Implementing the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2 - Pre

Implementing the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2 - Pre
Front cover
Implementing the IBM
Storwize V7000 Gen2
Learn about the latest addition to the IBM
SAN Volume Controller/Storwize family
Understand the new functions and
features
Benefit from an uncomplicated
implementation
Jon Tate
Morten Dannemand
Nancy Kinney
Massimo Rosati
Lev Sturmer
ibm.com/redbooks
International Technical Support Organization
Implementing the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2
January 2015
SG24-8244-00
Note: Before using this information and the product it supports, read the information in “Notices” on
page vii.
First Edition (January 2015)
This edition applies to the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2 running software version 7.3.
© Copyright International Business Machines Corporation 2015. All rights reserved.
Note to U.S. Government Users Restricted Rights -- Use, duplication or disclosure restricted by GSA ADP Schedule
Contract with IBM Corp.
Contents
Notices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii
Trademarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . viii
IBM Redbooks promotions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix
Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi
Authors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xii
Now you can become a published author, too . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiv
Comments welcome. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiv
Stay connected to IBM Redbooks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiv
Chapter 1. Introduction to IBM storage virtualization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.1 Storage virtualization terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.2 Requirements driving storage virtualization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.2.1 Benefits of using IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.3 IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2 architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
1.3.1 IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2 components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
1.4 More information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Chapter 2. IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2 Hardware. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1.1 Scalable write cache . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1.2 Increase in performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1.3 Support for 20 Expansion Enclosures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2 New hardware on the Storwize V7000 Gen2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2.1 Controller hardware overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2.2 Base configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2.3 Controller SAS Topology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2.4 Compression Accelerator card . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2.5 Host interface cards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2.6 Expansion Enclosure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2.7 SES firmware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3 Expansion Enclosures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.1 Control enclosure midplane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.2 Battery backup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.3 Battery Pack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.4 Control Enclosure power supplies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.5 Control enclosure fan modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.6 Compression Accelerator card . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.7 FCoE and iSCSI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4 LEDs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4.1 Battery LED. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4.2 Control Enclosure LED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4.3 Expansion Enclosure LED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.5 Technician Port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.5.1 Technician port is marked with a T (Ethernet port 4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Chapter 3. Planning and configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
3.1 General planning rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2015. All rights reserved.
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3.1.1 Base software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2 Physical planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.1 Single rack or dual rack configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.2 Cable connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3 Logical planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.1 Management IP addressing plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.2 SAN zoning and SAN connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.3 iSCSI IP addressing plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.4 Native IP replication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.5 Back-end storage subsystem configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.6 Real-time Compression. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.7 Easy Tier version 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.8 Storwize V7000 Gen2 clustered system configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.9 Volume configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.10 Host mapping (LUN masking) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.11 Advanced Copy Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.12 SAN boot support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.13 Data migration from a non-virtualized storage subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.14 Storwize V7000 Gen2 configuration backup procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4 Performance considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4.1 SAN. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4.2 Disk subsystems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4.3 Cache . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4.4 Port Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4.5 Performance monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Chapter 4. IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2 Easy Tier. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1 IBM Storwize family software Easy Tier history . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.1 New features in Easy Tier 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.2 Storage pool balancing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2 Performance and monitoring considerations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.1 Considerations for optimal performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.2 Monitoring tools. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Chapter 5. The IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2 Initial Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
5.1 Managing the Storwize V7000 Gen2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
5.1.1 Network requirements for the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
5.1.2 Prerequisites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
5.2 Initial Configuration of the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
5.2.1 How to make the first connection to the Storwize V7000 Gen2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
5.2.2 System Setup wizard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
Chapter 6. IBM Real-time Compression and the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2 . . . . . . .
6.1 Real-time Compression background, overview, and value proposition. . . . . . . . . . . .
6.1.1 The solution: IBM Real-time Compression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.1.2 Common use cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.2 IBM Real-time Compression technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.2.1 Random Access Compression Engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.2.2 RACE in Storwize V7000 Gen2 software stack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.2.3 Data write flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.2.4 Data read flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.2.5 Compression of existing data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.3 Storwize V7000 Gen2 software and hardware updates that enhance Real-time
Compression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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6.3.1 Software enhancements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
6.3.2 Hardware enhancements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
Chapter 7. Performance overview of the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.1 IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2 performance overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.1.1 Drive Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.1.2 RAID performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.1.3 Drive, RAID, and storage pool best practices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.2 SAN Performance considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.3 Performance monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.3.1 Collecting performance statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.3.2 Real-time performance monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.3.3 Performance data collection and Tivoli Storage Productivity Center for Disk . . .
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Chapter 8. IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2 command-line interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.1 How to set up the CLI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.2 Configuring the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2 using the CLI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.2.1 Viewing the Node Canister details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.2.2 Configuring event notification settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.2.3 Configuring internal storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.2.4 Configuring external storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.2.5 Configuring volumes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.2.6 Configuring remote copy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.2.7 Configuring hosts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.3 New Commands introduced with the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Chapter 9. IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2 operations using the GUI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.1 Introduction to IBM Storwize V7000 GUI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.1.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.1.2 Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.1.3 Pools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.1.4 Volumes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.1.5 Hosts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.1.6 Copy services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.1.7 Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.1.8 Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.2 IBM Storage Tier Advisor Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Related publications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
IBM Redbooks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Other resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Referenced websites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Help from IBM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Notices
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viii
Implementing the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2
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Preface
Data is the new currency of business, the most critical asset of the modern organization. In
fact, enterprises that can gain business insights from their data are twice as likely to
outperform their competitors. Nevertheless, 72% of them have not started, or are only
planning, big data activities. In addition, organizations often spend too much money and time
managing where their data is stored. The average firm purchases 24% more storage every
year, but uses less than half of the capacity that it already has.
The IBM® Storwize® family, including the IBM SAN Volume Controller Data Platform, is a
storage virtualization system that enables a single point of control for storage resources. This
functionality helps support improved business application availability and greater resource
use. The following list describes the business objectives of this system:
򐂰 To manage storage resources in your information technology (IT) infrastructure
򐂰 To make sure that those resources are used to the advantage of your business
򐂰 To do it quickly, efficiently, and in real time, while avoiding increases in administrative costs
Virtualizing storage with Storwize helps make new and existing storage more effective.
Storwize includes many functions traditionally deployed separately in disk systems. By
including these functions in a virtualization system, Storwize standardizes them across
virtualized storage for greater flexibility and potentially lower costs.
Storwize functions benefit all virtualized storage. For example, IBM Easy Tier® optimizes use
of flash memory. In addition, IBM Real-time Compression™ enhances efficiency even further
by enabling the storage of up to five times as much active primary data in the same physical
disk space. Finally, high-performance thin provisioning helps automate provisioning. These
benefits can help extend the useful life of existing storage assets, reducing costs.
Integrating these functions into Storwize also means that they are designed to operate
smoothly together, reducing management effort.
This IBM Redbooks® publication provides information about the latest features and functions
of the Storwize V7000 Gen2 and software version 7.3 implementation, architectural
improvements, and Easy Tier.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2015. All rights reserved.
xi
Authors
This book was produced by a team of specialists from around the world working at the
International Technical Support Organization (ITSO), San Jose Center.
Jon Tate is a Project Manager for IBM System Storage®
storage area network (SAN) Solutions at the ITSO, San Jose
Center. Before joining the ITSO in 1999, he worked in the IBM
Technical Support Center, providing Level 2 support for IBM
storage products. Jon has 28 years of experience in storage
software and management, services, and support, and is both
an IBM Certified IT Specialist and an IBM SAN Certified
Specialist. He is also the UK Chairman of the Storage
Networking Industry Association.
Morten Dannemand is a Certified Client Technical Specialist
with IBM Technical Support Services in IBM Denmark. He has
been with IBM for 17 years, and has worked primarily with SAN
since 2005. Morten works across a wide range of platforms, for
example, EMC, SUN, IBM System x, and IBM System z®. He
is also an Account Advocate for Storage, advising customers in
managing their IBM storage portfolio.
Nancy Kinney is a Cloud Architect responsible for the
migration of large quantities of data from various locations into
the Cloud. She works with other architects globally, and assists
other IBM business units and the client in the development and
delivery of data migration solutions. She has significant
knowledge of storage technologies across multiple platforms,
processes, and architectures. Previously, she held the position
of Infrastructure Architect, and used engineering infrastructure
solutions to make use of technology guidelines to meet
technical requirements and business needs. She has also
worked as an IBM US Remote Technical Support Engineer for
IBM Global Technology Services® (GTS) in the Austin IBM
AIX® system and IBM System Storage center, acquiring
end-to-end experience in troubleshooting Fibre Channel (FC)
technologies. She holds an IBM Midrange Specialist
Certification, and NetApp/N-Series Certified Data Management
Administrator (NCDA) Certification.
xii
Implementing the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2
Massimo Rosati is a Certified Senior Storage IT Specialist for
IBM Italy. He has 29 years of experience in the delivery of
Professional Services and Software Support. His areas of
expertise include storage hardware, SAN, storage
virtualization, disaster recovery (DR), and business continuity
solutions. He has achieved Brocade and Cisco SAN Design
Certifications, and supports critical and complex client
engagements in the SAN and storage areas. Massimo has
written extensively about SAN and virtualization products in
several IBM Redbooks publications.
Lev Sturmer is a Level 3 Support Engineer in the Real-time
Compression division of IBM Storage and Technology Group
for the past 3 years, and works for IBM Israel. Before joining
IBM, Lev worked as a Security and Networking Engineer where
he gained 10 years experience across various environments.
Thanks to the following people for their contributions to this project:
Alan Dawson
Steven White
Chris Canto
Barry Whyte
Evelyn Perez
Lee Sanders
Katja Gebuhr
Paul Merrison
Gareth Nicholls
Ian Boden
John Fairhurst
IBM Hursley, UK
Special thanks to the Brocade Communications Systems staff in San Jose, California for their
unparalleled support of this residency in terms of equipment and support in many areas:
Madu Amajor
Silviano Gaona
Sangam Racherla
Brian Steffler
Marcus Thordal
Jim Baldyga
Brocade Communications Systems
Preface
xiii
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xiv
Implementing the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2
1
Chapter 1.
Introduction to IBM storage
virtualization
In this chapter, we introduce the concept of storage virtualization. Then, we present an
overview explaining how you can apply virtualization to help address challenging storage
requirements. Finally, we describe in detail all changes and enhancements of the IBM
Storwize V7000 Gen2 version 7.3, a key milestone in the product development roadmap.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2015. All rights reserved.
1
1.1 Storage virtualization terminology
Although storage virtualization is a term that is used extensively throughout the storage
industry, it can be applied to a wide range of technologies and underlying capabilities. In
reality, most storage devices can technically claim to be virtualized in one form or another.
Therefore, we must start by defining the concept of storage virtualization as used in
this publication.
IBM interprets storage virtualization in the following manner:
򐂰 Storage virtualization is a technology that makes one set of resources look and feel like
another set of resources, preferably with more desirable characteristics.
򐂰 It is a logical representation of resources that are not constrained by physical limitations:
– It hides part of the complexity.
– It adds or integrates new functionality with existing services.
– It can be nested or applied to multiple layers of a system.
When considering storage virtualization, it is important to understand that virtualization can
be implemented at various layers within the input/output (I/O) stack. We must clearly
distinguish between virtualization at the disk layer and virtualization at the file system layer.
The focus of this book is virtualization at the disk layer, which is referred to as block-level
virtualization, or the block aggregation layer. A description of file system virtualization is
beyond the scope of this book.
However, if you are interested in file system virtualization, see the following information about
IBM General Parallel File System (GPFS™) or IBM Scale Out Network Attached Storage
(SONAS), which is based on GPFS.
To obtain more information and an overview of GPFS and IBM Elastic Storage™, see the
following website:
http://www.ibm.com/systems/technicalcomputing/platformcomputing/products/gpfs/
More information about IBM SONAS is available on the following website:
http://www.ibm.com/systems/storage/network/sonas/
The Storage Networking Industry Association’s (SNIA) block aggregation model (Figure 1-1
on page 3) provides a useful overview of the storage domain and its layers. The figure shows
the three layers of a storage domain:
򐂰 The file
򐂰 The block aggregation
򐂰 The block subsystem layers
The model splits the block aggregation layer into three sublayers. Block aggregation can be
realized within hosts (servers), in the storage network (storage routers and storage
controllers), or in storage devices (intelligent disk arrays).
One of the IBM implementations of a block aggregation solution is IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2.
Storwize V7000 Gen2 is implemented as a clustered appliance in the storage network layer.
2
Implementing the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2
Figure 1-1 SNIA block aggregation model1
The key concept of virtualization is to decouple the storage from the storage functions that
are required in the storage area network (SAN) environment. Decoupling means abstracting
the physical location of data from the logical representation of that data. The virtualization
engine presents logical entities to the user, and internally manages the process of mapping
these entities to the actual location of the physical storage.
The actual mapping that is performed depends on the specific implementation, such as the
granularity of the mapping, which can range from a small fraction of a physical disk, up to the
full capacity of a physical disk.
A single block of information in this environment is identified by its logical unit number (LUN),
which is the physical disk, and an offset within that LUN, which is known as a logical block
address (LBA).
The term physical disk is used in this context to describe a piece of storage that might be
carved out of a Redundant Array of Independent Disks (RAID) in the underlying disk
subsystem.
Specific to the Storwize V7000 Gen2 implementation, the address space that is mapped
between the logical entity is referred to as volume, and the physical disk is referred to as
managed disks (MDisks).
1
This figure is produced by the Storage Networking Industry Association.
Chapter 1. Introduction to IBM storage virtualization
3
Figure 1-2 shows an overview of block-level virtualization.
Figure 1-2 Block-level virtualization overview
The server and application are only aware of the logical entities, and they access these
entities using a consistent interface that is provided by the virtualization layer.
The functionality of a volume that is presented to a server, such as expanding or reducing the
size of a volume, mirroring a volume, creating an IBM FlashCopy®, and thin provisioning, is
implemented in the virtualization layer. It does not rely in any way on the functionality that is
provided by the underlying disk subsystem. Data that is stored in a virtualized environment is
stored in a location-independent way, which enables a user to move or migrate data between
physical locations (referred to as storage pools).
We refer to block-level storage virtualization as the cornerstones of virtualization. These
cornerstones of virtualization are the core benefits that a product, such as Storwize V7000
Gen2, can provide over the traditional directly attached or SAN-attached storage.
Storwize V7000 Gen2 provides the following benefits:
򐂰 Provide online volume migration while applications are running, which is possibly the
greatest single benefit for storage virtualization. This capability enables data to be
migrated on and between the underlying storage subsystems without any affect to the
servers and applications. In fact, this migration is performed without the servers and
applications “knowing” that it even occurred.
򐂰 Simplify storage management by providing a single image for multiple controllers, and a
consistent user interface (UI) for provisioning heterogeneous storage.
򐂰 Provide enterprise-level copy services functions. Performing the copy services functions in
Storwize V7000 Gen2 removes dependencies on the storage subsystems, therefore
enabling the source and target copies to be on other storage subsystem types.
4
Implementing the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2
򐂰 Increase storage use by pooling storage across the SAN, and by enabling space reduction
techniques such an IBM Real-time Compression or thin provisioning.
򐂰 Improve system performance as a result of volume striping across multiple arrays or
controllers, and the additional cache that it provides.
Storwize V7000 Gen2 delivers these functions in a homogeneous way on a scalable and
highly available platform, over any attached storage, and to any attached server.
1.2 Requirements driving storage virtualization
Today, an emphasis exists on a dynamic infrastructure being able to adapt to company
requirements for diversified data operations. Therefore, there is a need for a storage
environment that is as flexible as the application and server mobility. Business demands
change quickly.
These key client concerns drive storage virtualization:
򐂰 Growth in data center costs
򐂰 Inability of information technology (IT) organizations to respond quickly to business
demands
򐂰 Poor asset use
򐂰 Poor availability or service levels
򐂰 Lack of skilled staff for storage administration
You can see the importance of addressing the complexity of managing storage networks by
applying the total cost of ownership (TCO) metric to storage networks. Industry analyses
show that storage acquisition costs are only about 20% of the TCO. Most of the remaining
costs relate to managing the storage system.
However, how much of the management of multiple systems, with separate interfaces, can be
handled as a single entity? In a non-virtualized storage environment, every system is an
“island” that needs to be managed separately.
1.2.1 Benefits of using IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2
Because storage virtualization is no longer merely a concept or an unproven technology, all
major storage vendors offer storage virtualization products. Using storage virtualization as the
foundation for a flexible and reliable storage solution helps enterprises to better align
business and IT by optimizing the storage infrastructure and storage management to meet
business demands.
Storwize V7000 Gen2 is a mature, second-generation storage system. It is based on the
software of IBM SAN Volume Controller, an eighth-generation virtualization solution that uses
open standards and is consistent with the SNIA storage model.
Storwize V7000 Gen2 is a storage system-based in-band block virtualization process, in
which intelligent functionality, including advanced storage functions, is available for internal
storage and any virtualized storage device.
Chapter 1. Introduction to IBM storage virtualization
5
Storwize V7000 Gen2 can improve the use of your storage resources, simplify your storage
management, and improve the availability of your applications. It can also reduce the number
of separate environments that need to managed down to a single environment. It provides a
single interface for storage management. After the initial configuration of the storage
subsystems that you are going to virtualize, all of the day-to-day storage management
operations are performed from Storwize V7000 Gen2.
In addition, because Storwize V7000 Gen2 provides advanced functions, such as mirroring
and FlashCopy, there is no need to purchase them again for each new virtualized disk
subsystem.
Today, it is typical that open systems run at less than 50% of the usable capacity that is
provided by the RAID subsystems. Using the installed raw capacity in the disk subsystems
will, depending on the RAID level that is used, show usage numbers of less than 35%.
A block-level virtualization solution, such as Storwize V7000 Gen2, can enable capacity
usage to increase to approximately 75 - 80%. With Storwize V7000 Gen2, free space does
not need to be maintained and managed within each storage subsystem, which further
increases capacity use.
1.3 IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2 architecture
Storwize V7000 Gen2 is a SAN block aggregation virtualization appliance that is designed for
attachment to various host computer systems.
There are two major approaches in use today to consider for the implementation of block-level
aggregation and virtualization:
򐂰 Symmetric: In-band appliance
The device is a SAN appliance that sits in the data path, and all I/O flows through the
device. This implementation is referred to as symmetric virtualization or in-band.
The device is both target and initiator. It is the target of I/O requests from the host
perspective, and the initiator of I/O requests from the storage perspective. The redirection
is performed by issuing new I/O requests to the storage. Storwize V7000 Gen2 uses
symmetric virtualization.
򐂰 Asymmetric: Out-of-band or controller-based
The device is usually a storage controller that provides an internal switch for external
storage attachment. In this approach, the storage controller intercepts and redirects I/O
requests to the external storage as it does for internal storage. The actual I/O requests are
themselves redirected. This implementation is referred to as asymmetric virtualization or
out-of-band.
6
Implementing the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2
Figure 1-3 shows variations of the two virtualization approaches.
Figure 1-3 Overview of block-level virtualization architectures
The Storwize V7000 Gen2 solution provides a modular storage system that includes the
capability to virtualize both external SAN-attached storage and its own internal storage. The
Storwize V7000 Gen2 solution is built upon the IBM SAN Volume Controller technology base,
and uses technology from the IBM System Storage DS8000® family.
A Storwize V7000 Gen2 system provides several configuration options that are aimed at
simplifying the implementation process. It also provides automated wizards, called Directed
Maintenance Procedures (DMP), to help resolve any events that might occur. A Storwize
V7000 Gen2 system is a midrange, clustered, scalable, and external virtualization device.
Included with a Storwize V7000 Gen2 system is a graphical user interface (GUI) that enables
storage to be deployed quickly and efficiently. The GUI runs on the Storwize V7000 Gen2
system, so there is no need for a separate console. The management GUI contains a series
of preestablished configuration options that are called presets, and that use common settings
to quickly configure objects on the system. Presets are available for creating volumes and
FlashCopy mappings, and for setting up a RAID configuration.
The Storwize V7000 Gen2 solution provides a choice of up to 1056 serial-attached Small
Computer System Interface (SCSI), called SAS, drives for the internal storage in a clustered
system. It uses SAS cables and connectors to attach to the optional expansion enclosures. In
a clustered system, the Storwize V7000 Gen2 can provide about 4 pebibytes (PiB) of internal
raw capacity.
When virtualizing external storage arrays, a Storwize V7000 Gen2 system can provide up to
32 PiB of usable capacity. A Storwize V7000 Gen2 system supports a range of external disk
systems, similar to what the IBM SAN Volume Controller supports today.
Chapter 1. Introduction to IBM storage virtualization
7
The Storwize V7000 Gen2 solution consists of 1 - 4 control enclosures and, optionally, up to
80 expansion enclosures. It also supports the intermixing of the different expansion
enclosures. Within each enclosure are two canisters. Control enclosures contain two node
canisters, and expansion enclosures contain two expansion canisters.
1.3.1 IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2 components
Storwize V7000 Gen2 has the following benefits:
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
Brings enterprise technology to midrange storage.
Specialty administrators are not required.
Client setup and service can be easy.
The system can grow incrementally as storage capacity and performance needs change.
Multiple storage tiers are in a single system with nondisruptive migration between them.
Simple integration can be done into the server environment.
The Storwize V7000 Gen2 subsystem consists of a set of drive enclosures. Control
enclosures contain disk drives and two nodes (an I/O Group), which are attached to the SAN
fabric. Expansion enclosures contain drives, and are attached to control enclosures.
The simplest use of Storwize V7000 Gen2 is as a traditional RAID subsystem. The internal
drives are configured into RAID arrays and virtual disks created from those arrays. Storwize
V7000 Gen2 can also be used to virtualize other storage controllers.
Storwize V7000 Gen2 supports regular and solid-state drives (SSDs) and uses IBM System
Storage Easy Tier to automatically place volume hot spots on better-performing storage. In
this section, we briefly explain the basic architecture components of Storwize V7000 Gen2.
Nodes
Each Storwize V7000 Gen2 hardware controller is called a node or nodecanister. The node
provides the virtualization for a set of volumes, cache, and copy services functions. Nodes are
deployed in pairs, and multiple pairs make up a clustered system or system. A system can
consist of 1 - 4 Storwize V7000 Gen2 node pairs.
One of the nodes within the system is known as the configuration node. The configuration
node manages the configuration activity for the system. If this node fails, the system chooses
a new node to become the configuration node.
Because the nodes are installed in pairs, each node provides a failover function to its partner
node in the event of a node failure.
I/O Groups
In Storwize V7000 Gen2, there are 1 - 4 pairs of node canisters known as I/O Groups.
Storwize V7000 Gen2 supports eight node canisters in the clustered system, which provides
four I/O Groups.
When a host server performs I/O to one of its volumes, all of the I/Os for a specific volume are
directed to the I/O Group. Also, under normal conditions, the I/Os for that specific volume are
always processed by the same node within the I/O Group.
Both nodes of the I/O Group act as preferred nodes for their own specific subset of the total
number of volumes that the I/O Group presents to the host servers (a maximum of 2048
volumes per I/O Group). However, each node also acts as a failover node for its partner node
within the I/O Group, so a node takes over the I/O workload from its partner node, if required,
with no effect to the server’s application.
8
Implementing the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2
In a Storwize V7000 Gen2 environment that is using an active/active architecture, the I/O
handling for a volume can be managed by both nodes of the I/O Group. Therefore, it is
mandatory for servers that are connected through Fibre Channel (FC) connectors to use
multipath device drivers to be able to handle this capability.
The Storwize V7000 Gen2 I/O Groups are connected to the SAN so that all application
servers accessing volumes from the I/O Group have access to them. Up to 2048 host server
objects can be defined in four I/O Groups.
If required, host servers can be mapped to more than one I/O Group in the Storwize V7000
Gen2 system. Therefore, they can access volumes from separate I/O Groups. You can move
volumes between I/O Groups to redistribute the load between the I/O Groups.
However, moving volumes between I/O Groups cannot always be done concurrently with host
I/O, and requires in some cases a brief interruption to remap the host. On the following
website, you can check the compatibility of Storwize V7000 Gen2 non-disruptive volume
move (NDVM) function with your hosts:
http://www-01.ibm.com/support/docview.wss?uid=ssg1S1004622
Important: The active/active architecture provides availability to process I/Os for both
controller nodes, and enables the application to continue running smoothly, even if the
server has only one access route or path to the storage controller. This type of architecture
eliminates the path and LUN thrashing typical of an active/passive architecture.
System
The system or clustered system consists of 1 - 4 I/O Groups. Certain configuration limitations
are then set for the individual system. For example, the maximum number of volumes
supported per system is 8192 (having a maximum of 2048 volumes per I/O Group), or the
maximum managed disk supported is 32 petabytes (PB) per system.
All configuration, monitoring, and service tasks are performed at the system level.
Configuration settings are replicated to all nodes in the system. To facilitate these tasks, a
management Internet Protocol (IP) address is set for the system.
A process is provided to back up the system configuration data onto disk so that it can be
restored in the event of a disaster. Note that this method does not back up application data.
Only Storwize V7000 Gen2 system configuration information is backed up. For the purposes
of remote data mirroring, two or more systems must form a partnership before creating
relationships between mirrored volumes.
System configuration backup: After backing up the system configuration, save the
backup data on your hard disk (or at the least outside of the SAN). If you are unable to
access Storwize V7000 Gen2, you do not have access to the backup data if it is on
the SAN.
For details about the maximum configurations that are applicable to the system, I/O Group,
and nodes, see the following link:
http://www-01.ibm.com/support/docview.wss?uid=ssg1S1004628
Chapter 1. Introduction to IBM storage virtualization
9
RAID
The Storwize V7000 Gen2 setup contains several internal drive objects, but these drives
cannot be directly added to storage pools. The drives need to be included in a RAID to
provide protection against the failure of individual drives.
These drives are referred to as members of the array. Each array has a RAID level. RAID
levels provide various degrees of redundancy and performance, and have various restrictions
regarding the number of members in the array.
Storwize V7000 Gen2 supports hot spare drives. When an array member drive fails, the
system automatically replaces the failed member with a hot spare drive and rebuilds the array
to restore its redundancy. Candidate and spare drives can be manually exchanged with
array members.
Each array has a set of goals that describe the location and performance of each array. A
sequence of drive failures and hot spare takeovers can leave an array unbalanced (with
members that do not match these goals). The system automatically rebalances such arrays
when the appropriate drives are available.
The following RAID levels are available:
򐂰 RAID 0 (striping, no redundancy)
RAID 0 arrays stripe data across the drives. The system supports RAID 0 arrays with just
one member, which is similar to a traditional just a bunch of disks (JBOD) unconfigured
attach. RAID 0 arrays have no redundancy, so they do not support hot spare takeover or
immediate exchange. A RAID 0 array can be formed by 1 - 8 drives.
򐂰 RAID 1 (mirroring between two drives)
RAID 1 arrays stripe data over mirrored pairs of drives. A RAID 1 array mirrored pair is
rebuilt independently. A RAID 1 array can be formed by two drives only.
򐂰 RAID 5 (striping, can survive one drive fault)
RAID 5 arrays stripe data over the member drives with one parity strip on every stripe.
RAID 5 arrays have single redundancy. The parity algorithm means that an array can
tolerate no more than one member drive failure. A RAID 5 array can be formed by
3 - 16 drives.
򐂰 RAID 6 (striping, can survive two drive faults)
RAID 6 arrays stripe data over the member drives with two parity stripes (known as the
P-parity and the Q-parity) on every stripe. The two parity strips are calculated using
different algorithms, which give the array double redundancy. A RAID 6 array can be
formed by 5 to 16 drives.
򐂰 RAID 10 (RAID 0 on top of RAID 1)
RAID 10 arrays have single redundancy. Although they can tolerate one failure from every
mirrored pair, they cannot tolerate two-disk failures. One member out of every pair can be
rebuilding or missing at the same time. A RAID 10 array can be formed by 2 - 16 drives.
MDisks
A managed disk (MDisk) is the unit of storage that Storwize V7000 Gen2 virtualizes. This unit
could be a logical volume on an external storage array presented to Storwize V7000 Gen2, or
a RAID array consisting of internal drives. Storwize V7000 Gen2 can then allocate these
MDisks into various storage pools. An MDisk is not visible to a host system on the SAN,
because it is internal or zoned only to the Storwize V7000 Gen2 system.
10
Implementing the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2
The MDisks are placed into storage pools where they are divided into several extents, which
can range in size from 16 megabytes (MB) - 8182 MB, as defined by the storage
administrator. See the following link for an overview of the total storage capacity that is
manageable per system regarding the selection of extents:
http://www-01.ibm.com/support/docview.wss?uid=ssg1S1004628#_Extents
A volume is host-accessible storage that has been provisioned out of one storage pool or, if it
is a mirrored volume, out of two storage pools. The maximum size of an MDisk is 1 PB. A
Storwize V7000 Gen2 system supports up to 4096 MDisks (including internal RAID arrays).
At any point in time, an MDisk is in one of the following four modes:
򐂰 Array
Array mode MDisks are constructed from drives using the RAID function. Array MDisks
are always associated with storage pools.
򐂰 Unmanaged MDisk
An MDisk is reported as unmanaged when it is not a member of any storage pool. An
unmanaged MDisk is not associated with any volumes, and has no metadata stored on it.
Storwize V7000 Gen2 does not write to an MDisk that is in unmanaged mode, except
when it attempts to change the mode of the MDisk to one of the other modes. Storwize
V7000 Gen2 can see the resource, but the resource is not assigned to a storage pool.
򐂰 Managed MDisk
Managed mode MDisks are always members of a storage pool, and they contribute
extents to the storage pool. Volumes (if not operated in image mode) are created from
these extents. MDisks operating in managed mode might have metadata extents allocated
from them, and can be used as quorum disks. This mode is the most common and normal
mode for an MDisk.
򐂰 Image mode MDisk
Image mode provides a direct block-for-block translation from the MDisk to the volume by
using virtualization. This mode is provided to satisfy three major usage scenarios:
– Image mode enables the virtualization of MDisks already containing data that was
written directly, and not through Storwize V7000 Gen2. Rather, it was created by a
direct-connected host. This mode enables a client to insert Storwize V7000 Gen2 into
the data path of an existing storage volume or LUN with minimal downtime. The image
mode is typically used for data migration from old storage systems to new.
– Image mode enables a volume that is managed by Storwize V7000 Gen2 to be used
with the native copy services function provided by the underlying RAID controller. To
avoid the loss of data integrity when Storwize V7000 Gen2 is used in this way, it is
important that you disable the Storwize V7000 Gen2 cache for the volume.
– Storwize V7000 Gen2 provides the ability to migrate to image mode, which enables
Storwize V7000 Gen2 to export volumes and access them directly from a host without
the Storwize V7000 Gen2 in the path.
Each MDisk presented from an external disk controller has an online path count that is the
number of nodes having access to that MDisk. The maximum count is the maximum
number of paths detected at any point in time by the system. The current count is what the
system sees currently. A current value less than the maximum can indicate that SAN fabric
paths have been lost.
SSDs (flash drives) that are in Storwize V7000 Gen2 are presented to the cluster as
MDisks. To determine whether the selected MDisk is a flash drive, click the link on the
MDisk name to display the Viewing MDisk Details pane. The Viewing MDisk Details pane
displays values for the Node ID, Node Name, and Node Location attributes.
Chapter 1. Introduction to IBM storage virtualization
11
Quorum disk
A quorum disk is an MDisk that contains a reserved area for use exclusively by the system.
The system uses quorum disks to break a tie when exactly half the nodes in the system
remain after a SAN failure. This situation is referred to as split brain. Quorum functionality is
not supported on flash drives in Storwize V7000 Gen2. There are three candidate quorum
disks. However, only one quorum disk is active at any time.
Disk tier
It is likely that the MDisks (LUNs) presented to the Storwize V7000 Gen2 system have
various performance attributes due to the type of disk or RAID on which they reside. The
MDisks can be on 15,000 disk revolutions per minute (RPMs) Fibre Channel or SAS disks,
Nearline SAS or Serial Advanced Technology Attachment (SATA) disks, or even flash drives.
Therefore, a storage tier attribute is assigned to each MDisk, with the default being
enterprise. A tier 0 (zero)-level disk attribute (ssd) is available for flash drives, and a tier
2-level disk attribute (nearline) is available for nl-sas.
Storage pool
A storage pool is a collection of up to 128 MDisks that provides the pool of storage from which
volumes are provisioned. A single system can manage up to 128 storage pools. The size of
these pools can be changed (expanded or shrunk) at run time by adding or removing MDisks,
without taking the storage pool or the volumes offline.
At any point in time, an MDisk can only be a member in one storage pool, except for image
mode volumes.
Each MDisk in the storage pool is divided into several extents. The size of the extent is
selected by the administrator when the storage pool is created, and cannot be changed later.
The size of the extent ranges from 16 MB - 8192 MB.
It is a leading practice to use the same extent size for all storage pools in a system. This
approach is a prerequisite for supporting volume migration between two storage pools. If the
storage pool extent sizes are not the same, you must use volume mirroring.
12
Implementing the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2
Figure 1-4 shows an overview of a Storwize clustered system with an I/O Group.
Figure 1-4 IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2 clustered system
Storwize V7000 Gen2 limits the number of extents in a system to 222 = ~4 million. Because
the number of addressable extents is limited, the total capacity of a Storwize V7000 Gen2
system depends on the extent size that is chosen by the Storwize V7000 Gen2 administrator.
The capacity numbers that are specified in Table 1-1 for a Storwize V7000 Gen2 system
assume that all of the defined storage pools have been created with the same extent size.
Table 1-1 Extent size-to-addressability matrix
Extent size maximum
System capacity
Extent size maximum
System capacity
16 MB
64 terabytes (TB)
512 MB
2 PB
32 MB
128 TB
1024 MB
4 PB
64 MB
256 TB
2048 MB
8 PB
128 MB
512 TB
4096 MB
16 PB
256 MB
1 PB
8192 MB
32 PB
For most systems, a capacity of 1 - 2 PB is sufficient. In a Storwize V7000 Gen2 environment,
a leading practice is to use the default size of 1 gigabyte (GB) as the standard extent size.
Volumes
Volumes are logical disks that are presented to the host or application servers by Storwize
V7000 Gen2. The hosts cannot see the MDisks. They can only see the logical volumes
created from combining extents from a storage pool.
Chapter 1. Introduction to IBM storage virtualization
13
There are three types of volumes: Striped, sequential, and image. These types are
determined by how the extents are allocated from the storage pool, as explained in the
following list:
򐂰 A volume created in striped mode has extents allocated from each MDisk in the storage
pool in a round-robin fashion.
򐂰 With a sequential mode volume, extents are allocated sequentially from an MDisk.
򐂰 Image mode is a one-to-one mapped extent mode volume.
Using striped mode is the best method to use for most cases. However, sequential extent
allocation mode can slightly increase the sequential performance for certain workloads.
Figure 1-5 shows the striped volume mode and sequential volume mode, and it illustrates
how the extent allocation from the storage pool differs.
Figure 1-5 Storage pool extents overview
You can allocate the extents for a volume in many ways. The process is under full user control
at volume creation time, and can be changed at any time by migrating single extents of a
volume to another MDisk within the storage pool.
Hosts
Volumes can be mapped to a host to allow access for a specific server to a set of volumes. A
host in Storwize V7000 Gen2 is a collection of host bus adapter (HBA) worldwide port names
(WWPNs) or Internet SCSI (iSCSI) qualified names (IQNs) defined on the specific server.
Note that iSCSI names are internally identified by “fake” WWPNs, or WWPNs that are
generated by the Storwize V7000 Gen2.
