Reminder/Recall in Immunization Information Systems

Reminder/Recall in Immunization Information Systems
Reminder/Recall
in Immunization Information Systems
Recommendations of the
American Immunization Registry Association (AIRA)
Modeling of Immunization Registry Operations Work Group (MIROW)
April 10, 2009
Reminder/Recall in Immunization Information Systems
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Suggested citation:
AIRA Modeling of Immunization Registry Operations Work group (eds). Reminder/Recall in
Immunization Information Systems. Atlanta, GA: American Immunization Registry Association.
April, 2009.
AIRA_MIROW_RR_041009.doc
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Table of Contents
AIRA Modeling of Immunization Registry Operations Work Group’s roster....................... 6
Acknowledgments ......................................................................................................................... 8
Executive Summary ...................................................................................................................... 9
Chapter 1: Introduction ............................................................................................................. 12
About the MIROW Reminder/Recall Project ........................................................................... 12
What this document is about..................................................................................................... 13
Benefits of Reminder/Recall..................................................................................................... 13
Value of MIROW Reminder/Recall recommendations............................................................ 15
Scope: Reminder/Recall in IIS.................................................................................................. 15
Implementation/Technology independence .............................................................................. 16
Intended audience ..................................................................................................................... 16
Intended use .............................................................................................................................. 17
Work Group approach............................................................................................................... 17
Chapter 2: Reminder/Recall process ........................................................................................ 18
Reminder/Recall process in a nutshell...................................................................................... 18
Reminder/Recall process description........................................................................................ 20
Chapter 3: Process-related recommendations; Principles and Business Rules .................... 26
Introduction............................................................................................................................... 26
Responsibility for Reminder/Recall.......................................................................................... 27
Process triggers ......................................................................................................................... 30
Reminder/Recall criteria ........................................................................................................... 33
Resource limitations and other restrictions............................................................................... 36
A note regarding coordination of RR activities .................................................................... 37
Selection of the RR Notification method.................................................................................. 38
Content of the RR Notification ................................................................................................. 41
Reaction to the RR Response.................................................................................................... 49
Chapter 4: Influences on various aspects of RR operations ................................................... 55
RR functionality: General ......................................................................................................... 55
RR Functionality: Algorithm .................................................................................................... 56
RR Functionality: Provider considerations............................................................................... 57
RR Functionality: Language ..................................................................................................... 57
IIS support of RR, including training ....................................................................................... 58
Data quality............................................................................................................................... 58
Privacy and confidentiality ....................................................................................................... 58
Evaluation of RR outcomes and responses............................................................................... 59
Chapter 5: Evaluation of Reminder/Recall Outcomes and Responses .................................. 60
Chapter 6: Peer-reviewed literature references and literature-based recommendations.... 69
Chapter 7: RR worst practices: Approaches not to take and things definitely not to do .... 74
Chapter 8: Barriers to implementation .................................................................................... 77
Conclusions.................................................................................................................................. 79
Selected references ...................................................................................................................... 81
Previously developed guidelines............................................................................................... 81
Reference materials................................................................................................................... 81
Materials from individual IIS.................................................................................................... 82
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Selected literature sources......................................................................................................... 82
Appendix A. Domain model ....................................................................................................... 84
Background ............................................................................................................................... 84
Domain model purpose and explanation................................................................................... 84
How to read and interpret the domain diagram ........................................................................ 84
Description of the domain diagrams ......................................................................................... 85
a) Vaccination Encounter – Vaccination Event – Vaccine................................................... 85
b) Patient – Provider – Immunization Home ........................................................................ 86
c) Public Health Entity - Jurisdiction – Population Group – Individual.............................. 86
d) Reminder/Recall Notification........................................................................................... 86
e) RR Responses and Outcomes ........................................................................................... 88
Appendix B. Work Group approach....................................................................................... 100
Process .................................................................................................................................... 100
Methods and techniques.......................................................................................................... 100
Resulting Products .................................................................................................................. 101
Illustrations
Figure 1. Reminder/Recall in context ........................................................................................... 14
Figure 2. Illustration of scope for the Reminder/Recall topic. ..................................................... 16
Figure 3. Reminder/Recall process at a glance............................................................................. 19
Figure 4. Reminder/Recall process diagram................................................................................. 25
Figure 5. Example of the RR “criteria”: screen shot from the Kansas Immunization Registry ... 34
Figure 6. Example of the RR “criteria”: screen shot from the CHILD Profile - Washington State
Immunization Registry.................................................................................................................. 35
Figure 7. Example of RR Notification method selection: a screen shot from the CHILD Profile Washington State Immunization Registry .................................................................................... 40
Figure 8. Postcard example from the Kansas Immunization Registry.......................................... 43
Figure 9. Postcard example from the CHILD Profile - Washington State Immunization
Registry ......................................................................................................................................... 43
Figure 10. Postcard example from the Oklahoma IIS................................................................... 44
Figure 11. Postcard example from the Oklahoma IIS................................................................... 44
Figure 12. RR letter example from Scientific Technologies Corporation .................................... 45
Figure 13. Mail label example from the CHILD Profile - Washington State Immunization
Registry ......................................................................................................................................... 45
Figure 14. List of Patients and associated vaccines due or past due: example from the CHILD
Profile - Washington State Immunization Registry ...................................................................... 45
Figure 15. Example of a RR Notification card ............................................................................. 46
Figure 16. Example of Recall Notification for a geographic Jurisdiction from the Colorado IIS 47
Figure 17. Example of a RR Notification card from the Colorado IIS......................................... 48
Figure 18. Illustration of person-to-person telephone-based RR.................................................. 54
Figure 19. Illustrative example - RR Outcomes evaluation (Colorado IIS) ................................. 62
Figure 20. New Jersey IIS screen shot of the Patient "outreach history", .................................... 65
Figure 21. Screen shot demonstrating tracking of person-to-person telephone Recall
Notifications (Colorado IIS). ........................................................................................................ 66
Figure 22-A1. Domain diagram: Patient – Provider and Jurisdiction – Individual (a fragment) . 89
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Figure 23-A2. Reminder/Recall Notification – domain diagram (a fragment) ............................ 90
Figure 24-A3. Reminder/Recall Originator – domain diagram (a fragment) ............................... 91
Figure 25-A4. Reminder/Recall Distributor – domain diagram (a fragment) .............................. 91
Figure 26-A5. Participants of the Reminder/Recall process – domain diagram (a fragment)...... 92
Figure 27-A6. Domain diagram for Reminder/Recall– Main entities .......................................... 93
Figure 28-B1. The process of developing best practice recommendations ................................ 102
Figure 29-B2. Facilitated modeling session................................................................................ 104
Table 1. Responsibility for Reminder/Recall: principles and business rules................................ 28
Table 2. Process triggers: principles and business rules ............................................................... 30
Table 3. Reminder/Recall criteria: principles and business rules ................................................. 33
Table 4. Resource limitations and other restrictions: principles and business rules..................... 36
Table 5. Selection of the RR Notification method: principles and business rules........................ 38
Table 6. Content of the RR Notification: principles and business rules....................................... 41
Table 7. Reaction to the RR Response: principles and business rules.......................................... 49
Table 8. Cross-references for RR results and subsequent actions ................................................ 51
Table 9. Impact of the outcome of the RR Notification process on the assignment of
Patient/Individual statuses (excerpt from the MOGE document [1.1], p. 27) ............................. 53
Table 10. General recommendations (GR) for IIS functionality and various aspects of RR
operations...................................................................................................................................... 55
Table 11. Illustrative example – a relatively simple way of measuring the impact of RR
(Oklahoma) ................................................................................................................................... 63
Table 12-A1. Cross-reference table of possible pairs of RR Originators and RR Distributors.... 87
Table 13-A2. Entities and attributes (terms and definitions) for Fig.22-A1 – Fig.27-A6 ............ 94
Table 14-B1. Process steps and participants responsibilities...................................................... 103
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AIRA Modeling of Immunization Registry Operations Work Group’s roster
* Denotes contributing members of the MIROW who also served in the MIROW Steering
Committee.
Co-Chairs:
* Warren Williams, MPH
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
National Center for Immunization and
Respiratory Diseases
Lead Public Health Analyst
MS E-62, 1600 Clifton Road
Atlanta, GA 30333
Phone: (404) 639-8867
E-mail: [email protected]
* Elaine Lowery, JD, MSPH
University of Colorado Health Sciences
Center, Pediatrics Department, Instructor
9991 E. Progress Circle
Greenwood Village, CO 80111
Phone: (303) 881-2440
E-mail: [email protected]
Till January 2009:
Colorado IIS, Program Manager
American Immunization Registry Association (AIRA)
* Cynthia Sutliff
Executive Director
C/o Citywide Immunization Registry, NYCDOHMH
125 Worth Street, CN 64R
New York, NY 10013
Phone: (212) 676-2325
E-mail: [email protected]
Participants:
Don Blose, MA
Oklahoma State Department of Health
Chief, Immunization Service
1000 NE Tenth Street
Oklahoma City, OK 73117-1299
Phone: (405) 271-4073
Email: [email protected]
Richard Bradley
AZ State Immunization Information
System (ASIIS)
150 N 18th Ave, Suite 120
Phoenix, AZ 85007
Phone: (602) 364-3622
Email: [email protected]
Sandra Diagostino, RN, BSN
NY, Erie County Health Department/IAP
462 Grider Street, Bldg. BB
Buffalo, NY 14215
Phone: (716) 961-6839
Email: [email protected]
Ruth Gubernick, MPH
HLN/RSG Consulting
Public Health Consultant
5 Woodbury Drive
Cherry Hill, NJ 08003
Phone: (856) 751-0115
E-mail: [email protected]
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* Nichole Lambrecht, MSc
Kansas Immunization Registry, KSWebIZ
Project Manager
1000 S.W. Jackson, Suite 210
Topeka, KS 66612-1274
Phone: (785) 296-8119
Email: [email protected]
Angela Ramirez
Imperial County Public Health Department
Immunization Program Supervisor
950 Broadway
El Centro, CA 92243
Phone: (760)482-4906
E-mail: [email protected]
* David Lyalin, PhD
Northrop Grumman - CDC Information
Technology Support Contract
Consultant - Business Analyst
3375 NE Expressway
Koger Center/Harvard Building
Atlanta, GA 30341
Phone: (678) 530-3583
E-mail: [email protected]
* Danielle Reader-Jolley, MHS
Scientific Technologies Corporation
IMS and Preparedness Product Manager
4400 E. Broadway Blvd., Suite 705
Tucson, AZ 85711
Phone: (602) 476-1395
E-mail: [email protected]
Vikki Papadouka, PhD, MPH
NYC Department of Health and Mental
Hygiene
Director of Research and Evaluation
2 Lafayette Street, 19th Floor
New York, NY 10007
Phone: (212) 676- 2331
E-mail: [email protected]
Emily Peterson
Minnesota Department of Health
MIIC Director, IT Unit Supervisor
625 N. Robert Street
St. Paul, MN 55164-0975
Phone: (651) 201-5546
Email: [email protected]
* Sherry Riddick, RN, MPH
CHILD Profile (WA State Immunization
Registry),
Immunization Registry Operations Manager
401 5th Avenue, Suite 1000,
Seattle, WA 98104
Phone: (206) 263-8315
Email: [email protected]
Kim Salisbury-Keith, MBA
KIDSNET, RI Department of Health
Development Manager
3 Capitol Hill
Providence, RI 02908
Phone: (401) 222-5925
E-mail: [email protected]
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Acknowledgments
Members of the Modeling of Immunization Registry Operations Work Group (MIROW)
appreciate and acknowledge the following:
•
External reviewers of the recommendations document for their willingness to read and
constructively critique the Work Group’s materials. Their efforts benefited this document
significantly:
ƒ Dr. Noam H. Arzt, HLN Consulting, California
ƒ Kevin Davidson, Netsmart Public Health, South Carolina
ƒ Amy Daufenbach, Blue Earth County Community Health, Minnesota
ƒ Dr. Kevin Dombkowski, University of Michigan
ƒ Michael K. Flynn, New York State Immunization Information System
ƒ Kimberly B. Irby, Colorado Immunization Information System
ƒ Sandy Macziewski, Countryside Public Health, Minnesota
ƒ Thomas R. Maerz, Wisconsin Immunization Registry
ƒ Dr. Archer Redmond, Virginia Immunization Information System
ƒ Rob Savage, Northrop Grumman, CDC Contract
ƒ Cherie Thomas, Trey Industries, Inc./DC Immunization Program
ƒ Karen E. White, Minnesota Immunization Information Connection
•
Editorial support—Jane A. Zanca, Senior Technical Writer & Editor at CDC.
•
Administrative support of the AIRA staff—Angelica Velez and Ina Kichen—in
organization of modeling sessions.
•
Facilitation support provided during the modeling sessions in Tampa, FL (October 28–
30, 2008) by the team from Requirements Solutions Group, LLC —Tom Hathaway and
Angela Hathaway.
• Contributions of the following organizations in providing materials on Reminder/Recall
issues that helped in framing the topic and preparing for the modeling sessions:
ƒ CHILD Profile - Washington State Immunization Registry
ƒ Colorado Immunization Information System
ƒ Kansas Immunization Registry - KSWebIZ
ƒ Oklahoma State Immunization Information System
ƒ Vermont Immunization Registry
ƒ Scientific Technologies Corporation
Executive Summary
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Executive Summary
Background
The Modeling of Immunization Registry Operations Work Group (MIROW) was formed by the
American Immunization Registry Association (AIRA) in partnership with Centers for Disease
Control and Prevention / National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases
(CDC/NCIRD) to develop a Best Practices guidebook for immunization information systems
(IIS). This document is one chapter of the guidebook. It provides consensus-based best practice
recommendations for IISs on communicating to an Individual that (s)he is due now or on a future
date (reminder) or past due (recall) for one or more recommended immunizations.
Benefits of Reminder/Recall
The primary benefit of Reminder/Recall (RR) is to improve the timeliness and completion of
recommended immunizations to prevent disease.
Peer reviewed literature indicates that Reminder/Recall (RR) is effective
• For both childhood and adult immunizations;
• In all types of medical settings, including private practices, academic medical centers,
and public health agency clinics; and
• For universally recommended vaccinations, such as routine childhood vaccinations as
well as targeted vaccinations, such as influenza vaccine, with increases in immunization
coverage rates tending to be 5 to 20 percentage points.
Secondary benefits of Reminder/Recall include improved IIS data quality, achieved by using
responses to the Reminder/Recall notices to add or update information in the IIS, and
strengthening relationships between IISs and Providers.
Highlights of Recommendations
The decision to initiate an RR process is based on policy and resource considerations and can be
initiated by a variety of parties: a Provider for its Patients, a health plan for its enrollees, or a
State or local public health entity for Individuals for whom it is responsible. Examples of
principles (P) and business rules (BR) in this document that establish responsibility for
Reminder/Recall include:
• The IIS or other State or local public health agency should be available to assume the
responsibility (and cost) of conducting Reminder/Recall on behalf of other parties
(e.g., Providers) – principle P203.
• If the Immunization Home is known, that Provider is primarily responsible for RR
processes for routine immunizations – business rule BR201.
• If the Immunization Home is not known, State and local public health agencies are
primarily responsible for the RR processes for routine immunizations – business rule
BR202.
The RR process originator determines the goal for the particular RR process, e.g., to improve
immunization coverage levels for a certain age group, or to notify Individuals (or responsible
Executive Summary
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parties) that a booster vaccine is available after a vaccine shortage is resolved. Examples of
principles and business rules that define when the RR process should be initiated include:
• The RR process should be initiated on a regular basis (e.g., weekly, monthly,
annually) and as needed - principle P302.
• The RR process could be initiated based on: (a) Advisory Committee on
Immunization Practices (ACIP) schedules; (b) Standard time frames for well-child
visits; or (c) State-mandated requirements (e.g., school and child care entry
requirements) – principle P301.
• A single Reminder Notification should be considered 2 to 4 weeks before the
recommended due date/date range for each recommended vaccine/vaccination visit –
business rule BR301.
• One reminder and up to 3 follow-up Recall Notifications for each recommended
vaccine/vaccination visit should be considered for children 0-6 years of age –
business rule BR305.
The RR process originator takes into account resource limitations and other potential restrictions
when determining whether to initiate a RR process. Considerations include data completeness
and accuracy, timeliness of reporting data to the IIS and baseline immunization rates. If resource
limitations or other restrictions limit initiation of RR, then recommendations (expressed in
principles and business rules) provide priorities for when to initiate RR. For example:
• Reminder/Recall must be in line with available resources. Accordingly, not every
recommended vaccination will result in a Reminder/Recall Notification – principle
P501.
• Priority should be given to Recall Notifications for children 0–24 months of age –
principle P505.
The RR process originator determines who will be included in the RR, as well as the type and
frequency of communication and the content of the notice. This document contains principles
and business rules defining the criteria to use in selecting who will be included in the RR and for
the RR Notification content. Examples of principles and business rules related to the method of
the RR notice include:
• Effectiveness of the Reminder/Recall could be increased with combining various RR
Notification methods – principle P602.
• Each Reminder/Recall process should employ the most cost-effective RR Notification
method based on resources available – principle P604.
• The most cost- effective RR Notification methods to improve timeliness and
completion of immunizations, ranked from the most to least cost effective are:
telephone call (person-to-person), letter, postcard, autodialer, and home visit –
business rule BR602.
After a RR Notification is issued (i.e., the postcard is sent or the autodialer dials), the IIS or other
party collects the results. Examples of recommendations with respect to the responses to the RR
Notification include:
• In the event there is no State guideline, there should be 3 (three) RR Notification
attempts before the RR process can be ended – business rule BR801.
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•
•
After an unsuccessful RR attempt, if the RR process is not ended, consider a different
RR Notification method. For example, escalate from a post card to a telephone call –
principle P802.
After certain period of time and number of unsuccessful RR attempts the
responsibility for a Patient should be transferred from a Provider level to a geographic
Jurisdiction level – principle P803.
Examples of general recommendations (GR) for IIS RR-related functionality include:
• Each IIS should have functionality to track Patient active/inactive status at both the
Provider and geographic Jurisdiction levels – general recommendation GR105.
• RR functionality (algorithm) should support newly introduced vaccines (including
newly introduced combination vaccines) within 90 days of notification from ACIP or
CDC, or as soon as possible – general recommendation GR202.
• Each IIS should have functionality:
ƒ To allow Providers to use RR for its Patients
ƒ To allow local and State public health agencies to perform RR on behalf
of Providers for the Provider’s Patients
ƒ To allow local and State public health agencies to perform RR on a
geographic Jurisdiction level – general recommendation GR104.
