
there to give them a sense of security, but the black NW and
gray HMIWeb graphics are a continual source of discussion at
our plant. Also, support is becoming a big issue, as we have to
do patching, error logs and network support. And simple point
rebuilding now requires an extra step, DSPPrime, and even
AM point algorithm changes require new priming!
“However, we achieved a successful project completed
within the challenges of space, staffing, resources and timing. We maintained an integrated view for our operators. We
now have a modern, highly functional operator interface.
We’ve continued evolution along with our Honeywell system, and our investment is secure.”
Jim Montague is Controls’ executive editor.
SOFTWARE
SOFTWARE
& SERVICES
& SERVICES
www.rittal.us
www.rittal.us
CT1306_32_41_CoverStory.indd 41
6/3/13 3:39 PM
Steady
State
In spite of economic
and technical
turbulence on
many fronts, the
state of the process
engineer remains
remarkably stable.
by Nancy Bartels
The last four years have been a bumpy ride. The economy suffered a body blow from
which it is only now recovering slowly. The political scene is rancorous both nationally and globally. Mother Nature has been on a tear, leaving death and destruction
every place she can. Some of the major names in the process industries have blotted their copybooks badly with industrial accidents that could and should have been
prevented. Technological change—everything from smart phones and tablets to 3-D
printing—continues to disrupt the way we’ve always done things. Last year’s “eternal
verities” have proven ephemeral.
And yet the results of our salary survey remain remarkably similar, with year-over-year
changes in most cases being statistically insignificant. Process automation employees are
experienceing the same joys and disappointments as previous years. The same salary benefit and other workplace trends are holding.
That’s both good news and bad news. On the good news side, pay, benefits and job satisfaction all remain reasonably good, especially when compared with other industries. Process automation has been holding its own in a very tough economy.
The bad news is that apparently, the industry hasn’t had much success in
dealing with some troubling trends, especially the aging workforce and
weakness in recruiting younger workers to the discipline.
Here’s what the numbers look like this year.
The ComplainT DeparTmenT
No company or job is 100% perfect. Chances are good that the employees in the process automation department in heaven have one or two
suggestions for making things better. But not surprisingly perhaps, the
comments we receive on our survey stay remarkably similar from year
to year. One of our respondents commented, “Nothing really new or that
hasn’t been covered in previous years.”
Every year, we get a few complaints about “low morale,” “lack of opportunity for advancement,” and the always ominous “[I can’t comment
because] they are watching,” and “[Commenting] would not be prudent.”
In 2010, one unhappy worker said, “There’s more work to be done by
fewer people.” In 2011, the complaint was, “The past couple of years have
been quite profitable for my employer. Yet they continue to increase employee workloads, rather than hire additional resources, citing economic
uncertainly as the reason.” In 2012, the gripe was “The company is still
trying to do more with less, and keeps stretching things thinner and thinner.” This year, the response was slightly more succinct: “Try to do far too
42
much with far too few people,” and “Doing more with less and less is the
theme across the country. At a certain point, both the quality and quantity
of services will suffer.”
There is also the usual refrain of not being paid enough. This
year, it comes down to, “The salaries are comparably worse than they
should be to other professions,” and “Maintenance techs feel they
are stagnating in their careers due to no or small salary increases the
last five years.” Another says, “You need to complain enough to get a
market-comparative salary.” And another respondent observes, “The
salaries of engineers generally are too low for the amount of education and responsibility. Most people are unhappy with the pay,” and
still another says, “We have not had a raise in five years, along with
taking a pay cut and no more 401K match.”
On the other hand, a few comments reflect the growing global nature
of our respondents and provide a bit of perspective. This year’s comments
include, “Mexico has a different economy, so the salaries are lower than
www.controlglobal.com J u n e / 2 0 1 3
CT1306_42_46_Feature2.indd 42
6/3/13 10:53 AM
2103 salary survey
•Gender
Under $30K
5.5%
• $30 to 40K 2.7%
Residency
• $41 to 50K 2.8%
Ethnicity
• $51 to 60K 6.8%
• $61 to 70K 8.9%
Married with children
• $71 to 80K 11.6%
• $81 (4-yr
to 90Kdegree
6.5% or more)
Education
• $91 to 100K
12.4%
Degree
• More than $100K
42.9%
Years in process control
2009
Male – 94%
U.S. – 71%
U.S. – 98%*
Caucasian – 79%
Caucasian – 87%*
83%
85%
The Man in The ConTrol rooM
The profile of the process engineer
74%
71%
EE-41%, CE-17%, Other-42%
EE-30%, CE-19%, Other-37%
More than 10 – 77%
More than 10 – 73%
40-60 – 76%
40-60 – 77%
More than 20 – 29%
More than 20 – 25%
Engineer, Design, Const. – 45%
Engineer, Design, Const. – 42%
$100K+ – 43%
$100K+ – 36%
Weekly hours worked
Years at present employer
Job description
2013
Male – 93%
Gross salary
42.9%
6.5%
12.4%
salary over $100,000 and years in process
control, they tend to reflect the aging of
the respondents. *These numbers reflect
the growing global readership of Control
and www.controlglobal.com.
2012
$81 to 90K
$91 to 100K
changes are more notable, as with gross
ups and downs for $100,000+ earners
2013 Gross annual salaries
More than
$100K
remains largely unchanged. Where
$71 to 80K
$61 to 70K
8.9%
11.6%
$41 to 50K
2.8%
$51 to 60K
6.8%
Under $30K
5.5%
2009
40
2010
2011
2013
39.9% 43%
36% 27% 35%
$30 to 40K
2.7%
30
20
10
0
Breakdown of The BenjaMins
Standing on its own, 2013 looks like a good year for salaries. Eighty-two percent of our respondents earn more than $60,000 a year in gross salary;
nearly 43% of those earned more than $100,000. However, that’s a 14% drop from the 96% that fell into the $60K category in 2009. Interestingly, the
real hit to big salaries came in 2010, when the number earning more that $100,000 a year fell 9% from 36% to 27%. That began rebounding in 2011,
when the number was back up to 35%. Last year it was up to nearly 40%.
in the U.S. or Europe,” and “I work in West Africa. No options available. In
the environment where I work, a large portion of my colleagues battle to
perform basic tasks, leaving more experienced and capable people to become the ‘flogged horse.’ Companies seem to be going for more ‘cheap’
labor rather than capable, experienced, higher-cost employees.” Another
adds, “I am in a foreign country. It helps to have better conditions.”
Inevitably management comes in for its share of criticism. Year over
year, we hear about “nepotism,” “micromanaging,” lack of understanding
of what automation professionals do, poor quality leadership and communication, short-sightedness and “job politics.”
The “kids these days” syndrome is chronic as well. “Everyone wants
to be paid, but does not want the responsibilities to go with it,” observes
one of our respondents. “The younger guys have no work ethic, and don’t
generally do a good job. Work is not a priority,” says another. And a third
adds, “Graduates have little or no appreciation of control in the real world.”
The flip side of this is the lingering concern over the aging workforce. In
2010, one respondent said, “We have a noticeably aging workforce
for which no replacement bench strength is being developed.” This
year, the observation comes in equation form: “Aging workforce
with few employees backfilling retiring knowledge = BAD. Obsolete automation hardware with limited access to funds to migrate +
retiring knowledgeable support resources = BAD.” And finally, “Not
seeing many college grads joining the automation ranks. We have
more positions approved than we can get new college grads,” and
“[There is] a lack of graduates interested in following a career in
control engineering.”
On the Other Hand
We can’t forget that 75% of automation workers who are happy in their
jobs. They too continue to weigh in. One respondent commented,
“There has been a significant culture change at my company over
Continued on page 44
J u n e / 2 0 1 3 www.controlglobal.com
CT1306_42_46_Feature2.indd 43
43
6/3/13 10:54 AM
2013 salary survey
Yes
No
67.6%
The ComplainT DeparTmenT
32.4%
Continued from page 43
the last four years. We are actively pursing long-term goals in technology implementation and sustainability. The goals
being projected are one main reason I
look forward to the future of the company. Job politics aside, it is exciting to
think of what can become of this company in the years ahead.”
Another calls himself, “amazingly
blessed in position and salary.” As in
past years, we also had plenty of folks
calling their places of employment a
“good work environment” and “a great
company with solid growth.” Another
satisfied control professional said,
“Excellent company and parent corporation. Work is challenging but satisfying. Our facility is full of coworkers,
who have a strong, Midwestern, rural
farm, work ethic.”
BonuS!
A bonus is always a beautiful thing. Sixty-eight percent of respondents reported getting one this
year. Forty-three percent got somewhere between 1% and 5% of their salary. Another quarter got
between 6% and 10%, and 33% got more. These numbers are virtually unchanged from 2009.
