Prepare and serve espresso coffee

Prepare and serve espresso coffee
Food and beverage stream
Unit 7
Prepare and serve
espresso coffee
Unit code: SITHFAB005
Prerequisite units:
HSC indicative hours:
15 hours
SITXFSA001 – Use hygienic practices for food safety
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Unit overview
This unit describes the performance outcomes, skills and knowledge required to extract and serve
espresso coffee beverages using commercial espresso machines and grinders. It requires the ability to
advise customers on coffee beverages, select and grind coffee beans, prepare and assess espresso
coffee beverages and use, maintain and clean espresso machines and grinders. Complex repairs of
equipment would be referred to specialist service technicians.
Foundation skills
Foundation skills essential to performance in this unit, but not explicit in the performance criteria, are
listed here along with a brief context statement.
Reading skills to:
• interpret organisational documents or diagrams that relate to:
safety data sheets (SDS) and product instructions for cleaning chemicals
organisational procedures for operating, cleaning and maintaining equipment
• read beverage menus and standard recipes for espresso coffee beverages.
Writing skills to:
• write orders and basic notes on customer preferences.
Oral communication skills to:
• use active listening and open and closed probe questioning to determine customer
preferences and offer suitable products.
• visually estimate amounts of milk and make adjustments to doses of ground coffee.
Numeracy skills to:
Problem-solving skills to:
• identify deficiencies in espresso extraction and make adjustments to ensure a
quality product
• monitor operational efficiency of espresso machine and adjust use during coffee
beverage preparation.
Planning and organising
skills to:
Technology skills to:
• sequence the preparation of beverages and their components to efficiently serve
• use coffee grinders and espresso machines, identifying faults and maintenance
issues as they arise.
Key terms
doppio ristretto
group head
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Espresso coffee
Culinary terms associated
with espresso coffee
roasted coffee bean and depositing
barista a person who
has had specific training
to make and serve
espresso and espressobased coffee drinks
based coffee drinks. The term
‘barista’ may also be used to
describe anyone with a high level
of skill in making espresso and
espresso-based drinks. Baristas are
responsible for preparing and serving espressobased coffees using an espresso coffee machine.
Espresso is a concentrated form
of coffee that is served in shots. It
is made in an espresso machine,
It is the ‘extracting’ or removing of
flavour from the coffee beans into
water. It is important to understand
the extraction process to know how
extraction the process
of removing the total
dissolved solids from
the roasted coffee bean
and depositing them
into the water that is
to make a quality espresso.
Espresso is the most common extraction
method used for espresso coffees. Extraction
for an espresso coffee should be 30 ml in
25–30 seconds.
espresso a concentrated
form of coffee that is
served in shots; made in
an espresso machine
them into the water that is passing.
to make and serve espresso and espresso-
of removing the total dissolved solids from the
A barista is a person who has had specific training
Extraction is the term used to describe the process
where pressurised hot water is
forced through very finely ground coffee beans to
extract flavour. Espresso coffee is the basis of a
range of coffee drinks.
The term ‘espresso’ is also used to describe:
• coffee-making equipment and method
• type of roast
• a drink.
Figure 7.1 Extraction of a 30ml espresso should take 25–30 seconds.
Ristretto (‘restricted’ in Italian) is the first
part of the espresso extraction. It is an intense,
concentrated and short shot of
15 ml, extracted in 12–15 seconds.
This is used to make a ‘weak’ coffee.
Doppio (‘double’) is a double
shot. It is made by extracting 60 ml
espresso using double the coffee
(14 g) in 25–30 seconds. This can be
used to make long blacks and long
macchiatos, or where a mug or
larger cup is used.
A doppio ristretto is extracted in
the same way as a doppio espresso,
except that only 30 ml of coffee is
extracted. This creates an espresso
ristretto a restricted
espresso (15 ml of
espresso extracted in 15
doppio a double
espresso, using twice
as much (14 g) coffee
to produce 60 ml of
espresso, extracted in
25–30 seconds
doppio ristretto a
restricted double
espresso, using 14 g
coffee to produce 30 ml
espresso, extracted in
15 seconds
Cambridge Hospitality Fourth Edition – Food and beverage stream
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that has the same volume, but is twice as strong
because it uses twice as much coffee. This is used
to make a ‘strong’ coffee, or long blacks and long
macchiatos, or where a mug or larger cup is used
and the same volume of espresso is required.
Group head
group head the part on
the espresso machine
that holds the group
The group head is the part on the
espresso machine that holds the
group handle. Hot pressurised
water passes through the metal
shower of the group head to be distributed evenly
tamp the compacting
or compressing of the
ground coffee beans
Tamping is the compacting or
compressing of the ground coffee
beans. The device (a ‘tamper’) is
used to apply pressure to the coffee grounds
in the group handle. Tamping also polishes the
surface of the coffee grounds.
Figure 7.2 Tamping coffee grounds
during extraction.
Different types of coffee
beans, blends and roasts,
and their characteristics
over the filter basket, which holds the coffee,
The two main types of coffee beans are Coffea
Arabica and Coffea Robusta. Arabica is a higher
quality bean and makes up about 75 per cent
of the world’s production, while Robusta is
about 30 per cent cheaper and is used in instant
coffee. Table 7.1 provides a summary of the
characteristics of each type.
Table 7.1 Characteristics of Arabica and Robusta coffee beans
Sweeter aroma and a better flavour
Stronger flavour, astringent, almost bitter
Less caffeine (0.8 to 1.4 per cent)
More caffeine (1.7 to 4 per cent)
More oils and sugars
Fewer oils and sugars
Smaller yields
Higher yields
Higher priced
Lower priced
Less disease-resistant
More disease-resistant
Particular about climate and soil
Greater range of acceptable climate and soil
High altitude
Lower altitude
Prefers temperatures 15–24ºC
Prefers temperatures 24–30ºC
Oval bean with shaped slit
Rounder bean with straight slit
Wider taste range from sweet-soft to sharp-tangy
Harsher or sharper taste.
Unit 7 Prepare and serve espresso coffee
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Different types of milk and
their characteristics
• Whole milk is a thick, creamy liquid secreted
from cows. It contains at least 3.2 per cent
fat. Whole milk produces the best texture
for espresso beverages with a heavy, creamy,
thick foam.
• Light milk contains no more than 1.5 per
cent fat. Skim milk powder is often added to
make it taste creamier. It is a light, creamy
liquid that produces a medium-volume
creamy, thick foam.
• Skim milk is whole milk that has had all the
Figure 7.3 Roasted beans, grean beans and coffee beans
cream removed. Most skim milks contain
about 0.1 per cent fat and have also had
coffee beans from different regions. Blending
coffee beans allows for an espresso coffee to be
created that has a full body and rounded taste.
Some blends use 100 per cent Arabica coffee in
and Robusta. It is the job of a coffee blender to
develop the best combination of coffees from
different regions to produce a good blend. The
quality of the blend depends on the skill of the
blender and the quality of the beans.
creamier and provide extra protein and
calcium. Skim milk is watery and produces a
large-volume, very light, fluffy, airy foam that
dissipates easily.
• Organic milk is produced under certified
conditions that limit the use of chemicals
their mix, while others are a blend of Arabica
skim milk powder added to make them taste
Most coffees are created using a blend of
Roasting is the process where heat is applied
to green coffee beans to bring out their flavour
and aroma. Temperature and time are the most
important factors to consider when roasting coffee
beans. Coffee is generally roasted at between
200°C and 250°C, and once the beans have reached
the desired colour or degree of roast, they are
cooled quickly. The longer beans are roasted, the
more they will darken and caramelise. Coffee can
be lightly or darkly roasted. A darker roast will
have less acidity in the cup but a better body.
Major styles of espresso
coffee and their
and pesticides. Cows are fed organic feed, are
allowed to graze and have not been given any
hormones or other drugs.
• Soy milk is a plant-based milk made from
soy beans. It is non-dairy and offered by most
cafes as an alternative for lactose-intolerant
customers. Soy milk produces a heavy, creamy
thick foam. Don’t heat soy milk past 50–55ºC
or the milk could curdle and the flavour will
become unpleasant.
