Welcome to PSCAD What is PSCAD?

Welcome to PSCAD What is PSCAD?
Chapter 1
Welcome to PSCAD
Whether you are a seasoned veteran upgrading to PSCAD X4, or a novice just starting out, you have joined a community
comprised of over 30,000 users at over 1000 sites in nearly 80 countries – welcome to the family!
What is PSCAD?
PSCAD (Power Systems Computer Aided Design) is a powerful and flexible graphical user interface to the worldrenowned, EMTDC electromagnetic transient simulation engine. PSCAD enables the user to schematically construct a
circuit, run a simulation, analyse the results, and manage the data in a completely integrated, graphical
environment. Online plotting functions, controls and meters are also included, enabling the user to alter system
parameters during a simulation run, and thereby view the effects while the simulation is in progress.
PSCAD comes complete with a library of pre-programmed and tested simulation models, ranging from simple passive
elements and control functions, to more complex models, such as electric machines, full-on FACTS devices, transmission
lines and cables. If a required model does not exist, PSCAD provides avenues for building custom models. For example,
custom models may be constructed by piecing together existing models to form a module, or by constructing rudimentary
models from scratch in a flexible design environment.
The following are some common models found in the PSCAD master library:

Resistors, inductors, capacitors

Mutually coupled windings, such as transformers

Frequency dependent transmission lines and cables (including the most accurate time domain line model in the
world!)

Current and voltage sources

Switches and breakers

Protection and relaying

Diodes, thyristors and GTOs

Analog and digital control functions

AC and DC machines, exciters, governors, stabilizers and inertial models

Meters and measuring functions

Generic DC and AC controls

HVDC, SVC, and other FACTS controllers

Wind source, turbines and governors
PSCAD, and its simulation engine EMTDC, have enjoyed close to 40 years of development, inspired by ideas and
suggestions by its ever strengthening, worldwide user base. This development philosophy has helped to establish
PSCAD as one of the most powerful and intuitive CAD software packages available.
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A Quiet Revolution in Simulation
A Quiet Revolution in Simulation
PSCAD was first conceptualized in 1988, and began its development as a graphical interface for the EMTDC
electromagnetic transient simulation program. In its pre-commercial form, PSCAD was largely experimental;
nevertheless, it represented a giant leap forward in productivity, since EMTDC users could design their systems
schematically, rather than entering data through text listings. The graphical aspects of PSCAD enhanced the overall
perceptual comprehension of the simulated system, dramatically accelerating circuit assembly and minimizing error.
Prior to its release, PSCAD went through extensive testing in North America, Japan, Australia and Europe, and upon
completion was publicized in the fall of 1992 under the trademark PSCAD/EMTDC Version 3. The released UNIX-based
version of PSCAD, which accompanied EMTDC, was eventually referred to as PSCAD V2, and consisted of a suite of
associated software tools that performed circuit drafting, runtime plotting/control and off-line plotting. PSCAD V2 enjoyed
tremendous success leading up to the new millennium. During this same period, desktop personal computers running
Microsoft Windows became immensely popular, and the rapidly expanding PSCAD user base demanded a version that
supported this platform. Development on a Windows based version of PSCAD commenced immediately.
Migration to the Windows Environment
When PSCAD V3 for Windows finally arrived in 1999, it sought to push the envelope by introducing an environment where
system schematics could be built in a modular form. Systems could thus be constructed using interconnected page
modules (or sub-pages), which were compiled individually and possessed their own private data space. In addition,
PSCAD V3 merged both the drafting and runtime systems of its predecessor, resulting in a comprehensive environment
harbouring both design and simulation analysis.
In 2001, development of the next major release commenced. One of the primary goals for PSCAD V4 was to enhance
the robustness of the software, mainly by migrating many of the custom toolsets over to a more standardized design. This
included the incorporation of Microsoft Foundation Class (MFC) architecture, as well as a completely new library of online
control and plotting tools. The V3 Component Workshop utility was integrated directly as part of the drafting editor, in
order to achieve a fully unified design environment; all aspects of component definition and circuit design could be
performed using a single view.
PSCAD V4 was released in 2002, to much success. It included many other new features that have since become
indispensable to project design including, single-line representations, xy-plotting, wire mode, undo/redo, drag and drop,
docked windows and enhanced navigational features.
A Paradigm Shift
As with many software products, the need to continually improve PSCAD creates pressure to add newer and better
features that make the users’ experience an enjoyable one. Continuous development over time however, can lead to a
situation where the application code body becomes a complicated mess of patch work and shoe-horned feature
implementations. Further development of the product becomes more and more difficult as new mechanisms are put in
place that perhaps do not fit well in the overall architecture. A smart development team will recognize when its software
reaches this juncture and take effective action. In 2006, this time came when the PSCAD user base began to demand a
simulation environment where they could perform studies of different types, such as load flow, in addition to EMTDCbased electromagnetic transients studies.
Development of a completely new design for PSCAD was embarked upon, specifically to make this multiple study
environment a possibility. Following many hours of research and planning, a new architecture was chosen, based on a
single database model, it is a design that places the entire application focus on a data core. The result is an environment
where different solver engines (ex. EMTDC, Load Flow, etc.) can dynamically share information between themselves and
the simulation environment itself. This new implementation is referred to as the neXus engine, and represents a new
generation of PSCAD products.
PSCAD X4 is the first product release to include the neXus engine. Although still exclusively an electromagnetic
transients study environment, its primary new feature will act as a foundation for a multiple simulation environment; page
modules that may be multiple-instanced based on the same definition. It also includes many other new features, such as
parallel simulation runs, module black boxing, transmission line mutual coupling, and many others. In 2011, the Microsoft
Foundation Class (MFC) architecture was upgraded to the latest version. This resulted in an application face lift, which
includes a modern ribbon control bar and tabbed window interface.
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Who Uses PSCAD, and for What?
The PSCAD users' spectrum includes engineers and scientists from utilities, manufacturers, consultants, as well as
research, military and academic institutions. It is used in planning, operation, design, commissioning, preparing of tender
specifications, teaching and research. The following are examples of the studies routinely conducted using PSCAD:

Contingency studies of AC networks consisting of rotating machines, exciters, governors, turbines,
transformers, transmission lines, cables, and loads

Relay coordination

Transformer saturation effects

Insulation coordination of transformers, breakers and arrestors

Impulse testing of transformers

Sub-synchronous resonance (SSR) studies of networks with machines, transmission lines and HVDC systems

Evaluation of filter design and harmonic analysis

Control system design and coordination of FACTS and HVDC; including STATCOM, VSC, and cycloconverters

Optimal design of controller parameters

Investigation of new circuit and control concepts

Lightning strikes, faults or breaker operations

Steep front and fast front studies

Electric naval vessel design

Investigation of the pulsing effects of diesel engines and wind turbines on electric networks
What's New in PSCAD X4?
PSCAD X4 is classified as a minor upgrade. The number of enhancements and features it provides however are far from
minor. The following is a general overview of what is new in PSCAD X4.
Important Points of Note
PSCAD X4 represents a complete refurbishment of the internal architecture of the software. Although it appears quite
similar to the previous version on the surface, under the hood it is vastly different. Due to these changes, there are a few
important points of note.
3

New File Formats: PSCAD X4 project file extensions have been changed to reflect the switch-over to XMLbased file storage. The extensions are now *.pslx and *.pscx for library and case projects
respectively. Component definition file extensions have been changed from *.cmp to *.psdx.

Upwards Compatibility: PSCAD X4 supports the import of *.psc and *.psl file formats that have been
generated by PSCAD v4.2 only. Older component definition files with extension *.cmp may be imported as
well.

Downwards Compatibility: The PSCAD X4 release is not backwards compatible. That is, X4 format project
files (*.pscx and *.pslx) cannot be converted back to *.psc or *.psl format.

New Look and Feel: The application window framework has been upgraded from MFC 6 (c. 1998) to MFC 10.
This has resulted in a brand new look and feel for the software:
What's New in PSCAD X4?

Ribbon Control Bar: A modern ribbon control bar has been added that provides easier accessibility
to most features and components. Included with the ribbon is an inherent quick access bar, which is
fully customizable by the user for placement of favoured and well used button actions. The ribbon
control bar is featured prominently across the top of the application environment.

Tabbed Document Interface (TDI): A modern working environment including customizable docked
windows and window pinning and hiding has been added. The new MFC framework also incorporates
a new tabbed document interface, which enhances convenience in inter-project navigation.

64-bit PSCAD Product: A 64-bit product is now here! A separate software product, the PSCAD 64-bit
application directly addresses the ‘Out of memory’ issue that some power users have experienced when
attempting to run very large simulations: If a simulation exceeds the allocated process memory of 2 GB
(imposed by the Windows 32-bit operating system) then the simulation will crash, resulting in lost time. The 64bit PSCAD will open up an enormous memory space (8 TB or 8,000 GB), but the speed of execution is not
affected.

New Component Wizard: A revamped component wizard has been included in this release. Functioning
internally in a similar manner to the older version, the new wizard possesses a much different interface on the
surface. New components (both native and module), transmission lines and cables may be created from this
utility.

New Search (Query) Utility: A revamped search utility has been included in this release. Functioning
internally in a similar manner to the older version, the new utility possesses a different interface on the surface.

Temporary Directories: The old temporary directory (*.emt) naming convention is obsolete. A unique
temporary directory is now created depending on the Fortran compiler used to build the project. For example, if
your project is called vdiv_1.pscx, then the temporary directory will be named vdiv_1.gf42 if you have selected
the GFortran compiler.
The temporary directory extensions are as follows:


GFortran: *.gf42

Intel Visual Fortran 9 to 11: *.if9

Intel Visual Fortran Composer XE 2011: *.if12
Active Project Concept is Obsolete: In previous versions of the software it was necessary to set an ‘active’
project for compiling and running the simulations. Due to changes in the way the software navigates and
displays status information, the concept of an ‘active’ project is no longer necessary. It is now possible to run
multiple cases in the environment simultaneously. All ribbon control buttons and status bar messages are based
on the project currently in focus. See Simulation Sets/Multiple EMTDC for more details.
There are other important issues to consider both before and after importing older projects into PSCAD X4. For more
details on this, please see Converting PSCAD v4.1 and v4.2 Projects to X4 in Chapter 13 of this manual.
New and Enhanced Features
The following is a general overview (not exhaustive) of new and enhanced features to be aware of:

Multiple Instance Modules (MIM): This is the primary new feature in this release. See Multiple Instance
Modules (MIM) in Chapter 5 of this manual for more details.

EMTDC Runtime Configuration: Runtime configuration is a term used to describe a collection of changes to
both the EMTDC system dynamics structure and methods in the design of components, in order to ensure
support for MIM.

#BEGIN/#ENDBEGIN Directive Block: This directive provides access to the BEGIN outer process
in EMTDC, and is required for supporting MIM in custom components. See The BEGIN Subroutine in
Chapter 2 of the EMTDC manual or #BEGIN/#ENDBEGIN in Chapter 10 of this manual for more
details.
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
5
New #STORAGE Arrays: New storage arrays have been added to EMTDC specifically for the
transfer of data from the new BEGIN section to the DSDYN/DSOUT sections in the EMTDC system
dynamics. See #STORAGE in Chapter 10 of this manual for more details.

High Performance Computing: Two unique parallel computing functions were incorporated that both utilize
multiple processor cores: A parallel solution of transmission lines and cables, and a ability to launch multiple
EMTDC simulation runs simultaneously.

Electric Network Interface (ENI): Multiple case projects representing multiple parts of a complete electric
network, may be run simultaneously as a single simulation. A single electric network may be split so that each
electric subsystem is represented by a separate case project, and thereby run using a separate EMTDC
process. Each EMTDC process is linked together via an Electric Network Interface (ENI) to form a cohesive
simulation that is run from within a single workspace.

Certificate Licensing: All PSCAD products now support cloud-based, Certificate Licensing, in addition to the
intranet-based legacy licensing, which requires a License Manager on the client’s premises. Certificate licensing
provides a time-limited, license certificate from MyCentre, an internet-based user portal. This allows users to
work off-site and off-grid without the need to connect to their License Manager, license files, nor a hardware
lock.

Multiple Workspaces: PSCAD now supports multiple workspaces: What this means from the user’s
perspective is that entire workspaces may be loaded, saved and unloaded without having to close the
application. A single workspace may house multiple projects, including both libraries and cases, as well as
possessing its own unique setting options.

Workspace-Level Control: Workspace-level, multi-project, multiple-run control support has been added to the
application. Communicating inter-project signal values via Radio Link components to and from a common value
table in the workspace, a master project can control a number of slave projects to simultaneously perform
necessary calculations and report them back to the master. See Workspace-Level Control for more details.

Blackboxing Modules: With a simple click, this feature will convert any page module containing purely controlbased systems into an equivalent, non-module component, complete with generated source files and/or
compiled binary files. Blackboxing allows users to design their systems graphically, and then quickly black box
the system, thereby protecting their intellectual property when distributing their models to clients.

Simulation Sets/Multiple EMTDC: It is now possible to simultaneously launch and run multiple, simultaneous
EMTDC simulations. Both sequential and parallel simulation runs are possible via the defining of what are
referred to as ‘simulation sets’ in the workspace.

Enhanced Searching: The searching facilities have been enhanced. The background search engine is now
based on XPath, a query language for selecting nodes in an XML document. See Searching in Chapter 11 of
this manual for details.

Fortran Compiler Support: A new free Fortran 95 compiler called GFortran now accompanies PSCAD
X4. Note that the former free compiler GNU Fortran 77 is no longer supported. The Compaq Fortran Compiler
is also no longer supported as of v4.6.0. Since 2001, this compiler product has been developed by the Intel
corporation, who have released many updated versions since. The Compaq version of the compiler (v6) is no
longer sold or maintained. See The Getting Started Brochure and Converting PSCAD v4.1 and v4.2 Projects to
X4 in Chapter 13 of this manual for more details.

Mutual Coupling: This feature enables users to mutually couple individual line or cable segments with
identical lengths. Multiple segments can be merged into a single Right-Of-Way (ROW) without affecting the
individuality of the each segment. See Mutual Coupling in Chapter 8 of this manual for more details.

Enhanced User Petition Request: The former Support Petition Request dialog has been improved with
additional features. New enhancements include the ability to manually attach files, as well as automatic
collection and attachment of key files necessary for debugging of customer installation and licensing problems.

Oscilloscope: A new meter utility has been added as yet another avenue for viewing data online. See
Oscilloscopes in Chapter 6 for more details.

Comparator Tool: The schematic comparator tool allows for quick and convenient visual differentiation
between module component definitions.
What's New in PSCAD X4?

Parameter Grid Pane: The component parameter grid pane provides a convenient means to display the
parameters for all instances of a given component or module definition. More importantly, it enables the ability
to modify multiple parameter values in multiple component instances simultaneously.

Bird's Eye View Pane: The Bird’s Eye View navigation pane provides an overview of the entire Schematic or
Graphic canvas and indicates what is currently in view with a blue box.

Layers Pane: The layers pane is the interface to the schematic canvas drawing layers feature. Drawing
layers provide the ability to efficiently enable or disable components on the canvas, or to toggle the
visibility of any objects that appear on the canvas.

Display Voltage on Buses: This option allows for the dynamic display of RMS voltage directly on Bus
components. See Runtime in Chapter 7 of this manual for more details.

Saving Graphics to File: Graphic objects used in the Graphics section of the component design environment
can now be stored in and imported from files. See The Graphic Section in Chapter 9 of this manual for more
details.
New Master Library Models
The following table comprises a list of all new models added to the master library since the PSCAD v4.2.1b release in
2007.
Graphic
Name
Frequency-Dependent Network
Equivalent (FDNE)
Frequency Dependent Transfer
Function (FDTF)
Rank Number
Statistical Breaker
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PSCAD Manual
Battery
Dynamic Data Tap
Programmable Pause
Programmable Stop
Mod Function and Modulo Function
Surge Generator (CIGRÉ, IEC or IEEE
Standard)
Photovoltaic Source
Maximum Power Point Tracker
Hysteresis Current Control PWM
Generator
Maximum/Minimum Array Value and
Location
Array Dot Product
7
What's New in PSCAD X4?
Simplified Underground Cable
Pipe-Type Cable
1-Phase, L-L Fixed Load
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PSCAD Manual
Space-Vector Modulation (SVM)
Saturable Reactor
Spark Gap
1-Phase 3-Winding Auto Transformer
3-Phase Star-Star Auto Transformer
with Tertiary
Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT)
X to the Power Y
Force to DSDYN
Force to DSOUT
Runtime Configurable Passive Branch
9
What's New in PSCAD X4?
XY Table
Variable Series Impedance Branch
C-Type Filter
Multiple Run Additional Recording
Line Constants Program (LCP)
There have been significant enhancements to the Line Constants Program (LCP) since the previous released version
(August 26, 2005). The new DC Correction algorithm has made the Frequency Dependent (Phase) model even more
accurate than ever.

Aerial Cable Support: It is now possible to combine both underground and aerial cables in the same right-ofway. The new feature affects mainly the ground plane component, where you must specify the formulae used
for aerial, underground and mutual (underground/aerial) earth return representation. You must also specify in
the coax or pipe cable components, whether or not they are aerial or underground.

DC Correction: Two unique DC correction algorithms have been added, which ensure perfectly accurate DC
parameters for time domain simulations.

Passivity Checking: The LCP now checks for passivity violations and if found, warns the user. New input
parameters have been added to the frequency-dependent (phase) model for control of this feature.

Total Number of Conductors Increased: The total allowable conductors per transmission line or cable have
been increased from 20 to 30.

Unique Ground Wires in Overhead Towers: If there are 2 ground wires in a tower, they may now be entered
with unique parameters.

Hollow Conductor Support in Overhead Towers: All conductors in a tower may now be selected as hollow
core.

Bundled Sub-Conductor Limit Increased: Conductor bundles may now include up to 15 sub-conductors.

Conductor/Ground Wire Permeability: There is now an input for relative permeability of both conductors and
ground wires.

Conductor Library Format Change: The addition of conductor relative permeability and hollow conductor
support has forced a change in the format of Conductor Library files (additional two parameters).

Specific Conductor Layer Elimination in Cables: Users may now select which conductors are to be
eliminated (not just the outer layer).
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PSCAD Manual

Enhanced Log File Output: The *.log file format for the Frequency Dependent (Phase) model has been
updated to make it more readable.

Additional Detailed Output Files: Added additional detailed output files for calculated versus fitted values
when using the Frequency Dependent (Phase) model. Users may now compare calculated versus fitted
responses for the first time for this model.

PI Section Auto-Creation: PI-sections may now be created when using the Manual Entry of Y,Z
component. PI-section component automatic creation was flawed when solving single-phase transmission
systems. This has been fixed.

Overlapping Cables: A check to ensure cable cross-sections do not overlap is now performed. This is
accomplished by comparing the centre-point modulus with the sum of the radii.

Cable Depth and Conductor Height: Checks are performed to ensure these parameters are entered positive.

Conductor Permeability: The relative permeability input parameter value entered in the Ground Plane
component was used as the relative permeability value for all ground wires and conductors in overhead
towers. Conductor and ground wire permeabilities are now unique.

Total Number of Cables: The LCP now supports up to 12 cables, including all concentric conductors
See Chapter 9 in the EMTDC manual and Chapter 8 of this manual, both entitled Transmission Lines and Cables, for
more details on the above enhancements.
Contacting Us
The Manitoba HVDC Research Centre (MHRC), a division of Manitoba Hydro International Ltd., and its representatives
are committed to providing you with the best sales and technical support available.
Contact your local PSCAD representative first for fast and efficient service. If you do not have their contact address from
the time you purchased PSCAD, you can get it either from the PSCAD Web Site (www.pscad.com) or by contacting the
Centre directly. To make the best use of our technical support and sales facilities you should have a maintenance
contract arranged through your local PSCAD supplier.
PSCAD Support Services
For non-sales related technical support, precedence is given to commercial users with valid software maintenance
contracts. We can be reached at:
E-mail:
[email protected]
Web Site:
www.pscad.com
Support Petition Request
In order to provide faster, more efficient support service, we recommend that users issue a Support Petition Request
directly from PSCAD, rather than e-mailing support directly. A Support Petition Request will automatically contain
information regarding your PSCAD version, compiler version and license data, appended to the request. This will
minimize the need for 'back-and-forth' communications, which can be cumbersome especially for our Asian and European
users.
To send a support query, go to the Main Menu bar and select Help | Support Request...
11
Contacting Us
This will bring-up the Support Request pane. Simply add your comments in the spaces provided. Please ensure that you
select a Problem Description from the drop list, which most adequately describes your problem type. When finished,
press the Submit button. An email will be sent directly to PSCAD Support Services.
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PSCAD Manual
13
Contacting Us
Manually Add Files
To attach specific files to your request, simply press the Manually Add Files area and then the Add button. This action
will invoke a file explorer dialog, where you can choose up to 8 files. Once selected, press the Open button to the attach
the files and close the dialog. Press the Submit button to send the request to the PSCAD Support Desk with the files
attached.
Automatic File Submission
This feature allows you to quickly add most important files needed by PSCAD Support Services to diagnose and solve
your installation and/or licensing issue. Simply press the Automatic File Submission area and then select the files you
would like to automatically attach. Press the Submit All button to select all files. Once selected, press the Submit button
to send the request to the PSCAD Support Desk with the files attached.
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PSCAD Manual
PSCAD Q&A Forum
A new PSCAD Q&A forum went live in April 2014.
To access it, you must first register a MyCentre account. If you already have a MyCentre account, then simply log in and
click the PSCAD Q&A tab in the tab bar.
Logging in to MyCentre automatically logs you in to the forum.
15
Contacting Us
Forum Details
Users can submit their questions/comments/examples regarding PSCAD by posting under the appropriate forum. To ask
a question, simply type your question in the ask box and wait for an answer. You may also browse existing questions.
Your post will immediately be viewable to all registered members. If you are responding to an existing topic, the forum will
automatically send an e-mail to the member who posted the question.
NOTE: If you have queries regarding problems simulating with PSCAD, bug reports, etc., please contact the
PSCAD Support desk by using either the Support Petition Request, or directly at
[email protected] Contacting support services will ensure a prompt response to your query.
PSCAD Sales
For sales related inquiries (i.e. quotations, etc.), we can be reached at:
E-mail:
[email protected]
Phone:
+1 (204) 989-1240
Fax:
+1 (204) 989-1277
Web Site:
www.pscad.com
Address:
PSCAD Sales
Manitoba HVDC Research Centre
(a division of Manitoba Hydro International Ltd.)
211 Commerce Drive
Winnipeg, Manitoba R3P 1A3
Canada
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Chapter 2
License Management
Licensing Overview
All PSCAD software editions must be licensed to run. There are a few different licensing modes, as well as a few different
license types.
The following are the currently available license types:

Lock-Based License: This license type uses a combination of hardware lock and license database file to
authenticate. There are two types of lock-based licenses:

Single-User License: A single license is installed and used locally on a workstation.

Multi-User Licenses: One or more seats (i.e. instances of the PSCAD application) may be used
locally, in addition to being shared with other workstations on the Local Area Network (LAN).

Lockless Trial License: This time-limited license type uses a license database file, but no hardware lock to
authenticate. A lockless trial license is used primarily for the evaluation of our fully-featured software editions.

Certificate License: A certificate is an electronic license that is acquired via a cloud-based license server.
Certificate licenses are authorized through the customer’s MyCentre account (MyCentre Licensing). A
temporary, renewable license certificate is granted locally on the user’s workstation upon request from within
the PSCAD application. Certificate licensing does not require a hardware lock or a license database file.
The following are the currently available licensing modes:

Standalone License Manager: The standalone license manager, installed as a separate product, manages
licensing for one or more seats (i.e. instances of the PSCAD application). The standalone license manager
grants licenses to either the host workstation or to other workstations on the network, and is used only for lockbased licenses.

Self-Licensing: Under this licensing mode, the PSCAD software can license itself. Self-licensing is available
only on the local workstation, and cannot be shared with other workstations over the network.

MyCentre Licensing: This licensing mode functions through a member’s MyCentre web portal account.
The licensing mode for each license type is summarized in the following table:
Licensing Modes
License Types
Standalone
License
Manager
Multi-User Lock-Based License

Single-User Lock-Based License
1
Lockless Trial License
Certificate License
Self-Licensing
MyCentre
Licensing



1
The standalone license manager is not recommended in combination with a single-user lock-based license, since it can
potentially overcomplicate product licensing..
17
Lock-Based Licenses
Lock-Based Licenses
With lock-based licenses, validation is achieved through the installation of a database file and hardware lock. Licenses are
organized and controlled using license manager software, which can exist as either a separate, standalone service, or
embedded within the PSCAD application itself.
Lock-based licenses come in two different styles: Multi-user and single-user. The style that is best for your purposes
depends on how PSCAD is to be utilized, as well as on what type of license(s) you purchased. The following sections
describe each type of lock-based license in detail.
Multi-User License (MUL)
Multi-user licenses (MUL) were first introduced with PSCAD V3 and were, at the time, the only license type
available. With this configuration, the license manager software is installed as a standalone service, which can be
accessed by any workstation (including the host) on a Local Area Network (LAN).
NOTE: The license manager can only license client workstations that reside on the same network as itself, and
where the network is constrained by its network class (the term network class is defined by RFC-960, which is
part of the Internet Protocol Standards). The subnet masks on the license manager and client workstations may
need to be adjusted, so that the client can contact the license manager workstation. A new configuration, called
Expanded Licensing, is available to allow a license manager to license clients across two networks. Expanded
licensing is available for free, and requires License Manager v1.30 or later. This licensing is temporary but
renewable, and expires after three years for an Educational Edition, or at the end of a maintenance contract for
a Professional Edition.
A multi-user license set-up is capable of providing multiple users on multiple workstations the ability to run multiple
combinations of various licensable editions of PSCAD. In other words, if a user is sufficiently licensed, this method has
the potential to afford a lot of freedom when operating over a LAN, and should be used if there will be two or more users
running PSCAD simultaneously.
The license manager is used in conjunction with a hardware lock (also known as a USB lock or dongle), which contains
licensing information for the purpose of validation. When an instance of PSCAD is started somewhere on the LAN, a
license will be requested from the license manager. The license manager determines whether a license is available, and
checks the information on the dongle for verification.
The number of users that can access PSCAD simultaneously over the LAN depends on the number of licenses
purchased. For example, if there are a total of two Professional Edition licenses, then only two users may use the
Professional Edition at the same time, or one user may use two instances of PSCAD on his or her workstation. Each time
a user opens or closes the application, it will request or relinquish a license respectively. Each licensable edition
possesses a separate product number, so that several products can be licensed by the same license manager.
NOTE: The number of licenses owned does not limit the number of PSCAD installations on the LAN. You can
install PSCAD on every workstation in your organization if you wish.
The license manager and dongle need be installed only on one workstation in a network. This workstation will act as the
license manager server, which will grant licenses to other workstations on the network, as requested. PSCAD may also
be installed on the license manager server workstation if desired.
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PSCAD Manual
EXAMPLE: A user owns one Professional Edition license containing three PSCAD seats, all of which are
programmed onto a single hardware lock. The three PSCAD seats refer to a maximum of three instances of
PSCAD that may be run at the same time. The above diagram illustrates how the user could install the license
manager on a LAN, so that up to three users can run PSCAD simultaneously.
Multi-user licenses can be time limited or permanent (no time limit).
Single-User License (SUL)
A single-user license (SUL) involves the use of a hardware lock, but a standalone license manager service is not
required. An embedded license manager within the PSCAD application itself manages the single-user license.
A single-user license will only allow a single user on a single workstation to run only one instance of a licensable software
edition. A single-user license is designed specifically for use on standalone workstations, and will NOT allow access from
others.
EXAMPLE: A user owns one Professional Edition single-user license programmed onto a single hardware
lock. The above diagram illustrates how the user would install PSCAD as a single-user configuration. Note the
absence of the license manager as a separate program.
Single-user licenses can be time limited or permanent (no time limit).
Hardware Locks (Dongles)
The License Manager software for both single-user and multi-user licensing supports the following hardware lock in lockbased licensing:
19
Certificate Licenses
Sentinal SuperPro™ USB, USB Port Hardware Lock
The USB hardware lock is compatible with all Windows platforms on which PSCAD is supported.
License Key/License Database File
The license key is an ASCII text file named license.txt. The license key is used with both single-user and multi-user
licenses, and is required for both the Professional and Educational Editions. This file contains encrypted information
designed to act as a key to adding or upgrading a license on a workstation, specifically by creating and updating a license
database file. Together, the hardware lock and license database file are used directly by either the standalone license
manager or self-licensing to validate a request for a license.
Certificate Licenses
Certificate licenses (available starting in 2013), are the preferred method for licensing PSCAD. Unlike lock-based
licenses, this method does not require a hardware lock and database file. A license certificate is a temporary
authorization to run PSCAD, and is granted through a user’s MyCentre login credentials.
The following sections contain an overview of MyCentre and certificate licenses. For more detailed information and
instructions, refer to the document Managing MyCentre, located on the following web page: https://hvdc.ca/knowledgelibrary/reference-material.
Overview
Members register a MyCentre user account, in which their licenses are stored. A member’s login credentials will
authorize one of their licenses, and in turn activate a license certificate in the form of a file on their workstation. Licenses
and products, exclusive to a member, are held in product accounts. In some cases, a software deployment utility, called
MyUpdater, is used to install, uninstall, update and launch PSCAD. In others, software is installed via the InstallShield
Wizard, and launched from an executable file.
The following figure illustrates the elements for running software using MyCentre and MyUpdater.
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PSCAD Manual
The following figure illustrates the elements required for running software using MyCentre, but not MyUpdater.
21
Certificate Licenses
Certificate licensing is applicable to the following editions and license types:

The Professional Edition of v4.6 and up (permanent, temporary and trial licensing)

The Educational Edition of v4.6 and up (trial licensing)
NOTE: Permanent and temporary licensing for the Educational Edition is not available in v4.6.0.

The Professional and Educational Editions of v4.5 (trial licensing)
NOTE: Alternatively, a temporary licensing is also available through a lockless trial License.

The Free Edition and Beta Edition
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PSCAD Manual
MyCentre
A certificate license is authorized through a web portal called MyCentre (https://mycentre.hvdc.ca). MyCentre is a
software and information management portal designed to provide assistance to users of PSCAD. In addition to hosting
current and relevant reference materials and a user forum, MyCentre provides software products and licensing.
User Account
Members register a user account to access their MyCentre products. A user account contains all the products for which
the member is eligible. For example, every member is automatically granted access to the Free Edition and given ten
licenses for it.
Product Account
Members’ products, such as licenses, are all held in product accounts. Accounts are used to control the availability of
products to members by controlling access. An educational facility, for example, may make its Educational Edition
available only to select students by providing them with access to an account containing that edition.
An account may contain one or more licenses. The product account for the Free Edition, for example, typically contains
ten licenses.
An account may be shared between members. A commercial facility with five licenses for the Professional Edition, for
example, may have one product account containing all five licenses. Staff members have access to this account through
their user account.
An account may contain licenses for one or more different editions. An educational facility, for example, may have a
product account containing licensing for its Professional and Educational Editions. Conversely, the facility may split its
licensing into two separate product accounts, one for its graduate students, and the other for its undergraduate students.
License
Product accounts contain licenses. Licenses dictate the software edition and version, type of license, and licensing
duration. Some licenses are permanent, while others are temporary. Licenses for the Free Edition and for permanent
Educational and Professional Editions have no expiry date. Licenses for the Beta Edition, and for software used for
training or a Trial License, typically have expiry dates applied.
License Certificate
A license certificate is a temporary and renewable authorization for running PSCAD on a machine. A user may obtain a
license certificate on a machine by using their MyCentre login credentials. This will access his or her product account
containing the license.
A license certificate is temporary, and expires according to the following conditions:

It will automatically be set to expire approximately four weeks following the initial activation date, so long as the
license does not expire during that period. This permits a period of offline usage.
NOTE: If a member intends to work offline with a license, he must ensure that he configures the licensing for
offline usage for the full 28-day period.
NOTE: If, after using a license certificate on Machine A, the license will next be used on Machine B, the
member must ensure to release the license certificate from Machine A. Otherwise, the license certificate may
not be activated on Machine B.

It may be released (expired) at any time by the member, and returned to the account. It may then be reactivated for an additional four weeks, so long as the license does not expire during that period.
Once a license certificate is activated, multiple instances of PSCAD may be run on a workstation using a single license
certificate. The number of instances run on a workstation is only limited by the memory size. This is a major advantage
of a certificate license over a lock-based license; in the latter, each instance of PSCAD consumes one seat (the
equivalent of a license certificate).
23
Certificate Licenses
MyUpdater
One additional consideration when using a certificate license is that certain software requires the use of a software
deployment utility, called MyUpdater. MyUpdater is installed on a member’s workstation, and is used to install, uninstall,
update and launch software. Specifically, the Free and Beta Editions require it’s use. Occasionally, a pre-release version
may be provided to select members via MyUpdater to deploy required fixes or to test new features. MyUpdater is optional
for the deployment of the Professional Edition, and is not yet available for the Educational Edition.
For more detailed information and instructions for using MyUpdater, refer to the document “Managing MyCentre”, located
on the following web page: https://hvdc.ca/knowledge-library/reference-material
Obtaining a MyCentre User Account
Anyone may join MyCentre. Following registration, a MyCentre user account will be created, and will contain the
member’s unique product set. The Free Edition is automatically made available in each user account (see below for
instructions on obtaining this edition). A user account is required for obtaining the following:

Running the Free Edition

Running the Beta Edition

Running a Professional Edition using certificate licensing (permanent)
NOTE: A MyCentre user account is not required when running a professional edition using lock-based licenses.

Running a temporary Professional or Educational Edition using certificate licensing for either a training session
or a trial license
NOTE: A MyCentre user account is not required when running a trial license using the trial.txt file.
See Section 2.2 of the Managing MyCentre document on the following web page for instructions on registering a User
Account: https://hvdc.ca/uploads/ck/files/ManagingMyCentre.pdf
Obtaining the Free Edition
The PSCAD X4 Free Edition is available to any member with a MyCentre user account. The Free Edition is a limitedfeature edition, and allows members to become familiar with PSCAD tools and capabilities. The MyUpdater utility is used
to deploy the software, and licensing is authorized with your MyCentre login credentials.
See Section 4 of the Managing MyCentre document on the following web page for instructions on obtaining the Free
Edition: https://hvdc.ca/uploads/ck/files/ManagingMyCentre.pdf
Obtaining the Beta Edition
The Beta Edition is available to qualified members. It provides a means for users to directly affect the development of
PSCAD, by using and critiquing new features and functionalities before they are released. The MyUpdater utility is used
to deploy the software, and licensing is authorized with your MyCentre login credentials.
See Section 5 of the Managing MyCentre document on the following web page for instructions on obtaining the Free
Edition: https://hvdc.ca/uploads/ck/files/ManagingMyCentre.pdf
Running the Professional Edition
The Professional Edition is available using a certificate license as of PSCAD v4.6 and later. Alternatively, it is available
using a lock-based license.
To run a Professional Edition with certificate licensing, please contact our Sales Desk ([email protected]).
Running a Temporary Edition
A temporary Professional or Educational edition is available using certificate licensing with PSCAD v4.6 and later.
Alternatively, trial licensing is also still available using a trial.txt file.
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PSCAD Manual
To run a temporary edition with certificate licensing, please contact our Sales Desk ([email protected]).
Viewing Active License Information
Open the System Settings dialog. Select the Certificate Licensing tab.
In the middle of the dialog, there is an area entitled Status. Some preliminary information is given directly within this
area. For more detailed information, click the View... button. The License Certificate dialog will display, and provide all
available information regarding your current licensing.
25
Standalone License Manager
Clicking in a field will display a corresponding description in the bottom (General) section.
Standalone License Manager
The standalone license manager is typically used only with a multi-user lock-based license (MUL). The standalone
license manager can operate on a dedicated server, or on any workstation running PSCAD: Any combination of products
may be included and used interchangeably. Installation instructions are provided later in this chapter.
Maintenance and Support
Once the standalone license manager is installed and running, it is recommended that the person operating the
designated license manager server maintains the software and ensures proper operation.
The standalone license manager usually starts automatically when the workstation is booted and runs as a background
process. All standalone license manager events and transactions are recorded in a log file entitled Lmgrd-log.txt, which is
located as indicated below. When troubleshooting, this file contains important information about the cause of any
problems.

On Windows XP: The Lmgrd-log.txt file is located as follows:


Documents and Settings\All Users\Application Data\Manitoba HVDC Research Centre\License
Manager
On Windows 7: The Lmgrd-log.txt file is located in one or more of the following locations (please send in all
files as available):

C:\Users\All Users\Manitoba HVDC Research Centre\LicenseManager

C:\Users\YOUR-USER-ID\AppData\Local\Manitoba HVDC Research Centre\LicenseManager

C:\ProgramData\Manitoba HVDC Research Centre\LicenseManager
If problems arise with the operation of your license manager software, first please try to address the problems using the
clues found in the log file. If the solution remains elusive, contact us at PSCAD Support Services with a detailed
description of the problem. To ensure efficient response time, please also attach the following:

The log file from the server (i.e. Lmgrd-log.txt), which is found on the C-drive, as indicated above.

The log file from the client workstation experiencing the problem, PscadLmgr.txt, which is found on the C-drive,
as indicated above.

A Get Info log file from both the server and the client workstation. Go to START | Programs | PSCAD |
Utilities, run the GetInfo utility, and attach the generated file (GetInfo.txt) to the e-mail.
PSCAD Usage Log
For the standalone license manager service, the usage of all licensed PSCAD editions is logged to a file. This information
is saved in a comma-separated variable (*.csv) file called PscadUsage.txt, which is located in the folders as listed in
Maintenance and Support on the workstation running the license manager software. This file can be directly imported into
a spreadsheet program.
The following is a sample line from a PscadUsage.txt file:
lha,
2014
Pro, Remote,
7327,
177, Mon Aug 22 10:45:42 2014, Mon Aug 22 10:48:39
lha,
2014
Pro, Remote,
7328,
176, Mon Aug 22 10:46:21 2014, Mon Aug 22 10:49:17
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PSCAD Manual
The format of the file is as follows:
<user id>, <Pscad Edition>, <user location>, <LicenseID>, <#seconds of use>, <start time>, <finish time>
Description:

<userid>: This is the login userid of the PSCAD user.

<Pscad Edition>: Can be Pro (Professional) or Edu (Educational). Usage of the Free and Beta Editions is not
logged, as these are not licensed editions, and do not require the license manager (see Certificate Licenses).

<user location>: Remote for users using PSCAD on workstations other than the license manager host. Local
for uses using PSCAD on the same workstation as the license manager host.

<LicenseID>: This is the license ID of the granted license, and appears in the license manager log file (lmgrdlog.txt), and in the PSCAD usage log file (PscadLmgr.txt)

<#seconds of use>: The number of seconds that the license was in use.

<start time>: The time that the license manager granted the PSCAD license to the user.

<finish time>: The time that the user quit the PSCAD application
Adding/Modifying Licenses
When using a standalone license manager, either a multi-user lock-based license (MUL) may be added as a new
installation on a workstation, or a pre-existing multi-user license may be modified. A license is modified in the following
circumstances:

Adding Products to a License: This is typically performed when adding another PSCAD seat, or adding other
products such as LiveWire, or expanded licensing. In this case, there is no change to the hardware lock; only
the license database file, residing on the workstation’s hard drive, is modified.

Renumbering the License: In this case, both the hardware lock and the license database file are modified, and
the license is renumbered to a new license number. This is typically performed in the following situations:

When removing products from a license (e.g. a PSCAD seat, or other products such as LiveWire or
expanded licensing).

When updating a license for a significant software update (e.g. for updating a license from V4 to
X4 (i.e. v4.3 or later)).
Adding or Modifying a License
To add a new license or to modify a license that will not be renumbered:
27

You will be provided with a new License.txt file. Save this file to a convenient directory (e.g. C:\temp).

Ensure the hardware lock is plugged in.

Display the License Update Utility (from the Windows Start menu, go All Programs | PSCAD, then browse to
Enter License Key).

From the Actions menu, select Enter license keys.

When prompted, browse to the License.txt file, then select Open.

The license will be installed or modified as applicable.

For new license installations, ensure that all client workstations that will obtain a license from this server are
configured as shown (launch PSCAD and display the System Settings dialog from the PSCAD Start button):
Standalone License Manager
Renumbering the License
When renumbering a license, it may be required to update the license manager to the latest version, determined as
follows:

When removing products from a license, the license manager is not required to be updated.

When performing a significant software update, the license manager may be required to be updated.
To renumber an existing license:

You will be provided with an Upgrade.txt file and a new License.txt file. Save these files to a convenient
directory (e.g. C:\temp).

Ensure the hardware lock is plugged in.

If required, update the standalone license manager software.
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PSCAD Manual

Display the License Update Utility (from the Windows Start menu, go All Programs | PSCAD, then browse to
Enter License Key).

From the Actions menu, select Upgrade license keys and lock.

When prompted, browse to the Update.txt file, then select Open.

When prompted, browse to the License.txt file, then select Open.

Both the license database file and the hardware lock will be updated.
If you encounter any issues during this process, contact us at PSCAD Support Services.
Changing Active Licensing Settings
For lock-based licenses, PSCAD allows you to alter your present (i.e. 'active') license settings without the need to close
and reopen PSCAD in a different mode. You can change the license manager host workstation, and/or the licensed
edition directly from the System Settings dialog.
Changing License Manager Host
To change the license manager host workstation:

Enter the name of the new host (along with 2053), and click the Apply button.

Select an available license (see below).
Changing Active License Type
To change the active license type, click the down arrow in the selection box under the Available License(s) area and
select the required license. Click the Activate button.
NOTE: You must be properly licensed in order to change license type!
Viewing Active License Information
At any time, you can review the status of your active license.
29
Standalone License Manager
1.
Open PSCAD and open the System Settings dialog.
2.
Near the bottom of the dialog, there is an area entitled Active License. Some preliminary information is given
directly within this area. For more detailed information, click the Details... button. The License Certificate
dialog will display, and show all available information regarding your current licensing.
Getting Licensing Information
If you would like information about your current licensing set-up, it may be obtained by running the Get Info utility (see
Licensing Information, below). This information is also helpful in troubleshooting if a problem arises, and is used by
PSCAD Support Services to help solve licensing issues.
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PSCAD Manual
Licensing Information
To view your licensing information for either a single-user or multi-user lock-based license, use the Get Info program:
1.
We recommend always using our latest Get Info utility, which is frequently updated and improved. It may be
downloaded from the following link:
http://updater.pscad.com/utilities/GetInfo32.zip
2.
31
Alternatively, a version of this utility is installed when PSCAD is installed, and may be run from the Windows Start menu
(go All Programs | PSCAD, then browse to GetInfo.
Standalone License Manager
When you run this program, a DOS-based window should appear similar to that shown above.
A file will also be created at the same time called getinfo.txt, the location of which will be listed in the utility itself, as shown
in the previous snapshot. This is an important file to include when contacting PSCAD Support Services.
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PSCAD Manual
Manually Starting
The method for starting the standalone license manager may differ slightly for the supported Windows platforms:
Windows XP/Vista/7

Right-click on your My Computer desktop icon and select Manage.

Double-click on the Services and Applications entry and then double-click Services.

Highlight HVDC License Manager, right-click and select Start.
Manually Stopping
The method for stopping the standalone license manager may differ slightly for the supported Windows platforms:
Windows XP/Vista/7

Right-click on your My Computer desktop icon and select Manage.

Double-click on the Services and Applications entry and then double-click Services.

Highlight HVDC License Manager, right-click and select Stop.
Self-Licensing
Adding/Modifying a License
The self-licensing mode is typically utilized only when running under a single-user lock-based license (SUL). Under the
self-licensing mode, multiple products, such as PSCAD and LiveWire may be licensed.
The self-licensing mode does not support multiple instances of any individual PSCAD product. For example, attempting
to start a second instance of a certain product (e.g. Professional Edition), will result in the licensing request being denied.
NOTE: Alternatively, with Certificate Licensing, multiple instances of PSCAD may be run using one license
certificate.
Adding/Modifying a License
For self-licensing, either a single-user lock-based license (SUL) may be added as a new installation on a workstation, or a
pre-existing single-user license may be modified. A license is modified in the following circumstances:

Adding Products to a License: This is typically performed when adding LiveWire. In this case, there is no
change to the hardware lock; only the license database file residing on the workstation hard drive is modified.

Renumbering the License: In this case, both the hardware lock and the license database file are modified, and
the license is renumbered to a new license number. This is typically performed in the following situations:

When removing LiveWire from a license.

When updating a license for a significant software update (e.g. for updating a license from V4 to
X4 (i.e. v4.3 or later)).
Adding or Modifying a License
To add a new license or to modify a license that will not be renumbered:
33

You will be provided with a new License.txt file. Save this file to a convenient directory (e.g. C:\temp).

Ensure the hardware lock is plugged in.
Self-Licensing

Display the License Update Utility (from the Windows Start menu, go All Programs | PSCAD, then browse to
Enter License Key).

From the Actions menu, select Enter license keys.

When prompted, browse to the License.txt file, then select Open.

The license will be installed or modified as applicable.

For a new license installation, configure the PSCAD licensing as shown (launch PSCAD and display the System
Settings dialog from the PSCAD Start button):
Renumbering the License
To renumber an existing license:
34
PSCAD Manual

You will be provided with an Upgrade.txt file and a new License.txt file. Save these files to a convenient
directory (e.g. C:\temp).

Ensure the hardware lock is plugged in.

Display the License Update Utility (from the Windows Start menu, go All Programs | PSCAD, then browse to
Enter License Key).

From the Actions menu, select Upgrade license keys and lock.

When prompted, browse to the Update.txt file, then select Open.

When prompted, browse to the License.txt file, then select Open.

Both the license database file and the hardware lock will be updated.
If you encounter any issues during this process, contact us at PSCAD Support Services.
35
Chapter 3
Application, Project and Workspace Options
Application, System and Workspace Options
Overview
Now that the application has been installed successfully, you may want to adjust some of the work environment options
and preferences that are available.
The user-controlled options available are divided into different levels, depending on functionality:

Application Options/System Settings: Effect all parts of the PSCAD environment, including all workspaces
and projects.

Workspace Options: Effect only the current workspace and all projects within.
Click on either the Workspace Options or System Settings buttons in the ribbon control file tab to access either of
these dialogs.
For Application Options or System Settings, click on the PSCAD tab in the
ribbon and then press the corresponding button (Options or System
Settings).
For Workspace Options, right-click on the workspace branch and select
Workspace Options.
The settings available are organized into several categories:
Application Options

Workspace

Environment

Blackboxing

Dependencies

External Tools

Advanced Licensing
System Settings

License

Associations
37
Workspace
Workspace Options

Projects

Build

Runtime
Application Options
Workspace
This category contains options that relate to all workspaces loaded into the application.
Display

Namespace: Use this option to control how the module names are displayed in the workspace hierarchy tree.
By default, module namespace will be displayed only if the module definition is stored in an external project.

Transmission Segment Instances: Use this option to control whether or not transmission lines and/or cables
are displayed in the workspace hierarchy tree.

Simulation Stop Warning: Enable this option to ensure that a confirmation dialog is displayed on a stop action
of a simulation run.

Runtime Progress Bar: Superimpose a progress bar atop the project name in the workspace project tree
during runtime of a single project.

Workspace Pane Scaling: Use this option to enable scaling (zoom) of the workspace pane contents. Note that
graphical artifacts may appear during scaling or scrolling when this option is enabled.
New Session

On Startup: Choose the preferred method for loading the workspace when PSCAD is started.

Start Page: Controls whether or not the start page is opened on application start up.

Workspace Path: This field simply displays the workspace file path for the last loaded workspace. This path is
updated when the application is closed and the user has selected to Restore the last loaded workspace under
the On-Startup application option (above).
Projects

My Projects: Enter a default directory path for the Load Project dialog. Once a path is entered in this field, the
Load Project dialog will always start in the specified folder. If the field is left blank, then PSCAD will default to
the folder last accessed by either the Load Project or Save As… dialog. You can either enter the path directly,
or use the browse button to select the directory. This path may be changed at any time.

Change Tracking: Enables clipboard undo and redo if set to Use Undo/Redo Stack.

Folder Access Tracking: If set to normal, file dialogs will open to the folder of the focused project. If last folder
accessed is selected, file dialogs will open as such.

On Unload Library: Select whether or not you wish to be notified when unloading a library project that has
inter-project dependencies (i.e. has definitions that are instantiated in other projects).
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PSCAD Manual
v4.x Legacy Import/Load

Obsolete 'datatap2' components: When this application option is selected, PSCAD will replace any existing obsolete
‘datatap2’ components with their modern equivalent, and issue a navigable message so that each replacement in the
project can be manually checked. This is an important step, as the actual coordinate of the ‘datatap2’ signal will be
shifted by one grid point (down and to the left) on the Schematic canvas, so as to accommodate the ‘datatap’
component. This may lead to signal source contention errors that should, for the most part, be detected by the compiler
when you build the case.

Parameter Synchronization: This option is important for ensuring that component parameters are kept up to
date when new versions of the associated component definition become available. Component parameters
may be added or subtracted between versions of a component definition (ex. master library
components). PSCAD cannot automatically detect and update these changes, so this option forces PSCAD to
scan each component on load to synchronize the parameters. If you are sure there are no changes to any
components used in your project, you can set this option to No action.

Obsolete #DEFINE Directives: When this setting is enabled, all obsolete #DEFINE script directives will be
replaced by corresponding, updated syntax (i.e. #LOCAL) on project import or load. This also includes
#DEFINE FUNCTION and #DEFINE SUBROUTINE statements (will be changed to #FUNCTION and
#SUBROUTINE respectively). Note that this setting can have detrimental effects on import/load speed. Enable
only when necessary.

Parameter/Port to Import/Export Tag Name: When this setting is enabled, all case mismatches between
module parameters and ports and their corresponding import or export tags will be detected and corrected. In
past versions, name matching was case insensitive due to the case insensitivity of the Fortran language.
However, other programming languages, such as C, are case sensitive, which is the reason for the change.

Exported Signal Distinction: This setting is used to close a long standing compilation loophole. In previous
versions, an export tag could share its name with a locally declared signal. This issue has been found to cause
problems with the Fortran compiler in certain instances. When enabled, this setting will automatically correct
this situation.

Orphaned Global Substitutions: Enable this option to detect and repair orphaned global substitutions (i.e.
globals that exist in the top-level module instance, but not its definition). Global substitutions will become
orphaned following their addition and then deletion from the global list. This is caused by a PSCAD issue
inherent to the module parameter mechanism, which was fixed in v4.5.2. This repair only needs to be
performed once; henceforth, the definition and instance global substitution lists will be kept synchronized.
Enable only when necessary.

Illegal Characters in Script Segments: When enabled, this option will ensure that apostrophes ('), existing in
component definition script segments, are replaced by underscores (_). This is a necessary replacement, the
apostrophe character is illegal for use in Xml.
Simulations
This category contains options that relate to how simulation processes are managed.
Simulation Sets

Process Execution: Leave this option as Use Local Machine at all times. The Use Grid Engine option is used
with the Xoreax Grid Engine (XGE) feature, licensed under Centralized License Manager (CLM). Contact the
PSCAD Support Desk for more information on both the XGE and the CLM features.

Maximum Namespace Count: Defines the maximum number projects that can be included in a single
simulation set for execution in parallel.
Environment
The environment section contains a variety of user preferences pertaining to the overall working environment.
39
Graphics
Build and Run

Show Build and Run Windows: Launch build and run executables in separate windows.
Keyboard

Cut/Copy/Paste key: Select Ctrl+x,c,v to cut/copy/paste with the Ctrl key. Select x,c,v to enable just the
corresponding key.
Mouse

Controls and Curve Creation: This option is directly related to Drag and Drop. By default, all drag and drop
functions are invoked using the Ctrl key in combination with the left mouse button. Enable this option if you
would prefer to designate the Shift key (in place of Ctrl) to place curves in graphs or control interfaces/meters
in control panels.

Control Interfaces Wheel Action: Enable this feature if you would prefer that control interfaces (such as
sliders and switches) respond to mouse wheel action. Disabling this setting ensures that control interfaces are
not inadvertently modified during navigation using the mouse wheel.
Navigation

Drill Down: Use this option to revert to the older module navigation style (i.e. Double-Click opens the canvas,
bypassing any input parameters). In versions X4 and greater, accessing the circuit canvas of a module is
considered editing its definition (i.e. Ctrl + Double-Click); this combined with the fact that modules can possess
input parameters, lead to the change.

Tab Colouring: This option controls the colouring of the project tabs in The Definition Editor.

Tab Closure: Provides options for placement of tab close button.

Tab Style: Provides options for tab appearance.
Paper Formatting

Definition Colour: Choose a colour to help visually differentiate the instance domain from the definition
domain. This option becomes helpful especially when working with modules having multiple instances. See
Multiple Instance Modules in this manual for more details.
Graphics
This section contains a variety of user preferences pertaining to the visual appearance of various graphics.
Panels

Panel Appearance: Select a preferred panel style for control panels and graph frames. The choices are Plain
Paper and 3D Shadow Filled.

Panel Color: Sets the color of the panels when using 3D style.
Schematic

Rendering Quality: This option can improve the visual quality of all graphics (GDI+), including circuits, graphs
and meters. The aesthetic improvement comes at a cost in terms of processor time, so for large cases this
option should be left as Best Speed until runtime has ended. GDI+ can then be enabled and the canvas
refreshed.

Tool-tip Appearance: Select Animated Popup to enable animated tool tip pop-up windows.
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PSCAD Manual

Hovering Appearance: If set to Show Bounding Box, a dashed box will appear surrounding the component
over which the mouse pointer is situated.

Wire Junction Appearance: Set this option to Display Solder Joint to show connection symbols at all
overlapping signal junctions. This feature is used mostly to detect overlapping wires and possible short
circuits. Once debugging is complete, this option should be turned off on larger projects, as it can add
significant build time.

Control Panel Auto-Size: This option controls the reaction of control panels to the deletion of control
interfaces within it.

Component Scaffolding: Draws a bounding box and diagonal to show the footprint of components on the
screen.

Component Sequencing: During the compile sequencing, this option will flash highlight each component that
includes dependencies to aid in debugging.
Blackboxing
This category contains all the controlling options for the blackboxing feature. For more information on blackboxing, see
Blackboxing Modules and Blackbox a Module.
File Creation

Custom Folder: Choose a destination folder for all generated source and compiled object files. Compiled files
will appear in a sub-folder, sorted according to the compiler used to create them. If left blank, the default
destination is the project folder.

Object (*.obj or *.o): Use this setting to control whether or not the generated source code is compiled into a
binary file. A corresponding sub-folder will be created for each compiler within the source file destination folder
to house the corresponding binary.

Linking: When enabled, a link to the generated file will be automatically specified in the target project settings
(Fortran or Link tab). If an object file is created, only the object file will be added to the corresponding project
setting.

Clear Existing Paths: Use this option to help keep either the Additional Source files (*.f, *.for, *.f90, *.c, *.cpp)
or the Additional Library (*.lib) and Object (*.obj/*.o) Files fields in the project settings from getting unruly.
Unruliness can occur when creating many blackboxed modules in a single session. Select Leading to the
custom folder to keep the field clear, excluding dependent paths not related to your Blackbox folder. Select All
to clear all contents.
New Component
41

Target Namespace: Choose from a list of loaded projects in the workspace, a destination project for the new
component and associated file links. Source or object file links will be appended to this project if the
corresponding option is enabled. If set to local project, then the destination will be the current working project.

Generation: This option controls to what extent the algorithm should go to in the creation of the component.
Options are to create only a definition, or both a definition and first instance of the component.
Dependencies

Parameters: Choose whether or not to include the parameter values of the source module instance when
creating and instantiating the new component. If disabled, the new component instance will use the default
parameter values.
Dependencies
This area contains settings related to dependent files and folders:
Fortran Compiler

Version: Select the FORTRAN compiler to be used for compilation of projects. If you have more than one
compiler installed, you may freely switch between compilers without having to restart PSCAD or reload the
project (provided they are compatible of course). See the section entitled FORTRAN Compilers in the Getting
Started brochure for a list of compatible FORTRAN compilers.

Number Format (Locale): Setting this option to Use English (USA) number format can eliminate runtime
errors where the default number format does not use periods as decimal points.
Matlab

Version: If you intend to make use of the MATLAB/Simulink interface, then choose which version of MATLAB
you will be using in this field.

Configuration File: Selects the MATLAB information file. This file includes configuration information about
compatible versions.
NOTE: Enabling the MATLAB/ Simulink interface is also a project-specific option. See the section entitled Link
for more details.
Models

Master Library: The master library is used to support core operations and provide model interfacing with the
build in simulation.

User Libraries Folder: The path entered here is automatically appended to files entered into the Additional
Library (*.lib) and Object (*.obj/*.o) Files input field in the Project Settings dialog.
Resources

Local Help: This option sets the path to the local help system included with your PSCAD software.

Online Help: This option sets the web URL for the web-based help system.

Examples Folder: Enter a default directory path to the folder containing the example projects included with the
released software. By default, this path will be set to where the example cases placed during installation. This
path is referred to when loading a case and selecting the Examples option. See Ribbon Control Bar for more
details.

Custom Help Folder: Enter a path to a specific folder that will be used to house all custom component help
files (*.html). If left blank, it will be assumed that the custom files will be located in the folder corresponding to
the project where the component definition is defined.
External Tools
The tools section is used to adjust properties related to external tools..
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Configuration Medic

Version: Display only.

Folder: Specifies the binary executable folder for the configuration medic tool. This is an optional add-on.
Electromagnetic Transients (EMTDC)

Version: Display only.

Folder: This is the root source folder for all EMTDC binaries. Sub-folder referencing is done by compiler
selection.
Line Constants Program (LCP)

Version: Display only.

Path: Specifies the binary executable folder for the line constants program (LCP).

Maximum Concurrent Execution: Transmission line and cable segments are solved in parallel in PSCAD.
Projects containing large numbers of transmission segments can stress system resources. This option controls
the maximum number of transmission segments that can be solved concurrently.
Xoreax Grid Engine (XGE)

Version: Display only.

Folder: Specifies the binary executable folder.

Console Window: Show/hide the output console window.

Build Monitor: Agent activity can be shown in a console window on this machine. This indicates the total
amount of available work power.
ZSystems LiveWire (LW)

Folder: Specifies the binary executable for the LiveWire post-analysis tool. This is an optional add-on.
Certificate Licensing
Prompt

Prompt on 'Log Out': Display a warning message when logging out.
Proxy Server (HTTP)



43
Mode: Licensing can contact the server, using the default Internet Explorer proxy settings (if
configured), or using a user specified proxy
Credentials: Select Default if your proxy uses the same credentials as the Internet Explore proxy
(if used), None if no credentials are used, or Windows if your proxy uses your Windows login
credentials.
Address:Port: Enter the address:port of your network proxy if it is different than the Internet
Explorer default proxy. Examples: http://SomeNet.com:8080/, http://10.1.1.1:80/
Licensing

Expect 100 Continue: This behavior is supported by most HTTP proxy servers. Disable this
behaviour if you encounter (417) Expectation Failed warnings.
Server


HTTP Address: Enter the full HTTP address of the Central License Manager.
TCP Address: Enter the full TCP address of the Central License Manager.
Startup Behaviour

Licensing Service: Intranet licensing has been used since PSCAD 4.0 (2001). Advanced licensing is
a new license certificate-based service being introduced to provide portable and reliable license
acquisition.
Termination Behaviour

Certificate Behaviour: On exit, the active certificate can be retained for further use on this
machine, or returned to the server for use on another machine.
System Settings
Licensing
The Licensing section is devoted to licensing preferences and features. Depending on your selection of licensing type (i.e.
Certificate or Legacy), the contents of this page will change. The control to allow to switch back and forth can be found in
the application options dialog within the Advanced Licensing tab:
Certificate Licensing
These options will be displayed only if Licensing Service | Certificate Licencing is selected in the Application Options.
MyCentre
A certificate license is authorized through a web portal called MyCentre (https://mycentre.hvdc.ca).
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PSCAD Manual
If you MyCentre account is already setup, simply press the Acquire button to get your license. To setup a MyCentre
account, see Certificate Licenses for details. Your MyCentre username and password may also be edited from this dialog.
Status
This section provides status and testing facilities.
Legacy Licensing
These options will be displayed only if Licensing Service | Legacy Licencing is selected in the Application Options.
License Host
The hostname of the license manager server machine on your network.
This field is automatically configured during installation and should not need to be adjusted unless your license manager
server hostname is changed. The additional '2053' number is always required (specifies the port number). This field is
not used if you are using a trial license. For more details on how to change the license manager host directly from this
dialog, see Standalone License Manager.
Multi-User or Single User License
The multi-user or single user license area is used only when installing and activating these types of licenses.
See Standalone License Manager for more details.
Available License(s)
The Available License(s) area is used for switching between available licenses.
45
Associations
See Standalone License Manager for more details.
Active License
The Active License area is used only when requesting and installing a trial license.
Associations
The associations section is used to set-up file association settings. All file associations specified here, will enable the
user to start-up external applications from within PSCAD, by using the File Reference component.
Customize File Associations
File associations are entered in two parts: The file extension (with no period), and the path to the application executable
file.
Creating a New Association
To enter a new file association, press the Add button. The next available input box in the Extension column will appear
as selected.
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Enter the file extension (without the period) and press Enter. Either double left-click the box directly to the right of the
new extension, or press the Browse (...) button to enter a path to the corresponding application executable file. The
browse button will bring up a dialog window by which you can navigate to the file.
Browse Button
Removing an Association
Simply select the association to be removed and then press the Remove button.
Invoking an Associated External Application
To make use of the file associations entered here, the File Reference component must be linked to a file with a specified
extension as follows:
1.
Add a File Reference component by right-clicking over a blank part of the Circuit canvas and selecting Add
Component | File Reference.
2.
Either double-click on the component or right-click on it and select Properties... to bring up the component
properties dialog.
3.
Enter the path (relative to the project file) to the file either directly or by pressing the Browse (...) button.
That's all there is to it! The next time the File Reference component is double-clicked it will start the associated
application and open the specified file.
Workspace Options
Projects
The projects section contains a variety of user preference settings.
Auto-Save

47
Before building: If set to Save all changes, case projects are automatically saved whenever they are
compiled.
Build

Save document every: PSCAD will save all project documents loaded in the workspace at the intervals
specified here.
Display

Project file name is: Select either Hidden or Visible. If Visible is selected, both the project namespace and
filename will be displayed in the workspace window.
Build
The build section is used to adjust compiler check settings and messages.
Code Generation

Type Conversion: Set to No action if you do not want to view signal type conversion warnings.

Unit System Converter: Set to No action if you do not want to be notified when the unit system converter is
disabled.

Import/Export Tag Matching: Case sensitivity is important for the support of case sensitive languages, such
as C and C++, when source code from project schematics.
Compiler

Environment Variables: Using private process-based environment settings can eliminate conflicts that occur
when multiple FORTRAN compilers are installed. This setting should be set as Private to process only in order
to avoid compiler setup issues.
Electric Network

Maximum Electrical Subsystems: This setting should be adjusted with caution. There is a trade-off between
simulation efficiency and memory usage. If there are too many subsystems defined, unrecoverable out-ofmemory errors may occur.
IEC Compatibility

CIM 61970 Compatibility: Enable this setting to ensure project conformity to the Common Information Model
(CIM) 61970 standard. When enabled, certain compile errors may occur. For example, non 3-phase buses are
not allowed in CIM.
Wireless Radio Links

Maximum Radio Links: Large numbers of radio links can slow overall performance. Increase this value if your
workspace requires larger storage.
Runtime
The runtime section is used to adjust compiler check settings and messages related to system memory and runtime
related issues.
General

Maximum Concurrent Execution: Specify the maximum number of simulations that can be executed
concurrently.
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
Communication Port Base Value: This value defines the base range for opening communication ports to each
simulation. This value can be changed whenever multiple instances of PSCAD are running on the same
machine, avoiding address contention.

Storage Notification Level: If the storage required for a simulation exceeds the selected value, a warning will
be issued before the simulation is run.
Console Messages

Maximum Duplicates: During runtime, it is possible for messages to be sent to the output window from
EMTDC every time step. Use this option to disable this form occurring. If set to None, PSCAD will only display
the first message and ignore the rest. In some instances, it may be prudent to output duplicate messages,
which is why this setting is available.
Output Channel Checks

No output channels present: PSCAD will issue a warning message upon project run indicating that there are
no Output Channels (and hence no graphical feedback).

Excessive channels present: Performs a sanity check to ensure that the user has not requested an
excessive number of output channels. If the number of output channels is very large, the user should send
channels on demand rather than all of them (otherwise, the simulation may perform very slowly). See the
section entitled Runtime in Chapter 7 of this manual for more details.

Sample density is very high: Performs a sanity check to ensure the user has not selected a sample count
that is too big for the system display and storage. This can occur when the time step is very small and the run
duration is long. For example, a one second run plotted at every microsecond will have 1 million data points per
trace. These are upper bound to ensure that the plot and graphs continue to function with reasonable
performance. See the section entitled Runtime in Chapter 7 of this manual for more on setting simulation time
step and plot step.
Output File Checks

Waveform Overwrite: This option provides a warning dialog when a project is run, indicating that the project
output file is about to be overwritten. The option to enable writing of an output file can be found under the
Runtime tab in the Project Settings dialog.

Snapshot Overwrite: This option provides a warning dialog when a project is run, indicating that the project
snapshot file (or files) is about to be overwritten. The option to enable writing of a snapshot file can be found
under the Runtime tab in the Project Settings dialog.
Schematic

Prohibit Canvas Modification: Enable this option to prevent the accidental modification on focus circuits
during simulation.
Project Settings
Project Settings
Many features and settings related to simulation control in PSCAD are contained within the Project Settings
dialog. Important parameters, such as total simulation time and time step, are included here along with more advanced,
project specific PSCAD and EMTDC options.
See Editing Project Settings for information on accessing the Project Settings dialog.
The options available in the Project Settings dialog are divided into seven specific areas:

49
General: Options such as revision tracking and other file related information.
General

Runtime: Project related simulation options.

Simulation: EMTDC related simulation options.

Dynamics: PSCAD signal control and other options.

Mapping: PSCAD electric network related options.

Fortran: Fortran compiler and debug settings.