Volumes can be mapped to multiple hosts, for example, a volume that is accessed by multiple
hosts of a server system. iSCSI is an alternative means of attaching hosts. However, all
communication with back-end storage subsystems, and with other Storwize V7000 Gen2
systems, is still through FC.
14
Implementing the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2
Node failover can be handled without having a multipath driver installed on the iSCSI server.
An iSCSI-attached server can simply reconnect after a node failover to the original target IP
address, which is now presented by the partner node. To protect the server against link
failures in the network or HBA failures, using a multipath driver is mandatory.
Volumes are LUN-masked to the host’s HBA WWPNs by a process called host mapping.
Mapping a volume to the host makes it accessible to the WWPNs or IQNs that are configured
on the host object. For a SCSI over Ethernet connection, the IQN identifies the iSCSI target
(destination) adapter. Host objects can have both IQNs and WWPNs.
Easy Tier
Easy Tier is a performance function that automatically migrates or moves extents off a volume
to, or from, one MDisk storage tier to another MDisk storage tier. In Storwize V7000 Gen2, the
Easy Tier automatically moves extents between highly used and less-used MDisks within the
same storage tier. This function is called Storage Pool Balancing, and it is enabled by default
without any need for licensing.
It cannot be disabled by the user. Easy Tier monitors the host I/O activity and latency on the
extents of all volumes with the Easy Tier function turned on in a multitier storage pool, over a
24-hour period.
New in Storwize family software V7.3: Easy Tier V3 integrates the automatic
functionality to balance the workloads between highly used and less-used MDisks within
the same tier. It is enabled by default, cannot be disabled by the user, and does not need
an Easy Tier license.
Next, it creates an extent migration plan based on this activity, and then dynamically
moves high-activity (or hot) extents to a higher disk tier in the storage pool. It also moves
extents whose activity has dropped off (or cooled) from the high-tier MDisks back to a
lower-tiered MDisk.
Easy Tier: The Easy Tier function can be turned on or off at the storage pool level and the
volume level. It supports any combination of three tiers within the system. Flash drives are
always marked as Tier 0. Turning off Easy Tier does not disable Storage Pool Balancing.
To experience the potential benefits of using Easy Tier in your environment before installing
expensive flash drives, you can turn on the Easy Tier function for a single-level storage pool.
Next, turn on the Easy Tier function for the volumes within that pool. Easy Tier then starts
monitoring activity on the volume extents in the pool.
Easy Tier creates a report every 24 hours, providing information about how Easy Tier
behaves if the tier were a multitiered storage pool. So, even though Easy Tier extent migration
is not possible within a single-tiered pool, the Easy Tier statistical measurement function
is available.
The Easy Tier function can make it more appropriate to use smaller storage pool extent sizes.
The usage statistics file can be off-loaded from Storwize V7000 Gen2. Then, you can use the
IBM Storage Tier Advisor Tool to create a summary report.
Chapter 1. Introduction to IBM storage virtualization
15
Thin provisioning
Volumes can be configured to be either thin-provisioned or fully allocated. A thin-provisioned
volume behaves regarding application reads and writes as though they were fully allocated.
When creating a thin-provisioned volume, the user specifies two capacities:
򐂰 The real physical capacity allocated to the volume from the storage pool
򐂰 The virtual capacity available to the host
In a fully allocated volume, these two values are the same.
Therefore, the real capacity determines the quantity of MDisk extents that is initially allocated
to the volume. The virtual capacity is the capacity of the volume reported to all other Storwize
V7000 Gen2 components (for example, FlashCopy, Cache, and remote copy), and to the
host servers. The real capacity is used to store both the user data and the metadata for the
thin-provisioned volume. The real capacity can be specified as an absolute value, or a
percentage of the virtual capacity.
Thin-provisioned volumes can be used as volumes assigned to the host, by FlashCopy to
implement thin-provisioned FlashCopy targets, and also with the mirrored volumes feature.
When a thin-provisioned volume is initially created, a small amount of the real capacity is
used for initial metadata.
Write I/Os to grains of the thin volume that were not previously written to cause grains of the
real capacity to be used to store metadata and the actual user data. Write I/Os to grains that
were previously written to update the grain where data was previously written. The grain size
is defined when the volume is created, and can be 32 kilobytes (KB), 64 KB, 128 KB, or 256
KB. The default grain size is 256 KB, which is the strongly suggested option. If you select 32
KB for the grain size, the volume size cannot exceed 260,000 GB.
The grain size cannot be changed after the thin-provisioned volume has been created.
Generally, smaller grain sizes save space but require more metadata access, which can
adversely affect performance. If you are not going to use the thin-provisioned volume as a
FlashCopy source or target volume, use 256 KB to maximize performance. If you are going to
use the thin-provisioned volume as a FlashCopy source or target volume, specify the same
grain size for the volume and for the FlashCopy function.
16
Implementing the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2
Figure 1-6 illustrates the thin-provisioning concept.
Figure 1-6 Conceptual diagram of a thin-provisioned volume
Thin-provisioned volumes store both user data and metadata. Each grain of data requires
metadata to be stored. Therefore, the I/O rates that are obtained from thin-provisioned
volumes are less than the I/O rates that are obtained from fully allocated volumes.
The metadata storage fixed use is never greater than 0.1% of the user data. The fixed
resource use is independent of the virtual capacity of the volume. If you are using
thin-provisioned volumes in a FlashCopy map, for the best performance, use the same grain
size as the map grain size. If you are using the thin-provisioned volume directly with a host
system, use a small grain size.
The real capacity of a thin volume can be changed if the volume is not in image mode.
Increasing the real capacity enables a larger amount of data and metadata to be stored on
the volume. Thin-provisioned volumes use the real capacity that is provided in ascending
order as new data is written to the volume. If the user initially assigns too much real capacity
to the volume, the real capacity can be reduced to free storage for other uses.
A thin-provisioned volume can be configured to autoexpand. This feature causes Storwize
V7000 Gen2 to automatically add a fixed amount of additional real capacity to the thin volume
as required. Autoexpand therefore attempts to maintain a fixed amount of unused real
capacity for the volume. This amount is known as the contingency capacity.
The contingency capacity is initially set to the real capacity that is assigned when the volume
is created. If the user modifies the real capacity, the contingency capacity is reset to be the
difference between the used capacity and the real capacity. A volume that is created without
the autoexpand feature, and therefore has a zero contingency capacity, goes offline as soon
as the real capacity is fully used and needs to expand.
Autoexpand does not cause the real capacity to grow much beyond the virtual capacity. The
real capacity can be manually expanded to more than the maximum that is required by the
current virtual capacity, and the contingency capacity is recalculated.
Chapter 1. Introduction to IBM storage virtualization
17
To support the auto expansion of thin-provisioned volumes, the storage pools from which they
are allocated have a configurable capacity warning. When the used capacity of the pool
exceeds the warning capacity, a warning event is logged. For example, if a warning of 80%
has been specified, the event is logged when 20% of the free capacity remains.
A thin-provisioned volume can be converted nondisruptively to a fully allocated volume, or
vice versa, by using the volume mirroring function. For example, you can add a thinprovisioned copy to a fully allocated primary volume, and then remove the fully allocated copy
from the volume after they are synchronized.
The fully allocated to thin-provisioned migration procedure uses a zero-detection algorithm,
so that grains containing all zeros do not cause any real capacity to be used.
Real-time Compression
Compressed volumes are a special type of volume where data is compressed as it is written
to disk, saving additional space. To use the compression function, you must obtain the IBM
Real-time Compression license. With the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2 model (2076-524), you
already have one compression acceleration adapter included in the base product, and you
can get one more optional.
It is also suggested to upgrade your memory to 64 GB for best use of Real-time
Compression. Enabling compression on Storwize V7000 Gen2 nodes does not affect
non-compressed host-to-disk I/O performance. Like thin-provisioned volumes, compressed
volumes have virtual, real, and used capacities. Use the following guidelines before working
with compressed volumes:
򐂰 Real capacity is the extent space that is allocated from the storage pool. The real capacity
is also set when the volume is created and, like thin-provisioned volumes, can be
expanded or shrunk down to the used capacity.
򐂰 Virtual capacity is available to hosts. The virtual capacity is set when the volume is created
and can be expanded or shrunk afterward.
򐂰 Used capacity is the amount of real capacity used to store client data and metadata after
compression.
򐂰 Capacity before compression is the amount of client data that has been written to the
volume and then compressed. The capacity before compression does not include regions
where zero data is written to unallocated space.
򐂰 An I/O Group can contain a maximum of 200 compressed volumes and compressed
volume mirrors.
򐂰 You can also monitor information about compression usage to determine the savings to
your storage capacity when volumes are compressed. To monitor system-wide
compression savings and capacity, select Monitoring  System and either select the
system name or Compression View. You can compare the amount of capacity used before
compression is applied to the capacity that is used for all compressed volumes.
In addition, you can view the total percentage of capacity savings when compression is
used on the system. Furthermore, you can also monitor compression savings across
individual pools and volumes. For volumes, you can use these compression values to
determine which volumes have achieved the highest compression savings.
Cache
The primary benefit of storage cache is to improve I/O response time. Reads and writes to a
magnetic disk drive suffer from both seek and latency time at the drive level, which can result
in from 1 millisecond (ms) - 10 ms of response time (for an enterprise-class disk).
18
Implementing the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2
The Storwize V7000 Gen2 nodes combined with Storwize family software V7.3 provide 32 GB
memory per node, or 64 GB (128 GB) per I/O Group, or 256 GB (512 GB) per system. The
Storwize V7000 Gen2 provides a semi-flexible cache model, and the node’s memory can be
used as read or write cache, either one as an I/O workload cache. The size of the write cache
is maximally 12 GB of the node’s memory. The remaining part of the memory is split between
read cache allocation and compression allocation.
When data is written by the host, the preferred node saves the data in its cache. Before the
cache returns completion to the host, the write must be mirrored to the partner node, or
copied into the cache of its partner node, for availability reasons. After having a copy of the
written data, the cache returns completion to the host. A volume that has not received a write
update during the last two minutes will automatically have all modified data destaged to disk.
Note: Optional cache upgrade of 32 GB on Storwize V7000 Gen2 is reserved for RtC and
it is not used when RtC is disabled.
Starting with Storwize V7000 Gen2 the concept of the cache architecture has been changed.
Storwize V7000 Gen2 now distinguishes between upper and lower cache that enables the
system to be more scalable:
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
Required for support beyond 8192 volumes
Required for support beyond 8 node clusters
Required for 64-bit addressing beyond 28 GB
Required for larger memory in nodes
Required for more processor cores
Required for improved performance and stability
The architectural overview is shown in Figure 1-7.
Figure 1-7 New cache architecture
Chapter 1. Introduction to IBM storage virtualization
19
If one node of an I/O Group is missing, due to a restart or a hardware failure, the remaining
node empties all of its write cache and proceeds in operation mode, which is referred to as
write-through mode. A node operating in write-through mode writes data directly to the disk
subsystem before sending an I/O complete status message back to the host. Running in this
mode can degrade the performance of the specific I/O Group.
Write cache is partitioned by storage pool. This feature restricts the maximum amount of write
cache that a single storage pool can allocate in a system. Table 1-2 shows the upper limit of
write-cache data that a single storage pool in a system can occupy.
Table 1-2 Upper limit of write cache per storage pool
One storage
pool
Two storage
pools
Three storage
pools
Four storage
pools
More than four
storage pools
100%
66%
40%
33%
25%
Storwize V7000 Gen2 will treat part of its physical memory as non-volatile. Non-volatile
means that its contents are preserved across power losses and resets. Bitmaps for
FlashCopy and Remote Mirroring relationships, the virtualization table, and the write cache
are items in the non-volatile memory.
In the event of a disruption or external power loss, the physical memory is copied to a file in
the file system on the node’s internal disk drive, so that the contents can be recovered when
external power is restored. The functionality of uninterruptible power supply units is provided
by internal batteries, which are delivered with each node’s hardware.
They ensure that there is sufficient internal power to keep a node operational to perform this
dump when the external power is removed. After dumping the content of the non-volatile part
of the memory to disk, Storwize V7000 Gen2 shuts down.
1.4 More information
This IBM Redbooks publication covers key aspects of the implementation of IBM Storwize
V7000 Gen2, focused on version 7.3. For more detailed description about the concept of
storage virtualization and how IBM uses V7000 and V7000 Gen2 in data centers, study the
following materials:
򐂰 Implementing the IBM Storwize V7000 V7.2, SG24-7938
򐂰 IBM System Storage SAN Volume Controller and Storwize V7000 Best Practices and
Performance Guidelines, SG24-7521
򐂰 IBM System Storage SAN Volume Controller and Storwize V7000 Replication Family
Services, SG24-7574
򐂰 Implementing IBM Real-time Compression in SAN Volume Controller and IBM Storwize
V7000, TIPS1083
򐂰 Implementing IBM Easy Tier with IBM Real-time Compression, TIPS1072
20
Implementing the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2
2
Chapter 2.
IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2
Hardware
In this chapter we describe the hardware changes introduced with IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2
which include the following topics:
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
Controller and Expansion Enclosure hardware
Scalable cache
Performance
PCIe technology
Compression Accelerator card
Support up to 20 Expansion Enclosures
New integrated battery
Light-emitting diodes (LEDs)
New Technician Port
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2015. All rights reserved.
21
2.1 Overview
In conjunction with the release of the version 7.3 code, IBM introduced a hardware refresh for
the IBM Storwize V7000 7.3 platform. In this chapter, we focus on the details of the specific
hardware 2076-524 changes:
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
Integrated battery pack
Enhanced scalability and flexibility
Expansion unit 2076 for 24 flash drives
Improved Real-time Compression engine with hardware assistance
To meet these objectives, the base hardware configuration of the Storwize V7000 Gen2 was
improved substantially to support more advanced processors, more memory and faster
interconnects. This is also the first time that the IBM storage area network (SAN) Volume
Controller platform and the Storwize platform share the same processors.
To learn more about the changes to the new Storwize V7000 Gen2, see Table 2-1.
Table 2-1 Storwize V7000 Gen1 Gen2 Comparison.
Feature
Storwize V7000 Gen1
Storwize V7000 Gen2
Canister node
2 * 4-core processor
Ivy Bridge 2 * 8-core processor
and integrated hardware
assisted compression
acceleration
Expansion
Maximum of nine enclosures,
6 gigabit (Gb) serial-attached
Small Computer System
Interface (SCSI), called SAS
Maximum of 20 enclosures,
12 Gb SAS
SAS cable lengths available
(meters)
1, 3, and 6
0.6, 1.5, 3, and 6
Drives
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
22
Implementing the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2
2076-112 Storwize V7000
control enclosure for
3.5-inch drives
2076-124 Storwize V7000
control enclosure for
2.5-inch drives
2076-312 Storwize V7000
control enclosure for
3.5-inch drives (with two 10
gigabits per second (Gbps)
Internet SCSI (iSCSI)/Fibre
Channel over Ethernet
(FCoE) Ethernet ports)
2076-324 Storwize V7000
control enclosure for
2.5-inch drives (with two 10
Gbps iSCSI/FCoE Ethernet
ports)
2076-212 Storwize V7000
Expansion Enclosure for
3.5-inch drives
2076-224 Storwize V7000
Expansion Enclosure for
2.5-inch drives
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
2076-524 Storwize V7000
control enclosure
2076-12F Storwize V7000
Expansion Enclosure for
3.5-inch drives
2076-24F Storwize V7000
Expansion Enclosure for
2.5-inch drives
Feature
Storwize V7000 Gen1
Storwize V7000 Gen2
Scaling
Up to 960 drives
Up to 1056
Capacity
1.92 petabytes (PB)
4 PB
Standard host interface
8 Gb FC, 1 Gb iSCSI
1 Gb iSCSI
Optional host interface
10 Gb iSCSI/FCoE
2x (8 Gb Fibre Channel (FC) or
10 gigabyte (GB) iSCSI/FCoE)
Random access memory
(RAM) per Node Canister
8 GB
32 GB or 64 GB
Solid-state drive (SSD) support
Yes
Yes
Compression
No
Yes
The following items provide details that should help understand the changes made across
both of the platforms to meet the goals:
򐂰 Processors
IBM SAN Volume Controller DH8 and Storwize V7000 Gen2. Both platforms use the Ivy
Bridge processors from Intel, which has eight cores.
򐂰 Memory
32 GB or cache and compression with an option to have another 32 GB is added for
Real-time Compression workloads.
򐂰 Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) Express (PCIe) technology
Both the platforms have multiple PCIe Gen3 slots, as compared to dual PCIe Gen 2 slots
in previous versions. This shift to PCIe Gen3 enables each PCIe lane to get a maximum
speed of 1000 megabytes per second (MBps).
򐂰 Optional adapters
In previous models, the only option that customers had was to add a dual port 10 Gbps
converged network adapter. The Storwize V7000 Gen1 base model has dual port
1 Gbps adapters, plus quad port 8 Gbps FC adapters. In both of the new platforms, the
base models come with three 1 Gbps Ethernet ports onboard. However, customers have
an option to select multiple add-on adapters for driving host input/output (I/O) and
off-loading compression workloads.
2.1.1 Scalable write cache
In Storwize V7000 Gen1, write cache was limited to 8 GB. However, Storwize V7000 Gen2
includes a 32 GB cache, with an optional upgrade of up to 64 GB (in which the additional 32
GB is available for Real-time Compression workloads).
2.1.2 Increase in performance
IBM Storwize V7000 Gen1 came with a standard quad port 1 Gbps Ethernet onboard adapter
and quad port 8 Gbps FC adapter. It enabled clients to add optional dual port 10 Gbps
converged network adapter (CNA) for running FCoE and 10Gb iSCSI traffic. So, with the
optional card in place, clients would get a 4 Gbps pipe from 1 Gbps Ethernet ports, 32 Gbps
of pipe from the FC adapter, and an additional 20 Gbps of pipe from the CNA.
Chapter 2. IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2 Hardware
23
Storwize V7000 Gen2 includes, standard, three 1 Gbps Ethernet onboard ports (the fourth 1
Gbps Ethernet port is dedicated as a Technician Port). However, due to the higher form factor
(2U), it enables inserting three cards per enclosure. The system board has three PCIe Gen3
slots, out of which two slots can be used to install either quad port 8 Gbps FC adapters or one
quad port 10 Gbps CNA. This effectively increases the available pipe to 64 Gbps when using
the same 8 Gbps FC adapter. For the 10 Gbps CNA, the pipe increases to 40 Gbps.
The increase in the performance of input/output operations per second (IOPS) is due to the
two-fold increase in the disks that can be attached behind a Gen 2 Control Enclosure.
2.1.3 Support for 20 Expansion Enclosures
Storwize V7000 Gen2 Control Enclosure can attach more than two times of disk possible with
Storwize V7000 Gen1.
Storwize V7000 Gen1 supported a maximum of nine Expansion Enclosures, each with 24
Small Form Factor (SFF) drives. This enables for a maximum of 240 drives per controller.
Storwize V7000 Gen2 supports having a maximum of 20 Expansion Enclosures allowing a
maximum of 504 drives per controller. The system can cluster with up to four Control
Enclosures, which enables a large storage space provided by 84 Enclosures (80 Expansion
Enclosures plus four Control Enclosures).
The design of Storwize V7000 Gen2 is geared toward making the platform more scalable,
flexible, and gives higher performance without using more space in customer’s data centers.
Each Storwize V7000 Gen2 has the ability to handle maximum capacity up to 4 PB with the
capability to virtualize external storage, and to enable storage administrators to provide more
bandwidth for applications by adding more I/O adapters, memory, and quick assist card.
2.2 New hardware on the Storwize V7000 Gen2
In this section we go over the Storwize V7000 Gen2 new hardware:
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
Controller hardware
Base configuration
Controller SAS topology
Compression Accelerator card
HIC
Expansion Enclosure
2.2.1 Controller hardware overview
The IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2 storage engine 2076-524 and Expansion Enclosure Model
12F or 24F deliver increased performance, expanded connectivity, compression acceleration,
and additional internal flash memory capacity.
Storwize V7000 Gen2 SFF Control Enclosure Model 524 includes the following components:
򐂰 Two node Enclosures, each with an eight-core processor and integrated hardwareassisted compression acceleration
򐂰 64 GB cache (32 GB per Enclosure) with optional 128 GB cache (64 GB per Enclosure)
򐂰 8 Gb FC, 10 Gb Ethernet, and 1 Gb Ethernet ports for FC, iSCSI, and FCoE connectivity
24
Implementing the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2
򐂰 Optional Compression Accelerator card for additional hardware-assisted compression
acceleration
򐂰 12 Gb SAS ports for Expansion Enclosure attachment
򐂰 Twenty-four slots for 2.5-inch SAS drives
򐂰 2U, 19-inch rack mount Enclosure with alternating current (ac) power supplies
The front and back views of the two-node cluster based on the 2076-524 are shown in
Figure 2-1.
Figure 2-1 Front and rear of controller
The Storwize V7000 Gen2 brings with it several significant changes and enhancements over
the previous generation hardware. The IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2 2076-524 includes
preinstalled V7.3 software.
Be aware that it is not supported to downgrade the software to version 7.2 or earlier, and the
Storwize V7000 Gen2 will reject any attempt to install a version earlier than 7.3. See the
following links for integration with existing clustered systems, compatibility, and
interoperability with installed nodes and other system components:
http://www.ibm.com/support/docview.wss?uid=ssg1S1003850
http://www.ibm.com/support/docview.wss?rs=591&uid=ssg1S1003705
Chapter 2. IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2 Hardware
25
2.2.2 Base configuration
A detailed rear view of the Storwize V7000 Gen2 Control Enclosure is shown in Figure 2-2.
Figure 2-2 Rear of Control Enclosure
All models are delivered in a 2U, 19-inch rack mount Enclosure and include a three-year
warranty with customer-replaceable unit (CRU) and onsite service. Optional warranty service
upgrades are available for enhanced levels of warranty service.
With the migration to the 2U platform and integration of previous external components into a
single chassis, no more rack space is required. The Storwize V7000 Gen2 integrates a
redundant battery backup system, therefore eliminating the need for external rack-mount
uninterruptible power supply (UPS), optional power switch, and related cabling.
The IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2 seamlessly integrates into the existing infrastructure, and
enables nondisruptive hardware upgrades from previous generations. We start with the base
configuration of the following components:
򐂰 Two node Enclosures, each with the following components:
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Three 1 Gbps Ethernet ports (iSCSI and management)
1 Gbps technician Ethernet port for immediate availability and emergency access
8-core Intel processor
32 GB RAM
2 x 12 Gbps SAS drive expansion ports
Hardware compression
Three expansion slots (2 x Host Interface, 1 x for Compression)
Two Universal Serial Bus (USB) ports for debug and emergency access
Battery
򐂰 SAS and Nearline-SAS hard disk drives (HDDs), and Flash drives
26
Implementing the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2
򐂰 Up to 20 Expansion Enclosures per Control Enclosure, which can be 2U12 or 2U24:
– Ten Expansion Enclosures on each of two chains
– Maximum 21 Enclosures, maximum 21*24=504 drives, per Control Enclosure
򐂰 Up to four Control Enclosures per clustered system
򐂰 Maximum of 1056 drives per clustered system (cannot fully populate every I/O Group)
The base card contains the following major components of Storwize V7000 Gen2:
򐂰 Intel Ivy Bridge 64-bit processor (see Table 2-2)
Table 2-2 IVY Bridge processor
Model 2076-524
Intel designator
E5-2628Lv2
Number of cores
8
Core frequency
1.9 gigahertz (GHz)
Lower-level cache
20 MB
Double data rate (DDR) memory speed
1600 megahertz (MHz)
QuickPath Interconnect (QPI) speed
7.2 gigatransfers per second (GT/s)
Power consumption
70 W
򐂰 One dual inline memory module (DIMM) slot per channel for registered error correction
code (ECC) DDR3L DIMMs running at 1600 megatransfers per second (MT/s):
– Support for 32 GB total using commodity memory DIMMs of 8 GB
– Support for 64 GB total using 16 GB DIMMs
– Memory support follows the processor-based model designations:
•
•
•
DIMM size supported 8 GB DDR3, 16 GB DDR3
Base memory fitted 16 GB, 32 GB
Optional additional memory +16 GB, +32 GB
򐂰 Intel Platform Controller Hub (PCH)
򐂰 Coleto Creek 8926 stock keeping unit (SKU) with hardware assists for compression
򐂰 Serial peripheral interface (SPI) flash memory to power-on self-test (POST)
򐂰 Onboard SSD for boot, Linux file system, and Fire-Hose Dump (FHD):
– The SSD capacity of 64 GB with a sustained bandwidth of 50 MBps for sequential
reads and sequential write to support the FHD
– Multi-level cell (MLC) flash technology
Definition: The node Enclosure, which contains a battery, is able to power the
Enclosure while it stores cache and system data to an internal drive in the event of a
power failure. This process is referred to as a Fire-Hose Dump.
򐂰 Integrated, battery-backed, Real Time Clock (RTC), and complementary metal-oxide
semiconductor (CMOS) memory for Basic Input/Output System (BIOS) configuration
settings, with 10 years battery life
򐂰 Two USB 2.0 ports on the back-panel to attach a serial console or memory stick for initial
configuration, dumps, and so on
Chapter 2. IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2 Hardware
27
򐂰 Four 10/100/1000 Ethernet ports for management:
– Registered Jack-45 (RJ45) connectors on the back panel
– Single root I/O virtualization (SR-IOV) support
򐂰 A direct inter-integrated circuit (I2C) link between the Intel processor and the SCSI
Enclosure Services (SES) processor to enable communications for hardware
management purposes
򐂰 PCIe switch
򐂰 Host Bus Adapter (HBA) slots:
– Two slots for HBAs (implemented as Enclosure Slots 2 &3)
– 8x PCIe Gen 3 link from the processor to each slot
– PCIe low-profile, half-length adapters, with accommodation for a quad small
form-factor pluggable (SFP) cage
– Third slot can also be used for a standard 8x PCIe adapter, if Compression
Acceleration functionality is not required
򐂰 SAS 3.0 controller:
– PMC-Sierra SPCve 16 x 12G (PM8073) chip
– 8x PCIe Gen 3 link from the processor
– T10 data integrity field (DIF) support for block sizes of 512, 520, 4096, or 4160 bytes
(excluding the 8-byte DIF)
– 2-off 4x links to Mini-SAS half-duplex (HD) connectors (SFF-8644) on the back panel
for Expansion Enclosures
– 8x link to the SAS expander, using 4 Physical Layer interfaces (PHYs) from each of the
two reduced instruction set computer (RISC) cores to ensure even performance
distribution
򐂰 SAS 3.0 expander:
– PMC-Sierra SXP 12G rev B PM8054, 36 ports
– Speed-matching buffers for optimum performance with 6G devices
– 8x link to the SAS controller
– 1x links to the midplane for the internal drive slots
– Two Wire Interface (TWI) busses 1 and 2 to the midplane to access the vital product
data (VPD) erasable programmable read-only memory (EPROMs) and the VPD and
status of the power supplies
– TWI bus 3 used to access Enclosure complex programmable logic device (CPLD) and
temperature sensors
– Enclosure management processor and firmware with external memories
򐂰 A Hardware Expansion socket for a custom expansion card
– Implemented as an x16 PCIe add-in card socket:
•
•
•
8x PCIe Gen 3 link from the processor
A pass-through card, which passes the PCIe bus to the on-board Coleto Creek chip
A Compression Accelerator card, to provide additional compression and
decompression performance
򐂰 DC power input from the midplane:
– An early power-off warning (EPOW) provided for Storwize V7000 when ac power fails
28
Implementing the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2
2.2.3 Controller SAS Topology
The 16 SAS lanes from the SPCve chip in the Node Enclosure are divided into four groups of
four lanes each. Two groups of four lanes are routed to the internal SAS expanders for local
drive attach. This provides maximum bandwidth for supporting local SSDs. The other two
groups of four lanes are each routed to one of the external Mini-SAS HD connectors for
connection to Expansion Enclosures.
Dividing the attached Expansion into two separate chains of Expansion Enclosures helps to
reduce the resources required to set up a connection and improve network stability.
Internally, the SPCve uses two RISC cores. Each one is responsible for a group of eight SAS
lanes. To provide a balanced network, four lanes from a RISC group must be routed to an
external port, and the other four lanes to the internal expander.
2.2.4 Compression Accelerator card
The optional Compression Accelerator card is fitted in Node Enclosure PCIe Slot 1. The
Compression Accelerator card conforms to the form-factor for a half-length, low-profile PCIe
card. It uses a 16-lane PCIe edge finger connector.
The card has two chips:
򐂰 An Intel Coleto Creek (8926 SKU without encryption support). This is identical to the chip
used as the base board PCH, but here only the Compression function is used.
򐂰 A 24-lane PLX PCIe switch. This is configured as three 8-lane busses:
– A Gen3 bus from the Intel processor
– A Gen2 bus to the on-card Coleto Creek chip
– A Gen2 bus passed back through the rear 8 lanes of the PCIe socket
2.2.5 Host interface cards
The base node can be configured with I/O ports according to application needs by fitting one
or more host interface cards (HICs). Each HIC attaches using an 8x PCIe Gen 3 bus, which
also enables access to its VPD. HIC cards are fitted in Node Enclosure PCIe Slots 2 and 3.
The HIC slots support two card form factors:
򐂰 HIC slot 1 is for compression, and contains one of the following cards:
– A compression pass-through card to enable the base hardware compression
– A Compression Accelerator card, which adds to the base hardware compression
򐂰 The other HIC slots are flexible and independent of RAM, processor, and compression:
– The first HIC slot must be populated at ordering time.
– The second HIC slot can be optionally populated at any time.
Enclosure and 12V power supplies to the HIC card are turned off during FHD to preserve
battery life. However, during the 5-second ride-through period, the supply remains within
normal PCIe tolerances.
Chapter 2. IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2 Hardware
29
Fire-Hose Dump: When the system detects loss of input power, it enters a Ride-Through
mode, which lasts for 10 seconds. If input power returns during this time, the system does
not power off. Power is immediately cut to the drives, which have to be powered on again.
If input power is still unavailable after the 10-second ride-through period, the software
places the hardware into a low power-consumption mode, stops the I/O process, and
performs the FHD.
After the FHD is complete, the node powers off. The node restarts automatically when
input power returns. If this is after the ride-through period but before the end of the FHD,
the node still shuts down but immediately restarts.
The following HICs are supported:
򐂰 0 - 2 4-port 8 Gbps FC adapters
򐂰 0 - 1 4-port 10 Gbps Ethernet adapter for iSCSI, FCoE, and Internet Protocol (IP)
replication
For more information, see the IBM System Storage Interoperation Center (SSIC):
http://www.ibm.com/systems/support/storage/ssic/interoperability.wss
2.2.6 Expansion Enclosure
The Expansion Enclosure contains the following major components:
򐂰 SAS 3.0 expander:
– PMC-Sierra SXP 12G chip
– Speed-matching buffers for optimum performance with 6G devices
– 1x links to the midplane for the internal drive slots
– 2-off 4x Mini-SAS HD connectors on the back-panel:
•
•
One port is connected to the upstream enclosure.
The remaining port is available for attaching a downstream enclosure.
– TWI busses 1 and 2 to the mid-plane to access the VPD EPROMs and the VPD and
status of the power supplies
– TWI bus 3, used to access canister CPLD and temperature sensors
– Enclosure management processor and SES firmware with external memories:
•
•
•
16 MB SPI Flash with cyclic redundancy check (CRC) protection
8 MB static random access memory (SRAM)
At least 64 KB non-volatile SRAM (NVSRAM)
򐂰 RS232 port on the back panel (3.5 millimeter (mm) stereo jack). This is used for
configuration during manufacturing.
2.2.7 SES firmware
The Storwize code manages the enclosures over the SAS fabric using SCSI-3 Enclosure
Services (SES) commands. Each SAS expander has an integrated management processor
and associated SES firmware.
IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2 uses the IBM SES firmware. IBM requires the Object Data
Manager (ODM) to provide details of the hardware interfaces and fan control algorithms and
assist with resolving integration problems.
30
Implementing the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2
2.3 Expansion Enclosures
There are two types of available Expansion Enclosures, Storwize V7000 large form factor
(LFF) Expansion Enclosure Model 12F and small form factor (SFF) 24F.
Storwize V7000 Gen2 LFF 12F includes the following components:
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
Two expansion canisters
12 Gb SAS ports for control enclosure and Expansion Enclosure attachment
Twelve slots for 3.5-inch SAS drives
2U, 19-inch rack mount enclosure with ac power supplies
Storwize V7000 SFF Expansion Enclosure Model 24F includes the following components:
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
Two expansion canisters
12 Gb SAS ports for control enclosure and expansion enclosure attachment
Twenty-four slots for 2.5-inch SAS drives
2U, 19-inch rack mount enclosure with AC power supplies
The Expansion Enclosure is a 2U enclosure, containing the following components:
򐂰 24 2.5 in. drives (HDDs or SSDs).
򐂰 2 Storage Bridge Bay (SBB)-compliant enclosure services manager (ESM) canisters.
򐂰 2 fan assemblies. These mount between the drive midplane and the Node Canisters. Each
fan module is removable when the Node Canister is removed.
򐂰 2 Power supplies.
򐂰 RS232 port on the back panel (3.5 mm stereo jack). This is used for configuration during
manufacturing.
The front of an Expansion Enclosure is shown in Figure 2-3.
Figure 2-3 Front of Expansion Enclosure
Figure 2-4 shows a rear view of an enclosure.
Figure 2-4 Expansion Enclosure rear view
Chapter 2. IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2 Hardware
31
Restriction: The Storwize V7000 Gen2 expansion enclosures can only be used with a
Storwize V7000 Gen2 control enclosure. The Storwize V7000 Gen1 expansion enclosures
cannot be used with a Storwize V7000 Gen2 control enclosure.
2.3.1 Control enclosure midplane
The midplane is a printed-circuit board, which provides power and signal connections. It
contains the following blind-mating connectors:
򐂰 One SFF 8680 connector for each drive slot:
– Each slot has two 1x SAS 3.0 links, one to each canister.
– Each drive has independent power control, as supported in the SAS-3 standard (using
pin P3). Midplane power field-effect transistors (FETs) per drive are not required.
Power control is used to recover a hung drive by power cycling.
򐂰 Two canister connectors
򐂰 Connectors for each power supply
2.3.2 Battery backup
To retain space requirements for the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2 and its associated
components within two rack units, and to simplify the cabling and rack layout, the Storwize
V7000 Gen2 node integrates the uninterruptible power supplies inside the node chassis. The
control enclosure provides battery backup to support a non-volatile write cache and protect
persistent metadata.
In the event of a power failure, each node performs an independent FHD from memory to the
on-board SSD under software control. This method is compatible with the existing Storwize
code, and it retains the data indefinitely. The memory is not required to be persistent across a
node reset.
The drives do not require battery backup, so the control enclosure removes power from the
drive slots immediately before the EPOW expires (approximately within 5 ms after an ac
failure). This function is implemented in hardware. Battery packs are not required in
Expansion Enclosures.
The battery pack powers the processor and memory for a few minutes while the Storwize
code copies the memory contents to the onboard SSD. The FHD code runs on a single
processor core to minimize power requirements. The I/O chips and HIC slot are powered
down to save energy. The fans run with the node components remaining within thermal limits.
Each node switches from ac power to battery and back again without interruption. The battery
supports a 5-second ride-thru delay with all node electronics active before the dump starts, in
case power comes back quickly. When started, the dump always runs to completion. To allow
the system to be brought online immediately after a longer power outage, the total energy
stored in each battery pack supports two consecutive cycles without an intervening recharge.
Each cycle incorporates a ride-thru delay plus a 16 GB FHD.
The onboard SSD has a high write bandwidth to allow the dump to complete quickly. For
example, if the SSD has a sustained write bandwidth of 100 MBps, each battery pack would
need to power its node canister for just under three minutes.