$0-1K
$5-7K
35.5%
$11-15K
10.2%
$2-4K
45.8%
$21-25K
3.0%
$8-10K
3.2%
0.4%
$16-20K
1.1%
More
than $25k
0.9%
What about More Women?
One respondent’s comment, which is
rare to the point we haven’t seen it before, reminds us that 7% of the process
Small raiSeS
control and automation workforce is now
The dodgy economy is keeping a lid on raises. Eighty-one percent of those surveyed said their
female. The comment—an observation
raises were between 0 and $4,000 this year. Another 10% reported raises between $5,000 and
more than a complaint—says, “I’m still
$7,000, and a meager 8.6% got anything more than that. This compares to 2009, when 54% got a
seeing a very, very low ratio of women
raise between $2,000 and $4,000—9% points more than this year, and 16% got a raise between
to men—not much better than 13 years
$5,000 and $7,000. Seventy percent of those surveyed this year say they don’t get any overtime.
ago! I wish I knew why. Fixing this imbalance is important, in my opinion. It
seems to me that the dominance of men
in this profession contributes to some
unsettling phenomena, such as utter
disregard for proper documentation and
None
1.3%
2 weeks
4 weeks
9.8%
1 week
1.3%
32.0%
3 weeks
21.7%
More than
4 weeks
33.8%
control of the automated system and
changes made to it.
“A large biotech facility, fully automated, was built hastily and spent a
handful of years in production mode before management finally got the message that a small majority had been trying to convey since its inception—and
all Work anD no play?
ended up having to overhaul the entire
Another place where process engineers seem to be doing pretty well is in vacation time. A whop-
automation/control database—a very
ping 87.5% report that they get three or more weeks vacation a year, and almost 34% say they get
costly mistake that actually consisted
more than four weeks. In 2009, 84% reported three or more weeks vacation a year, and 28% said they
of myriad decision turning points, both
were entitled to more than four weeks. Those bigger numbers in the upper brackets probably also
small and large. I firmly believe that the
reflect the seniority of more and more of the process automation employees out there, reflected by
virtual absence of women in automation
the fact that 77% of our respondents reported more than 10 years in process control, and a full 23%
leadership roles had a lot to do with it.”
said they’d been at it for more than 30 years.
44
www.controlglobal.com J u n e / 2 0 1 3
CT1306_42_46_Feature2.indd 44
6/3/13 10:54 AM
2013 SALARY SURVEY
2009
2013
98%
89%
Dental
89
77
Life Insurance
88
77
Disability
77
65
Pension
48
45
401K
90
67
Stock Options
15
17
Flex Time
30
32
9
16
Medical
Telecommute
THE BENEFITS OF WORKING HERE
Yes
76.5%
No
Sometimes
1.6% 21.9%
ARE WE GETTING ANY SATISFACTION?
This is one place where the numbers do seem to have changed signifi-
No matter how much money you’re making or how good the benefits
cantly. With the exception of the ability to telecommute, any significant
are, it doesn’t matter a lot if you hate your job. That doesn’t seem to be a
changes are in a downward direction. Fewer and fewer companies are
problem with the majority of our respondents. Fully three-quarters of our
offering benefits that at one time were standard. However, one thing to
respondents (76%) said they were happy in the automation profession,
factor in here is the fact that in 2013, only 71% of the respondents claim
and another 22% said they were happy sometimes. Less than 2% said
the U.S. as their residence as opposed to 98% in 2009. Some of the
they were not happy. These numbers are virtually unchanged over the
changes may reflect differing workplace practices in other countries.
last three years.
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6/3/13 10:54 AM
2013 SALARY SURVEY
Job security
Challenging
work
12.5%
40.5%
ARE YOU CONCERNED ABOUT JOB SECURITY?
Opportunity for
advancement
10.4%
Salary/benefits
17.7%
Yes
Other
No
41.0%
0.5%
59.0%
Appreciation
18.4%
HOW IS THE CURRENT ECONOMY AFFECTING YOUR COMPANY?
Hiring
More overtime
37.1%
21.3%
Layoffs
18.8%
Other
Promotions/
raises
11.9%
10.8%
WHY THEY DO WHAT THEY DO
The motivations for keeping on keeping on in process automation
haven’t changed much either. At least 40% of those surveyed said challenging work was the most important factor in their job satisfaction. In
2009, the number was 42%. Salary and benefits counted most for 18%
in 2013. In 2009, it was 19%. Opportunity for advancement counted for
10%, down a full three points from 2009. Job security was unchanged
at 12% both years.
FEELING INSECURE?
Speaking of job security, the slowly improving economy is reflected in
THE COMPLETE SALARY SURVEY IS AVAILABLE AT
WWW.CONTROLGLOBAL.COM/2013SALARYSURVEY.HTML
these numbers. In 2009, 53% were worried about their job security. In 2013,
59% say they’re not. Companies hiring this year is up to 37%, compared
with the 19% that were hiring in 2009.
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CT1306_42_46_Feature2.indd 46
1/21/11 8:38 AM
6/3/13 10:54 AM
BUSINESS PROCESS IMPROVEMENT
Back from the
GRAVE
Lincoln Paper wasn’t even a zombie company. It was dead, closed, kaput.
Then new owners brought in multivariable testing to help resurrect it through
a top-to-bottom revamp of procedures, processes and plant culture.
by Nancy Bartels
When the paper mill in Lincoln, Maine, closed in 2004, it
wasn’t a tragedy just for its owners and the workers there.
Losing the mill was a serious blow to town of Lincoln, population about 5000, located in east central Maine. There
had been a mill of some kind in Lincoln since the 1800s,
and lumbering and paper-making were embedded in the
area’s history and culture.
For nearly three years, the mill doors remained closed,
and it looked like the next stop would be dismantling the
plant. Nobody wanted it. Then a group of investors, led by
Keith Van Scotter, bought it up for about $33 million dollars.
But that was only the beginning of the project of getting
Lincoln Paper and Tissue up and running again and, above
all, profitable.
Lincoln is not a small facility physically, covering some 15
acres, although it only does about $150 million in sales, not all
that much in the paper business. It makes 140,000 tons of paper and tissue per year, and has six integrated pulp and energy
production lines, two paper machines, a pulp dryer and three
tissue machines.
The business also has a checkered history. Now CEO,
Van Scotter explains, “As a pulp and paper company, it was
formed in 1882, and paper machines were added in the first
half of the 20th century, but there has been manufacturing
on the site since the 1850s. It went through a couple of ownerships and a couple of bankruptcies—the first time in 1968.
It was purchased and restarted then, and tissue-making capacity was added in the 1960s and 1970s. Pulp mill improvements had been added in the 1950s and 1960s, but due to
a combination of factors, it went into Chapter 11 in 2000.”
Unable to work out an arrangement to get it out of Chapter 11, it was again shut down by 2003. It was about to be sold
for scrap when Van Scotter and his associates negotiated a
highly leveraged buyout, and reopened it as Lincoln Paper
and Tissue.
Immediately, Van Scotter went out to raise the $40 million
to buy the modern Tissue Machine 8, but it would take more
to get Lincoln back on its feet. “We had a tremendous need to
drive the company forward without spending capital to get the
kind of improvements we needed to stay in business,” he says.
“We were making a little bit of money then, and we invested a
lot of money, but we had to pay the bills. It was a survival thing.”
Also, it wasn’t just Van Scotter and his associates’ money
on the line. Lincoln now employs nearly 400 people, many of
whom already had been through one factory close in a onefactory town. Lincoln is the biggest employer in a 50-mile radius. Failure simply was not an option, and frugal from-theground-up improvement was the only way to go.
And, Van Scotter had little time and less money to get his
improvements in place. “We didn’t have the capital a lot of
companies did; we didn’t have the people a lot of companies
did. We had what we had,” he adds.
J U N E / 2 0 1 3 www.controlglobal.com
CT1306_47_50_Feature3.indd 47
47
6/3/13 11:00 AM
Business process improvement
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CT1306_47_50_Feature3.indd 48
big machine, big problems
Figure 1. The brand new Tissue Machine #8 went through six sets of burners before
MVT helped technicians make significant improvements.
Bringing in mvt
That’s when Van Scotter called in his
old friend Art Hammer of QualPro
(www.qualproinc.com) in Knoxville,
Tenn. QualPro is a consulting service
that offers a technique for process improvement called multivariable testing
(MVT).
MVT takes the guesswork out of selecting business improvement strategies
by testing a multitude of ideas at once,
and revealing the positive, negative or
neutral impact of the ideas. Van Scotter breaks it down this way, “Twenty-five
percent of the factors will help [improve
a process]. Another 25% will make
things worse, and 50% don’t matter.”
What MVT does is demonstrate which
is which.