• Almond milk is a milky liquid made from
almonds. It is soy, lactose and dairy free,
making it a popular choice for customers who
are allergic to soy and cow’s milk and lactose
intolerant. It has a creamy texture and a nutty
• UHT milk, or long-life milk, has undergone
pasteurisation using the ultra-high
temperature (UHT) method. It can be stored
for months without refrigeration.
Other sources of milk, from animals such as
The major styles of espresso coffee typically
goats, sheep, camels and buffalo, can be used, but
found on commercial beverage menus, and their
the taste of the coffee may be a little different
characteristics, are outlined in Table 7.2 (pages
from that expected.
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Milk in different coffee styles
Steamed milk
Characteristics of textured
Steamed milk has had steam bubbled into it to
When texturing milk, it is important to create
increase its volume and temperature. When the
milk is steamed, the steaming wand is lowered
into the milk, creating a thinner texture. Steamed
milk is used in flat whites and lattes.
a rich, creamy amalgam of thick, froth without
large, airy bubbles. Textured milk should have the
following characteristics:
The texture of the milk should be silky and
velvety, with the milk and bubbles combined into
one mixture.
The surface of textured milk should have a glossy
or reflective sheen.
The texture should also be smooth, with the milk
and bubbles mixed together to create a smooth,
consistent texture.
The consistency of the milk should not be too
thick or too thin; it needs to be ‘pliable’ to enable
Figure 7.4 Steaming milk
Textured milk
Textured milk is created by incorporating the
bubbles when steaming milk throughout the milk
to produce a thick, velvety texture. The steaming
wand is kept just under the surface of the milk,
making a hissing sound. This produces a thicker
texture. Textured milk is used in cappuccinos and
Cold milk
Cold milk is used straight from the refrigerator.
Customers sometimes request for it to be used in
a long macchiato.
All milk used in espresso coffees should
a perfect pour.
Standard recipes for a range
of espresso coffee styles
It is important to follow a standard recipe when
preparing espresso coffees. Most styles of espresso
coffee need to be prepared in a specific way,
with specific ratios or amounts of ingredients. If
you don’t follow a standard recipe, you may end
preparing an espresso coffee that is not what your
customer ordered. Experienced baristas generally
know the standard recipes for a range of espresso
coffees, as they prepare them often. Newly trained
baristas should refer to the standard recipe to
ensure they are correctly preparing and serving the
style of espresso coffee ordered.
be cold to start with. This assists in producing
correct texture and body. Keep all milk
refrigerated and stored at 4ºC. Use a stainless
steel jug when texturing or steaming milk, of the
correct size for the amount of milk you need, and
only fill it halfway to allow room for the milk to
increase in volume.
Unit 7 Prepare and serve espresso coffee
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Table 7.2 Major styles of espresso coffee and their characteristics
Style of coffee
Caffé latte
30 ml espresso
In a 170–
topped with
220 ml
steamed milk
A creamy, milky coffee
and a 10 mm
with a layer of foam on
dense foam on
with a
top served in a glass.
around the
textured milk
An espresso with silky-
and 10–15 mm
smooth textured milk
dense foam on
topped with a dense,
top, sprinkled
creamy foam and dusted
with chocolate
with chocolate powder
30 ml espresso
(pronounced ess-press-o);
also known as a
short black
A small, dark-bodied
coffee with a thick layer
of caramel-coloured
In a 170–
topped with
220 ml cup
and saucer
30 ml espresso
In a heated
80 ml
crema on top; the basis
for all espresso-style
Flat white
30 ml espresso
In 170–
A creamy, milky coffee
topped with
220 ml cup
similar to a latte, without
steamed milk
with saucer
the layer of foam
and up to 5 mm
of dense foam
Long black
90–150 ml hot
In 170–
Uses a double shot of
water poured
220 ml cup
espresso, poured onto
into a cup (half
hot water; crema should
to two-thirds full),
be visible; no milk
and an espresso
or doppio
ristretto extracted
on top
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Short: 30 ml
Short: in a
(pronounced ma-key-ahtoe)
espresso, stained
70–90 ml
An espresso that is stained
with a dollop of
with milk and a dollop of
heated milk/froth
glass or
foam; can be short or long
Long: 90–
150 ml hot water
poured into cup
Long: in
(half to two-thirds
a 170–
full), an espresso
220 ml glass
or doppio ristretto
or cup
top and stained
with a dollop of
heated milk/froth
30 ml espresso
(pronounced mock-ah)
(or doppio
An espresso mixed with
espresso or
chocolate powder or syrup
ristretto if using
with silky-smooth textured
a mug), mixed
milk topped with a dense,
with chocolate
creamy foam and dusted
powder or syrup,
with chocolate powder
topped with
textured milk
In a
170–250 ml
cup or mug
extracted on
Style of coffee
and 10–15 mm
dense foam on
top, sprinkled
In a
15–20 ml
In a
A short espresso
70–90 ml
with chocolate
Piccolo latte
30 ml espresso
A small, intense coffee with
topped with
70–90 ml
a small amount of steamed
15–20 mm of
milk on an espresso
dense, steamed
(15 ml extracted in
12–15 seconds);
glass or
the first part of the espresso
extraction; has an intense,
sweet flavour and a long
Unit 7 Prepare and serve espresso coffee
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Aroma is the smell of freshly brewed coffee. It is
created when the gases and vapours are released
from the brewed coffee and inhaled through the
nose. Aroma is one of the main qualities that
determines the flavour of the coffee and is used to
judge the quality of espresso coffees. Customers
with an ‘espresso nose’ can immediately identify
the ‘notes’ of a perfect espresso, usually rich and
pleasing. Flavour and acidity also influence aroma
– for example, if a coffee is rich in flavour, the
aroma will reflect that richness, or if the coffee is
acidic, it will also smell acidic. The blend of beans
used will determine the aroma.
The crema is the thick layer of caramel-coloured
foam on top of an espresso. It is made up of tiny
bubbles of emulsified coffee oils,
crema golden-coloured
formed as the water is forced
layer of foam on top of
through the coffee beans. The
an espresso
crema should be very dense and
cover the whole surface of the espresso,
and be able to support or hold sugar for a few
moments. It is the crema that gives the espresso
its sweetness. An espresso is 30 ml of coffee;
10 per cent of this volume should be the crema.
A crema that disappears quickly after extraction,
or is non-existent, indicates a poor-quality
Body refers to the way the coffee feels in your
mouth and on your tongue – its viscosity or
heaviness. The body of a coffee can range from
light to medium to full; a full-bodied coffee may
be buttery or syrupy. It can even be described
as grainy, oily or watery. Body measures the
thickness or viscosity, which contributes to its
richness, including aroma and flavour.
Quality of the crema
Criteria used to evaluate the quality of coffee
include the following:
the bitterness is the result of over-extraction,
the extraction time was too long or the
temperature of the water was too high.
• Sweetness. Sweetness is a mild, smooth coffee
flavour without any harsh tastes or flavours. It
describes the intensity of the sugary qualities
of espresso coffee when it is swooshed around
the mouth.
Criteria used to evaluate the
quality of coffee
espresso coffee.
Flavour is perceived through the tastebuds on
the surface of the tongue. An excellent espresso
should have a balance of three key qualities of
flavour: sweetness, bitterness and acidity.
• Acidity. Acidity creates the lively bright taste
in the espresso. Low acidity may be described
as smooth, but if the acidity is too low, the
beverage will be unexciting and boring, tasting
flat and lifeless. The acids in coffee combine
with sugars and increase the overall sweetness
of the coffee while adding a ‘punch’ or ‘energy’
to create the desirable quality of acidity.
• Bitterness. A well-balanced bitterness adds to
the fullness of flavour. It is desirable in a dark
roast or espresso coffee. Robusta beans are
usually more bitter than Arabica beans. While
bitterness is desirable, too much bitterness
will create an unpleasant taste, especially if
Figure 7.5 Close-up of a crema
Volume of the espresso
The volume of an espresso should be 30 ml
extracted in 25–30 seconds. If the volume is under
or over this, the coffee may be under- or overextracted, which will impact the quality and taste.