Link: Fortran and MATLAB linking options.
General
The properties contained within this section are related to the project file and version tracking.
Namespace
The namespace is a project attribute, through which all component definitions are linked to the project. The namespace
may only be modified for library projects. In case projects, the namespace is kept in synch with the project file name, and
can only be modified when the case project is saved as another filename.
Using a project attribute to ensure proper linking to component definitions ensures that these links are not dependent on
the actual filename. See Definition Referencing for more details.
Description
This field allows for the entry of a single-line description of the project. This description will be displayed beside the
project filename in the workspace window. Do not use quotations (") or apostrophes (') in this field.
Full Path
Full Path displays the path and filename information for the project file. This field is for display only.
Relative Path
Relative path displays the project filename only. This field is for display only.
Revision Tracking
These settings display particular information regarding the project file revision history.
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PSCAD Manual
File Version
The PSCAD release version used to create the project.
First Created
The date and time at which the project was first created.
Last Modified
The date and time at which the project last modified.
Author
The name (userid) of the person who created and/or modified the project.
Runtime
The properties contained within this section are the most commonly accessed project parameters. Note that most of the
settings found here can also be accessed via the Project tab of the ribbon control bar.
Time Settings
These settings are very important and are used quite often in every day simulation studies.
Duration of Run (sec)
This is the total length of the simulation run, entered in seconds. If you start from time zero, this is the finish time of the
run. If you start from a snapshot file (pre-initialized state), this is the length of run from the snapshot time.
Solution Time Step (us)
This is the EMTDC simulation time step, entered in microseconds. The default is 50 s, which is an optimum step for
most practical circuits. However, users should make sure that the time step selected is suitable for their simulation. This
input sets the value of the EMTDC internal variable DELT.
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Runtime
Channel Plot Step (us)
This is the time interval at which EMTDC sends data to PSCAD for plotting as well as writing data to output files. It is
always an integer multiple of the EMTDC simulation time step. Usually a 250 s plot step provides a reasonable
resolution and speed.
Smaller sampling intervals (higher sampling rate) can decrease the simulation speed considerably due to an excessive
transfer of data from EMTDC to PSCAD (without adding much to the plot resolution). Users can experiment with this
number for a given project. If the sampling interval is too large, the waveforms may appear 'choppy'. If you are
debugging the case, it is a good practice to plot every point in the simulation; that is, plot sampling time as equal to
EMTDC simulation time step.
A trap that even the most experienced engineers can readily fall into is the setting of plot step too broad with respect to
the level and period of noise in the signal. If a signal is periodic at a frequency similar to the plot step interval, the
perceived output may be quite different to the actual signal. As a basic rule: If you are puzzled by the results observed
from a plotted simulation output, run the case with the plot step equal to the EMTDC time step and compare the results.
NOTE: The plot step can be modified during a run (or after starting from a snapshot). You can change the
value from the Project Settings dialog or via the ribbon control bar.
Start-up Method
There are two ways to start a simulation in PSCAD: The standard method (i.e. from time = 0.0 seconds) or from a
snapshot file.
Standard
The standard method to start an EMTDC simulation run is to simply start from an un-initialized state (i.e. from time t =
0.0). This is how simulations are started most of the time.
From Snapshot File
There may be instances when you would like to start your simulation from a pre-initialized state. Initial conditions are not
available as direct entry into specific components, but it is possible to run a case to steady-state, and then take a
snapshot at a specified instant during the run. All relevant network data will be saved to a snapshot file, from which you
may start your case already pre-initialized.
An input field is included directly beside this field called Input File. Enter a name for the snapshot file to be used
here. See Starting from a Snapshot for more details on how to create and start from a snapshot file.
NOTE: When you start from a snapshot file, make sure that you have not altered the circuit from which the
snapshot was taken, otherwise an error may occur.
Save Channels to Disk?
You can save all output channel signals in your project to a file for post processing. Output files are saved in standard
ASCII format, and all data is stored in columnar format in steps of time according to the set plot step.
An input field is included directly beside this field called Output File. Enter a name for the file here. The output file will by
default be located in the PSCAD Temporary Folder.
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See Saving Output to File for more details.
Timed Snapshot
There are two ways to utilize a snapshot file: Single and incremental snapshots.
An input field is included directly beside this field called Snapshot File. Enter a name for the snapshot file to be created
here. Another input field is included called Time. Enter the time in seconds at which the snapshot is to be taken.
See Taking a Snapshot and Starting from a Snapshot for more details.
Single (Once Only)
A single snapshot will be taken at the time specified in the Time field.
Incremental (Same File)
An incremental snapshot in the same file will take the first snapshot at the specified time and subsequent snapshots at
equal intervals equal to this time. The snapshot file will be over-written every time, so you will end-up with a single file
taken at the last time interval.
Incremental (Many Files)
If you would like to save all snapshot files, select this option. You can save up to 10 distinct snapshots. If the number of
files exceeds 10, the names will be reused starting from the beginning.
The file naming convention is:
base_name_##.snp
You are required to provide only the 'base_name' (in the Snapshot File field). The extension will be added automatically.
Run Configuration
There are currently two methods for performing multiple runs in PSCAD – this one is the more basic of the two. This
method is used in conjunction with the Current Run Number and Total Number of Multiple Runs components, which are
available in the master library.
Another field is included directly beside the Multiple Run field called Output File. Enter a name for the multiple run
output file here. Another input field is included called # runs. Enter the total number of runs here (this value is used to set
the Total Number of Multiple Runs component).
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Runtime
NOTE: The other multiple run method involves the Multiple Run component, which is available in the master
library. DO NOT enable this multiple run feature when using the Multiple Run component.
EXAMPLE 7-1:
Consider the simple comparator below. The Multiple Run parameter is enabled in the Project Settings dialog and set to
10 runs.
In this case, the comparator output is set to go low (0) when input A is less than or equal to 1.0 (i.e. the last two runs).
Miscellaneous
The remaining Runtime parameters are outlined below:
Remove Time Offset When Starting From a Snapshot
This parameter is used in correlation with starting the simulation from a snapshot file. Enabling this parameter will force
the initial start time on all plots to display a 0.0 start time - regardless of what time the snapshot was taken. If disabled,
the initial start time will be displayed as the time at which the snapshot file was created.
EXAMPLE 7-2:
A user runs a case project to steady state, and then takes a snapshot at 0.5 seconds. The user then re-starts the
simulation from the snapshot file created, and sets the Duration of Run parameter to 0.05 s.
If Remove Time Offset When Starting from a Snapshot is enabled, the simulation run will be displayed from 0.0 to 0.5
seconds. If disabled, from 0.5 to 0.55 seconds.
It is important to note here that this option changes displayed start time only. That is, if you are controlling breakers or
faults for example, you must use the actual time. In Example 7-2 above, if the user wanted to open a breaker 0.01
seconds after starting from the snapshot, the breaker logic must indicate 0.51 seconds (not 0.01 seconds).
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PSCAD Manual
Send Only the Output Channels that are In Use
Selecting this option will turn off all output channels that are not being plotted in graphs, or monitored in meters. Enabling
this option has the potential to greatly reduce the amount of storage for the simulation, as well as a slight simulation speed
improvement.
NOTE: Unused output channel data will still be written to EMTDC output files if Save Channels to Disk? is
enabled.
Start Simulation Manually to Allow Use of an Integrated Debugger
This option allows you to start a PSCAD run that can be connected with a manually started EMTDC case. See
Deployment of an Integrated Debugger in Chapter 11 of this manual for more details.
Enable Component Graphics State Animation
This option will enable/disable Active Graphics in all components. Since the active graphics algorithm is processor
intensive, disabling it will help speed up those cases that contain a lot of animation.
Simulation
The properties contained within the Simulation section provide some control over EMTDC operation.
Network Solution Accuracy
The following input parameters can affect solution speed.
Interpolate Switching Events to the Precise Time
To account for inter-time step switching of switching devices (i.e. those components whose electrical conductance change
during a run), the EMTDC Electric Network Solution uses a linear interpolation algorithm to solve at the exact switching
instant. This is the default behavior of EMTDC and is essential for the accurate simulation of frequently switching devices,
(such as FACTS models).
Use Ideal Branches for Resistances Under
The Ideal Branch algorithm allows for zero resistances and true infinite bus voltage sources in EMTDC.
With this option enabled, you can create an infinite bus by either entering a value less than the threshold (set in the
threshold field directly to the right of this check box) or 0.0  for the source resistance. Similarly, for a zero resistance
branch, enter a value less than the threshold or 0.0  for the ON resistance of a diode, close resistance of a breaker, etc.
The default threshold value is preset to 0.0005 . As this algorithm involves extra computations and so a non-zero value
greater than this threshold is recommended, unless ideal like results are paramount.
Numerical Chatter Suppression
The following input parameters are related to the detection and removal of numerical oscillations called chatter.
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Dynamics
Detect Chatter that Exceeds the Threshold
Chatter is a numerical oscillation phenomenon inherent to the trapezoidal integration method used in EMTDC, and is
usually caused by sudden network disturbances (either voltage or current). EMTDC continuously looks for chatter and
removes it if required.
An input field is included directly beside this option. Enter a threshold value for chatter detection, below which chatter will
be ignored (the default is 0.001 pu).
Suppress Effects When Detected
When chatter is detected, a chatter suppression procedure is invoked if this option is enabled.
Diagnostic Information
The following input parameters are important during the debugging process of your simulation project and are
recommended for more advanced users. The information generated by these settings will appear under the NonStandard Messages branch in the Runtime Messages Pane.
Echo Network and Storage Dimensions
Prints network and storage array dimensions.
Echo Runtime Parameters and Options
Prints runtime related options.
Echo Input Data While Reading Data Files
Prints all data read from the data and map files.
Dynamics
The properties contained within the Dynamics section are related to the EMTDC system dynamics. These are explained
below.
Signal Storage
The input parameters involved here are outlined below.
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Store Feed Forward Signals for Viewing
When this control is enabled, all declared data signal variables (be they feed-forward or feed-back signals), will be
transferred to and from their designated EMTDC storage array each time step. If this control is disabled, only those
declared variables that must be transferred to storage (such as feed-back signals) are considered; all other variables are
deemed temporary and are discarded at the end of each time step.
NOTE: It is important to note that tool tips (flybys extract the value of the signal being monitored from
storage. Therefore, if this control is disabled, all feed-forward signal values will not appear in the tool tips!
In smaller projects, toggling this control will have very little effect on the simulation speed. As projects become larger and
contain many control signals, this feature may help to speed things up.
EXAMPLE 7-3:
In the simple control system shown below, there will be a total of four, type REAL variables declared in the project Fortran
file when this project is compiled: In1, error, Out and In2. Three are feed-forward variables (indicated by the
symbol),
and one is a feedback variable (indicated by the symbol).
NOTE: Users can display these symbols at any time by enabling the Show Signal Locations parameter in the
Module Settings dialog. For a more detailed description of these symbols, see Show Signal Locations in
Chapter 11 of this manual.
If Store Feed Forward Signals for Viewing is enabled, all four of the above variables will be stored every time step, as
indicated in the following excerpt from the project FORTRAN file:
!=======================================================================
SUBROUTINE DSDyn()
.
.
.
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Dynamics
!--------------------------------------! Transfers from storage arrays
!--------------------------------------In2
= STOF(ISTOF + 1)
In1
= STOF(ISTOF + 2)
error
= STOF(ISTOF + 3)
Out
= STOF(ISTOF + 4)
.
.
.
!--------------------------------------! Feedbacks and transfers to storage
!--------------------------------------STOF(ISTOF + 1) = In2
STOF(ISTOF + 2) = In1
STOF(ISTOF + 3) = error
STOF(ISTOF + 4) = Out
If Store Feed Forward Signals for Viewing is disabled, only the feedback variable Out will be written to storage every time
step as indicated in the following excerpt from the project FORTRAN file:
!=======================================================================
SUBROUTINE DSDyn()
.
.
.
!--------------------------------------! Transfers from storage arrays
!--------------------------------------Out
= STOF(ISTOF + 4)
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PSCAD Manual
.
.
.
!--------------------------------------! Feedbacks and transfers to storage
!--------------------------------------STOF(ISTOF + 4) = Out
Signal Flow
The input parameters involved here are outlined below.
Compute and Display Flow Pathways on Control Wires
Select this option to show signal flow direction on control signal Wires (i.e. Wires carrying REAL, INTEGER or LOGICAL
data types). See Control Signal Pathways for more details on this.
Buses
The input parameters involved here are outlined below.
Treat Multiple Buses with Matching Names as the Same Bus
Select this option to treat multiple buses with the same name as the same bus. That is graphically separated bus points
with the same name will represent the same EMTDC node points in the electrical grid. See the Bus component for more.
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Mapping
Unit System
The input parameters involved here are illustrated below:
Enable Unit Conversion and Apply to Parameter Values
Select this option to enable the Unit System.
NOTE: Enabling the Unit System may cause compilation failures in previously created case projects. This is
normally due to input parameter units in existing components that are not recognized by the Unit System
compiler. If compilation failure does indeed occur:
1.
Consult the Output Window for error messages: Point to the error source by Locating the Problem
Source.
2.
View the parameters of the component.
3.
Scan through the Value column and look for a #NaN (Not a Number) symbol. This usually indicates
that the entered unit does not match the Target Unit defined for this input parameter.
Mapping
The properties contained within the Mapping section are related to EMTDC network solution conductance matrix
optimization.
Network Splitting
The input parameters involved here are outlined below.
Split Decoupled Networks into Separate Matrices
Matrix solution methods can be intensive, requiring a large amount of computing power, especially if frequently switching
branches are involved. If this option is enabled, larger networks will be reduced into smaller sub-networks, or
subsystems.
Once the main electric network has been split into subsystems, each subsystem can be solved independently. Say for
example a large FACTS device (with many frequently switched branches) is located within its own subsystem, but part of
a much larger network. By splitting the main network into subsystems, only the local subsystem, harbouring the FACTS
device, need be resolved when a switching event occurs. The speed benefits here can be tremendous.
See Subsystems in Electric Networks in the EMTDC manual for more details.
Matrix Optimizations
The input parameters involved here are outlined below.
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Optimize Node Ordering to Speed Up Solution
Optimize Node Ordering is a PSCAD based algorithm, which re-numbers nodes in the EMTDC electric network
conductance matrix, so as to optimize solution speed. The electric network conductance matrix is optimized using a
Tinney algorithm to exploit matrix sparsity. For more information on matrix optimization, please see [7], [8], [9] and [10].
Move Switching Devices to Speed Up Solution
Frequently switching branches are identified and re-ordered, so as to optimize conductance matrix re-triangularization
following a change in branch conductance (a switch). The switch-ordering algorithm splits nodes into two types:
1.
Nodes not attached to switching elements or nodes that have switching elements connected, but do not switch
frequently (i.e. breakers and faults).
2.
Nodes that have switching elements connected that switch frequently (i.e. thyristor, GTO, IGBT, diode, arrester,
Variable RLC, etc.).
NOTE: Electrical connections in user-defined components are set as node type 2 by changing the electrical
connection port type to Switched.
The switch-ordering algorithm moves the frequently switched nodes (i.e. type 2) to the bottom of the conductance
matrix. The benefits to EMTDC solution speed are proportional to the number of nodes and the number of switching
branches in a given electric network. For more information on matrix optimization, please see references [7], [8], [9] and
[10].
Fortran
The parameters contained within the FORTRAN section are used for the control of compiler based error and warning
messages. Also, any additional source files, required for the compilation of the project, are indicated here as well.
Runtime Debugging
The input parameters involved here are outlined below.
Enable Addition of Runtime Debugging Information
This option will add some additional information to the build, so as to allow for the effective use of a Fortran debugger. If
you have selected this option, you should also select all of the checks available in the Checks section (see below).
When a program crashes on a PC, the operating system brings up a dialog asking if you would like to debug the case. If
you select Yes and if you had this option selected, the FORTRAN debugger can load the source file and point to the line
of code that is causing the crash.
Checks
The input parameters involved here are outlined below.
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Fortran
Array & String Bounds
With this option selected, the program will stop if you are accessing an invalid array index. For example, if the array X is
declared to be of dimension 10, and you have a line of source code that has X(J). If J ever goes greater than 10, the
program will stop with a proper message. If this option is de-selected, the program will continue execution and eventually
may crash, adding difficulty to tracing the cause.
This option should be used when testing your new models. It will slow down the simulation and the speed penalty will
vary from machine to machine – you can disable this option if speed is a concern. Please read your FORTRAN compiler
documentation you are using for more details.
Floating Point Underflow
This option is useful for debugging but has a speed penalty that is again architecture dependent. Please read your
Fortran compiler documentation for more details.
Integer Overflow
This option is useful for debugging but has a speed penalty that is again architecture dependent. Please read your
Fortran compiler documentation for more details.
Argument Mismatch
The Fortran compiler issues a warning if the argument type (REAL, INTEGER, etc.) of the CALL statement does not
match with the subroutine statement (this is applicable to functions as well).
Do not ignore this warning as it may have the potential to create unpredictable and hard to trace results.
Uncalled Routines
The Fortran compiler issues a warning if a routine is not called in the program.
Uninitialized Variables
A warning is issued if a variable is used before it is assigned a value. Normally, the cause of this is a typographical
mistake in the source code.
Preprocessor
This option provides the ability to enable/disable the Fortran preprocessor. Disabled by default, this option is supported on both the
Intel and GFortran compilers. An additional text field is also provided to allow the user to define a comma-separated list of
preprocessor identifiers.
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Additional Source files (*.f, *.for, *.f90, *.c, *.cpp)
This input field allows you to link one or more external source code files, so as to be included during compilation of the
associated project. An external source code file could contain one or more subroutines, which must be called from within
the FORTRAN segment of the component that uses it.
Files may be referenced in this field either by an absolute, or relative path specification. For example, a file referenced
with an absolute path may appear as follows:
If only the filename is entered, PSCAD will assume that the source file is located in the same directory as the project file
itself, and will append this path to the filename. You may also use standard directory navigational features when working
with relative paths. For example, if a source file called test.f is located in the directory directly above the project file, then
the file entry would appear as follows:
When entering multiple source files, each entry must be separated either by a blank space, a comma or a semicolon:
Wildcard Character
The wildcard character (i.e. *) is also supported. For example, entering the following:
Will ensure all *.f files in the folder temp, will be included in the project build and make.
Supported File Types
This input field will only accept the following source file types:
63

Fortran: *.f, *.f90, *.for

C: *.c, *.cpp
Link
Link
The parameters contained within the Links section are used for the linking of pre-compiled libraries (including MATLAB
related libraries) and object files.
Additional Library (*.lib) and Object (*.obj/*.o) Files
This input field allows you to specify external static library (*.lib) and object (*.obj) files, which must be linked to the project
before compilation. Object and library files would normally be used if you have a lot of custom models associated with
user written subroutines, where it would be more efficient to create a library or object file rather than maintain a collection
of Fortran source files.
Object and library files provide a way to avoid the compilation of user written subroutines every time they are used in
different projects. They are also useful for sharing custom models with others, where you do not want to share the source
code itself.
User Libraries Folder Method
A compiler specific folder convention exists for the purpose of specifying compiler specific object and library files. Object
and library files can be compiled with one or more different Fortran compilers, and then placed in a named sub-folder
within the specified User Libraries Folder. Then, the user may freely switch between compilers without the need to respecify the files.
The user must manually add these sub-folders to the main folder specified by the User Libraries Folder option (in the
Dependencies category of the Application Options dialog). Each sub-folder represents a specific Fortran compiler, and
the same library or object file (compiled by the corresponding compiler) may be placed. Since there are different types of
Fortran compilers that may be used with PSCAD, there can be different sub-folders specified. These must be named as
follows:

gf42 (GNU GFortran 95 compiler)

cf6 (Compaq Fortran 90 compiler)

if9 (Intel Visual Fortran compiler versions 9, 10 & 11)

if12 (Intel Visual Fortran compiler version 12, 13 & 14)

if15 (Intel Visual Fortran compiler version 15 (64-bit))

if15_x86 (Intel Visual Fortran compiler version 15 (32-bit))
For example, if a user specifies C:\my_libs as the User Libraries Folder, and intends to use either the GFortran compiler
or the Intel Visual Fortran 9 compiler, then two sub-folders should be added to 'my_libs' as shown below:
Any library or object files required should be created by using each compiler, and then added to the corresponding subfolder.
If only the filename is entered, PSCAD will assume that the library or object file is located in the specified sub-folder in the
User Libraries Folder. For example, if a user specifies C:\my_libs as the User Libraries Folder and is using the Intel
Visual Fortran compiler, entering test.obj as shown below would indicate that the specified file is located at
C:\my_libs\if9\test.obj.
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Absolute Path Method
Files may also be referenced by either an absolute or relative path specification. If this method is chosen, then the folder
specified in the User Libraries Folder will be overridden. For example, a file referenced with an absolute path may appear
as follows:
NOTE: Although it is not a necessity, the absolute path should appear within quotes. This will ensure that if any
spaces exist in a path directory or the filename itself, it will be parsed properly.
Entering Multiple Files
When entering multiple files into this field, they must be separated with a space, a comma or a semicolon. Both User
Libraries Folder and Absolute Path methods may be used simultaneously:
Wildcard Character
The wildcard character (i.e. *) is also supported. For example, entering the following:
Will ensure all *.obj files in the folder temp, will be included in the project build and make.
Supported File Types
This input field will only accept the following compiled file types:

*.o, *.obj, *.lib
MATLAB
The input parameters involved here are outlined below.
Link This Simulation with the Currently Installed MATLAB Libraries
Select this option if you intend to utilize the MATLAB®/Simulink® interface with this project. Note that this option is
disabled unless you have specified a MATLAB® version in the Dependencies category of the Application Options dialog.
65
Link
66
Chapter 4
The Application Environment
The term Application Environment refers not only to how PSCAD is organized visually, but also to naming conventions,
utilities and other features that facilitate its use. A lot of effort is continuously expended on the work environment –the
primary goals being the perseverance of both the look and feel of previous versions, as well as the enhancement of
existing features and the timely addition of new ones.
This chapter discusses a wide range of introductory topics, from simple terms and definitions to a general overview of the
most important elements that make up the environment. The tutorial section My First Simulation is a must read for all
users new to PSCAD.
Terminology
The following comprises the most popular terms used when discussing the PSCAD environment. It is important to
become familiar with this terminology, as it will help greatly in the comprehension of topics discussed hereafter.
Components and Modules
A component (sometimes referred to simply as a block) is a graphical representation of a device model, and is the basic
building block of all circuits created in PSCAD. Components are usually designed to perform a specific function, and can
exist as either electrical, control, documentary or simply decorative in type.
Single-Phase Transformer component in PSCAD
Components usually possess input and output connection ports and can be pieced together with other components to
form larger system models. The user may interface directly to the model through input parameters.
Modules (sometimes referred to as sub-pages or page components) are a special type of component, where the
functionality of the component model is defined by constructing a circuit, using a combination of other
components. Modules possess their own canvas, as opposed to a hard-coded script interface in regular
components. Modules can even contain other modules within their canvas, thus providing a hierarchical modeling
capability.
All components and modules possess a single definition, from which many instances may be created.
Definitions
A definition is the underlying 'blueprint' of a component or module, and is where all design aspects of the associated
model are defined. This may include graphical appearance, port connections, input parameters and model code and/or
circuit layout. Only one definition can exist for every unique component or module.
Definitions are normally stored in library projects, and are a basis from which to create multiple instances (or copies) of a
component or module to be used in any project loaded in the workspace.
Instances
An instance is a graphical 'copy' of the definition, and is normally what is seen and manipulated by the user. An instance
is not exactly a copy; each instance is its own entity, and may have different input parameter settings, or even appear
graphically different from other instances.
Since all instances are based on a single definition, any design changes to a definition will affect all instances.
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My First Simulation
Projects
Everything involved in a particular simulation (except output files) is harboured within a single file called a
project. Projects can contain stored definitions, on-line plots and controls, and of course the schematically constructed
system itself. There are two types of projects in PSCAD: Library and case projects.
Case
Case projects (or simply 'cases') are where most work is performed in PSCAD. In addition to performing the functions of
a library project, cases may be compiled, built and run. Simulated results can be viewed directly within the project through
on-line meters and/or plots. Case projects are saved with the file extension *.pscx.
Library
Library projects are used primarily to store definitions. Instances of definitions stored in a library, can be used within any
case project. Library projects are saved with the file extension *.pslx.
Namespace
The namespace is a project attribute, used to provide a stable source name for functions such as definition referencing.
The namespace is separate from the project filename, which can be modified outside of the application (in File Explorer
for example).
Namespace and filename may be different in library projects only. In case projects, the namespace and filename are kept
synchronized in order to avoid confusion. For example, if you save a case project as another name, the namespace
attribute will be modified as well.
The namespace is what is displayed in the workspace projects branch.
Workspace
The workspace is the central operating hub within the PSCAD environment. It not only provides an overview of all
projects currently loaded, but also organizes simulation sets, data files, signals, controls, transmission line and cable
objects, display devices, etc. within an easily navigable environment.
Although only a single workspace can be present in the application, workspaces may be exchanged at any time. See
Loading a Workspace for details.
Tutorial: My First Simulation
My First Simulation
This tutorial is designed to give new users a 'jump start' in learning how to use PSCAD, as well as to provide a chance to
try out a PSCAD simulation before proceeding further in this chapter.
In this tutorial you will learn:

How to load a case project

How to run a simulation

How to print
If you can successfully run the example project at the end of this chapter, it will also mean that your installation was
successful. So let's begin!
Starting PSCAD
If PSCAD is installed locally on your machine, go to Start | All Programs | PSCAD | PSCADX4 | PSCAD <Version> in
the Windows Start menu to start it.
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If PSCAD is installed through MyUpdater:
1.
Go to Start | All Programs | PSCAD | MyUpdater in the Windows Start menu to launch MyUpdater.
2.
Log in to MyUpdater.
3.
Select the Install or Update link associated with the software, if applicable.
4.
Select Run to launch PSCAD.
You will see the main PSCAD environment as shown below.
Most functions available in the PSCAD application are represented by a button in the ribbon control bar.
Ribbon Control Bar and Schematic Tabs
The ribbon control bars and schematic tabs are essential elements to consider when using the PSCAD application.
Ribbon Control Bar
The area directly under the application title bar is called the ribbon control bar. Most functions available in the PSCAD
application can be found here.
After you become more familiar with the program, you may also begin to use the many keyboard shortcuts available. See
Keyboard Shortcuts for more details.
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Workspace and Messages Windows
Schematic Tabs
Each project loaded in the workspace will be represented by a schematic tab. The tab itself displays the project name,
along with the name, path and call number of the module whose canvas is currently being viewed. A call number of -1
indicates that the current view is a module definition (i.e. non-white schematic canvas background).
Workspace and Messages Windows
In the top left-hand corner of the environment, you should see a docked window referred to as the Workspace window (it
has the master library and perhaps other projects displayed within it). If it is not visible, go to the ribbon control bar, click
on View tab and then select Workspace in the Panes drop list button.
The workspace gives you an overall view of any library and/or case projects loaded. You can use it to perform a wide
variety of activities, such as navigation or accessing files.
Directly below either the workspace or the definition editor, is another docked window referred to as the Build Messages
pane. If it is not visible, go to the ribbon control bar, click on the View tab and then select Messages in the Panes drop
list button.
All the navigable status (informational) warning and error messages, involved in both Build and Runtime procedures, are
logged in this window – so, it is recommended to keep this window visible at all times.
Opening a Case Project
We will start with the most simple of example cases for this tutorial. This exercise will help us to ensure that both PSCAD,
and any FORTRAN compilers being used, are installed correctly. We will learn to create a case from scratch in the
tutorial entitled Creating a New Project.
To load an existing case project, perform one of the following operations:

Click the Open Project button in the quick access bar:
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
Press the Ctrl + o keyboard shortcut.

Click the PSCAD tab in the ribbon control bar and select Open (performs Open | Open Project by default):
You should see the Open File dialog appear on your screen. By default, the selected file type is Cases and Libraries
(*.pscx, .pslx) at the bottom of the dialog.
Navigate to the tutorial directory inside your example project folder (C:\Users\Public\Public
Documents\PSCAD[version]\Examples). Click on the vdiv.pscx file and then click on the Open button to load this project.
NOTE: You can navigate directly to the examples folder by clicking the PSCAD tab in the ribbon control bar and
selecting Open | Open Examples.
The workspace window will now list an additional project entitled vdiv (Single Phase Voltage Divider) directly under the
master library project. The main schematic canvas for the project will open automatically in the Schematic window tab.
You should see the assembled voltage divider circuit as shown below, which is located at the top left corner of the main
page in the project that you just opened. The plots are situated directly to the right of the circuit.
71
Running a Simulation
The circuit consists of a single-phase resistive voltage source connected to a resistive load. Since the magnitude of the
source resistance (1 ) and the load resistance are the same, the voltage at the load terminal is half that of the voltage
behind the source resistance. This voltage is measured using a voltmeter called Vmid connected to the node between the
source and the load. The current in the circuit should be:
The plot and graphs will contain the values of the voltage at the mid-point of the circuit, and the current flowing through
the circuit when the project simulation is run.
Running a Simulation
Before we run the simulation we will do a simple calculation to find out what load current and mid-point voltage we should
be expecting. Double-click on the source component to open and view its parameters – note that the source voltage
magnitude is 70.71 kV RMS (or 100 kV peak). Close this dialog by clicking on the Cancel button at the bottom of the
dialog and left-click anywhere in an empty space on the page, to de-select the selected source component. For a 100 kV
source voltage, we know that the mid-point voltage should then be 50 kV peak, and the load current should be 50 kA
peak. Now let us run the simulation and actually verify the current and voltage waveforms.
To run a case, simply click on the Run button in the Home tab of the ribbon control bar.
When this button is pressed, PSCAD will go through several stages of processing the circuit before starting the
simulation. You should see messages in the status bar, at the bottom of the PSCAD window, related to various stages of
the process. Depending on how fast your computer is, you may not be able to read these.
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Watch the graphs as the simulation progresses. If you look near the bottom-right corner of the environment, you will see
a message xx% complete where xx represents the percentage of the total simulation length. To the right of it you will also
see the current simulation time, which changes with the simulation. Once again, depending on the speed of your
computer, the simulation may finish almost instantaneously.
This tutorial case is set up to run for 0.2 seconds. At the end of the run you will see the message EMTDC run completed
in the status bar. Your plots should look similar to the following, depending on your plot settings:
Make sure that your simulation produces the same result as shown here. This is one step towards ensuring that your
PSCAD is installed correctly.
Click again on the Run button to see the run once again. PSCAD will go through all three stages (i.e. compile, build and
run); however, you may not be able to detect the first two stages, as they pass by very quickly. This is because PSCAD
performs them only if changes have been made to the circuit.
Printing the Circuit
To print the circuit along with the graph you just simulated, click the right mouse button on the background of the
Schematic and select either the Print Page or Print Preview Page items.
If you selected Print Page, the Print Page dialog will display. The contents of the Print Page dialog depend on what you
are printing – click the OK button to proceed.
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Printing the Circuit
If you selected Print Preview Page, all graphics and text in the project will be displayed in the Print Preview screen (see
below). Select Print to display the Print Page dialog (see above).
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Workspace Pane
The Workspace Pane
A workspace is the central operating hub within the PSCAD environment. It not only provides an overview of all projects
currently loaded, but also organizes simulation sets, data files, signals, controls, transmission line and cable objects,
display devices, etc. within an easily navigable environment.
NOTE: The master library is always the first project loaded into the Projects list. The master library cannot be
unloaded.
75
The Primary Window
In versions previous to v4.5, the workspace and the application itself were inextricably linked together as one compete
unit. Now, the application and the workspace have been divided into separate entities. What this means from the user’s
perspective is that an entire workspace may be loaded, saved and unloaded without having to close the application. A
single workspace may house multiple projects, including both libraries and cases, as well as possessing its own unique
setting options.
The workspace pane is divided into two sub-windows. The primary window contains a list of loaded projects, and the
secondary window context is based on whatever project is selected in the primary window. Its primary function is to
provide a navigation tree for ease in jumping from module to module.
The Primary Window
The primary window is used mainly for inter-project navigation, viewing project related data files and organization of
simulation sets. Icons are included for visual differentiation between case and library projects. The main icons used here
are listed below:

Workspace Branch

Projects Branch

Library Project

Case Project

Simulation Sets Branch

Simulation Set

Simulation Task
Projects Branch
When a case or library project is loaded, the project namespace and description will appear by default in the primary
workspace window, under the Projects Branch. It is of course possible to load multiple projects, and these will be listed in
the order in which they are loaded. Each Project in the Projects Branch includes two additional branches to house data
specific to that project: These are the Definitions and the Temporary Folder branches.
See Operations and Feature Overview for more on creating, loading and saving projects.
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Definitions Branch
The definitions branch contains a list of all definitions that are stored locally within that project: Definitions for component
or module instances that exist in a project, but are stored in other projects (ex. master library components), will not appear
in this local definitions branch.
The image below shows the list of component definitions for the case project called test. In addition to the definitions of
each module, the existence of a component definition (called user_comp) is also indicated. The number in parenthesis
affixed to the definition name indicates the total number of local instances of this definition in the project.
NOTE: It is not recommended to store user-defined component definitions within case projects. All component
definitions should exist exclusively in library projects to avoid having to maintain multiple versions of the same
definition.
The main icons used here are listed below:

Component Definition

Module Definition

Transmission Line Definition

Cable Definition
Right-clicking directly over the definitions branch will bring up a menu as shown below:
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The Primary Window
The following list describes the functions of this pop-up menu:

Component Wizard: This menu item will display the Component Wizard pane if not already displayed. The
Component Wizard is used to create both Module and Non-Module Component, TLine or Cable
definitions. Once created, the definition will appear at the bottom of the definitions list, and the instance may be
dropped onto the Schematic canvas by dragging the cursor to the appropriate location and left-clicking.

Paste Definition: This function may be used to paste a definition that has been copied from this project or from
another project loaded in the workspace primary window (see the Copy menu function described below).

Import Definition(s)...: This function is used to import stored definition files (*.psdx or the older *.cmp
format). See Importing/Exporting Definitions in the next chapter for more details.

Sort by Name: Select this option to sort the definitions list by name (see below). Continually selecting this
option will toggle the alphabetical order from A to Z or Z to A.

Sort by Description: Select this option to sort the definitions list by description (see below). Continually
selecting this option will toggle the alphabetical order from A to Z or Z to A.
If you right-click with the mouse pointer over a specific component definition in the list, the following menu will appear:
The following list describes the functions of this pop-up menu:
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PSCAD Manual

Properties...: This brings up the Definition Settings dialog window for editing the definition Name, Description
and Lable(s). See Editing Definition Properties for more details.

Edit...: Select this option to edit the definition of the component (opens the Graphic window for components, or
the Schematic window for modules, transmission lines and cables). See Editing a Component or Module
Definition for more details.

View...: This menu item is used to populate (or view) a list of any runtime objects that happen to exist within a
particular module definition. The user may choose to view all objects, or a filtered list as per the sub-menu
below. See Runtime Objects in the Definitions Branch for more details.

Delete: Select this option to delete the definition. You will be prompted whether to delete the definition as well
as all existing instances (select Yes), to delete only the definition (select No), or to cancel the action (select
Cancel).

Copy: Select this option to copy a definition, which may then be pasted (see Paste Definition, above), then
instantiated (see Create Instance, below).

Copy with Dependents: Select this option to copy this definition and all of its dependents. This means that if
this is a module definition, and it contains other modules as part of its definition, then these other modules will
be included in the copy. See Copy with Dependents in the next chapter for more details.

Create Instance: Select this option to create an instance of the definition. Note that once this option has been
selected, go to a blank part of the Schematic canvas, right-click and select Paste. This will paste the newly
created instance directly onto the page. Once the first instance has been created, subsequent copies may be
made by directly copying the original instance. Holding down the Ctrl key and using Drag and Drop will also
perform this feature.

Export As...: This option brings up the Save Definition As dialog so that you can save the definition to a
Definition File (*.psdx). See Importing/Exporting Definitions in the next chapter for more details.

Help: If the definition is a regular component, selecting this option will open the associated help file.
Module Components Only:

Compile: Selecting this option will compile only the module selected. All module instances linked to this
definition will of course be affected.
A double-click on a module definition will bring you directly to its definition canvas in the Schematic canvas, whereas
double-clicking on a regular component definition will bring you directly to its definition in the Graphic view. Doubleclicking on a transmission line or cable will bring you to the definition Editor canvas.
Runtime Objects in the Definitions Branch
Runtime related objects, such as Output Channels, Controls, Graphs, etc., are themselves specialized components, which
are placed on the canvas of a module. As such, they help define the definition of the module, and are therefore organized
under the definitions branch on a per definition basis.
Note that in order to avoid needless, continuous population of these lists (and thereby conserve processor operations),
the user must manually choose to view each of these lists.
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The Primary Window
Manually Populating the List
Resulting List of Controls-Type
Runtime Objects in definition Main
Each module definition branch can contain a list of all runtime objects that exist in that module. Whenever a runtime object
is added, a record of it is immediately added under the appropriate module definition in the workspace.
Runtime objects can be categorized into several main groups:

Controls

Recorders

Display Devices

Named Signals

Radio Links

TLines/Cables
A left double-click on any runtime object in the list will highlight that object directly in the corresponding module definition
canvas. For example, double-clicking on the Modulation Index object in the above diagram will result in the following in
Schematic view:
This may also be achieved by right-clicking on a module listing and selecting Navigate To....
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Icons are included in this branch for visual distinctness:
Controls:

Slider Component Instance

Two State Switch Component Instance

Dial Component Instance

Push Button Component Instance
Recorders:

Output Channel Instance

RTP/COMTRADE Recorder Component Instance
Display Devices:

Control Panel Instance

Plot Frame Instance

XY Plot Instance

PolyMeter Instance

PhasorMeter Instance

Oscilloscope Instance
Named Signals:

Data signal defined with a Data Label
Radio Links:

Transmitter

Receiver
TLines/Cables:
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
TLine

Cable
The Primary Window
Transmission Lines and Cables
Transmission segment wires are themselves very similar to modules. As such, they are treated like a module instance
when they are placed in the circuit.
If the line is an overhead line with Termination Style in Remote Ends mode, then a [+] box will appear beside the branch
name. Expanding this branch (press the [+] symbol) will show the two interface components representing both ends of
the transmission line. Note that cables will always have remote ends, as direct connection mode cables are not
supported.
TLine/Cable Interface Components:

Remote End Interface Component Instance
Observers
Output channels and control objects can exist in a project without being associated with a curve, meter or control
interface (i.e. the data is not plotted or monitored). If any of these objects are added as a curve to a graph, meter to a
control panel, or added directly to a PolyMeter, PhasorMeter or Oscilloscope, an entry referred to as an observer will be
added as a sub-branch to the corresponding recorder or control branch. If the object is displayed in more than one
display device, an observer will be added for each occurrence.
The figure below shows the existing controls and recorders in the Network #1 module definition for a test project. The
module contains a slider component called Slider 1, a two-state switch component called Switch 1, as well as two output
channels entitled Ea and Switch 1. Each object possesses an observer to indicate that the output of the objects is being
sent to a display device.
A simple double-click on any observer will point you directly to that occurrence of the runtime object within the display
device. For example, double-clicking on the Slider 1 observer in the above diagram will result in the following in
Schematic view:
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Icons are included for all observer types. These are listed below:
Recorders:

Curve

Meter

PolyMeter

PhasorMeter

Oscilloscope
Controls:

Slider

Dial

Two State Switch

Push Button
Group Name Based Sorting
If any of the runtime objects are part of a runtime group, then the group name will precede the object name. This
automatically categorizes the objects according to group name:
In the above example, controls Slider 1 and Switch 1 have been given the group name Control Group, whereas output
channels Ea and Switch 1 have been given the group name Output Channels. For more information, see Grouping of
Runtime Objects.
Temporary Folder Branch
The Temporary Folder Branch is used specifically for convenient access to files found in the project temporary folder,
such as FORTRAN, Data, Output, etc. files.
NOTE: The files will only be visible if you compile the project first (see Compiling and Building a Project in the
next chapter).
To view the contents of the temporary folders branch, left-click the [+] box beside the project name:
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The Primary Window
A simple double-click on any file will open that file in the main viewing area of the environment. Right-clicking on the file
will invoke a pop-up menu:
The functions in this menu are as described below:

Open: Open the selected file for viewing in the main window.

Show in Folder: Select this option to open Windows file explorer at the folder location where this file resides.

Delete: Delete the selected file from the temporary folder.
The Master Library
The master library is always the first project listed in the workspace primary window whenever PSCAD is started. It
contains most of the components required to build almost any circuit. To open the master library, simply left-click the title
in the workspace. The main master library canvas will open (Schematic window), giving access to all of its components.
Components stored in the master library are categorized into several modules (located on the main page), according to
the functionality of the component. For example, all transformer components are stored in the Transformers module. In
addition to these categories, most master library components are also located on the main page. Some users may find
this format allows for easier navigation to the correct component.
NOTE: Component definitions stored in the master library can be viewed, but not directly modified. If you wish
to modify one of these definitions, copy the definition into another library project and rename it first..
If you want to add any of these components to your own case, simply copy the instance directly from the master library
and paste it into your own project. You can also use the Models tab on the ribbon control bar or the Library Pop-up Menu
system.
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Simulation Sets Branch
It is possible to simultaneously launch and run multiple project simulations. Both sequential and parallel simulation runs
are possible via the defining of Simulation Tasks within what are referred to as Simulation Sets. Only projects loaded
under the Projects branch may be added as a task in a simulation set.
All simulations in a particular set will be launched simultaneously in parallel, utilizing all processor resources available on
the local machine. All sets may be run sequentially: In the image above for example, if the user chooses to run all
simulation sets, the set Project Run will launch and run all of its tasks in parallel. When these are complete, the simulation
set Comparison will launch its tasks immediately after, and so on.
See Simulation Sets/Multiple EMTDC for more on creating and running simulation sets.
The Secondary Window
The secondary window displays data in a project-specific context. That is to say that its contents are based on whatever
project is selected in the primary window. The secondary window also acts as an intra-project navigation tool.
Module/TLine/Cable Hierarchy Branch
This branch lists all module, transmission line and cable instances in the project. Starting with the main page, modules
are organized according to their hierarchy, which helps to simplify navigation, as well as provide a complete overview of
how the project is structured. Transmission lines and cables will appear inside their parent module.
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The Secondary Window
For example, the case project above (with namespace name test) contains a main page with two modules called net1 and
net2. The module net1 contains another called sub1. The display format of the names in this branch is adjustable via the
option called Namespace in the Workspace category of the Application Options dialog. Depending on the setting of this
option, the format is as follows:
Namespace display enabled:
<namespace_name>:<definition_name> '<instance_name>'
NOTES:


If the Namespace option is set to Show if definition as external, the namespace will display if the
definition originates from a different project.
If the Namespace option is set to Show always, the namespace will display regardless of whether
the definition originates from the local or from a foreign project.
Namespace display disabled (Namespace option is set to Hidden):
<definition_name> '<instance_name>'
The namespace name identifies the project where the definition resides. The definition name is of course the name of
the definition. The instance name is the name given to that specific instance of the module (refers to the segment name
for tlines/cables). In the example above, all definitions reside in the local project test. None of the three modules have
been given instance names, so therefore none are displayed. TLine and Cable are the segment names given to these
particular instances of the transmission line and cable (by default the segment name is the same as the definition name
when a line or cable is created).
A left double-click on any module, transmission line or cable listing in the hierarchy will bring you directly to canvas of that
instance in the Schematic window. This may also be achieved by right-clicking on a module listing and selecting
Navigate To....
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Icons are included in this branch for visual distinctness:

Module Instance (local)

Module Instance (foreign)

Transmission line instance

Cable instance
The icon of the instance that is currently being viewed will be appear as a darker shade.
The Definition Editor
The Definition Editor is the most important part of the application environment. It is where the majority of project design
work is performed, including the graphical construction of circuits (i.e. Schematic view), component graphic design, as
well as scripting.
The definition editor window is invoked (in Schematic view by default) by a left-click on a project in the workspace
window.
Viewing Windows
The definition editor is divided into six sub-windows. Each of the sub-windows can be accessed by simply clicking on the
specific tab on bar at the bottom of the editor window. The tab bar is shown below for reference:
As you can see, the Script tab is initially disabled (greyed-out). This tab is used exclusively for non-module component
design, and will not be enabled unless editing a non-module component definition. See Editing a Component or Module
Definition in Chapter 9 for details on this.
Schematic
The Schematic tab is always the default view when a project is first opened. This is where all control and electrical
circuits are constructed.
Graphic
This Graphic window is used for editing the graphics of a component definition or module.
Parameters
This Parameters window is used for editing the parameters of a component definition.
Script
This Script window is used for editing non-module component definition code.
Fortran
The Fortran tab is a simple text viewer that allows easy access to the EMTDC Fortran file corresponding to the module
definition currently being viewed. For example, if you are viewing the main page of a project in Schematic view, the
Fortran window (click the Fortran tab) will show the EMTDC Fortran file corresponding to the main page.
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Build and Runtime Message Panes
Data
The Data window is a simple text viewer that allows easy access to the EMTDC input data for any existing electric
network, corresponding to the module being viewed in the Schematic window. For example, if you are viewing the main
page of a project in Schematic view, the Data window (click the Data tab) will show the EMTDC input data for the main
page.
Build and Runtime Message Panes
Build Messages Pane
The primary purpose of the Build Message and Runtime Message Panes is to provide an interface for viewing simulation
feedback, and for troubleshooting your simulation. All informational, error and warning messages, either issued by a
component, PSCAD, or EMTDC, can be viewed in one of these two panes. In the Build Messages Pane, the messages
are divided into errors, warnings and informational message categories. A distinction can be made between error and
warning messages simply by the color of the symbol preceding the message. The color code is as follows:

Warning

Error

Information
The message types may be filtered by selecting the appropriate buttons in the Build Messages Pane title bar. All
messages are displayed by default.
Build messages are errors and warnings related to the compilation and building of FORTRAN, data and map files for the
project. PSCAD has the capability of detecting a number of different types of system inconsistencies related to this. See
Error and Warning Messages for more information. Note that any warning or error messages defined in the Checks
segment of any component definition will be displayed as a build message.
Warning Messages
Warning messages are not considered detrimental to the simulation run, and PSCAD will continue to build and run the
project regardless of any warnings. However, warnings can indicate areas of the system that, although not technically
illegal, will still affect the simulation results (e.g. a mistakenly disconnected node). It is therefore important to study the
output window every time the project is built and run if there are any warning messages.
Error Messages
If an error is reported, the simulation build will be halted immediately. The user must then study any error messages
reported and attempt to determine the problem source. See Locating the Problem Source for more details.
Runtime Messages Pane
Runtime messages provide error and warning messages related to the simulation run – that is, messages sourced from
EMTDC. Runtime messages are usually more serious in nature and can involve numerical instabilities and other
problems of this type.
It is important to study the messages thoroughly. In some cases, PSCAD will direct you towards the subsystem and
node number in the electrical system where the problem is occurring. The Search utility can help point you toward the
problem area. See Error and Warning Messages for more information.
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Locating the Problem Source
The output window provides an easy method of locating the source of any displayed message: Simply left-click the
hyperlink associated with the message. PSCAD will then automatically open the source page in Schematic view and
point directly at the problem with a message box:
Search
If a message indicates that the problem is arising at a designated subsystem, node and/or branch number, then you can
utilize the Search Pane to search for this exact location. Simply invoke the Search Pane. Enter the subsystem and node,
or branch number indicated in the runtime message and select the Search button.
The feedback from this search will be displayed in the Search Results pane (will appear automatically). Simply left-click
the hyperlink associated with the search result and PSCAD will automatically open the source page in Schematic view
and identify the item using a colored enclosure, similar to that shown in Locating the Problem Source above.
Search Pane
If the user wishes to search a project for a particular object, the search utility may be utilized. To invoke the Search dialog
window, click on the View tab in the ribbon control bar and select Search from the Panes drop list, press the Search
button in the Home tab in the ribbon control bar or press Ctrl + Shift + f on your keyboard.
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Search Pane
The search window is divided into three main parts: Basic, Node, and Branch Search.
Basic Search
Basic searching is for just about anything within the workspace, except for electrical node and subsystem numbers. The
following sections describe the input parameters needed for your search.
Look In
This is the primary scoping mechanism. Select to search in the either current module or project, or all projects loaded in
the workspace.
Search For
This is the string of text you would like to search for. Note that PSCAD maintains a history of previously searched items.
Simply enter the first letter and whatever similar searches were performed in the past will appear in a drop list.
Match Case and Match Whole Word
These are standard searching devices to further scope your search.
Filter Search
This is a secondary scoping mechanism that works in conjunction with Look In above. Here you select the type of objects
you would like to limit your search to.
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Node Search
A node number search is a different animal, in that it requires the project be compiled first, thereby generating the node
numbers.
A node number search is a special type, where you can look directly for an electrical node, by node and subsystem
number, as opposed to a character string. Note that project must be compiled first in order to get any node search
results!
Some additional selections and fields become enabled if this option is selected:

Look In: Select Current Project or Current Module. Current Project is selected by default, but you can narrow
your search by confining it to the current module canvas (Current Module).

Node: The actual node number.

Subsystem: The electrical subsystem number (if desired)

Global: Select this option if the node you are searching for is a global node. Otherwise, the utility will search
for local nodes.
Branch Search
Like the node search, branch number search requires the project be compiled first, so that the branch numbers are
generated.
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Bird's Eye View Navigation Pane
A branch number search is also a special type, where you can look directly for a specific electrical branch number, based
only on subsystem number. Note that project must be compiled first in order to get any branch search results!
Viewing Search Results
Search results are located in the Search Results window. This window will automatically open upon performing a
search. Any result matching the search criteria will appear in a list form as shown below:
Simply left click the hyperlink in the Instance column and PSCAD will automatically highlight the source in the Schematic
canvas.
Bird's Eye View Navigation Pane
The Bird’s Eye View Pane provides an overview of the entire Schematic or Graphic canvas and indicates what is currently
in view . This tool is an important part of the collection of navigational tools in PSCAD, and is used to easily zoom and
navigate a Schematic. This pane is particularly helpful when working with very large projects.
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Displaying the Bird’s Eye View Pane
The Bird’s Eye View Pane is not displayed by default, but may be invoked via the View tab in the ribbon control bar by
selecting it from the Panes drop-down box.
Navigating a Zooming
A shaded box is used to represent the portion of the canvas that is currently in view. Using a left mouse drag action in the
Bird's Eye View Pane, the shaded rectangle may be moved about. The Schematic or Graphic canvas in view will move
position simultaneously according to the position of the shaded box. During movement, a rectangle outline will show the
current position until the left mouse button is released.
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Parameter Grid Pane
Moving the mouse pointer near the edge of the shaded box will allow you to re-size it, effectively providing a zoom
functionality on the canvas being viewed. Shrinking the shaded box will zoom in on the canvas, whereas expanding the
box will zoom the canvas out.
Parameter Grid Pane
The component parameter grid pane provides a convenient means to display the parameters for all instances of a given
component or module definition. More importantly, it enables the ability to modify multiple parameter values in multiple
component instances simultaneously.
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Viewing the Parameter Grid Pane
The parameter grid pane can be viewed by simply selecting it in the Panes drop list button, under the View tab of the
ribbon control bar.
Once selected, dock the pane in a preferred location in the application environment.
Initializing the Parameter Grid
Before the parameter grid can be used, it must be initialized for first use. Select a component type for which to view the
parameters of all instances of that component, right-click and select View Parameter Grid.
The resulting parameter grid will immediately display inside the pane. There will be one row of parameters for each
existing instance of that unique component definition. In the above image, the parameter grid is initialized for all radio link
component (definition name 'radiolink'). The resulting parameter grid is shown below:
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Parameter Grid Pane
The title bar displays both the namespace and the definition name of the instances currently being viewed.
Sorting According to Module
The component instances displayed can be sorted by module. In this example project, there are a total of three modules.
Choices for sorting are either of the three modules or all of them.
Modifying Parameter Values
The power of the parameter grid lies in its allowance for modifying parameter values en masse. Multiple parameters
(columns) and multiple component instances (rows) can be modified simultaneously by simply selecting the appropriate
cells, right-clicking and selecting Modify....
Upon selection of Modify..., a special parameter dialog will be dynamically constructed depending on which parameters
(columns) were selected. For the above example, the resulting dialog will appear as follows:
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The default setting for each parameter is No Change. If the dialog is closed at this point no parameters will be modified.
Let us say that we want to modify both the Source of each radio link receiver, as well as the input signal Dimension.
Perhaps the corresponding transmitters were moved in the project to the Filter module, thereby changing the Source for
each of these radio link instances:
At the same time, we will also adjust the signal dimension for each radio link instance selected:
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Layers Pane
We now press the OK button, and the parameter values will change accordingly.
Navigating to Component Instances
You can easily navigate to each instance of a particular component definition by simply clicking the navigable link in the Id
column.
Writing Parameter Values to File
Any selected block of cells can be written to file in comma separated variable (*.csv) format. Simple right-click the
selection and choose Write to file (*.csv).
You will be presented with a dialog to save the file to a specified folder.
Layers Pane
The layers pane is the interface to the schematic canvas drawing layers feature. Drawing layers are used to provide the
ability to efficiently enable or disable components on the canvas, or to toggle the visibility of any objects that appear on
the canvas.
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Layers are a property of the project. Therefore, once a layer is created and defined, it may be used on any schematic
canvas (i.e. module) that exists in that project.
Viewing the Layers Pane
The layers pane can be viewed by simply selecting it in the Panes drop list button, under the View tab of the ribbon
control bar.
Once selected, dock the pane in a preferred location in the application environment.
Adding a Layer
To add a layer, simply give the layer a name in the layers pane and then press the Add button. A new layer will be
created immediately.
Enter Name and Press Add
New Layer Created
Alternatively, simply press the Insert key while the layers pane is in context, or right-click anywhere within the pane and
select Add. A dialog will pop-up asking you to name the layer. Enter an name and press OK.
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Layers Pane
Removing a Layer
To remove a layer, simply press the X button on the layer to be removed.
Alternatively, select the layer you want to remove and press the Delete key, or right-click on the layer and select Delete.
Rename a Layer
To rename a layer, simply select the layer, right-click and select Rename.
Merge Layers
To merge two or more layers, simply select multiple layers, right click and select Merge Layers. A dialog will pop-up
asking you to name the merged layer. Enter an name and press OK.
Selecting, Listing, Deleting or Highlighting Components in a
Layer
Once components have been moved into a layer, you can keep track of them by either selecting, listing or highlighting all
components in that layer. You may also delete all components in a layer.
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To select, list or delete all components in a layer, select the layer in the layers pane, right-click and choose Select, List or
Delete Components:
If Select Components is chosen, all components in the selected layer will appear selected on the schematic canvas. If
List Components is selected, the components in the selected layer will be listed in the Search Results Pane.
To highlight all components in a layer, simply hold the mouse pointer over the high lighter icon. All components in that
layer will appear selected on the schematic canvas.
Mouse Held Over Icon
Highlighted Components on the Canvas
Tool bars, Menus and Shortcuts
Menus
There are a few different types of menus available in PSCAD. The following sections provide a description of each.
Right-Click Pop-Up Menus
PSCAD contains an extensive set of right-click pop-up menus for support of location specific commands and
tasks. Depending on the location of your mouse pointer, you can invoke pop-up menus almost anywhere in the
environment by simply pressing your right mouse button. The menus that pop-up will always contain commands, which
are specific to the area you are currently working in.
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Ribbon Control Bar
Library Pop-Up Menus
Library pop-up menus are designed to provide an organied method of accessing desired component and module
instances located in the master library, or any other user-defined library project. This menu system is invoked by pressing
Ctrl + right mouse button, while the mouse pointer is over a blank section of any canvas in Schematic view.
NOTE: It is recommended to always provide an adequate description in user-defined components, so as to
avoid confusion while using these menus. If a description is not provided, the menus will display the actual
filename of the component.
Library pop-up menus display the definition name, followed by whatever is entered into the description field of the
definition. In the above image, the user has two library projects loaded in the workspace: The master library and another
library called E-TRAN. The mouse pointer is pointing toward the Three Phase Voltage Source Model 1 component in the
Source module, in the master library. A left-click on this component will select it, and another left-click will drop it onto
whichever canvas is open in Schematic view.
In general, library pop-up menus construct a system of menus according to the hierarchal structure of all library projects in
the workspace. As a default, the master library will always be displayed first, and any other library projects will then be
placed in the order as they appear in the workspace.
Grouping of Components within the Menu
Components may be grouped into sub-menus if desired. For example, the menu shown above contains several submenus (CSMF, Meter, etc.). This is accomplished by setting the definition Labels parameter in the definition settings
editor. See Editing Definition Settings for details.
Ribbon Control Bar
PSCAD Tab
Home
Project
View
Tools
Utilities
Components
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Models
T-Lines
Cables
Shapes
Filtering
Script
Minimizing the Ribbon
Quick Access Bar
The ribbon control bar provides easy accessibility to most features and components in PSCAD. Included with the ribbon
is an inherent quick access bar, which is fully customizable for placement of favoured and well used button actions. The
ribbon control bar is featured prominently across the top of the application environment.
PSCAD Tab
The PSCAD tab includes functions related to project file organization and manipulation, including standard buttons for
saving, loading, etc.
Button
Description
Creates a new case project (*.pscx file) by default. See Creating a New
Project.
Opens the Open File dialog (*.pscx file) by default. See Loading a
Project.
Saves changes to the project (*.pscx or *.pslx file) currently in focus.
See Saving Project Changes.
Unloads the project currently in focus. See Unloading a Project.
Print.
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Ribbon Control Bar
Launches the online help. See PSCAD On-Line Help System.
New Menu
Hover the mouse pointer over the New button to invoke this menu.
Button
Description
Creates a new case project. See Creating a New Project.
Creates a new library project. See Creating a New Project.
Creates a new workspace. See Creating a New Workspace.
Open Menu
Hover the mouse pointer over the Open button to invoke this menu.
Button
Description
Opens the Open File dialog. See Loading a Project.
Opens the Open File dialog. See Importing a Project.
Opens the examples folder containing example projects released with
the software.
Opens the Open File dialog at the user source folder. This folder path is
set via the My Folder application option. See the Workspace category of
the Application Options dialog.
Opens the Open File dialog. See Loading a Workspace.
Save Menu
Hover the mouse pointer over the Save button to invoke this menu.
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Button
Description
Saves changes to the project (*.pscx or *.pslx file) currently in focus.
See Saving a Project.
Opens the Save Project As dialog. See Saving a Project.
Saves changes to the workspace (*.pswx file).See Saving a Workspace.
Opens the Save Workspace dialog. See Saving a Workspace.
Unload Menu
Hover the mouse pointer over the Unload button to invoke this menu.
Button
Description
Unloads the project (*.pscx or *.pslx file) currently in focus. See
Unloading a Project.
Unloads all projects in the workspace, except the master library.
Home
The buttons in this tab consist of the most commonly used features. Some of the less straightforward buttons are
described below:
Button
Description
Clean the temporary folder.
Compile (build) modified modules. See Compiling and Building a
Project.
Compile (build) entire project.
Run simulation. See Running a Single-Project Simulation.
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Ribbon Control Bar
Stop simulation. See Stopping a Simulation.
Pause simulation. See Pausing a Simulation.
Skip simulation. See Skipping a Simulation.
Advance run by one time step (while pause is invoked).
Take a snapshot.
Slow simulation. See Slowing a Simulation.
Change plot step.
Save scenario. See Scenarios (Control Templates).
Delete scenario.
View scenario.
Scenarios template list.
Navigate backward.
Navigate forward.
Navigate up to parent schematic instance.
Undo.
Redo.
Select mode (includes Select All, as well as Freehand and Point
select modes)
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Pan mode
Launch search utility.
Invoke wire mode.
Zoom in one step. See Zoom.
Zoom out one step.
Zoom control list box
Zoom extents
Zoom rectangle
Project
The project tab simply contains an assortment of fields and buttons that allow for easy access to the project settings
options.
View
The view tab contains an assortment of buttons and check boxes that are mainly for window control, as well as easy
access to the modules canvas settings options.
Tools
The tools tab provides a place to house button for features inherent to PSCAD. As of PSCAD v4.6.0, the only controls
here are that for the Comparison Tool.
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Ribbon Control Bar
Utilities
The utilities tab provides easy access to utility programs used that complement PSCAD.
Button
Description
Fortran Medic. Use this utility to help diagnose and correct installation
settings. Contact the support desk for help.
LiveWire. This is an offline plotting program which can be used to study
waveform data output by PSCAD. Contact the sales desk for
information on how to purchase.
License Keys. Use this button to launch the Licence Update utility (used
to enter or upgrade license keys).
Components
The components tab provides easy access to the most commonly used components in PSCAD.
NOTE: This tab is visible only when viewing the Schematic tab.
Models
The models tab provides easy access to all components in the master library. The components are sorted into the same
categories as they are graphically represented in the master library main page. Simply click on any of the icons to get a
list of components. The component graphic is displayed in a flyby window for ease in selection.
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NOTE: This tab is visible only when viewing the Schematic tab.
T-Lines
The t-lines tab is specific to overhead transmission lines only.
NOTE: This tab is visible only when editing transmission line definitions.
Cables
The cables tab is specific to underground cables only.
NOTE: This tab is visible only when editing cable definitions.
Shapes
The shapes tab deals with graphical objects in the Graphics section of The Definition Editor.
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Ribbon Control Bar
NOTE: This tab is visible only when viewing the Graphic, Parameters or Script tabs.
Filtering
The filtering tab contains functions dealing with graphical layers.
NOTE: This tab is visible only when viewing the Graphic, Parameters or Script tabs.
Script
The script tab is used only when viewing component Script.
NOTE: This tab is visible only when viewing the Graphic, Parameters or Script tabs.
Minimizing the Ribbon
If more canvas space is desired for viewing your circuit, you can minimize or maximize the ribbon by simply pressing the
down/up arrow in the top-right corner.
Or, right-click on the ribbon and select Minimize the Ribbon.
Quick Access Bar
The ribbon control bar comes complete with a customizable button bar called the Quick Access Bar. Any function that is
defined within the ribbon control bar can be added to this bar for quick access.
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Adding/Removing Buttons
To add a button to the quick access bar, right-click on the bar and select Customize Quick Access Toolbar.... This will
bring up the Customize dialog:
Click the Add or Remove buttons to add or remove selected commands.
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Keyboard Shortcuts
There are many keyboard shortcuts (or hotkeys) available. Hotkeys help to reduce the 'amount of clicks' required for
performing a specific task. The following tables list the available keyboard shortcuts.
General
Note that the 'Ctrl' key may be dropped where indicated (i.e. [Ctrl +]) if Enable Cut/Copy/Paste without 'Ctrl' Key in the
Environment category of the Application Options is selected.
Shortcut
Description
[Ctrl +] x
Cut selection
[Ctrl +] c
Copy selection
[Ctrl +] v
Paste selection
r
Rotate selection right
l
Rotate selection left
m
Mirror selection
f
Flip selection
s
Set component sequence. Note that the component must be selected
first before pressing this key.
Ctrl + a
Select all
Ctrl + z
Undo
Ctrl + y
Redo
Ctrl + o
Load project
Ctrl + n
New project
Ctrl + s
Save active project
Ctrl + g
Global Substitutions dialog
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Ctrl + u
Unload the selected project from the workspace
Ctrl + w
Invoke/cancel wire mode
Esc
Cancel action
+
Zoom in
-
Zoom out
Ctrl + Shift + Left
Mouse Hold
Ctrl + Left Double Click
Pan (dynamic scroll)
Edit definition of selected component or module
Ctrl + Right Click
Invoke the library pop-up menu system
Left Double Click
Edit properties of selected component or module
Backspace
Ctrl + Backspace
Navigate backwards
Navigate up to parent canvas
F5
Refresh canvas
F1
Invoke the help system

Scroll canvas horizontally and
vertically
Wires
To apply any of the following shortcuts, simply move your mouse pointer over a wire.
Shortcut
Description
v
Insert a wire vertex
i
Reverse wire vertexes
d
Decompose wire
Plotting
To apply any of the following shortcuts, simply move your mouse pointer over a plot area. Note that in some instances,
the graph must be selected.
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Keyboard Shortcuts
Shortcut
Insert
Description
Insert an overlay graph
+
Zoom in to graphs
-
Zoom out of graphs
p
Zoom previous
n
Zoom next
x
Zoom x-axis extents
e
Zoom x-axis limits
y
Zoom y-axis extents
u
Zoom y-axis limits
r
Reset all extents
b
Reset all limits
Ctrl + Left Mouse Hold
Zoom horizontal aperture
Shift + Left Mouse Hold
Zoom vertical aperture
Left Mouse Hold
Zoom to box (simultaneous horizontal and vertical)
g
Toggle grid lines
i
Toggle tick marks
k
Toggle curve Glyphs
m
Show or hidec markers
x
Set X marker
o
Set O marker
l
Toggle marker lock-step
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f
Toggle frequency/delta view
q
Show x-intercept
w
Show y-intercept
c
Show cross-hairs (follows curve traces)
Space Bar
Switch curves while in cross-hair mode

Graph frame dynamic aperture adjustment
Layers
To apply any of the following shortcuts, you must be working within the Layers Pane.
Shortcut
Description
Insert
Add layer
Delete
Remove layer
Ctrl + l
List components
Ctrl + k
Select components
Ctrl + m
Merge layers
Ctrl + r
Rename layer
Hold h
Highlight components

Shift + Shift + 
Home and End
PageUp and PageDown
e, d and i
Move the selection within the layers table
Extend the selection within the layers table
Move the selection to the first and last Layers respectively
Move the selection by the size of the window
Change the state to Enabled, Disabled and Invisible respectively
Customizing Shortcuts
To customize shortcuts, right-click on the ribbon control bar and select Customize Quick Access Toolbar.... This will
bring up the Customize dialog. Click the Customize... button to bring up the Customize Keyboard dialog.
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PSCAD Temporary Folder
PSCAD Temporary Folder
When a case project is compiled, several files are created and placed into a temporary directory located in the same
folder as the project file (*.pscx) itself. The directory is named by appending an extension to the project filename. This
extension is dependent on the compiler used to build the project. For example, if a case project has a filename test.pscx,
a temporary directory called test.gf42 will be created when the project is compiled with the GFortran (v4.2.1)
compiler. The temporary directory will contain all files created by both the compiler and PSCAD.
The naming convention for the temporary directory is as follows for all supported compilers:

GFortran 95 (v4.2.1): *.gf42

GFortran 95 (v4.6.2): *.gf46

Intel® Visual Fortran Compiler 9 to 11: *.if9

Intel® Visual Fortran Composer XE 2011 to 2014: *.if12

Intel® Visual Fortran Compiler 15: *.if15 (64-bit), *.if15_x86 (32 bit)
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All files located in the temporary directory can be viewed in an organized manner in the primary workspace window
Projects branch. You may also clean out the entire temporary directory at any time (see Cleaning the Temporary
Directory). Note that both of these features are based on the currently selected compiler. That is, if Intel® is the current
compiler, the files viewed in the Projects branch, will be those from the *.if9, *.if12 or *if15 temporary folder. Same goes
for cleaning the temporary folder.
PSCAD On-Line Help System
The PSCAD on-line help is a single compiled file in Microsoft HTML Compiled Help format. This file includes its own
browser, and features a full-text search engine and comprehensive index.
In addition to the complete manual set, the on-line help file includes component specific documentation (not included in
the manuals). See Accessing the Online Help System details on accessing help.
Look and Feel
The help system is invoked by pressing the F1 key. A window similar to that shown below should appear.
There are three main sections of the help system. Across the top is the help toolbar, and below this are the navigation
pane on the left, and the main viewing window on the right.
The Help Toolbar
The help toolbar contains the most commonly used functions. These are summarized below:
Button
Description
Hides navigation pane
Moves backward in the viewed topic list
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Moves forward in the viewed topic list
Prints currently viewed topic
Provides some options to allow the user to customize the online help
viewer
The Navigation Pane
The navigation pane is separated into four sections: The Table of Contents (TOC), the Index, the Search engine and the
Favorites section. To access any section, click the corresponding tab at the top of the pane.
Contents
The contents tab contains the help system TOC. Left-click on the corresponding [+] or [-] icons (directly to the left of each
branch respectively), to expand or collapse any branch of the tree.
There are various icons associated with the TOC, as described below:

Topic: A help page containing information about a specific topic.