“The neat thing about MVT,” says
Van Scotter, “is that in classic process
improvement, you test one factor at a
time. MVT allows you to take ideas
from everyone, and test a lot of different factors at the same time. You likely
won’t find a solution running individual tests. The math is impossible.
You’ll miss out on all the interactions.
And you just run out of time. It’s physically impossible.”
QualPro’s MVT methodology focuses on harvesting the ideas and creativity of the entire workforce to develop
innovative ideas, and then statistically
determines which of them have the
strongest impact on improvement. At
Lincoln Paper, the rule of thumb for
suggestions is “can it be done quickly
and cheaply.” If it can, Van Scotter says,
“Then we’ll try it. The science and the
statistics are hard, but the actual testing
is really simple.”
The idea is to take the results of
brainstorming sessions that involved
everyone—operators, engineers, managers, safety personnel, millwrights,
electricians—and gather all the ideas
they think will improve a process. Everything from changing the recipe for
the process to the brand of coffee in
the break room is under consideration.
These ideas are winnowed down to
those that seem most practical. Then
the testing of them begins.
The collaborative nature of the
MTV process is one of the things that
6/3/13 11:00 AM
BUSINESS PROCESS IMPROVEMENT
appeals to Van Scotter. “One of the
neatest things about this is that MVT
forces us to engage everybody, regardless of where they were in the organization, and we were working on real
stuff. Nothing is worse than working
on things that nobody cares about.”
improve can be measured properly.
“You can’t take this for granted,” he
says. “Say you want to ‘improve production.’ Is that gross? Net? Over time?
You have to figure that out before you
actually do the experiment. ”
Big Machines, Big Problems
Tissue Machine No. 8 is the newest equipment at Lincoln. Bought in
2006, it was the first major investment
Van Scutter and his associates made in
the plant when they started it up. But,
Test Results
For Lincoln Paper, the tests ranged
from one shift to four months in
length. Some were “emergency” tests
to address an immediate problem.
Some tackled longer-term process difficulties, whether an improvement of
a particular machine’s performance or
development of a new product or sales
and marketing strategy.
And the results are often surprising
and counterintuitive. For example, according to Van Scotter, through MVT,
his staff learned that one of the most
hurtful factors in winder performance
was lubricating the chucks. “Who
would have thought that?” he asked.
“I know I didn’t. I don’t think anyone
else did either. You’re supposed to lubricate stuff, right? Well, we found out
not. Once we figured out there were
several things we could do, we ran a
refining experiment and changed the
way we worked the machine. On a second test, you work with those help/hurt
factors to discover a better way to run
your process.”
Both Simple and Hard
On one hand, MVT is hard. The
mathematics behind it is based on the
Plackett-Burman Matrix, a statistical
formula based on complex equations.
“The idea is to test a number of variables,” says Van Scotter, “Three, seven,
11, 19—any number. Take the factors
and set them based on what the matrix tells you to do. Once you get all the
data, you apply the math to figure out
which factors work. It’s simple math.
Add, subtract, divide.”
But even before you get to the testing phase, Van Scotter warns, you
have to make sure what you’re trying to
CT1306_47_50_Feature3.indd 49
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6/3/13 11:01 AM
Business process improvement
says Van Scutter, “The damn burners didn’t work right. Two
years down the road, and we’re on our sixth version of the
burners. We shut down for two days, had the experts in, the
vendors, the engineers. We got ready to start up, and we had
black tissue—soot all over the tissue. We’re burning oil to
help make the hot air to dry the tissue. It was a total disaster.
“The vendor’s suggestion was to rip the stuff back out
and put back what we just took out. That’s another 48 hours
down, and this is a Friday afternoon. That’s not going to
cut it. Our technicians and operators said, ‘Let’s try to do
something to fix the problem.’ So in 10 hours on a Friday
night, we run some MVTs and discovered three factors that
reduced the problem so we could get to a saleable product.”
Feeding the Bottom Line
The benefits of MVT are real and measurable. In Lincoln’s
case, MVTs have lead to such items as a $250,000-per-year reduction in oil costs for running an inline kiln, achieved by running a couple of 16-run MTVs. A seven-factor MVT on making
92-brightness paper reduced the cost of getting to 92 brightness
by half—all done in two days of testing. On the No. 8 tissue machine, $300,000 a year was saved on strengthening chemicals
by virtue of MVT. The same tests were run on the No. 6 tissue
machine and saved the company another $150,000 a year.
Lincoln’s success is undeniable. It’s still in business,
which after its travails of the last decade is something of a
miracle in itself. Now, Lincoln is paying its bills—thanks
in part to MVT. “This is the difference between paying all
the bills and not paying them. We started with nothing, and
we’ve still got it. We’ve paid our debt down, and it’s because
of the tools we’ve had with MVT. It’s not the only differencemaker, but it’s been a huge one,” says Van Scutter.
Van Scutter likes to tell a story he says epitomizes Lincoln’s
position. Two Maine men are ice fishing and encounter a very
large, aggressive bear. They start to run away, and one man
says, “You can’t run away from a bear.” The other replies, “I
don’t have to beat the bear. I just have to run faster than you.”
Lincoln Tissue and Paper is running faster than its competitors thanks to MVT.
For more on this story, go to www.controlglobal.com/articles/2013/bartels-lincoln-paper-mill.html.
Get Up
to Speed
Quickly
With the Control Essentials Series
Written by the editors of CONTROL, our
new Control Essentials series is designed to
provide process industry professionals with an
up-to-date, top-level understanding of a range of
key process automation topics. Our intent is to present essential
engineering concepts in a practical, non-commercial fashion,
together with a review of the latest technology and marketplace
drivers—all in a form factor well suited for onscreen consumption.
Get in and get out quickly with just the information you need.
To download your complementary copy,
visit ControlGlobal.com/Essentials
CT1305_ABB_Essentials_Half.indd 1
CT1306_47_50_Feature3.indd 50
Nancy Bar tels is Control’s managing editor.
Essentials of
Flow
Measurement
Made possible by
Essentials of
Instrinsic Safety
Made possible by
Now available at
ControlGlobal.com/Essentials
6/3/13 10:48 AM
6/3/13 11:01 AM
INTRINSIC SAFETY
Intrinsic Safety Aids
Cost-Effective Coal Mining
Daw Mill colliery implements intrinsically
safe (IS) PLCs and IS Ethernet and supporting
components to fuel U.K. power utilities.
by Jim Montague
A coal mine is no place to fool around. These vast, subterranean complexes are home to some of the heaviest and most
dangerous industrial equipment, which is even more difficult to manage because much of it must be moved continually to new areas as coal is removed. Also, even the biggest mines are still enclosed environments, where coal dust
and methane gas can result in fires and explosions. In such
environments, intrinsically safe (IS) solutions—not only for
at-the-face mining equipment, but also for supporting communications—can provide significant economic advantages
compared to conventional systems using other explosionprotection methods, according to MTL Instruments (www.
mtl-inst.com), which is a division of Cooper Crouse-Hinds.
For instance, Daw Mill colliery is the flagship, deep mine
of UK Coal (www.ukcoal.com). However, due to earlier closings of mines and privatization, UK Coal recently decided to
review its control and monitoring, and find more supportable
technologies. As a result, Daw Mill chose to deploy IS PLCs
and IS Ethernet systems on all of its underground production
and conveying equipment.
Located above the Warwickshire coal field, Daw Mill is
favored by its geology, including the width and depth of its
seam, and by the quality of the coal in it. The mine was
opened in 1961 after this rich seam was found during the
sinking of a ventilation shaft for another nearby mine. Production is nearly 3 million metric tons per year, and 96%
of the extracted material is saleable. At a rate of 1200 metric tons per hour, almost all of Daw Mill’s coal is used for
power generation. This environment has to be carefully
managed—and full control maintained—to make sure production is consistent and economically competitive with imported coal (Figure 1).
extracted from the mine’s equipment that’s used to provide
real-time information for many management functions.
The present upgrade program began in 1998 when the
overall coal industry had shrunk, and questions were raised
about the ongoing viability of the mine’s legacy, highly customized data-gathering solution. Also, Daw Mill reports its
existing system’s architecture was inherently slow and prohibited effective control. Investigating and selecting a new solution for the mine involved visits to other process industry sites,
and discussions with several suppliers. Eventually, Daw Mill’s
engineers decided to use IS PLCs with an IS Ethernet network to enable communications with the surface.