The operational status of batteries and their VPD are available from the IBM Storwize V7000
Gen2 command-line interface (CLI) using the saninfo lsservicestatus command.
32
Implementing the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2
2.3.3 Battery Pack
This is a CRU containing a rechargeable battery pack and management electronics. The
Storwize code running on the Intel CPU reads the battery status and VPD directly using an
I2C interface.
The high-discharge-rate battery solution uses Lithium Nickel Manganese Colbalt Oxide
(NMC) cells (Sony US18650VTC4), in a three cells in a series made up of two cells
connected in parallel (3S2P) configuration. The nominal battery capacity is derated to allow
for operating temperature and degradation at end of life. The batteries are tested for
conformance with IBM and agency standards for safety.
The battery packs recharge from flat to 98% capacity in one hour or less. Provisions are
made to monitor their state with an electronic “gas gauge,” and should be tested by
periodically discharging one battery pack at a time.
Each battery pack is maintainable concurrently with system operation. The battery packs
should be replaced as required, with an average life expectancy of at least five years
assuming a one FHD cycle per month.
2.3.4 Control Enclosure power supplies
Each Control Enclosure contains redundant hot-pluggable, n+1 redundant power supplies.
The design point for Storwize V7000 has power supplies that do not incorporate system
cooling fans. The following list describes each enclosure hardware specification:
򐂰 Single-phase ac input, with 90V - 264V and 47 Hz - 63 Hz, or 180V - 240V direct current
(dc) input via standard International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) grounded
connector (auto-ranging):
–
–
–
–
On/off switch (preferred)
Power factor correction
20 ms minimum error-free ride-through time
5 ms minimum EPOW (after the error-free ride-through period)
򐂰 +5V redundant STANDBY_PWR @ 2.5A.
򐂰 +12V regulated dc output to each canister (supports current sharing).
򐂰 200 watts minimum for each canister in the control enclosure.
򐂰 +5V and +12V regulated dc outputs to the drive slots (supports current sharing):
– 14 watts total per SFF drive slot.
– The drives spin-up in groups to minimize the surge at power-on.
– The power system tolerates a short-circuit on any single drive slot without damage. All
other dc voltages remain within tolerance. The operation of other drives and the
canisters are not affected.
򐂰 Energy Star Climate Saver Gold certification:
– 90% efficiency at 50% of rated load
– Input power monitoring
򐂰 TWI link to midplane for VPD and management, including fault reporting, fan control, and
monitoring output voltage, output current, and temperature.
򐂰 All enclosures power back on automatically after an AC interruption.
򐂰 Input power monitoring.
Chapter 2. IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2 Hardware
33
򐂰 Output voltage and current monitoring.
򐂰 Output voltage margining.
򐂰 Three rear LED indicators for input ok, output ok, and fault. (More information in Table 2-4
on page 37).
2.3.5 Control enclosure fan modules
The Storwize V7000 Gen2 control enclosure has a new component called a Fan Module.
This part contains the fans that cool the system.
The Storwize V7000 Gen2 has fan cooling modules, which are not housed within the power
supplies. Rather, they sit between the Node Canisters and the midplane. The reason for the
Fan Module being separated is so that when the canister is removed, the fan continues to
cool drives. There are two of these per enclosure, which means that you have to pull out the
canister to service the fan assembly after first removing the relevant Node Canister.
There are two cam levers to eject the Fan Module, which are accessible when the Node
Canister is removed. The Fan Module must be reinserted into the Storwize V7000 Gen2
within 3 minutes of removal to maintain adequate system cooling.
The Fan Module is shown in Figure 2-5.
Figure 2-5 Fan Module
Each Storwize V7000 Gen2 control enclosure contains two Fan Modules for cooling. Each
Fan Module contains eight individual fans in four banks of two, as shown in Figure 2-6.
Figure 2-6 Fan Module
34
Implementing the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2
The Fan Module as a whole is a replaceable component, but the individual fans are not.
There is a new CLI command, lsenclosurefanmodule, which is explained in detail in
Chapter 8, “IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2 command-line interface” on page 143.
2.3.6 Compression Accelerator card
Compressed volumes are a special type of volume where data is compressed as it is written
to disk, saving additional space. To use the compression function, you must obtain the IBM
Real-time Compression license and the hardware level for both nodes within the I/O group of
the Storwize V7000 Gen2, for that I/O group to support compression. Refer to Chapter 3,
“Planning and configuration” on page 47 for more information.
Storwize V7000 Gen2 nodes must have two processors, 64 GB of memory, and at least one
Compression Accelerator card installed to use compression. Enabling compression on
Storwize V7000 Gen2 nodes does not affect non-compressed host-to-disk I/O performance.
The compression card is shown in Figure 2-7.
Figure 2-7 Compression accelerator card
The Compression Accelerator card conforms to the form-factor for a half length, low-profile
PCIe card. It uses a 16-lane PCIe edge finger connector, although the usage of this is
non-standard. The card has two chips:
򐂰 An Intel Coleto Creek (8926 SKU without encryption support) used for compression
functions only.
򐂰 A 24-lane PLX PCIe switch. This is configured as three 8-lane busses as follows:
– A Gen3 bus from the Intel CPU
– A Gen2 bus to the on-card Coleto Creek chip
– A Gen2 bus passed back through the rear 8 lanes of the PCIe socket
2.3.7 FCoE and iSCSI
The new 4x port 10 gigabit Ethernet (GbE) card is only supported in the IBM System Storage
SAN Volume Controller, 2145-DH8, and in the Storwize V7000 Gen2, 2076-524.
In Storwize V7000 Gen2, we support 1 x 10 GbE adapter in each of the platforms. Only
IBM-supported 10 Gb SFPs are used. Each adapter port has amber and green colored LEDs
to indicate port status.
Chapter 2. IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2 Hardware
35
FCoE frame routing should be done by an FCoE switch. Storwize V7000 Gen2 makes it
possible to use both FCoE and iSCSI protocols simultaneously on the same 10 Gb port. For
best practices, however, it is suggested that separate ports be used for each protocol.
iSCSI is an alternative means of attaching hosts to the Storwize V7000 Gen2. All
communications with back-end storage subsystems, and with other Storwize V7000 Gen2,
only occur through an FC connection.
The iSCSI function is a software function that is provided by the Storwize software, and not
hardware. Refer to the IBM Knowledge Center for Storwize V7000 7.3 for iSCSI for more
information:
http://www.ibm.com/support/knowledgecenter/ST3FR7_7.3.0/com.ibm.storwize.v7000.730
.doc/fab1_hic_installing.html?lang=en
2.4 LEDs
LED indicators on the system let you know the status of the system. The indicators have
changed from previous generations of the Control Enclosure models. We are going to discuss
Storwize V7000 Gen2, which refers to the newer generation of enclosures in Table 2-3 and
their respective LEDs and meanings.
Table 2-3 LED Control Enclosure
Machine type and model
Description
2076-524 Storwize V7000
Control Enclosure
2076-12F Storwize V7000
Expansion Enclosure for 3.5-inch drives
2076-24F Storwize V7000
Expansion Enclosure for 2.5-inch drives
2.4.1 Battery LED
Storwize V7000 node canisters cache volume data and hold state information in volatile
memory. If power to a node canister fails, the node canister uses battery power to write cache
and state data to its boot drive. The battery is maintained in a fully charged state by the
battery subsystem. At maximum power, the battery can save critical data and state
information in two back-to-back power failures.
If power to a node canister is lost, saving critical data starts after a 5-second wait. (If the
outage is shorter than five seconds, the battery continues to support the node and critical
data is not saved.) The node canister stops handling I/O requests from host applications. The
saving of critical data runs to completion, even if power is restored during this time. The loss
of power might be because the input power to the enclosure is lost, or because the node
canister is removed from the enclosure.
When power is restored to the node canister, the system restarts without operator
intervention. How quickly it restarts depends on whether there is a history of previous power
failures. The system restarts only when the battery has sufficient charge for the node canister
to save the cache and state data again. A node canister with multiple power failures might not
have sufficient charge to save critical data. In such a case, the system starts in service state
and waits to start I/O operations until the battery has sufficient charge.
36
Implementing the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2
Two LED indicators denote the state of the battery:
򐂰 Status LED: Green
򐂰 Fault LED: Amber
Figure 2-8 shows the Control Enclosure LEDs that indicate battery status.
Figure 2-8 Controller battery LEDs
A detailed view of the system state is provided in the Monitoring sections of the management
GUI, and by the service assistant. If neither the management GUI nor the service assistant is
accessible, use this table to determine the system status using the LED indicators on the
Control Enclosures.
The system status LEDs visible at the rear of each control enclosure can show one of several
states, as described in Table 2-4.
Table 2-4 Storwize V7000 2076-524 battery status LEDs
Name
Callout
Color/State
Meaning
Battery Status
5
Green/OFF
Indicates that the
battery is not available
for use (for example,
battery is missing or
there is a fault in the
battery).
Green/Fast flash
The battery has
insufficient charge to
perform an FHD.
Green/Slow flash
The battery has
sufficient charge to
perform a single FHD.
Green/ON
The battery has
sufficient charge to
perform at least two
FHDs.
Amber/OFF
No fault. An exception
to this would be where
a battery has
insufficient charge to
complete a single
FHD.
Amber/ON
There is a fault in the
battery.
Battery Fault
6
Chapter 2. IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2 Hardware
37
2.4.2 Control Enclosure LED
Each Storwize V7000 2076-524 node canister has indicator LEDs that provide status
information about the canister. Figure 2-9 shows the front of the Control Enclosure where
three lights are displayed. These are discussed in Table 2-5.
Figure 2-9 Front Control Enclosure LEDs
Table 2-5 Front Control Enclosure LEDs description
38
Name
Description
Color
Power
Indicates whether the Control
Enclosure has power:
򐂰 If the LED is on, the enclosure
has power.
򐂰 If the LED if off, the enclosure
does not have power.
Green
Status
Indicates whether the Control
Enclosure is active:
򐂰 If the LED is on, the enclosure is
active.
򐂰 If the LED is off, the enclosure is
not active.
򐂰 If the LED is flashing, there is a
VPD error.
Green
Fault
Indicates whether a fault is present,
and identifies the Control Enclosure:
򐂰 If the LED is on, a fault exists.
򐂰 If the LED is off, no fault exists.
򐂰 If the LED is flashing, the Control
Enclosure is being identified.
This status might or might not be
a fault.
Amber
Implementing the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2
Symbol
Using the callout numbers in Figure 2-10, refer to the following tables for a listing of the
Storwize V7000 2076-524 node canister LEDs, and a description of the meaning of the
LED activity.
Figure 2-10 shows the rear Control Enclosure LEDs and their meanings.
Figure 2-10 Rear Control Enclosure LED
Chapter 2. IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2 Hardware
39
Table 2-6 provides a cross-reference back to Figure 2-10 on page 39.
Table 2-6 LEDs for SAS ports 1 and 2 Indicators for Control Enclosure
Name
Call out
Symbol
Color/State
Meaning
SAS Port 1 Link
1
None
Green/OFF
No link connection on any PHYs. The
connection is down.
Green/ON
There is a connection on at least one
PHY. At least one of the PHYs to that
connector is up.
Amber/OFF
No fault. All four PHYs have a link
connection.
Amber/ON
This can indicate a number of different
error conditions:
򐂰 One or more, but not all, of the
four PHYs are connected.
򐂰 Not all four PHYs are at the same
speed.
򐂰 One or more of the connected
PHYs are attached to an address
different from the others
Green/OFF
No fault. All four PHYs have a link
connection.
Green/ON
There is a connection on at least one
PHY. At least one of the lanes to that
connector is up.
Amber/OFF
No fault. All four PHYs have a link
connection.
Amber/ON
This can indicate a number of different
error conditions:
򐂰 One or more, but not all, of the
four PHYs are connected.
򐂰 Not all four PHYs are at the same
speed.
One or more of the connected PHYs
are attached to an address different
from the others.
SAS Port 1 Fault
SAS Port 2 Link
SAS Port 2 Fault
2
3
4
None
None
None
For Callouts 5 and 6, refer to Table 2-4 on page 37.
40
Implementing the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2
Table 2-7 provides a cross-reference to Figure 2-10 on page 39.
Table 2-7 Storwize V7000 2076-524 node canister system status LEDs
Name
Callout
Color/State
Meaning
Power
7
Green/OFF
No power is available or power is coming
from the battery.
Green/Slow flash
Power is available but the main CPU is
not running. This is called standby
mode.
Green/Fast flash
In Self Test mode.
Green/ON
Power is available, and the system code
is running.
Green/OFF
The system code has not started. The
system is off, in standby, or self test.
Green/Blink
The canister is in candidate or service
state. It is not performing I/O. It is safe to
remove the node.
Green/Fast flash
The canister is active, able to perform I/O,
or starting.
Green/ON
The canister is active, able to perform I/O,
or starting. The node is part of a cluster.
Amber/OFF
The canister is able to function as an
active member of the system. If there is a
problem on the node canister, it is not
severe enough to stop the node canister
form performing I/O.
Amber/Blink
The canister is being identified. There
might or might not be a fault condition.
Amber/ON
The node is in service state or an error
exists that might be stopping the system
code from starting. The node canister
cannot become active in the system until
the problem is resolved. You must
determine the cause of the error before
replacing the node canister. The error
may be due to insufficient battery charge;
in this event, resolving the error simply
requires waiting for the battery to charge.
Status
Canister Fault
8
9
To understand in more detail the status of the I/O port at the rear of a control enclosure, refer
to the topic about Storwize V7000 2076-524 node canister ports and indicators that is linked
at the IBM Knowledge Center on the following website:
http://www.ibm.com/support/knowledgecenter/api/content/ST3FR7_7.3.0/com.ibm.storwi
ze.v7000.730.doc/tbrd_sysstsleds.html
Chapter 2. IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2 Hardware
41
2.4.3 Expansion Enclosure LED
Each Storwize V7000 Gen2 Expansion Enclosure has three LEDs that provide status and
identification for the Expansion Enclosure and two SAS ports.
Figure 2-11 shows the Expansion Enclosure LEDs.
Figure 2-11 SAS ports and Power LEDs at rear of Expansion Enclosure
Three LEDs are in a horizontal row on the right side (when viewed from the rear) of the
expansion canister, and there are two SAS Link ports on either side of the center.
Figure 2-12 shows the Expansion Enclosure LEDs.
Figure 2-12 Expansion Enclosure LED
42
Implementing the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2
Table 2-8 cross-references Figure 2-12 on page 42.
Table 2-8 Expansion Enclosure LED descriptions
Callout/Name
Description
Color
1. Power
Indicates whether the Expansion Enclosure
has power:
򐂰 If the LED is on, the enclosure has
power.
򐂰 If the LED is off, the enclosure does not
have power.
Green
2. Status
Indicates whether the Expansion Enclosure
is active:
򐂰 If the LED is on, the enclosure is active.
򐂰 If the LED is off, the enclosure is not
active.
򐂰 If the LED is flashing, there is a vital
product data (VPD) error.
Green
3. Fault
Indicates whether a fault is present, and
identifies the Expansion Enclosure:
򐂰 If the LED is on, a fault exists.
򐂰 If the LED is off, no fault exists.
򐂰 If the LED is flashing, the Expansion
Enclosure is being identified. This status
might or might not be a fault.
Amber
Symbol
Two SAS ports are in the rear of the Storwize V7000 Gen2 Expansion Enclosure.
SAS ports are identified at the bottom of the port, with 1 on the left and 2 on the right, as
shown in Figure 2-11 on page 42. Use of port 1 is required. Use of port 2 is optional. Each
port connects four data channels.
Chapter 2. IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2 Hardware
43
Table 2-9 describes LED states for each of the two LEDs per SAS port. The link LED is on the
left of each set of ports.
Table 2-9 SAS port LEDs on the Expansion Enclosure
Name
Color
State
Meaning
SAS Port 1 Link
Green
OFF
No link connection on any PHY. The
connection is down.
ON
There is a connection on at least one
PHY. At least one of the PHYs to that
connector is up.
OFF
No fault. All four PHYs have a link
connection.
ON
This can indicate a number of different
error conditions:
򐂰 One or more, but not all, of the four
PHYs are connected.
򐂰 Not all four PHYs are at the same
speed.
򐂰 One or more of the connected PHYs
are attached to an address different
from the others.
OFF
No link connection on any PHYs (lanes).
The connection is down.
ON
There is a connection on at least one
PHY. At least one of the lanes to that
connector is up.
OFF
No fault. All four PHYs have a link
connection.
ON
This can indicate a number of different
error conditions:
򐂰 One or more, but not all, of the four
PHYs are connected.
򐂰 Not all four PHYs are at the same
speed.
򐂰 One or more of the connected PHYs
are attached to an address different
from the others.
SAS Port 1 Fault
SAS Port 2 Link
SAS Port 2 Fault
Amber
Green
Amber
More detailed information is available from the Storwize IBM Knowledge Center:
http://www.ibm.com/support/knowledgecenter/api/content/ST3FR7_7.3.0/com.ibm.storwi
ze.v7000.730.doc/fab1_system_leds.html
44
Implementing the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2
2.5 Technician Port
A technician port is available on the rear of the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2 system for service
support. The purpose and key benefit of the Storwize V7000 Gen2 technician port is to
simplify and ease the initial basic configuration of the Storwize V7000 system by the local
administrator or by service personnel. The technician port provides direct access to the
service assistant GUI and CLI.
The technician port can be used by directly connecting a computer that has web browsing
software and is configured for Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) via a standard
1 Gbps Ethernet cable. On uninitialized systems, the technician port provides access to the
system initialization wizard instead of the service assistant.
After a system has been initialized, the technician port provides access to the following
components:
򐂰 The service assistant
򐂰 The password reset facility (if enabled)
2.5.1 Technician port is marked with a T (Ethernet port 4)
The technician port is used for the initial installation of the system. As soon as the system is
installed and the user connects to the Technician Port, the user is directed to the new Init tool.
Verify that you are using a supported operating system. The initialization tool is valid for the
following operating systems:
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
Microsoft Windows 8.1 (64-bit), or Microsoft Windows 7 (64-bit)
Apple MacOS X 10.71
Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) Server 5 and 6
Ubuntu desktop 11.04 and 13.10
The Init tool is not displayed if there is a problem that prevents the system from clustering. For
example, this occurs if Node canister is in Service state because of an error, or if there is a
stored System ID (the system was set up before, and the user forgot to remove the ID using
the chenclosurevpd -resetclusterid command). If there is a problem, then the Service
Assistant GUI is shown, where the customer can log on and check the node canisters status.
To initialize the system, complete the following steps:
1. Ensure that the system is powered on.
2. Configure an Ethernet port on the personal computer to enable DHCP configuration of its
IP address and Domain Name System (DNS) settings.
3. Locate the Ethernet port that is labeled T on the rear of a node canister. This is the
Technician port.
4. Connect an Ethernet cable between the port of the personal computer that is configured in
step 2 and the technician port.
5. A few moments after the connection is made, the node uses DHCP to configure IP and
DNS settings of the personal computer.
6. After the Ethernet port of the personal computer is connected, open a supported browser
and browse to the http://install address. The browser automatically opens the
initialization tool.
Chapter 2. IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2 Hardware
45
Note: If the user’s machine has DHCP, it connects directly to the Storwize V7000 Gen2.
If they do not have DHCP, they need to set the IP of the Ethernet adapter to
192.168.0.2.
7. Follow the instructions that are presented by the initialization tool to configure the system
with a management IP address. After you complete the initialization process, the system
can be reached by opening a supported web browser and entering the following adress:
http://<management_IP_address>
Figure 2-13 shows the setup flow for the technician port.
Figure 2-13 Technician port setup
8. After the system is set up and the user connects to the Technician port, they are directed
to the Service GUI.
9. Only the Technician port has a Password Reset option from the Service Assistant
available. The sainfo lsservicestatus command displays the current status of the node,
and there is a new information field to indicate if password reset is enabled.
For more information on CLI commands, see Chapter 8, “IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2
command-line interface” on page 143.
46
Implementing the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2
3
Chapter 3.
Planning and configuration
In this chapter, we describe the steps that are required when you plan the installation of the
IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2, using the new 2076-524 hardware in your environment. We look
at the implications for your storage network, and also describe performance considerations.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2015. All rights reserved.
47
3.1 General planning rules
Important: At the time of writing, the statements made in this book are correct, but they
might change over time. Always verify any statements that have been made with the
Storwize V7000 Gen2 supported hardware list, device driver, firmware, and suggested
software levels on the following website:
http://www.ibm.com/support/docview.wss?uid=ssg1S1004622
To achieve the most benefit from Storwize V7000 Gen2, pre-installation planning must include
several important steps. These steps ensure that the Storwize V7000 Gen2 provides the best
possible performance, reliability, and ease of management for your application needs. Proper
configuration also helps minimize downtime by avoiding changes to the Storwize V7000 Gen2
and the storage area network (SAN) environment to meet future growth needs.
Tip: For comprehensive information about the topics that are described here, see IBM
Storwize V7000 Gen2 Product Manuals on the following website:
http://www.ibm.com/support/docview.wss?uid=ssg1S7003318
Follow these steps when planning for the Storwize V7000 Gen2:
1. Collect and document the number of hosts (application servers) to attach to the Storwize
V7000 Gen2, the traffic profile activity (read or write, sequential or random), and the
performance requirements in terms of input/output (I/O) operations per second (IOPS).
2. Collect and document the storage requirements and capacities:
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
The total existing back-end storage to be provisioned on Storwize V7000 Gen2 (if any)
The total new back-end storage to be provisioned on the Storwize V7000 Gen2 (if any)
The required storage capacity for local mirror copy (volume mirroring)
The required storage capacity for point-in-time copy (IBM FlashCopy)
The required storage capacity for remote copy (Metro Mirror and Global Mirror)
The required storage capacity for compressed volumes
Per host:
•
•
Storage capacity
Host logical unit number (LUN) quantity and sizes
– The required virtual storage capacity that is used as a fully managed volume, and used
as a thin-provisioned volume
3. Define the local and remote SAN fabrics and clustered systems, if a remote copy or a
secondary site is needed.
4. Define the number of clustered system systems, and the number of pairs of nodes for
each system. Each pair of nodes (an I/O Group) is the container for the volume. The
number of necessary I/O Groups depends on the overall performance requirements.
5. Design the SAN according to the requirement for high availability (HA) and best
performance. Consider the total number of ports. Also consider the bandwidth that is
needed between the host and the Storwize V7000 Gen2, the Storwize V7000 Gen2 and
the disk subsystem, between the Storwize V7000 Gen2 nodes, and for the inter-switch link
(ISL) between the local and remote fabric.
6. Design the Internet Small Computer System Interface (iSCSI) network according to the
requirements for HA and best performance. Consider the total number of ports and
bandwidth that is needed between the host and the Storwize V7000 Gen2.
48
Implementing the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2
7. Determine the Storwize V7000 Gen2 service Internet Protocol (IP) address.
8. Determine the IP addresses for the Storwize V7000 Gen2 system and for the host that
connects through iSCSI.
9. Determine the IP addresses for IP replication.
10.Define a naming convention for the Storwize V7000 Gen2 nodes, host, and storage
subsystem.
11.Define the managed disks (MDisks) in the disk subsystem.
12.Define the storage pools. The storage pools depend on the disk subsystem in place, and
on the data migration requirements.
13.Plan the logical configuration of the volume within the I/O Groups and the storage pools to
optimize the I/O load between the hosts and the Storwize V7000 Gen2.
14.Plan for the physical location of the equipment in the rack.
Storwize V7000 Gen2 planning can be categorized into two types:
򐂰 Physical planning
򐂰 Logical planning
We describe these planning types in more detail in the following sections.
3.1.1 Base software
IBM Storwize family software V7.3 introduces new software licenses for Storwize V7000
Gen2. This new license and pricing structure provides intuitive licensing based on the
functions customers want to enable and use the most.
Although Storwize V7000 Gen2 used to provide additional licenses for purchase to enable
additional functionality, the new structure and pricing model ties the software licenses closely
to the enclosure, and provides the capability to enable additional functionality by purchasing
feature codes under that license. The Storwize V7000 Gen2 base software includes the
following functions:
򐂰 Software Redundant Array of Independent DisksRAID (0/1/5/6/10 with global spares and
rebalancing)
򐂰 Thin provisioning
򐂰 Volume mirroring
򐂰 Read/write cache
򐂰 Unlimited IBM FlashCopy
򐂰 Automatic pool balancing
򐂰 Volume and host limits per Storwize V7000: 2048 volumes and 512 host objects per
Control Enclosure, and so on
򐂰 Embedded management and service graphical user interfaces (GUIs), Storage
Networking Industry Association (SNIA) Storage Management Initiative Specification
(SMI-S)-compliant Common Information Model (CIM) Object Manager (CIMOM)
򐂰 Management command-line interface (CLI) over Secure Shell (SSH)
򐂰 Four-way system clustering
򐂰 Environmental statistics reporting for Energy Star compliance
Chapter 3. Planning and configuration
49
Storwize V7000 Gen2 Licensing Structure
With the broad range of capabilities of the Storwize V7000 Gen2, including IBM Easy Tier and
IBM Real-time Compression, we have simplified the licensing to include these new features.
We noted two key areas to improve on:
򐂰 Take away the multiplicity of licenses
򐂰 Take the counting out of licensing, and resolve those concerns through pricing
We have a solution to address those complexities and challenges, and we are happy to have
arrived at an intuitive and straightforward way to order Storwize V7000 Gen2 licenses, and to
maintain them going forward. In this section, we review the licensing structure, as shown in
Figure 3-1.
Figure 3-1 New Licensing Structure
50
Implementing the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2
How the new licensing works
Storwize family software V7.3 announced the new licensing features on May 6, 2014. The
new licensing codes, also known as product identifiers (PIDs), are shown in Figure 3-2.
Figure 3-2 Licensing Codes
IBM Storwize family software V7.3 introduces new software licenses for Storwize V7000
Gen2. This new license and pricing structure provides intuitive licensing based on the
functions customers want to enable and use the most.
Storwize V7000 Gen2 used to provide additional licenses for purchase to enable additional
functionality. The new structure and pricing model ties the software licenses closely to the
enclosure, and provides the capability to enable additional functionality by purchasing feature
codes under that license.
Each Storwize Family Software for Storwize V7000 Gen2 5639-CB7, 5639-XB7, and
5639-EB7 license has the following feature codes:
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
Base software
Full Feature Set
Easy Tier
FlashCopy
Remote Mirroring
Compression
The following sections describe each new software license in detail, explains when and where
it applies, and provides examples.
Chapter 3. Planning and configuration
51
IBM Storwize Family Software for Storwize V7000 Gen2 Controller V7
(5639-CB7)
Each IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2 (2076-524) Disk Control Enclosure uses IBM Storwize
Family Software for Storwize V7000 Gen2 Controller Software, 5639-CB7. A 5639-CB7 IBM
Storwize Family Software for Storwize V7000 Gen2 Controller software license is required for
each Control Enclosure. In addition to this Control Enclosure license, advanced functions are
available for purchase as feature codes of the software.
For example, if you are running a Storwize V7000 Gen2 system and want to improve
performance efficiencies with Easy Tier, you might purchase that feature code to use Easy
Tier across all of the Control Enclosures, Expansion Enclosures, and externally virtualized
enclosures configured with that system. You can then use Easy Tier for that Storwize V7000
Gen2 system. Alternatively, you can enable Easy Tier and all other optional advanced
functions available by purchasing the single feature code labeled Full Feature Set.
IBM Storwize Family Software for Storwize V7000 Gen2 Expansion V7
(5639-XB7)
Each IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2 (2076-12F/24F) Expansion Enclosure uses IBM Storwize
Family Software for Storwize V7000 Gen2 Expansion Software, 5639-XB7. A 5639-XB7 IBM
Storwize Family Software for Storwize V7000 Gen2 Expansion software license is required for
each Expansion Enclosure. In addition to this Expansion Enclosure license, advanced
functions are available for purchase as feature codes of the software.
For example, if you are running a Storwize V7000 Gen2 system and want to improve
performance efficiencies with Easy Tier, you might purchase that feature code to use Easy
Tier across all of the Control Enclosures, Expansion Enclosures, and externally virtualized
enclosures configured with that system. You can then use Easy Tier for that Storwize V7000
Gen2 system. Alternatively, you can enable Easy Tier and all other optional advanced
functions available by purchasing the single feature code labeled Full Feature Set.
IBM Storwize Family Software for V7000 External Data Virtualization V7
(5639-EB7)
Each IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2 (2076-524) Disk Control Enclosure can attach and manage
external storage devices. IBM Storwize Family Software for Storwize V7000 Gen2 External
Data Virtualization Software, 5639-EB7, must be licensed to authorize use of this function.
This license must be purchased for each storage enclosure that is attached to and externally
managed by the Storwize V7000 Gen2. IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2 (2076-524) Disk Control
Enclosures and IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2 (2076-12F/24F) Disk Expansion Enclosures are
not included in this External Virtualization license.
A storage enclosure externally managed by the Storwize V7000 Gen2 is defined as an
independently powered, channel-attached device that stores data on magnetic disks or
solid-state drives (SSDs), such as disk controllers and their respective expansion units, each
constituting separate enclosures. Therefore, an enclosure can be either the main controller
housing disk or SSDs, or the expansion chassis that houses additional disk or SSDs for
expanding the total capacity of the storage system.
Consult an IBM sales representative with any questions regarding storage controllers. For
example, adding an IBM System Storage DS5020 consisting of two enclosures to an IBM
Storwize V7000 Gen2 consisting of one Control Enclosure and three Expansion Enclosures
requires the purchase of the external virtualization license with a feature code quantity of
two enclosures.
52
Implementing the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2
In addition to this external enclosure license, advanced functions are available for purchase
as feature codes of the software. For example, if you are running a Storwize V7000 Gen2
system and want to improve performance efficiencies with Easy Tier, you might purchase that
feature code for Easy Tier across all of the Control Enclosures, Expansion Enclosures, and
externally virtualized enclosures configured with that system.
You can then use Easy Tier for that Storwize V7000 Gen2 system. Alternatively, you can
enable Easy Tier and all other optional advanced functions available by purchasing the single
feature code labeled Full Feature Set.
Full Feature Set with mixed configurations
We provide a few examples of licensing in mixed configurations.
Mirroring a Storwize V7000 Gen2 system to an existing Storwize V7000 Gen1
In this first scenario, at the primary site, you are managing a new Storwize V7000 Gen2
2076-524 Disk Control Enclosure that has four 2076-24F Expansion Enclosures attached. In
addition, this Storwize V7000 Gen2 system is managing a System Storage DS5020
consisting of four enclosures. At the secondary site, you have a Storwize V7000 Gen1 system
consisting of one 2076-124 Disk Control Enclosure that has five 2076-224 Expansion
Enclosures attached. You want to use the Remote Mirroring features in this configuration.
This configuration requires the following licenses:
򐂰 A quantity of one IBM Storwize Family Software for Storwize V7000 Gen2 Controller
Software license (5639-CB7), with the Remote Mirroring feature code selected
򐂰 A quantity of four IBM Storwize Family Software for Storwize V7000 Gen2 Expansion
Software licenses (5639-XB7), each with the Remote Mirroring feature code selected
򐂰 A quantity of one IBM Storwize Family Software for Storwize V7000 Gen2 External Data
Virtualization Software license (5639-EB7), with a feature code quantity of four of the Base
software, and a feature code quantity of four of the Remote Mirroring feature code (or, of
course, this could be a feature code quantity of four of the Full Bundle feature code)
򐂰 A quantity of six IBM Storwize Family Software for Storwize V7000 Gen2 Software
licenses (5639-VM7)
򐂰 A quantity of six IBM Storwize Family Software for Storwize V7000 Gen2 Remote
Mirroring Software licenses (5639-RM7)
Mixing a new Storwize V7000 Gen 2 system to an existing Storwize V7000 Gen1
in the same cluster
In this second scenario, at the primary site, you are managing a clustered Storwize V7000
Gen2 system consisting of one 2076-124 Disk Control Enclosure that has two 2076-224
Expansion Enclosures attached, and a 2076-524 Disk Control Enclosure that has four
2076-24F Expansion Enclosures attached.
In addition, this Storwize V7000 Gen2 system is managing a System Storage DS5020
consisting of four enclosures. You want to use the Remote Mirroring features in this
configuration. At the secondary site, you have the exact same configuration set up.
Chapter 3. Planning and configuration
53
This configuration requires the following licenses at each site:
򐂰 A quantity of three IBM Storwize Family Software for Storwize V7000 Gen2 Software
licenses (5639-VM7)
򐂰 A quantity of three IBM Storwize Family Software for Storwize V7000 Gen2 Remote
Mirroring Software licenses (5639-RM7)
򐂰 A quantity of one IBM Storwize Family Software for Storwize V7000 Gen2 Controller
Software license (5639-CB7), each with the Remote Mirroring feature code selected
򐂰 A quantity of four IBM Storwize Family Software for Storwize V7000 Gen2 Expansion
Software licenses (5639-XB7), each with the Remote Mirroring feature code selected
򐂰 One of the following configurations:
– A quantity of one IBM Storwize Family Software for Storwize V7000 Gen2 External
Data Virtualization Software license (5639-EB7), with a feature code quantity of four
of the Base software, and a feature code quantity of four of the Remote Mirroring
feature code
– A quantity of four IBM Storwize Family Software for Storwize V7000 Gen2 External
Virtualization licenses (5639-EV7), plus an additional four IBM Storwize Family
Software for Storwize V7000 Gen2 Remote Mirroring Software licenses (5639-RM7), to
properly license Remote Mirroring for the externally managed System Storage DS5020
For more detailed information see:
http://www.ibm.com/storage/support/storwize/v7000
3.2 Physical planning
This section of the document is intended to provide guidance about the cabinet elevation
layouts to use for physically installing your IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2 in racks.
One of the first factors to consider is whether you are building a brand new cluster of Storwize
V7000 Gen2 with only 2076-524s in it, or if you are adding the 2076-524 to an existing cluster
having older model Storwize V7000 Gen1 or IBM SAN Volume Controller nodes in it. A
second factor is, if it is a brand new Storwize V7000 Gen2 cluster, you need to determine if
you are racking your Storwize V7000 Gen2s in a single cabinet layout or a dual cabinet
layout.
Additionally, when using the optional 2076-24F flash arrays as part of your Storwize V7000
Gen2 cluster implementation, the distance that you can separate the 2076-524 nodes in the
I/O Group away from their shared 2076-24F flash array is limited by the maximum length of
the 6-meter serial-attached SCSI (SAS) cable used to attach the array to the Storwize V7000
Gen2 units.
Important: You must consider the maximum power rating of the rack. Do not exceed it. For
more information about the power requirements, see the following website:
http://www.ibm.com/support/knowledgecenter/api/content/ST3FR7_7.3.0/com.ibm.sto
rwize.v7000.730.doc/tbrd_physicalconfig.html
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Implementing the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2
3.2.1 Single rack or dual rack configuration
The Storwize V7000 Gen2 system must be installed in pairs to provide HA, and each pair
makes up an I/O Group. A Storwize V7000 Gen2 cluster can contain up to four I/O Groups, or
a total of eight nodes. Each node requires a power cable connection to connect to the 750w
power supplies. Limitations and restrictions for the Storwize V7000 Gen2 can be found on the
following website:
http://www.ibm.com/support/docview.wss?uid=ssg1S1004628
Figure 3-3 shows the rear view of a Storwize V7000 Gen2 Control Enclosure with the power
supplies.
Figure 3-3 2076-524 Power Connectors
The Control Enclosure rear layout includes the following items:
򐂰 Node canisters (1)
򐂰 Power supply units (2):
– Power supply 1 (left)
– Power supply 2 (right)
A rear view of a Storwize V7000 Gen2 Expansion Enclosure is shown in Figure 3-4.