Book: A folder that contains one or more topics, which is also part of a printed manual.

Folder: A folder that contains one or more topics, which exist only in the online help.

New Topic: A topic that has been added to the online help since the last release.

Unfinished Topic: A topic that is included in the online help, but is not complete.
Index
The index contains a large list of keywords, in alphabetical order, that have been associated with various topics within the
help system. You have the choice of either scrolling through this list directly, or you may type in a word into the input field
near the top of the index pane, in order to directly look up a word.
In the figure below, for example, a user is looking up air core reactance. Entering air will bring the list window to the
nearest matching word.
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Search
The search section allows you to enter in a single word or a text string, and then list the topics that contain the word or
string. Simply enter the text string and click the List Topics button. Any topics containing the string will be displayed in
the output field as shown below.
NOTE: The help system search engine will search all text in each topic. Text that exists within embedded
images will not be considered.
To bring up a listed topic into the main viewer, simply left double-click, or select it and click the Display button.
Favorites
The Favorites section allows users to bookmark their favorite help pages. To add a favorite topic
to the favorites list, simply left click the Add button. To remove a topic from Favorites, select it
and left click the Remove button. To display a topic from the favorites list, select it and left click
the Display button.
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Tutorial Projects
The Main Viewer
The contents of the main viewing window are interactive in the same way as in a normal HTML web page. Depending on
the page viewed, there may be hyperlinks and other types of functionality, normally seen while navigating the
web. Usually, text with associated hyperlinks and other functions are shown in blue color and may or may not be
underlined.
Tutorial Projects
The PSCAD software package is installed complete with a directory of tutorial projects, which contains a variety of simple
cases to illustrate various features. This directory is located within the installation directory under ...\examples\tutorial.
The tutorial projects described in this section are mainly meant to illustrate the use of PSCAD and hence, they are simple
cases from an electrical engineering point of view. If you are a first time user, go through all the tutorial cases in the order
they are listed below.
Once you are familiar with these projects, have a look at the more detailed projects contained within the main examples
directory. These include a variety of practical examples ranging in topics from machines to FACTS devices.
Voltage Divider
vdiv_1.pscx
A simple voltage divider circuit with a resistor and a resistive
source. Demonstrates how to assemble a circuit, monitor voltage
and current, and run the simulation.
Fast Fourier Analysis
fft.pscx
Shows the use of Fast Fourier analysis component to perform
online fft on signals.
Simple AC System with a Transmission Line
simpleac.pscx
A simple AC system with transmission lines. Introduces
transformers, transmission lines, and the concept of subsystems in
PSCAD.
Use of Control Arrays
pagearray.pscx
Demonstrates the use of control arrays and how to export electrical
nodes to other pages so that a circuit can be modeled on multiple
pages - even if you do not have transmission lines.
Use of Slider, Switch, Button, and Dial
inputctrl.pscx
Shows the use of dynamic input devices: Slider, Switch, Push
Button and the Dial.
Interpolation
interpolation.pscx
A simple case illustrating the use of interpolation.
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Generating a Legend and using PSCAD Macros
legend.pscx
Shows how to generate a legend. Also illustrates the use of
PSCAD macros in a legend.
Chatter Elimination
chatter.pscx
Defines chatter and gives examples on chatter elimination
techniques.
Multiple Run
multirun.pscx
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A simple example to demonstrate the use of multiple run features to
find the maximum overvoltage due to a fault in a 3-phase power
system. The point on wave and type of fault is varied to determine
the worst-case overvoltage.
Chapter 5
Operations and Feature Overview
This chapter is intended to be a quick reference for basic operations, as well as to provide an overview of key features in
PSCAD. In many cases, the features introduced here are discussed in greater detail in other chapters. If you are a new
user, the following topics can be helpful in familiarizing yourself with PSCAD.
This chapter includes a tutorial entitled Creating a New Project, which is designed to jump-start the learning process and
to get you using the application. If you have not done so already, try the tutorial entitled My First Simulation in Chapter 4
of this manual as well.
Workspace
Creating a New Workspace
Click the PSCAD tab in the ribbon control bar, hover mouse pointer over New, and select New Workspace.
Creating a new workspace action will immediately unload the current workspace and create a new one. If the old
workspace had been modified, you will be asked to save it. A new workspace called Untitled will then appear in the
workspace window.
Loading a Workspace
Click the PSCAD tab in the ribbon control bar, hover the mouse pointer over Open and select Open Workspace.
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Saving a Workspace
The Open File dialog window will open with default file types as Workspaces (*.pswx). Navigate to the desired
workspace file and select it so that its name appears in the File name field. Click the Open button to open the workspace.
If the old workspace has been modified, you will be asked to save it. The old workspace is first unloaded, and then the
requested workspace will appear in the workspace window.
Drag and Drop
Workspaces may also be loaded via drag and drop. See for Loading Projects and/or Workspaces more details.
Saving a Workspace
Click the PSCAD tab in the ribbon control bar, hover the mouse pointer over Save and select Save Workspace.
You can also save by right-clicking on the workspace branch within the workspace window, and selecting Save from the
pop-up menu.
Save Workspace As...
Click the PSCAD tab in the ribbon control bar, hover the mouse pointer over Save and select Save Workspace As.
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You can also save by right-clicking on the project title within the workspace window, and selecting Save As from the popup menu.
In either case, the Save Workspace dialog window will open with a default Save as type as Workspaces
(*.pswx). Change the file name in the File name field. Click the Save button to save the project under a different file
name. The workspace name should then change in the workspace window, indicating that the workspace was indeed
renamed.
Adding a Simulation Set
Right-click on the Simulation Sets branch in the Workspace Primary window and select New Simulation Set.
When the Simulation Set dialog displays, enter a name in the Name field and then select OK.
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Adding a Project to a Simulation Set
A new simulation set will be created, and will appear under the Simulation Sets branch.
Adding a Project to a Simulation Set
Right-click on a simulation set in the Simulation Sets branch and select either Include Project or Include All Projects.
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If Include All Projects is chosen, all projects loaded under the Projects branch in the workspace will be added as tasks
within that given simulation set. Alternatively, you may add individual projects from a drop list of loaded projects.
Running Simulation Sets
Running simulations sets can be accomplished via a couple of different ways.
To run an individual simulation set, perform one of the following:

Right-click on the Simulation Set and select Run Set.

Click the Run button drop list in the ribbon control bar and select Simulation Set.
To run all simulation sets, click the Run button drop list in the ribbon control bar and select All Simulation Sets. When
done so, each simulation set will run sequentially according to the order they appear within the Simulation Sets branch.
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Pausing a Simulation Set
See also:
Running a Single-Project Simulation
Pausing a Simulation Set
Press the Pause button in the Home tab of the ribbon control bar to pause an entire simulation set run.
See also:
Pausing a Simulation
Stopping a Simulation Set
Press the Stop button in the Home tab of the ribbon control bar to stop an entire simulation set run.
Single project simulations inside a simulation set may also be stopped via the simulation context menu. Note however,
that only projects with their run configuration set to standalone may be stopped using this method. If set as master or
slave, the entire set must be stopped.
See also:
Stopping a Simulation
Consolidating a Workspace
A workspace can contain multiple projects, which may or may not link with other dependent files that are stored in multiple
folders all over the hard drive. This makes it very difficult to transfer an entire workspace between computers or users.
Workspaces may be quickly and efficiently consolidated, so that all projects and associated dependent files will be
automatically moved and organized into a specified, local folder. To consolidate a workspace, simply right-click on the
workspace branch and select Consolidate.
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The consolidator will organize all associated files according to dependencies and automatically adjust additional source
and linked file paths in all projects. It places a new workspace (*.pswx) file in a top-level folder along with the creation of a
Projects and a Resources folder.
Top Level Folder
Folder Hierarchy
The Projects folder will contain a unique sub-folder to house each library and case project that are part of the original
workspace. Each of these folders will contain a Resources sub-folder to hold any dependent files related to that project,
including linked binaries and additional source.
All projects in the workspace can be built and run without any manual adjustment following a consolidation.
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Creating a New Project
Projects
Creating a New Project
Click the PSCAD tab in the ribbon control bar, hover cursor over New, and then select New Case or New Library; or
simply pressing Ctrl + n on your keyboard.
The New Project dialog will appear.
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The input fields for this dialog are described as follows:

Name: The name of the project. Initially when a project is created, this name will become both the namespace
name and the file name of the project. Only the file name can be modified after the project is created (the
project namespace is kept synchronized with the filename for case projects). See Editing Project Settings in
this chapter for details.

Type: Select a Case or Library type project.

Path: Select the path to the folder, in which the new project will be created and stored.
Enter a name for the project in the Name field. A new project will appear in the workspace window. Note the rules for the
name format in the New Project dialog help box.
Loading a Project
Click the PSCAD tab in the ribbon control bar, hover the mouse pointer over Open and select Open Project.
The Open File dialog window will open with the default file types Cases and Projects (*.pscx, *.pslx). Navigate to the
desired project and select it so that its name appears in the File name field. Click the Open button to open the
project. The project name should appear in the workspace window, indicating that the project was loaded.
You can also bring up the Open File dialog by simply pressing the Open button in the quick access bar, by pressing Ctrl
+ o on your keyboard or by right-clicking on the Projects branch in the workspace and selecting Open Project....
Recent Files
You can load projects that have been loaded previously by pressing the PSCAD tab in the ribbon control bar. By default
the recent files list will display a list of previously loaded and saved projects. Select the desired project from the list to
load it.
Examples Folder
Click the PSCAD tab in the ribbon control bar, hover the mouse pointer over Open and select Open Examples. The
Open File dialog window will open directly within the PSCAD application examples folder. Note that examples are located
at C:\Users\Public\Public Documents\PSCAD[version]\Examples.
Open My Projects
Click the PSCAD tab in the ribbon control bar, hover the mouse pointer over Open and select Open My Projects. The
Open File dialog window will open directly within the user projects folder.
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Importing a Project
Drag and Drop
Projects may also be loaded via drag and drop. See for Loading Projects and/or Workspaces more details.
Importing a Project
Click the PSCAD tab in the ribbon control bar, hover the mouse pointer over Open, and select Import Project.
The Open File dialog window will appear with v4.1 or v4.2 default file types (*.psc, *.psl). Navigate to the desired project
and select it so that its name appears in the File name field. Click the Open button to import the project. The project
should appear in the workspace window, indicating that the project was indeed imported.
Importing a project, as opposed to loading one, is the act of both loading and converting an older style project (i.e. *.psc
or *.psl) into the new XML-based file format (*.pscx/*.pslx). For more information on the import process and some
possible pitfalls see Converting PSCAD v4.1 and v4.2 Projects to X4 in the chapter entitled Migrating from Older Versions.
Drag and Drop
Projects may also be imported via drag and drop. See for Loading Projects and/or Workspaces more details.
Saving a Project
Save Project As...
Click the PSCAD tab in the ribbon control bar, hover the mouse pointer over Save and select Save Project.
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You can also save the project by pressing Ctrl + s on your keyboard, by right-clicking on the project title within the
workspace window, and selecting Save from the pop-up menu, or by right-clicking on the Projects branch in the
workspace and selecting Save All Projects....
Save Project As...
Click the PSCAD tab in the ribbon control bar, hover the mouse pointer over Save and select Save Project As.
You can also save the project by right-clicking on the project title within the workspace window, and select Save As from
the pop-up menu.
In either case, the Save Project As dialog window will open with a default Save as type as Project File (*.pscx) or
Project File (*.pslx) for case or library project respectively. Change the file name of the project in the File name field.
Click the Save button to save the project under a different file name. The project name should then change in the
workspace window, indicating that the project was indeed renamed. Note that the project namespace is synchronized with
the filename at this point if saving a case project.
Unloading a Project
Unload All Projects
To unload one or more projects, Click the PSCAD tab in the ribbon control bar, hover the mouse pointer over Unload and
select Unload Project.
You may also unload a project by either right-clicking on the project title in the workspace window and selecting Unload
from the pop-up menu, or by selecting the project in the workspace window and pressing Ctrl + u on your keyboard.
Unload All Projects
Click the PSCAD tab in the ribbon control bar, hover the mouse pointer over Unload and select Unload All Projects.
Opening and Viewing a Project
To open a project for viewing, simply select the project in the workspace window.
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Navigating Through an Open Project
Once opened, the last page viewed when the project was saved will appear in the definition editor (Schematic window).
Navigating Through an Open Project
Once a project has been opened, there are many navigational features available to help you efficiently navigate about the
project.
Scroll Bars
Standard vertical and horizontal scroll bars are available in all windows. These are located at the right-most and bottommost edges of the open window respectively.
Arrow Keys
You can use the arrow buttons on your keyboard to scroll both horizontally and vertically while in Schematic view.
Mouse Wheel Scroll
Both the schematic and the graphic canvases may be scrolled using the mouse wheel. To vertically scroll, simply roll the
mouse wheel. To scroll horizontally, hold down the Shift key and roll the mouse wheel.
Panning (Dynamic Scroll) Mode
The panning feature allows you to scroll through the Schematic or Graphic tab windows in a fluid motion. You can invoke
the panning mode by one of the following methods:

On a blank portion of the page, press and hold the Ctrl and Shift keys at the same time, then click and hold the
left mouse button (Ctrl + Shift + left mouse hold). Moving the mouse will then allow panning though the page.
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
Press the Pan button in the Home tab of the ribbon control bar to invoke panning mode. To indicate that you
are in panning mode, the mouse pointer will change into a hand shape. Press Esc on the keyboard or press
the Pan button again to exit from panning mode.
Moving In and Out of Modules
Opening the Schematic canvas of a module component (i.e. moving into) is analogous to editing the definition of the
module. Therefore, right-click on the module and select Edit Definition....
You may also perform the same operation by double-clicking the left mouse button. However, this functionality is
dependent on a setting called Drill Down (under the Environment category of the Application Options dialog) as follows:

Double-Click: If you want to use the old method of navigating through module components, set the Drill Down
setting to Double Click. Note however that if the module possesses input parameters, the parameter dialog will
not open with this action.

Ctrl + Double-Click: If the Drill Down setting is set to Ctrl + Double Click, you may still navigate into the
module by holding down the Ctrl key and left double-clicking the module component. A double-click without the
Ctrl button in this mode opens the parameters dialog.
To move out of the current module (i.e. move back one level), press the Up to parent canvas button in the Home tab of
the ribbon control bar.
Up Button
Instead of the Up button, you can also use the workspace secondary window to specifically select a module to navigate
to. See The Secondary Window for more.
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Zoom
Forward/Back Buttons
PSCAD maintains a navigational history of the user’s module canvas navigation for each session. When a project is
unloaded, or when a session is ended, all navigation history is lost.
Navigation history is presented in the form of Forward and Back buttons in the Home tab of the ribbon control bar.
Tabs
Tabs allow you to jump from one viewing area to another. There is a tab bar included at the bottom of some windows (as
shown below), including the Output Window and others.
Zoom
Zoom features are available when working within either the Schematic or the Graphic windows. There are a few different
methods available:

In the Home tab of the ribbon control bar, select either the Zoom In or Zoom Out buttons, or select a
percentage zoom directly from the Zoom In/Out drop down list.

Press the + or – keys on your keyboard number pad.
Zoom Rectangle
The Zoom Rectangle button is located in the Home tab of the ribbon control bar. Click this button to enter zoom
rectangle mode. On the Schematic or Graphic canvas, hold down the left-mouse button and drag the pointer to create
the desired rectangle. Release the mouse button to zoom.
Zoom Extents
The Zoom Extents button is located in the Home tab of the ribbon control bar. Click this button to zoom to the extents of
the currently viewed Schematic or Graphic canvas.
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Refresh
You can refresh the page view in either the Schematic or Graphic windows by one of the following methods:

In the View tab of the ribbon control bar, click the Refresh button.

Press the F5 key on your keyboard.

Right-click on a blank part of the page and select Refresh.
Compiling and Building a Project
Running a project without compiling first is perfectly fine. If a Run command is issued, PSCAD will perform the Build
Modified procedure before the run starts. See Running a Simulation for more details.
Build refers to the creation of the Fortran, data, and map files required for the building of a project executable file. You
may choose to build the entire project (Build), or only modules that have been modified since a previous build (Build
Modified). The latter choice comes in handy for very large projects, which may take minutes to compile in their entirety.
To build the entire project from scratch, select the Build button in the Home tab of the ribbon control bar:
To build only modules and transmission segments that have been modified since the last compile, select the Build
Modified button in the Home tab of the ribbon control bar:
Viewing Error and Warning Messages
If a problem is detected when a simulation is run, all error and warning messages will appear in the Build Messages pane.
Output window messages are divided into three main groups: Messages, Warnings and Errors. For more on this, see
Error and Warning Messages in Chapter 11 of this manual.
Navigating to the Message Source
If an error or warning message is received, PSCAD can highlight the source of the problem. In the output window,
navigate to the error or warning message, move the mouse pointer over the message and either left-click the message
hyperlink or right-click and select Navigate to.... The problem source will be highlighted in the Schematic window.
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Running a Single-Project Simulation
In the example image below, it can be seen that the voltmeter 'Vmid' has been shifted and is not measuring a specific
node voltage.
Running a Single-Project Simulation
Press the Run button in the Home tab of the ribbon control bar to run a single-project simulation.
See also:
Running Simulations Sets
Editing Project Settings
Select the desired project in the workspace window, right-click and select Project Settings... from the pop-up menu.
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Also, you can right-click over a blank area of any project page in Schematic view and select Project Settings... from the
pop-up menu.
In either case, a dialog window entitled Project Settings will open. For detailed information on this dialog, see the chapter
entitled Project Settings in this manual.
Changing the Run Duration
Open the Project Settings dialog window as described in Editing Project Settings above. Click the Runtime tab and, in
the Time Settings area, enter a new Duration of Run time in seconds. Click the OK button to save changes and exit the
Project Settings dialog.
The run duration may also be varied through the equivalent field in the Project tab of the ribbon control bar.
Changing the Simulation Time Step
Open the Project Settings dialog window as described in Editing Project Settings above. Click the Runtime tab and, in
the Time Settings area, enter a new Solution Time Step time in microseconds (s). Click the OK button to save
changes and exit the Project Settings dialog.
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Changing the Simulation Plot Step
The time step may also be varied through the equivalent field in the Project tab of the ribbon control bar.
Changing the Simulation Plot Step
Open the Project Settings dialog window as described in Editing Project Settings above. Click the Runtime tab and, in
the Time Settings area, enter a new Channel Plot Step time in microseconds (s). Click the OK button to save changes
and exit the Project Settings dialog.
The plot step may also be varied through the equivalent field in the Project tab of the ribbon control bar. The plot step
can be changed at any point during a simulation.
Pausing a Simulation
Press the Pause button in the Home tab of the ribbon control bar to pause a single-project simulation.
See also:
Pausing a Simulation Set
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Stopping a Simulation
Press the Stop button in the Home tab of the ribbon control bar to stop a single-project simulation.
Individual simulations inside a simulation set may also be stopped. Right click on the simulation and select Stop from the
context menu.
See also:
Stopping a Simulation Set
Skipping a Simulation
Press the Skip button in the Home tab of the ribbon control bar to skip a simulation multiple run.
Jumps to the next multiple run iteration or next coordinated run iteration if using simulation sets.
Slowing a Simulation
Type topic text here.
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Taking a Snapshot
Reduce plotting speed by using this slide control. This provides plotting delay of 1 ms up to a maximum of 10 ms per time
step.
Taking a Snapshot
Taking a snapshot of a simulation run is presently the only way to start an EMTDC simulation from an initialized
condition. See Initialization and Initial Conditions in the EMTDC manual for more details on snapshot files.
Manual
You can take a snapshot manually by pressing the Snapshot button in the Home tab of the ribbon control bar.
Pre-Defined
Pre-defined snapshots are set before the run is started. There are a couple of different snapshots of this type available.
Open the Project Settings dialog window as described in Editing Project Settings above. In the Runtime section of the
dialog, choose the snapshot type from the Timed Snapshot(s) drop list.
Enter a name for the snapshot file in the Snapshot file field, and the exact time at which to take the snapshot during the
next run in the Time field.
Click the OK button to exit the Project Settings dialog and save changes. Run the project to completion.
NOTE: Make sure that the run duration is greater than the snapshot time, or no snapshot file will be created!
Starting from a Snapshot
Open the Project Settings dialog window as described in Editing Project Settings above. In the Runtime section of the
dialog, choose From snapshot file in the Startup method drop list. Enter a name for the snapshot file in the Input File
field or use the Browse... button to select the file.
Click the OK button to exit the dialog and save changes. Run the project –it should start initialized from the snapshot
time. See Initialization and Initial Conditions in the EMTDC section for more details on snapshot files.
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Saving Output to File
Open the Project Settings dialog window as described in Editing Project Settings. In the Runtime section of the dialog,
choose Yes from the Save channels to disk? drop list. Enter the name for the output file in the Output file field.
Click the OK button to exit the Project Settings dialog and save changes. Run the case to create the output file (see
Running a Simulation above). See EMTDC Output Files later in this chapter for more details on output file format.
Cleaning the Temporary Directory
Clean All Temporary Directories
This folder is used to house all temporary files generated and/or needed by PSCAD to run a simulation (i.e. compilation,
make, data, etc. files). It is sometimes necessary to clear the contents of this folder to ensure that you are starting from a
clean build. See PSCAD Temporary Directories in Chapter 4 of this manual for more details.
To delete all temporary project files, do one of the following:

Select the Clean button in the Home tab of the ribbon control bar:

Right-click on the project title in the workspace window, and select Clean Temporary Directory from the popup menu.
Clean All Temporary Directories
It is also possible to clean all temporary folders associated with the projects in the current workspace. To do so, select the
Clean button in the Home tab of the ribbon control bar, and then select All Projects.
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Selecting Objects
Components and Modules
Selecting Objects
Select an individual object with a left-click on the object graphic. Select a group of objects by one of the following
methods:

Press and hold the Ctrl key and then separately select (left-click) all objects to be grouped into one selection.
Note that you may also use box select in combination with separate select, provided that the Ctrl key remains
depressed.

Press and hold the left mouse button and then drag the mouse pointer so that a box outline appears (box
select). Encompass all desired objects to be selected and then release the left mouse button.
To un-group individual objects, hold the Ctrl key and then select (left-click) all objects to be un-grouped. To un-group all
objects, left-click on the canvas background.
Adding Components to a Project
Adding Multiple Instances of a Component
There are a variety of ways to insert components onto the Schematic canvas. Before proceeding, ensure that you are
viewing the desired page in the Schematic window.

Manual Copy/Paste: Open the master library and navigate to the area containing the desired
component. Right-click on the component and select Copy, or select the component and press Ctrl + c. Open
the project page where you wish to add the component, right-click over a blank area and select Paste (or press
Ctrl + v).

Right-Click Menu: Right-click over a blank area of the page and select Add Component. A sub-menu will
appear containing the most commonly used components from the master library. Select a component and it will
be automatically added.
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
Library Pop-Up Menu: Press Ctrl + right mouse button over a blank area of the page to invoke the library
pop-up menu system. Select a component and it will be automatically added.
Library pop-up menu systems will include all libraries currently loaded in the workspace. The organization of
definitions in this menu is accomplished by using the Label definition property. For example, the abcdq0
component in the master library will appear under the CSMF sub-menu above. The definition settings are set as
follows:
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Adding Components to a Project
See Editing Definition Settings later in the chapter for more details.

Components Tab in the Ribbon Control Bar: Left-click on any of the buttons and then move the mouse
pointer over the Schematic canvas. You should see the object attached to the pointer. Continue to move the
object to where it is to be placed and then left-click again.
Components Tab in the Ribbon Control Bar

Models Tab in the Ribbon Control Bar: Left-click on the down arrow associated with any of the categories
and then move the mouse pointer down the resulting list. Select the desired component — you should see the
object attached to the pointer. Continue to move the object to where it is to be placed on the canvas and then
left-click again.
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Models Tab in the Ribbon Control Bar
Adding Multiple Instances of a Component
Multiple instances of the same component can be added when using the Components Tab in the ribbon control bar:
1.
Hold down the Ctrl key and left-click on the desired component from the Components tab.
2.
Continue holding the Ctrl key and move the mouse pointer over the Schematic canvas. Left-click again to
paste the first instance of the component. Move the mouse pointer to a new position and left-click again to paste
a second instance of the component.
You may continue this process and add as many instances as desired, provided the Ctrl key remains depressed. To
escape from this function, simply release the Ctrl key at any time.
Moving or Dragging an Object
To move an object, place the mouse pointer over the object icon. Press and hold the left mouse button. Now drag the
mouse to move the component. When you move a component, it will always snap to the nearest drawing grid, even if the
grid dots are not visible.
Click the left mouse button and hold
Drag the object
Release the left mouse button
Cut/Copy/Paste
Objects can be cut, copied and pasted as many times as desired within the Schematic canvas: Right-click on the object
and select either Cut or Copy (or select the object and press Ctrl + x or Ctrl + c respectively). Multiple objects can be
cut, copied and/or pasted simultaneously.
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Rotate/Mirror/Flip
Once cut or copied, you can paste the object by right-clicking over a blank area of the Schematic canvas and selecting
Paste (or press Ctrl + v).
Rotate/Mirror/Flip
Once added, single or multiple objects can be rotated, flipped or mirrored:

Hotkeys: Select the object and press the r, f or m to rotate, flip or mirror respectively.

Right-Click Menu: Right-click over the object and select Rotate or Flip. Select the desired option from the
resulting sub-menu.

Components Bar: Select the object or group of objects and then press one of the four Orientation buttons in
the Components ribbon tab.
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Deleting Objects
Select the object (or objects) and press the Delete key.
Undo and Redo
To undo or redo any object manipulations, such as moves, cuts, pastes, deletions, etc., select the Undo or Redo button in
the Home ribbon tab, or press Ctrl + z or Ctrl + y respectively. The undo and redo features will store most manipulations
and changes, however some limitations may apply.
If this feature does not appear to be working, check the Projects section of the Application Options dialog to see if
Change tracking is set to Use Undo/Redo Stack.
Connecting Components Together
Invalid Component Connections
A connection between components can be made in one of the following ways:

Overlapping one component port connection over top another.
Not Connected

Connected
The endpoint of a Wire component can be used to make contact with port connections, or the endpoint another
Wire:
Not Connected
Connected
NOTE: See Valid Connections in the Wire help page for more on connecting objects.
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Porting Signals and Nodes between Modules

Any point along a Bus component is considered a valid connection point, to which Wires and component port
connections may be connected.
Invalid Component Connections
It is important to note the difference between an electrical and a data signal when connecting components
together. Wires may be used interchangeably as data signal paths, or for connecting electrical nodes. However, it is
illegal to connect data signals to/from electrical nodes. For example, the following connection is invalid:
Wires are universal in that they assume the signal type of the nodes they are connected to. If a wire is connected to an
electrical node, it will become an electrical wire, for example.
Porting Signals and Nodes between Modules
At some point during project design, you may want to identify a common set of components, and consolidate them into
their own module component. This procedure can be useful in simplifying and organizing the appearance of the overall
project. It also helps to reduce duplication if the module can be multiple instanced. In doing this however, data signals
and electrical nodes that once connected the module circuit to the greater circuit will sever, and these must be
reconnected.
Original Circuit
Sub-Circuit Consolidated into a Module and Connected to Greater Circ
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The process of transporting data and connecting nodes between a module circuit and the greater circuit (i.e. its parent
module), is referred to as porting. Porting signals and nodes between modules can be accomplished in a few different
ways:

Port Connections

Component Parameters

Radio Link Components
Data Signal Analogies to Fortran Code
When a project is compiled, the application creates a variety of files describing the project, so that an executable file can
be generated. Some of these are Fortran files (*.f), where one Fortran file is created for each unique module in the project
(including the main page). Each file is a unique set of subroutines describing the content of the corresponding module.
When a data signal is passed into or out of a module, it will either appear as a subroutine argument (if it is ported as a
parameter or port connection), or be transferred via storage array, inline within the subroutine code body, if using Radio
Link components.
!
SUBROUTINE DSDyn(X)
! . . .
Data Signal X as an Argument
!
SUBROUTINE DSDyn()
! . . .
X = STOF(ISTOF + 1)
Data Signal X Extracted from Storage Inline
Porting Data Signals by Port Connection
If you create a new module component by using the Component Wizard, the process of adding port connections is fully
automated. See Creating a New Component or Module later in this section for more details.
NOTE: Ported signal names are case sensitive. The port signal name must match its corresponding
import/export tag exactly.
If you are editing an existing module, follow these general steps:
1.
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Edit the definition of the module. See Editing a Component or Module Definition in this section for more details.
Porting Signals and Nodes between Modules
2.
Define an input or output port connection in the Graphic section (Graphic tab) of the module. See The Graphics
Section for more details.
3.
Add a corresponding Import or Export component on the module Schematic canvas. Each Import or Export
must be named the same as its corresponding port connection.
EXAMPLE 5-1:
Consider a project that consists of a simple phase angle offset control being input into a module. The module Graphic
section consists of a single port connection named in1, which is to be connected to the incoming data signal from its
parent module. The input signal in1 is used as a reference angle to a firing pulse generator inside the module definition
Schematic canvas.
Parent Canvas Containing Module Component and Greater
Circuit
Graphic View of Module
Definition
Schematic Canvas of Module
A user wants to bring the firing pulse output signal back out to the main page using an output port connection. The first
step is to define an Export component and connect it to the firing pulse output signal. The user names the export signal
out. The final step is to define an output port connection in the module definition Graphic section.
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Added Export tag in Canvas of Module
New Output Port Connection in Graphic of Module
The user may now input this new output signal to any other component on the main page.
Parent Canvas with Module and Controller with New Connection
Note that only one instance of a uniquely named Import or Export component may exist within a module, just as only one
uniquely named port connection may exist. If the same ported signal is required at more than one location within the
page, you can utilize the Data Label component.
Porting Data Signals by Component Parameter
Unlike with port connections, the Component Wizard does not automatically create parameters for you when creating new
components. You must therefore create a new module first (if necessary), before editing the definition and defining
parameters.
NOTE: Ported signal names are case sensitive. The parameter signal name must match its corresponding
import/export tag exactly.
Follow these general steps:
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1.
Edit the definition of the module. See Editing a Component or Module Definition in this section for more details.
2.
Define an input or an output parameter in the Parameters section (Parameter tab) of the module. See The
Parameters Section for more details.
3.
Add a corresponding Import or Export component on the module Schematic canvas. Each Import or Export
must be named the same as its corresponding input or output parameter.
Porting Signals and Nodes between Modules
EXAMPLE 5-2:
Consider the project outlined in Example 5-1.
This time, instead of using a port connection, the user wants to port the Input Data Signal through a parameter on the
module. The data wire leading into the module needs to be named –this is accomplished by using a Data Label. Then
define a parameter in the module definition Parameters section.
Data Signal Named and Port Connection
Removed from Module
New Input Parameter in Parameters Section
of Module Definition
Module Component Parameter Dialog
Say also that the user wants to bring the firing pulse output signal back out to the main page using a parameter. The first
step (as before) is to define an Export component and connect it to the firing pulse output signal. The user names the
export signal out. The final step is to define an output parameter in the module definition Parameters section.
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Added Export tag in Canvas of
Module
New Output Parameter in Parameters Section of Module Definition
The user may now input this new output signal to any other component on the main page.
Parent Canvas with Module and Controller with New Connection
Module Component Parameter Dialog
Porting Data Signals by Radio Links
The aforementioned data signal porting can also be accomplished by means of Radio Link components.
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Porting Signals and Nodes between Modules
Radio Links offer a 'wireless' method of porting the signals; that is there is no need for ‘hard-wired’ port connections, input
parameters and Import/Export components. In fact, Radio Links make it possible to port signals simultaneously to
multiple receiving points throughout the project from a single transmit point. This is analogous to a wireless broadcast,
where multiple receivers can accept data from a single transmitter. See the Radio Links component help for more details.
EXAMPLE 5-3:
Consider again the project in Example 5-1. A user wants to modify the system so that the input signal in1 is transferred
into the module by means of Radio Link components. The input data signal is first disconnected from the module and
then reconnected to a Radio Link transmitter named in1.
Secondly, the input port connection is removed from the module definition Graphic section, as it is no longer
required. Lastly, the Import component is removed and replaced with a Radio Link receiver. See Radio Links for more
details on setting up the component parameters.
Parent Canvas View of Controller with Radio Link
Transmitter
Canvas of Module with New Radio Link Receiver
NOTE: Radio Link components are not fully supported when using Multiple Instance Modules. Please contact
the PSCAD Support Desk for more information.
Porting Electrical Nodes
If an electrical node needs to be represented within a module, then PSCAD must be informed of this requirement so that
the network of electric nodes can be properly mapped. This is accomplished by using port connections and a special
electrical node component called an XNode.
If you create a new module component by using the Component Wizard, the process of adding port connections and
XNodes is fully automated. See Creating a New Component or Module later in this section for more details.
If you are editing an existing module, follow these general steps:
1.
Edit the definition of the module. See Editing a Component or Module Definition in this section for more details.
2.
Define an electrical port connection in the Graphic section (Graphic tab) of the module. See The Graphics
Section for more details.
3.
Add a corresponding XNode component on the module Schematic canvas. Each XNode must be named the
same as its corresponding port connection.
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EXAMPLE 5-4:
Consider a simple project that consists of a single-phase source bus connected to a module. The module Graphic section
includes a single port connection named NA, which is connected to the source bus on the main Schematic canvas. The
module canvas (i.e. Schematic view) consists simply of a Resistor component connected directly to a Ground component.
Main Canvas Containing a Module and Source
Graphic View of Module
Definition
Schematic Canvas View of Module
Here are a few important factors to remember when porting electrical signals into and out of modules:

XNodes cannot be placed on the project main page.

Only one instance of an XNode may exist within the module for a single port connection.

An XNode cannot be directly grounded. That is, do not connect a Ground component directly to an XNode. A
ground may be connected directly to the corresponding electrical port connection however.
Editing Module Canvas Settings
Right-click on a blank part of the Schematic canvas and select Canvas Settings... These settings are specific to a single
module definition, and will affect all instances of that module.
A dialog window entitled Canvas Settings will open, as shown below:
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Editing Module Canvas Settings
The Canvas Settings dialog inputs are described in the following sections.
Compiler
These options are related to the way in which system dynamics code is ordered. For more on this option, see Component
Ordering in chapter 11 of this manual.

Sequence Ordering: Enable this option to ensure that a PSCAD smart algorithm will automatically order your
control components. This algorithm systematically scans all control systems and sub-modules within the
module and determines the sequence in which each component should appear in the in EMTDC system
dynamics. This option is by default enabled, and should remain that way unless the user wants to reorder these
components manually.

Compiler Defines:
Overlays
These options are related to the page display.
Bounds: Set this option to view borders of one paper size smaller than the current size. This is especially convenient
when attempting to reduce the page size of a canvas containing components and other objects.

Bus Monitoring: Set this option to view voltages on all buses.

Grids: Set this option to view the major grid points on the module page.
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
Signals: When this option set, PSCAD will use icons placed on data signal wires and connections, so as to
allow for easy, graphical differentiation between feed-forward and feedback signals.

Sequence Order Numbers: When this option is set, PSCAD will label each component/module instance within
this specific module with a sequence number. This sequence number represents the sequential placement of
the component/module code in the EMTDC system dynamics.

Virtual Wires: Use this option to virtually connect signals on a canvas that are connected by Data Labels, or
sourced internally from components. For more on this, see Virtual Control Wires in chapter 11 of this manual.

Virtual Wires Filter: Enter one or more specific signal names (comma separated) into this field in order to limit
which virtual wires are drawn. An empty field will assume default behaviour and include all wires; or an asterisk
(*) can be inserted in the list to include all, without the need to delete the signal list. This filter can help
immensely in tracking down paths for specific signals.
Paper
These options are related to the page settings (size and layout).

Size: Select a standard paper size for this module canvas.

Orientation: Select the module canvas orientation.
NOTE: The Oversize (34x44) paper is included for compatibility with the PSCAD V2 large canvas
size. However, it can still be used as a valid paper size.
Editing Component or Module Parameters
Either left double-click the component, or right-click on the component and select Edit Parameters... from the pop-up
menu, to edit the parameters of a component or module.
NOTE: The left double-click operation is affected by the Drill Down application option. If this setting is set to
Double Click, a left double-click on a module component will perform an Edit Definition operation (i.e. will open
the module canvas in Schematic view).
The Edit Parameters operation will bring up the component instance parameters dialog. The figure below shows the first
page of the dialog for one of the single-phase source models in the master library (called source_1).
Dialogs for other components will differ, but all include the same basic features and most contain multiple pages: At the
top of the dialog is a drop list, which contains a list all of the dialog pages (called categories). In this example, the first
page is entitled Configuration. To move through or view any other pages, left-click the down arrow on the field as shown
below:
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Editing Component or Module Parameters
If there are too many items in the list, you will need to scroll to see all the category names. To do this, browse through the
list using the scroll bar along the right side of the list . Or, press the up or down arrow on your keyboard while the list is
expanded. When the required choice is highlighted, press the Enter key to select it.
Changing Parameter Values
Each category page in the component parameter dialog will usually contain an assortment of input fields. Left-click the
field value box and type a new value to modify the parameter value.
Select the Parameter
Modify the Value Box
Some parameter fields will contain a unit (i.e. [MVA], [sec], [m/sec], etc.), displayed next to the parameter value. See Unit
System in this chapter for more details.
Choice list or Boolean type parameters will have a downward pointing arrow on the right hand side. Click on that arrow to
see the list of choices and then click again on the required item. The choice list could have more items than visible in the
list. To scroll through the list, simply use the up or down arrows on your keyboard while the list is expanded. When the
required choice is highlighted, press the Enter key to select it
Once you are finished editing, click on the OK button to accept the edited values and to exit the dialog (all edited
parameter fields will appear in bold). Clicking on the Cancel button will exit the form and ignore all changes made.
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Editing Definition Settings
Definition settings are a few special properties for all definition types that may only be accessed from the definition list in
the workspace window: These are the definition Name, Description and Label.
In the workspace window, expand the definitions branch and right-click on a component definition listed therein. Select
Properties...:
This will invoke the Definition Settings dialog window:
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Definition Referencing
The following list describes the functions of this dialog:

Name: Enter a name for the definition. This name must conform to FORTRAN standards (i.e. it cannot begin
with a number or contain any spaces or other illegal characters).

Description: Enter a description of the definition.

Label(s): This property is used to help organize component definitions existing in user defined library projects,
for the purpose of display in the Library Pop-Up menu system. See Adding Components to a Project for more
details.
Definition Referencing
In PSCAD versions X4 or greater, users may reference any definition from a any component instance. Obviously, the
definition must be compatible with the instance for this to work, but this feature can be convenient when working with
several versions of the same definition. Referencing definitions is also important when copying and pasting module
components or transmission segments between projects.
Reference List
All definitions that share the same name in any loaded project in the workspace will appear in the reference list. For
example, a user has loaded the master library and a custom library in the workspace, where a custom component
definition called resistor is stored. Of course, a definition called resistor also exists in the master library. The user wants
to switch freely between these two definitions while working in a case project.
Right-click on the component instance in question and select Switch Reference....
As can be seen above, both resistor definitions have been detected. From here you may freely switch between
definitions.
Edit Reference
If a component instance is not currently referenced to a definition, or if you want to point to a specific definition of a
different name, then use Edit Reference.... This will invoke the Edit Reference dialog in which you can adjust both the
namespace and definition name.
Re-Map References
Sometimes you may need to change the namespace name of a library project. If there are any component instances with
definitions referencing this namespace, they will become de-referenced and appear as place cards.
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If this happens, you can re-map all component instances in a project simultaneously. Right-click on the project in the
workspace window and select Re-Map References to bring up the associated dialog:
The following list describes the functions of this dialog:

Name: Enter the definition name. Adding a name to this field will ensure that reference re-mapping will be
specific to only that definition and no other.

Current: Enter the current namespace, from which definitions are to be re-mapped.

New: Enter the new namespace, to which definitions are to be re-mapped.
EXAMPLE:
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Viewing Component Properties
A project contains 100 instances of a component, whose definition name is MyDefn, residing in a case project called
MyCase. Another definition, again called MyDefn has been copied to a library project with namespace MyLibrary. It is
desired to re-reference all 100 instances of the component to the MyDefn definition in the library project. The Re-Map
References should then look like this:
Viewing Component Properties
The complexity of a component may range from simple to elaborate. Some components may possess properties such as
parameters, port connections, etc., numbered in the hundreds. When designing and debugging a new component, or
verifying the settings of an existing component, it becomes important to be able to view this property data in a convenient
format. The Component Properties Viewer provides an intuitive and convenient means of categorizing and displaying
component attributes so that they may be examined efficiently.
Component Properties Viewer
The component properties are categorized into tabbed categories, where each section lists the individual attributes in a
list format. The categories are described as follows (see Chapter 9 in this manual for details on these topics):

Layers: Provides information on graphical layers and related conditional statements set in the component
Graphics section.
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
Ports: Provides information on external connections (nodes) and related conditional statements set in the
component Graphics section.

Parameters: Provides information on parameter variables, such as Symbol name, type, unit, etc., set in the
Parameters section.

Computations: Provides information on defined computed variables, such as type and computed value set in
the Computations segment of the Script section

Errors: Provides a list of pre-compilation errors, for example, Computations segment errors.
NOTE: All values displayed in this viewer are shown in the same precision as will be used in a substitution. For
EMTDC, this is 12 significant figures. All evaluation errors are indicated with a #NaN in the Value column.
Invoking the Component Properties Viewer
Right-click on any component and select View Properties... from the pop-up menu to invoke the Component Properties
Viewer.
Category Descriptions
The properties listed in each tabbed section are organized into columns.
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Viewing Component Properties
Layers Tab
Layers:

Layer #: Simply a numbered list.

Expression: The conditional statement defining the graphical layer.

F: An asterisk '*' in this column indicates that the Expression conditional stateCment is currently true (otherwise
false).
Ports Tab
Ports:

Name: The Symbol name of the corresponding port connection.

Expression: This is the conditional statement defining whether or not this port connection is enabled.

M: Mode. The symbols displayed here indicate the port connection type.

o: Electrical node

<: Input data node

>: Output data node

+: Shorted node

Type: The declared type (i.e. REAL, INTEGER, LOGICAL) if the port connection is non-electrical.

Dim: The signal dimension if a vector. This column is left blank if the signal is a scalar (i.e. Dim = 1).

F: An asterisk '*' in this column indicates that the Expression conditional statement is currently true (i.e.
enabled).
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Parameters Tab
Parameters:

Name: The Symbol name of the parameter.

Caption: The Description of the parameter.

Type: The type of parameter (i.e. input, text, choice, etc.).

Unit: The Default Unit for the parameter (or Target Unit).

Minimum: The Minimum Value of the corresponding parameter.

Maximum: The Maximum Value of the corresponding parameter.

Data: The actual value as it is entered in the parameters dialog.

Value: The actual value of the parameter following evaluation by PSCAD (considering both entered units and
the Target Unit).

F: An asterisk '*' in this column indicates that the parameter is enabled (otherwise disabled).
Computations Tab
Computations:
167

Name: The name of the declared constant.

Expression: The script expression in the Computations segment, defining the value of the declared constant.

Type: The declared type of the constant (i.e. REAL, INTEGER, LOGICAL)

Value: The calculated value of the constant following evaluation.
Viewing Component Properties
Errors Tab
Errors:

Error #: The sequential error number (i.e. order in list).

Trace: A description of the actual error. This is normally a message from the internal compiler.
Formatting Viewed Properties
Once the Component Properties Viewer has been opened, the data is open to some simple formatting. Although property
attributes cannot be altered, users may adjust the order in which properties appear – this is useful if the data is to be
saved to a file for example.
Left-click and hold a listed property in the display window. Drag the mouse pointer to where you want to place it and
release the mouse button.
Saving Component Properties to a File
Component data can be saved to a text file at any time. Select the desired tab and press the Save As... button to bring
up the Save As dialog window.
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Select a folder, enter a filename, and press the Save button.
Copying Data to Clipboard
Specific rows of property data can be saved to the clipboard at any time as follows:

To copy a single row of data, right-click within the row, and select Copy Data.

To copy multiple consecutive rows, left-click on the first row, hold down the Shift button, left-click on the last
row, and select Copy Data.

To copy multiple rows that are not consecutive, hold down the Ctrl button, left-click in each row to be selected,
and select Copy Data.
Changing to Single-Line View
If the component being edited is a three-phase electrical component, then it is likely there will be a choice parameter
entitled Graphics Display on the main properties page.
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Creating a New Component, Module or Transmission Wire
To toggle the component between single-line and 3-phase view, open the component parameter dialog, select the desired
view from this field, then press OK.
Creating a New Component, Module or
Transmission Wire
New components (including modules and transmission segments) are created by using a utility called the Component
Wizard. The Component Wizard generates a new definition, and then creates a single instance of it (by default) for
placement on the Schematic canvas. The user may then continue with the design, given this basic new component.
The following topics describe the steps involved when navigating the Component Wizard. For more on component
design, see the chapter entitled Component Design.
The Component Wizard
Open the Component Wizard pane by selecting either Component Wizard from the Panes drop list in the View tab of the
ribbon control bar; or, move the mouse pointer over a blank area of any page, right-click and select Component Wizard;
or, right-click on the definitions branch under the project node in the primary workspace window.
Ribbon
Schematic Canvas
Definitions Branch
In either case, the Component Wizard pane will appear:
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General
Enter all parameters required according to the descriptions below.

Name: Enter a name for the new component definition. This name must conform to Fortran standards (i.e. it
cannot begin with a number or contain any spaces or other illegal characters).

Title (Optional): If text is detected in any of the three fields provided in this section, a text label containing the
text will be added to the component graphic.

Module: Select this check box if you want the new component to be a module (also referred to as a page
component or a sub-page).

Create Definition Only: Select this option to create the definition only, without attaching an instance to the
mouse pointer.
Ports
Enter the required parameters required according to the descriptions below.
Click the Add Ports button after adding how many ports you will require at each side of the component graphic.
Depending on what you selected, additional input fields will appear.
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Creating the First Instance of a Definition

Name: Enter a Symbol name for the port connection. This name must conform to Fortran standards (i.e. it
cannot begin with a number or contain any spaces or other illegal characters).

Dim: Enter a dimension for the port connection. Entering 0 indicates that this port is to assume the dimension
of whatever it is connected to. Entering a 1 defines a scalar.

Port Type: Select the port connection type here. Note that for Input Data type, the Component Wizard will
automatically draw an input arrow graphic for the port connection.

Node/Data Type: Select the type of electrical or data port connection here.
For more information on port connection types (i.e. electrical, data, etc.) see Port Connections.
Press the Finish button if you are satisfied that everything is correct. Press Reset to clear to defaults.
Creating the First Instance of a Definition
In the workspace primary window, navigate to the definitions branch. Right-click the desired definition from the list and
select Create Instance. Then, paste the newly created instance on the Schematic canvas (right-click on the canvas and
select Paste).
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Compiling an Individual Module Definition
In the workspace primary window, navigate to the definitions branch. Select the desired module definition from the list,
right-click and select Compile.
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Blackbox a Module
Blackbox a Module
While on the schematic canvas, right-click on the module component and select Blackbox Module.
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For more information on blackboxing, see Blackboxing Modules.
Importing/Exporting Definitions
Definitions may be imported or exported to and from projects, or exchanged between users, by saving the definition as a
Definition (*.psdx) file. A definition file contains the XML data elements defining the component or module as it would
appear in a case or library project (*.pscx or *.pslx) file. For more on the definitions branch and definition files, see The
Secondary Window in Chapter 4.
Import a Definition
In the workspace primary window, left-click on the [+] box beside the definitions branch to expand the definitions
list. Right-click on the definitions branch itself and select Import Definition(s).... When prompted, browse to and select
the definition to be imported, then press Open.
Export a Definition
To export a single definition (i.e. save the definition to a Definition (*.psdx) file), left-click on the [+] box beside the
definitions branch. Right-click on the desired definition from the list and select Export As....
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Copy as Meta-File or Bitmap
Export a Definition with Dependents
To export a module definition hierarchy (i.e. save all the dependent definitions to a Definition (*.psdx) file), left-click on the
[+] box beside the definitions branch. Right-click on the desired definition from the list and select Export with
Dependents.
NOTE: If the definition you are exporting is a module, and the module contains dependent (child) modules, then
the dependent module definitions will also be included in the export file. When later imported, all definitions will
be included.
Copy as Meta-File or Bitmap
Bring up the desired area to be copied in the Schematic canvas. Select the objects to be printed (see Selecting Objects in
this chapter), right-click and select Copy as Meta-File or Copy as Bitmap.
Then, simply paste the copied selection into a report program of your choice.
Printing a Module Page
Bring up the desired module canvas in Schematic view. Right-click on a blank portion of the canvas and select Print
Page – a print dialog window will appear. Adjust the printer properties and click OK.
To preview before printing, bring up the desired module canvas in Schematic view and right-click on a blank portion of the
canvas. Select Print Preview Page. Press Close to return to the Schematic view.
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Tutorial: Creating a New Project
Creating a New Case Project
Press the New button in the PSCAD tab of the ribbon control bar.
Enter a name for the project, as discussed in the section entitled Creating a New Project.
A new project will appear in the workspace window. Right-click on the project name and select Project Settings....
This action will open the Project Settings dialog. Click the General tab at the top of the dialog, left-click inside the
Description field and type a description for the case, say, 'Voltage Divider'.
Click the Runtime tab and get familiar with the inputs displayed therein (see Runtime for details on parameters).
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Saving the Project
The project will be automatically set up with a run duration of 0.5 seconds with a 50 s time step by default (these settings
are sufficient for now). Click the OK button. The description you entered should now appear in the workspace primary
window as part of the project name display.
Saving the Project
To save your newly created project, right-click on the project name in the workspace and select Save from the pop-up
menu.
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The red modified indicator on the project icon in the workspace will disappear.
Opening the Master Library
The first project listed in the workspace primary window is always the Master Library (master.pslx). It contains most of the
components you will ever need to build any circuit. All of the components that will be used to create this new case project
example are available there.
To open the master library, simply click on it in the workspace. The master library is organized as a group of modules;
each opens into another canvas window, giving access to all of the components belonging to that group. To open a
particular group, left double-click the arrow in the bottom-right corner of the module (note that this action is dependent
on the Drill Down setting in the Application Options):
You may also access master library components using the Components tab or the Models tabs in the ribbon control bar.
See Adding Components to a Project for more details.
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Assembling a Voltage Divider Circuit
Assembling a Voltage Divider Circuit
The voltage divider circuit in this example will use eight different components as shown below.
NOTE: Initially, it may be a challenge to navigate through the master library and find these components one by
one.
Locating the Single-Phase Source
The first step is to locate the single-phase source model to be used in your circuit (in the master library Sources
module). There are three different source models available – we will be using the Single-Phase Voltage Source Model 2
component.
Source 1 Model Within Sources Module in Master Library
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Once you find it, add it to your new project main page using one of the techniques outlined in Adding Components to a
Project in this chapter: Move the source component to an appropriate place on the page. Left double-click on the
component to bring up the component parameters dialog (see Editing Component Parameters in this chapter). On the
Configuration page, change the Source Impedance Type Choice List to 'Resistive'.
On the Signal Parameters category page, change the Mag. (AC:L-G,RMS DC:Pk) input field to 70.71 [kV]. This will give
an internal source voltage magnitude of 100 kV peak. Press OK.
Save the project.
Add and Assemble
The next step is to add the remaining components (i.e. Wire, Resistor, Current Meter, Data Label, Output Channel, and
Ground components). These components are all available on the Components tab of the ribbon control bar. Arrange all
components to form the simple voltage divider shown in the following diagram:
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Assembling a Voltage Divider Circuit
Save the project. See Adding Components to a Project, Selecting Objects and Moving or Dragging an Object in this
chapter for more details.
Editing the Remaining Component Parameters
Use the properties shown below for the remaining components (see Editing Component Parameters in this chapter). Only
the properties to be changed from their default values are mentioned. Use the resistor with its default properties.
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Save the project.
Plotting Results
In order to view any results from our voltage divider circuit, we must add a Graph Frame and set it up to display the
waveforms. The following sections describe only those aspects of plotting needed for this exercise. See Preparing Data
for Control or Display in chapter 6 of this manual for further reading.
Adding a Graph Frame
Right-click on the Output Channel component called 'Mid Point Voltage' to bring up the pop-up menu. Select
Graphs/Meters/Controls | Add Overlay Graph with Signal.
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Plotting Results
This will create a new Graph Frame, Overlay Graph and a Curve simultaneously as shown below:
Right-click on the graph frame title bar (top bar on the plot labelled 'Main : Graphs') and select Edit Properties... from the
pop-up menu.
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This will bring-up the Graph Frame Properties dialog window. In the Caption field, change the title to 'Currents and
Voltages'. See Graph Frames in chapter 6 for more details on the options in this dialog.
To resize the graph frame at any time, left click on the frame title bar so that grips appear. Left-click and hold on a corner
grip and drag mouse outwards. Resize the graph frame to approximately 8 x 8 centimetres.
Additional Overlay Graph and Curve
Right-click on the graph frame title bar and select Add Overlay Graph (Analog) (or press the Insert key while the mouse
pointer is over the graph frame).
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Plotting Results
A new Overlay Graph will appear within the frame directly below the existing graph (see Graphs in chapter 6 for more).
Add a curve to this graph to monitor load current: Hold down the Ctrl key and click and hold the left mouse button while
over the Output Channel with caption Load Current. Drag the mouse pointer over the new graph and release the mouse
button. A curve should appear.
Select the Output
Channel (Ctrl +
left mouse hold)
Drag the Mouse Pointer Over the New
Graph
Release the Mouse Button
Editing the Graph Properties
To customize an individual graph title and/or vertical axis label, right click over top the graph and select Edit
Properties... Edit the graph properties as you see fit (see Graphs in chapter 6 for more).
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For example, change the Y-Axis Title input field to show 'Voltage' on the voltage graph, and 'Current' on the load current
graph. You may also want to turn on/off Show Grid and adjust the scaling. The graph frame should appear similar to
that shown below once completed.
Save the project.
Running the Project
Press the Run button in the Home tab of the ribbon control bar to run the simulation (see Running a Simulation in this
chapter).
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This is the last step, assuming there are no errors. If there are any, they will be logged in the Build Messages pane. See
Error and Warning Messages for more details. Your simulated results should look similar to the following once the
simulation has completed.
NOTE: It may be necessary to readjust your x and y-axes, as well as zoom and time frame. See Online
Plotting and Control for more details.
Multiple Instance Modules (MIM)
Since its introduction in PSCAD V3, the module (also known as a sub-page or page module) has been a useful tool in
enhancing the organization and navigation of projects. Modules are themselves components, but possess a canvas of
their own, and thereby add a third dimension to an otherwise flat environment. Their inception was in response to the
growing size of simulation drawings in PSCAD V2, where a two-dimensional drawing canvas proved cumbersome when
dealing with larger projects.
The original modules however lacked an important attribute of their standard component counterparts: The ability to be
instantiated (i.e. two or more instances based on the same definition). This was primarily due to complications in the
mapping of data signals, such as plotted curves and meter outputs. In addition to this, a module definition could potentially
be part of other module definitions, and there was again a difficulty in tracking multiply-instanced modules of this
kind. Essentially, the architecture of the software was, at the time, not optimized for this sort of thing and as a result, the
ability to instantiate a module was restricted to a single instance for simplicity, thereby making the definition and single
instance one in the same.
The absence of the ability to multiply-instance modules remained throughout the life of both the V3 and V4 releases, but
was finally remedied in PSCAD X4. This was made possible by a complete rework of the PSCAD program architecture
towards a more data-centralized model. This new architecture greatly simplified the mapping and bookkeeping involved
in allowing effective use of multiple instance modules. A module may now be copied and pasted easily just like any other
component, even if it contains many module components within it!
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The capabilities of this feature may not be immediately obvious, but if not properly utilized it can be dangerously
powerful. For example, if a module containing say 100 Output Channel components is instantiated, 100 new signals
would be added for every instance. This can quickly overwhelm the memory capacity of your workstation, and/or greatly
affect simulation speed. This becomes even more apparent if the module being copied contains other modules that
contain more Output Channels. This section is designed to ensure that projects with multiple instance modules are
designed properly from the very beginning, thereby avoiding problems like that described above.
Parameters
With the establishment of multiple instance module capabilities in PSCAD, it was also a prudent time to introduce
parameter functionality as well. As veteran users know, module components did not support parameters in the past, and
relied purely on port connections to transfer data signals into and out of the canvas. Parameter dialogs can now be
designed for module components in the exact same manner as they are for standard components, and every instance of
a module component may possess unique parameter values.
When it comes to porting parameter values onto or from the canvas, they are treated in exactly the same way as port
connections – that is, each parameter requires a matching Import or Export component on the canvas. The name of the
Import or Export component must match the Symbol name of the corresponding parameter.
Module Input Parameters
Import Connection Components on
Canvas
For more details on designing component parameter dialogs, see The Parameters Section.
Similarities and Differences
Modules and standard components are now more alike than ever: They both may possess input parameters, they both
have graphics; in fact they are indiscernible from each other unless their definition is edited. The only major difference
between them is that module components possess a canvas, whereas the standard components contain a section for
scripting.
Schematic
Graphic
Parameters
Standard Component




Module Component




Similarities between Modules and Components
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Script
Multiple Instance Modules (MIM)
The table above hints that module components simply offer an alternative way in which to build a model: With a module
component, the design is accomplished graphically via a circuit schematic, as opposed to using script and code. In fact,
modules must utilize standard or user-defined components in their design – components that are pieced together to form
the circuit model.
Module Definitions and Instances
Since the concept of modules and project hierarchy was introduced, the root or top-level canvas has always been what is
referred to as the Main page. Anyone who has used PSCAD in the past has constructed a circuit starting from the Main
canvas. Main is itself a module component and its canvas is part of its definition. Therefore, any modifications made to
Main modify its definition, which in turn affects any instances of it. Of course, Main only ever has one instance, as it is the
top-level module, and it, along with its definition, are included for you automatically whenever a new project is created.
The Schematic canvas is an integral part of a module component definition, and so changes made to this canvas are
changes made to the definition. If a component is added to the module canvas (or deleted from it), its location moved, or
even if its input parameter values are modified, the module definition is affected. This is because the components, wires
and other objects combine to define what the module is meant to represent or model. By extension then, all module
component instances, based on this definition, will be affected by changes to the definition. For more seasoned users,
this concept may be a bit difficult to grasp at first, as in the past, module components were never allowed to possess more
than one instance. Because of this fact, modules were always unique (one definition, one instance) —not so any more.
Multiple Instances Based on a Single Module Definition
With standard, non-module components, it is easy to differentiate between the components definition and instance
environments; its definition is composed purely of script and code, parameters and graphics, and of course does not
include a canvas. In other words, it is obvious that you are inside the definition environment when you edit the definition
of a standard component. This is not true when dealing with module components. A module component utilizes a canvas
to represent its definition, but at the same time, that canvas is used as part of the hierarchy of the greater circuit, meaning
that one or more instances of that module component may appear in the project, all of which are used in a unique
context.
Every component, graph, control panel, etc. that is placed on a module canvas, becomes part of that module's
definition. If a plot panel is resized, or a new graph is added to the panel, it modifies the definition. Changing graph
settings, curve colours, zoom settings all affect the definition. The same goes for control panels, meters and online
controls. If a Slider component interface for example is adjusted (say from 0.12 to 0.23), it affects the definition and
therefore all of the module instances based on it. This is because the Slider component interface is defined or sourced
directly on the module canvas.
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It is important to distinguish between the settings of plotting and control tools, and the actual signals themselves. The
signals being displayed on graphs or meters may not necessarily be defined purely as part of the module definition. If a
signal is sourced from within a module, say for example a breaker control signal, and is not influenced in any way by
signal values external to the module, then the signal value will be identical in all module instances based on that
definition. However, if the signal value is based or influenced by an external signal, such as an imported parameter, then
the signal value may change depending on the module instance (or context), and in such cases may be considered an
instance-based signal. This means that although the curve colour or thickness of a curve is a definition-based setting —
and will be identical in every instance— the actual data signal values are unique from one module instance to
another. This allows us to visualize the concept of a definition canvas and instance context, as a base layer canvas, with
a transparent overlay representing the context of each module instance.
Module Definition Canvas with Data Values in Two Unique Instance Contexts
The image below shows the subtle differences between data signal values in two, separate instances of a module – both
are based on the same definition. Notice that the graph and curve settings are identical (i.e. colour, glyphs, etc.), but their
values are slightly different. This is because the data signals plotted are sourced from outside the module canvas, and
are ported in through an input parameter or port connection.
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Same Graph from Two Separate Module Instances Based on the Same Definition
A Practical Example of Multiple Module Instances in Use
Before continuing on, it would be prudent to pause and look at a practical situation where multiple module instances could
be put to good use. Consider a three-phase bridge unit that is to be used in the construction of a monopolar HVDC
system. The system will utilize four bridge units in total, where each unit is identical and comes from the same
manufacturer.
Monopolar HVDC System with Four Converter Bridge Units
Since the converter bridges are all identical, it makes sense that a bridge unit only be defined once, and used multiple
times. This helps to alleviate maintenance headaches and to ensure that changes made to one unit are applied to
all. Veteran PSCAD users will understand that this concept has been utilized since the beginnings of the application; up
until recently however, this has been accomplished only through the use of standard (non-module) components. In fact,
the master library already includes a bridge component called 6 Pulse Bridge. This component may be instantiated many
times when constructing systems like that shown above.
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6 Pulse Bridge Component Graphic
6 Pulse Bridge Equivalent Circuit
Standard components however are limited in flexibility, in that if they are to be combined with other components to form
another single device, they must be reprogrammed into a single unit (i.e. combining two bridge units in series to form a
12-pulse converter for example). Reprogramming these models can prove cumbersome depending on the complexity of
the model. With module components however, the reprogramming is performed for you by the application; the user is left
to simply construct a circuit graphically.
Let us conceptually build a three-phase bridge from scratch, using only module components: The most elemental (i.e.
indivisible) component of the converter is the individual thyristor valves (ignoring the snubber circuits). This is where we
should start the design. In practice, thyristor valves are combined in series to form a valve group. The valve group will be
our first module component, where the canvas of the valve group definition consists of a string of series-connected, nonmodule thyristor components. The module component will also require a graphic to represent the string of thyristors when
the component is placed on the canvas of its parent module.
Valve Group Module Component Graphic
Valve Group Module Component Canvas
A 6-pulse bridge will consist of a total of six valve groups, each group representing a switching device: This is our second
module component. The 6-pulse module component canvas will include six instances of the valve group module
component. These are of course connected to form the bridge.
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6-Pulse Bridge Module Component Graphic
6-Pulse Bridge Module Component Canvas
So far, we have constructed a 6-pulse bridge module definition, which contains instances of another module definition
(called Valve Group) within it:
Module Definitions List:
1.
Valve Group
2.
6-Pulse Bridge
Module Instance Hierarchy:
1.
6-Pulse Bridge
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1.
Valve Group
2.
Valve Group
3.
Valve Group
4.
Valve Group
5.
Valve Group
6.
Valve Group
In the instance hierarchy above, the numbers indicate the instance number of the module (where the first instance is 0).
Our monopolar HVDC system is to contain four instances of the 6-pulse bridge we just constructed. If we assume that
this system is constructed on the Main canvas, and that there are no other module components other than those above,
then the project module hierarchy will be:
Module Definitions List:
1.
Valve Group
2.
6-Pulse Bridge
3.
Main
Module Instance Hierarchy:
1.
Main
1.
2.
3.
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6-Pulse Bridge
1.
Valve Group
2.
Valve Group
3.
Valve Group
4.
Valve Group
5.
Valve Group
6.
Valve Group
6-Pulse Bridge
1.
Valve Group
2.
Valve Group
3.
Valve Group
4.
Valve Group
5.
Valve Group
6.
Valve Group
6-Pulse Bridge
1.
Valve Group
2.
Valve Group
3.
Valve Group
4.
Valve Group
Multiple Instance Modules (MIM)
4.
5.
Valve Group
6.
Valve Group
6-Pulse Bridge
1.
Valve Group
2.
Valve Group
3.
Valve Group
4.
Valve Group
5.
Valve Group
6.
Valve Group
Coding Analogies
The ability to instantiate module definitions fits perfectly into how a typical structured program is created. PSCAD is a
structured code generator (presently Fortran that may include C), which combines components and modules in a project
to construct and build an executable program. The project itself can be compared to a coded program in its entirety,
where regular components represent snippets of inline code and modules represent subroutines.
PSCAD Object
Code Equivalent
Project
Program
Module Definition
Subroutine
Module Instance
Subroutine Call
Non-Module Component
Inline Code
Port Connections/Input Parameters
Subroutine Arguments
Analogies Between PSCAD Project Structure and Programming Structure
When a project is built, a separate Fortran (*.f) file containing a subroutine definition is created for every unique module
definition used in the project. Any instance of said module definition will appear as a call within the subroutine of its
parent module (i.e. the canvas on which the module instance is placed). For example, say a module definition called A is
created and an instance of it is placed on the Main canvas.
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Module A Definition Fortran File
Call to Subroutine from Main Module
When the project is built, a separate Fortran file called A.f is created to represent the definition of A. The code within it
(i.e. the inline code) is constructed using the non-module components placed on the canvas of A. An instance of A exists
within the canvas of Main, so therefore it contributes to defining the subroutine for Main – in other words, the instance of A
is part of the definition of Main. Conceptually then, this project contains two module definitions, where an instance of
module A is set within the canvas of Main.
In the above example, there are two module definitions (one for Main and one for A). What would happen then if A was
instantiated again so that there are two instances of it on the Main canvas? Well a new definition is not required; only an
additional call statement to A within the Main subroutine is needed.
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Main Definition Fortran File
Two Instances of A on the Main Canvas
Now let’s complicate things a bit: Say there are two instances of another module called B placed on the canvas of module
A. Since the instances of B are situated within A, then B becomes part of the definition of A – that is, calls to B will appear
in the subroutine of A.
Module B Definition Fortran File
Module A Definition Fortran File with
Calls to B
Module Main Definition Fortran File
with Calls to A
Notice above that the addition of module B to the project does not affect the definition of Main. This is because B is part
of the definition of A, which appears only as an instance (or call statement) in Main. Conceptually:
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Instances vs. Calls
You may have noticed above that module B is called four times in the above project, although there are only two
instances of B. This is because the two instances of B help to define A, and A is called twice from Main. This does not
mean that there are four instances of B, but each of the two instances of B is called twice. This concept is aptly referred
to as a Call.
Instances
Calls
Main
1
1
A
2
2
B
2
4
Instance and Call Numbers for the Given Example
It is important to understand this concept in order understand fully how multiple instance modules work, and how signal
values are mapped and accessed within PSCAD and EMTDC.
Subroutine Arguments
Up until now, we have not mentioned the arguments shown in both the SUBROUTINE and CALL statements
above. Subroutine arguments exist whenever the module definition possesses either input parameters or port
connections. In fact, this is yet another coding analogy: Input parameters and port connections are a means to transfer
data defined external to the module, for use inside the module. This is exactly what subroutine arguments are used for
when coding.
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Say for example that our module A above has two connection ports X and Y. The connection ports are defined as part of
the module definition, and are therefore also part of the subroutine file definition. Although the ports are named X and Y
in the definition, the actual signal connected to the port can be any other pre-defined signal; be it a literal value or another
variable signal.
Module A Definition Fortran File
Two Instances of A Called From the Main Canvas
Notice above that input arguments in each call statement for A can be literal numbers or signal values. Each argument
defined in the SUBROUTINE statement is represented by an Import or Export component on the module canvas.
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For more details on defining input parameters and port connections, see the chapter entitled Component Design in this
manual.
Important Design Considerations
Up until now, we have discussed multiple instance modules in a conceptual manner. In practice however, there are
certain important things to consider when designing your system, so as to ensure maximum compile and simulation
efficiency. It is essential to consider where signals are sourced. That is, whether a signal should be definition or instancebased. Also, Output Channel placement is a concern.
Definition and Instance Variables
When designing and utilizing a system containing multiple instance modules, it is very important to study and determine
how to deal with system parameters that may differ between instances. For example, if a module definition were to
contain a transformer component and the MVA of this transformer is to vary from instance to instance of the module, then
the source of the MVA value must be defined external to the module definition; otherwise all instances of the module will
be forced to have the same transformer MVA value. Let’s have a look at this example in PSCAD:
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Module Definition Canvas with Transformer Component
Transformer Component Parameter Dialog
Here, a module definition contains a simple circuit with a transformer component. The transformer possesses an input
parameter called Transformer MVA, which will accept a signal constant for its value. This signal is defined externally and
imported as a signal called mva, which is entered directly as the transformer parameter. Although the import tag
component, the transformer component and the signal itself are all part of the module definition, the value of the signal
may be different for each module instance.
In this case, the signal mva is defined as an input parameter of the module itself. So if the module is instantiated many
times, the mva parameter can possess a different value for each instance.
See The Parameters Section in the chapter called Component Design in this manual for more details on the proper
design of module parameters, specifically the definitions of Literal, Constant and Variable type parameters, and how they
pertain to multiple instance modules.
Output Channel and Online Control Placement
Output channels and controls can be dangerous when using multiple instance modules. This is because an output
channel component creates a signal for monitoring by EMTDC wherever it is placed, thereby reserving memory used and
affecting simulation speed.
If an output channel is placed within a low-level module, say for example the Valve Group module discussed above, the
volume of signals that single output channel creates can quickly balloon. Notice that when the Valve Group modules
parent module (6 Pulse Bridge) is copied, the Valve Group module is called six additional times for each 6 Pulse Bridge
instance. This means that if the 6 Pulse Bridge is copied multiple times, then the single output channel is multiplied sixfold.
It is best to avoid placing an output channel component at this level. A better option would be to export the signal to be
monitored as far up the module hierarchy as possible. This way the signal is available at an upper level, where the user
can decide to monitor it if the need arises. The image below illustrates this concept: Instead of attaching an Output
Channel to the signal inside the module canvas, the signal is exported to the parent canvas, where it can be monitored as
desired.
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Multiple-Instanced Module Component with Signal Exported Through a Port Connection
Runtime Configuration in EMTDC
In order to ensure full support of multiple-instance modules, EMTDC also had to go through some modifications. The
major change to EMTDC involves the initialization of component parameters when they appear on a multiply-instanced
module canvas. As a result of this, all relevant master library components have been modified to support this new
structure. The same process must be applied to user-defined components, before they can fully support use on a
multiple-instance canvas.
Please see the following sections in the PSCAD and EMTDC manuals for more details on this:

Changes to EMTDC Program Structure: EMTDC Manual | Program Structure | The EMTDC Solution Process
and System Dynamics.

