Equipment and software for physical models

Equipment and software for physical models
Equipment
Instrumentation and software
for physical models
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Miniature propeller meters
Key features
> Digital display
> Low cost
The Nixon miniature propeller meter has been
designed to measure the water velocities in hydraulic
models. The small diameter of the propeller
means that it can measure changes in velocity
throughout the model and the high quality bearings
enable it to measure velocities down to 3 cm/s.
> Small diameter
> Low speed capability
> Battery and mains
operated
www.hrwallingford.com/equipment
Equipment <
miniature propeller meter <
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Probes
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Two probes are available, one covering the range 5-150
cm/s and the other 60-300 cm/s. The probe head has
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stainless steel shaft. This runs in jewelled bearings that
are mounted in a protective cage. The cage is joined to
a long thin tube inside which is an insulated gold wire
that projects to within 0.1mm of the tips of the blades.
When the propeller rotates in a conductive liquid, the
movement of the blades past the end of the wire varies
the impedance between the wire and the tube.
Probes
Each probe comes with its own calibration graph which
relates the propeller frequency to water velocity over
its linear range. The propeller will continue to rotate at
lower speeds but the minimum measurable velocity
will depend on the cleanliness of the bearings and
the medium in which it is being used. An additional
calibration graph covering this non linear low speed
range is available if required.
Digital Indicator
The digital indicator generates the carrier signal for
the probe and displays the frequency of rotation of
the propeller. It has a three-digit LCD display and is
powered by rechargeable Ni-Mh batteries. These will
last for a maximum of 300 hours, though the indicator
can also be operated from any 100 – 240V AC mains
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as standard.
The controls on the indicator include an on/off switch
and the selection of one to 10 second averaging period.
In addition to displaying the frequency of rotation of
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programming it with the calibration factors of the probe
it is used with. The indicator has a BNC input socket on
the rear panel and is supplied with a 5m long cable that
connects to the probe.
www.hrwallingford.com/equipment
tel +44 (0)1491 835381
email [email protected]
Linear velocity range
Low speed
propeller
High speed
propeller
5-150 cm/s
60-300 cm/s
Minimum velocity (nominal) 5 cm/s
60 cm/s
Output (nominal)
1.8 Hz/cm/s
0.5 Hz/cm/s
Stem length
420 mm
420 mm
Propeller diameter
11.6 mm
11.6 mm
Spindle/bearings
Hardened stainless steel/
synthetic sapphire vee jewels
Accuracy
+/- 2%
+/- 2%
Indicator
Display
3-digit 11 mm LCD
Range
0-99.9, 0-999 Hz
Output
0-5 V scalable
Controls
On/off, 1 or 10 s averaging
Power supply
Rechargeable batteries,
100-240 V AC mains supply
Cable length
5m
Options
90° angled head for vertical velocities
Permanently sealed water tight cable connection
Equipment for physical
modelling
Using experience gained over the last 60 years, scientists
and engineers at HR Wallingford have developed a range
of state of the art physical modelling technology. From
wave generating systems which simulate sea conditions to
providing instrumentation and software to gather and analyse
results, our comprehensive range of products is in use in
laboratories around the world.
We make our technology and expertise available to other
model users. And because all designs have been rigorously
proven on our own research and commercial consultancy
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stringent requirements.
Digital point gauges
Key features
> Simple to use
> Versatile display unit
The measurement of steady state water surface
levels on physical models is frequently needed
during hydraulic investigations. Conventionally this
is done by using a small point or hook which is
manually adjusted to touch the water surface and
then a reading is taken using a scale or vernier.
> Rugged design
> Easy to read
HR Wallingford’s digital point gauge works in
the same way but has a battery operated LCD
display that makes it extremely easy to read.
www.hrwallingford.com/equipment
Equipment <
digital point gauges <
EQ-004 R2 <
A quick release device allows fast positioning
of the digital point gauge to the water surface,
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a screw thread. The display reads directly
in millimetres and can be set to zero at any
position to allow relative measurements to be
easily made.
The measurement of the water level can be
logged directly to a computer using an optional
cable and interface unit.