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tamped, the espresso will be of a poor quality. Too
much pressure may result in over-extraction as
the water can’t pass through the coffee, and too
little pressure can result in under-extraction, as
the water passes through the coffee too quickly.
To tamp correctly, first level the coffee in the filter
basket by tapping it and pressing gently with the
tamp. Then firmly pack the coffee by applying
more pressure to the tamp and twisting slightly.
The barista needs to be mindful of the amount of
moisture in the air. When the humidity is high, a
coarser grind is required; when the humidity is
low, a finer grind is required. The size of the grind
determines how fast the water moves through the
coffee grinds in the filter basket. The correct speed
Producing quality coffee
Figure 7.6 The grind and dose need to be correct to produce a quality coffee.
for the extraction time is 30 ml in 25–30 seconds.
If the grind of the coffee is too fine or too
coarse, this will impact the taste of the espresso.
Figure 7.7 Tamping creates a smooth, polished surface.
Coffee that is ground too coarsely will result in
under-extraction as the water moves through
the coffee too quickly, and the resulting espresso
will lack flavour, body and crema. If the coffee
is ground too finely, the water will take too long
to pass through the coffee, resulting in over-
extraction and a bitter or burned-tasting espresso.
To produce a quality espresso, the dose also needs
to be correct. This refers to the amount of ground
It should take 25–30 seconds to extract 30 ml of
espresso from 7 g of coffee. If it takes longer to
produce 30 ml, it is likely that the espresso will
be over-extracted. If it takes less than 25 seconds,
it will most likely be under-extracted. If the
extraction time is too fast or too slow, the grind,
dose or tamp may require adjusting in order to
achieve a quality espresso.
coffee beans that are added to the
dose amount of ground
coffee placed into the
filter basket to make an
espresso coffee
filter basket. Industry standards are
7 g for a single serve and 14 g for
a double. If the dose is incorrect,
it will also affect the flavour and
quality of the espresso. The best way to check the
dose is to check the spent coffee grounds; a firm
coffee cake means the dose is correct and a sloppy
cake means the dose is too small.
Tamping is the compressing of the coffee grounds
in the filter basket. If the coffee is tamped with
too much or not enough pressure, or is unevenly
Unit 7 Prepare and serve espresso coffee
Final pages • Cambridge University Press © Holloway et al, 2017 • ISBN 978-1-108-40449-5 • Ph 03 8671 1400
Industry standards for a
range of espresso coffee
beverage tastes the way it is supposed to. Using
too little or too much coffee and/or milk and/or
water, or extracting it for the wrong time or at
the wrong temperature, can alter the taste of an
espresso coffee.
It is important to be aware of the standards of
The taste of espresso coffees can also be
your establishment as well as your customers’
adjusted to suit customer preferences – for
preferences. Different establishments have
example, they can be sweetened by adding sugar
different standards in relation to the service and
or a flavoured syrup, or using a milk alternative
preparation of espresso coffees. Commonly, it is
such as almond or soy milk.
the size of the coffee that differs; you also need to
much coffee is delivered in a single dose. Some
customers also have specific requests in relation
to their coffee – they may prefer it to be weaker or
mugs should be kept warm or warmed up before
using. It is important when texturing milk not to
coffee styles in relation to strength, taste,
temperature and appearance.
establishment’s standards for a range of espresso
Appearance is also essential when preparing
and serving espresso coffees. If it doesn’t look
appealing, customers won’t drink it. Espresso
coffees should be garnished and decorated
Espresso coffees can be made stronger by using
a doppio espresso, or weaker by using a ristretto
espresso or adding more milk and/or water. If
you are using a large cup or mug, it is important
to use a doppio espresso to ensure a consistent
according to standard recipes to ensure
consistency in presentation. Care should also be
taken to ensure all service-ware, glasses, cups
and so on are clean and free from any marks –
for example, lipstick smears – that could detract
from the overall appearance of the beverage.
Espresso coffees are served hot. Glasses, cups and
heat it too much or the taste of the coffee will be
You should be familiar with your
strength and taste.
understand your establishment’s grinder and how
It is important to follow standard recipes
when preparing espresso coffees to ensure the
Equipment: espresso coffee machine, hot water, milk, coffee
To understand the importance of adhering to industry standards, experiment with preparing espresso
coffees to different strengths. Taste each one and note its appearance.
1 Make an espresso, a ristretto and doppio ristretto. Taste.
2 Make four cappuccinos or flat whites using an espresso, a ristretto, a doppio espresso and a doppio
ristretto as the base. Taste.
3 Make four long blacks using an espresso, a ristretto, a doppio espresso and a doppio ristretto as the
base. Taste.
4 Make three cappuccinos using milk that has been textured at different temperatures. Taste.
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Equipment – espresso coffee
Industry-standard equipment used to prepare different styles
of espresso coffee
and grinder to prepare them; however, the style
to prepare espresso coffees. Equipment ranges
of espresso will determine what other equipment
from utensils and hand-held, small equipment
is needed to prepare it. Table 7.3 outlines a range
to mechanical and large, fixed equipment. All
of industry-standard equipment used in the
espresso coffees require an espresso machine
preparation of espresso coffees.
Table 7.3 Industry-standard equipment used to prepare different styles of espresso coffee
General features
A range of industry-standard equipment is used
Selection for task
Safe and hygienic
Cleaning and storage
Single or double,
Holds the freshly
Inserted left to right.
Wash in the chemicals
holds filter basket,
ground coffee in
Use all the group
used to clean the
fits into group head,
the filter basket and
heads evenly. Hold
machine at the end of
has a handle to use
attaches into the
by handle as the
service. Put through
when attaching to
group head on the
filter basket area can
dishwasher. Store in
espresso machine.
espresso machine.
become hot.
group head.
Round stainless steel
Holds freshly
Can become hot.
Keep free of coffee
basket with very fine
ground coffee, fits
Empty spent coffee
grounds. Wash
holes. Fits into group
into group handle,
grounds after each
in chemicals and
handle. Single or
which then fits into
coffee and rinse
dishwasher at end of
espresso machine.
before using again.
service period.
Blind or
blank filter
Filter basket
A round stainless
Used when cleaning
Used to clean
Keep in the storage
steel basket with no
(backflushing) the
espresso machine.
area for cleaning
holes. Fits into group
espresso machine.
Can become hot.
equipment. Can
be cleaned in
Soft bristles.
Used to clean (brush)
Clean brushes
Keep in the storage
Shaped head to get
coffee granules from
regularly. Be careful
area for cleaning
into difficult spaces.
espresso machine,
of hot parts on
equipment. Clean in
particularly in group
hot, soapy water.
head and grinder.
Can be hand-held
Used to tamp
Use correct
Return the tamp to
or attached to the
(smooth and
techniques when
its position near the
compact) ground
tamping to avoid
grinder after every
Made in a range of
coffee into filter
use. Wash in hot,
materials including
soapy water at end of
stainless steel, plastic
and wood.
Unit 7 Prepare and serve espresso coffee
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Table 7.3 Industry-standard equipment used to prepare different styles of espresso coffee (continued)
Tamping mat
General features
Selection for task
Safe and hygienic
Cleaning and storage
Silicon, plastic, or
A convenient dock
Provides a place
Wipe and rinse
other material, mat
for the tamp. Easy
to return tamp and
regularly during
or base, used when
to use. Keeps the
store after use.
service period.
tamping. Available
group handle stable
Wash in hot, soapy
in a range of sizes,
and horizontal.
water at the end of
shapes and colours.
Stops damage to
the benchtop and
provides cushioning
Keep clean and in a
Made from stainless
Useful when learning
Keep clean.
steel, features a clip
to foam and steam
Ensure thermometer
safe place.
at the top to attach
is securely clipped
Do not put in
to side of jug and
Clips to the side of
onto edge of jug
a long probe that
the jug.
when using.
Test accuracy every
three months, using
sits inside the jug.
both boiling and
Dial usually identifies
frozen water.
correct milk steaming
temperature range.
when tamping.
Can be hand-held,
Used to accurately
watch or mobile
time how long it
takes to extract an
Keep clean.
Store in a safe place.