New Input Parameter Constant Type: PSCAD Manual | Component Design | Parameters Section | Input
Fields | Input Field Data Types.

The #BEGIN Directive: PSCAD Manual | Definition Script | Script Directives | #BEGIN/#ENDBEGIN.
Copying and Transferring Module Hierarchies
There are two somewhat related methods available for copying and transferring entire module hierarchies. Of the two,
Copy Transfer is the recommended and most convenient method.
Copying Module Definitions with Dependents
Copy with Dependents enables a module definition to be copied, including all of its dependent definitions. In other words,
if a module contains other modules as part of its definition, and perhaps these modules have other modules inside, and so
on, all module definitions will be included in the definition copy. When the definition is pasted, either in the same project
or another project, copies of all the dependent definitions will also be included, along with all of the hierarchal linking
information. When any of these pasted definitions are instantiated on the canvas, all child modules (i.e. modules defining
its definition) will be instantiated as well, in the proper order.
This feature is provided mainly for inter-project transfer of modules, alleviating the need to manually reconstruct the
module and its hierarchy. Copy with Dependents may also be used for copying and pasting within the same project,
provided that no definitions exist in the target project that have the same name as any of the definitions being copied.
Copy with Dependents will also include custom component definitions that happen to reside on any of the dependent
modules.
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Copying and Transferring Module Hierarchies
Inter-Project
To copy a module definition with its dependent from one project to another: Select the source project in the workspace
primary window and expand the definitions list. Right-click on the definition and select Copy with Dependents from the
popup menu.
Next, select the destination project, right-click on the definition list and select Paste.
Lastly, instantiate the definition and paste it on the canvas (see Creating the First Instance of a Definition in this chapter).
Intra-Project
The same process as described above can also be used for copying and pasting a module definition within the same
project, except the source and destination projects are the same.
Copy Transfer
This feature builds on the foundation provided by the Copy with Dependents feature. Copy with Dependents is a simple
definition copy of an entire module hierarchy, including all dependent module definitions. Copy Transfer addresses the
two major shortcomings of its predecessor: Instance information (i.e. parameter values) of the top-most module is
included in the copy; and the module hierarchy is automatically re-linked together on paste, even if some or all of the
definition need to be renamed. In addition to these, Copy Transfer also provides the convenience of copying directly from
the component instance, as opposed to having to use the definition tree.
To copy transfer a module definition with its dependents, simply right-click on the top-level module instance and select
Copy Transfer.
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This action copies all module definitions that are part of this module hierarchy, along with the instance information (i.e.
entered parameter data) of the top-level module. To paste the new hierarchy, right-click on a schematic canvas in any
loaded project and select Paste Transfer.
NOTE: A module hierarchy that has been paste transferred is completely unique from and exclusive of the
copied original.
Parallel and High Performance Computing
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Parallel and High Performance Computing
By the early to mid 2000s, the physical limitations of semi-conductor based, microelectronics had begun to alter the
course of processor design. Clock speeds, which had increased by several orders of magnitude in the latter part of the
20th century, could no longer be significantly enhanced. As a result, manufacturers began to focus more on parallel
computing via multi-core processors in order to increase computing power. Since then, eight, 16 and even higher-core
processors have since become more prominent in newer personal computers.
Beginning in the late 2000s, requests for PSCAD and EMTDC to take advantage of parallel computing techniques began
to rise. In response to this increasing feedback, the development direction began to move in part towards the exploitation
of multiple-core processors; this in order to increase simulation efficiency and reduce the time needed to extract results.
Versions prior to v4.5 (released in 2012) did not utilize more than two processor cores. PSCAD and EMTDC ran on
separate cores, but there was always only one EMTDC process running at any given time.
With the release of v4.5, two unique parallel computing functions were incorporated that both utilize multiple processor
cores: A parallel solution of transmission lines and cables, and a rudimentary ability to launch multiple EMTDC simulation
runs simultaneously, where each EMTDC runtime process is based on a unique case project. In v4.6, the ability to launch
multiple EMTDC processes from a single project was introduced.
Transmission Lines and Cables
In older versions, transmission lines and cables were solved sequentially (i.e. one at a time). Some projects we have
come across contain hundreds of transmission segments; the serial processing of which was cumbersome and time
consuming. Given the fact that transmission lines and cables are solved independently of each other, and that there can
be many of them in a single project, it makes perfect sense to exploit parallel computing techniques to solve them faster.
Old Way (Serial)
New Way (Parallel)
When a project is compiled, one of the final steps in the compilation process is to solve each and every transmission
segment. Once this is complete, the EMTDC runtime executable can be built and the simulation launched. Transmission
segments are now solved in parallel, based on the number of cores available on the local machine. For example, if the
local processor has 8 cores, 7 of the 8 (one is being used by PSCAD) will be utilized until all segments are solved. Each
segment will be assigned a single core directly: If the number of segments exceeds the number of cores available, then
the segments will be solved in sequential sets until they all are solved. In the example above, note that only 7 segments
are solved at a time, as there are only 7 cores available for processing.
Simulation Sets
Simulation sets are an inherent part of the workspace, and can be viewed and modified from within the workspace primary
window.
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The concept of a simulation set provides the foundation for parallel computing in PSCAD. A simulation set is a container
of sorts, used to compartmentalize and configure groups of simulations. All simulations placed within a particular set are
launched simultaneously (in parallel), utilizing all processing resources available. If multiple simulation sets have been
defined, then each set is run sequentially as they appear in the list of sets: In the image above for example,
SimulationSet1 will launch and run the ieee_ssr_bench and Study_2 projects simultaneously. Once finished,
SimulationSet2 will launch and run the Cigre_Benchmark project. The sequential launching of all sets is automatic, if the
user selects to run all sets.
The image below illustrates a scenario on how resources are utilized when running simulations in sets. In this example,
there are two sets, one containing 5 simulations, and the other 9. As the local processor is 8-core, then there are 7 cores
available (one used by PSCAD) to run the processes. The second set contains more simulations than there are cores
available (9 simulations, 7 cores). In these situations, the operating system will force all 9 processes to be shared
amongst the available resources, resulting in decreased efficiency. It is important to note then to avoid exceeding the
resources available to you when launching sets. Obviously, the more cores available for parallel processing, the larger the
sets of simulations can be without decreasing efficiency.
Set Containing 5 Simulations Uses One Core For Each Directly
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Set Containing 9 Simulations Must Share the 7
Cores Available (Decreased Efficiency)
Parallel and High Performance Computing
Only projects loaded under the Projects branch in the workspace primary window may be added as a Simulation in a
Simulation Set. Simulation sets and corresponding settings are all stored as part of the workspace.
For more information on manipulating simulation sets, see the following topics:
Adding a Simulation Set
Adding a Project to a Simulation Set
Running Simulations Sets
Pausing a Simulation Set
Stopping a Simulation Set
Simulation Set Options
To invoke the Simulation Set Options dialog, right-click on an existing simulation set and select Simulation Set Options...
The following describes the options available for simulation sets:
Simulation Set

Name: The name of the simulation set. Name length must be 30 characters or less, and must only contain valid
characters.
Command Line
Pre and post-run processes may be performed between simulation set runs. For example, a batch file can be used to
copy or move EMTDC output files to another folder before the next simulation set is started.

Post-Run Process: Specify an executable (*.exe) or batch (*.bat) file to run, after the simulation set has
completed.

Wait (Post-Run): Select Wait or Do Not Wait. If wait is selected, PSCAD will wait for the Post-Run Process to
complete before continuing with the simulation set run.

Pre-Run Process: Specify an executable (*.exe) or batch (*.bat) file to run, before the simulation set has
completed.

Wait (Pre-Run): Select Wait or Do Not Wait. If wait is selected, PSCAD will wait for the Pre-Run Process to
complete before continuing with the simulation set run.
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Simulation Options
To invoke the Simulation Options dialog, right-click on an existing simulation and select Simulation Options...
The following describes the options available for simulations:
General

Namespace: Display only. This is the associated project namespace name.

Volley Count: Each project can launch multiple instances of itself for batch processing, each assigned a rank
number used to isolate control behaviour. See Volley Launch (SPMD) for more details.

Trace Affinity: Specify which project instance run (rank number) that will provide trace, or plotting information
back to PSCAD. For example, if the Volley Count is set to 10, then there are 10 possible simulations that can
be used as a 'tracer'. Select a single number (i.e. the rank number) to specify. See Volley Launch (SPMD) for
more details.
Volley Launch (SPMD)
In computing, the acronym SPMD (or 'spim-D') stands for Single Program, Multiple Data. It is a technique used to achieve
parallelism, where multiple instances of a simulation are run simultaneously on multiple processor cores, given different
input, in order to obtain results quicker and more efficiently than running them sequentially. In PSCAD, the SPMD concept
is referred to more affectionately as a Volley Launch, analogous to the military tactic of having a line of soldiers fire all
their weapons simultaneously. SPMD is also referred to as Data Parallel Processing.
Volley launch provides the ability to launch multiple simulation runs in parallel (up to a maximum of 64), based on a single
case project. To set up a volley, a simulation must first be added to a simulation set. Once added, simply invoke the
Simulation Options dialog and adjust the Volley Count option. For example, if you want to launch 7 simultaneous runs of
a single project, then set the Volley Count to 7. When you next launch the simulation set, 7 instances of that simulation
will be launched in parallel, utilizing all available processor cores.
In the example below, a project called Chopper is set to run as a volley of 16.
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A Simulation Called Chopper Set to a Volley of
16
Simulation Options Dialog
Volley Count Displayed on Simulation
Rank Number
The Rank Number, or simply Rank, is an identification number for a single simulation instance that is part of a volley
launch. If there are 16 simulation instances in a volley for example, rank number 5 identifies the 5th simulation instance.
When a simulation is launched as a volley, only a single simulation can be selected to pass plotting data back to PSCAD
for display. The rank number is used to identify the simulation instance to be used as the tracer. Tracer is also a military
term referring to tracer bullets used in automatic weapons — projectiles that are visible to the naked eye. The tracer
simulation is set via the Simulation Options dialog, using the Trace Affinity field.
A Simulation Called Chopper Set to a Volley of 16
Simulation Options Dialog
In the example above, the Trace Affinity is set to 3, meaning that the 3rd simulation instance in the volley will return the
plotting waveforms. The purpose of this is to provide user feedback during development and debugging of the simulation.
Once this part is complete, the affinity can be set to 0. Zero indicates that no simulation will return waveforms, resulting in
better performance.
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The rank number is also used to ensure unique input data for each simulation instance in the volley. Rank number can be
used in combination with the Rank Number component in the master library.
Root Control Interface (RCI)
The Root Control Interface (RCI) was first released as part of the v4.5 minor upgrade. Root control allows for one root, or
master project, to control multiple slave projects, where both master and slaves must be part of the same Simulation Set.
The idea behind the development of the RCI was to support both parameter sweep, as well as optimization-based,
multiple-run studies.
Like the simulation sets, the RCI is an inherent part of the workspace, which enables inter-project communication within a
single simulation set. This is accomplished using the already well defined Radio Link transmitter and receiver
components, which were extended in v4.5 to include a provision field for a foreign namespace (that is, another project
within the workspace). This instructs the link to collect its value from a foreign source, and thus allows for a more
sophisticated means of multiple run control.
A Simulation Set with Three Projects: One Master and Two Slaves
The image above illustrates an example simulation set containing three projects: One configured as a master and two
configured as slaves. Each slave project communicates with the master via radio link transmitters and receivers. The
master also communicates with the slaves in the same way. Communication between projects is performed only between
runs; that is, following the end of one run and before the start of the next. In this way, the master project distributes the
control parameters to the slaves, and the slaves send result data back to the master (via radio links). The master uses the
results data from the slaves to generate input data before the next run starts.
To configure a project as master or slave, change the Run Configuration field under the Runtime tab in the project
settings.
NOTE: Radio links possess an additional facility for the purpose of plotting its value for each run, within the
master project.
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EXAMPLE A (Non-Volley):
Consider the Robust Optimization example workspace in the PSCAD examples folder under ...\Examples\Root Control
(start PSCAD and load this workspace if desired to better follow along with this example explanation). This workspace is
composed of four projects, one configured as a master (chopper_optimization) and the other three as slaves.
The Robust Optimization Workspace
In this example, we focus on the simultaneous simulation set (non-volley), where three slave projects containing a
chopper circuit are run in parallel for each multiple run. Before the start of each run, the master project (called
chopper_optimization), which contains the Optimum Run component, provides each slave project with unique, initial data.
The data provided to the slave projects is the DC parallel capacitor value Cdc, the DC series inductor value Ldc, and the
proportional and integral gain values (I_gain and P_Gain) for the PI controller component. All four of these values are
transmitted from the master to each slave project using radio links.
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Data Transmitted from the Master Project
Data Received by the Slave Projects
NOTE: The rank number specified in each of the radio links is 0. This signifies that the signal is being
transmitted to all simulation instances. In this example, there is only one simulation instance for each project.
Each chopper project is unique, in that the input constant tags in each control circuit are slightly different.
Project chopper1
Project chopper2
Project chopper3
The differing inputs to the control circuit result in a unique output quantity from each slave. A single output signal, being
the objective function (Objective) is transmitted back to the master via radio links.
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Data Transmitted from the Slave Projects
Data Received by the Master Project
NOTE: The rank number specified in each of the radio links in the master is 1. This is because this is a nonvolley simulation and so there is only one unique instance of each simulation.
The master project in this example contains a plot of the three, unique objective functions coming back from each slave
case, where the x-axis is the multiple run number. See Running Simulations Sets for more.
Objective Function Trend Graph (Unique Objective Signal from Each Slave Project)
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Root Control with Volley Launch
Root control can also be used in combination with volley launch. Making use of volley launch will reduce the number of
slave projects you need to maintain, down to just one. The volley rank number is then utilized to provide differentiation
between simulation instances.
EXAMPLE B (Volley):
Consider again the Robust Optimization example workspace described above.
In this example, we focus on the volley simulation set, where a single slave project containing a chopper circuit is
launched as a volley of three for each multiple run. As in EXAMPLE A, before the start of each run the master project
(called chopper_optimization2), which contains the Optimum Run component, provides the slave project initial data. The
data provided is the DC parallel capacitor value Cdc, the DC series inductor value Ldc, and the proportional and integral
gain values (I_gain and P_Gain) for the PI controller component. All four of these values are transmitted from the master
to the slave project using radio links.
Data Transmitted from the Master Project
Data Received by the Slave Project
NOTE: The rank number specified in each of the radio links is 0. This signifies that the same signal is being
transmitted to all simulation instances in the volley. In this case, all three simulation instances will receive the
same data values from the master.
The chopper slave project is being launched as a volley and so all simulation instances will be identical. As such, we must
rely on the simulation rank number in order to provide each simulation instance with unique values. The input constant
tags that were made unique in each slave project in EXAMPLE A, have been moved to the master project in this example,
and then the data transmitted to each simulation instance via the rank number.
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Data Transmitted from the Master Project
Data Received by the Slave Project
NOTE: A unique set of three values needed by each simulation instance are transmitted from the master, given
a specific rank number. A rank number of 0 is specified in the slave to indicate that it should only receive
transmitted data matching it's rank number.
A single output signal, being the objective function (Objective) is transmitted back to the master via a radio link.
Data Transmitted from the Slave Projects
Data Received by the Master Project
NOTE: The rank number is specified in each of the radio links in the master.
IncrediBuild-XGE Grid Computing Engine
In terms of parallel computing, the user is limited only by his or her computing resources. So far, discussions on parallel
computing in PSCAD and EMTDC have focused on the availability of cores on the local processor. Local processors are
fine for small sets of parallel simulations, but can impose serious limitations in larger ones. Enter the IncrediBuild-XGE:
This third-party tool overcomes reliance on just the local processor, by interfacing with and controlling other processors on
the local network, using PSCAD as supervisory control software.
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First available with PSCAD v4.6, the IncediBuild-XGE (by IncrediBuild), effectively combines a designated collection of
processors available on the local area network (LAN) to act as a single processor with a much greater number of cores.
This greatly increases the number of parallel EMTDC processes that can be launched from PSCAD, drastically reducing
the time required to perform highly parallel simulations. The IncediBuild-XGE is very easy to setup, involving the
installation of an agent utility on each machine whose processor is to be designated for simulation. An additional
coordinator program is installed on single machine to coordinate and manage the processes spawned.
PSCAD Using the IncrediBuild-XGE for High Performance Computing
A server farm can thence be constructed, comprised of many multi-core processors that are dedicated to running
simulations. In fact, most organizations will have enough idle processors on their LAN to create a virtual supercomputer!
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Electric Network Interface (ENI)
All process commands originate from a single PSCAD machine (which must have an agent utility installed) and are sent to
the coordinator machine, along with an XML file containing a task list. PSCAD itself runs normally, with all process control
being managed by the coordinator. When using the IncrediBuild-XGE, a monitor window provides feedback on how the
processes are being remotely deployed and coordinated.
IncrediBuild-XGE Process Monitoring Window
Procurement and Setup
If you are interested in setting up the IncrediBuild-XGE in your local environment, please contact our PSCAD Sales Desk
for more information.
Electric Network Interface (ENI)
Beginning with PSCAD v4.6, multiple case projects representing multiple parts of a complete electric network, may be run
simultaneously as a single simulation. A single electric network may be split so that each electric subsystem is
represented by a separate case project, and thereby run using a separate EMTDC process. Each EMTDC process is
linked together via an Electric Network Interface (ENI) to form a cohesive simulation that is run from within a single
workspace.
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Multi-Project Simulation Using the ENI in PSCAD
In terms of runtime information for plotting and online data signal control, PSCAD and EMTDC communicate normally as
they would for a single process. There is additional communication between the multiple EMTDC processes in multiproject simulations however. Due to the fact that each EMTDC process is an executable file, each can be launched on its
own processor core, enabling parallel simulation of the complete system.
For larger networks containing multiple subsystems, using the ENI can greatly enhance the total simulation speed,
especially when the subsystems contain high speed switching devices (i.e. FACTs devices).
Setting Up the ENI
The boundaries of electric subsystems in EMTDC are defined via distributed-parameter transmission lines and cables,
and so it makes sense that the transmission segments themselves be the linking points in a multi-project simulation. As a
very simple example, let us take a slightly modified version of the familiar Cigre Benchmark Model example project. A
transmission line has been added to represent the DC interconnection between the two converters (the original was
simply an RLC passive network).
Cigre Benchmark Model Example Project with Transmission Line Interconnect
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Electric Network Interface (ENI)
The addition of the transmission line to this system results in a division of the electric network into two, separate
subsystems (approximately 25 nodes each). These two sub-networks can be compiled and launched as separate, but
dependent processes, due to the natural propagation delay generated by the distributed transmission line. Before this can
be accomplished however, the project must be manually split in to two separate project files.
Splitting the project up can be achieved in a number of ways, but the most efficient is to first duplicate the project and
then manually modify each one. Doing this for this example results in the following two separate project circuits:
Rectifier Side Project
Inverter Side Project
In order to accommodate this new electric network interface between projects, some changes have been made to the
transmission line components. These changes are explained in the following sections.
Transmission Line and Cable Parameters
A few parameters and functionalities exist in both the Overhead Line and Cable configuration, as well as the Overhead
Line and Cable interface components in order to accommodate the ENI interface. In the configuration components, two
new termination styles have are provided.
Of the four options provided, only Foreign and Alien ends are used when setting up the ENI interface:

Foreign ends: Foreign ends are used to interface between two separate case projects within the same
workspace (i.e. instance of PSCAD).

Alien ends: Alien ends are used to interface between two separate case projects within two separate instances
of PSCAD.
The interface components contain a few parameters involving the ENI:
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These parameters provide information for the Control Signal Carrier function (described below).

Sending/Receiving Signal Dimension: Enter the dimension of both incoming control or outgoing control
signal. See Control Signal Carrier for more details.
There is also a parameter provided for using the ENI between separate PSCAD applications:

End Type: This parameter specifies the end type of this side of the transmission line: None, Client or Server.
When simulating using two separate PSCAD applications, one instance must act as the server, and the other
the client: The case project containing the Overhead Line Configuration component is always designated as the
server.
Control Signal Carrier
Inevitably when a project is decomposed into separate electrical subsystems, there will be situations where control signals
generated in one project are needed in another. The ENI utilizes a concept referred to Control Signal Carrier, which allows
control signals to be piped through the transmission line interface, along with the electrical data. Of course, the control
signal data arrives at the other end with no time delay.
In the example given above, the Current Order control signal is generated in the inverter case project, and then passed
via control signal carrier to the rectifier project.
Project 1
Transmission Line
End Exchanging
Control Signal Data
with Project 2
Project 2
Transmission Line
End Exchanging
Control Signal
Data with Project 1
Transmission Line Interface Component Parameters
Module Comparison Tool
The Module Comparison Tool provides the ability to compare two module definitions and identify differences through
graphical feedback.
The comparison is performed directly on the XML data representing each module definition, and so the differences
detected encompass just about everything from parameters, script and graphics of components on the Schematic canvas,
to Canvas Settings and other properties. The tool will also detect whether or not components exist in both the primary and
secondary module definition being compared.
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Module Comparison Tool
NOTE: The comparison tool does not identify differences in the module definition graphic or module parameters
sections.
Initiating a Comparison
The controls for the module comparison tool may be found in the Tools tab of the ribbon control bar. At least one project
must be loaded in the workspace before proceeding. To compare two module definitions:

Select the primary and secondary module definitions from the drop lists provided. The drop lists will include
access to all module definitions in all projects currently loaded in the workspace. For example, the CtrlSystem
module in the project Series_AF and the CtrlSystem module in the project Series_AF_Change1 are selected for
comparison below.

Select the Compare button to perform the comparison.
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Reviewing the Differences
When differences are detected, they are displayed in both the Schematic view and in the Comparison Tool Results pane.
In the Schematic view, color-coded shading is applied to areas where differences are detected. For example:
If the mouse pointer is positioned over one of the graphical results on the transparency, a popup dialog will appear, listing
the description of the difference.
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Module Comparison Tool
The comparison results are displayed on a transparency, overlaid atop the actual Schematic canvas. While the
transparency is enabled, no changes may be made to the canvas. The comparison transparency may be toggled on and
off by clicking the Show/Hide Comparison button in the ribbon control bar (this button may be found in either the Tools or
the View tab).
Differences may also be reviewed in table format via the Comparison Tool Results pane. Each row in the table represents
a unique difference between the two module definitions, including a description of the difference, as well as the actual
values in each module as applicable.
Note that like the other panes, the Comparison Tool Results may be hidden, tabbed or docked in the PSCAD
environment, or undocked outside of PSCAD as a separate floating pane.
Navigating Differences
The results shown in the Schematic view are synchronized with those given in the Comparison Tool Results pane. Simply
click a row in the results table to highlight the result in the Schematic view. Alternatively, select a difference in Schematic
view to highlight the corresponding row in the Comparison Tool Results pane.
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Filtering the Results
The data in the Comparison Tool Results pane may be filtered in a number of different ways in order to keep the
information specific to what you are looking for. To filter the results:
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
Right-click on a specific row in the results pane and select a filter:

Select a filter from the Filter button:
Blackboxing Modules
Blackboxing Modules
With a simple click of the mouse, this feature will convert any page module into an equivalent, non-module component,
complete with generated source files and optional compiled binary files. Referred to as 'blackboxing', it allows control
systems to be designed and maintained graphically, only to be quickly collapsed and compiled at will; thereby protecting
intellectual property when models are distributed to clients.
Background
In essence, PSCAD is (and always has been) a source code generator for the EMTDC simulation program. Both modules
and standard (non-module) components are combined to form the source defining a structured, sequential program,
which includes a unique set of subroutines to represent each module in the project. All components may possess a
combination of parameters and ports. When module components are coded in Fortran, these ports and parameters are
used to define the arguments for the corresponding subroutine. Non-module components combine to represent the body
of the subroutine.
Beginning in and around 2011, requests for instructions on how to convert module components to equivalent, independent
external source have noticeably increased. This trend involves using PSCAD module hierarchies to generate Fortran
source (ex. a device controller). The generated Fortran is then manually manipulated to remove the internally dependent
code required by PSCAD and EMTDC, thereby creating external source that may be called from within a standard
component. This effectively conceals the graphical design of the circuit, hiding the contents within the external
source. The source is normally compiled into an object (*.obj) file or static library (*.lib) before it is supplied to the client,
providing protection for the provider’s intellectual property. The custom component may also be further customized to
include a Branch segment to represent the electric network, plus ports and other required attributes – the end result being
a fully ‘blackboxed’ version of the source module component.
The Algorithm
Blackbox performs all the necessary steps required to convert a page module in PSCAD into a user-defined component,
including compiled source code. The following functions are executed automatically:

Fortran Source Generation: PSCAD already generates Fortran source, however this code is written
specifically to interact with EMTDC as part of the simulation project, and is not formatted to be used as
independent, external source. Blackbox will generate Fortran source code specifically formatted to be used as
an external file.

Automatic Object/Library file Creation: The option to compile the generated source file into an object file is
provided. Note that if the module being blackboxed contains other modules within it, all object files created will
be bound together into a static library.

Automatic Component Creation: A component definition and instance is created, based on the contents of
the module hierarchy. This includes ports, parameters, graphics and script segments.
Restrictions
With any automated process, there are restrictions that must be adhered to before using the feature. These are explained
below.
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Runtime Objects, Output Channels and Radio Links
Runtime objects, output channels and radio links are not supported by the blackbox feature, and so therefore the module
schematic cannot contain any of these components.
If the module you want to blackbox contains some or all of these components, then they must be removed and/or
substituted by supported components. Input-based components, such as the slider, switch and dial, can be substituted in
one of two ways: The preferable method is to move them out of the module so that their signal is passed via a port or
parameter:
Inside Module Schematic
Outside Module Schematic
Note also that output-based components, such as radio link transmitters and output channels, must be removed
completely before commencing with black boxing.
Transmission Line Components
The module component you are blackboxing cannot contain any transmission lines or cables.
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Blackboxing Modules
Electrical Components
Presently, the blackboxing feature does not support any electrical components on the schematic (purely controls
only). Future versions of blackboxing are expected to support electrical systems however.
User Controlled Options
There are a few application level options that may be adjusted to help customize how and where your blackbox is
created. These can all be found within the Application Options dialog.
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For details on the blackbox control options, see Blackboxing.
Scenarios (Control Templates)
The Scenarios feature (formerly known as Control Templates) provides users with the ability to save unique sets of
dynamic control settings (i.e. Dial, Switch and Slider components) into scenario templates. In a sense, saving a scenario
is similar to taking a snapshot of all dynamic control settings in a project, which may thereafter be referenced at any time.
Scenarios are saved as part of the project file, so when a project with scenarios is loaded, any saved set of settings can
be immediately reinstated by selecting the desired scenario. It is possible to store multiple scenarios so that the user can
easily switch between them, without having to manually reset all the control components. In fact, scenarios can be
changed during a simulation!
Scenarios can be accessed via the Home tab of the ribbon control bar.
Saving the Active Scenario
Before saving your dynamic control settings as a scenario, first ensure that all Dial, Switch and Slider control components
have been set, and that the current project is the active project. Press the Scenarios button to bring up the scenarios
pop-up menu as shown below:
Select either Save or Save As depending on what you want to do. If this is the first scenario created for this project,
select the latter.
NOTE: You may store all settings to the default scenario if you wish. Simply ensure that Default appears in
the control setting window and select Save. Also, ensure that all controls possess a distinct name; otherwise
an error message will be posted.
If creating a new scenario (i.e. Save As), a dialog window will pop-up – enter a name for the scenario.
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Scenarios (Control Templates)
When finished, press the OK button. Your dynamic control settings will now be stored in this new scenario. Whenever
you want to revert back to this scenario, simply left-click the down arrow on the scenario drop list and select it.
Delete Active Scenario
You can delete any scenario by first making the scenario to be deleted the active scenario. Then select the Delete
Scenario button in the Home tab of the ribbon control bar:
Scenario Viewer
The application provides a scenario viewer so that the dynamic control settings in each scenario can be easily viewed and
verified. To bring-up the scenario viewer, select the View Scenario button in the Home tab of the ribbon control bar:
Features and Functions
The scenario viewer window contains a few simple features to help view and organize scenario data. The viewer consists
of two sections: A scenarios tree on the left, which displays all scenarios saved in the project and a data sheet view to the
right. The data sheet view lists the settings (specific to whatever scenario is selected in the scenario tree) of all control
interfaces in the project.
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To view the settings pertaining to a single scenario, simply select that scenario on the scenario tree.
Values in the Value, Min and Max columns may be modified and saved directly from the Scenario Viewer. Simply
double-click on the field and enter a number.
Global Substitutions
Global substitutions provide a mechanism to use (i.e. substitute) pre-defined, constant values globally throughout a
project. A global value can be substituted within any module at any level in the project hierarchy, and is normally done so
via component input parameters.
Global substitutions are similar to substitutions used within component definitions, in that they are simply a text string,
which represents a literal value (or another string). Once defined, the text string (or key) can be inserted into any
component input parameter; its value will be substituted by the PSCAD compiler when the project is built.
The syntax for using a defined global substitution is as follows:
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Global Substitutions
$(<Key>)
The substitution contains an item <Key>, where:

<Key>: Item key (defined global parameter) that is to be placed at the substitution point.
Component input parameters containing global substitutions will be pre-processed before their value is used within the
component code (or canvas if a module). To the component, the input parameter appears exactly as if the user entered
the data directly.
Viewing Defined Global Substitutions
In the workspace window, right-click on a project and select Global Substitutions | Edit Values... (or simply press Ctrl +
g on your keyboard), to bring up the Global Substitutions dialog window.
Existing global substitution values may be modified directly from the dialog. For example, say two substitutions to
represent system frequency and transmission line length (called f and length) already exist. A user wants to set the
system frequency globally as 50 Hz, and the transmission line length globally as 100 km in a project. This can be
modified as follows in the global substitutions dialog:
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Adding/Editing Global Substitutions
Global substitutions are handled in a very similar manner as component input parameters, in that they are defined as
‘parameters’ of the Main page. As such, the user can add new, and edit existing global substitutions by using the
parameter editor for the Main module definition (i.e. the Parameters section).
To add or edit a global substitution, right-click on a project and select Global Substitutions | Add or Modify
Items.... This will simply open the Main module parameters section.
For more details on adding and editing input parameters, see The Parameters Section in Chapter 9 – Component
Design.
Utilizing Global Substitutions
To utilize these substitutions, enter either of the keys in the appropriate component input parameter field, according to the
syntax given above:
Entering f in Single-Phase Transformer Parameters Dialog
Entering length in Transmission
Line Configuration Dialog
Unit System
Component parameter units perform limited conversion and scaling, depending on the unit entered and the defined
default (or Target) unit for that particular input parameter. The unit system includes base units for time, length, weight and
speed (both translational and rotational), as well as electrical units, such as voltage, current and power.
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Unit System
Enabling the Unit System
To enable the unit system, click the associated check box in the Dynamics tab of the Project Settings dialog. This option
is normally enabled by default.
Unit Format
Units are entered exclusively into component input parameter fields and may only be associated with literal input
data: That is, units are invalid when using input variables or global substitutions. All entered units must be separated at
least one space from the entered value. For example:
Examples of Units Entered in Component Input Fields
Base Units
The foundation of the unit system is the base unit. Base units represent all units that are recognized by the unit
system. Use of units in an input field is optional, and if the input does not have a unit specification included with it, then
the unit will assume that of the Target Unit for the input parameter. If units are specified, then the unit conversion is strict
and will evaluate an input parameter field as indeterminate (#NaN) if it does not recognize the unit or fails to process a
compound unit. All the base units, except a few noted exceptions, conform to the International System of Units (SI).
The following lists the valid (standard) base units recognized by the Unit System. All symbols are case sensitive and must
appear exactly as shown to maintain validity:
Electrical
Name
Symbol
Conversion Factor
Description
Volt
V
Electrical voltage
Ampere
A
Electrical current
Ohm
ohm
Siemens
S
Electrical conductance 1
Siemens
mho
Electrical conductance 2
Siemens
mhos
Electrical conductance 3
Watt
W
Volt-Amps
VA
Electrical resistance
Electrical power 1
1 VA = 1.0 W
Electrical power 2
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Volt-Amps
VAR
1 VAR = 1.0 W
Electrical power 3
Horsepower
hp
1 hp = 746.0 W
Electrical power 4
Farad
F
Electrical capacitance
Henry
H
Electrical inductance
Tesla
T
Magnetic flux density
Second
s
Time in seconds 1
Second
sec
Time in seconds 2
Second
Sec
Time in seconds 3
Minute
min
1 min = 60 s
Time in minutes
Hour
hr
1 hr = 3600 s
Time in hours
Day
day
1 day = 86400 s
Time in days
Frequency
Cycles per
Second
Hz
Cycles per second
Length
Metre
m
Length in metres
Inch
in
1 in = 0.0254 m
Length in inches
Feet
ft
1 ft = 0.3048 m
Length in feet
Yard
yd
1 yd = 0.9144 m
Length in yards
Mile
mi
1 mi = 1609.344 m
Length in miles
Gram
g
Pound
lb
Revolutions
rev
Radian
rad
1 rad = 1/2 rev
Angle in radians
Degree
deg
1 deg = 1/360 rev
Angle in degrees
Revolutions
per Minute
rpm
1 rpm = 1/60 rev/s
Rotational speed in revolutions per minute
Revolutions
RPM
1 RPM = 1/60 rev/s
Rotational speed in revolutions per minute 2
Time
Weight
Rotational
Other
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Weight in grams
1 lb = 453.59237 g
Weight in pounds
Revolutions ( 1 [rev] = one complete revolution)
Unit System
per Minute
Per-Unit
pu
Per-unit quantity
Per-Unit
p.u.
Per-unit quantity 2
Percent
%
1 % = 0.01 pu
Percent quantity
Prefixes
The unit system utilizes a limited list of SI prefixes in order to allow for scaling of base units. Prefixes must precede a valid
base unit, and may be inserted anywhere within compound units.
The following table lists all valid prefixes:
Name
Symbol
Scale Factor
tera
T
1012
giga
G
109
mega
M
106
kilo
k
103
milli
m
10-3
micro
u
10-6
nano
n
10-9
pico
p
10-12
Target Units
The unit system will determine the final conversion or scaling factor to apply, based on the target unit of the input
parameter field. The target unit is the symbol entered in the Units field (i.e. the default unit) in the Parameters section of
the component definition.
NOTE: You can view the target units of any component by invoking the View Properties dialog: Right-click on
the component and select View Properties.
Target units are not limited to the base units alone, and may include prefixes by default (i.e. kA): In instances such as
these, any prefixes in the target unit will be considered if further scaling is performed later on. In fact, this is quite
common in the master library, where many target units are specified in [kA], [kV] or [uF].
EXAMPLE 5-5:
The master library component 3-Phase 2-Winding Transformer contains an input parameter called Winding 1 Line to Line
Voltage (RMS), whose target unit is specified as kV in the Units field.
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3-Phase 2-Winding Transformer
Input Field Property Settings (V1)
A user enters data into the Winding 1 Line to Line Voltage (RMS) field as 0.153 [MV]. Given that the target unit contains
the prefix k, the application will understand that any quantity entered in this parameter field must be converted back to
kilovolts (not the base unit of volts [V]). Therefore in this case, the quantity will be multiplied by a scale factor of 1000 to
convert it from 0.153 [MV] back to 153.0 [kV].
Whether or not target units include prefixes is normally of no concern, unless of course a new component is being
designed. Provided that the base of the entered unit matches that of the target, all scaling and conversion is performed
automatically.
Unit Conversions
The most useful aspect of the unit system is the ability to convert one unit to another, be it an imperial/metric conversion
or simply converting from one form to another, such as radians to degrees.
Converting units from one form to another is relatively straightforward, the only rule is that the conversion must take place
within the same base unit class; for example, [m] to [ft] (both units measure length) or [sec] to [hr] (both units measure
time). Valid prefixes may be included in the conversion as well, for instance, [km] to [mi].
EXAMPLE 5-6:
A user is designing a transmission line tower. The default units for the tower dimensions are in metres, but the user's
specification sheets give the dimensions in feet. The unit system will allow the user to enter this data directly in feet,
without the need to convert to metres.
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Unit System
Transmission Line Tower Component
Transmission Line Tower Parameter Dialog
PSCAD will automatically convert all units entered in feet, back to metres before the Line Constants Program is called to
solve the line.
Compound Units
The unit system will recognize three types of arithmetic operator within the unit brackets, in order to allow for combining
(or compounding) units together. These are:
Arithmetic
Operator
Description
*
Multiply
/
Divide
^
Exponent
When dealing with compound units, it important to note some simple rules. Failure to follow these rules may result in
invalid unit conversion:


The sequence in which the arithmetic operators occur in the entered unit must match that of the target unit.
Entered
Target
Correct:
[hp*min/MVA]
[MW*s/MVA]
Incorrect:
[hp/MVA*min]
The total number of arithmetic operators in the entered unit must match that of the target unit. That is, you
cannot substitute an exponent for multiple 'divisions' or 'multiplications'.
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Correct:
Incorrect:

Entered
Target
[ft*ft]
[m*m]
[ft^2]
Multiple 'divide' symbols are not allowed - only one 'divide' per compound unit may exist.
Entered
Target
Correct:
[lb*ft/s]
[kg*m/s]
Incorrect:
[lb/s/ft]
EXAMPLE 5-7:
The master library component Wind Turbine contains an input parameter called Machine rated angular speed, whose
target unit is specified as rad/s in the Units field.
Wind Turbine
Input Field Properties Dialog (Wrat)
A user enters data into this parameter as 60.0 [Hz]. This is a valid unit in this case as both Hz and rad/s are essentially
the same type of measure, where 2 [rad/s] = 1 [rev/s] = 1 Hz (see Base Units above).
EXAMPLE 5-8:
The master library component Wind Turbine (described above) also contains an input parameter called Air Density,
whose target unit is specified as kg/m^3 in the Units field.
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Wire Mode
Input Field Properties Dialog (Airden)
A user enters data into this parameter as the equivalent in imperial units 0.07647 [lb/ft^3]. The units converter will apply
the appropriate scale factors to this number so that the quantity will appear to EMTDC as it is still in kg/m^3.
Verifying Unit Conversions
It is generally recommended to ensure that any unit conversions performed in a component are verified before proceeding
with the simulation. This can be accomplished easily by using the Properties Viewer. This dialog displays the target unit,
the entered data, and the final value following the conversion.
The following diagram shows these three parameters following the changes made the 'Air Density' input, as outlined in
Example 5-4.
Wind Turbine Air Density Parameter
Wire Mode
PSCAD includes a special wire drawing feature called Wire Mode, which enables the user to quickly draw interconnecting
Wires between components.
To invoke wire mode, click the Wire Mode button in the Home tab of the ribbon control bar or press Ctrl + w on your
keyboard. With the project open in Schematic view, move the mouse pointer onto the project canvas. The mouse pointer
will have turned into a pencil.
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To draw a wire, move the cursor to the node where you want the line to start and left-click. Move the cursor to where you
want the line to end and left-click again to complete the wire. Multi-segment Wires may be built by continuing to left click
at different points, then right-clicking at the last point.
To turn-off Wire Mode, press the Esc key, or press Ctrl + w, or click the Wire Mode button again.
Drag and Drop
Drag and drop functionality greatly improves the efficiency of project design – especially the construction of online plots
and controls. Drag and drop may be performed directly on the Schematic canvas, or definitions may be instantiated by
drag and drop from the workspace window.
The drag and drop feature uses mouse pointer icons to indicate whether or not a dragged object may be placed under
the current mouse position:

Drop position is valid

Drop position is invalid
Create a Component Instance
Component instances can be created directly from the corresponding definition in the workspace.
1.
Navigate to the definitions list in the workspace secondary window.
2.
Depress the Ctrl key and select and hold the desired component definition with the left mouse button.
3.
Drag the mouse pointer to a blank area on the Schematic canvas and release the button to drop.
Drag and Drop onto Schematic Canvas from Workspace
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Drag and Drop
Copy a Component Instance
All component instances appearing on the Schematic canvas may be copied and pasted using drag and drop.
1.
Hold down the Ctrl key.
2.
Move the mouse pointer over the component instance to be copied.
3.
Select and hold with your left mouse button.
4.
Drag the mouse pointer to a blank area of the Schematic canvas and release the mouse button to paste.
Copying a Component Instance
Adding a Curve to a Graph
Curves can be added directly to graphs using drag and drop.
1.
Hold down the Ctrl key (or use either the Ctrl or Shift key if the Controls and Curve Creation option is set to
Use shift key to create in the Application Options dialog).
2.
Move the mouse pointer over the desired Output Channel component instance.
3.
Select and hold with your left mouse button.
4.
Drag the mouse pointer to the desired graph and release the mouse button to paste.
Adding a Curve to a Graph from a Output Channel
Adding a Meter to a Control Panel
Meters can be added directly to control panels using drag and drop.
1.
Hold down the Ctrl key (use the Shift key if the Controls and Curve Creation option is set to Use shift key to
create in the Application Options dialog).
2.
Move the mouse pointer over the desired Output Channel component instance.
3.
Select and hold with your left mouse button.
4.
Drag the mouse pointer over the desired control panel title bar and release the mouse button to paste.
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Adding a Meter to a Control Panel from a Output Channel
Adding a Control Interface to a Control Panel
Control interfaces can be added directly to control panels using drag and drop.
1.
Hold down the Ctrl key (use the Shift key if the Controls and Curve Creation option is set to Use shift key to
create in the Application Options dialog).
2.
Move the mouse pointer over the desired control component instance.
3.
Select and hold with your left mouse button.
4.
Drag the mouse pointer over the desired control panel title bar and release the mouse button to paste.
Adding a Control Interface to a Control Panel from a Output Channel
Move/Copy Meters and Curves Between Graphs/Panels
Once a curve or meter interface has been placed in a graph or control panel, it may then be copied or moved as follows:

A curve may be copied within the same graph, to another graph, or to a panel.

A meter interface may be copied within the same panel, to another panel, or to a graph.

A curve may be moved within the same graph or to another graph.

A meter interface may be moved within the same panel or to another panel.
To copy a curve/meter interface, hold down the Ctrl key and then left-click and hold the object, drag and drop as
described above.
To move a curve/meter interface, left-click and hold the object, drag and drop as described above.
Loading Projects and/or Workspaces
Both library and case projects, or entire workspaces, may be loaded directly into PSCAD via drag and drop. For example,
open PSCAD and File Explorer:
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Accessing the Online Help System
Loading a Workspace from File Explorer
To load a project or workspace, left-click and hold, drag and drop as described above.
Accessing the Online Help System
The online help system table of contents (TOC) or index can be accessed directly through the Help menu in the PSCAD
tab of the ribbon control bar, as shown below:
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You may also bring up the online help by simply pressing the F1 key.
Master library component specific help can be accessed by one of the following methods:

Select the component and then press F1.

Right-click on the component and select Help... from the pop-up menu.

Edit the component parameters and click the Help... button.
In addition to the above, other dialog windows in PSCAD will possess a Help button (usually in the bottom right
corner). Click this button to bring up the online help topic specific to that dialog. See PSCAD On-Line Help System for
more details on the help system in general.
Tool Tips
Tool tip windows (otherwise known as flybys) are especially designed for obtaining dynamic circuit information 'on the
fly'. Tool tips are available both for providing pop-up help on component instances, and for monitoring electrical or control
signal quantities during a simulation.
To monitor an electrical or data signal during a run:
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1.
Left-click on a blank part of the Schematic canvas (this is to ensure that the Schematic canvas is the active
window).
2.
Move and hold the mouse pointer over the signal wire that you want to monitor. In a second or two, a window
should pop up as shown below:
Searching
If the mouse pointer is held over a wire carrying an electrical signal, the flyby will indicate the voltage in kilovolts at that
electrical node. The flyby shown above indicates that this is EMTDC node NT_2, which is a scalar quantity (i.e. singlephase node). The value of the node voltage at the instant this snapshot was taken was -39.3877 kV.
If the mouse pointer is held over a data (control) signal, the signal value will be shown in the flyby.
NOTE: Flyby information for data signals cannot be viewed unless the Store Feed Forward Signals for Viewing
parameter in the Dynamics section of the Project Settings dialog is enabled.
Searching
If it is necessary to search a project for a signal name, port connection name, node number, etc., the Search feature may
be used. To bring up the search dialog window, either:

Press Ctrl + Shift + F on your keyboard, while the Schematic window is open

Press the Search button in the Home tab of the ribbon control bar.
For more details on searching, see Searching.
Component, Transmission Segment and Control
Signal Tables
The component and signal table viewers provide a module-specific list of either object type (depending on which viewer
you are looking at), organized in spreadsheet form. To invoke the corresponding viewer, right-click on a blank part of the
canvas in Schematic view, and select View Control Signals..., View Connectivity Nodes..., View Components... or
View Transmission Segments....
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Note that these selections are disabled (i.e. not available) until the project has been compiled.
Component Table
The component table lists all component instances existing in a particular module. Along with the component name and
type, some other important information is also summarized to help users when debugging or understanding their project.
The columns displayed in this viewer are described below:
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
Instance: Navigate directly to any component instance in the list. Simply left-click on the hyperlink.

Order: Simple order number for display.

Name: The component definition name.

Description: The description of the component definition. See Editing Definition Settings.

Name Parameter: If the component has an input parameter entitled Name, then its contents will be displayed
here. For example, a voltmeter component will display the name of the measured signal created.
Component, Transmission Segment and Control Signal Tables

Sequence: The system dynamics sequence number of the component instance. See Component Ordering in
the chapter Project Debug and Refinement for more information.

Location: The location within the system dynamics where the instance resides. This can be either DSDYN or
DSOUT.
Control Signal and Connectivity Node Tables
The signal table viewers summarize all control and electrical signals in a particular module. Information is given, such as
the EMTDC control signal variable name and from where the signal is sourced. For electrical signals, node name and
index are given.
The columns displayed in these viewers are described below:
Control Signals:

Instance: Navigate directly to any signal in the list. Simply left-click on the hyperlink.

Name: EMTDC signal variable name. That is, the name given to the signal node by the PSCAD compiler for
use by EMTDC.

Type: The signal type. Can be ANALOG (REAL), DIGITAL (INTEGER) or LOGICAL.

Local Index: A local (i.e. module based) index number given to the signal.

Global Index: A global (i.e. project based) index number given to the signal.

Source: The source or creator of the signal. Normally a component instance.

Sinks: The number of points at which the signal is received.
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Electrical Signals:

ID: Navigate directly to any node in the list. Simply left-click on the hyperlink

Creator: The creating object for the signal.

Name: EMTDC electrical node name. That is, the name given to the electrical node by the PSCAD compiler
for use by EMTDC.

Subnet: Global and local subsystem number.

Node: Global and local node number.

Terminals: The total number of electrical branches attached to the node.

Flags: Electrical node type.
Transmission Segment Table
The transmission segment table lists all transmission line and cable instances existing in a particular module.
The columns displayed in this viewer are described below:

Instance: Navigate directly to any component instance in the list. Simply left-click on the hyperlink.

Line Name: The segment name of this line or cable.

Steady-State Frequency: The value of the steady-state frequency input parameter of this line or cable.

Length: The value of the length input parameter of this line or cable.

Dimension: The value of the dimension input parameter of this line or cable.

Connection Mode: The value of the connection mode input parameter of this line or cable.

Couple Enabled: The value of the couple enabled input parameter of this line or cable.
NOTE: This table is for viewing only. For an interactive viewer where you can actually modify cell values, see
Parameter Grid Pane.
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EMTDC Output Files
EMTDC Output Files
EMTDC output files are formatted text files, which organize all data into columnar format. Each column, except the first,
which is always time, represents the recorded data from a corresponding Output Channel. For example, if two output
channel components exist in the project, then three columns of data will appear in the EMTDC output file. The following is
a segment of text from a typical EMTDC output file:
Test Case
0.0000000000000
0.0000000000000
0.0000000000000
0.10000000000000E-02
0.0000000000000
0.0000000000000
0.20000000000000E-02
0.86727047422974
0.86727047422974
0.30000000000000E-02
1.6650619394029
1.7674567004163
0.40000000000000E-02
1.9545665157651
2.2542364437667
0.50000000000000E-02
2.0221282586499
2.8373003607589
0.60000000000000E-02
1.9264422562260
4.0202957514613
0.70000000000000E-02
2.3912531836698
5.5547061594874
0.80000000000000E-02
2.8769239640036
6.5791178737352
0.90000000000000E-02
2.8473253982397
6.9456914675731
0.10000000000000E-01
2.3232656122503
7.1369144410646
0.11000000000000E-01
1.2446128466462
7.1669414384869
0.12000000000000E-01
1.6208317681211
7.0023750435365
0.13000000000000E-01
1.6458908605563
7.1529925186834
0.14000000000000E-01
4.2422849293514
9.3453281849245
The project description is written as the first row of text at the top of the file. The first column of data is always the
EMTDC simulation time. The subsequent columns are not labelled –see Column Identification and the Information File
below for more details on this.
EMTDC output files may be used for waveform analysis by a selected post-processing software package. As they are
formatted in a delimited columnar format, they can be easily imported into most graphing or data analysis programs.
Creating Output Files
EMTDC output files are created by choosing Yes in the Save channels to disk? drop list, in the Runtime section of the
Project Settings dialog.
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Output File Naming Convention
The name of generated EMTDC output files is dependent on the project namespace, the rank number, the multiple run
number and the multiple output file number. The syntax used to name output files is as follows:
<namespace>_r##_m#####_##(#).out
Where,
<namespace>
r##
m#####
##(#)
The namespace of the generating project.
Two-digit rank number. If the generating project was launched as part of a volley,
this number identifies its rank.
Five-digit multiple run number. If the generating project contains a multiple run
control, then this number specifies the run to which the file was generated by.
Two or three-digit file number. If the file number is less than 100, then it will
appear as two-digit. If greater than 99, three-digit. See Multiple Output Files below
for more.
EMTDC output files are given the extension '*.out' and are stored in the project temporary folder.
Multiple Output Files
The maximum amount of columns per output file is 11 (including the time column). Therefore, if more than 10 output
channel components exist in a project, multiple output files will be created. For example, if your project contains 23 output
channels, a total of three output files will be created.
The naming convention for multiple output files is to simply append a sequential number as a suffix. For example, if the
output file is named abc_r01_m00001.out, and there are three files as described above, the output files would be named
abc_r01_m00001_01.out, abc_r01_m00001_02.out and abc_r01_m00001_03.out. This sequential numbering is
important when identifying data columns (see Column Identification and the Information File).
Column Identification and the Information File
As mentioned above, EMTDC output file columns are not labelled. In order to determine which column is what, an
information file ('*.inf') is also created along with the output file(s), that contains cross-referencing information. The
information file will be named the same as the output file primary file name. For example, if the output file name is
'abc.out', the information file will be named 'abc.inf'. Only one information file is created, even for multiple output files.
A typical information file is shown below for a project containing three output channels.
PGB(1)
Output
Desc="Fund - mag"
Group="Main"
Max=25.0
Min=0.0
Units=""
PGB(2)
Output
Desc="2nd harm - mag"
Group="Main"
Max=25.0
Min=0.0
Units=""
PGB(3)
Output
Desc="3rd harm - mag"
Group="Main"
Max=25.0
Min=0.0
Units=""
At the extreme left is the Output Channel number (i.e. PGB(1), PGB(2), etc.). This number indicates the sequence in
which the Output Channel data is written to an output file. In other words, this number corresponds to the output file
column number. Remember however, that the first column in the output file is time and is not counted. Therefore, Output
Channel 2 (PGB(2)) will actually be the third column from the left in the output file. This column can then be identified
using the corresponding Output Channel name (i.e. 'Desc'). In this case, Output Channel 2 happens to be '2nd harm –
mag'.
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EMTDC Output Files
The Output Channel numbers in the information file will continue in sequence with the number of Output Channel
components in the project. That is, if there are 50 Output Channels in the project, there will be 50 rows in the information
file, numbered up to 50. We already know however, that a single output file will only hold up to 11 columns of data
(including time). For 50 Output Channels then, PSCAD will create five output files, where the columns are numbered
ignoring the time columns in each file. For example, column five in the 3rd output file would be Output Channel 24.
Here is a simple formula to help identify an output file column:
Single Output File:
Output Channel # = Output File Column # - 1
Multiple Output Files:
Output Channel # = Output File Column # - 1 + (10 x (Output File # - 1)
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Chapter 6
Online Plotting and Control
The ability to plot and control data during a simulation adds tremendous value to the study environment. PSCAD comes
complete a number of special runtime objects, specifically designed to allow for the modification of data signals during the
simulation run. Users can interact with models and see the results of that interaction immediately on graphs and curves,
all while the simulation is running happily.
Although the majority of plotting in PSCAD is done so on the basis of time, there are special plotting tools available to
help with other types of data analysis. The XY Plot for example, is specifically designed to plot one data signal verses
another. There are also a variety of other devices available, such as the PhasorMeter and the Oscilloscope; each lends a
unique perspective to the data being displayed.
It is also helpful to ensure displayed data is transferable to other analysis tools. Portions of curve data, whole graphs, or
even entire graph frames may be copied as a picture, meta file or comma separated variable (*.csv) files for placement in
documents and reports.
Preparing Data for Control or Display
The PSCAD environment is a graphical user's interface to the EMTDC simulation engine. Therefore in order to control
input variables or view simulation data, the user must provide EMTDC with instruction on which variables to make
available for viewing or control. This process is performed graphically in PSCAD through a number of special
components, sometimes referred to as runtime objects.
In order to record, display or control any data signals within the environment, the data signal must first be linked to a
runtime object. Runtime objects are organized into three main groups:

Controls: Slider, Dial, Switch and Push Button

Recorders: Output Channel and RTP/COMTRADE Recorder

Display Devices: Control Panel, Graph, XY Plot, PolyMeter and PhasorMeter, Oscilloscope
Each runtime object performs a specific task, and may be used in combination with others to control and/or display data.
Channeling Output Data
Channelling output refers to the directing of data signals for either online display in a graph or meter, or for output to
file. This is accomplished by channelling the desired signal through an Output Channel component. For example, the
image below shows how to channel a signal from a Voltmeter component (named Vmid), as well as how to channel an
unnamed signal directly within the Schematic canvas:
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Graph Frames
NOTE: Output channel components cannot be directly connected to an electrical signal.
Controlling Input Data
Controlling input data refers to using one of the control type runtime objects (i.e. Slider, Dial, Switch or Push Button) as a
source to control a data signal. This is accomplished by simply adding a control object to the Schematic canvas. This
signal can be input at any valid location in the schematic as shown below:
NOTE: The control objects cannot be manually adjusted (as they appear above) until they are linked to a
control interface. See Online Controls and Meters for details.
Graph Frames
A Graph Frame is a special runtime object container used for encapsulating Overlay or PolyGraphs, and can be placed
anywhere on the Schematic canvas. Once a graph frame has been added, you may then proceed to add as many
Graphs to it as you wish.
Graph frames are used exclusively for plotting curves versus time. That is, the graph frame horizontal axis is always the
simulation time. If you need to a plot a curve as a function of another variable, see XY Plots.
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Adding a Graph Frame
Open the project in Schematic view. Right-click on a blank portion of the page and select Add Component | Graph
Frame, or press the Graph Frame button in Components tab of the ribbon control bar.
Moving and Re-Sizing a Graph Frame
To move a graph frame, move the mouse pointer over the title bar and then left-click and hold. Drag the frame to where
it is to be placed and release the mouse button.
To re-size, move the mouse pointer over the title bar and left-click to select the graph frame. Grips should then appear
around the outer edge as shown below.
Move the mouse pointer over one of the grips. Left-click and hold and then drag then move the pointer to re-size.
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Graph Frames
Cut/Copy Frames
Right-click over the graph frame title bar and select Cut Frame or Copy Frame respectively. Once a graph frame has
been cut or copied it may then be pasted into another location in the project (along with its contents).
Paste Frame
Cut or copy a graph frame as described above. Right-click over a blank area of the project page in Schematic view and
select Paste. A graph frame may be pasted multiple times.
Adjusting Frame Properties
To access the Graph Frame Properties dialog, left double-click the frame title bar, or right-click over the title bar and
select Edit Properties....
The properties available in this dialog are as described below:

Caption: Enter a title for the graph frame (this text will appear in the graph frame title bar). The default text
may appear a bit cryptic: The $(GROUP) syntax is used as a naming convention for grouping objects in the
workspace. For more information on this syntax, see Grouping of Runtime Objects. The $(INSTANCE) syntax
may be used to display the module name and instance number for ease in transferring to reports.
Preferences:

Show Markers: Select this option to show the X and O markers on all graphs.

Show Glyphs: Select this option to show glyph symbols on all curves in the frame.

Show Ticks: Select this option to show ticks along the y-intercept on all graphs.

Show Grid: Select this option to show the grid on all graphs.

Show Y-Intercept: Select this option to show the y-intercept in all graphs.
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
Show X-Intercept: Select this option to show the x-intercept in all graphs.

Auto-Pan X-Axis: This allows the user to adjust the panning action. The input field directly beside this check
box accepts an input representing the percentage of the currently viewed graph window (or aperture). For
example, if the total x-axis view is 0.1 seconds, a 10% auto-pan setting will pan the viewing window every 0.01
seconds.
Adjusting Horizontal Axis Properties
To access the Horizontal Axis Properties dialog, double-click over the graph frame horizontal axis, or right-click over the
horizontal axis and select Axis Properties....
NOTE: Adjusting the horizontal axis properties will affect all graphs in the frame.
Axis:
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
Title: Enter a title for the x-axis. This text will appear in the bottom-left corner of the frame, directly beside the
x-axis.

Snap Aperture to Grid: Select this feature so that when using dynamic aperture adjustment, the aperture view
will snap to the major grid while scrolling.

Dynamic Aperture Adjustment: Select this option to enable dynamic aperture adjustment (i.e. horizontal
scroll).

Enable Minor Grids: When selected, minor grid ticks will appear on the frame horizontal axis. Minor grids will
always show the halfway point between major grid points, and are not labelled.

Max: Sets the maximum time of the viewed range.

Min: Sets the minimum time of the viewed range.
Graphs

Grid: Sets the time between the axis major grid points. Major grid points are labelled on the graph frame
horizontal axis.
Markers:

Show Markers: Select this option to show the X and O markers.

Show Delta Readout: Select this option to display the time difference (i.e. t) between the X and O
markers. When this option is disabled, the equivalent 1/t value (i.e. frequency in Hz) will be displayed.

X Marker: Enter the position (in seconds) to place X marker.

O Marker: Enter the position (in seconds) to place O marker.

1/Delta: Select this option to enter the frequency (i.e. 1/Delta) between markers.
Graphs
A Graph is a special runtime object, which can reside only inside a graph frame. There are two types of graphs
available: Overlay and PolyGraphs. A single graph may hold and display multiple curves, where all curves in a graph are
based on the same y-axis scale.
The following illustrates a graph frame with an overlay graph at the top and a polygraph below it.
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Adding Graphs to a Graph Frame
Graph frames may accommodate single or multiple graphs. To add one or more graphs, right-click on the frame title bar
and select Add Overlay Graph (Analog) or Add PolyGraph (Analog/Digital). You can also add an overlay graph
directly by pressing the Insert key on your keyboard with your mouse pointer over the graph frame.
Graph Order
Once multiple graphs have been added to a frame, you may change the order in which they appear. Right-click over the
graph to be moved and select one of the following:
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
Move Graph Up

Move Graph Down
Graphs

Move Graph to Top

Move Graph to Bottom
Cut/Copy Graphs
Right-click over the graph to be cut (removed)/copied and select Cut Graph/Copy Graph respectively. Once a graph has
been cut or copied it may then be pasted into the same or another graph frame.
Paste Graph
Cut or copy a graph as described above. Right-click on the graph frame title bar and select Paste Graph. A graph may
be pasted multiple times, where each paste will replicate the entire graph.
Copy Data to Clipboard
If a simulation has been run and your graph contains curve data, you have the option of copying all or a portion of all
curve data to the clipboard. Right-click over the corresponding graph and select Copy Data to Clipboard and then select
one of the following from the pop-up menu:

All: Copies all curve data available.

Visible Area: Copies all curve data visible in the graph window.

Between Markers: Copies only curve data situated between markers. Note that Show Markers must be
selected in the Axis Properties dialog.
The data is copied as Comma Separated Variables (*.csv) format for easy migration into common data analysis software.
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Overlay Graphs
Overlay graphs are the most common and familiar type of online plotting tool in PSCAD. These graphs display measured
data as a function of time, where multiple curves may be added (or overlaid on top of each other) onto a single graph.
Adjusting Overlay Graph Properties
Left double-click on the desired overlay graph, or right-click on the graph and select Edit Properties.... This will bring up
the Overlay Graph Properties dialog window as shown below:
There are various parameters that may be edited through this window, each of which are described below.
Preferences:
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
Invert Colours: Select this option to give the graph a black background (instead of white or yellow).

Show Glyphs: Select this option to show glyph symbols on all curves in the graph.

Show Grid: Select this option to display grid lines for the x-axis and y-axis major grids.

Show Ticks: Select this option to show major grid tick marks along the y-axis intercept line.
Graphs

Auto Curve Colours: Select this option to use automatic colouring of curves in the graph. You cannot change
curve colour manually when this option is selected.

Show Y-Intercept: Select this option to display the y-intercept (horizontal) intercept line. The y-intercept line
can be adjusted using the Y-Intercept field described below.

Show X-Intercept: Select this option to display the x-intercept (vertical) intercept line. The x-intercept is
always at time zero, and cannot be adjusted in overlay graphs.

Show Cross Hair: Select this option to invoke the cross hairs mode.
Y-Axis:

Title: Enter text for display as the graph title (located on the left side of the graph).

Grid: Specifies the y-axis grid interval. To view the y-axis grid lines, select the option Show Grid described
above.

Ymin: Specifies the minimum y-axis viewing limit on the graph.

Ymax: the maximum y-axis viewing limit on the graph.

Y-Intercept: Specifies the y-axis location of the y-intercept line. This line is only visible if Show Y-Intercept is
selected (see above).