Initially, the mine used MTL’s 9260 range of IS Ethernet infrastructure components, but more recent extensions
employed MTL’s 9466-ET five-port IS Ethernet managed
switch together with the option of Power-over-Ethernet (PoE)
to distribute low-level DC power. IS Ethernet cards in PLCs
throughout the mine are connected to a local 9466-ET switch
Securing Safer Systems
Daw Mill reports that, above all other considerations, safety
is paramount in its machine operations, transport equipment,
ventilation and environment systems, and gas monitoring devices. Automation has been fully implemented at the mine
with machinery being controlled by IS programmable logic
controllers (IS PLCs). This underground intelligence allows
the use of commercially available real-time SCADA software
to supervise, monitor and handle alarms. In addition, data is
CHEWING CARBON
Figure 1: One of Daw Mill colliery’s shearing machines digs coal
from the seam before it’s loaded onto conveyors for transport
to the surface.
J U N E / 2 0 1 3 www.controlglobal.com
CT1306_51_54_Feature4.indd 51
51
6/3/13 3:28 PM
INTRINSIC SAFETY
Go With The Flow
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• Optional insulation / heating
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• New MFC 400 converter easily
handles entrained gas
KROHNE – process instrumentation is
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Email: [email protected]
Tel: 1-800-FLOWING
us.krohne.com
CT1306_51_54_Feature4.indd 52
FIRE FORCES COAL MINE TO CLOSE
Unfortunately, besides struggling to stay afloat economically,
Daw Mill colliery experienced a devastating spontaneous combustion fire on Feb. 22 in a seam 740 meters deep near a ventilation area, according to UK Coal (www.ukcoal.com) and the Manchester Guardian (www.guardian.co.uk) newspaper. About 100
miners and 14 firefighters were evacuated, and no deaths or injuries were reported. However, the ongoing blaze forced the coal
mine to close, sacrifice several hundred million pounds worth of
equipment and revenue, and layoff its 650 miners and staff.
Most recently, UK Coal reported May 15 via BBC News (www.bbc.
co.uk) that the fire had been deprived of oxygen and extinguished.
However, more steps are being taken to secure the site, and the company’s earlier financial losses combined with setbacks from the fire
may force it into liquidation and possibly partial nationalization.
together with 9461-ET IS Ethernet serial gateways used to
communicate with a range of IS serial devices. The 9466-ET
switches are all interlinked with lengths of fiberoptic cable
via 9465-ET IS Ethernet copper-to-fiber media converters,
and ultimately reach the surface to link into the control system servers. The use of multimode fiberoptic Ethernet connections is invaluable for the long distances involved in coal
mining, supporting 2-kilometer (km) distances at 100 Mbps
or 5 km at 10 Mbps, while IS Ethernet over copper supports
the standard 100Tx Ethernet distance of 100 m.
Consequently, PLCs in the mine are monitored and controlled in the control room at the surface using Wonderware InTouch SCADA system from Invensys Operations
Management (http://global.wonderware.com). Daw Mill
reports its high-value coal cutting machines and conveyors, as well as the underground environment, were brought
under proper control with this combined PLC and SCADA
solution. Likewise, because safety is the primary concern,
particular efforts were made to monitor airflow, methane
and carbon monoxide. Alarms are set to shutdown equipment and initiate evacuations at pre-determined levels.
Control Needs Communications
The mine’s PLC-controlled machinery includes coal-face
shearing machines, ventilation and conveyors. The coal face
at Daw Mill is presently 10 km from the control room, so communications have to be fast and effective, and fiberoptic IS Ethernet is used throughout the mine. One unique difference in
mining, compared to manufacturing, is that its “underground
plant” is under continuous movement and redeployment.
When a coal seam reaches a boundary, all of the mining equipment may be moved to a position several kilometers away, and
require totally different operating conditions. (Figure 2).
Even though Daw Mill has two main shafts, one for the
miners and one for equipment, it’s actually a drift mine
with coal transferred to the surface by inclined conveyors
6/3/13 3:29 PM
PROFIsafe
CT1306_full page ads.indd 53
6/3/13 10:44 AM
IntrInsIc safety
Portable Plant
Figure 2: Intrinsically safe (IS) PLC and IS Ethernet networking
helps the Daw Mill’s miners continually move and reposition their
cutting and conveying machines in different parts of the mine.
which have powerful, PLC-monitored motors to cope with
weight and loading changes.
For example, within the recent project period, miners noticed that a motor was drawing higher than normal current,
but examination of the fine resolution data showed this was
caused by external effects, rather than imminent motor failure. The fault proved to be a belt scraper that was pressing on
the belt, causing it to slip, which explained the high current.
Similarly, some high-resolution, archived operating data continually updated from the IS PLCs to the historian server recently diagnosed a blocked air pipe, which could have caused
a £500,000 shutdown, but was instead cleared in five minutes
once it was identified.
Besides these immediate cost savings, Daw Mill adds its IS
PLCs and IS Ethernet systems deliver real-time, easily accessed
information and useful insights for running the mine day to day.
Its engineers add their PLCs and communications system has
become the backbone for the colliery’s operations because data
required underground is readily available.
In fact, UK Coal has already taken the IS PLCs and IS
Ethernet systems and capabilities developed for Daw Mill,
and is using them extensively at six other collieries. Finally,
the mine’s IS Ethernet infrastructure gives it the option of
adding wireless access points to connect to IS mobile computers; cameras for operations, safety and security; RFID for
tracking assets and people; and voice over Internet protocol
(VoIP) telecommunications in the future.
Jim Montague us Control’s executive editor
C
M
Y
CM
MY
CY
CMY
K
CT1306_51_54_Feature4.indd 54
6/3/13 3:29 PM
ask the experts
Ultrasonic Flowmeters for Paper Pulp; Flowmeter Accuracy
This column is moderated by Béla Lipták (http://belaliptakpe.com/), automation and safety consultant, and editor of the Instrument and Automation Engineers’ Handbook (IAEH). If you would like to become a contributing author of the 5th edition, or if
you have an automation related question for this column, write to [email protected]
Q
Can the Controlotron system 1010P Universal portable
flowmeter measure pulp flow with 1.5% consistency. Is
this flow device for clear water applications only?
PhilliP Mngadi
[email protected]
A
The short answer is yes, it can, but the subject deserves
a more detailed answer: The Controlotron 1010P ultrasonic flowmeter is a portable, clamp-on sensor that is
mounted on the outside of the pipe. Being clamp-on, it requires
good acoustic coupling to the pipe to make sure that the coupling does not fail due to thermal expansion of the pipe or the
drying out of the coupling material, nor will “ringing around
the pipe” occur. Because these flowmeters operate by averaging
the velocity profile of the flowing fluid, the meter factor varies
with the Reynolds number, so they can be used in the turbulent
region (RE >> 10,000) or in the laminar region (RE < 4000),
but not in the transition zone between them.
The Controlotron 1010P is better than the older clampon designs, because it uses “wide beam” technology, which
injects the sonic wave into the pipe wall at its resonant frequency, exciting the pipe wall itself, so it becomes the transmitting device. It also can operate in either the transit time
(more accurate) or the Doppler mode (less accurate), so if
the pulp consistency is too high for the transmission mode,
you can switch to Doppler.
The main limitation is accuracy, which is better with the
dual-channel transit design than with the single-channel
ones, but still is low. You did not give the flow range or velocity range you need to work with, nor did you indicate if you
have 20 diameters of straight upstream pipe run, which is
needed for the velocity profile to fully develop, so I am only
guessing on accuracy.
I would say that you can go ahead using the 1010P if you
can live with an accuracy of 5% AR in the transmission or
10% AR in the Doppler mode.
Bél a liPták
[email protected]
A
Ultrasonic transit time flowmeters such as the Controlotron model mentioned are designed for homogenous
liquids and some gases. The use of transit time ultrasonics in pulp flow with low density or consistency is possible,
but the problem with ultrasonic flowmeters is that the speed
of sound in a fluid is dependent on the density of the fluid. If
the density (or pulp consistency) changes, so does the speed
of sound, and this affects the measurement directly. Also, the
higher the solids content, the more likely the sonic beam is to
be attenuated to the point of uselessness.
For permanent installations I recommend using magnetic flowmeters for this application wherever possible.
Walt Boyes
[email protected]
A
The chances are it will work because the product is a
combination of both time of flight (only works on clear
homogeneous fluids, such as water) and Doppler (requires particulates or air bubbles in the process to operate).
Some products claim to operate on clean fluids, provided
there are eddies or flow perturbations in the process fluids
that act like particulates, i.e., Reynolds number > 10,000.
Now your process, 1.5% consistency pulp stock (in water?
in a CTMP mill?) is going to be a lot like water. A trial of the
1010P might be best in this case.
Pe ter Baker – CaP, CteCh
[email protected] yautomation.com
Q
When I look at vendors’ literature, the accuracy is often given as a percentage without stating of what (of
full scale? of actual reading? over what range?). The
sales literature also often gives the accuracy of only the flow
element, and does not include the error contributions of the
loop components (transmitters, etc.) Do you know of a usergenerated source of such information?
harry J. CroWne y
[email protected]
A
All the flowmeter accuracy data in the four editions
of my handbooks was based on user feedback and independent testing sources, not on manufacturers’ selfevaluation, and has always stated if the data is in %FS or
%AR, and if it’s given only for the sensor or the whole loop. I
know that the flow chapter is 253 pages, and the search takes
some time, so here is a summary (page 56).