Choose the correct-
Wash regularly in
Used to steam or
stainless steel jugs
texture milk. Jugs
sized jug for the
dishwasher or hot,
for different quantities
can be labelled
amount of milk
soapy water, then
of milk.
to distinguish the
required. The jug
refrigerate before
different types of
should be one-third
milk they hold.
full of milk before
stretching and
Position near
espresso machine
when empty.
Refrigerate if jug
contains milk.
Knock-box or
Used to ‘knock’
Ensure the knock-
Place next to the
container that sits on
group handle on to
box is stable. Empty
espresso machine on
the bench or floor,
empty spent coffee
the same side as the
has a rubber coated
grounds (puck) out
bar across the top to
of the filter basket
Regularly empty, clean
‘knock’ group handle
into the knock-box.
and wash – especially
Holds the used
after every service
ground coffee beans
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General features
Selection for task
Safe and hygienic
Cleaning and storage
Stainless steel
Used to shake
Empty and clean
Keep near the
shaker or
container with a
a thin dusting of
regularly to
espresso machine.
mesh screw-on or
chocolate powder
prevent build-up of
Regularly empty and
perforated lid.
on cappuccinos and
clean in dishwasher.
Ensure thoroughly dry
before refilling.
Round with a non-slip
Used to carry
Clean regularly. Use
Wipe regularly
coffees to tables.
correct technique
to remove spilt
Non-slip mats help
when carrying.
Service trays
Clean in hot, soapy
prevent beverages
water at the end of
from slipping on
each service period.
Stainless steel
Used to stir
Check clean before
Wash in dishwasher
espressos during
after each use.
preparation – for
example, when
adding chocolate
Spoons and
powder for a
Microfibre cloths or
Use the same colour
Place near the
cloths made from
cloths used to clean
for the same task
espresso machine,
other materials in a
or wipe down
all the time. Never
grinder, steam wand
range of colours.
different areas.
change the colour –
and sink. Machine
Different colours help
it is confusing.
wash after every
to prevent cross-
Never use the cloth
service period.
for another task.
Replace all cloths
at the end of every
service period.
Small easy-closing
Used to store milk
Allows milk to be
Clean on a regular
door fridge located
for espresso coffees.
kept at below 5ºC.
routine maintenance
under or close to
Milk can be stored
Door seals should
espresso machine.
in containers prior
be well maintained.
to being used and/
or in jugs while not
being used. Also
used to store jugs to
keep them cold.
Commercial espresso machines
Features, parts and functions
Commercial espresso machines force steam and
the temperature and volume of water passing
water through coffee grounds under pressure. The
through the coffee. The grind and dose act as a
main function of an espresso machine is to control
resistance to the water, creating optimum flavour.
Unit 7 Prepare and serve espresso coffee
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Features of commercial espresso machines
that the correct pressure has been reached on the
steam and water pressure gauges. The steam wand
• group head – the area that holds the group
• temperature and pressure gauge – to show
when correct temperature and pressure is
reached to use the machine
should not be used before the machine is at the
correct temperature, as dirty water may be drawn
up into the boiler. It takes around 15–20 minutes
for the espresso machine to heat up.
or control buttons used to start and stop
Safe and hygienic use/operation of
espresso machine
the extraction of coffee – can be manual or
• Pre-operational and safety checks. Espresso
• espresso pour control – the on/off switch
machines vary in their design and technical
• steam wand – arm that dispenses steam used
features, although essentially they are large,
enclosed boilers, and as a result have many
• steam control – used to control the flow of
steam from the steam wand, to start and stop it
• hot water – area from which hot water is
parts that are hot. Care needs to be taken
to heat and texturise milk
when using the espresso machine to avoid
burns and other injuries. Prior to use, preoperational and safety checks of the machine
• warming tray – top area of machine, used to
store cups and keep them warm.
should be carried out to ensure all parts are
working correctly.
• According to manufacturer’s instructions.
The espresso machine should be used
according to the manufacturer’s instructions
The espresso machine needs to be installed by
qualified tradespersons. Before using, turn on
or the establishment’s manual for safe
the machine and allow it to heat up. Then check
operating procedures.
Pressure gauge
Control panel
Steam control
Cup warming tray
Steam wand
Group head
Hot water spout
Drip tray
Figure 7.8 The espresso machine
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• Preparation for service. To prepare for service,
ensure group handles are securely in place
in the group head. If they are not securely in
on the manual extraction button for about
three to five seconds. Turn it off.
4 Repeat step 3 three times.
place, they will fall out once pressurised water
begins to flow through, spurting hot water and
Cleaning the steam wand
coffee onto the user, and possibly breaking the
The steam wand has the potential to be a
coffee cup. Steam wands should be turned off
biological hazard. Milk left on the steam wand
after use and turned into the machine. Use a
after steaming or stretching is at a temperature
cloth when wiping and handling these, as they
where bacteria will grow readily.
are hot.
1 Immediately after every use, pick up the wipe
for cleaning the steam wand. Hold it tightly
Cleaning and maintenance
around the wand and drag the wipe down the
During service
wand to the end, wriggling your hand around
• backflushing group heads using a blind filter
• cleaning coffee oils from filter baskets
• cleaning spills and water from around the
3 Push the steam wand back into position over
the drip tray and turn the steam control on for
two to three seconds to flush out milk left on
the inside of the wand.
use harsh scourers to scrub it off, as this will
wear away the metal. The correct method is to
• wiping steam wand and expelling steam after
Backflushing the espresso machine
1 Place the blind filter in the group handle.
2 Hold the group handle loosely in the group
head and turn the machine on for a manual
extraction. Jiggle the group handle as the
water flows to remove coffee grounds in and
around the group head.
3 Empty any water in the group handle. Lock the
group handle into the group head, then turn
2 Check it is clean. If not, wipe again.
4 If the milk dries on the steam wand, do not
• wiping panels
every use.
the steam wand as you go.
cleaning should be done on the espresso machine:
Throughout the service period, the following
soak the milk off.
a Wrap a wet clean wipe around and over the
end of the steam wand.
b Push the wand back over the drip tray.
c Turn on the steam wand. Leave on for a few
minutes to soak and soften the milk.
d Turn off steam, remove the wipe.
e Clean wand using standard procedure.
After the service period, the following cleaning
should be done on the espresso machine:
• backflushing group heads with cleaning
• cleaning group heads with a chemical cleaner
• cleaning filter baskets and group handles
• washing out the drip tray and flushing the
drain under the tray with water
• wiping top, panels and surrounding benches
• cleaning the steam wand
• soaking group handles in chemical cleaner
Backflushing with cleaning chemicals
1 Follow the manufacturer’s instructions and
the establishment’s safe operating procedures
Figure 7.9 Wipe the steam wand after every use.
when cleaning and sanitising the espresso
Unit 7 Prepare and serve espresso coffee
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2 Use only the recommended chemical cleaning
powders for cleaning the group heads, the
filters and the machine. The establishment
must have a register and SDS for all chemicals
used on the premises.
3 After backflushing, place the recommended
amount of cleaning powder into the blind filter
basket and secure the group handle into the
first group head.
Features of commercial grinders include:
• hopper – stores coffee beans prior to grinding
• ring nut for grind setting – used to adjust the
• blades – for grinding the coffee beans
• tamper – to compress ground coffee
• doser – where the ground coffee sits
• doser lever – to pull out doses of coffee.
4 Manually run the coffee machine for
10 seconds, turn it off and let it rest for
10 seconds.
5 Repeat step 4 for 10 cycles.
evidence of coffee staining in the cleaning
solution, repeat the process again.
7 Backflush the espresso machine until it is
clear of cleaning solution.
8 Repeat this process for every group head on
Cleaning the group handles
the machine.
solution in the group handle. If there is still
6 Remove the group handle and examine the
1 Remove filter baskets from group handles.
2 Soak the group handles and filter baskets in a
container with the cleaning solution. Do not
soak the plastic handles of the group handles
in the solution, as they will permanently
3 The handles can be soaked overnight.
4 Scrub any coffee residue with a fine brush.
5 Wash in hot, soapy water and rinse very
carefully to remove all traces of the chemicals.