Figure 3-4 Rear view of Enclosure Expansion
The Enclosure Expansion rear layout includes the following items:
򐂰 Expansion Canisters (1)
򐂰 Power supply units (2)
Chapter 3. Planning and configuration
55
If multiple racks are required, locate the racks next to one another.
Plan for one of these installations:
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
Control Enclosure only
Control Enclosure plus one or more Expansion Enclosures
Expansion Enclosure only
Another Control Enclosure plus one or more Expansion Enclosures
Each Control Enclosure contains two node canisters, forming an I/O Group. The guidelines
apply on an I/O Group by I/O Group basis:
򐂰 Control Enclosure only
The Control Enclosure requires two standard rack units of space in a rack. If you plan to
add Expansion Enclosures in the future, follow the guidelines for a Control Enclosure plus
one or more Expansion Enclosures.
򐂰 Control Enclosure plus one or more Expansion Enclosures
If you have one or more Expansion Enclosures, position the Control Enclosure in the
center of the rack to make cabling easier. Balance the number of Expansion Enclosures
above and below the Control Enclosure.
򐂰 Storwize V7000 Gen2 has the following requirements:
– Each enclosure requires two standard rack units of space in a rack.
– Attach no more than 10 Expansion Enclosures to port 1 of the Control Enclosure.
– Attach no more than 10 Expansion Enclosures to port 2 of the Control Enclosure.
򐂰 There is support for 10 expansions per chain, for a total of 21 enclosures to be included:
– Position the enclosures together. Avoid adding other equipment between enclosures.
– Position the enclosures in the rack so that you can easily view them and access them
for servicing. This action also enables the rack to remain stable, and enables two or
more people to install and remove the enclosures.
The following considerations are also part of your decision:
򐂰 Upstream redundancy of the power to your cabinet, such as power circuit panels and
on-floor Power Distribution Units (PDUs)
򐂰 Within cabinet power redundancy, such as dual power strips or in-cabinet PDUs
򐂰 Upstream HA structures, such as uninterruptible power supply (UPS), generators, and
so on
Many data centers today are at an Uptime Tier 3 or higher level, so power redundancy
concerns that would require a dual cabinet Storwize V7000 Gen2 implementation are no
longer an issue.
However, Fire Protection Systems Type, such as overhead wet pipe sprinkler systems, should
be considered. In association to these items, you should also consider physical separation
and location of other key storage environment components.
If you are implementing your entire storage environment with multiple redundant devices
physically separated across multiple cabinets and strings, you need to provide sufficient
physical distance to ensure that your redundant components are in different fire protection
zones and different power-sourced zones. Otherwise, your end-to-end storage environment
can be compromised in case of a zonal facilities failure.
56
Implementing the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2
If the data center you are moving into has the proper power redundancy attributes, and your
storage environment design strategy does not have fully redundant components placed at
sufficient distances apart, a single cabinet implementation saves you the costs associated
with the second cabinet.
If the data center does not have a robust enough power redundancy infrastructure, or your
storage environment design strategy does not have fully redundant components placed at
sufficient distances apart, the investment in a dual cabinet implementation is justified in
furthering the level of HA and redundancy for your overall storage environment.
Another consideration would be that if you anticipate that you will be adding another Storwize
V7000 Gen2 cluster to your storage environment in the future, by implementing a dual cabinet
approach from the start, and reserving remaining space in each cabinet for nodes from the
second cluster, you accomplish both objectives.
3.2.2 Cable connections
Create a cable connection table or similar documentation to track all of the connections that
are required for the setup:
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
Nodes
Ethernet
Fibre Channel over Ethernet (FCoE) and iSCSI connections
Fibre Channel (FC) ports
Figure 3-5 shows the rear view of a 2076-524 Node with the two PCIe adapter slots identified.
Figure 3-5 2076-524 PCIe Expansion Slots
Chapter 3. Planning and configuration
57
Each 2076-524 node can support up to two PCIe expansion I/O cards, as identified in
Table 3-1, to provide a range of connectivity and capacity expansion options.
Table 3-1 Layout of Expansion Card options for 2076-524 Node.
Slot
Supported Cards
1
Compression
pass-through
Compression Acceleration card
2
None
8 gigabit (Gb) FC, 10 Gb Ethernet
3
None
8 Gb FC, 10 Gb Ethernet
A sample cable connection table can be downloaded by following these steps:
1. Go to: http://www.ibm.com/storage/support/
2. Under Product Support Content, click Plan and install documentation.
3. In the search box, type and search for IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2 (2076). Then, click the
search result.
4. Click the wanted link to download it to your computer.
3.3 Logical planning
For logical planning, this section provides information about the following topics:
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
Management IP addressing plan
SAN zoning and SAN connections
iSCSI IP addressing plan
IP replication
Back-end storage subsystem configuration
Storwize V7000 Gen2 system configuration
Storage pool configuration
Volume configuration
Host mapping (LUN masking)
Advanced Copy Services functions
SAN boot support
Data migration from non-virtualized storage subsystems
Storwize V7000 Gen2 configuration backup procedure
3.3.1 Management IP addressing plan
Starting with Storwize V7000 6.1, the system management is performed through an
embedded GUI running on the nodes. A separate console, such as the traditional Storwize
V7000 Hardware Management Console (HMC) or IBM System Storage Productivity Center
(SSPC), is no longer required to access the management interface. To access the
management GUI, you direct a web browser to the system management IP address.
The Storwize V7000 Gen2 2076-524 node introduces a new feature called a Technician Port.
Ethernet port 4 is allocated as the Technician service port, and is marked with a T. All initial
configuration for each node is performed through the Technician Port.
58
Implementing the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2
The port broadcasts a Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) service so that a
notebook or computer is automatically assigned an IP address on connection to the port.
More details about this are described in 2.5.1, “Technician port is marked with a T (Ethernet
port 4)” on page 45.
Figure 3-6 shows the location of the Technician Port.
Figure 3-6 Technician Port
After the cluster configuration has been completed, the Technician Port automatically routes
the connected user directly to the service GUI.
Information: The default IP address for the Technician Port on a 2076-524 Node is
192.168.0.1. If the Technician Port is connected to a switch, it is disabled and an error is
logged.
Each Storwize V7000 Gen2 node requires one Ethernet cable to connect it to an Ethernet
switch or hub. The cable must be connected to port 1. A 10/100/1000 megabit (Mb) Ethernet
connection is required for each cable. Both Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPv4) and Internet
Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) are supported.
To ensure system failover operations, Ethernet port 1 on all nodes must be connected to the
same set of subnets. Each Storwize V7000 Gen2 cluster has a Cluster Management IP
address and a Service IP address for each node in the cluster. See Example 3-1 for details.
Example 3-1 Management IP address sample
management IP add. 10.11.12.120
node 1 service IP add. 10.11.12.121
node 2 service IP add. 10.11.12.122
Each node in a Storwize V7000 Gen2 clustered system needs to have at least one Ethernet
connection.
Support for iSCSI provides one additional IPv4 and one additional IPv6 address for each
Ethernet port on every node. These IP addresses are independent of the clustered system
configuration IP addresses.
When accessing the Storwize V7000 Gen2 through the GUI or SSH, choose one of the
available IP addresses to which to connect. No automatic failover capability is available. If one
network is down, use an IP address on the alternative network. Clients might be able to use
the intelligence in domain name servers (DNS) to provide partial failover.
Chapter 3. Planning and configuration
59
3.3.2 SAN zoning and SAN connections
SAN storage systems using the Storwize V7000 Gen2 can be configured with two, or up to
eight, Storwize V7000 Gen2 node canisters, arranged in an Storwize V7000 Gen2 clustered
system. This Storwize V7000 Gen2 cluster is attached to the SAN fabric, along with disk
subsystems and host systems. The Storwize V7000 Gen2 node canisters within a Storwize
V7000 Gen2 system must be able to see each other and all of the storage that is assigned to
the Storwize V7000 Gen2 system.
The zoning capabilities of the SAN switch are used to create three distinct zones. Storwize
V7000 Gen2 7.3 supports 2 gigabits per second (Gbps), 4 Gbps, or 8 Gbps FC fabric, (16
Gbps connects, but it only uses the 8 Gbps speed by default) depending on the hardware
platform and on the switch where the Storwize V7000 Gen2 is connected. In an environment
where you have a fabric with multiple-speed switches, the preferred practice is to connect the
Storwize V7000 Gen2 and the disk subsystem to the switch operating at the highest speed.
All Storwize V7000 Gen2 nodes in the Storwize V7000 Gen2 clustered system are connected
to the same SANs, and they present volumes to the hosts. These volumes are created from
storage pools that are composed of MDisks presented by the disk subsystems.
The fabric must have three distinct zones:
򐂰 Storwize V7000 Gen2 cluster system zones
Create one cluster zone per fabric, and include any port per node that is designated for
intra-cluster traffic. No more than four ports per node should be allocated to intra-cluster
traffic.
򐂰 Host zones
Create a host zone for each server host bus adapter (HBA) port accessing Storwize
V7000 Gen2.
򐂰 Storage zone
Create one Storwize V7000 Gen2 storage zone for each storage subsystem that is
virtualized by the Storwize V7000 Gen2. Some storage control systems need two
separate zones (one per controller) so that they do not “see” each other.
Zoning considerations for Metro Mirror and Global Mirror
Ensure that you are familiar with the constraints on zoning a switch to support Metro Mirror
and Global Mirror partnerships.
SAN configurations that use inter-cluster Metro Mirror and Global Mirror relationships require
the following additional switch zoning considerations:
򐂰 For each node in a clustered system, it is preferred to zone two FC ports from the source
system to two FC ports on the target system.
򐂰 If dual-redundant ISLs are available, split the two ports from each node evenly between
the two ISLs.
򐂰 Local clustered system zoning continues to follow the standard requirement for all ports on
all nodes in a clustered system to be zoned to one another.
60
Implementing the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2
Attention: Failure to follow these configuration rules exposes the clustered system to
the following condition, and can result in the loss of host access to volumes.
If an inter-cluster link becomes severely and abruptly overloaded, the local FC fabric
can become congested to the extent that no FC ports on the local Storwize V7000
Gen2 nodes are able to perform local intra-cluster heartbeat communication. This
situation can, in turn, result in the nodes experiencing lease expiry events.
In a lease expiry event, a node reboots to attempt to re-establish communication with
the other nodes in the clustered system. If the leases for all nodes expire
simultaneously, a loss of host access to volumes can occur for the duration of the
reboot events.
򐂰 Configure your SAN so that FC traffic can be passed between the two clustered systems.
To configure the SAN this way, you can connect the clustered systems to the same SAN,
merge the SANs, or use routing technologies.
򐂰 Configure zoning to enable all of the nodes in the local fabric to communicate with all of
the nodes in the remote fabric.
You must also observe the following guidelines:
򐂰 LUNs (MDisks) must have exclusive access to a single Storwize V7000 Gen2 clustered
system, and cannot be shared between other Storwize V7000 clustered systems or hosts.
򐂰 A storage controller can present LUNs to both the Storwize V7000 Gen2 (as MDisks) and
to other hosts in the SAN. However, in this case it is better to avoid the Storwize V7000
and hosts that share the same storage ports.
򐂰 Mixed port speeds are not permitted for intra-cluster communication. All node ports within
a clustered system must be running at the same speed.
򐂰 The switch configuration in a Storwize V7000 Gen2 fabric must comply with the switch
manufacturer’s configuration rules, which can impose restrictions on the switch
configuration. For example, a switch manufacturer might limit the number of supported
switches in a SAN. Operation outside of the switch manufacturer’s rules is not supported.
򐂰 Host zones are to contain only one initiator (HBA) each, and one or two Storwize V7000
Gen2 node ports, depending on the HA and performance that you want from your
configuration.
Chapter 3. Planning and configuration
61
Important: Be aware of the following considerations:
򐂰 The use of ISLs for intra-cluster node communication could possibly negatively
affect the availability of the system due to the high dependency on the quality of
these links to maintain heartbeat and other system management services.
Therefore, we strongly advise that you only use them as part of an interim
configuration to facilitate SAN migrations, and not as part of the architected solution.
򐂰 The use of ISLs for Storwize V7000 Gen2 node to storage controller access can
lead to port congestion, which could negatively affect the performance and
resiliency of the SAN. Therefore, we strongly advise that you only use them as part
of an interim configuration to facilitate SAN migrations, and not as part of the
designed solution.
With Storwize V7000 Gen2 V7.3, you can use ISLs between nodes, but they must
be in a dedicated SAN, virtual SAN (CISCO technology), or logical SAN (Brocade
technology).
򐂰 The use of mixed port speeds for inter-cluster communication can lead to port
congestion, which could negatively affect the performance and resiliency of the
SAN, and is therefore not supported.
You can use the lsfabric command to generate a report that displays the connectivity
between nodes and other controllers and hosts. This report is helpful for diagnosing SAN
problems.
For more information about zoning and configuration, see the following website:
http://www.ibm.com/support/knowledgecenter/api/content/ST3FR7_7.3.0/com.ibm.storwi
ze.v7000.730.doc/svc_configrulessummary_02171530.html
3.3.3 iSCSI IP addressing plan
Since version 6.3, Storwize V7000 has supported host access through iSCSI (as an
alternative to FC). The following considerations apply:
򐂰 Storwize V7000 Gen2 uses the built-in Ethernet ports for iSCSI traffic. If the optional 10
Gbps Ethernet feature is installed, you can connect host systems through the two 10 Gbps
Ethernet ports per node.
򐂰 All node types that can run Storwize V7000 6.1 or later can use the iSCSI feature.
򐂰 Storwize V7000 Gen2 supports the Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol
(CHAP) authentication methods for iSCSI.
򐂰 iSCSI IP addresses can fail over to the partner node in the I/O Group if a node fails. This
design reduces the need for multipathing support in the iSCSI host.
򐂰 iSCSI IP addresses can be configured for one or more nodes.
򐂰 iSCSI simple name server (iSNS) addresses can be configured in Storwize V7000 Gen2.
򐂰 The iSCSI qualified name (IQN) for a Storwize V7000 Gen2 node is
iqn.1986-03.com.ibm:2076.<cluster_name>.<node_name>. Because the IQN contains the
clustered system name and the node name, it is important not to change these names
after iSCSI is deployed.
򐂰 Each node can be given an iSCSI alias, as an alternative to the IQN.
62
Implementing the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2
򐂰 The IQN of the host to a Storwize V7000 Gen2 host object is added in the same way that
you add FC worldwide port names (WWPNs).
򐂰 Host objects can have both WWPNs and IQNs.
򐂰 Standard iSCSI host connection procedures can be used to discover and configure
Storwize V7000 Gen2 as an iSCSI target.
3.3.4 Native IP replication
One of the most important new functions introduced in version 7.2 of the Storwize family was
native IP replication, which enables the use of lower-cost Ethernet connections for remote
mirroring. The capability is available as an option (Metro Mirror or Global Mirror) on all
Storwize family systems. The new function is transparent to servers and applications in the
same way that traditional FC-based mirroring is. All remote mirroring modes (Metro Mirror,
Global Mirror, and Global Mirror with Changed Volumes) are supported.
Configuration of the system is straightforward: Storwize family systems can normally find
each other in the network, and can be selected from the GUI. IP replication includes
Bridgeworks SANSlide network optimization technology, and is available at no additional
charge. Remote mirror is a chargeable option, but the price does not change with IP
replication. Existing remote mirror users can access the new function at no additional charge.
Information: Full details of how to set up and configure IP replication are available in the
IBM SAN Volume Controller and Storwize Family Native IP Replication publication:
http://www.redbooks.ibm.com/abstracts/redp5103.html
3.3.5 Back-end storage subsystem configuration
Back-end storage subsystem configuration planning must be applied to all storage controllers
that are attached to the Storwize V7000 Gen2.
See the following website for a list of currently supported storage subsystems:
http://www.ibm.com/support/docview.wss?uid=ssg1S1004622
Apply the following general guidelines for back-end storage subsystem configuration
planning:
򐂰 In the SAN, storage controllers that are used by the Storwize V7000 Gen2 clustered
system must be connected through SAN switches. Direct connection between the
Storwize V7000 Gen2 and the storage controller is not supported.
򐂰 Multiple connections are enabled from the redundant controllers in the disk subsystem to
improve data bandwidth performance. It is not mandatory to have a connection from each
redundant controller in the disk subsystem to each counterpart SAN, but it is a preferred
practice. Therefore, both canisters port 1 & 3 in a Storwize V3700 subsystem can be
connected to SAN A, and port 2 & 4 to SAN B.
򐂰 All Storwize V7000 Gen2 nodes in an Storwize V7000 clustered system must be able
to see the same set of ports from each storage subsystem controller. Violating this
guideline causes the paths to become degraded. This degradation can occur as a result of
applying inappropriate zoning and LUN masking. This guideline has important implications
for a disk subsystem, such as DS3000, Storwize V3700, Storwize V5000, or Storwize
V7000, which imposes exclusivity rules as to which HBA WWPNs a storage partition can
be mapped.
Chapter 3. Planning and configuration
63
MDisks within storage pools:
򐂰 Storwize V7000 6.1 and later provide for better load distribution across paths within
storage pools.
In previous code levels, the path to MDisk assignment was made in a round-robin
fashion across all MDisks configured to the clustered system. With that method, no
attention is paid to how MDisks within storage pools are distributed across paths.
Therefore, it is possible and even likely to have certain paths that are more heavily
loaded than others.
This condition is more likely to occur with a smaller number of MDisks contained in the
storage pool. Starting with Storwize V7000 6.1, the code contains logic that considers
MDisks within storage pools. Therefore, the code more effectively distributes their
active paths that are based on the storage controller ports that are available.
򐂰 The Detect Mdisk command must be run after the creation or modification (add or
remove MDisk) of storage pools for paths to be redistributed.
If you do not have a storage subsystem that supports the Storwize V7000 Gen2 round-robin
algorithm, make the number of MDisks per storage pool a multiple of the number of storage
ports that are available. This approach ensures sufficient bandwidth to the storage controller
and an even balance across storage controller ports.
In general, configure disk subsystems as though no Storwize V7000 exists. However, we
suggest the following specific guidelines:
򐂰 Disk drives:
– Exercise caution with large disk drives so that you do not have too few spindles to
handle the load.
– RAID 5 is suggested for most workloads.
򐂰 Array sizes:
– An array size of 8+P or 4+P is suggested for the IBM DS4000® and IBM DS5000™
families, if possible.
– Use the DS4000 segment size of 128 kilobytes (KB) or larger to help the sequential
performance.
– Upgrade to EXP810 drawers, if possible.
– Create LUN sizes that are equal to the RAID array and rank size. If the array size is
greater than 2 terabytes (TB) and the disk subsystem does not support MDisks larger
than 2 TB, create the minimum number of LUNs of equal size.
– An array size of 7+P is suggested for the V3700, V5000, and V7000 Storwize families.
– When adding more disks to a subsystem, consider adding the new MDisks to existing
storage pools versus creating additional small storage pools.
򐂰 Maximum of 1024 worldwide node names (WWNNs) per cluster:
– EMC DMX/SYMM, all HDS, and SUN/HP HDS clones use one WWNN per port. Each
WWNN appears as a separate controller to the Storwize V7000 Gen2.
– IBM, EMC CLARiiON, and HP use one WWNN per subsystem. Each WWNN appears
as a single controller with multiple ports and WWPNs, for a maximum of 16 ports and
WWPNs per WWNN.
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Implementing the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2
򐂰 DS8000 using four of, or eight of, the 4-port HA cards:
–
–
–
–
Use ports 1 and 3 or ports 2 and 4 on each card (it does not matter for 8 Gb cards).
This setup provides 8 or 16 ports for Storwize V7000 Gen2 use.
Use eight ports minimum, up to 40 ranks.
Use 16 ports for 40 or more ranks. Sixteen is the maximum number of ports.
򐂰 DS4000/DS5000 and EMC CLARiiON/CX:
– Both systems have the preferred controller architecture, and Storwize V7000 Gen2
supports this configuration.
– Use a minimum of four ports, and preferably eight or more ports, up to a maximum of
16 ports, so that more ports equate to more concurrent I/O that is driven by the
Storwize V7000 Gen2.
– Support is available for mapping controller A ports to Fabric A and controller B ports to
Fabric B, or cross-connecting ports to both fabrics from both controllers. The
cross-connecting approach is preferred to avoid auto volume transfer (AVT)/Trespass
occurring if a fabric or all paths to a fabric fail.
򐂰 DS3400 subsystems:
– Use a minimum of four ports.
򐂰 Storwize family:
– Use a minimum of four ports, and preferably eight ports.
򐂰 IBM XIV® requirements and restrictions:
– The use of XIV extended functions, including snaps, thin provisioning, synchronous
replication (native copy services), and LUN expansion of LUNs presented to the
Storwize V7000 Gen2 is not supported.
– A maximum of 511 LUNs from one XIV system can be mapped to a Storwize V7000
Gen2 clustered system.
򐂰 Full 15 module XIV suggestions (161 usable TB):
– Use two interface host ports from each of the six interface modules.
– Use ports 1 and 3 from each interface module, and zone these 12 ports with all
Storwize V7000 Gen2 node ports.
– Create 48 LUNs of equal size, each of which is a multiple of 17 gigabytes (GB). This
creates approximately 1632 GB if you are using the entire full frame XIV with the
Storwize V7000 Gen2.
– Map LUNs to the Storwize V7000 Gen2 as 48 MDisks, and add all of them to the single
XIV storage pool so that the Storwize V7000 Gen2 drives the I/O to four MDisks and
LUNs for each of the 12 XIV FC ports. This design provides a good queue depth on the
Storwize V7000 Gen2 to drive XIV adequately.
򐂰 Six module XIV suggestions (55 TB usable):
– Use two interface host ports from each of the two active interface modules.
– Use ports 1 and 3 from interface modules 4 and 5. (Interface module 6 is inactive). Also
zone these four ports with all Storwize V7000 Gen2 node ports.
– Create 16 LUNs of equal size, each of which is a multiple of 17 GB. This creates
approximately 1632 GB if you are using the entire XIV with the Storwize V7000 Gen2.
– Map the LUNs to the Storwize V7000 Gen2 as 16 MDisks, and add all of them to the
single XIV storage pool, so that the Storwize V7000 Gen2 drives I/O to four MDisks
and LUNs per each of the four XIV FC ports. This design provides a good queue depth
on the Storwize V7000 Gen2 to drive the XIV adequately.
Chapter 3. Planning and configuration
65
򐂰 Nine module XIV suggestions (87 usable TB):
– Use two interface host ports from each of the four active interface modules.
– Use ports 1 and 3 from interface modules 4, 5, 7, and 8 (interface modules 6 and 9 are
inactive). Also, zone these eight ports with all of the Storwize V7000 Gen2 node ports.
– Create 26 LUNs of equal size, each of which is a multiple of 17 GB. This creates
approximately 1632 GB if you are using the entire XIV with the Storwize V7000 Gen2.
– Map the LUNs to the Storwize V7000 Gen2 as 26 MDisks, and map all of them to the
single XIV storage pool, so that the Storwize V7000 Gen2 drives I/O to three MDisks
and LUNs on each of the six ports and four MDisks and LUNs on the other two XIV FC
ports. This design provides a useful queue depth on Storwize V7000 Gen2 to drive XIV
adequately.
򐂰 Configure XIV host connectivity for the Storwize V7000 Gen2 clustered system:
– Create one host definition on XIV, and include all Storwize V7000 Gen2 node WWPNs.
– You can create clustered system host definitions (one per I/O Group), but the
preceding method is easier.
– Map all LUNs to all Storwize V7000 Gen2 node WWPNs.
3.3.6 Real-time Compression
The 2076-524 introduces additional hardware dedicated to the improvement of the Real-time
Compression functionality in Storwize V7000 Gen2. It is a mandatory requirement that each
node has the second processor and cache upgrade, and a minimum of one Compression
Acceleration Card, for the I/O Group to support compressed volumes. For more information,
see Chapter 6, “IBM Real-time Compression and the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2” on
page 117.
Note: Active Data Workload is typically 5 - 8% of the total managed capacity. In a single
I/O Group, 8 TB of active data equates to approximately 160 TB managed. In an
eight-node cluster, this equates to 32 TB of active data (8 TB per I/O Group).
3.3.7 Easy Tier version 3
With the release of Storwize V7000 Gen2 V7.3, Easy Tier has been enhanced to support
several new features:
򐂰 Easy Tier with three tiers in a pool:
– Nearline (NL-SAS)
– Enterprise (SAS)
– Flash (SSD or Flash)
򐂰 Easy Tier puts hot extents on faster storage, and cold extents on slower storage.
򐂰 Easy Tier with any two tiers in a pool:
– Nearline + Enterprise
– (anything) + Flash
򐂰 Drive and storage system sensitivity:
– Easy Tier understands exactly what type of drive and RAID level, and what class of
storage system, is being used.
– It knows how much performance to expect from an MDisk and avoids overloading.
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Implementing the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2
򐂰 Major enhancements to the STAT tool to support the previously mentioned functionality
and add more metrics:
– STAT tool outputs three sets of data.
– Detailed logging can be uploaded to Disk Magic to validate skew curve.
Figure 3-7 shows the basic layout of how Easy Tier works. With Storwize V7000 Gen2 the
user must manually define flash disk MDisk or Nearline MDisks. All MDisks are classed as
Enterprise by default.
Figure 3-7 Identifies the three tiers of disk accessible by Easy Tier
For more information about Easy Tier, see Chapter 4, “IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2 Easy Tier”
on page 85.
3.3.8 Storwize V7000 Gen2 clustered system configuration
To ensure HA in Storwize V7000 Gen2 installations, consider the following guidelines when
you design a SAN with the Storwize V7000 Gen2:
򐂰 All nodes in a clustered system must be in the same LAN segment, because the nodes in
the clustered system must be able to assume the same clustered system or service IP
address. Make sure that the network configuration enables any of the nodes to use these
IP addresses. If you plan to use the second Ethernet port on each node, it is possible to
have two LAN segments. However, port 1 of every node must be in one LAN segment, and
port 2 of every node must be in the other LAN segment.
򐂰 To maintain application uptime in the unlikely event of an individual Storwize V7000 Gen2
node failing, Storwize V7000 Gen2 nodes are always deployed in pairs (I/O Groups). If a
node fails or is removed from the configuration, the remaining node operates in a
degraded mode, but it is still a valid configuration. The remaining node operates in
write-through mode, meaning that the data is written directly to the disk subsystem (the
cache is disabled for the write).
򐂰 The FC SAN connections between the Storwize V7000 Gen2 node and the switches are
optical fiber. These connections can run at either 2 Gbps, 4 Gbps, or 8 Gbps, depending
on your Storwize V7000 Gen2 and switch hardware.
Chapter 3. Planning and configuration
67
򐂰 Two Storwize V7000 Gen2 clustered systems cannot have access to the same LUNs in a
disk subsystem. Configuring zoning so that two Storwize V7000 Gen2 clustered systems
have access to the same LUNs (MDisks) can, and will likely, result in data corruption.
򐂰 The Storwize V7000 Gen2 uses three MDisks as quorum disks for the clustered system. A
preferred practice for redundancy is to have each quorum disk in a separate storage
subsystem, where possible. The current locations of the quorum disks can be displayed
using the lsquorum command, and can be relocated using the chquorum command.
Figure 3-8 displays the quorum disk layout.
Figure 3-8 Quorum disk layout
3.3.9 Volume configuration
An individual volume is a member of one storage pool and one I/O Group. When creating a
volume, you first identify the wanted performance, availability, and cost requirements for that
volume, and then select the storage pool accordingly:
– The storage pool defines which disk subsystem MDisks make up the volume.
– The I/O Group (two nodes make an I/O Group) defines which Storwize V7000 Gen2
nodes provide I/O access to the volume.
Important: There is no fixed relationship between I/O Groups and storage pools.
Perform volume allocation based on the following considerations:
򐂰 Optimize performance between the hosts and the Storwize V7000 Gen2 by attempting to
distribute volumes evenly across available I/O Groups and nodes within the clustered
system.
򐂰 Reach the level of performance, reliability, and capacity that you require by using the
storage pool that corresponds to your needs (you can access any storage pool from any
node). That is, choose the storage pool that fulfills the demands for your volumes
concerning performance, reliability, and capacity.
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Implementing the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2
򐂰 I/O Group considerations:
– When you create a volume, it is associated with one node of an I/O Group. By default,
every time that you create a new volume, it is associated with the next node using a
round-robin algorithm. You can specify a preferred access node, which is the node
through which you send I/O to the volume rather than using the round-robin algorithm.
A volume is defined for an I/O Group.
– Even if you have eight paths for each volume, all I/O traffic flows only toward one node
(the preferred node). Therefore, only four paths are used by the IBM Subsystem Device
Driver (SDD). The other four paths are used only in the case of a failure of the preferred
node, or when concurrent code upgrade is running.
򐂰 Creating image mode volumes:
– Use image mode volumes when an MDisk already has data on it from a non-virtualized
disk subsystem. When an image mode volume is created, it directly corresponds to the
MDisk from which it is created. Therefore, volume logical block address (LBA) x =
MDisk LBA x. The capacity of image mode volumes defaults to the capacity of the
supplied MDisk.
– When you create an image mode disk, the MDisk does have a mode of unmanaged,
and should be put into a separate storage pool when you import the volume. A capacity
of 0 is not allowed. Image mode volumes can be created in sizes with a minimum
granularity of 512 bytes, and they must be at least one block (512 bytes) in size.
Attention: Image mode disks should be imported into a storage pool of like disks,
otherwise you risk the possibility of data corruption or loss.
– When creating a managed mode volume with sequential or striped policy, you must
use several MDisks containing extents that are available and of a size that is equal to or
greater than the size of the volume that you want to create. There might be sufficient
extents available on the MDisk, but a contiguous block large enough to satisfy the
request might not be available.
򐂰 Thin-Provisioned volume considerations:
– When creating the Thin-Provisioned volume, you need to understand the use patterns
by the applications or group users accessing this volume. You must consider items,
such as the actual size of the data, the rate of creation of new data, modifying or
deleting existing data, and so on.
– Two operating modes for Thin-Provisioned volumes are available:
•
Autoexpand volumes allocate storage from a storage pool on demand, with minimal
required user intervention. However, a malfunctioning application can cause a
volume to expand until it has used all of the storage in a storage pool.
•
Non-autoexpand volumes have a fixed amount of assigned storage. In this case, the
user must monitor the volume and assign additional capacity when required. A
malfunctioning application can only cause the volume that it uses to fill up.
– Depending on the initial size for the real capacity, the grain size and a warning level can
be set. If a volume goes offline, either through a lack of available physical storage for
autoexpand, or because a volume that is marked as non-expand had not been
expanded in time, a danger exists of data being left in the cache until storage is made
available. This situation is not a data integrity or data loss issue, but you must not rely
on the Storwize V7000 Gen2 cache as a backup storage mechanism.
Chapter 3. Planning and configuration
69
Important:
򐂰 Keep a warning level on the used capacity so that it provides adequate time to
respond and provision more physical capacity.
򐂰 Warnings must not be ignored by an administrator.
򐂰 Use the autoexpand feature of the Thin-Provisioned volumes.
– When you create a thin-provisioned volume, you can choose the grain size for
allocating space in 32 KB, 64 KB, 128 KB, or 256 KB chunks. The grain size that you
select affects the maximum virtual capacity for the thin-provisioned volume. The default
grain size is 256 KB, and is the strongly suggested option. If you select 32 KB for the
grain size, the volume size cannot exceed 260,000 GB. The grain size cannot be
changed after the thin-provisioned volume is created.
Generally, smaller grain sizes save space but require more metadata access, which
could adversely affect performance. If you are not going to use the thin-provisioned
volume as a FlashCopy source or target volume, use 256 KB to maximize
performance. If you are going to use the thin-provisioned volume as a FlashCopy
source or target volume, specify the same grain size for the volume and for the
FlashCopy function.
– Thin-provisioned volumes require more I/Os because of directory accesses. For truly
random workloads with 70% read and 30% write, a thin-provisioned volume requires
approximately one directory I/O for every user I/O.
– The directory is two-way write-back-cached (just like the Storwize V7000 Gen2
fast-write cache), so certain applications perform better.
– Thin-provisioned volumes require more processor processing, so the performance per
I/O Group can also be reduced.
– A thin-provisioned volume feature called zero detect provides clients with the ability to
reclaim unused allocated disk space (zeros) when converting a fully allocated volume
to a Thin-Provisioned volume using volume mirroring.
򐂰 Volume mirroring guidelines:
– Create or identify 2 separate storage pools to allocate space for your mirrored volume.
– Allocate the storage pools containing the mirrors from separate storage controllers.
– If possible, use a storage pool with MDisks that share the same characteristics.
Otherwise, the volume performance can be affected by the poorer-performing MDisk.
3.3.10 Host mapping (LUN masking)
For the host and application servers, the following guidelines apply:
򐂰 Each Storwize V7000 Gen2 node presents a volume to the SAN through four ports.
Because two nodes are used in normal operations to provide redundant paths to the same
storage, a host with two HBAs can see multiple paths to each LUN that is presented by the
Storwize V7000 Gen2. Use zoning to limit the pathing from a minimum of two paths to the
maximum that is available of eight paths, depending on the kind of HA and performance
that you want to have in your configuration.
It is best to use zoning to limit the pathing to four paths. The hosts must run a multipathing
device driver to limit the pathing back to a single device. The multipathing driver supported
and delivered by Storwize V7000 Gen2 is SDD. Native multipath I/O (MPIO) drivers on
selected hosts are supported.
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Implementing the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2
For operating system-specific information about MPIO support, see the following website:
http://www.ibm.com/support/docview.wss?uid=ssg1S1003741
You can find the actual version of the IBM Subsystem Device Driver Device Specific
Module (SDDDSM) for IBM products on the following website:
http://www.ibm.com/support/docview.wss?uid=ssg1S1004622
򐂰 The number of paths to a volume from a host to the nodes in the I/O Group that owns the
volume must not exceed eight, even if eight is not the maximum number of paths
supported by the multipath driver (SDD supports up to 32). To restrict the number of paths
to a host volume, the fabrics must be zoned so that each host FC port is zoned to no more
than two ports from each Storwize V7000 Gen2 node in the I/O Group that owns
the volume:
– If the suggested number of paths to a volume is exceeded, a path failure might not be
recovered in the required amount of time.
– Too many paths can cause excessive I/O waits, resulting in application failures.
– Under certain circumstances, it can reduce performance.
– Eight paths are supported, but four are optimum for SDD, SDDDSM, and IBM
Subsystem Device Driver Path Control Module (SDDPCM).
Note: It is a supported configuration to have eight paths to each volume, but this design
provides no performance benefit, and it does not improve reliability or availability by any
significant degree.
Hosts with four (or more) HBAs take a little more planning, because eight paths are not
an optimum number, so you must instead configure your IBM SAN Volume Controller
Host Definitions (and zoning) as though the single host is two or more separate hosts.
During VDisk assignment, alternate which VDisk is assigned to one of the
pseudo-hosts, in a round robin fashion. (A pseudo-host is nothing more than another
regular host definition in the IBM SAN Volume Controller host configuration. Each
pseudo-host contains two unique host WWPNs, one WWPN mapped to each fabric.)
A pseudo-host is not a defined function or feature of the IBM SAN Volume Controller. If
you need to define a pseudo-host, you are simply adding another host ID to the IBM
SAN Volume Controller host configuration. Rather than creating one host ID with four
WWPNs, you would define two hosts with two WWPNs. This is now the reference for
the term pseudo-host.
Be careful not to share the volume to more than two adapters per host, to not
oversubscribe the number of datapaths per volumes per host.
򐂰 If a host has multiple HBA ports, each port must be zoned to a separate set of Storwize
V7000 Gen2 ports to maximize HA and performance.
Note: We use the term HBA port to describe the SCSI initiator. We use the term
Storwize V7000 port to describe the SCSI target.