• RR functionality should include:
ƒ Algorithm for ACIP recommendation, and
ƒ Algorithm for State school entry requirements – general recommendation
GR201.
Approaches for the evaluation of Reminder/Recall are detailed, including examples of
quantitative measures for RR responses and outcomes. General recommendation GR103 states
that RR functionality should record information necessary to track RR responses and outcomes
to support evaluation efforts; examples of data elements that should be tracked for evaluation are
included.
This guide, additionally to formulated principles, business rules, and general recommendations,
documents Reminder/Recall with a process description (use-case model) and a process diagram,
as well as contain selected peer-reviewed literature references and extensive IIS examples of
various aspects of the RR process.
Conclusion
The National Vaccine Advisory Committee (NVAC) has included a recommendation to
"Promote the adoption of a guidebook and best practices for IIS as started by the CDC/NIP and
AIRA/MIROW workgroup to adopt consistent operational guidance and quality control
procedures that ensure good data quality." This best practices guide is one example of addressing
the NVAC recommendation in the area of Reminder/Recall operations. It will assist IISs in
aligning RR practices through adherence to a set of common recommendations and guidelines.
Executive Summary
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Chapter 1: Introduction
About the MIROW Reminder/Recall Project
The Modeling of Immunization Registry Operations Work Group (MIROW) of the American
Immunization Registry Association (AIRA) was formed to develop a topic-by-topic Best
Practice guidebook for various aspects of immunization information systems (IIS) functionality.
The MIROW Steering Committee conducted an assessment in April 2005, within the IIS
community, to learn which functional components were problematic to deploy and could benefit
from a collective guidance.
The first topic selected for analysis and development of best practice recommendations was the
management of the “Moved or Gone Elsewhere” (MOGE) status of patients and other patient
immunization designations. Recommendations were developed in 2005 and the final guidance
chapter is available at the AIRA web site at
http://www.immregistries.org/docs/MIROW_MOGE_Chapter_Final_122005_rev1.doc .
Best practice recommendations were presented at the 40th National Immunization Conference
(March 6–9, 2006, Atlanta, Georgia). Slides and the recorded presentation are available at
http://cdc.confex.com/cdc/nic2006/techprogram/P10124.HTM.
The second topic selected for analysis and development of best practice recommendations was
the vaccination level deduplication in IIS. Recommendations were developed in 2006 and the
final guidance chapter is available at the AIRA web site at
http://www.immregistries.org/pdf/AIRA_BP_guide_Vaccine_DeDup_120706.pdf .
Best practice recommendations were presented at the 41st National Immunization Conference
(March 5–8, 2007, Kansas City, Missouri). Slides and the recorded presentation are available at
http://cdc.confex.com/cdc/nic2007/techprogram/P12532.HTM .
The third topic selected for analysis and development of best practice recommendations was data
quality assurance in IIS (incoming data). Recommendations were developed in 2007 and the
final guidance chapter is available at the AIRA web site at
http://www.immregistries.org/pdf/AIRA_MIROW_Chap3_DQA_02112008.pdf .
The current report represents MIROW efforts to develop best practice recommendations for the
fourth topic chosen, Reminder/Recall utilizing IIS. The development process consisted of a
preliminary phase (web-based teleconferences, September–October 2008), face-to-face meeting
(October 28–30, 2008, Tampa, Florida), and subsequent post-meeting work to finalize the
recommendations.
The National Vaccine Advisory Committee (NVAC) has included a recommendation to
"Promote the adoption of a guidebook and best practices for IIS as started by the CDC/NIP and
AIRA/MIROW Work Group to adopt consistent operational guidance and quality control
procedures that ensure good data quality." This guide is one example of addressing the NVAC
recommendation through the development of best practices for reminder/recall procedures.
Chapter 1: Introduction
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What this document is about
This document provides consensus-based best practice recommendations for IIS on
communicating to an individual that (s)he is due now or on a future date (reminder) or past due
(recall) for one or more recommended immunizations (not to be confused with the Vaccine
Recall).
In this document the term Reminder/Recall and its abbreviation RR are used interchangeably.
This document brings real world practical knowledge from experts who work daily with
Reminder/Recall. It also draws upon the wealth of peer reviewed literature written on the subject
of Reminder/Recall. Selected references of this literature are provided in Chapter 6. In
developing the guidelines, the Work Group intended to maintain an appropriate mix of practical
real world public health considerations and peer reviewed recommendations for the IIS
community.
The following assumptions reflect the MIROW approach to the development of principles,
business rules, and associated best practices presented in this document:
• The focus should be on those principles and business rules that have the greatest potential
for providing value and use across all IISs.
• The principles and business rules represent an attempt to balance “ideal” possible
practices with “pragmatic” considerations of what will be possible to implement in an
IIS.
• Each IIS will “tweak” the implementation of business rules (and associated best
practices) based on its resources, goals, needs and unique implementation concerns.
• The set of principles and business rules presented here is not exhaustive. Individual IISs
may choose to implement additional rules based on its unique requirements and insights.
• The developed business rules and associated best practices will need to change and
evolve over time as business requirements change.
Benefits of Reminder/Recall
The primary expected benefit of Reminder/Recall is to improve the timeliness and completion
of recommended immunizations to prevent disease.
Peer reviewed literature (see Chapter 6) indicates that Reminder/Recall is effective
• For both childhood and adult immunizations;
• In all types of medical settings, including private practices, academic medical centers,
and public health agency clinics; and
• For universally recommended vaccinations such as routine childhood vaccinations as
well as targeted vaccinations such as influenza vaccine.
All types of Reminder/Recall systems were found to be effective, with increases in
immunization coverage rates tending to be 5 to 20 percentage points. [4.3]
Reminder/Recall also provides an important secondary benefit of improved IIS data quality by
using responses to the Reminder/Recall communications to add or update information in the IIS,
including:
• Demographic (contact) information (address, phone number, email address)
Chapter 1: Introduction
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•
•
Documentation of immunizations that were administered prior to the Reminder/Recall
that had not been reported to the IIS
Identification of individuals who are the “responsibility” of each Provider and
geographic Jurisdiction and are therefore the correct individuals to include in future
Reminder/Recall efforts and in the denominator for calculation of immunization
coverage levels (i.e., update Patient status at both the Provider and geographic
Jurisdiction levels)
Additional benefits of Reminder/Recall are strengthening relationships between IISs and
Providers by:
• Providing an easy and low-cost method for Providers to perform Reminder/Recall.
• Reinforcing a medical (immunization) home through identification of individuals lost to
follow up and bringing them back for immunizations as well as other care.
• Assisting Providers to improve clinical care through identification of erroneous.
immunization practices, such as giving a vaccine too early, violating minimum
interval/age rules, etc.
• Saving labor and providing quality assurance benefits for Providers, if IIS performs a
Reminder/Recall for Providers.
Successful RR operations depend on a number of factors:
• Extent of reporting of client and immunization events to the IIS in a timely manner (see
[1.3] in the “Selected References” section)
• Regular deduplication of client and vaccine information (see [1.2])
• Complete and accurate client (including contact information) and vaccine data (see [1.3])
• Consistent tracking of Patient active/inactive status (see [1.1])
• Accurate forecast of vaccinations that are due
Revision date: 02-13-09
Reminder/Recall
Process
Strengthening IIS-Providers
relationships
results in
Updating data in
the IIS
improves
Adding historical
immunizations
improves
Data Quality
Adding administered
immunizations
improves
improves
Changing Patient
active/inactive status
affects
Immunization Coverage
(timeliness and completion)
Figure 1. Reminder/Recall in context
Chapter 1: Introduction
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Value of MIROW Reminder/Recall recommendations
The National Vaccine Advisory Committee (NVAC) recommends that all IIS meet minimal
functional standards. Functional Standard Number 10 (see
http://www.immregistries.org/know/standards.phtml) states that all IISs should have the ability
to “Automatically identify individuals due/late for immunization(s) to enable the production of
reminder/recall notifications.” These MIROW Reminder/Recall recommendations and
knowledge base will allow IIS and Providers to implement Reminder/Recall at both the Provider
and geographic Jurisdiction levels in a consistent and efficient manner and meet NVAC
functional standard Number 10.
Scope: Reminder/Recall in IIS
Primary focus of these recommendations (see Fig. 2 below) includes procedures, principles, and
business rules for using an IIS to produce Reminders and Recalls that are
• Communicated to one or more individuals, of
• All ages (children, adolescents and adults), at both
• Provider and geographic Jurisdiction levels, for
• Routine and targeted Reminder/Recall
Secondary focus of these recommendations includes (see Fig. 2 below):
• Vaccine recall
• Patient active/inactive status management (see also decision tables in the MIROW Patient
Status (MOGE) guideline document [1.1] )
• Immunization coverage assessment
ACIP recommendations and State school entry laws and regulations intersect with
Reminder/Recall. While these interdependencies are recognized and referenced in this document
where appropriate, the developed recommendations are independent from specifics of ACIP
recommendations and individual State school entry requirements.
Chapter 1: Introduction
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Illustration of scope for the Reminder/Recall topic
Scope includes procedures, principles, and business
rules for Patient reminder and recall at the Provider and
geographic (catchment area) levels, as well as customized
requests from Providers.
In scope
In scope
(primary focus)
(secondary focus)
Recall
Procedures
In scope
(secondary
focus)
on
ati
niz ge
mu ra nt
Im ve me
Co ess
s
As
Out of scope
Vaccine
Reminder Recall
ac Pati
tiv en
e
t’
sta /inac s
tus tiv
e
ACIP Schedule
Recommendations
Influence
RR protocol
Out of scope
Figure 2. Illustration of scope for the Reminder/Recall topic.
ACIP = Advisory Committee for Immunization Practices; “in scope” = within
the scope of the MIROW Work Group. Example of things in scope: What to
do if a Patient is a month late for the immunization, versus 2 days late (ACIP
recommendations do not cover this situation).
Implementation/Technology independence
Developed best practice recommendations are intended to be at the business/operational level
and as a result, independent from particular IIS implementations and technology solutions. This
reflects the industry-wide strategic approach to capture and maintain business knowledge,
requirements, and policies/constraints independently of implementation architecture and
technical solutions. As a result, developed best practice recommendations will be able to support
the wide variety of IIS implementations strategies on different technological platforms.
Intended audience
This guide is designed to be read by programmatic, technical and operational personnel involved
in creating or maintaining an IIS. The guide intends to bridge the gap between technical and
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program staff so they can have a mutual understanding of the issue of Reminder/Recall, and
target actions to address these recommendations.
Intended use
This guide contains a set of recommended operational best practices (including a set of principles
and business rules to follow) that are intended for use as a basis for requirements in IIS
Reminder/Recall systems and operations. Additionally, this guide can be used by IIS for staff
training, operational documentation, and communication purposes.
The implementation of Reminder/Recall systems will vary based on the vendors’ technology,
application architecture, and specifics of a particular IIS. Also, resource constraints, or required
changes to existing functionality, may result in incremental adoption of these guidelines.
The approach used and results presented are relevant for and can be utilized beyond
immunization information systems, e.g., for developing and documenting best practices and
operational requirements for domain-specific data validation applications in public health, health
care, and other areas.
Work Group approach
This section contains a brief description of the methodology and process used by MIROW; see
Appendix B for the expanded description of the work group approach.
The Work Group used business engineering and facilitation techniques to analyze IIS processes
and develop recommendations. It utilized a pragmatic results-oriented approach that has been
effective for modeling of IIS and cancer registration operations. Initial preparatory off-line work
(assembling pertinent materials, producing preparatory notes, analysis of processes and
development of preliminary drafts) was performed by a group of business analysts and subject
matter experts (SMEs). During a subsequent face-to-face facilitated modeling session in Tampa,
Florida (October 28-30, 2008) a full (large) work group of SMEs used preparatory materials as a
framing/scoping resource and began development and formulation of consensus-based
recommendations. The post-session work was aimed at finalizing the development of
recommendations. The work group was divided into two small groups of SMEs, each addressing
a set of remaining tasks during a series of teleconferences. Additional teleconferences were
dedicated to progress reviews of small groups by the full group of SMEs. The work group used
the following definition of a consensus among SMEs regarding the best practice
recommendations developed, which did not reflect 100% agreement, but rather meant “I can live
with that and support it.”
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Chapter 2: Reminder/Recall process
This chapter describes a Reminder/Recall process that utilizes an IIS. Reminder/Recall systems
that use other data, such as an electronic medical record, or a Provider-based immunization
registry that is independent from an IIS, are not included in this document, although many of the
concepts and recommendations are applicable to any Reminder/Recall system. Definitions of
Reminder and Recall, as well as definitions of other terms used in describing and discussing
various aspects of the Reminder/Recall process are presented in Appendix A, “Domain model”.
Reminder/Recall process in a nutshell
The RR process is about communicating to an Individual/Patient, or a responsible party, that the
Individual/Patient is due now or on a future date (reminder) or past due (recall) for one or more
recommended immunizations. Reminder/Recall can be initiated by many different parties: a
Provider for its Patients, a health plan for its enrollees, or a State or local public health entity for
Individuals for whom it is responsible in all or part of its geographic Jurisdiction.
The decision to initiate an RR process is based on policy and resource considerations and a
comparison of recommended immunizations versus the immunization information recorded in
the IIS for an Individual. Communication with the Individual (or a responsible party) utilizes
demographic information recorded in the IIS, such as address and telephone number.
The entity that initiates an RR process (referred to as the RR Originator in this document)
determines the goal for the particular RR process, e.g., to improve immunization coverage levels
for a particular age group, or to notify Individuals (or a responsible party) that a booster Vaccine
is available after a Vaccine shortage is resolved. After setting the goals for the particular RR
process the RR Originator determines specific parameters for the particular RR process,
including: the Individuals who will be subject to the RR (referred to as the RR Recipients in this
document), as well as the type and frequency of communication. The most common methods of
RR communication include postcards, letters, and telephone calls (person-to-person or
autodialers).
After the RR process is initiated, other entities may have responsibility for all or part of the RR
activities. Coordination among all the entities who may initiate a RR process is important to use
resources efficiently without unintended duplication of efforts and to ensure that the Individuals
who are subject to the RR efforts are not confused.
The primary goals of the Reminder/Recall process are to improve timeliness and completion of
recommended immunizations to prevent disease. The RR process also serves to improve the data
quality in an IIS and can strengthen the relationship of Patients to a medical home and
Immunization Home as defined in [1.1].
Reminder/Recall may use a direct or indirect notification scheme (see Fig. 3):
1. Direct notification is from the RR Originator (e.g., IIS or Provider) directly to the RR
Recipient (Individual/Patient or a responsible party, e.g., parents or guardians).
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2. Indirect notification is from the RR Originator (e.g. IIS) to the RR Distributor (e.g.,
Provider, or school clinic), which in turn sends the notification to the RR Recipient (Patient
or a responsible party, e.g., parents or guardians).
The following section provides a detailed step-by-step description of the Reminder/Recall
process.
Figure 3. Reminder/Recall process at a glance.
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Reminder/Recall process description
The following is a detailed step-by-step description of the Reminder/Recall process. Guiding
principles and business rules are referenced at each step of the process, but are externalized from
the process model. Such an approach allows separation of the process flow description (what is
happening) from the statement of the policies and rules that guide decisions made at each step
(why and how).
Principles and business rules for various topics related to the Reminder/Recall process are
logically grouped into the sections of Chapter 3.
The process is flexible; it can accommodate a variety of Reminder/Recall strategies and
approaches. For example, restrictions related to limited IIS resources can be accounted for
upfront, during the criteria selection, or later in the process when a list of potential
Reminder/Recall Recipients is produced, or in both places, as a multi-phase process, when
results of initial considerations entered into a criteria are adjusted after the list of potential
Reminder/Recall Recipients is produced.
Reminder/Recall operational scenarios are depicted on the process map (see Fig. 4).
The RR Originator (Provider or Jurisdiction) sets the goal(s) for the particular RR process based
on policy and resource determinations. The RR Originator will determine whether the goal is to
raise immunization coverage levels in all or a targeted part of the population for which it is
responsible. After setting the goal(s) for the particular RR process, the RR Originator determines
specific parameters for the particular RR process (RR protocol: RR Criteria, recurrence, etc.)
For readability, the term Patient in this process description may be used instead of the more
appropriate term Individual/Patient.
The process starts based on (see Chapter 3, section “Process triggers”):
• Schedule-based triggers, for example, periodic identification of Individuals/Patients who
are due or overdue for vaccinations (e.g., monthly, quarterly). This type of RR process
could be for all Individuals/Patients or for Individuals/Patients in one or more specified
age groups. This type of RR process is based on an overall policy decision to raise
immunization coverage levels.
• Situation-based triggers that target particular segments of the population:
o Specified priority groups as a result of an emergency situation.
o Individuals/Patients who are overdue for one or more Vaccines as a result of a
Vaccine shortage (both by Providers and Jurisdictions)
o Individuals/Patients for whom a newly introduced Vaccine is recommended.
o Individuals/Patients identified as a pocket of need (e.g., based on address,
occupation, access to medical home, race and ethnicity, insurance coverage).
o Individuals/Patients identified as a high risk population through the IIS or some
other source such as an electronic medical record or registry other than the IIS
(e.g. diabetics)
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Step 1. RR Originator formulates Reminder/Recall criteria.
•
Associated principles and business rules:
See Chapter 3, section “Reminder/Recall criteria”
By assigning values to the criteria data items the RR Originator can create various sets of
conditions (filters) to select Individuals/Patients for a list of potential candidates for the
particular RR process. Such a selection determines the target group. The target group could be all
the active Patients associated with a Provider, or it could be all the Individuals associated with a
Jurisdiction (State or local health entity or school district), or all the Individuals residing in a
specified geographic area (e.g., based on zip code or city boundaries). The type of RR—e.g.,
Provider-based recall or geographic Jurisdiction recall—guides the criteria selection.
•
Typical data elements to consider are (see Chapter 3, section “Reminder/Recall criteria”):
o Individual/Patient age (DOB)
o Associations between a Provider and its Patients, such as medical home or
Immunization Home
o Patient active/inactive status at the Provider and geographic Jurisdiction level (see
[1.1])
o Immunization status with respect to one or more specified antigens
o High risk status for a Patient or population
o Address attributes: State, county, city, zip or public health entity area of
responsibility
o Association with a particular program (e.g., WIC – federal Women, Infants, and
Children nutrition program, Medicaid, Fire Department)
o Health plan (insurance) or payer source
o Exemptions and contraindications for a Vaccine(s) (may be temporary or
permanent)
o Language preference
o Occupation
o Individual/Patient opt-out from RR process in whole or in part
Step 2 (optional). RR Originator defines additional conditions (filters) for the Reminder/Recall
criteria.