Proper cleaning and maintenance of the espresso
Figure 7.10 The grinder
machine will ensure that excellent, high-quality
coffee is always produced, and will also extend
the life of the machine. Espresso machines should
be checked and serviced every six months by a
qualified technician, including replacing rubber
The grinder needs to be correctly assembled with
seals inside group heads.
all lids in place before it will work. This is a safety
Commercial grinders
Safe and hygienic use/operation
Features, parts and functions
Pre-operational and safety checks
Grinders vary in their design and technical
Pre-operational and safety checks should be
features; however, their function is to grind coffee
carried out prior to using the grinder. Most
beans into fine particles to use in an espresso
grinders are fitted with magnets to prevent them
machine. Freshly ground coffee beans are essential
from working if the lid is not correctly in place.
for the perfect cup of coffee, so it is essential that
Never put your fingers into the hopper, dosing
the size of the coffee grind is easy to adjust.
chamber or grinding collar.
feature built into the machine.
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According to manufacturer’s instructions
The grinder should be used according to
the manufacturer’s instructions or the
establishment’s manual for safe operating
Once a week, the bean hopper should be washed
in hot, soapy water, rinsed under hot water and
dried. Every six months, the blades should be
removed and replaced and the inside of the
grinding adjustment collar cleaned.
Preparation for service
Before the service period, the grind and dose
should be checked, and adjusted if required, to
ensure a high-quality espresso is produced. Fresh
coffee beans should be emptied into the hopper
During service
During service, the following cleaning tasks
should occur:
1 Remove all spills, splashes and drips of coffee
immediately, to prevent bacteria growing in
the coffee-production area.
2 Clean surfaces around the machine regularly,
Cleaning and maintenance
and a test extraction made.
then follow up by sanitising. The use of paper
Figure 7.11 Using the grinder
towels to apply and remove excess sanitiser is
helpful, as they are disposable.
Problems with equipment
Espresso machines are generally very robust and
cleaning should be carried out:
only require basic maintenance to keep them in
At the end of each service period, the following
1 Close the hopper gate to prevent the beans
entering the grinding areas.
2 Turn the grinder on. When the sound changes,
there are no longer unground beans in the area.
3 Turn off power to the grinder.
4 Keeping the hopper gate closed, take the
hopper with beans off the grinder. Empty any
beans in the hopper into an airtight container
for storage.
5 Wipe the inside of the hopper with paper
6 Empty all ground coffee from the dosing
chamber using the doser lever to empty the
7 Brush down the dosing chamber, taking care to
get into all the nooks and crannies with your
good working order and operating smoothly.
Indicators of unsafe and/or faulty
Indicators that the espresso machine or grinder
may be unsafe or faulty include:
• boiler pressure lost or not reached, and/or
group heads not dispersing liquid
• water appearing to be leaking from under the
• espresso delivery that is too fast
• espresso delivery that is too slow
• grinder not dosing enough coffee into filter
• machine making a strange sound or not
brush to remove all coffee grounds. Wipe with
paper towel.
8 Clean up any spilled coffee grounds or beans.
9 Wipe the outside of the grinder with a cloth,
then wipe the counter area around the grinder.
Solution(s) to common problems
1 Check that the machine hasn’t been turned
off. Check the mains switch. Check water
pressure: if it is 0, it may mean no water is
Unit 7 Prepare and serve espresso coffee
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getting into the machine. Turn the machine off
two espressos at the same time. Single baskets
and then on again. If water is still not getting
usually hold 7 g of ground coffee, while double
into the machine, it may be a pipe blockage;
baskets hold 14 g.
you will need to call a trained technician.
2 Blockages are commonly caused by a clogged
A blind filter basket has no holes and is used
when backflushing the espresso machine.
waste pipe. Lift the drip tray and check the
waste pipe. Hot water and cleaner can be
poured into the waste pipe. Check that the
Working with steam
hose doesn’t have any kinks and runs down
Potential dangers
from the machine.
Espresso machines boil water to generate steam
3 Check that the correct filter basket is being
in order to froth milk, and also to make espresso.
used and that the grind, dose and tamp are
Improper handling of the machine’s components,
like the filter and steam wand, can result in mild
jets. If backflushing doesn’t help, call a repair
to severe skin burns.
4 Backflush the machine to clear any clogged
The steam wand is generally made from
stainless steel or another metal, which can heat
5 Check that the dosing chamber is at least
up rapidly during operation. Burns can occur
when using the steam wand or a few minutes
air pockets can form. If the dose appears too
after, since the components will remain hot.
small, place it back into the dosing chamber
Steam burns are often worse due to the higher
and dose a new dose. If the grinder doesn’t
release a dose when pulled, there may be a
checked by a service person.
Safe operational practices
mechanical problem, which will need to be
half full of coffee. If it becomes too empty,
6 Strange sounds or a machine that is not
working should be checked by a service person.
Respond within scope of responsibility
Care must be taken at all times to protect the
barista from burns associated with using the
steam wand. When wiping the wand, ensure that
the cloth completely covers the wand to protect
your fingers. Do not purge the steam wand when
it is covered only with a thin cloth. Ensure that the
the following should be kept in mind:
wand is angled over the drip tray when purging.
When responding to problems with equipment,
• Rectify minor adjustments according to the
information provided above.
• Refer any problems that you can't rectify to
your manager/supervisor, trained service
technician, licensed electrician and/or plumber.
It is better to refer a problem if you are
unsure about how to fix it, rather than make
the problem bigger by attempting to fix it or
continuing to use the machine.
Function of filter baskets and
tampers, including size and
The filter basket is a perforated, stainless steel
cup designed to hold measured portions (called
doses) of ground coffee beans. There are two
main sizes: a single basket for preparing single
espressos and a double basket for preparing
Figure 7.12 Be careful when working with the steam wand.
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Customer service of espresso coffee
As with serving non-alcoholic beverages, active
listening – listening to the full message without
interruption – is important to establish customer
preferences, needs and expectations. Avoiding
distractions, using careful and appropriate
questioning and concentration are the keys to
understanding when customers need assistance,
and when there is opportunity to suggestive sell
an additional item. Paying close attention to nonverbal cues is another key skill in understanding
receive the espresso coffee that they wanted, they
are likely to provide repeat business.
Matching a customer’s needs, preferences and
expectations with the most suitable espresso
coffee requires you to have excellent product
knowledge. You should know the range of
espresso coffees your establishment sells, how
they are served, ingredients used and why they
appeal to customers, in order to offer advice or
suggestions to those customers seeking them.
Establishing customer needs,
preferences and expectations
through probe questioning
and active listening
Workplace procedures for
espresso coffee service
Taking order (manual and electronic)
Customers’ orders can be taken manually, using a
docket book, or electronically, using a hand-held or
customer needs.
bench-top computer or electronic device. Electronic
ordering can save time, as the customer’s order
Matching needs, preferences
and expectations with the
most suitable espresso coffee
will be sent directly to the barista, who can begin
preparation of their coffee/s without having to wait
for the waiter to write the order down and bring
it to them. It also enables quick preparation of a
customer’s bill. Many coffee orders – especially
come back to a particular café comes down
takeaway orders – are also taken at the counter
For many customers, the reason why they would
where they are prepared. Most establishments use
the service level is exceptional, and if customers
a form of electronic ordering.
almost entirely to the level of service offered – if
Unit 7 Prepare and serve espresso coffee
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Calling of order
for delivering orders to the table. This enables
When a waiter delivers an order to the barista,
it is customary for the waiter to call the order or
let the barista know that a new order has been
the waiter to carry a large number of cups and
saucers in the one trip.
need to call the whole order to the barista or
Standard turnaround times
for espresso coffee service
simply call ‘order up’ to indicate that a new order
An integral part of satisfying customer
placed. Depending on the standard operating
procedures of the establishment, the waiter may
has been placed.
Baristas also need to call the order to wait
staff when it is ready for delivery or service.
expectations when serving espresso coffee is to
make sure that their orders are delivered quickly.