Bél a liPták
[email protected]
J u n e / 2 0 1 3 www.controlglobal.com
CT1306_55_56_ATE.indd 55
55
6/3/13 3:26 PM
ask the experts
INACCURACIES (ERROR) in % of ACTUAL READING (%AR)
SENSOR ERROR ONLY
TYPE OF FLOWMETERS
D/P METERS
Orifices
RANGEABILITY
AT MIN. FLOW
AT 100% FLOW
AT MIN. FLOW
AT 100% FLOW
Elbow Taps
3:1
10%
10%
12-13%
10-11%
Flow Nozzle
3:1
2%
2%
4-5%
2-3%
Flow Tubes
3-4:1
1-2%
1-2%
3-4%
2%
w/regular d/p cell
3-4:1
0.5%
0.3-0.5%
3%
2%
w/smart d/p cell
10:1
0.5%
0.3-0.5%
3%
2%
Segmental
Conditioning - holes
Pitot
Standard
3:1
2%
2%
4-5%
3%
3-4:1
1%
1%
3-4%
2%
3:1
4-5%
4-5%
7-8%
5%
2-3%
Annubar
3:1
2%
2%
4-5%
Area Averaging
3:1
1-2%
1-2%
4-5%
2%
5:1
2-3%
2-3%
5-6%
3%
V-Cone
3-4:1
0.5-1%
0.5-1%
3-4%
1%
Venturi Tube
3-4:1
0.5%
0.5%
3%
0.75-1%
3:1
3-5%
3-5%
6-7%
5%
Target
Wedge (Segmental)
NON-D/P METERS
Cross Correlation
5:1
5%
1-2%
5%
2%
Jet Deflection
5:1
20%
3-4%
20%
5%
Laminar
10:1
2-5%
0.5%
3-5%
1%
AC
>10:1
3%
1.0%
3-4%
1-2%
DC
>25:1
1%
0.5%
1-2%
1%
5:1
20%
4-5%
20%
5%
Magnetic
Probe
Metering Pumps
>10:1
1%
0.25%
2%
0.5%
Single Rotor
20:1
0.5%
0.25%
1%
0.5%
Propeller, Impeller
10:1
3-4%
2-3%
4%
3%
Turbine
Paddlewheel, Probe
3:1
10%
3-4%
10%
4%
Ultrasonic – Wet Doppler
10:1
30%
5%
30%
6%
Transit Time
15:1
20%
2-3%
20%
3%
10%
Ultrasonic – Clamp Doppler
5:1
30%
5-10%
30%
Transit Time
10:1
30%
4-5%
30%
6%
Variable Area
10:1
10-20%
1-2%
20%
2%
1.5%
Vortex
10-20:1
1%
1%
3%
TOTALIZING
GAS – Positive Displ.
25:1
1%
1%
1%
1%
TOTALIZING
LIQ. PD – Nutating Disk
10:1
2%
2%
2%
2%
Rotating Vane
20:1
0.5%
0.5%
0.5%
0.5%
Oval Gear
5:1
0.25%
0.25%
0.25%
0.25%
Reciproc. Piston
20:1
1-2%
1-2%
1-2%
1-2%
0.4%
MASS
SOLIDS
Coriolis
20:1
0.5%
0.25%
1%
Thermal
10:1
4-5%
0.5-1%
5%
1%
Belt
10:1
1-2%
0.5-1%
2%
1%
Dual Chamber
56
TOTAL LOOP ERROR
>25:1
1%
0.5-1%
1%
1%
Impulse
10:1
15-20%
2%
20%
3%
Cross Correlation
5:1
10-15%
5%
15%
6%
OPEN CHANNEL
Parshall Flume
>50:1
High
1-5%
High
5%
OPEN CHANNEL
Notch Weir
>50:1
High
1-3%
High
3%
www.controlglobal.com J u n e / 2 0 1 3
CT1306_55_56_ATE.indd 56
6/3/13 3:26 PM
ROUNDUP
Contents under Pressure
Check out all the pressure-related goodies here.
ENHANCED PRESSURE TRANSMITTER
DIGITAL PRESSURE SWITCH/TRANSMITTERS
The 266 series pressure transmitter combines enhanced
electronic pressure measurement with a unique HMI.
The industry’s first through
the glass (TTG) technology
lets operators configure the
transmitter without opening
the cover—even in hazardous rated areas. The local HMI
display makes configuring the transmitter as simple as working a cell phone.
ABB
800-829-6001; www.abb.com/measurement
ProSense digital pressure
switch/transmitters are designed for air, non-corrosive
and non-flammable gas applications. Fitted with a 2-meter
cable, they feature a threecolor LCD display, and two
digital and one analog output. They have two vacuum-to-pressure ranges, selectable
response times to eliminate chattering and a fast zero reset.
They’re also cULus-, CE-, RoHS- and Reach-approved.
Automation Direct
770-889-2558; www.automationdirect.com
UPGRADED PRESSURE/DP TRANSMITTERS
BEEFED-UP PRESSURE PRODUCTS
The enhanced DPharp EJA
series transmitters have the
same high-speed response
and multi-sensing functionality as the high-end DPharp
EJX series. They can simultaneously measure differential
and static pressure, and have
a response time of 90 ms. Compact/lightweight in design,
they weigh 30% less than the non-enhanced version. They
are IEC61508-compliant and certified to SIL 2.
Yokogawa Corp. of America
www.yokogawa.com/us
Rosemount 3051 products
have improved performance,
advanced diagnostics, wireless capabilities, user-friendly
interfaces, selectable HART
revisions and safety (SIL2/3)
certification. They have a
standard reference accuracy
of ±0.04% of span down to a 10:1 turndown. New Power Advisory diagnostics can identify electrical loop issues before
they cause on-scale failures.
Emerson Process Management
800/999-9307; www.rosemount.com/3051
HIGH-TEMPERATURE/PRESSURE DATA LOGGER
HAZARDOUS-DUTY PRESSURE TRANSDUCERS
OM-CP-PR140 is a pressure
data logger designed for use
in autoclave validation and
mapping. It can withstand
temperatures up to 140 °C
(284 °F), and is completely
submersible
(IP68).
It’s
built with a precision, stainless steel pressure gauge, and has an accuracy of ±0.03 bar
(±0.435 psi), which can be achieved over a wide temperature
range from 20 °C to 140 °C (68 °F to 284 °F).
Omega
888-826-6342; www.omega.com
PT-400 heavy-duty pressure
transducers have received
ATEX and IECEx certifications, and are rated EX II
1G Ex ia IIB T4 Ga for use
in hazardous locations worldwide. They provide a minimum of 10 million operating
cycles with high accuracy up to ±0.1% F.S. (B.F.S.L.), in operating temperatures from -40 °F to 180 °F. They cover pressures ranging from 0 psi to 20,000 psi.
Automation Products Group
888-525-7300; www.apgsensors.com
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58
SUBMERSIBLE PRESSURE TRANSMITTERS
EXPLOSION-PROOF PRESSURE/TEMPERATURE TRANSMITTER
PT4500 and PT4510 submersible pressure transmitters are optimized for detecting the level of water or other
media with similar density in
challenging industrial environments such as wastewater,
irrigation systems and tanks
containing gas and diesel. These IP 68-rated, stainless steel
pressure transmitters carry UL/cUL 913 approval for use in
Class I, Division 1, Groups C and D locations.
Turck
800-544-7769; www.turck.us
Model AST46PT explosionproof pressure/temperature
transmitter offers pressure
and temperature measurements of ±0.1% and 1.0%
BFSL, respectively. Available
in temperature ranges from
-40 °F to 250 °F (-40 °C to
125 °C) and pressure ranges up to 20,000 psi (1400 bar). It is
CSA-approved for hazardous areas including Class 1 Div 1
Explosion-proof Groups A, B, C and D.
American Sensor Technologies Inc.
973-448-1901; www.astsensors.com
INDUSTRIAL-STRENGTH PRESSURE SENSING
EXPLOSION-PROOF PRESSURE SWITCH/TRANSMITTER
Ashcroft A2, A2X and A4
pressure transmitters are
accurate, rugged, reliable
heavy-duty sensors. Available
in accuracies up to ±0.25%
FS, A2 is offered with a wide
variety of electrical connections, analog output signals
and pressure ports for most industrial applications. A2X (explosion/flame-proof) and A4 (intrinsically safe) configurations are designed for hazardous environments.