•
Associated principles and business rules:
See Chapter 3, section “Resource limitations and other restrictions”
During this step additional conditions (filters) may be applied to limit the list of potential RR
candidates. For example, the RR Originator may need to limit the list of potential RR candidates
because of:
o Resource-related considerations (e.g., the RR Originator has limited human and/or
financial resources to devote to RR)
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o Coordination with other RR Originators to limit the number of RR Notifications
sent to particular Individuals/Patients within a given time frame (see principle
P502)
Resource limitations can be accounted for a) Upfront, when selecting RR criteria; b) After
criteria is used to produce a list of RR recipients; c) In both places – when selecting criteria,
upfront, and then adjusting afterwards. Step 2 describes a "practical" (as it done now)
approach, which accounts for resource limitations at the start of the RR process. As a result, a
smaller sub-group of target Patients will be produced. The alternative approach (see Step 4)
follows a hierarchy of goals from a broader population perspective: the RR Originator first
identifies all Patients eligible for RR and then considers the resources available to determine
what part of the Patients eligible for RR will actually be recalled (similar to principle P401).
These two approaches can be combined, with initial conditions (filters) implemented at Step 2
and the resulting list of potential RR candidates adjusted later, at Step 4.
Step 3. RR Originator produces list of potential RR candidates based on the Reminder/Recall
criteria.
•
Associated principles and business rules:
See Chapter 4 “Influences on various aspects of RR operations”
Step 4 (optional). RR Originator reduces/revises the list of potential RR candidates based on
resource limitations and other restrictions.
•
Associated principles and business rules:
See Chapter 3, sections “Resource limitations and other restrictions”
When resources are limited, choices include:
• Eliminate some of the potential RR candidates and proceed with the RR process.
• Eliminate all potential RR candidates, concluding this particular RR process.
• Return to the Step 1 and modify the original criteria
See discussion at Step 2 of various approaches to account for resource limitations and other
restrictions.
Step 5. RR Originator selects the RR Notification method
•
Associated principles and business rules:
See Chapter 3, section “Selection of the RR Notification method”
This selection of the RR Notification method could be for:
a) The whole list of RR candidates - with subsequent corrections for candidates that may
not have a sufficient contact info (see Step 6), or
b) Each Patient included in the list of RR candidates.
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Currently the order of Steps 1 to 5 for the RR process varies among IISs. For example, in some
IISs that are locked into a single RR Notification method (e.g., postcards) the selection of the RR
Notification method is made at the very beginning of the RR process. However, a best practice is
to first identify all Individuals/Patients who are eligible for RR, and then decide how to
contact them (similar to principle P401).
Step 6. RR Originator changes the RR Notification method for specific Individuals/Patients
based on availability of contact data, e.g., if Individual/Patient lacks address, but has a phone
number recorded in the IIS.
•
Associated principles and business rules:
See Chapter 3, section “Selection of the RR Notification method”
As an alternative to Step 6, the RR Originator can set the criteria in Step 1 or Step 2 to exclude
Individuals/Patients from the particular RR process based on insufficient contact information for
the selected RR Notification method.
Step 7A. RR Originator conveys RR Notification to RR Recipients based on the list of RR
candidates adjusted during Steps 4–6 (direct RR Notification).
Step 7B. As an alternative to Step 7A, RR Originator conveys the list of RR candidates
adjusted during Steps 4–6 to RR Distributor (indirect RR Notification).
Step 7B1. RR Distributor conveys RR Notifications to RR Recipients.
RR Distributor can modify the set of Individuals/Patients and RR Notification method for
all or some Individuals/Patients. Also, RR Distributor can exclude some
Individuals/Patients.
Step 8. The RR Originator (and/or the IIS, and/or RR Distributor, if any) collects results of
issued RR Notifications (RR Responses/RR Outcomes) from RR Recipients or other parties
(e.g., Postal Service) and updates the RR Status Indicator (RR Log) with information related to
the issuance of the RR Notifications (See Chapter 5, “Evaluation of Reminder/Recall Outcomes
and Responses” for the discussion of RR Status Indicator and RR Log).
If there is no result (e.g., no response on the postcard sent), RR Originator should wait a certain
period of time before proceeding to Step 9.
•
Associated principles and business rules:
See Chapter 3, section “Reaction to a RR Response”, Chapter 5 “Evaluation of
Reminder/Recall Outcomes and Responses”.
See appendix A, Domain model, for definitions of RR Responses and RR Outcomes.
See Table 8, which cross-references RR results (Responses and Outcomes) and subsequent
actions in the process.
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Step 9. RR Originator (and/or the IIS, and/or RR Distributor, if any) updates Patient information
in the IIS.
•
Associated principles and business rules:
see Chapter 3, section “Reaction to the RR Response” and Appendix A, section
RR Responses and Outcomes.
The updated information may or may not be the result of the RR Notification.
Possible updates include:
• Administered immunizations.
• Historical immunizations – Immunizations that were administered prior to the date of the
RR Notification, but had not been recorded in the IIS.
• Patient active/inactive status at the Provider and/or Jurisdiction level [1.1].
• Immunization Status for a Patient (based on information on administered and historical
immunizations).
• Patient contact information: address, telephone number, etc.
• Patient opt-out from the IIS and/or all or part of the RR process.
Certain RR Outcomes will result in the termination of the RR process with respect to an
Individual/Patient. For example, if the RR Response is that the Patient’s forwarding address is
no longer within the geographic Jurisdiction area, the RR Outcome would be to change the
Patient Status to Inactive-MOGE for that Provider. The RR Originator would stop the RR
process for that Patient (see Step 10B). For another Patient the forwarding address is still
within the geographic Jurisdiction area and the RR Originator might send another RR
Notification to the Patient (see Step 10A).
Step 10A. RR Originator decides to continue RR activities for a Patient. Process continues from
Step 6 (a decision on the RR Notification method has to be made).
Step10B. As an alternative to Step 10A, RR Originator decides to stop RR activities for a
Patient. Process ends.
•
Associated principles and business rules:
See Chapter 3, section “Reaction to the RR Response”
See Table 8, which cross-references RR results (Responses and Outcomes) and subsequent
actions in the process.
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RR Originator
RR Recipient
<
Revision date:
04-06-2009
RR Distributor
Start
Step 1
: RR Originator
Formulate RR Criteria
: RR Recipient
: RR Distributor
Step 2
Define additional
restrictions
Step 3
Produce list of RR
candidates
Optional steps - see
process description for
details
List of RR
candidates
Step 4
Reduce list of RR candidates
based on resources limitation
Step 5
Select RR Notification
Method
Step 6
Correct RR Notification Method for
specific Individuals/Patients
Adjusted list of
RR candidates
[ indirect RR
notification ]
[ direct RR
notification ]
Step 7A
Step 7B
Communicate
w/RR Distributor
Modify RR list
RR Notification
Convey RR Notifications
to RR Recipients
Modify RR Notification
Method
Step 8
Collect and log results
in IIS
Respond to RR
Notification
Step 9
Convey RR Notifications to
RR Recipients.
Update Patient's
information in IIS
Step10A
[ continue RR activities
for a Patient ]
Step 7B1
Step 10B
End
Collect and log
results in IIS.
[ stop RR activities
for a Patient ]
Figure 4. Reminder/Recall process diagram
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Chapter 3: Process-related recommendations; Principles and Business Rules
Introduction
This chapter contains process-related principles and business rules organized along the sections
(categories) related to various phases of the RR process.
A principle reflects business guidelines, practices or norms that the work group recommends to
follow. It is a high-level direction that guides the development of more specific business rules.
Business rules represent specific requirements regarding how the business should operate based
on the laws, policies, regulations, and chosen business/operational style.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Responsibility for Reminder/Recall
o Recommendations regarding the parties (individuals and organizations) who
should be involved in the specific RR action (roles and responsibilities).
Process triggers
o When should RR be initiated?
Reminder/Recall Criteria
o Recommendations regarding whether a specific Individual should be included in
or excluded from a specific list of RR candidates.
Resource limitations and other restrictions
o Conditions under which a RR process may or may not be executed due to
resource limitations and other restrictions.
o Resource limitations and other restrictions also influence RR triggers and criteria.
o Resource limitations and other restrictions influence whether or not to send an RR
Notification
Selection of the RR Notification method
o Recommendations regarding the mode of communication for RR Notifications.
Content of the RR Notification
o Recommendations regarding the content (language, format, structure) of an RR
Notification.
Reaction to the RR Response
o Recommendations regarding handling responses to an RR Notification.
Principles and business rules presented in this chapter have been deliberately numbered starting
from 201 for the section “Responsibility for Reminder/Recall”, starting from 301 for the section
“Process Triggers”, starting from 401 for the section “Reminder/Recall Criteria”, etc.
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Responsibility for Reminder/Recall
A health care Provider is responsible for the immunization and RR process for his/her Patients.
The public health authority (on local, State, or federal levels) is responsible for the immunization
and RR process of the population as a whole within its Jurisdiction (or, more precisely, for
Individuals that comprise that population). Assignment of an Individual/Patient active/inactive
status allows for the establishment of a classification that can be used by parties responsible for
immunization for the variety of public health and health care purposes, including
Reminder/Recall activities. General recommendations and business rules for assigning status and
responsibility for Individuals/Patients can be found in the MIROW document [1.1].
From the public health perspective, it is important to maintain immunization status and
responsibility for a Patient/Individual in a hierarchical manner, so that a classification of
immunization statuses and responsibility would be defined on each level of this hierarchy, e.g. at
the Provider and the geographic Jurisdiction (city, county, and State) levels. Such a hierarchical
structure of immunization statuses ensures that ultimately for every Individual there is a party
responsible for his/her immunizations and for the RR process. For example, if no Provider in a
city considers an Individual as a Patient, there would be no responsibility for the RR process for
this Individual at the Provider level, but on the next level of hierarchy a local public health
authority is responsible for the RR process for this Individual. The State public health agency has
responsibility for all Individuals in its Jurisdiction.
A Patient can be active with many Providers, but only one Provider will be considered as the
Immunization Home. A Patient’s Immunization Home can be determined by parent/guardian
election, last immunization from a Provider, or assignment by a health plan [1.1].
Coordination among Providers, State and local public health agencies and other entities that have
responsibility for immunization of Individuals (e.g., health plans) is vital to ensure that the IIS
data are complete for each Individual and to ensure that the RR process is effective and efficient
(see principles P201, P204, and P503).
This section provides general principles and business rules for both the responsibility for
initiation of the RR process and performing the tasks and responsibilities throughout the RR
process.
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Table 1. Responsibility for Reminder/Recall: principles and business rules
#
P201
Principle / Business Rule Statement
Define ownership principle
The “ownership” (the responsibility) for an
Individual/Patient has to be clearly defined.
Remarks / Links
The ownership concept can be related to the
assignment of a medical home or Immunization
Home [1.1] for a Patient.
This association should be used to determine the
Patient population served by a particular Provider
and/or Jurisdiction and establishes the initial
Patient cohort for the particular RR process.
See BR201–BR203
P202
P203
Responsible party principle
Party responsible for the Individual/Patient
should initiate the RR process.
Delegate responsibility principle
IIS or other State or local public health agency
should be available to assume the
responsibility (and cost) of conducting
Reminder/Recall on behalf of other parties
(e.g., Providers).
See also P203 – Delegate responsibility principle.
See BR201–BR203
As a matter of policy, in collaboration with
Providers, local and State health departments
should be able to assume responsibility (and cost)
for generating and distributing RRs on behalf of a
Provider.
IIS should provide functionality that allows
Providers to initiate and implement an RR process
for the Provider’s Patients, and that also allows
local and State public health agencies to initiate
and implement an RR process on behalf of
individual Providers or on a geographic
Jurisdiction basis.
Local and/or State public health agencies should
partner with Providers to develop collaborative RR
projects and processes that utilize the IIS.
Centralization of RR operations would reduce the
overall cost.
Also, refer to the section “Selection of RR
Notification method” where cost-effectiveness
issues are discussed.
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Principles and Business Rules
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#
P204
Principle / Business Rule Statement
Hierarchy of parties principle
A hierarchy of parties responsible for every
Individual/Patient in the IIS should be
established.
Remarks / Links
See beginning of this section and [1.1]
BR201
If the Immunization Home is known, that
Provider is primarily responsible for RR
processes for routine immunizations.
See P201, P202
BR202
If the Immunization Home is not known, a
geographic Jurisdiction (e.g., State or local
public health agency) is primarily responsible
for RR processes for routine immunizations.
See P201, P202, P204
BR203
For disease outbreaks, the State and local
health departments are responsible for RR
processes.
See P201, P202
See BR202 below.
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Principles and Business Rules
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Process triggers
This section addresses the triggers that initiate an RR process.
The overall scheme of the RR process (Chapter 2) calls for:
• First, to find out what RR Notifications are needed.
• After that, to consider what RR Notifications can be issued based on various restrictions
and limitations (e.g., available resources).
This section describes the first part of this scheme - when to consider sending RR Notifications
to RR Recipients. The RR process could be initiated multiple times before and after each
recommend vaccination. The section “Resource limitations and other restrictions” describes the
second part of this scheme - considerations that restrict issuing RR Notifications based on
resources available, desire to limit disturbance of Patients, timeliness of reporting to IIS, baseline
immunization coverages, and other circumstances.
Table 2. Process triggers: principles and business rules
#
P301
Principle/Business Rule Statement
RR process initiation principle
RR process can be initiated based
on/for:
• Current ACIP schedules (e.g.,
DTaP at 2, 4, 6, 15-18months of
age; MMR at 12months; Td every
10 yrs)
• Standard well child visit
timeframes (2, 4, 6, 12, 15, 18
and 24 months of age; reminders
only)
• State-mandated requirements
(e.g., school and child care entry
requirements)
Remarks / Links
Recall Notifications must be based on individual vaccine
history in association with applicable requirements or
schedules.
P302
RR periodicity principle
The RR process should be initiated
on a regular basis (e.g., weekly,
monthly, annually) and as needed
(based on “well accepted
requirements” such as ACIP
schedule, standard well child visits,
State mandated requirements, etc.)
There is not sufficient evidence on effectiveness to
recommend an optimal frequency for initiation of the RR
process.
The frequency of RR process initiation depends on age of
cohort, goal(s) for the particular RR process, available
resources, and size/nature of the target population.
RR frequency can vary depending on the RR Notification
method (see sections “Selection of the RR Notification
method” and “Reaction to the RR Response” in this
chapter).
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Principles and Business Rules
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#
P303
Principle/Business Rule Statement
Single RR Notification principle
If more than one vaccination is due
or overdue at the time of RR, all
vaccinations should be
accommodated in a single RR
Notification.
Remarks / Links
An RR process should not include a separate RR
Notification for each vaccine group for which an
Individual/Patient needs doses for (due or overdue).
This approach avoids triggering multiple RR Notifications
to the same Individual/Patient on the same day.
See also section “Content of the RR Notification” in this
chapter.
See also P502 – Limited disturbance principle.
P304
Recall principle
Recall should be considered after the
recommended period for vaccination
has expired.
If immunization is recommended for a Patient 2 months of
age, the recall for this immunization could be initiated at 3
months of age.
For a dose of vaccine recommended for a Patient 15–18
months of age, the recall could be initiated at 19 months of
age.
The RR Originator should consider the timeliness of
reporting and recording data in the IIS in determining
when to initiate an RR process. For example, if a Provider
reports data to the IIS monthly, a RR process for recall of
immunizations due at 2 months of age could be initiated at
4 months of age to account for the delay of up to one
month in reporting data.
When a catch-up schedule is used (minimum intervals
instead of the normally recommended ages), a certain time
after the minimum interval should be allowed before a
recall notice is sent.
BR301
A single Reminder Notification
should be considered 2 to 4 weeks
before the recommended due
date/date range for each
recommended vaccine/vaccination
visit.
RR Originator should decide is this 2–4 weeks before the
first possible date in a date range or before the last date in
a date range.
If the minimum interval between doses requires Vaccine to
be administered after the age for which it is normally
scheduled (catch-up schedule) then Reminder Notifications
for a catch-up vaccine should either specify that the
vaccine is due as soon after the <Due Date> as possible, or
not be sent prior to the first date the Individual is eligible
to receive the Vaccine.
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Principles and Business Rules
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#
BR305
Principle/Business Rule Statement
One reminder and up to 3 follow-up
Recall Notifications for each
recommended vaccine/vaccination
visit should be considered for
children 0-6 years of age.
Remarks / Links
See P301, P302.
Examples are:
• Reminder to start a schedule on time - at 2 months.
• Reminder at the beginning of the child’s second
year.
• Recall: after 7 months of age, then after 19 months
of age.
See the section “Resource limitations and other
restrictions” for various restrictions: resources, disturbance
to the Patient, timeliness of reporting, baseline
immunization coverage level of target population, etc.
BR306
One reminder and up to 3 follow-up
Recall Notifications for each
recommended vaccine/vaccination
visit should be considered for
children 7-18 years of age.
See P301, P302.
BR307
For adults a single reminder for
routine vaccinations recommended
by ACIP should be considered.
See P301, P302.
Examples are:
• Annually for influenza vaccination (50 years of
age and older)
• Once for a zoster vaccination (at 60 years of age)
• Once for a pneumococcal vaccination (at 65 years
of age)
• Once for a Td vaccination (every 10 years)
BR308
A single Recall Notification should
be considered when routine doses or
subsequent doses in a multi-dose
series are overdue for adults.
See P301, P302.
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Reminder/Recall criteria
The RR Originator will determine the criteria (filters) to be used to identify the list of RR
candidates. This section describes the principles and business rules related to the RR criteria.
Table 3. Reminder/Recall criteria: principles and business rules
#
P401
Principle/Business Rule Statement
Identify all Individuals eligible for RR principle
The RR process should begin by identifying all
Individuals/Patients who are eligible for the particular
RR process before determination of the RR
Notification method.
Remarks / Links
From a general Public Health
perspective, it is more prudent to first
find Patients who are due for RR, and
only after that decide how to contact
them (i.e., select an RR Notification
method).
BR401
Criteria for inclusion /exclusion of Individuals to/from
Reminder/Recall should include (but not be limited
to):
• Individual’s age (DOB)
• Established associations between a Provider
and Patients, such as medical home or
Immunization Home for a Patient.