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Range
285, 435, 585 mm
Resolution
0.01 mm
Accuracy
0.05 mm
www.hrwallingford.com/equipment
tel +44 (0)1491 835381
email [email protected]
Equipment for
physical modelling
Using experience gained over the last 60 years,
scientists and engineers at HR Wallingford have
developed a range of state of the art physical
modelling technology. From wave generating
systems which simulate sea conditions to providing
instrumentation and software to gather and analyse
results, our comprehensive range of products is in
use in laboratories around the world.
We make our technology and expertise available
to other model users. And because all designs
have been rigorously proven on our own research
and commercial consultancy projects, you can
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requirements.
Ship movement
measurement
Key features
> Compact and
easy to set up
> 0.18 mm resolution
> Displays all six
degrees of freedom
> Runs with HR DAQ for
logging and analysis
> No contact with the ship
HR Wallingford’s ship movement measurement
system is used to measure the movement of model
ships, typically when moored, for the design of new
harbours or terminals. It has been designed to use
non-contact measuring methods and to interface
directly with HR DAQ acquisition and analysis
software. This means that full spectral analysis and
also correlation between any of the six degrees of
freedom and wave heights or mooring forces can
easily be carried out. The system comprises six laser
displacement sensors, controller unit, power supply
with interface unit and all necessary interface cabling.
www.hrwallingford.com/equipment
Equipment <
ship movement measurement <
EQ-005 R3 <
Laser displacement
sensors
The lasers used are low powered units. The only
safety precaution required is to avoid staring directly
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lasers are extremely compact and can be used even
with small models.
Junction box
All six lasers connect to the junction box which has a
warning lamp to indicate when the lasers are active.
Power supply and
interface unit
White target plates are mounted on the ship at
appropriate points and the laser displacement
sensors are positioned nominally 50-100mm away
from the target plates.
This unit is positioned near the data acquisition
computer. It provides the DC power supply, monitors
the six lasers output signals and connects to the
computer analogue input card. It also has a key
switch to prevent the lasers being activated by
unauthorised personnel.
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Equipment for
physical modelling
Laser
Range
60-140 mm
Resolution
0.3 mm
Response
20 mS
Dimensions
60 x 80 x 20 mm
Mounting
12 mm dia clamp
Power
3 mW
Class
3B
Cable
5m
Power supply and interface unit
Voltage
220 V AC (110 V AC
available on request)
Cable to
controller unit
30 m (other lengths
available on request)
Using experience gained over the last 60 years,
scientists and engineers at HR Wallingford have
developed a range of state of the art physical
modelling technology. From wave generating
systems which simulate sea conditions to providing
instrumentation and software to gather and analyse
results, our comprehensive range of products is in use
in laboratories around the world.
We make our technology and expertise available to
other model users. And because all designs have
been rigorously proven on our own research and
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that they satisfy the most stringent requirements.
www.hrwallingford.com/equipment
tel +44 (0)1491 835381
email [email protected]
High performance
pressure sensors
Key features
> Covers depth and
impact measurements
> 19 mm diameter sensor
> Digital display
> 0-10 V output signal
The high performance pressure sensors are ideally
suited for measurements in hydraulic models.
These sensors can measure;
> impact pressures on structures, with
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> water depth or the wave pressure under rubble
mounds, with a protective nose cone; and
> pressure in pipes or other vessels,
with a male G¼ thread.
The all welded diaphragm and body are
manufactured from 316 stainless steel and the
cable has an internal vent tube and strainer wire.
www.hrwallingford.com/equipment
Equipment <
high performance pressure sensor <
EQ-006 R4 <
The sensing element consists of a micro-machined
silicon diaphragm with piezo-resistive strain gauges
diffused into the surface. The sensing element
is mounted behind a thin diaphragm to produce
a rugged assembly. The combined linearity and
hysterisis errors are less than 0.25 % of full scale
range.
Display unit
The pressure sensor is available with a scalable
display unit that can show pressure in a variety
of units. The display indicator contains a digital
panel meter, which has a 0-10 V output and a serial
RS 422/485 connection. A separate power supply unit
allows the instrument to be used with either 110 V AC
or 220 V AC supplies.