The maximum number of host paths per volume must not exceed eight.
Chapter 3. Planning and configuration
71
򐂰 To configure more than 256 hosts, you must configure the host to I/O Group mappings on
the Storwize V7000 Gen2. Each I/O Group can contain a maximum of 256 hosts, so it is
possible to create 1024 host objects on an eight-node Storwize V7000 Gen2 clustered
system. Volumes can only be mapped to a host that is associated with the I/O Group to
which the volume belongs.
򐂰 Port masking
You can use a port mask to control the node target ports that a host can access, which
satisfies two requirements:
– As part of a security policy, to limit the set of WWPNs that are able to obtain access to
any volumes through a given Storwize V7000 Gen2 port
– As part of a scheme to limit the number of logins with mapped volumes visible to a host
multipathing driver, such as SDD, and therefore limit the number of host objects
configured without resorting to switch zoning
򐂰 The port mask is an optional parameter of the mkhost and chhost commands. The port
mask is four binary bits. Valid mask values range from 0000 (no ports enabled) to 1111 (all
ports enabled). For example, a mask of 0011 enables port 1 and port 2. The default value
is 1111 (all ports enabled).
򐂰 The Storwize V7000 Gen2 supports connection to the Cisco MDS family and Brocade
family. See the following website for current support information:
http://www.ibm.com/systems/storage/software/virtualization/StorwizeV7000/interop.html
3.3.11 Advanced Copy Services
The Storwize V7000 Gen2 offers these Advanced Copy Services:
򐂰 FlashCopy
򐂰 Metro Mirror
򐂰 Global Mirror
Storwize V7000 Gen2 Advanced Copy Services must apply the following guidelines.
FlashCopy guidelines
Consider these FlashCopy guidelines:
򐂰 Identify each application that must have a FlashCopy function implemented for its volume.
򐂰 FlashCopy is a relationship between volumes. Those volumes can belong to separate
storage pools and separate storage subsystems.
򐂰 You can use FlashCopy for backup purposes by interacting with the IBM Tivoli® Storage
Manager Agent, or for cloning a particular environment.
򐂰 Define which FlashCopy best fits your requirements: No copy, Full copy, Thin-Provisioned,
or Incremental.
򐂰 Define which FlashCopy rate best fits your requirement in terms of the performance and
the amount of time to complete the FlashCopy. Table 3-2 on page 73 shows the
relationship of the background copy rate value to the attempted number of grains to be
split per second.
򐂰 Define the grain size that you want to use. A grain is the unit of data that is represented by
a single bit in the FlashCopy bitmap table. Larger grain sizes can cause a longer
FlashCopy elapsed time, and a higher space usage in the FlashCopy target volume.
Smaller grain sizes can have the opposite effect. Remember that the data structure and
the source data location can modify those effects.
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Implementing the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2
In an actual environment, check the results of your FlashCopy procedure in terms of the
data that is copied at every run and in terms of elapsed time, comparing them to the new
Storwize V7000 Gen2 FlashCopy results. Eventually, adapt the grain per second and the
copy rate parameter to fit your environment’s requirements.
Table 3-2 Grain splits per second
User percentage
Data copied per
second
256 KB grain per
second
64 KB grain per
second
1% - 10%
128 KB
0.5
2
11% - 20%
256 KB
1
4
21% - 30%
512 KB
2
8
31% - 40%
1 MB
4
16
41% - 50%
2 MB
8
32
51% - 60%
4 MB
16
64
61% - 70%
8 MB
32
128
71% - 80%
16 Mb
64
256
81% - 90%
32 MB
128
512
91% - 100%
64 MB
256
1024
Metro Mirror and Global Mirror guidelines
Storwize V7000 Gen2 supports inter-cluster Metro Mirror and Global Mirror.
Inter-cluster operation needs at least two clustered systems that are separated by several
moderately high-bandwidth links.
Figure 3-9 shows a schematic of Metro Mirror connections.
Node
Node
Intercluster links
Node
Switch
fabric 1A
Switch
fabric 1B
Switch
fabric 2A
Switch
fabric 2B
Node
Node
Node
Node
Back end
storage
Back end
storage
Local Cluster
Back end
storage
Node
Back end
storage
Remote Cluster
Figure 3-9 Metro Mirror connections
Chapter 3. Planning and configuration
73
Figure 3-9 on page 73 contains two redundant fabrics. Part of each fabric exists at the local
clustered system and at the remote clustered system. No direct connection exists between
the two fabrics.
Technologies for extending the distance between two Storwize V7000 Gen2 clustered
systems can be broadly divided into two categories: FC extenders and SAN multiprotocol
routers.
Due to the more complex interactions involved, IBM explicitly tests products of this class for
interoperability with the Storwize V7000 Gen2. You can obtain the current list of supported
SAN routers in the supported hardware list on the Storwize V7000 Gen2 support website:
https://www.ibm.com/support/entry/myportal/product/system_storage/disk_systems/mid
-range_disk_systems/ibm_storwize_v7000_(2076)
IBM has tested several FC extenders and SAN router technologies with the Storwize V7000
Gen2. You must plan, install, and test FC extenders and SAN router technologies with the
Storwize V7000 Gen2 so that the following requirements are met:
򐂰 The round-trip latency between sites must not exceed 80 milliseconds (ms), 40 ms one
way. For Global Mirror, this limit enables a distance between the primary and secondary
sites of up to 8000 kilometers (km), 4970.96 miles, using a planning assumption of 100 km
(62.13 miles) per 1 ms of round-trip link latency.
򐂰 The latency of long-distance links depends on the technology that is used to implement
them. A point-to-point dark fiber-based link typically provides a round-trip latency of 1 ms
per 100 km (62.13 miles) or better. Other technologies provide longer round-trip latencies,
which affects the maximum supported distance.
򐂰 The configuration must be tested with the expected peak workloads.
򐂰 When Metro Mirror or Global Mirror is used, a certain amount of bandwidth is required for
Storwize V7000 Gen2 inter-cluster heartbeat traffic. The amount of traffic depends on how
many nodes are in each of the two clustered systems.
򐂰 The bandwidth between sites must, at the least, be sized to meet the peak workload
requirements, in addition to maintaining the maximum latency that has been specified
previously. You must evaluate the peak workload requirement by considering the average
write workload over a period of one minute or less, plus the required synchronization
copy bandwidth.
Determine the true bandwidth that is required for the link by considering the peak write
bandwidth to volumes participating in Metro Mirror or Global Mirror relationships, and
adding it to the peak synchronization copy bandwidth.
򐂰 If the link between the sites is configured with redundancy so that it can tolerate single
failures, you must size the link so that the bandwidth and latency statements continue to
be true even during single failure conditions.
򐂰 The configuration is tested to simulate the failure of the primary site (to test the recovery
capabilities and procedures), including eventual failback to the primary site from the
secondary.
򐂰 The configuration must be tested to confirm that any failover mechanisms in the
inter-cluster links interoperate satisfactorily with the Storwize V7000 Gen2.
򐂰 The FC extender must be treated as a normal link.
򐂰 The bandwidth and latency measurements must be made by, or on behalf of, the client.
They are not part of the standard installation of the Storwize V7000 Gen2 by IBM. Make
these measurements during installation, and record the measurements. Testing must be
repeated after any significant changes to the equipment that provides the inter-cluster link.
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Implementing the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2
Global Mirror guidelines
For Global Mirror, the following guidelines apply:
򐂰 When using Storwize V7000 Gen2 Global Mirror, all components in the SAN must be
capable of sustaining the workload that is generated by application hosts and the Global
Mirror background copy workload. Otherwise, Global Mirror can automatically stop your
relationships to protect your application hosts from increased response times. Therefore, it
is important to configure each component correctly.
򐂰 Use a SAN performance monitoring tool, such as IBM Tivoli Storage Productivity Center,
which enables you to continuously monitor the SAN components for error conditions and
performance problems. This tool helps you detect potential issues before they affect your
disaster recovery solution.
򐂰 The long-distance link between the two clustered systems must be provisioned to provide
for the peak application write workload to the Global Mirror source volumes, plus the
client-defined level of background copy.
򐂰 The peak application write workload ideally must be determined by analyzing the Storwize
V7000 Gen2 performance statistics.
򐂰 Statistics must be gathered over a typical application I/O workload cycle, which might be
days, weeks, or months, depending on the environment on which the Storwize V7000
Gen2 is used. These statistics must be used to find the peak write workload that the link
must be able to support.
򐂰 Characteristics of the link can change with use. For example, latency can increase as the
link is used to carry an increased bandwidth. The user must be aware of the link’s behavior
in such situations, and ensure that the link remains within the specified limits. If the
characteristics are not known, testing must be performed to gain confidence of the
link’s suitability.
򐂰 Users of Global Mirror must consider how to optimize the performance of the
long-distance link, which depends on the technology that is used to implement the link. For
example, when transmitting FC traffic over an IP link, it can be desirable to enable jumbo
frames to improve efficiency.
򐂰 Using Global Mirror and Metro Mirror between the same two clustered systems is
supported.
򐂰 Using Global Mirror and Metro Mirror between the Storwize V7000 Gen2 clustered system
and IBM Storwize systems with a minimum code level of 6.3 is supported.
򐂰 It is supported for cache-disabled volumes to participate in a Global Mirror relationship;
however, it not a preferred practice to do so.
򐂰 The gmlinktolerance parameter of the remote copy partnership must be set to an
appropriate value. The default value is 300 seconds (five minutes), which is appropriate for
most clients.
򐂰 During SAN maintenance, the user must choose to reduce the application I/O workload for
the duration of the maintenance (so that the degraded SAN components are capable of
the new workload):
– Disable the gmlinktolerance feature.
– Increase the gmlinktolerance value (meaning that application hosts might see
extended response times from Global Mirror volumes).
– Stop the Global Mirror relationships.
If the gmlinktolerance value is increased for maintenance lasting x minutes, it must only
be reset to the normal value x minutes after the end of the maintenance activity.
If gmlinktolerance is disabled for the duration of the maintenance, it must be re-enabled
after the maintenance is complete.
Chapter 3. Planning and configuration
75
򐂰 Global Mirror volumes must have their preferred nodes evenly distributed between the
nodes of the clustered systems. Each volume within an I/O Group has a preferred node
property that can be used to balance the I/O load between nodes in that group.
Figure 3-10 shows the correct relationship between volumes in a Metro Mirror or Global
Mirror solution.
Figure 3-10 Correct volume relationship
򐂰 The capabilities of the storage controllers at the secondary clustered system must be
provisioned to provide for the peak application workload to the Global Mirror volumes, plus
the client-defined level of background copy, plus any other I/O being performed at the
secondary site.
The performance of applications at the primary clustered system can be limited by the
performance of the back-end storage controllers at the secondary clustered system to
maximize the amount of I/O that applications can perform to Global Mirror volumes.
򐂰 It is necessary to perform a complete review before using Serial Advanced Technology
Attachment (SATA) for Metro Mirror or Global Mirror secondary volumes. Using a slower
disk subsystem for the secondary volumes for high-performance primary volumes can
mean that the Storwize V7000 Gen2 cache might not be able to buffer all of the writes, and
flushing cache writes to SATA might slow I/O at the production site.
򐂰 Storage controllers must be configured to support the Global Mirror workload that is
required of them:
– Dedicate storage controllers to only Global Mirror volumes.
– Configure the controller to ensure sufficient quality of service (QoS) for the disks being
used by Global Mirror.
– Ensure that physical disks are not shared between Global Mirror volumes and other I/O
(for example, by not splitting an individual RAID array).
򐂰 MDisks in a Global Mirror storage pool must be similar in their characteristics, for example,
RAID level, physical disk count, and disk speed. This requirement is true of all storage
pools, but it is particularly important to maintain performance when using Global Mirror.
򐂰 When a consistent relationship is stopped, for example, by a persistent I/O error on the
intercluster link, the relationship enters the consistent_stopped state. I/O at the primary
site continues, but the updates are not mirrored to the secondary site. Restarting the
relationship begins the process of synchronizing new data to the secondary disk.
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Implementing the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2
While this synchronization is in progress, the relationship is in the inconsistent_copying
state. Therefore, the Global Mirror secondary volume is not in a usable state until the copy
has completed and the relationship has returned to a Consistent state.
For this reason, it is highly advisable to create a FlashCopy of the secondary volume
before restarting the relationship. When started, the FlashCopy provides a consistent copy
of the data, even while the Global Mirror relationship is copying. If the Global Mirror
relationship does not reach the Synchronized state (if, for example, the intercluster link
experiences further persistent I/O errors), the FlashCopy target can be used at the
secondary site for disaster recovery purposes.
򐂰 If you plan to use a Fibre Channel over IP (FCIP) intercluster link, it is extremely important
to design and size the pipe correctly.
Example 3-2 shows a best-guess bandwidth sizing formula, assuming that the
write/change rate is consistent.
Example 3-2 WAN link calculation example
Amount of write data within 24 hours times 4 to allow for peaks
Translate into MB/s to determine WAN link needed
Example:
250 GB a day
250 GB * 4 = 1 TB
24 hours * 3600 secs/hr. = 86400 secs
1,000,000,000,000/ 86400 = approximately 12 MB/s,
Which means OC3 or higher is needed (155 Mbps or higher)
򐂰 If compression is available on routers or wide area network (WAN) communication
devices, smaller pipelines might be adequate. Note that workload is probably not evenly
spread across 24 hours. If there are extended periods of high data change rates, consider
suspending Global Mirror during that time frame.
򐂰 If the network bandwidth is too small to handle the traffic, the application write I/O
response times might be elongated. For the Storwize V7000 Gen2, Global Mirror must
support short-term Peak Write bandwidth requirements.
򐂰 You must also consider the initial sync and resync workload. The Global Mirror
partnership’s background copy rate must be set to a value that is appropriate to the link
and secondary back-end storage. The more bandwidth that you give to the sync and
resync operation, the less workload can be delivered by the Storwize V7000 Gen2 for the
regular data traffic.
򐂰 Do not propose Global Mirror if the data change rate exceeds the communication
bandwidth, or if the round-trip latency exceeds 80 - 120 ms. A greater than 80 ms
round-trip latency requires Solution for Compliance in a Regulated Environment and
request for price quotation (SCORE/RPQ) submission.
3.3.12 SAN boot support
The Storwize V7000 Gen2 supports SAN boot or startup for IBM AIX, Microsoft Windows
Server, and other operating systems. SAN boot support can change from time to time, so
check the following websites regularly:
http://www.ibm.com/systems/storage/software/virtualization/StorwizeV7000/interop.html
http://www.ibm.com/systems/support/storage/ssic/interoperability.wss
Chapter 3. Planning and configuration
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3.3.13 Data migration from a non-virtualized storage subsystem
Data migration is an extremely important part of a Storwize V7000 Gen2 implementation.
Therefore, you must accurately prepare a data migration plan. You might need to migrate your
data for one of these reasons:
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
To redistribute workload within a clustered system across the disk subsystem
To move workload onto newly installed storage
To move workload off old or failing storage, ahead of decommissioning it
To move workload to rebalance a changed workload
To migrate data from an older disk subsystem to Storwize V7000 Gen2-managed storage
To migrate data from one disk subsystem to another disk subsystem
Because multiple data migration methods are available, choose the method that best fits your
environment, your operating system platform, your kind of data, and your application’s
service-level agreement (SLA).
We can define data migration as belonging to three groups:
򐂰 Based on operating system Logical Volume Manager (LVM) or commands
򐂰 Based on special data migration software
򐂰 Based on the Storwize V7000 Gen2 data migration feature
With data migration, apply the following guidelines:
򐂰 Choose which data migration method best fits your operating system platform, your kind of
data, and your SLA.
򐂰 Check the interoperability matrix for the storage subsystem to which your data is being
migrated:
http://www.ibm.com/systems/storage/software/virtualization/StorwizeV7000/interop.html
򐂰 Choose where you want to place your data after migration, in terms of the storage pools
that relate to a specific storage subsystem tier.
򐂰 Determine whether enough free space or extents are available in the target storage pool.
򐂰 Decide if your data is critical and must be protected by a volume mirroring option, or if it
must be replicated in a remote site for disaster recovery.
򐂰 Prepare offline all of the zone and LUN masking and host mappings that you might need,
to minimize downtime during the migration.
򐂰 Prepare a detailed operation plan so that you do not overlook anything at data migration
time.
򐂰 Run a data backup before you start any data migration. Data backup must be part of the
regular data management process.
򐂰 You might want to use the Storwize V7000 Gen2 as a data mover to migrate data from a
non-virtualized storage subsystem to another non-virtualized storage subsystem. In this
case, you might have to add additional checks that relate to the specific storage
subsystem to which you want to migrate.
Be careful using slower disk subsystems for the secondary volumes for high-performance
primary volumes, because the Storwize V7000 Gen2 cache might not be able to buffer all
of the writes, and flushing cache writes to SATA might slow I/O at the production site.
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Implementing the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2
3.3.14 Storwize V7000 Gen2 configuration backup procedure
Save the configuration externally when changes, such as adding new nodes, disk
subsystems, and so on, have been performed on the clustered system. Saving the
configuration is a crucial part of Storwize V7000 Gen2 management, and various methods
can be applied to back up your Storwize V7000 Gen2 configuration.
The preferred practice is to implement an automatic configuration backup by applying the
configuration backup command. We describe this command for the CLI in Chapter 8, “IBM
Storwize V7000 Gen2 command-line interface” on page 143, and we describe the GUI
operation in Chapter 9, “IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2 operations using the GUI” on page 169.
3.4 Performance considerations
Storage virtualization with the Storwize V7000 Gen2 improves flexibility and provides simpler
management of a storage infrastructure, and it can also provide a substantial performance
advantage for various workloads. The Storwize V7000 Gen2 caching capability, and its ability
to stripe volumes across multiple disk arrays, are the reasons why performance improvement
is significant when implemented with midrange disk subsystems. This technology is often only
provided with high-end enterprise disk subsystems.
Tip: Technically, almost all storage controllers provide both striping (RAID 5 or RAID 10)
and a form of caching. The real benefit is the degree to which you can stripe the data
across all MDisks in a storage pool, and therefore have the maximum number of active
spindles at one time. The caching is secondary. The Storwize V7000 Gen2 provides
additional caching to the caching that midrange controllers provide (usually several GB),
but enterprise systems have much larger caches.
To ensure the wanted performance and capacity of your storage infrastructure, undertake a
performance and capacity analysis to reveal the business requirements of your storage
environment. When this analysis is done, you can use the guidelines in this chapter to design
a solution that meets the business requirements.
When considering performance for a system, always identify the bottleneck and, therefore,
the limiting factor of a given system. You must also consider the component for whose
workload you identify a limiting factor. The component might not be the same component that
is identified as the limiting factor for other workloads.
When designing a storage infrastructure with Storwize V7000 Gen2, or implementing
Storwize V7000 Gen2 in an existing storage infrastructure, you must consider the
performance and capacity of the following components:
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
The SAN
The Storwize V7000 Gen2
The disk subsystems
The known or expected workload
The Storwize V7000 Gen2 is designed to handle large quantities of multiple paths from the
back-end storage.
Chapter 3. Planning and configuration
79
In most cases, the Storwize V7000 Gen2 can improve performance, especially on mid-sized
to low-end disk subsystems, older disk subsystems with slow controllers, or uncached disk
systems, for these reasons:
򐂰 The Storwize V7000 Gen2 can stripe across disk arrays, and it can stripe across the entire
set of supported physical disk resources.
򐂰 Each Storwize V7000 Gen2 2076-524 node has 32 GB of base cache and 64 GB when
the second processor and cache upgrade are added for Real-time Compression, providing
a total of 64 GB/128 GB per I/O Group. (An 8-node cluster contains 512 GB base
cache/10,240 GB with Real-time Compression.)
The Storwize V7000 Gen2 is capable of providing automated performance optimization of hot
spots by using flash drives and Easy Tier.
3.4.1 SAN
The currently available Storwize V7000 Gen2 models have connection to 2 Gbps, 4 Gbps, 8
Gbps, and 16 Gbps switches. From a performance point of view, connecting the Storwize
V7000 Gen2 to 8 Gbps or 16 Gbps switches is better to maximize the benefits of the
performance and I/O speed.
Correct zoning on the SAN switch brings security and performance together. Implement a
dual-HBA approach at the host to access the Storwize V7000 Gen2.
3.4.2 Disk subsystems
Each MDisk presented to Storwize V7000 Gen2 should consist of a single RAID group, or
MDisk, of a single type of drive, from the underlying storage controller.
Advanced features, such as Disk Tiering, should be disabled on the underlying storage
controller, because they will skew the results of the performance of the MDisk expected by
Storwize V7000 Gen2.
Storwize family controllers should not use MDisk pooling, but should present a single MDisk,
as a single pool (as a single volume), because the Storage Pool Balancing feature affects the
way the MDisk behaves to Storwize V7000 Gen2.
3.4.3 Cache
The Storwize V7000 Gen2 clustered system is scalable up to 20 nodes, and the performance
is nearly linear when adding more nodes into a Storwize V7000 Gen2 clustered system.
The large cache and advanced cache management algorithms in Storwize V7000 Gen2
enable it to improve on the performance of many types of underlying disk technologies. The
Storwize V7000 Gen2 capability to manage, in the background, the destaging operations that
are incurred by writes (in addition to still supporting full data integrity), assists with Storwize
V7000 Gen2’s capability in achieving good database performance.
There are several changes to how Storwize V7000 Gen2 uses its cache in the 7.3 code level.
The cache is separated into two layers, an upper cache, and a lower cache.
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Implementing the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2
Figure 3-11 shows the separation of the upper and lower cache.
SCSI Target
Forwarding
Replication
Upper Cache
Clustering
Configuration
Peer Communications
Interface Layer
New Dual Layer Cache
Architecture
First major update to
cache since 2003
Flexible design for
plug and play style
cache algorithm
enhancements in the
future
“SVC” like L2 cache
for advanced functions
Upper Cache – simple
write cache
Lower Cache – algorithm
intelligence
Understands mdisks
Shared buffer space
between two layers
New
FlashCopy
Mirroring
Thin Provisioning
Lower Cache
Compression
New
Virtualization
Easy Tier 3
Forwarding
New
RAID
Forwarding
SCSI Initiator
Fibre Channel
iSCSI
FCoE
SAS
PCIe
Figure 3-11 Separation of upper and lower cache
The upper cache delivers the following functionality enabling Storwize V7000 Gen2 to
streamline data write performance:
򐂰 Provides fast write response times to the host by being as high up in the I/O stack as
possible
򐂰 Provides partitioning
The lower cache delivers the following additional functionality:
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
Ensuring write cache between two nodes is in sync
Cache partitioning to ensure that a slow back end cannot consume the entire cache
A destage algorithm that adapts to the amount of data and the back-end performance
Providing read caching and prefetching
Combined together, the two levels of cache also deliver the following functionality:
򐂰 Pin data when LUN goes offline.
򐂰 Provide enhanced statistics for Tivoli Storage Productivity Center for Replication while
maintaining compatibility with an earlier version.
򐂰 Provide trace for debugging.
򐂰 Report medium errors.
򐂰 Correctly resync cache and provide the atomic write functionality.
򐂰 Ensure that other partitions continue operation where one partition becomes 100% full of
pinned data.
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81
򐂰 Support fast-write (two-way and one-way), flush-through, and write-through.
򐂰 Integrate with T3 recovery procedures.
򐂰 Support two-way operation.
򐂰 Support none, read-only, and read/write as user-exposed caching policies.
򐂰 Support flush-when-idle.
򐂰 Support expanding cache as more memory becomes available to the platform.
򐂰 Enable credit throttling to avoid I/O skew and fairness/balanced I/O between the two
nodes of the I/O Group.
򐂰 Enable switching of the preferred node without needing to move Volumes between I/O
Groups.
Depending on the size, age, and technology level of the disk storage system, the total cache
available in the Storwize V7000 Gen2 can be larger, smaller, or about the same as that
associated with the disk storage. Because hits to the cache can occur in either the Storwize
V7000 Gen2 or the disk controller level of the overall system, the system as a whole can take
advantage of the larger amount of cache wherever it is located.
Therefore, if the storage controller level of the cache has the greater capacity, expect hits to
this cache to occur, in addition to hits in the Storwize V7000 Gen2 cache.
Also, regardless of their relative capacities, both levels of cache tend to play an important role
in enabling sequentially organized data to flow smoothly through the system. The Storwize
V7000 Gen2 cannot increase the throughput potential of the underlying disks in all cases,
because this increase depends on both the underlying storage technology and the degree to
which the workload exhibits hot spots or sensitivity to cache size or cache algorithms.
IBM SAN Volume Controller 4.2.1 Cache Partitioning, REDP-4426, explains the IBM SAN
Volume Controller and Storwize V7000 Gen2 cache partitioning capability:
http://www.redbooks.ibm.com/abstracts/redp4426.html?Open
3.4.4 Port Configuration
With the introduction of the 2076-524 nodes, and the ability to have up to eight FC ports per
node, there are several different options that are valid for attaching storage to the Storwize
V7000 Gen2 cluster. See section 3.3.2, “SAN zoning and SAN connections” on page 60 for
configurations based on a single or dual four-port FC HBA adapter port allocation
suggestions:
򐂰 If you require a high-throughput environment greater than 10 Gbps, then zoning all ports
on the disk back-end storage to all ports on the Storwize V7000 Gen2 nodes in the cluster
is a valid option.
򐂰 If you are looking to achieve the lowest latency storage environment, the allocation of four
ports per node to inter-cluster traffic and inter-I/O Group traffic is the best suggestion.
Each of the four ports should be zoned so that it only sees one other port in the same I/O
Group. The same ports should be used for the remote traffic zoning. The remaining four
ports per node can be separated into host and storage attachment roles.
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Implementing the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2
Note: A port should be used for the same purpose (attached to the same switch and
zones) for every node.
The only exception to this is when using mixed hardware types, in which case the lowest
ports should be used for the same purposes, and the remaining ports can be allocated as
required. (The lowest ports are the lowest numbered adapter slots, or the rightmost bits in
the mask.)
Although virtualization with the Storwize V7000 Gen2 provides a great deal of flexibility, it
does not diminish the necessity to have a SAN and disk subsystems that can deliver the
wanted performance. Essentially, Storwize V7000 Gen2 performance improvements are
gained by having as many MDisks as possible, therefore creating a greater level of concurrent
I/O to the back-end without overloading a single disk or array.
Assuming that no bottlenecks exist in the SAN or on the disk subsystem, remember that you
must follow specific guidelines when you perform these tasks:
򐂰 Creating a storage pool
򐂰 Creating volumes
򐂰 Connecting to or configuring hosts that must receive disk space from a Storwize V7000
Gen2 clustered system
You can obtain more detailed information about performance and preferred practices for the
Storwize V7000 Gen2 in IBM System Storage SAN Volume Controller and Storwize V7000
Best Practices and Performance Guidelines, SG24-7521:
http://www.redbooks.ibm.com/abstracts/sg247521.html?Open
3.4.5 Performance monitoring
Performance monitoring must be an integral part of the overall information technology (IT)
environment.
This topic is covered in more detail in IBM System Storage SAN Volume Controller and
Storwize V7000 Best Practices and Performance Guidelines, SG24-7521:
http://www.redbooks.ibm.com/abstracts/sg247521.html?Open
For the Storwize V7000 Gen2, as for the other IBM storage subsystems, the official IBM
product to collect performance statistics and supply a performance report is the IBM Tivoli
Storage Productivity Center.
You can obtain more information about using the IBM Tivoli Storage Productivity Center to
monitor your storage subsystem in SAN Storage Performance Management Using Tivoli
Storage Productivity Center, SG24-7364:
http://www.redbooks.ibm.com/abstracts/sg247364.html?Open
More reference links for IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2 Support Portal to download code,
download manuals, and review current information for planning and installation, can be
viewed on the following website:
http://www.ibm.com/storage/support/storwize/v7000
IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2 Supported Hardware List, Device Driver, Firmware, and
Suggested Software Levels V7.x can be viewed on the following website:
http://www.ibm.com/support/docview.wss?uid=ssg1S1003741
Chapter 3. Planning and configuration
83
IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2 is listed in the IBM System Storage Interoperation Center (SSIC):
http://www.ibm.com/systems/support/storage/ssic/interoperability.wss
IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2 Configuration Limits and Restrictions can be viewed on the
following website:
http://www.ibm.com/support/docview.wss?uid=ssg1S1003741
The IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2 Knowledge Center is on the following website:
http://www.ibm.com/support/knowledgecenter/ST3FR7/landing/V7000_welcome.html
View IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2 Power and Cooling Requirements on the following website:
http://www.ibm.com/support/docview.wss?uid=ssg1S1003711
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Implementing the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2
4
Chapter 4.
IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2 Easy
Tier
This chapter describes the history of IBM Storwize V7000 Easy Tier, describes the changes
in versions, and the enhancements in IBM Storwize family software V7.3. In addition, we
assess the capabilities of the new functionality, compare usage cases, and identify
configuration and deployment considerations that should be taken into account during the
planning stage of your Storwize V7000 Gen2 deployment.
In the following chapter, our intent is to provide only a basic technical overview, and focus on
the benefits with the new version of Easy Tier. More details for planning and configuration are
available in the following IBM Redbooks publications:
򐂰 Implementing IBM Easy Tier with IBM Real-time Compression, TIPS1072
򐂰 IBM System Storage SAN Volume Controller and Storwize V7000 Best Practices and
Performance Guidelines, SG24-7521
򐂰 IBM DS8000 Easy Tier, REDP-4667 (this concept is similar to Storwize V7000 Gen2 Easy
Tier)
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2015. All rights reserved.
85
4.1 IBM Storwize family software Easy Tier history
IBM Easy Tier is a performance function that automatically and non-disruptively migrates
frequently accessed data from magnetic media to solid-state drives (SSD or flash drives). In
that way, the most frequently accessed data is stored on the fastest storage tier, and the
overall performance is improved.
IBM Storwize family software has benefited from the software development work for the IBM
System Storage DS8000 product, in which there have been six versions of Easy Tier. Of
those versions, versions 1 and 3 have been implemented in the 7.3 IBM Storwize family
software.
The first generation of Easy Tier introduced automated storage performance management by
efficiently boosting enterprise-class performance with flash drives (SSD), and automating
storage tiering from enterprise-class drives to flash drives. These changes optimized flash
deployments with minimal costs. Easy Tier also introduced dynamic volume relocation and
dynamic extent pool merge.
The second generation of Easy Tier was only implemented in DS8000.
The third generation of Easy Tier introduces further enhancements that provide automated
storage performance and storage economics management across all three drive tiers (flash,
enterprise, and Nearline storage tiers) as outlined in Figure 4-1. It enables you to consolidate
and efficiently manage more workloads on a single IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2 system. It also
introduces support for storage pool balancing in homogeneous pools. It is based on
performance, not capacity.
4.1.1 New features in Easy Tier 3
The following enhancements are included in Easy Tier 3:
򐂰 Support for three tiers of disk, or a mixture of any two tiers
򐂰 Storage pool balancing
򐂰 Enhancements to the IBM Storage Tier Advisor Tool (STAT) tool, including additional
graphing from the STAT utility.
Figure 4-1 shows the supported easy tier pools now available in Easy Tier 3.
Figure 4-1 Easy Tier 3 multi-level tiering
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Implementing the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2
By default, Easy Tier is enabled on any pool that contains more than one class of disk drive.
Easy Tier manages extent migration using the following processes:
򐂰 Promote / swap
Moves the relevant hot extents to a higher-performing tier
򐂰 Warm demote:
– Prevents performance overload of a tier by demoting a warm extent to the lower tier
– Triggered when bandwidth or input/output operations per second (IOPS) exceeds a
predefined threshold
򐂰 Cold demote
Coldest data moved to lower hard disk drive (HDD) tier
򐂰 Expanded cold demote
Demotes appropriate sequential workloads to the lowest tier to better use Nearline
bandwidth
򐂰 Storage pool balancing:
– Redistribute extents within a tier to balance use across managed disks (MDisks) for
maximum performance
– Either move or swap
Note: Extent migrations occur only between adjacent tiers.
Figure 4-2 shows the Easy Tier process for extent migration.
Auto Rebalance
Flash/SSD Tier
Promote
Warm Demote
Enterprise Tier
Expanded or
Cold Demote
Swap
Nearline Tier
Figure 4-2 Easy Tier extent migration
Chapter 4. IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2 Easy Tier
87
4.1.2 Storage pool balancing
Storage pool balancing is a new feature in 7.3 Storwize family software that, although
associated with Easy Tier, operates independently of Easy Tier. For Storwize V7000 Gen2,
storage pool balancing does not require an Easy Tier license. This feature assesses the
extents that are written in a pool, and balances them automatically across all MDisks in the
pool. This process works with Easy Tier when multiple classes of disks exist in a single pool.
The process automatically balances existing data when new MDisks are added into an
existing pool, even if the pool only contains a single type of drive.
Note: Storage pool balancing is used to balance extents across a storage Pool with the
same performance tier. For example, when adding new drives of the same class to an
existing storage pool, storage pool balancing redistributes the extents based on
performance factors, not capacity.
If a pool contains a single type of MDisk, Easy Tier goes into balancing mode (status is
balanced). When the pool contains multiple types of MDisks, Easy Tier is automatically
turned on (status is active).
The Storwize V7000 Gen2 does not automatically identify external flash drive MDisks. All
external MDisks are put into the enterprise tier by default. You must manually identify
external flash drive MDisks and change their tiers. Local (internal) MDisks are
automatically classified as flash, enterprise, or Nearline, and are placed in the appropriate
tier without user intervention.
4.2 Performance and monitoring considerations
In this section, we briefly explain the effect of Easy Tier on performance, and introduce its
monitoring tools.
4.2.1 Considerations for optimal performance
With the availability of Storwize family software version 7.3, Storwize V7000 Gen2 can now
classify and identify performance profiles based on the category of drive within a storage
pool. A Storwize V7000 Gen2 recognizes three types of disk: Flash drives, enterprise drives,
and Nearline drives.
However, when a new external MDisk is added to Storwize V7000 Gen2, Storwize V7000
Gen2 does not automatically classify the MDisk by the type of drive that the MDisk consists
of. You need to manually select the MDisk, choose the type of drive, and allocate it to the
MDisk.
In Figure 4-3 on page 90, md_v7kgen1-2-001 is a serial-attached SCSI (SAS) MDisk
(enterprise tier) allocated from an IBM Storwize V7000 Gen1 storage controller virtualized to
the Storwize V7000 Gen2. When you right-click the required MDisk, you can choose the
option Select Tier.
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Implementing the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2
The graphical user interface (GUI) of Storwize V7000 Gen2 does not have the same behavior
for internal MDisks. The option appears in gray because you can’t change it from the GUI, but
you can do it from the command-line interface (CLI) using the chmdisk command, as shown in
Example 4-1.
Example 4-1 The chmdisk command to change the tier of an internal MDisk
IBM_Storwize:ITSO_V7000Gen2:superuser>lsmdisk md_v7kgen2-2-001
id 0
name md_v7kgen2-2-001
status online
mode array
mdisk_grp_id 0
mdisk_grp_name INT_V7KGEN2
capacity 558.4GB
quorum_index
block_size
controller_name
ctrl_type
ctrl_WWNN
controller_id
path_count
max_path_count
ctrl_LUN_#
UID
preferred_WWPN
active_WWPN
fast_write_state empty
raid_status online
raid_level raid1
redundancy 1
strip_size 256
spare_goal 1
spare_protection_min 1
balanced exact
tier enterprise
slow_write_priority latency
fabric_type
site_id
site_name
easy_tier_load
IBM_Storwize:ITSO_V7000Gen2:superuser>chmdisk -tier nearline md_v7kgen2-2-001
IBM_Storwize:ITSO_V7000Gen2:superuser>
IBM_Storwize:ITSO_V7000Gen2:superuser>lsmdisk md_v7kgen2-2-001
id 0
name md_v7kgen2-2-001
status online
mode array
mdisk_grp_id 0
mdisk_grp_name INT_V7KGEN2
capacity 558.4GB
quorum_index
block_size
controller_name
ctrl_type
ctrl_WWNN
Chapter 4. IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2 Easy Tier
89
controller_id
path_count
max_path_count
ctrl_LUN_#
UID
preferred_WWPN
active_WWPN
fast_write_state empty
raid_status online
raid_level raid1
redundancy 1
strip_size 256
spare_goal 1
spare_protection_min 1
balanced exact
tier nearline
slow_write_priority latency
fabric_type
site_id
site_name
easy_tier_load
IBM_Storwize:ITSO_V7000Gen2:superuser>
Figure 4-3 shows how to select a tier.