Manual Scaling Only: Select this feature to lock the y-axis limits set in Ymin and Ymax above. The y-axis will
remain locked during any subsequent zoom operations.
PolyGraphs
Polygraphs are used specifically to display plotted curves in a 'stacked' format. That is, each curve is contained within its
own viewing space, and is stacked one atop the other. A polygraph may be chosen over a standard overlay graph if the
user needs to either view many single-curve plots in a compact space, or to make use of the curve digital style functions
to create a logic transition diagram:
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Adjusting PolyGraph Properties
Left double-click on the desired polygraph, or right-click on the graph and select Edit Properties.... This should bring up
the Poly Graph Properties dialog:
There are various parameters that may be edited though this window, each of which are described below.
Preferences:

Invert Colours: Select this option to give the graph a black background (instead of white or yellow).

Show Grid: Select this option to display grid lines for the x-axis and y-axis major grids.

Show Cross Hair: Select this option to invoke the cross hairs mode.

Auto Curve Colours: Select this option to use automatic colouring of curves in the graph. You cannot change
curve colour manually when this option is selected.

Show X-Intercept: Select this option to display the x-intercept (vertical) intercept line. The x-intercept is
always at time zero, and cannot be adjusted in polygraphs.

Show Bands: Selecting this option will give a different background colour between multiple curves in one
graph, for easy visual differentiation.
Curves
A curve is special runtime object best described as a graphical representation of a string of data points, where each point
is associated with a simulation plot step. Curves are created by linking to an Output Channel component, to which a
scalar or array set of data signals have been input. As such, curves can be multi-dimensional; that is a single curve may
possess many sub-curves or Traces, where each trace corresponds to a single array value.
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Curves
If the Output Channel input signal is a scalar (i.e. single dimension), then the curve will consist of a single trace. For more
information on accessing and adjusting individual trace properties, see Traces.
Adding a New Curve to a Graph
Adding a curve to a graph can be accomplished a couple of different ways:
1.
Drag and Drop Method: Hold down the Ctrl key. Left-click and hold over the output channel component
from which you would like to extract the curve. Drag the mouse pointer over a graph and release the mouse
button. See Drag and Drop for more details on this.
2.
Graphs/Meters/Controls Method: Right-click on the output channel component from which you would like to
extract the curve. Select Graphs/Meters/Controls | Add as Curve. Select the desired graph with a left-click,
then right-click and select Paste Curve.
Curve Legends
Once a curve has been added to a graph, the curve title will appear in the curve legend.
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Curve Order
Once multiple curves have been added to a graph, you may change the order in which they appear. Ordering curves can
be accomplished in one of two ways:
1.
Drag and Drop: Left-click and hold over the curve in the curve legend. Drag the mouse pointer to a new
position in the curve legend and release the mouse button. See Drag and Drop for more details on this.
2.
Right-Click Menu: Right-click over the corresponding curve legend and select one of the following from the
pop-up menu: Move to the Start or Move to the End.
Cut/Copy/Paste an Existing Curve
Right-click over the curve title and select either Cut Curve or Copy Curve, depending on what you want to do. Rightclick over any graph and then select Paste Curve to paste the curve. The curve should then appear in the corresponding
curve legend.
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Curves
Copy Data to Clipboard
If a simulation has been run and a particular curve contains data, you have the option of copying all or a portion of this
single curve data set to the clipboard. Right-click over the corresponding curve name, select Copy Data to Clipboard
and then select one of the following from the pop-up menu:

All: Copies all curve data available

Visible Data: Copies only curve data that is visible in the graph window.

Between Markers: Copies only curve data situated between markers. Note that Show Markers must be
selected in the Axis Properties dialog.
The data is copied as Comma Separated Variables (*.csv) format for easy migration into common data analysis software.
Adjusting Curve Properties
Left double-click on the desired curve in the curve legend, or right-click the curve and select Curve Properties....
This will bring up the Curve Properties dialog window.
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Active Trace
The following list describes the parameters in this section:
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
Display the active trace with a custom style: Select this option if you wish to change the colour or width of
the active trace.

Colour: Press the Colour... button to select a display colour for the trace. Press the OK button in the colour
dialog. This option is enabled only if Display the active trace with a custom style is selected.
Curves

Bold: Select this option if you wish the trace to appear bold. This option is enabled only if Display active
trace with a custom style is selected.
Style
The following list describes the parameters in this section:

Lines: Displays the curve as a standard line.

Points: Displays the curve as a series of points according to the set plot step.

Filled: Fills the area under the curve (between the curve and the 0.0 line) with the curve colour.

Transparency (1-255): Sets the transparency level of the filled portion under a curve. This is adjustable only
when Filled is enabled.

Linear Gradient: Select this option to create a linear gradient effect on the filled part under the curve. This is
adjustable only when Filled is enabled.
Digital Style
These options are only considered if the curve is part of a polygraph. Digital style controls the properties the curve traces
when they are in digital mode. The following list describes the parameters in this section:

Threshold: The threshold value at which to change the display state of the curve.

Above / Below: Enter the state for the curve when value is above and below the set threshold respectively.
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Adjusting Channel Settings
The source Output Channel parameters for a particular curve can be accessed directly from the curve legend pop-up
menu. Right-click the curve and select Channel Settings....
Synchronizing Output Channel Limits with Those of the Graph
Once one or more curves have been added to an overlay graph, all corresponding Output Channel component Min / Max
limits can be synchronized to the graph y-axis minimum and maximum limits.
To synchronize output channel limits with the graph, right-click over the overlay graph and select Synchronize Channel
Limits to Graph.
Curves Sourced from Multiple Instance Modules
Module components can possess more than one instance. This means that if an Output Channel exists on the canvas of
a module (i.e. part of the module definition), then it will produce a unique curve for each instance of the module, even
though there is technically only a single Output Channel component. If the curve associated with the Output Channel is
placed in a graph that exists outside the module, which unique curve instance is displayed?
Each curve instance is referred to as a call. If a curve exists in a graph that is sourced from an output channel inside a
multiple instance module, then you can access and control the view of any number of the unique calls. Simply hold down
the Ctrl key and left-click on the curve legend. A display list will appear showing all source curves (calls) available.
In the above image, it is apparent that the curve Data is sourced from 16 different module instances that are based on the
same definition. In this particular example, call 0 (base 0) and call 4, 6 and 15 are being displayed. You may choose to
display all calls in a single graph, or you can place the Data curve in multiple graphs, and select a unique call to display in
each graph.
For more information on multiple instance modules, see Multiple Instance Modules (MIM).
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Traces
Traces
Array signal curves can be plotted online as a single entity, where each array element or 'sub-curve' is referred to as a
Trace. Each trace may be enabled or disabled separately (i.e. shown or hidden).
Trace Drop Down Menu
Trace properties and control can be accessed through a special drop down menu with a single left-click on the curve title
in the curve legend.
Adjusting Trace Properties
Before adjusting any trace properties, you must first invoke the trace drop-down menu as described above. The drop
menu consists of four separate columns, each allow for easy access to certain trace properties. These columns are
described below:
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
Trace: Indicates the trace number and corresponding color setting. The number corresponds to the array
index number of the multi-signal curve. To change individual trace color, see Adjusting Curve Properties.

A: Stands for Active. Select the radio button in this column to select the active trace. The active trace will be
the default focus when switching to cross-hair mode. Also, only the properties of the active trace may be
adjusted: See Adjusting Curve Properties.

V: Stands for View. Left-click the individual check boxes in this column to hide/view individual traces. You can
hide/view all traces by left-clicking on the V itself.

B: Stands for Bold. Left-click the individual check boxes in this column to bold/un-bold individual traces. You
can bold/un-bold all traces by left-clicking on the B itself.

M: Stands for Mode. This function is only valid when the curve is displayed in a polygraph. Left-click the
individual boxes in this column to change the trace mode from digital to analog. When in digital mode, the trace
will be displayed in a special two-state format, where the state depends on whether it is above or below a preset
Threshold value. For more details on setting threshold and other digital properties see PolyGraphs.
PolyMeters
A polymeter is a special runtime object used specifically for monitoring a single, multiple-trace curve. The polymeter
dynamically displays the magnitude of each trace in bar type format (called gauges), which results in an overall
appearance similar to a spectrum analyzer. The power of this device lies in its ability to compress a large amount of data
into a small viewing area, which is particularly helpful when viewing harmonic spectrums such as data output from the
Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) component.
The relative gauge width is fixed, and so if the poly meter is not wide enough to display all data, a simple horizontal scroll
bar is provided. An array Index display is included directly under the gauges for easy identification.
Polymeters are special objects that cannot be added directly from the tool bar. Each polymeter is linked with a single
curve from a single Output Channel component.
NOTE: Polymeters will appear as a blank container (as shown below) until the project is compiled and run.
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PolyMeters
Adding a PolyMeter
To add a polymeter, right-click on an Output Channel component within the Schematic canvas and select
Graphs/Meters/Controls | Add as PolyMeter. The polymeter will appear attached to the mouse pointer. Move the
pointer to wherever you wish the new meter to reside and then left-click to place it on the Schematic canvas.
Moving and Re-sizing a PolyMeter
To move a polymeter, move the mouse pointer over the title bar and then left-click and hold. Drag the meter to where it
is to be placed and release the mouse button.
To re-size, move the mouse pointer over the title bar and left-click to select the polymeter. Grips should then appear
around the outer edge as shown below.
The polymeter will appear attached to the mouse pointer. Move the pointer to wherever you wish the new meter to reside
and then left-click to place it on the Schematic canvas.
Cut/Copy PolyMeter
Right-click over the polymeter title bar and select Cut or Copy respectively.
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Once a polymeter has been cut or copied it may then be pasted to another any Schematic canvas in the project.
Paste PolyMeter
Cut or copy a polymeter as described above. Right-click over a blank area in Schematic view and select Paste. A
polymeter may be pasted multiple times.
Copy PolyMeter as Meta-File/Bitmap
The entire polymeter display can be copied to the Windows clipboard in either meta-file (*.wmf) or bitmap (*.bmp)
format. Right-click over the polymeter title bar and select Copy as Bitmap or Copy as Meta-File. Go to your report
document and paste the image.
Navigate to Channel
You can navigate directly to the associated Output Channel component by selecting this option. Right-click over the
polymeter and select Navigate to Channel. PSCAD will automatically find the output channel and highlight it.
Adjusting Channel Settings
The y-axis properties of the polymeter are set in the corresponding Output Channel properties dialog. This dialog may be
accessed directly from the polymeter by right-clicking over the title bar and selecting Channel properties....
Displaying Specific Data
The magnitude of individual array elements can be displayed in the status bar at the bottom of the polymeter. To view the
magnitude of that element, left-click on a particular index number in the array index.
Change Gauge Colour
You can modify the gauge colour of any polymeter by simply clicking the panel legend and selecting Colour:
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PhasorMeters
PhasorMeters
A PhasorMeter is a special runtime object that can be used to display up to six, separate phasor quantities. The
phasormeter displays phasors in a polar graph, where the magnitude and phase of each phasor responds dynamically
during a simulation run. This device is perfect for visually representing phasor quantities, such as output from the Fast
Fourier Transform (FFT) component.
PhasorMeters are special objects that cannot be added directly from the tool bar. Each phasormeter is directly linked with
a single curve from a single Output Channel component. In the case of the phasormeter, a curve with at least two traces
(magnitude and phase angle) is the minimum requirement for the device to work properly. The following section
describes how to prepare data signals for display in the phasormeter.
Preparing Data for Display
A single phasor quantity, as it pertains to the phasormeter, is composed of a separate magnitude signal, along with an
associated phase angle signal, which combined represents a single phasor quantity in polar format. That is:
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To display a single phasor quantity, the user must construct an array data signal of dimension two, using the Data Merge
component. The two data signals will represent the magnitude and phase angle respectively. To this array signal, an
Output Channel is attached as shown below:
The phasor meter always assumes that the elements of the array are in the above displayed order. That is element 1 is
the magnitude and element 2 is the phase angle.
The phasormeter allows up to a maximum of six phasors per display, which corresponds to an input array signal of
dimension 12. In cases of multiple phasors, the order of each magnitude/phase angle group must appear in the same
order as the first (i.e. magnitude, phase angle, magnitude, phase angle, etc.) as shown below for a three phasor display:
More often than not, the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) component will be used to derive the polar quantities for display in
the phasormeter. If so, a special component, called the Vector Interlace component was developed to make it easier to
prepare data for display. The image below illustrates a situation where it could be used:
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PhasorMeters
Adding a PhasorMeter
To add a phasormeter, right-click on an Output Channel component within the Schematic canvas and select
Graphs/Meters/Controls | Add as PhasorMeter. The phasormeter will appear attached to the mouse pointer. Move the
pointer to wherever you wish the new meter to reside and then left-click to place it on the Schematic canvas.
Moving and Re-sizing a PhasorMeter
To move a phasormeter, move the mouse pointer over the title bar and then left-click and hold. Drag the meter to where
it is to be placed and release the mouse button.
To re-size, move the mouse pointer over the title bar and left-click to select the meter. Grips should then appear around
the outer edge as shown below.
Move the mouse pointer over one of the grips. Left-click, hold and then drag the pointer to re-size.
Cut/Copy PhasorMeter
Right-click over the phasormeter and select Cut or Copy respectively. Once a phasormeter has been cut or copied it may
then be pasted to another location in the project.
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Paste PhasorMeter
Cut or copy a phasormeter as described above. Right-click over a blank area of the project page in Schematic view and
select Paste. A phasormeter may be pasted multiple times.
Copy PhasorMeter as Meta-File/Bitmap
The entire phasormeter display can be copied to the Windows clipboard in either meta-file (*.wmf) or bitmap (*.bmp)
format. Right-click over the phasormeter title bar and select Copy as Bitmap or Copy as Meta-File. Go to your report
document and paste the image.
Navigate to Channel
You can navigate directly to the associated Output Channel component by selecting this option. Right-click over the
phasormeter and select Navigate to Channel: PSCAD will automatically find the output channel and highlight it.
Adjusting Channel Settings
The polar axis limits of the phasormeter are set in the corresponding Output Channel properties dialog. This dialog may
be accessed directly from the phasor meter by right-clicking over the device title bar and selecting Channel properties....
Displaying Specific Data
The magnitude and phase angle of individual array elements can be displayed in the status bar at the bottom of the
phasormeter: Left-click the corresponding button on the display selector, where the buttons represent phasors 1 through
6 from left to right.
Adjusting Phase Angle Input Format
The format that the incoming phase angle data is in must be specified. This is easily accomplished by toggling the D or R
display in the bottom-right corner of the graph, where:

D: Degrees

R: Radians
Oscilloscopes
An Oscilloscope is a special runtime object that is used to mimic the triggering effects of a real-world oscilloscope on a
time varying, cyclical signal like an AC voltage or current. Given a base frequency, the oscilloscope will follow the signal
during a simulation (like a moving window), refreshing its display at the rate given by the base frequency. This gives the
illusion that the oscilloscope is transfixed on the signals being displayed, resulting in a triggering effect.
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Oscilloscopes
Oscilloscopes are special objects that cannot be added directly from the tool bar. Each object is directly linked with a
curve from a single Output Channel component. The oscilloscope supports array signals – that is curves containing more
than a single trace. The following section describes how to prepare data signals for display in the oscilloscope.
Adding an Oscilloscope
To add an oscilloscope, right-click on an Output Channel component within the Schematic canvas and select
Graphs/Meters/Controls | Add as Oscilloscope. The oscilloscope will appear attached to the mouse pointer. Move the
pointer to wherever you wish the new meter to reside and then left-click to place it on the Schematic canvas.
Moving and Re-sizing an Oscilloscope
To move an oscilloscope, move the mouse pointer over the title bar and then left-click and hold. Drag the meter to
where it is to be placed and release the mouse button.
To re-size, move the mouse pointer over the title bar and left-click to select the meter. Grips should then appear around
the outer edge as shown below.
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Move the mouse pointer over one of the grips. Left-click, hold and drag the pointer to re-size.
Cut/Copy Oscilloscope
Right-click over the oscilloscope and select Cut or Copy respectively. Once an oscilloscope has been cut or copied it may
then be pasted to another location in the project.
Paste Oscilloscope
Cut or copy an oscilloscope as described above. Right-click over a blank area of the project page in Circuit view and
select Paste. A scope may be pasted multiple times.
Copy Oscilloscope as Meta-File or Bitmap
The entire oscilloscope display can be copied to the Windows clipboard in either meta-file (*.wmf) or bitmap (*.bmp)
format. Right-click over the scope title bar and select Copy as Bitmap or Copy as Meta-File. Go to your report
document and paste the image.
Navigate to Channel
You can navigate directly to the associated Output Channel component by selecting this option. Right-click over the
oscilloscope and select Navigate to Channel: PSCAD will automatically find the output channel and highlight it.
Adjusting Channel Settings
The y-axis limits of the oscilloscope are set in the corresponding Output Channel Properties dialog. This dialog may be
accessed directly from the scope by right-clicking over the device title bar and selecting Channel Settings....
Increase/Decrease the Total Displayed Cycles
The total displayed cycles can be adjusted in the status bar near the bottom of the oscilloscope: Left-click the
corresponding button on the display selector, where the buttons represent increase and decrease respectively. This
same operation can be performed by right-clicking over the device title bar and selecting either Increase One Cycle or
Decrease One Cycle.
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XY Plots
XY Plots
The XY Plot is comprised of both a graph frame and a single, specialized graph window for the purpose of plotting one
curve versus another. An xy plot can accommodate multiple curves on each of the x and y-axes, and includes dynamic
zoom and polar grid features.
Although the xy plot is used to plot one signal versus another, each of these signals is based on the same time scale. It is
therefore possible to scroll through the data in the time domain: The xy plot includes a time domain aperture control bar,
located at the bottom of the plot frame.
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Adding an XY Plot
Open the project in the Circuit view. Right-click on a blank portion of the page and select Add Component | XY Plot, or
press the XY Plot button in the Components tab of the ribbon control bar.
Moving and Re-sizing an XY Plot Frame
To move an xy plot, place the mouse pointer over the title bar and then left-click and hold. Drag the plot frame to where
it is to be placed and release the mouse button.
To re-size the frame, move the mouse pointer over the title bar and left-click to select it. Grips should then appear
around the outer edge as shown below.
Move the mouse pointer over one of the grips. Left-click, hold and drag the pointer to re-size.
Cut/Copy XY Plot Frame
Right-click over the xy plot title bar and select Cut or Copy respectively.
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XY Plots
Paste XY Plot Frame
Cut or copy an xy plot as described above. Right-click over a blank area of the Circuit canvas and select Paste. An xy
plot may be pasted multiple times.
Copy Data to Clipboard
If a simulation has been run and your xy plot contains curve data, you have the option of copying all or a portion of this
data to the clipboard.
The data is copied as Comma Separated Variables (*.csv) format for easy migration into common data analysis software.
Two choices are given:

All Data: Copies all curve data available.

Visible Data: Copies all curve data visible in the plot window.
Adjusting XY Plot Frame Properties
To access the Plot Frame Properties dialog, left double-click the plot title bar, or right-click over the title bar and select
Plot Frame Properties.... This should bring up the Plot Frame Properties dialog window.
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There are various parameters that may be edited though this window, each of which are described below.

Name: Enter a title for the xy plot (this text will appear in the frame title bar). The default text may appear a bit
cryptic: This syntax is used as a naming convention for grouping objects in the workspace. For more
information on this syntax, see Grouping of Runtime Objects.
Preferences:

Show Glyphs: Select this option to show glyph symbols on all curves.

Show Ticks: Select this option to show major grid tick marks along the x and y-axis intercept lines.

Show Grid: Select this option to display grid lines for the x-axis and y-axis major grids.

Show Y-Intercept: Select this option to display the y-intercept (horizontal) intercept line. The y-intercept is
always at zero, and cannot be adjusted.

Show X-Intercept: Select this option to display the x-intercept (vertical) intercept line. The x-intercept is
always at zero, and cannot be adjusted.
Markers:

Show Markers: Select this option to show the X and O markers.

X Marker: Enter the position (in seconds) to place X marker.

O Marker: Enter the position (in seconds) to place O marker.
Adjusting Plot Properties
Left double-click over the plot area (white part), or right-click over the plot area and select Plot Properties.... This should
bring up the Plot Properties dialog window.
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XY Plots
There are various parameters that may be edited though this window, each of which are described below.
Display Preferences:

Show Grid: Select this option to display grid lines for the x-axis and y-axis major grids.

Show Ticks: Select this option to show major grid tick marks along the x and y-axis intercept lines.

Show Intercepts: Select this option to display both intercept lines (horizontal and vertical). The intercepts are
always at zero, and cannot be adjusted.

Show Glyphs: Select this option to show glyph symbols on all curves in the graph.

Show Cross Hair: Select this option to invoke the cross hairs mode.

Auto Curve Colours: Select this option to use automatic colouring of curves in the graph. You cannot change
curve colour manually when this option is selected.

Invert Colours: Select this option to give the graph a black background (instead of white or yellow).

Snap Aperture to Grid: Select this feature so that when using dynamic aperture adjustment, the aperture view
will snap to the major grid while zooming.

Maintain Aspect Ratio: Select this option in order to maintain the aspect ratio of the plotted curve (in both the
x and y directions) whenever the plot frame is resized. If this option is disabled, the plotted curve will stretch or
compress according to the actual shape of the plot frame.
Trace Style:

Primary: Select whether to draw traces as Line or Scatter view. Scatter view simply adds a single dot for
each X-Y coordinate.
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Aperture Settings (seconds):

Position: Enter the starting position in seconds of the aperture window.

Width: Enter the width in seconds of the aperture window.
Polar Grid
The default Cartesian (XY) grid display can be switched to a polar grid by simply toggling the xy/polar display button at the
top-left of the plot frame.
The polar and xy grids are simply overlaid on top of the plotted data:
Polar Grid
Dynamic Zoom
See Dynamic Zoom in XY Plots for more details.
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Cartesian Grid
Tool Tips in Plots
Tool Tips in Plots
In order for plotting tools to be useful in the analysis of data, it is important that quantities be displayed with an adequate
amount of precision. This presents a problem however, as the more precision that is displayed graphically on the plot the
more space (or graphical real estate) is used, leaving less space in the plotting environment. This problem is overcome
through the use of pop-up tool tips.
By default, the most important quantities involved in plotting are displayed directly on the graph frame. This is especially
apparent when viewing marker data, which is displayed to four significant digits. For most studies, four significant digits
are not enough to provide the user with accurate assessments of the data: Tool tips however will provide the true
quantities up to 12 significant digits. Simply move the mouse pointer over the data displayed.
Existing tool tips, such as cross-hair and min/max curve are also standardized to 12 significant digits. The following
images show the locations of other tool tips in the plotting environment:
Min/Max Tool Tip
Cross-Hair Tool Tip
Marker Tool Tip
Data Tool Tip
Dynamic Aperture Adjustment
The Dynamic Aperture Adjustment feature is available on both the graph frame and the xy plot objects and allows the user
to define a fixed time based display window (or aperture), and then dynamically slide this aperture through the entire time
scale. The aperture size itself can be re-adjusted at any time.
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Although the following example uses a graph frame, it may be easily applied to the xy plot as well. Run the simulation so
that your graph displays the curve data. The following image shows a simulation that has been run for 0.5 s.
As can be seen from the graph, the fault occurs around 0.25 s and lasts for about 0.07 s. Dynamic aperture adjustment
can be used to close the viewing window to a smaller time width, so that the fault waveforms can be more easily
studied. To do this, move your mouse pointer over the horizontal scroll bar at the far right so that the mouse pointer turns
into a double-headed arrow.
Click and hold the left mouse button and drag the scroll bar aperture slowly to the left.
You should see your graph display dynamically adjusting as you change the size of the scroll bar aperture. Keeping an
eye on the horizontal axis display, shrink the aperture to an appropriate size (for the graph above, about 0.05 s or so).
Release the left mouse button and move the pointer over the scroll bar aperture, click and hold the left mouse button
again – the mouse pointer should become a ‘hand’. Drag the mouse so as to scroll across the time frame of the graph.
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Dynamic Aperture Adjustment
If desired, you can shrink the aperture further for even more detail. An aperture will also be created automatically when
you zoom into a certain data range.
You may also use either the left and right arrow buttons at each end of the scroll bar, or the arrow keys on your keyboard
to scroll through data: To scroll in small increments, simply left-click the either arrow, for larger increments hold down the
Ctrl key and then left-click. When using the arrow keys, make sure that the focus is on the graph frame being viewed, as
these keys can also function as a scroll mechanism for the Circuit canvas.
NOTE: This exercise is for the purpose of describing dynamic aperture adjustment. A more efficient way to
zoom into this aperture window is to use horizontal zoom.
Adjusting and Controlling the Aperture in XY Plots
As mentioned previously, the user is able to set and control the time viewing window for the xy plot. At the bottom of the
xy plot frame, there is an area devoted solely for the adjustment and control of this viewing window - otherwise known as
the aperture.
This area contains two sections: The dynamic aperture adjustment scroll bar on the left, and the manual aperture
adjustment field on the right. You can increment the aperture width manually by pressing the up/down arrows to the right
of the manual aperture adjustment field.
If the aperture Width is a fraction of the total time scale for the plot, then the aperture indicator scroll bar will reflect this by
showing a smaller aperture window:
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You may now move the aperture window along the time axis, maintaining its set width. To do this, move your mouse
pointer over the aperture indicator in the scroll bar and left-click and hold. Your mouse pointer should become a ‘hand’
symbol. Move the mouse left or right along the axis.
The aperture Position indicator at the bottom-right corner will indicate the starting time of the aperture.
Markers
Markers are a special feature included in both graph frames and xy plot frames to help users with the analysis of their
online data. Specifically, they are used to delineate the data so as to focus analysis to that specific range. Depending on
marker positions, legend displays will indicate the difference between the two markers in both the x and y directions.
Markers are used only on the x-axis (time axis) and will appear as two adjustable tabs. The marker tabs are labelled as
X and O and the combination of the two set the specified boundaries. Once markers are set, analysis can be performed
on the data contained within them.
Markers are used in a slightly different manner between graph frames and xy plots. Any differences are noted in the
sections below.
Show/Hide Markers
There are a few ways to show or hide Markers:
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
Select the desired graph frame or xy plot with a left-click on the graph display area. Right-click over the graph
to generate a pop-up menu and select Preferences | Show Markers.

Left double-click the graph frame horizontal axis, or right-click over the horizontal axis and select Axis
Properties... to bring up the Axis Properties dialog. Select the Show Markers selection box.
Markers

Left double-click an overlay or polygraph, or right-click over the graph and select Graph Properties... to bring
up the Graph Properties dialog. Select the Show Markers selection box.
If you are working with a graph frame, two tabs should appear along the horizontal axis. Each marker tab, labelled X and
O, correspond to an x-axis (time) position.
If you are working with an xy plot, an extra display bar will appear at the bottom of the plot frame as shown below:
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Aperture Control Bar
Marker Display in Graph
Graph Frame Marker Legends
Once markers are enabled (shown) in a graph frame, legends will appear on the right hand side of the frame itself.
Each graph in the graph frame will have a legend directly to the right of the graph. The values displayed are specific to
each graph and are described as follows:

X: Displays the y-axis value at the X marker position for the active trace.

O: Displays the y-axis value at the O marker position for the active trace.

: Displays the difference between the above two values

Min: Displays the minimum value of the active trace within the marker boundaries

Max: Displays the maximum value of the active trace within the marker boundaries
The x-axis will also have its own legend where the values displayed are similar to those described above, but for the xaxis.
XY Plot Marker Legends
Once markers are enabled (shown) in an xy plot, a marker bar will appear at the bottom of the plot frame. As soon as
either of these markers is moved, marker legends will appear directly to the right of each:
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Markers
The values displayed are described as follows, specific to each marker:

x: Displays the marker x-axis value for the active trace.

y: Displays the marker y-axis value for the active trace.

T: Displays the marker time-axis value for the active trace.
Changing the Active Curve
The markers will only monitor the active trace of one curve at a time. If multiple curves exist in an overlay or polygraph,
you can scroll through them by simply pressing the Space Bar on your keyboard. You may also conveniently select the
desired curve in the graph legend.
When using xy plots, you must select the desired curve in the graph legend, as the Space Bar function is not available.
Adjusting Marker Positions
Once markers are enabled, there are a few ways to adjust their positions:

To manually adjust, place the mouse pointer over the marker tab in either the graph frame or xy plot, left-click
and hold and drag it left or right. Release the left mouse button when the marker is in the desired position.

When using graph frames, left double-click the frame horizontal axis, or right-click over the horizontal axis and
select Axis Properties... to bring up the Axis Properties dialog. Select the Show Markers selection box and
then set the x-axis values of each marker directly in the input fields provided. Note that it is also possible to
directly set the frequency (i.e. 1/Delta) between the two markers.

When using xy plots, right-click over the plot title bar and select Plot Frame Properties... to bring up the Plot
Frame Properties dialog. Select the Show Markers selection box and then set the time-axis values of each
marker directly in the input fields provided.
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Toggle Time Difference Frequency/Delta
Once the markers are enabled, you can conveniently invert the time axis difference between them to display
corresponding frequency. Left double-click the graph frame horizontal axis, or right-click over the horizontal axis and
select Toggle Frequency/Delta (or press the F key on your keyboard):
This feature is not available in xy plots.
Locking/Unlocking Markers
Locking will force the two markers to maintain a constant distance between each other when they are moved along the xaxis. Left double-click the graph frame horizontal axis to bring up the Axis Properties dialog and select Lock Markers, or
right-click over the horizontal axis and select Toggle Marker Lock-Step (or press the L key on your keyboard) to lock the
markers. Perform the same operation again to unlock.
Axis Properties Dialog
Right-Click Menu
Setting Markers
Markers can be set to a certain position on the graph frame time axis as follows:
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1.
Show the markers by pressing the M key.
2.
Left-click on the axis at the approximate position where you wish to place the X marker. Press the X key on
your keyboard.
3.
Repeat this procedure to set the O marker, except press the O key.
Markers
Press the M Key
Press the X Key
Press the O Key
Instead of pressing the above keys, you can also use the time axis pop-up menu. Left-click on the graph frame time axis
at the approximate position where you wish to place a marker, then select the appropriate menu function.
Using Markers as Bookmarks
If only a fraction of the total graph frame time scale is currently being viewed in a graph, the markers may appear outside
the viewing frame when they are first enabled. If this happens, blue and red arrow symbols will appear on the time axis
indicating the markers are set off the screen.
The current viewing window can be moved directly to the position of either marker: Simply left-click either the blue or the
red arrow (blue for the X marker and red for the O marker). This functionality, along with setting the markers, can be used
to 'bookmark' viewing positions on the graph.
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Preferences
Plotting preferences can be adjusted from either the graph or xy plot pop-up menus (depending on which one you are
using). Simply right click over a graph or xy plot to bring up the corresponding pop-up menu. Then select Preferences.
The functions available in this menu are described below:

Grid Lines: Select this preference to toggle grid line display on the selected graph. You can also use the G
keyboard shortcut.

Tick Marks: Select this preference to show major grid tick marks along the y-intercept. You can also use the I
keyboard shortcut.

Curve Glyphs: Select this preference to show glyphs on all curves in the graph. You can also use the K
keyboard shortcut.

Show Markers: Select this preference to show the markers. You can also use the M keyboard shortcut.

Show Y Intercept: Select this preference to display the y-intercept (horizontal) intercept line. The y-intercept
line can be adjusted using the Y-Intercept field in the Graph Properties dialog. On xy plots, the y-intercept is
always along the x-axis. You can also use the W keyboard shortcut.

Show Cross Hair: Select this preference to invoke the cross hairs mode.
Many of the above preferences can be set within the various dialog windows involved with graphs and xy plots.
Zoom Features
Once a simulation has been run and output data has been collected, there are several ways to zoom in and out of the
data displayed. The following are some of the more common methods.
General Zoom In and Zoom Out
Select the desired graph with a left-click on the graph display area. Right-click over the graph to generate a pop-up menu
and select Zoom | Zoom In or Zoom | Zoom Out. As an alternative, you can also use the + or - keyboard shortcuts for
Zoom In or Zoom Out respectively (once the desired graph has been selected).
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Zoom Features
Box Zoom
Select the desired graph with a left-click on the graph display area. Click and hold the left mouse button and drag the
mouse pointer to create a boxed region. Release the left mouse button to zoom to that region.
NOTE: You can also zoom along a single axis by drawing out a narrow box. The zoom will ignore the narrow
side of the box.
Vertical Zoom
Select the desired graph with a left-click on the graph display area. Press Shift + left mouse hold and drag the mouse
pointer in a vertical direction (i.e. up or down along the y-axis) to create a vertical zoom region. Release the left mouse
button to zoom to that region.
Horizontal Zoom
Select the desired graph with a left-click on the graph display area. Press Ctrl + left mouse hold and drag the mouse
pointer in a horizontal direction (i.e. left or right along the x-axis) to create a horizontal zoom region. Release the left
mouse button to zoom to that region.
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Zoom Previous/Next
Select the desired graph with a left-click on the graph display area. Right-click over the graph to generate a pop-up menu
and select Zoom | Previous or Zoom | Next. As an alternative, you can also use the P or N keyboard shortcuts for Zoom
Previous or Zoom Next respectively (once the desired graph has been selected).
Zoom Extents
The Zoom Extents feature allows the user to zoom to the extents of the plotted data. The data 'extents' refers to the
absolute maximum and minimum values that exist during the entire simulation run, in either the x or y direction.
Select the desired graph with a left-click on the graph display area. Right-click over the graph to generate a pop-up menu
and select either Zoom | X Extents or Zoom | Y Extents.
As an alternative, you can also use the X or Y keyboard shortcuts for Zoom X Extents or Zoom Y Extents respectively
(once the desired graph has been selected).
Zoom Limits
The Zoom Limits feature allows the user to zoom to predefined limits in either the x or y direction. The y-axis limits are set
based on the Default Display Limits parameters in the corresponding Output Channels for the curves. In the event of
multiple curves, the limits are based on the largest and smallest Default Display Limits among all relevant output
channels. The x-axis limits are based on the desired duration of the simulation.
Select the desired graph with a left-click on the graph display area. Right-click over the graph to generate a pop-up menu
and select either Zoom | X Limits or Zoom | Y Limits.
As an alternative, you can also use the E or U keyboard shortcuts for Zoom X Limits or Zoom Y Limits respectively
(once the desired graph has been selected).
Resetting All Extents and Limits
Select the desired graph with a left-click on the graph display area. Right-click over the graph to generate a pop-up menu
and select either Zoom | Reset All Extents or Zoom | Reset All Limits.
As an alternative, you can also use the R or B keyboard shortcuts for Reset All Extents or Reset All Limits respectively
(once the desired graph has been selected).
Dynamic Zoom in XY Plots
Dynamic zoom is a feature specific to the xy plots. Left click and hold with your mouse pointer over the dynamic zoom
control bar as shown below:
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Cross Hair Mode
With a left click, your mouse pointer should become an open ‘hand’. Hold down the left mouse button and move the hand
down to zoom in, or up to zoom out.
Cross Hair Mode
Once a simulation has been run and output data has been plotted, you can navigate through curve values using the cross
hairs. Right-click over the graph to generate a pop-up menu and then select Preferences | Show Cross Hair. You can
also select the graph and press the C key on your keyboard.
Once invoked, cross hair mode will remain on until it is turned off. While in cross-hair mode, the mouse pointer becomes
a 'cross-hair' while over top the graph:
Cross-Hair Mode Indicator
Once cross hair mode is enabled, move the mouse pointer over the graph and left-click and hold. Drag the mouse along
the graph. If multiple curves exist in the graph, then you can move the cross hair from curve to curve by simply pressing
the Space Bar on your keyboard.
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As shown above, the curve xy data will be displayed beside the cross hair. When your left mouse button is released, the
cross hair will disappear, but cross hair mode will remain invoked until you press the C key again (or select Preferences |
Show Cross Hair).
In xy plots, the cross hair will follow the mouse pointer only.
Pop-Up Tool Bars
Pop-up tool bars are provided with graphs and polymeters in order to provide a quick and easy means for accessing the
most common functions. Pop-up tool bars may be invoked by left-clicking on the small arrow in the top-right corner of the
graph or poly meter windows:
Graph
The pop-up tool bar functions are described as follows:
Graphs:
Button
Description
Zoom In
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PolyMeter
Online Controls and Meters
Zoom Out
Zoom horizontal extents
Zoom vertical extents
Reset all extents
Previous zoom
Next zoom
Toggle cross hair mode
Toggle auto-pan of x-axis
Toggle markers
PolyMeters:
Button
Description
Toggle index labels
Toggle scroll view mode
Modify gauge color
Online Controls and Meters
Special objects in PSCAD allow the user online access to input data signals, so that these signals (and hence the
simulation results) can be altered during the course of the simulation run. These objects and how to use them are
described in the following sections.
Control Panels
A Control Panel is a special component used for accommodating control or meter interfaces and can be placed anywhere
on a Schematic canvas. Once a control panel has been added, you may then proceed to add as many control or meter
interfaces to it as you wish.
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Adding a Control Panel
Open the project in the Circuit view. Right-click on a blank portion of the page and select Add Component | Control
Panel, or press the Control Panel button in Components tab of the ribbon control bar.
Moving and Re-sizing a Control Panel
To move a control panel, move the mouse pointer over the title bar and then left-click and hold. Drag the frame to
where it is to be placed and release the mouse button.
To re-size, move the mouse pointer over the title bar and left-click to select the panel. Grips should then appear around
the outer edge as shown below.
Move the mouse pointer over one of the grips. Left-click and hold and then drag then move the pointer to re-size.
Cut/Copy Panel
Right-click over the control panel title bar and select Cut or Copy respectively. You can also use the standard Ctrl + X or
Ctrl + C shortcuts. Once a control panel has been cut or copied it may then be pasted into another location in the project
(along with its contents).
Paste Panel
Cut or copy a control panel as described above. Right-click over a blank area of the Schematic canvas and select
Paste. A control panel may be pasted multiple times.
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Online Controls and Meters
Adjusting Panel Settings
To access the Control Panel Settings dialog, left double-click the control panel title bar, or right-click over the title bar and
select Control Panel Settings....
Presently the only adjustable panel property is the caption:

Caption: Enter a title for the control panel (this text will appear in the panel title bar). The default text may
appear a bit cryptic: This syntax is used as a naming convention for grouping objects in the workspace.
Control Interfaces
A Control Interface is a user interface object, which allows manual adjustment of input data signals dynamically. A control
interface must first be linked with one of the runtime control objects available in the master library (i.e. Slider, Two State
Switch, Rotary Switch, and Push Button). The control interface will then control the output of the linked control
component. For example, the following image shows a slider component linked to a control interface in a control panel.
Adding a Control Interface to a Control Panel
There are two methods to accomplish this:

Drag and Drop: Hold down the Ctrl key, left-click and hold the associated control component and drag and
release over the control panel. See Drag and Drop for more details.

Right-click on the associated control component and select Graphs/Meters/Controls | Add as
Control. Right-click over the desired control panel title bar and select Paste.
Of course, each type of control component will have a different control interface when added to a control panel. The
following figure shows the available control components and their corresponding control interfaces:
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Control Interface Order
Once multiple control interfaces have been added to a particular panel, you may change the order in which they
appear. This is accomplished by either using drag and drop, or the right-click menu:

Drag and Drop: Press Ctrl and then left-click and hold over the title bar of a particular control interface and
then drag the mouse pointer over the control panel title bar. A downward arrow will appear between existing
interfaces depending on the position of the mouse pointer. Release the left button to drop the interface.
Left-Click and Hold

Drag
Release Button
Right-click over the control interface and select Set Control Order. Choose one of the options given.
Cut/Copy Control Interface
Right-click over the control interface title bar and select Cut or Copy respectively. Once a control interface has been cut
or copied it may then be pasted into control panel in the project.
Paste Control Interface
Cut or copy a control interface as described above. Right-click over a control panel title bar and select Paste. A control
interface may be pasted multiple times.
Navigate to Control
You can navigate directly to the control component associated with a particular interface, by selecting this option. Rightclick over the interface and select Navigate to Control. PSCAD will automatically find the associated output channel and
highlight it.
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Online Controls and Meters
Select Navigate to Control
PSCAD Points to Object
Adjusting Control Interface Properties
Control interface properties and the corresponding control component properties are one and the same. Therefore, you
can either adjust these properties through the control component directly, or through the corresponding interface as
follows: Left double-click the interface title bar, or right-click over the interface title bar and select Channel Settings....
Using the Control Interfaces
Once a particular control interface has been added to a panel, the user may operate it manually, either before or during a
simulation run. Of course, each type of interface will perform a different operation on its corresponding output signal.
Switch and Push Button Components:
To operate either the Switch or Push Button components, simply left-click over top on the control interface itself. For
example, each time the switch interface is clicked it will toggle the corresponding switch component between its two
output states.
The image below shows a plot of a switch component output, where the user has changed its state (i.e. turned it on and
off) during a 1.0 second simulation run.
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Dial Component:
To operate the Dial component, left-click and hold on the slider control knob and move the knob up or down. As the
control knob is moved, the dial interface will indicate graphically, which of the multiple states is currently being output from
the corresponding dial component.
The image below shows a plot of a dial component output, where the user has changed its state during a 1.0 second
simulation run.
Slider Component:
The Slider component is operated in the same manner as the dial interface described above. The only difference is that
the slider output does not operate in discrete states, but provides a continuously variable output.
The image below shows a plot of a slider component output, where the user has varied its output during a 1.0 second
simulation run.
It is important to note that the Slider component will output exactly what is shown on the slider interface. The slider
interface has a maximum precision of 6 significant digits. If more precision is required, you can add successive slider
outputs together, each handling different data ranges. Once you have fine-tuned the slider output, you can replace it with
a Real Constant component, which is capable of higher precision.
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Online Controls and Meters
The slider interface also allows you to enter an exact value (up to 6 significant digits) directly into its display
window. Simple left double-click on the display window and then enter the data. Press the Enter button to exit and save
the entered data, or press Esc to exit without saving changes.
Meters
A meter is similar to a graph, in that it is used for displaying an output signal and is linked to a corresponding Output
Channel. Instead of displaying the signal as a curve (as a graph would), the signal is used to operate a realistic meter
display, with a pointer position proportional to the signal magnitude. For example, the following image shows an output
channel component linked to a meter in a control panel.
Meters can exist only within a control panel.
Like a control interface, meter interfaces display a maximum of 6 significant digits. However, twelve significant digits can
be viewed via the tool tip.
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Adding a Meter to a Control Panel
There are a couple of methods to accomplish this:

Drag and Drop: Hold down the Ctrl key, left-click and hold the associated Output Channel component and
drag and release over the control panel. See Drag and Drop for more details.

Right-click on the associated output channel component and select Graphs/Meters/Controls | Add as
Meter. Right-click on the desired control panel title bar and select Paste.
Meter Order
Once multiple meter interfaces have been added to a particular control panel, you may change the order in which they
appear.

Drag and Drop: Press Ctrl and then left-click and hold over the title bar of a particular meter interface and
then drag the mouse pointer over the control panel title bar. A downward arrow will appear between existing
interfaces depending on the position of the mouse pointer. Release the left button to drop the interface.
Left-Click and Hold

Drag
Release Button
Right-click over the meter interface and select Set Control Order. Choose one of the options given.
Cut/Copy Meter
Right-click over the meter title bar and select Cut or Copy respectively. Once a meter has been cut or copied it may then
be pasted into any control panel in the project.
Paste Meter
Cut or copy a meter as described above. Right-click over a control panel title bar and select Paste. A meter may be
pasted multiple times.
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Grouping of Runtime Objects
Navigate to Channel/Control
You can navigate directly to the Output Channel or I/O control component associated with a particular meter interface, by
selecting this option. Right-click over the meter interface title bar and select Navigate to Channel/Control. PSCAD will
automatically find the associated output channel or I/O control component and highlight it.
Select Navigate to Channel/Control
PSCAD Points to Object
Adjusting Meter Properties
Meter properties and the corresponding Output Channel parameters are one and the same. Therefore, you can either
adjust these properties through the output channel directly, or through the meter as follows: Left double-click the meter
title bar, or right-click over the title bar and select Channel Settings....
Grouping of Runtime Objects
It is possible to organize both control (i.e. Slider, Dial, Switch or Push Button) and Output Channel objects according to a
Group Name. Once group names have been specified, objects may be viewed according to their group name in the
primary workspace window. See Runtime Objects in the Definitions Branch for more details on accessing runtime
objects.
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Manually Populating the List
Resulting List of Controls-Type
Runtime Objects in definition Main
Creating a Runtime Object Group
Creating a runtime group is straightforward: All that is required is that a group name be added to the object input
parameter called Group. The image below shows the Group parameter in the Slider component parameters dialog.
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Grouping of Runtime Objects
For example, consider the following project Schematic canvas, where the user wishes to group existing control objects
according to function:
Both the Firing Angle slider and Enable/Disable switch controls are grouped under the name Firing Control, whereas the
two output channels Volts and Amps are grouped under the name Monitoring.
Displaying Group Name on Graph Frames and Control Panels
The Group Name of any Control or Meter Interface in a Control Panel, or any Curve in a Graph can be automatically
displayed through the use of a special syntax in the title bar:
$(GROUP)
Wherever this character string is encountered within either a Graph Frame or a Control Panel Caption input, PSCAD will
substitute the Group Name(s). If the control panel or graph frame contains objects with different Group Names, these
names will be substituted as a comma separated list.
EXAMPLE 6-1:
A user wants to display the Group Name of all interfaces within a control panel. The default Caption parameter in the
control panel settings dialog is $(GROUP) : Controls. Two interfaces are then inserted into the control panel, one called
Firing Angle with group name Firing Control, and the other named Volts with group name Monitoring. The resulting
caption will appear as illustrated below:
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Control Panel Settings
Control Panel with Objects from Two Different
Groups
Frame/Panel Minimization
All graph frames, control panels, polymeters and xy plot frames can be minimized in order to reduce clutter and save
space when viewing data.
Minimizing a frame or panel is accomplished simply by clicking the Minimize button in the top right-hand corner:
The frame/panel can then be restored by clicking the Restore button in the right-hand corner:
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Displaying Plots and Control in Reports
Icons appear at the left of the minimized objects so that the different types of the frame/panels can be identified. A
summary of these icons is given below:

Graph Frame

Control Panel

PolyMeter

PhasorMeter

XY Plot

Oscilloscope
Moving and Organizing Minimized Frames/Panels
Once a frame/panel has been minimized, the minimized object can be moved in a similar fashion as a restored
frame/panel. Simply left-click and hold the minimized object and drag it to wherever it needs to be placed on the
canvas.
The power in using minimized frames/panels for organization is that PSCAD remembers the last position of the object
before it is minimized/restored. Therefore, it is possible to 'stack' the minimized objects to optimize space, yet when any
of the objects are restored, they will appear in the same position as they were before being minimized. The reverse is
true as well.
Displaying Plots and Control in Reports
Any plotting or control object (i.e. graph frames, graphs, xy plots, control panels, meters, etc.) may be copied to the
Windows clipboard for inclusion in reports or other documents. Options are provided to store the objects as either a
picture in bitmap format (*.bmp), or Windows meta-file format (*.wmf). Note that meta-file format is limited to the current
screen size. Use bitmaps for larger graphs.
Setting Panel Style
You can change the panel style of all graph frames, xy plots and control panels in the Workspace Options dialog, before
including them in reports. See Environment for more details.
Copy as Meta-File or Bitmap
Right-click over the plotting or control object and select Copy <object> as Meta-File or Copy <object> as Bitmap from
the pop-up menu. Depending on the object selected, the <object> part of the command will be replaced by the object
type.
You may then go directly to a report document and paste the image, while it is still in the Windows clipboard.
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Chapter 7
Transmission Lines and Cables
Overhead transmission line and underground cable segments (or right-of-ways) are represented in two parts: The
definition of the transmission segment itself, which can include the admittance/impedance data or the conductor and
insulation properties, ground impedance data, and geometric position of all towers and conductors; and the interface to
the rest of the electrical system, through electrical interface components (one at each end). If the transmission line is
configured in Direct Connection mode, the interface components are not required.
Transmission segments considered to be electrically short in length (i.e. less than 15 km for a 50 s time step), may also
be represented using an equivalent -section representation. This is accomplished by either: Using the -section
component in the master library, where only the admittance and impedance data of the line segment is required, or by
using the -section equivalent component creator feature in the Line Constants Program (LCP). -sections are
essentially a network of passive elements, and hence do not represent propagation delay.
NOTE: A 15 km line length to a 50 s time step is derived assuming that waves propagate through the line at
the speed of light. In general however, wave propagation speed is less than the speed of light.
Using the data provided by the cross-sectional definition of the segment, the transmission lines and cables are modeled
using one of two distributed (travelling wave) models:

Bergeron (Single Frequency)

Frequency Dependent (Phase) (Multiple Frequencies)
The most accurate of these is the Frequency Dependent (Phase) model, which represents all frequency-dependent
effects of a transmission line. When using the Bergeron model, impedance/admittance data can also be entered directly
to define the transmission segment.
For the frequency-dependent model, detailed conductor information (i.e. segment geometry, conductor radius) must be
given. For more details on the differences between models available in PSCAD, see Transmission Lines and Cables in
the EMTDC section.
Constructing Overhead Lines
There are two basic ways by which to construct an overhead line in PSCAD: The first is the original method (referred to
as the Remote Ends method), which involves a Transmission Line Configuration component with two Overhead Line
Interface components, representing the sending and receiving ends of the line. The purpose of the interface components
is to connect the transmission line to the greater electric network. This style of transmission segment is illustrated below:
An Overhead Transmission Line (Remote Ends Method)
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Constructing Overhead Lines
The second method is to use the Direct Connection mode, where both the interfaces and the segment properties are
housed within a single component.
An Overhead Transmission Line (Direct Connection Method)
Building an Overhead Line (/w Remote Ends)
Add one Transmission Line Configuration component and two Overhead Line Interface components to the page. The
most straightforward way to add the interface components is via the Components tab in the ribbon control bar. See
Adding Components to a Project for details.
The Transmission Line Configuration component must be added via the Component Wizard.
Next, edit the properties of the configuration component and ensure that Line Termination Style | Remote Ends is
selected.
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Edit the Parameters of the Transmission Line Configuration
component
Set Termination Style to Remote Ends
The Transmission Line Configuration component and two Overhead Line Interface components are interlinked through
input parameters. Ensure that the following steps are taken:
1.
Segment Name: Ensure that the segment name inputs in both the Transmission Line Configuration component
and two Overhead Line Interface components are identical (case sensitive).
2.
Number of Conductors: Ensure that the number of conductors in both the Transmission Line Configuration
component and two Overhead Line Interface components are identical.
When finished, you should have something similar to that shown below on your project page:
A 3-Conductor Overhead Transmission Line (Remote Ends Mode)
NOTE: These components do not need to be in proximity to one another. As long as they are connected by
name, each component can be located anywhere in the project, including different modules.
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Constructing Underground Cable Systems
Building an Overhead Line (Direct Connection Style)
Add one Transmission Line Configuration component to the page. This component must be added by using the
Component Wizard. Proceed as describe above.
Next, edit the parameters of the configuration component and ensure that Line Termination Style | Direct Connection
is selected. Direct Connection mode is the default when the component is first created. When finished, you should have
something similar to that shown below on your project page:
An Overhead Transmission Line (Direct Connection Mode)
NOTE: The Transmission Line Configuration component is sizable (it is in fact a type of Wire component) and
may assume a variety of shapes and sizes.
Editing the Transmission Line Parameters
The parameters of the overhead line may be adjusted directly within the Transmission Line Configuration
component. Simply right-click over the component and select Edit Parameters....
To edit parameters specific to towers, conductors and ground, select Edit Definition... instead. See Editing an Overhead
Line Segment Cross-Section later in the section for details.
Constructing Underground Cable Systems
Unlike overhead lines, the Direct Connection method cannot be used with cable systems. This leaves just the Remote
Ends method, which involves a Cable Configuration component with two Cable Interface components, representing the
sending and receiving ends of the cable. The purpose of the interface components is to provide connection of the cable
to the greater electric network. An underground cable system illustrated below:
An Underground Cable
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Building an Underground Cable System
Add one Cable Configuration component and two Cable Interface components to the page. The most straightforward way
to add the interface components is via the Components tab in the ribbon control bar. See Adding Components to a
Project for details.
The Cable Configuration component must be added by using the Component Wizard.
The Cable Configuration component and two Cable Interface components are interlinked through input
parameters. Ensure that the following steps are taken:
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1.
Segment Name: Ensure that the segment name inputs in both the Cable Configuration component and two
Cable Interface components are identical (case sensitive).
2.
Number of Cables: The Number of Cables parameter in the Cable Interface components specifies how many
individual cables there are in the system. Each of these cables however, could contain different numbers of
conducting layers, and so the total number of conductors is arbitrary (this is why the Number of Conductors
parameter is disabled in the Cable Configuration component). The user is required to specify the number of
conducting layers for each cable in the Cable Interface components. This data must match what is defined
within the Cable Segment Cross-Section.
The Transmission Segment Definition Editor
Cable Interface
Component
Specifying Cable Set-up in Cable Interface Parameters Dialog
NOTE: These components do not need to be in proximity to one another. As long as they are connected by
name, each component can be located anywhere in the project, including different modules.
Editing the Cable Parameters
The parameters of the cable may be adjusted directly within the Cable Configuration component. Simply right-click over
the component and select Edit Parameters....
The properties given in the dialog are common to all elements of the cable. For information these parameters, see the
Cable Configuration component help. To edit parameters specific to towers, conductors and ground, select Edit
Definition.... See Editing a Cable Segment Cross-Section later in this chapter for details.
The Transmission Segment Definition Editor
The Transmission Segment Definition Editor is a graphical user interface designed especially for modifying transmission
line and cable system definitions. When invoked, this editor will appear within the main window, and includes its own tab
sections for easy viewing of files related to segment being viewed.
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The main section tab is entitled Schematic, and is the default section view when the editor is invoked. The four remaining
sections are for viewing files related to the segment. Note that these files will not exist unless either the segment has
been solved manually, or the project has been complied.
Editing a Transmission Line Segment Definition
To invoke the editor, right-click over the Transmission Line Configuration component (without selecting it) and select Edit
Definition… (or double-click) as shown below:
The editor will open within the main window. As shown below, the default view is the Editor section, where the
transmission line is graphically defined.
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Editing a Transmission Line Segment Definition
By default, the editor section will contain three graphical objects:

Definition Canvas (<Definition Name>): Located in the top-left corner, this object simply displays what has
been entered into the corresponding Transmission Line Configuration dialog. This object is for display only and
cannot be modified from inside the editor.

Frequency Dependent (Phase) Model Options: This component represents the transmission line model
being used, and by default is the Frequency Dependent (Phase) model component. The parameters of this
component may be edited by either a left double-click on the component (or right-click and select Edit
Parameters...) to bring up the corresponding dialog window.

Entry of Ground Data: This component (called the Ground Plane), usually located near the bottom of the
editor window, represents the transmission line ground return path. The parameters of this component may be
edited by either a left double-click on the component (or right-click and select Edit Parameters...) to bring up
the corresponding dialog window.
A fourth object required is the definition of the transmission line itself. This definition can be a geometrical cross-section
of the Transmission Line Tower component, or can be a Manual Entry of Admittance/Impedance Data (Bergeron model
only). In either case, this is left for the user to add manually.
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Transmission Line Tower Components
Adding a Tower Component
Tower components can be added to the editor in a couple different ways. The easiest and most straightforward way is to
use the ribbon control bar. Simply select one of the available towers and place it on the Schematic canvas. See Adding
Components to a Project for more details.
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Editing a Transmission Line Segment Definition
Another way is to use the context menu. On the Schematic tab, move the mouse pointer over a blank area of the
window. Right-click and select Add Tower Cross-Section. A sub-menu will appear containing a list of all loaded library
projects. Each of these will contain a list of all transmission line tower components available in that particular
library. Select a tower and it will be automatically added.
You can also copy and paste tower components directly from from the master library. Open the library in Schematic
view. Select a tower component, then right-click on the component and select Copy (or press Ctrl + c). Open the Editor
tab, right-click over a blank area and select Paste (or press Ctrl + v).
When finished, you should have something similar to that shown below:
NOTE: The graphical location of the tower component does not affect the results. However, the tower (or
towers) should be positioned to allow for ease in readability. That is, directly on top of the Ground Plane
component.
Multiple towers may be added to a single configuration. Just remember to ensure that the conductors are numbered
properly within each of the tower components, and that the x-positions of the new towers in the corridor are
adjusted. Also, any conductors added by the additional towers must be reflected in the corresponding Transmission Line
Interface components (if in Remote Ends mode).
Editing Tower Parameters
Tower parameters can be edited through the corresponding tower parameters dialog window. Right-click over the tower
component (without selecting it) and select Edit Parameters... to access this dialog.
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Editing a Cable Segment Definition
To invoke the editor, right-click over the Cable Configuration component (without selecting it) and select Edit Definition…
(or double-click) as shown below:
In either case, the editor will then open within the main window. As shown below, the default view is the Editor section,
where the cable system is graphically defined.
By default, the Editor section will contain three graphical objects:

Definition Canvas (<Definition Name>): Located in the top-left corner, this object simply displays what has
been entered into the corresponding Cable Configuration dialog. This object is for display only and cannot be
modified from inside the editor.

Frequency Dependent (Phase) Model Options: This component represents the transmission line model
being used, and by default is the Frequency Dependent (Phase) model component. The parameters of this
component may be edited by either a left double-click on the component (or right-click and select Edit
Parameters...) to bring up the corresponding dialog window.