• Patient active/inactive status at the Provider
and geographic Jurisdiction level
• One or more specified Vaccines
• Dose number within vaccine series (Vaccine
Family/Group)
• High risk status for a Patient
• Various address attributes: State, county, city,
zip code or health district/region
• Program/association (e.g., WIC, Medicaid, fire
department)
• Specified health plan (insurance) or payer
source
• Permanent and temporary exemptions and
contraindications for a Vaccine(s)
• Language preference
• Occupation
• Opt-out from RR in whole or in part
• Routine versus emergency RR
Provider-based Reminder/Recall should
be based on the established associations
between a Provider and Patients, such as
Medical Home or Immunization Home
for a Patient [1.1].
Chapter 3: Process-related recommendations;
Principles and Business Rules
Patient active/inactive status at the
Provider and geographic level should be
considered for Patients’ inclusion in a
RR campaign. Patients with any status
other than “active” for a particular
Provider or geographic area should be
excluded from the RR campaign.
Patients with temporary
contraindications should be reconsidered
for inclusion in subsequent RR
campaign(s).
In the case of outbreaks, RR
Notifications may be considered for all
Individuals with non-medical
exemptions.
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Figure 5. Example of the RR “criteria”: screen shot from the Kansas Immunization Registry
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Figure 6. Example of the RR “criteria”: screen shot from the CHILD Profile - Washington State
Immunization Registry
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Resource limitations and other restrictions
This section describes considerations that restrict issuing RR Notifications based on resources
available, desire to limit disturbance to Patients and avoid duplication of RR efforts, timeliness
of reporting to IIS, baseline immunization coverage, and other circumstances.
Table 4. Resource limitations and other restrictions: principles and business rules
#
P501
P502
Principle /Business Rule
Statement
Limited resources principle:
Reminder/Recall must be in line
with available resources.
Accordingly, not every
recommended vaccination will result
in a Reminder/Recall Notification.
Limit disturbance principle:
For a given set of Vaccines, RR
Notifications should be issued only
once during a given period of time.
Remarks / Links
Resource-related considerations refer to the fact that IISs
have limited human and financial resources to devote to RR.
Examples of resource limitation:
• Personnel to validate and correct the contact and
immunization information, make phone calls, and/or keep
up with RR responses;
• Personnel to train and re-train Providers
• Mailing costs and postal fees, etc.
Coordination of efforts among all the parties with
responsibility for immunizations is important to avoid
duplication of efforts – see P503.
For example, Individuals/Patients might be excluded from
the RR process if they have already been issued a RR
Notification within the past 30 days for a postcard or letter
method (see P301, BR801, BR803).
See also P303 - Single RR Notification principle.
For example, the RR functionality would include a flag for
Patients to whom an RR Notification was issued.
IIS should record number of RR Notification attempts for
each Patient, the date, type, and RR Originator. This
information should be accessible to IIS users.
P503
Coordinate to avoid duplication
principle
The RR process must be coordinated
to eliminate duplication of RR by
various RR Originators.
P504
Supremacy of Recall over Reminder
principle:
If resources are limited, Recall is
more important than a Reminder.
See related business rules BR501, BR502, BR503 below.
Priority for children 0–24 months of
age principle
Priority should be given to Recall
Notifications for children 0–24
months of age.
Since infants are at most risk for serious disease if they are
not vaccinated the IIS may choose to target infants who do
not have any record of immunization by a certain age, e.g.,
by 3 months of age.
P505
Exception: in public health emergency situations available
resources might be focused on emergency-related reminders.
Vaccine series completion rates for different age groups
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#
Principle /Business Rule
Statement
Remarks / Links
should be taken into consideration when prioritizing use of
limited resources (e.g., series completion by 19 months of
age is 90%; but series completion is 60% at 4 months of
age).
P506
Timeliness principle
Timeliness of data recorded in the
IIS should be taken in consideration
for issuing/delaying RR
Notifications.
P507
Baseline immunization coverage
level principle
Baseline immunization coverage
level should be taken in
consideration for issuing/delaying
RR Notifications.
BR501 In the event that we can do only one
Recall for children 0–24 months of
age it should be between 19 and 21
months.
BR502 In the event that we can do two
Recalls for children 0–24 months of
age it should be at 19–21 months
and 7 months.
BR503 In the event that we can do three
Recalls for children 0–24 months of
age it should be at 19–21 months, 7
months and 3 months.
See BR501–BR503 below.
For example, if a Provider reports data to the IIS monthly, a
RR process for recall of immunizations due at 2 months
could be initiated at 4 months to account for the delay of up
to one month in reporting data.
For example, if the “on-time” baseline immunization
coverage level is low, a Reminder plus one or more Recall
Notifications may be cost-effective. If the baseline “ontime” immunization coverage level is high, Reminders may
not be as cost effective as one or more Recall Notifications.
Based on principles P501, P504, P505
Based on principles P501, P504, P505
Based on principles P501, P504, P505
A note regarding coordination of RR activities
It is necessary to coordinate RR activities with all other parties that have some responsibility for
the target population (e.g., State and local public health agencies, health plans, and all Providers
who have provided immunization services to the target population). Coordination includes
understanding the immunization schedule followed by all the Providers that have some
responsibility for the target population. Providers immunization delivery practices vary: Some
administer immunizations at the beginning of a recommended age range and some administer
immunizations at the end of a recommended age range. Some have standing orders for the first
Hep B in the birth hospital and some administer the first Hep B at the first office visit. Some
administer all vaccines that can be administered at one time simultaneously and some administer
them in multiple visits. Some Providers do not administer all recommended vaccines. A
functionality-related recommendation is to allow each Provider to customize these parameters
for Provider based Recall. For geographic Jurisdiction Recall, there must be some consensus.
Chapter 3: Process-related recommendations;
Principles and Business Rules
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Selection of the RR Notification method
After determining the criteria and production of the list of RR candidates, the RR Originator
selects the RR Notification method. This section deals with how to choose the RR Notification
method.
Table 5. Selection of the RR Notification method: principles and business rules
BR #
P601
Principle / Business Rule Statement
A variety of RR Notification methods principle
IIS should have more than one RR Notification
method.
Remarks / Links
Availability of multiple RR Notification
methods allows more flexible and cost-effective
approach to RR.
P602
Combine RR Notification methods principle.
Effectiveness of Reminder/Recall can be
increased by combining various RR
Notification methods.
Based on [4.7], a letter followed by a telephone
message was significantly more effective than
either a letter alone or a telephone message
alone. A telephone message followed by a letter
was more effective than either alone, although
the differences were not statistically significant.
See P802 (RR escalation principle) in the section
“Reaction to the RR Response”.
P603
Consider data quality principle
RR Notification method should take into
consideration the available contact information
(data quality issue).
Example: To use phone as an RR Notification
method, the IIS must have current phone
numbers recorded.
See GR601 in chapter 4.
P604
Cost-effectiveness principle
Reminder/Recall should employ the most costeffective RR Notification method based on
resources available.
The most cost-effective method of RR
Notification is a method that brings the highest
return in terms of timeliness and completion of
immunizations per dollar spent.
Cost effectiveness of methods will change as
technology progresses
See BR602
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BR #
P605
Principle / Business Rule Statement
Supremacy of Provider communication
principle
A communication from a Provider is more
effective for the Provider’s Patients than a
communication from IIS or other RR
Originator.
P606
Impact of selecting RR Notification method
principle
The RR Notification method impacts the
frequency of RR and target population.
Remarks / Links
For example, a telephone call may be followed
by a second phone call the following day, but
two postcards should be separated by several
weeks.
IIS might use modern electronic methods to
communicate with adolescents.
BR601
BR602
The most effective RR Notification method to
improve timeliness and completion of
immunizations, ranked from the most effective
to the least effective::
• Home visit
• Person to person phone
o Phone call by Provider
o Phone call by local or State
public health authority
• Letter
• Postcard
o Specific card from Provider
o Generic card from Provider
o Specific card from IIS
o Generic card from IIS
• Autodialer
Based on Cochrane Review [4.2]
The most cost-effective RR Notification
method to improve timeliness and completion
of immunizations, ranked from the most to least
cost effective:
This ranking is based on the opinion of subject
matter experts (SMEs).
•
•
•
•
•
Telephone call (person-to-person)
Letter
Postcard
Autodialer
Home visit
Email, text and other electronic messages are
new/emerging RR Notification methods and are
therefore not ranked. Utilization of these and
other new/emerging methods will increase in the
future.
See also P605.
See also Fig.18. Illustration of person-to-person
telephone-based RR
The cost and effectiveness should be evaluated
by the IIS to determine what RR method is the
most cost-effective given their population,
budget, and other circumstances.
There is insufficient experience with email and
text messages to be able to rank the costeffectiveness of those RR Notification methods.
Assumptions for RR Notification method costeffectiveness:
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BR #
Principle / Business Rule Statement
Remarks / Links
1. Reporting functionality is in place that allows
the IIS to produce a list of RR candidates
2. All systems supporting RR are in place (i.e.,
no development cost, e.g., for autodialers)
3. Contact information is available for selected
method, e.g., 100% of telephone numbers for
autodialing are available and they are current
(data quality)
4. Targeted audience is Individual or responsible
party
5. Content of the RR Notification is appropriate
for the targeted audience: i.e., language, level of
literacy
See P604
See also Fig.18. Illustration of person-to-person
telephone-based RR
Figure 7. Example of RR Notification method selection: a screen shot from the CHILD Profile Washington State Immunization Registry
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Content of the RR Notification
This section discusses what information has to be put into the RR Notification.
Table 6. Content of the RR Notification: principles and business rules
#
P701
Principle / Business Rule Statement
Comply with HIPAA interpretation principle
The RR Notification content must comply
with the RR Originator’s interpretation of
HIPAA requirements.
Remarks / Links
For example, the RR Originator may require that
information concerning specific immunization must
be in a letter and not on a postcard
P702
Dependency on data quality principle
For example, the RR Notification could read: “Your
The specificity of the RR Notification should child is missing the 4th DTaP” vs. “Your child may
reflect the quality of data recorded in the IIS. be overdue for an immunization”.
P703
Best message for the audience principle
Social marketing techniques and research
should be used to determine best messages
for the target audience.
BR701
The minimum set of data items for the RR
Notification when the RR Notification is
going to an Individual:
1) Individual’s name
2) “You/your child is due/overdue for one or
more vaccinations”
3) “Please, contact your health care
provider".
BR702
The minimum set of data items for the RR
Notification when the RR Notification is
going to a Provider:
1) Patient name
2) Sufficient information for the Provider to
identify the Patient (e.g., the Provider’s
unique identifier, Patient date of birth,
Patient medical record number, etc)
3) Immunizations that the Patient is
due/overdue to receive
BR703
The RR Notification should include a
statement that encourages the RR Recipient
to provide documentation of immunizations
that are not recorded in the IIS.
See also general recommendations GR402 and
GR403 in chapter 4.
See illustrations below for examples.
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BR704
The RR Notification should state if a Patient
is due (Reminder) or overdue (Recall) for
immunization(s), as well as whom it is from
(Provider or IIS).
BR705
The RR Notification (letter or card) should
contain sufficient postage to obtain
forwarding addresses from the post office.
BR706
The RR Notification (letter or card) should
contain the return address of the party
responsible for collecting results (RR
Originator or the IIS).
See “Reactions to RR responses”
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Figure 8. Postcard example from the Kansas Immunization Registry
Joe Doe
1234 Main Street
Deming, WA 98244
Figure 9. Postcard example from the CHILD Profile - Washington State Immunization Registry
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Figure 10. Postcard example from the Oklahoma IIS
Figure 11. Postcard example from the Oklahoma IIS
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Figure 12. RR letter example from Scientific Technologies Corporation
Figure 13. Mail label example from the CHILD Profile - Washington State Immunization
Registry
Figure 14. List of Patients and associated vaccines due or past due: example from the CHILD
Profile - Washington State Immunization Registry
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[To Parent/Guardian of: ________ (On front of tri-fold or envelope)]
*YOUR CHILD NEEDS SHOTS*
The doctors and public health offices in your county are working together with the State
Immunization Program to help children get the shots they need. Our records show that
your child needs the shot(s) with a check mark in front:




Hepatitis B
 Hib (influenza type B)
IPV (polio)
 Prevnar (pneumonia)
Varicella (chicken pox)
 MMR (measles/mumps/rubella)
Dtap (diphtheria/tetanus/pertussis)
If your child already has these shots, make sure your doctor or public health clinic
knows about them by calling or bringing the record in. If your child needs shots, please
make an appointment to receive them. If you don’t have a place to go you can call
_______ to find a public clinic near you.
Please note: If a shot is against your personal or religious beliefs you must sign an
exemption. If your child cannot receive a shot for medical reasons, a doctor must sign a
medical exemption. You can get an exemption form from your doctor or public health
office.
Figure 15. Example of a RR Notification card
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Dear Parent/Guardian
The private and public health offices listed below and on the back of this notice are
working together to improve childhood immunizations in the [geographic jurisdiction].
Our records show that your child is past due for immunizations (shots).
Please call your doctor or public health office to get your child’s immunizations (shots).
If you have already made an appointment to get your child’s immunizations (shots) you
do not need to call again.
If you believe that your child has already received all immunizations, please call your
doctor or public health office to update your records.
If you do not want to continue to receive notices about your child’s immunizations please
call your public health office, listed below, to remove your name from the recall list.
You have the right to refuse any or all immunizations on the grounds of medical,
religious [or personal belief] considerations pursuant to [statutory cite].
List of names, addresses and telephone numbers of public health offices in the
geographic jurisdiction.
List of names, addresses and phone numbers of all private providers in the geographic
jurisdiction: [Note: There were 12 private providers in this geographic jurisdiction that
performed this recall.]
Figure 16. Example of Recall Notification for a geographic Jurisdiction from the Colorado IIS
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Instructions to the Health Care Provider: Fold this card in half (fold this top part down)
with the information below on the inside. Seal with a sticker, staple, or piece of tape.
Mail using first class postage, return address requested.
Remember: Make sure that your notice of privacy practice allows you to send recall notices.
___Fold Here___
Our records show that __________________________needs to receive the following
immunizations:
__DTaP
__Hib
__Prevnar
__Hepatitis A
__MMR
__Td
__Hepatitis B
__Polio
__Varicella
Your child can receive these shots at:
If your child has already received any of these immunizations, please call__________to
update your records.
If you do not want to continue to receive notices about your child’s immunizations, please
call________________ so you may be removed from recall notification.
You have the right to refuse any or all immunizations on the grounds of medical, religious[,
or personal belief] considerations pursuant to [statutory cite].
Figure 17. Example of a RR Notification card from the Colorado IIS
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Reaction to the RR Response
After an RR Notification is issued (e.g., the postcard sent or the autodialer dials the telephone
number) the RR Originator or other party collects the results. This section deals with
responsibilities of the RR Originator and IIS with respect to the responses to the RR Notification.
Table 7. Reaction to the RR Response: principles and business rules
#
P801
Principle / Business Rule Statement
Track RR results principle:
RR results (responses and outcomes) must
be systematically tracked.
Remarks / Links
Systematic tracking means that the RR Status Indicator
(not just text-based RR Log) should be used to monitor
the status of RR Notifications (See the Chapter 5
“Evaluation of Reminder/Recall outcomes and
responses”).
See also general recommendation GR103.
P802
RR escalation principle:
After an unsuccessful RR attempt, if the
RR process is not ended, consider a
different RR Notification method.
For example, escalation from a post card to
a telephone call.
A letter followed by a telephone message was
significantly better than either a letter alone or a
telephone message alone in one study [4.7]. A
telephone message followed by a letter, also was more
effective than either alone, although the differences
were not statistically significant. [4.7]
See the domain model section for a definition of
“unsuccessful attempt”.
See Chapter, 3 section “Selection of the RR
Notification method”.
The number of RR attempts is associated with changes
in Patient status. The rules regarding changes in
Patient’s status prescribe that a certain number of RR
attempts to be made; in some cases, RR Notification
methods can be prescribed as well. See MIROW
MOGE document [1.1].
P803
Elevation of responsibility principle:
See BR802 below for a specific BR.
After a certain period of time and a number
of unsuccessful RR attempts the
responsibility for a Patient should be
transferred from a Provider level to a
geographic Jurisdiction level.
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Principles and Business Rules
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#
P804
Principle / Business Rule Statement
Repeated Notification principle:
Providing multiple RR Notifications is
more effective than a single RR
Notification.
BR801 In the event there is no State guideline,
there should be 3 (three) RR Notification
attempts before the RR process is ended.
Remarks / Links
Based on the literature sources, e.g., [4.2]
See also BR802
The number of attempts might differ for different RR
methods, e.g., for the post card 3, for the phone call 2,
and for the home visit 1. Note that the RR Notification
method can be changed after the first or second
unsuccessful attempt (P802).
IIS should allow for a maximum number of RR
attempts. Once the maximum number of RR attempts
has been reached, these Patients should be excluded
from future RR campaigns [1.1].
Refer to Table 8 (item I) and P802 for handling the
unsuccessful RR attempts.
BR802 In the event there is no State guideline,
after 90 days and three (3) unsuccessful
attempts Patient active/inactive status
should be set to “Inactive” at the Provider
level and remain “active” at the geographic
Jurisdiction level.
See P803 – for a generic alternative.
See also BR801
Note: Responsibility for a Patient is elevated to a
geographic Jurisdiction level.
See the domain model section for a definition of the
unsuccessful attempt.
BR803 The time between recall attempts should be For telephone calls and autodialers this time can be
14-30 days for letters and postcards.
much shorter, e.g., one day.
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Table 8. Cross-references for RR results and subsequent actions
#
I)
RR results
Contact information has been changed, new contact information is not
available.
Ia) Postcard returned with no forwarding address
Ib) The telephone number has been changed or disconnected, no
forwarding number is provided.
Actions
a) Proceed with additional RR Notification using a different method,
e.g., telephone or email instead of the postcard.
OR
b) Update Patient active/inactive status. Process ends.
Notes:
• Item (a) assumes that multiple RR attempts are going to be
made and the current RR attempt is not the last one.
• For item (b) the RR attempt is the last one
II)
Contact information has been changed, new contact information is available
and it is outside of the geographic Jurisdiction.
IIa) Postcard returned with the forwarding address outside of the
Jurisdiction
IIb) The telephone number has been changed or disconnected, the
new number is provided.
For postcard or other address-based RR - Update Patient
active/inactive status. Process ends.
III)
Contact information has been changed, new contact information is available
and it is within the geographic Jurisdiction.
IIIa) Postcard returned with the forwarding address within the
Jurisdiction.