Figure 4-3 Shows the option to select a tier for a specific external MDisk
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Implementing the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2
Figure 4-4 shows the options that are available for each MDisk to define the class of drive
within the MDisk.
Figure 4-4 Shows the class of drives available for Storwize V7000 Gen2 MDisks
Figure 4-5 shows an example of the properties window for a three-tier storage pool.
Figure 4-5 Properties window of a three-tier storage pool
Important: When virtualizing any Storwize family storage controller that supports storage
pool balancing, you must disable storage pool balancing on the virtualized Storwize family
storage controller by using the chmdiskgrp command. Failure to do so means that storage
pool balancing on MDisks within Storwize V7000 Gen2 competes with storage pool
balancing on the Storwize virtualized controller, causing performance degradation at
both levels.
Be sure that you are using the same extent size on your storage pools.
If you have any flash drives into your virtualized Storwize family storage controller, use
them for Easy Tier at the higher level (Storwize V7000 Gen2).
Chapter 4. IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2 Easy Tier
91
4.2.2 Monitoring tools
The IBM STAT utility is a Microsoft Windows console application that analyzes heat data files
produced by Easy Tier, and produces a graphical display of the amount of “hot” data per
volume. It also displays predictions of how additional flash drive (SSD) capacity, enterprise
drive, and Nearline drive could benefit performance, for the system and by storage pool.
Heat data files are produced approximately once a day (every 24 hours) when Easy Tier is
active on one or more storage pools, and summarizes the activity per volume since the prior
heat data file was produced. On Storwize family products, the heat data file is in the /dumps
directory on the configuration node, and is named dpa_heat.node_name.time_stamp.data.
Any existing heat data file is erased when it has existed for longer than seven days. The user
must off-load the file, and start STAT from a Windows command-line interface (CLI) with the
file specified as a parameter. The user can also specify the output directory. The STAT
creates a set of Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) files, and the user can open the
resulting index.html file in a browser to view the results.
Updates to the STAT for Storwize V7000 Gen2 have added additional capability for reporting.
As a result, when the STAT is run on a heat map file, an additional three comma-separated
values (CSV) files are created and placed in the Data_files directory.
The IBM STAT utility can be downloaded from the IBM Support website:
http://www.ibm.com/support/docview.wss?uid=ssg1S4000935
Figure 4-6 shows the CSV files highlighted in the Data_files directory after running the STAT
over an IBM storage area network (SAN) Volume Controller heatmap.
Figure 4-6 CSV files created by the STAT for Easy Tier
In addition to the STAT, Storwize family software V7.3 now has an additional utility, which is a
Microsoft Structured Query Language (SQL) file for creating additional graphical reports of
the workload that Easy Tier is performing. The IBM STAT Charting Utility takes the output of
the three CSV files and turns them into graphs for simple reporting.
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Implementing the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2
The three new graphs display the folowing information:
򐂰 Workload categorization
New workload visuals help you compare activity across tiers within and across pools, to
help determine optimal drive mix for current workloads. The output is illustrated in
Figure 4-7.
Figure 4-7 STAT Charting Utility Workload Categorization report
򐂰 Daily movement reporting
This graph is a new Easy Tier summary report illustrating data migration activity with
five-minute intervals, and can help visualize migration types and patterns for current
workloads.
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93
The output is illustrated in Figure 4-8.
Figure 4-8 STAT Charting Utility Daily Summary report
򐂰 Workload skew
This graph shows the skew of all workloads across the system, to help clients visualize
and accurately tier configurations when adding capacity or a new system. The output is
illustrated in Figure 4-9.
Figure 4-9 STAT Charting Utility Workload Skew report
The STAT Charting Utility can be downloaded from the IBM support website:
http://www.ibm.com/support/techdocs/atsmastr.nsf/WebIndex/PRS5251
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5
Chapter 5.
The IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2
Initial Configuration
In this chapter, we describe the following topics:
򐂰 Managing the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2:
– Network requirements
– Prerequisites
򐂰 The Storwize V7000 Gen2 initial configuration:
– How-to make the first connection to the Storwize V7000 Gen2
– System Setup wizard
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2015. All rights reserved.
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5.1 Managing the Storwize V7000 Gen2
You can manage the Storwize V7000 Gen2 in many ways. The following methods are the
most common:
򐂰 Using the Storwize V7000 Gen2 Management graphical user interface (GUI)
򐂰 Using a PuTTY-based command-line interface (CLI)
򐂰 Using IBM Tivoli Storage Productivity Center for Replication
Figure 5-1 shows the various ways to manage the Storwize V7000 Gen2.
Figure 5-1 The Storwize V7000 Gen2 management
Information: For information about supported web browsers, see the following IBM
Knowledge Center:
http://www.ibm.com/support/knowledgecenter/ST3FR7_7.3.0/com.ibm.storwize.v7000.
730.doc/v7000_ichome_730.html
Note that you have full management control of the Storwize V7000 Gen2, regardless of which
method you choose. IBM Tivoli Storage Productivity Center is a robust software product with
various functions that needs to be purchased separately. You can learn more about IBM Tivoli
Storage Productivity Center on the following website:
http://www.ibm.com/software/products/en/tivostorprodcent
5.1.1 Network requirements for the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2
To plan your installation, you need to take into account the Transmission Control
Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) address requirements of the Storwize V7000 Gen2, and
the requirements for the Storwize v7000 Gen2 to access other services. You must also plan
the address allocation and the Ethernet router, gateway, and firewall configuration to provide
the required access and network security.
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Figure 5-2 shows the TCP/IP ports and services that are used by the Storwize V7000 Gen2.
Figure 5-2 TCP/IP ports
For more information about TCP/IP prerequisites, see Chapter 3, “Planning and
configuration” on page 47.
5.1.2 Prerequisites
Ensure that the Storwize V7000 Gen2 has been physically installed, and that Ethernet and
Fibre Channel (FC) connectivity has been correctly configured. For information about physical
connectivity, see Chapter 3, “Planning and configuration” on page 47.
Before configuring the Storwize V7000 Gen2, ensure that the following information is
available:
򐂰 Licenses
The licenses indicate whether the client is permitted to use IBM Storwize V7000 Easy Tier,
IBM FlashCopy, IBM Storwize V7000 External Virtualization, remote copy, and IBM
Real-time Compression. For details about Licensing, see Chapter 3, “Planning and
configuration” on page 47.
򐂰 IPv4 addressing:
–
–
–
–
Cluster IPv4 address (one IP address for management)
Service IPv4 addresses (two addresses for the service interfaces)
IPv4 subnet mask
Gateway IPv4 address
򐂰 IPv6 addressing:
–
–
–
–
Cluster IPv6 address (one address for management)
Service IPv6 addresses (two addresses for the service interface, one for each node)
IPv6 prefix
Gateway IPv6 address
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5.2 Initial Configuration of the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2
For our initial configuration we are using the following hardware:
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
1 x IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2 model 2076-524
2 x four-port 8 gigabits per second (Gbps) FC host interface card (one per node)
1 x IBM Storwize V7000 Expansion Enclosure
2 x SAN Switches (for a redundant SAN fabric)
5.2.1 How to make the first connection to the Storwize V7000 Gen2
Follow these steps to connect to Storwize V7000 Gen2:
1. The first step is to connect a PC or notebook (PC) to the Technician Port on the rear of the
Storwize V7000 Gen2 node. See Figure 5-3 for the location of the Technician Port. The
Technician Port provides a Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) IP address V4,
so you must ensure that your PC is configured for DHCP. The default IP address for a new
node is 192.168.0.1. You can, however, also use a static IP, which should be set to
192.168.0.2 on your PC or notebook.
The Storwize V7000 Gen2 does not provide IPv6 IP addresses for the Technician Port.
Figure 5-3 Rear of Storwize V7000 Gen2
Nodes: During the initial configuration, you will probably see certificate warnings
because these certificates are self-issued. You can accept these warnings because
they are not harmful.
2. When your PC is connected to the Technician Port, and you have validated that you have
an IPv4 DCHP address, for example 192.168.0.12 (the first IP address that the Storwize
V7000 Gen2 node assigns), open a supported browser.
This should automatically redirect you to 192.168.0.1, and the initial configuration of the
cluster can start.
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3. Figure 5-4 shows the Welcome window where you start the Wizard that enables you to
configure a new system, or expand an existing system.
Figure 5-4 Welcome window
4. This chapter focuses on setting up a new system, so we select Yes and click Next.
Remember: If you are adding a Storwize V7000 Gen2 into an existing cluster, ensure
that the existing systems are running code level 7.3 or higher, because the 2076-524
only supports code level 7.3 or higher.
5. The next window will ask you to set an IP address for the cluster. You can choose between
an IPv4 or IPv6 address. In Figure 5-5, we have set an IPv4 address.
Figure 5-5 Setting the IP address
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6. Click Finish when you have entered the IP Address, Subnet Mask, and Gateway. The
system starts to initialize the system (node), and you see a window, such as the one in
Figure 5-6.
Figure 5-6 Initialization of the System
When the initialization is successfully completed, you see the message shown in
Figure 5-7.
Figure 5-7 Initialization complete
7. Follow the on-screen instructions:
a. Disconnect the Ethernet cable from the Technician Port and from your PC or notebook.
b. Connect the same PC or notebook to the same network as the system.
c. When you click OK, you are redirected to the GUI for completion of the system setup.
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5.2.2 System Setup wizard
You can connect to the System IP address from any Management Console that is connected
to the same network as the system:
1. Whether you are redirected from your PC or notebook, or you are connecting to the
Management IP address of the system, you are taken to the Login window, as shown in
Figure 5-8. You need to enter the default password (passw0rd with a zero).
Figure 5-8 Log in Screen
2. Click Log in and you are prompted to change the default password, as shown in
Figure 5-9. The new password can be any combination of 6 - 63 characters.
Figure 5-9 Change default password window
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3. When you have changed the password, you only need to go through a few more steps,
before the initial configuration is completed.
You get to the system setup page, as shown in Figure 5-10.
Figure 5-10 Welcome to system setup
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4. Next, you must read and accept the License agreement in Figure 5-11. Click Next.
Figure 5-11 License agreement
5. You can now enter the purchased licenses for this system, as shown in Figure 5-12.
Figure 5-12 Licensed functions
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103
6. Click Apply and Next. The system configures the licenses, as shown in Figure 5-13.
Figure 5-13 Applying licenses
On the next window, you can choose to leave the default name and change it later.
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7. In this case, choose the wanted name for the system, as shown in Figure 5-14.
Figure 5-14 System name
8. Click Apply and Next. The system configures the system name, as shown in Figure 5-15.
Figure 5-15 Applying system name
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9. The window shown in Figure 5-16 enables you to set the date and time. You can either use
manual settings, or use a Network Time Protocol (NTP) server. Using an NTP server in
the environment for all devices is highly suggested, for example, to ensure that you have a
common time stamp for troubleshooting, and so on.
Note that at this stage, if you choose manual settings, you can only select 12-hour settings
for a.m. or p.m. This can be changed to a 24-hour setting later.
Figure 5-16 Setting Date and Time
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10.Click Apply and Next. The system configures the Date and Time, as shown in
Figure 5-17.
Figure 5-17 Applying Date and Time
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107
11.The next window shows the detected enclosures. In this case, we are only using the
control enclosure, so that is what we see, as shown in Figure 5-18.
Figure 5-18 Detected enclosures
12.Click Apply and Next. The system configures the detected enclosures (Figure 5-19).
Figure 5-19 Add Enclosure
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13.Click Apply and Next. You are asked if you want to set up Email Event Notifications, as
shown in Figure 5-20.
Figure 5-20 Email Event Notification
14.It is highly suggested to set up email notifications. However, they can be configured later. If
you choose to say No to this option now, a warning displays, as shown in Figure 5-21.
Figure 5-21 No email notifications warning
Requirement: You must have access to an Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)
server (by IP address) to be able to configure Email Event Notifications.
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109
15.In this case, we set up Email Event Notifications starting with System Location, as shown
in Figure 5-22. Complete the location details.
Figure 5-22 System Location
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16.Click Next to proceed to Contact Details, as shown in Figure 5-23.
Figure 5-23 Contact Details
17.The next step is to configure Email Servers, as shown in Figure 5-24.
Figure 5-24 Email Servers
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18.The next step is Call Home. It is automatically configured, as shown in Figure 5-25.
Figure 5-25 Call home
19.Click Apply and Next, and you are taken to the next step, which is Email Notifications, as
shown in Figure 5-26 on page 113.
There are four types of notifications:
– Errors
The user receives email about problems, such as hardware failures, that must be
resolved immediately. To run fix procedures on these events, select Monitoring 
Events.
– Warnings
The user receives email about problems and unexpected conditions. Investigate the
cause to determinate any corrective action. To run fix procedures on these events,
select Monitoring  Events.
– Information
The user receives email about expected events, for example when a FlashCopy has
finished. No action is required for for these events.
– Inventory
The user receives inventory email that contains a summary of system status and
configuration settings.
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Figure 5-26 Email Notifications
20.The system then configures settings, as shown in Figure 5-27. This concludes the Event
Notifications setup.
Figure 5-27 Configuring Email Settings
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21.Click Apply and Next to be taken to the next step, which is Configure Storage.
22.You are then asked if you want the Storwize V7000 Gen2 to automatically configure
storage (Figure 5-28). Select whether you want storage to be configured automatically
now or later. For information about how to configure the storage manually, see 8.2.3,
“Configuring internal storage” on page 157.
To let the system configure the storage, select Yes and click Next.
Figure 5-28 Configure Storage
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23.This takes you to the final page of the Initial setup, which is the Summary, as shown in
Figure 5-29. Click Finish to be taken to the main GUI.
Figure 5-29 Summary
You are now ready to log in to the main GUI of the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2, and you
have full functionality, which concludes this Chapter.
For a detailed guide showing how to use the main GUI, see Chapter 9, “IBM Storwize V7000
Gen2 operations using the GUI” on page 169.
Alternatively, you can use the CLI, which is described in Chapter 8, “IBM Storwize V7000
Gen2 command-line interface” on page 143.
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6
Chapter 6.
IBM Real-time Compression and
the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2
This chapter provides details about the IBM Real-time Compression feature as it pertains to
the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2.
This chapter describes the following topics:
򐂰 An overview of Real-time Compression (RtC) and its applicable use cases
򐂰 A more detailed look into RtC and the Random Access Compression Engine (RACE)
򐂰 An examination of the specific hardware options and improvements in the Storwize V7000
Gen2 that specifically benefit the use of Real-time Compression
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2015. All rights reserved.
117
6.1 Real-time Compression background, overview, and value
proposition
Businesses and organizations around the world are challenged with tough economic
conditions. The information technology (IT) environment, which was historically viewed as an
expense, is now viewed as a source of innovation that must drive future revenue. However,
ever-increasing data storage requirements consume the available resources and disrupt
attempts to innovate in the IT environment.
The modern IT department has numerous challenges:
򐂰 Support for increasing data storage requirements
Shrinking IT budgets are pressuring IT managers to increase the lifetime of existing
storage systems. Traditional methods of cleaning up unneeded data and archiving files to
auxiliary storage are time-consuming. They shift one resource constraint (physical
storage) to another (the human work of storage administrators).
򐂰 Power, cooling, and floor space
A data center provides the means to host the storage systems. However, the physical
characteristics of the hard disk drive (HDD)-based systems limit the amount of data that
can be stored per rack unit. Power consumption and heat dissipation are major concerns
for IT managers, who must fit the storage systems into a limited data center. This conflicts
with the increasing demand for computing power needed to support new types of
applications.
򐂰 High availability (HA) of data
Digital information has become the basis for any service in use today. As a result, the
underlying systems that provide access to digital information are expected to be online all
the time. This requirement has made it impossible to introduce data reduction solutions
that impose any type of downtime. This restriction is true whether it is an actual inability to
access the data, or merely a major slowdown when accessing an optimized data set.
Compression of primary storage provides an innovative approach designed to overcome
these challenges.
6.1.1 The solution: IBM Real-time Compression
The Real-time Compression solution addresses the challenges listed in the previous section,
because it was designed from the ground up for primary storage. Implementing Real-time
Compression provides the following benefits:
򐂰 Compression for active primary data
IBM Real-time Compression can be used with active primary data. Therefore, it supports
workloads that are not candidates for compression in other solutions. A unique in-line
compression mechanism enables data to be compressed before it is de-staged to the disk,
which reduces disk cycles and the amount of input/output (I/O) being written to the disk.
򐂰 Compression for replicated or mirrored data
Remote volume copies can be compressed, in addition to the volumes at the primary
storage tier. This process reduces storage requirements in Metro Mirror and Global Mirror
destination volumes as well.
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򐂰 No changes to the existing environment are required
IBM Real-time Compression is part of the storage system. It was designed with
transparency in mind, so that it can be implemented without changes to applications,
hosts, networks, fabrics, or external storage systems. The solution is not apparent to
hosts, so users and applications continue to work as-is. Compression occurs within the
StorwizeV7000 system itself.
򐂰 Overall savings in operational expenses
More data is stored in a reduced rack space, so fewer storage expansion enclosures are
required to store a data set. This reduced rack space has the following benefits:
– Reduced power and cooling requirements. More data is stored in a system, therefore
requiring less power and cooling per gigabyte (GB) of used capacity.
– Reduced software licensing for additional functions in the system. More data stored per
enclosure reduces the overall spending on licensing.
򐂰 Disk space savings are immediate.
The space reduction occurs when the host writes the data. This process is unlike other
compression solutions in which some or all of the reduction is realized only afterward,
when a post-process compression batch job is run.
6.1.2 Common use cases
This section addresses the most common use cases for implementing compression:
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
General-purpose volumes
Databases
Virtualized infrastructures
Log server data stores
General-purpose volumes
Most general-purpose volumes are used for highly compressible data types, such as home
directories, computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM), and oil
and gas geo-seismic data. Storing such types of data in compressed volumes provides
immediate capacity reduction to the overall used space. More space can be provided to users
without any change to the environment.
There can be many file types stored in general-purpose servers. However, for practical
information, the estimated compression ratios are based on actual field experience. Expected
compression ratios are 50% - 60%.
File systems that contain audio, video files, and compressed files are not good candidates for
compression. The overall capacity savings on these file types are minimal.
Databases
Database information is stored in table space files. It is common to observe high compression
ratios in database volumes. Examples of databases that can greatly benefit from real-time
compression are IBM DB2®, Oracle, and Microsoft SQL Server. Expected compression ratios
are 50% - 80%.
Tip: Some databases offer optional built-in compression. Generally, do not compress
already-compressed database files.
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119
Virtualized infrastructures
The proliferation of open systems virtualization in the market has increased the use of storage
space, with more virtual server images and backups kept online. The use of compression
reduces the storage requirements at the source. Examples of virtualization solutions that can
greatly benefit from Real-time Compression are VMWare, Microsoft Hyper-V, and
Kernel-based Virtual Machine (KVM). Expected compression ratios are 45% - 75%.
Tip: Virtual machines with file systems that contain compressed files are not good
candidates for compression, as described in “General-purpose volumes” on page 119.
Log server data stores
Logs are a critical element for any IT department in any organization. Log aggregates or
syslog servers are a central point for administrators, and immediate access and a smooth
work process are necessary. Log server data stores are very good candidates for Real-time
Compression. Expected compression ratios are up to 90%.
6.2 IBM Real-time Compression technology
IBM Real-time Compression technology is based on RACE. RACE is an integral part of the
software stack of Storwize V7000 version 6.4.0 and later. This integration does not alter the
behavior of the system, so that previously existing features are supported for compressed
volumes. RACE uses a lossless data compression algorithm along with a Real-time
Compression technology, enabling it to meet the industry requirements of performance,
reliability, and scalability.
RACE technology makes use of over 50 patents, many of which are not about compression.
Rather, they define how to make industry standard Lempel-Ziv (L)-based compression of
primary storage operate in real time while enabling random access. The primary intellectual
property behind this is RACE. At a high level, the IBM RACE component compresses data
written into the storage system dynamically.
This compression occurs transparently, so Fibre Channel (FC) and Internet Small Computer
System Interface (iSCSI)-connected hosts are not aware of the compression. RACE is an
in-line compression technology, so each host write is compressed as it passes through RACE
to the disks.
This has a clear benefit over other compression technologies that are post-processing in
nature. These alternative technologies do not provide immediate capacity savings, and
therefore are not a good fit for primary storage workloads, such as databases and active data
set applications.
RACE is based on the Lempel-Ziv lossless data compression algorithm, and operates in real
time. When a host sends a write request, it is acknowledged by the upper-level write cache of
the system, and then de-staged to the storage pool.
As part of its de-staging, the request passes through the compression engine, and is then
stored in compressed format onto the storage pool. Writes are therefore acknowledged
immediately after being received by the upper write cache, with compression occurring as
part of the destaging to internal or external physical storage. Capacity is saved when the data
is written by the host, because the host writes are smaller when written to the storage pool.
IBM Real-time Compression is a self-tuning solution, similar to the Storwize V7000 system
itself. It adapts to the workload that runs on the system at any particular moment.
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6.2.1 Random Access Compression Engine
To understand why RACE is unique, you need to review the traditional compression
techniques. This description is not about the compression algorithm itself (how the data
structure is reduced in size mathematically), but rather a description about how the data is
laid out within the resulting compressed output.
Compression utilities
Compression is probably most known to users because of the widespread use of
compression utilities, such as Zip and Gzip. At a high level, these utilities take a file as their
input, and parse the data by using a sliding window technique. Repetitions of data are
detected within the sliding window history, most often 32 kilobytes (KB). Repetitions outside of
the window cannot be referenced. Therefore, the file cannot be reduced in size unless data is
repeated when the window “slides” to the next 32 KB slot.
Figure 6-1 shows compression that uses a sliding window, where the first two repetitions of
the string “ABCDEF” fall within the same compression window, and can therefore be
compressed using the same dictionary. Note that the third repetition of the string falls outside
of this window, and cannot, therefore, be compressed using the same compression dictionary
as the first two repetitions, reducing the overall achieved compression ratio.
Figure 6-1 Compression that uses a sliding window
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Traditional data compression in storage systems
The traditional approach taken to implement data compression in storage systems is an
extension of how compression works in the compression utilities previously mentioned.
Similar to compression utilities, the incoming data is split into fixed chunks, and then each
chunk is compressed and extracted independently.
However, there are drawbacks to this approach. An update to a chunk requires a read of the
chunk followed by a recompression of the chunk to include the update. The larger the chunk
size chosen, the heavier the I/O penalty to recompress the chunk. If a small chunk size is
chosen, the compression ratio is reduced, because the repetition detection potential is
reduced.
Figure 6-2 shows an example of how the data is split into fixed-size chunks (in the upper-left
side of the figure). It also shows how each chunk gets compressed independently into
variable-length compressed chunks (in the upper-right side of the figure). The resulting
compressed chunks are stored sequentially in the compressed output.
Although this approach is an evolution from compression utilities, it is limited to lowperformance use cases. This limitation is mainly because it does not provide real random
access to the data.
Data
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Compressed
Data
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Figure 6-2 Traditional data compression in storage systems
Random Access Compression Engine approach
The IBM patented RACE implements an inverted approach when compared to traditional
approaches to compression. RACE uses variable-size chunks for the input, and produces
fixed-size chunks for the output.
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This method enables an efficient and consistent method to index the compressed data,
because it is stored in fixed-size containers.
Figure 6-3 shows random access compression.
Data
Compressed
Data
1
1
2
2
3
3
4
4
5
5
6
6
Compressed
Data
1
2
3
4
5
6
Figure 6-3 Random access compression
Location-based compression
Both compression utilities and traditional storage systems-compression approaches
compress data by finding repetitions of bytes within the chunk that is being compressed. The
compression ratio of this chunk depends on how many repetitions can be detected within the
chunk. The number of repetitions is affected by how much the bytes stored in the chunk are
related to each other.
The relation between bytes is driven by the format of the object. For example, an office
document might contain textual information and an embedded drawing (such as this page).
Because the chunking of the file is arbitrary, it has no concept of how the data is laid out
within the document. Therefore, a compressed chunk can be a mixture of the textual
information and part of the drawing.
This process yields a lower compression ratio, because the different data types mixed
together cause a suboptimal dictionary of repetitions. Fewer repetitions can be detected
because a repetition of bytes in a text object is unlikely to be found in a drawing.
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This traditional approach to data compression is also called location-based compression. The
data repetition detection is based on the location of data within the same chunk.
This challenge was also addressed with the predecide mechanism that was introduced in IBM
SAN Volume Controller code version 7.1.
Predecide mechanism
Some data chunks have a higher compression ratio than others. Compressing some of the
chunks saves very little space but still requires resources, such as processor and memory. To
avoid spending resources on incompressible data, and to provide the ability to use a different,
more effective (in this particular case) compression algorithm, IBM has invented a predecide
mechanism that was first introduced in version 7.1.
The chunks that are below a given compression ratio are skipped by the compression engine,
therefore saving processor time and memory processing. Chunks that are decided not to be
compressed with the main compression algorithm, but that still can be compressed well with
the other algorithm, are marked and flagged accordingly. The result can vary, because
predecide does not check the entire block, only a sample of it.
Figure 6-4 shows how the detection mechanism works.
Figure 6-4 Detection mechanism
Temporal compression
RACE offers a technology leap beyond location-based compression, temporal compression.
When host writes arrive to RACE, they are compressed and filled up in fixed-size chunks, also
called compressed blocks. Multiple compressed writes can be aggregated into a single
compressed block.
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A dictionary of the detected repetitions is stored in the compressed block. When applications
write new data or update existing data, it is typically sent from the host to the storage
system as a series of writes. Because these writes are likely to originate from the same
application, and be from the same data type, more repetitions are usually detected by the
compression algorithm.
This type of data compression is called temporal compression because the data repetition
detection is based on the time the data was written into the same compressed block.
Temporal compression adds the time dimension that is not available to other compression
algorithms. It offers a higher compression ratio, because the compressed data in a block
represents a more homogeneous set of input data.
The upper part of Figure 6-5 shows how three writes, sent one after the other by a host, end
up in different chunks. They get compressed into different chunks because their location on
the volume is not adjacent. This yields a lower compression ratio, because the same data
must be compressed non-natively by using three separate dictionaries.
When the same three writes are sent through RACE (in the lower part of the figure), the writes
are compressed together by using a single dictionary. This yields a higher compression ratio
than location-based compression.
1
Location
Compression
Window
2
3
#
= Host write
Temporal
Compression
Window
1
2
3
Time
Figure 6-5 Location-based versus temporal compression
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6.2.2 RACE in Storwize V7000 Gen2 software stack
It is important to understand where the RACE technology is implemented in the Storwize
V7000 Gen2 software stack. RACE technology is implemented into the Storwize system thin
provisioning layer, and is an organic part of the stack. The Storwize V7000 Gen2 software
stack is shown in Figure 6-6. Compression is transparently integrated with existing system
management design. All of the Storwize V7000 features are supported on compressed
volumes.
You can create, delete, migrate, map (assign), and unmap (unassign) a compressed volume
as though it were a fully allocated volume. In addition, you can use Real-time Compression
with IBM Easy Tier on the same volumes. This compression method provides non-disruptive
conversion between compressed and decompressed volumes. This conversion provides a
uniform user experience, and eliminates the need for special procedures when dealing with
compressed volumes.
Figure 6-6 shows the Storwize V7000 Gen2 software stack.
Figure 6-6 The Storwize V7000 Gen2 software stack
126
Implementing the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2
6.2.3 Data write flow
When a host sends a write request to the Storwize V7000 Gen2, it reaches the upper cache
layer. The I/O is duplicated to the second node upper cache, and then the host is immediately
sent an acknowledgment of its I/Os.
When the upper cache layer de-stages to the RACE, the I/Os are sent to the thin-provisioning
layer. They are then sent to RACE and, if necessary, the original host write or writes. The
metadata that holds the index of the compressed volume is updated if needed, and is
compressed as well.
6.2.4 Data read flow
When a host sends a read request to the Storwize V7000 Gen2 for compressed data, it is
forwarded directly to the RtC component:
1. If the RtC component contains the requested data, the Storwize V7000 Gen2 cache
replies to the host with the requested data, without having to read the data from the
lower-level cache or disk.
2. If the RtC component does not contain the requested data, the request is forwarded to the
Storwize V7000 Gen2 lower-level cache.
3. If the lower-level cache contains the requested data, it is sent up the stack and returned to
the host without accessing the storage.
4. If the lower-level cache does not contain the requested data, it sends a read request to the
storage for the requested data.
6.2.5 Compression of existing data
In addition to compressing data in real time, it is also possible to compress existing data sets.
This compression adds a compressed mirrored copy to an existing volume. You then delete
the original copy after the synchronization of the compressed copy is complete. This process
is nondisruptive, so the data remains online and accessible by applications and users.
This capability enables customers to regain space from the storage pool, which can then be
reused for other applications.
6.3 Storwize V7000 Gen2 software and hardware updates that
enhance Real-time Compression
The Storwize V7000 Gen2 hardware and software version 7.3 introduced significant
improvements that enhance and extend the applicability of the Real-time Compression
feature. In this section, we will provide an overview of these enhancements:
򐂰 Software enhancements:
– Cache re-architecture
򐂰 Hardware enhancements:
– Additional and enhanced processor options
– Increased memory options
– Intel Assist Acceleration Technology (Coletto Creek) compression acceleration cards
Chapter 6. IBM Real-time Compression and the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2
127
6.3.1 Software enhancements
Cache is the most significant software enhancement.
Cache
As mentioned in Chapter 1, “Introduction to IBM storage virtualization” on page 1, Storwize
V7000 Gen2 software version 7.3 introduces an enhanced, dual-level caching model. This
model differs from the single-level cache model of previous software versions.
In the previous model, the Real-time Compression software component sat below the
single-level read/write cache. The benefit of this model is that the upper-level read/write
cache masks from the host any latency introduced by the Real-time Compression software
component. However, in this single-level caching model, the de-staging of writes for
compressed I/Os to disk might not be optimal for certain workloads, due to the fact that the
RACE component is interacting directly with un-cached storage.
In the new, dual-level caching model, the Real-time Compression software component sits
below the upper-level, fast-write cache, and above the lower-level advanced read/write cache.
There are several advantages to this dual-level model regarding Real-time Compression:
򐂰 Host writes, whether to compressed or decompressed volumes, are still serviced directly
using the upper-level write cache, preserving low host write I/O latency. Response time
can improve with this model, becuase the upper cache flushes less data to RACE more
frequently.
򐂰 The performance of the de-staging of compressed write I/Os to storage is improved,
because these I/Os are now de-staged via the advanced, lower-level cache, as opposed
to directly to storage.
򐂰 The existence of a lower-level write cache below the RtC component in the software stack
enables the coalescing of compressed writes and, as a result, a reduction in back-end
I/Os, due to the ability to perform full-stride writes for compressed data.
򐂰 The existence of a lower-level read cache below the Real-time Compression component in
the software stack enables the temporal locality nature of RtC to benefit from pre-fetching
from the back-end storage.
򐂰 The main (lower-level) cache now stores compressed data for compressed volumes,
increasing the effective size of the lower-level cache.
򐂰 Support for larger numbers of compressed volumes.
6.3.2 Hardware enhancements
The Storwize V7000 Gen2 introduces numerous hardware enhancements. Several of these
enhancements relate directly to the Real-time Compression feature, and offer significant
performance and scalability improvements over previous hardware versions.
New enhanced processor
The Storwize V7000 Gen2 offers updated eight-core processors, as compared to the
four-core processor available in the previous hardware version.
Increased memory options
The Storwize V7000 Gen2 offers the option to increase the system memory from the base of
32 GB to 64 GB. This additional memory enables improved overall system performance over
previous hardware models when using compression.
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Implementing the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2
Intel Quick Assist Acceleration Technology (Coletto Creek)
compression acceleration cards
The Storwize V7000 Gen2 includes one Intel Quick Assist compression acceleration card
on-board based on the Coletto Creek chipset. The introduction of these Intel-based
compression acceleration cards in the Storwize V7000 Gen2 is an industry first, providing
dedicated processing power and greater throughput over previous models.
For additional details about the new hardware specification, see Chapter 2, “IBM Storwize
V7000 Gen2 Hardware” on page 21.
Chapter 6. IBM Real-time Compression and the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2
129
130
Implementing the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2
7
Chapter 7.
Performance overview of the IBM
Storwize V7000 Gen2
In this chapter, we provide a brief overview of the performance analysis capabilities of the IBM
Storwize V7000 Gen2. We also describe a method that you can use to collect and process
performance statistics.
However, it is beyond the intended scope of this book to provide an in-depth understanding of
performance statistics, or explain how to interpret them. For a more comprehensive look at
the performance of the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2, see IBM System Storage SAN Volume
Controller and Storwize V7000 Best Practices and Performance Guidelines, SG24-7521,
which is available at the following website:
http://www.redbooks.ibm.com/abstracts/sg247521.html?Open
For the Storwize family, as with all other IBM storage subsystems, the official IBM tool for the
collection of performance statistics, and to supply performance reporting, is IBM Tivoli
Storage Productivity Center.
You can obtain more information about IBM Tivoli Storage Productivity Center usage and
configuration in SAN Storage Performance Management Using Tivoli Storage Productivity
Center, SG24-7364:
http://www.redbooks.ibm.com/abstracts/sg247364.html?Open
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2015. All rights reserved.
131
7.1 IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2 performance overview
The IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2 is equipped with additional processor, memory, and
input/output (I/O) slots. These additional components enable enhancements, such as the
number of compressed volumes that can be managed by a single I/O Group, the number of
Fibre Channel (FC) Ports per I/O Group, and the amount of read cache available to an I/O
Group.
In addition to the hardware upgrades, the 7.3 code level adds IBM Easy Tier 3 and storage
pool balancing, which can further optimize performance. In this topic, we look at the
performance basics, and best practices. Easy Tier is described in more detail in Chapter 4,
“IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2 Easy Tier” on page 85.
When using Real-time Compression, ensure that you use the Comprestimator tool to assess
the expected compression ratio for the workload that you will be delivering. With the addition
of the optional acceleration cards in the Storwize V7000 Gen2, there are additional
performance benefits for compressed workloads.
Note: Comprestimator is a command-line interface (CLI), host-based utility that can be
used to estimate an expected compression rate for block devices. It can be downloaded
from the following website:
http://www-01.ibm.com/support/docview.wss?uid=ssg1S4001012
For more information about RtC, see Chapter 6, “IBM Real-time Compression and the IBM
Storwize V7000 Gen2” on page 117.
7.1.1 Drive Performance
In general, hard disk drive (HDD) technology has not changed significantly in the last 60
years, with the exception of flash drives. The performance of spinning drives still depends on
seek time and rotational latency. The modern flash drive eliminates these factors, and has no
mechanical parts.
Spinning existing drive performance
Spinning HDD performance is measured by the following three factors:
򐂰 Seek Time
Time taken for head to current track to destination track. Performance is affected by
generation and form factor (3.5 in. versus 2.5 in.).