Entry of Ground Data: This component, usually located near the bottom of the Editor window, represents the
transmission line ground return path. The parameters of this component may be edited by either a left doubleclick on the component (or right-click and select Edit Parameters...) to bring up the corresponding dialog
window.
A fourth object required is the definition of the cable itself. This definition is a geometrical cross-section of the cable called
a Cable Cross-Section. The user must add this manually.
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Editing a Cable Segment Definition
Cable Cross-Section Component
Adding a Cable Cross-Section Component
Cable Cross-Section components can be added to the editor in a couple different ways. The easiest and most
straightforward way is to use the ribbon control bar. Simply select one of the available cross-sections and place it on the
Schematic canvas. See Adding Components to a Project for more details.
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Another way is to use the context menu. On the Schematic tab, move the mouse pointer over a blank area of the
window. Right-click and select Add Cable Cross-Section. A sub-menu will appear containing a list of all loaded library
projects. Each of these will contain a list of all cable components available in that particular library. Select a cable and it
will be automatically added.
You can also copy and paste cable components directly from any library project. Open the library in Schematic
view. Select a cable cross-section, then right-click on the component and select Copy (or press Ctrl + c). Open the
Editor (tab), right-click over a blank area and select Paste (or press Ctrl + v).
When finished, you should have something similar to that shown below:
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Selecting the Proper Line Model
NOTE: The location of the Cable Cross-Section component does not affect the results. However, the crosssection (or cross-sections) should be positioned to allow for ease in readability. That is, directly below the
Ground Plane component.
Multiple cables may be added to a single configuration. Just remember to ensure that the cables are numbered properly,
and that the xy-positions of the new cross-sections in the corridor are adjusted. Also, any conductors added by the
additional cables must be reflected in the corresponding Cable Interface components.
Editing Cross-Section Parameters
Cable cross-section parameters can be edited through the corresponding cross-section parameters dialog window. Rightclick over the cross-section component (without selecting it) and select Edit Parameters... to access this dialog.
Selecting the Proper Line Model
There are three types of distributed (i.e. travelling wave) transmission models that may be selected to represent your
transmission corridor: The Bergeron model, the Frequency-Dependent (Mode) model, and the Frequency-Dependent
(Phase) model. These models exist as components in the master library and each include adjustable properties. The
requirements for your study will determine which of the three models is suitable.
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The Bergeron Model
The Bergeron model represents the L and C elements of a -section in a distributed manner (not using lumped
parameters like -sections). It is accurate only at the specified frequency and is suitable for studies where the specified
frequency load-flow is most important (e.g. relay studies).
When using the Bergeron model, it is not always necessary to use a tower component to represent a transmission line. If
you are modeling a three-phase system, then you can enter the line data, in admittance or impedance format, directly by
substituting the Manual Entry of Y, Z component.
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Selecting the Proper Line Model
This component can be added just as you were adding a tower component. Keep in mind that this component substitutes
for the tower component, and you still need the Bergeron model present in your transmission line configuration.
The Frequency-Dependent (Mode) Model
The Frequency-Dependent (Mode) model represents the frequency dependence of all parameters (not just at the
specified frequency as in the Bergeron model). This model uses modal techniques to solve the line constants and
assumes a constant transformation. It is therefore only accurate for systems of ideally transposed conductors (or 2
conductor horizontal configurations) or single conductors.
The Frequency-Dependent (Phase) Model
The Frequency-Dependent (Phase) model also represents the frequency dependence of all parameters as in the 'Mode'
model above. However, the Frequency Dependent (Phase) model circumvents the constant transformation problem by
direct formulation in the phase domain. It is therefore accurate for all transmission configurations, including unbalanced
line geometry.
This model should always be the model of choice, unless another model is chosen for a specific reason. This model is
the most advanced and accurate time domain line model in the world!
NOTE: For further technical detail, or more information on choosing a line model, see Chapter 9 –
Transmission Lines and Cables in the EMTDC Manual.
Adding a Line Model
Line model components can be added to the editor in a couple different ways. The easiest and most straightforward way
is to use the ribbon control bar. Simply select one of the available models and place it on the Schematic canvas. See
Adding Components to a Project for more details.
Another way is to use the context menu. On the Schematic tab, move the mouse pointer over a blank area of the
window. Right-click and select Choose Model. A sub-menu will appear containing a list of all model components
available in the master library. Select a model and it will automatically be added.
You can also copy and paste model components directly from any library project. Open the library in Schematic view and
select a line model component, right-click on the component and select Copy (or press Ctrl + c). Open the Editor section
(tab), right-click over a blank area and select Paste (or press Ctrl + v).
Editing Line Model Parameters
Line model parameters can be edited through the corresponding model parameters dialog window. Right-click over the
line model component (without selecting it) and select Edit Parameters... to access this dialog.
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Multiple Instances of Transmission Segments
From the perspective of the PSCAD application itself, transmission segments are not unlike modules: They possess a
canvas, input parameters, and a definition. It would seem then that transmission segments could also be multiple
instanced, like their module component counterparts – this is indeed possible. However, there are some subtle
differences between the two types of component that tend to complicate matters.
Modules are compiled only once no matter how many times the component has been instantiated in the project. This is
because a module component does not depend on any of its input parameter (or connection port) values, to define its
definition. A transmission segment however, is highly dependent on its length (i.e. the length affects the definition), and
since this is an instance-based parameter, each transmission segment instance must be compiled separately.
Surely the segment length could easily be made part of the definition, instead of existing as an instance-based
parameter, but then a new segment definition would need to be created whenever the length changed. This would mean
that for the same tower configuration, a new definition would need to be created if one segment was 15.0 km and the
other was 15.001 km. It seems to make more sense to instead allow a single definition to represent a single tower
configuration, and this configuration can be multiply instanced.
The length therefore remains as an instance-based parameter, and hence each individual segment instance must be
solved uniquely – even if they are based on the same definition. There is however a way in which to circumvent this: See
the section called Multiple Instances without Solving Multiple Times below for details.
Creating a Transmission Segment Definition
The manner in which to construct a transmission segment – be it an overhead line or underground cable – is explained in
detail in the previous sections. The component wizard creates a segment definition and also the first instance of the
definition. In fact, once you create a new segment, you will find its definition listed in the workspace window, along with its
new instance as part of the project module hierarchy..
Multiple Instances of the Same Segment Definition
Once a new transmission line or cable has been created, you may modify it in the same manner as you would a module.
From this point forward, any instance of the transmission segment can be instantiated by simply copying and pasting the
component on the Schematic canvas.
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Multiple Instances of Transmission Segments
As discussed above, the final step in multiply instancing a transmission segment is that it must be given a unique
Segment Name. By default when the first instance of a segment is created, its instance name is the same as its definition
name. This is okay if there is only one instance; however, if more than one instance is present based on the same
definition, the segment name must be distinct.
The segment name is a component input parameter – so to modify it, simply open the parameters dialog (i.e. right-click
and select Edit Parameters…) and change the name.
If four instances from above are given unique names, they would appear as follows on the Circuit canvas:
When these line instances (all based on the definition TLine) are connected as a valid circuit in the project, each line will
be solved individually when the project is compiled.
Multiple Instances without Solving Multiple Times
It is possible to instantiate a transmission segment many times, while ensuring it is only solved once. This is desirable for
example, if the transmission line or cable segments possess the same cross-sectional configuration (i.e. definition) and
the same length. A practical situation would be perhaps a cross-bonded cable or transposed aerial line, where the
transposed segments are all equal.
The above is accomplished by ‘wrapping’ the segment within a module canvas. This essentially makes the transmission
line or cable object part of the definition of its parent module. Since a module definition is only solved once, so shall it be
for the transmission line. EMTDC will simply access the same Segment Constants (*.tlo/*.clo) file multiple times.
EXAMPLE 8-1:
A user wishes to model a 3-phase, transposed transmission line, where each segment is of equal cross-sectional
configuration, and the same length. The system has 6 segments in total.
1.
First create a new module component as described in Creating a New Component or Module in Chapter
5. Make sure it has a 3, 1-phase port connection nodes on both the left and the right side of the component
graphic.
2.
Inside the Circuit canvas of the newly created module, create a new directly connected transmission line
segment as discussed above in the section Constructing Overhead Transmission Lines.
New Module Graphic
3.
Transmission Segment Wire on Module Circuit Canvas (Inside New Module)
Instantiate the new module component 6 times and then place transpositions between them.
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Although the above system contains six calls to the transmission line within the module, it is only actually solved once, as
it is part of the module definition.
Line Constants Files
Whenever a project containing a transmission line or a cable segment is compiled (or the line constants are solved
manually), text files involved in the calculation are created. PSCAD uses information extracted from the various
components involved with the transmission system, and constructs a Segment Input (*.tli) file. This file is then used as
input by the Line Constants Program (LCP) – a separate executable supplied with your PSCAD software.
Depending on the transmission segment type (i.e. overhead line or underground cable) and the actual line model used,
the LCP creates three main files. These are:

Segment Constants File (<segment name>.tlo/.clo)

Segment Log File (<segment name>.log)

Segment Output File (<segment name>.out)
These files are located in the project temporary directory (<project name>.emt) and may be viewed either directly within
the Transmission Segment Definition Editor (by clicking the corresponding tab window), or in the Files tree in the
workspace.
Solving the Line Constants Manually
To manually solve a specific transmission line or cable segment in your project, first open the Transmission Segment
Definition Editor (see previous section for instructions if needed).
Right-click over a blank area of the canvas and select Solve Constants:
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Viewing Line Constants Files
NOTE: When manually solving a transmission segment, check the Log file (by clicking the Log tab) to ensure
that the line was properly solved. Along with other logged text, any errors issued by the LCP will be displayed
in this file.
Viewing Line Constants Files
To view any of the LCP files, first manually solve the line, as described in the previous section. Then, simply click the
corresponding tab, located near the bottom of the window.
The tab window viewers specified in this bar correspond as follows:

Editor: Transmission Segment Definition Editor

Input: Segment Input (<segment name>.tli/.cli) file

Constants: Segment Constants (<segment name>.tlo/.clo) file

Log: Segment Log (<segment name>.log) file

Output: Segment Output (<segment name>.out) file
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Segment Input File
The segment input file is automatically constructed when the project is compiled, or when the line constants are solved
manually (see Solving the Transmission Segment Constants Manually above). This file is used as input to the LCP; it is
automatically generated and cannot be modified.
The input file is pieced together using information taken from:
Configuration Component: Depending on whether you are modeling a transmission line or a cable segment,
the first part of this file is composed of input parameters taken directly from the corresponding instance of the
Transmission Line or Cable Configuration component, as shown below for a transmission line:
1.
Line Summary:
{
Line Name = FLAT230
Line Length = 100.0
Steady State Frequency = 60.0
Number of Conductors = 3
}
Tower or Cross Section Component: Important parameters such as conductor data and ground data,
dimensions, etc. are extracted from the Model-Data segments of whatever tower or cable cross-section
components exist in the editor. These are placed in the input file as well and represent the bulk of the file:
2.
Line Constants Tower:
{
Name = H-Frame-3H4
Circuit = 1
{
Transposed = 0
Conductors = 3
Conductor Phase Information = 1 2 3
Radius = 0.0203454
DCResistance = 0.03206
ShuntConductance = 1.0e-011
P1 = -10.0 30.0
P2 = 0.0 30.0
P3 = 10.0 30.0
Sag = 10.0
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Sub-ConductorsPerBundle = 2
{
BundleSpacing = 0.4572
}
}
GroundWires = 2
{
Eliminate Ground Wires = 1
Radius = 0.0055245
DCResistance = 2.8645
P1 = -5.0 35.0
P2 = 5.0 35.0
Sag = 10.0
}
}
Line Constants Ground Data:
{
GroundResistivity = 100.0
GroundPermeability = 1.0
EarthImpedanceFormula = 0
}
Model Component: Some important information will appear in the input file from whatever model is being
used. In this case, the it is the Frequency Dependent (Phase) model:
3.
Frequency Dep. (Phase) Model Options:
{
Interpolate Travel Times = 1
Infinite Line Length = 0
Curve Fitting Start Frequency = 0.5
Curve Fitting End Frequency = 1000000.0
Maximum # of Poles for Surge Admittance Fit = 20
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Maximum # of Poles for Attenuation Constant Fit = 20
Maximum Fitting Error (%) for Surge Admittance = 0.2
Maximum Fitting Error (%) for Attenuation Constant = 2.0
Weighting Factor 1 = 100.0
Weighting Factor 2 = 1000.0
Weighting Factor 3 = 1.0
Write Detailed Output Files = 0
}
Constants File (*.tlo\*.clo)
The constants (*.tlo\*.clo) file is a LCP output file, which is used as input for EMTDC to set-up the transmission line
interface to the greater electric network. This file contains all the information necessary for EMTDC to represent the
transmission segment in the time domain, and is for the most part, of no concern to the user.
By default, this file is automatically generated by the LCP, and will overwrite any file of the same name that already exists
in the temporary folder if the corresponding segment has been modified. However, the user may also opt to provide their
own custom file. See Overhead Line Configuration or Cable Configuration for more details.
Log File
The log file is a collection of messages sequentially output by the LCP while it runs its course. This is an important file
when initially debugging and tuning a transmission line or cable segment. It is recommended that user scan through this
file to ensure that no problems occurred while the line constants were being solved.
If question arise regarding the output in this file, please contact the PSCAD Support Desk ([email protected]).
Output File
Output files are created by the LCP and are used to display important transmission segment data in a convenient format
for the user. This can include impedance and admittance matrix information, sequence data and travel times.
The format of the output file will change slightly depending on the model used. See the Additional Options component for
details on formatting data in this file.
Phase Data
The phase data section displays relevant line constants at a specific frequency, where all quantities are in the phase
domain. The term 'phase domain' refers to quantities that have not been transformed into the modal domain. Phase data
represents the 'real life' characteristics of the line.
Series Impedance Matrix (Z)
This data represents the system series impedance matrix Z per-unit length (/m). The diagonal terms represent the self
impedances of each conductor, whereas the off-diagonals are the mutual impedances between the respective
conductors. The dimension of the matrix depends on the final number of equivalent conductors/ground wires in the
system N:
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Output File
Series Impedance Matrix
All elements in this matrix are complex and are given in Cartesian format:
The positions of elements in this matrix are dependent on the manner in which the conductors/ground wires have been
numbered. The type of ideal transposition that has been selected will also affect this matrix.
Shunt Admittance Matrix (Y)
This data represents the system shunt admittance matrix Y per-unit length (S/m). The diagonal terms represent the self
admittances of each conductor, whereas the off-diagonals are the mutual admittances between the respective
conductors. The dimension of the matrix depends on the final number of equivalent conductors/ground wires in the
system N:
Shunt Admittance Matrix
All elements in this matrix are complex and are given in Cartesian format:
The positions of elements in this matrix are dependent on the manner in which the conductors/ground wires have been
numbered. The type of ideal transposition that has been selected will also affect this matrix.
Long-Line Corrected Series Impedance Matrix (ZLL)
This data represents the long-line corrected, series impedance matrix Z (). This matrix is the impedance of the entire
line length, where all quantities have been passed through a correction algorithm to account for the electrical effects of
long line distances.
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The long-line corrected quantities have a specific use: They should be used whenever a single -section equivalent is
being derived to represent the entire line length at a specific frequency. This data should not be used to define time
domain travelling wave models.
Long-Line Corrected Shunt Admittance Matrix (YLL)
This data represents the long-line corrected, shunt admittance matrix Y (S). This matrix is the admittance of the entire line
length, where all quantities have been passed through a correction algorithm to account for the electrical effects of long
line distances.
The long-line corrected quantities have a specific use: They should be used whenever a single -section equivalent is
being derived to represent the entire line length at a specific frequency. This data should not be used to define time
domain travelling wave models.
Sequence Data
The sequence data section displays relevant line parameters at a specific frequency, where all quantities are sequence
quantities. The sequence data is calculated directly, through the use of a sequence transform matrix T:
Transformation Matrix
Sequence Impedance Matrix (Zsq)
This data represents the system sequence impedance matrix Zsq per-unit length (/m). Zsq is derived directly from the
series impedance matrix Z and the sequence transform matrix T (both described above) as follows:
If all 3-phase circuits in the Z matrix are ideally transposed, then the sequence impedance matrix Zsq will be a diagonal
matrix, where the diagonal terms are the equivalent zero, positive and negative sequence components.
For a single 3-phase, ideally transposed circuit, the sequence impedance matrix appears as follows:
Sequence Impedance Matrix (Single, Balanced 3-Phase Circuit)
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Output File
In the case of two, ideally transposed 3-phase circuits, the sequence impedance matrix will appear as shown below:
Sequence Impedance Matrix (Two, Balanced 3-Phase Circuits)
Where,
Zero sequence impedance of the nth circuit [/m]
Positive sequence impedance of the nth circuit [/m]
Negative sequence impedance of the nth circuit [/m]
Zero sequence mutual impedance [/m]
Sequence data of course, only makes sense when 3-phase circuits are considered. The format of this matrix depends
heavily on the manner in which the individual circuits in the system are transposed (if at all). For example, if a doublecircuit line is transposed so that all 6 conductors are included in the transposition, a sequence matrix will not be provided.
The positions of elements in this matrix are dependent on the manner in which the conductors/ground wires have been
numbered. The type of ideal transposition that has been selected will also affect this matrix.
Sequence Admittance Matrix (Ysq)
This data represents the system sequence admittance matrix Ysq per-unit length (S/m). Ysq is derived directly from the
shunt admittance matrix Y and the sequence transform matrix T (both described above) as follows:
The same concepts described for the sequence impedance matrix Zsq, apply to Ysq.
Load Flow RXB Formatted Data
This data is simply the data given in the Sequence Data section, but reformatted for easy reading. The following diagram
shows from where the data is taken:
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Sequence Admittance and Sequence Impedance Matrices (Two, Balanced 3-Phase Circuits)
Mutual Coupling
Mutual coupling of transmission system segments enables the user to couple (or parallel) multiple transmission segments
together, provided that their lengths are all identical. In the past, this was possible only by manually combining two or
more separate systems of towers (or cable cross-sections) into the same transmission segment. Now PSCAD can be
programmed to perform this task automatically, and even toggle between coupled and non-coupled states, all the while
maintaining the individuality of each segment.
Mutual coupling can also circumvent certain node mapping issues when dealing with multi-phase wires and buses. For
example, you can now couple multiple transmission segments connected to the same bus, without the need for Breakout
components!
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Mutual Coupling of Transmission Segments
Single, 6-Phase Segment
Two Mutually Coupled, 3-Phase Segments
Mutual Coupling of Transmission Segments
In order to couple two or more segments together, they first must possess the same length. Each unique segment in a
collection of coupled segments (referred to as a Right-Of-Way or ROW) must possess a Horizontal Translation value,
which serves to orientate segments on a global x-axis.
Also, one segment must be chosen as the reference, simply to indicate which segment will define the model and ground
details used for the entire ROW. For example, consider the following two, unique transmission segments:
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Transmission Segments on the Project Canvas
The two segments above are modeled as unique, and mutually exclusive from each other; that is to say they are not
mutually coupled. Not being such is equivalent to assuming that the lines L1-3 and L3-1 are physically separated from
each other – rendering any electromagnetic coupling effects between them insignificant.
Transmission Segment L1-3 Editor Canvas
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Mutual Coupling of Transmission Segments
Transmission Segment L3-1 Editor Canvas
Let us assume however that in the real, physical system, lines L1-3 and L3-1 are indeed close enough to each other
(perhaps routed through the same ROW) to allow coupling effects to play a more significant role in the solution. To
provide this full representation in PSCAD, the two segments must be combined into a single ROW.
Creating a ROW
First of all, ensure that all transmission segments possess the same length. Also keep in mind that it is not possible to
combine overhead lines and underground cables within the same ROW. Next, decide which of the segments will be the
reference segment. Right-click on the reference segment and select Edit Parameters…. The Configuration dialog will
appear.
Portion of the Transmission Configuration Dialog
There are four parameters involved in defining a Right-Of-Way:

Coupling of this segment to others is: This parameter is used to enable/disable the mutual coupling
feature. This toggle is convenient if the user should want to compare effects on the system with and without
coupling.

Coupled segment tag name: This text parameter is used to specify the name of the ROW to which this line
segment belongs. All segments included in a particular ROW must share the same tag name.

Horizontal translation of this segment: This parameter specifies a global horizontal placement of this
particular segment, based on this segments x-origin point (where a positive value signifies a translation to the
right). You may utilize the unit system as well (the default unit is metres [m]): See the section entitled Unit
System in Chapter 5 for more on units.
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
This segment is: This parameter is used to specify the ROW reference segment. The selected reference
segment is where PSCAD will extract the model and ground component parameters when constructing the
segment input file. A ROW can contain only one reference segment.

Data entry method is by: This toggle controls whether or not the data is to be entered using tower crosssections (i.e. geometric position data), or by direct entry of sequence data. See Sequence Data Entry Method
below for more details on this.
Graphical Indicators
Additional graphics are provided in order to help distinguish between stand-alone segments, and those coupled within a
ROW. For example, if lines L1-3 and L3-1 are coupled into a ROW called L1L3, where L1-3 is the reference segment,
then the circuit on the project canvas would appear as follows:
Mutually Coupled Transmission Segments on the Project Canvas
Behind the Scenes
When a project is compiled, a unique segment input file is generated for every transmission segment in the project. The
Line Constants Program (LCP) is called once for every input file, and in doing so produces a unique segment constants
file for every call. The LCP constants files are used as input to EMTDC, when it needs to set-up the transmission system
interface in the time domain.
Each input file contains information that defines the transmission segment; including conductor positions, resistance,
circuits, ground properties, etc. The mutual coupling algorithm simply merges all towers (or cable cross-sections) from all
segments in the ROW into a single segment input file, which assumes the name of the ROW (i.e. ROW tag name). Using
only the horizontal translation distance between coupled segments, conductor position and numbering can be made
relative to entire ROW.
For example, consider lines L1-3 and L3-1 as discussed in the previous section, where L1-3 is the reference. Given the
horizontal distance dh between their respective x-origins, the two towers can be combined into a single system as follows:
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Graphical Representation (Behind the Scenes) of a Mutually Coupled ROW
Two particular properties are modified during this process: Conductor/Cable Position Data and Conductor Phasing/Cable
Number Data.
Conductor/Cable Position Data
The conductor or cable position data of all segments in the ROW are modified such that the corresponding
conductors/cables appear translated by the corresponding horizontal translation distance. Note that this modification
would need to be performed by way of the Relative X Position of Tower Centre on Right-Of-Way tower input parameter, if
additional towers were being merged manually – this is taken care of by the mutual coupling algorithm.
Conductor Phasing/Cable Number Data
The line constants program requires that all conductors/ground wires/cables possess unique number indicators in order to
distinguish conductor or cable order in the frequency domain solution. When more than one tower is added to a particular
segment, this information is entered manually in each tower or cable.
The mutual coupling algorithm takes care of all conductor phasing and cable numbering automatically.
Sequence Data Entry Method
If data is being entered directly as sequence quantities (that is, every transmission segment involved is utilizing the
Manual Entry of Y,Z component) then conductor phasing and position do not play a part.
What occurs instead with sequence data entry is that PSCAD will construct Y and Z matrices for the entire coupled
system; these matrices are based on information from both the individual Manual Entry of Y,Z components in each
segment involved, as well as additional 0-sequence mutual data. The 0-sequence mutual data must be provided
separately by the user, in the same data format as that data entered in the Manual Entry of Y,Z components.
The mechanism for entering the 0-sequence mutual data is provided within the transmission segment configuration dialog
of the reference segment for a particular ROW. To enter this data, first set the Data entry method is by input parameter to
manual entry of sequence data only.
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This will enable the second category page in the dialog called Manual Entry of 0-Sequence Mutual Data.
The data entered here works in a similar fashion to how data is entered within the Manual Entry of Y,Z component. First
of all, ensure that the proper Input Data Format is chosen (this must be the same format as each individual segments in
the ROW).
The Input Data in this dialog is entered in matrix format, where each row/column of the matrix represents a 3-phase
system. Each input data parameter can hold information for up to 10, 3-phase coupled segments.
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Behind the Scenes
The majority of this table array contains -1 values, which signifies that these positions are not used (they are the diagonals
and the symmetrical duplicates in the matrix). The 0-sequence mutual data is entered in the other positions as
required. For example, if you are coupling 3, 3-phase lines, valid data will need to be entered in positions (2,1), (3,1) and
(3,2); representing the 0-sequence mutual values between segments 1 and 2, segments 1 and 3 and segments 2 and 3
respectively.
EXAMPLE 8-2:
A user wishes to couple two, 3-phase transmission segments (called Segment1 and Segment2), which are each defined
by directly entered sequence data (using the Manual Entry of Y,Z component).
The local data from each segment forms two, individual 3x3 matrices each representing both Y and Z. If we just
concentrate on Z (Y is treated in an identical manner), then the two segments will be represented by two unique Z
matrices called Z1 and Z2. When two, 3-phase systems are coupled to form a single 6-phase system, Z1 and Z2 become
the diagonals of the coupled 6x6 matrix as follows:
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The matrix Zm above represents the 0-sequence mutual data that must be entered through the transmission segment
configuration component. In this example, there are only two, 3-phase segments and so data is only required in the (2,1)
position in each Input Data table parameter. The Input Data Format chosen for this example is R,Xl,Xc Data Entry (pu)
and so three separate values must be entered:
Once this data is entered, PSCAD will solve these two lines as one coupled system.
Multiple Tower Segments
The mutual coupling algorithm fully supports combining individual segments containing multiple towers/cables. In fact,
these are dealt with in exactly the same manner as single tower/cable segments:
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Remote End Support
Mutually Coupled ROW With Mutli-Tower Segment
For more details on how conductor positions are calculated, see the section entitled The PSCAD Line Constants Program
in Chapter 9 – Transmission Lines and Cables in the EMTDC Manual.
Remote End Support
Transmission systems in Remote Ends mode are supported by the mutual coupling algorithm – this includes overhead
lines and cables (all cables are in remote end mode). For overhead lines, it is also possible to combine segments in
Remote End mode with those in Direct Connection mode.
Viewing Mutually Coupled ROW Files
When individual transmission segments are coupled together to form a new, mutually coupled ROW, the files involved
(i.e. input, constants, log and output) will assume the name of the ROW itself. In terms of PSCAD, a mutually coupled
ROW is effectively a ‘virtual’ transmission segment that, unlike actual transmission segments, does not possess a
definition. As such, its information cannot be accessed by using the Transmission Segment Definition Editor.
This means of course that there are no convenient tab windows, by which to view the files. Mutually coupled ROW files
can however, be viewed by using the File tree in the Workspace window. The File tree detects both individual
transmission segments and coupled ROWs in a project and intelligently organizes them into folders.
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See the section entitled The File Tree for more details.
Cautionary Measures
There are some precautions that should be taken when utilizing the mutual coupling algorithm that may not appear
obvious at first.
Tuning the ROW
It is important to remember that a mutually coupled right-of-way is itself a unique transmission segment, and therefore
may require tuning just like any other individual segment. Do not assume that just because all the individual segments
are properly tuned and giving good results, that the combined system will be tuned. In fact, the solution for the combined
ROW may even fail at first!
Model Type and Ground Parameters
Due to the fact that multiple, individual transmission segments are being combined into a single ROW, there may be
dissimilarities between transmission line models and ground properties. To avoid this confusion, the mutual coupling
algorithm assumes that the model and ground components used in the reference segment, is the same for all
segments. If there are such dissimilarities between segments, PSCAD will issue build warnings in the output window to
warn of any assumptions.
Maximum Conductors/Cables
Keep in mind that the maximum number of conductors and/or cables in a right-of-way must still be adhered to. See the
section entitled Scope Boundaries in Chapter 1 for details.
LCP Detailed Output Viewer
The LCP Detailed Output Viewer utility provides a visual environment for the plotting of frequency domain, detailed output
data from the Line Constants Program (LCP). Detailed output is available only when using the Frequency Dependent
(Phase) or Frequency Dependent (Mode) models.
The viewer supports both matrices and vectors, in that any element of any output matrix can be plotted
individually. Some examples of what data is available for plotting are:
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
Series Impedance

Shunt Admittance
Creating Detailed Output

Eigenvectors/Eigenvalues

Curve Fitting Output
The plotting tools used in the viewer are based on those used for online plotting in PSCAD, including features such as
markers, zoom and cross-hairs. Data may be written to file or copied to the clipboard just as it can be in the online
plotting tools.
The detailed output data files are written as columnar formatted ASCII text files, which are placed in the project temporary
directory (*.emt) when the segment is solved.
Creating Detailed Output
Before any detailed output can be viewed, the transmission line or cable segment must be solved by either using the
Frequency Dependent (Phase) or Frequency Dependent (Mode) model. Note that in either case, the input parameter
Output Detailed Output Files? must be selected as Yes before the constants are solved.
For more details on solving the constants, see the section entitled Solving the Transmission Segment Constants Manually
in this chapter.
NOTE: Although mutually coupled ROW detailed output files can be generated, the Detailed Output Viewer
does not currently support viewing of these files.
Invoking the Detailed Output Viewer
The Detailed Output Viewer can be opened from within the Transmission Segment Definition Editor pop-up menu.
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Detailed output is not available for the Bergeron model, as this model solves at only one frequency. See the section
entitled Segment Output (*.out) File in this chapter for more on viewing Bergeron model output.
The Viewer Environment
The following sections provide a quick overview of the main parts of the Detailed Output Viewer utility.
Spreadsheet Data Viewer
The viewer main page is an easily navigated, spreadsheet like viewer, which is opened as a separate window when the
viewer is invoked.
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The Viewer Environment
Each column in the spreadsheet represents an individual quantity (usually a single matrix or vector element) and each row
of data represents a calculation at a particular frequency.
Column Organization
Depending on the output parameter being viewed, the data may exist as either matrix or array, or whether curve fitting
results are included.
Matrix:
etc...
Matrix parameters, such as the Series Impedance matrix (Z), are listed in order from left-to-right and top-to-bottom. The
column headers are labelled in (row,column) format.
Array:
etc...
Array quantities are simply listed in order.
Calculated/Fitted Quantities:
etc...
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When curve fitting results are included, the calculated and fitted quantities are staggered as indicated by the 'C' and 'F'
respectively.
Switching between Spreadsheets
Only one parameter may be viewed at a time in spreadsheet form. To switch to another available parameter, click on the
parameter selection drop list in the Detailed Output Toolbar:
Copying Data Rows
One or more rows of data maybe copied to the Windows clipboard. Simply click on a single row, or hold down the Ctrl
key and select multiple rows, then right-click on the selection and select Copy.
Detailed Output Toolbar
The Detailed Output Viewer is accompanied by its own toolbar:
The individual toolbar buttons are listed below with a short description:
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The Viewer Environment
Button
Description
View only curves from presently viewed spreadsheet
View all curves at once
X-axis settings (i.e. plot vs. frequency or log(f))
Drop list to select data viewed in spreadsheet
Access help
Curve Viewer
The Curve Viewer is a simple utility used to for viewing the line constants detailed output data graphically. The utility uses
the same online plotting facilities that are provided in the main PSCAD environment, tailored to this specific use. There
are two Curve View utilities: View Single Graph and View All Graphs.
NOTE: For detailed information on using these plotting tools, see Chapter 6 – Online Plotting and Control.
Invoking the Curve Viewer
To invoke the Curve Viewers, press either the View Single Graph or View All Graphs button in the Detailed Output toolbar:
This will bring up the Curve Viewer as a floating window, as shown below for the Single Graph Viewer:
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When viewing matrix quantities, such as the Series Impedance (Z) above, initially only the diagonal elements of the matrix
are enabled; this is mainly to reduce the number of possible traces to be displayed.
Element Identification
The Curve Viewer makes use of the multi-trace Curve feature available in the PSCAD online plotting tools, in order to
allow plotting of 2-dimensional parameters such as matrices. For example, if plotting a 3x3 matrix, such as the Y or Z
matrix magnitudes, the matrix elements are organized according to Curve and Trace, where each multi-trace Curve
represents an entire matrix column, and the respective Traces represent the elements of that column.
A 3x3 Matrix
In the diagram above, the column 1 Curve has been expanded to reveal the three Traces representing the 3-elements of
the column. That is, elements (1,1), (2,1) and (3,1). For more on multi-trace Curves, see the section entitled Curves and
Traces in Chapter 6 – Online Plotting and Control.
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The Viewer Environment
Array items, such as the eigenvalue array are organized such that all elements are included within a single Curve. For
example, the magnitudes of a 3-element array would appear as follows:
A 3-Element Array
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Chapter 8
Component Design
Designing Components
One of the features that make PSCAD such a powerful simulation tool is its allowance for the design of custom
models. Users can develop models from the very simple, to the very complex, limited only by their skills and knowledge
of the subject: Many seasoned users continue to amaze us (the developers of PSCAD) with what they have managed to
accomplish with the software over the years.
Custom components may be constructed in one of two ways: Either graphically by means of a module type component,
or by direct coding. Regardless of the method used, in order for a custom model to be included in either the system
dynamics or the electric network, a component must first be created to define the model. A component acts as a
graphical representation of the model, where the user may supply input parameters, perform pre-calculations on input
data, and change the component appearance. In the case of a module, it will possess a schematic, on which other
components may be pieced together to form the model.
This chapter discusses the various features and tools available for the design of custom components. The information
here is closely linked with the following chapter entitled Definition Script. It is suggested that you become familiar with
both chapters before proceeding on with your component design.
The last section of this chapter includes a tutorial called Creating a New Component, which employs many of the features
and concepts described here, and in the next chapter.
The Definition Editor
In PSCAD V2, user components were designed and edited by way of a text file. In PSCAD V3, component design was
accomplished by using a utility entitled the Component Workshop (or CWS). The Component Workshop was invoked by
editing the component definition and contained different sections for the design of graphics, dialog windows and code
sections. In PSCAD V4 and onwards, components are designed in a more integrated environment, which is no longer a
separate utility. In fact, what is referred to as the Definition Editor is incorporated as part of the main tabbed window.
Four of the tabs represent the main sections of the definition editor, and will become enabled depending on whether the
user is editing the definition of a regular component or a module. For example, modules do not possess a Script section,
and so therefore this tab is disabled while editing module definitions:

Schematic: The Schematic window displays the canvas of whatever module is being viewed (including the
Top-Level module). At the same time, this canvas also acts as a graphical design environment for modules
definitions (replacing the Script section).
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
Graphic: The Graphic window is utilized specifically for the design of component graphics. A component or
module graphic is the icon which represents it on the Schematic canvas.

Parameters: This section is for the design of component or module input parameters and parameter
dialogs. These represent the user-interface to the model.

Script: The Script section harbours all of the component code (if any). The internal operability of the model
and how it reacts to input is defined here. This section is not available in module definitions.
Editing a Component or Module Definition
Access to the definition editor (i.e. editing a definition) can be performed a few different ways, depending on user
preference. The most popular way is to right-click over the component and select Edit Definition... from the pop-up
menu.
Other methods include:

Hold down the Ctrl key and then left double-click on the component.

Right-click on the definition listed in the workspace window and select Edit....
The Graphic Section
The component graphic is important as it represents your model visually on the Schematic canvas. In the Graphic
section, component graphic objects, text labels and port connections can be added, removed and manipulated.
Navigation and Zoom
There are a few navigational features available to help you efficiently navigate about the Graphic canvas.
Scroll Bars
Vertical and horizontal scroll bars are available in all environment windows. These are located at the right-most and
bottom-most edges of the open window respectively.
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Arrow Keys
You can use the arrow buttons on your keyboard to scroll both horizontally and vertically.
Panning (Dynamic Scroll) Mode
The panning or dynamic scroll feature allows you to scroll in a fluid motion. You can invoke panning mode by one of the
following methods:

On a blank portion of the page, press and hold the Ctrl and Shift keys, then click and hold the left mouse button
(Ctrl + Shift + left mouse hold). Moving the mouse will then allow panning though the page.

Press the Pan button in the ribbon control bar Home tab to invoke panning mode. To indicate that you are in
panning mode, the mouse pointer will change into a hand shape. Press Esc to cancel pan mode.
Zooming
There are a couple different methods for zooming available:

Press the + or - keys on your keyboard to zoom in or out respectively.

From the ribbon control bar Home tab, select either the Zoom In, Zoom Out, Zoom Extents, or Zoom
Rectangle buttons, or select a percentage zoom directly from the Zoom drop down list.
Cut, Copy, Paste and Delete Graphic Objects and
Text
You can cut, copy or paste any graphic object or text label by using one of the following methods:
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
Select the object with a left mouse click. Click the Cut or Copy buttons from the ribbon control bar Home
tab. Click the Paste button to paste.

Right-click the object and select Cut or Copy from the pop-up menu. Right-click over a blank area of the
Graphic window and select Paste from the pop-up menu.

Select the object with a left mouse click so that grips appear. Press Ctrl + x or Ctrl + c to cut or copy the label
respectively. Press Ctrl + v to paste.
Graphic Objects
Graphic Objects
There are several types of purely graphic objects available. These include:

¼ Arc

½ Arc

Ellipse

Line

Rectangle
Object properties, such as colour, fill and size can be changed to suit the component graphical needs. A good graphical
design can enhance user understanding of the purpose of the component and what its primary function is.
Adding Graphic Objects
To add a graphic object to your component definition, the most straightforward method is to use the ribbon control bar
Shapes tab:
Another method is to use the right-click menu: Move the mouse pointer over a blank area of the Graphic window. Rightclick and select New Graphic.
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Depending on the object selected, a new object will appear attached to your mouse pointer. With your mouse, move the
object to the desired location on the canvas and left-click to place the object.
Inserting Graphics
Graphic objects may also be inserted by importing a previously defined Scalable Vector Graphics (*.svg) file. To do so,
move the mouse pointer over a blank area of the Graphic window. Right-click and select Insert Graphics….
If you would like to insert a specific graphics file, select From a file… and point directly to the file.
A special folder called overlays, under the PSCAD installation directory, has been designated as the default folder to
house graphics files that have been previously saved from within PSCAD (See section entitled Saving Graphics to File
below.). Any files stored in this folder will be listed in the sub-menu, as shown above.
The location of the graphics folder may be changed through the Workspace Options setting called SVG script editor. See
Dependencies in chapter 3 for more details on this setting.
Note that the format of the file must be very specific in order to be imported into the Graphics section. Presently, only
minimal support has been implemented (i.e. basic PSCAD graphic objects), and so this feature should be used as a way
to transfer graphics from one component to another. In fact, it is best that you only use the Save Graphics feature
described below to create the files from within PSCAD, and avoid using external programs. A partial *.svg file, created by
PSCAD, is shown below as an example:
<svg id='noname' viewBox='-200 -200 200 200'>
<port model="Natural" name="G1" x="-18" ... ></port>
<line x1="6" y1="23" x2="3" y2="21" stroke="Black" ... />
<ellipse cx="3" cy="0" rx="18" ry="18" stroke="Black" ... />
<text x="6" y="6" stroke="Black" fill="Black" ... ></text>
</svg>
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Graphic Objects
For more details on Scalable Vector Graphics, see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Svg.
Saving Graphics to File
One or more graphic objects may be saved to a Scalable Vector Graphics (*.svg) file format. In this way, collections of
selected graphic objects may be duplicated for transfer from one component to another.
To save a collection of graphic objects to file, select the objects (using say box select), right-click and choose Save
Graphics... from the pop-up menu. You will be presented with a dialog, from which you can save the graphics as a *.svg
file.
Rotate, Flip, Mirror and Re-size Graphic Objects
Graphic objects can be rotated, flipped, mirrored or re-sized. To re-size, left-click on the object so that grips appear.
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Place the mouse pointer over a selected grip, press and hold the left mouse button, and move the mouse. Note that the
corner grips will allow re-sizing in both directions, while the mid-point grips will only allow movement in either the
horizontal or vertical directions.
Rotate, flip or mirror can be accomplished in one of three ways. The first is to use the buttons in the ribbon control bar
Shapes tab:
You can also use the right-click pop-up menus: Right-click over the object and select Rotate. Choose one of the options
given.
As an alternative to the right-click menu and ribbon bar, you can also use keyboard shortcuts Ctrl + r, Ctrl + f and Ctrl +
m (or simply r, f and m) for rotate, flip and mirror respectively. Make sure that the mouse pointer is over top the object
before using these keys. If you select the object first, then the object will rotate, flip and mirror centred on the object itself.
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Graphic Objects
Changing Graphic Object Properties
Graphic object properties (except the Arc) can be adjusted through the Format Graphic Object dialog window. To change
the object properties: Either left double-click or right-click over the object and select Properties....
As shown above, graphical features such as styles and colours can be adjusted.
Line:

Colour: Select the down arrow to bring up the colour palette shown below. Left-click on a colour button to
change the colour of the object line. If the object is a Rectangle or Ellipse, this will change the border colour.

Weight: Select the down arrow to bring up the line weight palette shown below. Left-click on a weight button to
change the weight or thickness of the object line. If the object is a Rectangle or Ellipse, this will change the
border weight. If By Node Type is selected, the type of node to which the object is associated with will
determine the line weight. See the Connection input field description below for more details.
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
Style: Select the down arrow to bring up the line style palette shown below. Left-click on a style button to
change the style of the object line. If the object is a Rectangle or Ellipse, this will change the border style.
Rectangle & Ellipse:

Fill: Select the down arrow to bring up the fill palette shown below. With the mouse pointer over the
Transparent, Solid Fill or Pattern buttons, left click the down arrow to bring up the respective sub-palettes
shown below. This input is disabled for Line objects!
Fill Palette
Solid Fill Sub-Palette
Pattern Sub-Palette
Other:

Conditional Statement: Enter a conditional statement to determine under what input conditions the object is to
be visible. See Conditional Statements, Layers & Filters for more details.

Connection: Enter the name of a local, electrical port connection to which this object is to be associated. This
input is used to associate the line weight of a graphical object with a specific local port connection. If the
dimension of the electrical port is greater than 1 (i.e. an array), then its line weight is doubled. This method is
used extensively in master library components for single-line diagram compatibility.
In addition to the Format Graphic Object dialog, you can change the line/border colour, weight and style, as well as fill
properties directly from the ribbon control bar Shapes tab. First, select the object with a left-click (grips appear). Then
adjust any of the above properties by using the appropriate buttons.
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Changing Arc Object Properties
The Arc is a special type of graphical object. Arc object properties can be adjusted through the Format Arc dialog
window. To change the Arc properties: Right-click over the Arc object (without selecting it) and select Properties....
As shown above, graphical features such as styles and colours can be adjusted.
Line:
The properties within the Line area (i.e. Colour, Weight and Style) function exactly as described for graphic
objects. See Changing Graphic Object Properties above.
Angle (ccw rotation):

Start Angle: Enter the angle in degrees at which the arc has its starting point. This angle is based on a
standard, four-quadrant system.

Sweep Length: Enter the angular distance through which the arc is to sweep. Sweep distance is always in the
counter-clockwise direction.
Other:
The remaining properties (i.e. Conditional Statement and Connection) function exactly as described for graphic
objects. See Changing Graphic Object Properties above.
Text Labels
Text can be displayed on component graphics by using a Text Label object. Text labels can be one line of text only, and
the user may select alignment and size.
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Adding Text Labels
To add a Text Label to your component definition, the most straightforward method is to use the ribbon control bar
Shapes tab:
Simply left-click the Label button, drag the label to where you want it placed and left-click again. Another method is to
use the right-click menu: Move the mouse pointer over a blank area of the Graphic window. Right-click and select New
Graphic | Text.
A Text Label will appear attached to your mouse pointer. With your mouse, move the label (left-click and hold) to the
desired location within the Graphic canvas.
Changing Text Label Properties
Text label properties can be adjusted through the Format Text Label dialog window. To change the Text Label
properties: Either left double-click or right-click over the Text Label and select Properties....
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Text Labels
As shown above, text features such as size and style can be adjusted.

Text: Enter the text you wish to appear on the label.

Size: Select Small, Medium or Large sizes for your text.

Alignment: Select Left, Centre or Right justification for your text.

Conditional Statement: Enter a conditional statement to determine under what input conditions the object will
be visible. See Conditional Statements, Layers & Filters for more details.
Linking a Text Label to an Input Field
It is possible to link Text Label text to a specific input parameter within the same definition. Once linked, the label can be
used to graphically display the parameter value (and unit). For example, you can display the MVA rating of a transformer
model according to what is entered in its Rated MVA input field.
Linking is accomplished by simply entering the Symbol name of an associated input parameter into the text label,
preceded by either a percent (%) or a dollar ($) symbol. If the $ prefix is used, just the value of the linked input field will
be displayed. If the % prefix is used, both the value and the specified unit will be displayed. The following example
illustrates how to link to an input field. See The Parameters Section and Substitutions in Chapter 10 for more details.
EXAMPLE 9-1:
A user wants to display the value of an input field with Symbol name timec, which represents the component time
constant. The user adds a text label to the component graphic and adds the following to the Text input field in the Format
Text Label dialog:
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Component Graphic section
Text Label Property Settings
If the timec input field has a value of say 10.0 [s], then the resulting display on the Circuit canvas would be similar to:
NOTE: If the % prefix above is replaced by the $ prefix, the units will not be displayed.
Port Connections
Port Connections are used to provide graphical access to signals defined within the Circuit canvas where the component
instance resides. They provide a means to either read signals from, or output signals to the external system each
simulation time step. These ports play an essential part in the construction of circuits in PSCAD, and are the graphical
signal communication avenue between models.
Adding Port Connections
To add a Port Connection object to your component definition, the most straightforward method is to use the ribbon
control bar Shapes tab:
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Port Connections
Simply left-click the Port button on the ribbon bar, drag the connection to where you want it placed and left-click
again. Another method is to use the right-click menu: Move the mouse pointer over a blank area of the Graphic
window. Right-click and select New Graphic | Connection.
A port connection should appear attached to your mouse pointer. With your mouse, move the node to the desired
location within the Graphic window and left-click to place the object.
NOTE: You may notice that port connections are always snapped to the Graphic canvas drawing grid. This is
to ensure that when other components are connected to yours, their respective connection points will overlap.
Changing Port Connection Properties
Port connection properties can be adjusted through the Port Connection dialog. To change the connection
properties: Either left double-click or right-click over the connection and select Properties....
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As shown above, connection features such as name and type can be adjusted.

Symbol: Enter a name for the port connection. Note that this name must be compatible with standard Fortran
naming conventions (i.e. it must begin with a non-numeric character, must not include spaces or other illegal
characters, etc.).

Dimension: If this connection is to carry an array signal, then this input specifies the dimension of the
array. For example, if port connection N1 is to be defined as REAL N1(3), then this field should be specified as
3. You may also substitute the Symbol of an integer input field or choice list in this field. The connection will
assume a dimension equal to this value upon compilation.

Connection Type: Select Input Data, Output Data or Electrical. If this connection is to be part of the
EMTDC system dynamics (i.e. a control signal), then you must either choose Input or Output Data. Only
select Electrical if this connection to be part of an electrical circuit.

Node Type: Select Fixed, Removable, Switched or Ground. This parameter is only enabled if the
Connection Type is Electrical (see the following Electrical Node Types section). If designing a module
component, only Fixed-type electrical nodes may be used.

Data Type: Select Logical, Integer or Real. This input defines the type of data signal that will be passing
through this connection and is based on the standard Fortran LOGICAL, INTEGER or REAL declarations. It is
only enabled if Connection Type is Input or Output Data.

Internal: Selecting this choice box simply disables the compiler warning message indicating that an internal
electrical, isolated node exists. Note that this port can still be connected to other ports (via a wire, etc.) when
flagged as internal.

Conditional Statement: Enter a conditional statement to determine under what input conditions the connection
is to be enabled. See Conditional Statements, Layers & Filters for more details.
Electrical Node Types
When the connection is selected as an electrical node, there are four electrical node types available to the user. These
are described below:
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Undo and Redo

Fixed: A fixed node is the most common type of electrical node and should be the default chosen when in
doubt. It represents a simple electrical node.

Removable: A removable node is that which may be 'removed' by PSCAD, if it is to be part of a collapsible
branch. For example, a branch with separate series RLC elements can be collapsed by PSCAD into an
equivalent, single element impedance branch (Z) (effectively removing two extra nodes). Select removable if
you would like to take advantage of this feature.

Switched: If your node is to be part of a frequently switching branch, that is a branch whose equivalent
conductance is changing many times during a simulation (thyristor, GTO, etc.), then this option should be
chosen. Switched nodes are included in the Optimal Node Ordering algorithm, which makes matrix
decomposition more efficient, and thereby speeds up the simulation.

Ground: Select this option if your node is to be a ground node.
NOTE: Only Fixed-type electrical ports are allowed in module component definitions.
Undo and Redo
Undo/redo is presently not supported in the Graphics section.
Adjusting Graphic Page Size
In order to accommodate very large component graphics, an option to change the Graphic canvas size is given. Move the
mouse pointer over a blank area of the Graphic window. Right-click and select Page Size.
The default canvas size is Smaller.
The Parameters Section
The Parameters section is used to design the primary interface between the component and the user. This is
accomplished through the use of programmable dialog windows know as Categories, where users may input everything
from model parameters to model conditions and appearance. Category windows act as the users interface once the
component design is completed.
If the Parameters section is not enabled, click on the Parameters tab as shown below:
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Categories
Within the Parameters section, you may include several category pages, each containing inputs pertaining to a similar
function, or you may place all inputs in a single category page. There are several types of input parameter fields that may
be added categories. These include:

Choice

Integer

Real

Logical

Text

Table

Boolean
NOTE: When you first create a new component, a default category called Configuration will be created for
you. This category will possess a single default parameter field called Name. Name is used for display in the
workspace secondary window, if the component is a module. See The Secondary Window for details.
Adding a New Category
To add a new category page to your component definition, simply click the New Category button:
Or, right-click on the Categories tree and select New Category.
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Categories
In either case, a new category page will appear with default name Untitled as shown below.
Changing Category Properties
Category properties can be adjusted at any time.

Name: Enter a descriptive name the category page.

Conditional Statement: Enter a conditional statement (optional) to determine under what input conditions the
category is to be enabled. If a category is disabled, the user will still be able to view the contents, but all input
fields within it will be disabled. See Conditional Statements, Layers & Filters for more details on conditional
statements.
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Navigating Through Categories
Once you have added more than one category, there will of course be a need to navigate through these pages. In the
category tree, left-click on the desired category page to view it.
Ordering Categories
Once you have added more than one category, there may be a need to re-order the sequence of the category
pages. Select a category page and then click the up or down arrow on the tool bar as shown below:
In the above diagram, the Configuration category page was moved below the Data Input page.
Another method is to drag and drop a category: Left-click and hold a category page in the tree and then drag it to the
desired spot. Release the mouse button.
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Text Fields
Duplicating a Category
Category pages are duplicated by simply copying and pasting them in the Categories tree. Select the desired category in
the tree, right-click and select Copy (or press Ctrl + c). Paste the category: Right-click on the Categories tree and select
Paste (or press Ctrl + v).
A new category page will appear in the tree with a number appended to the copied category name. You may rename the
category as described in Changing Category Properties above.
Deleting a Category
To delete a particular category, select it in the Categories tree and then click the Delete Category button in the tool bar
(or press the Delete key).
You may also right-click on the category page itself and select Delete.
Text Fields
Text fields are used primarily to add descriptive comments as input, or to define signals to be used as internal output
variables within the component. See Internal Output Variables for more details.
Adding Text Fields
To add a new text field to a category page, select the category in the Categories tree and then select Text within the Add
Parameter Field drop list button in the tool bar:
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A new text field will appear:
Changing Text Field Properties
Text field properties can be adjusted directly on the category page. Left-click on the [+] box to expand the text field tree
node.
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The properties available are described as follows:

Description: Enter a caption to act as the visible title of the text field.

Symbol: Enter a symbolic name for the text field, which will be used as a variable name when addressing this
field within code. Note that this name must be compatible with standard Fortran naming conventions (i.e. it
must begin with a non-numeric character, do not include spaces, etc.).

Default Value: Use this field to add text, which will show up as default text in the text field box.

Group Label: Use this field to organize the display of the input parameters in the actual parameter dialog. All
parameter fields that possess the same group name will be grouped together under the group name
heading. For example, the image below shows part of an input parameter dialog, where the parameters have
all been given the same group name (in this case Positive Sequence):

Prompt Text: Enter a brief statement describing the field. This text will be displayed on the actual input
parameter dialog for the component.

Help Mode: Select Append or Overwrite. If Overwrite is selected, only the help text will appear at the bottom of
the dialog when the user selects this parameter. If Append is selected, then the prompt text will be appended to
the other parameter attribute information displayed.

Regular Expression: Enter an expression for the purpose of ‘masking’ the entered value for this field. Regular
expression (or Regex) is a powerful language used for the recognition of character patterns. As the designer,
you can use this language to ensure that users of your component enter data values in a specific format. For
more details on regular expressions, see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Regex.

Error Text: Enter a message to be output if the expression entered in Regular Expression fails.
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
Conditional Expression: Enter a conditional statement to indicate under what input conditions the text field is
to be enabled. See Conditional Statements, Layers & Filters for more details.
Value Fields
Value fields allow the user to import or export numerical or signal input to and from the component. Value fields include
the following numerical sub-types:

Real

Integer

Logical
Adding Value Fields
To add a new value field to a category page, select the category in the Categories tree and then select Real, Integer or
Logical within the Add Parameter Field drop list button in the tool bar:
A new value field will appear:
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Value Fields
Changing Value Field Properties
Value field properties can be adjusted directly on the category page. Left-click on the [+] box to expand the value field
tree node.
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The properties available are described as follows:

Description: Enter a caption to act as the visible title of the value field.

Symbol: Enter a symbolic name for the value field, which will be used as a variable name when addressing
this field within code. Note that this name must be compatible with standard Fortran naming conventions (i.e. it
must begin with a non-numeric character, do not include spaces, etc.).

Group Label: Use this field to organize the display of the input parameters in the actual component parameter
dialog. All parameter fields that possess the same group name will be grouped together under the group name
heading.

Default Units: Add a unit (if any) to represent the Target Unit related to this Field. See Unit System for more
details.

Minimum / Maximum Value: Enter the maximum and minimum value limits. If you are unsure of what these
limits should be, or limits are not required, simply enter -1e+038 and 1e+038 respectively. If value outside this
range is entered, PSCAD will provide a warning in the Build or Runtime Message Panes upon compilation.

Dimension: Real and Integer type parameters may be defined as single-dimension arrays. Simply enter the
dimension of the array here. Note that non-scalar parameters (i.e. dimension > 1) must be set as Data Type |
Variable.

Data Type: Select Literal, Constant or Variable. The selection of data type is very important. Please see the
following section entitled Value Field Data Types for a complete description of each.

Intent: Select whether or not this parameter is to function as an input or an output parameter. The intent setting
is important to ensure well formed Fortran code is generated for this component when the project is built.

Help Text: Enter a brief statement describing the field. This text will be displayed on the actual input
parameter dialog for the component.

Help Mode: Select Append or Overwrite. If Overwrite is selected, only the help text will appear at the bottom of
the dialog when the user selects this parameter. If Append is selected, then the prompt text will be appended to
the other parameter attribute information displayed.

Conditional Expression: Enter a conditional statement to indicate under what input conditions the input field is
to be enabled. See Conditional Statements, Layers & Filters for more details.

Default Value: Use this field to add a value, which will appear as the default value in the input field parameter
display. Assume that a user who is not familiar with this component might simply accept your default value for
lack of a better value. So, do your best to enter an appropriate value here.
Value Field Data Types
Value fields can be subdivided into two types: Real and Integer. These data types are quite familiar in programming
languages and can be readily defined. In PSCAD, Real, Integer and Logical type value fields can be further categorized
into three sub-types: Literal, Constant and Variable.
PSCAD versions prior to X4 allowed only type Literal and Variable value fields. Seasoned users will remember the use of
the Allow Signal Names option in the Value Field dialog: By default, all value fields were Literal, but could be made
Variable by selecting this option.
As a direct by-product of the multiple instance module (MIM) feature, a third input field sub-type was created and dubbed
a Constant. A Constant type input field is a hybrid of sorts in that it possesses key properties of the other two data
types. For example, a Constant type field cannot be modified during runtime like a Variable, but can accept the name of a
previously defined signal, or an actual number (Literal).
A brief definition and example is given below for each data type:

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Literal: Literal type value fields will accept only fixed, numeric values. For example: 23, 657.29, -33.8, or -1
are all valid inputs. Literals are defined at build time, and remain fixed throughout the simulation.
Choice Lists

Constant: Constant type value fields will accept only fixed input. However, unlike a Literal type, it will also
accept a signal name as its value. The signal value must be from a source that is fixed (non-variable). For
example: freq, my_signal, out2, as well as all the examples given for a Literal type above. Constants are
defined at build time, and remain fixed throughout the simulation.

Variable: Variable type value fields accept both numeric and non-numeric input. Input values may remain
fixed, or they can vary throughout the simulation. This value type is equivalent to having the Allow Signal
Names option enabled in PSCAD versions previous to X4.
See Multiple Instance Modules for more details on using Constant type value fields.
Choice Lists
The purpose of a choice list is to allow the user to set conditions according to a selected choice, which will possess an
associated integer number for use internally in conditional statements.
Adding Choice Lists
To add a new choice to a category page, select the category in the Categories tree and then select Choice within the Add
Parameter Field drop list button in the tool bar:
A new input field will appear:
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Changing Choice List Properties
Choice list properties can be adjusted directly on the category page. Left-click on the [+] box to expand the choice list tree
node.
The properties available are described as follows:

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Description: Enter a caption to act as the visible title of the choice list field.
Choice Lists

Symbol: Enter a symbolic name for the choice list, which will be used as a variable name when addressing this
field within code. Note that this name must be compatible with standard Fortran naming conventions (i.e. it
must begin with a non-numeric character, do not include spaces, etc.).

Group Label: Use this field to organize the display of the input parameters in the actual component parameter
dialog. All parameter fields that possess the same group name will be grouped together under the group name
heading.

Prompt Text: Enter a brief statement describing the field. This text will be displayed on the actual input
parameter dialog for the component.

Help Mode: Select Append or Overwrite. If Overwrite is selected, only the help text will appear at the bottom of
the dialog when the user selects this parameter. If Append is selected, then the prompt text will be appended to
the other parameter attribute information displayed.

Conditional Expression: Enter a conditional statement to indicate under what input conditions the choice list
is to be enabled. See Conditional Statements, Layers & Filters for more details.

Default Value: Use this field to add an integer (ex. 0, 1, 2, etc.), which will correspond to the default choice
from the list.

Edit Drop List: This field is used to invoke the Drop List Editor. This editor is used to construct the actual list
of choices. See the following section for details.
Adding Choices to a Choice List
Choice lists are constructed using the Drop List Editor. To open the editor, left-click on the [+] box to expand the choice
list tree node, select the Choice List field and then left-click the [...] button.
The Drop List Editor will appear. To add choices to the list, click the Add button.
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The contents of any choice in the list can be modified in the editor window to the right: Within the Members list, left-click
on the choice name to select it. To edit the properties of the selected choice, left-click either the Description and/or the
Value field.
Note that when adding choices to the choice box, the most important thing to remember is that a unique integer must be
assigned to each entry in the Members choice list. This is accomplished by modifying the Value field as described
above. It is this assigned number that will be associated with the Symbol name of this choice list.
To delete a choice in the choice list, left-click on a choice within the Members list to select it. Click the Remove button.
Ordering Choices in a Choice List
Once multiple choices exist in a list, they may be re-ordered as follows: Select the desired choice from the Members
list. Click the up or down arrows to move it up and down the list.
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Table Fields
Table Fields
Table fields are specially designed to allow the user to enter data in vector or matrix form directly as a component
parameter. Table fields include the following numerical sub-types:

Real

Integer
NOTE: Table fields can currently be used only in standard, non-module components.
Adding Table Fields
To add a new table field to a category page, select the category in the Categories tree and then select Table within the
Add Parameter Field drop list button:
A new table field will appear:
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Changing Table Field Properties
Table field properties can be adjusted directly on the category page. Left-click on the [+] box to expand the table field tree
node.
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Boolean Fields
The properties available are described as follows:

Description: Enter a caption to act as the visible title of the table field.

Symbol: Enter a symbolic name for the table field, which will be used as a variable name when addressing this
field within code. Note that this name must be compatible with standard Fortran naming conventions (i.e. it
must begin with a non-numeric character, do not include spaces, etc.).

Group Label: Use this field to organize the display of the input parameters in the actual component parameter
dialog. All parameter fields that possess the same group name will be grouped together under the group name
heading.

Prompt Text: Enter a brief statement describing the field. This text will be displayed on the actual input
parameter dialog for the component.

Help Mode: Select Append or Overwrite. If Overwrite is selected, only the help text will appear at the bottom of
the dialog when the user selects this parameter. If Append is selected, then the prompt text will be appended to
the other parameter attribute information displayed.

Conditional Expression: Enter a conditional statement to indicate under what input conditions the table field is
to be enabled. See Conditional Statements, Layers & Filters for more details.

Data Type: Select Real or Integer.

Decimal Places: Enter the precision of the input data values to a maximum of 6 decimal places. If the values
are of arbitrary precision, select -1.

Edit Columns: Define the columns for the vector or matrix. This will invoke the Column Editor dialog, which
functions in the same manner as the Drop List Editor described in the Choice Lists section above.

Edit Rows: Define the rows for the vector or matrix. This is also where you can enter the default value of each
matrix element. To add a row, press the Add button. Default values may be entered directly in each element
field.
Boolean Fields
Boolean fields are designed for simple on/off or yes/no parameters.
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Adding Boolean Fields
To add a new boolean field to a category page, select the category in the Categories tree and then select Boolean within
the Add Parameter Field drop list button:
A new boolean field will appear:
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Boolean Fields
Changing Boolean Field Properties
Boolean field properties can be adjusted directly on the category page. Left-click on the [+] box to expand the boolean
field tree node.
The properties available are described as follows:

Description: Enter a caption to act as the visible title of the toggle field.

Symbol: Enter a symbolic name for the toggle field, which will be used as a variable name when addressing
this field within code. Note that this name must be compatible with standard Fortran naming conventions (i.e. it
must begin with a non-numeric character, do not include spaces, etc.).

Group Label: Use this field to organize the display of the input parameters in the actual component parameter
dialog. All parameter fields that possess the same group name will be grouped together under the group name
heading.

Help Text: Enter a brief statement describing the field. This text will be displayed on the actual input
parameter dialog for the component.

Help Mode: Select Append or Overwrite. If Overwrite is selected, only the help text will appear at the bottom of
the dialog when the user selects this parameter. If Append is selected, then the prompt text will be appended to
the other parameter attribute information displayed.

Conditional Expression: Enter a conditional statement to indicate under what input conditions the toggle field
is to be enabled. See Conditional Statements, Layers & Filters for more details.

Text Value (Enabled State): Enter a name for the enabled (true) state.
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
Text Value (Disabled State): Enter a name for the disabled (false) state.

Default Value: Use this field to select which of the two toggle states is to be the default.
Ordering Input Fields within a Category Page
Input fields, text labels and choices may be arranged at will. Left-click and hold the desired field in the Input Fields
list. Drag the field to where you want it placed and then release the mouse button.
Cut, Copy, Paste and Delete of Category Fields
You can cut, copy or paste an input field by using one of two methods:

Right-click on the field and select Cut or Copy from the pop-up menu. Right-click over a blank area of the Input
Fields list and select Paste from the pop-up menu.

Left-click on a field and press Ctrl + x to cut, Ctrl + c to copy and Ctrl + v to paste.
To delete a field, select it and press the Delete key, or right-click and select Delete.
Undo and Redo
Undo/redo is presently not supported in the Parameters section.
Conditional Statements, Transparencies and
Filters
All objects and fields associated with either the Graphic or the Parameters sections will possess an input field labelled
Conditional Statement. Within these fields, the user may add statements to either enable or disable the object, or make
the object visible or invisible according to the logic specified in the statement.
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Conditional Statements, Transparencies and Filters
Conditional Statements
The primary purpose of conditional statements is to either enable or disable an object (such as an input field), or to make
an object visible or invisible (such as a graphic object).
The user may construct conditional statements by using both Arithmetic and Logical Operators, where the condition
values themselves are always based on the value of a choice list. Through conditional statements, the operation and
appearance of the component becomes instance-based and is controllable by the user.
EXAMPLE 9-2:
A component designer wants to change the appearance of a component according to user-selected input. The
component graphic is to be either an ellipse or a rectangle, depending on a choice list with Symbol name Type. The
choice list specifies two choices: Ellipse, which is given the integer value 0, and Rectangle, which is given the integer
value 1.
In the component Parameters section, the designer adds a single choice list:
In the component Graphic section, the designer draws a simple ellipse and a simple rectangle:
In the properties dialog for the Graphic Objects, the following text is added to the respective Conditional Statement input
fields:
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Ellipse Property Settings
Rectangle Property Settings
If a user selects Ellipse in the choice list, only the ellipse object will appear in the component graphic. If Rectangle is
chosen, only the rectangle will appear.
Conditional statements are not limited to a single logical truth. It is possible to use several logical conditions in one
statement. For example, say there was another choice list added to the component of Example 9-2 with Symbol name
Type2. Now assume that in order for the ellipse object to be visible on the component graphic, it is required that Type2
have a value of 3 (in addition to Type having a value of 0). Then the following conditional statement would need to appear
in Conditional Statement field of the ellipse object:
(Type == 0) && (Type2 == 3)
The above states: If Type equals 0 and Type2 equals 3, then make the ellipse visible.
Arithmetic Operators may also be included in conditional statements. For example, the following statement is also valid:
(Type + Type2 == 3)
The above states: If the sum of Type and Type2 equals 3, then make the ellipse visible.
NOTE: Care must be exercised when using the divide (/) function, as a divide by zero error can occur.
Transparencies
As component graphics become larger and more complicated, the graphical working environment can become quite
unruly – especially when many conditional statements are used.
Fortunately, there is a way to avoid the potential clutter by utilizing the graphical layers available in the Graphic
section. Transparencies are based solely on conditional statements, in that whenever a unique conditional statement is
entered into an object or field, a new graphical transparency is created. Any other graphic object, which utilizes an
identical conditional statement, will also be visible in that particular transparency.
NOTE: Be sure when adding conditional statements that the statements themselves are identical in format, as
well as logical truth. If the statements vary slightly in format, a separate transparency will be created, even
though the statements may indicate the same thing.
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Conditional Statements, Transparencies and Filters
Viewing Transparencies
By default, only the transparencies visible on the graphic of a particular component instance will be initially visible in the
Graphic canvas when the component definition is edited. Although a component definition may have several instances,
only the transparencies present on the instance used to access the definition will be visible by default. If the definition is
accessed from the definition itself in the Workspace, then the transparencies will be based on the component default
conditions.
To adjust the transparency visibility, move the mouse pointer over a blank area of the Graphic canvas. Right-click and
select Transparencies. The resulting sub-menu will list all of the available transparencies (or conditional statements) that
currently exist in the component graphics.
Simply select or de-select each transparency to make visible or invisible respectively. You can also select Show All or
Hide All or, press the Show All/Hide All button on the Filtering tab of the ribbon control bar to toggle the visibility of all
transparencies.:
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Base Transparency
The base transparency contains any graphical objects and port connections that do not possess a defined conditional
statement (i.e. are not part of a defined transparency). The base transparency may be toggled on and off using the popup menu: Move the mouse pointer over a blank area of the Graphic canvas. Right-click and select Show/Hide Base
Transparency.
Testing Transparencies
Instead of turning transparencies on and off through the right-click menu (which can become cumbersome as the number
of transparencies increases), you can set and test the visible transparencies directly using the component parameter
dialog.
Right-click on a blank part of the canvas and select Test Transparencies... from the pop-up menu. Or, press the Test
button on the Filtering tab of the ribbon control bar:
This feature provides a fully functional preview of the parameter dialogs as they would be seen by a user. Simply set all
the choice lists to the desired settings and click the OK button – the graphical transparencies pertaining to that setting will
become visible in the Graphic canvas.
Graphic Filters
In addition to graphical transparencies, you may also use Graphic Filters to help alleviate graphical clutter. Graphic filters
allow the user to view objects based on the graphic object type (i.e. port connections, text labels, etc.).
To adjust graphic filters, the most straightforward method is to use the Graphic Filters section in the Filtering of the
ribbon control bar.
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The Script Section
Another method is to use the right-click menu: Move the mouse pointer over a blank area of the Graphic canvas. Rightclick and select Graphic Filters.
The Script Section
Contained within the Script section is the heart of the definition, where the fundamental purpose of the component is
defined. The Script section is utilized in non-module components only.
This section of the definition is used primarily for lower level code entry, and consists of a variety of Segments, each
performing a specific function. Not all segments need to exist in every component, but the most commonly used
segments are Fortran, Computations and Branch, and these are included by default in every newly created definition.
The segments that your component definition will require depend on what function your component is to perform. Are
pre-calculations required? Is it an electrical component? Is there source code involved? The following sections describe
each available script segment in detail.
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Segments
Segments are ordered similar to pages in a book. Each segment is itself a simple text editor, where data, script and other
code is added to perform a specific task. Segments may be added or deleted at will, but must follow a strict naming
convention.
Managing Segments
The Segment Manager enables users to add or remove segments from within a simple dialog. To invoke the segment
manager, the most straightforward method is to use the Segment Manager button under the Script tab of the ribbon
control bar:
Another method is to use the right-click menu: Move the mouse pointer over a blank area of the segment page. Rightclick and select Segment Manager....
The segment manager dialog will appear as shown below:
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Segment Types
The list on the left-side of the dialog displays the segments available to add to this definition, while the right-side lists are
the segments already in the definition. To add or remove segments to/from the definition, simply select the Add-> or <Remove buttons. Once satisfied with the selection, click the OK button. If you chose to remove any existing segments, a
dialog will appear ask you to confirm the removal. Press the Cancel button to cancel the operation.
NOTE: Deleted segments will be lost if removed, as removal cannot be undone!
Viewing Segments
Once you have added more than one segment, there may be a need to navigate through them. Use the drop list in the
Segments section under the Script tab of the ribbon control bar:
Segment Types
There are several segment types available. Each exists for a specific purpose, but are only required if that specific
function is needed as part of the component design. Most of the time, a definition will only require two or three of
segments.
NOTE: Although this section does provide an assortment of simple examples, there is a huge wealth of
examples in the master library project itself. Simply edit any master library definition (right-click on the
component and select Edit Definition...) to study its contents.
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Computations
The Computations segment is an environment provided for the pre-processing of component input data, as well as
creating new internal variables. Although component parameter input may be in the most convenient form for the user, it
may not be so convenient for the definition itself. For example, the definition may require the system frequency in radians
per second, but the input data field may ask the user for the same quantity in Hertz.
The Computations segment is the first segment considered by the compiler when the component is compiled. Due to this
fact, any quantities defined here may be substituted elsewhere in any of the other segments. This segment allows both
mathematical and logical expression evaluation.
NOTE: All script processed within the Computations segment is done so before any Fortran code is
constructed for EMTDC, and only considered once. Therefore, quantities defined here are static for the
remainder of the simulation.
A typical Computations segment entry must have the following standard format:
<DataType> <Name> = <Expression>
Where,

<DataType> may be either a REAL or INTEGER type value. If omitted, it is assumed to be REAL

<Name> is the name of the constant

<Expression> is a mathematical or logical expression containing only constant parameters
EXAMPLE 9-3:
A designer wants to convert an input parameter with symbol name Vset in kV, to a per-unit value called SetPU, before it
is used in component Fortran code. An additional input parameter with symbol name Vbase in kV has also been defined
for the system voltage base.
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Segment Types
Input Field Property Settings for Vset & Vbase
The Computations segment could then contain something similar to the following:
REAL SetPU = Vset / Vbase
In the above example, the designer has defined a new REAL constant entitled SetPU. This constant may now be used in
any other segment in the Script section, both in equations and/or in logical expressions.
Branch
The Branch segment is primarily for the provision electric branch information to the EMTDC Electric Network
Conductance Matrix: It is essentially an input portal for control of the EMTDC Equivalent Conductance (GEQ)
Interface. Branch design is accomplished by specifying the type and size of passive elements (i.e. lumped R, L and/or C),
and to which electrical port connections they fall between.
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A single Branch statement represents a single electrical branch, to which is associated an impedance Z = R + jX, where Z
is derived from a combination of series-connected, lumped R, L and/or C values. The Branch segment may also be used
to define switching branches and those that contain an ideal voltage source (i.e. infinite bus).
A typical Branch Segment entry must have the following standard format:
[<Branchname> = ] $<TO>
$<FROM> [<Keyword>]
[$]<R>
[$][<L>]
[$][<C>]
Where,

<TO> and <FROM> are the symbol names of the electrical port connections defined in the Graphic section

<R> is the resistance value of the branch []

<L> is the inductance of the branch (optional) [H]

<C> is the capacitance of the branch (optional) [F]

<Branchname> = may be used to give the branch a name, which can be used to refer to the branch (instead of
its nodes) in other sections. Note that many EMTDC subroutines require the branch name as an argument.

<Keyword> can be either SOURCE or BREAKER and is explained in the following sections

$ is the Substitution Prefix Operator ($)
NOTE: If a branch does not contain all three types of R, L and C elements, simply substitute 0.0 for the value of
the element that is not present.
EXAMPLE 9-4:
A designer wants to define a component, which represents an RC series branch, connected in parallel with a purely
inductive branch, between electrical port connections N1 and N2. These two port connections have already been defined
in the Graphic section of the definition.
Component Graphic with Electrical Connections N1 and N2
The actual values of the R and C elements are to be entered though input fields (with symbol names R and C
respectively) in the Parameters section of the definition. The inductance value is not accessible to the user and is given a
static value of 0.001 H directly.
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Component Parameters Dialog
The Branch segment would then contain the following two statements:
$N2
$N1
$R
0.0
$C
$N2
$N1
0.0
0.001
0.0
These statements are equivalent to the following schematic:
The designer then decides to refer to the branches by branch name in other sections of the definition. To achieve this, the
names BRN1 and BRN2 are defined. The designer modifies the above branch statements as follows:
BRN1 = $N2
$N1
$R
0.0
$C
BRN2 = $N2
$N1
0.0
0.001
0.0
NOTE: If BRN1 and BRN2 are used in other segments, they must be preceded by the Substitution Prefix
Operator ($).
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The branch may also contain an inherent ideal source in series with the passive elements. The Branch segment syntax
allows you to indicate to the application that there is a voltage source in a particular branch as follows:
[<Branchname> = ]
$<TO> $<FROM>
SOURCE
[$]<R>
[$][<L>]
[$][<C>]
Now that PSCAD knows that there is a source in this branch, control of the source (i.e. magnitude, etc.) is then up to the
user. One way this can be accomplished is by defining the EMTDC internal variable EBR every time step, directly in the
model code itself.
NOTE: For more examples on this, edit the definition of the Voltage Source Model 2 in the master library
project.
EXAMPLE 9-5:
A designer adds a resistive branch containing an ideal voltage source to the component in Example 9-4, which is to be
connected between node N1 and a ground electrical port connection GND. The source possesses a source resistance
RS, which can be entered as an input parameter.
The Branch segment could then contain something similar to the following:
BRNS = $N1
$GND SOURCE
$RS
0.0
0.0
BRN1 = $N2
$N1
$R
0.0
$C
BRN2 = $N2
$N1
0.0
0.001
0.0
These statements are a schematic equivalent to:
The Branch segment syntax also allows you to indicate to the application that a particular branch is a switching branch:
[<Branchname> = ]
<TO> <FROM>
BREAKER
<Initial_Value>
Where,

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<Initial_Value> is the initial resistance of the switch []. This value is used for initialization purposes and does
not affect the simulation. A good default value to use is 1.0.
Segment Types
Fortran
The Fortran segment is where any Fortran code, defining what the component is to model, is placed. Code entered in this
segment should either exist in the form of standard Fortran 90, or Definition Script (or a combination of these two). It is
also possible to define a function, or call an external subroutine from this segment.
When using actual Fortran code in this segment, it is important to note that all lines should be preceded by the allotted six
spaces.
EXAMPLE 9-6:
The following code is a simple example of how standard Fortran would appear in the Fortran segment. This code defines
an instantaneous voltage source magnitude VT, according to the value of an input parameter Type. If Type = 0, then the
magnitude is calculated using the standard equation for a sinusoidal source with phase shift:
If Type = 1, then the source magnitude is a constant given by VDC. FREQ and PHI are also input parameters defined in
the Parameters section of the definition. TWO_PI is an EMTDC internal constant.
! Calculation of an AC or DC voltage source magnitude
! --------------------------------------------------!
!23456 Remember to precede code by at least six spaces!
!
IF ( $TYPE .EQ. 0 ) THEN
!
! AC source
!
$VT = $VPEAK*SIN( TWO_PI*$FREQ*TIME + $PHI )
!
ELSE
!
! DC source
!
$VT = $VDC
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!
ENDIF
!
This same code could also be written as a combination of standard Fortran and Definition Script as follows:
! Calculation of an AC or DC voltage source magnitude
! --------------------------------------------------!
!23456 Remember to precede code by at least six spaces!
!
#IF $Type == 0
!
! AC source
!
$VT = $VPEAK*SIN( TWO_PI*$FREQ*TIME + $PHI )
!
#ELSE
!
! DC source
!
$VT = $VDC
!
#ENDIF
!
Note that the above two examples have been simplified slightly. Generally speaking, the value for the 2ft function should
never be allowed to simply grow larger and larger as the simulation progresses. It should be reset to zero whenever 2ft
= 2 is reached.
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There are pros and cons to adding in-line Fortran code directly into the segment, as opposed to calling a subroutine or
function. Here are some key points to consider:

All EMTDC Internal Variables may be utilized, without the need to declare them or add include files, when
coding in the Fortran segment.