As well as meeting customer expectations,
this gives the establishment time to prepare
To get the order to the customer as soon as
possible, it is very important to keep an eye on
what coffee has been placed on the counter by
the barista. A good barista will signal the wait
staff to let them know that an order is ready – for
any ordered food for a guest. Espresso coffees
Delivery to table
should be delivered as soon as they are made to
ensure the quality of coffee served is at its best.
The longer an espresso coffee sits, the more the
quality will deteriorate; the crema may disappear,
textured milk will start to shrink and a hot coffee
sitting on the counter for too long.
will become lukewarm.
example, ringing a bell. This prevents orders from
Dealing with numerous
service and operational tasks
during preparation of
espresso coffee
Figure 7.13 Carrying coffee to the table
If the coffee spills, then it should be taken
away and presented again. A serviette on top
of the saucer, under the cup or glass, will help
prevent spillages.
Baristas and wait staff need to be able to deal
with busy rush periods, and prepare and process
numerous orders simultaneously. Everything
that is needed for the service of espresso coffee
should always be organised before the service
period begins. Cleaning should always be done as
needed throughout the service period to ensure
that clean cups, saucers and
other crockery are always on
hand, and that the steam wand
is kept clean. The baristas and
wait staff need to cooperate to
make sure any service of espresso
coffee is completed in a timely
fashion. Of course, this team will
Presentation to customer
also need to be flexible to deal
In every establishment, the goal should always
with any unforeseen situations
be to present a perfect espresso coffee. This
and difficulties that arise. This
is fundamental to making sure customer
cooperation will help the team
expectations are satisfied. For large orders, it
to use problem-solving skills to
is often best to use tray service as the method
resolve any problems that occur.
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Preparation of espresso coffee
Safe and hygienic work practices for preparation and service
of espresso coffee
The enterprise’s safe working practices
was designed. Regular cleaning of all machinery
manual should be followed when working with
and equipment should be undertaken after
equipment, including espresso machines and
making each beverage, and at the beginning
grinders. Heated surfaces such as those on coffee
and end of each shift. Correct posture when
machines can cause serious burns and need to be
sitting, standing, bending and lifting will prevent
treated with care.
fatigue. When lifting and transferring equipment
and machinery that is heavy, remember to use
correct manual handling procedures for heavy
It is also important for baristas and wait
staff to maintain a high standard of personal
hygiene and to ensure that their work area is
also hygienic. Regular cleaning should occur
throughout and after the service period. This
helps to prevent the transference of bacteria from
one source to another.
Time and task management
Efficiently sequence beverage order and
A typical espresso sequence would be as follows:
Figure 7.14 Preparing coffee hygienically and safely
When using machinery and equipment,
check the safe operating procedures for
the establishment and always follow the
manufacturer’s instructions. The machinery
should be used only for the purpose for which it
1 Take order.
2 Lay out the saucers.
3 Get the milk ready in the jug.
4 Grind dose and tamp.
5 Assemble group head.
6 Place cups under spout.
7 Extract espresso while foaming and steaming
the milk.
8 Clean steam wand.
9 Place cups near saucers.
10 Swirl and pour milk.
11 Finish off beverages.
12 Present order.
Prepare and serve the order within
commercially realistic timeframes
When the order is larger and a combination of
espressos and milk-based espressos, it is best to
prepare the milk-based espressos first and then
the espresso list.
Unit 7 Prepare and serve espresso coffee
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Preparation specific to espresso coffee
Mise en place for espresso
Preparation of coffee beverage
Work station
and grinder ready for use.
All the equipment, supplies, service-ware, syrups
Mise en place required for preparation of a coffee
beverage involves preparing the espresso machine
and other items must be prepared, ready and well
Mise en place for the espresso machine
stocked before service begins.
1 Lock the group handles in and turn the
Before you begin to serve the coffee, check that
espresso machine on. It will take 15 to
20 minutes to warm up to the correct
refilled and in its correct place. Items that should
temperature and water pressure.
be checked and prepared in the workstation
your workstation is organised, with everything
2 Run water through the filter holders/group
handles for one minute to heat them up.
• consumables/ingredients: coffee beans,
chocolate powder, syrups, sugar and a range of
milks, stored in the fridge at 4°C
• crockery and cutlery, including cups, saucers
and spoons, stored in the workstation
for use
• sugar bowls and chocolate shakers, filled
ready for use.
• cleaning cloths ready for use.
chamber – this is a good use for the previous
day’s coffee.
4 Make at least three espresso coffees using old
grounds to season the group heads and filter
• disposable cups and lids restocked and stored
3 Place ground coffee into the grinder’s dosage
5 Make an espresso. Check the quality by taste,
smell and the colour of the crema. Make
necessary adjustments to equipment.
6 Flush the steam wands over the drip tray for
10 seconds to remove any condensation.
The workstation should also be set up with the
required equipment. The grinder and knock-bin
should be placed close to the espresso machine,
and milk and milk jugs stored in the fridge.
Mise en place for the grinder
1 Fill hopper with fresh beans. Have enough for
two to three hours’ use.
2 Empty the dosage chambers of old coffee
grounds (used to season the group heads).
Figure 7.15 Ensure the workstation is stocked with cups ready for service.
3 Grind fresh coffee and check that the dosage
chambers are filled.
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Service of coffee beverage
• Milks. A number of varieties of milk can be
Mise en place for the service of coffee beverage
includes stacking cups and glasses onto the
warming tray of the espresso machine and
stacking saucers and spoons near the espresso
machine. All service-ware should be checked for
cleanliness, stains and chips. Service trays should
also be stacked near the espresso machine.
Test extractions
used by the establishment. All milks should be
stored in a refrigerator below 5ºC, preferably
located close to the coffee machine for ease
of use. Milk jugs should also be stored in the
refrigerator. The jugs for the milk should be
distinguished so there is no confusion.
• Flavourings and toppings. These are used
in some cafés to make particular coffee
beverages, such as caramel latte and hot white
to check the flavour, appearance and quality.
When the grind and dose are correct, water flows
through the ground coffee beans at a rate of
chocolate. These should be stored near the
coffee machine.
A sample espresso should be made and tasted
is checked before service begins at the start of the
Environmental conditions to ensure food
shift. The extraction rates should also be checked
Ground coffee loses its freshness quickly, as
30 ml in 25–30 seconds. It is important that this
regularly throughout the service period to ensure
they are still correct.
coffee is hydroscopic (water loving). Many
baristas will grind coffee shot by shot to stop the
ground coffee beans from losing their flavour. It
is good practice to use the ground coffee in the
grinder within an hour of grinding. Opened beans
are exposed to light, humidity, air and changing
temperatures, which hastens the staling process.
Coffee beans should be stored in a cool, dark
area in an air-tight container.
Methods to optimise shelf life
Figure 7.16 Test extraction before service
Ingredients used in the preparation of espresso
coffees include:
• Coffee beans. These are highly perishable and
Once opened, coffee beans have a shelf life of
around six to eight weeks if stored correctly. Once
the coffee beans are ground, they start to oxidise
(become stale). When the aroma is gone, the
coffee is stale. This is accelerated if the ground
coffee is exposed to oxygen, moisture or sunlight.
Coffee should be stored at around 7ºC and
never in the freezer, as the coffee will absorb
moisture when thawing. Hold coffee beans in a
cool, dry place away from the sunlight and in an
airtight container.
As a general rule, store open beans for one
week, beans in the hopper for one day and
should be ground as needed rather than being
ground coffee in the doser for one hour to ensure
stored. Beans should not sit in the hopper for
maximum freshness and quality.
longer than 24 hours.
• Ground coffee. These should be delivered from
the doser chamber in the grinder. A dose of 7 g
Grinding coffee beans
of ground coffee should be delivered from the
To prepare the perfect espresso, the coffee beans
grinder doser chamber per pull. Ground coffee
must first be ground. The surface area of the
should sit in the dosing chamber for no longer
coffee bean is increased by the grinding process
than one hour.
so that more is exposed to the hot, pressurised
Unit 7 Prepare and serve espresso coffee
Final pages • Cambridge University Press © Holloway et al, 2017 • ISBN 978-1-108-40449-5 • Ph 03 8671 1400
water, allowing maximum flavour to be extracted.