IIIb) The telephone number has been changed or disconnected, the
new number is provided.
a) Update Patient contact information: address, telephone number,
etc.
AND
b) Proceed with additional RR Notification using the updated contact
information; same or different RR Notification method can be used.
IV)
No response
IVa) Postcard has not been returned and there is no response from
the RR Recipient.
IVb) Nobody answers the telephone, no answering machine or line
is busy.
For the first RR attempt: Proceed with additional RR Notification
using the same or different method, e.g., telephone or email instead
of the postcard.
For a second or third RR attempt (after certain period of time):
Update Patient active/inactive status. Process ends.
Chapter 3: Process-related recommendations;
Principles and Business Rules
For telephone-based RR – make another RR attempt using the new
telephone number.
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#
V)
RR results
RR Recipient, RR Originator, Provider or a third party provides some
immunization information that was not previously recorded in the IIS
(immunization recommended in the RR Notification)
Actions
This may or may not lead to a change in the Immunization Status for
a Patient. If Immunization Status is changed to “complete” then
process ends. If Immunization Status does not change to “complete”
then make another RR attempt.
This is a desirable outcome of the RR process.
Update Patient active/inactive status if necessary.
VI)
Patient gets recommended immunization and it is entered into the IIS
(administered immunization recommended in the RR Notification).
This is the most desirable outcome of the RR process.
This may or may not lead to a change in the Immunization Status for
a Patient. If Immunization Status is changed to “complete” then
process ends. If Immunization Status does not change to “complete”
then make another RR attempt.
Update Patient active/inactive status if necessary.
VII)
Request to remove the Patient from all future RR Notifications is received.
This can happen simultaneously with all other results.
Update the Opt-out RR indicator. Process ends.
This is the least desirable outcome of the RR process.
Note: A concept of “immediate Provider’s area” – as a part of a “geographic Jurisdiction area” - might be helpful for some IIS that
collect data for Individuals/Patients from more than one State. This concept has not been developed in this document, as well as in the
earlier MIROW MOGE document [1.1].
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Table 9. Impact of the outcome of the RR Notification process on the assignment of
Patient/Individual statuses (excerpt from the MOGE document [1.1], p. 27)
Outcome of the RR
Notification process, postcard:
Provider level
Geographic Jurisdiction level
Returned with no forwarding
address
Returned with the forwarding
address outside of the
geographic Jurisdiction
Inactive- MOGE: BR13
Inactive – Lost to follow-up:
BR14
Inactive- MOGE: BR27
Returned with the forwarding
address within the geographic
Jurisdiction
Inactive-MOGE: BR13 – if
new address is out of the
immediate area,
or
Active - if new address
remains within the immediate
area.
Active: BR24, BR25
Not returned and there is no
response from the Patient
Inactive – Lost to follow-up:
BR14
Inactive – Lost to follow-up:
BR14
Inactive- MOGE: BR13– if
new address is out of the
immediate area,
or
Active: BR13 – if new address
remains within the immediate
area, e.g. Patient lives in NJ,
but uses Provider in NY.
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Contact is not dependent on
time of the day the call is made
Unable to Contact
We were not able to contact 13% of
those we attempted to contact.
Reasons for non-contact were:
• Disconnected 43%
• Unauthorized Voicemail 15%
• No Answer 4%
• Non Authorized Answer 3%
• Hang Up 1%
• Other 34%
n = 6,333 call attempts
were made to 1,807 families
Figure 18. Illustration of person-to-person telephone-based RR
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Chapter 4: Influences on various aspects of RR operations
This section deals with topics that impact overall operations of IISs, as those topics relate to RR
activities. The topics covered are:
• IIS RR functionality
o General
o Forecasting algorithm
o Provider Considerations
o IIS support, including training
• Data quality
• Privacy and confidentiality
• Evaluation of Reminder/Recall outcomes and responses
Table 10. General recommendations (GR) for IIS functionality and various aspects of RR
operations
#
Statement
Comment
RR functionality: General
GR101
RR functionality should be automated to the
extent possible.
GR102
RR functionality should be able to identify and
notify susceptible individuals during disease
outbreaks or individuals in other targeted
populations.
GR103
RR functionality should record information
necessary to track RR Responses and Outcomes.
GR104
Each IIS should have functionality:
• To allow Providers to use RR for its
Patients
• To allow local and State public health
agencies to perform RR on behalf of
For example, a list of candidate RR
Recipients for a second RR Notification
attempt can be automatically generated.
For example, a Hepatitis A outbreak or
kindergarten registration
For example:
• Bad address and bad telephone
number flags
• Number of attempts
• Opt out of RR
• Date of an RR Notification and
vaccines included in the RR
Notification
See Evaluation topic, Chapter 5
See principle P801
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#
•
GR105
Statement
Providers for the Provider’s Patients
To allow local and State public health
agencies to perform RR on a geographic
Jurisdiction level
Each IIS should have functionality to track
Patient active/inactive status at both the Provider
and geographic Jurisdiction level.
Comment
See MIROW MOGE document [1.1]
RR Functionality: Algorithm
Algorithm includes: a) assessment of a vaccine history, and b) making recommendations of what
vaccinations Patient needs and when (s)he needs them (forecasting).
GR201
RR functionality should include:
• Algorithm for ACIP recommendation,
and
• Algorithm for State school entry
requirements
GR202
RR functionality (algorithm) should support
newly introduced vaccines (including newly
introduced combination vaccines) within 90 days
of notification from ACIP or CDC, or as soon as
possible.
Population catch-up: When new vaccines or new
doses of a vaccine are recommended by ACIP,
some of the population is older than the routine
recommended age at the time of the
recommendation. For example, children currently
17 years old did not have 2nd dose Varicella
recommended when they were 4–6 years old)
These people may be considered for
Reminder/Recall or omitted from these efforts, as
deemed appropriate. Special Reminder/Recall
initiatives may be undertaken to “catch-up”
populations that were beyond the recommended
age when new recommendations were made.
GR203
GR204
RR functionality (algorithm) should support
vaccine recommendations dealing with deferrals
due to shortages, as appropriate, within 30 days
of notification from ACIP or CDC, or as soon as
possible.
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#
GR205
Statement
IIS should test all aspects of the RR-related
functionality regularly and in response to any
system change.
Comment
Periodic testing ensures correct RR
Notifications
RR Functionality: Provider considerations
GR301
All RR interfaces should be user friendly.
GR302
The IIS should provide RR functionality that
enables Providers to execute RR cost effectively.
GR303
RR functionality should include a wizard to walk
users through the RR process.
RR Functionality: Language
GR401
IIS functionality should record language
preference at the Individual/Patient level.
GR402
RR Notifications should be produced in the
language preferred by the Individual/Patient.
Refer to National Standards on Culturally
and Linguistically Appropriate Services
(CLAS) under Title VI of the Civil Rights
Act:
http://www.omhrc.gov/templates/browse.a
spx?lvl=2&lvlID=15
GR403
Language preference for RR Notifications should
be available once a certain % of the target
population language threshold is reached. (i.e.,
translate the RR Notification once language
threshold has been established)
Specifically for translations, an
organization is more likely to be assessed
as compliant with federal requirements if
it meets the Safe Harbor guidelines (A) All vital documents are translated for
each LEP (limited English proficient)
group of 5% or 1,000 (whichever is less)
of the eligible population OR
(B) If there are fewer than 50 persons in
the language group that reached the 5% in
(A), a federal funding recipient can
instead provide written notice in the
primary language of the right to receive
oral interpretation of those written
materials, free of charge.
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#
Statement
Comment
IIS support of RR, including training
GR501
IISs should provide multiple means for training
and re-training in the use of RR functionality.
For example, self paced on-line tutorial,
CD, Webcasts, person-to-person (regional
and local) and Help Desk
For example, analysis of flow of work at
the practice
GR502
IIS should provide support to Providers to
integrate RR into immunization delivery at the
practice level
GR503
Use of RR should be integrated with all training
and education opportunities for Providers
For example, Vaccines for Children and
AFIX
GR504
IIS should produce materials demonstrating the
value of RR at both the Provider and geographic
Jurisdiction level
See the Evaluation, Chapter 5.
Data quality
GR601
Data quality affects the selection of the RR
Notification method (letter, phone call, etc).
GR602
IIS should establish business rules regarding who
what, when, where, and how to validate and
standardize contact and immunization
information from any source
GR603
IIS should follow MIROW Data quality
guidelines.
GR604
IIS should have de-duplication procedures at the
Individual level to reduce duplicate or erroneous
RR Notifications.
GR605
IIS should follow guidelines for vaccine level deduplication to reduce duplicate or erroneous RR
Notifications
See P603 in Chapter 3, section “Selection
of the RR Notification method”
See [1.3]
See [1.2]
Privacy and confidentiality
GR701
RR Notifications must comply with local, State
and federal privacy and confidentiality laws and
regulations
Considerations include State laws
governing IIS operations, State privacy
laws and regulations and federal laws and
regulations, including HIPAA.
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#
Statement
Comment
HIPAA interpretations will vary and each
RR Originator must make its own
determination that the RR Notification
complies with HIPAA and other
applicable laws and regulations.
Evaluation of RR outcomes and responses (see chapter 5)
GR801
The IIS should collect data necessary for a basic
outcome evaluation for each RR process:
• Number and percentage of Individuals in
the target population who received the
recommended target vaccine(s) before RR
Notification (baseline immunization rate),
with date of calculation
• Number and percentage of Individuals in
the target population who received the
recommended target vaccine(s) one or
more times within a certain amount of days
after the RR Notification, as well as date(s)
of calculation(s)
Basic aggregate immunization rate is
“percentage of the target population that
has received all immunizations
recommended by ACIP for the age of the
Individual in the target population, using
the end of any age range and grace
periods”.
The goals for the RR process may specify
modifications and/or other definitions for
immunization rate(s).
GR802
The IIS should automatically produce
documentation of a basic outcome evaluation for
each RR process
GR803
The IIS should have functionality (algorithm) for For the targeted RR population and for the
calculating immunization rate before and after the targeted vaccine(s).
RR Notification.
See BR801 and Chapter 5
GR804
The RR Status Indicator should exist to support
tracking of the every RR Notification issued.
See the section “RR Log and RR Status
Indicator” in the Chapter 5.
See also P801.
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Chapter 5: Evaluation of Reminder/Recall Outcomes and Responses
Evaluation of RR Outcomes and Responses is important to show the value of Reminder/Recall to
Providers, funders and policy makers and to make the most efficient use of resources. RR
Responses are results of a RR Notification that characterize the communication process. RR
Outcomes are results of a RR Notification that characterize Patient status or Immunization status.
See Appendix A, domain model, for a discussion of RR results in terms of Responses and
Outcomes, as well as for a discussion of Patient active/inactive status and Immunization status
for a Patient.
Evaluation of RR Outcomes
Measures of RR Outcomes that could be considered in an evaluation include:
• Number and percentage of Individuals in the target (and control) population who
received the recommended target vaccine(s) before RR Notification (baseline
immunization rate), with date of calculation
• Number and percentage of Individuals in the target (and control) population who
received the recommended target vaccine(s) one or more times within a certain amount
of days after the RR Notification, as well as date(s) of calculation(s)
• Number and percentage of Individuals with immunizations added to the IIS after the
RR Notification
o Number and percentage of Individuals with historical immunizations added to
the IIS after the RR Notification. Historical immunizations can be defined as
immunizations reported to the IIS after the RR Notification, with administration
dates prior to the RR Notification.
o Number and percentage of Individuals with Vaccinations administered after the
RR Notification. Administered Vaccinations can be defined as doses reported
after the RR with administration dates after the RR Notification.
• Number and percentage of Individuals who should have been excluded from the RR
process as a result of quality improvement processes (deduplication, exceptions, other)
Evaluation of RR Responses
Measurement and evaluation of Responses to RR Notifications vary based on the type of RR
Notification. Measures of Responses to RR Notifications that could be considered in an
evaluation include:
• For telephone/autodialer RR Notifications (not all of these items can be measured by an
autodialer)
o Number of telephone calls not made, e.g., one or more number is missing
o Among all phone calls made
• Number and percentage of calls not answered
• Number and percentage of phone numbers
changed/disconnected/wrong
• Number and percentage unreachable due to busy signal
• Number and percentage of messages left on answering machines
• Number and percentage of unauthorized answering machine (wrong
name)
• Number and percentage of calls answered by unauthorized person
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•
•
•
•
•
Number of total attempts and time of day of attempts
Number and percentage hang ups
Other
Number and percentage of calls answered by parent/adult. Of those,
the number and percentage who:
1. agree to make appointment
2. cannot get access to care
3. refuse immunizations, etc.
4. appointment already scheduled
5. child no longer lives in home
6. parent concerned with vaccine safety
For Postcard/letter RR Notifications
• For RR Notifications not sent the number and percentage of card/letters not sent
in each of the following groups:
o No address/incomplete address
o Change in Patient Status
o Duplicate record
o RR Originator choice (e.g., does not have vaccine, does not administer
that immunization)
• For RR Notifications sent the number and percentage:
o returned with unknown address
o where address was updated
o responded /not responded
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19-20 month Cohort Total:
1704
Number of Children Not
Current for Immunizations:
1316
Number not sent
Recall Notification: 234
Number of Children
Current for Immunizations:
388
Number sent
Recall Notification: 1082
Reasons for not sending RR Notification
ACIP schedule not followed
MOGE prior to recall notice
Hep A only recommended shot
Duplicate record
Appts scheduled in future
Exemption from shot
Reminder card previously sent
Undetermined
Remaining call
attempts were not
captured here
61
88
52
9
8
2
2
12
4 Month Follow-Up
1306 additional services
added to 426 children’s records
Historical immunizations
added to IIS:
68 kids (16.0%)
275 shots (21.1%)
Additional
immunizations administered:
276 kids (64.8%)
605 shots (46.3%)
Both additional Immunizations administered
and historical added:
82 kids (19.2%)
Historical
immunizations added to
IIS: 257 shots (19.7%)
Additional
immunizations administered:
169 (12.9%)
Figure 19. Illustrative example - RR Outcomes evaluation (Colorado IIS)
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Table 11. Illustrative example – a relatively simple way of measuring the impact of RR
(Oklahoma)
DATE
April 2005
May 2005
June 2005
July 2005
August 2005
September 2005
October 2005
November 2005
December 2005
January 2006
February 2006
March 2006
April 2006
May 2006
June 2006
July 2006
August 2006
September 2006
October 2006
November 2006
December 2006
January 2007
February 2007
March 2007
April 2007
May 2007
June 2007
July 2007
August 2007
RECALL
TOTAL
Postcards
11193
11922
5076
11836
11922
11898
12904
13526
14930
15664
15197
15473
14530
13873
14248
14169
13886
12964
13986
14257
14735
14724
14246
13963
13359
14332
14026
13022
12606
Number of records updated within:
BAD
ADDRESS
775
712
256
256
220
237
337
405
140
190
177
376
426
244
214
176
WEEK1
717
532
423
819
837
897
1057
929
647
965
829
1151
1098
905
996
1101
1205
1009
952
870
1112
1083
1031
895
909
642
1014
861
688
WEEK 2
572
531
365
688
534
629
772
549
531
939
882
967
805
812
883
911
995
787
875
803
488
759
784
791
666
716
860
730
690
WEEK 3
559
334
192
655
560
537
637
406
763
673
712
795
694
682
456
815
599
583
740
280
531
775
681
684
527
575
494
699
596
WEEK 4 WEEK5
326
0
0
452
0
489
0
523
1
180
0
559
731
0
0
470
0
534
116
670
261
690
392
616
58
386
0
456
0
667
121
664
507
415
0
621
604
0
0
809
473
482
279
282
0
629
536
0
0
79
0
628
1030
583
172
543
269
Total % of
records
updated within
5 weeks
19.4
11.7
28.2
22.4
20.5
18.8
29.1
13.9
16.1
20.6
22.0
25.8
22.5
20.0
19.5
25.5
28.5
21.5
27.1
13.7
23.1
22.9
19.5
25.3
15.7
14.0
28.7
23.3
22.1
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RR Log and RR Status Indicator
To collect information on RR Responses and Outcomes each IIS should keep information related
to the RR at the RR level. Information should be kept automatically to the extent possible. A RR
Log that contains unstructured text-based information does not always provide sufficient support
for the automatic tracking of RR Notifications and, therefore, can’t be used as a basis for
business logic automation.
A multivariable RR Status Indicator that contains structured information (e.g., information
organized and stored in database tables) can better support systematic tracking of RR
Notifications, as well as automation of tracking and reporting. Implementation of RR Status
Indicators can help to collect and logically organize responses, outcomes, and other data that
characterize the RR process, as well as to coordinate RR efforts among multiple parties
(potential RR Originators) to prevent duplication of RR Notifications issued to the same Patient.
As noted in general recommendation GR804, an RR Status Indicator should exist for every RR
Notification issued. The RR Status Indicator should be maintained by the IIS and can be
populated by all parties participating in the RR process.
Information recorded in an RR log, or preferably in the RR Status Indicator, could include:
• RR Notification not sent (no address in IIS, or incomplete address)
• RR Notification sent and date (time of day if phone)
• No response after x number of days/attempts (e.g., phone does not answer, phone busy,
no answering machine)
• Phone number does not exist (changed), letter returned
• Message received (Message left on answering machine, person answered)
• and so on …
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Figure 20. New Jersey IIS screen shot of the Patient "outreach history",
demonstrating an "auto" entry as the result of a Reminder letter that was generated
from the system for this Patient and also the "manual" recording of a telephone
reminder and the outcome of that contact.
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Figure 21. Screen shot demonstrating tracking of person-to-person telephone Recall
Notifications (Colorado IIS).
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General considerations
For any evaluation, including an evaluation of an RR process, the goals must be specific and
measurable. The target population (and any control group) must be specifically defined. Criteria
that can be used to define the target population for the RR process are discussed in the chapter 3,
section “Reminder/Recall Criteria”.
Comparison of the results in the target population to a control group increases the validity and
value of an evaluation. A control group can be the target population at an historical point in time
prior to the RR process being evaluated or a different population at the same point in time as the
RR process being evaluated. In either case, it is important to show that the target population and
the control group are comparable. Examples of attributes that should be comparable between the
target population and the control group are: 1) Demographic and socioeconomic status (e.g., age,
income, and poverty level), 2) Baseline immunization rate for targeted vaccine(s), 3) Insurance
coverage (Medicaid, private, uninsured), 4) Access to immunization services, and 5) Other
interventions and environmental effects on immunization practices during time of the RR. For
geographic Recall the following should also be comparable between the target population and
the control group: Percentage of participation (regular reporting) by Providers in the Jurisdiction
(public, private) and the percentage of the population with 2+ immunization records in the IIS.