򐂰 Rotational Latency
Time taken for drive to spin the platter, so the destination track is under the head.
Performance is affected by revolutions per minute (RPM) of the drive.
򐂰 Average Latency
½ seek time, plus ½ single rotation time
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Implementing the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2
Flash drive performance
The performance of flash drives, also referred to as solid-state drives (SSDs), depends on
only two technology factors:
򐂰 Architecture, for example single-level cell (SLC), enterprise multi-level cell (eMLC), and
so on
򐂰 Chip generation, for example 34 nanometers (nm), 25 nm, 20 nm, and so on
Figure 7-1 shows a general HDD performance comparison taken from an IBM Storwize
V7000, single-drive, Redundant Array of Independent Disks 0 (RAID 0) cache disabled
configuration.
Figure 7-1 Drive performance comparison: Value in (x) are short stroked (<25% capacity used)
7.1.2 RAID performance
The Storwize V7000 Gen2 supports RAID 0, 1, 5, 6, and 10. In the following sections, we
show the attributes of each:
RAID 0
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
Striping
Full capacity
No protection against drive loss
One host write equals one disk write (fastest performance)
RAID 1
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
Mirroring between two drives
Effective capacity of 50%
Protects against one drive loss
One host write equals two disk writes (fast performance)
RAID 5
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
Striping with parity
Protects against 1 drive loss
Effective capacity of total drives minus one (n-1)
One host write equals two disk reads and two disk writes
Chapter 7. Performance overview of the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2
133
RAID 6
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
Striping with double parity
Protects against two drive losses
Effective capacity of total drives minus two (n-2)
One host write equals three disk reads and three disk writes (poor performance)
RAID 10
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
Mirroring between two sets of striped drives
Protects against up to 50% drive loss
Effective capacity or 50%
One write equals two disk writes (good performance)
7.1.3 Drive, RAID, and storage pool best practices
Generally speaking, the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2 performs well, and the Storage
Configuration Wizard provides an excellent setup for most designs. Even so, the following
considerations should be taken into account:
򐂰 It is suggested to use the same extent size for all pools in a cluster.
򐂰 It is suggested to use only one class of array or managed disk per storage pool. The only
exception is when using hybrid pools with Easy Tier.
򐂰 RAID 6 is generally advised for Nearline serial-attached SCSI (NL-SAS) drives.
򐂰 Generally, Storwize controllers have the same performance in all attached enclosures,
though flash drives should be installed in or closer to the control enclosure.
򐂰 Use Easy Tier with flash drives for optimal price/performance. Typically, less than 5% flash
is needed (The IBM Storage Tier Advisor Tool (STAT) tool is useful and can be used
without hybrid pools).
򐂰 If virtualizing external storage, use tiering at highest level and disable at lower levels.
7.2 SAN Performance considerations
When designing a storage area network (SAN) infrastructure, or maintaining an existing
infrastructure, you need to consider many factors in terms of their potential effect on
performance. These factors include, but are not limited to, the following conditions:
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
Dissimilar workloads competing for the same resources
Overloaded resources
Insufficient resources available
Poorly performing resources
Similar performance constraints
Remember the following high-level rules when designing your SAN and Storwize layout:
򐂰 Host-to-Storwize inter-switch link (ISL) oversubscription
This area is the most significant I/O load across ISLs. The suggestion is to maintain a
maximum of 7-to-1 oversubscription. Going higher is possible, but it could lead to I/O
bottlenecks. This suggestion also assumes a core-edge design, where the hosts are on
the edge and the IBM SAN Volume Controller is on the core.
134
Implementing the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2
򐂰 Storage-to-Storwize ISL oversubscription
This area is the second most-significant I/O load across ISLs. The maximum
oversubscription is 7-to-1. Going higher is not supported. Again, this suggestion assumes
a multiple-switch SAN fabric design.
򐂰 ISL trunking/port channeling
For the best performance and availability, we highly suggest that you use ISL trunking/port
channeling. Independent ISL links can easily become overloaded and turn into
performance bottlenecks. Bonded or trunked ISLs automatically share load, and provide
better redundancy in the case of a failure.
򐂰 Number of paths per host multipath device
The maximum supported number of paths per multipath device that is visible on the host is
eight. Although the IBM Subsystem Device Driver Path Control Module (SDDPCM)-related
products, and most vendor multipathing software, can support more paths, the suggested
number of paths to a volume is four. Although the Storwize V7000 Gen2 can work with
more than eight paths, this design is technically unsupported.
Rules and guidelines are no substitution for monitoring performance. Monitoring performance
can both provide a validation that design expectations are met, and identify opportunities for
improvement.
7.3 Performance monitoring
In this section, we highlight several performance monitoring techniques.
7.3.1 Collecting performance statistics
The IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2 is constantly collecting performance statistics. The default
frequency by which files are created is at five-minute intervals. The collection interval can be
changed using the startstats command. The statistics files (named VDisk, MDisk, and
Node), and both canisters in the Storwize V7000 Gen2 system, keep the most recent 16 files
of each type.
This design provides statistics for the most recent 80-minute period if using the default
five-minute sampling interval. The Storwize V7000 Gen2 supports user-defined sampling
intervals of from1 - 60 minutes. You can define the sampling interval by using the startstats
-interval 2 command to collect statistics at 2-minute intervals.
Collection intervals: Although more frequent collection intervals provide a more detailed
view of what happens in the Storwize V7000 Gen2, they shorten the amount of time that
the historical data is available. For example, rather than an 80-minute period of data with
the default 5-minute interval, if you adjust to 2-minute intervals, you have a 32-minute
period instead.
Statistics file naming
The files that are generated are written to the /dumps/iostats/ directory. The file name is in
the following formats:
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
Nm_stats_<node_serial_number>_<date>_<time> for managed disk (MDisk) statistics
Nv_stats_<node_serial_number>_<date>_<time> for virtual disk (VDisk) statistics
Nn_stats_<node_serial_number>_<date>_<time> for node statistics
Nd_stats_<node_serial_number>_<date>_<time> for disk drive statistics
Chapter 7. Performance overview of the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2
135
The <node_serial_number> is of the node on which the statistics were collected. The date is
in the form <yymmdd> and the time is in the form <hhmmss>. The following example shows
an MDisk statistics file name:
Nm_stats_7836640-2_140901_164012
The lsdumps -prefix /dumps/iostats command shows typical MDisk volume, node, and
disk drive statistics file names, as shown in Example 7-1. Note that the output is truncated
and shows only part of the available statistics.
Example 7-1 The lsdumps command output
IBM_Storwize:ITSO_V7000Gen2:admin>lsdumps -prefix /dumps/iostats
id filename
0 Nm_stats_7836640-2_140901_125505
1 Nv_stats_7836640-2_140901_125505
2 Nn_stats_7836640-2_140901_125505
3 Nd_stats_7836640-2_140901_125505
4 Nn_stats_7836640-2_140901_131006
.... (truncated).....
Tip: The performance statistics files can be copied from the Storwize V7000 Gen2 nodes
to a local drive on your workstation using the pscp.exe command (included with PuTTY)
from an MS-DOS CLI, as shown in the following example:
C:\Program Files\PuTTY>pscp -unsafe -load ITSO_V7000Gen2
admin@10.18.229.81:/dumps/iostats/* c:\statsfiles
Use the -load parameter to specify the session that is defined in PuTTY.
Specify the -unsafe parameter when you use wildcards.
7.3.2 Real-time performance monitoring
Real-time performance statistics provide short-term status information for the Storwize V7000
Gen2. The statistics are shown as graphs in the management graphical user interface (GUI),
or can be viewed from the CLI. With system-level statistics, you can quickly view the
processor use and the bandwidth of volumes, interfaces, and MDisks. Each graph displays
the current bandwidth in either megabytes per second (MBps) or I/O operations per second
(IOPS), and a view of bandwidth over time.
Each node collects various performance statistics, mostly at five-second intervals, and
the statistics that are available from the config node in a clustered environment. This
information can help you determine the performance effect of a specific node. As with system
statistics, node statistics help you to evaluate whether the node is operating within normal
performance metrics.
Real-time performance monitoring gathers the following system-level performance statistics:
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
Central processing unit (CPU) use
Port use and I/O rates
Volume and MDisk I/O rates
Bandwidth
Latency
Real-time statistics are not a configurable option, and cannot be disabled.
136
Implementing the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2
Real-time performance monitoring with the CLI
The following commands are available for monitoring the statistics through the CLI:
򐂰 lssystemstats
Use the lssystemstats command to display the most recent values of all of the node
statistics in a clustered system (system), or to display a history of values for a given subset
of available statistics across all nodes in a system. This command also can be used to
display a history of values for a given subset of available statistics.
򐂰 lsnodecanisterstas
Use the lsnodecanisterstats command to display the most recent values of statistics for
all of the nodes or node canisters, and display all statistics for a particular Node Canister.
Additionally, You can use this command to display a history of values for a given subset of
available statistics.
Both commands lists the same set of statistics, but either representing all node canisters in
the cluster, or a particular Node Canister. The values for these statistics are calculated from
the node statistics values in the following way:
򐂰 Bandwidth: Sum of bandwidth of all nodes
򐂰 Latency: Average latency for the cluster, which is calculated using data from the whole
cluster, not an average of the single node values
򐂰 IOPS: Total IOPS of all nodes
򐂰 CPU percentage: Average CPU percentage of all nodes
Example 7-2 shows the resulting output of the lssystemstats command.
Example 7-2 The lssystemstats command output
IBM_Storwize:ITSO_V7000Gen2:admin>lssystemstats
stat_name
stat_current stat_peak stat_peak_time
compression_cpu_pc 8
8
140901175343
cpu_pc
0
0
140901175343
fc_mb
0
0
140901175343
fc_io
1350
1371
140901175208
sas_mb
0
44
140901175128
sas_io
0
285
140901174948
.....(truncated)......
drive_w_mb
0
0
140901175343
drive_w_io
0
5
140901175248
drive_w_ms
0
5
140901175248
power_w
339
344
140901175023
temp_c
26
26
140901175343
temp_f
78
78
140901175343
iplink_mb
0
0
140901175343
iplink_io
0
0
140901175343
IBM_Storwize:ITSO_V7000Gen2:admin>
Chapter 7. Performance overview of the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2
137
Table 7-1 has a brief description of each of the statistics presented by the lssystemstats and
lsnodecanisterstats commands.
Table 7-1 Field name descriptions for lssystemstats and lsnodecanisterstats statistics
138
Field name
Unit
Description
compression_cpu
_pc
Percentage
Compression CPU use
cpu_pc
Percentage
Use of node CPUs
fc_mb
MBps
Fibre Channel bandwidth
fc_io
IOPS
Fibre Channel throughput
sas_mb
MBps
SAS bandwidth
sas_io
IOPS
SAS throughput
iscsi_mb
MBps
iSCSI bandwidth
iscsi_io
IOPS
iSCSI throughput
write_cache_pc
Percentage
Write cache fullness, updated every ten seconds
total_cache_pc
Percentage
Total cache fullness, updated every ten seconds
vdisk_mb
MBps
Total VDisk bandwidth
vdisk_io
IOPS
Total VDisk throughput
vdisk_ms
Milliseconds (ms)
Average VDisk latency
mdisk_mb
MBps
MDisk (SAN and RAID) bandwidth
mdisk_io
IOPS
MDisk (SAN and RAID) throughput
mdisk_ms
Milliseconds
Average MDisk latency
drive_mb
MBps
Drive bandwidth
drive_io
IOPS
Drive throughput
drive_ms
Milliseconds
Average drive latency
vdisk_w_mb
MBps
VDisk write bandwidth
vdisk_w_io
IOPS
VDisk write throughput
vdisk_w_ms
Milliseconds
Average VDisk write latency
mdisk_w_mb
MBps
MDisk (SAN and RAID) write bandwidth
mdisk_w_io
IOPS
MDisk (SAN and RAID) write throughput
mdisk_w_ms
Milliseconds
Average MDisk write latency
drive_w_mb
MBps
Drive write bandwidth
drive_w_io
IOPS
Drive write throughput
drive_w_ms
Milliseconds
Average drive write latency
vdisk_r_mb
MBps
VDisk read bandwidth
vdisk_r_io
IOPS
VDisk read throughput
vdisk_r_ms
Milliseconds
Average VDisk read latency
Implementing the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2
Field name
Unit
Description
vdisk_w_mb
MBps
VDisk write bandwidth
vdisk_w_io
IOPS
VDisk write throughput
vdisk_w_ms
Milliseconds
Average VDisk write latency
mdisk_r_mb
MBps
MDisk (SAN and RAID) read bandwidth
mdisk_r_io
IOPS
MDisk (SAN and RAID) read throughput
mdisk_r_ms
Milliseconds
Average MDisk read latency
mdisk_w_mb
MBps
MDisk (SAN and RAID) write bandwidth
mdisk_w_io
IOPS
MDisk (SAN and RAID) write throughput
mdisk_w_ms
Milliseconds
Average MDisk write latency
drive_r_mb
MBps
Drive read bandwidth
drive_r_io
IOPS
Drive read throughput
drive_r_ms
Milliseconds
Average drive read latency
drive_w_mb
MBps
Drive write bandwidth
drive_w_io
IOPS
Drive write throughput
drive_w_ms
Milliseconds
Average drive write latency
power_w
Watts
Power consumption
temp_c
Celsius
Temperature in Celsius
temp_f
Fahrenheit
Temperature in Fahrenheit
iplink_mb
MBps
Internet Protocol (IP) link Bandwidth
iplink_io
IOPS
IP link Throughput
Chapter 7. Performance overview of the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2
139
Real-time performance monitoring with the GUI
The real-time statistics are also available from the Storwize V7000 Gen2 GUI. Select
Monitoring  Performance (Figure 7-2) to open the performance monitoring window.
Figure 7-2 Storwize Monitoring menu
The window, as shown in Figure 7-3 on page 141, is divided into four sections that provide
use views for the following resources:
򐂰 CPU Use
– Shows the CPU usage for general tasks%
– Shows the CPU7 usage for compression (when enabled)%
򐂰 Volumes. This shows the overall volume use with the following fields:
–
–
–
–
Read
Write
Read latency
Write latency
򐂰 Interfaces. This shows the overall statistics for each of the available interfaces:
–
–
–
–
Fibre Channel
iSCSI
Serial-attached SCSI (SAS)
IP Replication
򐂰 MDisks. This shows the following overall statistics for the MDisks:
–
–
–
–
140
Read
Write
Read latency
Write latency
Implementing the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2
Figure 7-3 shows real-time performance graphs.
Figure 7-3 Real-time performance graphs
You can also select to view performance statistics for each of the available canisters of the
system, as shown in Figure 7-4.
Figure 7-4 Select system node (Canister)
It is also possible to change the metric between MBps or IOPS (Figure 7-5).
Figure 7-5 Changing to MBps
Chapter 7. Performance overview of the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2
141
On any of these views, you can select any point in time with your cursor to know the exact
value and when it occurred. As soon as you place your cursor over the timeline, it becomes a
dotted line with the various values gathered (Figure 7-6).
Figure 7-6 Detailed resource use
For each of the resources, there are various values that you can view by selecting the check
box next to a value. For example, for the MDisks view, as shown in Figure 7-7, the four
available fields are selected:
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
Read
Write
Read latency
Write latency
Figure 7-7 Detailed resource use
7.3.3 Performance data collection and Tivoli Storage Productivity Center for
Disk
Although you can obtain performance statistics in standard .xml files, using .xml files is a less
practical and less user-friendly method to analyze the Storwize V7000 Gen2 performance
statistics. Tivoli Storage Productivity Center for Disk is the supported IBM tool to collect and
analyze performance statistics.
For more information about using Tivoli Storage Productivity Center to monitor your storage
subsystem, see the following IBM Redbooks publications:
򐂰 SAN Storage Performance Management Using Tivoli Storage Productivity Center,
SG24-7364, which is available at the following website:
http://www.rebooks.ibm.com/abstracts/sg247364.html?Open
򐂰 Tivoli Storage Productivity Center V5.2 Release Guide, SG24-8204, which is available at
the following website:
http://www.redbooks.ibm.com/redpieces/abstracts/sg248204.html?Open
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Implementing the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2
8
Chapter 8.
IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2
command-line interface
In this chapter, we describe the command-line interface (CLI):
򐂰 How to set up CLI
򐂰 Configuring the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2 using the CLI:
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Viewing the Node Canister details
Configuring event notification settings
Configuring internal storage
Configuring external storage
Configuring volumes
Configuring remote copy
Configuring hosts
򐂰 New commands introduced with the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2
The CLI is a powerful tool offering even more functionality than the graphical user interface
(GUI). We show how to set it up, and how to manage and operate your IBM Storwize V7000
Gen2. We do not delve into the advanced functionality, because it is beyond the intended
scope of this book. If you want to learn about the advanced commands,see the folllowing
website:
http://www.ibm.com/support/knowledgecenter/ST3FR7_7.3.0/com.ibm.storwize.v7000.730
.doc/v7000_ichome_730.html
Furthermore, the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2 shares the underlying platform with the IBM
storage area network (SAN) Volume Controller. Therefore, we also suggest the CLI chapter in
IBM SAN Volume Controller 2145-DH8 Introduction and Implementation, SG24-8229:
http://www.redbooks.ibm.com/Redbooks.nsf/RedpieceAbstracts/sg248229.html
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2015. All rights reserved.
143
8.1 How to set up the CLI
In the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2 GUI, authentication is done by using a user name and
password. The CLI uses a Secure Shell (SSH) to connect from the host to the IBM Storwize
V7000 Gen2 system. There are two ways of connecting SSH to the Storwize V7000 Gen2.
The first option is user name and password, and the other option is installing SSH keys. We
suggest using SSH keys for maximum security. The following steps are required to enable CLI
access with SSH keys:
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
A public key and a private key are generated together as a pair.
A public key is uploaded to the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2 through the GUI.
A client SSH tool must be configured to authenticate with the private key.
A secure connection can be established between the client and Storwize V7000 Gen2.
SSH is the communication vehicle between the management workstation and the Storwize
V7000 Gen2. The SSH client provides a secure environment from which to connect to a
remote machine. It uses the principles of public and private keys for authentication.
SSH keys are generated by the SSH client software. The SSH keys include a public key,
which is uploaded and maintained by the clustered system, and a private key, which is kept
private on the workstation that is running the SSH client. These keys authorize specific users
to access the administration and service functions on the system. Each key pair is associated
with a user-defined ID string that can consist of up to 40 characters.
Up to 100 keys can be stored on the system. New IDs and keys can be added, and unwanted
IDs and keys can be deleted. To use the CLI, an SSH client must be installed on that system,
the SSH key pair must be generated on the client system, and the client’s SSH public key
must be stored on the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2.
The SSH client used in this book is PuTTY. Also, a PuTTY key generator can be used to
generate the private and public key pair. The PuTTY client can be downloaded from the
following address at no initial cost:
http://www.chiark.greenend.org.uk
Download the following tools:
򐂰 PuTTY SSH client: putty.exe
򐂰 PuTTY key generator: puttygen.exe
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Implementing the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2
Generating a public and private key pair
To generate a public and private key pair, complete the following steps:
1. Start the PuTTY key generator to generate the public and private key pair shown in
Figure 8-1.
Figure 8-1 PuTTY Key Generator
Make sure that the following options are selected:
– SSH2 Rivest-Shamir-Adleman (RSA)
– Number of bits in a generated key: 1024
Chapter 8. IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2 command-line interface
145
2. Click Generate and move the cursor over the blank area to generate keys (Figure 8-2).
Figure 8-2 Generating Keys
To generate keys: The blank area that is indicated by the message is the large blank
rectangle on the GUI inside the section of the GUI labeled Key. Continue to move the
mouse pointer over the blank area until the progress bar reaches the far right. This
action generates random characters to create a unique key pair.
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Implementing the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2
3. After the keys are generated, save them for later use. Click Save public key (Figure 8-3).
Figure 8-3 Saving public key
4. You are prompted for a name (for example, pubkey) and a location for the public key (for
example, C:\Support Utils\PuTTY). Click Save.
Ensure that you record the name and location, because the name and location of this SSH
public key must be specified later.
Public key extension: By default, the PuTTY key generator saves the public key with
no extension. Use the string pub for naming the public key, for example, pubkey, to easily
differentiate the SSH public key from the SSH private key.
Chapter 8. IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2 command-line interface
147
5. Click Save private key (Figure 8-4).
Figure 8-4 Save private key
6. You are prompted with a warning message (Figure 8-5). Click Yes to save the private key
without a passphrase.
Figure 8-5 Warning message
7. When prompted, enter a name (for example, icat), select a secure place as the location,
and click Save.
Key generator: The PuTTY key generator saves the private key with the PPK
extension.
8. Close the PuTTY key generator.
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Implementing the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2
Uploading the SSH public key to the IBM Storwize V7000
After you create your SSH key pair, upload your SSH public key onto the SAN Volume
Controller system. Complete the following steps:
1. Open the user section (Figure 8-6).
Figure 8-6 User section
2. Right-click the user name for which you want to upload the key and click Properties
(Figure 8-7).
Figure 8-7 User Properties
Chapter 8. IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2 command-line interface
149
3. To upload the public key, click Browse, select your public key, and click OK (Figure 8-8).
Figure 8-8 Upload Public Key
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Implementing the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2
Configuring the SSH client
Before the CLI can be used, the SSH client must be configured:
1. Start PuTTY. The PuTTY Configuration window opens (Figure 8-9).
Figure 8-9 PuTTY Main window
2. In the right pane, select SSH as the connection type. In the Close window on exit
section, select Only on clean exit, which ensures that if any connection errors occur, they
are displayed on the user’s window.
Chapter 8. IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2 command-line interface
151
3. In the Category pane, on the left side of the PuTTY Configuration window (Figure 8-10),
click Connection  SSH to open the PuTTY SSH Configuration window.
Figure 8-10 SSH subcategory
4. In the Preferred SSH protocol version section, select 2.
5. In the Category pane on the left, click Connection  SSH  Auth. More options are
displayed for controlling SSH authentication.
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Implementing the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2
6. In the Private key file for authentication field (Figure 8-11), either browse to or type the
fully qualified directory path and file name of the SSH client private key file, which was
created previously (for example, C:\Support Utils\PuTTY\icat.PPK).
Figure 8-11 Private key for authentication
7. In the Category pane, click Session to return to the Basic options for your PuTTY session
view (Figure 8-12 on page 154).
8. Enter the following information in the fields (Figure 8-12 on page 154) in the right pane:
– Host Name: Specify the host name or cluster IP address of the IBM Storwize V7000
Gen2.
– Saved Sessions: Enter a session name.
Chapter 8. IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2 command-line interface
153
9. Click Save to save the new session (Figure 8-12).
Figure 8-12 Saving a session
10.Select the new session and click Open to connect to the IBM Storwize V7000 system. A
PuTTY Security Alert opens; confirm it by clicking Yes (Figure 8-13).
Figure 8-13 Putty Security Alert
11.PuTTY now connects to the system and prompts you for a user name to log in as. Enter
admin as the user name, as shown in Example 8-1. Click Enter.
Example 8-1 Enter user name
login as: admin
Authenticating with public key "rsa-key-20140820"
IBM_2076:ITSO_V7000Gen2_1:admin>
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Implementing the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2
12.You have now completed the tasks to configure the CLI for IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2
administration.
8.2 Configuring the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2 using the CLI
Now we describe how to use the CLI to configure the Storwize V7000 Gen2
Tip: For a listing a full commands including syntaxes, variables, and arguments, see the
IBM Knowledge Center. You can also use the help command followed by the command you
want to learn more about.
Our lab setup includes the following hardware:
򐂰 1 x IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2 model 2076-524
– 1x Expansion Enclosure model 2076-24F
– 12 x SAS 600 GB 10 K SFF HDDs (6 in control enclosure and 6 in Expansion)
– 2 x 4 Port 8 Gbps Fiber Channel Host Interface Cards
򐂰 A balanced, redundant two-Fabric SAN Fibre Channel switch setup
򐂰 2 x IBM Storwize V7000 model 2076-324, which we will use as external storage
8.2.1 Viewing the Node Canister details
Now we review how to retrieve hardware and configuration details from your Storwize V7000
Gen2. Although many prefer to use the GUI, and with good reason, there are some
advantages to using the CLI. To the trained user it’s more precise, quicker, and extremely
lightweight.
To view the Node Canister details, follow these steps:
1. Use the lsnodecanister command to return a concise list or a detailed view of node
canisters that are part of the clustered system. To view the concise list, type the command
(Example 8-2).
Example 8-2 The lsnodecanister concise view
IBM_Storwize:ITSO_V7000GEN2_2:admin>lsnodecanister
id name UPS_serial_number WWNN
status IO_group_id IO_group_name
config_node UPS_unique_id hardware iscsi_name
iscsi_alias panel_name enclosure_id canister_id enclosure_serial_number
1 node1
500507680B00217A online 0
io_grp0
yes
500
iqn.1986-03.com.ibm:2145.itsov7000gen22.node1
01-1
1
1
7836640
3 node2
500507680B00217B online 0
io_grp0
no
500
iqn.1986-03.com.ibm:2145.itsov7000gen22.node2
01-2
1
2
7836640
IBM_Storwize:ITSO_V7000GEN2_2:admin>
Chapter 8. IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2 command-line interface
155
2. To get a detailed view, add the canister ID or name as a parameter to the command
(Example 8-3).
Example 8-3 The lsnodecanister detailed view
IBM_Storwize:ITSO_V7000GEN2_2:admin>lsnodecanister 1
id 1
name node1
UPS_serial_number
WWNN 500507680B00217A
status online
IO_group_id 0
IO_group_name io_grp0
partner_node_id 3
partner_node_name node2
config_node yes
UPS_unique_id
port_id 500507680B21217A
port_status active
port_speed 8Gb
port_id 500507680B22217A
port_status active
port_speed 8Gb
port_id 500507680B23217A
port_status active
port_speed 8Gb
port_id 500507680B24217A
port_status active
port_speed 8Gb
hardware 500
iscsi_name iqn.1986-03.com.ibm:2145.itsov7000gen22.node1
iscsi_alias
failover_active no
failover_name node2
failover_iscsi_name iqn.1986-03.com.ibm:2145.itsov7000gen22.node2
failover_iscsi_alias
panel_name 01-1
enclosure_id 1
canister_id 1
enclosure_serial_number 7836640
service_IP_address 10.18.228.57
service_gateway 10.18.228.1
service_subnet_mask 255.255.255.0
service_IP_address_6
service_gateway_6
service_prefix_6
service_IP_mode static
service_IP_mode_6
site_id
site_name
identify_LED off
product_mtm 2076-524
IBM_Storwize:ITSO_V7000Gen2:admin>
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Implementing the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2
8.2.2 Configuring event notification settings
You can use the CLI to set up your system to send event notification and inventory reports to
specified recipients and the IBM Support Center:
1. First, we need to set up an email server. This is done with the mkemailserver command
(Example 8-4):
mkemailserver -ip {ip_address -port} {port_number}
2. Then we add a recipient with the mkemailuser command (Example 8-4):
mkemailuser -address {recipient email address} -error {on|off} -warning
{on|off} -info {on|off} inventory {on|off}
3. Finally, we add the contact details for the recipient email address with the chemail
command (Example 8-4):
chemail -reply {recipient email address} -contact {contact name} -primary
{primary phone number} -alternate {alternate phone number} -location {location
eg. room3} -contact2 {alternate contac name} -primary2 {primary contact2 phone}
-alternate2 {alternate contact2 phone} -nocontact {organization} -address
{location address}
-city <location city>
Example 8-4 Event notification example
IBM_Storwize:ITSO_V7000GEN2_2:admin>mkemailserver -ip 2.2.2.2 -port 78
Email Server id [1] successfully created
IBM_Storwize:ITSO_V7000GEN2_2:admin>mkemailuser -address ibmuser@ibm.com -error
on -warning on -info off -inventory off
User, id [1], successfully created
IBM_Storwize:ITSO_V7000GEN2_2:admin>chemail -reply ibmuser@ibm.com -primary
1112225555 -location machine_room_3
IBM_Storwize:ITSO_V7000GEN2_2:admin>
8.2.3 Configuring internal storage
In this topic, we describe how to configure the internal drives in the Storwize V7000 Gen2.
Our lab configuration consists of 12 drives spread across two enclosures and, as an example,
we would like to configure it as a single storage pool.
Note: Command syntax, arguments, and variables are not shown in this topic. Use -? or
>help {command name} to obtain more details.
Chapter 8. IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2 command-line interface
157
To configure internal storage, follow these steps:
1. We start by checking available internal storage. Issue the lsdrive command
(Example 8-5).
Example 8-5 The lsdrive command
IBM_Storwize:ITSO_V7000GEN2_2:admin>lsdrive
id status error_sequence_number use
tech_type
member_id enclosure_id slot_id node_id node_name
0 online
unused sas_hdd
1 online
unused sas_hdd
2 online
unused sas_hdd
3 online
unused sas_hdd
4 online
unused sas_hdd
5 online
unused sas_hdd
6 online
unused sas_hdd
7 online
unused sas_hdd
8 online
unused sas_hdd
9 online
unused sas_hdd
10 online
unused sas_hdd
11 online
unused sas_hdd
IBM_Storwize:ITSO_V7000GEN2_2:admin>
capacity mdisk_id mdisk_name
558.4GB
558.4GB
558.4GB
558.4GB
558.4GB
558.4GB
558.4GB
558.4GB
558.4GB
558.4GB
558.4GB
558.4GB
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
3
5
2
4
6
4
1
3
2
5
6
2. At first, we make our drives candidates with the chdrive command (Example 8-6), then
repeat for the remaining drives.
Example 8-6 The chdrive command
IBM_Storwize:ITSO_V7000GEN2_2:admin>chdrive -use candidate
0:1:2:3:4:5:6:7:8:9:10:11
IBM_Storwize:ITSO_V7000GEN2_2:admin>
3. In our case, we create one storage pool to hold our storage with the mkmdiskgrp command
(Example 8-7).
Example 8-7 The mkmdiskgrp command
IBM_Storwize:ITSO_V7000GEN2_2:admin>mkmdiskgrp -ext 1024 -tier enterprise -name
INT_V7KGEN2
MDisk Group, id [0], successfully created
IBM_Storwize:ITSO_V7000GEN2_2:admin>
4. We then create one array in the storage pool with the mkarray command, which gives us a
storage pool consisting of 10 drives. In our setup, we would like the two remaining drives
to act as hot spares. Use the chdrive command again (Example 8-8).
Example 8-8 The mkarray and chdrive commands
IBM_Storwize:ITSO_V7000GEN2_2:admin>mkarray
0:1:2:3:4:6:7:8:9:10 -strip 256 -name V7KG2
MDisk, id [1], successfully created
IBM_Storwize:ITSO_V7000GEN2_2:admin>chdrive
IBM_Storwize:ITSO_V7000GEN2_2:admin>chdrive
-level raid5 -drive
0
-use candidate 5
-use candidate 11
5. This concludes our internal storage configuration, and we now have a managed disk, as
shown in Example 8-9 on page 159.
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Implementing the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2
Example 8-9 The lsdrive command
IBM_Storwize:ITSO_V7000GEN2_2:admin>lsdrive
id status error_sequence_number use
tech_type capacity mdisk_id mdisk_name
member_id enclosure_id slot_id node_id node_name
0 online
member sas_hdd 558.4GB 0
V7KG2
0
1
1
1 online
member sas_hdd 558.4GB 0
V7KG2
1
1
3
2 online
member sas_hdd 558.4GB 0
V7KG2
2
1
5
3 online
member sas_hdd 558.4GB 0
V7KG2
3
1
2
4 online
member sas_hdd 558.4GB 0
V7KG2
4
1
4
5 online
spare sas_hdd 558.4GB
1
6
6 online
member sas_hdd 558.4GB 0
V7KG2
5
2
4
7 online
member sas_hdd 558.4GB 0
V7KG2
6
2
1
8 online
member sas_hdd 558.4GB 0
V7KG2
7
2
3
9 online
member sas_hdd 558.4GB 0
V7KG2
8
2
2
10 online
member sas_hdd 558.4GB 0
V7KG2
9
2
5
11 online
spare sas_hdd 558.4GB
2
6
IBM_Storwize:ITSO_V7000GEN2_2:admin>
8.2.4 Configuring external storage
Now, you learn how to virtualize external storage. In our case, we are using two Storwize
V7000 model 324 as back-end storage systems.
To configure external storage, follow these steps:
1. When virtualizing external storage, you must zone the external storage to be visible from
the Storwize V7000 Gen2. Then, issue the lscontroller command (Example 8-10).
Example 8-10 The lscontroller command
IBM_Storwize:ITSO_V7000GEN2_2:admin>lscontroller
id controller_name ctrl_s/n
vendor_id
product_id_high
0 controller0
2076
IBM
1 controller1
2076
IBM
2 controller2
2076
IBM
3 controller3
2076
IBM
IBM_Storwize:ITSO_V7000GEN2_2:admin>
product_id_low
2145
2145
2145
2145
This reveals our two IBM Storwize V7000, which are visible on the SAN.
Because the names do not have any meaning for us, we change them.
Chapter 8. IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2 command-line interface
159
2. Issue the chsystem command (Example 8-11), and repeat for the other names.
Example 8-11 The chsystem command
IBM_Storwize:ITSO_V7000GEN2_2:admin>chcontroller
IBM_Storwize:ITSO_V7000GEN2_2:admin>chcontroller
IBM_Storwize:ITSO_V7000GEN2_2:admin>chcontroller
IBM_Storwize:ITSO_V7000GEN2_2:admin>chcontroller
IBM_Storwize:ITSO_V7000Gen2:admin>lscontroller
id controller_name ctrl_s/n
vendor_id
product_id_high
0 ITSO_EXT1A
2076
IBM
1 ITSO_EXT1B
2076
IBM
2 ITSO_EXT2A
2076
IBM
3 ITSO_EXT2B
2076
IBM
IBM_Storwize:ITSO_V7000Gen2:admin>
-name
-name
-name
-name
ITSO_EXT1A
ITSO_EXT1B
ITSO_EXT2A
ITSO_EXT2B
0
1
2
3
product_id_low
2145
2145
2145
2145
Now we have set up external storage, and we are ready to start configuring it.
Remember: Create the Storwize V7000 Gen2 as a host on the external disk system
and present the volumes from the external storage to the Storwize V7000 Gen2. This
action is also referred to as host mapping and LUN mapping.
3. The first thing we do when configuring external storage is to issue the detectmdisk
command, which adds the external volumes as managed disks (MDisks). After this, we
issue the lsmdisk command to reveal all of the visible managed disks (Example 8-12).