Ashcroft
800-328-8248; www.ashcroft.com
The 805QS is a compact,
loop-powered
pressure
switch/transmitter ideal for
the oil and gas industry,
where hazardous locations
and hostile environments
are common. It is explosionproof, hermetically sealed,
and enclosed in a stainless steel housing. An optional flush
diaphragm seal is available, and is designed to prevent substances from clogging the pressure port.
SOR
www.sorinc.com
MEDIUM-HIGH-PRESSURE INSTRUMENTATION
HYGENIC PRESSURE TRANSMITTERS
To service surface and subsea installations, process instrumentation and controls,
chemical injection and testing equipment applications,
IPT series products include
precision valves, fittings and
fluid control devices suitable
for surface and subsea installation, instrumentation, injection and sampling systems. Products in the IPT series are
made standard from cold-worked, 316 stainless steel.
Swagelok
www.swagelok.com
Cerabar M PMC51 and
PMP51 pressure transmitters
are suitable for accurate absolute and gauge pressure measurements in gases, steams or
liquids, and for level, volume
or mass measurements in liquids. Standard accuracy is
0.15% with 0.075% accuracy available as an option. They are
available with ceramic or metal process isolating diaphragm
seals for work in temps to 752 ºF or pressures to 6000 psi.
Endress+Hauser
888-363-7377; www.us.endress.com
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PORTABLE PRESSURE CALIBRATION
PUMPS FOR PRESSURE CALIBRATION
Beta DPC-300A is a rugged,
dual-pressure system calibrator that uses plant air or an
internal electric pump up to
300 psi (20 bar) for the calibration of gauges, P/I transmitters, controllers, switches
and recorders. A built-in loop
calibrator is accurate up to 0.015% reading and provides 24VDC power. It has long-life, rechargeable NiMH batteries
and an intuitive graphic panel.
Martel Electronics
855-627-8351; www.martelcalibrators.com
T-975-CPF pneumatic hand
pump generates pressure and
vacuum. T-620H-CPF highpressure, hydraulic hand
pump provides a compact
pressure source. P-018-CPF
hydraulic comparator produces pressure with superior
control. Model T-1-CPF high-volume hydraulic comparator is ideal for testing and calibrating pressure gauges, relief
valves and pressure switches.
Crystal Engineering Unit of Ametek
800-444-1850; http://crystalengineering.net/nVision
SMART PRESSURE TRANSMITTER-SWITCH
TOUGH PRESSURE TRANSMITTER
One Series Smart transmitter-switch monitors gage
and differential pressure.
Designed for diverse OEM
needs, it features a scalable
4-20 mA output, plug port
detection, a programmable
solid-state relay for alarm and
shutdown. Built-in global approvals simplfy shipment to any
region of the world. It has self-diagnostics, 60-millisecond
response and SIL 2 suitability.
United Electric Controls
617-923-6977; www.UEonline.com
Tel-Tru Model P611 pressure
transmitter features a singlepiece, 316L stainless steel
sensing element with a high
output silicon-glass, fused
strain gauge, coupled with a
thick diaphragm. This combination maximizes cycle life
even in the presence of pressure spikes, vibration and aggressive fluid media. In keeping with Tel-Tru’s trademark quality
and service, it comes with a three-year warranty.
Tel-Tru
800-232-5335; www.teltru.com
COMPACT PRESSURE TRANSMITTER
SMART DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE TRANSMITTER
The compact M1500 pressure transmitter is ideal for
pressure measurement needs
from 10-in. H20 to 3000 psi
full scale. Output options
include digital (RS-232, RS485 and USB) or analog (mA
or VDC). Choose from differential (dry/dry or wet/wet), gauge, compound or absolute
pressure types. Typical NIST-traceable digital accuracy is
±0.025% of full scale.
Meriam Process Technologies
216-281-1100; www.meriam.com
ST 3000 Series 900 differential pressure transmitters
bring proven, smart technology to pressure measurement
applications from furnace
combustion airflow rate to hydrostatic tank gauging. They
can be used with any primary
flow element to provide repeatable flow measurement and
offer greater turndown ratio than conventional transmitters.
They can be used in hazardous environments.
Honeywell Process Solutions
www.honeywellprocess.com
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Product introductions
FEAturEd Product
intELLiGEncE soLution
NWA Focus EMI is a new enterprise manufacturing intelligence (EMI) solution that
provides complete data source integration and real-time process analytics and visibility. The solution’s two modules, KnowledgeBase and Collaboration, greatly improve
a user’s ability to accumulate and disseminate knowledge across the entire enterprise
and collaborate across geographically dispersed manufacturing operations. The system-wide KnowledgeBase module consolidates process, quality and problem-solving
knowledge in a single, discoverable database, supporting shared knowledge and best
practices. The cloud-based Collaboration module quickly mobilizes expertise and
experience across the enterprise to solve critical production issues. Asynchronous
communication integrates text, graphics, pictures, documents and video to seamlessly share important, complex information. This ensures the right people have the right information and context to solve the most pressing manufacturing
issues quickly, saving time, money and resources.
Northwest Analytics
888-NWA-SOFT; www.nwasoft/focus-emi
60
nEW HMi WEBsitE
nEXt-GEn instruMEnt HousinG
Pepperl+Fuchs has launched
http://www.visunet.com,
a
new website for selecting the
HMI solution that satisfies
specific performance needs
in extreme, extended temperature, washdown and hazardous location environments.
The site also showcases the company’s complete family of
HMI solutions. The Product Configurator tool takes information provided by the user, and delivers a product number
of the best-fit solution.
Pepperl+Fuchs
330-486-0002; www.pepperl-fuchs.us
The XIHNS next-generation
explosion-proof instrument
housing features a 316L investment cast, stainless steel
housing ideal for rugged or
explosion-proof applications
where severe corrosion exists.
The modern, contour design
provides an updated look for OEM applications housing sensitive instrumentation such as measurement devices, transmitters, multi-level circuit boards or wide-angle readouts
and displays.
Adalet
216-267-9000; www.adalet.com
nEW GrooV APP For sMArt PHonEs
sMArt MAcHinE stAtus
The groov View for iOS and
groov View for Android are
apps that control how groov
browser-based operator interfaces are displayed on smart
phones, tablets and other devices. The free groov View
apps are an optional part of
Opto 22’s groov, a new way to securely build and deploy webbased operator interfaces for automation, monitoring and
control applications. The new apps are available now free of
charge at the Apple App Store and Google Play.
Opto 22
800-321-6786; http://groov.com
By using a software-configurable Smart Light to indicate machine status, you can
simplify the visual indication
for less than the cost of most
HMIs. Smart Light can be
connected to virtually any industrial network via the open
standard, IO-Link. It can be used with a variety of IP67 distributed modular I/O products, functions in any of three
modes, can be configured on the fly, and is controlled using
simple bitmaps for the outputs.
Balluff
800-543-8390; www.balluff.us
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Product introductions
FAnLEss Mini-coMPutEr
PoWEr conVErtErs
LPC-480FS is a powerful, diminutive computer that runs
without noisy cooling fans. It
has a rugged, extruded aluminum chassis, performing
as a heat sink to dissipate heat
build-up. It is 6.1 in. x 10.0 in.
x 2.17 in., the size of a hard
cover book. Powered by a high-performance Intel B840 mobile processor, it has gigabit LAN and 4 USB 3.0, 2 USB 2.0,
and 2 Serial/RS232 ports, Intel HD3000 graphics, Audio In/
Out and 2-PS/2 ports.
Stealth.com
888-STEALTH; www.stealth.com
SCADALink PSC-24 power
converter is designed for applications where up to 24VDC power is required from
a 10-30-VDC power source.
PSC-24 is DIN-rail-mounted,
Class I Div 2-Rated and rated
for -40 °C to 70 °C operation.
It is ideal for applications where 12-VDC battery backup systems are used, such as solar-powered sites or vehicular applications. Bentek Systems also manufactures converters with
12-VDC, 5-VDC and 9-VDC outputs.
Bentek Systems
403-243-5135; www.scadalink.com
cErtiFiEd FLoWMEtEr
cHEcKMAtE
FPI MagM (full-profile insertion) electromagnetic flowmeter now features the new
M-Series converter, and has
obtained CSA certification to
UL 61010-1 and CSA C22.2
No. 61010-1-04, expanding its
markets and applications. It
supports accuracy of ±0.5% of reading from 1 ft/s to 32 ft/s
and ±1% from 0.3 ft/s to 1 ft/s, has built-in dual 4-20 mA outputs, additional programmable outputs to support SCADA
systems, and a simplified menu structure.