A randomized assignment to the RR process and to a control group also increases the validity of
the evaluation. The randomization can be at various levels: by individual, by practice, or by
some other grouping (e.g., residents of a county).
Another general issue related to evaluation is the optimal amount of time elapsed between the
intervention (the RR Notification) and the measurement of the effect of the intervention (the RR
Outcome). The baseline outcome measure should be measured as close as practicably possible at
or prior to the time of the RR Notification. The optimal amount of time to wait after an RR
Notification to measure an RR Outcome should take into consideration the following:
• Age of the target population: For younger children, immunizations are
recommended within short intervals of each other and appointments are easier
to make.
• Timeliness of reporting to IIS- evaluation should allow time for
immunizations to be added to the IIS
• Method of RR Notification: Phone calls should have quicker outcome than
postcards
• Type of Vaccine
• Type of intervention
Responses and Outcomes can be measured after each RR attempt or after all RR attempts are
completed. Outcomes can be measured once or several times after the completion of all RR
attempts.
Many factors enter into determining the appropriate denominator for RR evaluation. It may be
appropriate to include the total number in the target population (and control population) in the
denominator, or it may be appropriate to adjust the denominator to include only those with an
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Active Patient status, and/or only those who have two or more immunizations recorded in the
IIS, and/or only those who received the RR Notification.
Evaluation of the cost of an RR process is also outside the scope of this document (refer to
principle P203 and the section “Selection of RR Notification method” where some of the cost
and cost-effectiveness issues are discussed). Evaluation of the cost of a RR process requires
collection and analysis of variables that are external to the RR process, including amount of time
spent on each RR activity by all personnel (programmers, IIS staff and managers, nurses, midlevel providers, medical assistants, physicians, office staff) and the cost of RR materials
(postcards, letters, postage).
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Chapter 6: Peer-reviewed literature references and literature-based
recommendations
This chapter includes a limited overview of the selected peer-reviewed sources on the topic of
Reminder/Recall in IIS. Please, refer to the “Selected References” section in this document for
the peer-reviewed sources discussed here and for other materials.
From [4.1]: Provider Reminder/Recall Systems are Recommended to Increase Coverage with
Universally Recommended Vaccines. The Guide to Community Preventive Services
(Community Guide). 1998, 2006.
• 17 intervention arms evaluated provider reminder/recall used alone and 12 intervention
arms evaluated multicomponent interventions that included provider reminder/recall.
Typical (median) improvements in vaccine coverage were 17 percentage points and 14
percentage points, respectively.
• Client reminder/recall interventions are strongly recommended on the basis of strong
scientific evidence that they improve vaccination coverage.
• Provider reminders that vaccinations are due or late (recalls) improve coverage with
universally recommended vaccines for adults, adolescents, and children; across a range of
intervention characteristics, including reminder or recall and varying delivery methods
(e.g., computerized or simple reminders, checklist, or flowcharts); in diverse settings and
populations; at different levels of scale (individual practice-based or community-wide);
and whether used alone or as part of a multi-component intervention.
From [4.2]: Patient reminder and recall systems to improve immunization rates. Cochrane
Database of Systematic Reviews 2005, Issue 3. Art. No.: CD003941. DOI:
10.1002/14651858.CD003941.pub2.
• This review found that reminding people to have vaccinations increased the number of
people vaccinated, whether the people were due or overdue for vaccinations.
• The increases were observed in both children and adults for all types of vaccines, but not
among urban adolescents in one study.
• Reminding people over the telephone, sending a letter or postcard, or speaking to them in
person increased vaccinations. Reminding people over the telephone was more effective
than postcard or letter reminders, but reminders over the telephone may be expensive
compared with alternative approaches. Autodialers have smaller but positive effects.
• Letter reminders were somewhat more effective than postcard reminders, among mailed
reminders.
• Providing numerous reminders was more effective than single reminders.
• Reminders also worked whether it was from a private doctor’s office, a medical center, or
a public health department clinic.
• Practitioners today can tailor their own billing systems to function as reminder and recall
systems for simple procedures, such as selecting all Patients over 65 years of age for
reminders about influenza or pneumococcal vaccination.
• A critical issue involves the complexity of “rules” required for a reminder or recall
system.
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•
o The simplest scenario involves elderly adults, because no special immunization
algorithm is needed and eligible patients can be selected by birth dates.
o A slightly more complex scenario involves “flagging” patients with chronic
problems, such as asthma or heart disease that would require influenza or
pneumococcal (for adults) vaccination.
o More sophisticated algorithms are required to track prior immunization status,
particularly for the complicated pediatric immunization schedule. A very
promising route involves practitioners linking with computerized immunization
registries that are being developed throughout the U.S. (CDCP1998; NVAC 1999;
USDHHS2000). These registries already contain the necessary algorithms to
assess up-to-date status of children, and could be modified to deliver patient
reminders.
There are additional benefits to the patient and practice, beyond improving immunization
rates.
o Studies have shown that patients who are behind with immunizations are also
behind in other measures of preventive care, (Fairbrother 1996; Rodewald 1995)
and that reminder or recall systems targeting immunizations can also have
“spillover effects” to improve other aspects of preventive care,(Rodewald 1999) if
they are used within primary care practices.
o Second, in fee-for-service settings, patient reminder and recall systems can
increase revenues by increasing visits.
From [4.3]: Effect of Patient Reminder/Recall Interventions on Immunization Rates. JAMA,
October 11, 2000—Vol 284, No. 14.
• The findings from this systematic review of the literature support the general
recommendation that all primary care practitioners should consider patient
reminder/recall systems to improve immunization coverage levels of their practices.
• We found that reminder/ recall was effective for both children and adults; in all types of
medical settings, including private practices, academic medical centers, and public health
department clinics; and for universally recommended vaccinations such as routine
childhood vaccinations as well as targeted vaccinations such as influenza vaccine.
• In addition, all types of patient reminder/recall systems were found to be effective, with
increases in immunization rates tending to be 5 to 20 percentage points.
• In general, the degree of improvement in immunization rates due to reminder/recall was
not associated with baseline immunization levels.
• Telephone reminders were most effective, while there were no major differences in
effectiveness among different types of mailed reminders.
• The few studies that evaluated patient reminder/recall combined with physician prompts
found results that were similar or slightly better than that of studies using only patient
reminder/recall.
• More intensive reminder/ recall systems, such as those using multiple reminders,
appeared to be more effective than single reminders. Single reminders were less costly
but also less effective.
• In studies that evaluated costs, patient reminder systems required a nontrivial expense but
led to spillover benefits by increasing preventive visits or receipt of other preventive
services.
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From [4.4]: Immunization Registry-Based Recall for a New Vaccine. Ambulatory Pediatrics
2002;2:438 443.
• Conclusions.—Letter and telephone recall for PCV7 vaccine did not significantly
increase the rate of PCV7 immunization in an inner-city teaching hospital serving a
disadvantaged population. The effectiveness of recall appears to have been limited by the
inability to reach many subjects by mail and telephone.
From [4.5]: Implementation of Universal Influenza Immunization Recommendations for
Healthy Young Children: Results of a Randomized, Controlled Trial With Registry-Based
Recall. Pediatrics 2005;115;146–154.
• Registry-based reminder/recall was an effective intervention in this effort, particularly in
shifting the immunization to earlier times during an unexpectedly early influenza
epidemic, in comparison with nonrecalled children, especially among 1- to 2-year-old
children.
• The intervention group received up to 3 reminder/recall letters, generated by the
immunization registry.
• In a nonepidemic year, recall might have appeared more efficacious.
• Reminder/Recall was important to the success of the practices, especially in shifting the
timing of vaccination to the period before the early epidemic developed.
• Note: Practices that achieved highest immunization rates were also proactive in planning
immunization clinics to handle extra volume of immunizations required.
From [4.6]: Identification and Recall of Children With Chronic Medical Conditions for
Influenza Vaccination. Pediatrics 2004;113(January);e26–e33.
• Reminder/Recall significantly increased influenza immunization in children with HRCs
(high-risk conditions; asthma/reactive airways disease accounted for 87% of all HRCs) with
a vaccination rate of 42% in those recalled, compared with 25% in control subjects. Recalled
subjects were more likely to have an office visit (68% vs. 60%) and less likely to have a
missed opportunity to immunize (28% vs. 37%) compared with control subjects.
o Reminder/Recall significantly improved immunization rates for children with
HRCs in each study practice, including in a practice that had a relatively high
influenza immunization rate in control subjects.
• Registry-driven reminder/recall significantly increased influenza immunization in
targeted children.
• The intervention group received a staged letter and postcard recall. During the second
week of October 2002, all intervention subjects received a letter strongly encouraging
influenza vaccination for their child, with a telephone number provided to schedule an
appointment. Four weeks later, another reminder was mailed to those who had not yet
been vaccinated, as determined by reviewing their influenza immunization status in the
registry. Four weeks after the second reminder, a postcard was sent to all unimmunized
intervention subjects.
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•
•
Patient reminder/ recall interventions have proved effective in multiple settings for
children who were not up to date with routine immunizations, but have been less well
explored for children who need influenza immunization.
Registries can track influenza immunization rates in recalled children and can increase
the efficiency of the reminder/recall by restricting subsequent mailings only to those
patients who are not immunized after the initial recall letter.
From [4.7]: Effectiveness and Cost-effectiveness of Letters, Automated Telephone Messages, or
Both for Underimmunized Children in a Health Maintenance Organization.
• For underimmunized 20-month-olds in this HMO setting, letters followed by automated
telephone messages were more effective and cost-effective than either message alone.
• Compared with letters alone, automated telephone messages alone were equally effective
and more cost-effective.
• The cost-effectiveness of automated telephone messages and letters may vary widely
depending on the setting, and choices among strategies should be tailored to the
populations being served.
From [3.2, p. 36]: Policy Recommendations for Washington State Immunization Reminder and
Recall System. Developed by the Task Force for Policy Recommendations Immunization
Reminders & Recall. October - December, 1998.
Summary of Benefits from Summary and Recommendations Regarding Reminder/Recall
Systems
Evidence supports that provider-focused reminder systems are more effective in increasing
patients’ immunization compliance than patient-focused reminder systems.
• Reminders targeted at both groups simultaneously appear to be the most efficacious.
• Computer-generated postcard/letter reminders appear to be more cost effective than
telephone reminders in increasing compliance rates.
• Reminder systems are most effective in increasing immunization rates when provider
continuity exists.
From [3.2, p.35]: Policy Recommendations for Washington State Immunization Reminder and
Recall System. Developed by the Task Force for Policy Recommendations Immunization
Reminders & Recall. October - December, 1998.
Summary Of Benefits Noted In Literature Search
Effect of Repeated Annual Reminder Letters on Influenza Immunization Among Elderly Patients:
The Journal of Family Practice, Vol.33, No.2,1991
• “Mailed reminders are of undoubted value in the promotion of influenza “
• However, “by themselves, clearly insufficient to produce satisfactory vaccination levels.”
• “They should be viewed as but one potential element in an overall strategy...”
Improving Influenza Vaccination Rates in Children With Asthma: PEDIATRICS Vol. 90,
December 1997
• “We conclude that this simple, inexpensive computerized letter reminder system is useful
. . . and it increased influenza vaccinations fourfold in the present setting.”
Chapter 6: Peer-reviewed literature references and literature-based
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•
However, “inasmuch as only 27% of parents responded to letter reminders, more
powerful interventions are needed to increase influenza vaccinations further for children
with asthma.”
Influenza Immunization: The Impact of Notifying Patients of High-Risk Status: The Journal of
Family Practice, Vol.33, No.2,1991
• “The postcard reminder significantly improved overall immunization rate.”
• “Both telephone and postcard reminders have been shown to be effective. The choice of
phone or postcard notification should be based on available staff, budgetary constraints,
and volunteer help...”
Comparison of three methods of recalling patients for influenza vaccination: CMAJ, VOL. 135,
NOVEMBER 1, 1986
• “Personal reminders by the physician and telephone reminders by the nurse were more
efficacious than reminders by letter.”
• “On the basis of our results, we propose a combined approach: a reminder by the
physician, followed by a reminder by letter or telephone for those who do not see the
doctor.”
• “However, if a single approach is required, a telephone reminder by the nurse represents
an effective alternative to commonly used mailed reminder.”
Computer-Generated Mailed Reminders for Influenza Immunization: Journal of General Internal
Medicine, Volume 7, 1992
“These results suggest that type and content of reminders, practice setting, and patient population
are important factors in the success of reminders.”
A Randomized Trial of Computerized Reminders for Blood Pressure Screening in Primary Care:
Medical Care, Vol. 27, No.3
• “Both the physician and letter reminders significantly improved screening rates
achieved.”
Chapter 6: Peer-reviewed literature references and literature-based
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Chapter 7: RR worst practices: Approaches not to take and things definitely
not to do
Background and assumptions
The purpose of this section is not to merely describe practices that are opposite to the best
practices developed in other chapters of this document; rather, it is to create a short reference list
to help IIS practitioners avoid most the common pitfalls of the RR operations. The worst
practices materials presented here have been developed in response to suggestions received
during the presentation of MIROW recommendations at the AIRA ad-hoc meeting at the 42nd
National Immunization Conference (Atlanta, Georgia, March 2008). The worst practices are
aligned with mission-critical IIS goals and functional areas as they described at
http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/programs/iis/what-iis.htm
Program support
IIS help immunization programs identify populations at high risk for vaccine-preventable
diseases and target interventions and resources efficiently.
• Sending un-coordinated notifications from multiple RR Originators to the same Patient
• Using the IIS RR functionality incorrectly, e.g., not printing our labels from the system,
but rather writing it down from the screen – new errors can be introduced.
• Spending most of the IIS resources on resource-consuming RR Notification methods,
such as home visits, without consideration of less resource-consuming methods.
• Sending RR Notifications to Patients who were mistakenly identified as high-risk
Patients.
• Sending RR Notifications to the same address after an undeliverable notice from USPS
has been received.
Consolidated records
IIS combine immunization information from different sources into a single record and provide
official immunization records for school, day care, and camp entry requirements.
• Sending RR Notifications without deduplicating data (on Patients and associated
vaccinations) in IIS. Result of this would be multiple notifications sent to the same
Patient. If records have been consolidated, the child would have been up-to-date.
Privacy and confidentiality
IIS must protect the privacy of all users, including children, families, and providers. According
to standards set by CDC, all IIS must have a written privacy policy that clearly defines the
following:
• Notification - parents must be notified of the existence of the IIS, what information will be
contained in it, and how the information will be used.
o Sending RR Notifications to Patients/parents who were not notified of a) that their
info will be included into the IIS and b) that this information will be used for the
RR
o Not clearly identifying the party issuing RR Notification
• Choice - Parents must be allowed to choose whether to participate in the IIS.
o Sending RR Notifications to Patients/parents who opted out of IIS or just of the
RR Notifications. Home visit would be especially bad in this situation.
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•
Use of IIS information - IIS information must only be used for its intended purpose and
not be used in a punitive manner.
o Leaving threatening messages (i.e., reports to Child Protective Services)
o Leaving messages that imply urgency
o Sending out RR Notifications for deceased individuals (within the retention
period)
o Sending out RR Notifications for individuals who have exempted from one or
more vaccines and/or the RR process
•
Access to and Disclosure of IIS information - Policies must clearly define who has access
to IIS information, what constitutes a breach of confidentiality, and what the associated
penalties are.
o RR Notification sent to a party who has no right to receive Patient’s information
o RR Notification violates HIPAA interpretation
•
Data Retention - the period of time that IIS information will be kept.
o Send out RR Notices for deceased individuals.
Clinical decision support
IIS help providers and parents determine when immunizations are due and help ensure that
children get only the vaccinations they need.
• Not using the RR Notification algorithm, but rather “manually” interpreting IIS data to
create notifications
• Not to conduct periodic quality assurance of the RR algorithm. Results in unjustified RR
Notifications and lots of complaints from Providers and IIS program.
• Issuing RR Notifications that lead to unnecessary immunizations
• Send out RR Notifications for HPV for boys
Timely immunization
IIS remind families when an immunization is due or has been missed.
• Not utilizing RR functionality.
Data exchange
IIS are capable of exchanging immunization information with immunization healthcare
providers. Data exchange between IIS and other information systems helps ensure timely
immunizations, consolidation of records, and allows immunization providers to work more
efficiently.
• Issuing RR Notifications for Patients with incomplete or incorrect record as a result of the
timing of the data exchange from the Provider. Sending out RR Notifications right before
IIS uploads data from a Provider (e.g., once a month)
• Data not complete enough or incorrect
Relations with Providers
• No process at the Provider level to handle calls for appointments
• Having insufficient resources to accommodate responses from RR efforts
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•
•
•
RR Notification sent out for a vaccine that is not available at the Provider office
No process in place to update records in IIS based on RR Notification process – at both
the Provider’s office and at the IIS
RR Notifications sent without sufficient input and buy in from Providers
o “Stealing Patients”
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Chapter 8: Barriers to implementation
This chapter describes barriers to implementation of the IIS Reminder/Recall functionality, as
well as some possible ways (shown in an Italic font) to address these barriers based on MIROW
best practice recommendations for this and other topics.
Barriers relate to four major categories:
1. Data quality of the IIS.
2. Cost and complexity of building the RR functionality.
3. RR functionality is not user friendly/useful/flexible, etc.
4. Limitations/issues on the Provider side (financial, time, education).
1. Data quality of the IIS: IIS are reluctant to build/use RR functionality because often quality
of data is not good enough for that purpose. The following are data quality issues that
directly affect accuracy of RR process:
• Incomplete immunization history capture in the IIS.
• Record duplication, which can result in erroneous assessment of Immunization status,
and sending more than one RR Notification to the same Individual.
• Incomplete/inaccurate capture of contact information in the IIS.
To address incomplete immunization history and contact information IIS should work toward
timely and complete reporting by all immunization providers, including all core data elements
(see Functional Standard # 1 at http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/programs/iis/stds/min-funct-std2001.htm) and the NVAC approved core data elements at
http://www.hhs.gov/nvpo/nvac/NVACIISReport20070911.doc).
To address barriers related to data quality issues, reference general recommendations GR601–
GR605 (Chapter 4) and principle P603 (Chapter 3). Also, refer to the MIROW documents on
the data quality assurance [1.3] and vaccination level deduplication [1.2] topics, as well as The
Unique Records Portfolio: A guide to resolving duplicate records in health information
systems, published by the Task Force for Child Survival (available at
http://www.phii.org/resources/doc/Portfolio%20ORDER%20FORM.pdf).