Definition Script may only be utilized when coding directly in the Fortran segment.

All code placed in the Fortran segment will be added directly to the module Fortran file (<module>.f), when the
project is compiled. If there is a large amount of code and/or there are many instances of this definition in the
module, the module Fortran file can become huge and difficult to debug. In such cases, it would be wise to
create a function or subroutine, which could be simply called from the Fortran segment. Also, if Fortran line
numbering is used in your code, these same number may appear multiple times in the Fortran file (<module>.f),
causing compiler errors.
The Fortran segment is a 'smart' segment, in that code placed here will be intelligently placed in the EMTDC System
Dynamics, in order to avoid problems with time step delays. In other words, PSCAD will choose to place the code in
either the DSDYN or DSOUT subroutines, according to what variables are being defined in the code, and what this
component is connected to in the project.
DSDYN
This segment is identical to the Fortran segment, except that all code will be forced into the DSDYN section of the
EMTDC System Dynamics.
DSOUT
This segment is identical to the Fortran section, except that all code will be forced into the DSOUT section of the EMTDC
System Dynamics.
Checks
The Checks segment is used to ensure that data entered into the component input parameters by the user is
reasonable. If a specific condition is true, then a given warning or error message can be made to appear in the Build and
Runtime Message Panes when the case is compiled.
A typical Checks segment entry would have the following standard format:
<MESSAGE TYPE> <Message> : <Expression>

<MESSAGE TYPE> is the first word in the message line and must be chosen as either WARNING or ERROR
depending on the problem severity. If chosen as a warning, the message will appear as a warning in the Build
and Runtime Message Panes. If specified as an error, then the simulation will be stopped until the condition is
rectified.

<Message> is the diagnostic message that is printed if an error or warning is produced. This message should
be descriptive enough for another user to determine what the problem is, and where it is coming from.

<Expression> is the test used to determine if an error or warning message should be generated. This
expression is based on negative logic, which means the message is generated only if the expression evaluates
to false.
EXAMPLE 9-7:
A designer's component contains an input for frequency with symbol name F. The designer wants to ensure that only a
value greater than zero is entered.
The Checks segment should then contain the following:
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ERROR System frequency must be greater than zero : F > 0.0
Both Logical and Arithmetic Operators may be used in the expression. For example:
WARNING R1 / R2 must be greater than 100 : R1 > 100*R2
Remember that negative logic is used in the above examples!
Help
The Help segment is useful when the user wants to provide an external HTML based help file for a particular user-defined
component. For example if the user has created an HTML document entitled help.html for example, then all that is
required that the name and extension be added to the Help segment as shown below:
help.html
When a user right clicks on the component instance and selects Help from the pop-up menu, the external document
indicated will open.
Please note the following important facts:

Help File Placement: In order to reduce confusion when linking components to help documents, the path to
the library project (*.pslx) file, in which the definition is located, will be appended to the filename. Therefore, the
external help file must always be located in the same directory as the parent library project.

HTML Browser: You must choose an HTML browser program for viewing custom help files. This is
accomplished through the HTML Browser workspace setting. See Application Options Dependencies category
description for more.
Comments
Add your comments / reminders / notes about the design of this component here. Do not use this segment as a means of
providing help to users. This segment is ignored by the application and is accessible only when editing the definition.
FlyBy
The FlyBy segment provides an avenue for the designer to apply fly-by (or pop-up) help to a component. Fly-by windows
can help to provide users with a quick description of the model itself, or even individual port connections on the
component.
The FlyBy segment syntax is straightforward:
<Descriptive text for the component>
: <Connection_Symbol_Name>
<Descriptive text for the connection>
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Segment Types
EXAMPLE 9-8:
A designer wants to add fly-by help to the component below:
In addition to a general description of the component, the designer wants to provide a fly-by for each of the input port
connections A and B.
The FlyBy segment should then contain something similar to the following:
This is my User Component
:A
This is input A
:B
This is input B
If the mouse pointer is now moved over the component while on the Circuit canvas, the following fly-by windows will
appear:
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Transformers
The Transformers segment is used both to define data for any existing mutual impedance matrices, as well as to provide
dimensioning information to EMTDC regarding transformers and windings. A single component may contain multiple
mutual impedance matrices.
The user must include transformer information in the following parts:

Number of transformers (matrices): This is entered via the use of a #TRANSFORMERS directive. See
Definition Script for more details.

Maximum Number of Windings: This is entered via the use of a #WINDINGS directive. See Definition Script
for more details.

Number of Windings: This number will define the dimension of each matrix. If this number is given as a
positive value, then PSCAD will assume that the matrix is in non-inverted format, and therefore the matrix data
must be entered directly. If the number is negative, it signifies that this transformer is 'ideal' (i.e. contains only
inductance) and PSCAD will assume that the matrix is already inverted. The matrix data must therefore be
entered accordingly.

Matrix Data: The matrix data is entered here, depending on whether the transformer is 'ideal' or not.
According to the above description, a basic Transformers segment would appear as follows (for a classical type
transformer) in general format:
#TRANSFORMERS <Number_of_Transformers>
#WINDINGS <Number_of_Windings>
<Prefix><Number_of_Windings> /
<Node_1> <Node_2>
<R_11> <L_11> /
<Node_2> <Node_3>
<R_12> <L_12>
<R_22> <L_22> /
...
NOTE: The Transformers segment format is different when defining a UMEC type transformer. For more
information on the UMEC format, see the UMEC transformer component definitions in the master library, or
contact the PSCAD Support Desk ([email protected]).
<Prefix> is not mandatory, but is required to indicate an 'ideal' transformer matrix (i.e. already inverted). Also, resistance
values (i.e. <R_xx>) are not required if the transformer is 'ideal'.
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Segment Types
Note that only the diagonal and the data below the diagonal need to be entered. The matrix is assumed to be
symmetrical.
EXAMPLE 9-9:
A user wants to create a non-ideal, single-phase, two-winding transformer. The component Graphics, Parameters and
other Script section has already been included. The component electrical port connections have been set-up as shown
below in the Graphic section.
The winding self and mutual resistance and inductance parameters have been defined and given symbol names R11,
L11, R12, L12, R22 and L22.
The Transformers segment should then appear similar to the following:
#TRANSFORMERS 1
#WINDINGS 2
!
2 /
$A1 $B1
$R11 $L11 /
$A2 $B2
$R12 $L12
$R22 $L22 /
!
When designing a component with more than one transformer, you can use a special syntax (called 888 syntax) so that,
if all the matrix elements are identical, you can avoid entering the repetitive data. This is especially useful if the mutual
impedance matrices are very large and numerous.
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EXAMPLE 9-10:
In the example above, the user wants to modify the component, so that it contains two identical single-phase
transformers within it. The component electrical port connections have been set-up as shown below in the Graphic
section.
The Transformers segment should then appear similar to the following:
#TRANSFORMERS 2
#WINDINGS 2
!
2 /
$A1 $B1
$R11 $L11 /
$A2 $B2
$R12 $L12
!
888 /
!
$A3 $B3 /
$A4 $B4 /
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$R22 $L22 /
Segment Types
Model-Data
The Model-Data segment is used as a way to bring input data into a user-defined subroutine, without having to declare an
argument for each bit of data. There is no specific format for text in this segment, as this format depends on READ
statements within the user code.
When the project is compiled, PSCAD will include all text in this segment within the corresponding module Data File
(*.dta), under the headings DATADSD or DATADSO. If the subroutine is called from DSDYN, the Model-Data contents
will appear in the DATADSD section; and DATADSO otherwise.
In order to read this information, a standard Fortran READ statement must be added to the user-defined subroutine as
follows:
!
!
Add include file to define IUNIT
!
INCLUDE 'fnames.h'
!
!
...
!
READ(IUNIT,*) ...
!
Matrix-Fill
When a project is initially compiled, PSCAD will construct a temporary logical matrix for the purpose of indicating how the
electrical system is connected (i.e. how nodes and branches are put together). The Optimize Node Ordering algorithm in
PSCAD then uses this information to optimize node placement in the actual system conductance matrix. However, only
electrical nodes and branches, defined within the Branch segments of each component present in the system, are
considered.
Any internal node connections defined in segments other than Branch will not be included in this matrix. Therefore, the
logical matrix may have missing information, thereby reducing the effectiveness of the Optimize Node Ordering
algorithm. The Matrix-Fill segment can be used to 'help' this algorithm by providing the omitted connection information for
any internal component nodes.
The general format for a Matrix-Fill Segment statement would appear as follows:
<Node_1> <Node_2> <Node_3> <Node_4> ...
Where <Node_#> is the Symbol name of the port connection involved. All port connections in a single statement are
assumed as connected to each other.
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EXAMPLE 9-11:
A user creates a single-phase electrical circuit in PSCAD, which includes a classical transformer component connected
as follows:
As can be seen above, there are 6 electrical nodes in this system, and therefore the system matrix will have dimension 6
x 6. Connections internal to the transformer component cannot be determined initially by PSCAD, and so when a logical
matrix for the Optimize Node Ordering algorithm is created, the transformer appears as a 'black box' as shown below:
The logical matrix for the Optimize Node Ordering algorithm would appear as follows, where X indicates a known
connection:
The matrix above does not contain all of the connection information required however. We know through the
Transformers segment in the transformer component, that nodes N2, N3, N5 and N6 are all part of a mutual impedance
matrix and are hence all connected together as shown below:
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Segment Types
By adding in Matrix-Fill information, we can tell PSCAD to add connection information to the matrix so it will appear as
follows, where '+' indicates a connection added by Matrix-Fill:
If the four electrical port connections on the transformer were given as follows in the Graphic section of the definition,
then the Matrix-Fill segment should appear as:
$A1 $B1 $A2 $B2
Note that in the above example, it assumed that all connections between the four nodes involved are possible. If
however, only connections as shown below are needed,
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then the Matrix-Fill segment should appear as:
$A1 $B2
$A2 $B1
T-Lines
The T-Lines segment is used to specify any electrical port connections that are to be used as sending or receiving end
port connections for a transmission line or cable. The T-Lines segment is rarely needed in component design. The
general format of statements in this segment is given below:
<Subsystem_#> <Cond_1> <Cond_2> <Cond_3> ...
<Cond_#> signifies that any port connection Symbol name that is entered in this position will be the sending or receiving
end port connection for that particular conductor number in the transmission line or cable properties.
This Segment is used only within the Transmission Line and Cable Interface components in the master library.
Segment Display Settings
There are a few display options that can be adjusted when viewing script segments. These may all be found under
Display in the script section canvas pop-up menu.
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Undo and Redo

Syntax Coloring: Select this option to enable code coloring. When de-selected, all Script code will appear in
black.

FORTRAN Style: This option provides graphical indication to illustrate the Fortran 6th column. It appears as a
green, vertical bar when viewing Fortran files, or when in the Fortran, DSDYN or DSOUT segments.

Line Numbers: Select this option to enable display of line numbers when viewing code in the Script section or
when viewing any text file in PSCAD.
Undo and Redo
Undo/redo is presently not supported in the Script section.
Internal Output Variables
Outputting EMTDC Measured Voltages and Currents
An Internal Output Variable is internal component data, which has been made available as a signal to be plotted or
monitored. Any internal quantities that need to be to be output must either be passed through an output parameter, or be
defined within the component Fortran segment using an #OUTPUT directive.
Internal data used as output can either come from an internal component variable, from an EMTDC storage array, or as a
measured branch current or voltage from EMTDC.
Outputting EMTDC Measured Voltages and Currents
There are a couple of substitution operators that can be used with #OUTPUT directives to extract measured quantities
directly from electrical system nodes and branches. These are described below.
CBR
CBR is a special substitution operator that will output the current measured in a specified branch. A special syntax is
used for this – see the example below.
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EXAMPLE 9-12:
A user wants to measure the current in a branch called BRN. A text field has been added to the component Parameters
section with Symbol name Ia.
The following should then appear in the Fortran segment:
#OUTPUT REAL Ia {$CBR:BRN}
VDC
VDC is a special substitution operator that will take the voltage difference between two different electrical nodes. A
special syntax is used for this – see the example below.
EXAMPLE 9-13:
A user wants to measure the voltage difference between two port connections defined within a component definition,
called N1 and N2. A text field has been added to the component Parameters section with symbol name Vdiff.
The following should then appear in the Fortran segment:
#OUTPUT REAL Vdiff {$VDC:N1:N2}
NOTE: It is important to ensure that neither N1 nor N2 are type ground nodes. The reason being is that ground
nodes are given a 0 node number, which is an invalid entry to the VDC(NA,SS) array.
Adding a Reference to a Source File
It is possible to call a subroutine or function defined in an external source file (i.e. *.f, *.f90, *.for or *.c file) from within the
Fortran, DSDYN or DSOUT segments of a definition. In order to link to this code when the project is compiled and built,
you must ensure a reference to this file is provided. This can be done in one of two ways:
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1.
Add a reference from the Project Settings dialog: Right-click over a blank area the Schematic canvas and
select Project Settings.... Under the Fortran tab, add a reference to the file in the Additional Source files (*.f,
*.for, *.f90, *.c, *.cpp) input field.
2.
Add a File Reference component: Right-click over a blank area of the Schematic canvas and select Add
Component | File Reference. Open the File Reference component and select the source file. Note that the
Additional Source files (*.f, *.for, *.f90, *.c, *.cpp) input field should be used instead whenever possible.
Interfacing to C Language Source
Interfacing to C Language Source
It is possible to interface to C language source, so long as the source is defined as a procedure (or procedures) within an
external file – either a C source file (*.c) or precompiled object (*.obj) file. C source cannot be inserted directly into the
Fortran, DSDYN or DSOUT segments, as these are reserved for Fortran only.
When using the GFortran compiler, C procedures may be called directly from within the Fortran, DSDYN, or DSOUT
segments of a component definition, although this is not recommended (see Calling C Procedures Directly (GFortran
Only) below for reasons why). Preferably, users should instead call a special Fortran interface routine (sometimes
referred to as a ‘wrapper’), which will in turn call the C procedure.
Prior to compilation of the project, ensure that any source (*.c) files are referenced in the Additional Source Files project
setting (under the Fortran tab). Alternatively, object files (*.obj) or a library file (*.lib) should be referenced in the Additional
Library (*.lib) and Object (*.obj) Files project setting (under the Link tab).
For more details on interfacing to C source code, see the example projects in the ...\Examples\CInterface directory within
your installation directory.
Calling C Procedures Directly (GFortran Only)
As mentioned above, in many instances it is perfectly all right to call C procedures directly from the Fortran, DSDYN or
DSOUT segments. This, for the most part, is true for simple procedures that do not require advanced EMTDC intrinsic
variables.
When compiling the Fortran code for a module, PSCAD includes only a standard set of EMTDC header files. A snippet
of a typical Fortran file is shown below, which illustrates the header files that are included:
!--------------------------------------! Standard includes
!--------------------------------------INCLUDE 'nd.h'
INCLUDE 'emtconst.h'
INCLUDE 'emtstor.h'
INCLUDE 's0.h'
INCLUDE 's1.h'
INCLUDE 's2.h'
INCLUDE 's4.h'
INCLUDE 'branches.h'
INCLUDE 'pscadv3.h'
INCLUDE 'fnames.h'
INCLUDE 'radiolinks.h'
INCLUDE 'matlab.h'
INCLUDE 'rtconfig.h'
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If your C procedure requires variables from EMTDC header files other than those shown above, then you cannot call the
procedure directly from the Fortran, DSDYN or DSOUT segments. You must create a Fortran interface routine that
includes the required header files before the procedure is called (next section).
See Include Files for descriptions of the available header files.
EXAMPLE 9-14:
A user has written the following simple subroutine in C, and wants to call this source code directly from a user-defined
component:
/* User C Source Code */
void test_csub_(int* arg, int* res)
{
*res = 6*(*arg);
}
A standard call statement can be made from within the Fortran, DSDYN or DSOUT segments of the component definition.
CALL TEST_CSUB($IN,$OUT)
Where $IN and $OUT are input and output port connections on the component respectively.
EXAMPLE 9-15:
A user has written the following simple function in C, and wants to use this source code in a user-defined component:
/* User C Source Code */
int test_cfun_(int *arg)
{
return 2*(*arg);
}
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Interfacing to C Language Source
The function must be declared before it is used within the component. Then, the function is used as it normally would in
Fortran in the Fortran, DSDYN or DSOUT segments of the component definition.
#FUNCTION INTEGER TEST_CFUN
$OUT = TEST_CFUN($IN)
Where $IN and $OUT are input and output port connections on the component respectively.
Intel Visual Fortran
If you are using one of the supported commercial Fortran compilers, you must call your C procedures through an interface
subroutine. These compilers require that you construct an INTERFACE statement to describe your C procedure. See the
following section for details.
Calling C Procedures through a Fortran Interface Routine
It is good coding practice that an auxiliary Fortran subroutine be provided for the purpose of interfacing to C functions and
procedures. It is this Fortran subroutine that is called from the Fortran, DSDYN or DSOUT segments of your user-defined
component. Constructing an interface will ensure a reasonable level of portability between the Fortran compilers available
with PSCAD.
The following examples illustrate how to call a C subroutine when using the Fortran 90 compilers.
EXAMPLE 9-16:
A user has written the following simple subroutine in C, placed it into a C file (*.c).
/* User C Source Code */
void test_csub(int* arg, int* res)
{
*res = 6*(*arg);
}
The user then defines an interface subroutine in a Fortran (*.f) source file as follows:
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PSCAD Manual
SUBROUTINE AUX_CSUB(in, out)
INTEGER in, out
!
! Fortran 90 interface to a C procedure
!
INTERFACE
SUBROUTINE TEST_CSUB (in, out)
!DEC$ ATTRIBUTES C :: TEST_CSUB
!DEC$ ATTRIBUTES REFERENCE :: in
!DEC$ ATTRIBUTES REFERENCE :: out
!
! in, out are passed by REFERENCE
!
INTEGER in, out
END SUBROUTINE
END INTERFACE
!
! Call the C procedure
!
CALL TEST_CSUB(in, out)
END
A standard call statement is then added to the Fortran segment of the user component definition:
CALL AUX_CSUB($IN,$OUT)
Where $IN and $OUT are input and output port connections on the component respectively.
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Creating a New Component
Tutorial: Creating a New Component
Creating a New Component
Open PSCAD, create a new case project, save it under a unique name, edit the project settings and add a description.
Select the 'New Case' Button
Give the Project a Unique Name (ex. 'Tutorial.pscx')
Edit the Description in the Project Settings Dialog
At this point you may want to save the workspace, although it is not necessary for this tutorial.
Create a new component using the Component Wizard.
Invoke the Component Wizard
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PSCAD Manual
Adding Graphics
Edit the component definition and in the Graphic section, draw the following diagram (minus the sticky notes!); where $R
is a text label, and NA and NB are port connections.
NOTE: Make sure the graphics are of a reasonable size in relation to other components in the master library.
Configure the properties of the port connections so that they are fixed, electrical nodes. Also, configure the text label to
display $R:
Connection Property Settings (NA)
Save the Project.
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Text Label Property Settings ($R)
Adding a User Interface
Adding a User Interface
Edit the component definition and go to the Parameters section. Notice that a default category called Configuration,
including a text field called Name, has been created for you.
Add value fields to the category with the following Descriptions: Voltage Magnitude (RMS), Frequency, Ramp Up Time
and Resistance. These are to have Default Units set to kV, Hz, s and ohm respectively. Give each field a short, but
descriptive symbol name (say Vrms, f, tr and R respectively) and provide a reasonable Default value (see the image
below), as well as Minimum and Maximum limits.
The Data Type of each of these parameters should be declared as Constant. This is to ensure that the component is
Runtime Configurable – in other words it can accept unique, constant input when used within a module that is multiplyinstanced. This may become clearer as we add script code to the component in the section Adding Code to Define the
Source in this tutorial.
See Runtime Configuration and Multiple Instance Modules for more details on using Constant-type parameters.
Value Field Properties (ex. Frequency & Resistance)
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PSCAD Manual
Now add a choice list to the category with the Description Is This Source Grounded?. Give it an appropriate Symbol
name (say, gnd) and then add two choices: 1=Yes and 0=No.
Choice List Properties (Is This Source Grounded?)
Drop List Editor
Save the Project.
Adding Conditional Statements to the Graphic
Objects
In order to make our component more convenient to use, we should give the user the option to ground the source at one
end. This will be the primary purpose of the Is This Source Grounded? choice list. Using the state of this field (i.e. Yes or
No), we can alter both the appearance and the electrical properties of the component.
Edit the component definition and in the Graphic section, modify the component graphics as shown in the diagram below,
where G is a port connection configured as an electrical ground node.
Modified Component Graphics
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Connection Property Settings (G)
Defining the Electrical Branch
In the Conditional Statement field of all the newly added line objects, add conditions so that they will become
visible/invisible according to the setting specified in the Is This Source Grounded? choice list. That is, when Is This
Source Grounded? is set to Yes, the ground symbol graphics above should be visible.
Editing Conditional Statement in Line Objects
In the Conditional Statement field of port connections G and NB, add conditions so that they become enabled or
disabled according to the setting specified in the Is This Source Grounded? choice list. That is, when Is This Source
Grounded? is set to Yes, port connection G should be enabled and port connection NB should be disabled (and viceversa):
Editing Conditional Statement in Port Connection G
Editing Conditional Statement in Port Connection NB
You may be wondering at this point about the placement of the port connections G and NB in the Graphic section diagram
above: When placing your port connections within your component graphic, it is important to consider where the most
intuitive position for the port connection is. That is, it would be best to place NB at the end of the line object, as this would
be an obvious connection point.
Save the Project.
Defining the Electrical Branch
Edit the component definition and in the Script section, navigate to the Branch segment.
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PSCAD Manual
Add statements that define the electrical properties of the component for use by EMTDC.
This branch is to be purely resistive, just to keep things simple. Due to the fact however that the Resistance parameter is
of Constant-type, its actual value will be initialized when coding the component (see the next section). For now, we simply
need to add a non-zero value (i.e. 1.0) in the branch statement to indicate the presence of a resistor. If it was decided
earlier to declare the Resistance parameter as Literal-type, then its value could be substituted directly into these branch
statements (i.e. instead of 1.0, it would be $R).
#IF gnd == 1
BRN = $NA
$G
SOURCE
1.0
0.0
0.0
$NB
SOURCE
1.0
0.0
0.0
#ELSE
BRN = $NA
#ENDIF
Conditional statements (#IF, #ELSE, etc.) are added as well, so that the branch will be defined between NA and NB or NA
and G, depending on the condition of the Is this source grounded? choice list. For example, if Is this source grounded? is
selected as Yes (i.e. gnd = 1), then the branch will be defined between nodes NA and G.
In addition to indicating that a resistor defines part of the branch between NA and NB or NA and G, we have also
indicated that an ideal voltage source is present. This is accomplished through the SOURCE statement above. We have
also given the branch a variable name BRN. This enables EMTDC to map the location of this branch in the electric
network, so that the source can be controlled (the usage of BRN will become clear in the next section).
For more information on branch naming and the SOURCE syntax, see Branch segment.
Adding Code to Define the Source
Instead of writing our own code to define the voltage source, we can use EMTDC internal subroutines to do it for us. We
simply need to ensure that all of the subroutine arguments are defined in the component before we call it. The
subroutines we will use are as follows:

E_BRANCH_CFG: This routine is used to initialize the branch properties that we have already outlined in the
previous section.

E_1PVSRC_CFG: This is the runtime configuration routine for one of the EMTDC single-phase voltage
sources. It is used in the Single-Phase Voltage Source Model 2 component in the master library.

EMTDC_1PVSRC: This is the actual EMTDC single-phase voltage source routine. It is used in the SinglePhase Voltage Source Model 2 component in the master library.
Edit the component definition and in the Script section, navigate to the Fortran segment.
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Adding Code to Define the Source
Add the following script to the segment (you may copy directly from this document):
#BEGIN
CALL E_BRANCH_CFG($BRN,$SS,1,0,0,$R,0.0,0.0)
CALL E_1PVSRC_CFG(1,0,1,$Vrms,$f,0.0,$R,0.0,0.0,0.0,0.0,$tr)
#ENDBEGIN
#STORAGE LOGICAL:1 INTEGER:6 REAL:8 RTCF:4
#LOCAL REAL RVD1_1
#LOCAL REAL RVD1_2
#LOCAL REAL RVD1_3
#LOCAL REAL RVD1_4
! Single Phase AC source: Type: R
RVD1_1 = RTCF(NRTCF)
RVD1_2 = RTCF(NRTCF+1)
RVD1_3 = RTCF(NRTCF+2)
RVD1_4 = RTCF(NRTCF+3)
NRTCF = NRTCF + 4
CALL EMTDC_1PVSRC($SS,$BRN,RVD1_4,.TRUE.,RVD1_1,RVD1_2,RVD1_3)
The #BEGIN Block
The block of script between the #BEGIN and the #ENDBEGIN directives is runtime configurable code that will be inserted
into the BEGIN section of the system dynamics in EMTDC. Here, we are calling two EMTDC subroutines, which
combined will initialize both the branch parameters and the source control. Descriptions of the argument lists are given as
follows:
E_BRANCH_CFG(NBR,M,ER,EL,EC,RO,HL,FC)
Argument List:
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PSCAD Manual

NBR : Number of the branch being configured.

M: Subsystem number where the branch resides.

ER: Include/exclude resistance (1 or 0).

EL: Include/exclude inductance (1 or 0).

EC: Include/exclude inductance (1 or 0).

R0: Resistance value []

HL: Inductance value [H]

FC: Capacitance value [F]
E_1PVSRC_CFG(AC,SPEC,TYP,VM,F,PH,R,L,RP_C,P,Q,TC)
Argument List:

AC : AC or DC source (1 or 0 respectively).

SPEC: Internal values or at source terminal (0 or 1 respectively).

TYP: Impedance type (R = 1).

VM: RMS voltage [kV].

F: Frequency [Hz].

PH: Phase angle [deg]

R: Resistance value []

L: Inductance value [H]

RP_C: Capacitance value [F]

P: Active Power output

Q: Reactive power output

TC: Ramp-up time [s].
Storage and Dynamics Script
The storage allocation (#STORAGE) is necessary as it provides memory usage information for dynamic memory
dimensioning in EMTDC. The LOGICAL, INTEGER and REAL allocations are the storage usage for the
EMTDC_1PVSRC subroutine. The RTCF allocation is used to dimension the runtime configurable storage.
Directly preceding the call to the EMTDC_1PVSRC subroutine is the extraction of initialized values from the RTCF
storage array. The values stored in this array are defined in the BEGIN section at the beginning of the simulation (within
the E_1PVSRC_CFG subroutine) and remain constant. Extracting this data from storage ensures that the initialized
values are instance-dependent – that is they are specific to wherever this component code is placed in the system
dynamics.
The last bit is the actual call to the subroutine that controls the source throughout the simulation: EMTDC_1PVSRC.
EMTDC_1PVSRC(M,NBR,RT,AC,VP, W, A)
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Sanity Checks
Argument List:

M : Subsystem number where the branch resides.

NBR: Number of the branch being configured.

RT: Ramp-up time [s].

AC: True if an AC source.

VP: Peak voltage [kV].

W: Frequency [rad/s].

A: Phase angle [rad].
Save the Project.
Sanity Checks
It is always a good idea to apply sanity checks to the users input, so as to avoid erroneous results. This is accomplished
by using the Checks segment.
Edit the component definition and in the Script section, add a new Checks segment by using the segment manager. Add
a statement, which will give an error if the entered source resistance (i.e. R) is less than or equal to 0.0. Note that you
must use negative logic in this section, and so this statement should appear as follows:
ERROR Source resistance must be greater than zero : R > 0.0
Save the Project.
Testing Your New Component
At this point it would be a good idea to check if your component will actually run, and if it does, whether the results are
correct. Below are what the results should be if the source model was connected to the indicated circuit, and if the source
is set to:

Voltage Magnitude (RMS) = 0.7071 kV

Frequency = 60 Hz

Ramp-Up Time = 0.02 s

Source Resistance = 1.0 
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PSCAD Manual
The results are as shown below:
Save the Project.
Adding Internal Output Variables
It is possible to monitor quantities internal to the component, for display on plots and meters. This may be accomplished
by defining an internal output variable. In this tutorial, we will set-up such variables to monitor source voltage and branch
current.
There are two methods to do this. The older method is to use the #OUTPUT directive. The newer way (first introduced in
v4.5) is to use a value field of intent output directly, without the need for an #OUTPUT directive. Both methods are
presented below.
Edit the component definition and in the Parameters section, add a text field and a value field: The value field with
Symbol name Isource and Description Source Current (ensure that Intent is set to Output); the text field with Symbol
name Vsource and Description Source Terminal Voltage.
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Adding Internal Output Variables
Parameter Field Properties (Isource & Vsource)
Save the Project.
Edit the component definition and navigate to the Fortran segment. Extract the current in this source branch (i.e. from
branch BRN), using the CBR internal variable as follows:
$Isource = CBR($BRN, $SS)
The value given by CBR($BRN,$SS) will be used to define the value of the output parameter Isource. Note that $SS
substitutes the number of the EMTDC subsystem that this branch is part of.
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Extract the node voltage from port connection NA to G or NB with an #OUTPUT directive statement and using the VDC
internal variable. Remember that we have added conditional statements that allow users to directly connect the source
branch to ground. So, the branch voltage measurement will depend on which port connections are enabled. We can then
choose a branch statement according to the Is this source grounded? choice list.
Your Fortran segment should then look similar to the following when completed:
#BEGIN
CALL E_BRANCH_CFG($BRN,$SS,1,0,0,$R,0.0,0.0)
CALL E_1PVSRC_CFG(1,0,1,$Vrms,$f,0.0,$R,0.0,0.0,0.0,0.0,$tr)
#ENDBEGIN
#STORAGE LOGICAL:1 INTEGER:6 REAL:8 RTCF:4
#LOCAL REAL RVD1_1
#LOCAL REAL RVD1_2
#LOCAL REAL RVD1_3
#LOCAL REAL RVD1_4
! Single Phase AC source: Type: R
RVD1_1 = RTCF(NRTCF)
RVD1_2 = RTCF(NRTCF+1)
RVD1_3 = RTCF(NRTCF+2)
RVD1_4 = RTCF(NRTCF+3)
NRTCF = NRTCF + 4
CALL EMTDC_1PVSRC($SS,$BRN,RVD1_4,.TRUE.,RVD1_1,RVD1_2,RVD1_3)
!
$Isource = CBR($BRN, $SS)
!
#IF gnd == 1
#OUTPUT REAL Vsource {$VDC:NA:G}
#ELSE
#OUTPUT REAL Vsource {$VDC:NA:NB}
#ENDIF
Any text field with a Symbol name identical to those defined above (i.e. Isource and Vsource), will act as internal output
variable ports for the component. Any variable name entered into either the Source Current or Source Terminal Voltage
text fields will create signals which, when connected to an Output Channel, can be plotted.
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Running With Your Component
Save the Project.
Running With Your Component
Keeping the test circuit used in the Testing Your New Component section, remove the ammeter and voltmeter from the
circuit. Replace these two signals by entering Vs and Is into the internal output variable fields that were created.
Run the case again. You should see identical results as before in Testing Your New Component.
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Chapter 9
Definition Script
The PSCAD definition script language is used extensively in the design of component definitions. It serves mainly as a
communication interface between the designer and the application, providing instruction on how to incorporate a
component into the greater project. This communication occurs at compile time, when each definition segment is
considered sequentially, and its script parsed into information meaningful to the compiler.
Although there are some segments that allow for the direct inclusion of source code (i.e. code that does not require
parsing), such Fortran, DSDYN and DSOUT, exploiting definition script ensures that code source remain current, as well
as compiler and language independent. Definition script is given the highest priority during the compilation process; it is
considered first before any direct source code, and is consequently used in expression evaluation, substitutions, and for
the provision of compiler directives.
This chapter is closely linked with Component Design. It is recommended that you familiarize yourself with both chapters
before attempting to design your own component. The following sections describe what scripting tools are available, and
provide examples on how each can be used. Component Design contains a tutorial on designing your own component.
Substitutions
$ Value Substitution Prefix Operator
% Data Substitution Prefix Operator
{ } Enfolding Braces
! Comment Operator
Substitutions are fundamental script operators that can appear in all parts of a definition. They provide a means to
communicate information between definition sections and segments, bring a dynamic aspect to component graphics, and
to help in formatting code and comments.
The substitution operators available are as listed below:

Value Substitution Prefix: $

Contextual Substitution of Text

$#DIM: Substituting Port Dimension

$#Component: Substituting Component Instance ID

Data Substitution Prefix: %

Enfolding Operators (Braces): { }

Comment Operator: !
$ Value Substitution Prefix Operator
The $ Value Substitution Prefix Operator (or simply '$') is the most important of the substitution operators, and is used
quite heavily in component definition design. The $ operator is normally pre-pended to a variable, where the variable may
represent a numerical value (or even other text) that has been defined at some previous point in the evaluation
process. Regardless of what the variable represents, its value will be substituted whenever a $ operator is prefixed to it.
The $ operator may only precede variable names defined as one of the following:

A port connection Symbol name
Substitutions

An input parameter field, text field, or choice list Symbol name

Any variable defined in the Computations segment

A key name
There are numerous ways in which the $ operator may be utilized. One method is the substitution of literal values, in
place of a component variable name: The literal value of component variable – be it a port connection, input parameter or
Computations variable – will be directly substituted upon compilation. Literal value substitution may also be used to
format comments.
EXAMPLE 10-1:
The literal value entered into an input parameter field can be substituted directly into source code by prefixing $ to the
Symbol name of the field.
Input Field Properties Dialog
Substituting Field Value into a Fortran Statement
!
REAL
RT_1
REAL
OUT
! EMTDC variable to represent ‘freq’
RT_1 = STOF(ISTOF + 2)
! EMTDC extracts parameter value
! from stored data array
OUT = 2.0*PI*RT_1
!
Actual Fortran Code Following Compile
NOTE: The input parameter value substituted for freq is the resulting value following unit processing. See the
section entitled Unit System in Operations and Feature Overview for more details on units.
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EXAMPLE 10-2:
The value of an output port connection entitled DataOut is defined by a Fortran statement. Upon compile of the project,
the internal compiler will declare a variable to represent the DataOut port connection in the associated Fortran file: The $
operator will ensure that this new variable is substituted in the proper places.
Component Graphic Containing a Connection
Substituting a Port Connection Name into a Fortran
Statement
!
REAL
RT_1
! EMTDC variable to represent ‘DataOut’
!
RT_1 = 2.0*PI*60.0
!
Actual Fortran Code Following Compile
EXAMPLE 10-3:
A user component utilizes a function, which requires an angle input argument in degrees to convert to radians. The data
input in this case is a port connection, defined in the Graphic section of the component definition, and has a Symbol name
in. The function output out is defined as an output port connection.
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Substitutions
Component Graphic Containing Port
Connections
Fortran Segment Script
!
REAL
PH_CON
REAL
RT_1, RT_2
! Phase Angle Converter
!
RT_2 = STOF(ISTOF + 2)
! EMTDC extracts port connection value
! from stored data array
RT_1 = PH_CON(RT_2)
!
Actual Fortran Code Following Compile
NOTE: See the #FUNCTION Directive for more details on declaring Fortran functions.
EXAMPLE 10-4:
A user-defined component definition called my_new_comp has been programmed to display the contents of certain key
input parameter fields, along with the definition name, within comments provided in the component Fortran segment,
namely: Frequency with Symbol name freq, value 60.0 and units in Hz, and Voltage with Symbol name volts, value 120.0
and units in kV. Note that both freq and volts are local variables and so the local context short form is used.
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Input Field Property Settings (freq)
Input Field Property Settings (volts)
When the component is evaluated, the Symbol names (freq and volts) are given the value entered in their respective
fields. In this case, freq = 60.0 and volts = 120.0. The user is free to insert these variables elsewhere within the
component script by using the $ operator.
Something similar to the following comments could appear in either the Fortran, DSDYN, or DSOUT segments:
Fortran Segment Code
PSCAD Fortran File Code following Compilation
This feature is excellent for formatting source code comments.
Literal values can also be substituted directly into text labels in the Graphic section, by using the $ operator. This is a
convenient feature, as it allows users to change text appearance on the component graphic according to say, for example,
input parameters.
EXAMPLE 10-5:
A user has created a single-phase, two-winding transformer component and wishes to display both the primary and
secondary winding voltage ratings directly on the component graphic. The primary voltage rating input parameter Vprim is
entered as 25.0 [kV] and the secondary input Vsec is set at 4.0 [kV] as shown below:
In the component Graphic section, the user adds two new text labels (positioned accordingly) and enters $Vprim and
$Vsec as shown below:
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Substitutions
Component Graphic Containing Text Labels
Text Label Property Settings
When the component instance is viewed on the Circuit canvas, input parameter values for Vprim and Vsec will appear
directly on the component graphic. For this example,
Contextual Substitution of Text
Contextual substitution is a formal way of handling text substitutions from other contexts outside the definition. Contextual
substitution is enabled by inserting delimiting symbols following the $ operator. The standard syntax is as follows:
$(<Context>:<Key>)
The substitution contains both a <Context> and item <Key> separated by a scope operator and delimited
by parentheses, where:

<Context>: The context that is to be used to scope the item <Key>. See below for a list of valid <Context>
names.

<Key>: Item key (actual substitution) that is to be placed at the substitution point. See below for a list of valid
<Key> names.
Contextual substitution may be used in text labels within the Graphic section, as well as comments in the Fortran,
DSDYN, DSOUT, Branch, Model-Data, Matrix-Fill, Transformers, or T-Lines segments. In addition, it may also be used to
substitute global substitutions and various keys under their respective contexts.
The following table lists all valid context names that may be used in place of <Context> and <Key> as described above
(both Context and Key names are case sensitive):
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Context Name
Description
<none>
An empty context key is automatically
context of the Component Instance.
Defn
Context is that of the Definition of the
Component Instance.
Available Keys
Name, Desc, Path
Project
Context is that of the Project that contains
the Component Instance.
Session
Context is that of the current running
session of the application (PSCAD).
System
Context is that of the operating system.
Name, Desc, Version, Author,
Path
Name, Version
Name, Version, User
When using substitutions within the context of the component instance, there is no need to include the <Context>
identifier and it hence may be excluded along with the scope operator. In such cases the syntax is:
$(<Key>) or simply $<Key>.
EXAMPLE 10-6:
A user has created a definition and wants to display the current user on the component Graphic. A text label is added the
Graphic section, which contains a $ operator extracting the required information.
Component Graphic Containing Text Label
Component Instance on Circuit Canvas
$#DIM: Substituting Port Dimension
The dimension of any connection port may be substituted as an integer directly into the component script using the $#DIM
operator. The $#DIM operator may appear in Fortran, DSDYN, DSOUT and the Checks segments. This operator must
appear in the following format:
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Substitutions
$#DIM(<Node_Name>)
Where:

<Node_Name>: The connection port Symbol name.
An example usage of this operator is presented below:
!
#IF $#DIM(NT)==3 || $#DIM(NF)==3
dimension of port NT.
! Used to define #IF logic based on the
!
ERROR Dimesion Exceed - Maximum 3 phase : $#DIM(NT)<4 && $#DIM(NF)<4 ! Used
in the Checks segment.
!
IF (($si .GT. 0).AND.($si .LE. $#DIM(in))) THEN ! Used directly as a
substitution in Fortran code.
!
$#Component: Substituting Component Instance ID
The instance ID number of any component instance may be substituted using the $#Component operator. The
$#Component operator may appear in Fortran, DSDYN and DSOUT segments. This operator must appear in the following
format:
$#Component
The primary purpose of this operator is to provide the instance id of the calling component to EMTDC for the purpose of
defining a messaging source. In this way, PSCAD can provide a navigable link in the build messages pane if a message
is generated by a specific component. An example usage of this operator is presented below:
!
CALL COMPONENT_ID(ICALL_NO,$#Component) ! Used to assign Call number and
Instance number of a component. These values are
! passed to EMTDC via the
COMPONENT_ID intrinsic subroutine.
!
% Data Substitution Prefix Operator
The % Data Substitution Prefix Operator (or simply '%') can be used to make a direct text substitution. Data substitution is
very similar to the $ Value Substitution Prefix Operator, except that it substitutes the exact contents of an input parameter
as text, and may only be used to substitute input parameters.
The % operator may be used in text labels within the Graphic section, as well as within commented code in the Fortran,
DSDYN, DSOUT, Branch, Model-Data, Matrix-Fill, Transformers, or T-Lines segments.
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EXAMPLE 10-7:
Consider Example 10-4 above, but replace the $ operator with the % operator. The following comments could then
appear in either the Fortran, DSDYN or DSOUT segments:
Fortran Segment Code
PSCAD Fortran File Code following Compilation
EXAMPLE 10-8:
Consider Example 10-5 above, but replace the $ operator with the % operator in the new text labels. When the
component instance is now viewed on the Circuit canvas, values of the input parameters Vprim and Vsec will appear on
the component graphic as follows:
{ } Braces
Braces can be used to perform mathematical, logical and formatting operations before all other definition script is
considered by the compiler. Braces can appear all over the component definition. There are two main forms in which
braces may be used: Expression substitution and block processing. The brace syntax is as follows:
[$]{<Expression>}
Where:

$: Optional. Optional. The $ Value Substitution Prefix Operator is not required in some instances, such as in
most block processing operations.

<Expression>: Can be a mathematical expression, or simply a block of text.
It is important to note that mathematical and logical operations within braces are performed prior to the insertion of code
into the Fortran or Data files. Subsequently, these operations cannot involve variables – only literals and constants (such
as constant input parameters, local constants, or constants defined in the Computations segment).
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Substitutions
Although simple examples are provided here, you can find more examples by studying the definitions of master library
components.
EXAMPLE 10-9:
The following example shows how expression braces can be used within text labels: A mathematical operation is
performed on substituted values. Say that two input parameters are entered as Symbol names A1 and A2 with values 2.0
and 3.0 respectively. The user wants to display another value, based on these values, directly on the component graphic
as follows:
Text Label = A1*A2 = 6.0
The following is entered into the text label properties dialog:
EXAMPLE 10-10:
A user has modified the function PH_CON in Example 10-3 to include phase angle conversion in both directions (i.e.
degrees to radians and radians to degrees). In the component Parameters section, a choice list with Symbol name Ptype
is designed with two options as shown below:
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Choice Item Collection Editor (Ptype)
The function PH_CON is modified to include a second argument indicating the conversion type required, based on the
state of Ptype. The additional argument is a character string, where D2R indicates degrees to radians conversion and
R2D radians to degrees. Braces are used, along with a #CASE directive and ~ Line Continuation Operator:
Fortran Segment Script
!
RT_2 = F_CON(RT_1,’D2R’)
!
Actual Fortran Code Following Compile
RT_1 and RT_2 are variable substitutions given by EMTDC: Their names may vary.
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Script Directives
! Comment Indicator
The exclamation point is used throughout the component definition segments to indicate that a particular line of code is a
comment. All lines of script preceded by this operator will be considered source comments for inclusion in the project
Fortran or Data files.
NOTE: Commented code that is written to the data file, requires that the Comment Indicator be in the first
column from the left.
EXAMPLE 10-11:
Comments should be used to describe the user's code, as well as to provide spacers and section breaks in order to
enhance readability. The comment indicator may be used everywhere except the Branch segment.
The following example illustrates the use of comments in the Fortran or DSDYN segments in the a user component
definition:
!
! MY FIRST PSCAD SCRIPT
! --------------------!
! Storage:
!
#STORAGE REAL:1
!
! Main body of script:
!
NOTE: See the #STORAGE Directive for more details.
Script Directives
#IF, #ELSEIF, #ELSE, #ENDIF
#CASE
#STORAGE
#LOCAL
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#BEGIN/#ENDBEGIN
#FUNCTION
#SUBROUTINE
#OUTPUT
#TRANSFORMERS
#WINDINGS
#VERBATIM
Script directives are used to facilitate the creation of source code, which will ultimately be used in the building of an
executable program representing the project. Each directive type has a specific purpose, as explained in the following
sections. Script directives always begin with a pound # symbol prefix, where spaces preceding and following the #
symbol are allowed.
Directives are an important tool when scripting definitions, as they instruct the internal compiler what source code to build
and how to build it. It is highly recommended that directives be used wherever and whenever possible, as they ensure
that user defined script will remain compatible with coding standards as they change and evolve over time.
#IF, #ELSEIF, #ELSE, #ENDIF
#IF, #ELSEIF, #ELSE, #ENDIF directives are used specifically as logical structures, in the same manner as their
equivalent IF, ELSE, etc. source language intrinsic functions. Within script however, they are used to include or exclude
blocks of script.
#IF, #ELSEIF, #ELSE, #ENDIF directives can be used in all segments and should appear as follows:
#IF <Logic>
...Application_Code...
#ELSEIF <Logic>
#IF <Logic>
...Application_Code...
#ELSE
...Application_Code...
#ENDIF
#ELSE <Logic>
...Application_Code...
#ENDIF
If just a simple IF-THEN condition is required, the following shortcut using expression braces may also be used:
#IF <Logic> {<Expression>}
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Script Directives
<Logic> is a logical expression using logical operators. <Expression> can be a variable definition.
EXAMPLE 10-12:
A user needs to change the output of a signal generator model, according to whether a sine or cosine output is
required. The component definition provides an input parameter choice list in the Parameters section, called Type. If this
parameter is 1, then the output is sinusoidal (if 0 then co-sinusoidal).
The following code should appear in the Fortran, DSDYN or DSOUT segments of the component:
!
! Signal Generator
!
#IF Type == 1
$OUT = SIN(TWO_PI*$F)
#ELSE
$OUT = COS(TWO_PI*$F)
#ENDIF
!
Where F is a pre-defined variable (perhaps an input parameter or Computations segment variable) and OUT is an output
port connection in the Graphic section.
NOTE: Type == 1 in the above code is a Logical Expression. See Expression Evaluation for more details.
Using Enfolding Operators, the above example could also be written as:
!
! Signal Generator
!
#IF Type == 1 {
$OUT = SIN(TWO_PI*$F)}
#IF Type != 1 {
$OUT = COS(TWO_PI*$F)}
!
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EXAMPLE 10-13:
A user has created an electrical component that can either be a simple resistor, inductor or capacitor. The component
definition provides an input parameter choice list in the Parameters section, called Type. This parameter can either be 1,
2 or 3 to represent a resistor, inductor or capacitor respectively. Three other input text boxes also exist (called R, L and
C) in order to specify the respective values of these elements.
The following code should appear in the Branch segment:
#IF Type == 1
$N1
$N2
$R
0.0
0.0
#ELSEIF Type==2
$N1
$N2
0.0
$L
0.0
$N1
$N2
0.0
0.0
$C
#ELSE
#ENDIF
N1 and N2 are electrical port connections defined in the Graphic section. Using Enfolding Operators, the above example
could also be written as:
!
#IF Type == 1 {$N1
$N2
$R
0.0
0.0}
#IF Type == 2 {$N1
$N2
0.0
$L
0.0}
#IF Type == 3 {$N1
$N2
0.0
0.0
$C}
!
#CASE
The #CASE directive is a short-form notation method, which can be used in place of #IF, #ELSEIF, #ELSE, #ENDIF
directives. It is normally used in conjunction with the ~ Line Continuation Operator to provide a space saving alternative,
especially when a great number of #IF, #ELSEIF, #ELSE, #ENDIF directives are required.
The #CASE directive can be used in all segments, and should appear as follows:
#CASE <Expression> {<Clause_0>} {<Clause_1>} ...
<Expression> must return an integer from 0 to n, and can either be a mathematical expression or simply a defined
variable. <Clause_n> represents what is to occur given the value of the expression, and where in the sequence of
clauses it resides. For example, the results of <Clause_0> will occur if <Expression> is equal to 0. If <Expression> is
equal to 1, <Clause_1> will occur, etc.
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Script Directives
EXAMPLE 10-14:
Consider the signal generator output discussed in Example 10-12:
!
! Signal Generator
!
#IF Type == 1
$OUT = SIN(TWO_PI*$F)
#ELSE
$OUT = COS(TWO_PI*$F)
#ENDIF
!
The following is a simple illustration of an equivalent script using the #CASE directive:
!
! Signal Generator
!
$OUT = ~
#CASE Type {~COS~} {~SIN~}
~(TWO_PI*$F)
!
Note that Type should be either 0 or 1.
EXAMPLE 10-15:
The following illustrates how the #CASE directive is used in the Transformers segment of the 3-Phase, 2-Winding
classical transformer component, located in the master library.
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Here, YD1 and Lead are both component input parameters. YD1 can equal either 0 or 1 and Lead either 1 or
2. Multiplying these two integers can result in 0, 1 or 2, and this information is used to determine which clause to select:
!
#CASE YD1*Lead {$A1 $G1~} {$A1 $B1~} {$A1 $C1~}
!
#STORAGE
This directive is required only if a definition is utilizing EMTDC Storage Arrays. Its purpose is to define the manner in
which memory is used – specifically the type and amount of EMTDC storage to be allocated. The #STORAGE directive
acts as a direct interface to the storage arrays; which provide time step to time step data transfer capability, as well as
data transfer between BEGIN and corresponding DSDYN or DSOUT sections. EMTDC array usage must be specified
with a #STORAGE directive to ensure that memory is properly dimensioned by PSCAD at compile time.
The #STORAGE directive is used only in the Fortran, DSDYN or DSOUT segments, and should appear as follows:
#STORAGE <TYPE>:<Number>
The actual #STORAGE statement can appear anywhere in the segment, but should be placed near the top. <TYPE>
refers to the storage array type (see table below). <Number> is the amount of elements to be stored, and may be a
substituted constant.
The following storage examples are all valid when using the $ Substitution Prefix Operator with this directive:
#STORAGE REAL:$(X) INTEGER:$(Y)
// X and Y are literal parameters
#STORAGE REAL:$#DIM(N1) INTEGER:$#DIM(N2)
// N1 & N2 are electrical ports
#STORAGE INTEGER:$#DIM(N1) LOGICAL:7
#STORAGE REAL:${X+Y}
Inter Time Step
Data Transfer
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Type
EMTDC Storage Array
Description
STOR
STOR(NEXC)
REAL
STORF(NSTORF)
For floating point (REAL) storage only.
INTEGER
STORI(NSTORI)
For INTEGER storage only.
LOGICAL
STORL(NSTORL)
For LOGICAL storage only.
This array is left over from PSCAD V2 and is
deprecated. Do not use this array if possible.
Script Directives
BEGIN to
DSDYN/DSOUT
Data Transfer
For COMPLEX storage only.
COMPLEX
STORC(NSTORC)
RTCF
RTCF(NRTCF)
For floating point (REAL) storage only.
RTCI
RTCI(NRTCI)
For INTEGER storage only.
RTCL
RTCL(NRTCL)
For LOGICAL storage only.
RTCC
RTCC(NRTCC)
For COMPLEX storage only.
EXAMPLE 10-16:
Consider the following definition script, taken from the Fortran segment of the XYZ Transfer Function component in the
master library:
#IF NL==0
#STORAGE INTEGER:2 REAL:110
#ELSEIF NL==1
#STORAGE INTEGER:2 REAL:1100
#ELSEIF NL==2
#STORAGE INTEGER:2 REAL:11000
#ENDIF
#FUNCTION REAL XYZFUNC XYZ-Transfer function
! File name: $FILE
$Z = XYZFUNC($X,$Y,$MODE,$Xoff,$Yoff,$Zoff,$Kx,$Ky,$Kz)
This script uses the #IF, #ELSEIF, #ELSE, #ENDIF directives, along with #STORAGE to determine the EMTDC storage
array requirements for this component. Depending on the variable NL, which in this component represents the Number of
Lines in the File input parameter, the number of REAL elements to be allocated ranges from 110 to 11000. The number
of INTEGER elements is always 2.
Note that the above is how variable storage was dealt with prior to the introduction of substitution in storage directives. A
much simpler and more efficient equivalent to the above code is as follows, where the variable NREAL is derived from NL,
the Number of Lines in the File input parameter, and substituted as the REAL storage dimension:
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#STORAGE INTEGER:2 REAL:$(NREAL)
#FUNCTION REAL XYZFUNC XYZ-Transfer function
! File name: $FILE
$Z = XYZFUNC($X,$Y,$MODE,$Xoff,$Yoff,$Zoff,$Kx,$Ky,$Kz)
This allocation represents the type and number of EMTDC storage array elements that are used internally by the function
XYZFUNC. That is to say that the XYZFUNC function code utilizes both the STORI and the STORF arrays to store and
transfer data from time step to time step during a simulation.
#LOCAL
This directive is used to declare local variables directly within definition script. Quite often, it is necessary to declare local
variables to say, define a dummy variable for an unused subroutine argument, or perhaps as an intermediary value in a
set of equations.
The #LOCAL directive instructs the PSCAD compiler to place a local variable declaration directly in the parent module
Fortran file when the project is built. #LOCAL variables do not require the $ Value Substitution Prefix Operator.
The #LOCAL directive is used only in the Fortran, DSDYN or DSOUT segments, and should appear as follows:
#LOCAL <TYPE> <Name> <Array_Size_1> <Array_Size_2>
<TYPE> can be either REAL, INTEGER, LOGICAL, or COMPLEX. <Name> is the given name for the local
variable. <Array_Size_1> is an optional integer or substituted constant that defines the size of the array. If declaring a
matrix, then <Array_Size_1> defines the number of rows and <Array_Size_2> defines the columns. If the variable is a
scalar, then leave <Array_Size_1> and <Array_Size_2> blank.
The following storage examples are all valid when using the $ Substitution Prefix Operator with this directive:
#LOCAL REAL X $#DIM(N1) 2
// N1 is an electrical port
#LOCAL REAL Y $#DIM(N1) $#DIM(N2)
// N1 & N2 are electrical ports
#LOCAL INTEGER Z $(XXX)
// XXX is a literal parameter
#LOCAL INTEGER ZZZ ${X-Y}
// X and Y are literal parameters
#LOCAL COMPLEX D 2
// D is a locally declared, complex array
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Script Directives
EXAMPLE 10-17:
A user's custom component requires two local variables for use as subroutine arguments. According to a conditional
statement based on a pre-defined variable A, a local INTEGER variable MY_X and a local REAL array Error are defined
before the subroutine is called.
The #LOCAL declarations should appear as follows:
#LOCAL INTEGER MY_X
#LOCAL REAL Error 2
!
#IF A > 1
MY_X = 1
Error(1) = 0.2
#ELSE
MY_X = 0
Error(2) = 0.8
#ENDIF
!
CALL SUB1(MY_X, Error)
!
NOTE: A > 1 in the above code is a Logical Expression. See Expression Evaluation for more details.
#BEGIN/#ENDBEGIN
This directive block provides a portal to the BEGIN outer process layer in EMTDC, which is essentially a module based,
subroutine that is called prior to both DSDYN and DSOUT at time zero.
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This process layer provides Runtime Configuration, for the support of components existing in modules with multiple
instances. For more information on these topics, see Multiple Instance Modules in Chapter 5 of this manual and/or
Runtime Configuration in Chapter 2 of the EMTDC manual.
The #BEGIN/#ENDBEGIN directive block is used only in the Fortran, DSDYN or DSOUT segments, and should appear
as follows:
#BEGIN
...
#ENDBEGIN
The contents of the directive block is arbitrary and dependent on the component being designed – but will of course require a
minimum of standard script in order to be of any use. Using the #BEGIN block will ensure that time zero code is considered only
once at compile time, avoiding a TIMEZERO logic check every time step; thereby ensuring efficient simulation speed. The #BEGIN
block will require the following general parts:

Time Zero Initialization: All custom component time zero initialization code placed within the #BEGIN directive block,
will be inserted as Fortran code into either the DSDYN or DSOUT BEGIN subroutine (corresponding to the parent module)
when the project is compiled.