If required, the sensor and display unit can be
supplied as a pair with an individual calibration
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Transducer output and
power supply unit
Pressure sensors can be supplied with a selfcontained interface box that feeds up to eight
separate voltage inputs in the range -10V to +10V
to a host PC for data acquisition via a USB link. It
has eight input sockets each able to supply 24V at
approximately 100mA to any compatible sensor or
transducer. Power is from an external desktop-style
PSU and two panel-mounted LEDs provide power-on
and USB activity indication. Power lead, USB lead
and USB driver software are also supplied. For use
with up to eight compatible sensors.
www.hrwallingford.com/equipment
tel +44 (0)1491 835381
email [email protected]
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Sensor
Full scale range
2, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200,
m WG
Max over pressure
25, 25, 30, 40, 70, 150, 300
m WG
Resonant frequency
in air
20 kHZ
Combined non-linearity
and hysteresis
0.25 % full scale all ranges
Temperature effects
0.015 % FS/°C over 0-50°C
Cable lengths
0.015 % FS/°C over 0-50°C
Display unit
Display
14mm high brightness LED
Display supply
24V DC or 90-240V AC
Display output - analogue 0-10V, 0-20mA or 4-20mA
Display output - serial
comms
RS 422/485
Equipment for
physical modelling
Using experience gained over the last 60 years,
scientists and engineers at HR Wallingford have
developed a range of state of the art physical modelling
technology. From wave generating systems which
simulate sea conditions to providing instrumentation
and software to gather and analyse results, our
comprehensive range of products is in use in
laboratories around the world.
We make our technology and expertise available to
other model users. And because all designs have been
rigorously proven on our own research and commercial
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satisfy the most stringent requirements.
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Differential pressure sensors
Key features
> Ideal for use with
Pitot tubes
> Very stable
> Wet/dry operations
HR Wallingford’s differential pressure sensors have
been designed for the stable measurement of very
low differential pressures. They are particularly
suitable for use with liquids because bleed screws
are provided to remove any air pockets that
might be trapped in the pressure chambers.
> Integral bleed screws
www.hrwallingford.com/equipment
Equipment <
differential pressure sensor <
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The movement of the diaphragm that separates the
two pressure chambers is measured by a Foucault
Current Detector. This is a non contacting method of
measurement and is based on the principle that the
eddy current losses in a coil will vary with the position
of the diaphragm.
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directional or bi-directional. They operate from a
24 V DC supply and the uni-directional sensor can
also operate from 220 V AC. The pressure ports are
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tubing.
The sensors are intended primarily for measuring
very low differential water pressures, but sensors
are available with stiffer diaphragms for use with
differential pressures up to 10 Bar.
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Full scale ranges available 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 10, 20 mbar
Permissible over pressure
20 x full scale
Output
0-10 V or 4-20 mA
Power supply
24 V DC or 220 V AC
Accuracy
0.25% BSL
Pressure ports
1/8” BSP female
Zero and span drift
<0.02% /°C
Response time
Adjustable 10 ms - 2s
Housing
Anodised aluminium
Diaphragm
Beryllium copper
www.hrwallingford.com/equipment
tel +44 (0)1491 835381
email [email protected]
Equipment for
physical modelling
Using experience gained over the last
60 years, scientists and engineers at
HR Wallingford have developed a range of
state of the art physical modelling technology.
From wave generating systems which simulate
sea conditions to providing instrumentation
and software to gather and analyse results,
our comprehensive range of products is in use
in laboratories around the world.
We make our technology and expertise
available to other model users. And because
all designs have been rigorously proven on our
own research and commercial consultancy
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the most stringent requirements.
Wave gauges
Key features
> Extremely linear output
> No hysterisis
> Reliable, proven design
The wave gauge is a simple and reliable device
for measuring rapidly changing water levels
in physical models. When combined with our
HR DAQ data acquisition and analysis software
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> Easily calibrated
> Can be used with
cables of any length
> USB plug-n-play
connection
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Wave probe monitor
Principle of operation
The wave probe monitors are supplied in cases that
can accommodate either four or eight monitors.
These cases include the power supply for the
modules, the input connections for the wave probes
and the output connections for a computer.
The wave probe operates by measuring the current
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are immersed in water. This current is converted to
an output voltage that is directly proportional to the
immersed depth.
The cases can be supplied with a plug-n-play USB
output so that they can be connected directly to either
a desktop or laptop computer without the need for any
additional analogue input cards.
Each wave probe monitor card contains the
energising and sensing circuits for the operation of
one wave probe. In addition to this, each monitor
contains the circuits required to compensate for the
resistance of the cable that is connected to the probe.
Without this, the output of the wave probe monitor
would be non-linear.