McCrometer
800-220-2279; www.mccrometer.com
CheckMate inline check
valve is ideal for backflow
prevention and odor mitigation. In outfalls, stormwater,
CSO and SSO applications,
CheckMate’s custom-engineered, all-rubber unibody
design eliminates costly backflow from oceans, rivers and interceptors. It can open to a
near full-pipe diameter, maximizing the flow capacity of the
outfall. It is available in 4-in. to 72-in. sizes. CheckMate is
built to suit all your site-specific and flow needs.
Tideflex Technologies
412-279-0044; www.tideflex.com
uPGrAdEd FiELd nEtWorK
sEAL uP Your AGitAtor sErVicE
The CC-Link IE field network
has recently been upgraded
to include remote I/O blocks
for digital input and output,
analog input and output, and
high-speed input, as well as a
CC-Link gateway for simple
access to existing CC-Link
equipment and a number of new CC-Link IE field cables and
accessories. Furthermore, it offers 1 gigabit-per-second transmission speed, inherent determinism and integration with
TCP/IP field devices.
Mitsubishi Electric Automation
847-478-2100; www.MEAU.com
ChemSeal is a true agitator
seal featuring high runout,
reverse rotation and reverse
pressure capability, and both
single and double cartridge
configurations designed for
easy installation and maintenance. The cartridge seals
can be easily removed from the agitator as a complete assembly, and repaired on the workbench before reinstallation.
ChemSeals are available in a variety of materials to meet
critical temperature and pressure ratings.
Chemineer Inc.
800-643-0641; www.chemineer.com
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Product introductions
62
cooL EncLosurEs
tHrEE-sEcond rEsPonsE
Dual 316 stainless steel cabinet cooler systems keep electrical enclosures cool with 20
°F (-7 °C) air, while resisting
heat and corrosion that could
adversely affect the internal components. They have
a cooling capacity of up to
5600 Btu/hr. The wear, corrosion and oxidation resistance
of Type 316 stainless steel assures long life and maintenancefree operation. Models with lower cooling capacities for
NEMA 12, 4 and 4X enclosures are also available.
Exair Corp.
800-903-9247; www.exair.com
Model IR400 Point IR combustible gas detector features
a three-second T90 response
time to the presence of combustible gases, even with a
splash guard installed. It features rapid, fail-to-safe, continuous gas/vapor monitoring
within the lower explosive limit. It monitors methane, propane, ethane, ethylene, butane, hexane, pentane and benzene. It features a self-diagnostic design, heated optics to
eliminate condensation and a dirty optics indicator.
General Monitors
800-330-9161; www.generalmonitors.com
FiELd-AttAcHABLE din VALVE connEctors
rEAL-tiME FrEE cHLorinE MEAsurEMEnt
Brad mPm external thread,
field-attachable DIN valve
connectors for hydraulic,
pneumatic and electromagnetic devices are now available in DIN Form B, C and
Micro versions with electronic circuitry. They feature standard circuitry options, including LED and bi-polar
LED indicators, blocking diodes and voltage-dependent resistors (VDRs) to protect against over-voltage or peaks, plus
built-in circuit protection and LED indicators.
Molex
www.molex.com
FCL500 series free chlorine
sensors use advanced amperometric
measurement
technology to monitor free
chlorine in process applications. With three models covering the 0-2ppm, 0-5ppm
and 0-10ppm ranges, they
can be used in new installations or as a field replacement
for existing sensors in drinking water disinfection and distribution applications, food and beverage production, cooling
water and other industrial water treatment systems.
Sensorex
714-895-4344; www.sensorex.com
WirELEss trAnsMittEr/rEcEiVEr
tEMPErAturE coMMAndEr
WRT Series wireless data
transmitter/receiver wired-towireless solution provides a
self-managed mesh network
that works with any RS485
network protocol for highly
reliable system operation in
new or retrofit applications.
The system allows for wired and wireless equipment mixes,
and it is simple to configure for existing network packet parameters, provides LED indication of network status, and is
transparent to present equipment.
NK Technologies
800-959-4014; www.nktechnologies.com
The 5R7-001 temperature
controller creates a seamless transition between heating and cooling devices, as it
serves as the commander of
thermoelectric modules. It
offers bidirectional or unidirectional H-bridge configuration and a user-friendly PC. It has a load current of 0.1 amps
to 25 amps, is RoHS-compliant, allows for a set temperature
range of 40 °C to 250 °C, and 0 VCD to 36 VDC output using a split power supply system.
Oven Industries
877-766-6836: www.ovenind.com
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C O N T R O L TA L K
The Route to MPC Success
Greg McMillan and Stan Weiner bring their wits and more than 66 years of process
control experience to bear on your questions, comments, and problems.
Write to them at [email protected]
Stan: Navigating the ocean of advanced control applications in the continuous process industries requires commitment and expertise.
Many companies have reached their targets,
and some have been very successful. However,
others have returned to port empty-handed,
and some even have been lost at sea with no
understanding of what really happened.
Greg: Mark Darby, interviewed for the threepart series “MPC Past, Present and Future”
(February, March and April of this year, www.
controlglobal.com/articles/2013/mcmillanweiner-mpc-past-present-future.html;
www.
controlglobal.com/articles/2013/mcmillanweiner-mpc-part2.html; www.controlglobal.
com/articles/2013/mcmillan-weiner-mpc-future.html), recommended we talk with Dennis
Cima, manager of Process Control Network
and Control Systems at Chevron Downstream
& Chemicals, to get the user perspective on
the best route to success achieved at a large oil
and petrochemical company. Dennis, how do
you approach making model-predictive control
(MPC) applications as successful as possible?
MPC metrics. For MPC benefits, the ISA Transactions paper “Estimating Benefits from Advanced Control” by Latour, Sharpe and Delany
(http://tinyurl.com/bqj4eg5) is the heart of our
guidance system. The statistical methods for
quantifying the financial gains from MPC in this
paper have stood the test of time. The methods
are applicable for any level of control. We have
put together an internal course on achieving and
documenting benefits.
GreG McMill an
Stan weiner, pe
[email protected]
Greg: How do you make MPC benefits selfsustaining?
Dennis: You need infrastructure to make the
benefits consistent. Site A and B are on the
same basis. We have corporate standards and
systems to historize and report MPC key performance indicators (KPIs).
Stan: Do you have online metrics?
Dennis: Creating a large MPC application
to run a production unit is like configuring a
cruise control for a battleship. You want the
best technology and the best people. Cheaper
is often not better. Thinking that your automation specialist is a commodity is counterproductive. Chevron has built considerable
in-house expertise and is self-sufficient in creating, implementing, maintaining and improving MPC. We cover all the essential aspects of
development, documentation, training, maintenance and continuous improvement.
Stan: What keeps you on the best route?
Dennis: Continual measurement and monitoring
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C O N T R O L TA L K
Dennis: Yes, but the online metrics
need to be screened for outliers and
bad inputs. KPIs need to be reviewed
before being reported to management.
Greg: Why is MPC so advantageous
in refining, petrochemical, chemical
applications and in special nonlinear
MPC in polymer plants?
Dennis: These are all high-volume,
continuous processes. An increase of
just a few percent in production rate is
a huge amount of money. Some refining companies have fallen flat in using
and sustaining MPC. You can’t just
dump it over the fence. If the developer
moves on, and maintenance is not able
to deal with changes in the process or
objectives, the MPC gets turned off.
The same is true for at-line analyzers,
which create considerable potential. If
an analyzer specialist is not involved in
the calibration and troubleshooting,
the analyzer will fall into disuse.
Greg: For NIR analyzers, the supplier
is often needed to decipher and rebuild the model. When do you need to
change MPC models?
Dennis: For small changes, we can
simply modify gains online. For major
differences, we retest using automated
step-testing software. If you’re committed to making MPC work, you make
MPC proficiency part of operator certification. To deal with changes in catalyst capability, we use a model developed near the middle of catalyst life
expectancy. The time at the start and
the end of a catalyst life is relatively
short where the catalyst activity is extremely higher or lower, respectively.
Stan: At Monsanto and Solutia, our
models were focused on a particular
unit operation with four to 10 models.
What’s the scope of your models?
Dennis: In a large production unit like
a crude distillation unit, you may have
64
20 to 30 manipulated variables (MVs)
and 60 to 80 controlled or constraint
variables (CVs). Over the course of
three to 10 years, some of the dynamic
models change. Fortunately, most stay
the same, so we can focus on specific
areas for retesting.
Greg: We were worried about washout
where inputs at the very beginning of
the process would be so attenuated by
back-mixed liquid volumes that the dynamics were not recognizable near the
end of the process. I suspect for plug
flow gas unit operations, the time horizon and washout concern is a lot less.
What are some of the special skills and
tools needed to develop and maintain a
large MPC? Do you separate the MPC
into plant areas such as reaction and
purification?