Grinding of the beans is done in a grinder. It is
essential that the grinder be set correctly: if the
ground is too fine or too coarse, the resulting
espresso will be of a poor quality. Coffee beans
should be ground as they are needed to prevent
them going stale due to exposure to air.
Some grinders will dose ground coffee
electronically. The filter basket and group
handle are placed under the dispensing chamber
of the grinder and a measured dose of ground
coffee is placed into it. Electronic grinders
automatically grind coffee to keep the dosing
chamber at an appropriate level – usually
around 70 per cent full.
set amount of ground coffee beans is known as
dosing. The dose is set to match the size of the
filter baskets – generally 7 g.
Dosing can be done manually, electronically or
mechanically from the grinder.
1 Hold the group handle in your left hand and
rest it on the group handle support. Make
sure the handle is horizontal, with the basket
Filling the filter basket with the required/pre-
opening under the opening in the doser
2 Pull the doser lever with your right hand to
A good barista should be able to dose the correct
amount of ground coffee beans into the filter
basket simply by looking at it. The filter basket is
then tapped on a surface to collapse the coffee
from the doser chamber. One dose is released
when you pull the lever once.
3 Immediately release the doser lever after you
hear the click and allow it to spring back into
grounds. After being tamped, the dose should
release a single dose of ground coffee beans
reach the fill line in the filter basket. This process
becomes easier with practice and experience.
One flick of the doser lever should deposit 7 g of
However, this initially wastes a lot of coffee
ground coffee into the single filter basket; two
grounds until it is perfected.
flicks are used if 14 g of coffee is required for
the double filter basket, if you are making two
espressos or a doppio espresso.
To make the perfect espresso, the ground
coffee beans dosed into the filter basket must
be compacted. The device used is called a
tamper. The amount of pressure applied in the
tamping process needs to be sufficient to provide
resistance to the hot, pressurised water and
prevent it from opening up the cake in a weak
Although most grinders come with a tamper,
most baristas prefer to use a hand-held tamper.
The following method should be used:
1 Hold the group handle, containing the coffee
beans, in one hand, and rest it on the counter
or tamping mat. Keep the handle horizontal to
the counter top.
2 Fit the handle of the tamper in your other
Figure 7.17 Dosing coffee from the grinder
3 Press the tamper down onto the coffee
grounds, being careful to keep it horizontal.
Cambridge Hospitality Fourth Edition – Food and beverage stream
Final pages • Cambridge University Press © Holloway et al, 2017 • ISBN 978-1-108-40449-5 • Ph 03 8671 1400
4 Twist the tamper as you gently remove it from
the cake.
5 Check that the surface of the cake is flat and
level with the fill line all the way around the
group handle.
6 Tamp again to compact any loose particles.
7 Finish with another twist or polishing action
to ensure the surface is smooth and even.
Figure 7.19 Flush the group head before using.
Texturising milk
It is important to texture milk correctly. Milk and
foam make up a large portion of a latte, flat white
or cappuccino. If it is textured correctly, milk
should have a luscious body and rich texture,
Figure 7.18 Tamping the coffee
which will enhance and enrich an espresso.
Extraction of espresso
Flushing the group head
The group head should be flushed regularly
throughout the service period. This will release
any coffee grounds that may be caught in the
seal of the group head. It will prolong its life
and produce a better-flavoured coffee. To flush
the group head, simply turn the machine on
for a manual pour. The group handles can also
be inserted into the group head to flush them.
Backflushing is when the blind filter basket is
used for a more thorough clean.
The group head should also be flushed just
before the group handle is inserted with coffee, to
stabilise the temperature.
Appropriate pour rate for espresso coffee
Once the group handle is locked into the group
head, start the extraction process. There should
be a five-second delay before coffee starts to
Milk selection and temperature
All milk should be stored at 4ºC. Cold milk is
needed to produce correct texture and body for
a quality foam. The milk jug should always be
stored in the fridge after every coffee is made,
and not left on the bench next to the espresso
Once you have selected the type of milk, halffill a stainless steel jug. Make sure the jug you
are using is the right size for the amount of milk
you need. The milk should come up to just under
the spout.
Purging the steam wand
The steam wand should be purged before
inserting it into a jug of milk. This removes any
build-up of water that might be in the wand. It
should also be purged and wiped after every use
to remove any milk on or inside it.
Steamed milk is produced using the following
flow out from the group handle. A 30 ml espresso
1 Place the tip of the steam wand just below the
should take 25–30 seconds to extract, and will be
surface of the milk, checking that the steam
smooth and velvety in appearance.
nozzle is covered with milk.
Unit 7 Prepare and serve espresso coffee
Final pages • Cambridge University Press © Holloway et al, 2017 • ISBN 978-1-108-40449-5 • Ph 03 8671 1400
2 Turn the steam on. You should hear a
soft hissing sound of air bubbles being
foam will separate if you stop. It is important to
keep them mixed into a luxurious amalgamation.
Never reheat milk after steaming. Throw out
incorporated into the milk.
3 When the temperature of the milk reaches
any leftover milk from the last batch processed,
40ºC, lower the wand into the milk. This will
rinse the jug and wash in hot, soapy water. Then
achieve a thinner texture.
rinse with cold water and refill with fresh, cold
milk. Reheating steamed milk will result in some
awful flavours.
When the steam wand is in the milk jug, you
should hear a gentle hissing sound. This is when
milk is being textured and small bubbles are
being formed. If the noise you hear is too loud
and sounds like a cat dying, lower the jug until
the squealing stops. The sucking and crackling
sound of air being put into the milk that often
occurs when the steam wand is first placed into
the milk should only last for a few seconds at
most, until the jug is raised or lowered and the
Figure 7.20 Steaming milk
gentle hissing returns.
Textured milk for a cappuccino is produced using
the following process:
1 Place the tip of the steam wand just below the
surface of the milk, checking that the steam
nozzle is covered with milk.
2 Turn the steam on. You should hear a
soft hissing sound of air bubbles being
incorporated into the milk.
Equipment: espresso coffee machine, milk,
milk jugs
Practise steaming and texturing milk using the
procedures outlined above.
3 Keep the steam wand just under the surface
for the entire texturing process.
4 If the volume of milk has doubled, raise the
jug so the hissing sound stops.
5 Continue heating the milk, watching the
whirlpool movement of the milk.
6 Turn the steam off when the temperature
reaches 60–65ºC.
Aim to create a gentle whirlpool of swirling milk
in the jug while you are texturing it. This helps to
mix the milk.
After removing the milk jug from the steam
Sensory analysis of quality
The process by which professionals evaluate and
compare beans and blends is called ‘cupping’
(tasting). The following senses are used:
This is the fragrance or smell of freshly brewed
espresso coffee. The aroma should be full and rich.
wand, swirl the milk in the jug for a few seconds
to remove any large air bubbles. The surface of
This is the quality of the body of the espresso
the milk should be shiny as you swirl the jug.
based on the tactile feeling of the liquid coffee in
The bottom of the jug can also be tapped on the
the mouth as perceived between the tongue and
bench to help remove any bubbles. Keep swirling
the roof of the mouth. The tactile should be full-
the milk until needed as the textured milk and
bodied and thick on the tongue.
Cambridge Hospitality Fourth Edition – Food and beverage stream
Final pages • Cambridge University Press © Holloway et al, 2017 • ISBN 978-1-108-40449-5 • Ph 03 8671 1400
This is the overall evaluation of the coffee
beverage. It should taste strong and rich.
Deficiencies in espresso
Deficiencies in espresso extraction are usually
This is the crema is the visual sign that the
associated with the grind, dose or tamping of the
espresso is brewed correctly. It contains
ground coffee.
emulsified oils, and forms a golden-brown layer of
foam on top of the espresso shot.
Table 7.4 shows some of the problems that can
occur with coffee extraction and their causes and
Monitoring the quality of
espresso during the service
It is most important to constantly monitor the
quality of the espresso throughout the service
period. Test samples of espresso should be made
Water rushes through coffee.
Tamp – too soft; not enough
Tamp – apply more pressure
30 ml coffee extracted in less than
resistance to water
Dose – check correct amount
25 seconds.