2. Cost and complexity of building/doing RR
• Building RR functionality is costly (time, money, resources, staff).
o The recommendations in this document can serve to provide common
standards for development of RR functionality and reduce time spent in
developing requirements.
• RR functionality is complicated, the more flexible it is the more complicated it is.
o To address this barrier see general recommendation GR303 (Chapter 4).
• Not sufficient guidance on what type of RR is most effective, and what intervals,
delivery modes and number of RRs are maximally effective
o To address this barrier see business rules BR601, BR602, and BR801, as well as
other principles and business rules in the section “Selection of the RR
Notification Method” and “Reaction to the RR Response” sections in Chapter
3.
• Doing recalls through the IIS is a big operation.
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•
o The recommendations in this document can serve to provide common
standards for development of RR functionality and reduce time spent in
developing requirements.
No funding for collaborative projects with Providers other entities.
3. Functionality of the RR or IIS has limitations
• Unable to use RR targeting specific vaccines or dose numbers.
o To address this barrier see BR401 in the section “RR Criteria” (Chapter 3.)
• RR is not adaptable to changes in vaccine environment (new vaccines, shortages,
schedule recommendation changes).
o To address this barrier see general recommendation GR202 - GR204 (Chapter
4).
• RR is not able to capture responses, follow-ups, outcomes.
o To address this barrier refer to the chapter 5 “Evaluation of RR Outcomes and
Responses”.
• IIS does not have the capability to capture Immunization Home.
o To address this barrier refer to the MIROW document on Patient active/inactive
status [1.1].
• Inadequate capture of Patient active/inactive status (e.g., MOGE), contraindications,
exemptions, opt-outs in the IIS.
o To address this barrier see general recommendation GR105 (Chapter 4). Also,
refer to the MIROW document on Patient active/inactive status [1.1].
• RR messages are not maximally effective, the best they could be.
o To address this barrier see section “Content of the RR Notification” (Chapter
3).
• RR messages are not culturally sensitive.
o To address this barrier see general recommendations GR401-GR403 (Chapter
4).
4. Providers do not use IIS RR functionality because they
• lack time/resources
• lack training (IISs do not have time/resources to train)
• have their own appointment/reminder schedules
• lack trust in the data
• dislike RR functionality (not flexible/does not meet their needs)
• don’t follow the ACIP schedule
To address barriers linked to Provider-related issues, reference general recommendations
GR104, GR301-GR303, GR501-GR504, as well as other general recommendations in Chapter
4 and principle P203 in Chapter 3. Also see references listed under item #1 ”Data Quality of
the IIS” above to address data quality and Provider trust in the data.
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Conclusions
These guidelines provide a knowledge base for the IIS on the Reminder/Recall topic. Consistent
use and implementation of these guidelines will help to improve Reminder/Recall practices in
immunization information systems. These guidelines are intended to support a consistent
alignment of the Reminder/Recall processes in IIS.
The following summary is a brief description of the key outcomes and accomplishments of the
MIROW work group:
• Developed and re-confirmed key definitions for the Reminder/Recall operations, such as
RR Originator, RR Distributor, RR Recipient, RR Notification, RR Notification method
and others (captured in the domain model).
• Developed a typical Reminder/Recall process in a form of a process description (use-case
model) and a process diagram. The process is intended to be flexible; it can accommodate
a variety of Reminder/Recall strategies and approaches. For example, restrictions related
to limited IIS resources can be accounted for upfront, during the criteria selection, or later
in the process when a list of potential Reminder/Recall Recipients is produced, or in both
places, as a multi-phase process, when results of initial considerations entered into a
criteria are adjusted after the list of potential Reminder/Recall Recipients is produced.
• Formulated 29 process–related principles and 23 process-related business rules.
• Formulated 30 general recommendations for the IIS Reminder/Recall operations,
including recommendations for IIS functionality.
• Described approaches for the evaluation of Reminder/Recall responses and outcomes,
including examples of quantitative measures for RR responses and outcomes.
• Composed a set of peer-reviewed literature references and literature-based
recommendations.
• Developed recommendations on the Reminder/Recall worst practices - approaches not to
take and things definitely not to do.
• Described barriers to implementation of developed best Reminder/Recall practices,
organized along four major categories: Data quality of the IIS, Cost and complexity of
building the RR functionality, RR functionality is not user friendly/useful/flexible,
Limitations/ issues on the Provider side (financial, time, education).
These best practice recommendations bring real world practical expertise from experts who work
daily with Reminder/Recall. The recommendations also draw upon the wealth of peer reviewed
literature that has been written on the subject of Reminder/Recall. The Work Group intended to
maintain an appropriate mix of practical real world public health considerations and peer
reviewed recommendations for the IIS community.
The recommendations are intended to be at the business/operational level and, as a result,
independent from particular IIS implementations and technology solutions. Accordingly, the
recommendations will be able to support the wide variety of IIS implementations strategies on
different technological platforms.
Conclusions
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The approach and results presented are relevant for and can be used beyond immunization
information systems—for developing and documenting best practices and operational
requirements for applications in public health, healthcare, and other areas.
The National Vaccine Advisory Committee (NVAC) has included a recommendation to
"Promote the adoption of a guidebook and best practices for IIS as started by the CDC/NIP and
AIRA/MIROW workgroup to adopt consistent operational guidance and quality control
procedures that ensure good data quality." This guide is one example of addressing this
recommendation in the Reminder/Recall area.
Conclusions
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Selected references
Previously developed guidelines
1.1) AIRA Modeling of Immunization Registry Operations Workgroup (eds). Management
of Moved or Gone Elsewhere (MOGE) Status and Other Patient Designations in
Immunization Information Systems. Atlanta, GA: American Immunization Registry
Association. December, 2005.
http://www.immregistries.org/docs/MIROW_MOGE_Chapter_Final_122005_rev1.doc .
1.2) AIRA Modeling of Immunization Registry Operations Workgroup (eds). Vaccination
level deduplication in Immunization Information Systems. Atlanta, GA: American
Immunization Registry Association. December, 2006.
http://www.immregistries.org/pdf/AIRA_BP_guide_Vaccine_DeDup_120706.pdf .
1.3) AIRA Modeling of Immunization Registry Operations Workgroup (eds). Data quality
assurance in Immunization Information Systems: Incoming Data. Atlanta, GA: American
Immunization Registry Association. February, 2008.
http://www.immregistries.org/pdf/AIRA_MIROW_Chap3_DQA_02112008.pdf .
1.4) AIRA Vaccine Safety and Registry Community Workgroup (eds). IIS-VAERS
Collaboration For Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting. Functional and Process
Recommendations. Atlanta, GA: American Immunization Registry Association. April, 2005.
http://www.immregistries.org/docs/IISVAERS_Collaboration_final_VASRECWG_
042005.doc
Reference materials
2.1) 2001 Minimum Functional Standards for Immunization Registries.
http://www.cdc.gov/nip/registry/st_teR/R/tech/stds/min-funct-stds2001.htm
2.2) The Community Immunization Registries Manual.
http://www.cdc.gov/nip/registry/pubs/cir-manual/cirman3.pdf
2.3) Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases: Appendices. The Pink
Book 10th Edition. Standards for Child and Adolescent Immunization Practices.
http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pubs/pinkbook/default.htm
2.4) AIRA Data Definitions Workgroup materials.
http://www.immregistries.org/docs/IIS_Data_Codebook_072808.xls
2.5) The National Immunization Survey (NIS). 2004 Annual and Final Methodology Report.
Selected references
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Materials from individual IIS
3.1) Preparatory materials (APPENDICES) for the Reminder/Recall topic.
3.2) Policy Recommendations for Washington State Immunization Reminder and Recall
System. Developed by the Task Force for Policy Recommendations Immunization
Reminders & Recall. October - December, 1998. (located in [3.1])
Selected literature sources
4.1) Provider Reminder/Recall Systems are Recommended to Increase Coverage with
Universally Recommended Vaccines. The Guide to Community Preventive Services
(Community Guide). 1998, 2006.
http://www.thecommunityguide.org/vaccine/vpd-int-prov-remind.pdf
4.1.1) MMWR/Recommendations and Reports – June 18, 1999; 48.
http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/PDF/R/R/R/R4808.pdf
4.1.2) Am J Prev Med 2000;18(1S); 92–96.
4.2) Jacobson Vann JC, Szilagyi P. Patient reminder and recall systems to improve
immunization rates. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2005; Issue 3. Art. No.:
CD003941. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003941.pub2.
http://www.mrw.interscience.wiley.com/cochrane/clsysrev/articles/CD003941/frame.html
4.3) Szilagyi PG, Bordley C, Vann JC; et al. Effect of patient Reminder/Recall interventions
on immunization rates. JAMA October 11, 2000;284:1820–1827.
http://jama.amaassn.org/cgi/reprint/284/14/1820?maxtoshow=&HITS=10&hits=10&RESULTFORMAT=&f
ulltext=Szilagyi&searchid=1&FIRSTINDEX=0&resourcetype=HWCIT
4.4) Daley MF, Steiner JF, Brayden RM, Xu S, Morrison S, Kempe A. Immunization
registry-based recall for a new vaccine. Ambulatory Pediatrics 2002;2:438 443
4.5) Kempe A, Daley MF, Barrow J, et al. Implementation of universal influenza
immunization recommendations for healthy young children: results of a randomized,
controlled trial with registry-based recall. Pediatrics January 2005;115:146-154
http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/reprint/115/1/146
4.6) Daley MF, Barrow J, Pearson K, et al. Identification and recall of children with chronic
medical conditions for influenza vaccination. Pediatrics January 2004;113:e26-e33
http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/reprint/113/1/e26
Selected references
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4.7) Lieu TA, Capra AM, MakolDagger J, Black SB, Shinefield HR, and for the
Immunization Message Study Group. Effectiveness of letters, automated telephone messages,
or both for underimmunized children in a health maintenance organization. Pediatrics April
1998;101:e3
http://www.pediatrics.org/cgi/content/full/101/4/e3
Selected references
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Appendix A. Domain model
Background
In developing the domain model presented in this section, the MIROW defined a set of terms and
definitions identifying concepts and data elements relevant for the Reminder/Recall topic. The
resulting set of terms and definitions, captured in the domain model, provides a vocabulary for
consensus-based best practice recommendations formulated by the group. The MIROW took as a
starting point existing models constructed for topics of Patient immunization status (MOGE),
vaccination level deduplication, and data quality assurance [1.1 – 1.3]. These models were
harmonized, modified, and partially simplified to fit needs of the Reminder/Recall topic. The
resulting domain model was developed during the preliminary phase of this project, in a series of
web-based teleconferences among MIROW experts, and was finalized during the face-to-face
meeting.
Domain model purpose and explanation
A domain is an area of knowledge or activity characterized by a set of concepts and terminology
understood by the business practitioners in the area.
A domain model captures a business vocabulary—terms and definitions. It ensures that all
terminology and concepts that will appear in the process description, principles and business
rules are known and understood by the domain practitioners (agreed-upon definitions and
meaning).
A domain model includes:
• A domain diagram(s) that shows major business entities, their relationships and
responsibilities (Fig. 22-A1 - Fig. 27-A6).
• A table of entities and attributes that provides the full descriptive details of the
components represented on the diagram (Table 13-A2).
• A description of the domain diagram (presented below).
Unlike a data model diagram that depicts storage of information, or a workflow/process diagram
that depicts the sequence of steps in a process, a domain diagram is a high-level static
representation of the main “things” (entities) involved in the immunization process, including a
description of how these “things” (entities) are related. It is important to note that the domain
diagram is not a technical specification. Instead, the domain diagram provides the foundation for
other modeling diagrams and materials.
How to read and interpret the domain diagram (see Fig.22-A1)
o Relationships between entities are visualized by connecting lines.
o Names associated with these lines describe the type of the relationship between entities.
Example: a relationship between Population Group and Jurisdiction is shown as a
connecting line with the word (label) “belongs to”. Such a relationship should be read as
“Population Group belongs to Jurisdiction”.
o The general convention for interpretation of relationships between entities is to construct
such a description by reading clockwise, starting from the first entity name (Population
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Group), then relationship name—belongs to (note, that the name is shown left from the line,
supporting a clockwise reading), then the second entity name (Jurisdiction).
o If we need to read the same description in the opposite direction, from Jurisdiction to
Population Group, we would have to place a second name— “includes” —right from the
line. In this case, using the clockwise reading rule, a description would be “Jurisdiction
includes Population Group.” In most cases just one name for a relationship is employed
(like “belongs to” in the example just considered) assuming that it should be sufficient for a
proper interpretation of a relationship in both directions.
Description of the domain diagrams
The entities and their characteristics (attributes) presented on domain diagrams (Fig. 22-A1 –
Fig. 27-A6) describe a limited fragment of the overall immunization domain related to the IIS
Reminder/Recall topic. Entities (and attributes) presented on these diagrams are described in
Table 13-A2. Also, a domain model developed for the MIROW Data Quality Assurance topic
[1.3] provides details for the Vaccination Event and Vaccination entities.
The domain model intended to cover entities involved in two main Reminder/Recall scenarios:
1) IIS or some third party utilizing IIS (e.g., Provider) sends the RR Notification directly to an
Individual/Patient or to a responsible party responsible (e.g., parent/guardian).
2) IIS or some third party utilizing IIS (e.g., local Public Health Entity) sends the RR
Notification through a distributor - some Organization (e.g., School, Provider) that distributes it
to an Individual/Patient or to a responsible party (e.g., parent/guardian).
Two main terms for this topic – Reminder and Recall – are defined by the group in the following
way:
• Immunization Reminder is a notification process used to communicate that an
Individual is due for one or more recommended immunizations now or on a future date.
• Immunization Recall is a notification process used to communicate that an Individual is
past due for one or more recommended immunizations (note: not to be confused with a
Vaccine Recall).
a) Vaccination Encounter – Vaccination Event – Vaccine (Fig. 22-A1 and domain model in
[1.3])
Patient is getting vaccinated as a result of the Vaccination Event (Fig. 22-A1). More than one
Vaccination Event can happen during the Vaccination Encounter (office visit). In other words,
Patient can receive several Vaccine shots during a single office visit; each shot would be
represented by a dedicated vaccination event. Accordingly, the relationship between Vaccination
Event and Vaccination Encounter on a more detailed diagram (see [1.3]) is labeled with “1” for
the Vaccination Encounter and “1…n” (meaning one or many) for the Vaccination Event.
Vaccine refers to a product that produces an immune response in a Patient and is administered
during the Vaccination Event. It is described by a set of characteristics (attributes), such as
([1.3]) Vaccine type, CVX code, CPT code, trade name, lot number, etc. A single Vaccine can be
related to multiple Families/Groups. Vaccine that belongs to multiple Vaccine Families/Groups
is referred to as a "combo" Vaccine. A single Family/Group can be related to multiple Antigens,
such as tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis.
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b) Patient – Provider – Immunization Home (Fig. 22-A1)
A Provider is an Organization that administers immunization to a Patient. Patient is a “type
of” Individual. Every Patient is an Individual, but not every Individual is a Patient.
Individual may be recognized as a Patient of a Provider not only when given an immunization
by a Provider, but also when the Patient is assigned by a health plan, or a Provider identifies the
Individual as a Patient, or Patient’s birth is reported by a Provider, or other medical information
identifies the Individual as a Patient.
A Patient may have a relationship with more than one Provider, but only one Provider may be
designated their Immunization Home [1.1]. An act of vaccination "activates" the Patient for a
Provider, but it does not automatically designate or change the Immunization Home for a Patient.
A Patient’s Immunization Home can be determined by parent/guardian election, or last
immunization from a Provider, or assignment by a health plan.
A Provider is accountable for its Patients, thus establishing Provider level accountability. More
than one Provider may be accountable for a Patient.
c) Public Health Entity - Jurisdiction – Population Group – Individual (Fig. 22-A1)
A Public Health Entity is accountable for a Jurisdiction, and, therefore, for the Population
Group / Cohort that is associated with the Jurisdiction, which contains a collection of
Individuals. Through a Jurisdiction level accountability, a Public Health Entity is responsible
for an Individual.
d) Reminder/Recall Notification (Fig. 27-A6 and Fig. 24-A3)
A Reminder/Recall Notification is issued accordance with a Reminder/Recall Protocol and
associated Criteria for a Recommended Vaccination for an Individual/Patient by a
Reminder/Recall Originator, e.g., IIS, Provider, health plan, State or local Public Health
Agency, etc (see Fig.24-A3 for the types of Reminder/Recall Originator).
A RR Notification can be issued to one or more Reminder/Recall Distributor(s) – an intermediate
party that delivers RR Notifications to RR Recipients. Based on the cross-reference Table 12-A1
below, the most common Originator – Distributor pair is IIS – Provider.
The RR Notification always related to one or more Patients/Individuals. The RR Notification can
be related or not related to a particular Provider.
Structurally, the RR Notification is a list (a set of data elements from the IIS): a list of one or
more recommended immunizations for a single Patient/Individual or for multiple
Patients/Individuals. HIPAA interpretations may restrict the information that the RR Notification
includes.
Appendix A. Domain model
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Table 12-A1. Cross-reference table of possible pairs of RR Originators and RR Distributors
RR Distributors
RR Originators
IIS
Program
Provider
Local
Public Health
Agency
Health
Plan
School
Provider
X
0
X
X
0
Local Public Health
Agency
X
0
0
0
0
Health Plan
X
0
0
0
0
School
X
0
0
0
0
A Recommended Vaccination takes into a consideration a Recommended Immunization
Schedule (e.g., ACIP recommendations or State school entry requirements), the
Individual/Patient Immunization History, Immunization Exemptions, and Immunization
Contraindications.
Elements that the RR Originator considers in an RR Criteria are the Individual/Patient
active/inactive, a.k.a. Patient status [1.1] and the Individual/Patient Immunization Status. Patient
active/inactive status conveys information with respect to the relationship of an
Individual/Patient to a Jurisdiction/Provider. Immunization status for an Individual/Patient
conveys information on “current” or “not current” (“complete” or “not complete”) or “up-todate” and “not-up-to date and eligible” with respect to one or more Recommended Vaccinations.
A Reminder/Recall Notification can be sent to more than one Party (Organization or
Individual – see Fig. 26-A5). For example, a Reminder/Recall Notification can be sent to an
Individual/Patient, a guardian (responsible party), a school, and a Provider. Also, if there is
insufficient coordination, multiple parties can issue Reminder/Recall Notifications to the same
Individual during the same time period, resulting in an inefficient duplication of RR efforts.