Example 8-12 The detectmdisk and lsmdisk commands
IBM_Storwize:ITSO_V7000Gen2:admin>detectmdisk
IBM_Storwize:ITSO_V7000Gen2:admin>lsmdisk
id name
status mode
mdisk_grp_id mdisk_grp_name
ctrl_LUN_#
controller_name UID
tier
0 mdisk0
online array 0
INT_V7KGEN2 558.4GB
ssd
1 mdisk1
online array 0
INT_V7KGEN2 558.4GB
nearline
2 mdisk2
online array 0
INT_V7KGEN2 558.4GB
enterprise
3 mdisk3
online array 0
INT_V7KGEN2 558.4GB
enterprise
4 mdisk4
online array 0
INT_V7KGEN2 558.4GB
enterprise
5 md_v7kgen1-1_003 online unmanaged
0000000000000000 ITSO_EXT1A
6005076802898002680000000000000c00000000000000000000000000000000
6 md_v7kgen1-1_002 online unmanaged
0000000000000001 ITSO_EXT1A
6005076802898002680000000000000d00000000000000000000000000000000
7 md_v7kgen1-1_005 online unmanaged
0000000000000002 ITSO_EXT1A
6005076802898002680000000000000e00000000000000000000000000000000
8 md_v7kgen1-1_004 online unmanaged
500.0GB0000000000000003 ITSO_EXT1A
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Implementing the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2
capacity
500.0GB
enterprise
500.0GB
enterprise
500.0GB
enterprise
6005076802898002680000000000000f00000000000000000000000000000000
9 md_v7kgen1-1_001 online unmanaged
0000000000000004 ITSO_EXT1A
6005076802898002680000000000001d00000000000000000000000000000000
10 md_v7kgen1-2-001 online unmanaged
0000000000000000 ITSO_EXT2A
600507680282818b300000000000000e00000000000000000000000000000000
11 md_v7kgen1-2-002 online unmanaged
0000000000000001 ITSO_EXT2A
600507680282818b300000000000000f00000000000000000000000000000000
12 md_v7kgen1-2-003 online unmanaged
0000000000000002 ITSO_EXT2A
600507680282818b300000000000001000000000000000000000000000000000
13 md_v7kgen1-2-004 online unmanaged
0000000000000003 ITSO_EXT2A
600507680282818b300000000000001100000000000000000000000000000000
14 md_v7kgen1-2-005 online unmanaged
0000000000000004 ITSO_EXT2A
600507680282818b300000000000001200000000000000000000000000000000
15 md_v7kgen1-2-006 online unmanaged
0000000000000005 ITSO_EXT2A
600507680282818b300000000000001300000000000000000000000000000000
16 md_v7kgen1-2-007 online unmanaged
0000000000000006 ITSO_EXT2A
600507680282818b300000000000001400000000000000000000000000000000
17 md_v7kgen1-2-008 online unmanaged
0000000000000007 ITSO_EXT2A
600507680282818b300000000000001500000000000000000000000000000000
18 md_v7kgen1-2-009 online unmanaged
0000000000000008 ITSO_EXT2A
600507680282818b300000000000001600000000000000000000000000000000
19 md_v7kgen1-2-010 online unmanaged
0000000000000009 ITSO_EXT2A
600507680282818b300000000000001700000000000000000000000000000000
20 md_v7kgen1-2-011 online unmanaged
000000000000000A ITSO_EXT2A
600507680282818b300000000000001800000000000000000000000000000000
21 md_v7kgen1-2-012 online unmanaged
000000000000000B ITSO_EXT2A
600507680282818b300000000000001900000000000000000000000000000000
22 md_v7kgen1-2-013 online unmanaged
000000000000000C ITSO_EXT2A
600507680282818b300000000000001a00000000000000000000000000000000
23 md_v7kgen1-2-014 online unmanaged
000000000000000D ITSO_EXT2A
600507680282818b300000000000001b00000000000000000000000000000000
24 md_v7kgen1-2-015 online unmanaged
000000000000000E ITSO_EXT2A
600507680282818b300000000000001c00000000000000000000000000000000
25 md_v7kgen1-2-016 online unmanaged
000000000000000F ITSO_EXT2A
600507680282818b300000000000001d00000000000000000000000000000000
IBM_Storwize:ITSO_V7000Gen2:admin>
enterprise
2.0TB
enterprise
5.0GB
ssd
50.0GB
nearline
50.0GB
enterprise
50.0GB
enterprise
50.0GB
enterprise
50.0GB
enterprise
50.0GB
enterprise
50.0GB
enterprise
50.0GB
enterprise
50.0GB
enterprise
50.0GB
enterprise
50.0GB
enterprise
50.0GB
enterprise
50.0GB
enterprise
50.0GB
enterprise
50.0GB
enterprise
Chapter 8. IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2 command-line interface
161
In our setup, we have mapped a total of 20 volumes from the two Storwize V7000 making
them visible from the Storwize V7000 Gen2. As shown in Example 8-13, the external
managed disks are visible, but unmanaged.
4. At this point, we create two new storage pools to hold our external storage and then add
the managed disks. Use the mkmdiskgrp and addmdisk, as shown in Example 8-13.
Example 8-13 The mkmdiskgrp command
IBM_Storwize:ITSO_V7000Gen2:admin>mkmdiskgrp -name EXTSTG1 -ext 256 -tier
enterprise
MDisk Group, id [2], successfully created
IBM_Storwize:ITSO_V7000Gen2:admin>mkmdiskgrp -name EXTSTG2 -ext 256 -tier
enterprise
MDisk Group, id [1], successfully created
IBM_Storwize:ITSO_V7000Gen2:admin>
IBM_Storwize:ITSO_V7000Gen2:admin>addmdisk -mdisk 5:6:7:8:9 2
IBM_Storwize:ITSO_V7000Gen2:admin>addmdisk -mdisk 10:11:12:13:14:15 1
IBM_Storwize:ITSO_V7000GEN2_2:admin>
This concludes our setup of external storage.
8.2.5 Configuring volumes
In this topic we will describe how to set up and work with volumes (also known as virtual disks
(VDisks), so “vdisk” in the commands). These are also referred to as logical unit numbers
(LUNs). Because our lab setup consists of a Storwize V7000 Gen2 and two Storwize V7000
Gen1 virtualized behind it, we will show you how to create a volume mirror between them:
1. To start with, use the mkvdisk command to create the mirror volume, as seen in
Example 8-14.
Example 8-14 The mkvdisk mirror volume
IBM_Storwize:ITSO_V7000GEN2_2:admin>mkvdisk -copies 2 -iogrp io_grp0 -mdiskgrp
INT_V7KGEN2:EXTSTG1 -name test_mirror -size 5120
Virtual Disk, id [0], successfully created
IBM_Storwize:ITSO_V7000GEN2_2:admin>
We now have a 5 GB volume mirror between the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2 and a
virtualized external storage system. This is useful in many cases, for example for backup
purposes. You can run your backup from the external storage without affecting
performance on your primary storage.
2. Create two more volumes using mkvdisk, but this time we only want them to reside on our
Storwize V7000 Gen2 (Example 8-15).
Example 8-15 The mkvdisk volumes
IBM_Storwize:ITSO_V7000GEN2_2:admin>mkvdisk -iogrp io_grp0 -mdiskgrp
INT_V7KGEN2 -name test_vol1 -size 5120
Virtual Disk, id [1], successfully created
IBM_Storwize:ITSO_V7000GEN2_2:admin>mkvdisk -iogrp io_grp0 -mdiskgrp
INT_V7KGEN2 -name test_vol2 -size 5120
Virtual Disk, id [2], successfully created
IBM_Storwize:ITSO_V7000GEN2_2:admin>
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3. Now, assume that one of our volumes is running out of space and we want to expand it
with 5 GB more storage. To do this, use the expandvdisksize command (Example 8-16).
Example 8-16 The expandvdisksize command
IBM_Storwize:ITSO_V7000GEN2_2:admin>expandvdisksize -size 5120 test_vol1
IBM_Storwize:ITSO_V7000GEN2_2:admin>
Important: Be careful when expanding volumes. You should always make sure that the
operating system accessing the volume supports volume expansion at the storage
layer. Check compatibility with your operating system vendor.
8.2.6 Configuring remote copy
In this topic, we demonstrate the remote copy functions of the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2. We
are replicating to the first generation of Storwize V7000. There are many considerations to be
taken into account when configuring remote copy. We only list some of the important ones:
򐂰 Know your current SAN / IP network use. As a rule, every write on your primary volume
will eventually be written to the target volume.
򐂰 Decide which kind of mirror you want to use:
– Metro Mirror: Synchronized mirror (highest bandwidth)
– Global Mirror: Asynchronized mirror
– Global Mirror with Change Volumes: Periodic asynchronized mirror (lowest bandwidth)
To learn more about replication, we suggest the following books:
IBM System Storage SAN Volume Controller and Storwize V7000 Replication Family
Services, SG24-7574:
http://www.redbooks.ibm.com/redbooks/pdfs/sg247574.pdf
IBM SAN Volume Controller and Storwize Family Native IP Replication, REDP-5103
http://www.redbooks.ibm.com/redpieces/pdfs/redp5103.pdf
Remember: When replicating to or virtualizing to Storwize family products, you should be
aware of the system layers. There are two types of layers: Storage and Replication, and
these affect how Storwize and IBM SAN Volume Controller interact with each other. This
system layer does not apply when replicating to or virtualizing other vendor storage.
Our lab setup includes a Storwize V7000 Gen2 and two Storwize V7000 and we show how to
create a Metro Mirror Remote Copy relationship:
1. First, check if we have some partnership candidates using the lspartnershipcandidate
command, as shown in Example 8-17.
Example 8-17 The lspartnershipcandidate command
IBM_Storwize:ITSO_V7000Gen2:admin>lspartnershipcandidate
id
configured name
00000200A0A062CC no
EXTSTG2
00000200A260009A no
EXTSTG1
IBM_Storwize:ITSO_V7000Gen2:admin>
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2. Now we create a partnership between our Storwize V7000 Gen2 and our partner
candidate with the mkfcpartnership command (Example 8-18).
Example 8-18 The mkfcpartnership command
IBM_Storwize:ITSO_V7000Gen2:admin>mkfcpartnership -linkbandwidthmbits 1024
-backgroundcopyrate 25 EXTSTG1
IBM_Storwize:ITSO_V7000Gen2:admin>lspartnership
id
name
location partnership
type
cluster_ip event_log_sequence
00000100204001E0 ITSO_V7000Gen2 local
00000200A260009A EXTSTG1
remote
partially_configured_local fc
IBM_Storwize:ITSO_V7000Gen2:admin>
3. At this stage, our partnership is partially configured. This is because the mkfcpartnership
command must also be run on the secondary system (Example 8-19).
Example 8-19 The mkfcpartnership command
IBM_Storwize:EXTSTG1:superuser>mkfcpartnership -linkbandwidthmbits 1024
-backgroundcopyrate 25 ITSO_V7000Gen2
IBM_Storwize:EXTSTG1:superuser>lspartnership
id
name
location partnership
type cluster_ip
event_log_sequence
00000200A260009A EXTSTG1
local
00000100204001E0 ITSO_V7000Gen2 remote fully_configured fc
IBM_Storwize:EXTSTG1:superuser>
4. This gives us a fully configured partnership between our two Storwizes, and now we just
need to create the volumes to be mirrored. For this operation, we use the mkvdisk
command (Example 8-20) to create two volumes with the same characteristics, one on
each system.
Example 8-20 The mkvdisk command
IBM_Storwize:ITSO_V7000GEN2_2:admin>mkvdisk -iogrp 0 -mdiskgrp 0 -size 5120
-name V7K2G2_RCVOL
Virtual Disk, id [0], successfully created
IBM_Storwize:ITSO_V7000GEN2_2:admin>
5. After the volumes are created, we issue the mkrcrelationship command (Example 8-21).
This initiates a Metro Mirror relationship between the two Storwize.
Example 8-21 The mkrcrelationship command as Metro Mirror
IBM_Storwize:ITSO_V7000Gen2:admin>mkrcrelationship -aux EXTSTG1_RCVOL -cluster
00000200A260009A -master V7KG2_RCVOL
RC Relationship, id [0], successfully created
IBM_Storwize:ITSO_V7000Gen2:admin>
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6. Here is an example of how to make a Global Mirror with Change Volumes (Example 8-22).
This type of remote copy uses the least bandwidth, because writes are accumulated on
the source and written to target in specified cycles, this is also the suggested setting for *
IP replication.
Example 8-22 The mkrcrelationship command as Global Mirror with change volumes
IBM_Storwize:ITSO_V7000GEN2_2:admin>mkrcrelationship -aux EXTSTG1_RCVOL
-cluster 00000200A260009A -master V7KG2_RCVOL -global -cyclingmode
RC Relationship, id [0], successfully created
IBM_Storwize:ITSO_V7000GEN2_2:admin>
8.2.7 Configuring hosts
In this topic, we show how to configure hosts to the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2. There are
some prerequisites that you should be aware of:
򐂰 Hosts must be zoned so that they are visible to the Storage on the SAN. The leading
practice for this includes the following attributes:
– Use of a dual fabric for redundancy
– Single initiator zoning = one host port per zone
– Modern servers and storage systems typically include many available Fibre Channel
(FC) ports. Do not zone too many ports from a single host to a storage device, and vice
versa. Performance can be severely affected if the multipathing software has to keep
track of too many links.
򐂰 Plan for bandwidth, and use and monitor it (for example, with IBM Tivoli Storage
Productivity Center for Replication for Storage)
For our lab setup, we have two hosts running VMware, each with a dual-port host bus adapter
(HBA) and an IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2. Assuming that host installation and SAN zoning
have taken place, follow these steps to configure the host:
1. we start by issuing the lsfcportcandidate, which gives us information about open FC
ports on the SAN (Example 8-23).
Example 8-23 The lsfcportcandidate command
IBM_Storwize:ITSO_V7000Gen2:admin>lsfcportcandidate
fc_WWPN
100000051EC76B9C
100000051EC76B92
100000051EC76B9B
100000051EC76B91
IBM_Storwize:ITSO_V7000Gen2:admin>
2. In our case, this reveals four open FC ports, two for each of our hosts. With this
information, we create our hosts using the mkhost command (Example 8-24).
Example 8-24 The mkhost command
IBM_Storwize:ITSO_V7000Gen2:admin>mkhost -name VMWare1 -fcwwpn
100000051EC76B91:100000051EC76B92 -type generic
Host, id [0], successfully created
IBM_Storwize:ITSO_V7000Gen2:admin>mkhost -name VMWare2 -fcwwpn
100000051EC76B9b:100000051EC76B9c -type generic
Host, id [1], successfully created
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3. To get a concise or detailed view of the hosts, use the lshost command (Example 8-25).
Example 8-25 The lshost command
IBM_Storwize:ITSO_V7000Gen2:admin>lshost
id name
port_count iogrp_count status
0 VMWare1 2
4
online
1 VMWare2 2
4
online
IBM_Storwize:ITSO_V7000Gen2:admin>lshost 0
id 0
name VMWare1
port_count 2
type generic
mask 1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111
iogrp_count 4
status online
WWPN 100000051EC76B92
node_logged_in_count 2
state active
WWPN 100000051EC76B91
node_logged_in_count 2
state active
IBM_Storwize:ITSO_V7000Gen2:admin>
4. This shows us our two configured hosts, which are ready for LUN mapping. Use the
lsvdisk command to show available volumes, and continue with the mkvdiskhostmap
command to map them (Example 8-26).
Example 8-26 The mkvdiskhostmap command
IBM_Storwize:ITSO_V7000Gen2:admin>mkvdiskhostmap -host
Virtual Disk to Host map, id [0], successfully created
IBM_Storwize:ITSO_V7000Gen2:admin>mkvdiskhostmap -host
Virtual Disk to Host map, id [1], successfully created
IBM_Storwize:ITSO_V7000Gen2:admin>mkvdiskhostmap -host
Virtual Disk to Host map, id [2], successfully created
IBM_Storwize:ITSO_V7000Gen2:admin>mkvdiskhostmap -host
Virtual Disk to Host map, id [0], successfully created
IBM_Storwize:ITSO_V7000Gen2:admin>mkvdiskhostmap -host
Virtual Disk to Host map, id [1], successfully created
IBM_Storwize:ITSO_V7000Gen2:admin>mkvdiskhostmap -host
Virtual Disk to Host map, id [2], successfully created
IBM_Storwize:ITSO_V7000Gen2:admin>
VMWare1 VMWvol1
VMWare1 VMWvol2
VMWare1 temp
VMWare2 VMWvola
VMWare2 VMWvolb
VMWare2 temp1
The provided storage should now be visible from the hosts, so this topic is concluded.
8.3 New Commands introduced with the IBM Storwize V7000
Gen2
In this topic, we look at the new commands available for the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2.
Several other commands were added with code release 7.3, but they are mainly reserved for
the new IBM SAN Volume Controller model DH8. For that reason, we focus on new
commands specific to the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2.
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The following new commands are available:
򐂰 lsenclosurefanmodule
򐂰 lsenclosurebattery
lsenclosurefanmodule
This command gives us a concise or detailed status of the new fan modules that are installed
in the V7000 Storwize Gen2 (Example 8-27).
Example 8-27 The lsenclosurefanmodule command
IBM_Storwize:ITSO_V7000GEN2_2:admin>lsenclosurefanmodule
enclosure_id fan_module_id status
1
1
online
1
2
online
IBM_Storwize:ITSO_V7000GEN2_2:admin>lsenclosurefanmodule -fanmodule 1 1
enclosure_id 1
fan_module_id 1
status online
error_sequence_number
FRU_part_number 31P1847
FRU_identity 11S31P1846YM11BG42M08L
IBM_Storwize:ITSO_V7000GEN2_2:admin>
lsenclosurebattery
This command gives us a concise or detailed view of the canister batteries (Example 8-28).
Example 8-28 The lsenclosurebattery command
IBM_Storwize:ITSO_V7000Gen2:admin>lsenclosurebattery
enclosure_id battery_id status charging_status recondition_needed percent_charged
end_of_life_warning
1
1
online idle
no
100
no
1
2
online idle
no
100
no
IBM_Storwize:ITSO_V7000Gen2:admin>lsenclosurebattery -battery 2 1
enclosure_id 1
battery_id 2
status online
charging_status idle
recondition_needed no
percent_charged 100
end_of_life_warning no
FRU_part_number 31P1807
FRU_identity 11S00AR085YM30BG43K0A1
firmware_level 105:0
error_sequence_number
remaining_charge_capacity_mAh 3508
full_charge_capacity_mAh 3846
compatibility_level 1
last_recondition_timestamp 140817153801
powered_on_hours 347
cycle_count 0
IBM_Storwize:ITSO_V7000Gen2:admin>
Chapter 8. IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2 command-line interface
167
This concludes the command-line interface chapter, and you should now be familiar with the
basic commands. As stated in the beginning of this chapter, the CLI is a powerful and, when
learned, easy-to-use tool that offers even more functionality than the GUI. If you do want to
learn about the advanced commands, see the following IBM Knowledge Center:
http://www.ibm.com/support/knowledgecenter/ST3FR7_7.3.0/com.ibm.storwize.v7000.730
.doc/v7000_ichome_730.html
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9
Chapter 9.
IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2
operations using the GUI
In this chapter, we illustrate selected IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2 operational management and
system administration using the IBM Storwize V7000 graphical user interface (GUI). The IBM
Storwize V7000 management GUI is an easy-to-use tool that helps you to monitor, manage,
and configure your system.
The information is presented at a high level, because this book is based on the new
hardware, and is not intended to be an in-depth coverage of every aspect of the software. For
more detailed information about using the GUI, see Implementing the IBM System Storage
SAN Volume Controller V7.2, SG24-7933.
Although the IBM Storage Tier Advisor Tool (STAT) is not part of the GUI, it is a strong and
useful tool to determine the use of your tiered storage, as the 7.3 code level now supports
three-tiered storage using the IBM Easy Tier functionality.
Important: It is possible for more than one user to be logged in to the GUI at any given
time. However, no locking mechanism exists, so be aware that if two users change the
same object at the same time, the last action entered from the GUI is the one that takes
effect.
Data entries made through the GUI are case-sensitive.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2015. All rights reserved.
169
9.1 Introduction to IBM Storwize V7000 GUI
The Storwize V7000 Overview pane is the first window you will see after you have logged into
the system. It is an important user interface, and throughout this chapter we refer to it as the
IBM Storwize V7000 Overview pane, or just the Overview pane.
The following steps illustrate how to start the Storwize V7000 GUI:
1. Initially, to log on to the management software, type the IP address that was set during the
initial setup process into the address line of your web browser. You can connect from any
workstation that can communicate with the system.
2. You start at the login window, as shown in Figure 9-1.
Figure 9-1 Login window
Dynamic menu
From any page inside the IBM Storwize V7000 GUI, you always have access to the dynamic
menu. The IBM Storwize V7000 GUI dynamic menu is on the left side of the IBM Storwize
V7000 GUI window. To navigate using this menu, move the mouse cursor over the various
icons, and choose a page that you want to display.
The IBM Storwize V7000 dynamic menu consists of multiple panes. These panes group
common configuration and administration objects, and presents individual administrative
objects to the IBM Storwize V7000 GUI users.
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9.1.1 Overview
After you have successfully logged in to the system, you start at the overview window as
shown in Figure 9-2. The overview provides the user with a quick summary of the system,
and a link to the IBM Storwize V7000 Knowledge Center:
http://www-01.ibm.com/support/knowledgecenter/ST3FR7/landing/V7000_welcome.html
Figure 9-2 Overview
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171
9.1.2 Monitoring
Figure 9-3 shows the Monitoring menu where you can work with the following details:
򐂰 Information about the code level
򐂰 Hardware configuration
See installed hardware and change memory allocation (also known as bitmap allocation).
򐂰 Events
See warnings and alerts, and run the maintenance procedure.
򐂰 Real-time performance graphs
See central processing unit (CPU) usage input/output operations per second (IOPS) for
volumes, managed disks (MDisks), and so on.
Figure 9-3 Monitoring
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9.1.3 Pools
In the Pools menu, shown in Figure 9-4, you can administer everything that is related to
storage pools, from creating new storage pools to working with internal or external storage.
Storage pool balancing is introduced in code level 7.3, which means that if you add new or
additional MDisks to an existing pool, it balances the extents across all of the MDisks in a
pool. Before release 7.3, you had to do this manually, or use a script to balance extents after
adding new MDisks to an existing pool. Note that this is an automated process, and it is not
configurable.
Figure 9-4 Pools
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9.1.4 Volumes
The Volumes menu contains the following administrative options:
򐂰 View volumes, create volumes, and delete volumes.
򐂰 See details about volumes, if they are mapped or unmapped to a host.
򐂰 See details about volumes mapped to host.
Figure 9-5 shows the Volume menu expanded.
Figure 9-5 Volumes
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Implementing the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2
9.1.5 Hosts
All host-related administration can be run from this menu:
򐂰 Creating and deleting hosts
򐂰 Viewing Details about each host, such as ports and worldwide port names
򐂰 Volume mappings for each host
Figure 9-6 shows the expanded view of the Hosts menu.
Figure 9-6 Hosts
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9.1.6 Copy services
In the Copy Services menu, you can administer all copy services related activities:
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
Create partnerships with other IBM SAN Volume Controller and Storwize systems.
Create and delete Metro Mirrored volumes.
Create and delete Global Mirrored volumes.
Create and delete IBM FlashCopy volumes.
View details about the copy services configured.
Figure 9-7 shows the expanded Copy Services menu.
Figure 9-7 Copy Services
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9.1.7 Access
In the Access menu, you can work with user administration, such as create users, delete
users, or perform user group administration. Furthermore, you can see the audit log, which
shows all of the activities that have been run on the system.
Figure 9-8 shows the expanded view of the Access menu.
Figure 9-8 Access
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177
9.1.8 Settings
In the Settings menu, you have access to the following activities:
򐂰 Event notifications, such as call home (using email), Simple Network Management
Protocol (SNMP), Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), and syslog
򐂰 Directory Services, for enabling remote authentication of users
򐂰 Network, both Fibre Channel (FC) settings and Internet Protocol (IP) settings
򐂰 Support, where you can manage dumps, snaps, heatmap files, and so on
򐂰 General, where you can upgrade the system, time/date settings, and so on
Figure 9-9 shows an expanded view of the Settings menu.
Figure 9-9 Settings
9.2 IBM Storage Tier Advisor Tool
This section shows how to use the Storage Tier Advisor Tool, also known as the STAT utility.
Note: The STAT utility is not a part of the GUI, but can be downloaded from IBM support:
http://www.ibm.com/support/docview.wss?uid=ssg1S4000935
STAT uses limited storage performance measurement data from a user’s operational
environment to model potential unbalanced workload (also known as skew) on disk and array
resources. It is intended to supplement and support, but not replace, detailed pre-installation
sizing and planning analysis.
It is most useful to obtain a broad system-wide performance projection of cumulative latency
reduction on arrays and disks when a solid-state drive (SSD) configuration and the IBM Easy
Tier function are used in combination to handle workload growth or skew management.
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Implementing the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2
The “hot data” identification methodology in the tool is an engineering estimation based on
expected cumulative latency reduction if the suggested SSD configuration is used with the
measured workload and storage configuration. Care has been taken in the development of
this tool, but the accuracy of any prediction of performance improvement is subject to a
variety of storage system configurations, conditions, and other variables beyond the scope of
this tool. Accordingly, actual results might vary.
The STAT.exe command creates a Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) report of the
input/output (I/O) distribution. IBM Storwize V7000 input files are found under /dumps on the
configuration node, and are named dpa_heat.<node_name>.<time_stamp>.data. The file must
be off-loaded manually using the command-line interface (CLI) or GUI.
You can install the STAT tool on any Windows-based PC or notebook, and you don’t need to
have direct access to the IBM SAN Volume Controller.
When the STAT tool is installed, it’s time to off-load or download heat files from your IBM
Storwize V7000 system.
The next few screen captures show how you can download the heat files from the GUI. The
heat files can also be downloaded using the CLI or PuTTY Secure Copy (PSCP). However,
we show how to off-load or download these files using the GUI:
1. Log in to the GUI and select Settings  Support and click the Show full log listing link,
as shown in Figure 9-10.
Figure 9-10 Show full log listing
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179
2. Now you can select the heat files that you want to use for the STAT tool. Select the files,
right-click, and select Download, as shown in Figure 9-11.
Figure 9-11 Download heat files
3. When the files have been off-loaded or downloaded, open a command prompt and go to
the directory where you have installed the STAT tool (the default path on a 64-bit windows
operating system is C: Program Files (x86)\IBM\STAT).
Note: If the config node of the system reboots, asserts, and so on, note that the new
config node starts the Easy Tier heatmap cycle count from 0, which means that it takes
24 hours until you see a new heatmap file in the /dumps directory.
You might want to copy/move the off-loaded/downloaded files to the directory where you
have installed the STAT tool for ease of the usage. Otherwise, you have to define the entire
input file path every time you create a report.
4. To generate the report, (in this case we have already copied the input file to the STAT
directory), run the following command (one line):
stat.exe -o “c:\Program Files
(x86)\IBM\STAT\ITSO_V7KGen2”dpa_heat.KD8P1BP.140518.174808.data
Replace the heat files with the correct file names of the ones that you have off-loaded or
downloaded. For IBM Storwize V7000 Systems, you can only run one file concurrently.
Be aware that in this scenario we have used the syntax -o, which specifies an output path
(a folder). This is useful if you are generating STAT files from more than one system.
Tip: For detailed information about the usage of the STAT tool, see the readme file for
the tool that is contained within the same directory where you installed it.
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5. The following message is returned:
CMUA00019I The STAT.exe command has completed.
Press any key to continue . . .
Go to the directory where the report was generated and open the index.html file: In this
case, the following location is the directory:
C:\Program Files (x86)\IBM\STAT\ITSO_V7KGen2
Your default browser opens the report, or you can simply open your browser and navigate
to the index.html file.
6. You can click any of the Storage Pool IDs, which action opens the Performance Statistics
and Improvement Recommendation for the selected Storage Pool ID, which we have done
in Figure 9-12, with Pool ID named P1. The Pool ID P1 is based on a three-tiered pool,
consisting of flash drives (SSD), enterprise drives, and Nearline drives.
Figure 9-12 Performance Statistics and Improvement Recommendation
7. Further details can be seen in the lower section of the Performance Statistics and
Improvement Recommendation page, where you can expand hyperlinks for the following
information:
– Workload Distribution Across Tiers
– Recommended NL Configuration
– Volume Heat Distribution
More details for planning and configuration are available in the following IBM Redbooks
publications:
򐂰 Implementing IBM Easy Tier with IBM Real-time Compression, TIPS1072
http://www.redbooks.ibm.com/abstracts/tips1072.html
򐂰 IIBM System Storage SAN Volume Controller and Storwize V7000 Best Practices and
Performance Guidelines, SG24-7521
http://www.redbooks.ibm.com/redpieces/pdfs/sg247521.pdf
򐂰 IBM DS8000 Easy Tier, REDP-4667
http://www.redbooks.ibm.com/abstracts/redp4667.html?Open
This is described in more detail in the Chapter 4, “IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2 Easy Tier” on
page 85.
Chapter 9. IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2 operations using the GUI
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Related publications
The publications listed in this section are considered particularly suitable for a more detailed
description of the topics covered in this book.
IBM Redbooks
The following IBM Redbooks publications provide additional information about the topic in
this document. Note that some publications referenced in this list might be available in
softcopy only:
򐂰 Implementing the IBM System Storage SAN Volume Controller V7.2, SG24-7933
򐂰 Implementing the IBM Storwize V7000 V7.2, SG24-7938
򐂰 IBM b-type Gen 5 16 Gbps Switches and Network Advisor, SG24-8186
򐂰 Introduction to Storage Area Networks and System Networking, SG24-5470
򐂰 IBM SAN Volume Controller and IBM FlashSystem 820: Best Practices and Performance
Capabilities, REDP-5027
򐂰 Implementing the IBM SAN Volume Controller and FlashSystem 820, SG24-8172
򐂰 Implementing IBM FlashSystem 840, SG24-8189
򐂰 IBM FlashSystem in IBM PureFlex System Environments, TIPS1042
򐂰 IBM FlashSystem 840 Product Guide, TIPS1079
򐂰 IBM FlashSystem 820 Running in an IBM StorwizeV7000 Environment, TIPS1101
򐂰 Implementing FlashSystem 840 with SAN Volume Controller, TIPS1137
򐂰 IBM FlashSystem V840, TIPS1158
򐂰 IBM Midrange System Storage Implementation and Best Practices Guide, SG24-6363
򐂰 IBM System Storage b-type Multiprotocol Routing: An Introduction and Implementation,
SG24-7544
򐂰 IBM Tivoli Storage Area Network Manager: A Practical Introduction, SG24-6848
򐂰 Tivoli Storage Productivity Center for Replication for Open Systems, SG24-8149
򐂰 IBM Tivoli Storage Productivity Center V5.2 Release Guide, SG24-8204
򐂰 Implementing an IBM b-type SAN with 8 Gbps Directors and Switches, SG24-6116
You can search for, view, download, or order these documents and other Redbooks
publications, Redpapers publications, Web Docs, drafts, and additional materials, from the
following website:
ibm.com/redbooks
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2015. All rights reserved.
183
Other resources
These publications are also relevant as further information sources:
򐂰 IBM System Storage Master Console: Installation and User’s Guide, GC30-4090
򐂰 IBM System Storage Open Software Family SAN Volume Controller: CIM Agent
Developers Reference, SC26-7545
򐂰 IBM System Storage Open Software Family SAN Volume Controller: Command-Line
Interface User's Guide, SC26-7544
򐂰 IBM System Storage Open Software Family SAN Volume Controller: Configuration Guide,
SC26-7543
򐂰 IBM System Storage Open Software Family SAN Volume Controller: Host Attachment
Guide, SC26-7563
򐂰 IBM System Storage Open Software Family SAN Volume Controller: Installation Guide,
SC26-7541
򐂰 IBM System Storage Open Software Family SAN Volume Controller: Planning Guide,
GA22-1052
򐂰 IBM System Storage Open Software Family SAN Volume Controller: Service Guide,
SC26-7542
򐂰 IBM System Storage SAN Volume Controller - Software Installation and Configuration
Guide, SC23-6628
򐂰 IBM System Storage SAN Volume Controller V6.2.0 - Software Installation and
Configuration Guide, GC27-2286
http://pic.dhe.ibm.com/infocenter/svc/ic/topic/com.ibm.storage.svc.console.doc/
svc_bkmap_confguidebk.pdf
򐂰 IBM System Storage SAN Volume Controller 6.2.0 Configuration Limits and Restrictions,
S100-3799
򐂰 IBM TotalStorage Multipath Subsystem Device Driver User’s Guide, SC30-4096
򐂰 IBM XIV and SVC/ Best Practices Implementation Guide
http://www.ibm.com/support/techdocs/atsmastr.nsf/WebIndex/TD105195
򐂰 Considerations and Comparisons between IBM SDD for Linux and DM-MPIO
http://www.ibm.com/support/docview.wss?rs=540&context=ST52G7&q1=linux&uid=ssg1S
7001664&loc=en_US&cs=utf-8&lang=en
184
Implementing the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2
Referenced websites
These websites are also relevant as further information sources:
򐂰 IBM Storage home page
http://www.storage.ibm.com
򐂰 IBM site to download SSH for AIX
http://oss.software.ibm.com/developerworks/projects/openssh
򐂰 IBM Tivoli Storage Area Network Manager site
http://www-306.ibm.com/software/sysmgmt/products/support/IBMTivoliStorageAreaNe
tworkManager.html
򐂰 SAN Volume Controller supported platform
http://www-1.ibm.com/servers/storage/support/software/sanvc/index.html
򐂰 SAN Volume Controller Information Center
http://pic.dhe.ibm.com/infocenter/svc/ic/index.jsp
򐂰 Cygwin Linux-like environment for Windows
http://www.cygwin.com
򐂰 Open source site for SSH for Windows and Mac
http://www.openssh.com/windows.html
򐂰 Sysinternals home page
http://www.sysinternals.com
򐂰 Subsystem Device Driver download site
http://www-1.ibm.com/servers/storage/support/software/sdd/index.html
򐂰 Download site for Windows SSH freeware
http://www.chiark.greenend.org.uk/~sgtatham/putty
Help from IBM
IBM Support and downloads
ibm.com/support
IBM Global Services
ibm.com/services
Related publications
185
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Implementing the IBM Storwize
V7000 Gen2
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Gen2
Implementing the IBM Storwize V7000 Gen2
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Implementing the IBM Storwize
V7000 Gen2
Implementing the IBM Storwize
V7000 Gen2
Back cover
®
Implementing the IBM
Storwize V7000 Gen2
®
Learn about the latest
addition to the IBM
SAN Volume
Controller/Storwize
family
Understand the new
functions and
features
Benefit from an
uncomplicated
implementation
Data is the new currency of business, the most critical asset of the modern organization.
In fact, enterprises that can gain business insights from their data are twice as likely to
outperform their competitors. Nevertheless, 72% of them have not started, or are only
planning, big data activities. In addition, organizations often spend too much money and
time managing where their data is stored. The average firm purchases 24% more
storage every year, but uses less than half of the capacity that it already has.
INTERNATIONAL
TECHNICAL
SUPPORT
ORGANIZATION
The IBM Storwize family, including the IBM SAN Volume Controller Data Platform, is a
storage virtualization system that enables a single point of control for storage resources.
This functionality helps support improved business application availability and greater
resource use. The following list describes the business objectives of this system:
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
To manage storage resources in your information technology (IT) infrastructure
To make sure that those resources are used to the advantage of your business
To do it quickly, efficiently, and in real time, while avoiding increases in
administrative costs
Virtualizing storage with Storwize helps make new and existing storage more effective.
Storwize includes many functions traditionally deployed separately in disk systems. By
including these functions in a virtualization system, Storwize standardizes them across
virtualized storage for greater flexibility and potentially lower costs.
Storwize functions benefit all virtualized storage. For example, IBM Easy Tier optimizes
use of flash memory. In addition, IBM Real-time Compression enhances efficiency even
further by enabling the storage of up to five times as much active primary data in the
same physical disk space. Finally, high-performance thin provisioning helps automate
provisioning. These benefits can help extend the useful life of existing storage assets,
reducing costs.
Integrating these functions into Storwize also means that they are designed to operate
smoothly together, reducing management effort.
This IBM Redbooks publication provides information about the latest features and
functions of the Storwize V7000 Gen2 and software version 7.3 implementation,
architectural improvements, and Easy Tier.
BUILDING TECHNICAL
INFORMATION BASED ON
PRACTICAL EXPERIENCE
IBM Redbooks are developed
by the IBM International
Technical Support
Organization. Experts from
IBM, clients, and IBM
Business Partners from
around the world create
timely technical information
based on realistic scenarios.
Specific recommendations
are provided to help you
implement IT solutions more
effectively in your
environment.
For more information:
ibm.com/redbooks
SG24-8244-00
ISBN 0738440264
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