Dose – not enough coffee
Grind – adjust to be finer
Table 7.4 Problems with espresso extraction, their indicators, causes and adjustments
and evaluated, and the equipment adjusted
Extracts too quickly.
Grind – too coarse
Note: only adjust one element
Crema is thin and pale.
at a time.
Taste is weak and sour, and colour is pale.
Coffee cake is sloppy and watery.
Water finds it difficult to get through coffee.
Dose – too much coffee
Dose – check correct amount
30 ml coffee extracted in more than
Tamp – too hard, too much
Tamp – apply less pressure
30 seconds.
resistance to water
Grind – adjust to be coarser
Extracts too slowly.
Grind – too fine
Shorten the extraction time
Crema is very dark brown.
Extraction time – too long
(stop the machine earlier)
Taste is burned and bitter.
Coffee cake is dry and crumbly.
Coffee grounds
Coffee grounds are visible in cup.
Grind – too fine
Grind – adjust to be coarser
in cup
Gritty texture of coffee.
Worn grinder blades
Clean and maintain all filter
Worn filter holder/basket
baskets, group handles and
Dirty gasket on group head
Dirty filter holder edge
Replace blades in grinder.
Coffee pouring
While extracting, coffee spills out over the
Leaky gasket
Gaskets need maintenance,
over the sides of
filter basket.
Gasket dirty with coffee grinds
repair or replacement.
Group handle not inserted
Check group handle is
inserted correctly.
the filter basket
Unit 7 Prepare and serve espresso coffee
Final pages • Cambridge University Press © Holloway et al, 2017 • ISBN 978-1-108-40449-5 • Ph 03 8671 1400
Figure 7.21 Coffee cake
Service of espresso coffee
Service-ware for espresso
Espresso coffee should be served at the
have no spills or drips down the sides or on the
appropriate temperature (65ºC) and in the
Traditional and workplacespecific standards for
presentation of quality
espresso coffee
Espresso coffees are served in glassware, crockery
or takeaway cups. The crockery and glassware
used should be free from cracks and chips, and
appropriate cup or glassware, according to the
volume of the beverage. Baristas should follow
workplace-specific standards for the presentation
of espresso coffees.
When presenting espresso coffees to
customers, cups and mugs should be held by the
base or handle, never the rim, from which the
customer will drink. Sugar sachets and serviettes
should be placed on the saucer if they are not
available on the table. If the coffee spills, it should
be taken away and presented again. A serviette on
top of the saucer, under the cup or glass, will help
prevent spillages.
Glassware is generally used to serve latte-style
espresso coffees. Glasses should be washed, dried
and stored on the warming tray of the espresso
The crockery used for serving espresso coffee
includes cups – espresso (demitasse) and
standard, mugs and saucers. Saucers are used to
hold and secure the cup while serving. Cups and
mugs should be stored stacked on the warming
tray of the espresso machine.
Cambridge Hospitality Fourth Edition – Food and beverage stream
Final pages • Cambridge University Press © Holloway et al, 2017 • ISBN 978-1-108-40449-5 • Ph 03 8671 1400
Sugar bowls and (depending on the type of
Figure 7.22 Coffee mug, coffee cup and demitasse cup
Care needs to be taken when selecting the
takeaway cups to make sure they are able to
serving sugar. Sugar may be served in individual
withstand high temperatures and will not burn
sachets for hygiene reasons.
the customer.
Takeaway cups and lids
Sugar, sweeteners and
accompaniments for espresso
A range of takeaway cups and lids is available
sugar used) a teaspoon or tongs are provided for
for serving espresso coffees. The majority
of takeaway cups for espresso coffees are
made from paper with a plastic lid, although
polystyrene or foam is still used by some
A number of different types of sugar can be served
establishments. The cup is often double-walled
with espresso coffee, including individual sugar
and can be smooth or rippled. Lids have a spout
sachets of white, raw or coffee (Demerara) sugar.
Individual serves of rock sugar cubes can be used
in a range of sizes, from small cups used for
in sugar bowls, along with sugar granules. Sugar
espressos to larger sizes used for cappuccinos or
pourers are also available to leave on tables.
to drink from. Takeaway coffee cups are available
lattes. Most establishments will serve takeaway
Sugar substitutes, such as Equal or Splenda,
should be available for customers who are unable
coffee in two or three different sizes.
Figure 7.23 Takeaway coffee cups in different sizes
Unit 7 Prepare and serve espresso coffee
Final pages • Cambridge University Press © Holloway et al, 2017 • ISBN 978-1-108-40449-5 • Ph 03 8671 1400
to use sugar. Some customers require them for
medical reasons, while others use them by choice.
After-dinner mints, chocolates, small biscuits
or petit fours and marshmallows can be served as
an accompaniment to coffees.
Current industry trends show an increase in
the use of syrups in espresso coffees. Vanilla,
hazelnut and caramel syrups are very popular
with customers, and are often added to lattes, flat
whites and cappuccinos.
Garnishes such as chocolate or cocoa powder
(slightly bitter) can be sprinkled on top of any
to tell the different orders from a table – for
example, when sprinkled on the entire cup, it
shows full-strength coffee; when sprinkled over
half the cup, it signifies a half-strength coffee.
Figure 7.24 Coffee art
foamy milk coffee. Often the chocolate is used
Free-pouring designs take advantage of the
natural tendency of milk to form patterns when
combined with the espresso. You must have a
Decorative effects can be created on top of milkbased espresso coffees by combining the brown
of the espresso crema and the white of the milk
foam. Other colours can be added by dusting
chocolate or squirting syrups on top.
Success with coffee art first requires the
and an eye for detail, with complete control over
where the milk is going and the rate at which it
flows out of the jug.
Importance of consistency
in quality, volume and
Consistency in quality, volume and appearance
is vital. Dedicated daily practice, patience and
and the milk to be foamed to perfection. When
time will produce some very sophisticated
steaming milk for coffee art, a thinner texture is
designs. Customers will not be satisfied if their
required to allow patterns to be created on the
espresso coffee looks and tastes different every
surface of the milk.
time they order it. Unsatisfied customers will not
perfect crema to be produced on the espresso
Pouring a heart
1 Pour the milk and foam in one spot so a
circle of white foam forms in the centre of
the crema.
2 Just before you stop pouring, move the
jug forward across the surface of the cup
to complete a heart-shaped pattern in the
crema. It is best to pour a little less at this
point so you don’t cause the pattern to sink.
very steady hand, exceptional concentration
Techniques for coffee art and
use in the service of espresso
return to your establishment and bad publicity
can also cost money. All baristas working at an
establishment need to ensure that they produce
espresso coffees that are consistent in quality,
volume and appearance.
Cambridge Hospitality Fourth Edition – Food and beverage stream
Final pages • Cambridge University Press © Holloway et al, 2017 • ISBN 978-1-108-40449-5 • Ph 03 8671 1400
Unit summary
At the completion of this unit, you will have discussed, researched and analysed:
Unit activities
• workplace procedures for espresso coffee
• mise en place for espresso coffee
• methods and techniques for grinding, dosing,
tamping, extraction of espresso and texturing
• problems in espresso extraction
• service-ware for espresso coffees.
• culinary terms associated with espresso
• different types of beans, blends and roasts
• major styles of espresso coffee and their
• different milk types and their characteristics
• factors that affect quality of coffee
• industry-standard equipment used in the
preparation of espresso coffees
• features, parts, use, cleaning and
maintenance of espresso machines and
Define the term ‘espresso’.
Explain the difference between ristretto, doppio and doppio ristretto extractions.
Name and briefly describe four different styles of espresso coffee.
Contrast steamed and textured milk.
Describe how to texture milk and the characteristics it should have.
Describe how espresso coffee is evaluated.
Explain how the grind, dose, tamp and extraction can affect the quality of espresso coffee.
Describe how to clean the espresso machine, group handle and steam wand.
Explain the mise en place necessary to get the espresso machine ready for service.
10 Contrast the hopper and dosing chamber on a coffee grinder.
Unit 7 Prepare and serve espresso coffee
Final pages • Cambridge University Press © Holloway et al, 2017 • ISBN 978-1-108-40449-5 • Ph 03 8671 1400
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