There are two types of Reminder/Recall:
• Provider-based recall, for Patients of a particular Provider
• Geographic recall, for Individuals with an address recorded in the IIS that is located
within a Jurisdiction
Appendix A. Domain model
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e) RR Responses and Outcomes (Fig. 27-A6)
There are two types of RR Notification results: RR response and RR outcome. An RR result
may be received/originated from an Entity/Party which is different from the original RR
Recipient, e.g., from the Post Office.
RR Response is a result of the RR Notification that characterizes the communication process.
Response examples are:
• Post card returned with or without the forwarding address.
• No reaction on the post card sent after the certain waiting period.
• Telephone line is busy, disconnected, or phone number has been changed.
• Request received from an Individual/Patient to be excluded from some or all future RR
Notifications.
Analysis and evaluation of RR Responses can help to improve the RR process.
RR Outcome is a result of the RR Notification that characterizes Individual/Patient
immunizations and/or Individual/Patient active/inactive status or Individual/Patient
immunization status.
Outcome examples are:
• Individual/Patient received immunization recommended in the RR Notification
(administered).
• Individual/Patient, Provider or other entity reported immunization recommended in the
RR Notification to the IIS (historical).
• Patient status changed from “Active” to “Inactive – MOGE” at the Provider and/or
Jurisdiction level
• Immunization Status for a Patient changed to “current/up-to-date” (based on information
on administered and historical immunizations)
Analysis and evaluation of RR Outcomes can help to justify the RR process.
Some RR Responses can lead to certain RR Outcomes. For example, after a specified number
(and type) of RR Notification attempts the Patient status can be changed to Inactive-Lost to
Follow-up. Also, it is possible to have an RR Response that would not result in an Outcome. For
example, the IIS can receive a request from the Individual/Patient to be excluded from the RR
process in the future.
Successful RR attempt either provides sufficient new or revised contact information to continue
the RR process or results in a change in the Patient status or Patient immunization status.
For example, if a postcard is returned with a forwarding address, and the forwarding address is
within the Jurisdiction, then the RR Notification can be repeated using the newly obtained
address.
Unsuccessful RR attempt is when no additional information is gained, and no Outcome is
achieved. For example, there is no response to a RR Notification (after a waiting period) and
additional RR attempts must be made in order to assign an Inactive status.
Appendix A. Domain model
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Revision date: 12-01-08
Jurisdiction
Public Health Entity
is accountable for
belongs to
utilizes
Population Group / Cohort
patients' immunization data
contains
IIS
Individual
a type of
utilizes
Provider
Patient
immunizes
e.g., office visit
Vaccination Encounter
immunization act
Responsible Party
Vaccination Event
a type of
Immunization Home
substance applied
Vaccine
See [1.3] for the detailed
description of these three entities
Note: see Table 13-A2 for the description of entities presented on this diagram
Figure 22-A1. Domain diagram: Patient – Provider and Jurisdiction – Individual (a fragment)
Appendix A. Domain model
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Revision date: 04-07-09
Minimum set of data items for an RR Notification
(card or letter) sent to an Individual/Patient:
1) Individual/Patient name
2) Generic message: "Our records show that
you/your child is due/overdue for one or more
vaccinations."
3) Generic message: "Please contact your
health care provider."
Minimum set of data items for the RR
Notification - when it is going to a Provider
1) Patient's name
2) Patient's unique identifier (DOB, patient's
ID, etc)
Additional data items can be defined. Some
data items might not be allowed by HIPAA.
Additional data items can be defined. Some data
items might not be allowed by HIPAA.
RR Notification is a list (a set of data elements
from the IIS): a list of one or more recommended
Immunizations for an Individual/Patient or for a
group of Individuals/Patients.
Reminder/Recall
Notification
HIPAA requirements might reduce amount of
information that the RR Notification contains
a type of
Electronic method
Mail
a type of
a type of
Postcard /
Mail label
Email
message
Letter /
Mail label
Telephone
Fax
message
Direct Contact (in-person)
a type of
a type of
Telephone
call
Text Message
Auto-dialing
Home Visit
Verbal or written
Reminder at the office
Appointment Card
Figure 23-A2. Reminder/Recall Notification – domain diagram (a fragment)
Appendix A. Domain model
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Revision date: 12-01-08
Reminder/Recall
Originator
IIS Data Source
a type of
IIS Program
Local Health
Agency
Provider
School
Independent Practice
Association
State
Agency
Childcare Center
Medicaid
Agency
University
Health Plan
Research Project
Note: This is not all-inclusive list of possible RR Originators. Any party with authorized
access to an IIS and authority to issue a RR Notification can be an RR Originator.
Figure 24-A3. Reminder/Recall Originator – domain diagram (a fragment)
Revision date: 12-01-08
Reminder/Recall
Distributor
a type of
Provider
State
Agency
Medicaid
Agency
Local Health
Agency
School
Health Plan
Childcare
Center
University
Note: This is not all-inclusive list of possible RR Distributors.
Figure 25-A4. Reminder/Recall Distributor – domain diagram (a fragment)
Appendix A. Domain model
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Revision date: 12-01-08
Participants of the Reminder/Recall Process
Entity/Party
Address
Mail Address
Telephone Number
Fax Number
Email Address
a type of
Individual
Organization
a type of
Patient
Patient's Authorized
Representative
a type of
Parent/Guardian
Health / Public Health Organization
Patient-related Organization
a type of
a type of
IIS
Program
State
Agency
Health Plan
Local Health
Agency
Medicaid
Agency
School
Research
Project
University
Provider-related Organization
a type of
Childcare
Center
Provider
Other Organizations
a type of
Independent
Practice Association
Child-Protective
Service
Note: This is not all-inclusive list of RR process participants.
Figure 26-A5. Participants of the Reminder/Recall process – domain diagram (a fragment)
Appendix A. Domain model
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US Postal
Service
Reminder/Recall in Immunization Information Systems
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Revision date: 02-03-09
Provider
Individual/
Patient
0..n
Reminder/Recall
Originator
1..n
Reminder/Recall
Notification
Reminder/Recall
Recipient
Reminder/Recall
Distributor
Individual/Patient or party
responsible for Individual/ Patient
0..n
Reminder/Recall
Protocol
Criteria
Notifications Count
Frequency
Recurrence
Recommended
Immunization Schedule
Reminder/Recall
Response/Outcome
results in
depends on
depends on
Recommended
Vaccination
Individual/
Patient
Information
(IIS)
Immunization
History
Immunization
Exemption
due or overdue
Immunization
Contraindication
Note: see Table 14-A2 for the description of entities presented on this diagram
Figure 27-A6. Domain diagram for Reminder/Recall– Main entities
Appendix A. Domain model
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Table 13-A2. Entities and attributes (terms and definitions) for Fig.22-A1 – Fig.27-A6
Name
Description
Address
Contact information for Individual, Patient,
Parent/Guardian, Provider, etc.
Entity/Party
Immunization
Contraindication
An individual or organization of interest (e.g., Patient,
Clinic).
Medical conditions/reasons that contraindicate a
vaccination for a Patient.
Immunization
Exemption
Non-medical reasons that exclude a Patient from
vaccinations.
Immunization
History
Immunization Home
A collection of vaccination events records for an
Individual/ Patient.
An Immunization Home is the practice (Provider) where
the Patient receives immunization services. A Patient can
be active with many Providers, but only one Provider will
be considered as the Immunization Home.
Immunization Information Systems or Immunization
Registries are confidential, computerized information
systems that collect vaccination data within a geographic
area.
A person. Population is comprised from Individuals. A
Patient is “a type of” (sub-group) Individual.
Immunization
Information System
(IIS)
Individual
Appendix A. Domain model
Remarks
Every Entity/Party (Organization or Patient) has an address,
often – multiple addresses.
Address includes mail address, telephone, email address,
etc.
e.g., Foster Care (when a guardian of a Patient)
See “Guide to Contraindications to Vaccination” at
http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/recs/vacadmin/downloads/contraindications_guide.pdf
All States allow a medical exemption and some States allow
philosophical and/or religious exemptions.
See http://www.immunize.org/exemptions/
See [1.1, p.29]
See http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/programs/iis/what-iis.htm
IIS Program vs. IIS Data Source – see Fig.24-A3
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Name
Description
Remarks
Jurisdiction
The geographic Jurisdiction could be a State, a
metropolitan area (New York City, Chicago, etc.), a county
within a State, or some other subdivision of a larger
Jurisdiction.
A Jurisdiction might encompass the entire country, as is the
case with nationwide Jurisdictions such as the Jurisdictions
of the Veterans Administration (“non-geographic
Jurisdiction”).
Organization
A type of Entity/Party, such as clinic, foster home, etc.
Parent/Guardian
A type of responsible party for an Individual/Patient.
Patient
An Individual who is associated with a Provider.
Population Group /
Cohort
Part of the population (individuals) within a Jurisdiction.
Provider
An Organization that administers immunizations. A
Provider Organization is a collection of related clinicians
that are treated as an entity that administer immunizations.
It may include a number of different clinical offices/sites
and physician groups.
Public Health Entity
A governmental agency with public health oversight or
management responsibilities over a particular public health
Jurisdiction and associated Population (Individuals).
Appendix A. Domain model
Patient active/inactive status, a.k.a. Patient status [1.1],
conveys information with respect to the relationship of an
Individual/Patient to a Jurisdiction/Provider. Immunization
status for an Individual/Patient that conveys information on
“current” or “not current” or “up-to-date” and “not-up-to
date and eligible” with respect to one or more
Recommended Vaccinations
Provider’s organization "owns" the immunization.
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Name
Description
Remarks
Reminder/Recall
Protocol
A set of rules and procedures that guides the
Reminder/Recall operations.
R/R Criteria
(attribute of R/R
Protocol)
A set of conditions (filters) used to produce the list of RR
candidates.
Based on the following considerations:
• Individual/Patient age (DOB)
• Immunization status with respect to one or more
Vaccine Family/Group (Vaccine type / CVX code)
• Dose number within vaccine series (Vaccine
Family/Group)
• Associations between a Provider and its Patients,
such as medical home or Immunization Home
• Active/Inactive status at the Provider and geographic
level
• High risk status for a Patient or population
• Address attributes: State, county, city, zip or public
health entity area of responsibility
• Association with a particular program (e.g., WIC,
Medicaid, Fire Department)
• Health plan (insurance) or payer source
• Exemptions and contraindications for a vaccine(s)
(may be temporary or permanent)
• Language preference
• Occupation
• Opt-out from RR process in whole or in part
R/R Frequency
(attribute of R/R
Protocol)
Frequency of R/R Notifications – single or multiple.
•
•
Appendix A. Domain model
Single (RR Notification issued only once)
Multiple (RR Notification for same Immunization
Events issued multiple times)
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Name
Description
R/R Notification
Count
(attribute of R/R
Protocol)
Remarks
Used to:
• Modify Individual/Patient active/inactive status, e.g.,
MOGE
• Exclude Individuals/Patients from future RR
Notifications, e.g., stop after 3 RR Notifications
•
•
R/R Recurrence
(attribute of R/R
Protocol)
Recommended
Vaccination
An immunization that is due or past due for an
Individual/Patient for a Vaccine per a Recommended
Immunization schedule.
Recommended
Immunization
Schedule
Recommendations or requirements concerning when a
Vaccination is due or past due.
Periodic (time-based), e.g., monthly
Event-driven, e.g., upon resolution of Vaccine
shortage
Recommended Immunization Schedules include:
• ACIP recommendations
• State school entry requirements
Recommended Immunization Schedules take into account
immunization history of the Individual and minimum
intervals.
See http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/recs/schedules/childschedule.htm
Reminder/Recall
Distributor
Organization (e.g., school, Provider) that receives the RR
Notification from RR Originator and distributes it to an
Individual/Patient or to a responsible party (e.g.,
parent/guardian).
Appendix A. Domain model
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Name
Reminder/Recall
Notification
Description
Remarks
A communication sent to an Entity/Party (e.g., Individual,
Patient, parent/guardian, foster home) for one or more
Recommended Immunization(s) per a Reminder/Recall
Protocol.
e.g., Telephone call, postcard (mail label), letter (mail
label), email message, home visit.
Reminder/Recall
Originator
Entity/Party to which the Reminder/Recall Notification is
addressed (e.g., Individual, Patient, parent/guardian,
Provider)
e.g., IIS, Provider, Health Plan, Sate or local Public Health
Agency, Medicaid Agency.
Reminder/Recall
Recipient
Entity/Party to which the Reminder/Recall Notification is
addressed (e.g., Patient, Parent/Guardian, Provider)
RR Response
RR Response is a result of the RR Notification that
characterizes the communication process.
RR Outcome
RR Outcome is a result of the RR Notification that
characterizes Individual/Patient immunizations and/or
Individual/Patient status or Individual/Patient
immunization status.
Responsible Party
Entity/Party responsible for an Individual/Patient
Appendix A. Domain model
A RR Notification is a list (a set of data elements from the
IIS): a list of one or more Recommended vaccinations for
an Individual or for a group of Individuals.
An RR Response is not necessarily from the R/R Recipient.
It can be from the US Postal Service, a family member, a
landlord, another Provider, school, etc.
A fact of no response in a given period can be used for
certain actions (e.g., issue another R/R Notification)
Examples are: Parent/Guardian, foster home
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Name
Description
Remarks
School
Entity/Party, one of the possible RR Recipients
Vaccination
Encounter
Interaction between a Provider and Patient resulting in one
or more vaccination events.
Example: An office visit, at school, at work or in the
grocery store
Vaccination Event
Administration of one Vaccine to a Patient.
Several Vaccination Events can happen within one
Vaccination Encounter.
Vaccine
A product that produces an immune response in a Patient.
Appendix A. Domain model
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Appendix B. Work Group approach
Process
The process used for a development of best practices is presented on the Figure 28-B1. This
process includes six steps described below. Responsibilities of parties involved in the best
practices development effort are described in Table 14-B1.
Step 1. Topic selection is performed by the Steering Committee.
Step 2. Selection of subject matter experts (SMEs) is performed by the Steering Committee
based on recommendations from the public health community.
Step 3. Preliminary work is performed by a small group of business analysts and subject matter
experts (SMEs). This work includes gathering and analyzing current practices for the selected
topic. A goal is to develop materials that will serve as a basis for a productive face-to-face
meeting. Common products of this step include development of a domain model and related
glossary of common terms and definitions. Also, major areas of the collaborative work are
defined during this step, including modeling instruments and templates used to elicit and capture
information during the face-to-face session.
Step 4. The face-to face session is a culmination of best practice development efforts. It involves
a multidisciplinary team of experts, business analysts, facilitators, observers, administrative staff,
and sponsors (see Figure 29-B2). During the modeling session experts, acting in a focused,
structured, and facilitated environment, analyze existing "as-is" practices, brainstorm solutions,
and reach consensus regarding recommended best practices captured in the form of a "to-be"
model.
Step 5. The post-meeting phase is designated to finalize recommendations developed during the
face-to-face sessions. The major modes of collaboration during this phase are teleconferences
and e-mails. The duration of this step varies from a few weeks to a few months depending on the
amount and significance of remaining issues. Editors and external reviewers are involved in the
creation of a resulting best practices recommendations document.
Step 6. During the implementation phase, a survey instrument is used to conduct targeted
evaluation of IIS operations improvements resulting from utilization of the developed best
practices and, later, targeted efforts are initiated to promote and encourage compliance as
standards of excellence. Feedback from implementation efforts is analyzed, and best practice
guidance recommendations are updated accordingly.
Methods and techniques
• Business modeling techniques are employed to analyze IIS processes and to develop the
best practice recommendations.
• Facilitation and web-based teleconferencing techniques are used during the face-to-face
meeting session and conference call meetings.
• Standard Unified Modeling Language (UML) notation is the notation of choice for this
project. Subject matter experts do not need to have prior knowledge of this form of
Appendix B. Work Group approach
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•
•
notation. It is intuitive and easily interpreted by either technical or non-technical
professionals. Necessary explanations of the UML notation will be provided during the
face-to-face modeling sessions.
The definition of a consensus among subject matter experts regarding developed best
practice recommendations does not reflect an absolute 100% agreement, but rather it
means “I can live with that and support it.”
Best Practice Recommendations. Definition: A best practice is "a superior method or
innovative approach that consistently exceeds the standard level of performance as
determined by expert review, evidence of significant improvement vs. the standard
approach, consistently superior results, or agreement of multiple sources."
Yasnoff WA, Overhage JM, Humphreys BL, LaVenture M. A national agenda for public health informatics:
summarized recommendations from the 2001 AMIA Spring Congress. J Am Med Inform Assoc 2001;
8(6):535–45.
Simply speaking, a best practice for IIS is the agreed-upon "most superior way" to
perform a particular routine operation(s).
Resulting Products
Results of the analysis and the incremental, consensus-based recommendations development
process are captured in the following business modeling artifacts:
• Textual descriptions of restrictions, rules, and operational policies (business rules
modeling).
• Diagrams of the processes and process-related collaborations among parties (UML
activity diagrams).
• Diagrams of entities involved in the processes and their relationships (UML domain
diagrams).
• Other products in tabular and textual formats, as well as supporting sketches and
illustrations.
Appendix B. Work Group approach
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Figure 28-B1. The process of developing best practice recommendations
Appendix B. Work Group approach
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Steering
Committee
Panel of
Experts
Analysis
Team
Facilitation
Team
External
Reviewers
Editorial
Team
Table 14-B1. Process steps and participants responsibilities
Step 1:
Select the topic
Step 2:
Assemble experts
Step 3:
Preliminary work
Step 4:
Face-to-face meeting
Step 5:
Post-meeting work
Step 6:
Implementation
Heavily
involved
Appendix B. Work Group approach
Somehow
involved
Not
involved
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Discuss existing
practices
Reminder/Recall in Immunization Information Systems
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documented in
documented in
documented in
As-Is
Business Model
1
As-Is
Business Model
N
As-Is
Business Model
2
Provides expertise in
organizing and
conducting JAD
group activities
Analyzed at
Brainstorm
solutions
Public Health
Operational Topic,
Program N
Public Health
Operational Topic,
Program 2
Public Health
Operational Topic,
Program 1
Contribute
knowledge of
public health
Facilitated
Session:
JAD
Facilitation Team
SMEs
Subject Matter Experts
Reach
consensus
Capture consensus
"best practice" in
Contribute expertise
in systems modeling
To-Be
Business Model
Business
Analysts / Modelers
Best practices for
Public Health
Operational Topic
Figure 29-B2. Facilitated modeling session
Appendix B. Work Group approach
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