Dennis: Let me answer the second
question first. Where it makes sense
to combine reaction with separation
into a single large MPC application
is when separation section constraints
limit upstream reactor section operation. For example, if unit throughput is
limited by a downstream fractionation
constraint, then there will typically be
an economic driver to combine reactor section and fractionation section
controllers. However, larger controllers
are more difficult to maintain, and are
more difficult to implement to ensure
model and gain consistency. In addition, singular value decomposition
(SVD) and linear program (LP) cost
calculation tools are necessary when
attempting to build and implement
large MPC applications.
Stan: Charlie Cutler, in his key note
talk at ISA Automation Week 2011, lamented the demise of real-time optimization (RTO). Do you use RTO to
maximize the overall plant benefits?
Dennis: We do not use the designquality, open-equation, steady-state
models that Charlie was talking about
for RTO. The development and maintenance of these models is difficult offline for plant design. Doing them online for RTO adds a whole other level
of expertise and commitment. We do
multi-unit optimization with simplified and focused models as a practical
approach. The less rigorous models enable us to develop and support a larger
scope of optimization.
Greg: We finish here with my favorite topic of PID vs. MPC for advanced
regulatory control. The Control Talk
blog post, “When Do I Use PID, MPC
and FLC for Basic Control,” (http://
community.controlglobal.com/content/when-do-i-use-pid-mpc-and-f lcbasic-control-tips), totaled the greatest
number of views per month. Another
post that created almost as much interest was “The Basics of PID Control
Modes,” (http://community.controlglobal.com/content/basics-pid-controlmodes-tips). When do you see you
need to move on from PID to MPC?
Dennis: The first flag PID may not be
best is if the control solution is multivariable with complex dynamics.
Dynamic decoupling and dynamic
feed-forward for PID control requires
considerable heuristic expertise and effort. By the time you do it, if you have
the resources, you could have had an
MPC on-line, opening up the door to
more extensive opportunities. The second flag is dynamics that go beyond
the first- or second-order, plus dead
time, self-regulating or integrating process. Particularly difficult for a PID is
inverse response, higher order dynamics and secondary effects from heat integration and recycle streams. A third
flag is multiple constraints and competing optimums.
[Greg has taken to finding his moments
of inspiration while flying. Go to www.
controlglobal.com/1306_ControlTalk.
html for the Top 10 reasons why and for
more on MPC.]
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RC Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Red Lion Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Rittal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40, 41
Rockwell Automation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Siemens Energy & Automation . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Winsted . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Wago . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
LOOKING to
ADVERTISE?
Contact Seth Kostek at
888.450.0301 x215
[email protected]
Contact: Polly Dickson, [email protected], 630-467-1300 ext.396
Dry run protection
SCS_1111_Classified.indd
The PMP-25 Pump Load Control
guards against 1dry running, cavitation and overload. It monitors true pump power
for maximum sensitivity. The display shows pump load, trip
points
and delays.
LOOKING
to Its NEMA 4X enclosure is small enough to
fit on Size 1 starters and can be door-, panel- or wall-mounted.
ADVERTISE?
Load Controls Inc., (888) 600-3247, www.loadcontrols.com.
11/11/11 9:53 AM
Contact: Polly Dickson, [email protected], 630-467-1300 ext.396
Custom REPRINts
RepRints aRe ideal foR:
n New Product Announcements
n Sales Aid For Your Field Force
LOOKING
to & Media Kits
n PR Materials
ADVERTISE?
n Direct Mail Enclosures
n Customer & Prospect
Communications/Presentations
n Trade Shows/Promotional Events
n Conferences & Speaking Engagements
n RecruitmentContact:
& Training
Packages
Polly Dickson
[email protected]
630-467-1300
ext.396
For additional information,
please
contact
Foster Printing Service, the official reprint
provider for Control.
Call 866.879.9144 or
[email protected]
Yokogawa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
CT1306_65_Classifieds.indd 65
6/3/13 3:43 PM
CONTROL REPORT
You can do More than You think
I was miffed when Control ’s editor-in-chief Walt Boyes told me weeks ago that this
month’s cover story on migrating aging systems, “Restoration Possible,” should be limJim montague
e xecutive editor
[email protected]
Maybe that’s what
Eleanor Roosevelt
meant in her
famous quote,
“You must do the
thing you think you
can’t do.”
66
ited to distributed control system (DCS) upgrades. Why restrict the topic, I thought?
There have to be lots of other process control renovations I could cover, right?
Well, as is often the case, time proved Walt
right, and I was soon up to my neck in DCS migration stories. Recent recession or not, it seems
there are more renovations going on in process
control than on This Old House, and everyone
and their brother is repairing or replacing a
DCS or doing some combination of the two.
What also became apparent was that many of
the hardware and software tools needed for
migrations are getting easier and less costly to
use—mainly because they’re more based on
PCs and microprocessors running software, so
they’re less costly and more flexible to apply,
configure and readjust.
For instance, besides the tales related in
the cover article, RasGas (www.rasgas.com) in
Doha, Qatar, reports it recently upgraded to Invensys Operations Management’s (http://iom.
invensys.com) Foxboro I/A Series DCS and Triconex safety instrumented system (SIS) to improve communication and production between
its on-shore control room and liquid natural gas
(LNG) processing train and part of its North
Field natural gas field located 130 kilometers
offshore. The new system integrates HART,
Modbus, Profibus, OPC and Ethernet communications and enables them to interoperate
within one project database.
Similarly, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (www.bnl.gov) in Upton, N.Y., recently
migrated from its old Crisp DCS controlling
dozens of DOS-based HMIs for its cryogenics
cooling compressors to InduSoft’s (www.indusoft.com) modular software architecture and
operating system running on browser-based
displays. RHIC refrigerates and liquefies about
6 million cubic feet of helium to run its experiments, and its 80K cooler, cold-snake superconducting magnet and other systems have a combined 10,000 I/O points reporting to its VAX
control system. Consequently, system integrator Salem Automation (SA, www.salemautomation.com) helped Brookhaven use InduSoft’s
migration tool for Crisp to re-host its existing
displays on new PCs, while InduSoft’s communications driver allowed them to talk directly to
their control system.
Likewise, Four Roses Distillery (www.fourrosesbourbon.com) in Lawrenceburg, Ky., relied on its APACS+ automation system for 24/7
production since 1999, but recently needed
to upgrade because its hardware and software
were being phased out. Luckily, Four Roses’
distillery operations director, Ryan Ashley, determined he could upgrade to Siemens Industry’s (www.siemens.com) Simatic PCS 7 DCS,
but still retain his existing APACS+ controllers,
I/O and field wiring. Also, the APACS+ HMIs
were replaced with PCS 7/APACS+ OS HMIs,
which allowed Four Roses to continue to use its
APACS+ controllers without making modifications to the application software.
All of these and other cases show how software and PCs can help upgrade and run process control applications, but there’s just one
snag. I think it’s because the tools and methods for doing DCS and other upgrades have
advanced so quickly, but many potential users
don’t seem to know how much more approachable and affordable DCS migrations and other
upgrade projects could be for them. Similar to
so many other much-needed human endeavors, the only barrier to doing them is in the
minds of those who think it can’t be done.
Maybe that’s what Eleanor Roosevelt meant
in her famous quote, “You must do the thing
you think you can’t do.” Well, with software
and PC-enabled controls, a lot more of those
old obstacles—mental and otherwise—should
be coming down, and many more useful gains
will be within reach.
www.controlglobal.com J u n e / 2 0 1 3
CT1306_68_ControlReport.indd 66
6/4/13 9:54 AM
PAI-72 control_Layout 1 05/30/13 3:07 PM Page 1
Continuous analyzer performance
verification is now as easy as:
One
Two
Three
Only AMETEK Model 5100 Series analyzers have a built-in sealed reference
cell for continuous on-line verification and laser line-lock function. Each and
every second, analyzer response is compared to the value of the analyte
concentration in the sealed reference cell. So you know the analyzer is
operating reliably.
Model 5100 analyzers are based on Tunable Diode Laser Absorption
Spectroscopy (TDLAS), which ensures high specificity, dramatic sensitivity,
and extremely fast response times. The analyzers are available in both single
and multiple analyte configurations with single or dual cells permitting wide measurement
ranges. And they are available for dual stream analysis where cost effectiveness is important.
Plus, there’s a new compact portable unit that’s ideal for field spot checks.
AMETEK designs better solutions to your on-line analyzer requirements and we make the
choice as easy as 1, 2, 3.
www.ametekpi.com
© 2013 AMETEK Inc., All rights reserved
CT1306_full page ads.indd 67
6/3/13 10:45 AM
Our safety experts talk safety.
Our operators talk control. But when it
comes to keeping our people and plant safe,
we all need to speak the same language.
YOU CAN DO THAT
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CT1306_full page ads.indd 68
6/3/13 10:45 AM
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