Component Instance and Call Numbers: If there is a potential for any warning or error messages to be issued within the
#BEGIN block, then both the instance and call numbers must be provided to EMTDC. If a message is indeed issued, its
source can be mapped from within PSCAD by using these numbers. The instance and call numbers are provided through
the use of the COMPONENT_ID subroutine. See Chapter 5 – Custom Model Design in the EMTDC manual for more
details.
EXAMPLE 10-18:
One of the more simple components in the master library to include BEGIN code is the Exponential Functions
component. This component models an exponent function, which can possess both a base and an exponential
coefficient:
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Script Directives
The coefficients A and B are declared Constant, meaning that these parameter values could be defined by variables that
may possess different numeric values, depending on the instance of its parent module (i.e. the canvas on which this
component resides). Therefore, these input quantities must be stored in sequence within the BEGIN storage arrays, in
order to be extracted in the proper sequence according to module instance.
The following script is a simplified version of what appears in the Fortran segment of the Exponential Functions
component definition (it is assumed base e and a scalar input signal):
#BEGIN
RTCF(NRTCF)
= $A
RTCF(NRTCF+1) = $B
NRTCF = NRTCF + 2
#ENDBEGIN
#STORAGE RTCF:2
!
$OUT = RTCF(NRTCF) * EXP(RTCF(NRTCF+1) * $IN)
NRTCF = NRTCF + 2
!
The #BEGIN/#ENDBEGIN directive block at the top of this script, ensures that code is placed by the compiler in the
BEGIN section of the system dynamics: The coefficients A and B are stored in the proper sequence, in accordance with
the present storage pointer value NRTCF.
The rest of the script outside of the #BEGIN/#ENDBEGIN directive block is inserted in either DSDYN or DSOUT sections
of the system dynamics. Notice that the quantities required to represent the coefficients A and B (i.e. RTCF(NRTCF) and
RTCF(NRTCF+1) respectively) are extracted from the same storage locations as they were stored at time zero. The
NRTCF pointer is incremented accordingly.
See EMTDC Storage Arrays in Chapter 5 of the EMTDC Manual for more details on this functionality.
#FUNCTION
This directive is used to declare the existence of a function, and the argument type it returns. #FUNCTION is mandatory if
a function is used within a component definition: It will ensure that a function declaration statement is placed within any
source subroutine where the component code is placed.
The #FUNCTION directive is used only in the Fortran, DSDYN or DSOUT segments, and should appear as follows:
#FUNCTION <TYPE> <Name> <Description>
<TYPE> can be either REAL, INTEGER, or LOGICAL. <Name> is the given name of the function. <Description> will be
included as a comment line near the beginning of the corresponding module source subroutine.
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EXAMPLE 10-19:
The Hard Limiter component in the master library utilizes a REAL function called LIMIT to determine the value linked to
an external port connection O, according to input arguments LL, UL, and I. LL and UL represent the component input
parameters Lower Limit and Upper Limit respectively, whereas the I variable is pre-defined by an input port connection in
the Graphic section.
The following code appears in the Fortran segment of the Hard Limiter component definition:
#FUNCTION REAL LIMIT Hard Limiter
!
$O = LIMIT($LL, $UL, $I)
!
#SUBROUTINE
This directive is used to provide a description for a subroutine that is being called from the component. #SUBROUTINE is
used simply for cosmetic purposes, and is not mandatory (although its use is recommended anyway).
The #SUBROUTINE directive is used only in the Fortran, DSDYN or DSOUT segments, and should appear as follows:
#SUBROUTINE <Name> <Description>
<Name> is the given name for the subroutine. <Description> will be included as a comment line near the beginning of
the corresponding module source subroutine.
EXAMPLE 10-20:
A user includes a call to a subroutine, named SUB1, within the component definition script. It is desired that a description
be added for clarity.
The following code should appear in the Fortran, DSDYN or DSOUT segment of the component:
#SUBROUTINE SUB1 User Subroutine
!
CALL SUB1($X, $Y, $Z)
!
X, Y and Z are pre-defined variables that could be port connections, Computations variables or input parameters.
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Script Directives
#OUTPUT
This directive extracts specified data values so that they may be monitored, plotted, or used externally by other
components. #OUTPUT performs two tasks: It defines a new variable according to a specified name, and then assigns it
a value according to an expression.
The #OUTPUT directive is used only in the Fortran, DSDYN or DSOUT segments, and should appear as follows:
#OUTPUT <TYPE> <Name> <Array_Size> {<Expression>}
<TYPE> can be either REAL, INTEGER, or LOGICAL. <Name> is the given name for the variable. <Array_Size> is an
optional integer, which defines the size of the array. If the variable has only a single dimension, then leave <Array_Size>
blank. <Expression> can be a mathematical expression, a storage location, or simply a defined variable.
EXAMPLE 10-21:
A new variable declared by the #OUTPUT directive may have its value defined in many different ways. The following list
gives examples of some of the possible methods. Note that the master library also contains a multitude of examples on
the use of #OUTPUT within its component definitions.
! Defines a REAL variable 'freq' and substitutes
! the value of a pre-defined variable 'Fout'.
!
#OUTPUT REAL freq {$Fout}
!
! Defines an INTEGER variable 'Xon' and assigns
! it the value of a storage location.
!
#OUTPUT INTEGER Xon {STORI(NSTORI+1)}
!
! Defines an REAL variable 'POut' and assigns
! it the value of a given mathematical
! expression.
!
#OUTPUT REAL POut {$V*$I}
!
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#TRANSFORMERS
This directive should be included whenever mutually coupled windings are to be represented in a component definition. It
is normally used in conjunction with the #WINDINGS directive (described below). Examples of master library components
that utilize this directive are (of course) the transformers and the -section components.
#TRANSFORMERS has two primary purposes:
1.
Provides a method to sequentially number all components in a project that contain mutually coupled windings,
for the purpose of dimensioning EMTDC matrices and arrays.
2.
Provides addressing information for the monitoring of mutually coupled winding currents. Transformer winding
currents are measured using the CDCTR(M,N) internal EMTDC matrix. CDCTR(M,N) is the electrical current
through the Mth winding of the Nth transformer.
The #TRANSFORMERS directive is used only in the Transformers segment, and should appear as follows:
#TRANSFORMERS <Number>
<Number> indicates the total number of transformers within the component.
EXAMPLE 10-22:
The 3-Phase, 2-Winding classical transformer component, located in the Transformers section of the master library,
consists of three, single-phase transformers.
The directive would appear as follows in the Transformers segment:
#TRANSFORMERS 3
#WINDINGS 2
#WINDINGS
This directive is used to assign the number of coupled windings in a transformer, and is normally used in conjunction with
the #TRANSFORMERS directive. PSCAD will look for the highest number associated with all existing #WINDINGS
directives and then assigns that number (as the maximum number of windings) to the Map file.
The #WINDINGS directive is used only in the Transformers segment, and should appear as follows:
#WINDINGS <Number>
<Number> indicates the maximum number of coupled windings within that specific component.
See Example 10-22 above.
#VERBATIM
This directive is used to pass a line of script directly into the Fortran file from your component, unmodified and
unprocessed.
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~ Line Continuation Operator
The #VERBATIM directive should appear as follows:
#VERBATIM {<Text>}
<Text> can be any line of text, such as a comment, compiler directive or source code. <Text> will appear in the Fortran
file generated by PSCAD exactly as is (ie. verbatim).
! Caution should be exercised as ANY line of code will be written to
! the Fortran file, be it Fortran compatible or not!
!
! PSCAD Script:
!
#VERBATIM {! This is a comment line.}
#VERBATIM {
X = 1.0 ! This is a line of Fortran code.}
#VERBATIM {@#$%^&*!& This is a line of rubbish.}
!
! Fortran File:
!
! This is a comment line.
X = 1.0 ! This is a line of Fortran code.
@#$%^&*!& This is a line of rubbish.
~ Line Continuation Operator
Occasionally, it may be desirable to break a single script statement into multiple lines. This is particularly useful when a
statement is very long, or if part of the statement is variable in accordance with conditional statements.
Line continuations are used in definition script mostly for clarity. That is, PSCAD will automatically break segment lines
that exceed the Fortran standard of 72 columns anyway, and so the user does not normally need to worry about
this. However, to ensure that code is easily readable to everyone, line continuations should be used.
The line continuation operator is used as follows: A line ending in the ~ symbol will be joined with the next line if it starts
with a ~ symbol as well. This processing is performed after conditional statements have been interpreted and is used in
formatting the text for output into the Fortran or Data files.
NOTE: The line continuation operator can be used anywhere, except it cannot be used on lines containing a
directive statement. The only exception to this is the #CASE directive, which supports the use of the
continuation operator.
EXAMPLE 10-23:
In Example 10-12, #IF, #ELSEIF, #ELSE, #ENDIF directives were used to define the output shape of a signal generator
model. The script from that example is shown again below:
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!
! Signal Generator
!
#IF Type == 1
$OUT = SIN(TWO_PI*$F)
#ELSE
$OUT = COS(TWO_PI*$F)
#ENDIF
!
As a simple illustration of how a ~ line continuation operator can be exploited, the above script is re-written using an
equivalent method:
!
! Signal Generator
!
$OUT = ~
#IF Type==1
~SIN~
#ELSE
~COS~
#ENDIF
~(TWO_PI*$F)
!
If Type = 2, then after the #IF, #ELSEIF, #ELSE, #ENDIF directives and line continuation operators are processed, the
definition script would appear as follows:
!
! Signal Generator
!
$OUT = COS(TWO_PI*$F)
!
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Expression Evaluation
Expression Evaluation
All intrinsic Fortran functions are available through direct coding in the Fortran, DSDYN or DSOUT segments. However in
segments such as Computations, some mathematical and logical functionality is also required: PSCAD possesses a
limited set of its own intrinsic mathematical functions and logical operators for use within segments where direct access
Fortran functions is not available.
Mathematical Functions
Mathematical computations can be performed on input parameters, input signals, or on results of other computations.
The table below lists all of the available intrinsic mathematical functions. These functions are used only in the
Computations segment:
Function
Description
CEIL(x)
Rounds fraction to next upper integer
FLOOR(x)
Rounds fraction to next lower integer
ROUND(x)
Adds 0.5 to a REAL value and then performs an INT function (i.e. ROUND(X) =
INT(X+0.5)). Do not use with negative numbers
TRUNC(x)
Rounds x toward zero, returning the nearest integral value that is not larger in
magnitude than x.
FRAC(x)
Removes integer part of REAL value (left side of decimal)
REAL(x)
Real part of complex number
IMAG(x)
Imaginary part of complex number
ABS(x)
Absolute value
ARG(x)
Returns the phase angle (or angular component) of the complex number x,
expressed in radians.
NORM(x)
Norm of complex number (x2 + y2)
SIN(x)
Sine function
COS(x)
Cosine function
TAN(x)
Tangent function
ASIN(x)
Inverse sine function
ACOS(x)
Inverse cosine function
ATAN(x)
Inverse tangent function
SINH(x)
Hyperbolic sine function
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COSH(x)
Hyperbolic cosine function
TANH(x)
Hyperbolic tangent function
SQRT(x)
Square root
LOG(x)
Natural logarithm
LOG10(x)
Base 10 logarithm
EXP(x)
RAND(x)
Exponential
Random value between 0 and x
P2RX(m,)
Polar to rectangular conversion ( in degrees)
P2RY(m,)
Polar to rectangular conversion ( in degrees)
R2PM(x,y)
Rectangular to polar conversion
R2PA(x,y)
Rectangular to polar conversion
INT(x)
NINT(x)
Removes fractional part of REAL value (right side of decimal)
Returns the nearest integer to the argument
Arithmetic Operators
Listed below are the arithmetic operators available in PSCAD. These operators are used to perform mathematical
calculations primarily in the Computations, Fortran, DSDYN and DSOUT segments.
Function
Description
+
Add
-
Subtract
*
Multiply
/
Divide
%
Remainder
**
\
Raise to power
Parallel (xy) / (x +y)
Logical Operators
Listed below are the logical operators available in PSCAD. Logical expressions are primarily used in conjunction with #IF,
#ELSEIF, #ELSE, #ENDIF directives and the Ternary Operator. They are also used in the Checks segment.
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Expression Evaluation
NOTE: Logical expressions will return a value of 1 if true, and a value of 0 if false.
Function
Description
==
Equal to
!=
Not equal to
!
Not
<
Less than
>
Greater than
<=
Less than or equal to
>=
Greater than or equal to
||
OR
&&
AND
EXAMPLE 10-24:
Logical operators can appear in many different areas. The following examples illustrate the various ways these operators
can be used:
!
! ...with #IF, #ELSEIF, #ELSE, #ENDIF Directives
!
#IF F >= 60.0
Fout = 60.0
#ENDIF
!
! ...with a Ternary Operator in the Computations
!
segment
!
REAL L = X == 0.0 ? Y*2.0 : Y/3
!
! ...in the Checks segment
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!
ERROR Value too small : R > 0.001
!
Ternary Operator
The ternary operator is yet another short form method offered in definition script for representing an IF-ELSE-ENDIF type
expression. It allows the user to define a variable, according to certain conditions, in a single line.
The ternary operator is used only in the Computations segment, and should appear as follows:
<Logic> ? <Value_if_True> : <Value_if_False>
<Logic> is a logical expression using logical operators. <Value_if_True> and <Value_if_False> can either be a single
constant, or a mathematical expression.
NOTE: Care must be taken when designing components with ternary operators: Ensure that variables used
within the ternary expression will not be disabled under otherwise valid conditions. In other words, unrelated
logic may disable one or more of the variables used within the ternary expression, which may render the ternary
result invalid. Input variables are enabled/disabled by way of Conditional Statements, Layers and Filters.
EXAMPLE 10-25:
A user wants to define a REAL variable X in the Computations segment of a component definition. The value of X is to
be 1.0 if an input parameter N is 2 or 3, and defined by a mathematical expression otherwise.
The following code should appear in the Computations segment:
REAL X = (N==2 || N==3) ? 1.0 : SQRT(2)*V
Where V is a pre-defined constant.
EXAMPLE 10-26:
A user wants to define a REAL variable Torq in the Computations segment of a component definition. The value of Torq
is defined by a mathematical expression, where one element of this expression varies according to a condition. This can
be accomplished by using the ternary operator as follows:
REAL Torq = (X > 1 ? 0.0 : Tm) + Te*100
Where X, Tm and Te are pre-defined constants.
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Chapter 10
Project Debug and Refinement
Ironing out the bugs in a project can be the most challenging part of the design process. No matter how carefully a
system is constructed, there are almost always a few errors or warnings issued when the project is compiled and
run. This chapter describes the reasons for some of the most common errors and warnings, along with how to deal with
them.
Debugging a project can become even more difficult when user-written code is present. PSCAD does not include an
integrated tool for debugging user system dynamics code (i.e. source code appended to the system dynamics through
user-defined components), and so an external debugging tool must be used: Some possible methods for linking to an
integrated debugger are described in this chapter.
In finalizing a project, the user may want to protect (i.e. pre-compile or encrypt) source code when supplying projects and
components to other users. Topics are included here that describe both how to pre-build source code into a library (*.lib)
or object (*.obj) files, as well as the ciphering tool for encrypting user-defined module code. Both of these methods will
enable you to distribute projects to clients, without running the risk of exposing trade secrets.
Error and Warning Messages
PSCAD does not include a real time error manager, so in order to generate and view any warning or error feedback you
must first compile and build your project. Error messaging is displayed in the Build Messages pane. This classification
can be very helpful in determining just what the problem is, and how to fix it.
As discussed in the Build and Runtime Message Panes topic, this table includes messages sourced from the building or
compilation of the project (build). The build messages pane will also display messages involving transmission line and
cable solving, as well as other, general informational messages.
Build or Compilation Messaging
The build or compilation process as you can imagine, is a complicated one. However, it can be simplified a bit by further
sub-dividing it into steps:
1.
Building Source and Data Files for Simulation: In this first step of the build process, PSCAD collects all of
the module definitions in the project and compiles them. The result of this compilation is the creation of source
(i.e. Fortran (*.f) files) and Data (*.dta) files. If one or more problems exist in any module, an error or warning
message will be issued. PSCAD will complete this step by compiling all modules flagged for compilation,
regardless if errors are detected in any single module: Compilation will not continue to the next step however.
2.
Creating Map File: Once all of the modules have been built, their respective local nodes and subsystems must
be linked together globally – this is performed during the creation of the project Map (*.map) file. If there are
illegal issues with connectivity between modules, or something of the like, pertinent error and warning
messages will appear here.
3.
Creating Make File: The Make (*.mak) file is written as an instructional file for the Fortran compiler. Any
problems during this process will be displayed here.
4.
Solving Transmission Segments: The final process before the simulation executable file is produced is to
solve all transmission line and cables in the project. For each transmission segment, PSCAD produces either a
Transmission Line Input (*.tli) or a Cable Input (*.cli) file and then calls the Line Constants Program (LCP) to
solve the segment. If a problem occurs during the process of constructing the input file (ex. Checks segment
logic failure), or the LCP solve fails, an error or warning message will be displayed here.
The following image illustrates the messages for the steps described above in the Output Window:
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Error and Warning Messages
Obviously there was no problem building the simpleac project above. Any error messages that do occur will appear under
their respective categories.
Runtime Messaging
Upon the successful completion of the build process, the runtime process will begin. Runtime messages are streamed
directly from EMTDC to PSCAD into a separate pane called the Runtime Messages pane. These messages are related
directly to the runtime process and contain information such as: Messages related to the running of the executable file,
EMTDC software copyright information and time summary information.
EMTDC Non-Standard Messages
These messages are very important, and include; file read errors, matrix manipulation, and any other type of problem
arising from the initialization of the run. When initially debugging and refining a project, users should continually consult
the messages displayed here.
Common Output Window Messages
There are a large number of possible error and warning messages that can be generated and displayed in the Output
Window. A message source can originate directly from the PSCAD or EMTDC applications, or may be generated by
individual components. Most of these messages however, will never occur if a project is judiciously constructed in the first
place.
The following descriptions outline the most common occurring messages.
Warning: Suspicious isolated node detected
This warning is issued if PSCAD detects an open electrical circuit connection on a component - usually caused by an
electrical node that is not connected to anything.
If an open circuit connection is indeed what you wish to accomplish, the suggested method to deal with this warning is to
connect a large resistance (approximately 1 M) to ground at the node. This will ensure numerical stability and will have
negligable affect on the simulation results.
Unresolved substitution of key '<name>'
A key has not been properly defined or does not exist in the component data.
<name> is the name of the text input field.
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Signal '<name>' type conversion may lose accuracy
This warning is issued if PSCAD detects a REAL signal being sent to an input expecting an INTEGER. PSCAD will
automatically convert the REAL signal value to the nearest integer, hence the warning.
<name> is the name of the signal.
Signal '<name>' source contention at component [<defn_name>]
'<instance_name>'
This error is issued if PSCAD detects a signal of the same name being generated from more than one source. This error
is most commonly caused when component instances with defined internal output variables are copied, hence duplicating
the internal output variable.
<name> is the name of the signal. <instance_name> is the name of the component.
Signal '<name>' dimension mismatch -> <dim_1> != <dim_1>
This error is issued if PSCAD detects that a signal of dimension <dim_1> is being sent to an input expecting a signal of
dimension <dim_2>. This error commonly occurs with the power electronic switch components, which expect a 2dimensional input gate signal when set for interpolation.
<name> is the name of the signal.
Array '<Name>' cannot be typecasted
This error is issued if PSCAD detects an array signal type mismatch. For example, if a data signal array was defined as
type INTEGER and the user attempted to tap off a single element with the Data Signal Array Tap component set to type
REAL (or vice-versa); or, if an array of type REAL is input into a component, where the external input Connection in
question is defined as an INTEGER array.
<name> is the name of the signal.
Invalid breakout connection to ground at '<Node>'. Node array elements
cannot be individually grounded.
This error is related to the use of the Breakout component: Ground components cannot be directly connected to Breakout
terminals. The Breakout is designed specifically for mapping multiple connections on the scalar side to a single
array. Since Ground nodes cannot be mapped, the compiler will issue this warning. The suggested work around is to use
a Current Meter as a series element between the Breakout terminal and ground. See the section entitled Valid
Connections in the Breakout component online help for more details.
<Node> is the name of the Breakout reference node connected to ground.
Short in breakout at '<Node>'. Node array elements must be uniquely
defined.
This error is related to the use of the Breakout component: The nodes on the 3-phase side of this component are not
actual electrical nodes, but references that will assume the node number to which they are connected. This error is
posted if these reference nodes are shorted (i.e. electrically connected together). Each node on the 3-phase side of the
Breakout component must be unique. See the section entitled Valid Connections in the Breakout component online help
for more details.
<Node> is the name of the Breakout connection which is shorted.
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Viewing Build and Data Files
Branch imbalance between breakouts at '<Node>'. Node array elements
cannot be shared between signals.
This error is related to the use of the Breakout component: The nodes on the 3-phase side of this component are not
actual electrical nodes, but references that will assume the node number to which they are connected. A special
condition that cannot be referenced is referred to as an 'unbalanced' condition, where the imbalance refers to electrical
nodes, not actual impedance. The basic rule to remember here is that all branches on the 3-phase side must include at
least one series impedance. See the section entitled Valid Connections in the Breakout component online help for more
details.
<Node> is the name of the Breakout connection which is shorted.
Viewing Build and Data Files
Whenever a project is compiled and built, several files are created and stored in the associated project temporary
folder. Some of these files, such as Fortran, Data and Map files, can be useful in debugging. All of these files can be
viewed directly from within PSCAD.
Fortran and Data Files
Fortran and Data files can be viewed by simply clicking the Fortran or Data tabs at the bottom of the main canvas
(following compilation of course). These files are module specific and are automatically generated by PSCAD. These
files may not be edited.
Map and Make Files
Map and Make files involve the entire project, and are thus not included in the tab bar. To view either of these files, rightclick on the project name in the Workspace window and select either View Map File... or View Make File....
Selecting either view will invoke the associated viewer pane. The Map and Make file panes can also be opened via the
Panes button in the ribbon control bar under the Views tab.
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Component Ordering
PSCAD includes a smart algorithm, which will automatically sequence (or order) all components involved in the EMTDC
System Dynamics. This is carried out automatically in order to ensure that variables are calculated in their proper
sequence, and that time step delays are minimized: The algorithm iteratively scans the entire project and then assigns
sequence numbers to all existing components. In general, input constants are moved to the top of the sequence,
whereas outputs are moved to the bottom.
This algorithm should be left on by default at all times; however there may be instances where it is desirable to turn it off
and manually order the components during the debugging process. This may be the case if you wish to manually control
the feedback points. Alternatively, a feedback can be introduced by inserting a Feedback Loop Selector component in the
signal path.
NOTE: Component ordering functions are performed by PSCAD on a per module basis. By default, the
Sequence Ordering option in the Canvas Settings dialog is set to Automatic Assignment in all new and
existing modules. This option may be disabled by the user in selected modules, and yet still maintain automatic
ordering in others.
Component ordering features may be accessed through the Canvas Settings dialog. See Editing Module Canvas Settings
for more details.
Showing Sequence Numbers
Before manually ordering any components, you must first compile the case and then ensure that the Sequence Order
Numbers setting is enabled in the Canvas Settings dialog: To bring-up the Canvas Settings dialog, right-click on a blank
part of the Schematic canvas and select Canvas Settings...
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Component Ordering
Schematic Canvas Pop-Up Menu
Canvas Settings Dialog
Once this option is enabled, each component instance in your project should have numbers overlaid on top of their
graphic, similar to that shown below:
Colours
There are two possible locations within the system dynamics (i.e. DSDYN or DSOUT) where the code for a particular
component can reside. As a result, the sequence numbers are colour coded so that the user can graphically determine
where code is. These colours are listed below:
Colour Legend:

Aqua: The component code resides within DSDYN for the current module.

Olive: The component code resides within DSOUT for the current module.
Manually Setting Sequence Numbers
To manually set sequence numbers, first ensure that the Sequence Order Numbers option is set to Display (as
described above), and that the Sequence Ordering option is set to Manual Assignment in the Canvas Settings
dialog. Right-click on a component and select the Sequence... option from the pop-up menu.
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This will bring up the Sequence Number dialog.
Enter the desired sequence number and click the OK button. Repeat this process for the remaining components and
modules.
Show Signal Locations
Another feature that is helpful when ordering components is the Signals option in the Canvas Settings dialog. When this
option is enabled, PSCAD will use icons placed on connections and wire termination points to allow for graphical
determination of where time step delays are present. In addition, icon colours are used to represent the signal type.
The icons used are listed below with explanations:

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Feed-Forward Connection/Electrical Signal: This symbol indicates that the signal passing through the
connection point is classified as a feed-forward signal, if a control signal. This means that the value of the
control signal is always defined within the present time step. This simple is also used to indicate an electrical
signal type.
Virtual Control Wires

Feedback Signal: This symbol indicates that the signal passing through the connection point is classified
as a feedback signal. This means that the value of the signal was defined in the previous time step (t - t). Due
to this fact, feedback signals must be written to, and then extracted from storage each time step.

Feed Fixed: This symbol indicates that the signal passing through the connection point is classified as a
feed fixed signal. Feed fixed signals are similar to feedback signals, in that their value is always extracted from
storage. The difference is that their values are usually defined by an online control, such as a slider or switch.
Colours
Control Signal Legend:

Green: Indicates a signal of type REAL

Blue: Indicates a signal of type INTEGER

Magenta: Indicates a signal of type LOGICAL
Electrical Signal Legend:

Green: Indicates an active node

Brown: Indicates a ground node

Grey: Indicates a removed node

Red: Indicates an isolated node
Virtual Control Wires
Virtual control wires can be used to provide a visual 'virtual connection' between two or more Data Label components of
the same name within a specific module. Virtual control wires appear as a dashed line, which runs directly between
corresponding Data Labels as shown below:
To enable this feature, right-click on a blank part of the module canvas and select Canvas Settings... to bring up the
Canvas Settings dialog. Select the Virtual Wires option.
NOTE: Virtual wires are purely visual, that is you cannot use them as physical connections for data sources or
sinks. You must compile the case first before you can view the virtual control wires.
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Virtual Wires Filter
You can filter the display of virtual wires based on signal name. This is useful in cases where there is an unruly amount of
data connections, making it difficult to sort and find the signals you are interested in. Filter the virtual wires display by
simply adding the names of the signals you want to see, comma separated, into the Virtual Wires Filter option in the
Canvas Settings dialog. For example in the image below, the filter is being used to display only the signals IBrkB and
IBrkC.
Colours
The colour of the virtual control wire indicates the data type of the Data Labels it is connecting. The colour legend is
provided below:
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
Green: Indicates a signal of type REAL

Blue: Indicates a signal of type INTEGER

Magenta: Indicates a signal of type LOGICAL
Control Signal Pathways
Control Signal Pathways
Control signal pathways can be used to help visualize the flow of control signals (i.e. from source to sink) following
compilation of the project. The indicators will appear on Wire components that are part of a control signal path. The
signal flow indicators appear as arrowheads directly on the Wire.
To enable this feature, bring up the Project Settings dialog (right-click on the project in the Workspace and select Project
Settings...). Click the Dynamics tab and select Compute and Display Signal Pathways on Control Wires.
NOTE: The indicators are orientated by default according to the Wire component direction (i.e. towards the end
point of the Wire), not the actual control signal flow. If a flow indicator appears reversed, simply reverse the
vertexes of the Wire. You must compile the case first before you can view the flow indicators.
Colours
The indicator colour will appear according to the legend below.
Colour Legend:

Green: Indicates a signal of type REAL

Blue: Indicates a signal of type INTEGER

Magenta: Indicates a signal of type LOGICAL
Deployment of an Integrated Debugger
Project Options to Preset
Linking to the Debugger
If you are using one of the supported, commercial Fortran compilers, then it is possible to utilize the integrated debugger
application included with the respective compiler. The following sections describe how to preset relevant project settings,
as well as step-by-step instructions on how to link EMTDC with your debugger.
If you are using the free GFortran compiler supplied with PSCAD, there are debugging tools available. See
http://sources.redhat.com/insight/index.php.
Project Options to Preset
There are a few project settings that must be preset before attempting to proceed – all of which are set in the Project
Settings dialog. See Editing Project Settings for details.
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In the Runtime section of the dialog, enable the Start simulation manually to allow use of integrated debugger
option. Enabling this option allows EMTDC to be started manually.
Next, navigate to the Fortran section of the dialog and enable the Enable addition of runtime debugging information
option in the Runtime Debugging area.
Ensure that any required user source files are referenced in the Additional Source files (*.f, *.for, *.f90, *.c, *.cpp) field as
well. If you fail to do this, your source files will not be included when the project is compiled, and you will not be able to
debug your code.
Linking to the Debugger
The following procedure outlines how to set-up an integrated debugging session for your case project. Note that the
following steps are described using the Intel Fortran 10 compiler (steps for the Compaq Visual Fortran 6 compiler
environment are virtually identical).
1.
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Ensure that the project settings described above in Project Options to Preset are enabled. Run the
simulation. A pop-up message should appear as follows:
Deployment of an Integrated Debugger
2.
Write down the port number on a piece of paper (you will need it in step 4). If you forget to write down the port
number, it is also visible at the bottom left corner of the application window.
3.
Select the No button to continue with debugging.
4.
Open Visual Studio and select File | Open | Project/Solution (for CVF: File | Open).
a.
Change the Objects of Type drop list to Executable Files (*.exe).
b.
Navigate to the PSCAD Temporary Folder associated with your project file, select the executable file
(*.exe) for your project and then click the Open button. For example, if your project is entitled
'test.pscx', then you would select 'test.exe' from the temporary folder as shown below:
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5.
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While still in Visual Studio, select Project | Properties... (CVF: Project | Settings...) to bring up the Properties
dialog.
Deployment of an Integrated Debugger
Click the Debugging branch (CVF: Debug tab) and in the Arguments field, enter the following:
-v4 localhost ####
Note that the number (represented by #### above) must be the same as that in Step 1. Click the OK button.
6.
While still in Visual Studio, open the appropriate Fortran source file (*.f) by selecting File | Open |
File.... Navigate to and then open a Fortran file generated by PSCAD (ex. Main.f).
7.
Insert a breakpoint at the point where your subroutine is called in the source code and press the Start
Debugging button. Manually step in to your subroutine. It is important to note that a breakpoint should not be
placed directly within your Fortran source file. This is because PSCAD makes a copy of your source file when
the executable is built, and so your original Fortran source is not accessed!
Please note that it is assumed that the user is familiar with the debugging software and can continue from here.
Once debugging is complete and the code is clean, make sure that all debugging options outlined in the Project Options
to Preset section are disabled. Failure to do so may affect simulation speed.
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Creating Library (*.lib) and Object (*.obj) Files
There are occasions where user-written source code may harbour trade secrets, or simply represent a large corporate
investment in development time. In instances such as this, it may be in your best interest to secure this code before it is
distributed, especially when models are to be sold or used by clients or partners in joint ventures. Source code can be
easily protected by providing it to clients in a pre-compiled (i.e. binary) format. Any source files linked to a PSCAD project
are by default compiled into separate object files, by whichever Fortran compiler is being used. PSCAD also provides a
utility to efficiently incorporate multiple object files into a single, compiled library file.
Source files are linked to a project by one of two methods:
1.
Using the File Reference component
2.
The Additional Source (.f) Files field in the Project Settings dialog
Object (*.obj) Files
Normally, when a source file is linked to a project, the Fortran compiler used to compile the project will automatically
create a compiled object (*.obj) file for each linked source file. This file is placed in the project temporary folder. The user
may choose to supply clients with these compiled object files, rather than the source code. This is fine if only one or two
source files are involved. Large projects however, can contain many source file links, and supplying an object file for each
source file can quickly become cumbersome. One way to circumvent this problem is to merge all source routines into a
single file. This process can also be tedious, and may create problems in the on-going development of the source code.
Static Library (*.lib) Files
A more efficient means for merging many source files together is to combine all the individual object files into a single
compiled library (*.lib) file. PSCAD provides an easy avenue to create a compiled library file for any library project (*.pslx)
file, provided that links to the source files are set within the library project. In library projects, this may be accomplished
through the use of File Reference components.
Creating a Library (*.lib) File
The first thing to consider before creating a library file is the Fortran compiler. Each Fortran compiler will create compiled
files, which may or may not be compatible for use with other compilers. In other words, it is important to know what type
of Fortran compiler the client is using, so that the files provided are compatible. Most PSCAD users will create an
equivalent file for each supported Fortran compiler. These files can then be placed in the appropriate directories as
described in Additional Library (*.lib) and Object (*.obj) Files.
Step 1:
Create a new library project as described in Creating a New Project (or edit an existing library), and then link each source
file to be included in the compiled library (*.lib) file using File Reference components.
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Creating Library (*.lib) and Object (*.obj) Files
Step 2:
Right-click on the Library name in the Workspace and select Create Compiled Library (*.lib):
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When the Create Compiled Library (*.lib) function is invoked, PSCAD will create a temporary folder for the library project
located in the same directory as the project (*.pslx) file. In it will be placed the compiled library file (*.lib), plus an
individual object file (*.obj) for each linked source file.
Including Dynamic Link Library (*.dll) Files
It is possible to include Dynamic Link Library (*.dll) files when building projects, although links to these files must be
provided by way of an Import Library (*.lib) file. In other words, it is the import library file, which must be directly linked to
in the exact manner as is described for linking static library files in Additional Library (*.lib) and Object (*.obj) Files.
There are however, a couple of extra considerations when linking dynamic link libraries:
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
Location of the *.dll File: The dynamic link library file must be placed either in the same folder as the project
executable, or preferably in a directory pointed to by a PATH variable. For example, create a directory called
C:\temp\my_dlls and place your *.dll files within it. Then add a PATH environment variable with variable value
C:\temp\my_dlls (i.e. points to this directory).

Missing Import Library (*.lib) File: If an import library file is not available for the *.dll file, then you must create
one. Instructions detailing the creation of an import library, given a *.dll file, can be found in Microsoft
knowledge base article 131313 (http://support.microsoft.com/kb/131313).
Chapter 11
MATLAB®/Simulink® Interface
PSCAD provides users with the ability to interface and utilize the functionality of MATLAB commands and toolboxes
(including all graphical commands) through a special interface. This is achieved by calling a special subroutine from
within a standard component in PSCAD.
Components that interface to MATLAB/Simulink are not offered as part of the Master Library, and must be specially
developed for this purpose. In other words, if a specific MATLAB/Simulink component is required, the user must design
his or her own to do the job. Once designed however, this component will be treated as a normal component in PSCAD,
and may be used interactively with other components in a particular project.
There are a few important items to remember before attempting to interface with MATLAB from PSCAD:
1.
The MATLAB interface is not compatible with the GFortran compiler. One of the supported commercial
compilers must be used.
2.
MATLAB must be installed on your computer in order to use the MATLAB interface!
3.
PSCAD can be interfaced with library files from MATLAB version 5 or greater.
MATLAB Interface Subroutine
PSCAD interfaces to MATLAB through a single Fortran subroutine called MLAB_INT. This routine is included in the main
EMTDC library and may therefore be called from any user-defined component. This routine performs the following
functions:

Launches MATLAB through engine using MATLAB Fortran API 'engOpen' commands.

Changes the working directory to where MATLAB "*.m" files are located.

Accesses EMTDC variables from the PSCAD STORF and STORI arrays.

Converts Fortran variables to C-style pointers and allocates/de-allocates memory locations.

Uses the MATLAB Fortran API to pass the variables/pointers to the MATLAB engine so they can subsequently
be accessed from '*.m' files.

Gets MATLAB output variables using MATLAB Fortran API and places them into the STORF and STORI
arrays.
Arguments
SUBROUTINE MLAB_INT(MPATH, MFILE, INPUTS, OUTPUTS)
Inputs
Argument
Type
Description
MPATH
CHARACTER
Character string of MATLAB '*.m' file path
MFILE
CHARACTER
Name of module within '*.m' file (the .m extension should not
be added)
INPUTS
CHARACTER
Format string for all input variables.
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MATLAB Interface Subroutine
Outputs
Argument
Type
OUTPUTS
CHARACTER
Description
Format string for all output variables
The formatting for the INPUTS and OUTPUTS variables should be as follows:

R for REAL type

I for INTEGER type

R(dimension) or I(dimension) for array variables

Ensure that a space is placed between variables
In PSCAD, INPUTS and OUTPUTS variables can be empty strings, in which case the '*.m' file will run without
arguments. This is helpful in initializing the MATLAB environment and designing a component that runs MATLAB '*.m'
files and Simulink '*.mdl' files simultaneously.
EXAMPLE 12-1:
A MATLAB module is called by [D] = TEST(A,B,C), where TEST is a module in a MATLAB file 'TEST.m', that is located in
C:\TEMP MLAB_FILES. The input 'A' is a REAL variable, 'B' is a REAL array of dimension 31 and 'C' is an
INTEGER. The output 'D' is a REAL array of dimension 10.
The MATLAB interface subroutine call would then appear as follows:
CALL MLAB_INT("C:\TEMP\MLAB_FILES", "TEST", "R R(31) I", "R(10)")
EXAMPLE 12-2:
A MATLAB file entitled 'TEST.m' is located in C:\TEMP\ MLAB_FILES. It consists of MATLAB commands that may take
a snapshot of MATLAB results, or initialize the environment (such as setting global variables or changing directory, etc.).
The MATLAB interface subroutine call would then appear as follows:
CALL MLAB_INT("C:\TEMP\MLAB_FILES", "TEST", "", "")
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Simulink Interface Subroutine
PSCAD interfaces to Simulink through a single Fortran subroutine called 'SIMULINK_INT'. This routine is included in the
main EMTDC library and may therefore be called from any user-defined component. This routine performs the following
functions:

Launches MATLAB through Fortran API functions the same as the MATLAB Interface Subroutine.

Changes the working directory to where the Simulink '*.mdl' files are located.

Accesses EMTDC variables from the PSCAD STORF and STORI arrays.

Uses the MATLAB Fortran API to pass the variables/pointers to the MATLAB engine so they can subsequently
be accessed from '*.mdl' files.

Sets the simulation data, specified by the Workspace I/O pane of the Simulation Parameters dialog box, and
runs the Simulink module using the MATLAB command 'set_param'.

Synchronizes Simulink to the PSCAD. That is, PSCAD proceeds only after the Simulink module simulation is
completed each time step, which ensures that the correct results from Simulink are passed to PSCAD.

Gets Simulink output variables and places them into the EMTDC STORF arrays. This is done in two steps, first
the MATLAB command 'get_param' is employed to get the variable name of Simulink outputs from the
Workspace I/O pane in the Simulation Parameters dialog box, then MATLAB Fortran API is utilized to exact and
place them into EMTDC STORF arrays.
Arguments
SUBROUTINE SIMULINK_INT(MPATH, MFILE INPUTS)
Inputs
Argument
Type
Description
MPATH
CHARACTER
Character string of MATLAB ’r;*.mdl’ file path
MFILE
CHARACTER
Name of module within ’r;*.mdl’ file (the *.mdl extension should
not be added)
INPUTS
CHARACTER
Format string for all input variables.
The formatting for the INPUTS variable is the same as that in the MATLAB interface subroutine. Note that the OUTPUT
of the SIMULINK interface is automatically handled inside the subroutine and is always put into the corresponding
EMTDC STORF array.
EXAMPLE 12-3:
A Simulink module called 'TEST.mdl', has external inputs A, B and C and is located in C:\TEMP\SIMULINK_FILES. The
input 'A' is a REAL variable, 'B' is a REAL array of dimension 31 and 'C' is an INTEGER.
The Simulink interface subroutine call would then appear as follows:
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Designing a MATLAB Component
CALL SIMULINK_INT("C:\TEMP\SIMULINK_FILES", "TEST", "R R(31) I")
Designing a MATLAB Component
Designing a MATLAB component involves two simple steps:
1.
Create a new component
2.
Write a MATLAB file (.m) to perform the required modeling.
Component Design
Any number of signals or parameters can be passed to or from a MATLAB component. The Fortran code inserted into the
Fortran segment of the component definition should perform four tasks:
1.
Input variables for the MATLAB function should be transferred to STORF and/or STORI arrays.
2.
The MLAB_INT subroutine must be called with arguments for the MATLAB module and path name, input format
string and output format string (more information to follow).
3.
Output variables should be transferred from STORF and/or STORI arrays into the PSCAD component output
connection nodes.
4.
Increment the NSTORF and/or NSTORI index pointers by the total number of variables used.
EXAMPLE 12-4:
Consider a simple example for a PSCAD component, which has 2 REAL input connection nodes (A and B), and a single
REAL output connection node (C).
The following code should then appear in the Fortran segment of the component definition:
#STORAGE REAL:3
STORF(NSTORF) = $A
STORF(NSTORF+1) = $B
!
CALL MLAB_INT("$Path", "$Name", "R R", "R")
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!
$C = STORF(NSTORF+2)
NSTORF = NSTORF + 3
!
The component definition will need to define at least two input fields in a Parameters section category page. In this case
for example, $Path is a text field symbol name expecting the pathname to where the *.m files are located. $Name is also
a text field symbol name expecting the name of the MATLAB module. For example, if the MATLAB function is called
'TEST1', contained within a file called 'TEST1.m', then the $Name parameter should then be entered as 'TEST1'.
More complex input and output arguments can also be used. If an array signal is used, the input or output format string
arguments should contain the type and dimension. For example, a REAL array of dimension 31 would appear as R(31),
or an INTEGER array of dimension 10 as I(10). Each variable should be separated by one or more spaces, and the order
of variables should be identical to the order expected in the MATLAB function.
A good mechanism in Fortran to transfer array variables into or out of the EMTDC STORF or STORI arrays is the
DO/ENDDO loop.
EXAMPLE 12-5:
Here is an example illustrating a MATLAB component, which has a single REAL input connection array of dimension 31,
and a single output connection of dimension 2.
The following code should then appear in the Fortran segment of the component definition:
#STORAGE REAL:33
#LOCAL INTEGER I_CNT
!
! First Input Array (REAL(31))
!
DO I_CNT = 1,31,1
STORF(NSTORF+I_CNT-1) = $INPUT(I_CNT)
ENDDO
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Designing a MATLAB/Simulink Component
!
CALL MLAB_INT("$Path","$Name","R(31)","R(2)")
!
! First Output Array (REAL(2))
!
DO I_CNT=1,2,1
$OUTPUT(I_CNT) = STORF(NSTORF+31+I_CNT-1)
ENDDO
!
! Increment STORF pointer
!
NSTORF = NSTORF + 33
!
Note that when the output variables are extracted from the STORF array, the offset 31 must be added, as 31 input
variables were already used to put the INPUT variables into the STORF array. In the entire routine, 33 STORF locations
were used (31 inputs, 2 outputs).
Designing a MATLAB/Simulink Component
The design steps and principles used in creating a MATLAB/Simulink component, are similar to that explained in the
preceding section. Here, an example is provided to illustrate how to design a component that utilizes both the MATLAB
and the Simulink interface.
EXAMPLE 12-6:
The figure below illustrates a MATLAB/Simulink component in PSCAD. The input to the component is an array of four
variables, named 'TIME', 'Freq', 'Phase', and 'Mag'. The output from the component is an array of six variables as
labelled.
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The following code appears in the Fortran segment of the component definition:
#STORAGE REAL:12
#LOCAL INTEGER I_CNT, M_CNT
!
!
PSCAD MATLAB INTERFACE
!
MODULE: Matlab Interface with Simulink
!
I_CNT = 1
M_CNT = 0
!
!
!
Call *.m files in order to initialize the
environment...
!
IF (TIMEZERO) THEN
#IF "$mName1" != ""
CALL MLAB_INT("$Path", "$mName1", "", "")
#ENDIF
#IF "$mName2" != ""
CALL MLAB_INT("$Path","$mName2","" , "")
#ENDIF
ENDIF
!
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Designing a MATLAB/Simulink Component
!
TIME info to run either *.m or *.mdl module
!
#IF ($OPTSEC == 0 )
STORF(NSTORF) = TIME
STORF(NSTORF + 1) = DELT
M_CNT = 2
#ELSE
STORF(NSTORF) = TIME
M_CNT = 1
#ENDIF
!
!
Transfer inputs to EMTDC STORF array
!
DO I_CNT = 1, $#DIM(sig_in)
STORF(NSTORF + M_CNT + I_CNT-1) = $sig_in(I_CNT)
END DO
M_CNT = M_CNT + I_CNT - 1
!
! CALL PSCAD MATLAB INTERFACE
!
#IF $OPTSEC == 0
CALL MLAB_INT("$Path","$mfile","R(6)","R($#DIM(sig_out))")
#ELSE
CALL SIMULINK_INT("$Path","$simfile","R(5)")
#ENDIF
!
! Transfer MATLAB output variables
!
I_CNT = 1
DO WHILE (I_CNT .LE. $#DIM(sig_out))
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$sig_out(I_CNT) = STORF(NSTORF + M_CNT + I_CNT - 1)
I_CNT = I_CNT + 1
END DO
!
!
Update storage array
!
NSTORF = NSTORF + M_CNT + I_CNT - 1
!
Various parameters category pages within the component definition define the variables used in the above code. This
category page would appear similar to that shown below:
Each of the input fields above defines a variable (preceded by a $ symbol) in the component code.
Interfacing Notes
The MATLAB engine performs operations very slowly, compared with the same equivalent operation hard-coded directly
into a PSCAD component. The MATLAB source code is interpreted each time it is called, allowing users to dynamically
edit the '*.m' file in the middle of a run and see its effect immediately. This inter-activity is also possible in PSCAD through
the use of on-line sliders, switches, dials and buttons. Any combination of the two methods can be used simultaneously.
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Interfacing Notes
Alternative Simulink Interface
There is an alternative way to invoke a Simulink module. Instead of calling the 'SIMULINK_INT' subroutine, users may
call 'MLAB_INT' subroutine to invoke an '*.m' file, which uses the MATLAB command 'sim' to handle the Simulink
module. However, the use of 'SIMULINK_INT' is highly recommended due to the synchronization mechanism between
MATLAB and PSCAD implemented within this subroutine. This is especially true for Simulink modules that run longer
than the time step defined inside EMTDC.
Simulation Speed
To try and speed up the MATLAB solution, it is often a good idea to try and use a larger time step when invoking MATLAB
components (wherever possible or practical). An enable/disable switch can also be implemented, so as to allow PSCAD
to operate at close to full speed.
EXAMPLE 12-7:
The figure below illustrates one way to speed up your PSCAD/MATLAB simulation. Here, an impulse train is applied to
an additional enable/disable input to control how often the MATLAB solution engine is invoked.
The Impulse Train frequency can be varied for optimal speed/accuracy considerations.
Conversion to C
It is possible to convert '*.m' source code directly to 'C' code using the MATLAB Coder, and then directly compile and link
the 'C' source code into the EMTDC executable. With this 'hard-compiled' approach, you lose the ability to edit the
MATLAB '*.m' interpreted file during simulations. The 'hard-compiled' approach also may not work with any MATLAB
graphical functions.
A good compromise can be reached by first using MATLAB components to develop and test algorithms, but in the end to
optimize the speed of the final design by hard-coding the algorithms in Fortran or C (either manually or using the MATLAB
'C' compiler). The final hard-coded algorithms are linked directly with the EMTDC solution engine and are very fast (as
they can be optimized using modern compilers).
Plotting Enhancements
The MATLAB graphics functions are a very powerful addition to the PSCAD plots and graphical interface. Threedimensional plots, active graphics and rotating images are possible and integrate seamlessly with the PSCAD graphical
libraries.
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Enabling and Using the Interface
In order to make use of the MATLAB®/Simulink® interface in PSCAD, you must first set-up the MATLAB® version you
are using (as well as the path to the installation library directory if you are using MATLAB® v5). To do this, go to the
Application Options dialog under the Dependencies section.
Once the MATLAB® interface particulars are set-up, you must then enable the interface in your case Project Settings
under the Link tab.
NOTE: You may find discontinuations when starting from a snapshot file if you use complex models in
MATLAB®/Simulink®. If this is the case, it can be prevented by adding extra code in the *.m or *.mdl file and
the component definition calling the interface.
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Chapter 12
Migrating from Older Versions
The PSCAD X4 release represents a vast transformation in program architecture. It is also a prudent point at which to
continue unfettered by old operating systems, Fortran compilers, and older PSCAD versions. This latest version allows
you to import *.psl and *.psc format project files that were last saved in PSCAD v4.2.1 only, and it is not backwards
compatible: In other words, once your projects have been migrated into X4, they cannot be exported back to the older
formats.
NOTE: If you are a PSCAD V3 user, and you want to import your projects into X4, you must first import, test
and save your projects in PSCAD v4.2.1. PSCAD V2 users will of course need to do the same.
This chapter discusses topics regarding the migration of projects from older versions into the latest PSCAD version. For
more information on migrating user-defined code and other EMTDC related issues, see the section entitled Converting V2
Fortran Files in Chapter 10 of the EMTDC Manual.
Importing PSCAD V4 Projects to X4
Importing a V4 project (v4.2.1 only!) into PSCAD X4 is for the most part, as simple as a couple of mouse clicks. Simply
select the PSCAD tab in the ribbon control bar and select Open | Import Project, to import a v4.2.1 project.
Upon import, PSCAD will create a new file and convert your original project to the new file format. Your original project
will be left untouched. Project files are converted as follows:
Old File Format
<project_name>.psc
<project_name>.psl
New File Format
<project_name>.pscx
<project_name>.pslx
As mentioned above, it is not possible to save back to the older format, so any changes made to the new project files
cannot be migrated back. If you need to maintain files in both formats, then you must make equivalent changes in the old
format and the new separately.
If all goes well, the above procedure is all that is needed to upgrade your PSCAD V4 projects to X4. During the import
process however, there may have been compatibility issues in migrating your project over to the new format. These
issues may not arise until you attempt to compile and run the new project.
The following sections attempt to describe most of the issues that you may experience with a newly imported project, as
well as other important topics you should be aware of.
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Importing PSCAD V4 Projects to X4
Duplicate Definition Linking Priority
Every project, be it a case or a library, contains component or module instances. The definitions, on which these
instances are based, may or may not be stored in the project. They may in fact be stored in previously loaded, user
library projects, the master library, or a combination of both. There may be situations where duplicate definitions exist in
the workspace (i.e. definition sharing the exact same name).
So, how do we choose a definition if there are duplicates? To avoid chaos on import, there must be certain rules
imposed. In previous versions of PSCAD, the definition linking mechanism was given a set of priorities: Any definition
residing in the master library was given first priority; then previously loaded user-defined library projects (i.e. *.psl files);
then the local project itself. For example, say a user has a custom definition called resistor, which is stored in a case
project. When the case is loaded into the workspace, PSCAD v4.2.1 would link any instances of the resistor in the case
project to the master library definition of the same name, not the local resistor definition.
A fundamental change was made in PSCAD X4 effectively reversing the older priority set. Now the local definition is
given priority, then user library definitions, then the master library, upon load or import of a project.
In v4.2.1
New in X4
Master Library
Local Project
Other Library Projects
Master Library
Local Project
Other Library Projects
Definition Linking Priority on Import/Load Project
Namespace Linking
Note that the above linking priority is imposed only when projects are first imported. This is because component instances
were linked to their definition by name only; no information was given on where the definition resides. As such, PSCAD
needed to rely on the linking priority in order to 'best guess' which definition to link to.
Old Definition Name
Format
<definition>
New Definition Name Format
<namespace:definition>
A new concept called Namespace Linking was introduced in PSCAD X4, which provides project information (or scope) to
each definition. Once your project has been saved in X4 format, all definition links will possess both a definition name and
an namespace name. In this manner, PSCAD no longer needs to guess where the definition is: If the corresponding
project is not loaded, then the component looking for a definition in that project simply appears as a placard.
With the namespace concept comes a variety of other convenient features that allow users to link and re-link their
components from one definition to another. See Definition Referencing for more details on this.
Problems to be Aware of
If you have duplicate definitions in your workspace, you may experience problems when compiling imported project
files. These problems may manifest themselves in many ways, but the most common problem arises when your project
contains a local definition (or many) that shares the same name as a definition residing externally in either a user library
project, or the master library.
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EXAMPLE 13-1:
A user possesses a case project that contains an unused definition (i.e. it does not have any instances) called integral.
In PSCAD v4.2.1, this definition would always be ignored, as this is also the name of a master library definition, and the
linking priority was master library first; so the master library integral definition would always be linked to the instances in
the case. If this case project is imported into PSCAD X4 however, the local integral definition will by default be linked to
all instances of integral in your project.
This will most likely result in compilation errors and other problems. Or, it may even go undetected!
These problems are best dealt with before a project is imported into PSCAD X4. The following is a checklist of tasks that
should be performed in PSCAD v4.2.1 prior to importing your project:

Unused Definitions: Ensure that all unused definitions stored in your project are either deleted, or have
unique names before import. This will ensure that the PSCAD importer will initially link your instances to the
proper definition (i.e. external), and not to any local definitions that share that name.

Duplicate Definitions: To avoid linking priority problems, all duplicate definitions stored in either user library
projects, or in any case projects should be given unique names, or redundant duplicates deleted. If this task is
performed prior to import, the PSCAD X4 importer will not initially link instances to the wrong definition.
Illegal Character Issues
There is an assortment of characters that are not allowed as part of any XML content, as they are used by the language
as delimiting characters. These characters were initially deprecated in PSCAD v4.0 (2003), but have been functioning in
‘compatibility mode’ until now. In previous versions, editing a component definition with input parameter Symbol names
containing any of these characters would result in a similar dialog to the following:
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Importing PSCAD V4 Projects to X4
Upon import of existing projects into X4 (i.e. *.psc and *.psl files), these characters will be replaced automatically (when
used in certain situations), as their presence is detrimental to the structure of the project file under the new XML
standard.
Illegal characters and their replacements are listed below:
Character
Name
Replaced By
&
Ampersand
_
< >
Inequality Signs
_
"
Quotation Mark
_
'
Apostrophe
_
°
Degree
deg
The following is a list of areas where these characters will be replaced if found by the importer:

Project Description
Component Definitions:

Category Page Names
Component Input Parameters:

Descriptions

Symbol Names

Default Values

Default Units
Component Instance Input Parameters:

Parameter Values
Modification of Script
Modification of component script has been provided as an adjustable application option.
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EXAMPLE 13-2:
A PSCAD v4.2 project is to be imported into X4, and contains a user-defined component definition. The definition
contains a parameter with Symbol name Xd’’. Upon import of the project file, the X4 importer detects the illegal
characters in the Xd’’ parameter and replaces them with underscore characters (as described above). As a result, the
parameter Symbol name will be Xd__ following import of the project file.
Original Symbol
Name
New Symbol
Name
Xd’’
Xd__
The importer does not however, modify the component definition script sections. As a result, if this parameter Symbol
name is used in any substitutions in the script, compile errors will occur. The Checks section of this component is defined
as follows:
ERROR The quantity Xs cannot be greater than Xd : (Xs<Xd'')
Since the Xd’’ symbol name was not replaced, if left as is PSCAD will issue a build error message similar to the following
upon compile of the project:
Checks Script Error: Evaluate: (Xs<Xd'')[Error]; Evaluate: 'Xd''' is not a parameter, computation or constant.
The user must therefore modify the script section (in this case the Checks segment) as follows:
ERROR The quantity Xs cannot be greater than Xd : (Xs<Xd__)
Helpful Legacy Import Tools
There are a few convenient tools available to you when importing or loading your legacy (older) projects:

Obsolete 'datatap2' components

Parameter Synchronization

Obsolete #DEFINE directives

Orphaned Global Substitutions
All of these tools are application options. See Workspace for a description of each.
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Converting PSCAD V3 Projects to V4
Adding Multiple Instance Module Support to User-Defined
Components
With the inclusion of Multiple Instance Modules (or MIM) in PSCAD X4, changes to EMTDC system dynamics functionality
were unavoidable. This means that some user-defined components may need to be modified to support their usage
within a module with multiple instances. Components that support usage within multiple instance modules are referred to
as Runtime Configurable.
PSCAD Manual:

Operations and Feature Overview: Multiple Instance Modules (MIM)

Component Design: The Parameters Section | Input Fields
EMTDC Manual:

Program Structure: System Dynamics (various sections)

Custom Model Design (various sections)
Other New Features
For a complete list of all that is new in PSCAD X4, please see the What’s New? topic in the online help (In the online help,
go to Opening Screen and click the What’s New? link).
Converting PSCAD V3 Projects to V4
Conversion Issues
Loading PSCAD V3 projects into PSCAD V4 is fairly straightforward, and for the most part will be accomplished without
incident. Simply load the V3 case or library project exactly as you would a V4 project.
Conversion Issues
As is normal when software is updated, there are changes made to existing features, which may or may not affect your
case. There are a few important issues to be aware of before starting to use your V3 projects in PSCAD V4. These are
described in the following sections.
System Dynamics Component Ordering
Components used in the EMTDC System Dynamics (i.e. CSMF components, modules, etc.) are automatically ordered in
V4 with a sophisticated new sequencing algorithm. In PSCAD V3, these types of components were ordered using a
simpler method.
This important feature should be considered when initially verifying your V3 project results in PSCAD V4. The new
sequencing algorithm may adjust the order in which components appear in the Fortran code. Depending on where the
components within the EMTDC System Dynamics (i.e. DSDYN or DSOUT), a single time step delay may be added or
removed in comparison with V3 results.
If this does indeed occur in your case, PSCAD V4 allows you to manually adjust the component sequence. Please see
the section entitled Component Ordering in Chapter 11 of this manual for more details.
Additional Libraries and Object Files
In PSCAD V3, additional library and object file paths entered in the Additonal .obj and .lib Files field in the Project Settings
dialog, were relative to the respective temporary (*.emt) directory for the project. In PSCAD V4, these paths are now
relative to the User Library Path (set in the Workspace Settings dialog window), or can be entered directly as absolute
paths.
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These paths must be changed accordingly in your V4 projects. Open the respective Project Settings dialog for the project
(right-click on the project filename in the Workspace and select Project Settings...) and select the Link tab. Modify the
paths in the Additional Fortran Library (*.lib) and Object (*.obj) Files input field. For example, a V3 reference is shown
below:
would appear as follows in PSCAD V4:
Flyby Windows
A new feature was added to PSCAD V4, which optimizes variable storage between time steps during a
simulation. Unfortunately, when this optimization algorithm is enabled, it also disables Flyby window functionality. To
enable Flyby windows while debugging your project, the optimize storage feature must be turned off.
Right-click on the project filename in the Workspace window select Project Settings.... Click the Dynamics tab and select
the option called Store Feed-Forward Signals for Viewing.
Node Loop Component Output Format
The output format of the Node Loop component was altered to reflect changes made to the subsystem splitting algorithm
in PSCAD V4. This becomes important if your PSCAD V3 user components utilize the Node Loop for input. If this is the
case, then you must alter your components before running any V4 projects.
In PSCAD V3, the subsystem global variable (SS) always retained the same value within the same circuit module. In
PSCAD V4, the components on a single circuit can reside in different subsystems. As such, a new Loop prefix has been
added to tell the compiler to use the subsystem number of the Node Loop component when processing:
V3 format (single subsystem):
$SS, $Loop:NA, $Loop:NB, $Loop:NC
V4 format (multi-subsystem):
$Loop:SS, $Loop:NA, $Loop:NB, $Loop:NC
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Converting PSCAD V2 Projects to V4
MATLAB Libraries and Interface
Project and Workspace settings should be adjusted slightly when migrated V3 projects that used the MATLAB
interface. Please perform the following adjustments:
1.
Open the respective Project Settings dialog for the project (right-click on the project filename in the Workspace
window and select Project Settings...) and select the Link tab. Delete all of the MATLAB installation library
paths in the Additional Library (*.lib) and Object (*.obj) Files input field. Ensure that the Link this Simulation with
the Currently Installed Matlab Libraries check box is selected.
2.
Open the Workspace Settings dialog by selecting Edit | Workspace Settings... and click the Matlab tab. In the
Interface Settings area, select the Installed Version and Library Path to the MATLAB installation libraries.
Converting PSCAD V2 Projects to V4
PSCAD V2 projects can be directly migrated into V4 without too much difficulty. This of course mainly depends on the
complexity of the V2 project, the components used and the condition of any user-written code involved. Unlike V2,
PSCAD V4 stores all information pertaining to a project into a single portable project file (either a case project (*.psc) or a
library project (*.psl) file).
Some V2 files cannot be directly imported into PSCAD V4. The following is a list of which file types can, and which file
types cannot be migrated:
Can be migrated:

Draft circuit files (*.dft and *.dfx)

Runtime batch files (*.rtb)

Draft component definitions (for example in xdraft_lib)
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
EMTDC Fortran source code

Line constants solved data (*.tlb or tlines files)
NOTE: If you have EMTDC source code written in C, then you must upgrade this code manually.
Cannot be migrated:

Cable files (*.cbl)

Multiplot or Uniplot batch files
The following topics describe the procedures involved when importing PSCAD V2 circuits, components and associated
files into PSCAD V4.
User-Written EMTDC Source Code
Fortran source code, written specifically for use with EMTDC in PSCAD V2, must be filtered before it can be used in
PSCAD V4. For more information on importing user-written Fortran source code, see the section entitled Converting V2
Fortran Files in Chapter 10 of the EMTDC Manual.
Conversion Issues
V2 Control Type Components
V2 Electrical Interface Components
V2 Component Libraries
Component Definitions
The following sections describe a general overview and background of some important conversion issues. Please review
these sections first before attempting to upgrade to PSCAD V4.
V2 Control Type Components
All control type components (i.e. components whose code appears in the EMTDC System Dynamics only) should be
upgradable. One important fact to consider however is that using the EMTDC internal variable for time step (i.e. DELT) in
the Computations portion of a component definition is no longer allowed in PSCAD V4.
V2 Electrical Interface Components
There have been many changes made to EMTDC since V2, mostly associated with electrical signals and their interface to
user-written components. It is possible that these types of components may cause some compatibility problems when
upgrading to V4. For instance, electrical branches in EMTDC were originally referenced using a branch TO and FROM
node convention. This tended to cause problems with parallel branches (as they have identical connection nodes), and
resulted in numerous workarounds to avoid the problem. One example was the output of the calculated current in faults,
breakers, thyristors, diodes, GTOs, arresters, etc. - all of these had a single time step delay. This was because all parallel
switching branches were combined into a single branch for solution in the main program. One side effect was that the
current had to be output as an argument of the DSDYN subroutine call, and could not be placed in DSOUT.
In PSCAD V4, the above problem is circumvented, as each branch is given a unique branch number and the current in
each branch is referenced directly in DSOUT. This system of referencing electrical branches directly (by a branch number
instead of by node numbers) results in some obsolete function calls. These include all switching routines, as well as any
electrical interface array names.
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Importing V2 Draft and Runtime Batch Files
V2 Component Libraries
Since V2, PSCAD has allowed users to create their own components to represent custom models. In V2, this was
accomplished by editing a text file, where graphical information, parameter form data, and Data/Fortran output code were
entered. Each component was contained within its own file, which resided in either the user's library
(~/PSCAD/xdraft_lib), or in a Group Library (only 2 libraries were allowed).
Those who received a project from other users always experienced difficulties in maintaining these components and
great confusion (as to what the most recent version of the component was), generally resulted. If two or more
components by the same name were kept, then the PSCAD V2 Draft program would search first in the User's xdraft_lib
directory, then in the Group directory (if one has been specified), and then finally in the Master library. This allowed user's
to over-write the functionality of Master Library components, often with confusing or inconsistent results.
In PSCAD V4, the Design Editor is used to graphically manipulate custom components. Component definitions are
stored within a single library project file (*.psl), where any number of library projects can be loaded in the Workspace
simultaneously. Users who wish to transfer custom components to other users need only to supply the library project
containing the components.
When PSCAD V4 loads a project, it knows not only the name of the component, but that it came from a library
project. This allows users to copy a component definition from the any other library, customize it, and then place it in their
own library. Whenever either of these components is used, PSCAD will keep track of which library each is from. PSCAD
V4 also allows components to be kept directly in case projects (*.psc), so that a temporary component can be developed
for a specific case, without having to clog up a library with the test code.
Component Definitions
If a required component definition cannot be found when a V2 draft project is loaded into PSCAD V4 (i.e. the definition is
not included in any loaded V4 library project or the specific V2 draft project), the draft project will still load
successfully. However, any component instances based on the missing definition will be displayed with a 'placeholder'
component. To rectify this situation, ensure that a V4 library project already containing the required component definition
is loaded before the draft project, or that draft project itself was saved in V2 as a transfer file (*.dfx).
The PSCAD V4 Master library is automatically loaded when PSCAD V4 is started. It contains many new components, in
addition to all PSCAD V2 components from the following libraries:

PSCAD V2 Master library

PSCAD V2 PEMISC library

PSCAD V2 Machines library
Note that it is important to always use unique names for user-defined component definitions. This will avoid unwanted
interactions between user and Master Library component definitions.
Importing V2 Draft and Runtime Batch Files
Most PSCAD V2 draft projects can be directly imported into PSCAD V4. Projects containing more complex circuits
however, may require some manual adjustments. This section describes procedures for importing PSCAD V2 draft files
(*.dft or .dfx) and runtime batch files (*.rtb) into PSCAD V4.
Before attempting to import your PSCAD V2 projects, please ensure the following:

All obsolete PSCAD V2 components are replaced with the latest versions from the most current V2 Master
Library.

All PSCAD V2 files associated with the draft project itself (i.e. *.rtb, *.tlb, and tline_out) must be located in the
same directory as the draft file before the draft file is imported into PSCAD V4.
NOTE: PSCAD V4 will initially allow the import of only a single runtime batch (*.rtb) file, associated with a
specific V2 draft (*.dft or *.dfx) file. This *.rtb file must have the identical filename as the draft file being
imported. For more information on importing any remaining Runtime batch files, see the section entitled
Importing Additional Runtime Batch Files below.
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
If the draft project contains custom written components (i.e. from user or group libraries), then ensure that the
draft file has been saved as transfer (i.e. *.dfx file) in PSCAD V2. Otherwise, see Importing V2 User Libraries or
Importing Individual V2 Components below for more details.
NOTE: If a V2 draft project containing undefined components is loaded into PSCAD V4, all undefined
components will be substituted with a temporary 'placeholder' component.
Please follow these steps to avoid problems:
1.
To load a V2 draft file, start PSCAD V4 and select File | Load Project... from the Main Menu bar. The Load
Project dialog window should appear.
2.
Near the bottom of the Load Project dialog, change the Files of Type drop list to PSCAD V2 Case (*.dft, *.dfx)
so as to view PSCAD draft files only. If you do not have a direct network connection from your PC to your UNIX
system, then you must first copy (or ftp) the files to your PC from UNIX.
NOTE: Note your V2 files may still be in UNIX format. In order to successfully import the file to PSCAD V4, you
must ensure that all files are in DOS format. This can be accomplished by using the 'unix2dos' UNIX utility, or
FTP in ASCII mode.
3.
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Navigate to the directory containing your V2 project files, select the V2 draft file to be loaded, and then press
the Open button.
Importing V2 Draft and Runtime Batch Files
4.
Check for warning or error messages in the Output window - see Common Warning Messages below for
details. Rename and save the new PSCAD V4 case project in V4 format (right-click on the project name in the
Workspace window and select Save As...).
Common Warning and Error Messages
There are some common warnings and error messages that may appear in the Output window following the migration of a
V2 draft file. Some of these are described below:
Warnings:

Unresolved keyword 'xxxxx': This warning indicates that data in a PSCAD V2 component was stored, but is
not required in the PSCAD V4 component. This often occurs in components, which can be used in both
EMTDC and RTDS, where some of the data is not required for EMTDC runs.
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
Component aliased from 'xxx' to 'yyy': This warning indicates that a component has been renamed in
PSCAD V4, but the data from the old V2 component has been converted.
Errors:

Component Definition 'xxx' not resolved: This means that a custom component was used in PSCAD V2 but
was not available in any of the library projects loaded in the PSCAD V4 Workspace. If you have previously
converted your PSCAD V2 libraries into PSCAD V4 library projects, then simply ensure that the libraries are
loaded in PSCAD V4 first before converting the PSCAD V2 draft project. If you have not yet converted PSCAD
V2 libraries into PSCAD V4 library projects, then follow the procedure outlined in Importing V2 User Libraries
below. You can also go back to PSCAD V2 and save your draft project as transfer (i.e. *.dfx file) so as to
incorporate any custom components into it before importing to V4.
Importing Additional Runtime Batch Files
As mentioned above, only a single runtime batch (*.rtb) file will be initially imported along with a PSCAD V2 draft (*.dft or
*.dfx) file. If more than one runtime batch file exists in a specific V2 draft project, then the remaining *.rtb files can be
imported separately. This is accomplished as follows:
Once steps 1 to 4 above have been completed (i.e. the draft file has been successfully imported into PSCAD V4), rightclick on the case filename in the Workspace and select Import Runtime Module....
This will bring up the Import Runtime Module dialog window. Select the *.rtb file you wish to import and click the Open
button.
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Importing V2 User Libraries
A new Module containing the contents of the Runtime batch file should appear near the top-left corner of your case project
main page, similar to that shown below. Simply left double-click the Module to enter.
Importing V2 User Libraries
The PSCAD V2 Draft program used a library (*.lib) file as a palette (appears on the right-hand side of the V2 Draft
program canvas) for the actual component library.
To transfer this palette into PSCAD V4:
1.
Open PSCAD V2 on your UNIX terminal and run the Draft program. Press the LIBRARY button in the main
menu and select LOAD | USER.
NOTE: Make sure that any of the components included in your PSCAD User Library file have a unique
component definition name. Otherwise these components may be overwritten by other component definitions.
2.
Select the desired user library file from the Load User Library dialog and then press the PROCEED button.
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3.
Copy the desired component instances from the user library palette over to the Draft canvas. From the FILE
menu, select SAVE AS... | TRANSFER to save the Draft project as a transfer file (i.e. as a *.dfx file). This will
ensure that the component definitions are included within the V2 draft file.
4.
Transfer this V2 project file to a location where it can be accessed from your Windows PC. If you do not have a
direct network connection from your PC to your UNIX system, then you must copy (or ftp) the files to your PC
from UNIX.
5.
Follow Steps 1 to 4 in Importing V2 Draft and Runtime Batch Files to load the V2 draft project into PSCAD V4.
6.
In the PSCAD V4 Workspace, right-click on the project filename and select Save As... from the pop-up menu.
7.
Rename the case project to a library project in the File Name field of the Save Project As dialog window. Press
the Save button.
You now have converted your V2 user library to a PSCAD V4 library project!
Importing Individual V2 Components
It is possible to import individual PSCAD V2 component definition files, directly into a PSCAD V4 library project. Once this
is accomplished, an instance of the definition may be created and displayed within the library.
Please follow these steps to avoid problems:
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Importing Individual V2 Components
1.
Create a new library project in PSCAD V4 (or open an existing library). To create a new library, select File |
New | Library. A new library called 'noname' should appear in the Workspace window.
2.
Expand the new library project tree by clicking on the '+' symbol beside its name. Right-click on the Definitions
branch, and select Import Definition(s)....
3.
In the Import Definition(s) dialog window, change the Files of Type drop list to 'All Files'.
4.
Navigate to the directory where you have stored your PSCAD V2 component definition files
('~/PSCAD/xdraft_lib' for example). If you do not have a direct network connection from your PC to your UNIX
system, then you must first copy (or ftp) the files to your PC from UNIX.
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NOTE: Do not select any PSCAD V2 macro files (*.g), library files (*.lib), or any file beginning with a 'period'.
513
5.
Select one or more files, and then click on the Open button. The new definition(s) should appear within the
Definitions branch in the Workspace window.
6.
Check for warning or error messages in the Output window. If you receive an error message similar to "Macro
file 'xxx.g' not found", you need to move all associated V2 macro files (*.g) from the '~/PSCAD/script' directory
on your UNIX system to the same directory from where you are importing your V2 definition files. Unload the
new library and start over from Step #1.
7.
Expand the Definitions branch in the Workspace window by clicking on the '+' symbol beside its name. Select a
definition, right-click and select Create Instance from the pop-up menu.
8.
Open the library project main page in Circuit view. Right-click on the page and select Paste from the pop-up
menu. A new graphical instance of the component should appear. You can also use Drag and Drop to perform
steps 7 and 8.
9.
Right click on the 'noname' library in the Workspace window and select Save As... to rename and save the
library project.
Manual Revisions to the New PSCAD V4 Project
Manual Revisions to the New PSCAD V4 Project
Open the new PSCAD V4 project in Circuit view (left double-click on the project name in the Workspace window) and you
should see a parent (top-level) module that did not exist in your PSCAD V2 project. This module will contain other
modules representing each page that existed in your original V2 draft project. A separate module will also be included,
which contains all information from the associated runtime batch (*.rtb) file.
Depending on whether or not there were any associated import or export connections in the original V2 draft project,
each module may now possess external input and output connections on their respective graphics. Each of these
connections corresponds to an import or export connection in PSCAD V2. PSCAD V4 uses this input/output information
to order modules in such a way as to minimize any feedback paths in signals.
Too Many External Connections
If the parent module is visually unreadable (due to too many external connection graphics on the module) then this is
probably because the original V2 Draft page had an excessive number of import or exports (i.e. > 100). The auto-routing
of these connections in PSCAD V4 becomes too complex in such situations, but the connections are still functionally
correct. Too simplify matters, you can go back to the PSCAD V2 Draft circuit, and manually collapse related import and
export signals into arrays. Then go through the import procedure again. This will reduce the number of connections in
the parent module and help to keep things organized.
Import/Export Tags with Array Variables
Each module may also require editing if you used any import or export tags with array variables in the original PSCAD V2
draft project. The old import and export components did not contain any information regarding the dimension or type of
variable (all import/exports were performed with REAL numbers).
PSCAD V4 now allows import/exports to be performed with the original variable type, thus avoiding needless (and
potentially incorrect) data conversions. The user must manually enter the import/export variable type and dimension
information into the modules (there will be at least two modules that must be edited - one for the import and one for the
export).
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If you already know which signals are affected (i.e. imported or exported signals using arrays, or of a type other than
REAL), then you must edit the definition of the module in PSCAD V4 to identify the signal types.
1.
Open the definition of the module: Right-click over the module and select Edit Definition....
2.
In Graphic view (appears by default), double-click on the Connection, having the incorrect type or dimension, to
bring up the Format Connection dialog.
3.
Modify the Data Type and Dimension. Press the OK button to save changes and then go back to Circuit
view. Note that the Connection Type will be 'Input Data' if the signal in the original PSCAD V2 project was
being imported, and will be 'Output Data' if the original signal was being exported.
4.
Repeat steps 1- 3 for any other existing connections for this signal.
To find out if there are any more connection errors for a particular module, compile the module manually (i.e. right-click on
the module and select Compile Module). This will force PSCAD to generate the data and Fortran files for this module
alone, and any error or warning messages should appear in the Output window.
Examples of such errors are:

Signal 'ABC' dimension mismatch at signal 'XYZ': This indicates a dimension mismatch between two
connected signals.

Signal 'DEF' type mismatch at signal 'UVW': This indicates a data type mismatch between two connected
signals.
Runtime Module
The Runtime module represents the contents of the V2 runtime batch file. This module may require some 'house
cleaning' and re-organization (i.e. re-size graph frames, etc.). Control panels are used to contain sliders, dials, switches
and meters. Grouped components in the PSCAD V2 Runtime program are now added merely as additional modules.
Migrating V2 Cable Systems
PSCAD V2 cable migration into V4 is not supported. Any cable systems in your V2 project (i.e. defined in *.clb files) must
be reconstructed from scratch once the project is migrated into PSCAD V4.
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Manual Revisions to the New PSCAD V4 Project
Migrating V2 Transmission Line Systems
There are fundamental differences in how transmission line systems are represented between PSCAD versions 2 and
4. In V4, transmission line systems are interfaced to the rest of the electric circuit through special interface
components. The properties of the actual transmission corridor are defined within a special properties component (i.e.
tower geometry, conductor properties, etc.).
When a PSCAD V2 draft project containing transmission line systems is migrated into V4, the above described
transmission system is not automatically constructed. Instead, the transmission line system is inserted into the V4 project
using special V2 alias components called V2 Style T-Line Connection. The transmission system properties remain based
on the transmission line batch (*.tlb) file created by V2.
Although this substitution will provide correct results when the simulation is run, it may prove cumbersome if the
transmission system properties need to be changed (must edit the *.tlb file), or if the project file is transferred to other
users (must move the *.tlb file with it). It is therefore recommended that V2 style transmission systems be eventually
converted to V4 format.
Although this process must be performed manually, it is straightforward. Simply replace the V2 Style T-Line Connection
components with an equivalent V4 transmission line interface component. The transmission line properties can then be
read directly from the V2 transmission line batch file, and inserted into a properly constructed transmission line
corridor. See the section entitled Constructing Overhead Lines in Chapter 8 of this manual for more details on
constructing a V4 transmission line.
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