The four-channel cases can also be supplied with four
additional input sockets to enable other instruments
with voltage outputs to be connected directly to the
computer.
www.hrwallingford.com/equipment
In order to avoid polarisation effects at the probe
surface, a high frequency square wave voltage
is used to energise the probe. The oscillator that
produces this square wave may be set to one of six
different frequencies. This allows probes to be used
close together without causing any interference.
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The current in each probe is detected by measuring
the voltage drop across two resistors. Because
the measured voltage is alternating, the signal is
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proportional to the wave height. This signal feeds
a small centre-zero balance indicator and a BNC
socket on the front of the panel. The signal is also fed
to a preset gain stage that may be set for a gain of
between 0.5 and 10.
Controls on the front of each wave probe module
enable the output signal to be set to zero for any
given initial depth of probe immersion. This, together
with the gain adjustment, produces a full-scale output
of ±10V for all waves.
Calibration
An overall calibration from wave height to output
voltage can be performed by measuring the change
in output voltage when the probe is raised or lowered
by a known amount in still water. This operation is
facilitated by means of a calibrated stem which is
attached to the wave probe and which has a series of
accurately spaced holes drilled along its length.
Wave probes
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steel rods with a plastic head and foot. The head is
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any vertical surface. The standard probe lengths are
300, 600 and 900mm, although probes up to 2m in
length can be supplied.
Wave probe cables
and tripods
Each wave gauge channel will require a cable linking
the wave probe monitor to the wave probe. We also
have a selection of tripods available for deployment of
wave probe in basins.
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Equipment <
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Equipment for
physical modelling
Wave probe monitors
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4 or 8 monitors
Output signals:
Front of monitors
±10V via BNC socket
Rear of case
±10V via 25 way D socket
USB plug-n-play
Gain
0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 1.5, 2.55,
3.75, 6.0, 10.0
Excitation frequency
4.6 kHz to 11.6 kHz
Filter band width
-3dB at 20Hz
Supply voltage
220 or 110V ±10% 4060Hz
Case dimensions (mm)
4 monitor
255 x 150 x 315
8 monitor
470 x 150 x 315
Using experience gained over the last 60 years,
scientists and engineers at HR Wallingford have
developed a range of state of the art physical
modelling technology. From wave generating
systems which simulate sea conditions to providing
instrumentation and software to gather and analyse
results, our comprehensive range of products is in
use in laboratories around the world.
We make our technology and expertise available
to other model users. And because all designs
have been rigorously proven on our own research
and commercial consultancy projects, you can
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requirements.
Wave probes
Active length
300, 600, 900
Diameter - 300 mm
1.6 mm
www.hrwallingford.com/equipment
Diameter - 600, 900 mm
6.0 mm
tel +44 (0)1491 835381
email [email protected]
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Force measurement sensors
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> Options for ship
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HR Wallingford’s force transducers have been
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ideal choice for ship modelling requirements.
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in either mooring lines or fenders.
Measurement of
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be supplied to mimic the non linear performance of the
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Signal conditioning unit
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signals for each transducer are available via a 15 pin
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Instrument traverse system
The HR Wallingford instrument traverse system is
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solution which provides a rigid support for the carriage
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HR Wallingford’s Instrument Traverse Systems are
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computer program that is supplied
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the instruments to a series of positions
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and the carriage are fully supported
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when the power to the motor is turned off
In addition to the standard system, two other systems are
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Equipment for
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> All systems are designed to suit the
client’s individual requirements for
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and engineers at HR Wallingford have developed a range
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wave generating systems which simulate sea conditions
to providing instrumentation and software to gather and
analyse results, our comprehensive range of products is
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rigorously proven on our own research and commercial
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HR Wallingford
Howbery Park
Wallingford
Oxfordshire OX10 8BA
United Kingdom
tel +44 (0)1491 835381
fax +44 (0)1491 832233
email [email protected]
www.hrwallingford.com
HR Wallingford is an independent engineering and environmental
hydraulics organisation. We deliver practical solutions to the
complex water-related challenges faced by our international
clients. A dynamic research programme underpins all that we do
and keeps us at the leading edge. Our unique mix of know-how,
assets and facilities includes state of the art physical modelling
laboratories, a full range of numerical modelling tools and, above
all, enthusiastic people with world-renowned skills and expertise.
© HR Wallingford EQ-016 R1
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